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Sample records for gender-based reciprocal expression

  1. Gender-based reciprocal expression of transforming growth factor-β1 and the inducible nitric oxide synthase in a rat model of cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loughran Patricia A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pluripotent cytokine transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 is the central regulator of inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS that is responsible for nitric oxide (NO production in inflammatory settings. Previous studies have implicated a role for NO, presumably derived from iNOS, in cyclophosphamide (CYP-induced cystitis in the bladder. TGF-β1 is produced in latent form and requires dissociation from the latency-associated peptide (LAP to act as primary anti-inflammatory and pro-healing modulator following tissue injury in the upper urinary tract. Since the role of TGF-β1 in lower urinary tract inflammation is currently unknown, and since gender-based differences exist in the setting of interstitial cystitis (IC, the present study examined the relationship between TGF-β1 and iNOS/NO in the pathogenesis of CYP-induced cystitis in both male and female rats. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats, 4 months of age, of either gender were given 150 mg/kg CYP intraperitoneally. Urinary and bladder tissue TGF-β1 and NO reaction products (NO2-/NO3- were quantified as a function of time following CYP. Expression of active and latent TGF-β1 as well as iNOS in harvested bladder tissue was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results Female rats had significantly higher levels of NO2-/NO3- in urine even at baseline as compared to male rats (p 2-/NO3- and TGF-β1. Male rats responded to CYP with significantly lower levels of NO2-/NO3- and significantly higher levels of TGF-β1 in urine (p 2-/NO3- after CYP were inversely correlated to latent and active TGF-β1 (Pearson coefficient of -0.72 and -0.69 in females and -0.89 and -0.76 in males, respectively; p Conclusion The results of this study suggest that there exists an inverse relationship between the expression of TGF-β1 and iNOS/NO2-/NO3- in CYP-inflamed bladder. The gender of the animal appears to magnify the differences in urine levels of TGF-β1 and NO2-/NO3- in this inflammatory

  2. Gender-Based Differences in Cardiac Remodeling and ILK Expression after Myocardial Infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofia, Renato Rodrigues; Serra, Andrey Jorge; Silva, Jose Antonio Jr; Antonio, Ednei Luiz; Manchini, Martha Trindade; Oliveira, Fernanda Aparecida Alves de; Teixeira, Vicente Paulo Castro; Tucci, Paulo José Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Gender can influence post-infarction cardiac remodeling. To evaluate whether gender influences left ventricular (LV) remodeling and integrin-linked kinase (ILK) after myocardial infarction (MI). Female and male Wistar rats were assigned to one of three groups: sham, moderate MI (size: 20-39% of LV area), and large MI (size: ≥40% of LV area). MI was induced by coronary occlusion, and echocardiographic analysis was performed after six weeks to evaluate MI size as well as LV morphology and function. Real-time RT-PCR and Western blot were used to quantify ILK in the myocardium. MI size was similar between genders. MI resulted in systolic dysfunction and enlargement of end-diastolic as well as end-systolic dimension of LV as a function of necrotic area size in both genders. Female rats with large MI showed a lower diastolic and systolic dilatation than the respective male rats; however, LV dysfunction was similar between genders. Gene and protein levels of ILK were increased in female rats with moderate and large infarctions, but only male rats with large infarctions showed an altered ILK mRNA level. A negative linear correlation was evident between LV dimensions and ILK expression in female rats with large MI. Post-MI ILK expression is altered in a gender-specific manner, and higher ILK levels found in females may be sufficient to improve LV geometry but not LV function

  3. Expressions of Gender-based Violence in the Impact of Anti-personnel Mine Attacks in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A. Ruiz Romero

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This text, based on fieldwork carried out between 2014 and 2015, firstly analyses the way that Gender-Based Violence (GBV in armed conflict is also expressed through forms of victimization like anti-personnel mine (APM attacks. It also studies how women who belong to associations of APM victims confront the consequences of this victimization, much of which has clear gender connotations, placing them at the highest level of vulnerability and stigmatization. The article shows that, although mines originated as an indiscriminate form of violence (given the nature of the instrument used, the violence exercised by their use contains two main components of GBV by which women are profoundly affected, in view of the patriarchal context in which such violence takes place: firstly by using the body as a space of dispute and secondly in the continuum that affects women’s lives. These two components enhance the physical and psychological consequences for the direct victims of these devices and the emotional impact for their indirect victims (victims’ relatives, and are a factor in the considerable disruption of women’s traditional roles within families, thus weakening the community’s social fabric.

  4. Reciprocal expression of Bmi1 and Mel-18 is associated with functioning of primitive hematopoietic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiume, Teruyuki; Ohno, Norioki; Sera, Yasuhiko; Kawahara, Yumi; Yuge, Louis; Kobayashi, Masao

    2009-07-01

    The Polycomb-group (PcG) genes regulate global gene expression in many biological processes, including hematopoiesis, by manipulating specific target genes. It is known that various PcG genes regulate self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Here we have shown that the reciprocal expression of PcG proteins regulates self-renewal and differentiation of HSCs. We used murine and human bone marrow cells and evaluated the reciprocal expression of PcG proteins on the basis of their respective intranuclear distributions. PcG-gene expression in HSCs was knocked down by small interfering RNAs. The function of each gene in HSCs was analyzed in vitro and in vivo. Cells were either Bmi1-positive or Mel-18-positive. The Bmi1-positive cells contained very little amounts of Mel-18 and vice versa. The bmi1-knockdown marrow cells did not show HSC function, while the mel-18-knockdown marrow cells showed increased stem cell function. Results of the analysis on human cells were similar to those observed in case of murine cells. In a clinical investigation, transplantation using sources with a low Bmi1 to Mel-18 ratio was associated with early hematopoietic recovery. Reciprocal expression of Bmi1 and Mel-18 regulated HSC function. Here, we observed that expression of the PcG genes-bmi1 and mel-18-is correlated with self-renewal and differentiation of HSCs. Thus, it was suggested that the balance between Bmi1 and Mel-18 regulates self-renewal of HSCs.

  5. Reciprocal interaction between dental alloy biocorrosion and Streptococcus mutans virulent gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Songmei; Qiu, Jing; Ren, Yanfang; Yu, Weiqiang; Zhang, Fuqiang; Liu, Xiuxin

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion of dental alloys is a major concern in dental restorations. Streptococcus mutans reduces the pH in oral cavity and induces demineralization of the enamel as well as corrosion of restorative dental materials. The rough surfaces of dental alloys induced by corrosion enhance the subsequent accumulation of plaque. In this study, the corrosion process of nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) and cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloys in a nutrient-rich medium containing S. mutans was studied using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrochemical corrosion test. Our results showed that the release of Ni and Co ions increased, particularly after incubation for 3 days. The electrochemical corrosion results showed a significant decrease in the corrosion resistance (Rp) value after the alloys were immersed in the media containing S. mutans for 3 days. Correspondingly, XPS revealed a reduction in the relative dominance of Ni, Co, and Cr in the surface oxides after the alloys were immersed in the S. mutans culture. After removal of the biofilm, the pre-corroded alloys were re-incubated in S. mutans medium, and the expressions of genes associated with the adhesion and acidogenesis of S. mutans, including gtfBCD, gbpB, fif and ldh, were evaluated by detecting the mRNA levels using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We found that the gtfBCD, gbpB, ftf and Idh expression of S. mutans were noticeably increased after incubation with pre-corroded alloys for 24 h. This study demonstrated that S. mutans enhanced the corrosion behavior of the dental alloys, on the other hand, the presence of corroded alloy surfaces up-regulated the virulent gene expression in S. mutans. Compared with smooth surfaces, the rough corroded surfaces of dental alloys accelerated the bacteria-adhesion and corrosion process by changing the virulence gene expression of S. mutans.

  6. Electromagnetic Reciprocity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldridge, David F.

    2014-11-01

    A reciprocity theorem is an explicit mathematical relationship between two different wavefields that can exist within the same space - time configuration. Reciprocity theorems provi de the theoretical underpinning for mod ern full waveform inversion solutions, and also suggest practical strategies for speed ing up large - scale numerical modeling of geophysical datasets . In the present work, several previously - developed electromagnetic r eciprocity theorems are generalized to accommodate a broader range of medi um, source , and receiver types. Reciprocity relations enabling the interchange of various types of point sources and point receivers within a three - dimensional electromagnetic model are derived. Two numerical modeling algorithms in current use are successfully tested for adherence to reciprocity. Finally, the reciprocity theorem forms the point of departure for a lengthy derivation of electromagnetic Frechet derivatives. These mathe matical objects quantify the sensitivity of geophysical electromagnetic data to variatio ns in medium parameters, and thus constitute indispensable tools for solution of the full waveform inverse problem. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Sandia National Labor atories is a multi - program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE - AC04 - 94AL85000. Signif icant portions of the work reported herein were conducted under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and CARBO Ceramics Incorporated. The author acknowledges Mr. Chad Cannan and Mr. Terry Pa lisch of CARBO Ceramics, and Ms. Amy Halloran, manager of SNL's Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences Department, for their interest in and encouragement of this work. Special thanks are due to Dr . Lewis C. Bartel ( recently retired from Sandia National Labo ratories

  7. A geometric buckling expression for regular polygons: II. Analyses based on the multiple reciprocity boundary element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itagaki, Masafumi; Miyoshi, Yoshinori; Hirose, Hideyuki

    1993-01-01

    A procedure is presented for the determination of geometric buckling for regular polygons. A new computation technique, the multiple reciprocity boundary element method (MRBEM), has been applied to solve the one-group neutron diffusion equation. The main difficulty in applying the ordinary boundary element method (BEM) to neutron diffusion problems has been the need to compute a domain integral, resulting from the fission source. The MRBEM has been developed for transforming this type of domain integral into an equivalent boundary integral. The basic idea of the MRBEM is to apply repeatedly the reciprocity theorem (Green's second formula) using a sequence of higher order fundamental solutions. The MRBEM requires discretization of the boundary only rather than of the domain. This advantage is useful for extensive survey analyses of buckling for complex geometries. The results of survey analyses have indicated that the general form of geometric buckling is B g 2 = (a n /R c ) 2 , where R c represents the radius of the circumscribed circle of the regular polygon under consideration. The geometric constant A n depends on the type of regular polygon and takes the value of π for a square and 2.405 for a circle, an extreme case that has an infinite number of sides. Values of a n for a triangle, pentagon, hexagon, and octagon have been calculated as 4.190, 2.281, 2.675, and 2.547, respectively

  8. GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE: COMPARING THE EXPERIENCES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    One of the biggest challenge Sudanese women encounters in their host ... as well as embracing the new culture which presents them with opportunities of furthering ... and attained higher education are less likely to secure jobs due to gender based ... However, the women continue to experience, within the Sudanese.

  9. Children's Gender-Based Reasoning about Toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Carol Lynn; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Three studies examined how preschool children used gender-based reasoning in making judgments about toy preferences for themselves and for others. Found that children used gender labels to guide their own preferences and their expectations of others. Even with very attractive toys, children liked the toys less if they were labeled as being for the…

  10. The personal norm of reciprocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perugini, M.; Gallucci, M.; Presaghi, F.; Ercolani, A.P.

    2002-01-01

    Reciprocity is here considered as an internalized social norm, and a questionnaire to measure individual differences in the internalized norm of reciprocity is presented. The questionnaire, Personal Norm of Reciprocity (PNR), measures three aspects of reciprocity: positive reciprocity, negative

  11. Media approach to gender-based violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mršević Zorica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author grounds her research and the latter analysis on continually conducted daily press-clipping of seven main printed daily newspapers and two main electronic media in Serbia, within the three years period (2009 - 2011. An analysis of media reports on gender based violence, with particular focus on the most frequent domestic violence cases within the two years period, 2010 to 2011 is presented. As the best of media reports on gender based violence, the author stressed out its „whistle blower“ role - media are the main source of information on cases, dimensions and forms of gender based violence. Also the worse moments of media reporting in the mentioned period are presented - when the violence was justified or when reality is deformed by presenting these cases as romantic love stories. For example, in 2010 the worst was reporting on the „Pajčin/Kapisoda“ case, while in 2011 it was the „Ponjiger“ case. In the end, the author also warned on the worrysome fact of sudden dissapearance of media reports on partners’ murdering their wives after the last such report published in mid-october 2011, which could mean that now we have a new problem of diminished freedom of media.

  12. Do Social and Cultural Factors Perpetuate Gender Based Violence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender based violence in Malawi exist at a level that requires special acknowledgement. A survey was conducted to assess how social and cultural factors affect gender-based violence in Malawi. The study revealed that both men and women are victims of gender based violence although women bare the brunt of the ...

  13. Reciprocal patterns of allergen-induced GATA-3 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from atopics vs. non-atopics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaubas, C; Lee, P T; Smallacombe, T B; Holt, B J; Wee, C; Sly, P D; Holt, P G

    2002-01-01

    T helper (Th)2 cytokines are considered to play a central role in the induction and expression of allergic disease. However, the relative importance of individual cytokines is unclear, and overall disease pathogenesis appears to involve the coordinate activities of a range of Th2 cytokines acting in sequence or in parallel. The present study examines an alternative approach to the study of cytokine gene function in atopy, focusing instead upon T cell transcription factors (TFs) which play a role in the regulation of multiple cytokine genes. To investigate the allergen-induced expression of the TF GATA-3 and c-Maf in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and in cytokine-driven Th polarization. PBMC from house dust mite (HDM)-atopic and non-atopics were stimulated in vitro with allergen or anti-CD3/IL-2. TF expression was analysed by semiquantitative RT-PCR and major findings were validated by real-time PCR. Cell separations were performed to analyse the contribution of CD45RO+ cells. CD4+ cord blood cells were Th1 or Th2 polarized in vitro by exogenous cytokines and TF expression analysed by Northern blot and real-time PCR. Results We demonstrate for the first time that during differentiation of CD4+ CD45RA+ naïve human T cells towards Th2 commitment, and during allergen-specific reactivation of peripheral CD4+ CD45RO+ Th2 memory cells in established atopics, expression of the Th2-associated TF GATA-3 is rapidly up-regulated, whereas T cells from non-atopics display equally rapid GATA-3 down-regulation under identical conditions of allergen stimulation. These findings identify Th2-associated TFs as key determinants of the atopic phenotype, suggesting their unique potential as therapeutic targets for disease control.

  14. Reciprocity of weighted networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squartini, Tiziano; Picciolo, Francesco; Ruzzenenti, Franco; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2013-01-01

    In directed networks, reciprocal links have dramatic effects on dynamical processes, network growth, and higher-order structures such as motifs and communities. While the reciprocity of binary networks has been extensively studied, that of weighted networks is still poorly understood, implying an ever-increasing gap between the availability of weighted network data and our understanding of their dyadic properties. Here we introduce a general approach to the reciprocity of weighted networks, and define quantities and null models that consistently capture empirical reciprocity patterns at different structural levels. We show that, counter-intuitively, previous reciprocity measures based on the similarity of mutual weights are uninformative. By contrast, our measures allow to consistently classify different weighted networks according to their reciprocity, track the evolution of a network's reciprocity over time, identify patterns at the level of dyads and vertices, and distinguish the effects of flux (im)balances or other (a)symmetries from a true tendency towards (anti-)reciprocation.

  15. Reciprocating pellet press

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Charles W.

    1981-04-07

    A machine for pressing loose powder into pellets using a series of reciprocating motions has an interchangeable punch and die as its only accurately machines parts. The machine reciprocates horizontally between powder receiving and pressing positions. It reciprocates vertically to press, strip and release a pellet.

  16. Rayleigh reciprocity relations: Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Ju; Li Xiao-Lei; Wang Ning

    2016-01-01

    Classical reciprocity relations have wide applications in acoustics, from field representation to generalized optical theorem. In this paper we introduce our recent results on the applications and generalization of classical Rayleigh reciprocity relation: higher derivative reciprocity relations as a generalization of the classical one and a theoretical proof on the Green’s function retrieval from volume noises. (special topic)

  17. Gender-based abuse: the global epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heise Lori

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Gender Based violence-including rape, domestic violence, murder and sexual abuse-is a profund health problem for women across the globe. Although a significant cause of female morbidity and mortality, violence against women has only recently begun to be recognized as an issue for public health. This paper draws together existing data on the dimensions of violence against women worldwide and reviews available literature on the health consequences of abuse. It argues that the health sector has an important role to play in combatting violence against women through increased research, screening and referral of victims, and behavioral interventions. Any strategy to confrnt violence must address the root causes of abuse in addition to meeting the immediate needs of victims. This means challenging the social attitudes and beliefs that undergird men's violence and renegotiating the balance of power between women and men at all levels of society.

  18. Gender-based violence: a crucial challenge for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjel, S

    2013-01-01

    This article attempts to summarize the situations of gender-based violence, a major public health issue. Due to the unequal power relations between men and women, women are violated either in family, in the community or in the State. Gender-based violence takes different forms like physical, sexual or psychological/ emotional violence. The causes of gender-based violence are multidimensional including social, economic, cultural, political and religious. The literatures written in relation to the gender-based violence are accessed using electronic databases as PubMed, Medline and Google scholar, Google and other Internet Websites between 1994 and first quarter of 2013 using an internet search from the keywords such as gender-based violence, women violence, domestic violence, wife abuse, violence during pregnancy, women sexual abuse, political gender based violence, cultural gender-based violence, economical gender-based violence, child sexual abuse and special forms of gender-based violence in Nepal. As GBVs remain one of the most rigorous challenges of women's health and well-being, it is one of the indispensable issues of equity and social justice. To create a gender-based violence free environment, a lot works has to be done. Hence, it is suggested to provide assistance to the victims of violence developing the mechanism to support them.

  19. pH, Lactate, and Hypoxia: Reciprocity in Regulating High-Affinity Monocarboxylate Transporter Expression in Glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Caruso

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Highly malignant brain tumors harbor the aberrant propensity for aerobic glycolysis, the excessive conversion of glucose to lactic acid even in the presence of ample tissue oxygen. Lactic acid is rapidly effluxed to the tumor microenvironment via a group of plasma-membrane transporters denoted monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs to prevent “self-poisoning.” One isoform, MCT2, has the highest affinity for lactate and thus should have the ability to respond to microenvironment conditions such as hypoxia, lactate, and pH to help maintain high glycolytic flux in the tumor. Yet, MCT2 is considered to not respond to hypoxia, which is counterintuitive. Its response to tumor lactate has not been reported. In this report, we experimentally identify the transcription initiation site/s for MCT2 in astrocytes (normal and glioma (tumor. We then use a BACmid library to isolate a 4.2-kbp MCT2 promoter-exon I region and examine promoter response to glycolysis-mediated stimuli in glioma cells. Reporter analysis of nested-promoter constructs indicated response of MCT2 to hypoxia, pH, lactate, and glucose, the major physiological “players” that facilitate a tumor's growth and proliferation. Immunoblot analysis of native MCT2 expression under altered pH and hypoxia reflected the reporter data. The pH-mediated gene-regulation studies we describe are the first to record H+-based reporter studies for any mammalian system and demonstrate the exquisite response of the MCT2 gene to minute changes in tumor pH. Identical promoter usage also provides the first evidence of astrocytes harnessing the same gene regulatory regions to facilitate astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttling, a metabolic feature of normal brain.

  20. Testing a Dual Process Model of Gender-Based Violence: A Laboratory Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, Danielle S; Zeichner, Amos

    2016-01-01

    The dire impact of gender-based violence on society compels development of models comprehensive enough to capture the diversity of its forms. Research has established hostile sexism (HS) as a robust predictor of gender-based violence. However, to date, research has yet to link men's benevolent sexism (BS) to physical aggression toward women, despite correlations between BS and HS and between BS and victim blaming. One model, the opposing process model of benevolent sexism (Sibley & Perry, 2010), suggests that, for men, BS acts indirectly through HS to predict acceptance of hierarchy-enhancing social policy as an expression of a preference for in-group dominance (i. e., social dominance orientation [SDO]). The extent to which this model applies to gender-based violence remains untested. Therefore, in this study, 168 undergraduate men in a U. S. university participated in a competitive reaction time task, during which they had the option to shock an ostensible female opponent as a measure of gender-based violence. Results of multiple-mediation path analyses indicated dual pathways potentiating gender-based violence and highlight SDO as a particularly potent mechanism of this violence. Findings are discussed in terms of group dynamics and norm-based violence prevention.

  1. Combating gender based violence in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberata Gahongayire

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Gender Based Violence (GBV exists in Rwanda as in many other African societies. Efforts are being made by Governments and NGOs to curb the menace and help its victims. This study examines these efforts with particular reference to the city of Kigali in Rwanda. The study reveals the prevalence and various strategies used by government and other organisations in combating the practice of GBV. According to the study effective response to the plight of GBV victims depends on the competence and expertise of various individuals and organisations involved in giving assistance to victims. The establishment of a one-stop assistance centre for GBV services in Kigali has successfully given much needed aid to victims. The study recommends that in order to eradicate GBV all the stakeholders should utilize available resources. Logistical, economic and socio-cultural constraints should be dealt with accordingly. Above all, the judiciary has a crucial role to play. An effective judicial system is needed to curb the practice.

  2. Gender Based Violence among Infertile Women In Mara Region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines women to women marriages (nyumba ntobhu) and its relation with gender-based violence (GBV) in Serengeti District of Mara Region. It also explores types of gender-based violence and consequences of women to women marriages among women, girls and children in the society. Both quantitative ...

  3. Social constructions of gender roles, gender-based violence and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The links between gender roles, gender-based violence and HIV/AIDS risk are complex and culturally specific. In this qualitative study we investigated how women and men in two black communities in the Western Cape, South Africa, constructed their gender identities and roles, how they understood gender-based violence ...

  4. Gender-Based Violence Prevention. Issues in Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on gender-based violence prevention. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Preventing Gender-Based Violence: An Overview (Linda Langford); (2) Q&A With Amelia Cobb; (3) Denim Day at HBCUs; (4) Dear Colleague Letter; (5) ED Grants for Violence Prevention; and (6) Higher Education Center…

  5. Budget Time: A Gender-Based Negotiation Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkacs, Linda L.; Barkacs, Craig B.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a gender-based negotiation simulation designed to make participants aware of gender-based stereotypes and their effect on negotiation outcomes. In this simulation, the current research on gender issues is animated via three role sheets: (a) Vice president (VP), (b) advantaged department head, and (c) disadvantaged department…

  6. Gender-Based Analysis On-Line Dialogue. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001

    An online dialogue on gender-based analysis (GBA) was held from February 15 to March 7, 2001. Invitations and a background paper titled "Why Gender-Based Analysis?" were sent to 350 women's organizations and individuals throughout Canada. Efforts were made to ensure that aboriginal and Metis women, visible minority women, and women with…

  7. Reciprocity in optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potton, R J

    2004-01-01

    The application of reciprocity principles in optics has a long history that goes back to Stokes, Lorentz, Helmholtz and others. Moreover, optical applications need to be seen in the context of applications of reciprocity in particle scattering, acoustics, seismology and the solution of inverse problems, generally. In some of these other fields vector wave propagation is, as it is in optics, of the essence. For this reason the simplified approach to light wave polarization developed by, and named for, Jones is explored initially to see how and to what extent it encompasses reciprocity. The characteristic matrix of a uniform dielectric layer, used in the analysis of interference filters and mirrors, is reciprocal except when the layer is magneto-optical. The way in which the reciprocal nature of a characteristic matrix can be recognized is discussed next. After this, work on the influence of more realistic attributes of a dielectric stack on reciprocity is reviewed. Some of the numerous technological applications of magneto-optic non-reciprocal media are identified and the potential of a new class of non-reciprocal components is briefly introduced. Finally, the extension of the classical reciprocity concept to systems containing components that have nonlinear optical response is briefly mentioned

  8. Substance P and Calcitonin gene-related peptide expression in human periodontal ligament after root canal preparation with Reciproc Blue, WaveOne Gold, XP EndoShaper and hand files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caviedes-Bucheli, J; Rios-Osorio, N; Rey-Rojas, M; Laguna-Rivero, F; Azuero-Holguin, M M; Diaz, L E; Curtidor, H; Castaneda-Ramirez, J J; Munoz, H R

    2018-05-17

    To quantify the Substance P (SP) and Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) expression in healthy human periodontal ligament from premolars after root canal preparation with Reciproc Blue, WaveOne Gold, XP EndoShaper and hand files. Fifty human periodontal ligament samples were obtained from healthy mandibular premolars where extraction was indicated for orthodontic reasons. Prior to extraction, 40 of these premolars were equally divided into four groups, and root canals were prepared using four different systems: Reciproc Blue, WaveOne Gold, XP EndoShaper, and a hand instrumentation technique. The remaining 10 healthy premolars were extracted without treatment and served as a negative control group. All periodontal ligament samples were processed, and SP and CGRP were measured by radioimmunoassay. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to establish significant differences between groups and LSD post hoc comparisons were also performed. Greater SP and CGRP values were found in the hand instrumentation group, followed by the XP EndoShaper, WaveOne Gold and the Reciproc groups. The lower SP and CGRP values were for the healthy periodontal ligament group. The Kruskal-Wallis test revealed significant differences between groups (p 0.05). All the root canal preparation techniques tested increased SP and CGRP expression in human periodontal ligament, with hand files and XP EndoShaper instruments being associated with greater neuropeptide release compared to Reciproc Blue and WaveOne Gold files. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Reciprocating Linear Electric Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldowsky, M. P.

    1984-01-01

    Features include structural simplicity and good force/displacement characteristics. Reciprocating motor has simple, rugged construction, relatively low reciprocating weight, improved power delivery, and improved force control. Wear reduced by use of magnetic bearings. Intended to provide drivers for long-lived Stirling-cycle cryogenic refrigerators, concept has less exotic applications, such as fuel pumps.

  10. The Structure of Reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molm, Linda D.

    2010-01-01

    Reciprocity is one of the defining features of social exchange and social life, yet exchange theorists have tended to take it for granted. Drawing on work from a decade-long theoretical research program, I argue that reciprocity is structured and variable across different forms of exchange, that these variations in the structure of reciprocity…

  11. The transition probabilities of the reciprocity model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, T.A.B.

    1999-01-01

    The reciprocity model is a continuous-time Markov chain model used for modeling longitudinal network data. A new explicit expression is derived for its transition probability matrix. This expression can be checked relatively easily. Some properties of the transition probabilities are given, as well

  12. Prevalence and Correlates of Gender-based Violence among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The extent of this problem in educational institutions has not been explored in Northern Nigeria. ... Keywords: Gender-based violence female university students. Introduction ..... depression, while one attributed poor academic achievement to ...

  13. What are gender-based challenges facing Free Primary Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural teachers' views: What are gender-based challenges facing. Free Primary Education in Lesotho .... resulted in high levels of poverty amongst women, particularly in rural areas. Women ...... Lesotho demographics profile 2010. Available at ...

  14. 16 Days of Activism against Gender-Based Violence | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-11-25

    Nov 25, 2017 ... The International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women on November 25 ... against gender-based violence and culminates with Human Rights Day ... to Canada's strong voice in the fight against sexual violence.

  15. Attribution and reciprocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebald, Alexander Christopher

    2010-01-01

    , in turn, influence behavior. Dufwenberg and Kirchsteiger [Dufwenberg, M., Kirchsteiger, G., 2004. A theory of sequential reciprocity. Games Econ. Behav. 47 (2), 268-298] formalize this empirical finding in their ‘theory of sequential reciprocity'. This paper extends their analysis by moves of chance. More...... precisely, an extended framework is presented which allows for the analysis of strategic interactions of reciprocal agents in situations in which material outcomes also depend on chance. Moves of chance influence the attribution of responsibilities, people's perceptions about the (un)kindness of others and......, hence, their reciprocal behavior. Furthermore, with the help of two applications it is demonstrated how this framework can be used to explain experimental findings showing that people react very differently in outcomewise-identical situations depending on the moves of chance involved....

  16. Onsager Reciprocity in Premelting Solids

    KAUST Repository

    Peppin, S. S. L.; Spannuth, M. J.; Wettlaufer, J. S.

    2009-01-01

    The diffusive motion of foreign particles dispersed in a premelting solid is analyzed within the framework of irreversible thermodynamics. We determine the mass diffusion coefficient, thermal diffusion coefficient and Soret coefficient of the particles in the dilute limit, and find good agreement with experimental data. In contrast to liquid suspensions, the unique nature of premelting solids allows us to derive an expression for the Dufour coefficient and independently verify the Onsager reciprocal relation coupling diffusion to the flow of heat. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  17. Onsager Reciprocity in Premelting Solids

    KAUST Repository

    Peppin, S. S. L.

    2009-02-01

    The diffusive motion of foreign particles dispersed in a premelting solid is analyzed within the framework of irreversible thermodynamics. We determine the mass diffusion coefficient, thermal diffusion coefficient and Soret coefficient of the particles in the dilute limit, and find good agreement with experimental data. In contrast to liquid suspensions, the unique nature of premelting solids allows us to derive an expression for the Dufour coefficient and independently verify the Onsager reciprocal relation coupling diffusion to the flow of heat. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  18. Reciprocity in electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunning, J.; Goodman, P.

    1991-01-01

    The symmetry of reciprocity is reviewed in the context of relativistic quantum mechanics with the specific aim of relating to P-C-T invariances. From this investigation global time reversal is found to be sufficient condition for reciprocity to hold in scattering from a vector potential. Elastic scattering is assumed. The paper also deals exclusively with the scattering of a charged particle by an electromagnetic field. The present proof is free from assumptions of small angle scattering and from restrictions on z-dependent terms in the scattering equation, and by avoiding S-matrix theory is thought to be accessible to undergraduate teaching. 9 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  19. Reciprocity in electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunning, J.; Goodman, P.

    1992-01-01

    The symmetry of reciprocity is reviewed in the context of relativistic quantum mechanics with the specific aim of relating to C, P and T invariances. From this investigation global time reversal is found to be a sufficient condition for reciprocity to hold in scattering from a vector potential. The present proof is free from assumptions of small-angle scattering and from restrictions on z-dependent terms in the scattering equation, and by avoiding S-matrix theory is thought to be accessible to undergraduate teaching. (orig.)

  20. The Impact of Gender Based Violence on Stability and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    Resources/costsandimpactsofgbv.pdf (accessed November 4, 2010). 4 Gender Secretariat, Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency ( SIDA ...Action Plan for Sida’s Work Against Gender-Based Violence, 2008-2010 ( SIDA , Department of Democracy and Development). 5 Inger Skjelsbaek and Dan Smith

  1. Prevalence and risk factors for gender based violence during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Gender Based Violence (GBV) is a pervasive and systemic public health problem affecting pregnant women but there is paucity of data on the magnitude of GBV during pregnancy and the factors associated with it in Kenya, particularly in areas where the prevalence of GBV in the general population is ...

  2. Effects of gender based violence on neurocognitive functioning in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Gender based violence is being recognized as a global problem1. Given the rampant trends of violence against women and girls in Zambia which include battery, sexual abuse and exploitation, sexual cleansing, assault and other forms of violence2, women are prone to increasingly mental health problems.

  3. Eliminating gender-based violence: learning from the widowhood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender-based violence has received increased international focus since after the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo 1994 and the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing in 1995. This paper reports the activities and outcome of a Christian women group initiative to eliminate ...

  4. Experiences of gender based violence among refugee populations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and concealment that are associated with numerous capacity challenges in access and utilisation of the available services. The extreme conditions that refugees go through during displacement, flight and resettlement tend to exacerbate and sustain GBV. Keywords: Experiences, Gender Based Violence, Refugee Camps ...

  5. Challenging structures through addressing gender-based violence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Getting the past right in West Africa and beyond: Addressing gender-based ... 2 See Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women .... 6 The Protocol to the African Charter on Human and People's Rights on the ...

  6. Gender-Based Violence among Married Women in Debre Tabor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Gender-based violence is one of the major public health problems in Ethiopia. This study ... This study revealed that the attitude of people and traditional norms played the major role in determining the ..... If they do, they see it as their fault. That.

  7. Perceptions on Gender-Based Differences in Educational Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Fakhra; Kalsoom, Qudsia; Quraishi, Uzma; Hasan, Sibte

    2017-01-01

    This descriptive, qualitative study aimed at identifying disparities in perceptions of males and females regarding gender-based differences in educational leadership. Data were gathered purposively from 20 renowned male and female educationists having a long experience of leadership in various institutes of Pakistan. An open-ended questionnaire…

  8. Rural teachers' views: What are gender-based challenges facing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper gives prominence to rural teachers' accounts of gender-based challenges facing Free Primary Education in Lesotho. It draws on feminist interpretations of social constructionism to discuss factors within the Basotho communities that affect gender equality in the schools. The inductive analysis offered makes use ...

  9. Factors Influencing Gender Based Violence among Men and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the factors associated with gender based violence among 3000 men and women in selected states in Nigeria. Respondents who had experienced physical violence were 806(26.9%), comprising 353(11.8%) males and 453(15.1%) females (p<0.001). Respondents who had experienced sexual ...

  10. Hidden patterns of reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syi

    2014-03-21

    Reciprocity can help the evolution of cooperation. To model both types of reciprocity, we need the concept of strategy. In the case of direct reciprocity there are four second-order action rules (Simple Tit-for-tat, Contrite Tit-for-tat, Pavlov, and Grim Trigger), which are able to promote cooperation. In the case of indirect reciprocity the key component of cooperation is the assessment rule. There are, again, four elementary second-order assessment rules (Image Scoring, Simple Standing, Stern Judging, and Shunning). The eight concepts can be formalized in an ontologically thin way we need only an action predicate and a value function, two agent concepts, and the constant of goodness. The formalism helps us to discover that the action and assessment rules can be paired, and that they show the same patterns. The logic of these patterns can be interpreted with the concept of punishment that has an inherent paradoxical nature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Reciprocity, World Prices and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    We examine in detail the circumstances under which reciprocity, as defined in Bagwell and Staiger (1999), leads to fixed world prices. We show that a change of tariffs satisfying reciprocity does not necessarily imply constant world prices in a world of many goods and countries. While it is possi...... of all countries, independently of whether world prices change and independently of the relative numbers of goods and countries.......We examine in detail the circumstances under which reciprocity, as defined in Bagwell and Staiger (1999), leads to fixed world prices. We show that a change of tariffs satisfying reciprocity does not necessarily imply constant world prices in a world of many goods and countries. While...... it is possible to find tariff reforms that are consistent with both reciprocity and constant world prices, these reforms do not follow from the reciprocity condition, but rather from the requirement of unchanged world prices. We propose an alternative reciprocity rule that is guaranteed to raise the welfare...

  12. Reciprocity relations in aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaslet, Max A; Spreiter, John R

    1953-01-01

    Reverse flow theorems in aerodynamics are shown to be based on the same general concepts involved in many reciprocity theorems in the physical sciences. Reciprocal theorems for both steady and unsteady motion are found as a logical consequence of this approach. No restrictions on wing plan form or flight Mach number are made beyond those required in linearized compressible-flow analysis. A number of examples are listed, including general integral theorems for lifting, rolling, and pitching wings and for wings in nonuniform downwash fields. Correspondence is also established between the buildup of circulation with time of a wing starting impulsively from rest and the buildup of lift of the same wing moving in the reverse direction into a sharp-edged gust.

  13. Activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR leads to reciprocal epigenetic regulation of FoxP3 and IL-17 expression and amelioration of experimental colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra P Singh

    Full Text Available Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR, a transcription factor of the bHLH/PAS family, is well characterized to regulate the biochemical and toxic effects of environmental chemicals. More recently, AhR activation has been shown to regulate the differentiation of Foxp3(+ Tregs as well as Th17 cells. However, the precise mechanisms are unclear. In the current study, we investigated the effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, a potent AhR ligand, on epigenetic regulation leading to altered Treg/Th17 differentiation, and consequent suppression of colitis.Dextran sodium sulphate (DSS administration induced acute colitis in C57BL/6 mice, as shown by significant weight loss, shortening of colon, mucosal ulceration, and increased presence of CXCR3(+ T cells as well as inflammatory cytokines. Interestingly, a single dose of TCDD (25 µg/kg body weight was able to attenuate all of the clinical and inflammatory markers of colitis. Analysis of T cells in the lamina propria (LP and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN, during colitis, revealed decreased presence of Tregs and increased induction of Th17 cells, which was reversed following TCDD treatment. Activation of T cells from AhR(+/+ but not AhR (-/- mice, in the presence of TCDD, promoted increased differentiation of Tregs while inhibiting Th17 cells. Analysis of MLN or LP cells during colitis revealed increased methylation of CpG islands of Foxp3 and demethylation of IL-17 promoters, which was reversed following TCDD treatment.These studies demonstrate for the first time that AhR activation promotes epigenetic regulation thereby influencing reciprocal differentiation of Tregs and Th17 cells, and amelioration of inflammation.

  14. Reciprocity in Vector Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Green’s Theorem to the left hand side of Equation (3.2) converts it to a surface integral that vanishes for the impedance boundary conditions one...There are situations where this assumption does not hold, such as at boundaries between layers or in an inhomogeneous layer , because the density gradient...instead of requiring one model run for each source location. Application of the vector-scalar reciprocity principle is demonstrated with analytic

  15. Corrupt reciprocity: An experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Graf Lambsdorff, Johann; Frank, Björn

    2007-01-01

    We let students play a corruption game, embedded into a variant of the ultimatum game. Those allotted the role of public servants chose between whistleblowing, opportunism and reciprocity by delivery (of a contract) and those acting as businesspeople chose how to frame the game and whether to blow the whistle. While opportunism and abstaining from whistleblowing is the Nash equilibrium, another likely outcome was that businesspeople allocate resources to punishing public servants for non-deli...

  16. Cutting efficiency of Reciproc and waveOne reciprocating instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotino, Gianluca; Giansiracusa Rubini, Alessio; Grande, Nicola M; Testarelli, Luca; Gambarini, Gianluca

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cutting efficiency of 2 new reciprocating instruments, Reciproc and WaveOne. Twenty-four new Reciproc R25 and 24 new WaveOne Primary files were activated by using a torque-controlled motor (Silver Reciproc) and divided into 4 groups (n = 12): group 1, Reciproc activated by Reciproc ALL program; group 2, Reciproc activated by WaveOne ALL program; group 3, WaveOne activated by Reciproc ALL program; and group 4, WaveOne activated by WaveOne ALL program. The device used for the cutting test consisted of a main frame to which a mobile plastic support for the handpiece is connected and a stainless steel block containing a Plexiglas block (inPlexiglass, Rome, Italy) against which the cutting efficiency of the instruments was tested. The length of the block cut in 1 minute was measured in a computerized program with a precision of 0.1 mm. Means and standard deviations of each group were calculated, and data were statistically analyzed with 1-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni test (P cutting efficiency than WaveOne Primary for both the movements used (P cutting efficiency than WaveOne instruments used with their proper reciprocating motion (P .05). Reciproc instruments demonstrated statistically higher cutting efficiency than WaveOne instruments. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Time-dependent miR-16 serum fluctuations together with reciprocal changes in the expression level of miR-16 in mesocortical circuit contribute to stress resilient phenotype in chronic mild stress - An animal model of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurawek, Dariusz; Kusmider, Maciej; Faron-Gorecka, Agata; Gruca, Piotr; Pabian, Paulina; Kolasa, Magdalena; Solich, Joanna; Szafran-Pilch, Kinga; Papp, Mariusz; Dziedzicka-Wasylewska, Marta

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in stress-related pathologies. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying stress resilience are elusive. Using chronic mild stress (CMS), an animal model of depression, we identified animals exhibiting a resilient phenotype. We investigated serum levels of corticosterone, melatonin and 376 mature miRNAs to find peripheral biomarkers associated with the resilient phenotype. miR-16, selected during screening step, was assayed in different brain regions in order to find potential relationship between brain and peripheral alterations in response to stress. Two CMS experiments that lasted for 2 and 7 consecutive weeks were performed. During both CMS procedures, sucrose consumption levels were significantly decreased in anhedonic-like animals (panimals, whereas the drinking profiles of resilient rats did not change despite the rats being stressed. Serum corticosterone measurements indicated that anhedonic-like animals had blunted hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, whereas resilient animals exhibited dynamic responses to stress. miRNA profiling revealed that resilient animals had elevated serum levels of miR-16 after 7 weeks of CMS (adjusted p-valueanimals exhibited reciprocal changes in miR-16 expression level in mesocortical pathway after 2 weeks of CMS (panimals can actively cope with stress on a biochemical level and miR-16 may contribute to a "stress-resistant" behavioral phenotype by pleiotropic modulation of the expression of genes involved in the function of the nervous system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  18. Expression and Function of Transmembrane-4 Superfamily (Tetraspanin Proteins in Osteoclasts: Reciprocal Roles of Tspan-5 and NET-6 during Osteoclastogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Iwai

    2007-01-01

    Conclusions: These data indicate that a diversity of tetraspanins is expressed in osteoclast precursors, and that cell fusion during osteoclastogenesis is regulated by cooperation of distinct tetraspanin family proteins such as Tspan-5 and NET-6. This study indicates that functional alterations of tetraspanin family proteins may have therapeutic potential in diseases where osteoclasts play a major role, such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis.

  19. Gender-Based Discrimination In Nursing: A Ghanaian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DF Ofori

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and objectives: The 'glass escalator' phenomenon holds that men in female dominated professions like nursing can rise quickly to the top. However, they can also suffer discrimination. This phenomenon is widely recognised in advanced countries. Trained, mostly female nurses have been leaving Ghana in droves for greener pastures abroad, particularly the US and UK, with serious consequences on the health delivery service in Ghana. Conversely, increasing numbers of males are joining the nursing profession. It examines whether male nurses in Ghana enjoy any hidden advantages, and if so, what makes the men successful (even with their limited numbers in a women-dominated field and what the implications are for both male and female nurses. Problem investigated: The article explores gender-based discrimination and the phenomenon of the glass escalator in a developing country context. It examines the position of male nurses in Ghana; the type, nature and extent of advantages they enjoy and any discrimination they face in a female-dominated field. Methodology: An in-depth cross-sectional questionnaire was employed. A thematic and cluster analysis of findings was executed, with data captured using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. A combination of descriptive accounts as well as summary statistics using chi-square and correlations was used to examine the findings. Findings and implications: This paper reports the findings of an empirical study that show that male nurses neither suffer gender-based discrimination nor occupy the top positions in the nursing field. It also found that a majority of males do not want to leave the profession even though they feel they are assigned more responsibilities and are sometimes passed over for promotion. Originality: Whilst representing a modest contribution to research in gender-based discrimination in nursing, this paper is a first attempt to investigate the phenomenon in a Ghanaian context, with

  20. Reciprocal Regulation of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 2α and GLI1 Expression Associated With the Radioresistance of Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jiancheng [Department of Urology, First Affiliated Hospital of Medical School, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Department of Urology, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Wu, Kaijie [Department of Urology, First Affiliated Hospital of Medical School, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Gao, Dexuan [Department of Urology, Shandong Provincial Hospital affiliated with Shandong University, Ji' nan (China); Zhu, Guodong; Wu, Dapeng; Wang, Xinyang; Chen, Yule; Du, Yuefeng; Song, Wenbin; Ma, Zhenkun [Department of Urology, First Affiliated Hospital of Medical School, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Authement, Craig; Saha, Debabrata [Department of Urology, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Hsieh, Jer-Tsong, E-mail: jt.hsieh@utsouthwestern.edu [Department of Urology, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); He, Dalin, E-mail: dalinhe@yahoo.com [Department of Urology, First Affiliated Hospital of Medical School, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is often considered a radioresistant tumor, but the molecular mechanism underlying its radioresistance is poorly understood. This study explored the roles of hypoxia-inducible factor 2α (HIF2α) and sonic hedgehog (SHH)-GLI1 signaling in mediating the radioresistance of RCC cells and to unveil the interaction between these 2 signaling pathways. Methods and Materials: The activities of SHH-GLI1 signaling pathway under normoxia and hypoxia in RCC cells were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and luciferase reporter assay. The expression of HIF2α and GLI1 in RCC patients was examined by immunohistochemistry, and their correlation was analyzed. Furthermore, RCC cells were treated with HIF2α-specific shRNA (sh-HIF2α), GLI1 inhibitor GANT61, or a combination to determine the effect of ionizing radiation (IR) on RCC cells based on clonogenic assay and double-strand break repair assay. Results: RCC cells exhibited elevated SHH-GLI1 activities under hypoxia, which was mediated by HIF2α. Hypoxia induced GLI1 activation through SMO-independent pathways that could be ablated by PI3K inhibitor or MEK inhibitor. Remarkably, the SHH-GLI1 pathway also upregulated HIF2α expression in normoxia. Apparently, there was a positive correlation between HIF2α and GLI1 expression in RCC patients. The combination of sh-HIF2α and GLI1 inhibitor significantly sensitized RCC cells to IR. Conclusions: Cross-talk between the HIF2α and SHH-GLI1 pathways was demonstrated in RCC. Cotargeting these 2 pathways, significantly sensitizing RCC cells to IR, provides a novel strategy for RCC treatment.

  1. Analytical Expressions Pertaining to the Concentration of Substrates and Product in Phenol-Polyphenol Oxidase System Immobilized in Laponite Hydrogels: A Reciprocal Competitive Inhibition Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Indira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical analysis corresponding to the diffusion and kinetics of substrate and product in an amperometric biosensor is developed and reported in this paper. The nonlinear coupled system of diffusion equations was analytically solved by Homotopy perturbation method. Herein, we report the approximate analytical expressions pertaining to substrate concentration, product concentration, and current response for all possible values of diffusion and kinetic parameters. The numerical solution of this problem is also reported using Scilab/Matlab program. Also, we found excellent agreement between the analytical results and numerical results upon comparison.

  2. Gender-based performance differences in an introductory physics course

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Mark Lee

    Cognitive research has indicated that the difference between males and females is negligible. Paradoxically, in traditionally-taught college level introductory physics courses, males have outperformed females. UC Davis' Physics 7A (the first class of a three-quarter Introduction to Physics sequence for Life-Science students), however, counters this trend since females perform similarly to males. The gender-based performance difference within the other two quarters (Physics 7B & 7C) of the radically restructured, active-learning physics sequence still echo the traditionally-taught courses. In one experiment, I modified the laboratory activity instructions of the Physics 7C course to encourage further group interaction. These modifications did not affect the gender-based performance difference. In a later experiment, I compared students' performance on different forms of assessment for certain physics concepts during the Physics 7C course. Over 500 students took weekly quizzes at different times. The students were given different quiz questions on the same topics. Several quiz questions seemed to favor males while others were more gender equitable. I highlighted comparisons between a few pairs of questions that assessed students' understanding of the same physical concept. Males tended to perform better in responding to questions that seemed to require spatial visualization. Questions that required greater understanding of the physical concept or scientific model were more gender neutral.

  3. Reciprocal Relationships: Something for Everyone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumosa, Nina

    2017-01-01

    Reciprocal relationships based on mutual goals, respect and trust are key to maintaining working relationships and getting reliable research results. Yet relationship building is not a concept taught in academia. These skills are often learned the hard way, with singular solutions found for case-by-case scenarios. Several journeys to identify the components, barriers and rewards of reciprocal relationships are discussed.

  4. Structural Behaviour of Reciprocal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2013-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the comparison of several two-dimensional and three-dimensional reciprocal configurations. The goal of such comparison is to analyse the structural behaviour when changing the geometric parameters used to describe the geometry of reciprocal structures....

  5. Reprogramming the body weight set point by a reciprocal interaction of hypothalamic leptin sensitivity and Pomc gene expression reverts extreme obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavaljit H. Chhabra

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Pomc reactivation in previously obese, calorie-restricted ArcPomc−/− mice normalized energy homeostasis, suggesting that their body weight set point was restored to control levels. In contrast, massively obese and hyperleptinemic ArcPomc−/− mice or those weight-matched and treated with PASylated leptin to maintain extreme hyperleptinemia prior to Pomc reactivation converged to an intermediate set point relative to lean control and obese ArcPomc−/− mice. We conclude that restoration of hypothalamic leptin sensitivity and Pomc expression is necessary for obese ArcPomc−/− mice to achieve and sustain normal metabolic homeostasis; whereas deficits in either parameter set a maladaptive allostatic balance that defends increased adiposity and body weight.

  6. Proliferating fibroblasts and HeLa cells co-cultured in vitro reciprocally influence growth patterns, protein expression, chromatin features and cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delinasios, John G; Angeli, Flora; Koumakis, George; Kumar, Shant; Kang, Wen-Hui; Sica, Gigliola; Iacopino, Fortunata; Lama, Gina; Lamprecht, Sergio; Sigal-Batikoff, Ina; Tsangaris, George T; Farfarelos, Christos D; Farfarelos, Maria C; Vairaktaris, Eleftherios; Vassiliou, Stavros; Delinasios, George J

    2015-04-01

    to identify biological interactions between proliferating fibroblasts and HeLa cells in vitro. Fibroblasts were isolated from both normal and tumour human tissues. Coverslip co-cultures of HeLa and fibroblasts in various ratios with medium replacement every 48 h were studied using fixed cell staining with dyes such as Giemsa and silver staining, with immunochemistry for Ki-67 and E-cadherin, with dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) enzyme reaction, as well as live cell staining for non-specific esterases and lipids. Other techniques included carmine cell labeling, autoradiography and apoptosis assessment. Under conditions of feeding and cell: cell ratios allowing parallel growth of human fibroblasts and HeLa cells, co-cultured for up to 20 days, a series of phenomena occur consecutively: profound affinity between the two cell types and exchange of small molecules; encircling of the HeLa colonies by the fibroblasts and enhanced growth of both cell types at their contact areas; expression of carbonic anhydrase in both cell types and high expression of non-specific esterases and cytoplasmic argyrophilia in the surrounding fibroblasts; intense production and secretion of lipid droplets by the surrounding fibroblasts; development of a complex net of argyrophilic projections of the fibroblasts; E-cadherin expression in the HeLa cells; from the 10th day onwards, an increasing detachment of batches of HeLa cells at the peripheries of colonies and appearance of areas with many multi-nucleated and apoptotic HeLa cells, and small HeLa fragments; from the 17th day, appearance of fibroblasts blocked at the G2-M phase. Co-cultures at approximately 17-20 days display a cell-cell fight with foci of (a) sparse growth of both cell types, (b) overgrowth of the fibroblasts and (c) regrowth of HeLa in small colonies. These results indicate that during their interaction with HeLa cells in vitro, proliferating fibroblasts can be activated against HeLa. This type of activation is not observed

  7. Belief in reciprocity in a Chinese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Jianxin

    2012-08-01

    Belief in reciprocity refers to a personally internalized faith in the reciprocity norm: that people will return positive and negative interactions or favors in kind. The current study aims to examine the relationship between belief in reciprocity and altruism among a Chinese sample. The Personal Norm of Reciprocity Scale, Trait Forgiveness Scale, Prosocial Tendency Measure, and Altruism Scale were used to assess extent of belief in reciprocity, forgiveness, and prosocial motivation, respectively, among 204 Chinese undergraduates. The results indicated that belief in reciprocity was a partially negative, but not neutral, reciprocity norm for Chinese people. Specifically, belief in reciprocity was positively related to negative reciprocity, but not significantly related to positive reciprocity. Moreover, belief in reciprocity was negatively related to both prosocial tendency and altruistic motivation. The results also indicated that forgiveness largely mediated the effect of belief in reciprocity on altruism. Finally, the implications and limitations of the current study were discussed.

  8. Exposure to Hedione Increases Reciprocity in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Berger

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation among unrelated humans is frequently regarded as a defining feature in the evolutionary success of our species. Whereas, much research has addressed the strategic and cognitive mechanisms that underlie cooperation, investigations into chemosensory processes have received very limited research attention. To bridge that gap, we build on recent research that has identified the chemically synthesized odorant Hedione (HED as a ligand for the putative human pheromone receptor (VN1R1 expressed in the olfactory mucosa, and hypothesize that exposure to HED may increase reciprocity. Applying behavioral economics paradigms, the present research shows that exposure to the ligand causes differentiated behavioral effects in reciprocal punishments (Study 1 as well as rewards (Study 2, two types of behaviors that are frequently regarded as essential for the development and maintenance of cooperation.

  9. Exposure to Hedione Increases Reciprocity in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Sebastian; Hatt, Hanns; Ockenfels, Axel

    2017-01-01

    Cooperation among unrelated humans is frequently regarded as a defining feature in the evolutionary success of our species. Whereas, much research has addressed the strategic and cognitive mechanisms that underlie cooperation, investigations into chemosensory processes have received very limited research attention. To bridge that gap, we build on recent research that has identified the chemically synthesized odorant Hedione (HED) as a ligand for the putative human pheromone receptor (VN1R1) expressed in the olfactory mucosa, and hypothesize that exposure to HED may increase reciprocity. Applying behavioral economics paradigms, the present research shows that exposure to the ligand causes differentiated behavioral effects in reciprocal punishments (Study 1) as well as rewards (Study 2), two types of behaviors that are frequently regarded as essential for the development and maintenance of cooperation. PMID:28512400

  10. Reciprocating linear motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldowsky, Michael P. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A reciprocating linear motor is formed with a pair of ring-shaped permanent magnets having opposite radial polarizations, held axially apart by a nonmagnetic yoke, which serves as an axially displaceable armature assembly. A pair of annularly wound coils having axial lengths which differ from the axial lengths of the permanent magnets are serially coupled together in mutual opposition and positioned with an outer cylindrical core in axial symmetry about the armature assembly. One embodiment includes a second pair of annularly wound coils serially coupled together in mutual opposition and an inner cylindrical core positioned in axial symmetry inside the armature radially opposite to the first pair of coils. Application of a potential difference across a serial connection of the two pairs of coils creates a current flow perpendicular to the magnetic field created by the armature magnets, thereby causing limited linear displacement of the magnets relative to the coils.

  11. T cell subtypes and reciprocal inflammatory mediator expression differentiate P. falciparum memory recall responses in asymptomatic and symptomatic malaria patients in southeastern Haiti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason S Lehmann

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infection is responsible for maintaining malarial disease within human populations in low transmission countries such as Haiti. Investigating differential host immune responses to the parasite as a potential underlying mechanism could help provide insight into this highly complex phenomenon and possibly identify asymptomatic individuals. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of individuals who were diagnosed with malaria in Sud-Est, Haiti by comparing the cellular and humoral responses of both symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. Plasma samples were analyzed with a P. falciparum protein microarray, which demonstrated serologic reactivity to 3,877 P. falciparum proteins of known serologic reactivity; however, no antigen-antibody reactions delineating asymptomatics from symptomatics were identified. In contrast, differences in cellular responses were observed. Flow cytometric analysis of patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells co-cultured with P. falciparum infected erythrocytes demonstrated a statistically significant increase in the proportion of T regulatory cells (CD4+ CD25+ CD127-, and increases in unique populations of both NKT-like cells (CD3+ CD8+ CD56+ and CD8mid T cells in asymptomatics compared to symptomatics. Also, CD38+/HLA-DR+ expression on γδ T cells, CD8mid (CD56- T cells, and CD8mid CD56+ NKT-like cells decreased upon exposure to infected erythrocytes in both groups. Cytometric bead analysis of the co-culture supernatants demonstrated an upregulation of monocyte-activating chemokines/cytokines in asymptomatics, while immunomodulatory soluble factors were elevated in symptomatics. Principal component analysis of these expression values revealed a distinct clustering of individual responses within their respective phenotypic groups. This is the first comprehensive investigation of immune responses to P. falciparum in Haiti, and describes unique cell-mediated immune repertoires that

  12. Mathematical modeling of reciprocating pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Kyeom; Jung, Jun Ki; Chai, Jang Bom; Lee, Jin Woo

    2015-01-01

    A new mathematical model is presented for the analysis and diagnosis of a high-pressure reciprocating pump system with three cylinders. The kinematic and hydrodynamic behaviors of the pump system are represented by the piston displacements, volume flow rates and pressures in its components, which are expressed as functions of the crankshaft angle. The flow interaction among the three cylinders, which was overlooked in the previous models, is considered in this model and its effect on the cylinder pressure profiles is investigated. The tuning parameters in the mathematical model are selected, and their values are adjusted to match the simulated and measured cylinder pressure profiles in each cylinder in a normal state. The damage parameter is selected in an abnormal state, and its value is adjusted to match the simulated and ensured pressure profiles under the condition of leakage in a valve. The value of the damage parameter over 300 cycles is calculated, and its probability density function is obtained for diagnosis and prognosis on the basis of the probabilistic feature of valve leakage.

  13. Electromagnetic reciprocity in antenna theory

    CERN Document Server

    Stumpf, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The reciprocity theorem is among the most intriguing concepts in wave field theory and has become an integral part of almost all standard textbooks on electromagnetic (EM) theory. This book makes use of the theorem to quantitatively describe EM interactions concerning general multiport antenna systems. It covers a general reciprocity-based description of antenna systems, their EM scattering properties, and further related aspects. Beginning with an introduction to the subject, Electromagnetic Reciprocity in Antenna Theory provides readers first with the basic prerequisites before offering coverage of the equivalent multiport circuit antenna representations, EM coupling between multiport antenna systems and their EM interactions with scatterers, accompanied with the corresponding EM compensation theorems.

  14. Reciprocity principle in duct acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Y.-C.

    1979-01-01

    Various reciprocity relations in duct acoustics have been derived on the basis of the spatial reciprocity principle implied in Green's functions for linear waves. The derivation includes the reciprocity relations between mode conversion coefficients for reflection and transmission in nonuniform ducts, and the relation between the radiation of a mode from an arbitrarily terminated duct and the absorption of an externally incident plane wave by the duct. Such relations are well defined as long as the systems remain linear, regardless of acoustic properties of duct nonuniformities which cause the mode conversions.

  15. Cyclic Fatigue Resistance of Reciproc Blue, Reciproc, and WaveOne Gold Reciprocating Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Cangül; Inan, Uğur; Demiral, Murat; Keleş, Ali

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the cyclic fatigue resistance of Reciproc Blue R25 (VDW, Munich, Germany) with Reciproc R25 (VDW) and WaveOne Gold Primary (Denstply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). Fifteen Reciproc Blue R25, 15 Reciproc R25, and 15 WaveOne Gold Primary instruments were collected and tested in a dynamic cyclic fatigue test device, which has an artificial canal with a 60° angle of curvature and a 5-mm radius of curvature. All instruments were operated until fracture occurred, and time to fracture (TF) and the lengths of the fractured fragments were recorded. The mean and standard deviations of TF and fragment length were calculated for each reciprocating system. TF data were subjected to Kruskal-Wallis 1-way analysis of variance and the Dunn test, whereas fractured fragment length data were subjected to 1-way analysis of variance (P  .05). Reciproc Blue R25 instruments had significantly higher cyclic fatigue resistance than WaveOne Gold and Reciproc R25 instruments. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Direct reciprocity in spatial populations enhances R-reciprocity as well as ST-reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Kohei; Tanimoto, Jun; Wang, Zhen; Hagishima, Aya; Ikegaya, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    As is well-known, spatial reciprocity plays an important role in facilitating the emergence of cooperative traits, and the effect of direct reciprocity is also obvious for explaining the cooperation dynamics. However, how the combination of these two scenarios influences cooperation is still unclear. In the present work, we study the evolution of cooperation in 2 × 2 games via considering both spatial structured populations and direct reciprocity driven by the strategy with 1-memory length. Our results show that cooperation can be significantly facilitated on the whole parameter plane. For prisoner's dilemma game, cooperation dominates the system even at strong dilemma, where maximal social payoff is still realized. In this sense, R-reciprocity forms and it is robust to the extremely strong dilemma. Interestingly, when turning to chicken game, we find that ST-reciprocity is also guaranteed, through which social average payoff and cooperation is greatly enhanced. This reciprocity mechanism is supported by mean-field analysis and different interaction topologies. Thus, our study indicates that direct reciprocity in structured populations can be regarded as a more powerful factor for the sustainability of cooperation.

  17. Richness and Reciprocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Harding RN, PhD

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recruiting and retaining nurses in mental health practice settings have long been problematic: A situation which is not helped by student nurses being exposed to negative attitudes about mental health nursing or poor clinical experiences. A pilot program in which student nurses were mentored on the mental health clinical placement was initiated at an Australian School of Nursing. A qualitative study was undertaken to explore the value of this program for the student mentee and the registered nurse mentor. A questionnaire containing six questions was distributed to all participants before and after the clinical experience. The questions were open format seeking data on (a the perceived advantages or disadvantages of mentoring, (b perceptions of whether mentoring contributes to professional development, and (c whether mentoring contributes personally to the participant. The data were subjected to inductive thematic analysis. The registered nurse mentors found that time diverted from clients was a barrier to mentoring students; however, they experienced reciprocity through nurturance of self, students, and the profession. The student mentees found that they experienced a richer and deeper learning environment. Mentoring provides a satisfying learning environment for both parties if carefully implemented and supported.

  18. Reciprocally-Rotating Velocity Obstacles

    KAUST Repository

    Giese, Andrew; Latypov, Daniel; Amato, Nancy M.

    2014-01-01

    obstacles. One state-of-the-art local collision avoidance technique is Optimal Reciprocal Collision Avoidance (ORCA). Despite being fast and efficient for circular-shaped agents, ORCA may deadlock when polygonal shapes are used. To address this shortcoming

  19. Perceptions of gender-based discrimination during surgical training and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce, Adrienne N.; Battista, Alexis; Plankey, Michael W.; Johnson, Lynt B.; Marshall, M. Blair

    2015-01-01

    Background: Women represent 15% of practicing general surgeons. Gender-based discrimination has been implicated as discouraging women from surgery. We sought to determine women’s perceptions of gender-based discrimination in the surgical training and working environment.Methods: Following IRB approval, we fielded a pilot survey measuring perceptions and impact of gender-based discrimination in medical school, residency training, and surgical practice. It was sent electronically to 1,065 indiv...

  20. K-groups of reciprocity functors

    OpenAIRE

    Ivorra, Florian; Rülling, Kay

    2012-01-01

    In this work we introduce reciprocity functors, construct the associated K-group of a family of reciprocity functors, which itself is a reciprocity functor, and compute it in several different cases. It may be seen as a first attempt to get close to the notion of reciprocity sheaves imagined by B. Kahn. Commutative algebraic groups, homotopy invariant Nisnevich sheaves with transfers, cycle modules or K\\"ahler differentials are examples of reciprocity functors. As commutative algebraic groups...

  1. Gender-based violence in the Spanish cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz OGANDO DÍAZ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Complex phenomena are hardly understood from one single viewpoint. Cinema has a polyhedral approach that discloses the hidden faces of reality. There are many aspects to be shown in gender?based violence (GBV, such as its genesis and the causes of its durability; emotional abuse in the form of controlling behaviors, isolation and submission; and the consequences of all this. The range of operation for GBV is very wide (within the couple, in the family and the workplace, institutional and community?based, among others, as much as it is universal, cutting across social class, race, economic status, religion or nationality. Movies may prove useful in revealing violent male?chauvinist behaviors, some of them so deeply rooted in societies that they tend to become normalized and to go unnoticed. In spite of the efforts towards visibility, and understanding and stopping violence against women, the phenomenon remains largely unknown. The movie industry is now beginning to reflect it in motion pictures, sometimes in a more explicit or argumentative manner, at other times more covertly or obliquely. We have made a selection of ten Spanish movies depicting some of these multiple facets: violence against women in the domestic domain, sexual violence, and violence related to economic and sociocultural aspects.

  2. Commentary: Gender-based Violence among the (Hmong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Lemoine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prepared for the Seminar on Cultural Factors in the Prevention and Promotion of Gender-Based Violence held at UNESCO Bangkok on 17-18 May 2012, this article presents the current state of the subject in the patrilineal, patrilocal and patriarchal (Hmong society.After delineating carefully (Hmong GBV through rape, marriage customs, domestic verbal and physical abuses and, in some cases, murder, the author investigates the roots of GBV in different directions: gender asymmetry and inequality; tribal culture and the clan system; the function of the bride price; women’s social mobility in the U.S. and values clashes with American values. After a thorough anthropological analysis, the author concludes that GBV has nothing to do with the clan system, the backbone of the tribal society, but rather involves a long-lasting borrowing of Chinese patterns from the (Hmong past in Imperial China, which could be amended. Gender inequality will hopefully regress if shame, a powerful means ofsocial control among the (Hmong, is used to deter GBV.

  3. [The reciprocity rule in the construction of relationships as the key in relational processes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenelli, Antonio; Volpi, Cecilia; Guarracino, Emanuele; Galli, Virginia; Esposito, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Reciprocity as an expression of the therapist-patient relationship is pointed-out by Mario Reda who refers to Comparetti's studies on the mother-foetus reciprocity, mediated by the so-called "jumps". Reciprocal behaviours are clearly observable during bird and other animal courtship behaviour, whereas in the Sapiens sapiens species, we may observe the establishing of a very complex reciprocity system, which starts with gestures and bodily attitudes, subsequently activating sensory-motor emotional schemata and internal working models, thus enabling the construction of personal meanings. A relationship may result from an encounter provided that "compatible" meanings are constructed in the context of "possible reciprocity" of significant systems. The observation of reciprocity provides a concrete possibility to reduce the risk of absolute subjectivity related to the I or the you, superceding it through the us.

  4. Public privacy: Reciprocity and Silence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Kennedy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In his 1958 poem 'Dedication to my Wife' TS Eliot proclaims "these are private words addressed to you in public". Simultaneously written for his wife, Valerie Fletcher, and to the implied you of a discourse network, Eliot's poem helps to illustrate the narrative voices and silences that are constitutive of an intimate public sphere. This paper situates reciprocity as a condition of possibility for public privacy. It shows how reciprocity is enabled by systems of code operating through material and symbolic registers. Code promises to control communication, to produce neutral, systemic forms of meaning. Yet such automation is challenged by uneven and fragmented patterns of reciprocity. Moreover, examining the media of public privacy reveals historical trajectories important for understanding contemporary socio­technical platforms of reciprocity. To explore the implicit requirement of reciprocity in publicly private practices, three sites of communication are investigated framed by a media archaeology perspective: postal networks, the mail­art project PostSecret and the anonymous zine 'You'.

  5. Indirect Reciprocity; A Field Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Apeldoorn, Jacobien; Schram, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity involves cooperative acts towards strangers, either in response to their kindness to third parties (downstream) or after receiving kindness from others oneself (upstream). It is considered to be important for the evolution of cooperative behavior amongst humans. Though it has been widely studied theoretically, the empirical evidence of indirect reciprocity has thus far been limited and based solely on behavior in laboratory experiments. We provide evidence from an online environment where members can repeatedly ask and offer services to each other, free of charge. For the purpose of this study we created several new member profiles, which differ only in terms of their serving history. We then sent out a large number of service requests to different members from all over the world. We observe that a service request is more likely to be rewarded for those with a profile history of offering the service (to third parties) in the past. This provides clear evidence of (downstream) indirect reciprocity. We find no support for upstream indirect reciprocity (in this case, rewarding the service request after having previously received the service from third parties), however. Our evidence of downstream indirect reciprocity cannot be attributed to reputational effects concerning one's trustworthiness as a service user.

  6. Direct reciprocity in structured populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veelen, Matthijs; García, Julián; Rand, David G; Nowak, Martin A

    2012-06-19

    Reciprocity and repeated games have been at the center of attention when studying the evolution of human cooperation. Direct reciprocity is considered to be a powerful mechanism for the evolution of cooperation, and it is generally assumed that it can lead to high levels of cooperation. Here we explore an open-ended, infinite strategy space, where every strategy that can be encoded by a finite state automaton is a possible mutant. Surprisingly, we find that direct reciprocity alone does not lead to high levels of cooperation. Instead we observe perpetual oscillations between cooperation and defection, with defection being substantially more frequent than cooperation. The reason for this is that "indirect invasions" remove equilibrium strategies: every strategy has neutral mutants, which in turn can be invaded by other strategies. However, reciprocity is not the only way to promote cooperation. Another mechanism for the evolution of cooperation, which has received as much attention, is assortment because of population structure. Here we develop a theory that allows us to study the synergistic interaction between direct reciprocity and assortment. This framework is particularly well suited for understanding human interactions, which are typically repeated and occur in relatively fluid but not unstructured populations. We show that if repeated games are combined with only a small amount of assortment, then natural selection favors the behavior typically observed among humans: high levels of cooperation implemented using conditional strategies.

  7. Voices of Women Teachers about Gender Inequalities and Gender-Based Violence in Rural South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Naydene; Mitchell, Claudia; Bhana, Deevia

    2012-01-01

    Gender-based violence is a reality in many societies and is linked to the spread of HIV and AIDS. There have been numerous studies that have attempted to acquire an understanding of the breadth and depth of the issues around gender-based violence. However, one area that has received scant attention is the voices of women teachers. Thus, in this…

  8. Gender-based violence and the need for evidence-based primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender-based violence is a significant problem globally and in South Africa. The public and political discourse has been dominated by calls for increased penalties and convictions for perpetrators of various types of gender-based violence. However, these responses are unlikely to prevent such violence from occurring in ...

  9. Depressive Symptoms among Female College Students Experiencing Gender-Based Violence in Awassa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaye, Bizu; Arnold, Dodie; Williams, Michelle A.; Goshu, Miruts; Berhane, Yemane

    2009-01-01

    Little epidemiologic research has focused on the mental health effects of gender-based violence among sub-Saharan African women. The objective of this study was to assess risk of depression and depressive symptoms among 1,102 female undergraduate students who were victims of gender-based violence. Students who reported experience of any…

  10. Doorways I: Student Training Manual on School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). "Doorways I: Student Training Manual on School-Related Gender-Based Violence…

  11. The Evolution of Policy Enactment on Gender-Based Violence in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how policies and strategies to address school-related gender-based violence have evolved since 2000, when gender-based violence within education was largely invisible. Through an exploration of policy enactment in three countries--Liberia, South Africa, and Brazil--it traces remarkable progress in policy, programmes, and…

  12. Gender-based education during clerkships: a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Leerdam L

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lotte van Leerdam, Lianne Rietveld, Doreth Teunissen, Antoine Lagro-JanssenDepartment of Primary and Community Care, Gender and Women's Health, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The NetherlandsObjectives: One of the goals of the medical master's degree is for a student to become a gender-sensitive doctor by applying knowledge of gender differences in practice. This study aims to investigate, from the students’ perspective, whether gender medicine has been taught in daily practice during clerkship.Methods: A focus group study was conducted among 29 medical students from Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands, who had just finished either their internal medicine or surgical clerkships. Data were analyzed in line with the principles of constant comparative analysis.Results: Four focus groups were conducted with 29 participating students. Clinical teachers barely discuss gender differences during students’ clerkships. The students mentioned three main explanatory themes: insufficient knowledge; unawareness; and minor impact. As a result, students feel that they have insufficient competencies to become gender-sensitive doctors.Conclusion: Medical students at our institution perceive that they have received limited exposure to gender-based education after completing two key clinical clerkships. All students feel that they have insufficient knowledge to become gender-sensitive doctors. They suppose that their clinical teachers have insufficient knowledge regarding gender sensitivity, are unaware of gender differences, and the students had the impression that gender is not regarded as an important issue. We suggest that the medical faculty should encourage clinical teachers to improve their knowledge and awareness of gender issues.Keywords: medical education, clerkship, gender, hidden curriculum, clinical teachers

  13. Reciprocation of perceived organizational support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberger, R; Armeli, S; Rexwinkel, B; Lynch, P D; Rhoades, L

    2001-02-01

    Four hundred thirteen postal employees were surveyed to investigate reciprocation's role in the relationships of perceived organizational support (POS) with employees' affective organizational commitment and job performance. The authors found that (a) POS was positively related to employees' felt obligation to care about the organization's welfare and to help the organization reach its objectives; (b) felt obligation mediated the associations of POS with affective commitment, organizational spontaneity, and in-role performance; and (c) the relationship between POS and felt obligation increased with employees' acceptance of the reciprocity norm as applied to work organizations. Positive mood also mediated the relationships of POS with affective commitment and organizational spontaneity. The pattern of findings is consistent with organizational support theory's assumption that POS strengthens affective commitment and performance by a reciprocation process.

  14. Teacher License Reciprocity. 50-State Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    This policy report defines and provides a 50-state review of teacher license reciprocity, explores how state-specific licensing requirements impact the teacher labor market, and includes examples of national and state efforts to facilitate reciprocity.

  15. Reciprocity theory of homogeneous reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbormbai, Adolf A.

    1990-03-01

    The reciprocity formalism is applied to the homogeneous gaseous reactions in which the structure of the participating molecules changes upon collision with one another, resulting in a change in the composition of the gas. The approach is applied to various classes of dissociation, recombination, rearrangement, ionizing, and photochemical reactions. It is shown that for the principle of reciprocity to be satisfied it is necessary that all chemical reactions exist in complementary pairs which consist of the forward and backward reactions. The backward reaction may be described by either the reverse or inverse process. The forward and backward processes must satisfy the same reciprocity equation. Because the number of dynamical variables is usually unbalanced on both sides of a chemical equation, it is necessary that this balance be established by including as many of the dynamical variables as needed before the reciprocity equation can be formulated. Statistical transformation models of the reactions are formulated. The models are classified under the titles free exchange, restricted exchange and simplified restricted exchange. The special equations for the forward and backward processes are obtained. The models are consistent with the H theorem and Le Chatelier's principle. The models are also formulated in the context of the direct simulation Monte Carlo method.

  16. The Principle of Structural Reciprocity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pugnale, Alberto; Parigi, Dario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the principle of structural reciprocity, considering its origins in both Occidental and Orient culture and aiming to highlight the definition, main peculiarities and interesting aspects of such concept referring to its application to the world of construction. Issues spannin...

  17. Reciprocity and Humility in Wonderland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry, Beth

    2011-01-01

    This article supports the perspective of Jan Valle regarding the importance of recognizing the subjectivity inherent in decisions about Learning Disabilities. The author argues that the perspectives of both parents and professionals are informed by subjective judgments that must be taken into account in decision making. A reciprocal approach to…

  18. Indirect Reciprocity : A Field Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Apeldoorn, J.; Schram, A.

    2016-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity involves cooperative acts towards strangers, either in response to their kindness to third parties (downstream) or after receiving kindness from others oneself (upstream). It is considered to be important for the evolution of cooperative behavior amongst humans. Though it has

  19. A Theory of Sequential Reciprocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dufwenberg, M.; Kirchsteiger, G.

    1998-01-01

    Many experimental studies indicate that people are motivated by reciprocity. Rabin (1993) develops techniques for incorporating such concerns into game theory and economics. His model, however, does not fare well when applied to situations with an interesting dynamic structure (like many

  20. Social evolution: reciprocity there is.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taborsky, Michael

    2013-06-03

    The theory of cooperation predicts that altruism can be established by reciprocity, yet empirical evidence from nature is contentious. Increasingly though, experimental results from social vertebrates challenge the nearly exclusive explanatory power of relatedness for the evolution of cooperation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Indirect reciprocity with optional interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghang, Whan; Nowak, Martin A

    2015-01-21

    Indirect reciprocity is a mechanism for the evolution of cooperation that is relevant for prosocial behavior among humans. Indirect reciprocity means that my behavior towards you also depends on what you have done to others. Indirect reciprocity is associated with the evolution of social intelligence and human language. Most approaches to indirect reciprocity assume obligatory interactions, but here we explore optional interactions. In any one round a game between two players is offered. A cooperator accepts a game unless the reputation of the other player indicates a defector. For a game to take place, both players must accept. In a game between a cooperator and a defector, the reputation of the defector is revealed to all players with probability Q. After a sufficiently large number of rounds the identity of all defectors is known and cooperators are no longer exploited. The crucial condition for evolution of cooperation can be written as hQB>1, where h is the average number of rounds per person and B=(b/c)-1 specifies the benefit-to-cost ratio. We analyze both stochastic and deterministic evolutionary game dynamics. We study two extensions that deal with uncertainty: hesitation and malicious gossip. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Do infants detect indirect reciprocity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meristo, Marek; Surian, Luca

    2013-10-01

    In social interactions involving indirect reciprocity, agent A acts prosocially towards B and this prompts C to act prosocially towards A. This happens because A's actions enhanced its reputation in the eyes of third parties. Indirect reciprocity may have been of central importance in the evolution of morality as one of the major mechanisms leading to the selection of helping and fair attitudes. Here we show that 10-month-old infants expect third parties to act positively towards fair donors who have distributed attractive resources equally between two recipients, rather than toward unfair donors who made unequal distributions. Infants' responses were dependent on the reciprocator's perceptual exposure to previous relevant events: they expected the reciprocator to reward the fair donor only when it had seen the distributive actions performed by the donors. We propose that infants were able to generate evaluations of agents that were based on the fairness of their distributive actions and to generate expectations about the social preferences of informed third parties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Indirect Reciprocity under Incomplete Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity, in which individuals help others with a good reputation but not those with a bad reputation, is a mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations when individuals do not repeatedly interact with the same partners. In a relatively large society where indirect reciprocity is relevant, individuals may not know each other's reputation even indirectly. Previous studies investigated the situations where individuals playing the game have to determine the action possibly without knowing others' reputations. Nevertheless, the possibility that observers of the game, who generate the reputation of the interacting players, assign reputations without complete information about them has been neglected. Because an individual acts as an interacting player and as an observer on different occasions if indirect reciprocity is endogenously sustained in a society, the incompleteness of information may affect either role. We examine the game of indirect reciprocity when the reputations of players are not necessarily known to observers and to interacting players. We find that the trustful discriminator, which cooperates with good and unknown players and defects against bad players, realizes cooperative societies under seven social norms. Among the seven social norms, three of the four suspicious norms under which cooperation (defection) to unknown players leads to a good (bad) reputation enable cooperation down to a relatively small observation probability. In contrast, the three trustful norms under which both cooperation and defection to unknown players lead to a good reputation are relatively efficient. PMID:21829335

  4. Perceptions of gender-based discrimination during surgical training and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne N. Bruce

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women represent 15% of practicing general surgeons. Gender-based discrimination has been implicated as discouraging women from surgery. We sought to determine women's perceptions of gender-based discrimination in the surgical training and working environment. Methods: Following IRB approval, we fielded a pilot survey measuring perceptions and impact of gender-based discrimination in medical school, residency training, and surgical practice. It was sent electronically to 1,065 individual members of the Association of Women Surgeons. Results: We received 334 responses from medical students, residents, and practicing physicians with a response rate of 31%. Eighty-seven percent experienced gender-based discrimination in medical school, 88% in residency, and 91% in practice. Perceived sources of gender-based discrimination included superiors, physician peers, clinical support staff, and patients, with 40% emanating from women and 60% from men. Conclusions: The majority of responses indicated perceived gender-based discrimination during medical school, residency, and practice. Gender-based discrimination comes from both sexes and has a significant impact on women surgeons.

  5. Perceptions of gender-based discrimination during surgical training and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Adrienne N; Battista, Alexis; Plankey, Michael W; Johnson, Lynt B; Marshall, M Blair

    2015-01-01

    Women represent 15% of practicing general surgeons. Gender-based discrimination has been implicated as discouraging women from surgery. We sought to determine women's perceptions of gender-based discrimination in the surgical training and working environment. Following IRB approval, we fielded a pilot survey measuring perceptions and impact of gender-based discrimination in medical school, residency training, and surgical practice. It was sent electronically to 1,065 individual members of the Association of Women Surgeons. We received 334 responses from medical students, residents, and practicing physicians with a response rate of 31%. Eighty-seven percent experienced gender-based discrimination in medical school, 88% in residency, and 91% in practice. Perceived sources of gender-based discrimination included superiors, physician peers, clinical support staff, and patients, with 40% emanating from women and 60% from men. The majority of responses indicated perceived gender-based discrimination during medical school, residency, and practice. Gender-based discrimination comes from both sexes and has a significant impact on women surgeons.

  6. An Inquiry into Relationship Suicides and Reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mark S.; Callanan, Valerie J.; Lester, David; Haines, Janet

    2009-01-01

    Few theories on suicide have been grounded in the norm of reciprocity. There is literature on suicide, however, describing motivations such as retaliation and retreat which can be interpreted as modes of adaptation to the norm of reciprocity. We propose a reciprocity-based theory to explain suicides associated with relationship problems. Employing…

  7. Capuchin Monkeys Judge Third-Party Reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James R.; Takimoto, Ayaka; Kuroshima, Hika; Fujita, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Increasing interest is being shown in how children develop an understanding of reciprocity in social exchanges and fairness in resource distribution, including social exchanges between third parties. Although there are descriptions of reciprocity on a one-to-one basis in other species, whether nonhumans detect reciprocity and violations of…

  8. 30 CFR 955.16 - Reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reciprocity. 955.16 Section 955.16 Mineral... AND ON INDIAN LANDS § 955.16 Reciprocity. (a) Grant of certificate. OSM shall grant an OSM blaster certificate through reciprocity to any qualified applicant who demonstrates that he or she, and whom OSM finds...

  9. 46 CFR 8.120 - Reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reciprocity. 8.120 Section 8.120 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 8.120 Reciprocity. (a) The Commandant may delegate authority to a classification society that has... determine reciprocity on a “case-by-case” basis. (b) In order to demonstrate that the conditions described...

  10. Tacit Collusion under Fairness and Reciprocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doruk İriş

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper departs from the standard profit-maximizing model of firm behavior by assuming that firms are motivated in part by personal animosity–or respect–towards their competitors. A reciprocal firm responds to unkind behavior of rivals with unkind actions (negative reciprocity, while at the same time, it responds to kind behavior of rivals with kind actions (positive reciprocity. We find that collusion is easier to sustain when firms have a concern for reciprocity towards competing firms provided that they consider collusive prices to be kind and punishment prices to be unkind. Thus, reciprocity concerns among firms can have adverse welfare consequences for consumers.

  11. Using reciprocity in Boundary Element Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Peter Møller; Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    The concept of reciprocity is widely used in both theoretical and experimental work. In Boundary Element calculations reciprocity is sometimes employed in the solution of computationally expensive scattering problems, which sometimes can be more efficiently dealt with when formulated...... as the reciprocal radiation problem. The present paper concerns the situation of having a point source (which is reciprocal to a point receiver) at or near a discretized boundary element surface. The accuracy of the original and the reciprocal problem is compared in a test case for which an analytical solution...

  12. Research calls for preventive approach to gender-based violence in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-04

    May 4, 2016 ... While several studies have been conducted on gender-based violence in ... Members of the GESTES research team present findings to Canadian ... women and girls experience sexual or physical violence in their lifetime.

  13. Ending sexual and gender-based violence: from knowledge to action

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    most pervasive and unreported type of gender-based violence ... Ineffective laws offer limited or no protection to victims, with ... India: With support from IDRC, Peace and Equality ... 21 schools to raise awareness of child sexual abuse,.

  14. Marmoset monkeys evaluate third-party reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki; Yasue, Miyuki; Banno, Taku; Ichinohe, Noritaka

    2014-05-01

    Many non-human primates have been observed to reciprocate and to understand reciprocity in one-to-one social exchanges. A recent study demonstrated that capuchin monkeys are sensitive to both third-party reciprocity and violation of reciprocity; however, whether this sensitivity is a function of general intelligence, evidenced by their larger brain size relative to other primates, remains unclear. We hypothesized that highly pro-social primates, even with a relatively smaller brain, would be sensitive to others' reciprocity. Here, we show that common marmosets discriminated between human actors who reciprocated in social exchanges with others and those who did not. Monkeys accepted rewards less frequently from non-reciprocators than they did from reciprocators when the non-reciprocators had retained all food items, but they accepted rewards from both actors equally when they had observed reciprocal exchange between the actors. These results suggest that mechanisms to detect unfair reciprocity in third-party social exchanges do not require domain-general higher cognitive ability based on proportionally larger brains, but rather emerge from the cooperative and pro-social tendencies of species, and thereby suggest this ability evolved in multiple primate lineages. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Perceptions about gender-based discrimination in a selection of South African companies / Renier Steyn

    OpenAIRE

    Steyn, Renier

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: From a legal point of view, gender-based discrimination is not condoned in the workplace. However, perceptions that such discrimination exists persist. Understanding the extent and nature of the phenomenon may contribute to the management thereof. Aim: The aim of this research was to report on the nature and level of workplace gender-based discrimination from the perspective of managers and employees, as well as by making use of objective measures. Method: Interviews were conduc...

  16. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE REGULATIONS ON GENDER BASED VIOLENCE IN ROMANIA AND SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAVINIA MIHAELA VLADILA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I will present the evolution of the regulation of gender based violence in Romania and Spain. This new theme is one of actuality, due to the situations that frequently happen in our social life. Both Romania and Spain have a high level of gender based violence, even if nowadays in our country are few statistics on this matter. But also, both countries now enjoy good legislations, which have been developed in the last 10 years.

  17. Parent-specific reciprocity from infancy to adolescence shapes children's social competence and dialogical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Bamberger, Esther; Kanat-Maymon, Yaniv

    2013-01-01

    Reciprocity - the capacity to engage in social exchange that integrates inputs from multiple partners into a unified social event - is a cornerstone of adaptive social life that is learned within dyad-specific attachments during an early period of neuroplasticity. Yet, very little research traced the expression of children's reciprocity with their mother and father in relation to long-term outcomes. Guided by evolutionary models, we followed mothers, fathers, and their firstborn child longitudinally and observed mother-child and father-child reciprocity in infancy, preschool, and adolescence. In preschool, children's social competence, aggression, and prosocial behavior were observed at kindergarten. In adolescence, children's dialogical skills were assessed during positive and conflict interactions with same-sex best friends. Father-child and mother-child reciprocity were individually stable, inter-related at each stage, and consisted of distinct behavioral components. Structural equation modeling indicated that early maternal and paternal reciprocity were each uniquely predictive of social competence and lower aggression in preschool, which, in turn, shaped dialogical skills in adolescence. Father-adolescent reciprocity contributed to the dialogical negotiation of conflict, whereas mother-adolescent reciprocity predicted adolescents' dialogical skills during positive exchanges. Results highlight the role of parent-child reciprocity in shaping children's social collaboration and intimate relationships with non-kin members of their social world.

  18. Imperfect information facilitates the evolution of reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Shun

    2016-06-01

    The existence of cooperation demands explanation since cooperation is costly to the actor. Reciprocity has long been regarded as a potential explanatory mechanism for the existence of cooperation. Reciprocity is a mechanism wherein a cooperator responds to an opponent's behavior by switching his/her own behavior. Hence, a possible problematic case relevant to the theory of reciprocity evolution arises when the mechanism is such that the information regarding an opponent's behavior is imperfect. Although it has been confirmed also by previous theoretical studies that imperfect information interferes with the evolution of reciprocity, this argument is based on the assumption that there are no mistakes in behavior. And, a previous study presumed that it might be expected that when such mistakes occur, reciprocity can more readily evolve in the case of imperfect information than in the case of perfect information. The reason why the previous study considers so is that in the former case, reciprocators can miss defections incurred by other reciprocators' mistakes due to imperfect information, allowing cooperation to persist when such reciprocators meet. However, contrary to this expectation, the previous study has shown that even when mistakes occur, imperfect information interferes with the evolution of reciprocity. Nevertheless, the previous study assumed that payoffs are linear (i.e., that the effect of behavior is additive and there are no synergetic effects). In this study, we revisited the same problem but removed the assumption that payoffs are linear. We used evolutionarily stable strategy analysis to compare the condition for reciprocity to evolve when mistakes occur and information is imperfect with the condition for reciprocity to evolve when mistakes occur and information is perfect. Our study revealed that when payoffs are not linear, imperfect information can facilitate the evolution of reciprocity when mistakes occur; while when payoffs are linear

  19. Coupling of reciprocal vectors and corresponding degeneracy effect in a dual-periodic optical superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Yiqiang

    2006-01-01

    A dual-periodic structure for quasi-phase matching cascaded optical parametric interactions is proposed. Due to the coupling of reciprocal vectors between the original and imposed periodic sequence, the reciprocal vectors and the corresponding effective nonlinear coefficients is no longer the simple combination of two periodic structures. The new analytical expression of the effective nonlinear coefficients is deduced and given. The degeneracy phenomena and the novel extinction rule resulting from the coupling of reciprocal vectors are found and investigated. The corresponding physical nature is also discussed

  20. Reciprocity of mobile phone calls

    OpenAIRE

    Kovanen, Lauri; Saramaki, Jari; Kaski, Kimmo

    2010-01-01

    We present a study of the reciprocity of human behaviour based on mobile phone usage records. The underlying question is whether human relationships are mutual, in the sense that both are equally active in keeping up the relationship, or is it on the contrary typical that relationships are lopsided, with one party being significantly more active than the other. We study this question with the help of a mobile phone data set consisting of all mobile phone calls between 5.3 million customers of...

  1. Towards a unified theory of reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Alejandro

    2012-02-01

    In a unified theory of human reciprocity, the strong and weak forms are similar because neither is biologically altruistic and both require normative motivation to support cooperation. However, strong reciprocity is necessary to support cooperation in public goods games. It involves inflicting costs on defectors; and though the costs for punishers are recouped, recouping costs requires complex institutions that would not have emerged if weak reciprocity had been enough.

  2. The perception and experience of gender-based discrimination related to professional advancement among Japanese physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukawa, Kosuke; Nomura, Kyoko

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies from the US have found that female physicians often experience gender-based discrimination related to professional advancement. In Japan, female physicians are underrepresented in leadership positions but little is known about the prevalence of gender discrimination. We investigated the perception and prevalence of gender-based career obstacles and discrimination among Japanese physicians. The study was based on surveys of alumnae from 13 medical schools and alumni from 3 medical schools. In total, 1,684 female and 808 male physicians completed a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 83% and 58%). More women than men had the perception of gender-based career obstacles for women (77% vs. 55%; p gender discrimination related to professional advancement (21% vs. 3%; p gender discrimination included age (p gender discrimination compared with younger women (OR 5.77, 95% CI: 1.83-18.24 for women above 50, and OR 3.2, 95% CI: 1.48-7.28 for women between 40 and 49) and women with PhD were more likely to experience gender discrimination (OR 4.23, 95% CI: 1.81-9.89). Our study demonstrated that a significant proportion of Japanese women experienced gender-based discrimination and perceived gender-based career obstacles compared with male physicians.

  3. Detecting reciprocity at a global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Morgan R; Obradovich, Nick; Sun, Lijun; Woon, Wei Lee; LeVeck, Brad L; Rahwan, Iyad

    2018-01-01

    Reciprocity stabilizes cooperation from the level of microbes all the way up to humans interacting in small groups, but does reciprocity also underlie stable cooperation between larger human agglomerations, such as nation states? Famously, evolutionary models show that reciprocity could emerge as a widespread strategy for achieving international cooperation. However, existing studies have only detected reciprocity-driven cooperation in a small number of country pairs. We apply a new method for detecting mutual influence in dynamical systems to a new large-scale data set that records state interactions with high temporal resolution. Doing so, we detect reciprocity between many country pairs in the international system and find that these reciprocating country pairs exhibit qualitatively different cooperative dynamics when compared to nonreciprocating pairs. Consistent with evolutionary theories of cooperation, reciprocating country pairs exhibit higher levels of stable cooperation and are more likely to punish instances of noncooperation. However, countries in reciprocity-based relationships are also quicker to forgive single acts of noncooperation by eventually returning to previous levels of mutual cooperation. By contrast, nonreciprocating pairs are more likely to exploit each other's cooperation via higher rates of defection. Together, these findings provide the strongest evidence to date that reciprocity is a widespread mechanism for achieving international cooperation.

  4. Detecting reciprocity at a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Morgan R.; Obradovich, Nick; Sun, Lijun; Woon, Wei Lee; LeVeck, Brad L.; Rahwan, Iyad

    2018-01-01

    Reciprocity stabilizes cooperation from the level of microbes all the way up to humans interacting in small groups, but does reciprocity also underlie stable cooperation between larger human agglomerations, such as nation states? Famously, evolutionary models show that reciprocity could emerge as a widespread strategy for achieving international cooperation. However, existing studies have only detected reciprocity-driven cooperation in a small number of country pairs. We apply a new method for detecting mutual influence in dynamical systems to a new large-scale data set that records state interactions with high temporal resolution. Doing so, we detect reciprocity between many country pairs in the international system and find that these reciprocating country pairs exhibit qualitatively different cooperative dynamics when compared to nonreciprocating pairs. Consistent with evolutionary theories of cooperation, reciprocating country pairs exhibit higher levels of stable cooperation and are more likely to punish instances of noncooperation. However, countries in reciprocity-based relationships are also quicker to forgive single acts of noncooperation by eventually returning to previous levels of mutual cooperation. By contrast, nonreciprocating pairs are more likely to exploit each other’s cooperation via higher rates of defection. Together, these findings provide the strongest evidence to date that reciprocity is a widespread mechanism for achieving international cooperation. PMID:29326983

  5. Reciprocally-Rotating Velocity Obstacles

    KAUST Repository

    Giese, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Modern multi-agent systems frequently use highlevel planners to extract basic paths for agents, and then rely on local collision avoidance to ensure that the agents reach their destinations without colliding with one another or dynamic obstacles. One state-of-the-art local collision avoidance technique is Optimal Reciprocal Collision Avoidance (ORCA). Despite being fast and efficient for circular-shaped agents, ORCA may deadlock when polygonal shapes are used. To address this shortcoming, we introduce Reciprocally-Rotating Velocity Obstacles (RRVO). RRVO generalizes ORCA by introducing a notion of rotation for polygonally-shaped agents. This generalization permits more realistic motion than ORCA and does not suffer from as much deadlock. In this paper, we present the theory of RRVO and show empirically that it does not suffer from the deadlock issue ORCA has, permits agents to reach goals faster, and has a comparable collision rate at the cost of performance overhead quadratic in the (typically small) user-defined parameter δ.

  6. Reciprocal Learning: One Teacher's Narrative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adrienne RIGLER

    2017-01-01

    This paper is a personal narrative from the perspective of one teacher in Toronto who participated in the Canada-China Reciprocal Learning in Teacher Education and School Education Partnership Grant Project.I took part in a Sister School partnership between 2013 and 2017.Over the four years,I came to understand relationships in an international professional learning community.Participating in the project gave me the benefit of seeing my practice through an international lens.For my students,it offered a global citizenship experience.Although there are numerous professional development opportunities in Toronto,this partnership extends beyond a lunch and learn,or a full day professional learning.The commitment to my partners has fueled my desire to incorporate new teaching ideas and has required ongoing reflection on my own teaching practice.In this article,I will explain some of the challenges,stages of development,reciprocal learning,and implications for future international professional learning communities.

  7. Quantum coherence: Reciprocity and distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Asutosh, E-mail: asukumar@hri.res.in [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad-211019 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India)

    2017-03-18

    Quantum coherence is the outcome of the superposition principle. Recently, it has been theorized as a quantum resource, and is the premise of quantum correlations in multipartite systems. It is therefore interesting to study the coherence content and its distribution in a multipartite quantum system. In this work, we show analytically as well as numerically the reciprocity between coherence and mixedness of a quantum state. We find that this trade-off is a general feature in the sense that it is true for large spectra of measures of coherence and of mixedness. We also study the distribution of coherence in multipartite systems by looking at monogamy-type relation–which we refer to as additivity relation–between coherences of different parts of the system. We show that for the Dicke states, while the normalized measures of coherence violate the additivity relation, the unnormalized ones satisfy the same. - Highlights: • Quantum coherence. • Reciprocity between quantum coherence and mixedness. • Distribution of quantum coherence in multipartite quantum systems. • Additivity relation for distribution of quantum coherence in Dicke and “X” states.

  8. Indirect reciprocity with trinary reputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Shoma; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Masuda, Naoki

    2013-01-21

    Indirect reciprocity is a reputation-based mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations when individuals do not repeatedly meet. The conditions under which cooperation based on indirect reciprocity occurs have been examined in great details. Most previous theoretical analysis assumed for mathematical tractability that an individual possesses a binary reputation value, i.e., good or bad, which depends on their past actions and other factors. However, in real situations, reputations of individuals may be multiple valued. Another puzzling discrepancy between the theory and experiments is the status of the so-called image scoring, in which cooperation and defection are judged to be good and bad, respectively, independent of other factors. Such an assessment rule is found in behavioral experiments, whereas it is known to be unstable in theory. In the present study, we fill both gaps by analyzing a trinary reputation model. By an exhaustive search, we identify all the cooperative and stable equilibria composed of a homogeneous population or a heterogeneous population containing two types of players. Some results derived for the trinary reputation model are direct extensions of those for the binary model. However, we find that the trinary model allows cooperation under image scoring under some mild conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence and correlates of gender-based violence among female university students in Northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliyasu, Zubairu; Abubakar, Isa S; Aliyu, Muktar H; Galadanci, Hadiza S; Salihu, Hamisu M

    2011-09-01

    Gender-based violence (GBV) is a major public health and human rights problem worldwide. The extent of this problem in educational institutions has not been explored in Northern Nigeria. Using self administered questionnaires, we determined the prevalence and risk factors for gender-based violence among 300 female university students in Kano, Northern Nigeria. The overall prevalence of gender-based violence was 58.8% [95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 52.9% to 64.5%]. Specifically, 22.8%, 22.2% and 50.8% of students experienced physical, sexual or emotional violence respectively. Religious affiliation ethnicity, indigeneship, marital status, campus residence and faculty affiliation were significant predictors of GBV. GBV awareness creation programs, legal protection and implementation of an effective redress mechanism are recommended to curb this menace.

  10. Women working at university restaurants: life and work conditions and gender-based violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristina Maxima Pereira Venancio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This is an exploratory and descriptive study with a quantitative approach that aimed to understand the social production and reproduction processes of women working at university restaurants and the occurrence and the magnitude of gender-based violence committed against them by their intimate partners. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews. The analysis categories used were social production and reproduction, gender and gender-based violence. The interviewees held a subordinate social position during the productive and reproductive periods of their lives. Approximately 70% reported having experienced gender-based violence from an intimate partner (66% psychological violence, 36.3% physical violence and 28.6% sexual violence. Most of the health problems resulting from violence were related to mental health. The results indicate that the situation requires immediate interventions, mostly guided by the instrumentalization of these women and the support by the state and the university as appropriate to address violence.

  11. Impact of gender-based career obstacles on the working status of women physicians in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Kyoko; Gohchi, Kengo

    2012-11-01

    Research has shown that women physicians work fewer hours and are more likely to become inactive professionally and to switch to part-time labor, compared with their male counterparts. The published literature suggests that a gender disparity still exists in medicine which may decrease work motivation among women physicians. The authors investigated whether the experience and the perception of gender-based career obstacles among women physicians in Japan are associated with their working status (i.e., full-time vs. part-time). The present cross-sectional study is based on surveys of alumnae from 13 private medical schools in Japan conducted between June 2009 and May 2011. Of those who agreed to participate in this study, 1684 completed a self-administered questionnaire (overall response rate 83%). Experience of gender-based obstacles was considered affirmative if a woman physician had been overlooked for opportunities of professional advancement based on gender. Perception of gender-based obstacles referred to the self-reported degree of difficulty of promotion and opportunities for a position in higher education. Approximately 20% of the study participants responded that they experienced gender-based obstacles while 24% answered that they were not sure. The scores for perception of gender-based career obstacles were statistically higher among part-time workers compared with full-time workers (mean difference = 1.20, 95% CI: 0.39-2.00). Adjusting for age, marital status, the presence of children, workplace, board certification, holding a PhD degree, overall satisfaction of being a physician, and household income, stepwise logistic regression models revealed that physicians with the strongest perception of gender-based career obstacles were more likely to work part-time rather than full-time (OR, 0.59; 95% CI: 0.40-0.88). Although the experience of gender-based obstacles was not associated with working status among women physicians, the results demonstrated that a

  12. Gender-based street harassment and communication strategies. A comparative analysis between Spain and Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Berenguer, Belén Zurbano; Vayá, Irene Liberia; Bouchara, Aicha

    2016-01-01

    Gender-based street harassment is a common form of intimidation and control of women in the patriarchal society. It constitutes a violation of human rights and it is widely present in all societies today. In this paper we assume the gender perspective to understand the street harassment as a manifestation of gender-based violence. Then, we go in depth into media representations of this kind of practices, focusing on traditional media as well as alternative media. All this assuming that this p...

  13. Reciprocal Tutoring: Design with Cognitive Load Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Yueh; Chan, Tak-Wai

    2016-01-01

    "Reciprocal tutoring," as reported in "Exploring the design of computer supports for reciprocal tutoring" (Chan and Chou 1997), has extended the meaning and scope of "intelligent tutoring" originally implemented in stand alone computers. This research is a follow-up to our studies on a "learning companion…

  14. Free-Form Kinetic Reciprocal System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Sassone, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Kinetic Reciprocal System (KRS) are innovative moveable structures based on the principle of reciprocity [1] with internal pin-slot constraints [2]. The analysis of KRS kinematic and static determinacy is developed through the construction of kinematic matrices, accordingly with [3] and a discuss...

  15. Loneliness, exchange orientation, and reciprocity in friendships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Prins, K.S.

    Guided by equity theory this study among 185 Dutch students explored the effects of exchange orientation and reciprocity in the relationship with the best friend upon loneliness. Reciprocity was in general more common in this relationship than feeling advantaged or deprived. The association between

  16. Non-reciprocity in nonlinear elastodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Antoine; Sapsis, Themistoklis P.; Vakakis, Alexander F.

    2018-01-01

    Reciprocity is a fundamental property of linear time-invariant (LTI) acoustic waveguides governed by self-adjoint operators with symmetric Green's functions. The break of reciprocity in LTI elastodynamics is only possible through the break of time reversal symmetry on the micro-level, and this can be achieved by imposing external biases, adding nonlinearities or allowing for time-varying system properties. We present a Volterra-series based asymptotic analysis for studying spatial non-reciprocity in a class of one-dimensional (1D), time-invariant elastic systems with weak stiffness nonlinearities. We show that nonlinearity is neither necessary nor sufficient for breaking reciprocity in this class of systems; rather, it depends on the boundary conditions, the symmetries of the governing linear and nonlinear operators, and the choice of the spatial points where the non-reciprocity criterion is tested. Extension of the analysis to higher dimensions and time-varying systems is straightforward from a mathematical point of view (but not in terms of new non-reciprocal physical phenomena), whereas the connection of non-reciprocity and time irreversibility can be studied as well. Finally, we show that suitably defined non-reciprocity measures enable optimization, and can provide physical understanding of the nonlinear effects in the dynamics, enabling one to establish regimes of "maximum nonlinearity." We highlight the theoretical developments by means of a numerical example.

  17. 33 CFR 173.17 - Reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reciprocity. 173.17 Section 173.17 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY VESSEL NUMBERING AND CASUALTY AND ACCIDENT REPORTING Numbering § 173.17 Reciprocity. (a) Section...

  18. 23 CFR 1235.8 - Reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reciprocity. 1235.8 Section 1235.8 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES UNIFORM SYSTEM FOR PARKING FOR PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES § 1235.8 Reciprocity. The State system...

  19. 36 CFR 251.63 - Reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reciprocity. 251.63 Section 251.63 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Special Uses § 251.63 Reciprocity. If it is determined that a right-of-way shall be needed by the United States...

  20. Education, Gift and Reciprocity: A Preliminary Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourin, Eric

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the importance and role of the reciprocity relationship in education. It presents a review on the mobilization of the principle of reciprocity--in the anthropological but also sociological and economic senses--in educational processes, especially in adult education. The study is divided into three parts. The first part analyzes…

  1. Reciprocity in therapeutic relationships: A conceptual review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Sima; Arcidiacono, Eleonora; Aguglia, Eugenio; Priebe, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Reciprocity has generally been understood as a process of giving and taking, within an exchange of emotions or services, and has long been recognized as a central part of human life. However, an understanding of reciprocity in professional helping relationships has seldom received attention, despite movements in mental health care towards more collaborative approaches between service users and professionals. In this review, a systematic search of the published papers was conducted in order to explore how reciprocity is conceptualized and understood as part of the dyadic therapeutic relationship between professionals and service users. Eleven papers met our inclusion criteria and a narrative synthesis was used to synthesize the key concepts of reciprocity. The concepts of: 'dynamic equilibrium', 'shared affect', 'asymmetric alliance', and 'recognition as a fellow human being' were recurrent in understandings of reciprocity in professional contexts. These conceptualizations of reciprocity were also linked to specific behavioural and psychological processes. The findings suggest that reciprocity may be conceptualized and incorporated as a component of mental health care, with recurrent and observable processes which may be harnessed to promote positive outcomes for service users. To this end, we make recommendations for further research to progress and develop reciprocal processes in mental health care. © 2015 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  2. 49 CFR 384.214 - Reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reciprocity. 384.214 Section 384.214 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... Reciprocity. The State shall allow any person to operate a CMV in the State who is not disqualified from...

  3. Information seeking and reciprocity: A transformational analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallucci, M.; Perugini, M.

    2003-01-01

    The motivation to reciprocate is analyzed within the framework of interdependence theory, with focus on the process of transformation of situations. A model of transformation is presented for the motivation to reciprocate and hypotheses regarding allocation behavior and information seeking are

  4. Reciprocity Outperforms Conformity to Promote Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Angelo; Balliet, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    Evolutionary psychologists have proposed two processes that could give rise to the pervasiveness of human cooperation observed among individuals who are not genetically related: reciprocity and conformity. We tested whether reciprocity outperformed conformity in promoting cooperation, especially when these psychological processes would promote a different cooperative or noncooperative response. To do so, across three studies, we observed participants' cooperation with a partner after learning (a) that their partner had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials and (b) that their group members had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials with that same partner. Although we found that people both reciprocate and conform, reciprocity has a stronger influence on cooperation. Moreover, we found that conformity can be partly explained by a concern about one's reputation-a finding that supports a reciprocity framework.

  5. Sexual and gender-based violence in the European asylum and reception sector: a perpetuum mobile?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keygnaert, I.; Dias, S.F.; Degomme, O.; Devillé, W.; Kennedy, P.; Kovats, A.; Meyer, S. de; Vettenburg, N.; Roelens, K.; Temmerman, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants are at risk of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and subsequent ill-health in Europe; yet, European minimum reception standards do not address SGBV. Hence, this paper explores the nature of SGBV occurring in this sector and

  6. Sexual and gender-based violence in the European asylum and reception sector: a perpetuum mobile?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keygnaert, I.; Dias, S.F.; Degomme, O.; Devillé, W.; Kennedy, P.; Kováts, A.; De Meyer, S.; Vettenburg, N.; Roelens, K.; Temmerman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants are at risk of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and subsequent ill-health in Europe; yet, European minimum reception standards do not address SGBV. Hence, this paper explores the nature of SGBV occurring in this sector and

  7. Sexual and gender-based violence in the European asylum and reception sector : A perpetuum mobile?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keygnaert, Ines; Dias, Sonia F.; Degomme, Olivier; Devillé, Walter; Kennedy, Patricia; Kováts, András; De Meyer, Sara; Vettenburg, Nicole; Roelens, Kristien; Temmerman, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants are at risk of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and subsequent ill-health in Europe; yet, European minimum reception standards do not address SGBV. Hence, this paper explores the nature of SGBV occurring in this sector and

  8. Dimensions of gender-based violence against Syrian refugees in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghida Anani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessments of the impact of the Syrian crisis indicate high levels of sexual and gender-based violence, with rape, assault, intimate partner violence and survival sex appearing increasingly common. Humanitarian agencies urgently need to work together to address this trend.

  9. A Black Experience-Based Approach to Gender-Based Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent-Goodley, Tricia B.

    2009-01-01

    Gender-based violence (GBV) affects women across race, ethnicity, age, socioeconomic status, religion, sexual orientation, and geographic boundaries. No segments of society are immune from the vestiges of this problem. Yet GBV has been particularly harmful within communities of African ancestry African American communities suffer with greater…

  10. Josephine's journey: Gender-based violence and Marian devotion in urban Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermkens, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with how, in the urban setting of Madang, Papua New Guinea, Marian devotion is deployed in response to domestic and gender-based violence. While providing insight into the lived religious experiences of Catholic women living in Madang, this article shows how Mary empowers her

  11. Instructor Strategies for Responding to Disclosures of Gender-Based Violence on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Jennifer L.; Godderis, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    While increasing attention has been paid to the issue of sexual violence (SV) on university and college campuses, there is a paucity of research about how post-secondary instructors should respond to student disclosures of SV and other forms of gender-based violence (GBV). The limited amount of evidence suggests instructors who receive disclosures…

  12. Doorways III: Teacher Training Manual on School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). Teachers can play a central role in violence prevention, and they can also help…

  13. Doorways III: Teacher Reference Materials. On School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). This booklet, "Doorways III: Teacher Reference Materials on School-Related…

  14. Josephine’s journey: Gender-based violence and Marian devotion in urban Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermkens, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with how, in the urban setting of Madang, Papua New Guinea, Marian devotion is deployed in response to domestic and gender-based violence. While providing insight into the lived religious experiences of Catholic women living in Madang, this article shows how Mary empowers her

  15. Rural Teachers' Views: What Are Gender-Based Challenges Facing Free Primary Education in Lesotho?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morojele, Pholoho

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives prominence to rural teachers' accounts of gender-based challenges facing Free Primary Education in Lesotho. It draws on feminist interpretations of social constructionism to discuss factors within the Basotho communities that affect gender equality in the schools. The inductive analysis offered makes use of the data generated from…

  16. Research calls for preventive approach to gender-based violence in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Their research looked at the root causes and impacts of violence against women and also assessed the effectiveness of existing strategies to prevent and combat gender-based violence. Their work has identified key strategies to strengthen civil society and public organizations engaged in preventing violence against ...

  17. Ending sexual and gender-based violence: from knowledge to action

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... speak out and share common experiences had a significant impact on the psychological recovery and emotional well-being of these women. Read about what IDRC grantees are doing to challenge impunity against sexual violence in our brochure, Ending sexual and gender-based violence in English, French or Spanish ...

  18. Gender-Based Education: Why It Works at the Middle School Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, William C.

    1996-01-01

    To counter gender bias effects and improve student learning, staff at a Virginia middle school decided to group eighth-grade students by gender for math and science instruction. Girls felt freer to speak out. Grade point averages in gender-based science and math classes for both girls and boys were higher than in coeducational classes. (MLH)

  19. Reciprocity and gyrotropism in magnetic resonance transduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tropp, James

    2006-01-01

    We give formulas for transduction in magnetic resonance - i.e., the appearance of an emf due to Larmor precession of spins - based upon the modified Lorentz reciprocity principle for gyrotropic (also called 'nonreciprocal') media, i.e., in which a susceptibility tensor is carried to its transpose by reversal of an external static field [cf., R. F. Harrington and A. T. Villeneuve IRE Trans. Microwave Theory and Technique MTT6, 308 (1958)]. Prior applications of reciprocity to magnetic resonance, despite much success, have ignored the gyrotropism which necessarily arises due to nuclear and/or unpaired electronic spins. For detection with linearly polarized fields, oscillating at the Larmor frequency, the emf is written in terms of a volume integral containing a product of two factors which we define as the antenna patterns, i.e. (H 1x ±iH 1y ), where, e.g., for a single transceive antenna, the H's are just the spatially dependent oscillatory magnetic field strengths, per the application of some reference current at the antenna terminals, with the negative sign obtaining for transmission, and the positive for reception. Similar expressions hold for separate transmit and receive antennas; expressions are also given for circular polarization of the fields. We then exhibit a receive-only array antenna of two elements for magnetic resonance imaging of protons, which, due an intensity artifact arising from stray reactive coupling of the elements, produces, despite its own bilateral symmetry, asymmetric proton NMR images of a symmetric cylindrical phantom containing aqueous saline solution [J. Tropp and T. Schirmer, J. Magn. Reson. 151, 146 (2001)]. Modification of this two-port antenna, to function in transmit-receive mode, allows us to demonstrate highly nonreciprocal behavior: that is, to record images (of cylindrical test phantoms containing aqueous saline solution) whose appearance dramatically changes, when the roles of transmission and reception are swapped between

  20. Rethinking gender-based violence during war: is violence against civilian men a problem worth addressing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linos, Natalia

    2009-04-01

    Gender-based violence during conflict and post-conflict situations has received increased attention in research and in the work of development agencies. Viewed primarily as a form of violence against women, this commentary questions whether male civilians have also been victims of gender-based violence during conflict, invisible due to stereotypes surrounding masculinity and a culturally permissive approach towards violence perpetrated against men, especially at times of war. The experience of civilian males of violence, including sexual violence, during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina and other contemporary wars, suggests that the discourse on gender-based violence and public health research should begin exploring the specific needs of men. Drawing on Nancy Krieger's (Krieger, N. (2003). Genders, sexes, and health: what are the connections-and why does it matter? International Journal of Epidemiology, 32, 652-657) analysis on the differential role of 'sex' and 'gender' on a given exposure-outcome association, this commentary suggests that the impact of gender-based violence on health during conflict may be different for men and women and may require distinct therapeutic approaches. Given that perpetrators are often male, an extra level of stigma is added when heterosexual men are sexually violated, which may lead to underreporting and reduced health-service seeking behavior. Further public health research is needed to guide the work of humanitarian agencies working with survivors of gender-based violence in conflict and post-conflict settings to ensure equal access to appropriate health services for men and women.

  1. Reciprocity and Ethical Tuberculosis Treatment and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diego S; Dawson, Angus; Upshur, Ross E G

    2016-03-01

    This paper explores the notion of reciprocity in the context of active pulmonary and laryngeal tuberculosis (TB) treatment and related control policies and practices. We seek to do three things: First, we sketch the background to contemporary global TB care and suggest that poverty is a key feature when considering the treatment of TB patients. We use two examples from TB care to explore the role of reciprocity: isolation and the use of novel TB drugs. Second, we explore alternative means of justifying the use of reciprocity through appeal to different moral and political theoretical traditions (i.e., virtue ethics, deontology, and consequentialism). We suggest that each theory can be used to provide reasons to take reciprocity seriously as an independent moral concept, despite any other differences. Third, we explore general meanings and uses of the concept of reciprocity, with the primary intention of demonstrating that it cannot be simply reduced to other more frequently invoked moral concepts such as beneficence or justice. We argue that reciprocity can function as a mid-level principle in public health, and generally, captures a core social obligation arising once an individual or group is burdened as a result of acting for the benefit of others (even if they derive a benefit themselves). We conclude that while more needs to be explored in relation to the theoretical justification and application of reciprocity, sufficient arguments can be made for it to be taken more seriously as a key principle within public health ethics and bioethics more generally.

  2. Reciprocity of agonistic support in ravens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Orlaith N; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Cooperative behaviour through reciprocation or interchange of valuable services in primates has received considerable attention, especially regarding the timeframe of reciprocation and its ensuing cognitive implications. Much less, however, is known about reciprocity in other animals, particularly birds. We investigated patterns of agonistic support (defined as a third party intervening in an ongoing conflict to attack one of the conflict participants, thus supporting the other) in a group of 13 captive ravens, Corvus corax. We found support for long-term, but not short-term, reciprocation of agonistic support. Ravens were more likely to support individuals who preened them, kin and dominant group members. These results suggest that ravens do not reciprocate on a calculated tit-for-tat basis, but aid individuals from whom reciprocated support would be most useful and those with whom they share a good relationship. Additionally, dyadic levels of agonistic support and consolation (postconflict affiliation from a bystander to the victim) correlated strongly with each other, but we found no evidence to suggest that receiving agonistic support influences the victim's likelihood of receiving support (consolation) after the conflict ends. Our findings are consistent with an emotionally mediated form of reciprocity in ravens and provide additional support for convergent cognitive evolution in birds and mammals.

  3. On Reciprocal Causation in the Evolutionary Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Erik I

    2018-01-01

    Recent calls for a revision of standard evolutionary theory (SET) are based partly on arguments about the reciprocal causation. Reciprocal causation means that cause-effect relationships are bi-directional, as a cause could later become an effect and vice versa. Such dynamic cause-effect relationships raise questions about the distinction between proximate and ultimate causes, as originally formulated by Ernst Mayr. They have also motivated some biologists and philosophers to argue for an Extended Evolutionary Synthesis (EES). The EES will supposedly expand the scope of the Modern Synthesis (MS) and SET, which has been characterized as gene-centred, relying primarily on natural selection and largely neglecting reciprocal causation. Here, I critically examine these claims, with a special focus on the last conjecture. I conclude that reciprocal causation has long been recognized as important by naturalists, ecologists and evolutionary biologists working in the in the MS tradition, although it it could be explored even further. Numerous empirical examples of reciprocal causation in the form of positive and negative feedback are now well known from both natural and laboratory systems. Reciprocal causation have also been explicitly incorporated in mathematical models of coevolutionary arms races, frequency-dependent selection, eco-evolutionary dynamics and sexual selection. Such dynamic feedback were already recognized by Richard Levins and Richard Lewontin in their bok The Dialectical Biologist . Reciprocal causation and dynamic feedback might also be one of the few contributions of dialectical thinking and Marxist philosophy in evolutionary theory. I discuss some promising empirical and analytical tools to study reciprocal causation and the implications for the EES. Finally, I briefly discuss how quantitative genetics can be adapated to studies of reciprocal causation, constructive inheritance and phenotypic plasticity and suggest that the flexibility of this approach

  4. Two distinct neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Takezawa, Masanori; Nakawake, Yo; Kunimatsu, Akira; Yamasue, Hidenori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Miyashita, Yasushi; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-03-18

    Cooperation is a hallmark of human society. Humans often cooperate with strangers even if they will not meet each other again. This so-called indirect reciprocity enables large-scale cooperation among nonkin and can occur based on a reputation mechanism or as a succession of pay-it-forward behavior. Here, we provide the functional and anatomical neural evidence for two distinct mechanisms governing the two types of indirect reciprocity. Cooperation occurring as reputation-based reciprocity specifically recruited the precuneus, a region associated with self-centered cognition. During such cooperative behavior, the precuneus was functionally connected with the caudate, a region linking rewards to behavior. Furthermore, the precuneus of a cooperative subject had a strong resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) with the caudate and a large gray matter volume. In contrast, pay-it-forward reciprocity recruited the anterior insula (AI), a brain region associated with affective empathy. The AI was functionally connected with the caudate during cooperation occurring as pay-it-forward reciprocity, and its gray matter volume and rsFC with the caudate predicted the tendency of such cooperation. The revealed difference is consistent with the existing results of evolutionary game theory: although reputation-based indirect reciprocity robustly evolves as a self-interested behavior in theory, pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity does not on its own. The present study provides neural mechanisms underlying indirect reciprocity and suggests that pay-it-forward reciprocity may not occur as myopic profit maximization but elicit emotional rewards.

  5. ADVANCED RECIPROCATING COMPRESSION TECHNOLOGY (ARCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danny M. Deffenbaugh; Klaus Brun; Ralph E. Harris; J. Pete Harrell; Robert J. Mckee; J. Jeffrey Moore; Steven J. Svedeman; Anthony J. Smalley; Eugene L. Broerman; Robert A Hart; Marybeth G. Nored; Ryan S. Gernentz; Shane P. Siebenaler

    2005-12-01

    The U.S. natural gas pipeline industry is facing the twin challenges of increased flexibility and capacity expansion. To meet these challenges, the industry requires improved choices in gas compression to address new construction and enhancement of the currently installed infrastructure. The current fleet of installed reciprocating compression is primarily slow-speed integral machines. Most new reciprocating compression is and will be large, high-speed separable units. The major challenges with the fleet of slow-speed integral machines are: limited flexibility and a large range in performance. In an attempt to increase flexibility, many operators are choosing to single-act cylinders, which are causing reduced reliability and integrity. While the best performing units in the fleet exhibit thermal efficiencies between 90% and 92%, the low performers are running down to 50% with the mean at about 80%. The major cause for this large disparity is due to installation losses in the pulsation control system. In the better performers, the losses are about evenly split between installation losses and valve losses. The major challenges for high-speed machines are: cylinder nozzle pulsations, mechanical vibrations due to cylinder stretch, short valve life, and low thermal performance. To shift nozzle pulsation to higher orders, nozzles are shortened, and to dampen the amplitudes, orifices are added. The shortened nozzles result in mechanical coupling with the cylinder, thereby, causing increased vibration due to the cylinder stretch mode. Valve life is even shorter than for slow speeds and can be on the order of a few months. The thermal efficiency is 10% to 15% lower than slow-speed equipment with the best performance in the 75% to 80% range. The goal of this advanced reciprocating compression program is to develop the technology for both high speed and low speed compression that will expand unit flexibility, increase thermal efficiency, and increase reliability and integrity

  6. Reciprocity Effects in the Trust Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Smith

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available I use data from a previous experiment for classifying subjects based on their behavior in the trust game. Prior literature defines a “reciprocity effect” as the tendency for Second Movers to return proportions increasing in the amounts that they receive. In the data that I use, 31% of Second Movers show reciprocity effects, 31% are neutral, and 25% consistently free-ride, indicating that the aggregate reciprocity effect for the sample as a whole is attributable to a minority of the subjects.

  7. Born's reciprocity principle in stochastic phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prugovecki, E.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that the application of Born's reciprocity principle to relativistic quantum mechanics in stochastic phase space (by the requirement that the proper wave functions of extended particles satisfy the Born-Lande as well as the Klein-Gordon equation) leads to the unique determination of these functions for any given value of their rms radius. The resulting particle propagators display not only Lorentz but also reciprocal invariance. This feature remains true even in the case of mass-zero particles, such as photons, when their localization is achieved by means of extended test particles whose proper wave functions obey the reciprocity principle. (author)

  8. Engaging the Voice of Patients Affected by Gender-Based Violence: Informing Practice and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-O'Connor, Annie; Chadwick, Mardi

    2015-01-01

    Evidence regarding the benefits, opportunities, and risks associated with providing health care to patients experiencing gender-based violence (GBV) and, moreover, their satisfaction with health care services is sparse. Using a patient- and trauma-informed relationship-based framework, survivors of GBV who were referred for follow-up care were asked to participate in a quality improvement (QI) initiative in an effort to understand their perspectives of receiving healthcare services. Patients were asked to answer three open-ended questions in regard to their healthcare experience. Individuals who were eligible for evidence collection after sexual assault (<5 days) were asked two additional questions. Of the 353 women and six men (359) referred to the C.A.R.E. (Coordinated Approach to Recovery and Empowerment) Clinic, 327 patients were contacted. Of the participants, 24% (86) had a mental health diagnosis; 41% (145) reported their incident to the police; 8% (28) had comorbidities of substance abuse, mental health, and/or homelessness; and 33% (118) of the incidents involved alcohol or drugs. Most of the patients stated that they were well cared for and felt safe during their visit. However, many reported "long waits," "disjointed," "chaotic," "too many" providers, "conflicting" and "miss-information," and "confusion" about what to do after their acute care visit. Over half (59%) did not report incident to the police. Some reported regrets with reporting to the police (16%) and regrets in having evidence collection (15%). Of the patients who did not have evidence collected (47), none expressed regret over choosing not to have evidence collected. Five patients with mental health problems were hospitalized within 5 days of their emergency department visit for suicidal thoughts. A number of opportunities to improve the healthcare response were identified. Patients affected by GBV require an improved coordinated and trauma-informed approach. Explicit consent related to

  9. Sexual and Gender-Based Violence : What is the World Bank Doing and What Have We Learned, A Strategic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Alys M. Willman; Crystal Corman

    2013-01-01

    Sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) is the most prevalent form of gender inequality. More than one third of the women in the world have experienced some form of gender based violence. The impacts of such violence extend far beyond the individual survivors, affecting households and communities, and spanning across generations. SGBV is widely recognized as a development constraint that f...

  10. Reciprocity principle for scattered fields from discontinuities in waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, Annamaria; Capecchi, Danilo; Vestroni, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the scattering of guided waves from a discontinuity exploiting the principle of reciprocity in elastodynamics, written in a form that applies to waveguides. The coefficients of reflection and transmission for an arbitrary mode can be derived as long as the principle of reciprocity is satisfied at the discontinuity. Two elastodynamic states are related by the reciprocity. One is the response of the waveguide in the presence of the discontinuity, with the scattered fields expressed as a superposition of wave modes. The other state is the response of the waveguide in the absence of the discontinuity oscillating according to an arbitrary mode. The semi-analytical finite element method is applied to derive the needed dispersion relation and wave mode shapes. An application to a solid cylinder with a symmetric double change of cross-section is presented. This model is assumed to be representative of a damaged rod. The coefficients of reflection and transmission of longitudinal waves are investigated for selected values of notch length and varying depth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Duality and reciprocity of fluctuation-dissipation relations in conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reggiani, Lino; Alfinito, Eleonora; Kuhn, Tilmann

    2016-09-01

    By analogy with linear response, we formulate the duality and reciprocity properties of current and voltage fluctuations expressed by Nyquist relations, including the intrinsic bandwidths of the respective fluctuations. For this purpose, we individuate total-number and drift-velocity fluctuations of carriers inside a conductor as the microscopic sources of noise. The spectral densities at low frequency of the current and voltage fluctuations and the respective conductance and resistance are related in a mutually exclusive way to the corresponding noise source. The macroscopic variances of current and voltage fluctuations are found to display a dual property via a plasma conductance that admits a reciprocal plasma resistance. Analogously, the microscopic noise sources are found to obey a dual property and a reciprocity relation. The formulation is carried out in the frame of the grand canonical (for current noise) and canonical (for voltage noise) ensembles, and results are derived that are valid for classical as well as degenerate statistics, including fractional exclusion statistics. The unifying theory so developed sheds new light on the microscopic interpretation of dissipation and fluctuation phenomena in conductors. In particular, it is proven that for fermions, as a consequence of the Pauli principle, nonvanishing single-carrier velocity fluctuations at zero temperature are responsible for diffusion but not for current noise, which vanishes in this limit.

  12. Reciprocity is not give and take: asymmetric reciprocity to positive and negative acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keysar, Boaz; Converse, Benjamin A; Wang, Jiunwen; Epley, Nicholas

    2008-12-01

    Unlike economic exchange, social exchange has no well-defined "value." It is based on the norm of reciprocity, in which giving and taking are to be repaid in equivalent measure. Although giving and taking are colloquially assumed to be equivalent actions, we demonstrate that they produce different patterns of reciprocity. In five experiments utilizing a dictator game, people reciprocated in like measure to apparently prosocial acts of giving, but reciprocated more selfishly to apparently antisocial acts of taking, even when the objective outcomes of the acts of giving and taking were identical. Additional results demonstrate that acts of giving in social exchanges are perceived as more generous than objectively identical acts of taking, that taking tends to escalate, and that the asymmetry in reciprocity is not due to gaining versus losing resources. Reciprocity appears to operate on an exchange rate that assigns value to the meaning of events, in a fashion that encourages prosocial exchanges.

  13. Spite and Reciprocity in Auctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Ikeda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a complete information model of bidding in second price sealed-bid and ascending-bid (English auctions, in which potential buyers know the unit valuation of other bidders and may spitefully prefer that their rivals earn a lower surplus. Bidders with spiteful preferences should overbid in equilibrium when they know their rival has a higher value than their own, and bidders with a higher value underbid to reciprocate the spiteful overbidding of the lower value bidders. The model also predicts different bidding behavior in second price as compared to ascending-bid auctions. The paper also presents experimental evidence broadly consistent with the model. In the complete information environment, lower value bidders overbid more than higher value bidders, and they overbid more frequently in the second price auction than in the ascending price auction. Overall, the lower value bidder submits bids that exceed value about half the time. These patterns are not found in the incomplete information environment, consistent with the model.

  14. Detailed balance and reciprocity in solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchartz, Thomas; Rau, Uwe [IEF5-Photovoltaik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    The limiting efficiency of photovoltaic devices follows from the detailed balance of absorption and emission of a diode according to the Shockley-Queisser theory. However, the principle of detailed balance has more implications for the understanding of photovoltaic devices than only defining the efficiency limit. We show how reciprocity relations between carrier collection and dark carrier injection, between electroluminescence emission and photovoltaic quantum efficiency and between open circuit voltage and light emitting diode quantum efficiency all follow from the principle of detailed balance. We also discuss the validity range of the Shockley-Queisser limit and the reciprocity relations. Discussing the validity of the reciprocity relations helps to deepen the understanding of photovoltaic devices and allows us to identify interrelationships between the superposition principle, the diode ideality and the reciprocity relations. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. Negative reciprocity and retrenched pension rights

    OpenAIRE

    Montizaan, R.M.; Cörvers, F.; de Grip, A.; Dohmen, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    We document the importance of negatively reciprocal inclinations in labor relationships by showing that a retrenchment of pension rights, which is perceived as unfair, causes a larger reduction in job motivation the stronger workers' negatively reciprocal inclinations are. We exploit unique matched survey and administrative data on male employees in the public sector in the Netherlands and compare the job motivation of employees born in 1950, who faced a substantial retrenchment of their pens...

  16. Static non-reciprocity in mechanical metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulais, Corentin; Sounas, Dimitrios; Alù, Andrea

    2017-02-23

    Reciprocity is a general, fundamental principle governing various physical systems, which ensures that the transfer function-the transmission of a physical quantity, say light intensity-between any two points in space is identical, regardless of geometrical or material asymmetries. Breaking this transmission symmetry offers enhanced control over signal transport, isolation and source protection. So far, devices that break reciprocity (and therefore show non-reciprocity) have been mostly considered in dynamic systems involving electromagnetic, acoustic and mechanical wave propagation associated with fields varying in space and time. Here we show that it is possible to break reciprocity in static systems, realizing mechanical metamaterials that exhibit vastly different output displacements under excitation from different sides, as well as one-way displacement amplification. This is achieved by combining large nonlinearities with suitable geometrical asymmetries and/or topological features. In addition to extending non-reciprocity and isolation to statics, our work sheds light on energy propagation in nonlinear materials with asymmetric crystalline structures and topological properties. We anticipate that breaking reciprocity will open avenues for energy absorption, conversion and harvesting, soft robotics, prosthetics and optomechanics.

  17. Sports injuries in women: sex- and gender-based differences in etiology and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Kimberly J; Hame, Sharon L; Hannafin, Jo A; Griffin, Letha Y; Tosi, Laura L; Shields, Naomi N

    2008-01-01

    There has been a significant increase in the participation of women in sports at all levels, especially after the enactment of the Title IX Education Amendment in 1972. This increased participation at all levels has resulted in more women sustaining sports injuries. Data on sex- and gender-based differences in all organ systems, including the musculoskeletal system, are beign gathered. It is important to review some of the areas of sex- and gender-based differences in sports injuries for which there is significant research, such as osteoporosis, the female athlete triad, and anterior cruciate ligament injuries. It is also necessary to examine those areas in which more information is needed, such as injuries to the shoulder, foot, and ankle.

  18. Attempted suicide among transgender persons: The influence of gender-based discrimination and victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements-Nolle, Kristen; Marx, Rani; Katz, Mitchell

    2006-01-01

    To determine the independent predictors of attempted suicide among transgender persons we interviewed 392 male-to-female (MTF) and 123 female-to-male (FTM) individuals. Participants were recruited through targeted sampling, respondent-driven sampling, and agency referrals in San Francisco. The prevalence of attempted suicide was 32% (95% CI = 28% to 36%). In multivariate logistic regression analysis younger age (discrimination, and gender-based victimization were independently associated with attempted suicide. Suicide prevention interventions for transgender persons are urgently needed, particularly for young people. Medical, mental health, and social service providers should address depression, substance abuse, and forced sex in an attempt to reduce suicidal behaviors among transgender persons. In addition, increasing societal acceptance of the transgender community and decreasing gender-based prejudice may help prevent suicide in this highly stigmatized population.

  19. GENDER-BASED RESTORATIVE JUSTICE FOR VICTIMS OF VIOELENCE AGAINST WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahya Wulandari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive law is less oriented towards the protection of victims, especially women. Restorative justice appears to protect and resolve problems with the interests of the victim-oriented. This article discuss the form of legal protection for victims of violence against women, gender-based and describe the form of restorative justice for victims of gender-based violence against women. Positive criminal law does not accommodate both the interests of the victim to determine the crime against him self and to restore his suffering. This is caused due to the dominance of retributive justice in the settlement mind set crime through the criminal law. The restorative justice allows for an active role in the completion of a crime victim who happens also allows the imposition of sanctions that are beneficial to the recovery of the suffering of the victims.

  20. Economic Reforms and Gender-based Wage Inequality in the Presence of Factor Market Distortions

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhuri, Sarbajit; Roychowdhury, Somasree

    2014-01-01

    A simple three-sector general equilibrium model has been developed with both male and female labour and factor market distortions. The effects of different liberalized economic policies have been examined on the gender-based wage inequality. The analysis finds that credit market reform and tariff reform produce favourable effects on the wage inequality while the liberalized investment policy becomes counterproductive. These results have important policy implications for a small open developin...

  1. Gender-based power and couples' HIV risk in Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand, north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Alpna; Bloom, Shelah S; Suchindran, Chirayath; Curtis, Siân; Angeles, Gustavo

    2014-12-01

    Gender inequality is a long-recognized driver of the HIV epidemic. However, few studies have investigated the association between gender-based power and HIV risk in India, which has the world's third largest HIV epidemic. Population-based data collected in 2003 from 3,385 couples residing in Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand, North India, were used to examine associations between gender-based power (wife's autonomy and husband's inequitable gender attitudes) and indicators of couples' HIV risk (whether the husband had had premarital sex with someone other than his eventual spouse, extramarital sex in the past year or STI symptoms in the past year). Structural equation modeling was used to create composite variables for the gender-based power measures and test their associations with HIV risk measures. Twenty-four percent of husbands had had premarital sex, 7% had had extramarital sex in the past year and 6% had had STI symptoms in the past year. Structural equation models indicated that wives who reported higher levels of autonomy were less likely than other wives to have husbands who had had extramarital sex in the past year (direct association) or STI symptoms in the past year (indirect association). Moreover, husbands who endorsed more inequitable gender attitudes were more likely than others to report having had premarital sex with someone other than their spouse, which in turn was associated with having had extramarital sex and STI symptoms in the past year. If the associations identified in this study reflect a causal relationship between gender-based power and HIV risk behavior, then HIV prevention programs that successfully address inequitable gender roles may reduce HIV risks in North India.

  2. Mainstreaming domestic and gender-based violence into sociology and the criminology of violence

    OpenAIRE

    Walby, Sylvia; Towers, Jude; Francis, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Sociological and criminological views of domestic and gender-based violence generally either dismiss it as not worthy of consideration, or focus on specific groups of offenders and victims (male youth gangs, partner violence victims). In this paper, we take a holistic approach to violence, extending the definition from that commonly in use to encompass domestic violence and sexual violence. We operationalize that definition by using data from the latest sweep of the Crime Survey for England a...

  3. HIV testing and tolerance to gender based violence: a cross-sectional study in Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Gari

    Full Text Available This paper explores the effect of social relations and gender-based conflicts on the uptake of HIV testing in the South and Central provinces of Zambia. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study of 1716 randomly selected individuals. Associations were examined using mixed-effect multivariable logistic regression. A total of 264 men (64% and 268 women (56% had never tested for HIV. The strongest determinants for not being tested were disruptive couple relationships (OR = 2.48 95% CI = 1.00-6.19; tolerance to gender-based violence (OR = 2.10 95% CI = 1.05-4.32 and fear of social rejection (OR = 1.48 95% CI = 1.23-1.80. In the Zambian context, unequal power relationships within the couple and the community seem to play a pivotal role in the decision to test which until now have been largely underestimated. Policies, programs and interventions to rapidly increase HIV testing need to urgently address gender-power inequity in relationships and prevent gender-based violence to reduce the negative impact on the lives of couples and families.

  4. Gender-based violence, alcohol use, and sexual risk among female patrons of drinking venues in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Eaton, Lisa A; Cain, Demetria; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H; Pieterse, Desiree

    2013-06-01

    Gender-based violence is a well-recognized risk factor for HIV infection among women. Alcohol use is associated with both gender-based violence and sexual risk behavior, but has not been examined as a correlate of both in a context of both high HIV risk and hazardous drinking. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between recent abuse by a sex partner with alcohol and sexual risk behavior among female patrons of alcohol serving venues in South Africa. Specifically, the aim of this study is to determine whether sexual risk behaviors are associated with gender-based violence after controlling for levels of alcohol use. We surveyed 1,388 women attending informal drinking establishments in Cape Town, South Africa to assess recent history of gender-based violence, drinking, and sexual risk behaviors. Gender-based violence was associated with both drinking and sexual risk behaviors after controlling for demographics among the women. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that after controlling for alcohol use sexual risk behavior remained significantly associated with gender-based violence, particularly with meeting a new sex partner at the bar, recent STI diagnosis, and engaging in transactional sex, but not protected intercourse or number of partners. In South Africa where heavy drinking is prevalent women may be at particular risk of physical abuse from intimate partners as well as higher sexual risk. Interventions that aim to reduce gender-based violence and sexual risk behaviors must directly work to reduce drinking behavior.

  5. Prevalence and structural correlates of gender based violence among a prospective cohort of female sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Kate; Kerr, T; Strathdee, S A; Shoveller, J; Montaner, J S; Tyndall, M W

    2009-08-11

    To examine the prevalence and structural correlates of gender based violence against female sex workers in an environment of criminalised prostitution. Prospective observational study. Vancouver, Canada during 2006-8. Female sex workers 14 years of age or older (inclusive of transgender women) who used illicit drugs (excluding marijuana) and engaged in street level sex work. Self reported gender based violence. Of 267 female sex workers invited to participate, 251 women returned to the study office and consented to participate (response rate of 94%). Analyses were based on 237 female sex workers who completed a baseline visit and at least one follow-up visit. Of these 237 female sex workers, 57% experienced gender based violence over an 18 month follow-up period. In multivariate models adjusted for individual and interpersonal risk practices, the following structural factors were independently correlated with violence against female sex workers: homelessness (adjusted odds ratio for physical violence (aOR(physicalviolence)) 2.14, 95% confidence interval 1.34 to 3.43; adjusted odds ratio for rape (aOR(rape)) 1.73, 1.09 to 3.12); inability to access drug treatment (adjusted odds ratio for client violence (aOR(clientviolence)) 2.13, 1.26 to 3.62; aOR(physicalviolence) 1.96, 1.03 to 3.43); servicing clients in cars or public spaces (aOR(clientviolence) 1.50, 1.08 to 2.57); prior assault by police (aOR(clientviolence) 3.45, 1.98 to 6.02; aOR(rape) 2.61, 1.32 to 5.16); confiscation of drug use paraphernalia by police without arrest (aOR(physicalviolence) 1.50, 1.02 to 2.41); and moving working areas away from main streets owing to policing (aOR(clientviolence) 2.13, 1.26 to 3.62). Our results demonstrate an alarming prevalence of gender based violence against female sex workers. The structural factors of criminalisation, homelessness, and poor availability of drug treatment independently correlated with gender based violence against street based female sex workers. Socio

  6. The neural correlates of reciprocity are sensitive to prior experience of reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceda, Ricardo; Prendes-Alvarez, Stefania; Hsu, Jung-Jiin; Tripathi, Shanti P; Kilts, Clint D; James, G Andrew

    2017-08-14

    Reciprocity is central to human relationships and is strongly influenced by multiple factors including the nature of social exchanges and their attendant emotional reactions. Despite recent advances in the field, the neural processes involved in this modulation of reciprocal behavior by ongoing social interaction are poorly understood. We hypothesized that activity within a discrete set of neural networks including a putative moral cognitive neural network is associated with reciprocity behavior. Nineteen healthy adults underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning while playing the trustee role in the Trust Game. Personality traits and moral development were assessed. Independent component analysis was used to identify task-related functional brain networks and assess their relationship to behavior. The saliency network (insula and anterior cingulate) was positively correlated with reciprocity behavior. A consistent array of brain regions supports the engagement of emotional, self-referential and planning processes during social reciprocity behavior. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Gender-Based Violence Against Transgender People in the United States: A Call for Research and Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Andrea L; Poteat, Tonia C; Malik, Mannat; Glass, Nancy

    2018-01-01

    Gender-based violence (GBV) is an umbrella term for any harm that is perpetrated against a person's will and that results from power inequalities based on gender roles. Most global estimates of GBV implicitly refer only to the experiences of cisgender, heterosexually identified women, which often comes at the exclusion of transgender and gender nonconforming (trans) populations. Those who perpetrate violence against trans populations often target gender nonconformity, gender expression or identity, and perceived sexual orientation and thus these forms of violence should be considered within broader discussions of GBV. Nascent epidemiologic research suggests a high burden of GBV among trans populations, with an estimated prevalence that ranges from 7% to 89% among trans populations and subpopulations. Further, 165 trans persons have been reported murdered in the United States between 2008 and 2016. GBV is associated with multiple poor health outcomes and has been broadly posited as a component of syndemics, a term used to describe an interaction of diseases with underlying social forces, concomitant with limited prevention and response programs. The interaction of social stigma, inadequate laws, and punitive policies as well as a lack of effective GBV programs limits access to and use of GBV prevention and response programs among trans populations. This commentary summarizes the current body of research on GBV among trans populations and highlights areas for future research, intervention, and policy.

  8. Crystallization features of ternary reversible reciprocal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomashik, V.N.; Shcherbak, L.P.; Fejchuk, P.I.; Grytsiv, V.I.

    2006-01-01

    Some features of the primary crystallization of phases in ternary reversible reciprocal system are considered and discussed. The diagonal join CdTe-GeSe of the CdTe + GeSe = CdSe + GeTe ternary reciprocal system is studied to show that the features in primary and secondary heating and cooling curves in such systems under fully equilibrium conditions are not reproduced upon consecutive heating and cooling sessions, because of the existence of different amounts of the reagents and the reaction products in the mixture; the temperatures of each transformation lie in a range. Those who experimentally investigate other ternary and more complex reversible reciprocal systems should take this fact into account [ru

  9. Gauge invariance and reciprocity in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, P. T.; Young, K.

    2010-01-01

    Reciprocity in wave propagation usually refers to the symmetry of the Green's function under the interchange of the source and the observer coordinates, but this condition is not gauge invariant in quantum mechanics, a problem that is particularly significant in the presence of a vector potential. Several possible alternative criteria are given and analyzed with reference to different examples with nonzero magnetic fields and/or vector potentials, including the case of a multiply connected spatial domain. It is shown that the appropriate reciprocity criterion allows for specific phase factors separable into functions of the source and observer coordinates and that this condition is robust with respect to the addition of any scalar potential. In the Aharonov-Bohm effect, reciprocity beyond monoenergetic experiments holds only because of subsidiary conditions satisfied in actual experiments: the test charge is in units of e and the flux is produced by a condensate of particles with charge 2e.

  10. The extended reciprocity: Strong belief outperforms persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Shun

    2017-05-21

    The existence of cooperation is a mysterious phenomenon and demands explanation, and direct reciprocity is one key potential explanation for the evolution of cooperation. Direct reciprocity allows cooperation to evolve for cooperators who switch their behavior on the basis of information about the opponent's behavior. Here, relevant to direct reciprocity is information deficiency. When the opponent's last move is unknown, how should players behave? One possibility is to choose cooperation with some default probability without using any further information. In fact, our previous paper (Kurokawa, 2016a) examined this strategy. However, there might be beneficial information other than the opponent's last move. A subsequent study of ours (Kurokawa, 2017) examined the strategy which uses the own last move when the opponent's last move is unknown, and revealed that referring to the own move and trying to imitate it when information is absent is beneficial. Is there any other beneficial information else? How about strong belief (i.e., have infinite memory and believe that the opponent's behavior is unchanged)? Here, we examine the evolution of strategies with strong belief. Analyzing the repeated prisoner's dilemma game and using evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) analysis against an invasion by unconditional defectors, we find the strategy with strong belief is more likely to evolve than the strategy which does not use information other than the opponent player's last move and more likely to evolve than the strategy which uses not only the opponent player's last move but also the own last move. Strong belief produces the extended reciprocity and facilitates the evolution of cooperation. Additionally, we consider the two strategies game between strategies with strong belief and any strategy, and we consider the four strategies game in which unconditional cooperators, unconditional defectors, pessimistic reciprocators with strong belief, and optimistic reciprocators with

  11. Gender Based Within-Household Inequality in Childhood Immunization in India: Changes over Time and across Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ashish

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives Despite India's substantial economic growth in the past two decades, girls in India are discriminated against in access to preventive healthcare including immunizations. Surprisingly, no study has assessed the contribution of gender based within-household discrimination to the overall inequality in immunization status of Indian children. This study therefore has two objectives: to estimate the gender based within-household inequality (GWHI) in immunization status of ...

  12. Gender based within-household inequality in immunization status of children: some evidence from South Asian countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Singh

    2015-01-01

    Using households with a pair of male-female siblings from DHS surveys, this paper estimates gender based within-household inequality in immunization status of children (aged 1-5 years) from Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan. I find substantial level of gender based within-household inequality in immunization status (with large inter-country variations) in the countries studied. Further, I estimate household fixed-effects models for immunization status and find significant difference betwe...

  13. Risk communication and gender based violence: a case of child marriage and obstetric fistula in North Central Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Oramah, Chinwe Philomina

    2015-01-01

    Master's thesis in Risk management and societal safety Gender based violence, often targeted against girl children in the name of child marriage has profound health problems, compromising victim’s physical and mental health as well as eroding their self-esteem. In addition to causing physical health problems, it is the most pervasive human rights violation in the world. Yet most of the gender based violent acts enjoy much socio-cultural support. Researches have shown increasing link betwee...

  14. Introduction/overview: gender-based differences in pharmacologic and toxicologic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, M S

    2001-01-01

    Gender may be the most important factor in mammalian development and response to exogenous agents. From believing sex-related differences required sheltering women to protect their reproductive capacity (Victorians thought exercise, education, train travel, and certain music neuro- and reprotoxic to females) to legislating a status of essential equality of the sexes may have increased women's health issues. Men and women often respond differently to drugs. Inclusion of women in phase I/II clinical trials is insufficient to identify gender-based differences in response; rather, animal models should be the basis for predicting gender-based differences in pharmacologic and toxicologic effects. Unfortunately, current animal models do not consistently demonstrate such differences. Use of commonly used species (e.g., rats and dogs) does not necessarily result in relevant evaluation of an agent in a species at appropriate development (age), physiological state, anatomy, metabolism, or kinetics for estimation of human risks. The need to test agents in relevant animal models and advances in metabolic, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic capabilities challenge us to improve methods by using the most relevant models for estimating human risk. We need to be concerned about gender-related differences and the dynamics of gender-based growth and development over the entire life cycle. We must also consider potential interactions of dietary supplements and other exogenous agents that can act as drugs or modulate the potential effects of drugs differently in men, women, and developing children of both sexes. To this end, the health benefits of genistein and the effects of this dietary agent in a multigeneration study in rats will be described. It is envisioned that this symposium will assist in re-recognition of the importance of gender-related differences in use and response to pharmaceuticals and result in optimization of nonclinical testing procedures to identify benefits and

  15. Feasibility analysis of reciprocating magnetic heat pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, A. V.; Hartley, J. G.; Shelton, Sam V.; Smith, M. M.

    1989-01-01

    A reciprocating gadolinium core in a regeneration fluid column in the warm bore of a superconducting solenoidal magnet is considered for magnetic refrigeration in 3.517 MW (1000 ton) applications. A procedure is presented to minimize the amount of superconducting cable needed in the magnet design. Estimated system capital costs for an ideal magnetic refrigerator of this type become comparable to conventional chillers as the frequency of reciprocation approaches 10 Hertz. A 1-D finite difference analysis of a regenerator cycling at 0.027 Hertz is presented which exhibits some of the features seen in the experiments of G. V. Brown.

  16. Enhanced additive manufacturing with a reciprocating platen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Randall F.; Blue, Craig A.; Love, Lonnie J.; Post, Brian K.; Lloyd, Peter D.

    2018-02-06

    An additive manufacturing extrusion head that includes a heated nozzle for accepting a feedstock and extruding the feedstock onto a substrate at a deposition plane, the nozzle having a longitudinal extrusion axis. A reciprocating platen surrounds the nozzle, the platen operable to reciprocate along the extrusion axis at or above the deposition plane as the nozzle extrudes feedstock onto the substrate; and wherein the platen flattens the extruded feedstock such that it does not protrude above the deposition plane as the extrusion head traverses over the substrate.

  17. Supersymmetric reciprocal transformation and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Q. P.; Popowicz, Ziemowit; Tian Kai

    2010-01-01

    The supersymmetric analog of the reciprocal transformation is introduced. This is used to establish a transformation between one of the supersymmetric Harry Dym equations and the supersymmetric modified Korteweg-de Vries equation. The reciprocal transformation, as a Baecklund-type transformation between these two equations, is adopted to construct a recursion operator for the supersymmetric Harry Dym equation. By proper factorization of the recursion operator, a bi-Hamiltonian structure is found for the supersymmetric Harry Dym equation. Furthermore, a supersymmetric Kawamoto equation is proposed and is associated with the supersymmetric Sawada-Kotera equation. The recursion operator and odd bi-Hamiltonian structure of the supersymmetric Kawamoto equation are also constructed.

  18. Reciprocity principle in stochastic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooke, J.A.; Guz, W.; Prugovecki, E.

    1982-01-01

    Born's reciprocity theory can be combined with a recently proposed framework for quantum spacetime by requiring that the free test particle propagators obey the Born-Lande equation in addition to the Klein-Gordon equation. If, furthermore, the coordinate transition amplitudes in between various standards are required to be eigenfunctions of Born's metric operator, then a mass formula results which predicts linear dependence on spin of the squared rest mass of elementary particles. This procedure also leads to a guage and reciprocally invariant formulation of the relativistic canonical commutation relations

  19. Redistribution by insurance market regulation: Analyzing a ban on gender-based retirement annuities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Amy; Poterba, James; Rothschild, Casey

    2009-01-01

    We illustrate how equilibrium screening models can be used to evaluate the economic consequences of insurance market regulation. We calibrate and solve a model of the United Kingdom's compulsory annuity market and examine the impact of gender-based pricing restrictions. We find that the endogenous adjustment of annuity contract menus in response to such restrictions can undo up to half of the redistribution from men to women that would occur with exogenous Social Security-like annuity contracts. Our findings indicate the importance of endogenous contract responses and illustrate the feasibility of employing theoretical insurance market equilibrium models for quantitative policy analysis.

  20. Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Xia Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The miR-15/107 family comprises a group of 10 paralogous microRNAs (miRNAs, sharing a 5′ AGCAGC sequence. These miRNAs have overlapping targets. In order to characterize the expression of miR-15/107 family miRNAs, we employed customized TaqMan Low-Density micro-fluid PCR-array to investigate the expression of miR-15/107 family members, and other selected miRNAs, in 11 human tissues obtained at autopsy including the cerebral cortex, frontal cortex, primary visual cortex, thalamus, heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach and skeletal muscle. miR-103, miR-195 and miR-497 were expressed at similar levels across various tissues, whereas miR-107 is enriched in brain samples. We also examined the expression patterns of evolutionarily conserved miR-15/107 miRNAs in three distinct primary rat brain cell preparations (enriched for cortical neurons, astrocytes and microglia, respectively. In primary cultures of rat brain cells, several members of the miR-15/107 family are enriched in neurons compared to other cell types in the central nervous system (CNS. In addition to mature miRNAs, we also examined the expression of precursors (pri-miRNAs. Our data suggested a generally poor correlation between the expression of mature miRNAs and their precursors. In summary, we provide a detailed study of the tissue and cell type-specific expression profile of this highly expressed and phylogenetically conserved family of miRNA genes.

  1. Frequency and physical factors associated with gender-based violence in the internally displaced people of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayum, Mehran; Mohmand, Sundas; Arooj, Hina

    2012-01-01

    Gender-based violence frequency and associated physical factors were determined in internally displaced people camp of Jalozai (Pakistan). Majority of families reported that security conditions were lacking and washrooms were neither illuminated (68%, n=29) nor locked (82%, n=31). Reported incidents of emotional violence were 56% (n=35), physical violence 42% (n=26) and sexual violence 18% (n=11). Health facilities reported 12 cases of gender-based violence/ month. No health education on prevention of gender-based violence (93%, n=56) neither psychologist was provided by any health facility. There was no refugee committee (95%, n=59) for women protection and health education (93%, n=56) for prevention of gender-based violence was done. To safeguard women and children proper lightening of passage, lock facilities in washrooms and timely reporting of gender-based violence cases should be ensured. This can be established by creating women protection committees and by conducting health education programs for gender-based violence.

  2. Low Latency Digit-Recurrence Reciprocal and Square-Root Reciprocal Algorithm and Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antelo, Elisardo; Lang, Tomas; Montuschi, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    The reciprocal and square-root reciprocal operations are important in several applications. For these operations, we present algorithms that combine a digit-by-digit module and one iteration of a quadratic-convergence approximation. The latter is implemented by a digit-recurrence, which uses......-up of about 2 and, because of the approximation part, the area factor is also about 2. We also show a combined implementation for both operations that has essentially the same complexity as that for square-root reciprocal alone....

  3. Film, Parable, Reciprocity. Frederick Wiseman’s “Reality Fictions” and Social Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyda Faber

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay argues that social criticism may be an effect of Frederick Wiseman’s “re¬ality fiction” films only if that effect is understood as analogous to that of parable, an awakened responsiveness to the unknown and the unresolved. The irresolution witnessed repeatedly in his films is the reality of “radical inequality” within institu¬tions in democracy, with domination ranging from explicit exploitative relations to subtle aural and bodily cues. Within those relations, Wiseman opens up the space of parable as a vision and practice of reciprocity and more-than-reciprocity through, among others, filmic strategies of “lyric portraiture” and expressive “democratic noise”. Furthermore, Wiseman’s camera extends more-than-reciprocity to animals in a filmic style that shows human and animal relations as visceral markers of what otherwise might remain unseen in human-to-human relations.

  4. Eliminating Gender-Based Bias in Academic Medicine: More Than Naming the "Elephant in the Room".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Anna U; Chaiyachati, Krisda H; Weissman, Gary E; Liao, Joshua M

    2018-06-01

    Gender-based discrimination and bias are widespread in professional settings, including academic medicine. Overt manifestations such as sexual harassment have long been identified but attention is only more recently turning towards subtler forms of bias, including inequity in promotion and compensation. Barriers to progress vary across institutions and include lack of awareness, inadequate training, poor informational transparency, and challenging power dynamics. We propose five solutions that the academic medical community can adopt to not only name, but also address, gender-based bias as the proverbial elephant in the room: definitively identify the systemic nature of the problem, prompt those with influence and power to advance a culture of equity, broadly incorporate evidence-based explicit anti-sexist training, increase transparency of information related to professional development and compensation, and use robust research methods to study the drivers and potential solutions of gender inequity within academic medicine. While implementing these proposals is no small task, doing so is an important step in helping the academic medical community become more just.

  5. Reciprocity, Materialism and Welfare: An Evolutionary Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Anders

    2001-01-01

    We analyze preference evolution in a simple bargaining situation. Preferences for reciprocity, who sustain a conflict-free outcome, may be viable if players have enough information about the opponent's preferences. However, depending on the initial starting point preference evolution can in gener...... both enhance and reduce welfare, relative to the situation where all players have materialistic perferences....

  6. Reciprocity theorem in high-temperature superconductors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janeček, I.; Vašek, Petr

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 390, - (2003), s. 330-340 ISSN 0921-4534 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/00/1602; GA AV ČR IAA1010919 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : transport properties * reciprocity theorem Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.192, year: 2003

  7. Onsager's reciprocity theorem in extended irreversible thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Colin, L.S.; Velasco, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we shall discuss the Onsager relations for the transport coefficients in a dilute monatomic gas described by the extended irreversible thermodynamics. Our discussion is based on a 26 variables description of the system and its corresponding comparison with the kinetic reciprocity between coefficients is shown (Author)

  8. Development of Trust and Reciprocity in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Wouter; Westenberg, Michiel; van Dijk, Eric; Crone, Eveline A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the development of two types of prosocial behavior, trust and reciprocity, as defined using a game-theoretical task that allows investigation of real-time social interaction, among 4 age groups from 9 to 25 years. By manipulating the possible outcome alternatives, we could distinguish among important determinants of trust and…

  9. Tuition Reciprocity in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Gregory; Wright, Dianne Brown; Kennedy, Angelica

    2008-01-01

    Reciprocity agreements are contracts between two or more parties whereby students pay reduced tuition rates. The rate of reduction is determined by the parameters set forth in each individual state's agreement but may range from a modest reduction in fees to a waiver of full non-resident tuition. In addition to providing tuition relief,…

  10. Cooperation under indirect reciprocity and imitative trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Serguei; Smith, David; Reed-Tsochas, Felix

    2010-10-27

    Indirect reciprocity, a key concept in behavioral experiments and evolutionary game theory, provides a mechanism that allows reciprocal altruism to emerge in a population of self-regarding individuals even when repeated interactions between pairs of actors are unlikely. Recent empirical evidence show that humans typically follow complex assessment strategies involving both reciprocity and social imitation when making cooperative decisions. However, currently, we have no systematic understanding of how imitation, a mechanism that may also generate negative effects via a process of cumulative advantage, affects cooperation when repeated interactions are unlikely or information about a recipient's reputation is unavailable. Here we extend existing evolutionary models, which use an image score for reputation to track how individuals cooperate by contributing resources, by introducing a new imitative-trust score, which tracks whether actors have been the recipients of cooperation in the past. We show that imitative trust can co-exist with indirect reciprocity mechanisms up to a threshold and then cooperation reverses -revealing the elusive nature of cooperation. Moreover, we find that when information about a recipient's reputation is limited, trusting the action of third parties towards her (i.e. imitating) does favor a higher collective cooperation compared to random-trusting and share-alike mechanisms. We believe these results shed new light on the factors favoring social imitation as an adaptive mechanism in populations of cooperating social actors.

  11. Cooperation under indirect reciprocity and imitative trust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serguei Saavedra

    Full Text Available Indirect reciprocity, a key concept in behavioral experiments and evolutionary game theory, provides a mechanism that allows reciprocal altruism to emerge in a population of self-regarding individuals even when repeated interactions between pairs of actors are unlikely. Recent empirical evidence show that humans typically follow complex assessment strategies involving both reciprocity and social imitation when making cooperative decisions. However, currently, we have no systematic understanding of how imitation, a mechanism that may also generate negative effects via a process of cumulative advantage, affects cooperation when repeated interactions are unlikely or information about a recipient's reputation is unavailable. Here we extend existing evolutionary models, which use an image score for reputation to track how individuals cooperate by contributing resources, by introducing a new imitative-trust score, which tracks whether actors have been the recipients of cooperation in the past. We show that imitative trust can co-exist with indirect reciprocity mechanisms up to a threshold and then cooperation reverses -revealing the elusive nature of cooperation. Moreover, we find that when information about a recipient's reputation is limited, trusting the action of third parties towards her (i.e. imitating does favor a higher collective cooperation compared to random-trusting and share-alike mechanisms. We believe these results shed new light on the factors favoring social imitation as an adaptive mechanism in populations of cooperating social actors.

  12. Reciprocity in Preschool Peers' Social Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Jih-Perng Peter

    This study sought to describe the norms of reciprocity in social interaction from the viewpoint of immediate behavioral exchanges by examining the social interaction of preschool peers in a free-play situation. Seventeen 4-year-old children, eight girls and nine boys, were observed during free play activity periods after a picture sociometric test…

  13. Supervisory behavior, reciprocity and subordinate absenteeism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierendonck, van D.; Blanc, Le P.M.; Breukelen, van W.

    2002-01-01

    The present study among 242 professionals working in a lung clinic and nursing home was designed to test a model that links supervisory behavior (i.e. leader member exchange (LMX) behavior and conflict management behavior) and reciprocity in the supervisor/subordinate relationship to objectively

  14. Integral Inequalities for Self-Reciprocal Polynomials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Annual Meetings · Mid Year Meetings · Discussion Meetings · Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 120; Issue 2. Integral Inequalities for Self-Reciprocal Polynomials. Horst Alzer. Volume 120 Issue 2 April 2010 ...

  15. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor flavopiridol disrupts sodium butyrate-induced p21WAF1/CIP1 expression and maturation while reciprocally potentiating apoptosis in human leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosato, Roberto R; Almenara, Jorge A; Cartee, Leanne; Betts, Vicki; Chellappan, Srikumar P; Grant, Steven

    2002-02-01

    Interactions between the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor flavopiridol (FP) and the histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate (SB) have been examined in human leukemia cells (U937) in relation to differentiation and apoptosis. Whereas 1 mM of SB or 100 nM of FP minimally induced apoptosis (4% and 10%, respectively) at 24 h, simultaneous exposure of U937 cells to these agents dramatically increased cell death (e.g., approximately 60%), reflected by both morphological and Annexin/propidium iodide-staining features, procaspase 3 activation, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. Similar interactions were observed in human promyelocytic (HL-60), B-lymphoblastic (Raji), and T-lymphoblastic (Jurkat) leukemia cells. Coadministration of FP opposed SB-mediated accumulation of cells in G0G1 and differentiation, reflected by reduced CD11b expression, but instead dramatically increased procaspase-3, procaspase-8, Bid, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, as well as mitochondrial damage (e.g., loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release). FP also blocked SB-related p21WAF1-CIP1 induction through a caspase-independent mechanism and triggered the caspase-mediated cleavage of p27KIP1 and retinoblastoma protein. The latter event was accompanied by a marked reduction in retinoblastoma protein/E2F1 complex formation. However, FP did not modify the extent of SB-associated acetylation of histones H3 and H4. Treatment of cells with FP/SB also resulted in the caspase-mediated cleavage of Bcl-2 and caspase-independent down-regulation of Mcl-1. Levels of cyclins A, D1, and E, and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis also declined in SB/FP-treated cells. Finally, FP/SB coexposure potently induced apoptosis in two primary acute myelogenous leukemia samples. Together, these findings demonstrate that FP, when combined with SB, induces multiple perturbations in cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory proteins, which oppose leukemic cell differentiation but instead

  16. The specificity of reciprocity: Young children reciprocate more generously to those who intentionally benefit them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaish, Amrisha; Hepach, Robert; Tomasello, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Young children engage in direct reciprocity, but the mechanisms underlying such reciprocity remain unclear. In particular, prior work leaves unclear whether children's reciprocity is simply a response to receiving benefits (regardless of whether the benefits were intended) or driven by a mechanism of rewarding or preferring all benefactors (regardless of whom they benefited). Alternatively, perhaps children engage in genuine reciprocity such that they are particularly prosocial toward benefactors who intentionally provided them with benefits. Our findings support this third, richer possibility; the 3-year-olds who received benefits through the good intentions of a benefactor were subsequently more generous toward the benefactor than children who either (a) received the same benefits from the benefactor unintentionally or (b) observed the benefactor bestow the same benefits on another individual. Thus, young children are especially motivated to benefit those who have demonstrated goodwill toward them, suggesting, as one possible mechanism, an early sense of gratitude. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Profit Sharing and Reciprocity: Theory and Survey Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelissen, Thomas; Heywood, John S.; Jirjahn, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    The 1/n problem potentially limits the effectiveness of profit sharing in motivating workers. While the economic literature suggests that reciprocity can mitigate this problem, it remains silent on the optimal degree of reciprocity. We present a representative model demonstrating that reciprocity may increase productive effort but may also increase unproductive effort such as socializing on the job. The model implies that reciprocity increases profit up to a point but decreases profit beyond ...

  18. A 1.5 GFLOPS Reciprocal Unit for Computer Graphics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nannarelli, Alberto; Rasmussen, Morten Sleth; Stuart, Matthias Bo

    2006-01-01

    The reciprocal operation 1/d is a frequent operation performed in graphics processors (GPUs). In this work, we present the design of a radix-16 reciprocal unit based on the algorithm combining the traditional digit-by-digit algorithm and the approximation of the reciprocal by one Newton-Raphson i...

  19. Reciprocity, social ties, and competition in markets for experience goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    2007-01-01

    a positive externality for non-reciprocal customers who would, in the absence of reciprocal types, face market breakdown. This efficiency-enhancing effect of reciprocity is boosted when there are social ties between consumers and competition between firms. The existence of social ties or competition alone...

  20. 32 CFR 634.16 - Reciprocal state-military action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Reciprocal state-military action. 634.16 Section... Reciprocal state-military action. (a) Commanders will recognize the interests of the states in matters of POV... formal military reciprocity, the procedures below will be adopted: (1) Commanders will recognize official...

  1. Short-Term Reciprocity in Late Parent-Child Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Thomas; Raab, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Long-term concepts of parent-child reciprocity assume that the amount of support given and received is only balanced in a generalized fashion over the life course. We argue that reciprocity in parent-child relationships also operates in the short term. Our analysis of short-term reciprocity focuses on concurrent exchange in its main upward and…

  2. Familial Reciprocity and Subjective Well-Being in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Chang; Dzorgbo, Dan-Bright S.

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated variations in reciprocity and the impact of reciprocity on well-being in a West African society. They hypothesized that household size and income diversity encourage reciprocity, which in turn enhances subjective well-being. In empirical testing of these hypotheses the authors used the data of the Core Welfare Indicators…

  3. Gender-Based Violence: The Romanian Public Agenda and its Missing Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Badea

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The current article examines recent trends in the development of public policies addressing gender- based violence in Romania. By undertaking an analysis of the legal and institutional framework from a gender perspective, we seek to understand how and if the new developments have the potential to promote women’s rights and actively support gender equality. As a contextual reading is key to understanding the current dynamics, specific references to the Romanian background will be made along the way. While recent legal progress in this area could indicate a promising perspective, our article will point out the inconsistencies and missing points of current policies, inviting to a cautious and vigilant approach. Potential avenues for improvements, as well as key challenges in how we address violence against women will briefly be discussed.

  4. The role of mental health in primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Aník; Dartnall, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In this short communication, we assert that mental health has a crucial role in the primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). However, we found that most research and practice to date has focused on the role of mental health post-violence, and SGBV primary prevention is relying on public health models that do not explicitly include mental health. Yet, key concepts, processes, and competencies in the mental health field appear essential to successful SGBV primary prevention. For example, empathy, self-esteem, compassion, emotional regulation and resilience, stress management, relationship building, and challenging problematic social norms are crucial. Furthermore, competencies such as rapport building, group processing, emotional nurturing, modelling, and the prevention of vicarious trauma among staff are important for the successful implementation of SGBV primary prevention programmes. SGBV primary prevention work would benefit from increased collaboration with mental health professionals and integration of key mental health concepts, processes, and skills in SGBV research.

  5. The role of mental health in primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aník Gevers

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this short communication, we assert that mental health has a crucial role in the primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV. However, we found that most research and practice to date has focused on the role of mental health post-violence, and SGBV primary prevention is relying on public health models that do not explicitly include mental health. Yet, key concepts, processes, and competencies in the mental health field appear essential to successful SGBV primary prevention. For example, empathy, self-esteem, compassion, emotional regulation and resilience, stress management, relationship building, and challenging problematic social norms are crucial. Furthermore, competencies such as rapport building, group processing, emotional nurturing, modelling, and the prevention of vicarious trauma among staff are important for the successful implementation of SGBV primary prevention programmes. SGBV primary prevention work would benefit from increased collaboration with mental health professionals and integration of key mental health concepts, processes, and skills in SGBV research.

  6. Mainstreaming domestic and gender-based violence into sociology and the criminology of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walby, Sylvia; Towers, Jude; Francis, Brian

    2014-12-01

    Sociological and criminological views of domestic and gender-based violence generally either dismiss it as not worthy of consideration, or focus on specific groups of offenders and victims (male youth gangs, partner violence victims). In this paper, we take a holistic approach to violence, extending the definition from that commonly in use to encompass domestic violence and sexual violence. We operationalize that definition by using data from the latest sweep of the Crime Survey for England and Wales. By so doing, we identify that violence is currently under-measured and ubiquitous; that it is gendered, and that other forms of violence (family violence, acquaintance violence against women) are equally of concern. We argue that violence studies are an important form of activity for sociologists.

  7. GENDER-BASED DIFFERENCES IN SCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN’S DIVERGENT THINKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Roue

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether the shortage of females in science and engineering is linked to possible gender-based differences in school-aged children’s divergent thinking. Divergent thinking is a direct measure of creativity and an important characteristic in science and engineering. A survey instrument designed to measure divergent thinking was administered to 8th and 11th graders in a mid-western United States school district. Results showed that there were no difference between girls and boys on the three measures of divergent thinking: fluency, flexibility, and originality. These results indicate little reason as to why participation in science and engineering is male dominated, and support the notion that additional exposure to science and engineering through divergent-thinking activities will provide girls with the self-knowledge that they are capable of solving open-ended problems and engineering tasks.

  8. Barriers and Facilitators to Engaging Communities in Gender-Based Violence Prevention following a Natural Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloand, Elizabeth; Killion, Cheryl; Gary, Faye A; Dennis, Betty; Glass, Nancy; Hassan, Mona; Campbell, Doris W; Callwood, Gloria B

    2015-11-01

    Humanitarian workers in disaster settings report a dramatic increase in gender-based violence (GBV). This was true after the 2010 Haiti earthquake when women and girls lost the relative security of their homes and families. Researchers from the United States Virgin Islands and the United States mainland responded by collaborating with Haitian colleagues to develop GBV-focused strategies. To start, the research team performed a situational analysis to insure that the project was culturally, ethically, and logistically appropriate. The aim of this paper is to describe how the situational analysis framework helped the researchers effectively approach this community. Using post-earthquake Haiti as an exemplar, we identify key steps, barriers, and facilitators to undertaking a situational analysis. Barriers included logistics, infrastructure, language and community factors. Facilitators included established experts, organizations and agencies. Researchers in such circumstances need to be respectful of community members as experts and patient with local environmental and cultural conditions.

  9. Mainstreaming domestic and gender-based violence into sociology and the criminology of violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walby, Sylvia; Towers, Jude; Francis, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Sociological and criminological views of domestic and gender-based violence generally either dismiss it as not worthy of consideration, or focus on specific groups of offenders and victims (male youth gangs, partner violence victims). In this paper, we take a holistic approach to violence, extending the definition from that commonly in use to encompass domestic violence and sexual violence. We operationalize that definition by using data from the latest sweep of the Crime Survey for England and Wales. By so doing, we identify that violence is currently under-measured and ubiquitous; that it is gendered, and that other forms of violence (family violence, acquaintance violence against women) are equally of concern. We argue that violence studies are an important form of activity for sociologists. PMID:25641992

  10. Sex and gender-based analysis in pharmacy practice research: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Lisa; Milne, Emily; Waite, Nancy; Cooke, Martin; Cook, Katie; Chang, Feng; Sproule, Beth A

    2017-11-01

    Recognizing the potential effect of sex and gender on health outcomes, there is a shift toward conducting sex and gender-based analysis (SGBA) within health research. However, little is known about the extent to which SGBA has been incorporated into pharmacy practice research. To understand the extent to which SGBA is included in pharmacy practice research. Scoping review of English-language studies identified through MEDLINE, Embase, International Pharmacy Abstracts (IPA), and CINAHL (inception to Jan 2014). Two raters independently screened citations to identify titles and abstracts that included key words related to sex or gender and studies that could be categorized as pharmacy practice research. One author extracted data from included studies related to study design, population, intervention/exposure and outcomes, with results reviewed by another. All authors reviewed eligible articles to categorize them based on a previously-developed typology, and to assess four criteria: 1) the inclusion of sex or gender in research objectives, 2) the depth of sex/gender analysis incorporated into study designs and reporting, 3) the inclusion of sex or gender considerations in interpretation of study results, 4) the intentional and accurate use of sex/gender language. Of 458 unique search results, only six articles met the inclusion criteria. Two of these six publications included sex/gender considerations in a model consistent with sex/gender based analysis as described by Hammarström. Three of the six studies inaccurately applied sex and gender terminology, whereas the two studies that featured sex or gender in their primary research question did use these terms appropriately. Despite increasing attention on the need for considering sex and gender, there was a paucity of pharmacy practice research publications that conducted SGBA. This presents an opportunity to explore sex, gender and intersectionality when pursuing studies that explore the impact of pharmacists

  11. Dynamic Reciprocity in the Wound Microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Gregory S.; Davidson, Jeffrey M.; Kirsner, Robert S.; Bornstein, Paul; Herman, Ira M.

    2011-01-01

    Here, we define dynamic reciprocity (DR) as an ongoing, bidirectional interaction amongst cells and their surrounding microenvironment. In the review, we posit that DR is especially meaningful during wound healing as the DR-driven biochemical, biophysical and cellular responses to injury play pivotal roles in regulating tissue regenerative responses. Such cell-extracellular matrix interactions not only guide and regulate cellular morphology, but cellular differentiation, migration, proliferation, and survival during tissue development, including e.g. embryogenesis, angiogenesis, as well as during pathologic processes including cancer diabetes, hypertension and chronic wound healing. Herein, we examine DR within the wound microenvironment while considering specific examples across acute and chronic wound healing. This review also considers how a number of hypotheses that attempt to explain chronic wound pathophysiology, which may be understood within the DR framework. The implications of applying the principles of dynamic reciprocity to optimize wound care practice and future development of innovative wound healing therapeutics are also briefly considered. PMID:21362080

  12. Reciprocity as a Foundation of Financial Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Timothy C

    This paper argues that the subsistence of the fundamental theorem of contemporary financial mathematics is the ethical concept 'reciprocity'. The argument is based on identifying an equivalence between the contemporary, and ostensibly 'value neutral', Fundamental Theory of Asset Pricing with theories of mathematical probability that emerged in the seventeenth century in the context of the ethical assessment of commercial contracts in a framework of Aristotelian ethics. This observation, the main claim of the paper, is justified on the basis of results from the Ultimatum Game and is analysed within a framework of Pragmatic philosophy. The analysis leads to the explanatory hypothesis that markets are centres of communicative action with reciprocity as a rule of discourse. The purpose of the paper is to reorientate financial economics to emphasise the objectives of cooperation and social cohesion and to this end, we offer specific policy advice.

  13. Reciprocal Regulation between Enterovirus 71 and the NLRP3 Inflammasome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71 is the major etiological agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD. Early studies showed that EV71-infected patients with severe complications exhibited elevated plasma levels of IL-1β, indicating that EV71 may activate inflammasomes. Our current study demonstrates that the NLRP3 inflammasome plays a protective role against EV71 infection of mice in vivo. EV71 replication in myeloid cells results in the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and secretion of IL-1β. Conversely, EV71 counteracts inflammasome activation through cleavage of NLRP3 by viral proteases 2A and 3C, which cleave NLRP3 protein at the G493-L494 or Q225-G226 junction, respectively. Moreover, EV71 3C interacts with NLRP3 and inhibits IL-1β secretion when expressed in mammalian cells. These results thus reveal a set of reciprocal regulations between enterovirus 71 and the NLRP3 inflammasome.

  14. Reciprocal mass tensor : a general form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, C.L.

    1978-01-01

    Using the results of earlier treatment of wave packets, a general form of reciprocal mass tensor has been obtained. The elements of this tensor are seen to be dependent on momentum as well as space coordinates of the particle under consideration. The conditions under which the tensor would reduce to the usual space-independent form, are discussed and the impact of the space-dependence of this tensor on the motion of Bloch electrons, is examined. (author)

  15. Generalized Weierstrass Relations and Frobenius Reciprocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsutani, Shigeki

    2006-01-01

    This article investigates local properties of the further generalized Weierstrass relations for a spin manifold S immersed in a higher dimensional spin manifold M from the viewpoint of the study of submanifold quantum mechanics. We show that the kernel of a certain Dirac operator defined over S, which we call a submanifold Dirac operator, gives the data of the immersion. In the derivation, the simple Frobenius reciprocity of Clifford algebras S and M plays an important role

  16. Metal segmenting using abrasive and reciprocating saws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.P.; Fetrow, L.K.; Haun, F.E. Jr.

    1987-06-01

    This paper evaluates a light-weight, high-power abrasive saw for segmenting radioactively contaminated metal components. A unique application of a reciprocating mechanical saw for the remote disassembly of equipment in a hot cell also is described. The results of this work suggest that use of these techniques for selected remote sectioning applications could minimize operational and access problems and be very cost effective in comparison with other inherently faster sectioning methods. 2 refs., 7 figs

  17. The TORE SUPRA fast reciprocating RF probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.E. Jr.; Harris, J.H.; Haste, G.R.

    1994-01-01

    A fast reciprocating ICRF (Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies) probe was installed and operated on TORE SUPRA during 1992/1993. The body of the probe was originally used on the ATF experiment at ORNL. The probe was adapted for use on TORE SUPRA, and mounted on one of the two fast reciprocating probe mounts. The probe consists of two orthogonal single-turn wire loops, mounted so that one loop senses toroidal RF magnetic fields and the other senses poloidal RF magnetic fields. The probe began operation in June, 1993. The probe active area is approximately 5 cm long by 2 cm, and the reciprocating mount has a slow stroke (5 cm/sec) of 30 cm by 2 cm, and the reciprocating mount has a slow stroke (5 cm/sec) of 30 cm and a fast stroke (1.5 m/sec) of about 10 cm. The probe was operated at distances from the plasma edge ranging from 30 cm to -5 cm (i.e., inside the last closed flux surface). The probe design, electronics, calibration, data acquisition and data processing are discussed. First data from the probe are presented as a function of ICRF power, distance from the plasma, loop orientation, and other plasma parameters. Initial data shows parametric instabilities do not play an important role for ICRF in the TORE SUPRA edge and scrape-off-layer (SOL) plasmas. Additionally it is observed that the probe signal has little or no dependence on position in the SOL/plasma edge

  18. TORE SUPRA fast reciprocating radio frequency probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.E. Jr.; Harris, J.H.; Haste, G.R.; Kwon, M.; Goulding, R.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Saoutic, B.; Becoulet, A.; Fraboulet, D.; Beaumont, B.; Kuus, H.; Ladurelle, L.; Pascal, J.Y.

    1995-01-01

    A fast reciprocating ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) probe was installed and operated on TORE SUPRA during 1992/1993. The body of the probe was originally used on the ATF experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The probe was adapted for use on TORE SUPRA, and mounted on one of the two fast reciprocating probe mounts. The probe consists of two orthogonal single-turn wire loops, mounted so that one loop senses toroidal rf magnetic fields and the other senses poloidal rf magnetic fields. The probe began operation in June, 1993. The probe active area is approximately 5 cm long by 2 cm, and the reciprocating mount has a slow stroke (5 cm/s) of 30 cm and a fast stroke (1.5 m/s) of about 10 cm. The probe was operated at distances from the plasma edge ranging from 30 to -5 cm (i.e., inside the last closed flux surface). The probe design, electronics, calibration, data acquisition, and data processing are discussed. First data from the probe are presented as a function of ICRF power, distance from the plasma, loop orientation, and other plasma parameters. Initial data show parametric instabilities do not play an important role for ICRF in the TORE SUPRA edge and scrape-off-layer (SOL) plasmas. Additionally it is observed that the probe signal has little or no dependence on position in the SOL/plasma edge

  19. Grooming reciprocity in male Tibetan macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dong-Po; Li, Jin-Hua; Garber, Paul A; Matheson, Megan D; Sun, Bing-Hua; Zhu, Yong

    2013-10-01

    In several primate species, adult males are reported to compete for access to reproductive partners as well as forming affiliative and cohesive social bonds based on the exchange of goods or services. We hypothesized that among a broad set of fitness-maximizing strategies, grooming can be used by individual adult males to enhance social relationships through reciprocity and/or through the interchange of grooming for a different but equivalent good or service. We used focal animal sampling and continuously recorded dyadic grooming and agonistic interactions to test a series of predictions regarding male social interactions in a free-ranging group of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Huangshan, China. During the non-mating season or between males of similar rank throughout the year, grooming effort given was matched by grooming effort received. However, lower ranking males groomed higher ranking males at a greater rate and/or for a longer duration during both the mating and non-mating periods. We found that higher ranking males directed less aggression towards males with whom they formed a frequent grooming partnership, indicating that grooming received was interchanged for increased social tolerance. These data suggest that individual male Tibetan macaques employ alternative social strategies associated with grooming reciprocity or interchange depending on dominance rank and rates of aggression, and highlight the importance of both biological markets and grooming reciprocity as behavioral mechanisms used by resident adult males to form and maintain affiliative social bonds. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. EXPRESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancelin, C.; Le, P.; DeSaint-Quentin, S.; Villatte, N.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents EXPRESS, an expert system developed for the automation of reliability studies. The first part consists in the description of the method for static thermohydraulic systems. In this step, the authors define the knowledge representation based on the two inference engines - ALOUETTE and LCR developed by EDF. They explain all the process to construct a fault tree from a topological and functional description of the system. Numerous examples are exhibited in illustration of the method. This is followed by the lessons derived from the studies performed on some safety systems of the PALUEL nuclear plant. The development of the same approach for electric power systems is described, insisting on the difference resulting from the sequential nature of these systems. Finally, they show the main advantages identified during the studies

  1. A reciprocidade nos contratos: uma análise expressivista Contractual reciprocity: an expressivist analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Martins Zanitelli

    2011-06-01

    suas decisões. o artigo foi organizado da seguinte maneira. após a introdução, que contém breves notas sobre o expressivismo jurídico, a parte II oferece uma definição geral e algumas concepções mais precisas acerca da reciprocidade nos contratos. em relação a cada uma dessas concepções, referem-se algumas dificuldades ou inconvenientes, ligados, sobretudo, à tentativa de fazer valer a reciprocidade por meio de restrições à eficácia legal de contratos espontaneamente celebrados. a parte III é dedicada às duas formas de análise da expressão legal do valor da reciprocidade, correspondentes às duas formas de expressivismo antes referidas; trata, portanto, a uma, de definir por que a expressão em lei do valor da reciprocidade nos contratos é intrinsecamente importante e, a duas, de aventar que consequáncias essa expressão pode ter - com especial atenção, no último caso, à eventual influáncia que o acréscimo simbólico do valor da reciprocidade à legislação contratual pode exercer sobre as razões de agir dos contratantes. na parte IV, comparam-se duas maneiras pelas quais o valor da reciprocidade pode ser expresso na legislação: uma, abstrata, pela qual a reciprocidade seja proclamada sem que se faça alusão a uma concepção mais precisa sobre aquilo em que a reciprocidade consiste, e outra, concreta, na qual transpareça uma determinada concepção de reciprocidade ou uma particular demanda para a manutenção da reciprocidade em certos contratos. a parte V conclui o artigo com algumas sugestões para a pesquisa futura.This paper tries to establish why the law of contracts should express the value of reciprocity. Although scholars have intensively discussed equality in exchange and the prohibition of unfair terms in contracts, few attention has been paid to the questions of knowing if and why it matters that the value of reciprocity be incorporated to the expressive content of contract law, that is, that the law, through the

  2. DEVELOPING AND THE ANALYSIS OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS OF GENERATORS OF LINEAR AND RECIPROCATING TYPES WITH ELECTROMAGNETIC EXCITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Menzhinski

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical modeling of generators of linear and reciprocating types with electromagnetic excitation resulted in obtaining the equivalent electrical circuit and diagrams of magnetic circuit of generators as well as the expressions that describe the electromagnetic processes in generators of linear and reciprocating types with electromagnetic excitation is presented in the article. Mathematical models of generators of linear and reciprocating types with electromagnetic excitation take into account the geometrical parameters of the magnetic system of generators, effect of the armature reaction, the unequal distribution of the magnetic field in the magnetic system of the generators and the dependence of the scattering coefficient and the fringe effect (in linear generators and buckling (in the reciprocating electric generators on the coordinates of the movement. An evaluation of the effectiveness of the generators of linear and reciprocating types with electromagnetic excitation was performed that demonstrated that the efficiency of the reciprocating generator with electromagnetic excitation is limited to the amount of movement of the moving part of the generator that can be considered as a drawback of this type of generators. Therefore, the reciprocating generator with electromagnetic excitation is more effective to be used in a small value of the working stroke of the movable part of it or in conjunction with a linear generator as a compensator of the end effect in reciprocating motion. In the linear generator the rate of change of inductance and mutual inductance throughout the movement of the moving part is practically constant. So if an increase of the magnitude of the working stroke of the movable part takes place the benefits of the linear generator are undeniable. However, it should be noted that a reduction of the stroke magnitude of the movable part of the linear generator is limited by constructional dimensions of the magnetic

  3. Reciprocity on the hardwood: passing patterns among professional basketball players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robb Willer

    Full Text Available Past theory and research view reciprocal resource sharing as a fundamental building block of human societies. Most studies of reciprocity dynamics have focused on trading among individuals in laboratory settings. But if motivations to engage in these patterns of resource sharing are powerful, then we should observe forms of reciprocity even in highly structured group environments in which reciprocity does not clearly serve individual or group interests. To this end, we investigated whether patterns of reciprocity might emerge among teammates in professional basketball games. Using data from logs of National Basketball Association (NBA games of the 2008-9 season, we estimated a series of conditional logistic regression models to test the impact of different factors on the probability that a given player would assist another player in scoring a basket. Our analysis found evidence for a direct reciprocity effect in which players who had "received" assists in the past tended to subsequently reciprocate their benefactors. Further, this tendency was time-dependent, with the probability of repayment highest soon after receiving an assist and declining as game time passed. We found no evidence for generalized reciprocity - a tendency to "pay forward" assists - and only very limited evidence for indirect reciprocity - a tendency to reward players who had sent others many assists. These findings highlight the power of reciprocity to shape human behavior, even in a setting characterized by extensive planning, division of labor, quick decision-making, and a focus on inter-group competition.

  4. Reciprocity on the hardwood: passing patterns among professional basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willer, Robb; Sharkey, Amanda; Frey, Seth

    2012-01-01

    Past theory and research view reciprocal resource sharing as a fundamental building block of human societies. Most studies of reciprocity dynamics have focused on trading among individuals in laboratory settings. But if motivations to engage in these patterns of resource sharing are powerful, then we should observe forms of reciprocity even in highly structured group environments in which reciprocity does not clearly serve individual or group interests. To this end, we investigated whether patterns of reciprocity might emerge among teammates in professional basketball games. Using data from logs of National Basketball Association (NBA) games of the 2008-9 season, we estimated a series of conditional logistic regression models to test the impact of different factors on the probability that a given player would assist another player in scoring a basket. Our analysis found evidence for a direct reciprocity effect in which players who had "received" assists in the past tended to subsequently reciprocate their benefactors. Further, this tendency was time-dependent, with the probability of repayment highest soon after receiving an assist and declining as game time passed. We found no evidence for generalized reciprocity - a tendency to "pay forward" assists - and only very limited evidence for indirect reciprocity - a tendency to reward players who had sent others many assists. These findings highlight the power of reciprocity to shape human behavior, even in a setting characterized by extensive planning, division of labor, quick decision-making, and a focus on inter-group competition.

  5. Reciprocity in quantum, electromagnetic and other wave scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deák, L.; Fülöp, T.

    2012-01-01

    The reciprocity principle is that, when an emitted wave gets scattered on an object, the scattering transition amplitude does not change if we interchange the source and the detector—in other words, if incoming waves are interchanged with appropriate outgoing ones. Reciprocity is sometimes confused with time reversal invariance, or with invariance under the rotation that interchanges the location of the source and the location of the detector. Actually, reciprocity covers the former as a special case, and is fundamentally different from–but can be usefully combined with–the latter. Reciprocity can be proved as a theorem in many situations and is found violated in other cases. The paper presents a general treatment of reciprocity, discusses important examples, shows applications in the field of photon (Mössbauer) scattering, and establishes a fruitful connection with a recently developing area of mathematics. - Highlights: ► A frame independent generalized reciprocity theorem of scattering theory is given. ► Reciprocity for two spin/polarization degrees of freedom is detailed. ► Relationship of reciprocity to time reversal and to 180 degree rotation is discussed. ► Reciprocal and nonreciprocal settings in Mossbauer spectroscopy are studied. ► The symmetry of diffuse omega-scans is explained with the aid of reciprocity.

  6. Reciprocal products of chromosomal translocations in human cancer pathogenesis: key players or innocent bystanders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, Eduardo M; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

    2002-08-01

    Chromosomal translocations are frequently involved in the pathogenesis of leukemias, lymphomas and sarcomas. They can lead to aberrant expression of oncogenes or the generation of chimeric proteins. Classically, one of the products is thought to be oncogenic. For example, in acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL), reciprocal chromosomal translocations involving the retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARalpha) gene lead to the formation of two fusion genes: X-RARalpha and RARalpha-X (where X is the alternative RARalpha fusion partner: PML, PLZF, NPM, NuMA and STAT 5b). The X-RARalpha fusion protein is indeed oncogenic. However, recent data indicate that the RARalpha-X product is also critical in determining the biological features of this leukemia. Here, we review the current knowledge on the role of reciprocal products in cancer pathogenesis, and highlight how their expression might impact on the biology of their respective tumour types.

  7. Polar-phase indices of perioral muscle reciprocity during syllable production in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Shin Ying; Barlow, Steven M; Lee, Jaehoon; Wang, Jingyan

    2017-12-01

    This research characterised perioral muscle reciprocity and amplitude ratio in lower lip during bilabial syllable production [pa] at three rates to understand the neuromotor dynamics and scaling of motor speech patterns in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Electromyographic (EMG) signals of the orbicularis oris superior [OOS], orbicularis oris inferior [OOI] and depressor labii inferioris [DLI] were recorded during syllable production and expressed as polar-phase notations. PD participants exhibited the general features of reciprocity between OOS, OOI and DLI muscles as reflected in the EMG during syllable production. The control group showed significantly higher integrated EMG amplitude ratio in the DLI:OOS muscle pairs than PD participants. No speech rate effects were found in EMG muscle reciprocity and amplitude magnitude across all muscle pairs. Similar patterns of muscle reciprocity in PD and controls suggest that corticomotoneuronal output to the facial nucleus and respective perioral muscles is relatively well-preserved in our cohort of mild idiopathic PD participants. Reduction of EMG amplitude ratio among PD participants is consistent with the putative reduction in the thalamocortical activation characteristic of this disease which limits motor cortex drive from generating appropriate commands which contributes to bradykinesia and hypokinesia of the orofacial mechanism.

  8. Revisiting "The evolution of reciprocity in sizable groups": continuous reciprocity in the repeated n-person prisoner's dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takezawa, Masanori; Price, Michael E

    2010-05-21

    For many years in evolutionary science, the consensus view has been that while reciprocal altruism can evolve in dyadic interactions, it is unlikely to evolve in sizable groups. This view had been based on studies which have assumed cooperation to be discrete rather than continuous (i.e., individuals can either fully cooperate or else fully defect, but they cannot continuously vary their level of cooperation). In real world cooperation, however, cooperation is often continuous. In this paper, we re-examine the evolution of reciprocity in sizable groups by presenting a model of the n-person prisoner's dilemma that assumes continuous rather than discrete cooperation. This model shows that continuous reciprocity has a dramatically wider basin of attraction than discrete reciprocity, and that this basin's size increases with efficiency of cooperation (marginal per capita return). Further, we find that assortative interaction interacts synergistically with continuous reciprocity to a much greater extent than it does with discrete reciprocity. These results suggest that previous models may have underestimated reciprocity's adaptiveness in groups. However, we also find that the invasion of continuous reciprocators into a population of unconditional defectors becomes realistic only within a narrow parameter space in which the efficiency of cooperation is close to its maximum bound. Therefore our model suggests that continuous reciprocity can evolve in large groups more easily than discrete reciprocity only under unusual circumstances. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An Examination of Strategies for the Prevention of Gender-Based Violence at Four-Year Institutions of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafonek, Katherine; Richards, Tara N.

    2017-01-01

    Although gender-based violence prevention programs at institutions of higher education (IHEs) are mandated by federal legislation, research focusing on the prevalence or content of programming is limited. The present exploratory research examines campus websites for a nationally representative sample of Title IX eligible IHEs that offer at least a…

  10. Gender-Based Violence: Young Women's Experiences in the Slums and Streets of Three Sub-Saharan African Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduro, Georgina Yaa; Swartz, Sharlene; Arnot, Madeleine

    2012-01-01

    Using a social ecological approach (Bronfenbrenner) to violence and including Hobsbawm's historical analysis of the collective uses of violence, this article shows how gender-based violence is experienced and used. Drawing on three distinct studies in Ghana, Kenya and South Africa, it shows the commonalities and divergence of young people's…

  11. Doorways II: Community Counselor Reference Materials. On School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). This booklet, "Doorways II: Community Counselor Reference Materials on…

  12. Doorways II: Community Counselor Training Manual on School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). Doorways II was designed for community counselors to prevent and respond to…

  13. Realizing total reciprocity violation in the phase for photon scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deák, László; Bottyán, László; Fülöp, Tamás; Merkel, Dániel Géza; Nagy, Dénes Lajos; Sajti, Szilárd; Schulze, Kai Sven; Spiering, Hartmut; Uschmann, Ingo; Wille, Hans-Christian

    2017-02-22

    Reciprocity is when wave or quantum scattering satisfies a symmetry property, connecting a scattering process with the reversed one. While reciprocity involves the interchange of source and detector, it is fundamentally different from rotational invariance, and is a generalization of time reversal invariance, occurring in absorptive media as well. Due to its presence at diverse areas of physics, it admits a wide variety of applications. For polarization dependent scatterings, reciprocity is often violated, but violation in the phase of the scattering amplitude is much harder to experimentally observe than violation in magnitude. Enabled by the advantageous properties of nuclear resonance scattering of synchrotron radiation, we have measured maximal, i.e., 180-degree, reciprocity violation in the phase. For accessing phase information, we introduced a new version of stroboscopic detection. The scattering setting was devised based on a generalized reciprocity theorem that opens the way to construct new types of reciprocity related devices.

  14. Mortality salience increases personal relevance of the norm of reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Simon; Reinhard, Marc-André; Stahlberg, Dagmar

    2012-10-01

    Research on terror management theory found evidence that people under mortality salience strive to live up to salient cultural norms and values, like egalitarianism, pacifism, or helpfulness. A basic, strongly internalized norm in most human societies is the norm of reciprocity: people should support those who supported them (i.e., positive reciprocity), and people should injure those who injured them (i.e., negative reciprocity), respectively. In an experiment (N = 98; 47 women, 51 men), mortality salience overall significantly increased personal relevance of the norm of reciprocity (M = 4.45, SD = 0.65) compared to a control condition (M = 4.19, SD = 0.59). Specifically, under mortality salience there was higher motivation to punish those who treated them unfavourably (negative norm of reciprocity). Unexpectedly, relevance of the norm of positive reciprocity remained unaffected by mortality salience. Implications and limitations are discussed.

  15. REGIONAL RECIPROCAL GUARANTEE SOCIETIES IN VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando J. Canelones

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to describe the operation of services offered by the Regional Mutual Guarantee Societies (SGRs in Venezuela, and to present synthetically, the rudiments for constitution, as well as the legal basis that must rule them, through conducting an executive summary of the Law of the National System of Reciprocal Guarantees for Small and Medium Business and the Promotion, Constitution and Functioning Rules of National Mutual Funds and Guarantees and SGRs.  The methodology used in this research is documentary, through a literature review and exploration that allowed inferences about the importance of Regional SGRs in Venezuela, as financing alternative

  16. Robustness of Long Span Reciprocal Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balfroid, Nathalie; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2011-01-01

    engineer may take necessary steps to design robust structures that are insensitive to accidental circumstances. The present paper makes a discussion of such robustness issues related to the future development of reciprocal timber structures. The paper concludes that these kind of structures can have...... a potential as long span timber structures in real projects if they are carefully designed with respect to the overall robustness strategies.......Robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure. The interest has also been facilitated due to recently severe structural failures...

  17. Reinforcement learning account of network reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezaki, Takahiro; Masuda, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    Evolutionary game theory predicts that cooperation in social dilemma games is promoted when agents are connected as a network. However, when networks are fixed over time, humans do not necessarily show enhanced mutual cooperation. Here we show that reinforcement learning (specifically, the so-called Bush-Mosteller model) approximately explains the experimentally observed network reciprocity and the lack thereof in a parameter region spanned by the benefit-to-cost ratio and the node's degree. Thus, we significantly extend previously obtained numerical results.

  18. Reinforcement learning account of network reciprocity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Ezaki

    Full Text Available Evolutionary game theory predicts that cooperation in social dilemma games is promoted when agents are connected as a network. However, when networks are fixed over time, humans do not necessarily show enhanced mutual cooperation. Here we show that reinforcement learning (specifically, the so-called Bush-Mosteller model approximately explains the experimentally observed network reciprocity and the lack thereof in a parameter region spanned by the benefit-to-cost ratio and the node's degree. Thus, we significantly extend previously obtained numerical results.

  19. Ultimate and proximate explanations of strong reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vromen, Jack

    2017-08-23

    Strong reciprocity (SR) has recently been subject to heated debate. In this debate, the "West camp" (West et al. in Evol Hum Behav 32(4):231-262, 2011), which is critical of the case for SR, and the "Laland camp" (Laland et al. in Science, 334(6062):1512-1516, 2011, Biol Philos 28(5):719-745, 2013), which is sympathetic to the case of SR, seem to take diametrically opposed positions. The West camp criticizes advocates of SR for conflating proximate and ultimate causation. SR is said to be a proximate mechanism that is put forward by its advocates as an ultimate explanation of human cooperation. The West camp thus accuses advocates of SR for not heeding Mayr's original distinction between ultimate and proximate causation. The Laland camp praises advocates of SR for revising Mayr's distinction. Advocates of SR are said to replace Mayr's uni-directional view on the relation between ultimate and proximate causes by the bi-directional one of reciprocal causation. The paper argues that both the West camp and the Laland camp misrepresent what advocates of SR are up to. The West camp is right that SR is a proximate cause of human cooperation. But rather than putting forward SR as an ultimate explanation, as the West camp argues, advocates of SR believe that SR itself is in need of ultimate explanation. Advocates of SR tend to take gene-culture co-evolutionary theory as the correct meta-theoretical framework for advancing ultimate explanations of SR. Appearances notwithstanding, gene-culture coevolutionary theory does not imply Laland et al.'s notion of reciprocal causation. "Reciprocal causation" suggests that proximate and ultimate causes interact simultaneously, while advocates of SR assume that they interact sequentially. I end by arguing that the best way to understand the debate is by disambiguating Mayr's ultimate-proximate distinction. I propose to reserve "ultimate" and "proximate" for different sorts of explanations, and to use other terms for distinguishing

  20. Reciprocity relation for multichannel coupling kernels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotanch, S.R.; Satchler, G.R.

    1981-01-01

    Assuming time-reversal invariance of the many-body Hamiltonian, it is proven that the kernels in a general coupled-channels formulation are symmetric, to within a specified spin-dependent phase, under the interchange of channel labels and coordinates. The theorem is valid for both Hermitian and suitably chosen non-Hermitian Hamiltonians which contain complex effective interactions. While of direct practical consequence for nuclear rearrangement reactions, the reciprocity relation is also appropriate for other areas of physics which involve coupled-channels analysis

  1. Is there reciprocity in preferential trade agreements on services?

    OpenAIRE

    Marchetti, Juan; Roy, Martin; Zoratto, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Are market access commitments on services in Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs) reciprocal or simply unilateral? If reciprocal, do concessions granted in services depend on concessions received from the trading partner in other services or in non-services areas as well? In this paper we investigate the presence of reciprocity in bilateral services agreements, by sub-sector, mode of supply and type of agreement (North-North, South-North, South-South). To do so, we use a database of concessio...

  2. Neural correlate of human reciprocity in social interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro eSakaiya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Reciprocity plays a key role maintaining cooperation in society. However, little is known about the neural process that underpins human reciprocity during social interactions. Our neuroimaging study manipulated partner identity (computer, human and strategy (random, tit-for-tat in repeated prisoner’s dilemma games and investigated the neural correlate of reciprocal interaction with humans. Reciprocal cooperation with humans but exploitation of computers by defection was associated with activation in the left amygdala. Amygdala activation was also positively and negatively correlated with a preference change for human partners following tit-for-tat and random strategies, respectively. The correlated activation represented the intensity of positive feeling toward reciprocal and negative feeling toward non-reciprocal partners, and so reflected reciprocity in social interaction. Reciprocity in social interaction, however, might plausibly be misinterpreted and so we also examined the neural coding of insight into the reciprocity of partners. Those with and without insight revealed differential brain activation across the reward-related circuitry (i.e., the right middle dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and dorsal caudate and theory of mind (ToM regions (i.e., ventromedial prefrontal cortex [VMPFC] and precuneus. Among differential activations, activation in the precuneus, which accompanied deactivation of the VMPFC, was specific to those without insight into human partners who were engaged in a tit-for-tat strategy. This asymmetric (deactivation might involve specific contributions of ToM regions to the human search for reciprocity. Consequently, the intensity of emotion attached to human reciprocity was represented in the amygdala, whereas insight into the reciprocity of others was reflected in activation across the reward-related and ToM regions. This suggests the critical role of mentalizing, which was not equated with reward expectation during

  3. Neural correlate of human reciprocity in social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaiya, Shiro; Shiraito, Yuki; Kato, Junko; Ide, Hiroko; Okada, Kensuke; Takano, Kouji; Kansaku, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Reciprocity plays a key role maintaining cooperation in society. However, little is known about the neural process that underpins human reciprocity during social interactions. Our neuroimaging study manipulated partner identity (computer, human) and strategy (random, tit-for-tat) in repeated prisoner's dilemma games and investigated the neural correlate of reciprocal interaction with humans. Reciprocal cooperation with humans but exploitation of computers by defection was associated with activation in the left amygdala. Amygdala activation was also positively and negatively correlated with a preference change for human partners following tit-for-tat and random strategies, respectively. The correlated activation represented the intensity of positive feeling toward reciprocal and negative feeling toward non-reciprocal partners, and so reflected reciprocity in social interaction. Reciprocity in social interaction, however, might plausibly be misinterpreted and so we also examined the neural coding of insight into the reciprocity of partners. Those with and without insight revealed differential brain activation across the reward-related circuitry (i.e., the right middle dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and dorsal caudate) and theory of mind (ToM) regions [i.e., ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and precuneus]. Among differential activations, activation in the precuneus, which accompanied deactivation of the VMPFC, was specific to those without insight into human partners who were engaged in a tit-for-tat strategy. This asymmetric (de)activation might involve specific contributions of ToM regions to the human search for reciprocity. Consequently, the intensity of emotion attached to human reciprocity was represented in the amygdala, whereas insight into the reciprocity of others was reflected in activation across the reward-related and ToM regions. This suggests the critical role of mentalizing, which was not equated with reward expectation during social interactions.

  4. Acoustic reciprocity: An extension to spherical harmonics domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarasinghe, Prasanga; Abhayapala, Thushara D; Kellermann, Walter

    2017-10-01

    Acoustic reciprocity is a fundamental property of acoustic wavefields that is commonly used to simplify the measurement process of many practical applications. Traditionally, the reciprocity theorem is defined between a monopole point source and a point receiver. Intuitively, it must apply to more complex transducers than monopoles. In this paper, the authors formulate the acoustic reciprocity theory in the spherical harmonics domain for directional sources and directional receivers with higher order directivity patterns.

  5. Static and kinematic formulation of planar reciprocal assemblies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Sassone, Mario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2014-01-01

    Planar reciprocal frames are two dimensional structures formed by elements joined together according to the principle of structural reciprocity. In this paper a rigorous formulation of the static and kinematic problem is proposed and developed extending the theory of pin-jointed assemblies....... This formulation is used to evaluate the static and kinematic determinacy of reciprocal assemblies from the properties of their equilibrium and kinematic matrices...

  6. Smoking Behaviors Among Adolescents in Foster Care: A Gender-Based Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpiegel, Svetlana; Sussman, Steve; Sherman, Scott E; El Shahawy, Omar

    2017-09-19

    Adolescents in foster care are at high risk for cigarette smoking. However, it is not clear how their smoking behaviors vary by gender. The present study examined lifetime and current smoking among males and females, and explored gender-specific risk factors for engagement in smoking behaviors. Data from the Multi Site Evaluation of Foster Youth Programs was used to evaluate patterns of smoking among adolescents aged 12-18 years (N = 1121; 489 males, 632 females). Males and females did not differ significantly in rates of lifetime and current smoking, or in the age of smoking initiation and number of cigarettes smoked on a typical day. Gender-based analyses revealed that older age and placement in group homes or residential treatment facilities were associated with heightened risk of smoking among males. In contrast, sexual minority status (i.e., nonheterosexual orientation) and increased childhood victimization were associated with heightened risk of smoking among females. A history of running away was linked to smoking in both genders. Gender should be considered when designing intervention programs to address cigarette smoking among foster youth, as the stressors associated with smoking may differ for males and females.

  7. Gender-based differences and menstrual cycle-related changes in specific diseases: implications for pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensom, M H

    2000-05-01

    Pharmacists should be aware of gender-based differences and menstrual cycle-related changes in six diseases: asthma, arthritis, migraine, diabetes, depression, and epilepsy. In general, women report symptoms of physical illness at higher rates, visit physicians more frequently, and make greater use of other health care services than men. Whereas reasons for these gender differences are not fully clear, a combination of biologic, physiologic, social, behavioral, psychologic, and cultural factors most likely contributes. A significant percentage of women with asthma, arthritis, migraine, diabetes, depression, or epilepsy experience worsening of their disease premenstrually. The mechanism is unknown, but is speculated to be multifactorial because of many endogenous and exogenous modulators and mediators of each disease. As part of general therapy for cycle-related exacerbations of any one of these disorders, patients should be encouraged to use a menstrual calendar to track signs and symptoms for two to three cycles; if cyclic trends are identified, the women should anticipate exacerbations and avoid triggering factors. Cyclic modulation with pharmacotherapy may be attempted. If unsuccessful, a trial of medical ovulation suppression with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analog may be warranted. If that is successful, continuous therapy with a GnRH analog and steroid add-back therapy or less expensive alternatives may be effective. If pharmacotherapy is impractical, hysterectomy and bilateral oophorectomy with estrogen replacement therapy is a last resort. Gender differences and menstrual cycle-related changes are important areas for clinical and mechanistic research.

  8. Human rights of refugee-survivors of sexual and gender-based violence with communication disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Julie; Barrett, Helen

    2018-02-01

    Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (United Nations, 1948 ) states that all people have the right to seek, receive and impart information using any means. Ensuring that people with communication disability achieve this right is inherently challenging. For people with communication disability, who are refugee-survivors of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV), additional human rights are challenged, including the right to education, protection from discrimination, a safe place to live, security of person and legal protection. Their experiences and needs, however, are poorly understood. This paper reports on a literature review of the intersectionality between SGBV, being a refugee and having a communication disability, and a preliminary investigation of the situation of refugee-survivors of SGBV with communication disability, in Rwanda. The project involved 54 participants, including 50 humanitarian and partner organisation staff and four carers of refugees with communication disabilities, from two locations (camp-based and urban refugees). Findings from both revealed that, for people with communication disability, barriers are likely to occur at each step of preventing and responding to SGBV. Moreover, stigmatisation of people with communication disability challenges SGBV prevention/support and people with communication disability may be targeted by SGBV perpetrators. SGBV service providers acknowledge their lack of knowledge and skills about communication disability, but wish to learn. Findings highlight the need for increased knowledge and skill development, in order to improve the situation for refugee-survivors of SGBV with communication disability.

  9. Evaluation of a gender-based violence prevention program for student athletes in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth; Das, Madhumita; Tancredi, Daniel J; McCauley, Heather L; Virata, Maria Catrina D; Nettiksimmons, Jasmine; O'Connor, Brian; Ghosh, Sancheeta; Verma, Ravi

    2014-03-01

    Gender-based violence, which includes sexual and intimate partner violence against women, is prevalent worldwide, prompting calls for primary prevention programs which engage men and boys in changing social norms that condone violence against women. Bystander intervention efforts which encourage males to say something to stop peers from enacting disrespectful and abusive behaviors toward females are a promising strategy for promoting non-violent, gender-equitable attitudes and behaviors. An evaluation of "Parivartan"--a U.S. program called "Coaching Boys Into Men" adapted for urban India cricket teams--was conducted in Mumbai, India. Baseline and 12 month follow-up surveys were administered to 309 male cricket athletes aged 10 to 16 years in 46 urban middle schools in Mumbai, India (27 intervention, 19 control). Athletes whose coaches were trained in the program demonstrated greater improvements in gender-equitable attitudes compared to athletes whose coaches provided standard coaching only. Marginally significant improvements were seen in reduction of negative bystander behavior. Violence prevention programs which utilize coaches as positive messengers for respect and non-violence may be a useful addition to global prevention efforts to reduce violence against women.

  10. Community health workers as cultural producers in addressing gender-based violence in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Naydene; Mitchell, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    South Africa has been experiencing an epidemic of gender-based violence (GBV) for a long time and in some rural communities health workers, who are trained to care for those infected with HIV, are positioned at the forefront of addressing this problem, often without the necessary support. In this article, we pose the question: How might cultural production through media making with community health workers (CHWs) contribute to taking action to address GBV and contribute to social change in a rural community? This qualitative participatory arts-based study with five female CHWs working from a clinic in a rural district of South Africa is positioned as critical research, using photographs in the production of media posters. We offer a close reading of the data and its production and discuss three data moments: CHWs drawing on insider cultural knowledge; CHWs constructing messages; and CHWs taking action. In our discussion, we take up the issue of cultural production and then offer concluding thoughts on 'beyond engagement' when the researchers leave the community.

  11. Gender-Based Violence Causing Severe Multiple Injuries; a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalard Falschung

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gender-based violence (GBV against women has been identified as a global health and development issue. We reported a case of GBV causing sever, multiple injuries in a middle-aged female. Case report: A 47-year-old woman presented to emergency room with disturbed level of consciousness, shortness of breath and multiple patches of skin discoloration. On examination, the patient was semi-conscious, with multiple ecchymosis and bilateral decreased air entry. Computed tomography scan of the neck and chest showed six rib fractures on the left side, and eight rib fractures on the right side, sternal fracture, manubriosternal dislocation, bilateral hemothorax, fracture of body of eleventh thoracic vertebra, and fracture of cervical spine of fifth and seventh vertebrae. The patient was intubated and admitted to intensive care unit. She was discharged with good health condition after 23 days of hospital admission. Conclusion: GBV is still a cause of severe trauma that puts the patient’s life at risk.

  12. Development and Validation of an Adolescent Gender-Based Violence Scale (ESVIGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Penado-Abilleira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the construction of a new scale to estimate adolescent gender-based violence. The scale is specifically designed for this population and incorporates new forms of violence, such as cyberviolence. The sample consisted of 701 students aged between 13 and 18 years. The internal consistency of the scale showed a high reliability value in the overall scale (α = .965, as well as in the subscales of violence committed (α = .935 and violence suffered (α = .929. The results would suggest that the new scale is not only concise and useful, but also adapted to the current reality of adolescents. With a reduction in the number of items compared to the scales currently available (it has 13 bidirectional statements and a factorial structure with five types of violence (cyber-violence, verbal, physical, psychological, and sexual violence, the scale provides an up-to-date measure of the occurrence of this type of behavior in teen dating relationships.

  13. Alternative energy efficient membrane bioreactor using reciprocating submerged membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, J; Smith, S; Roh, H K

    2014-01-01

    A novel membrane bioreactor (MBR) pilot system, using membrane reciprocation instead of air scouring, was operated at constant high flux and daily fluctuating flux to demonstrate its application under peak and diurnal flow conditions. Low and stable transmembrane pressure was achieved at 40 l/m(2)/h (LMH) by use of repetitive membrane reciprocation. The results reveal that the inertial forces acting on the membrane fibers effectively propel foulants from the membrane surface. Reciprocation of the hollow fiber membrane is beneficial for the constant removal of solids that may build up on the membrane surface and inside the membrane bundle. The membrane reciprocation in the reciprocating MBR pilot consumed less energy than coarse air scouring used in conventional MBR systems. Specific energy consumption for the membrane reciprocation was 0.072 kWh/m(3) permeate produced at 40 LMH flux, which is 75% less than for a conventional air scouring system as reported in literature without consideration of energy consumption for biological aeration (0.29 kWh/m(3)). The daily fluctuating flux test confirmed that the membrane reciprocation is effective to handle fluctuating flux up to 50 LMH. The pilot-scale reciprocating MBR system successfully demonstrated that fouling can be controlled via 0.43 Hz membrane reciprocation with 44 mm or higher amplitude.

  14. On reciprocal Baecklund transformations of inverse scattering schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, C.; Wong, P.

    1984-01-01

    The notion of reciprocally related inverse scattering schemes is introduced and is shown to be a key component in the link between the AKNS and WKI schemes. Reciprocal auto-Baecklund transformations are represented both for a generalised Harry-Dym equation and an equation descriptive of nonlinear oscillation of elastic beams. Further, the N-loop soliton solution of the KIW equation is generated in a convenient parametric form via reciprocal Baecklund transformations. Finally, an important reduction to canonical spectral form is shown to be a reciprocal transformation. (Auth.)

  15. Reciprocating piston pump system with screw drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Gerald S. (Inventor); Moore, Nicholas R. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A pump system of the reciprocating piston type is described, which facilitates direct motor drive and cylinder sealing. A threaded middle potion of the piston is engaged by a nut connected to rotate with the rotor of an electric motor, in a manner that minimizes loading on the rotor by the use of a coupling that transmits torque to the nut but permits it to shift axially and radially with respect to the rotor. The nut has a threaded hydrostatic bearing for engaging the threaded piston portion, with an oil-carrying groove in the nut being interrupted. A fluid emitting seal located at the entrance to each cylinder, can serve to center the piston within the cylinder, wash the piston, and to aid in sealing. The piston can have a long stroke to diameter ratio to minimize reciprocations and wear on valves at high pressures. The voltage applied to the motor can be reversed prior to the piston reaching the end of its stroke, to permit pressure on the piston to aid in reversing the motor.

  16. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engines(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurlo, James [Dresser, Inc., Addison, TX (United States)

    2012-04-05

    The ARES program was initiated in 2001 to improve the overall brake thermal efficiency of stationary, natural gas, reciprocating engines. The ARES program is a joint award that is shared by Dresser, Inc., Caterpillar and Cummins. The ARES program was divided into three phases; ARES I (achieve 44% BTE), ARES II (achieve 47% BTE) and ARES III (achieve 50% BTE). Dresser, Inc. completed ARES I in March 2005 which resulted in the commercialization of the APG1000 product line. ARES II activities were completed in September 2010 and the technology developed is currently being integrated into products. ARES III activities began in October 2010. The ARES program goal is to improve the efficiency of natural gas reciprocating engines. The ARES project is structured in three phases with higher efficiency goals in each phase. The ARES objectives are as follows: 1. Achieve 44% (ARES I), 47% (ARES II), and 50% brake thermal efficiency (BTE) as a final ARES III objective 2. Achieve 0.1 g/bhp-hr NOx emissions (with after-treatment) 3. Reduce the cost of the produced electricity by 10% 4. Improve or maintain reliability, durability and maintenance costs

  17. Work satisfaction, burnout and gender-based inequalities among ophthalmologists in India: A survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Akshay Gopinathan; Jain, Pooja; Agarwal, Aniruddha; Jain, Vandana

    2017-01-01

    Ophthalmology is a rapidly evolving branch of medicine and advancing technology has raised the bar of patient expectations and outcomes. However, studies that assess physician stress and satisfaction especially in developing countries are limited in literature. This index study aims at looking at the levels of job satisfaction, burnout and perception of gender disparity among ophthalmologists in India. An Internet-based survey was sent out to ophthalmologists. 297 respondents replied with responses, which were anonymized and analyzed. Of the 297 respondents, 101 were female and 196 were male ophthalmologists. The mean duration of practice of the respondents was 14.66 years. 54.21% (161/297) responded affirmatively when asked if they were satisfied with their careers. 19% (56/297) were not satisfied. 26.94% (80/297) replied that although they were satisfied, they wished they had more time for family. A quarter (25.2%; 63 out of 250) of the respondents felt burnt-out at that stage of their careers. 68.35% (203/297) of the respondents felt that being a woman ophthalmologist in India was more challenging than being a male ophthalmologist. This perception was significantly more amongst women respondents (p working hours, and having to work harder were the challenges faced by female ophthalmologists. There was a significant difference in perception between male and female ophthalmologists regarding the presence of disparity in earnings given equal qualifications and experience with more women responding in the affirmative. Indian ophthalmologists have personally and professionally satisfying careers with low rates of burnout. While good family support and an understanding partner help ophthalmologists achieve good work-life balance, women ophthalmologists perceive a gender-based disparity when it comes to proving their worth and getting suitably remunerated.

  18. Sexual and Gender-Based Violence Attitudes and Experiences among Nine Sub-Saharan African Militaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Vienna R; Tran, Bonnie R; Harbertson, Judith; Langa, Antonio; Grillo, Michael; Kalombo, Olivier; Thomas, Anne G

    2017-01-01

    While sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) is recognized as an important factor driving the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa, attitudes toward and prevalence of SGBV within sub-Saharan African military populations are unknown. Data on SGBV were collected from military service members of nine sub-Saharan African militaries. Attitudes related to SGBV and characteristics of those who commit and experience SGBV are reported. Data for 8815 service members (8165 men and 650 women) aged 18 years or older who voluntarily participated in the Seroprevalence and Behavioral Epidemiology Risk Surveys from 2009 to 2014 were included in this secondary data analysis. Data were collected on demographics, HIV prevalence, SGBV attitudes, and experiences. Descriptive and bivariate statistical analyses were performed. 5% of men and 9% of women reported experiencing SGBV, and 6% of men reported they had ever committed SGBV. Men and women who had experienced SGBV were significantly more likely to agree with negative gender attitudes toward SGBV, and the majority of those who reported experiencing SGBV reported that SGBV was committed by someone outside of the military. This is the first study to examine SGBV in sub-Saharan military populations during periods of limited conflict. It provides evidence that SGBV is experienced by both male and female service members at rates not typically found in previous research examining SGBV in other military populations. A better understanding of SGBV in sub-Saharan military service members is necessary to ensure appropriate services and interventions are part of the military infrastructure. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Factors Affecting Gender-based Experiences for Residents in Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, Parul N.; Miller, Karen H.; Ziegler, Craig; Hertz, Rosanna; Hanna, Nevine; Dragun, Anthony E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Although women constitute approximately half of medical school graduates, an uneven gender distribution exists among many specialties, including radiation oncology, where women fill only one third of residency positions. Although multiple social and societal factors have been theorized, a structured review of radiation oncology resident experiences has yet to be performed. Methods and Materials: An anonymous and voluntary survey was sent to 611 radiation oncology residents practicing in the United States. Residents were asked about their gender-based experiences in terms of mentorship, their professional and learning environment, and their partnerships and personal life. Results: A total of 203 participants submitted completed survey responses. Fifty-seven percent of respondents were men, and 43% were women, with a mean age of 31 years (standard deviation=3.7 years). Although residents in general value having a mentor, female residents prefer mentors of the same gender (P<.001), and noted having more difficulty finding a mentor (P=.042). Women were more likely to say that they have observed preferential treatment based on gender (P≤.001), and they were more likely to perceive gender-specific biases or obstacles in their professional and learning environment (P<.001). Women selected residency programs based on gender ratios (P<.001), and female residents preferred to see equal numbers of male and female faculty (P<.001). Women were also more likely to perceive work-related strain than their male counterparts (P<.001). Conclusions: Differences in experiences for male and female radiation oncology residents exist with regard to mentorship and in their professional and learning environment.

  20. Factors Affecting Gender-based Experiences for Residents in Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry, Parul N., E-mail: pnbarr01@louisville.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Louisville, School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Miller, Karen H.; Ziegler, Craig [Department of Graduate Medical Education, University of Louisville, School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Hertz, Rosanna [Departments of Women' s and Gender Studies and Sociology, Wellesley College, Wellesley, Massachusetts (United States); Hanna, Nevine [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Utah, School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Dragun, Anthony E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Louisville, School of Medicine, Louisville, Kentucky (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: Although women constitute approximately half of medical school graduates, an uneven gender distribution exists among many specialties, including radiation oncology, where women fill only one third of residency positions. Although multiple social and societal factors have been theorized, a structured review of radiation oncology resident experiences has yet to be performed. Methods and Materials: An anonymous and voluntary survey was sent to 611 radiation oncology residents practicing in the United States. Residents were asked about their gender-based experiences in terms of mentorship, their professional and learning environment, and their partnerships and personal life. Results: A total of 203 participants submitted completed survey responses. Fifty-seven percent of respondents were men, and 43% were women, with a mean age of 31 years (standard deviation=3.7 years). Although residents in general value having a mentor, female residents prefer mentors of the same gender (P<.001), and noted having more difficulty finding a mentor (P=.042). Women were more likely to say that they have observed preferential treatment based on gender (P≤.001), and they were more likely to perceive gender-specific biases or obstacles in their professional and learning environment (P<.001). Women selected residency programs based on gender ratios (P<.001), and female residents preferred to see equal numbers of male and female faculty (P<.001). Women were also more likely to perceive work-related strain than their male counterparts (P<.001). Conclusions: Differences in experiences for male and female radiation oncology residents exist with regard to mentorship and in their professional and learning environment.

  1. Gender-based discrimination in South Africa: A quantitative analysis of fairness of remuneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renier Steyn

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Equity is important to most individuals and its perceived absence  may impact negatively on individual and organisational performance. The concept of equity presupposes fair treatment, while discrimination implies unfair treatment. The perceptions of discrimination, or being treated unfairly, may result from psycho-social processes, or from data that justifies discrimination and is quantifiable. Objectives: To assess whether differences in post grading and remuneration for males and females are based on gender, rather than on quantifiable variables that could justify these differences. Method: Biographical information was gathered from 1740 employees representing 29 organisations. The data collected included self-reported post grading (dependent variable and 14 independent variables, which may predict the employees’ post gradings. The independent variables related primarily to education, tenure and family responsibility. Results: Males reported higher post gradings and higher salaries than those of females, but the difference was not statistically significant and the practical significance of this difference was slight. Qualification types, job specific training, and membership of professional bodies did not affect post grading along gender lines. The ways in which work experience was measured had no influence on post grading or salary for either males or females. Furthermore, family responsibility, union membership and the type of work the employees performed did not influence the employees’ post grading. The only difference found concerned the unfair treatment of males, particularly those who were well-qualified.   Conclusions: Objective evidence of unfair gender-based discrimination affecting post grading and salary is scarce, and the few differences that do occur have little statistical and practical significance. Perceptions of being discriminated against may therefore more often be seen as the result of psycho-social processes and

  2. Efficient Design And Fabrication Of Free-Form Reciprocal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2013-01-01

    Structures based on the principle of reciprocity have been autonomously studied and used since the antiquity on the basis of different needs and purposes. The application of the principle of reciprocity requires the presence of at least two elements, at the same time both supporting and being sup...

  3. Static And Kinematic Formulation Of Planar Reciprocal Assemblies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2013-01-01

    Planar reciprocal frames are two dimensional structures formed by elements joined together according to the principle of structural reciprocity. In this paper a rigorous formulation of the static and kinematic problem is proposed and developed by extending the work on pin-jointed assemblies by Pe...

  4. Group differences in reciprocity, multiplexity and exchange : measures and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agneessens, Filip; Skvoretz, John

    Local forces structure social networks. One major and widely researched local force is reciprocity, often assumed to work homogeneously across actors-i.e., all actors are equally subject to the same level of force towards reciprocity. Other local forces, like multiplexity and exchange, are also

  5. Sex Differences in the Reciprocal Behaviour of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer van Ommeren, Tineke; Koot, Hans M.; Scheeren, Anke M.; Begeer, Sander

    2017-01-01

    Differences in the social limitations of girls compared to boys on the autism spectrum are still poorly understood. Impaired social-emotional reciprocity is a core diagnostic criterion for an autism spectrum disorder. This study compares sex differences in reciprocal behaviour in children with autism spectrum disorder (32 girls, 114 boys) and in…

  6. Structural optimization of free-form reciprocal structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an optimization algorithm for the design of structurally efficient free-form reciprocal structures. Because of the geometric complexity of reciprocal structures, only a few structural studies have been carried out so far, and we have a limited knowledge of the relation between...

  7. Disjunctured reciprocity: Paradoxes of community-school relationship in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pradhan, Uma; Shrestha, Shivana; Valentin, Karen

    2018-01-01

    and community. This article questions the simplistic assumption through an ethnographic study of community-school relationship in Nepal. While these relationships may conflict with the kind of reciprocity assumed in school governance policies, we argue that this disjunctured reciprocity, firstly, reflects...

  8. Using Excel's Matrix Operations to Facilitate Reciprocal Cost Allocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leese, Wallace R.; Kizirian, Tim

    2009-01-01

    The reciprocal method of service department cost allocation requires linear equations to be solved simultaneously. These computations are often so complex as to cause the abandonment of the reciprocal method in favor of the less sophisticated direct or step-down methods. Here is a short example demonstrating how Excel's sometimes unknown matrix…

  9. Apical extrusion of debris using reciprocating files and rotary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Procedure: Sixty extracted human mandibular premolars were used. The root canals were instrumented using reciprocating (WaveOne, Reciproc, SafeSider) or rotary ... and cross‑sections, and kinematics, and this situation may influence the amount of apically extruded debris through the apical foramen.[15]. The aim of this ...

  10. Sex differences in the reciprocal behaviour of children with autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backer van Ommeren, Tineke; Koot, Hans M; Scheeren, Anke M; Begeer, Sander

    2017-01-01

    Differences in the social limitations of girls compared to boys on the autism spectrum are still poorly understood. Impaired social-emotional reciprocity is a core diagnostic criterion for an autism spectrum disorder. This study compares sex differences in reciprocal behaviour in children with

  11. Reciprocal Relationships between Math Self-Concept and Math Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Wondimu; Minnaert, Alexander; Kuyper, Hans; van der Werf, Greetje

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the reciprocal relationships between self-concept and anxiety in mathematics. A sample of 495 grade 7 students (51% girls) completed self-report measures assessing self-concept and anxiety three times in a school year. Structural equation modeling was used to test a cross-lagged panel model of reciprocal effects between…

  12. 24 CFR 3282.11 - Preemption and reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preemption and reciprocity. 3282.11 Section 3282.11 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... and reciprocity. (a) No State manufactured home standard regarding manufactured home construction and...

  13. BitTorrent's dilemma: Enhancing reciprocity or reducing inequity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jia, A.L.; D'Acunto, L.; Meulpolder, M.; Pouwelse, J.A.; Epema, D.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Enhancing reciprocity has been one of the primary motivations for the design of incentive policies in BitTorrent-like P2P systems. Reciprocity implies that peers need to contribute their bandwidth to other peers if they want to receive bandwidth in return. However, the over-provisioning that

  14. Transient nature of cooperation by pay-it-forward reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horita, Yutaka; Takezawa, Masanori; Kinjo, Takuji; Nakawake, Yo; Masuda, Naoki

    2016-01-20

    Humans often forward kindness received from others to strangers, a phenomenon called the upstream or pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity. Some field observations and laboratory experiments found evidence of pay-it-forward reciprocity in which chains of cooperative acts persist in social dilemma situations. Theoretically, however, cooperation based on pay-it-forward reciprocity is not sustainable. We carried out laboratory experiments of a pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity game (i.e., chained gift-giving game) on a large scale in terms of group size and time. We found that cooperation consistent with pay-it-forward reciprocity occurred only in a first few decisions per participant and that cooperation originated from inherent pro-sociality of individuals. In contrast, the same groups of participants showed persisting chains of cooperation in a different indirect reciprocity game in which participants earned reputation by cooperating. Our experimental results suggest that pay-it-forward reciprocity is transient and disappears when a person makes decisions repeatedly, whereas the reputation-based reciprocity is stable in the same situation.

  15. Symmetry-based reciprocity: evolutionary constraints on a proximate mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campennì, Marco; Schino, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Background. While the evolution of reciprocal cooperation has attracted an enormous attention, the proximate mechanisms underlying the ability of animals to cooperate reciprocally are comparatively neglected. Symmetry-based reciprocity is a hypothetical proximate mechanism that has been suggested to be widespread among cognitively unsophisticated animals. Methods. We developed two agent-based models of symmetry-based reciprocity (one relying on an arbitrary tag and the other on interindividual proximity) and tested their ability both to reproduce significant emergent features of cooperation in group living animals and to promote the evolution of cooperation. Results. Populations formed by agents adopting symmetry-based reciprocity showed differentiated "social relationships" and a positive correlation between cooperation given and received: two common aspects of animal cooperation. However, when reproduction and selection across multiple generations were added to the models, agents adopting symmetry-based reciprocity were outcompeted by selfish agents that never cooperated. Discussion. In order to evolve, hypothetical proximate mechanisms must be able to stand competition from alternative strategies. While the results of our simulations require confirmation using analytical methods, we provisionally suggest symmetry-based reciprocity is to be abandoned as a possible proximate mechanism underlying the ability of animals to reciprocate cooperative interactions.

  16. Participation costs can suppress the evolution of upstream reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Jorge; Pestelacci, Enea; Berchtold, André; Tomassini, Marco

    2011-03-21

    Indirect reciprocity, one of the many mechanisms proposed to explain the evolution of cooperation, is the idea that altruistic actions can be rewarded by third parties. Upstream or generalized reciprocity is one type of indirect reciprocity in which individuals help someone if they have been helped by somebody else in the past. Although empirically found to be at work in humans, the evolution of upstream reciprocity is difficult to explain from a theoretical point of view. A recent model of upstream reciprocity, first proposed by Nowak and Roch (2007) and further analyzed by Iwagami and Masuda (2010), shows that while upstream reciprocity alone does not lead to the evolution of cooperation, it can act in tandem with mechanisms such as network reciprocity and increase the total level of cooperativity in the population. We argue, however, that Nowak and Roch's model systematically leads to non-uniform interaction rates, where more cooperative individuals take part in more games than less cooperative ones. As a result, the critical benefit-to-cost ratios derived under this model in previous studies are not invariant with respect to the addition of participation costs. We show that accounting for these costs can hinder and even suppress the evolution of upstream reciprocity, both for populations with non-random encounters and graph-structured populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. State Authorization Reciprocity Agreement: Participation and Access to Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuameze, Nkechi

    2017-01-01

    The State Authorization Reciprocity Agreement initiative was launched in 2014 to provide a uniform standard for the regulation of distance education across states in the United States. The system established by the National Council for State Authorization Reciprocity Agreement (NC-SARA) allows willing post-secondary institutions to participate…

  18. Lack of Acceptance of Reciprocity Norms in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    Two studies investigated preschool children's acceptance of the reciprocity norms that allow retaliation and that require returning favors. Children viewed cartoons that portrayed animal puppets involved in reciprocal or nonreciprocal aggressive and prosocial behavior. They were then asked to evaluate the actor in each cartoon as "good"…

  19. Structural Implications of Reciprocal Exchange: A Power-Dependence Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacich, Phillip; Bienenstock, Elisa Jayne

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents and tests a general model to predict emergent exchange patterns and power differences in reciprocal exchange networks when individual actors follow the norm of reciprocity. With an interesting qualification, the experimental results reported here support the power-dependence approach (Emerson 1972a, b): those who acquire the…

  20. Reciprocity and Dependency Considerations in Adult Donating and Verbal Judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lizette; McCommis, Bruce

    The norms of social responsibility and reciprocity govern altruistic behavior. Children and adults show a consistent developmental trend in comparisons of their responses to positive reciprocal situations and their subsequent altruism. Research indicates, however, that children, given the choice to behaviorally aid a needy individual, choose more…

  1. Guilt driven reciprocity in a psychological signaling game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fong, Y.; Huang, C.-Y.; Offerman, T.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a theory of reciprocity according to which reciprocal behavior is driven by a donor's guilt. Through an experiment we show that subjects respond to factors which induce guilt but do not reflect allocative equity or intention. When the guilt inducing factor is privately observed by the

  2. Guilt driven reciprocity in a psychological signaling game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fong, Y.; Huang, C.-Y.; Offerman, T.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a theory of reciprocity according to which reciprocal behavior is driven by a donor’s guilt. Through an experiment we show that subjects respond to factors which induce guilt but do not reflect allocative equity or intention. When the guilt inducing factor is privately observed by the

  3. 76 FR 12923 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines... pollutants for existing stationary spark ignition reciprocating internal combustion engines. The final rule... reciprocating internal combustion generation, engine. transmission, or distribution. 622110 Medical and surgical...

  4. 75 FR 51569 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol... for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental... hazardous air pollutants for existing stationary spark ignition reciprocating internal combustion engines...

  5. Sex differences in the reciprocal behaviour of children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer van Ommeren, Tineke; Koot, Hans M; Scheeren, Anke M; Begeer, Sander

    2017-08-01

    Differences in the social limitations of girls compared to boys on the autism spectrum are still poorly understood. Impaired social-emotional reciprocity is a core diagnostic criterion for an autism spectrum disorder. This study compares sex differences in reciprocal behaviour in children with autism spectrum disorder (32 girls, 114 boys) and in typically developing children (24 girls, 55 boys). While children with autism spectrum disorder showed clear limitations in reciprocal behaviour compared to typically developing children, sex differences were found only in the autism spectrum disorder group: girls with autism spectrum disorder had higher reciprocity scores than boys with autism spectrum disorder. However, compared to typically developing girls, girls with autism spectrum disorder showed subtle differences in reciprocal behaviour. The sex-specific response patterns in autism spectrum disorder can inform and improve the diagnostic assessment of autism in females.

  6. Design and Fabrication of a Free-Form Reciprocal Roof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the framework and the design and construction process of a freeform reciprocal pavilion realized during a one-week long workshop with the students of the 1st semester of the Master of Science in Architecture and Design, fall 2014, at Aalborg University. The workshop didactic...... of relations between design parameters and a wide array of measurable performances. Due to the reciprocal structures geometric complexity, the shape generation process is handled using the Reciprocalizer, a software tool developed by the author that embeds in a computational environment the constructional...... logic of reciprocal structures. It enables to engage in real time in iterative processes that allows unfolding the geometric complexity and turn it into a source of inspiration for expanding the design space and triggering the development of unique, adapted and integrated design solutions. Reciprocal...

  7. Conspiracy of Silence. The Loneliness of Victims of Gender-Based Peer Violence in Polish Junior High Schools. Research Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Chmura-Rutkowska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This research report is an integral part of a larger research project focused on analyzing peer violence which is driven by gender stereotypes and prejudices (including sexual harassment and which is experienced by female and male students of Polish junior high schools. The present qualitative research results are the effect of eight interviews and group discussions carried out in the first half of 2013. The interviewees and discussion participants were students of four different junior high schools in different towns and villages. The discussions focused on the following issues: girls' and boys' strategies of enduring, resisting or confronting gender-based violence and harassment; their reactions and coping mechanisms as victims and/or witnesses of gender-based violence or harassment; how adolescents perceived the roles of adults (that is teachers, parents, professionals in the their experiences of violence.

  8. Comprehensive model of a hermetic reciprocating compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B.; Ziviani, D.; Groll, E. A.

    2017-08-01

    A comprehensive simulation model is presented to predict the performance of a hermetic reciprocating compressor and to reveal the underlying mechanisms when the compressor is running. The presented model is composed of sub-models simulating the in-cylinder compression process, piston ring/journal bearing frictional power loss, single phase induction motor and the overall compressor energy balance among different compressor components. The valve model, leakage through piston ring model and in-cylinder heat transfer model are also incorporated into the in-cylinder compression process model. A numerical algorithm solving the model is introduced. The predicted results of the compressor mass flow rate and input power consumption are compared to the published compressor map values. Future work will focus on detailed experimental validation of the model and parametric studies investigating the effects of structural parameters, including the stroke-to-bore ratio, on the compressor performance.

  9. Retrofitting reciprocating compressors for noise control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, L.; Qualfe, R.

    1992-01-01

    The Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board recently enacted their noise control directive ID 88-1. The effects of this regulation on the operation of an oil and gas facility are discussed, and a specific case history is presented to provide a disciplined strategy for noise attenuation retrofits. An investigation was carried out into sound sources at a reciprocating compressor gas plant, revealing several sound sources: engine exhaust stacks, engine exhaust silencer shells, direct-drive fan cooler inlets, direct drive fan cooler outlets, aerial cooler inlets and aerial cooler outlets. Details are presented of the investigative techniques and order-ranking of sources by decibel level. When controlling engine exhaust noise, silencers or mufflers are the preferred treatment. Choice of type (reactive or absorptive) and specification of acoustical performance of a silencer are discussed. The gas plant achieved noise reductions of 6-13 dB, measured at affected residences, through the use of engine exhaust silencers. 4 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Reciprocity, passivity and causality in Willis materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlestein, Michael B; Sieck, Caleb F; Alù, Andrea; Haberman, Michael R

    2016-10-01

    Materials that require coupling between the stress-strain and momentum-velocity constitutive relations were first proposed by Willis (Willis 1981 Wave Motion 3 , 1-11. (doi:10.1016/0165-2125(81)90008-1)) and are now known as elastic materials of the Willis type, or simply Willis materials. As coupling between these two constitutive equations is a generalization of standard elastodynamic theory, restrictions on the physically admissible material properties for Willis materials should be similarly generalized. This paper derives restrictions imposed on the material properties of Willis materials when they are assumed to be reciprocal, passive and causal. Considerations of causality and low-order dispersion suggest an alternative formulation of the standard Willis equations. The alternative formulation provides improved insight into the subwavelength physical behaviour leading to Willis material properties and is amenable to time-domain analyses. Finally, the results initially obtained for a generally elastic material are specialized to the acoustic limit.

  11. Risk Factors for Smoking in Rural Women: The Role of Gender-Based Sexual and Intimate Partner Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Nemeth, Julianna M.; Bonomi, Amy E.; Lu, Bo; Lomax, Richard G.; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women living in Ohio Appalachia experience cervical cancer at disproportionately high rates. Intimate partner and sexual gender-based violence (GBV) and smoking are independent risk factors for cervical cancer and interact to heighten risk. Appalachian women smoke at higher rates than other Ohio women, but little is known about GBV exposure in the region. The purpose of this study was to establish prevalence of women's exposure to GBV in Ohio Appalachia and examine the association...

  12. The Use of the Clinical Ethnographic Narrative Interview to Understand and Support Help Seeking After Gender-Based Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Saint Arnault, Denise M.

    2017-01-01

    Gender-based violence (GBV), characterized by the abduction or rape of women and girls to humiliate, intimidate, and traumatize them and their communities, is a profoundly disturbing tactic in international conflict. Long after armed conflict has ended, survivors continue to experience physical injuries, psychological trauma, and social and cultural stigma. Guilt, shame, and continued interpersonal violence can become a normalized part of daily life, significantly challenging the road to heal...

  13. CSR as a Tool to Prevent Gender-Based Discrimination. A Case Study of the Textile Export Industry in India

    OpenAIRE

    Svedevall, Ida

    2015-01-01

    This thesis examines the ability of CSR as a tool in the efforts to reduce gender based discrimination in the textile industry in the Delhi area in India. This research focuses on the CSR work programs undertaken by foreign entities using the case study of the company Lindex. Given that discrimination occurs daily facilitated by embedded cultural structures this research questions how, and if, CSR interventions can be successful in address these underlying issues. This research draws on exist...

  14. Expanding the suite of measures of gender-based discrimination: gender differences in ablution facilities in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Steyn, Renier

    2012-01-01

    International treaties, national legislation and local by-laws all advocate the equal treatment of men and women, but claims of gender-based discrimination continue. Indicators of discrimination against women, including employment ratios and differences in income, show that there have been considerable gains in the recent past. These measures are, however, often biased. In this study a different, specific and concrete method of describing and detecting discrimination is presented, namely the ...

  15. The influence of the reciprocal hip joint link in the advanced reciprocating gait orthosis on standing performance in paraplegia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baardman, G.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Veltink, Petrus H.; Boom, H.B.K.; Zilvold, G.; Zilvold, G.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of reciprocally linking the hip hinges of a hip-knee-ankle-foot orthosis on standing performance was studied in a comparative trial of the Advanced Reciprocating Gait Orthosis (ARGO) and an ARGO in which the Bowden cable was removed (A_GO). Six male subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI)

  16. Attributing Responsibility, Sexist Attitudes, Perceived Social Support, and Self-Esteem in Aggressors Convicted for Gender-Based Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Molina, Mónica; Moreno-Manso, Juan Manuel; Guerrero-Barona, Eloísa; Cruz-Márquez, Beatriz

    2017-06-01

    This work analyzes how the assumption of responsibility by aggressors convicted for gender-based violence is related to sexist attitudes, self-esteem and perceived functional social support. Similarly, the predictive capacity of these variables is studied with respect to the aggressors' minimization of the harm done and a lack of attributing responsibility to themselves. The participants in the research were males condemned to prison sentences for crimes related with gender-based violence in Spain. The instruments applied were the Attribution of Responsibility and Minimization of Harm Scale, the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE), the Functional Social Support Questionnaire (FSSQ), and the Social Desirability Scale (SDS). The study concludes that sexist attitudes are related with a greater lack of attribution of responsibility, as well as with a greater tendency to minimize the harm done by the aggression. In addition, the aggressors with low self-esteem use self-defense as a strategy to justify the violence. Similarly, the presence of an adequate social support network for the aggressor increases the attribution of responsibility on the part of those convicted for gender-based violence.

  17. Evidence from the field: Findings on issues related to planning, implementing and evaluating gender-based programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Shelly; Randolph, Suzanne; Stokes, Shereitte; Winston, Stefanie

    2015-08-01

    An Initiative of the United States Department of Health and Human Services' Office on Women's Health (OWH), Coalition for a Healthier Community (CHC), supports ten grantees across the U.S. in the implementation of gender-based health interventions targeting women and girls. A national evaluation is assessing whether gender-focused public health systems approaches are sustainable and cost effective in addressing health disparities in women and girls. To inform the evaluation, a systematic examination was conducted of literature in both the public and private sector designed to track, assess, understand, and improve women's health, public health systems approaches, and the cost-effectiveness and sustainability of gender-based programs. A two-person team assured the quality of the results following the review of abstracts and full-text articles. Of 123 articles meeting eligibility criteria (See inclusion criteria described in Section 2.2 below), only 18 met inclusion criteria specific to a focus on a systems approach, cost-effectiveness and/or sustainability. Studies assessing systems approaches suggested their effectiveness in changing perceptions and increasing knowledge within a community; increasing involvement of local decision-makers and other community leaders in women's health issues; and increasing community capacity to address women and girls' health. Further evaluation of the cost-effectiveness and sustainability of gender-based approaches is needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Gender-based violence in conflict and displacement: qualitative findings from displaced women in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Andrea L; Pham, Kiemanh; Glass, Nancy; Loochkartt, Saskia; Kidane, Teemar; Cuspoca, Decssy; Rubenstein, Leonard S; Singh, Sonal; Vu, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Gender-based violence (GBV) is prevalent among, though not specific to, conflict affected populations and related to multifarious levels of vulnerability of conflict and displacement. Colombia has been marked with decades of conflict, with an estimated 5.2 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) and ongoing violence. We conducted qualitative research to understand the contexts of conflict, displacement and dynamics with GBV. This as part of a multi-phase, mixed method study, in collaboration with UNHCR, to develop a screening tool to confidentially identify cases of GBV for referral among IDP women who were survivors of GBV. Qualitative research was used to identify the range of GBV, perpetrators, contexts in conflict and displacement, barriers to reporting and service uptake, as well as to understand experiences of service providers. Thirty-five female IDPs, aged 18 years and older, who self-identified as survivors of GBV were enrolled for in-depth interviews in San Jose de Guaviare and Quibdo, Colombia in June 2012. Thirty-one service providers participated in six focus group discussions and four interviews across these sites. Survivors described a range of GBV across conflict and displacement settings. Armed actors in conflict settings perpetrated threats of violence and harm to family members, child recruitment, and, to a lesser degree, rape and forced abortion. Opportunistic violence, including abduction, rape, and few accounts of trafficking were more commonly reported to occur in the displacement setting, often perpetrated by unknown individuals. Intrafamilial violence, intimate partner violence, including physical and sexual violence and reproductive control were salient across settings and may be exacerbated by conflict and displacement. Barriers to reporting and services seeking were reported by survivors and providers alike. Findings highlight the need for early identification of GBV cases, with emphasis on confidential approaches and active

  19. Early-life stress is associated with gender-based vulnerability to epileptogenesis in rat pups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Desgent

    Full Text Available During development, the risk of developing mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE increases when the developing brain is exposed to more than one insult in early life. Early life insults include abnormalities of cortical development, hypoxic-ischemic injury and prolonged febrile seizures. To study epileptogenesis, we have developed a two-hit model of MTLE characterized by two early-life insults: a freeze lesion-induced cortical malformation at post-natal day 1 (P1, and a prolonged hyperthermic seizure (HS at P10. As early life stressors lead to sexual dimorphism in both acute response and long-term outcome, we hypothesized that our model could lead to gender-based differences in acute stress response and long-term risk of developing MTLE. Male and female pups underwent a freeze-lesion induced cortical microgyrus at P1 and were exposed to HS at P10. Animals were monitored by video-EEG from P90 to P120. Pre and post-procedure plasma corticosterone levels were used to measure stress response at P1 and P10. To confirm the role of sex steroids, androgenized female pups received daily testosterone injections to the mother pre-natally and post-natally for nine days while undergoing both insults. We demonstrated that after both insults females did not develop MTLE while all males did. This correlated with a rise in corticosterone levels at P1 following the lesion in males only. Interestingly, all androgenized females showed a similar rise in corticosterone at P1, and also developed MTLE. Moreover, we found that the cortical lesion significantly decreased the latency to generalized convulsion during hyperthermia at P10 in both genders. The cortical dysplasia volumes at adulthood were also similar between male and female individuals. Our data demonstrate sexual dimorphism in long-term vulnerability to develop epilepsy in the lesion + hyperthermia animal model of MTLE and suggest that the response to early-life stress at P1 contributes significantly to

  20. Reciprocal modulation of cognitive and emotional aspects in pianistic performances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia K Kodama Higuchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High level piano performance requires complex integration of perceptual, motor, cognitive and emotive skills. Observations in psychology and neuroscience studies have suggested reciprocal inhibitory modulation of the cognition by emotion and emotion by cognition. However, it is still unclear how cognitive states may influence the pianistic performance. The aim of the present study is to verify the influence of cognitive and affective attention in the piano performances. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Nine pianists were instructed to play the same piece of music, firstly focusing only on cognitive aspects of musical structure (cognitive performances, and secondly, paying attention solely on affective aspects (affective performances. Audio files from pianistic performances were examined using a computational model that retrieves nine specific musical features (descriptors--loudness, articulation, brightness, harmonic complexity, event detection, key clarity, mode detection, pulse clarity and repetition. In addition, the number of volunteers' errors in the recording sessions was counted. Comments from pianists about their thoughts during performances were also evaluated. The analyses of audio files throughout musical descriptors indicated that the affective performances have more: agogics, legatos, pianos phrasing, and less perception of event density when compared to the cognitive ones. Error analysis demonstrated that volunteers misplayed more left hand notes in the cognitive performances than in the affective ones. Volunteers also played more wrong notes in affective than in cognitive performances. These results correspond to the volunteers' comments that in the affective performances, the cognitive aspects of piano execution are inhibited, whereas in the cognitive performances, the expressiveness is inhibited. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, the present results indicate that attention to the emotional aspects of performance enhances expressiveness

  1. Reciprocal modulation of cognitive and emotional aspects in pianistic performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Marcia K Kodama; Fornari, José; Del Ben, Cristina M; Graeff, Frederico G; Leite, João Pereira

    2011-01-01

    High level piano performance requires complex integration of perceptual, motor, cognitive and emotive skills. Observations in psychology and neuroscience studies have suggested reciprocal inhibitory modulation of the cognition by emotion and emotion by cognition. However, it is still unclear how cognitive states may influence the pianistic performance. The aim of the present study is to verify the influence of cognitive and affective attention in the piano performances. Nine pianists were instructed to play the same piece of music, firstly focusing only on cognitive aspects of musical structure (cognitive performances), and secondly, paying attention solely on affective aspects (affective performances). Audio files from pianistic performances were examined using a computational model that retrieves nine specific musical features (descriptors)--loudness, articulation, brightness, harmonic complexity, event detection, key clarity, mode detection, pulse clarity and repetition. In addition, the number of volunteers' errors in the recording sessions was counted. Comments from pianists about their thoughts during performances were also evaluated. The analyses of audio files throughout musical descriptors indicated that the affective performances have more: agogics, legatos, pianos phrasing, and less perception of event density when compared to the cognitive ones. Error analysis demonstrated that volunteers misplayed more left hand notes in the cognitive performances than in the affective ones. Volunteers also played more wrong notes in affective than in cognitive performances. These results correspond to the volunteers' comments that in the affective performances, the cognitive aspects of piano execution are inhibited, whereas in the cognitive performances, the expressiveness is inhibited. Therefore, the present results indicate that attention to the emotional aspects of performance enhances expressiveness, but constrains cognitive and motor skills in the piano execution

  2. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, Doris; Boucher, Cheryl

    2009-09-30

    Energy independence and fuel savings are hallmarks of the nation’s energy strategy. The advancement of natural gas reciprocating engine power generation technology is critical to the nation’s future. A new engine platform that meets the efficiency, emissions, fuel flexibility, cost and reliability/maintainability targets will enable American manufacturers to have highly competitive products that provide substantial environmental and economic benefits in the US and in international markets. Along with Cummins and Waukesha, Caterpillar participated in a multiyear cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy to create a 50% efficiency natural gas powered reciprocating engine system with a 95% reduction in NOx emissions by the year 2013. This platform developed under this agreement will be a significant contributor to the US energy strategy and will enable gas engine technology to remain a highly competitive choice, meeting customer cost of electricity targets, and regulatory environmental standard. Engine development under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine System (ARES) program was divided into phases, with the ultimate goal being approached in a series of incremental steps. This incremental approach would promote the commercialization of ARES technologies as soon as they emerged from development and would provide a technical and commercial foundation of later-developing technologies. Demonstrations of the Phase I and Phase II technology were completed in 2004 and 2008, respectively. Program tasks in Phase III included component and system development and testing from 2009-2012. Two advanced ignition technology evaluations were investigated under the ARES program: laser ignition and distributed ignition (DIGN). In collaboration with Colorado State University (CSU), a laser ignition system was developed to provide ignition at lean burn and high boost conditions. Much work has been performed in Caterpillar’s DIGN program under the ARES program. This work

  3. Trust and Reciprocity: Are Effort and Money Equivalent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilares, Iris; Dam, Gregory; Kording, Konrad

    2011-01-01

    Trust and reciprocity facilitate cooperation and are relevant to virtually all human interactions. They are typically studied using trust games: one subject gives (entrusts) money to another subject, which may return some of the proceeds (reciprocate). Currently, however, it is unclear whether trust and reciprocity in monetary transactions are similar in other settings, such as physical effort. Trust and reciprocity of physical effort are important as many everyday decisions imply an exchange of physical effort, and such exchange is central to labor relations. Here we studied a trust game based on physical effort and compared the results with those of a computationally equivalent monetary trust game. We found no significant difference between effort and money conditions in both the amount trusted and the quantity reciprocated. Moreover, there is a high positive correlation in subjects' behavior across conditions. This suggests that trust and reciprocity may be character traits: subjects that are trustful/trustworthy in monetary settings behave similarly during exchanges of physical effort. Our results validate the use of trust games to study exchanges in physical effort and to characterize inter-subject differences in trust and reciprocity, and also suggest a new behavioral paradigm to study these differences. PMID:21364931

  4. Clustering in large networks does not promote upstream reciprocity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Masuda

    Full Text Available Upstream reciprocity (also called generalized reciprocity is a putative mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations with which players help others when they are helped by somebody else. It is a type of indirect reciprocity. Although upstream reciprocity is often observed in experiments, most theories suggest that it is operative only when players form short cycles such as triangles, implying a small population size, or when it is combined with other mechanisms that promote cooperation on their own. An expectation is that real social networks, which are known to be full of triangles and other short cycles, may accommodate upstream reciprocity. In this study, I extend the upstream reciprocity game proposed for a directed cycle by Boyd and Richerson to the case of general networks. The model is not evolutionary and concerns the conditions under which the unanimity of cooperative players is a Nash equilibrium. I show that an abundance of triangles or other short cycles in a network does little to promote upstream reciprocity. Cooperation is less likely for a larger population size even if triangles are abundant in the network. In addition, in contrast to the results for evolutionary social dilemma games on networks, scale-free networks lead to less cooperation than networks with a homogeneous degree distribution.

  5. The Role of Friendship Reciprocity in University Freshmen's Alcohol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Helge; Stok, F Marijn; Renner, Britta

    2017-07-01

    The similarity of friends in the frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption is explored. During their first semester, 57 psychology freshmen indicated weekly drinking frequency and quantity and nominated the three peers of this group they liked most. These nominations were then used to derive the weekly alcohol consumption of friends that either did or did not reciprocate a nomination. Multilevel modeling of weekly variations showed that individuals' drinking frequency was similar to peers who reciprocated a friendship (b = 0.15, p = .001), but not to non-reciprocating peers (b = -0.01, p = .720). In contrast, weekly variation in quantity of individual students' drinking was similar to both reciprocating (b = 0.11, p = .018) and non-reciprocating peers' drinking (b = 0.10, p = .014). Yet across all weeks, quantity tended only to be similar to non-reciprocating peers (b = 0.49, p = .020). Freshmen might spend drinking time with peers who reciprocate a friendship, but are similar regarding the quantity of drinks consumed to all people they find interesting. Thus, alcohol consumption is used strategically for social purposes. This social purpose should also be acknowledged in alcohol-reduction interventions. © 2017 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  6. Clustering in large networks does not promote upstream reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    Upstream reciprocity (also called generalized reciprocity) is a putative mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations with which players help others when they are helped by somebody else. It is a type of indirect reciprocity. Although upstream reciprocity is often observed in experiments, most theories suggest that it is operative only when players form short cycles such as triangles, implying a small population size, or when it is combined with other mechanisms that promote cooperation on their own. An expectation is that real social networks, which are known to be full of triangles and other short cycles, may accommodate upstream reciprocity. In this study, I extend the upstream reciprocity game proposed for a directed cycle by Boyd and Richerson to the case of general networks. The model is not evolutionary and concerns the conditions under which the unanimity of cooperative players is a Nash equilibrium. I show that an abundance of triangles or other short cycles in a network does little to promote upstream reciprocity. Cooperation is less likely for a larger population size even if triangles are abundant in the network. In addition, in contrast to the results for evolutionary social dilemma games on networks, scale-free networks lead to less cooperation than networks with a homogeneous degree distribution.

  7. ADVANCED RECIPROCATING COMPRESSION TECHNOLOGY (ARCT). FINAL REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danny M. Deffenbaugh; Klaus Brun; Ralph E. Harris; J. Pete Harrell; Robert J. Mckee; J. Jeffrey Moore; Steven J. Svedeman; Anthony J. Smalley; Eugene L. Broerman; Robert A Hart; Marybeth G. Nored; Ryan S. Gernentz; Shane P. Siebenaler

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. natural gas pipeline industry is facing the twin challenges of increased flexibility and capacity expansion. To meet these challenges, the industry requires improved choices in gas compression to address new construction and enhancement of the currently installed infrastructure. The current fleet of installed reciprocating compression is primarily slow-speed integral machines. Most new reciprocating compression is and will be large, high-speed separable units. The major challenges with the fleet of slow-speed integral machines are: limited flexibility and a large range in performance. In an attempt to increase flexibility, many operators are choosing to single-act cylinders, which are causing reduced reliability and integrity. While the best performing units in the fleet exhibit thermal efficiencies between 90% and 92%, the low performers are running down to 50% with the mean at about 80%. The major cause for this large disparity is due to installation losses in the pulsation control system. In the better performers, the losses are about evenly split between installation losses and valve losses. The major challenges for high-speed machines are: cylinder nozzle pulsations, mechanical vibrations due to cylinder stretch, short valve life, and low thermal performance. To shift nozzle pulsation to higher orders, nozzles are shortened, and to dampen the amplitudes, orifices are added. The shortened nozzles result in mechanical coupling with the cylinder, thereby, causing increased vibration due to the cylinder stretch mode. Valve life is even shorter than for slow speeds and can be on the order of a few months. The thermal efficiency is 10% to 15% lower than slow-speed equipment with the best performance in the 75% to 80% range. The goal of this advanced reciprocating compression program is to develop the technology for both high speed and low speed compression that will expand unit flexibility, increase thermal efficiency, and increase reliability and integrity

  8. Generalized Gribov-Lipatov Reciprocity and AdS/CFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beccaria, M.; Macorini, G.; Forini, V.

    2010-01-01

    Planar □=4 SYM theory and QCD share the gluon sector, suggesting the investigation of Gribov-Lipatov reciprocity in the supersymmetric theory. Since the AdS/CFT correspondence links □=4 SYM and superstring dynamics on AdS 5 x S5, reciprocity is also expected to show up in the quantum corrected energies of certain classical string configurations dual to gauge theory twist-operators. We review recent results confirming this picture and revisiting the old idea of Gribov-Lipatov reciprocity as a modern theoretical tool useful for the study of open problems in AdS/CFT.

  9. Reciprocal relativity of noninertial frames: quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, Stephen G [4301 Avenue D, Austin, Texas, 78751 (United States)

    2007-04-06

    Noninertial transformations on time-position-momentum-energy space {l_brace}t, q, p, e{r_brace} with invariant Born-Green metric ds{sup 2} = -dt{sup 2} + 1/c{sup 2} dq{sup 2} + 1/b{sup 2} (dp{sup 2} = 1/c{sup 2} de{sup 2}) and the symplectic metric -de and dt + dp and dq are studied. This U 1,3) group of transformations contains the Lorentz group as the inertial special case and, in the limit of small forces and velocities, reduces to the expected Hamilton transformations leaving invariant the symplectic metric and the nonrelativistic line element ds{sup 2} -dt{sup 2}. The U(1,3) transformations bound relative velocities by c and relative forces by b. Spacetime is no longer an invariant subspace but is relative to noninertial observer frames. In the limit of b {yields} {infinity}, spacetime is invariant. Born was lead to the metric by a concept of reciprocity between position and momentum degrees of freedom and for this reason we call this reciprocal relativity. For large b, such effects will almost certainly only manifest in a quantum regime. Wigner showed that special relativistic quantum mechanics follows from the projective representations of the inhomogeneous Lorentz group. Projective representations of a Lie group are equivalent to the unitary representations of its central extension. The same method of projective representations for the inhomogeneous U(1,3) group is used to define the quantum theory in the noninertial case. The central extension of the inhomogeneous U(1,3) group is the cover of the quaplectic group Q(1,3) U(1,3) x{sub s} H(4), H(4) is the Weyl-Heisenberg group. The H(4) group, and the associated Heisenberg commutation relations central to quantum mechanics, results directly from requiring projective representations. A set of second-order wave equations result from the representations of the Casimir operators.

  10. Focal plane scanner with reciprocating spatial window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chengye (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A focal plane scanner having a front objective lens, a spatial window for selectively passing a portion of the image therethrough, and a CCD array for receiving the passed portion of the image. All embodiments have a common feature whereby the spatial window and CCD array are mounted for simultaneous relative reciprocating movement with respect to the front objective lens, and the spatial window is mounted within the focal plane of the front objective. In a first embodiment, the spatial window is a slit and the CCD array is one-dimensional, and successive rows of the image in the focal plane of the front objective lens are passed to the CCD array by an image relay lens interposed between the slit and the CCD array. In a second embodiment, the spatial window is a slit, the CCD array is two-dimensional, and a prism-grating-prism optical spectrometer is interposed between the slit and the CCD array so as to cause the scanned row to be split into a plurality of spectral separations onto the CCD array. In a third embodiment, the CCD array is two-dimensional and the spatial window is a rectangular linear variable filter (LVF) window, so as to cause the scanned rows impinging on the LVF to be bandpass filtered into spectral components onto the CCD array through an image relay lens interposed between the LVF and the CCD array.

  11. Monitoring fuel consumption for reciprocating engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebelean, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that Northwest Pipeline Corp. has experienced substantial fuel cost savings through a program that provides continuous monitoring of predicted consumption against actual usage for reciprocating engines. With the continuous monitoring program, the company can gauge specific fuel consumption, flag inefficient engines and determine possible problems with computer software or hardware used to measure engine operations. The plan was initiated as part of an overall effort to reduce pipe line operating cost to remain market competitive by reducing cost of services to the customer. One of the factors in determining Northwest Pipeline's cost of service is the cost of fueling engines to transport natural gas. In 1990, Northwest consumed approximately 9,600,000 MMBtu in engine fuel. Fuel gas always has been accounted for and measured. However, the thermal efficiency of the fuel gas consumed was never quantified. Engineering management set a goal in 1989 to audit fuel consumption monthly on the basis of actual fuel consumed compared to the manufacturer's predicted consumption curves. The fuel consumption comparison between actual consumption with manufacturer's predicted consumption decreased 4% in six months after the first report was published. Unbalanced engines, faulty spark plugs, fuel valves, engines requiring overhauls, and even computer software and hardware problems were found, based on this report. Total decrease in the comparison of 4% was not all realized. Approximately 1.5% of the decrease was due to revising the manufacturer's fuel consumption curves to correctly predict Northwest's vintage of engine

  12. Improving reading comprehension through Reciprocal Teaching Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Komariah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at discovering the benefits of the Reciprocal Teaching Method (RTM in the reading classroom, finding out the achievements of students after four comprehension training sessions of using RTM, and exploring the perceptions of students on the use of RTM. This method uses four comprehension strategies: predicting, questioning, clarifying, and summarizing, to help learners monitor their development of reading comprehension by themselves. Students work in groups of four or five and the members are divided into five roles which are the leader, predictor, clarifier, questioner, and summarizer. The subjects were 24 students from the twelfth grade at a high school in Banda Aceh. Observations, tests, documents and interviews were collected to get the data. The results showed that the students were more active and productive in the reading classroom after RTM sessions and their reading proficiency improved. They learnt how to apply several of the strategies from RTM while reading. The results also showed that they preferred this method for teaching-learning reading compared to the conventional one. Therefore, teachers are suggested to consider using this method for teaching reading that instils the students on how to apply the four comprehension strategies used in reading.

  13. Memory-n strategies of direct reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbe, Christian; Martinez-Vaquero, Luis A; Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Nowak, Martin A

    2017-05-02

    Humans routinely use conditionally cooperative strategies when interacting in repeated social dilemmas. They are more likely to cooperate if others cooperated before, and are ready to retaliate if others defected. To capture the emergence of reciprocity, most previous models consider subjects who can only choose from a restricted set of representative strategies, or who react to the outcome of the very last round only. As players memorize more rounds, the dimension of the strategy space increases exponentially. This increasing computational complexity renders simulations for individuals with higher cognitive abilities infeasible, especially if multiplayer interactions are taken into account. Here, we take an axiomatic approach instead. We propose several properties that a robust cooperative strategy for a repeated multiplayer dilemma should have. These properties naturally lead to a unique class of cooperative strategies, which contains the classical Win-Stay Lose-Shift rule as a special case. A comprehensive numerical analysis for the prisoner's dilemma and for the public goods game suggests that strategies of this class readily evolve across various memory- n spaces. Our results reveal that successful strategies depend not only on how cooperative others were in the past but also on the respective context of cooperation.

  14. La Importancia de la Terminología en la Conceptualización de la Violencia de Género (The Importance of Terminology in the Conceptualization of Gender-based Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Peris Vidal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AMany of the mass media of the Spanish State continue using, at present, certain expressions (as domestic violence that impede the understanding of the real meaning of the gender-based violence. In some cases there are some ideological intentions by certain sectors of society to use terms which conceal the true structural nature of the gender-based violence. In other cases, this confusion is reinforced by an inadequate understanding of this problem by journalists themselves, and the incorrect use of the names. The result is an important conceptual confusion which affects the understanding of the meaning of gender-based violence among citizens. Numerosos medios de comunicación del Estado español siguen empleando en la actualidad algunas expresiones (como violencia doméstica que impiden la comprensión del verdadero significado de la violencia de género. En algunos casos existe una intención ideológica por parte de ciertos sectores de la sociedad para emplear términos que ocultan el verdadero carácter estructural de la violencia de género. En otros casos se refuerza dicha confusión por la comprensión defectuosa de este problema por parte de los propios periodistas y la mala utilización de las denominaciones. El resultado es una importante confusión conceptual que afecta a la comprensión del significado de la violencia de género por parte de la ciudadanía.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2612144

  15. Ingredients of gender-based stereotypes about food. Indirect influence of food type, portion size and presentation on gendered intentions to eat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazza, Nicoletta; Guidetti, Margherita; Butera, Fabrizio

    2015-08-01

    The association between certain foods and masculinity or femininity has been widely discussed in different disciplines. However, extant research has yet to clarify which are the critical dimensions lending these gender connotations to food and thus impacting on the willingness to eat it. We present a study on the role of food type, portion size, and dish presentation as potential factors constituting the gender-based stereotype about food, and their indirect or mediated effect on the intention of men and women to eat certain feminine/masculine stereotyped foods. We manipulated the three features cited above in a 2 (food type: Caprese vs. hamburger) × 2 (portion size: small vs. big) × 2 (presentation: elegant vs. rough) full factorial design. Results confirmed a model of moderated mediation: the Caprese salad, the small portion and the elegantly presented dish (in respect to the hamburger, the big portion and the roughly presented dish) tend to be considered "feminine food", and thus women expressed a more pronounced intention to eat it than men. The implications of the findings for both theory and practice are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evolutionary paths of Old French reciprocal markers. New and old methodological tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikołaj Nkollo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper revolves around unusual paths of grammaticalization of Old French (12th century reciprocal markers. This methodological framework requires medieval means of expressing reciprocity to be compared both with their parent forms in Classical Latin and with the markers introduced in subsequent stages of the history of French language. The first hypothesis deals with how parallel markers, i.e. ones that have a common origin and that are used inside the same area of grammar (se… entre- and entre eux < Lat. inter se, are different from each other. This path is claimed to materialize provided one of the two terms begins to serve a particular function not performed by the other one. The second hypothesis accounts for what means were used to prevent ongoing reflexive / reciprocal homonymy. This task happened to be provisionally fulfilled by cors a cors and coste a coste until the advent of adverbs ending in -ment in 14th century. As a consequence, body-part nouns lost most of their grammatical potential. The third hypothesis, formulated in terms of exaptation, explains how and why languages are likely to recycle erstwhile peripheral lexical elements. This evolutionary path takes place in response to a need to convey a given meaning unambiguously. Attempts at avoiding reflexive / reciprocal homonymy prompted the revival of seemingly forgotten Latin items reciprocus / mutuus. Concluding remarks address the problem of whether the concept of exaptation is useful in historical linguistics and contain a proposal towards constraining its scope. As for current views of grammaticalization, this notion seems to call for further refinements, as well.

  17. Reciprocal Rights and Responsibilities in Parent-Child Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    1978-01-01

    This article examines critically the case for protecting children's rights as against the case for protecting children's welfare. The principle of reciprocity in parent-child relations is rejected. (Author/AM)

  18. Drift stabilizer for reciprocating free-piston devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, William C.; Corey, John A.; Swift, Gregory W.

    2003-05-20

    A free-piston device has a stabilized piston drift. A piston having a frequency of reciprocation over a stroke length and with first and second sides facing first and second variable volumes, respectively, for containing a working fluid defining an acoustic wavelength at the frequency of reciprocation. A bypass tube waveguide connects the first and second variable volumes at all times during reciprocation of the piston. The waveguide has a relatively low impedance for steady flow and a relatively high impedance for oscillating flow at the frequency of reciprocation of the piston, so that steady flow returns fluid leakage from about the piston between the first and second volumes while oscillating flow is not diverted through the waveguide. Thus, net leakage about the piston is returned during each stroke of the piston while oscillating leakage is not allowed and pressure buildup on either the first or second side of the piston is avoided to provide a stable piston location.

  19. Research on networked manufacturing system for reciprocating pump industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yangdong; Qi, Guoning; Xie, Qingsheng; Lu, Yujun

    2005-12-01

    Networked manufacturing is a trend of reciprocating pump industry. According to the enterprises' requirement, the architecture of networked manufacturing system for reciprocating pump industry was proposed, which composed of infrastructure layer, system management layer, application service layer and user layer. Its main functions included product data management, ASP service, business management, and customer relationship management, its physics framework was a multi-tier internet-based model; the concept of ASP service integration was put forward and its process model was also established. As a result, a networked manufacturing system aimed at the characteristics of reciprocating pump industry was built. By implementing this system, reciprocating pump industry can obtain a new way to fully utilize their own resources and enhance the capabilities to respond to the global market quickly.

  20. Small variable speed hermetic reciprocating compressors for domestic refrigerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Bjarne D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper contains both a theoretical and experimental investigation of some of the fundamental characteristics of a smal variable speed hermetic reciprocating compressor intended for application in domestic refrigeration. The results of a previously published simulation model for variable speed...

  1. Reciprocal link for a coupled Camassa–Holm type equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Nianhua; Zhang, Jinshun; Wu, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We construct a reciprocal transformation for a coupled Camassa–Holm type equation proposed by Geng and Xue. • The transformed coupled Camassa–Holm type system is a reduction of the first negative flow in a modified Drinfeld–Sokolov III hierarchy. • The Lax pair and bi-Hamiltonian structure behaviors of the coupled Camassa–Holm type equation under the reciprocal transformation are analyzed. - Abstract: A coupled Camassa–Holm type equation is linked to the first negative flow in a modified Drinfeld–Sokolov III hierarchy by a transformation of reciprocal type. Meanwhile the Lax pair and bi-Hamiltonian structure behaviors of this coupled Camassa–Holm type equation under the reciprocal transformation are analyzed.

  2. Reciprocity revisited: Give and take in Dutch and immigrant families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komter, A.; Schans, J.M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Classical theory suggests that "generalized reciprocity," giving without clear expectations of returns, is characteristic for exchange within the family. Modern theory assumes differences between Western, "individualistic" cultures, and non-Western, more "collectivistic" cultures, presumably leading

  3. Relatedness decreases and reciprocity increases cooperation in Norway rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweinfurth, Manon K; Taborsky, Michael

    2018-03-14

    Kin selection and reciprocity are two mechanisms underlying the evolution of cooperation, but the relative importance of kinship and reciprocity for decisions to cooperate are yet unclear for most cases of cooperation. Here, we experimentally tested the relative importance of relatedness and received cooperation for decisions to help a conspecific in wild-type Norway rats ( Rattus norvegicus ). Test rats provided more food to non-kin than to siblings, and they generally donated more food to previously helpful social partners than to those that had refused help. The rats thus applied reciprocal cooperation rules irrespective of relatedness, highlighting the importance of reciprocal help for cooperative interactions among both related and unrelated conspecifics. © 2018 The Author(s).

  4. Time-dependent pseudo-reciprocity relations in neutronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modak, R.S.; Sahni, D.C.

    2002-01-01

    Earlier, certain reciprocity-like relations have been shown to hold in some restricted steady state cases in neutron diffusion and transport theories. Here, the possibility of existence of similar relations in time-dependent situations is investigated

  5. Reciprocal relations for transmission coefficients - Theory and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jianmin; Achenbach, Jan D.; Roberts, Ronald A.

    1989-01-01

    The authors present a rigorous proof of certain intuitively plausible reciprocal relations for time harmonic plane-wave transmission and reflection at the interface between a fluid and an anisotropic elastic solid. Precise forms of the reciprocity relations for the transmission coefficients and for the transmitted energy fluxes are derived, based on the reciprocity theorem of elastodynamics. It is shown that the reciprocity relations can be used in conjunction with measured values of peak amplitudes for transmission through a slab of the solid (water-solid-water) to obtain the water-solid coefficients. Experiments were performed for a slab of a unidirectional fiber-reinforced composite. Good agreement of the experimentally measured transmission coefficients with theoretical values was obtained.

  6. Indirect reciprocity and the evolution of "moral signals"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smead, Rory

    2010-01-01

    Signals regarding the behavior of others are an essential element of human moral systems and there are important evolutionary connections between language and large-scale cooperation. In particular, social communication may be required for the reputation tracking needed to stabilize indirect reciprocity. Additionally, scholars have suggested that the benefits of indirect reciprocity may have been important for the evolution of language and that social signals may have coevolved with large-scale cooperation. This paper investigates the possibility of such a coevolution. Using the tools of evolutionary game theory, we present a model that incorporates primitive "moral signaling" into a simple setting of indirect reciprocity. This model reveals some potential difficulties for the evolution of "moral signals." We find that it is possible for "moral signals" to evolve alongside indirect reciprocity, but without some external pressure aiding the evolution of a signaling system, such a coevolution is unlikely.

  7. Reciprocal Modulation of IK1-INa Extends Excitability in Cardiac Ventricular Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    The inwardly rectifying potassium current (I K1 ) and the fast inward sodium current (I Na ) are reciprocally modulated in mammalian ventricular myocytes. An increase in the expression of channels responsible for one of these two currents results in a corresponding increase in expression of the other. These currents are critical in the propagation of action potentials (AP) during the normal functioning of the heart. This study identifies a physiological role for I K1 -I Na reciprocal modulation in ventricular fiber activation thresholds and conduction. Simulations of action potentials in single cells and propagating APs in cardiac fibers were carried out using an existing model of electrical activity in cardiac ventricular myocytes. The conductances, G K1 , of the inwardly rectifying potassium current, and G Na , of the fast inward sodium current were modified independently and in tandem to simulate reciprocal modulation. In single cells, independent modulation of G K1 alone resulted in changes in activation thresholds that were qualitatively similar to those for reciprocal G K1 -G Na modulation and unlike those due to independent modulation of G Na alone, indicating that G K1 determines the cellular activation threshold. On the other hand, the variations in conduction velocity in cardiac cell fibers were similar for independent G Na modulation and for tandem changes in G K1 -G Na , suggesting that G Na is primarily responsible for setting tissue AP conduction velocity. Conduction velocity dependence on G K1 -G Na is significantly affected by the intercellular gap junction conductance. While the effects on the passive fiber space constant due to changes in both G K1 and the intercellular gap junction conductance, G gj , were in line with linear cable theory predictions, both conductances had surprisingly large effects on fiber activation thresholds. Independent modulation of G K1 rendered cardiac fibers inexcitable at higher levels of G K1 whereas tandem G K1 -G Na

  8. An Exploratory Study of the Relations Between Women Miners’ Gender-Based Workplace Issues and their Mental Health and Job Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, Mark; Rubin, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated the extent to which gender-based workplace issues were associated with women miners’ mental health and job satisfaction. Participants were 263 women miners from Australian and other international mines sites owned by an Australian-based mining company. They completed an online survey that contained measures of gender-based workplace issues, mental health, and job satisfaction. An exploratory factor analysis identified three higher-order factors: organizational s...

  9. Trust, Reciprocity and Institutional Design: Lessons from Behavioural Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Pelligra, Vittorio

    2006-01-01

    Trust and reciprocity are the bond of society (Locke), but economic agents are both self-interested and intrinsically untrustworthy. These assumptions impair severely economists' accounts of social relationships. The paper examines strategies to escape this paradox by enlarging our conception of rationality: the assumptions of self-interest and consequentialism are critically discussed as well as relational behavioural principles (e.g. trust and reciprocity). The implications of this enlarged...

  10. The general chain transform and self-reciprocal functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Nasim

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available A theory of a generalized form of the chain transforms of order n is developed, and various properties of these are established including the Parseval relation. Most known cases of the standard theory are derived as special cases. Also a theory of self-reciprocal functions is given, based on these general chain transforms; and relations among various classes of self-reciprocal functions are established.

  11. A Journey into Reciprocal Space; A crystallographer's perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, A. M.

    2017-10-01

    This book introduces undergraduate and graduate students to a crystallographer's view of real and reciprocal space, a concept that has been of particular use by crystallographers to understand the patterns of spots when x-rays are diffracted by crystals. It then proceeds to develop the concept in a form suitable for physics applications; such as how solid-state physicists use reciprocal space to explain various solid-state properties such as thermal and electrical phenomena.

  12. Asymmetric information capacities of reciprocal pairs of quantum channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Matteo; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2018-05-01

    Reciprocal pairs of quantum channels are defined as completely positive transformations which admit a rigid, distance-preserving, yet not completely positive transformation that allows one to reproduce the outcome of one from the corresponding outcome of the other. From a classical perspective these transmission lines should exhibit the same communication efficiency. This is no longer the case in the quantum setting: explicit asymmetric behaviors are reported studying the classical communication capacities of reciprocal pairs of depolarizing and Weyl-covariant channels.

  13. Reciprocal cooperation in avian mobbing: playing nice pays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatcroft, David J; Price, Trevor D

    2008-08-01

    Unrelated passerine birds often join together while mobbing, a widespread antipredator behavior during which birds harass a predator. Although previous analyses concluded that mobbing could not have evolved via reciprocity, Krams and colleagues' field experiments show that birds preferentially join mobs with neighbors that have aided them previously, suggesting that these birds utilize reciprocity-based strategies involving individual recognition and recollection of previous interactions with others. This implies a level of sophistication in bird communities greater than had previously been realized.

  14. The stability of quadratic-reciprocal functional equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Aimin; Song, Minwei

    2018-04-01

    A new quadratic-reciprocal functional equation f ((k +1 )x +k y )+f ((k +1 )x -k y )=2/f (x )f (y )[(k+1 ) 2f (y )+k2f (x )] [(k+1)2f (y )-k2f (x )] 2 is introduced. The Hyers-Ulam stability for the quadratic-reciprocal functional equations is proved in Banach spaces using the direct method and the fixed point method, respectively.

  15. Reciprocity relations in transmission electron microscopy: A rigorous derivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Florian F; Rosenauer, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    A concise derivation of the principle of reciprocity applied to realistic transmission electron microscopy setups is presented making use of the multislice formalism. The equivalence of images acquired in conventional and scanning mode is thereby rigorously shown. The conditions for the applicability of the found reciprocity relations is discussed. Furthermore the positions of apertures in relation to the corresponding lenses are considered, a subject which scarcely has been addressed in previous publications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Auditing sex- and gender-based medicine (SGBM) content in medical school curriculum: a student scholar model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Michael M; Jones, Betsy G; Casanova, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Sex- and gender-based medicine (SGBM) aims to (1) delineate and investigate sex- and gender-based differences in health, disease, and response to treatment and (2) apply that knowledge to clinical care to improve the health of both women and men. However, the integration of SGBM into medical school curricula is often haphazard and poorly defined; schools often do not know the current status of SGBM content in their curricula, even if they are committed to addressing gaps and improving SGBM delivery. Therefore, complete auditing and accounting of SGBM content in the existing medical school curriculum is necessary to determine the baseline status and prepare for successful integration of SGBM content into that curriculum. A review of course syllabi and lecture objectives as well as a targeted data analysis of the Curriculum Management and Information Tool (CurrMIT) were completed prior to a real-time curriculum audit. Subsequently, six "student scholars," three first-year and three second-year medical students, were recruited and trained to audit the first 2 years of the medical school curriculum for SGBM content, thus completing an audit for both of the pre-clinical years simultaneously. A qualitative analysis and a post-audit comparative analysis were completed to assess the level of SGBM instruction at our institution. The review of syllabi and the CurrMIT data analysis did not generate a meaningful catalogue of SGBM content in the curriculum; most of the content identified specifically targeted women's or men's health topics and not sex- or gender-based differences. The real-time student audit of the existing curriculum at Texas Tech revealed that most of the SGBM material was focused on the physiological/anatomical sex differences or gender differences in disease prevalence, with minimal coverage of sex- or gender-based differences in diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and outcomes. The real-time student scholar audit was effective in identifying SGBM content in

  17. The legacy of gender-based violence and HIV/AIDS in the postgenocide era: Stories from women in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Susan Garnett; Lim, Sanaya; Kim, Paul; Morse, Sophie

    2016-07-01

    Drawing on qualitative interviews with 22 Rwandan women, we describe the lived experiences of women survivors of gender-based violence (GBV) more than a decade and a half after the 1994 Genocide. We argue that the intersection between GBV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has long-term implications: the majority of women interviewed continue to endure trauma, stigma, social isolation, and economic hardship in the postgenocide era and are in need of expanded economic and mental health support. Our findings have implications for the importance of providing integrated psychosocial support to survivors of GBV postconflict contexts.

  18. Preschool children's behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayuko Kato-Shimizu

    Full Text Available Social indirect reciprocity seems to be crucial in enabling large-scale cooperative networks among genetically unrelated individuals in humans. However, there are relatively few studies on social indirect reciprocity in children compared to adults. Investigating whether young children have a behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity will help us understand how and when the fundamental ability to form cooperative relationships among adults is acquired. Using naturalistic observation at a nursery school, this study examined whether 5- to 6-year-olds show a behavioral tendency to engage in social indirect reciprocity in response to their peers' prosocial behavior toward a third party. The results revealed that bystander children tended to display prosocial behavior toward their peers more frequently after observing these peers' prosocial behavior toward third-party peers, compared with control situations; this suggests that 5- to 6-year-olds may have an essential behavioral tendency to establish social indirect reciprocity when interacting with peers in their daily lives. In addition, bystanders tended to display affiliative behavior after observing focal children's prosocial behavior. In other words, observing peers' prosocial behavior toward third-party peers evoked bystanders' positive emotions toward the helpers. Considering both the present results and previous findings, we speculate that in preschoolers, such positive emotions might mediate the increase in the bystander's prosocial behavior toward the helper. In addition, an intuitional emotional process plays an important role in the preschooler's behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity in natural interactions with peers.

  19. Reciprocity in the electronic stopping of slow ions in matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigmund, P.

    2008-01-01

    The principle of reciprocity, i.e., the invariance of the inelastic excitation in ion-atom collisions against interchange of projectile and target, has been applied to the electronic stopping cross section of low-velocity ions and tested empirically on ion-target combinations supported by a more or less adequate amount of experimental data. Reciprocity is well obeyed (within ∼10%) for many systems studied, and deviations exceeding ∼20% are exceptional. Systematic deviations such as gas-solid or metal-insulator differences have been looked for but not identified on the present basis. A direct consequence of reciprocity is the equivalence of Z 1 with Z 2 structure for random slowing down. This feature is reasonably well supported empirically for ion-target combinations involving carbon, nitrogen, aluminium and argon. Reciprocity may be utilized as a criterion to reject questionable experimental data. In cases where a certain stopping cross section has not been or cannot be measured, the stopping cross section for the inverted system may be available and serve as a first estimate. It is suggested to build in reciprocity as a fundamental requirement into empirical interpolation schemes directed at the stopping of low-velocity ions. Examination of the SRIM and MSTAR codes reveals cases where reciprocity is obeyed accurately, but deviations of up to a factor of two are common. In case of heavy ions such as gold, electronic stopping cross sections predicted by SRIM are asserted to be almost an order of magnitude too high. (authors)

  20. Reciprocity in the electronic stopping of slow ions in matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmund, P.

    2008-04-01

    The principle of reciprocity, i.e., the invariance of the inelastic excitation in ion-atom collisions against interchange of projectile and target, has been applied to the electronic stopping cross section of low-velocity ions and tested empirically on ion-target combinations supported by a more or less adequate amount of experimental data. Reciprocity is well obeyed (within ~10%) for many systems studied, and deviations exceeding ~20% are exceptional. Systematic deviations such as gas-solid or metal-insulator differences have been looked for but not identified on the present basis. A direct consequence of reciprocity is the equivalence of Z1 with Z2 structure for random slowing down. This feature is reasonably well supported empirically for ion-target combinations involving carbon, nitrogen, aluminium and argon. Reciprocity may be utilized as a criterion to reject questionable experimental data. In cases where a certain stopping cross section has not been or cannot be measured, the stopping cross section for the inverted system may be available and serve as a first estimate. It is suggested to build in reciprocity as a fundamental requirement into empirical interpolation schemes directed at the stopping of low-velocity ions. Examination of the SRIM and MSTAR codes reveals cases where reciprocity is obeyed accurately, but deviations of up to a factor of two are common. In case of heavy ions such as gold, electronic stopping cross sections predicted by SRIM are asserted to be almost an order of magnitude too high.

  1. Working dogs cooperate among one another by generalised reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfrerer, Nastassja; Taborsky, Michael

    2017-03-06

    Cooperation by generalised reciprocity implies that individuals apply the decision rule "help anyone if helped by someone". This mechanism has been shown to generate evolutionarily stable levels of cooperation, but as yet it is unclear how widely this cooperation mechanism is applied among animals. Dogs (Canis familiaris) are highly social animals with considerable cognitive potential and the ability to differentiate between individual social partners. But although dogs can solve complex problems, they may use simple rules for behavioural decisions. Here we show that dogs trained in an instrumental cooperative task to provide food to a social partner help conspecifics more often after receiving help from a dog before. Remarkably, in so doing they show no distinction between partners that had helped them before and completely unfamiliar conspecifics. Apparently, dogs use the simple decision rule characterizing generalised reciprocity, although they are probably capable of using the more complex decision rule of direct reciprocity: "help someone who has helped you". However, generalized reciprocity involves lower information processing costs and is therefore a cheaper cooperation strategy. Our results imply that generalised reciprocity might be applied more commonly than direct reciprocity also in other mutually cooperating animals.

  2. Preschool children's behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Shimizu, Mayuko; Onishi, Kenji; Kanazawa, Tadahiro; Hinobayashi, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Social indirect reciprocity seems to be crucial in enabling large-scale cooperative networks among genetically unrelated individuals in humans. However, there are relatively few studies on social indirect reciprocity in children compared to adults. Investigating whether young children have a behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity will help us understand how and when the fundamental ability to form cooperative relationships among adults is acquired. Using naturalistic observation at a nursery school, this study examined whether 5- to 6-year-olds show a behavioral tendency to engage in social indirect reciprocity in response to their peers' prosocial behavior toward a third party. The results revealed that bystander children tended to display prosocial behavior toward their peers more frequently after observing these peers' prosocial behavior toward third-party peers, compared with control situations; this suggests that 5- to 6-year-olds may have an essential behavioral tendency to establish social indirect reciprocity when interacting with peers in their daily lives. In addition, bystanders tended to display affiliative behavior after observing focal children's prosocial behavior. In other words, observing peers' prosocial behavior toward third-party peers evoked bystanders' positive emotions toward the helpers. Considering both the present results and previous findings, we speculate that in preschoolers, such positive emotions might mediate the increase in the bystander's prosocial behavior toward the helper. In addition, an intuitional emotional process plays an important role in the preschooler's behavioral tendency toward social indirect reciprocity in natural interactions with peers.

  3. Indirect reciprocity in three types of social dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Ohtsuki, Hisashi

    2014-08-21

    Indirect reciprocity is a key mechanism for the evolution of human cooperation. Previous studies explored indirect reciprocity in the so-called donation game, a special class of Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) with unilateral decision making. A more general class of social dilemmas includes Snowdrift (SG), Stag Hunt (SH), and PD games, where two players perform actions simultaneously. In these simultaneous-move games, moral assessments need to be more complex; for example, how should we evaluate defection against an ill-reputed, but now cooperative, player? We examined indirect reciprocity in the three social dilemmas and identified twelve successful social norms for moral assessments. These successful norms have different principles in different dilemmas for suppressing cheaters. To suppress defectors, any defection against good players is prohibited in SG and PD, whereas defection against good players may be allowed in SH. To suppress unconditional cooperators, who help anyone and thereby indirectly contribute to jeopardizing indirect reciprocity, we found two mechanisms: indiscrimination between actions toward bad players (feasible in SG and PD) or punishment for cooperation with bad players (effective in any social dilemma). Moreover, we discovered that social norms that unfairly favor reciprocators enhance robustness of cooperation in SH, whereby reciprocators never lose their good reputation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bah humbug: Unexpected Christmas cards and the reciprocity norm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Brian P

    2016-01-01

    The reciprocity norm refers to the expectation that people will help those who helped them. A well-known study revealed that the norm is strong with Christmas cards, with 20% of people reciprocating a Christmas card received from a stranger. I attempted to conceptually replicate and extend this effect. In Study 1, 755 participants received a Christmas card supposedly from a more- versus less-similar stranger. The reciprocation rate was unexpectedly low (2%), which did not allow for a test of a similarity effect. Two potential reasons for this low rate were examined in Study 2 in which 494 participants reported their likelihood of reciprocating a Christmas card from a stranger as well as their felt suspicions/threat about the card and their frequency of e-mail use. Reciprocation likelihood was negatively correlated with perceived threat/suspicion and e-mail use. It appears that reciprocating a gift from a stranger in offline settings may be less likely than expected.

  5. Reciprocity on Demand : Sharing and Exchanging Food in Northwestern Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnegg, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Two competing models concerning food transfers prominent in the anthropological literature conceptualize such transfers either as sharing or as exchange. Sharing is understood as situational transactions formed through demands and unconditional giving, whereas reciprocal exchange is understood in terms of networking and keeping score. I propose that the picture is more complicated than these classifications suggests. Drawing on data collected in Northwestern Namibia, I show that sharing and reciprocal exchange are dynamically interrelated in actual food transfers. As a local norm, people can demand food from anyone, and they are typically given food in response to a demand. However, in practice, food transfer networks emerge (N = 62) that are highly reciprocal and fit the exchange model much better. Although the sharing norm makes no restrictions on whom to ask, in practice people often turn to their neighbors. Interpersonal dynamics account for why some of those ties become strongly reciprocal and others do not. Under these circumstances, unconditional sharing, a norm that has been viewed as an alternative to exchange, can lead to reciprocity via reciprocity on demand.

  6. Development of the reciprocity of self-disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberg, K J; Chase, N

    1992-03-01

    This study was designed to assess whether children demonstrate covariant and equivalent forms of the reciprocity of self-disclosure, and if so, at what age. Twenty-one kindergarten, 23 second-grade, 24 fourth-grade, and 24 sixth-grade children were shown videotapes of three children (partners) who provided pre-established low-, medium-, and high-intimate disclosures. The subjects were required to send a message to the partners on topics varying in personal content. Fourth-grade children showed evidence of covariant reciprocity of self-disclosure by disclosing higher intimacy to high-intimate partners than to low-intimate partners. Sixth-grade children showed equivalent reciprocity of self-disclosure by providing a greater number of high- and medium-intimate disclosures to high- and medium-intimate partners, respectively, than to low-intimate partners. By contrast, neither form of reciprocity of self-disclosure was shown by kindergarten and second-grade children. Consistent with our expectations, girls provided a greater number of high-intimate disclosures than did boys in three of the four grades. The findings are discussed in terms of interplay between the development of the reciprocity of self-disclosure and the norm of the reciprocity of self-disclosure.

  7. Kidney disease and aging: A reciprocal relation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooman, Jeroen P; van der Sande, Frank M; Leunissen, Karel M L

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are overrepresented in elderly patients. This provides specific challenges for the treatment, as the start of dialysis in vulnerable elderly patients may be associated with a rapid decline in functional performance. However, prognosis in elderly patients with ESRD is quite variable and related to the presence of comorbidity and geriatric impairments. The decision to start dialysis in elderly patients should always be based on shared decision making, which may be aided by the use of prediction models which should however not be used to withhold dialysis treatment. The treatment of ESRD in elderly patients should be based on a multidimensional treatment plan with a role for active rehabilitation. Moreover, there also appears to be a reciprocal relationship between aging and CKD, as the presence of geriatric complications is also high in younger patients with ESRD. This has led to the hypothesis of a premature aging process associated with CKD, resulting in different phenotypes such as premature vascular aging, muscle wasting, bone disease, cognitive dysfunction and frailty. Prevention and treatment of this phenotype is based on optimal treatment of CKD, associated comorbidities, and lifestyle factors by established treatments. For the future, interventions, which are developed to combat the aging process in general, might also have relevance for the treatment of patients with CKD, but their role should always be investigated in adequately powered clinical trials, as results obtained in experimental trials may not be directly translatable to the clinical situation of elderly patients. In the meantime, physical exercise is a very important intervention, by improving both physical capacity and functional performance, as well as by a direct effect on the aging process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Gender-based Violence and ‘Feminicide’ in Queer Italian Movements: Questioning Gender, Sexuality, and the (Heteronormative Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Peroni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the development of the Italian feminist political lexicon on gender-based violence within the security frame in the last years. After the description of the historical main issues developed by feminism during the Seventies about the relation between gender-based violence, women’s self-determination and criminal law, this paper describes the new framework of feminist and queer movements against the security policies on gender-based violence adopted by the Italian government since 2007. On the one hand, feminist movements criticized the processes of criminalization and victimization produced by the security frame and denounced the underlying nexus between sexism and racism. On the other hand, they addressed the essentialism deriving from these processes. Despite the mainstream vocabulary used the term “feminicide” in order to focus on its victimizing and alarmist aspects, contemporary feminist and queer movements thus addressed gender-based violence as a problem related to the gender stereotypes and sexist prejudices by deconstructing concepts such as gender, sexuality, and (heteropatriarchy. In this perspective, gender-based violence is not only a form of dominion by men of women, but it also takes the shape of differential forms of inclusion and exclusion of LGBTQI persons in the neoliberal system, as in the case of homo- and trans-phobia Este artículo describe el desarrollo en los últimos años del léxico político feminista italiano sobre violencia de género en el marco de la seguridad. Después de describir los principales hitos históricos desarrollados por el feminismo en los años setenta, sobre la relación entre la violencia de género, la autodeterminación de las mujeres y el derecho penal, este artículo describe el nuevo marco de los movimientos feministas y queer contra las políticas de seguridad sobre violencia de género adoptadas por el gobierno italiano desde 2007. Por un lado, los movimientos

  9. Gender-based violence and HIV sexual risk behavior: alcohol use and mental health problems as mediators among women in drinking venues, Cape Town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Eaton, Lisa A; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Watt, Melissa H; Skinner, Donald

    2012-10-01

    Gender-based violence is a key determinant of HIV infection among women in South Africa as elsewhere. However, research has not examined potential mediating processes to explain the link between experiencing abuse and engaging in HIV sexual risk behavior. Previous studies suggest that alcohol use and mental health problems may explain how gender-based violence predicts sexual risk. In a prospective study, we examined whether lifetime history of gender-based violence indirectly affects future sexual risk behavior through alcohol use, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a high-risk socio-environmental context. We recruited a cohort of 560 women from alcohol drinking venues in a Cape Town, South African township. Participants completed computerized interviews at baseline and 4 months later. We tested prospective mediating associations between gender-based violence, alcohol use, depression, PTSD, and sexual risk behavior. There was a significant indirect effect of gender-based violence on sexual risk behavior through alcohol use, but not mental health problems. Women who were physically and sexually abused drank more, which in turn predicted more unprotected sex. We did not find a mediated relationship between alcohol use and sexual risk behavior through the experience of recent abuse or mental health problems. Alcohol use explains the link between gender-based violence and sexual risk behavior among women attending drinking venues in Cape Town, South Africa. Efforts to reduce HIV risk in South Africa by addressing gender-based violence must also address alcohol use. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A manifestly reciprocal theory of scattering in the presence of elastic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurmser, D.

    1996-01-01

    The role of elastic waves in the scattering problem is examined in the context of modern field theory. This effort builds upon a previously published, and since successfully applied formalism for solving the acoustic and electromagnetic scattering problems. It specifically addresses the scattering of acoustic waves from a fluid-solid interface, as well as the scattering of elastodynamic waves from surfaces satisfying the zero-displacement, stress-free, and solid endash solid boundary conditions. Expressions for the change in the scattering amplitude due to a perturbation in the scattering surface are derived directly from the requirement of time reversal symmetry (also known as reciprocity). These results constitute formal statements of the composite (or two-scale) model. In a typical application, the perturbation usually corresponds to Bragg scattering and is treated statistically, while the reference surface provides tilt, shadowing, and multiple scattering, and is usually treated deterministically. Used in this way, the new formalism effectively allows existing numerical and operator expansion methods to be used to calculate the scattering from rougher and/or higher dimensional surfaces than would otherwise be possible. An alternate application of the formalism is illustrated using the fluid-solid boundary as an example. A new manifestly reciprocal expression for the scattering amplitude is presented, as are the small slope and open-quote open-quote local close-quote close-quote two-scale approximations for this problem. (By local, it is meant that only local phenomena such as the tilt of the reference surface are automatically included. However, since the result is manifestly reciprocal, it is fairly straightforward to incorporate a non-local effect such as shadowing.) During the course of the discussion, the classical scattering problem is reexamined from an entirely new perspective

  11. The Transference of Gender-based Norms in the Law Reform Process: A Reflection on my Work in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y-Vonne Hutchinson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, I spent a year as a Rule of Law specialist in Thailand with the International Rescue Committee (IRC, as part of a fellowship program for human rights lawyers. I was assigned the task of facilitating the development of a comprehensive legal code for the refugee camps along the border between Thailand and /Burma. As part of my work, I also sought to increase gender-based protection under the law through the incorporation of Thai and international human rights norms. This paper is a reflection on the processes that occurred during my time at IRC. The reform project approached the transference of contentious international norms for protection of women and girls in two ways: a through the inclusive design of the law reform process and b the establishment of a prohibition on rules that clearly violated international or national law. By forming a representative drafting committee and placing an emphasis on community consultation as a precursor to code finalisation, refugee perspectives, particularly female perspectives, were given scope to inform interpretations of national and international legal standards. By requiring international and national legal compliance and placing an emphasis on explanation and clarification of international and national standards in discussions, the project supported downward transference of international norms to a specific community context. We hoped that, as a product of these two normative flows, the resulting legal code would be a sustainable mechanism for gender-based protection and redress in cases of sexual and gender-based violence. During negotiations, it became evident that the inclusive design of the law reform process had a more positive impact on the success of norms transference than the actual substance of the norm. The norms that were most readily accepted were those introduced by law reform committee members themselves. Local norm translators played a pivotal role in the norms diffusion process

  12. Reciprocal regulation of LXRα activity by ASXL1 and ASXL2 in lipogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ui-Hyun; Seong, Mi-ran [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Institute of Bioscience, BK21 Graduate Program, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun-Joo; Hur, Wonhee; Kim, Sung Woo [Department of Molecular Biology, BK21 Graduate Program, Dankook University, Gyeonggi-do 448-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Seung Kew [The Catholic University Liver Research Center and WHO Collaborating Center of Viral Hepatitis, The Catholic University, College of Medicine, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Um, Soo-Jong, E-mail: umsj@sejong.ac.kr [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Institute of Bioscience, BK21 Graduate Program, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •ASXL1 and ASXL2 directly interact with ligand-bound LXRα. •Ligand-induced LXRα activity is repressed by ASXL1 and activated by ASXL2. •ASXL1 and ASXL2 bind to the LXRE of the LXRα target promoter. •ASXL1 and ASXL2 reciprocally regulate lipogenesis in liver cells. -- Abstract: Liver X receptor alpha (LXRα), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, plays a pivotal role in hepatic cholesterol and lipid metabolism, regulating the expression of genes associated with hepatic lipogenesis. The additional sex comb-like (ASXL) family was postulated to regulate chromatin function. Here, we investigate the roles of ASXL1 and ASXL2 in regulating LXRα activity. We found that ASXL1 suppressed ligand-induced LXRα transcriptional activity, whereas ASXL2 increased LXRα activity through direct interaction in the presence of the ligand. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays showed ligand-dependent recruitment of ASXLs to ABCA1 promoters, like LXRα. Knockdown studies indicated that ASXL1 inhibits, while ASXL2 increases, lipid accumulation in H4IIE cells, similar to their roles in transcriptional regulation. We also found that ASXL1 expression increases under fasting conditions, and decreases in insulin-treated H4IIE cells and the livers of high-fat diet-fed mice. Overall, these results support the reciprocal role of the ASXL family in lipid homeostasis through the opposite regulation of LXRα.

  13. The quadratic reciprocity law a collection of classical proofs

    CERN Document Server

    Baumgart, Oswald

    2015-01-01

    This book is the English translation of Baumgart’s thesis on the early proofs of the quadratic reciprocity law (“Über das quadratische Reciprocitätsgesetz. Eine vergleichende Darstellung der Beweise”), first published in 1885. It is divided into two parts. The first part presents a very brief history of the development of number theory up to Legendre, as well as detailed descriptions of several early proofs of the quadratic reciprocity law. The second part highlights Baumgart’s comparisons of the principles behind these proofs. A current list of all known proofs of the quadratic reciprocity law, with complete references, is provided in the appendix. This book will appeal to all readers interested in elementary number theory and the history of number theory.

  14. Thermodynamic Analysis of an Irreversible Maisotsenko Reciprocating Brayton Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuli Zhu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An irreversible Maisotsenko reciprocating Brayton cycle (MRBC model is established using the finite time thermodynamic (FTT theory and taking the heat transfer loss (HTL, piston friction loss (PFL, and internal irreversible losses (IILs into consideration in this paper. A calculation flowchart of the power output (P and efficiency (η of the cycle is provided, and the effects of the mass flow rate (MFR of the injection of water to the cycle and some other design parameters on the performance of cycle are analyzed by detailed numerical examples. Furthermore, the superiority of irreversible MRBC is verified as the cycle and is compared with the traditional irreversible reciprocating Brayton cycle (RBC. The results can provide certain theoretical guiding significance for the optimal design of practical Maisotsenko reciprocating gas turbine plants.

  15. Radiation induced reciprocal translocations and inversions in anopheles albimanus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, P.E.; Seawright, J.A.; Benedict, M.Q.; Narang, S.

    1982-01-01

    Reciprocal translocations and inversions were induced in Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann by irradiation of males with X rays. A total of 1669 sperm were assayed, and 175 new aberrations were identified as follows: 102 reciprocal translocations (67 autosomal and 35 sex-linked), 45 pericentric inversions, and 28 paracentric inversions. Eleven of the translocations were nearly whole-arm interchanges, and these were selected for the construction of 'capture systems' for compound chromosomes. Two double-heterozygous translocation strains and four homozygous translocation strains were established. Anopheles albimanus females were irradiated, and a pseudolinkage scheme involving mutant markers was employed to identify reciprocal translocations. The irradiation of females was very inefficient; only one translocation was recovered from 1080 ova tested

  16. Intensity and resolution of a general scan in reciprocal space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebech, B.; Nielsen, M.

    1975-01-01

    Elastic neutron scattering on single crystals is traditionally carried out either by rotating the sample and keeping the detector fixed, or by coupling the detector rotation to the sample rotation in the the ratio 2:1. In recent years, a number of papers have discussed the feasibility of other types of scans. General scans at oblique angles to reciprocal lattice vectors are commonly used in inelastic neutron scattering. Such scans are also useful in elastic neutron scattering and may easily be made by means of computer or tape controlled diffractometers. Formulas are derived for the intensity and width of Bragg reflections measured by scanning at oblique angles to reciprocal lattice vectors. The results of the calculations are compared to experimental results on simple structures. The limitations of general scans in reciprocal space are also discussed

  17. High-Resolution Reciprocal Space Mapping for Characterizing Deformation Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Wolfgang; Wejdemann, Christian; Jakobsen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    With high-angular resolution three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD), quantitative information is gained about dislocation structures in individual grains in the bulk of a macroscopic specimen by acquiring reciprocal space maps. In high-resolution 3D reciprocal space maps of tensile......-deformed copper, individual, almost dislocation-free subgrains are identified from high-intensity peaks and distinguished by their unique combination of orientation and elastic strain; dislocation walls manifest themselves as a smooth cloud of lower intensity. The elastic strain shows only minor variations within...... dynamics is followed in situ during varying loading conditions by reciprocal space mapping: during uninterrupted tensile deformation, formation of subgrains is observed concurrently with broadening of Bragg reflections shortly after the onset of plastic deformation. When the traction is terminated, stress...

  18. Constructing and deriving reciprocal trigonometric relations: a functional analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninness, Chris; Dixon, Mark; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne; Rumph, Robin; McCuller, Glen; Holland, James; Smith, Ronald; Ninness, Sharon K; McGinty, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Participants were pretrained and tested on mutually entailed trigonometric relations and combinatorially entailed relations as they pertained to positive and negative forms of sine, cosine, secant, and cosecant. Experiment 1 focused on training and testing transformations of these mathematical functions in terms of amplitude and frequency followed by tests of novel relations. Experiment 2 addressed training in accordance with frames of coordination (same as) and frames of opposition (reciprocal of) followed by more tests of novel relations. All assessments of derived and novel formula-to-graph relations, including reciprocal functions with diversified amplitude and frequency transformations, indicated that all 4 participants demonstrated substantial improvement in their ability to identify increasingly complex trigonometric formula-to-graph relations pertaining to same as and reciprocal of to establish mathematically complex repertoires.

  19. Propagation of Economic Inequality Through Reciprocity and Reputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackel, Leor M; Zaki, Jamil

    2018-04-01

    Reciprocity and reputation are powerful tools for encouraging cooperation on a broad scale. Here, we highlight a potential side effect of these social phenomena: exacerbating economic inequality. In two novel economic games, we manipulated the amount of money with which participants were endowed and then gave them the opportunity to share resources with others. We found that people reciprocated more toward higher-wealth givers, compared with lower-wealth givers, even when those givers were equally generous. Wealthier givers also achieved better reputations than less wealthy ones and therefore received more investments in a social marketplace. These discrepancies were well described by a formal model of reinforcement learning: Individuals who weighted monetary outcomes, rather than generosity, when learning about interlocutors also most strongly helped wealthier individuals. This work demonstrates that reciprocity and reputation-although globally increasing prosociality-can widen wealth gaps and provides a precise account of how inequality grows through social processes.

  20. Reciprocity and the Tragedies of Maintaining and Providing the Commons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gächter, Simon; Kölle, Felix; Quercia, Simone

    2017-09-01

    Social cooperation often requires collectively beneficial but individually costly restraint to maintain a public good1-4, or it needs costly generosity to create one1,5. Status quo effects6 predict that maintaining a public good is easier than providing a new one. Here we show experimentally and with simulations that even under identical incentives, low levels of cooperation (the 'tragedy of the commons'2) are systematically more likely in Maintenance than Provision. Across three series of experiments, we find that strong and weak positive reciprocity, known to be fundamental tendencies underpinning human cooperation7-10, are substantially diminished under Maintenance compared to Provision. As we show in a fourth experiment, the opposite holds for negative reciprocity ('punishment'). Our findings suggest that incentives to avoid the 'tragedy of the commons' need to contend with dilemma-specific reciprocity.

  1. Social reciprocity and health: new scientific evidence and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Johannes

    2005-11-01

    The work contract is based on the norm of social reciprocity where appropriate rewards are provided for efforts and achievements at work. The effort-reward imbalance model of work stress maintains that contractual non-reciprocity in terms of high efforts spent and low rewards received is frequent if people have no alternative choice in the labour market, if they are exposed to heavy competition or if they are intrinsically motivated to engage in excessive work-related commitment. According to the model, long-term exposure to effort-reward imbalance increases the risk of stress-related disorders. An overview of results from prospective epidemiological investigations testing the model is given. Overall, people who experience failed reciprocity at work are twice as likely to suffer from incident cardiovascular disease, depression or alcohol dependence compared to those who are not exposed. Associations are stronger for men than for women. Policy implications of findings for improved worksite health promotion are discussed.

  2. Spatially correlated heterogeneous aspirations to enhance network reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Jun; Nakata, Makoto; Hagishima, Aya; Ikegaya, Naoki

    2012-02-01

    Perc & Wang demonstrated that aspiring to be the fittest under conditions of pairwise strategy updating enhances network reciprocity in structured populations playing 2×2 Prisoner's Dilemma games (Z. Wang, M. Perc, Aspiring to the fittest and promoted of cooperation in the Prisoner's Dilemma game, Physical Review E 82 (2010) 021115; M. Perc, Z. Wang, Heterogeneous aspiration promotes cooperation in the Prisoner's Dilemma game, PLOS one 5 (12) (2010) e15117). Through numerical simulations, this paper shows that network reciprocity is even greater if heterogeneous aspirations are imposed. We also suggest why heterogeneous aspiration fosters network reciprocity. It distributes strategy updating speed among agents in a manner that fortifies the initially allocated cooperators' clusters against invasion. This finding prompted us to further enhance the usual heterogeneous aspiration cases for heterogeneous network topologies. We find that a negative correlation between degree and aspiration level does extend cooperation among heterogeneously structured agents.

  3. Gender-based violence in Families’ santiagueras: a study from the House of Orientation for Women and Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caridad A. Cala-Montoya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gender-based violence is a social problem that has accompanied man since ancient times. Currently there are many strategies implemented by countries to try to mitigate it and give to the women their rightful place in terms of gender equality and equal rights. Nevertheless, in the municipality of Santiago de Cuba the problem of gender violence is latent, which is evident from the systematicity that women, youth, adolescents, couples and families in general come to the House of Orientation the Women and Family (COMF for help. In this sense, this paper aims to characterize gender violence in santiagueras females and visible intervention strategy implemented to minimize this reality. Research is based on the triangulation of quantitative and qualitative data and methodological strategy implemented.

  4. Groupwise information sharing promotes ingroup favoritism in indirect reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Masuda, Naoki

    2012-11-05

    Indirect reciprocity is a mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations. In indirect reciprocity, an individual is motivated to help another to acquire a good reputation and receive help from others afterwards. Another aspect of human cooperation is ingroup favoritism, whereby individuals help members in their own group more often than those in other groups. Ingroup favoritism is a puzzle for the theory of cooperation because it is not easily evolutionarily stable. In the context of indirect reciprocity, ingroup favoritism has been shown to be a consequence of employing a double standard when assigning reputations to ingroup and outgroup members. An example of such a double standard is the situation in which helping an ingroup member is regarded as good, whereas the same action toward an outgroup member is regarded as bad. We analyze a computational model of indirect reciprocity in which information sharing is conducted groupwise. In our model, individuals play social dilemma games within and across groups, and the information about their reputations is shared within each group. We show that evolutionarily stable ingroup favoritism emerges even if all the players use the same reputation assignment rule regardless of group (i.e., a single standard). Two reputation assignment rules called simple standing and stern judging yield ingroup favoritism; under these rules, cooperation with (defection against) good individuals is regarded as good (bad) and defection against bad individuals is regarded as good. Stern judging induces much stronger ingroup favoritism than does simple standing. Simple standing and stern judging are evolutionarily stable against each other when groups employing different assignment rules compete and the number of groups is sufficiently large. In addition, we analytically show as a limiting case that homogeneous populations of reciprocators that use reputations are unstable when individuals independently infer reputations of individuals

  5. Towards a better understanding of the legibility bias in performance assessments: the case of gender-based inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greifeneder, Rainer; Zelt, Sarah; Seele, Tim; Bottenberg, Konstantin; Alt, Alexander

    2012-09-01

    Handwriting legibility systematically biases evaluations in that highly legible handwriting results in more positive evaluations than less legible handwriting. Because performance assessments in educational contexts are not only based on computerized or multiple choice tests but often include the evaluation of handwritten work samples, understanding the causes of this bias is critical. This research was designed to replicate and extend the legibility bias in two tightly controlled experiments and to explore whether gender-based inferences contribute to its occurrence. A total of 132 students from a German university participated in one pre-test and two independent experiments. Participants were asked to read and evaluate several handwritten essays varying in content quality. Each essay was presented to some participants in highly legible handwriting and to other participants in less legible handwriting. In addition, the assignment of legibility to participant group was reversed from essay to essay, resulting in a mixed-factor design. The legibility bias was replicated in both experiments. Results suggest that gender-based inferences do not account for its occurrence. Rather it appears that fluency from legibility exerts a biasing impact on evaluations of content and author abilities. The legibility bias was shown to be genuine and strong. By refuting a series of alternative explanations, this research contributes to a better understanding of what underlies the legibility bias. The present research may inform those who grade on what to focus and thus help to better allocate cognitive resources when trying to reduce this important source of error. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Nebula: reconstruction and visualization of scattering data in reciprocal space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiten, Andreas; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Mathiesen, Ragnvald H

    2015-04-01

    Two-dimensional solid-state X-ray detectors can now operate at considerable data throughput rates that allow full three-dimensional sampling of scattering data from extended volumes of reciprocal space within second to minute time-scales. For such experiments, simultaneous analysis and visualization allows for remeasurements and a more dynamic measurement strategy. A new software, Nebula , is presented. It efficiently reconstructs X-ray scattering data, generates three-dimensional reciprocal space data sets that can be visualized interactively, and aims to enable real-time processing in high-throughput measurements by employing parallel computing on commodity hardware.

  7. Fairness and Reciprocity in the Hawk-Dove Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Anders; Neugebauer, Tibor; Schram, Arthur

    2002-01-01

    We study fairness and reciprocity in a Hawk-Dove game, using an experimental approach. This allows us to test various models in one framework. We observe a large extent of selfish and rational behavior. Our results are inconsistent with leading models in this field.......We study fairness and reciprocity in a Hawk-Dove game, using an experimental approach. This allows us to test various models in one framework. We observe a large extent of selfish and rational behavior. Our results are inconsistent with leading models in this field....

  8. Bending-active reciprocal structures based on equilateral polyhedral geometries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovic Larsen, Olga; BRANCART, Stijn; DE TEMMERMAN, Niels

    2017-01-01

    As mutually supported beam structures, reciprocal frames limit the number of components that are joined at each connection to two. However, this system of intermediate connections introduces undesirable bending moments in the beam elements. By utilising elastic deformation to create curved...... of parts of reciprocal bending-active components based on a selection of polyhedral dome types. To simplify the assembly of the structures and avoid the manual bending of the components on site, we introduce the concept of a double-layered, pre-bent component. Finally, this paper presents the development...

  9. Reciprocal relations of transport coefficients in simple materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, L.

    1977-01-01

    The cross effects of viscosity and heat conduction in anisotropic simple materials (solids or liquids) are given in the linear regime, using our dissipation function theory introduced recently. Depending on whether the temperature gradient or the heat flux is used in the dissipation function, we show that two different but unambiguous reciprocal relations between the transport coefficients follow. These are compared and contrasted with the confusing predictions from the Onsager theory, and to the results of rational thermodynamics. The uncertain experimental situation in regard to these reciprocal relations is discussed. Experimental tests are strongly urged. (orig.) [de

  10. Violation of Gribov-Lipatov reciprocity due to preconfinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabe, Tetsuji

    1981-01-01

    On the basis of the preconfinement picture we study the hadronization of quark jets. Since this picture prepares in the final stage of QCD evolution the color singlet cluster for the adjacent q anti q pair distribution, the color of partons can be compensated in the hard region. We show that the resulting fragmentation function satisfies no longer the Gribov-Lipatov reciprocity derived in the case of the two-parton distribution. It is pointed out that the violation of the reciprocity is expected as the evidence of the realization of the preconfinement picture and the pattern of the violation is not inconsistent with data. (author)

  11. How is your day going? Reciprocity Norm in Everyday Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, Eric L; Mirghassemi, Felicia; Oceja, Luis V

    2016-07-21

    In 6 experiments, we manipulated the length of a communication message to assess reciprocity norm-following behaviour during conversational interaction. In Studies 1 and 2, scripts of different length were used in an online chat, and chat logs were analysed. In Studies 3 and 4, participants e-mailed scripts that varied in length to acquaintances, and replies were analysed. In Studies 5 and 6, a confederate initiated conversations with either strangers or acquaintances and recorded the amount of time the person responded. The results suggest that conversation partners reciprocate length across different communication media, regardless of the depth of the information disclosed. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  12. "You Are a Part of the Solution": Negotiating Gender-Based Violence and Engendering Change in Urban Informal Settlements in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Proshant; Daruwalla, Nayreen; Jayaraman, Anuja; Pantvaidya, Shanti

    2016-08-04

    This article explores how women front-line workers engage with domestic and gender-based violence in the urban informal settlements of Dharavi in Mumbai, India. We conducted in-depth interviews with 13 voluntary front-line workers, along with ethnographic fieldwork in Dharavi, as a part of a pilot study. Our findings contribute to literature on context-specific approaches to understanding gender-based violence and "models" to prevent domestic violence in urban micro-spaces. Furthermore, we also discuss notions of "change" (badlaav) that the front-line workers experience. Finally, this article presents implications for socially engaged ethnographic research, as well as contextual and grounded insights on ways to reduce gender-based and domestic violence. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. The Cultural Epigenesis of Gender-Based Violence in Cambodia: Local and Buddhist Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbruch, Maurice

    2018-06-01

    Almost one in four women in Cambodia is a victim of physical, emotional or sexual violence. The study aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the ways in which Cambodians see its causes and effects and to identify and analyse the cultural forces that underpin and shape its landscape. An ethnographic study was carried out with 102 perpetrators and survivors of emotional, physical and sexual violence against women and 228 key informants from the Buddhist and healing sectors. Their views and experiences of it were recorded-the popular idioms expressed and the symptoms of distress experienced by survivors and perpetrators. From these results, the eight cultural forces, or cultural attractors, that are seen to propel a person to violence were identified. Violence stemmed from blighted endowment, or 'bad building' (sɑmnaaŋ mɨn lʔɑɑ) determined by deeds in a previous life (kam). Children with a vicious character (kmeeŋ kaac or doṣa-carita) might grow to be abusers, and particular birthmarks on boys were thought to be portents. Krʊəh, or mishap, especially when a female's horoscope predicted a zodiac house on the descent (riesəy), explained vulnerability to violence and its timing. Astrological incompatibility (kuu kam) was a risk factor. Lust, anger and ignorance, the 'Triple Poison', fuelled it. 'Entering the road to ruin' (apāyamuk), including alcohol abuse, womanising and gambling, triggered it. Confusion and loss of judgement (mohā) led to moral blindness (mo baŋ). These were the eight cultural attractors that shaped the landscape of violence against women. The cultural epigenesis of violence against women in Cambodia is an insight which can be used to build culturally responsive interventions and strengthen the primary prevention of violence against women. An understanding of the epigenesis of violence could strengthen the primary prevention of violence against women.

  14. 75 FR 37732 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines... hazardous air pollutants for existing stationary compression ignition reciprocating internal combustion... combustion engines. 40 CFR 63.6590 was amended by revising paragraphs (b)(1) and (3). Inadvertently...

  15. 75 FR 75937 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines... internal combustion engines. Subsequently, the Administrator received two petitions for reconsideration... Any industry using a stationary 2211 Electric power reciprocating internal generation, combustion...

  16. 77 FR 60341 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Pollutants for Stationary Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines to solicit comment on specific issues...

  17. 77 FR 33811 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... 63 National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines; Proposed Rule #0;#0... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source...

  18. 77 FR 37361 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance Standards for Stationary Internal Combustion Engines AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines; New Source Performance...

  19. Unilateral or Reciprocal Climate Policy? Experimental Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bernauer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The traditional political economy account of global climate change governance directs our attention to fundamental collective action problems associated with global public goods provision, resulting from positive or negative externalities as well as freeriding. The governance architecture of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol uses the traditional approaches of international diplomacy for addressing such challenges: legally binding commitments based on principles of reciprocity and (fair cost/burden sharing via formalized carbon-budgeting. Yet, the 2015 Paris Agreement has essentially abandoned this approach, as it now operates on the basis of internationally coordinated and monitored unilateralism. On the presumption that public opinion matters for government policy, we examine how citizens view this shift in climate policy from reciprocity to unilateralism, after many years of exposure to strong reciprocity rhetoric by governments and stakeholders. To that end, we fielded a survey experiment in China, the world’s largest greenhouse gas (GHG emitter. The results show that there is, perhaps surprisingly, strong and robust public support for unilateral, non-reciprocal climate policy. To the extent China is interested in pushing ahead with ambitious and thus costly GHG reduction policies, our results suggest that China can leverage segments of public support in order to overcome domestic obstacles to GHG mitigation policies.

  20. The Reciprocal Organization of Constructive Activity in Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetzyanova, Anna I.; Nikishina, Vera B.; Klyueva, Nadezhda V.; Petrash, Ekaterina A.

    2016-01-01

    The urgency of the problem stated in the article is caused by the fact that modern scientific studies show that sustainable neuro-associative connections with the object of addiction arise at chemical addiction. The aim of this study is to examine the features of the reciprocal organization of constructive activities in drug addiction. Study of…

  1. Achievement Emotions and Academic Performance: Longitudinal Models of Reciprocal Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Marsh, Herbert W.; Murayama, Kou; Goetz, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    A reciprocal effects model linking emotion and achievement over time is proposed. The model was tested using five annual waves of the Project for the Analysis of Learning and Achievement in Mathematics (PALMA) longitudinal study, which investigated adolescents' development in mathematics (Grades 5-9; N = 3,425 German students; mean starting…

  2. A Reciprocal Peer Review System to Support College Students' Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Fen

    2011-01-01

    As students' problem-solving processes in writing are rarely observed in face-to-face instruction, they have few opportunities to participate collaboratively in peer review to improve their texts. This study reports the design of a reciprocal peer review system for students to observe and learn from each other when writing. A sample of 95…

  3. Feasibility of Applying Controllable Lubrication Techniques to Reciprocating Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pulido, Edgar Estupinan

    of the reciprocating engine, obtained with the help of multibody dynamics (rigid components) and finite elements method (flexible components), and the global system of equations is numerically solved. The analysis of the results was carried out with focus on the behaviour of the journal orbits, maximum fluid film...

  4. Reciprocal Relationships between Job Resources, Personal Resources, and Work Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthopoulou, Despoina; Bakker, Arnold B.; Demerouti, Evangelia; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal relationships between job resources, personal resources, and work engagement. On the basis of Conservation of Resources theory, we hypothesized that job resources, personal resources, and work engagement are reciprocal over time. The study was conducted among 163 employees, who were followed-up over a period of 18…

  5. Reciprocity and its utilization in ultrasonic flow meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunde, Per; Vestrheim, Magne; Boe, Reidar; Smoergrav, Skule; Abrahamsen, Atle K.

    2005-07-01

    In ultrasonic transit time flow meters for gas and liquid (USMs), the flow direction, the flow velocity and the sound velocity are estimated from the measured up- and downstream transit times. At no-flow conditions, the up- and downstream transit times of such meters should ideally be the same, or the difference should be negligible. This may not be the case unless special precautions are made. In order to reduce the possibility of the meter to detect a false flow at no-flow conditions, USMs are typically ''dry calibrated'' before being installed in the field. ''Dry calibration'' (which may be made in different ways), in general involves measurement of (a) the time delays due to electronics, cables and transducers, (b) the so called ''{delta}t-correction'' (for each acoustic path, also denoted ''zero flow offset factor''), and (c) geometrical parameters. Various {delta}t-correction approaches may be used by different manufacturers, but these are basically similar and have the same purpose: to reduce the false flow detection and improve the accuracy at low and no-flow conditions (''zero flow adjustment''), without significantly affecting the accuracy at the high velocity measurements. The AGA-9 report and the API MPMS Ch. 5.8 standard both prescribe need for ''zero flow verification test (zero test)'' or ''zeroing the meter'', for gas and liquid USMs, respectively. Advances in USM technology based on the electro acoustic reciprocity principle have provided methods for reduction or even neglect ion of the need for ''{delta} t-correction'' of USMs. That means, if the USM measurement system is reciprocal, and operated in a ''sufficiently reciprocal'' way, the ''{delta}t-correction'' may be negligibly small over the operational range of pressure and temperature, and

  6. Reciprocal Relationships between Math Self-Concept and Math Anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, Wondimu; Minnaert, Alexander; Kuyper, Hans; Van der Werf, Greetje

    The present study examined the reciprocal relationships between self-concept and anxiety in mathematics. A sample of 495 grade 7 students (51% girls) completed self-report measures assessing self-concept and anxiety three times in a school year. Structural equation modeling was used to test a

  7. Sorting genomes by reciprocal translocations, insertions, and deletions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xingqin; Li, Guojun; Li, Shuguang; Xu, Ying

    2010-01-01

    The problem of sorting by reciprocal translocations (abbreviated as SBT) arises from the field of comparative genomics, which is to find a shortest sequence of reciprocal translocations that transforms one genome Pi into another genome Gamma, with the restriction that Pi and Gamma contain the same genes. SBT has been proved to be polynomial-time solvable, and several polynomial algorithms have been developed. In this paper, we show how to extend Bergeron's SBT algorithm to include insertions and deletions, allowing to compare genomes containing different genes. In particular, if the gene set of Pi is a subset (or superset, respectively) of the gene set of Gamma, we present an approximation algorithm for transforming Pi into Gamma by reciprocal translocations and deletions (insertions, respectively), providing a sorting sequence with length at most OPT + 2, where OPT is the minimum number of translocations and deletions (insertions, respectively) needed to transform Pi into Gamma; if Pi and Gamma have different genes but not containing each other, we give a heuristic to transform Pi into Gamma by a shortest sequence of reciprocal translocations, insertions, and deletions, with bounds for the length of the sorting sequence it outputs. At a conceptual level, there is some similarity between our algorithm and the algorithm developed by El Mabrouk which is used to sort two chromosomes with different gene contents by reversals, insertions, and deletions.

  8. Variable speed hermetic reciprocating compressors for domestic refrigerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Bjarne D.

    1998-01-01

    This article describes the results of a both theoretical and experimental investigation of the performance of variable speed hermetic reciprocating compressors for domestic refrigerators. The investigation was performed as a part of a larger research project with the objective of reducing...

  9. Observations with a mid-plane reciprocating probe in MAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.; Counsell, G.F.

    2003-01-01

    A fast reciprocating probe has recently been installed on MAST. It has been used to measure the outboard, mid-plane scrape off layer (SOL) of L-mode plasmas, and to study the intermittent fluctuations in the SOL in L-mode and ELMy H-mode discharges. In this paper, the system and the experiments are introduced

  10. Social Dilemmas and Indirect Reciprocity: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Acosta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Indirect reciprocity is an evolutionary theory of altruism and cooperation in social dilemmas. Its explanation of cooperation incorporates information on the reputation people hold of other people regarding whether they are cooperative or not. This study systematically reviewed the current empirical literature on indirect reciprocity in social dilemma situations. The following databases were consulted: ScienceDirect, EBSCO, and OVID, using has key words "indirect reciprocity" AND "dilemma" OR "cooperation" OR "charity". Twenty-three articles were selected which met the inclusion criteria (papers written in English and studies whose methodology was based on experimental games and the theories, objectives, the main types of samples used, and main results were analyzed. The results show that the games used were the indirect reciprocity and public goods games, which may vary according to the objectives. It was found that reputation is a key variable that helps to promote cooperation. In turn, information on previous cooperation helps to build reputation, which is subsequently involved in the decision to cooperate with others. Finally, we highlight the need for more experimental studies that incorporate other explanatory variables and evaluate them in new contexts.

  11. Generation of the reciprocal-binomial state for optical fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valverde, C.; Avelar, A.T.; Baseia, B.; Malbouisson, J.M.C.

    2003-01-01

    We compare the efficiencies of two interesting schemes to generate truncated states of the light field in running modes, namely the 'quantum scissors' and the 'beam-splitter array' schemes. The latter is applied to create the reciprocal-binomial state as a travelling wave, required to implement recent experimental proposals of phase-distribution determination and of quantum lithography

  12. Microflown based monopole sound sources for reciprocal measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, H.E. de; Basten, T.G.H.

    2008-01-01

    Monopole sound sources (i.e. omni directional sound sources with a known volume velocity) are essential for reciprocal measurements used in vehicle interior panel noise contribution analysis. Until recently, these monopole sound sources use a sound pressure transducer sensor as a reference sensor. A

  13. Non-traditional vibration mitigation methods for reciprocating compressor system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijk, A.; Lange, T.J. de; Vreugd, J. de; Slis, E.J.P.

    2016-01-01

    Reciprocating compressors generate vibrations caused by pulsation-induced forces, mechanical (unbalanced) free forces and moments, crosshead guide forces and cylinder stretch forces. The traditional way of mitigating the vibration and cyclic stress levels to avoid fatigue failure of parts of the

  14. Reciprocal Relations between Children's Sleep and Their Adjustment over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ryan J.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Child sleep and adjustment research with community samples is on the rise with a recognized need of explicating this association. We examined reciprocal relations between children's sleep and their internalizing and externalizing symptoms using 3 waves of data spanning 5 years. Participants included 176 children at Time 1 (M = 8.68 years; 69%…

  15. Self-Esteem and Adolescent Problems: Modeling Reciprocal Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Morris; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Explores the reciprocal relationships between self-esteem and the following three problems of youth: (1) juvenile delinquency; (2) poor school performance; and (3) psychological depression. Findings include the following: (1) low self-esteem fosters delinquency, which may enhance self-esteem; (2) school performance affects self-esteem; and (3)…

  16. Potential Reciprocal Relationship between Motivation and Achievement: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Hou, Shumeng

    2018-01-01

    Among the non-cognitive factors that influence academic achievement, intrinsic motivation has been found to be a potential reciprocal factor. The present study aims to determine the causal relationship between other types of motivation and academic achievement. For this purpose, a large-scale data survey, the National Education Longitudinal Study…

  17. Effects of Reciprocal Teaching Strategies on Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Tan Ooi Leng; Eng, Tan Kok; Ahmad, Norlida

    2011-01-01

    Reading Comprehension is one of the four components tested by the "MUET" (Malaysian University English Test) for Sixth-Form students in Malaysia, and school teachers are charged with the task of helping these students improve. This article discusses how "reciprocal teaching strategies" could help low-proficiency Sixth-Form…

  18. Reciprocal locomotion of dense swimmers in Stokes flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, David; Lauga, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Due to the kinematic reversibility of Stokes flow, a body executing a reciprocal motion (a motion in which the sequence of body configurations remains identical under time reversal) cannot propel itself in a viscous fluid in the limit of negligible inertia; this result is known as Purcell's scallop theorem. In this limit, the Reynolds numbers based on the fluid inertia and on the body inertia are all zero. Previous studies characterized the breakdown of the scallop theorem with fluid inertia. In this paper we show that, even in the absence of fluid inertia, certain dense bodies undergoing reciprocal motion are able to swim. Using Lorentz's reciprocal theorem, we first derive the general differential equations that govern the locomotion kinematics of a dense swimmer. We demonstrate that no reciprocal swimming is possible if the body motion consists only of tangential surface deformation (squirming). We then apply our general formulation to compute the locomotion of four simple swimmers, each with a different spatial asymmetry, that perform normal surface deformations. We show that the resulting swimming speeds (or rotation rates) scale as the first power of a properly defined 'swimmer Reynolds number', demonstrating thereby a continuous breakdown of the scallop theorem with body inertia.

  19. Dynamic reciprocity in bio-inspired supramolecular materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastings, M.M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic reciprocity, the spatio-temporal bidirectional process between evolving partners in a functional system is not only found in nature, but also applies to supramolecularly assembling architectures. In this thesis, the focus was on the understanding of nature-inspired supramolecular

  20. Monkeys fail to reciprocate in an exchange task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelé, Marie; Thierry, Bernard; Call, Josep; Dufour, Valérie

    2010-09-01

    Exchanges form the basis of human economies. Animals too can engage in reciprocal interactions but they do not barter goods like humans, which raises the question of the abilities necessary for trading to occur. Previous studies have shown that non-human primates can exchange food with human partners. Here, we tested the ability of brown capuchin monkeys and Tonkean macaques to reciprocate in a task requiring two conspecifics to exchange tokens in order to obtain rewards from an experimenter. We recorded 56 transfers between subjects in capuchin monkeys and 10 in Tonkean macaques. All transfers were passive in both species. Capuchins preferentially picked up tokens valuable for them in the partner's compartment. They tended to manipulate the partner-valued tokens more often than the no-value ones, leading to more opportunities for these tokens to end up within reach of the partner. Despite optimal conditions where values of goods were defined and known by partners, however, none of the pairs tested engaged in short-term reciprocal interactions. These results indicate that calculated reciprocity was difficult if not impossible in the animals tested.

  1. Longitudinal Study on Reciprocity between Personality Traits and Parenting Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantanen, Johanna; Tillemann, Kati; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Kokko, Katja; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal associations between the Big Five personality traits and parenting stress--including both parents' feelings of their distress and perception of their incompetence as parents--were studied with 248 participants (49% of which were males). Longitudinal data, collected at ages 33/36, 42 and 50 years, were used. Cross-lagged path analysis…

  2. Reciprocal genomic evolution in the ant-fungus agricultural symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Sanne; Hu, Haofu; Li, Cai

    2016-01-01

    The attine ant-fungus agricultural symbiosis evolved over tens of millions of years, producing complex societies with industrial-scale farming analogous to that of humans. Here we document reciprocal shifts in the genomes and transcriptomes of seven fungus-farming ant species and their fungal...

  3. Reciprocity: Saying What We Mean and Meaning What We Say

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostilio, Lina D.; Brackmann, Sarah M.; Edwards, Kathleen E.; Harrison, Barbara; Kliewer, Brandon W.; Clayton, Patti H.

    2012-01-01

    Reciprocity is a foundational concept in service-learning and community engagement, yet it is frequently referred to in the literature without precise conceptualization or critical examination, in effect suggesting a shared understanding of the concept among practitioners and scholars. However, understandings and applications of the term vary…

  4. Evidence of Reciprocity in Reports on International Partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A. Umoren

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in global health opportunities in medical education has been accompanied by calls for ethical and reciprocal institutional partnerships. The Working Group on Ethics Guidelines in Global Health Training (WEIGHT guidelines were developed in 2010 and are widely accepted by the global health community. We reviewed 43 articles on international partnerships from 1970 to 2010 for eight principles of reciprocity derived from the WEIGHT guidelines. The results showed that, while few articles reflected all principles, there was a trend to increasing consideration of the international partner’s local needs, pre-departure cultural training, and collaborative authorship. However, learner supervision and consideration of local cost/benefit ratios decreased over the same time period. Partnerships with only one international partner or with institutional partners in Africa had lower reciprocity scores than those with two or more partners and institutional partners in Asia and South America. We recommend that a new focus on ethics in global health partnerships leads to the inclusion of the principles of reciprocity in model program descriptions in order to enable and encourage ethical, sustainable, and mutually beneficial institutional partnerships.

  5. Chimpanzees trust conspecifics to engage in low-cost reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Jan M; Herrmann, Esther; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-02-22

    Many of humans' most important social interactions rely on trust, including most notably among strangers. But little is known about the evolutionary roots of human trust. We presented chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with a modified version of the human trust game--trust in reciprocity--in which subjects could opt either to obtain a small but safe reward on their own or else to send a larger reward to a partner and trust her to reciprocate a part of the reward that she could not access herself. In a series of three studies, we found strong evidence that in interacting with a conspecific, chimpanzees show spontaneous trust in a novel context; flexibly adjust their level of trust to the trustworthiness of their partner and develop patterns of trusting reciprocity over time. At least in some contexts then, trust in reciprocity is not unique to humans, but rather has its evolutionary roots in the social interactions of humans' closest primate relatives. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Reciprocity as Sustainability in Campus-Community Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomgarden, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The concept of reciprocity permeates the literature on campus-community partnership as a matter of principle, aspiration, and--ideally--best practice. More recently, principles and practices of sustainability have pervaded scholarly and popular discourse, emerging from and applying to environmental studies, economic development, and social justice…

  7. Reciprocity Revisited : Give and Take in Dutch and Immigrant Families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komter, Aafke; Schans, Djamila

    2008-01-01

    The idea that reciprocity is the basic principle underlying forms of social organization, among which the family, is as old as classical anthropology and sociology. The essence of the principle is that giving prompts receiving, thereby creating forms of ongoing exchange and durable cooperation.

  8. Reciprocity of Prosocial Behavior in Japanese Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Keiko K.; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the reciprocity of prosocial behavior among 3- and 4-year-old Japanese preschool children during free-play time. Matrix correlation tests revealed positive correlations between the frequencies of object offering given and received within dyads and between the frequencies of helping given and received within dyads. These…

  9. Reciprocity experiments on the transmission of sound in ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolde, T. ten

    1973-01-01

    The general reciprocity theorem for linear dynamical systems was formulated by Rayleigh about a century ago (ref. 1.1). Nevertheless, in the fields of acoustics and structural dynamics the principle is not generally accepted as a useful tool and the number of applications is very limited. The

  10. Coaction versus reciprocity in continuous-time models of cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, G Sander; Riebli, Thomas; Taborsky, Michael

    2014-09-07

    Cooperating animals frequently show closely coordinated behaviours organized by a continuous flow of information between interacting partners. Such real-time coaction is not captured by the iterated prisoner's dilemma and other discrete-time reciprocal cooperation games, which inherently feature a delay in information exchange. Here, we study the evolution of cooperation when individuals can dynamically respond to each other's actions. We develop continuous-time analogues of iterated-game models and describe their dynamics in terms of two variables, the propensity of individuals to initiate cooperation (altruism) and their tendency to mirror their partner's actions (coordination). These components of cooperation stabilize at an evolutionary equilibrium or show oscillations, depending on the chosen payoff parameters. Unlike reciprocal altruism, cooperation by coaction does not require that those willing to initiate cooperation pay in advance for uncertain future benefits. Correspondingly, we show that introducing a delay to information transfer between players is equivalent to increasing the cost of cooperation. Cooperative coaction can therefore evolve much more easily than reciprocal cooperation. When delays entirely prevent coordination, we recover results from the discrete-time alternating prisoner's dilemma, indicating that coaction and reciprocity are connected by a continuum of opportunities for real-time information exchange. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Modern Social Science Concepts, Proportionate Reciprocity, Modesty, and Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimos T. SOLDATOS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Proportionate Reciprocity, Modesty, and Democracy, are the key concepts in Aristotle’s economics of exchange. The following correspondence of these concepts with modern social science may be contemplated: (a Ideally, reciprocal justice in bilateral bargaining to minimize expenditure given utility levels results in Pareto-efficient, envy-free, equitable outcomes. (b Practically, bargaining under the threat or actual recontracting may act as a surrogate of reciprocal justice, leading to an N-person contract topology. (c But, recontracting is subject to practical limitations too, in which case near-reciprocal justice/general equilibrium outcomes may be fostered if, as a surrogate of recontracting, modesty in interaction is exhibited in an evolutionarily-stable-strategy fashion. (d That is, incomplete recontracting amounts to asymmetric agent-type information, which in turn lays the ground for injustices; the same lack of information prevents rectificatory justice from being efficient and hence, modesty can be efficient only if it operates as a social norm and hence, only in a modest polity, which can be no other than democracy.

  12. Grooming reciprocity in female tibetan macaques macaca thibetana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dongpo; Li, Jinhua; Garber, Paul A; Sun, Lixing; Zhu, Yong; Sun, Binghua

    2012-06-01

    Grooming among nonhuman primates is widespread and may represent an important service commodity that is exchanged within a biological marketplace. In this study, using focal animal sampling methods, we recorded grooming relationships among 12 adult females in a free-ranging group of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Huangshan, China, to determine the influence of rank and kinship on grooming relationships, and whether females act as reciprocal traders (exchange grooming received for grooming given) or interchange traders (interchange grooming for social tolerance or other commodities). The results showed that: (1) grooming given was positively correlated with grooming received; (2) kinship did not exert a significant influence on grooming reciprocity; and (3) grooming reciprocity occurred principally between individuals of adjacent rank; however, when females of different rank groomed, females tended to groom up the hierarchy (lower ranking individuals groomed higher ranking individuals more than vice versa). Our results support the contention that both grooming reciprocity and the interchange of grooming for tolerance represent important social tactics used by female Tibetan macaques. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Evidence of direct reciprocity, but not of indirect and generalized reciprocity, in the grooming exchanges of wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molesti, Sandra; Majolo, Bonaventura

    2017-09-01

    Reciprocity is one of the mechanisms that have been proposed to explain the exchange of social behaviors, such as grooming, in animals. Reciprocity assumes that individuals act as the donor and recipient of grooming and switch roles over time to balance the benefits and costs of this behavior. Three main patterns of reciprocity may follow a grooming given: (i) direct reciprocity, where the former recipient returns the grooming to the former donor; (ii) indirect reciprocity, where another individual returns the grooming to the former donor; and (iii) generalized reciprocity, where the former recipient returns the grooming to another individual. While there is evidence that direct reciprocity plays an important role in various species of animals, the role of indirect and generalized reciprocity is less clear and has been rarely analyzed. We tested the role of direct, indirect, and generalized reciprocity in explaining grooming exchanges of wild Barbary macaques, by analyzing the temporal contingency between giving and receiving grooming. We collected the occurrence and latency of the three types of grooming reciprocation during 1 hr long focal sessions run simultaneously on two partners who just stopped grooming (post-grooming session) or who were in proximity (i.e., within 1.5 m) without grooming each other (control session). We ran the analyses on 284 post-grooming and 63 control sessions. The results revealed a temporal contingency of grooming interactions exchanged according to direct reciprocity but not according to indirect or generalized reciprocity. Our results indicate that grooming distribution in Barbary macaques is partner-specific. We discuss the possible role of cognition and emotions in explaining direct reciprocity in animals. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Some properties of generalized self-reciprocal polynomials over finite fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryul Kim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerous results on self-reciprocal polynomials over finite fields have been studied. In this paper we generalize some of these to a-self reciprocal polynomials defined in [4]. We consider some properties of the divisibility of a-reciprocal polynomials and characterize the parity of the number of irreducible factors for a-self reciprocal polynomials over finite fields of odd characteristic.

  15. Transcranial Electrical Neuromodulation Based on the Reciprocity Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Corazza, Mariano; Turovets, Sergei; Luu, Phan; Anderson, Erik; Tucker, Don

    2016-01-01

    A key challenge in multi-electrode transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is to find a current injection pattern that delivers the necessary current density at a target and minimizes it in the rest of the head, which is mathematically modeled as an optimization problem. Such an optimization with the Least Squares (LS) or Linearly Constrained Minimum Variance (LCMV) algorithms is generally computationally expensive and requires multiple independent current sources. Based on the reciprocity principle in electroencephalography (EEG) and TES, it could be possible to find the optimal TES patterns quickly whenever the solution of the forward EEG problem is available for a brain region of interest. Here, we investigate the reciprocity principle as a guideline for finding optimal current injection patterns in TES that comply with safety constraints. We define four different trial cortical targets in a detailed seven-tissue finite element head model, and analyze the performance of the reciprocity family of TES methods in terms of electrode density, targeting error, focality, intensity, and directionality using the LS and LCMV solutions as the reference standards. It is found that the reciprocity algorithms show good performance comparable to the LCMV and LS solutions. Comparing the 128 and 256 electrode cases, we found that use of greater electrode density improves focality, directionality, and intensity parameters. The results show that reciprocity principle can be used to quickly determine optimal current injection patterns in TES and help to simplify TES protocols that are consistent with hardware and software availability and with safety constraints.

  16. Neural precursors of future liking and affective reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerubavel, Noam; Hoffman, Mark Anthony; Reich, Adam; Ochsner, Kevin N; Bearman, Peter

    2018-04-24

    Why do certain group members end up liking each other more than others? How does affective reciprocity arise in human groups? The prediction of interpersonal sentiment has been a long-standing pursuit in the social sciences. We combined fMRI and longitudinal social network data to test whether newly acquainted group members' reward-related neural responses to images of one another's faces predict their future interpersonal sentiment, even many months later. Specifically, we analyze associations between relationship-specific valuation activity and relationship-specific future liking. We found that one's own future (T2) liking of a particular group member is predicted jointly by actor's initial (T1) neural valuation of partner and by that partner's initial (T1) neural valuation of actor. These actor and partner effects exhibited equivalent predictive strength and were robust when statistically controlling for each other, both individuals' initial liking, and other potential drivers of liking. Behavioral findings indicated that liking was initially unreciprocated at T1 yet became strongly reciprocated by T2. The emergence of affective reciprocity was partly explained by the reciprocal pathways linking dyad members' T1 neural data both to their own and to each other's T2 liking outcomes. These findings elucidate interpersonal brain mechanisms that define how we ultimately end up liking particular interaction partners, how group members' initially idiosyncratic sentiments become reciprocated, and more broadly, how dyads evolve. This study advances a flexible framework for researching the neural foundations of interpersonal sentiments and social relations that-conceptually, methodologically, and statistically-emphasizes group members' neural interdependence. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  17. Transcranial electrical neuromodulation based on the reciprocity principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano eFernandez Corazza

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A key challenge in multi-electrode transcranial electrical stimulation (TES or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is to find a current injection pattern that delivers the necessary current density at a target and minimizes it in the rest of the head, which is mathematically modelled as an optimization problem. Such an optimization with the Least Squares (LS or Linearly Constrained Minimum Variance (LCMV algorithms is generally computationally expensive and requires multiple independent current sources. Based on the reciprocity principle in electroencephalography (EEG and TES, it could be possible to find the optimal TES patterns quickly whenever the solution of the forward EEG problem is available for a brain region of interest. Here, we investigate the reciprocity principle as a guideline for finding optimal current injection patterns in TES that comply with safety constraints. We define four different trial cortical targets in a detailed seven-tissue finite element head model, and analyze the performance of the reciprocity family of TES methods in terms of electrode density, targeting error, focality, intensity, and directionality using the LS and LCMV solutions as the reference standards. It is found that the reciprocity algorithms show good performance comparable to the LCMV and LS solutions. Comparing the 128 and 256 electrode cases, we found that use of greater electrode density improves focality, directionality, and intensity parameters. The results show that reciprocity principle can be used to quickly determine optimal current injection patterns in TES and help to simplify TES protocols that are consistent with hardware and software availability and with safety constraints.

  18. "Dentinal microcracks after root canal preparation" a comparative evaluation with hand, rotary and reciprocating instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, N Tulasi; Chandrasekhar, Veeramachaneni; Anita, S; Tummala, Muralidhar; Raj, T B Phanindhar; Badami, Vijetha; Kumar, Pradeep; Soujanya, E

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of dentinal micro cracks after instrumentation with various types of NiTi files in rotary and reciprocating motion. One hundred human extracted mandibular central incisors were taken and divided into 10 groups (n=10 teeth per group). Group 1- No preparation, Group 2 - Hand instrumentation, Groups 3,4 - ProTaper files in rotary and reciprocating motion, Groups 5,6 - ProTaper Next files in rotary and reciprocating motion, Groups 7,8 - Oneshape files in rotary and reciprocating motion, Groups 9,10 - Reciproc files in rotary and reciprocating motion. Specimens were sectioned horizontally at 3,6 and 9 mm from the apex and dentinal micro cracks were observed under a stereomicroscope. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups (pProtaper Next - Rot, Protaper Next - Rec, Reciproc - Rec); (ProTaper - Rot, ProTaper - Rec, Oneshape - Rot), (Oneshape - Rot, Reciproc - Rot), (One shape Reciproc, Reciproc - Rec); (p >.05). Least cracks were seen in canals instrumented with Pro Taper Next files both in rotary and reciprocating motion. Full sequence rotary systems showed less cracks than single file systems and full sequence rotary systems showed less cracks in reciprocating motion than in rotary motion.

  19. The Normative Foundation of Legal Orders: A Balance between Reciprocity and Mutuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pessers, D.

    2014-01-01

    Reciprocity seems to figure as a self-evident normative foundation of legal orders. Yet a clear understanding of the often opaque role that reciprocity plays in this regard demands drawing a conceptual distinction. This article views reciprocity as a social morality of duties, in opposition to

  20. A Comparison of Several Statistical Tests of Reciprocity of Self-Disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dindia, Kathryn

    1988-01-01

    Reports the results of a study that used several statistical tests of reciprocity of self-disclosure. Finds little evidence for reciprocity of self-disclosure, and concludes that either reciprocity is an illusion, or that different or more sophisticated methods are needed to detect it. (MS)

  1. Does Theorizing on Reciprocal Altruism Apply to the Relationships of Individuals with a Spinal Cord Injury?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, A. P.; Zurriaga, Rosario; Gonzalez, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    From the perspective of reciprocal altruism, we examined the role of reciprocity in the close relationships of people inflicted with a spinal cord injury (SCI) (n = 70). We focused on the help receiver rather than on the help giver. Participants perceived more reciprocity in relationships with

  2. Weighted reciprocal of temperature, weighted thermal flux, and their applications in finite-time thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Shiqi; Tu, Z C

    2014-01-01

    The concepts of weighted reciprocal of temperature and weighted thermal flux are proposed for a heat engine operating between two heat baths and outputting mechanical work. With the aid of these two concepts, the generalized thermodynamic fluxes and forces can be expressed in a consistent way within the framework of irreversible thermodynamics. Then the efficiency at maximum power output for a heat engine, one of key topics in finite-time thermodynamics, is investigated on the basis of a generic model under the tight-coupling condition. The corresponding results have the same forms as those of low-dissipation heat engines [ M. Esposito, R. Kawai, K. Lindenberg and C. Van den Broeck Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 150603 (2010)]. The mappings from two kinds of typical heat engines, such as the low-dissipation heat engine and the Feynman ratchet, into the present generic model are constructed. The universal efficiency at maximum power output up to the quadratic order is found to be valid for a heat engine coupled symmetrically and tightly with two baths. The concepts of weighted reciprocal of temperature and weighted thermal flux are also transplanted to the optimization of refrigerators.

  3. Asymptotic form of the reciprocity theorem with applications in x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caticha, Ariel

    2000-01-01

    The emission of electromagnetic waves from a source within or near a nontrivial medium (with or without boundaries, crystalline or amorphous, with inhomogeneities, absorption, and so on) is sometimes studied using the reciprocity principle which is a variation of the method of Green's functions. If one is only interested in the asymptotic radiation fields the generality of these methods may actually be a shortcoming: obtaining expressions valid for the uninteresting near fields is not just a wasted effort but may be prohibitively difficult. In this work we obtain a modified form of the reciprocity principle which gives the asymptotic radiation field directly. The method may also be used to study scattering problems. We give a few pedagogical examples and then, as more challenging applications, we calculate the specular reflection of x rays by a rough surface and by a smoothly graded surface taking polarization effects into account. In conventional treatments of reflection, x rays are treated as scalar waves; polarization effects are neglected. This is a good approximation at grazing incidence but becomes increasingly questionable for soft x rays and UV at higher incidence angles

  4. Reciprocal Regulation between DNA-PKcs and Snail1 Conferring Genomic Instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Haeng Ran; Lee, Hae June; Jin, Yeung Bae; Bae, Sang Woo; Lee, Yun Sil; Kim, Nam Hee; Kim, Hyun Sil; Nam, Hyung Wook; Yook, Jong In

    2010-01-01

    Although the roles of DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) involving non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) of DNA repair are well recognized, the biological mechanisms and regulators by which DNA-PKcs regulate genomic instability are not clearly defined. We show herein that DNA-PKcs activity resulting from DNA damage caused by ionizing radiation (IR) phosphorylates Snail1 at serine 100, which results in increased Snail1 expression and its function by inhibition of GSK-3-mediated phosphorylation. Furthermore, Snail1 phosphorylated at serine 100 can reciprocally inhibit kinase activity of DNA-PKcs, resulting in an inhibition to recruit DNA-PKcs or Ku70/80 to a DNA double-strand break site, and ultimately inhibition of DNA repair activity. The impairment of repair activity by a direct interaction between Snail1 and DNA-PKcs increases the resistance to DNA damaging agents, such as IR, and genomic instability. Our findings provide a novel cellular mechanism for induction of genomic instability by reciprocal regulation of DNA-PKcs and Snail1

  5. Onsager’s reciprocal relations in electrolyte solutions. I. Sedimentation and electroacoustics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourdin-Bertin, S.; Bernard, O.; Jardat, M. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, Laboratoire PHENIX, Case 51, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Chassagne, C. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, Laboratoire PHENIX, Case 51, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Environmental Fluid Mechanics, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-08-14

    In the framework of irreversible thermodynamics, we show that the sedimentation current in electrolyte solutions is mathematically equivalent to the low frequency limit of the ionic vibration current, appearing in the presence of an acoustic wave. This non-trivial result is obtained thanks to a careful choice of the reference frame used to express the mass fluxes in the context of electroacoustics. Coupled transport phenomena in electrolyte solutions can also be investigated in a mechanical framework, with a set of Newtonian equations for the dynamics of charged solutes. Both in the context of sedimentation and of electroacoustics, we show that the results obtained in the mechanical framework, in the ideal case (i.e., without interactions between ions), do satisfy the Onsager’s reciprocal relations. We also derive the general relation between corrective forces accounting for ionic interactions which must be fulfilled so that the Onsager’s reciprocal relations are verified. Finally, we show that no additional diffusion term needs to be taken into account in the flux of solutes (far from the walls), even if local concentration gradients exist, contrarily to what was done previously in the literature.

  6. Reciprocal influences between negative life events and callous-unemotional traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimonis, Eva R; Centifanti, Luna C M; Allen, Jennifer L; Frick, Paul J

    2014-11-01

    Children with conduct problems and co-occurring callous-unemotional (CU) traits show more severe, stable, and aggressive antisocial behaviors than those without CU traits. Exposure to negative life events has been identified as an important contributing factor to the expression of CU traits across time, although the directionality of this effect has remained unknown due to a lack of longitudinal study. The present longitudinal study examined potential bidirectional effects of CU traits leading to experiencing more negative life events and negative life events leading to increases in CU traits across 3 years among a sample of community-based school-aged (M = 10.9, SD = 1.71 years) boys and girls (N = 98). Repeated rating measures of CU traits, negative life events and conduct problems completed by children and parents during annual assessments were moderately to highly stable across time. Cross-lagged models supported a reciprocal relationship of moderate magnitude between child-reported CU traits and "controllable" negative life events. Parent-reported CU traits predicted "uncontrollable" life events at the earlier time point and controllable life events at the later time point, but no reciprocal effect was evident. These findings have important implications for understanding developmental processes that contribute to the stability of CU traits in youth.

  7. Reciprocal translocations in germ cells of male mice receiving external γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayrakova, A.; Filev, G.; Baev, I.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were undertaken in which yields were recorded of reciprocal translocations in germ cells of male mice exposed to 0.9 Gy of γ-radiation at dose rates ranging from 6.14 x 10 -3 to 6.14 x 10 2 mGy/min (6 levels); comparisons were made with data published up to 1985 from similar studies using other fixed doses. To do this, translocation yields were expressed as relative yields (F) and their relationship to the dose rate (P) for the individual fixed doses was represented by an equation of the type: F = α + β log P. For most of the equations, the regression coefficients were in good agreement and a single relationship was obtained to represent them. From the analysis performed it follows that, within the 0.6-6.0 Gy dose range, the pattern of the F vs. P relationship is unaffected by the dose. This supports the initial assumption that for the dose range up to 6.0 Gy the dose response for the reciprocal translocation yield is a non-threshold straight-line relationship. (Auth.)

  8. Gender based within-household inequality in childhood immunization in India: changes over time and across regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Singh

    Full Text Available Despite India's substantial economic growth in the past two decades, girls in India are discriminated against in access to preventive healthcare including immunizations. Surprisingly, no study has assessed the contribution of gender based within-household discrimination to the overall inequality in immunization status of Indian children. This study therefore has two objectives: to estimate the gender based within-household inequality (GWHI in immunization status of Indian children and to examine the inter-regional and inter-temporal variations in the GWHI.The present study used households with a pair of male-female siblings (aged 1-5 years from two rounds of National Family Health Survey (NFHS, 1992-93 and 2005-06. The overall inequality in the immunization status (after controlling for age and birth order of children was decomposed into within-households and between-households components using Mean log deviation to obtain the GWHI component. The analysis was conducted at the all-India level as well as for six specified geographical regions and at two time points (1992-93 and 2005-06. Household fixed-effects models for immunization status of children were also estimated.Findings from household fixed effects analysis indicated that the immunization scores of girls were significantly lower than that of boys. The inequality decompositions revealed that, at the all-India level, the absolute level of GWHI in immunization status decreased from 0.035 in 1992-93 to 0.023 in 2005-06. However, as a percentage of total inequality, it increased marginally (15.5% to 16.5%. In absolute terms, GWHI decreased in all the regions except in the North-East. But, as a percentage of total inequality it increased in the North-Eastern, Western and Southern regions. The main conclusions are the following: GWHI contributes substantially to the overall inequality in immunization status of Indian children; and though the overall inequality in immunization status declined

  9. Gender based within-household inequality in childhood immunization in India: changes over time and across regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashish

    2012-01-01

    Despite India's substantial economic growth in the past two decades, girls in India are discriminated against in access to preventive healthcare including immunizations. Surprisingly, no study has assessed the contribution of gender based within-household discrimination to the overall inequality in immunization status of Indian children. This study therefore has two objectives: to estimate the gender based within-household inequality (GWHI) in immunization status of Indian children and to examine the inter-regional and inter-temporal variations in the GWHI. The present study used households with a pair of male-female siblings (aged 1-5 years) from two rounds of National Family Health Survey (NFHS, 1992-93 and 2005-06). The overall inequality in the immunization status (after controlling for age and birth order) of children was decomposed into within-households and between-households components using Mean log deviation to obtain the GWHI component. The analysis was conducted at the all-India level as well as for six specified geographical regions and at two time points (1992-93 and 2005-06). Household fixed-effects models for immunization status of children were also estimated. Findings from household fixed effects analysis indicated that the immunization scores of girls were significantly lower than that of boys. The inequality decompositions revealed that, at the all-India level, the absolute level of GWHI in immunization status decreased from 0.035 in 1992-93 to 0.023 in 2005-06. However, as a percentage of total inequality, it increased marginally (15.5% to 16.5%). In absolute terms, GWHI decreased in all the regions except in the North-East. But, as a percentage of total inequality it increased in the North-Eastern, Western and Southern regions. The main conclusions are the following: GWHI contributes substantially to the overall inequality in immunization status of Indian children; and though the overall inequality in immunization status declined in all the

  10. Gender Based Within-Household Inequality in Childhood Immunization in India: Changes over Time and across Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashish

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives Despite India's substantial economic growth in the past two decades, girls in India are discriminated against in access to preventive healthcare including immunizations. Surprisingly, no study has assessed the contribution of gender based within-household discrimination to the overall inequality in immunization status of Indian children. This study therefore has two objectives: to estimate the gender based within-household inequality (GWHI) in immunization status of Indian children and to examine the inter-regional and inter-temporal variations in the GWHI. Data and Methods The present study used households with a pair of male-female siblings (aged 1–5 years) from two rounds of National Family Health Survey (NFHS, 1992–93 and 2005–06). The overall inequality in the immunization status (after controlling for age and birth order) of children was decomposed into within-households and between-households components using Mean log deviation to obtain the GWHI component. The analysis was conducted at the all-India level as well as for six specified geographical regions and at two time points (1992–93 and 2005–06). Household fixed-effects models for immunization status of children were also estimated. Results and Conclusions Findings from household fixed effects analysis indicated that the immunization scores of girls were significantly lower than that of boys. The inequality decompositions revealed that, at the all-India level, the absolute level of GWHI in immunization status decreased from 0.035 in 1992–93 to 0.023 in 2005–06. However, as a percentage of total inequality, it increased marginally (15.5% to 16.5%). In absolute terms, GWHI decreased in all the regions except in the North-East. But, as a percentage of total inequality it increased in the North-Eastern, Western and Southern regions. The main conclusions are the following: GWHI contributes substantially to the overall inequality in immunization status of Indian children

  11. Reciprocal upregulation of Notch signaling molecules in hematopoietic progenitor and mesenchymal stromal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikuchi Y

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs play pivotal supportive roles in hematopoiesis, how they interact with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs is not well understood. We investigated the interaction between HSCs and surrogate MSCs (C3H10T1/2 stromal cells, focusing on the molecular events induced by cell contact of these bipartite populations. C3H10T1/2 is a mesenchymal stromal cell line that can be induced to differentiate into preadipocytes (A54 and myoblasts (M1601. The stromal cell derivatives were cocultured with murine HSCs (Lineage-Sca1+, and gene expression profiles in stromal cells and HSCs were compared before and after the coculture. HSCs gave rise to cobblestone areas only on A54 cells, with ninefold more progenitors than on M1601 or undifferentiated C3H10T1/2 cells. Microarray-based screening and a quantitative reverse transcriptase directed-polymerase chain reaction showed that the levels of Notch ligands (Jagged1 and Delta-like 3 were increased in A54 cells upon interaction with HSCs. On the other hand, the expression of Notch1 and Hes1 was upregulated in the HSCs cocultured with A54 cells. A transwell assay revealed that the reciprocal upregulation was dependent on cell-to-cell contact. The result suggested that in the hematopoietic niche, HSCs help MSCs to produce Notch ligands, and in turn, MSCs help HSCs to express Notch receptor. Such a reciprocal upregulation would reinforce the downstream signaling to determine the fate of hematopoietic cell lineage. Clarification of the initiating events on cell contact should lead to the identification of specific molecular targets to facilitate HSC engraftment in transplantation therapy.

  12. Gender-Based Content of Educational Materials for the Study of Serbian Language in Lower-Stage Grades of Elementary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifunovic, Vesna; Petrovic, Ruzica

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of analysis of educational materials for the study of Serbian language in lower-stage grades of elementary education (intended for students from 7 through 11 years old) from gender perspective. The first part of the paper presents the process of institutionalization of gender-based education in the Republic of…

  13. Explaining Gender-Based Language Use: Effects of Gender Identity Salience on References to Emotion and Tentative Language in Intra- and Intergroup Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares, Nicholas A.

    2008-01-01

    An experiment tested hypotheses derived from self-categorization theory's explanation for gender-based language use. Under high or low conditions of gender salience, men and women sent e-mail to an ostensible male or female recipient yielding either an intra- or an intergroup setting. Gender salience was manipulated so that the stereotypically…

  14. Gender-based violence and sexual and reproductive health among low-income youth in three Brazilian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacham, Alessandra Sampaio; Simão, Andrea Branco; Caetano, André Junqueira

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we investigate how gender-based violence (GBV) affects the sexual and reproductive health of impoverished adolescents and young adults. We analyse data from a 2011 survey of 450 young women and 300 young men aged 15-29, living in poor neighbourhoods of three middle-sized cities in Minas Gerais, Brazil. In this survey we used a closed-ended questionnaire to collect data from 150 women and 100 men in each city. Our main goal was to explore the relationship between GBV and young women's autonomy in relation to their sexuality, using indicators appropriate to Brazil. Our results showed a decreased prevalence of condom use at first intercourse and an increased prevalence of teenage pregnancies among young women who were in a relationship with a controlling and violent partner. Lower condom use was observed mostly among young men who acknowledged being violent and controlling towards a partner and they also were more likely to have made a partner pregnant as teenagers themselves. We conclude that some variables utilized here as indicators of control and violence from a partner and of young women's autonomy can help us to understand how GBV inside relationships affects the reproductive and sexual health of young men and women, and how empowering them can reduce their susceptibility to unwanted pregnancies and HIV and other STI infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The association between female genital fistula symptoms and gender-based violence: A multicountry secondary analysis of household survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Lindsay; Tripathi, Vandana

    2018-01-01

    The Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), which include standardised questions on female genital fistula symptoms, provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the epidemiology of fistula. This study sought to examine associations between self-reported fistula symptoms and experience of gender-based violence (GBV) among women interviewed in DHS surveys. This study used data from thirteen DHS surveys with standardised fistula and domestic violence modules. Data from the most recent survey in each country were pooled, weighting each survey equally. Multivariable logistic regressions controlled for maternal and demographic factors. Prevalence of fistula symptoms in this sample of 95 625 women ranges from 0.3% to 1.8% by country. The majority of women reporting fistula symptoms (56%) have ever experienced physical violence, and more than one-quarter have ever experienced sexual violence (27%), compared with 38% and 13% among women with no symptoms, respectively. Similarly, 16% of women with fistula symptoms report recently experiencing sexual violence-twice the percentage among women not reporting symptoms (8%). Women whose first experience of sexual violence was from a non-partner have almost four times the odds of reporting fistula symptoms compared with women who never experienced sexual violence. These associations indicate a need to investigate temporal and causal relationships between violence and fistula. The increased risk of physical and sexual violence among women with fistula symptoms suggests that fistula programmes should incorporate GBV into provider training and services. © 2017 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Risk Factors for Smoking in Rural Women: The Role of Gender-Based Sexual and Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Julianna M; Bonomi, Amy E; Lu, Bo; Lomax, Richard G; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2016-12-01

    Women living in Ohio Appalachia experience cervical cancer at disproportionately high rates. Intimate partner and sexual gender-based violence (GBV) and smoking are independent risk factors for cervical cancer and interact to heighten risk. Appalachian women smoke at higher rates than other Ohio women, but little is known about GBV exposure in the region. The purpose of this study was to establish prevalence of women's exposure to GBV in Ohio Appalachia and examine the association between GBV and smoking among women in the region. A two-phase address-based random sampling approach was used in three purposefully selected Ohio Appalachian counties to identify women to complete an interviewer administered cross-sectional survey (n = 398). The primary exposure variable was GBV Index Score, a 4 level indices representing increasing exposure to eight abuse types. Correlation analysis and logistic regression were used to examine smoking correlations and risk. Almost 57% of women in the three selected Ohio Appalachian counties experienced GBV, with rate increasing to 77.5% among current smokers. The distribution of the GBV Exposure Index Score was significantly different across smoking status (p role GBV plays in health behavior and behavioral change interventions, including smoking and smoking cessation.

  17. Systematic review of prevention and management strategies for the consequences of gender-based violence in refugee settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Ramin; Emery, Eleanor; Wong, Marcia

    2013-06-01

    Uncertainties continue regarding effective strategies to prevent and address the consequences of gender-based violence (GBV) among refugees. The databases of PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Anthropology Plus, EMBASE, DARE, Google Scholar, MSF Field Research, UNHCR and the regional and global indices of the WHO Global Health Library were searched twice within a 6-month period (April and September 2011) for English-language clinical, public health, basic and social science studies evaluating strategies to prevent and manage health sequelae of GBV among refugees before September 2011. Studies not primarily about prevention and treatment, and not describing population, health outcome and interventions, were excluded. The literature search for the prevention and management arms produced 1212 and 1106 results, respectively. After reviewing the titles and abstracts, 29 and 27 articles were selected for review in their entirety, none of which met the inclusion criteria. Multiple panels of expert recommendations and guidelines were not supported by primary data on actual displaced populations. There is a dire need for research that evaluates the efficacy and effectiveness of various responses to GBV to ultimately allow a transition from largely theoretical and expertise driven to a more evidence-based field. We recommend strategies to improve data collection and to overcome barriers in primary data driven research.

  18. How sex puts you in gendered shoes: sexuality-priming leads to gender-based self-perception and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundhammer, Tanja; Mussweiler, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    Scripts for sexual behavior dictate that women be submissive and tender and that men be assertive and dominant, reflecting the stereotypical view of women as communal and of men as agentic. Six experiments tested the hypothesis that exposure to sexuality cues causes men's and women's momentary self-perceptions and concomitant behavior to become more gender-typical. Using both pictorial and verbal prime materials that were presented both supraliminally and subliminally, we found that sex-priming strengthened gender-based self-perceptions (i.e., faster self-categorization as a woman or man; Study 1), heightened identification with one's own gender (Study 2), increased gender self-stereotyping (Study 3), and elicited greater submissiveness in women's behavior and greater assertiveness in men's behavior (Studies 4 and 5). These findings indicate that sex-priming causes self-perception and social behavior to become "attuned" to gender stereotypes. Study 6 demonstrated that these sex-priming effects can be eliminated by modern gender role primes. The potentially detrimental effects of sex-priming and possible countermeasures are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  19. A gender-based analysis of work patterns, fatigue, and work/life balance among physicians in postgraduate training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Philippa; Briar, Celia; Garden, Alexander; Purnell, Heather; Woodward, Alistair

    2010-09-01

    To document fatigue in New Zealand junior doctors in hospital-based clinical training positions and identify work patterns associated with work/life balance difficulties. This workforce has had a duty limitation of 72 hours/week since 1985. The authors chose a gender-based analytical approach because of the increasing proportion of female medical graduates. The authors mailed a confidential questionnaire to all 2,154 eligible junior doctors in 2003. The 1,412 respondents were working > or = 40 hours/week (complete questionnaires from 1,366: response rate: 63%; 49% women). For each participant, the authors calculated a multidimensional fatigue risk score based on sleep and work patterns. Women were more likely to report never/rarely getting enough sleep (P life (odds ratio: 3.83; 95% CI: 2.79-5.28), home life (3.37; 2.43-4.67), personal relationships (2.12; 1.57-2.86), and other commitments (3.06; 2.23-4.19).Qualitative analyses indicated a common desire among men and women for better work/life balance and for part-time work, particularly in relation to parenthood. Limitation of duty hours alone is insufficient to manage fatigue risk and difficulties in maintaining work/life balance. These findings have implications for schedule design, professional training, and workforce planning.

  20. Expanding the suite of measures of gender-based discrimination: gender differences in ablution facilities in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renier Steyn

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available International treaties, national legislation and local by-laws all advocate the equal treatment of men and women, but claims of gender-based discrimination continue. Indicators of discrimination against women, including employment ratios and differences in income, show that there have been considerable gains in the recent past. These measures are, however, often biased. In this study a different, specific and concrete method of describing and detecting discrimination is presented, namely the difference in the number of ablution facilities provided for each gender group in public spaces. Ablution facilities at airports, train stations and shopping centres in four major South African cities (N=128 were inspected. Medium to large differences in the respective number of facilities were found (eta2 .05 to .13, with women receiving fewer service facilities than men. These results suggest that, despite progressive legislation and vigorous affirmative action in South Africa, local women are still being discriminated against on a very concrete, visible level. The effectiveness of the measurement tool is also discussed.

  1. Perceptions about safety and risks in gender-based violence research: implications for the ethics review process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Jewkes, Rachel

    2011-10-01

    Does research on gender-based violence (GBV) pose greater than minimal risk to researchers and participants? This question needs to be understood particularly in light of hesitancy by Institutional Review Boards to approve research on GBV. The safety and risks of doing GBV studies and the implications for the ethical review process have not been a focus of much research. This qualitative study collected data through in-depth interviews with 12 experienced GBV researchers from various countries and a desk review. This paper explores researchers' interpretation of and meanings of the safety recommendations as provided in the WHO guidelines and whether there is empirical evidence on the presence of risks and safety concerns unique to GBV research. Informants raised a number of safety concerns about GBV research, yet in the interviews there were very few examples of problems having occurred, possibly because of the precautions applied. This paper argues that the notion that GBV studies carry greater than minimal risk when ethics precautions are followed is based on speculation, not evidence. It highlights the need for empirical evidence to support assertions of risk in research.

  2. Gender-based political harassment and violence: effects on the political work and public roles of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, María Eugenia Rojas

    2010-01-01

    This article shows the significance of the problems of political harassment and violence against women in positions of political responsibility in Bolivia. This phenomenon is seen in both rural and urban areas and transcends borders. It has been shown that these attacks constitute a violation of women's civil and political rights and a threat to the physical and mental health of women leaders in Bolivia. Furthermore, there is no punishment of guilty parties, reparation, or moral or material compensation for the women who are affected. In Bolivia, gender-based harassment and violence is a fundamental barrier to women's political participation. However, this phenomenon is still not addressed by government programs and is not part of the public discourse and debate. In spite of the measures taken to promote women's political participation, several different administrations have been unable to guarantee women the capacity to occupy positions of responsibility without being threatened or harassed. The results of our research led to a bill addressing this problem. Subsequently, Ecuador took this bill as an example and replicated it in a legislative initiative. These results show the importance of research by organizations that represent women in preventing unjust situations and health problems.

  3. A gender-based approach to developing a healthy lifestyle and healthy weight intervention for diverse Utah women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Sara E; Digre, Kathleen B; Ralls, Brenda; Mukundente, Valentine; Davis, France A; Rickard, Sylvia; Tavake-Pasi, Fahina; Napia, Eru Ed; Aiono, Heather; Chirpich, Meghan; Stark, Louisa A; Sunada, Grant; Keen, Kassy; Johnston, Leanne; Frost, Caren J; Varner, Michael W; Alder, Stephen C

    2015-08-01

    Utah women from some cultural minority groups have higher overweight/obesity rates than the overall population. We utilized a gender-based mixed methods approach to learn about the underlying social, cultural and gender issues that contribute to the increased obesity risk among these women and to inform intervention development. A literature review and analysis of Utah's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data informed the development of a focus group guide. Focus groups were conducted with five groups of women: African immigrants from Burundi and Rwanda, African Americans, American Indians/Alaskan Natives, Hispanics/Latinas, and Pacific Islanders. Six common themes emerged: (1) health is multidimensional and interventions must address health in this manner; (2) limited resources and time influence health behaviors; (3) norms about healthy weight vary, with certain communities showing more preference to heavier women; (4) women and men have important but different influences on healthy lifestyle practices within households; (5) women have an influential role on the health of families; and (6) opportunities exist within each group to improve health. Seeking insights from these five groups of women helped to identify common and distinct cultural and gender themes related to obesity, which can be used to help elucidate core obesity determinants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Groupwise information sharing promotes ingroup favoritism in indirect reciprocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Mitsuhiro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indirect reciprocity is a mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations. In indirect reciprocity, an individual is motivated to help another to acquire a good reputation and receive help from others afterwards. Another aspect of human cooperation is ingroup favoritism, whereby individuals help members in their own group more often than those in other groups. Ingroup favoritism is a puzzle for the theory of cooperation because it is not easily evolutionarily stable. In the context of indirect reciprocity, ingroup favoritism has been shown to be a consequence of employing a double standard when assigning reputations to ingroup and outgroup members. An example of such a double standard is the situation in which helping an ingroup member is regarded as good, whereas the same action toward an outgroup member is regarded as bad. Results We analyze a computational model of indirect reciprocity in which information sharing is conducted groupwise. In our model, individuals play social dilemma games within and across groups, and the information about their reputations is shared within each group. We show that evolutionarily stable ingroup favoritism emerges even if all the players use the same reputation assignment rule regardless of group (i.e., a single standard. Two reputation assignment rules called simple standing and stern judging yield ingroup favoritism; under these rules, cooperation with (defection against good individuals is regarded as good (bad and defection against bad individuals is regarded as good. Stern judging induces much stronger ingroup favoritism than does simple standing. Simple standing and stern judging are evolutionarily stable against each other when groups employing different assignment rules compete and the number of groups is sufficiently large. In addition, we analytically show as a limiting case that homogeneous populations of reciprocators that use reputations are unstable when individuals

  5. A Study on Scattered Wave Amplitude Closed-Form Solution Calculation of Torsional Wave Mode by Reciprocity Theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jaesun; Cho, Younho; Achenbach, Jan D.

    2016-01-01

    Guided waves can be used for the inspection of long range pipelines. Surface corrosion is often found as a major defect type in pipelines. The reciprocity relation is a well-established theorem by which one can simplify complicated mathematical expressions. The approach has been already applied to plate and half-space structures to obtain the closed-form solutions of scattered amplitude. However, results for the case of cylindrical structures have not been reported yet. In this paper, the scattering of torsional waves, which is widely used in commercial applications, is explored by the reciprocity theorem approach. Obtaining closed-form solutions of the amplitudes of propagating waves is much simplified by using the reciprocal relation. The scattered amplitudes for elliptical and rectangular defect shapes are calculated with respect to defect depth and width, at frequencies between 0 and 500 kHz. The amplitude shows the periodic result as a function of frequency. The derived closed-form solutions can play a significant role in quantitative signal interpretation

  6. A Study on Scattered Wave Amplitude Closed-Form Solution Calculation of Torsional Wave Mode by Reciprocity Theorem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jaesun; Cho, Younho [Pusan National Univ., Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Achenbach, Jan D. [Northwestern Univ., Everston (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Guided waves can be used for the inspection of long range pipelines. Surface corrosion is often found as a major defect type in pipelines. The reciprocity relation is a well-established theorem by which one can simplify complicated mathematical expressions. The approach has been already applied to plate and half-space structures to obtain the closed-form solutions of scattered amplitude. However, results for the case of cylindrical structures have not been reported yet. In this paper, the scattering of torsional waves, which is widely used in commercial applications, is explored by the reciprocity theorem approach. Obtaining closed-form solutions of the amplitudes of propagating waves is much simplified by using the reciprocal relation. The scattered amplitudes for elliptical and rectangular defect shapes are calculated with respect to defect depth and width, at frequencies between 0 and 500 kHz. The amplitude shows the periodic result as a function of frequency. The derived closed-form solutions can play a significant role in quantitative signal interpretation.

  7. The Personal Norm of Reciprocity among mental health service users: conceptual development and measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matejkowski, Jason; McCarthy, Kevin S; Draine, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    A measure of an individual's level of internalization of the norm of reciprocity may signal exchange preferences and indicate whether "active" or "passive" mental health services are preferable to consumers. We evaluated the psychometric properties of one such measure, the Personal Norm of Reciprocity (PNR) scale. We recruited 70 persons receiving mental health services and 65 comparison participants to complete questionnaires assessing reciprocity tendencies and correlates of mental illness. Two of three subscales of a shortened PNR showed evidence of reliability and validity. Consumers endorsed higher levels of the reciprocity norm than persons not seeking services. Persons in "active" service settings displayed greater rigidity in application of the reciprocity norm than individuals in "passive" service settings or comparison participants. The shortened PNR can be a useful measure of individual reciprocity preferences. Measurement of the internalization of the norm of reciprocity may assist practitioners in identifying what types of services are more likely to retain and benefit mental health service consumers.

  8. Reciprocity-based reasons for benefiting research participants: most fail, the most plausible is problematic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofaer, Neema

    2014-11-01

    A common reason for giving research participants post-trial access (PTA) to the trial intervention appeals to reciprocity, the principle, stated most generally, that if one person benefits a second, the second should reciprocate: benefit the first in return. Many authors consider it obvious that reciprocity supports PTA. Yet their reciprocity principles differ, with many authors apparently unaware of alternative versions. This article is the first to gather the range of reciprocity principles. It finds that: (1) most are false. (2) The most plausible principle, which is also problematic, applies only when participants experience significant net risks or burdens. (3) Seldom does reciprocity support PTA for participants or give researchers stronger reason to benefit participants than equally needy non-participants. (4) Reciprocity fails to explain the common view that it is bad when participants in a successful trial have benefited from the trial intervention but lack PTA to it. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Analytical performance of reciprocal isotope labeling of proteome digests for quantitative proteomics and its application for comparative studies of aerobic and anaerobic Escherichia coli proteomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Andy; Weiner, Joel H.; Li, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Investigating a strategy of reciprocal isotope labeling of comparative samples. •Filtering out incorrect peptide identification or quantification values. •Analyzing the proteome changes of E. coli cells grown aerobically or anaerobically. •Presenting guidelines for reciprocal labeling experimental design. -- Abstract: Due to limited sample amounts, instrument time considerations, and reagent costs, only a small number of replicate experiments are typically performed for quantitative proteome analyses. Generation of reproducible data that can be readily assessed for consistency within a small number of datasets is critical for accurate quantification. We report our investigation of a strategy using reciprocal isotope labeling of two comparative samples as a tool for determining proteome changes. Reciprocal labeling was evaluated to determine the internal consistency of quantified proteome changes from Escherichia coli grown under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Qualitatively, the peptide overlap between replicate analyses of the same sample and reverse labeled samples were found to be within 8%. Quantitatively, reciprocal analyses showed only a slight increase in average overall inconsistency when compared with replicate analyses (1.29 vs. 1.24-fold difference). Most importantly, reverse labeling was successfully used to identify spurious values resulting from incorrect peptide identifications and poor peak fitting. After removal of 5% of the peptide data with low reproducibility, a total of 275 differentially expressed proteins (>1.50-fold difference) were consistently identified and were then subjected to bioinformatics analysis. General considerations and guidelines for reciprocal labeling experimental design and biological significance of obtained results are discussed

  10. Reciprocal relationships between parent and adolescent internalizing symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Elizabeth K; Gullone, Eleonora

    2010-04-01

    Previous investigations of the association between parent and adolescent internalizing problems have been largely restricted to the unidirectional effect of parent symptoms on their children. This study therefore aimed to investigate potential reciprocal relationships between parent and adolescent internalizing symptoms. One-hundred and seventy-seven adolescents ages 14 to 18 years and their parents (172 mothers, 124 fathers) completed measures of depressive and anxiety symptoms at two time points, 6 months apart. Results supported reciprocity between maternal and adolescent internalizing symptoms but not between paternal and adolescent internalizing symptoms. In addition, the relationship between maternal symptoms and later adolescent symptoms was found to be partially mediated by maternal parenting self-esteem. The study highlights the potential impact of adolescent internalizing problems on maternal well-being, a phenomenon previously neglected in the literature. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  11. Experience sharing, emotional reciprocity, and turn-taking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa eStevanovic

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this perspective article, we consider the relationship between experience sharing and turn-taking. There is much evidence suggesting that human social interaction is permeated by two temporal organizations: (1 the sequential framework of turn-taking and (2 the concurrent framework of emotional reciprocity. From this perspective, we introduce two alternative hypotheses about how the relationship between experience sharing and turn-taking could be viewed. According to the first hypothesis, the home environment of experience sharing is in the concurrent framework of emotional reciprocity, while the motivation to share experiences is in tension with the sequential framework of turn-taking. According to the second hypothesis, then again, people’s inclination to coordinate their actions in terms of turn-taking is motivated precisely by their propensity to share experiences. We consider theoretical and empirical ideas in favor of both of these hypotheses and discuss their implications for future research.

  12. Hybrid Optimization in the Design of Reciprocal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sassone, Mario

    2012-01-01

    that explore the global domain of solutions as genetic algorithms (GAs). The benchmark tests show that when the control on the topology is required the best result is obtained by a hybrid approach that combines the global search of the GA with the local search of a GB algorithm. The optimization method......The paper presents a method to generate the geometry of reciprocal structures by means of a hybrid optimization procedure. The geometry of reciprocal structures where elements are sitting on the top or in the bottom of each other is extremely difficult to predict because of the non....... In this paper it is shown that the geometrically compatible position of the elements could be determined by local search algorithm gradient-based (GB). However the control on which bar sit on the top or in the bottom at each connection can be regarded as a topological problem and require the use of algorithms...

  13. Elucidations on the reciprocal lattice and the Ewald sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foadi, J; Evans, G

    2008-01-01

    The reciprocal lattice is derived through the Fourier transform of a generic crystal lattice, as done previously in the literature. A few key derivations are this time handled in detail, and the connection with x-ray diffraction is clearly pointed out. The Ewald sphere is subsequently thoroughly explained and a few comments on its representation in a mixed real-reciprocal space are made. In particular, it appears that the majority of textbooks or papers on the subject are limited in their way of picturing it. This paper will be useful to solid state and/or crystallography teachers. It is also suitable for graduate students researching these subjects and for talented undergraduate students

  14. Egocentric reciprocity and the role of friendship and anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Ping; Eberly, Marion B; Bachrach, Daniel G; Wu, Keke; Qu, Qing

    2017-01-01

    In this research, we examine the phenomenon of egocentric reciprocity, where individuals protect self-interest by adopting an eye-for-an-eye strategy in negatively imbalanced exchanges, and by taking advantage of overly generous treatment in positively imbalanced exchanges. We conducted two experiments using a modified ultimatum game examining attitudinal and behavioral responses to imbalanced exchanges. The experiments allowed us to explore the moderating role of relational closeness (i.e., whether the game partner was a friend or a stranger) and the mediating role of anger and indebtedness in these moderated relationships. Our results consistently demonstrate the phenomenon of egocentric reciprocity. Most importantly, this research reveals that friendship places a boundary on this egocentric tendency, and that the effects may partially be explained by anger experienced in response to exchange.

  15. Born reciprocity in string theory and the nature of spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freidel, Laurent, E-mail: lfreidel@perimeterinstitute.ca [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St., N, Ontario N2L 2Y5, Waterloo (Canada); Leigh, Robert G., E-mail: rgleigh@uiuc.edu [Department of Physics, University of Illinois, 1110 West Green St., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Minic, Djordje, E-mail: dminic@vt.edu [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2014-03-07

    After many years, the deep nature of spacetime in string theory remains an enigma. In this Letter we incorporate the concept of Born reciprocity in order to provide a new point of view on string theory in which spacetime is a derived dynamical concept. This viewpoint may be thought of as a dynamical chiral phase space formulation of string theory, in which Born reciprocity is implemented as a choice of a Lagrangian submanifold of the phase space, and amounts to a generalization of T-duality. In this approach the fundamental symmetry of string theory contains phase space diffeomorphism invariance and the underlying string geometry should be understood in terms of dynamical bi-Lagrangian manifolds and an apparently new geometric structure, somewhat reminiscent of para-quaternionic geometry, which we call Born geometry.

  16. Indirect Reciprocity with Optional Interactions and Private Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Olejarz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider indirect reciprocity with optional interactions and private information. A game is offered between two players and accepted unless it is known that the other person is a defector. Whenever a defector manages to exploit a cooperator, his or her reputation is revealed to others in the population with some probability. Therefore, people have different private information about the reputation of others, which is a setting that is difficult to analyze in the theory of indirect reciprocity. Since a defector loses a fraction of his social ties each time he exploits a cooperator, he is less efficient at exploiting cooperators in subsequent rounds. We analytically calculate the critical benefit-to-cost ratio above which cooperation is successful in various settings. We demonstrate quantitative agreement with simulation results of a corresponding Wright–Fisher process with optional interactions and private information. We also deduce a simple necessary condition for the critical benefit-to-cost ratio.

  17. An experimental study of strong reciprocity in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, R Fredrik; West, Stuart; Buckling, Angus

    2014-02-01

    Strong reciprocity, whereby cooperators punish non-cooperators, may help to explain the evolutionary success of cooperative behaviours. However, theory suggests that selection for strong reciprocity can depend upon tight genetic linkage between cooperation and punishment, to avoid the strategy being outcompeted by non-punishing cooperators. We tested this hypothesis using experimental populations of the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which cooperate by producing iron-scavenging siderophores and, in this context, punish non-cooperators with toxins. Consistent with theory, we show that cooperative punishers can indeed invade cheats, but only when the traits are tightly linked. These results emphasize that punishment is only likely to be favoured when the punishment itself leads to a direct or indirect fitness benefit to the actor.

  18. Born reciprocity in string theory and the nature of spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freidel, Laurent; Leigh, Robert G.; Minic, Djordje

    2014-01-01

    After many years, the deep nature of spacetime in string theory remains an enigma. In this Letter we incorporate the concept of Born reciprocity in order to provide a new point of view on string theory in which spacetime is a derived dynamical concept. This viewpoint may be thought of as a dynamical chiral phase space formulation of string theory, in which Born reciprocity is implemented as a choice of a Lagrangian submanifold of the phase space, and amounts to a generalization of T-duality. In this approach the fundamental symmetry of string theory contains phase space diffeomorphism invariance and the underlying string geometry should be understood in terms of dynamical bi-Lagrangian manifolds and an apparently new geometric structure, somewhat reminiscent of para-quaternionic geometry, which we call Born geometry.

  19. An approach to decision-making with triangular fuzzy reciprocal preference relations and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanyong

    2018-02-01

    Triangular fuzzy reciprocal preference relations (TFRPRs) are powerful tools to denoting decision-makers' fuzzy judgments, which permit the decision-makers to apply triangular fuzzy ratio rather than real numbers to express their judgements. Consistency analysis is one of the most crucial issues in preference relations that can guarantee the reasonable ranking order. However, all previous consistency concepts cannot well address this type of preference relations. Based on the operational laws on triangular fuzzy numbers, this paper introduces an additive consistency concept for TFRPRs by using quasi TFRPRs, which can be seen as a natural extension of the crisp case. Using this consistency concept, models to judging the additive consistency of TFRPRs and to estimating missing values in complete TFRPRs are constructed. Then, an algorithm to decision-making with TFRPRs is developed. Finally, two numerical examples are offered to illustrate the application of the proposed procedure, and comparison analysis is performed.

  20. Dedicated monitoring and machinery protection systems on reciprocating compressors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grande, Alvaro; Wenisch, Markus [Hoerbiger Ventilwerke GmbH and Co KG, Wien (Austria); Jacobs, Denis [HOERBIGER do Brasil Industria de Equipamentos, Cajamar, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Growing demands on reciprocating compressors (recips) in the process gas industry require particular solutions for machinery protection and performance monitoring systems. Compared to rotating equipment, monitoring systems for recips have to consider the special mechanical and physical characteristics, such as oscillating masses, variable vibration behaviour and varying operating conditions. Furthermore, they provide valuable information about the performance of cylinder related components allowing the operator the optimization of efficiency and availability, and therefore increase production. (author)

  1. Sharing is Caring: Reciprocal Behaviors and Professional Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Gjemmestad, Sofie; Nasta, Laura Elena

    2016-01-01

    Masteroppgave(MSc) in Master of Science in Leadership and Organizational Psychology - Handelshøyskolen BI, 2016 The purpose of this study is to contribute to the existing literature regarding the interactions between individuals in a professional context, as a factor for their success. First, this study sheds light on the newly developed typology of reciprocity styles established by Grant (2013), containing three interactional categories called givers, matchers and takers. By u...

  2. Improving gross anatomy learning using reciprocal peer teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Manyama, Mange; Stafford, Renae; Mazyala, Erick; Lukanima, Anthony; Magele, Ndulu; Kidenya, Benson R.; Kimwaga, Emmanuel; Msuya, Sifael; Kauki, Julius

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of cadavers in human anatomy teaching requires adequate number of anatomy instructors who can provide close supervision of the students. Most medical schools are facing challenges of lack of trained individuals to teach anatomy. Innovative techniques are therefore needed to impart adequate and relevant anatomical knowledge and skills. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the traditional teaching method and reciprocal peer teaching (RPT) method during anatomy dissec...

  3. Novel Long Stroke Reciprocating Compressor for Energy Efficient Jaggery Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, M. V.; Uphade, D. B.

    2017-08-01

    Novel Long Stroke Reciprocating Compressor is analysed for jaggery making while avoiding burning of bagasse for concentrating juice. Heat of evaporated water vapour along with small compressor work is recycled to enable boiling of juice. Condensate formed during heating of juice is pure water, as oil-less compressor is used. Superheat of compressor is suppressed by flow of superheated vapours through condensate. It limits heating surface temperature and avoids caramelization of sugar. Thereby improves quality of jaggery and eliminates need to use chemicals for colour improvement. Stroke to bore ratio is 0.6 to 1.2 in conventional reciprocating drives. Long stroke in reciprocating compressors enhances heat dissipation to surrounding by providing large surface area and increases isentropic efficiency by reducing compressor outlet temperature. Longer stroke increases inlet and exit valve operation timings, which reduces inertial effects substantially. Thereby allowing use of sturdier valves. This enables handling liquid along with vapour in compressors. Thereby supressing the superheat and reducing compressor power input. Longer stroke increases stroke to clearance ratios which increases volumetric efficiency and ability of compressor to compress through higher pressure ratios efficiently. Stress-strain simulation is performed in SolidWorks for gear drive. Long Stroke Reciprocating Compressor is developed at Heat Pump Laboratory, stroke/bore 292 mm/32 mm. It is operated and tested successfully at different speeds for operational stability of components. Theoretical volumetric efficiency is 93.9% at pressure ratio 2.0. Specific energy consumption is 108.3 kWhe/m3 separated water, considering free run power.

  4. Airy asymptotics: the logarithmic derivative and its reciprocal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearney, Michael J; Martin, Richard J

    2009-01-01

    We consider the asymptotic expansion of the logarithmic derivative of the Airy function Ai'(z)/Ai(z), and also its reciprocal Ai(z)/Ai'(z), as |z| → ∞. We derive simple, closed-form solutions for the coefficients which appear in these expansions, which are of interest since they are encountered in a wide variety of problems. The solutions are presented as Mellin transforms of given functions; this fact, together with the methods employed, suggests further avenues for research.

  5. An Examination of Reciprocal Influences in Sport Socialization

    OpenAIRE

    海老原, 修; 横山, 文人; 宮下, 充正

    1989-01-01

    This study was designed to clarify reciprocal influences in sport socialization. Parent-effects were assessed by their sport involvement before their child participated in organized sport, whereas child-effects were measured by a parent's attitudinal and behavioral changes of sport involvement caused by a child's participation. Eight indicators of sport involvement were selected as follows: 3 types of interest in sport involvement such as activities, sport consumption, and sport activity in o...

  6. Degree and reciprocity of self-disclosure in online forums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Azy; Gluck-Ofri, Orit

    2007-06-01

    Cyberspace has become a common social environment in which people interact and operate in many ways. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the occurrence and reciprocity of self-disclosure, two subjects that are extensively studied in face-to-face interactions but only to a limited degree in virtual, computer-mediated, textual communication. Data was based on 240 first messages in a thread, sampled in equal numbers from six Internet forums (three discussion and three support groups), and written in equal numbers by each gender, and 240 first responses to them (a total of 480 forum messages). Trained, expert judges blindly rated each message on the degree to which it disclosed personal information, thoughts, and feelings. Linguistic parameters (total number of words and number of first-voice words) were also used as dependent variables. Results showed the following: (a) self-disclosure in support forums was much higher than in discussion forums, in terms of both total number and type of disclosure; (b) messages in support forums were longer and included more first-voice words than in discussion forums; (c) there were no gender differences interacting with level of self-disclosure; (d) reciprocity of self-disclosure was evident, yielding positive correlations between the measures of self-disclosure in messages and responses to them; (e) some differences appeared in level of reciprocity of self-disclosure between male and female participants, with female respondents tending to be more reciprocal than male respondents. The implications of these results are discussed in light of growing social interactions online, and possible applications are suggested.

  7. Multiplicative Consistency for Interval Valued Reciprocal Preference Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jian; Chiclana, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The multiplicative consistency (MC) property of interval additive reciprocal preference relations (IARPRs) is explored, and then the consistency index is quantified by the multiplicative consistency estimated IARPR. The MC property is used to measure the level of consistency of the information provided by the experts and also to propose the consistency index induced ordered weighted averaging (CI-IOWA) operator. The novelty of this operator is that it aggregates individual IARPRs in such ...

  8. A reciprocal Wald theorem for varying gravitational function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fay, Stephane

    2004-01-01

    We study when a cosmological constant is a natural issue if it is mimicked by the potential of a massive Hyperextended Scalar Tensor theory with a perfect fluid for Bianchi type I and V models. We then deduce a reciprocal Wald theorem giving the conditions such that the potential tends to a non vanishing constant when the gravitational function varies. We also get the conditions allowing the potential to vanish or diverge. (orig.)

  9. Construction of instanton and monopole solutions and reciprocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrigan, E.; Goddard, P.

    1984-01-01

    An elementary argument demonstrating the completeness of the Atiyah-Drinfeld-Hitchin-Manin construction of self-dual instanton solutions to Eiclidean gauge theories is presented. The adaptation of this discussion to Nahm's construction for SU(2) monopoles is outlines. These constructions are shown to establish a reciprocity or duality between self-dual theories in zero and four dimensions and in one and three dimensions, respectively

  10. Reciprocal Modulation of Cognitive and Emotional Aspects in Pianistic Performances

    OpenAIRE

    Higuchi, Marcia K. Kodama; Fornari, José; Del Ben, Cristina M.; Graeff, Frederico G.; Leite, João Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Background: High level piano performance requires complex integration of perceptual, motor, cognitive and emotive skills. Observations in psychology and neuroscience studies have suggested reciprocal inhibitory modulation of the cognition by emotion and emotion by cognition. However, it is still unclear how cognitive states may influence the pianistic performance. The aim of the present study is to verify the influence of cognitive and affective attention in the piano performances. Methods an...

  11. On the general Dedekind sums and its reciprocity formula

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    if x is an integer. The various properties of S(h, q) were investigated by many authors. Maybe the most famous property of Dedekind sums is the reciprocity formula (see [2–4]):. S(h, q) + S(q, h) = h2 + q2 + 1. 12hq. −. 1. 4. (1) for all (h, q) = 1,q > 0,h> 0. The main purpose of this paper is to introduce a general. Dedekind sum:.

  12. Longitudinal study on reciprocity between personality traits and parenting stress

    OpenAIRE

    Rantanen, Johanna; Tillemann, Kati; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Kokko, Katja; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2014-01-01

    Reciprocal associations between the Big Five personality traits and parenting stress—including both parents’ feelings of their distress and perception of their incompetence as parents—were studied with 248 participants (49% of which were males). Longitudinal data, collected at ages 33/36, 42 and 50 years, were used. Cross-lagged path analysis revealed that in case of both mothers and fathers, neuroticism at age 33 predicted high parenting stress, and extraversion at age 33 predicted low paren...

  13. Nonreciprocal and Reciprocal Dating Violence and Injury Occurrence among Urban Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swahn, Monica H

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Dating violence is a significant health problem among youth that leads to adverse health outcomes, including injuries. Reciprocal violence (perpetrated by both partners is associated with increased injury in adults, but very little is known about the prevalence and context for reciprocal violence, as well as injury rates, among youth. We sought to determine the prevalence and scope of reciprocal dating violence and injury occurrence among urban youth in a high-risk community. Methods: Analyses were based on data from the Youth Violence Survey, conducted in 2004, and administered to over 80% of public school students in grades 7, 9, 11, and 12 (N=4,131 in a high-risk, urban school district. The current analyses were restricted to those who reported dating in the past year and who also reported any dating violence (n=1,158. Dating violence was categorized as reciprocal (the participant reported both violence perpetration and victimization and non-reciprocal (the participant report either violence perpetration or victimization, but not both. Results: Dating violence reciprocity varied by sex. Girls who reported any dating violence were more likely to report reciprocal dating violence (50.4% than were boys (38.9%. However, reciprocity did not vary by race/ethnicity or grade level. Reciprocal dating violence was more common among participants who reported more frequent violence experiences. Reciprocal violence was also associated with greater injury occurrences relative to non-reciprocal relationships (10.1% versus 1.2%. Conclusion: Reciprocal dating violence is common among adolescents and leads more often to injury outcomes. In particular, relationships in which boys report reciprocal violence against their partner appear to lead to more frequent injury occurrences. These findings underscore the importance of addressing dating violence and factors that increase risk for reciprocal violence and therefore exacerbate injury occurrence

  14. "By Seeing with Our Own Eyes, It Can Remain in Our Mind": Qualitative Evaluation Findings Suggest the Ability of Participatory Video to Reduce Gender-Based Violence in Conflict-Affected Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurman, Tilly A.; Trappler, Regan M.; Acosta, Angela; McCray, Pamella A.; Cooper, Chelsea M.; Goodsmith, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Gender-based violence is pervasive and poses unique challenges in conflict-affected settings, with women and girls particularly vulnerable to its sequelae. Furthermore, widespread stigmatization of gender-based violence promotes silence among survivors and families, inhibiting access to services. Little evidence exists regarding effective…

  15. A reciprocal framework for spatial K-anonymity

    KAUST Repository

    Ghinita, Gabriel; Zhao, Keliang; Papadias, Dimitris; Kalnis, Panos

    2010-01-01

    Spatial K-anonymity (SKA) exploits the concept of K-anonymity in order to protect the identity of users from location-based attacks. The main idea of SKA is to replace the exact location of a user U with an anonymizing spatial region (ASR) that contains at least K-1 other users, so that an attacker can pinpoint U with probability at most 1/K. Simply generating an ASR that includes K users does not guarantee SKA. Previous work defined the reciprocity property as a sufficient condition for SKA. However, the only existing reciprocal method, Hilbert Cloak, relies on a specialized data structure. In contrast, we propose a general framework for implementing reciprocal algorithms using any existing spatial index on the user locations. We discuss ASR construction methods with different tradeoffs on effectiveness (i.e., ASR size) and efficiency (i.e., construction cost). Then, we present case studies of applying our framework on top of two popular spatial indices (namely, R*-trees and Quad-trees). Finally, we consider the case where the attacker knows the query patterns of each user. The experimental results verify that our methods outperform Hilbert Cloak. Moreover, since we employ general-purpose spatial indices, the proposed system is not limited to anonymization, but supports conventional spatial queries as well. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Reciprocity and the Emergence of Power Laws in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnegg, Michael

    Research in network science has shown that many naturally occurring and technologically constructed networks are scale free, that means a power law degree distribution emerges from a growth model in which each new node attaches to the existing network with a probability proportional to its number of links (= degree). Little is known about whether the same principles of local attachment and global properties apply to societies as well. Empirical evidence from six ethnographic case studies shows that complex social networks have significantly lower scaling exponents γ ~ 1 than have been assumed in the past. Apparently humans do not only look for the most prominent players to play with. Moreover cooperation in humans is characterized through reciprocity, the tendency to give to those from whom one has received in the past. Both variables — reciprocity and the scaling exponent — are negatively correlated (r = -0.767, sig = 0.075). If we include this effect in simulations of growing networks, degree distributions emerge that are much closer to those empirically observed. While the proportion of nodes with small degrees decreases drastically as we introduce reciprocity, the scaling exponent is more robust and changes only when a relatively large proportion of attachment decisions follow this rule. If social networks are less scale free than previously assumed this has far reaching implications for policy makers, public health programs and marketing alike.

  17. Evaluation of reciprocating electromagnetic air pumping for portable PEMFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Kilsung; Kang, Ho; Kang, Seongwon; Kim, Daejoong

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) integrated with an electromagnetic (EM) air pump. The EM air pump provides the PEMFC with air by reciprocating motions of the permanent magnet attached to a flexible membrane. We performed a parametric study to decide the optimal dimensions of the reciprocating EM air pump. The effects of various operating parameters on the EM air pump were investigated with the root-mean-square (RMS) flow rate and current. A core with a higher relative permeability shows better performance. The RMS current linearly increases with the applied voltage and shows no dependence on the frequency. The RMS flow rate also increases with the voltage. The RMS flow rate per power consumption is highest at the frequency around 20 Hz and decreases as the applied voltage increases. When the reciprocating EM air pump was used to supply air to the portable PEMFC, it was found that the power density of the PEMFC increases with the applied voltage and shows the highest performance at the frequency of 10 Hz. We compared the performance of the PEMFC between the flow meter and the EM air pump used as an air supplier. About 81% of the output power using the flow meter was obtained when the EM air pump is operated at the applied voltage of 5 V. The parasitic power ratio reaches at its minimum value about 0.1 with an EM applied voltage of 0.25V. (paper)

  18. The evolution of conditional moral assessment in indirect reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Okada, Isamu; Nakai, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity is a major mechanism in the maintenance of cooperation among unrelated individuals. Indirect reciprocity leads to conditional cooperation according to social norms that discriminate the good (those who deserve to be rewarded with help) and the bad (those who should be punished by refusal of help). Despite intensive research, however, there is no definitive consensus on what social norms best promote cooperation through indirect reciprocity, and it remains unclear even how those who refuse to help the bad should be assessed. Here, we propose a new simple norm called “Staying” that prescribes abstaining from assessment. Under the Staying norm, the image of the person who makes the decision to give help stays the same as in the last assessment if the person on the receiving end has a bad image. In this case, the choice about whether or not to give help to the potential receiver does not affect the image of the potential giver. We analyze the Staying norm in terms of evolutionary game theory and demonstrate that Staying is most effective in establishing cooperation compared to the prevailing social norms, which rely on constant monitoring and unconditional assessment. The application of Staying suggests that the strict application of moral judgment is limited. PMID:28150808

  19. Fast reciprocating probe system on the HL-2A tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Longwen; Hong Wenyu; Qian Jun; Luo Cuiwen; Pan Li

    2005-01-01

    A reciprocating probe system has been installed at the midplane of the HL-2A tokamak. The probe is used to measure plasma edge density, temperature, floating potential, and corresponding fluctuation profiles with 8 cm scan from the scrape-off layer to the plasma boundary. The reciprocating probe can move at a speed of 1 m/s. A digital grating displacement measurement system that can provide a high displacement resolution of 0.04 mm is applied to the reciprocating probe system for the first time. A port located behind the vacuum isolation valve is designed for viewing and the exchange of the probe head. Different probe heads can be used to satisfy different experimental requirements. The first probe head had four graphite measurement tips. For high frequency response, no isolation amplifier is used in the electric circuit of the probe measurement. A personal computer via an analog-to-digital digitizer card acquires probe system data, which are sent to a data server by optical fiber after a discharge. All data are sent to the centralized data management system of the HL-2A. In this article we presented the edge temperature and density profiles for the limiter and divertor configurations of a selected plasma discharge

  20. TORE SUPRA fast reciprocating radio frequency probe (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.E. Jr.; Harris, J.H.; Haste, G.R.; Kwon, M.; Goulding, R.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Saoutic, B.; Becoulet, A.; Fraboulet, D.; Beaumont, B.; Kuus, H.; Ladurelle, L.; Pascal, J.Y.

    1995-01-01

    A fast reciprocating ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) probe was installed and operated on TORE SUPRA during 1992/1993. The body of the probe was originally used on the ATF experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The probe was adapted for use on TORE SUPRA, and mounted on one of the two fast reciprocating probe mounts. The probe consists of two orthogonal single-turn wire loops, mounted so that one loop senses toroidal rf magnetic fields and the other senses poloidal rf magnetic fields. The probe began operation in June, 1993. The probe active area is approximately 5 cm long by 2 cm, and the reciprocating mount has a slow stroke (5 cm/s) of 30 cm and a fast stroke (1.5 m/s) of about 10 cm. The probe was operated at distances from the plasma edge ranging from 30 to -5 cm (i.e., inside the last closed flux surface). The probe design, electronics, calibration, data acquisition, and data processing are discussed. First data from the probe are presented as a function of ICRF power, distance from the plasma, loop orientation, and other plasma parameters. Initial data show parametric instabilities do not play an important role for ICRF in the TORE SUPRA edge and scrape-off-layer (SOL) plasmas. Additionally it is observed that the probe signal has little or no dependence on position in the SOL/plasma edge