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Sample records for gender stomach topography

  1. Gastric ghrelin in relation to gender, stomach topography and Helicobacter pylori in dyspeptic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krystyna Stec-Michalska; Sebastian Malicki; Blazej Michalski; Lukasz Peczek; Maria Wisniewska-Jarosinska; Barbara Nawrot

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the level of gastric ghrelin in stomach mucosa of dyspeptic patients in relation to Helicobacter pylori ( H pylori) infection, bacterial cytotoxicity, topography and gender.METHODS: The study comprised 40 premenopausal women (19 H pylori positive) and 48 men (17 H pylori positive) with functional dyspepsia.All gastric biopsy specimens revealed normal mucosa or non-atrophic gastritis.Gastric ghrelin concentration was determined by Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.The cagA and vacA strains of bacterial DNA were identified by multiplex polymerase chain reaction.RESULTS: In general, infection with H pylori caused an increase in gastric ghrelin level regardless of gender and stomach topography.Significantly more hormone was present in both, non-infected and H pylori positive female samples, as compared to males.The distribution of bacterial strains showed cagA(+) vacA s1m1 and cagA(-) vacA s2m2 genotypes as the most common infections in the studied population.A tendency to higher ghrelin levels was observed in less cytotoxic ( cagA negative) strain-containing specimens from the antrum and corpus of both gender groups (without statistical significance).CONCLUSION: An increase in gastric ghrelin levels at the stage of non-atrophic gastritis in H pylori positive patients, especially in those infected with cagA(-) strains, can exert a gastroprotective effect.

  2. Anatomical classification of the shape and topography of the stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdan, Franciszek; Rozylo-Kalinowska, Ingrid; Szumilo, Justyna; Zinkiewicz, Krzysztof; Dworzanski, Wojciech; Krupski, Witold; Dabrowski, Andrzej

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the study was to present the classification of anatomical variations of the stomach, based on the radiological and historical data. In years 2006-2010, 2,034 examinations of the upper digestive tract were performed. Normal stomach anatomy or different variations of the organ shape and/or topography without any organic radiologically detectable gastric lesions were revealed in 568 and 821 cases, respectively. Five primary groups were established: abnormal position along longitudinal (I) and horizontal axis (II), as well as abnormal shape (III) and stomach connections (IV) or mixed forms (V). The first group contains abnormalities most commonly observed among examined patients such as stomach rotation and translocation to the chest cavity, including sliding, paraesophageal, mixed-form and upside-down hiatal diaphragmatic hernias, as well as short esophagus, and the other diaphragmatic hernias, that were not found in the evaluated population. The second group includes the stomach cascade. The third and fourth groups comprise developmental variations and organ malformations that were not observed in evaluated patients. The last group (V) encloses mixed forms that connect two or more previous variations.

  3. Visualizing topography: Effects of presentation strategy, gender, and spatial ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Carla

    2003-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of different presentation strategies (2-D static visuals, 3-D animated visuals, and 3-D interactive, animated visuals) and gender on achievement, time-spent-on visual treatment, and attitude during a computer-based science lesson about reading and interpreting topographic maps. The study also examined the relationship of spatial ability and prior knowledge to gender, achievement, and time-spent-on visual treatment. Students enrolled in high school chemistry-physics were pretested and given two spatial ability tests. They were blocked by gender and randomly assigned to one of three levels of presentation strategy or the control group. After controlling for the effects of spatial ability and prior knowledge with analysis of covariance, three significant differences were found between the versions: (a) the 2-D static treatment group scored significantly higher on the posttest than the control group; (b) the 3-D animated treatment group scored significantly higher on the posttest than the control group; and (c) the 2-D static treatment group scored significantly higher on the posttest than the 3-D interactive animated treatment group. Furthermore, the 3-D interactive animated treatment group spent significantly more time on the visual screens than the 2-D static treatment group. Analyses of student attitudes revealed that most students felt the landform visuals in the computer-based program helped them learn, but not in a way they would describe as fun. Significant differences in attitude were found by treatment and by gender. In contrast to findings from other studies, no gender differences were found on either of the two spatial tests given in this study. Cognitive load, cognitive involvement, and solution strategy are offered as three key factors that may help explain the results of this study. Implications for instructional design include suggestions about the use of 2-D static, 3-D animated and 3-D interactive animations as well

  4. Stomach Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with stomach acid and helps digest protein. Stomach cancer mostly affects older people - two-thirds of people ... Smoke cigarettes Have a family history of stomach cancer It is hard to diagnose stomach cancer in ...

  5. Stomach Polyps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases and Conditions Stomach polyps By Mayo Clinic Staff Stomach polyps — also called gastric polyps — are masses of cells that form on the lining inside your stomach. These polyps are rare and usually don't ...

  6. Stomach (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The stomach is the portion of the digestive system most responsible for breaking down food. The lower esophageal sphincter at the top of the stomach regulates food passing from the esophagus into the ...

  7. Stomach ulcer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the acid and enzymes by a mucous lining. Ulcers are caused when there is an imbalance between ... protect the lining of the stomach. Symptoms of ulcers may include bleeding. On rare occasions, an ulcer ...

  8. Stomach cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the stomach for a long time (chronic atrophic gastritis ) Have pernicious anemia (low number of red blood ... HealthProfessional . Accessed December 21, 2016. Read More Cancer Gastritis Malignancy Pernicious anemia Review Date 11/10/2016 ...

  9. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Stomach Cancer Key Points Stomach (gastric) cancer is a ...

  10. Snapshot of Stomach Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and vegetables. There is no standard or routine screening test for stomach cancer. Standard treatments for stomach cancer include surgery , ... NCI Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Home Page Information about stomach ... causes, screening, clinical trials, research and statistics from the National ...

  11. Gender- and Ethnicity-Related Differences in Optic Nerve Head Topography in Healthy Indian and Caucasian Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilat, Anastasia V; Gottlob, Irene; Sheth, Viral; Thomas, Mervyn G; Proudlock, Frank A

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of ethnicity and gender on optic nerve head morphology in healthy subjects using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Thirty-five Indian (i.e. Indian subcontinent) females, 34 Caucasian females, 32 Indian males, and 32 Caucasian males were examined using SD-OCT (Copernicus, Optopol Technology). Disc and rim areas were larger in Caucasian males compared with females but smaller in Indians males compared with females. Indian participants had significantly larger cup areas and volumes without significant differences in retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thicknesses between groups. Gender and ethnicity differences should be considered in assessment of patients.

  12. Young people's topography of musical functions: personal, social and cultural experiences with music across genders and six societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Diana; Fischer, Ronald; Tekman, Hasan Gürkan; Abubakar, Amina; Njenga, Jane; Zenger, Markus

    2012-01-01

    How can we understand the uses of music in daily life? Music is a universal phenomenon but with significant interindividual and cultural variability. Listeners' gender and cultural background may influence how and why music is used in daily life. This paper reports the first investigation of a holistic framework and a new measure of music functions (RESPECT-music) across genders and six diverse cultural samples (students from Germany, Kenya, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, and Turkey). Two dimensions underlie the mental representation of music functions. First, music can be used for contemplation or affective functions. Second, music can serve intrapersonal, social, and sociocultural functions. Results reveal that gender differences occur for affective functions, indicating that female listeners use music more for affective functions, i.e., emotional expression, dancing, and cultural identity. Country differences are moderate for social functions (values, social bonding, dancing) and strongest for sociocultural function (cultural identity, family bonding, political attitudes). Cultural values, such as individualism-collectivism and secularism-traditionalism, can help explain cross-cultural differences in the uses of music. Listeners from more collectivistic cultures use music more frequently for expressing values and cultural identity. Listeners from more secular and individualistic cultures like to dance more. Listeners from more traditional cultures use music more for expressing values and cultural identity, and they bond more frequently with their families over music. The two dimensions of musical functions seem systematically underpinned by listeners' gender and cultural background. We discuss the uses of music as behavioral expressions of affective and contemplative as well as personal, social, and sociocultural aspects in terms of affect proneness and cultural values.

  13. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gastric Cancer Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... from the . There is no standard or routine screening test for stomach cancer. Several types of screening tests have been ...

  14. How Is Stomach Cancer Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging How Is Stomach Cancer Diagnosed? Stomach cancers are usually found when ... Ask Your Doctor About Stomach Cancer? More In Stomach Cancer About Stomach Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  15. Nonulcer Stomach Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stomach pain is also called functional dyspepsia (dis-PEP-see-uh) or nonulcer dyspepsia. Nonulcer stomach pain ... may help inhibit the activity of neurons that control intestinal pain. Antibiotics. If tests indicate that a ...

  16. Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Kit

    1996-01-01

    This publication focuses on the theme "Gender." Articles include: (1) "Sex! Violence! Death! Art Education for Boys" (Riita Vira; Finland); (2) "Pedagogy for a Gender Sensitive Art Practice" (Rita Irwin; Canada); (3) "Women's Conscientiousness of Gender in Art and Art Education in Brazil" (Ana Mae Barbosa; Brazil); (4) "Gender Issues in United…

  17. Topography Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC builds and distributes high-resolution, coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) that integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography to support NOAA's mission to...

  18. Stomach acid test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastric acid secretion test ... of the cells in the stomach to release acid. The stomach contents are then removed and analyzed. ... 3.5). These numbers are converted to actual acid production in units of milliequivalents per hour (mEq/ ...

  19. Surgery For Stomach Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... usually do not need to be removed. Gastric bypass (gastrojejunostomy): Tumors in the lower part of the ... eat. The stomach helps the body absorb some vitamins, so people who have had a subtotal or ...

  20. What Is Stomach Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has 5 layers: The innermost layer is the mucosa . This is where stomach acid and digestive enzymes ... prognosis (outlook). As a cancer grows from the mucosa into deeper layers, the stage becomes more advanced ...

  1. What Happens After Treatment for Stomach Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer After Treatment What Happens After Treatment for Stomach Cancer? For some people with stomach cancer, treatment ... Treatment for Stomach Cancer Stops Working More In Stomach Cancer About Stomach Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  2. Stochastic stomach theory of fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Fish stomach dynamics is discussed and introduced analytically by a simple individually-based stomach model for total stomach content. The predator encounters food (meals) in a Poisson process, starting to search for a new meal when the stomach is empty. Basic equations for the frequency...... searching time and meal size as well as the average rate of food consumption decrease considerably in the more realistic case of variable meal sizes. The model is able to account for the high frequency of empty stomachs, which occurs simultaneously with a relatively high observed mean stomach content. Need...... distributions of stomach content are derived for general classes of meal-size distributions and rate models of gastric evacuation. Probability characteristics in steady-state of empty and non-empty stomachs are evaluated from first principles with particular attention to the square root rate model of gastric...

  3. Mechanisms of embryonic stomach development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Kyle W; Wells, James M

    2017-06-01

    The stomach is a digestive organ that has important roles in human physiology and pathophysiology. The developmental origin of the stomach is the embryonic foregut, which also gives rise a number of other structures. There are several signaling pathways and transcription factors that are known to regulate stomach development at different stages, including foregut patterning, stomach specification, and gastric regionalization. These developmental events have important implications in later homeostasis and disease in the adult stomach. Here we will review the literature that has shaped our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms that coordinate gastric organogenesis. Further we will discuss how developmental paradigms have guided recent efforts to differentiate stomach tissue from pluripotent stem cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. What Are the Key Statistics about Stomach Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stomach Cancer What Are the Key Statistics About Stomach Cancer? The American Cancer Society’s estimates for stomach ... in Stomach Cancer Research and Treatment? More In Stomach Cancer About Stomach Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  5. What's New in Stomach Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stomach Cancer About Stomach Cancer What’s New in Stomach Cancer Research and Treatment? Research is always being ... in Stomach Cancer Research and Treatment? More In Stomach Cancer About Stomach Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  6. The postoperative stomach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodfield, Courtney A. [Department of Radiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Levine, Marc S. [Department of Radiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)]. E-mail: marc.levine@uphs.upenn.edu

    2005-03-01

    Gastric surgery may be performed for the treatment of a variety of benign and malignant diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract, including peptic ulcers and gastric carcinoma. Radiographic studies with water-soluble contrast agents often are obtained to rule out leaks, obstruction, or other acute complications during the early postoperative period. Barium studies may also be obtained to evaluate for anastomotic strictures or ulcers, bile reflux gastritis, recurrent tumor, or other chronic complications during the late postoperative period. Cross-sectional imaging studies such as CT are also helpful for detecting abscesses or other postoperative collections, recurrent or metastatic tumor, or less common complications such as afferent loop syndrome or gastrojejunal intussusception. It is important for radiologists to be familiar not only with the radiographic findings associated with these various abnormalities but also with the normal appearances of the postoperative stomach on radiographic examinations, so that such appearances are not mistaken for pseudoleaks or other postoperative complications. The purpose of this article is to describe the normal postsurgical anatomy after the most commonly performed operations (including partial gastrectomy, esophagogastrectomy and gastric pull-through, and total gastrectomy and esophagojejunostomy) and to review the acute and chronic complications, normal postoperative findings, and major abnormalities detected on radiographic examinations in these patients.

  7. The brain-stomach connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folgueira, C; Seoane, L M; Casanueva, F F

    2014-01-01

    The stomach-brain connection has been revealed to be one of the most promising targets in treating obesity. The stomach plays a key role in the homeostatic mechanism implicating stomach-brain communication regulated under neural and hormonal control. The present review explores specific topics related to gut-brain interactions focus on the stomach-brain connection through the different known systems implied in energy balance control as ghrelin, and nesfatin. Moreover, novel mechanisms for energy balance regulation involving gastric-brain communication are described including the role of the gastric intracellular mTOR/S6K1 pathway mediating the interaction among ghrelin, nesfatin and endocannabinoid gastric systems to modulate metabolism. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Risks of Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gastric Cancer Treatment Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... from the . There is no standard or routine screening test for stomach cancer. Several types of screening tests have been ...

  9. The stomach-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtmann, Gerald; Talley, Nicholas J

    2014-12-01

    The stomach has distinct functions in relation to the ingestion and handling of solids and liquids. These functions include storage of the food before it is gradually emptied into the duodenum, mechanical crushing of larger food particles to increase the surface area, secretion of an acidic enzyme rich gastric juice and mixing the ingested food with the gastric juice. In addition, the stomach 'senses' the composition of the gastric content and this information is passed via the vagal nerve to the lateral hypothalamus and the limbic system, most likely as palatability signals that influence eating behaviour. Other sensory qualities related to the stimulation of gastric tension receptors are satiety and fullness. Receptors that respond to macronutrient content or gastric wall tension influence appetite and meal related hormone responses. The ingestion of food - in contrast to an infusion of nutrients into the stomach - has distinct effects on the activation of specific brain regions. Brain areas such as thalamus, amygdala, putamen and praecuneus are activated by the ingestion of food. Gastric nutrient infusion evokes greater activation in the hippocampus and anterior cingulate. The brain integrates these interrelated neural and hormonal signals arising from the stomach as well as visual, olfactory and anticipatory stimuli that ultimately influence eating and other behavioural patterns. Furthermore, there is now good evidence from experimental studies that gastric afferents influence mood, and animal studies point towards the possibility that gastric dysfunction may be a risk factor for mood disorders such as anxiety and depression. The stomach is also not only colonised by Helicobacter pylori but a large array of bacteria. While there is sufficient evidence to suggest that H. pylori may alter caloric intake and mood, the role of other gastric microbiome for the brain function is unknown. To address this appropriate targeted gastric microbiome studies would be

  10. Dynamic Topography Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresi, Louis

    2015-04-01

    Dynamic Topography Revisited Dynamic topography is usually considered to be one of the trinity of contributing causes to the Earth's non-hydrostatic topography along with the long-term elastic strength of the lithosphere and isostatic responses to density anomalies within the lithosphere. Dynamic topography, thought of this way, is what is left over when other sources of support have been eliminated. An alternate and explicit definition of dynamic topography is that deflection of the surface which is attributable to creeping viscous flow. The problem with the first definition of dynamic topography is 1) that the lithosphere is almost certainly a visco-elastic / brittle layer with no absolute boundary between flowing and static regions, and 2) the lithosphere is, a thermal / compositional boundary layer in which some buoyancy is attributable to immutable, intrinsic density variations and some is due to thermal anomalies which are coupled to the flow. In each case, it is difficult to draw a sharp line between each contribution to the overall topography. The second definition of dynamic topography does seem cleaner / more precise but it suffers from the problem that it is not measurable in practice. On the other hand, this approach has resulted in a rich literature concerning the analysis of large scale geoid and topography and the relation to buoyancy and mechanical properties of the Earth [e.g. refs 1,2,3] In convection models with viscous, elastic, brittle rheology and compositional buoyancy, however, it is possible to examine how the surface topography (and geoid) are supported and how different ways of interpreting the "observable" fields introduce different biases. This is what we will do. References (a.k.a. homework) [1] Hager, B. H., R. W. Clayton, M. A. Richards, R. P. Comer, and A. M. Dziewonski (1985), Lower mantle heterogeneity, dynamic topography and the geoid, Nature, 313(6003), 541-545, doi:10.1038/313541a0. [2] Parsons, B., and S. Daly (1983), The

  11. Watermelon-stomach og sklerodermi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt; Rasmussen, Jens Møller

    2002-01-01

    We report here a 72-year-old man with severe, persistent, iron deficiency anaemia. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed red stripes radiating to the pylorus, characteristic of watermelon stomach (gastric antral vascular ectasia). The patient was found to have scleroderma with calcinosis, scl...

  12. Moire topography in odontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Yeras, A.

    2001-08-01

    For several decades measurement optical techniques have been used in different branches of Science and Technology and in medicine. One of these techniques is the so-called Moire topography that allows the accurate measurement of different parts of the human body topography. This investigation presents the measurement of topographies of teeth and gums using an automated system of shadow moire, with which precision can be reached up to the order of the microns by the phase shift instrumentation in an original way. Advantages and disadvantages of using the Moire topography and its comparison with other techniques used in the optical metrology are presented. Also, some positive and negative aspects of the implementation of this technique are shown in dentistry.

  13. Functional disorders of the stomach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, K. L.; Stern, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    Gastroenterologists frequently encounter patients who report vague epigastric discomforts or sensations of fullness, bloating, and distention in the upper abdomen. The discomfort is neither burning in character nor severe in intensity; there is no nocturnal pain. The epigastric location of discomfort and lack of radiation may help to exclude biliary tract and pancreatic diseases. Nausea may be present, but there is little or no vomiting. After these patients ingest liquids or solid foods, the symptoms of easy filling or early satiety and increasing discomfort and nausea are almost always present. The patient may only report "indigestion," but a specific chief complaint, such as pain, discomfort, nausea, or bloating may be elicited with further inquiries. Solid foods usually provoke more symptoms than do liquids. Symptoms of early satiety, nausea, bloating, and abdominal discomfort may culminate in the vomiting of undigested food. These vague upper gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms have been termed "dyspepsia." When peptic diseases of the stomach are excluded, the symptom complex has been called "nonulcer" dyspepsia, a vague syndrome with symptoms attributed to stomach dysfunction. Nonulcer dyspepsia has been reviewed recently. Such symptoms, commonly attributed to a "functional" disorder, are very common in clinical practice, with an incidence of 30% of patients. In this review, we will discuss an approach to the evaluation and treatment of patients with symptoms of nausea, early satiety, bloating, and vague epigastric discomfort--dyspeptic symptoms associated with functional stomach disorders. We will review the anatomy and motility of the stomach and suggest potential neuromuscular malfunctions of the stomach that may result in epigastric symptoms. The potential role of stress and other brain-gut interactions, which may underlie these symptoms, will also be reviewed.

  14. Do We Know What Causes Stomach Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... occur in the stomach lining. In chronic atrophic gastritis , the normal glands of the stomach are either ... damaged by cells of the immune system). Atrophic gastritis is often caused by H pylori infection. It ...

  15. Stomach Flu: How Long Am I Contagious?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... long am I contagious if I have the stomach flu? Answers from James M. Steckelberg, M.D. You can ... more, depending on which virus is causing your stomach flu (gastroenteritis). A number of viruses can cause ...

  16. Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Cyramza (Ramucirumab) Docetaxel Doxorubicin Hydrochloride 5- ...

  17. Can Breath Test Detect Stomach Cancers Earlier?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_163342.html Can Breath Test Detect Stomach Cancers Earlier? New technology may also spot esophageal cancers ... the only way to diagnose esophageal cancer or stomach cancer is with endoscopy. This method is expensive, invasive ...

  18. Variation in contour and cancer of stomach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Hong; Hwang, Seon Moon [Asan Medical Center, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Kwon Ha [College of Medicine, Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-04-01

    There were four types of stomach contour included eutonic, hypotonic, steerhorn, and cascade. The aim of this study is to clarify relationship between incidence of stomach cancer and contour variation of the stomach. Double- contrast upper gastrointestinal study was performed in 1,546 patients, who had dyspepsia or other gastrointestinal tract symptoms. The radiographs were classified into the four types including eutonic, hypotonic, steerhorn, and cascade according to stomach contour in relation to body build. We also reviewed pathologic reports on endoscopic biopsy or surgical specimen. We studied the presence of relationship between incidence of stomach cancer and variation of stomach contour. We also examined the incidence of gastritis and gastric ulcer to the stomach contour variation. Of total 1,546 patients, eutonic stomach were 438(28.3%), hypotonic 911(58.9%), steerhorn 102(6.5%) and cascade 95(6.2%). Stomach cancer was found in 139(31.7%) of 438 eutonic stomachs, in 135(14.8%) of 911 hypotonic, in 42(41.2%) of 102 steerhorn, and in 24(36.9%) of 95 cascade (P=0.001). In hypotonic stomach, the incidence of stomach cancer was lower compared to the other three types significantly (p<0.05). Gastritis or gastric ulcer was found in 146(33.3%) of eutonic stomach, in 293(32.1%) of hypotonic, in 36(35.2%) of steerhorn, and in 26(27.3%) of cascade (p=0.640). In conclusion, gastric contour variation seems to be a factor affecting development of stomach cancer. The patients with hypotonic stomach may have lower incidence of stomach cancer than that of the other types. There was no relationship between the contour and gastric ulcer.

  19. What Should You Ask Your Doctor about Stomach Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staging What Should You Ask Your Doctor About Stomach Cancer? As you cope with cancer and cancer ... Ask Your Doctor About Stomach Cancer? More In Stomach Cancer About Stomach Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  20. Stomach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008061 Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-10 and vascular endothelial growth factor in gastric carcinoma and its relationship with angiogenesis. ZHAO Xiangyang(赵向阳), et al. Dept Gastronenterol, 1st Affili Hosp, Nanjing Med Univ, Nanjing 210029. World Chin J Digestol 2007;15(33):3495-3499. Objective To investigate the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-10 (MMP-10) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and microvascular density (MVD) in gastric carcinoma and its relationship with the clinical chara

  1. Why is topography fractal?

    CERN Document Server

    Pelletier, J D

    1997-01-01

    The power spectrum S of linear transects of the earth's topography is often observed to be a power-law function of wave number k with exponent close to -2: S(k) is proportional to k^-2. In addition, river networks are fractal trees that satisfy many power-law or fractal relationships between their morphologic components. A model equation for the evolution of the earth's topography by erosional processes which produces fractal topography and fractal river networks is presented and its solutions compared in detail to real topography. The model is the diffusion equation for sediment transport on hillslopes and channels with the local diffusivity proportional to the square of the discharge. The dependence of diffusivity on discharge follows from fundamental equations of sediment transport. We study the model in two ways. In the first analysis the diffusivity is parameterized as a function of relief and a Taylor expansion procedure is carried out to obtain a differential equation for the landform elevation which i...

  2. Transposed intrathoracic stomach: Functional evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishesh Jain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To study the functional aspects of the transposed stomach in the thoracic cavity and its effects on other organ systems. Patients and Methods: Children who had undergone gastric transposition more than 5 years ago were evaluated for symptoms, anthropometry, anaemia, duodenogastric reflux, pulmonary function, gastric emptying, gastric pH, gastroesophageal reflux and stricture, gastric motility, and gastritis and atrophy on histological examination of gastric mucosa. Results: Ten children were evaluated at a median follow-up of 90.5 months. On evaluation of symptoms, nine children were satisfied with the overall outcome. All patients had their weight and 7 patients had height less than 3 rd percentile for their respective age. Anaemia was present in 7/10 children. On evaluation with hepatobiliary scintigraphy, duodenogastric reflux was present in only 1 patient. Mass contractions of the transposed stomach were present in two thirds of the children. The mean gastric emptying t1/2 was 39.1 minutes. Pulmonary function tests were suggestive of restrictive lung disease in all the patients. Forced vital capacity (FVC and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1 were worse in children who underwent transposition or diversion following oesophageal anastomotic leak. Acid secretion was preserved in most patients with episodes of high gastric pH during sleep in nearly half. Mild gastritis was present in all patients where as mild atrophy of the gastric mucosa was observed in only 1child. Helicobacter pylori were positive in 3/ 8 children. Barium swallow demonstrated reflux in 2 children. Conclusions: Most children with transposed stomach remain asymptomatic on follow up. However, subclinical abnormalities are detected on investigations, which need close observation as they can manifest later in life.

  3. GANGRENE OF THE FUNDUS OF STOMACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribatsa Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available : The stomach is well known for its rich vascular network which generally protects it from ischemia. So gangrene of the fundus of stomach is a rare event, Its cause has been attributed to gastric volvules, intrathoracic herniation of stomach through the diaphragm, psychogenic polyphagia resulting in massive gastric dilation, ingestion of corrosive materials, embolization of atherosclerotic plague, thrombosis of major arterial supply occlusion of gastric vessels by therapeutically injected foreign bodies and necrotizing gastritis caused by organisms. We report a case of gangrene of funds of stomach that appears to be caused by intake of bhanga. (cannabis sativa

  4. Smoking topography and abstinence in adult female smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Erin A; Saladin, Michael E; Baker, Nathaniel L; Carpenter, Matthew J; Gray, Kevin M

    2013-12-01

    Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e., smoking topography) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown topography to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad libitum smoking period in which measures of topography were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4weeks. Among all smoking topography measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak topography-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Smoking topography and abstinence in adult female smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Erin A.; Saladin, Michael E.; Baker, Nathaniel L.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Gray, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary evidence, within both adults and adolescents, suggests that the intensity with which cigarettes are smoked (i.e. smoking topography) is predictive of success during a cessation attempt. These reports have also shown topography to be superior compared to other variables, such as cigarettes per day, in the prediction of abstinence. The possibility that gender may influence this predictive relationship has not been evaluated, but may be clinically useful in tailoring gender-specific interventions. Within the context of a clinical trial for smoking cessation among women, adult daily smokers completed a laboratory session that included a 1-hour ad-libitum smoking period in which measures of topography were collected (N=135). Participants were then randomized to active medication (nicotine patch vs. varenicline) and abstinence was monitored for 4 weeks. Among all smoking topography measures and all abstinence outcomes, a moderate association was found between longer puff duration and greater puff volume and continued smoking during the active 4-week treatment phase, but only within the nicotine patch group. Based on the weak topography-abstinence relationship among female smokers found in the current study, future studies should focus on explicit gender comparisons to examine if these associations are specific to or more robust in male smokers. PMID:24018226

  6. Computer-assisted lesion detection system for stomach screening using stomach shape and appearance models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midoh, Y.; Nakamura, M.; Takashima, M.; Nakamae, K.; Fujioka, H.

    2007-03-01

    In Japan, stomach cancer is one of the three most common causes of death from cancer. Since periodic health checks of stomach X-rays have become more widely carried out, the physicians' burdens have been increasing in the mass screening to detect initial symptoms of a disease. For the purpose of automatic diagnosis, we try to develop a computer-assisted lesion detection system for stomach screening. The proposed system has two databases. One is the stomach shape database that consists of the computer graphics stomach 3D models based on biomechanics simulation and their projected 2D images. The other is the normal appearance database that is constructed by learning patterns in a normal patient training set. The stomach contour is extracted from an X-ray image including a barium filled region by the following steps. Firstly, the approximated stomach region is obtained by nonrigid registration based on mutual information. We define nonrigid transformation as one that includes translations, rotations, scaling, air-barium interface and weights of eigenvectors determined by principal components analysis in the stomach shape database. Secondly, the accurate stomach contour is extracted from the gradient of an image by using the Dynamic Programming. After then, stomach lesions are detected by inspecting whether the Mahalanobis distance from the mean in the normal appearance database is longer than a suitable value on the extracted stomach contour. We applied our system to 75 X-ray images of barium-filled stomach to show its validity.

  7. Hedgehog signaling in the stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinou, Daniel; Bertaux-Skeirik, Nina; Zavros, Yana

    2016-12-01

    The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway not only plays a key part in controlling embryonic development, but in the adult stomach governs important cellular events such as epithelial cell differentiation, proliferation, gastric disease, and regeneration. In particular, Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling has been well studied for its role in gastric physiology and pathophysiology. Shh is secreted from the gastric parietal cells and contributes to the regeneration of the epithelium in response to injury, or the development of gastritis during Helicobacter pylori infection. Dysregulation of the Shh signaling pathway leads to the disruption of gastric differentiation, loss of gastric acid secretion and the development of cancer. In this chapter, we will review the most recent findings that reveal the role of Shh as a regulator of gastric physiology, regeneration, and disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Abdominal Pain (Stomach Pain), Short-Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Children and TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Abdominal Pain (Stomach Pain), Short-termJust about everyone has had a " ... time or another. But sudden severe abdominal pain (stomach pain), also called acute pain, shouldn't be ...

  9. Stomach development, stem cells and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hee; Shivdasani, Ramesh A

    2016-02-15

    The stomach, an organ derived from foregut endoderm, secretes acid and enzymes and plays a key role in digestion. During development, mesenchymal-epithelial interactions drive stomach specification, patterning, differentiation and growth through selected signaling pathways and transcription factors. After birth, the gastric epithelium is maintained by the activity of stem cells. Developmental signals are aberrantly activated and stem cell functions are disrupted in gastric cancer and other disorders. Therefore, a better understanding of stomach development and stem cells can inform approaches to treating these conditions. This Review highlights the molecular mechanisms of stomach development and discusses recent findings regarding stomach stem cells and organoid cultures, and their roles in investigating disease mechanisms. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Toward optical coherence topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayegh, Samir; Jiang, Yanshui

    2012-03-01

    Commercial OCT systems provide pachymetry measurements. Full corneal topographic information of anterior and posterior corneal surfaces for use in cataract surgery and refractive procedures is a desirable goal and would add to the usefulness of anterior and posterior segment evaluation. While substantial progress has been made towards obtaining "average" central corneal power (D Huang), power in different meridians and topography are still missing. This is usually reported to be due to eye movement. We analyze the role of centration, eye movements and develop a model that allows for the formulation of criteria for obtaining reliable topographic data within ¼ diopter.

  11. Gross anatomy of the stomach of the pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Artiodactyla: Cervidae

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    William Perez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The macroscopic anatomy of the stomach of the adult pampas deer, Ozotoceros bezoarticus (Linnaeus, 1758, a cervid species considered to ingest high quantities of grass in its natural diet, was described. Fourteen deceased adult pampas deer of both sexes from a captive breeding station were used for this study. There were no differences in the absolute or relative size from the different compartments of the stomach in relation to gender. Compared to measurements in other ruminants, pampas deer appeared anatomically capable of feeding on a variety of diets as an 'intermediate feeder'.

  12. The stomach in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, R H; Camilleri, M; Crowe, S E; El-Omar, E M; Fox, J G; Kuipers, E J; Malfertheiner, P; McColl, K E L; Pritchard, D M; Rugge, M; Sonnenberg, A; Sugano, K; Tack, J

    2015-10-01

    The stomach is traditionally regarded as a hollow muscular sac that initiates the second phase of digestion. Yet this simple view ignores the fact that it is the most sophisticated endocrine organ with unique physiology, biochemistry, immunology and microbiology. All ingested materials, including our nutrition, have to negotiate this organ first, and as such, the stomach is arguably the most important segment within the GI tract. The unique biological function of gastric acid secretion not only initiates the digestive process but also acts as a first line of defence against food-borne microbes. Normal gastric physiology and morphology may be disrupted by Helicobacter pylori infection, the most common chronic bacterial infection in the world and the aetiological agent for most peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. In this state-of-the-art review, the most relevant new aspects of the stomach in health and disease are addressed. Topics include gastric physiology and the role of gastric dysmotility in dyspepsia and gastroparesis; the stomach in appetite control and obesity; there is an update on the immunology of the stomach and the emerging field of the gastric microbiome. H. pylori-induced gastritis and its associated diseases including peptic ulcers and gastric cancer are addressed together with advances in diagnosis. The conclusions provide a future approach to gastric diseases underpinned by the concept that a healthy stomach is the gateway to a healthy and balanced host. This philosophy should reinforce any public health efforts designed to eradicate major gastric diseases, including stomach cancer.

  13. Classification of cerebral palsy: association between gender, age, motor type, topography and Gross Motor Function Classificação da paralisia cerebral: associação entre gênero, idade, tipo motor, topografia e Função Motora Grossa

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    Luzia Iara Pfeifer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to assess the relation between gender, age, motor type, topography and gross motor function, based on the Gross Motor Function System of children with cerebral palsy. Trunk control, postural changes and gait of one hundred children between 5 months and 12 years old, were evaluated. There were no significant differences between gender and age groups (p=0.887 or between gender and motor type (p=0.731. In relation to body topography most children (88% were spastic quadriplegic. Most hemiplegics children were rated in motor level I, children with diplegia were rated in motor level III, and quadriplegic children were rated in motor level V. Functional classification is necessary to understand the differences in cerebral palsy and to have the best therapeutic planning since it is a complex disease which depends on several factors.Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a relação entre gênero, idade, tipo motor, topografia e Função Motora Grossa, baseado no Sistema de Função Motora Grossa em crianças com paralisia cerebral. Participaram desta pesquisa 100 crianças com idade entre 5 meses a 12 anos que foram observadas em relação ao controle de tronco, trocas posturais e marcha. Não houve diferenças significativas entre gêneros e grupos etários (p=0,887 e entre gênero e tipo motor (p=0,731. Em relação à topografia corporal, houve predomínio de crianças com quadriplegia, sendo que a maioria (88% era do tipo espástico. Quanto ao nível motor, as crianças hemiplégicas pertenciam em sua maioria ao nível I, as diplégicas ao nível III e as quadriplégicas ao nível V. Sendo a paralisia cerebral uma condição complexa que depende de diversos fatores, beneficia-se de classificações funcionais para compreensão da diversidade e melhor planejamento terapêutico.

  14. Dysbiotic infection in the stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizasa, Hisashi; Ishihara, Shyunji; Richardo, Timmy; Kanehiro, Yuichi; Yoshiyama, Hironori

    2015-10-28

    Microbiota in human alimentary tract plays important roles for homeostatic maintenance of the body. Compositional difference of gut microbiota is tightly associated with susceptibility of many diseases, including inflammatory diseases, obesity, diabetes mellitus, cancer, and atherosclerosis. "Dysbiosis" refers to a state of imbalance among the colonies of microorganisms within the body, which brings abnormal increase of specific minor components and decrease in the normally dominant species. Since stomach secrets strong acid for its digestive role, this organ has long been thought a sterile organ. However, the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has changed the concept. This bacterium has proven to cause gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. However, recent cross-sectional studies revealed that H. pylori carriers had a decreased risk of developing immunological diseases, such as asthma. H. pylori coinfection also suppresses inflammatory bowel diseases. This review describes human gastric microbiota by discussing its mutual interaction and pathogenic enrollment. Gastric "dysbiosis" may affect host inflammatory response and play important role for gastric pathogenesis. We will topically discuss enrollment of dysbiosis for genesis of gastric cancer as well as for disruption of immunological homeostasis affecting oncogenic resistance.

  15. Topography of Io (color)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The images used to create this color composite of Io were acquired by Galileo during its ninth orbit (C9) of Jupiter and are part of a sequence of images designed to map the topography or relief on Io and to monitor changes in the surface color due to volcanic activity. Obtaining images at low illumination angles is like taking a picture from a high altitude around sunrise or sunset. Such lighting conditions emphasize the topography of the volcanic satellite. Several mountains up to a few miles high can be seen in this view, especially near the upper right. Some of these mountains appear to be tilted crustal blocks. Most of the dark spots correspond to active volcanic centers.North is to the top of the picture which merges images obtained with the clear, red, green, and violet filters of the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft. . The resolution is 8.3 kilometers per picture element. The image was taken on June 27, 1997 at a range of 817,000 kilometers by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  16. Swordfish Stomach Content Data, 1989-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stomach contents were tabulated for 734 swordfish (Xiphias gladius) from the central North Pacific from 1989 to 2000 (most from 1994-1998). The swordfish were...

  17. Manufacturing Of Novelty Leather From Cattle Stomach

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    Umme Habiba Bodrun Naher

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of turning cattle stomach into novelty leather and then leather product which would add value to end of cattle. Four pieces of green buffalo stomachs were taken through soaking liming deliming pickling tanning neutralization retanning dyeing and fat liquoring operation. Then mechanical operations like drying and staking operations were also done. Some physical tensile strength stitch tear strength and colour rub fastness and chemical chromic oxide content fat content and pH tests were accomplished .The results of physical tests were poor compared to the grain leather as the composition of raw outer coverings of animals and their stomachs are different. The stomach leathers could be used for making coin purse key case bracelet wrist watch belt ear-ring necklace hair band iPod case etc. as novelty leather product item.

  18. Microbiota in the stomach: new insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen Ming; Yang, Yun Sheng; Peng, Li Hua

    2014-02-01

    Bacteria are sparsely distributed in the stomach due to the gastric microbicidal barrier. Several innate defenses (low pH, migrating motor complex and the entero-salivary circulation of nitrate) as well as external factors (diet, Helicobacter pylori infection, proton pump inhibitors, antibiotics and stomach diseases) have been shown to influence significantly the microbiota composition in the stomach. In recent years new culture-independent technologies have allowed the investigation of the cross talk that occurs between hosts and stomach-associated microflora, which helps us to understand the role of gastric bacterial flora in the gastrointestinal microbiological system, both in physiological and pathological conditions. Here, we reviewed the literatures related to this topic and set the stage for future developments of the field. © 2013 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Chemo Before Surgery May Help Stomach Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemotherapy given before surgery for cancer of the lower esophagus and stomach increased the number of patients surviving for five years compared to surgery alone, according to findings presented at the 2007 ASCO meeting in Chicago.

  20. Corrosive acid injury of the stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeratne, T; Ratnatunga, C; Dharrmapala, A; Samarasinghe, T

    2015-03-01

    Ingestion of corrosives with accidental or suicidal intent is a common problem in Sri Lanka. Management options and outcomes of corrosive injuries on stomach are not well documented in our setting. The clinical presentation, complications and management outcomes of nine patients with corrosive injury to stomach are presented. Gastric outlet obstruction seen in majority, was managed with bypass procedure (n=5) or resection (n=4). The outcomes of management were successful with both methods.

  1. Anatomy and physiology of the stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybel, David I

    2005-10-01

    In this article, key concepts in gastric anatomy and physiology are reviewed. Attention is given to historical development of concepts of acid secretion, to the role of stomach in digestion, and to the mechanisms that protect gastric mucosa from acid and hostile luminal conditions. Evolving ideas that may influence understand-ing of the physiologic consequences of emerging therapeutics, and procedures that target anatomy or function of the stomach are also reviewed.

  2. Isostasy, flexure, and dynamic topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvirtzman, Zohar; Faccenna, Claudio; Becker, Thorsten W.

    2016-06-01

    A fundamental scientific question is, what controls the Earth's topography? Although the theoretical principles of isostasy, flexure, and dynamic topography are widely discussed, the parameters needed to apply these principles are frequently not available. Isostatic factors controlling lithospheric buoyancy are frequently uncertain and non-isostatic factors, such as lithospheric bending towards subduction zones and dynamic topography, are hard to distinguish. The question discussed here is whether a set of simple rules that relate topography to lithospheric structure in various tectonic environments can be deduced in a way that missing parameters can be approximated; or does each area behave differently, making generalizations problematic. We contribute to this issue analyzing the Asia-Africa-Arabia-Europe domain following a top-down strategy. We compile a new crustal thickness map and remove the contribution of the crust from the observed elevation. Then, the challenge is to interpret the residual topography in terms of mantle lithosphere buoyancy and dynamics. Based on systematic relationships between tectonic environments and factors controlling topography, we argue that crustal buoyancy and mantle lithospheric density can be approximated from available geological data and that regions near mantle upwelling or downwelling are easily identified by their extreme residual topography. Yet, even for other areas, calculating lithospheric thickness from residual topography is problematic, because distinguishing variations in mantle lithosphere thickness from sub-lithospheric dynamics is difficult. Fortunately, the area studied here provides an opportunity to examine this issue. Based on the conjunction between the Afar Plume and the mid-ocean ridge in the nearby Gulf of Aden and southern Red Sea, we constrain the maximal amplitude of dynamic topography to ~ 1 km. This estimate is based on a narrow definition of dynamic topography that only includes sub

  3. Topografia do carcinoma basocelular e suas correlações com o gênero, a idade e o padrão histológico: um estudo retrospectivo de 1.042 lesões Topography of basal cell carcinoma and their correlations with gender, age and histologic pattern: a retrospective study of 1042 lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Fernanda Dias Souza

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: O carcinoma basocelular corresponde a 75% dos tumores cutâneos. A exposição solar e a genética estão relacionadas à sua etiologia. Espera-se que diferenças comportamentais e biológicas proporcionem padrões diferenciados de acometimento entre os sexos. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a topografia das lesões e suas correlações com gênero, idade e tipo histológico. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de pacientes tratados por carcinoma basocelular entre 1999 e 2008 no ambulatório de câncer da pele da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Curitiba. Avaliamos sexo, idade, localização, tipo histológico, situação das margens, histórico de fotoexposição e antecedentes familiares de câncer cutâneo. RESULTADOS: Contabilizamos 1.042 lesões em 545 pacientes (61% mulheres, sendo mais numerosas nos homens (p BACKGROUND: Basal cell carcinoma accounts for 75% of skin cancer. Sun exposure and genetics are related to its etiology. It's expected that biological and behavioral differences provide different patterns of involvement between sexes. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the topography of lesions and their correlations with gender, age and histological type. METHODS: Retrospective study of basal cell carcinoma patients treated between 1999 and 2008 in the Skin Cancer Clinic of Santa Casa de Misericordia of Curitiba. We evaluated sex, age, location, histological type, margins commitment, sun exposure and family skin cancer history. RESULTS: We found 1042 lesions in 545 patients (61% women, being more numerous in men (p<0.01. Their ages ranged between 27 and 95 years (median=65. Men had more sun exposure (p<0.01. The lesions were more frequent extra-cephalic recently (p<0.01. The margin involvement was higher in the head (p<0.01. The superficial type was less frequent on the head (p<0.01 and was associated with younger ages in women (p<0.01. The head housed 74% of lesions and the legs 2%. Women had a predilection for the legs, nose and upper lip and men

  4. Metabolic topography of Parkinsonism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Seung [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Parkinson's disease is one of the most frequent neurodegenerative diseases, which mainly affects the elderly. Parkinson's disease is often difficult to differentiate from atypical parkinson disorder such as progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple system atrophy, dementia with Lewy body, and corticobasal ganglionic degeneration, based on the clinical findings because of the similarity of phenotypes and lack of diagnostic markers. The accurate diagnosis of Parkinson's disease and atypical Parkinson disorders is not only important for deciding on treatment regimens and providing prognosis, but also it is critical for studies designed to investigate etiology and pathogenesis of parkinsonism and to develop new therapeutic strategies. Although degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopamine system results in marked loss of striatal dopamine content in most of the diseases causing parkinsonism, pathologic studies revealed different topographies of the neuronal cell loss in Parkinsonism. Since the regional cerebral glucose metabolism is a marker of integrated local synaptic activity and as such is sensitive to both direct neuronal/synaptic damage and secondary functional disruption at synapses distant from the primary site of pathology, and assessment of the regional cerebral glucose metabolism with F-18 FDG PET is useful in the differential diagnosis of parkinsonism and evaluating the pathophysiology of Parkinsonism.

  5. A brief analysis of patients suffering from stomach or duodenal ulcers in Almaty hospital №1

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    Aryzbekova Aliya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Peptic ulcers are a serious problem worldwide, and affect about 4 million people each year. Their etiology is connected with the presence of Helicobacter pylori, the act of smoking, drinking alcohol, being stress, and taking excessively nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, as well as steroids. The most common symptoms are abdominal pain, nausea, chest pain and fatigue, while less frequent symptoms include vomiting and weight loss. Helicobacter pylori is responsible for about 80% of gastric and 90% of duodenal ulcer cases. In this work, an analysis is made of a correlation between stomach or duodenal ulcer and gender, residence and number of patients hospitalized in the Almaty hospital №1, from 2009-2012, in order to learn about trends in the incidence of these diseases in Kazakhstan. A total number of 950 patients with stomach and duodenal ulcers, in 2009-2012, were questioned. The patient’s residence, gender and stomach or duodenal ulcer problem were taken into account in the study. The result of this work reveals that the largest amount of hospitalized patients suffering from stomach or duodenal ulcers came from urban areas. Moreover, more women than men suffered from peptic ulcers. Furthermore, the number of patients admitted to the hospital due to duodenal ulcers did not show any variation throughout the study. However, the least number of patients suffering from gastric ulcers was noticed in December 2009, and the greatest was in October and November 2011. The obtained data show that ulcers are a serious problem in Kazakhstan.

  6. Uncommon mucosal metastases to the stomach

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    Kanthan R

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metastases to the stomach from an extra-gastric neoplasm are an unusual event, identified in less than 2% of cancer patients at autopsy. The stomach may be involved by hematogenous spread from a distant primary (most commonly breast, melanoma or lung, or by contiguous spread from an adjacent malignancy, such as the pancreas, esophagus and gallbladder. These latter sites may also involve the stomach via lymphatic or haematogenous spread. We present three cases of secondary gastric malignancy. Methods/Results The first is a 19-year-old male who received a diagnosis of testicular choriocarcinoma in September 2004. Metastatic malignancy was demonstrated in the stomach after partial gastrectomy was performed to control gastric hemorrhage. The second is a 75-year-old male, generally well, who was diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the lung in September 2005. Poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the lung was demonstrated in a subsequent biopsy of "gastric polyps". The third is an 85-year-old man with no known history of malignancy who presented for evaluation of iron deficiency anemia by endoscopy in February 2006. Biopsies of the colonic and gastric mucosa demonstrated moderately differentiated invasive colonic adenocarcinoma with metastatic deposits in the stomach. Conclusion While the accurate recognition of these lesions at endoscopy is fraught with difficulty, pathological awareness of such uncommon metastases in the gastric mucosa is essential for accurate diagnosis and optimal patient management.

  7. Pseudomelanosis of stomach, duodenum, and jejunum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Tarun; Mansoor, Muhammad S; Gibson, Joanna A; Kapadia, Cyrus R

    2015-02-01

    Pseudomelanosis is a rare finding during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and is most commonly seen in the duodenum. Involvement of other organs in the upper gastrointestinal tract is extremely rare, with only 1 reported case involving the stomach, duodenum, and jejunum. We present a case of a 60-year-old woman with mild anemia and hematemesis, who was found to have characteristic speckled pattern of gray-black pigmentation on endoscopic examination. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second reported case of pseudomelanosis involving the stomach, duodenum, and jejunum.

  8. Pharmacotherapy of stomach diseases in dogs

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    Trailović Saša M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stomach diseases have an important place in the clinical pathology of dogs. Etiological factors can be nutritive, chemical, or infective, but treatment implies certain common general principles and a certain number of therapy protocols which are most often used. On the other hand, a part of the medicines used in the pharmacotherapy of stomach diseases in dogs are taken from the palette of medicines intended for human use, so that a regular dosage and regime of implementation are the main precondition for the success of the applied therapy. Drugs used in the treatment of stomach diseases include antiemetics, prokinetics, antacids, mucoprotectives, anticholinergics, H2-antagonists, proton pump inhibitors, semisynthetic derivatives of prostaglandin E1, and others. The therapy of stomach diseases implies the simultaneous application of several drugs from different pharmacodynamic groups (for instance, an antiemetic, a prokinetic, an antacid, and an Hg antagonist or a proton pump inhibitor when it is necessary to establish a correct regime of implementation because of possible interaction, which will also be discussed in this work.

  9. Ontogenetic stomach development in catshark Scyliorhinus canicula.

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    Odete Goncalves

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract (GIT of vertebrates develops from a simple undifferentiated tube into highly differentiated regions for the digestion and absorption of nutrients. Each region has a different histological structure and gene expression profile that enables the performance of their different functions. The stomach is the most highly derived GIT region and gastric glands are responsible for the secretion of HCl and pepsinogen that enables acid-peptic digestion, representing a functional innovation found exclusively in jawed vertebrates. The mechanisms of GIT organ specification are well studied in some vertebrates including mouse, Xenopus, chicken and some teleost fishes. General embryonic development has been studied in chondrichthyans but not GIT development. In this study we characterize the development of the stomach in the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula, an elasmobranch with a ~5 month development spanning 34 developmental stages. As a representative of basal jawed vertebrate for which genomic information is currently available, the catshark is a suitable model system to characterize the ancient expression and function developmental of physiologically relevant genes. Therefore, during this study we used embryos from a brood stock held in our fish facility to conduct gene expression, protein detection and histological analyses. Our aim was to characterize, at molecular and morphological levels, stomach development and the differentiation of its characteristic secreting glands. The differentiation of the stomach starts around stage 24. However, immunohistochemistry for the gastric proton pump indicates a delayed development of gastric gland that are only visible before hatching at stage 33-34. Supported by NSERC to JMW

  10. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Stomach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Qulsoom; Shafique, Khurram; Hurairah, Abu; Grossman, Evan B.

    2017-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm that usually originates from the pleura, but has been reported in other extrapleural locations. We report a rare case of a solitary fibrous tumor of the stomach, which was successfully treated with endoscopic mucosal resection. PMID:28286800

  11. The stomach in health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Hunt; M. Camilleri; S.E. Crowe; E. El-Omar; J.G. Fox (James); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); P. Malfertheiner; K.E.L. McColl; D.M. Pritchard; M. Rugge (Massimo); A. Sonnenberg; K. Sugano; J. Tack (Jan)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe stomach is traditionally regarded as a hollow muscular sac that initiates the second phase of digestion. Yet this simple view ignores the fact that it is the most sophisticated endocrine organ with unique physiology, biochemistry, immunology and microbiology. All ingested materials,

  12. The stomach in health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Hunt; M. Camilleri; S.E. Crowe; E. El-Omar; J.G. Fox (James); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); P. Malfertheiner; K.E.L. McColl; D.M. Pritchard; M. Rugge (Massimo); A. Sonnenberg; K. Sugano; J. Tack (Jan)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe stomach is traditionally regarded as a hollow muscular sac that initiates the second phase of digestion. Yet this simple view ignores the fact that it is the most sophisticated endocrine organ with unique physiology, biochemistry, immunology and microbiology. All ingested materials,

  13. STUDY OF MORPHOMETRIC CHANGES OF FOETAL STOMACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Aneesur Rahman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Interest in human development is very widespread largely because of the curiosity about our beginnings and desire to improve the quality of life. Understanding of the processes involved in the formation of various organs and systems has unrevealed most cryptic secrets of the nature. Human development begins at fertilisation when a male gamete or sperm unites with a female gamete or oocyte to form a single cell, a zygote. With the formation of zygote (single-celled stage, foetal development begins. The aim of the study is to- 1 Study the morphometric parameters of foetal stomach at various gestational ages. 2 Compare these observations with the previous studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS Present work was the cross-sectional study carried out in the Department of Anatomy in collaboration with the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology at SRTRGMC and Hospital, Ambajogai Dist., Beed, Maharashtra. For this, approval of Institutional Ethical Committee was taken. 30 aborted human foetuses of different age groups ranging from 12 to 36 weeks of fertilisation were taken from the Department of OB-GYN. Foetuses were preserved by using 10% formalin. Age of foetuses were determined by crown-rump length and history given by mother. Foetuses were dissected after preservation for 15 days and morphometric studies were done on stomach. RESULTS Various quantitative parameters like weight of foetus, crown-rump length, total length of stomach, weight of stomach, length of greater curvature, lesser curvature, width of cardia and width of pylorus were used. For the purpose of study and comparison with other researchers, the foetuses were divided into 3 groups. Morphometric changes were observed in different groups and compared with previous studies. CONCLUSION With the increase in the body weight, crown-rump length and gestational age of the foetus, there is gradual increase on various parameters of stomach.

  14. Research Status and Perspective on Correlation between Stomach Meridian Points and Stomach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英进; 严洁

    2008-01-01

    This article expounds the action mechanism on correlation between stomach meridians points and stomach as well as its perspective from myriad ancient and modern literature.%就足阳明经穴与胃相关性的作用机理,查阅了大量文献资料,从古代文献研究、现代文献研究、展望进行了阐述.

  15. TCGA researchers identify 4 subtypes of stomach cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomach cancers fall into four distinct molecular subtypes, researchers with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Network have found. Scientists report that this discovery could change how researchers think about developing treatments for stomach cancer, also c

  16. Design and application of multifunctional stomach clamp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Fu Lu; Pi Wu Li; Xir Xin Zhang

    2000-01-01

    AIM Pylorus and pyloric vagus preserving gastrectomy (PPVPG) is an efficient operation mode for treatinggastric and duodenal ulcers. For its better application and popularization, we have designed andmanufactured a special multifunctional stomach clamp.METHODS The clamp has been designed carefully in view of the different sizes of the patients' stomachsand the different starting points of Latarjer nerves so as to facilitate the execution of the present operationmode, which requires the preservation of the vagus innervated pyloric region so as to make the remnantstomach maintain its normal physiological function and the vagus branches clinging antral seromuscular flapkept in proper size so that avoiding too much remaining antral mucosa is removed to cause greater difficultyin operation. With this in view, we observed and measured the distance between the Latarjer nerves distribution and the pyloric rings of 42 patients' stomachs in the course of operations. We bent an aluminumstring 3 mm thick for each stomach according to the size of antral seromuecular flap and chose an optimalcurvature from the 42 sizes for manufacturing the clamp. The clamp is made of 3 Cr13 stainless steel,consisting of three parts, the curved head, the fastening ring and the handle. The curved head is shapedalmost exactly like the remained antral seromuscular flap. The ring at its tip when in place fastens the twosides of the clamp so that the tissue of the stomach between will be clutched by an even force. On one sideare three cuts for moving the ring upwards, each cut representing 1 mm for fastening and adjustments can bemade in view of the thickness or thinness of the tissue. The handles bend backward for fighting shy of thecuts so as to facilitate the operation.RESULTS With the stomach disassociated in the light of PPVPG procedures, the clamp may easily beapplied from the upper part of the Latarjer nerves. The following merits can be noted. ① The curving line ofthe flap can be precisely

  17. Stomach cancer incidence in Southern Portugal 1998-2006: a spatio-temporal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoila, Ana L; Riebler, Andrea; Amaral-Turkman, Antónia; São-João, Ricardo; Ribeiro, Conceição; Geraldes, Carlos; Miranda, Ana

    2014-05-01

    Stomach cancer belongs to the most common malignant tumors in Portugal. Main causal factors are age, dietary habits, smoking, and Helicobacter pylori infections. As these factors do not only operate on different time dimensions, such as age, period, or birth cohort, but may also vary along space, it is of utmost interest to model temporal and spatial trends jointly. In this paper, we analyze incidence of stomach cancer in Southern Portugal between 1998 and 2006 for females and males jointly using a spatial multivariate age-period-cohort model. Thus, we avoid age aggregation and allow the exploration of heterogeneous time trends between males and females across age, period, birth cohort, and space. Model estimation is performed within a Bayesian setting assuming (gender specific) smoothing priors. Our results show that the posterior expected rate of stomach cancer is decreasing for all counties in Southern Portugal and that males around 70 have a two times higher risk of getting stomach cancer compared with their female counterparts. We further found that, except for some few counties, the spatial influence is almost constant over time and negligible in the southern counties of Southern Portugal.

  18. 21 CFR 876.1400 - Stomach pH electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stomach pH electrode. 876.1400 Section 876.1400...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 876.1400 Stomach pH electrode. (a) Identification. A stomach pH electrode is a device used to measure intragastric and intraesophageal pH...

  19. Roux-en-Y stomach surgery for weight loss (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stomach and attaching it directly to the small intestine, bypassing a large part of the stomach and duodenum. Not only is the stomach pouch too small to hold large amounts of food, but by skipping the duodenum, fat absorption is substantially reduced.

  20. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no standard or routine screening test for stomach (gastric) cancer. Stomach (gastric) cancer is not common in the U.S. Learn about tests that have been studied to detect or screen for stomach cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  1. Busman's stomach and the embodiment of modernity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Rhodri

    2017-01-02

    This paper examines the relationship between the gastric illness, 'busman's stomach' and the Coronation bus strike of May 1937 in which 27,000 London busworkers walked out for better working conditions and a seven-and-half-hour day. It explores the way in which new patterns of somatisation, gastroenterological techniques, psychological theories and competing understandings of time worked together to create new political institutions and new forms of political action in inter-war Britain.

  2. Parameterizing turbulence over abrupt topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymak, Jody

    2016-11-01

    Stratified flow over abrupt topography generates a spectrum of propagating internal waves at large scales, and non-linear overturning breaking waves at small scales. For oscillating flows, the large scale waves propagate away as internal tides, for steady flows the large-scale waves propagate away as standing "columnar modes". At small-scales, the breaking waves appear to be similar for either oscillating or steady flows, so long as in the oscillating case the topography is significantly steeper than the internal tide angle of propagation. The size and energy lost to the breaking waves can be predicted relatively well from assuming that internal modes that propagate horizontally more slowly than the barotropic internal tide speed are arrested and their energy goes to turbulence. This leads to a recipe for dissipation of internal tides at abrupt topography that is quite robust for both the local internal tide generation problem (barotropic forcing) and for the scattering problem (internal tides incident on abrupt topography). Limitations arise when linear generation models break down, an example of which is interference between two ridges. A single "super-critical" ridge is well-modeled by a single knife-edge topography, regardless of its actual shape, but two supercritical ridges in close proximity demonstrate interference of the high modes that makes knife-edfe approximations invalid. Future direction of this research will be to use more complicated linear models to estimate the local dissipation. Of course, despite the large local dissipation, many ridges radiate most of their energy into the deep ocean, so tracking this low-mode radiated energy is very important, particularly as it means dissipation parameterizations in the open ocean due to these sinks from the surface tide cannot be parameterized locally to where they are lost from the surface tide, but instead lead to non-local parameterizations. US Office of Naval Research; Canadian National Science and

  3. Evaluation of roentgenologic study of the stomach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Jung Ho; Choi, Byung So [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-09-15

    In order to achieve more correct diagnosis of gastric lesion, further progress in the technique of diagnosis is much desired. And so, in pursuing the more ideal study, about 7,500 cases of U. G. I. studies taken in Severance Hospital in the past 29 months from May 1969 to September 1971, have been reviewed to evaluate how the following factors will affect the demonstrability of gastric lesion in upper G. I. series. (1) Introduction of air into the stomach by nasogastric tube. (2) Kinds and concentration of barium. (3) Demonstrability according to the position of the patient. (4) Use of antispasmodics. The results may be briefly summarized as follows: 1. The intubation of nasogastric tube gives discomfort temporarily to the patient: however, it has an advantage that the amount of air required for ideal insufflation of the stomach can be controlled under the fluoroscopy. 2. About concentration and type of barium. a) Mikabarium in 90% seems to give the best result in filling study, mucosal relief study and double contrast study. b) Mikabarium in higher concentration adheres to the mucosa better, thus resulting in good double contrast: however, it tends to coagulate each other in the high concentration. c) Micropaque powder of 110% solution produces good double contrast, but it has the disadvantage of making air bubbles. d) When water is given prior to barium ingestion, the anterior wall of stomach is better demonstrated with mucosal relief study. e) To get better result in contrast study, the selection of barium is important as well as rapid and proper positioning of the patient and abdominal respiratory movement. 3. Demonstrability of the stomach lesion according to the position. a) The small lesion either in pylorus or in antrum can be best demonstrated by compression technique of double contrast method in supine position. b) The mucosal relief study in prone by adequate air insufflation was proper to demonstrate the lesion of anterior wall. c) In the lesion of the

  4. Mapping Bedrock Topography using Electromagnetic Profiling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mapping Bedrock Topography using Electromagnetic Profiling. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... within the Abakaliki Urban, to map the bedrock topography which also aids us to determine the position of the ...

  5. Surface Micro Topography Replication in Injection Moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlø, Uffe Rolf; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Kjær, Erik Michael

    2005-01-01

    carried out with rough EDM (electrical discharge machining) mould surfaces, a PS grade, and by applying established three-dimensional topography parameters. Significant quantitative relationships between process parameters and topography parameters were established. It further appeared that replication...

  6. Surface micro topography replication in injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlø, Uffe Rolf

    of the mechanisms controlling topography replication. Surface micro topography replication in injection moulding depends on the main elements of  Process conditions  Plastic material  Mould topography In this work, the process conditions is the main factor considered, but the impact of plastic material...

  7. Mapping of sea bottom topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkoen, C. J.; Wensink, G. J.; Hesselmans, G. H. F. M.

    1992-01-01

    Under suitable conditions the bottom topography of shallow seas is visible in remote sensing radar imagery. Two experiments were performed to establish which remote sensing technique or combination yields optimal imaging of bottom topography and which hydro-meteorological conditions are favorable. A further goal is to gain experience with these techniques. Two experiments were performed over an area in the North Sea near the measuring platform Meetpost Noordwijk (MPN). The bottom topography in the test area is dominated by sand waves. The crests of the sand waves are perpendicular to the coast line and the dominating (tidal-)current direction. A 4x4 sq km wide section of the test area was studied in more detail. The first experiment was undertaken on 16 Aug. 1989. During the experiment the following remote sensing instruments were used: Landsat-Thematic Mapper, and NASA/JPL Airborne Imaging Radar (AIR). The hydro-meteorological conditions; current, wind, wave, and air and water temperature were monitored by MPN, a ship of Rijkswaterstaat (the OCTANS), and a pitch-and-roll WAVEC-buoy. The second experiment took place on 12 July 1992. During this experiment data were collected with the NASA/JPL polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR), and a five-band helicopter-borne scatterometer. Again the hydro-meteorological conditions were monitored at MPN and the OCTANS. Furthermore, interferometric radar data were collected.

  8. Earth rotation and core topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Bradford H.; Clayton, Robert W.; Spieth, Mary Ann

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Geodynamics program has as one of its missions highly accurate monitoring of polar motion, including changes in length of day (LOD). These observations place fundamental constraints on processes occurring in the atmosphere, in the mantle, and in the core of the planet. Short-timescale (t less than or approx 1 yr) variations in LOD are mainly the result of interaction between the atmosphere and the solid earth, while variations in LOD on decade timescales result from the exchange of angular momentum between the mantle and the fluid core. One mechanism for this exchange of angular momentum is through topographic coupling between pressure variations associated with flow in the core interacting with topography at the core-mantel boundary (CMB). Work done under another NASA grant addressing the origin of long-wavelength geoid anomalies as well as evidence from seismology, resulted in several models of CMB topography. The purpose of work supported by NAG5-819 was to study further the problem of CMB topography, using geodesy, fluid mechanics, geomagnetics, and seismology. This is a final report.

  9. Expression and role of cyclophilin B in stomach cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, D Q; Li, P L; Xie, M

    2015-05-22

    We elucidated the expression of ciclosporin protein B (cyclophilin B) in stomach cancer tissue and the correlation between cyclophilin B and clinicopathological parameters, and determined the effect of cyclophilin B on growth and proliferation of stomach cancer cells. Pathological sections of stomach cancer and paracancerous tissue were collected for detecting the expression and distribution of cyclophilin B, using immunohistochemistry, and for analyzing the relationship between the expression levels of cyclophilin B in stomach cancer and the clinical pathological parameters of the patients. A cyclophilin BsiRNA lentiviral (LV-cyclophilin B-siRNA) and corresponding control vector (LV-siRNA-con) were constructed. MTT and cell cycle assays were used to detect the effect of downregulation of cyclophilin B expression on in vitro growth and proliferation and clone formation capacity of BGC823 and SGC7901 cells. The cyclophilin B-positive rate of stomach cancer tissue was 84.29% (59/70) and that of paracancerous tissue was 56.00% (28/50). The expression of cyclophilin B in stomach cancer tissue was significantly higher than that in paracancerous tissue (P stomach cancer cells, cell cycle progression, and in vivo tumorigenicity capacity. Cyclophilin B has a high diagnostic value for stomach cancer and its downregulation can effectively inhibit the growth of stomach cancer cells. Thus, cyclophilin B may be a potential therapeutic target for stomach cancer treatment.

  10. Treatment of stomach cancer, a national experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valen, B; Viste, A; Haugstvedt, T; Eide, G E; Søreide, O

    1988-07-01

    A total of 1165 patients with stomach cancer were entered into a prospective, observational national study. They represented 54 per cent of all stomach cancer patients reported to the Cancer Registry in Norway during the study period, and data are analysed for three hospital levels (local, county and university hospitals). The median age was 71 years (range 18-96 years). The median pretreatment delay was 113 days, and 46 per cent of patients had a performance status (Karnofsky index) of less than or equal to 80. The diagnosis was confirmed by pre-operative histology in 88 per cent of cases. In all, 88 per cent of patients underwent surgery, the resectability rate was 67 per cent and 50 per cent had a potential curative operation. Total gastrectomy was most commonly performed. Lymph node dissection was performed in 14 per cent of those undergoing a curative resection. The postoperative complication rate was 27 per cent but varied with the type of operation, being highest in proximal resection (55 per cent) and lowest after distal resection (19 per cent). A total of 7 per cent of the patients died postoperatively. Most patients had advanced disease at the time of treatment and only 6 per cent had stage I tumours. There were significant differences in patient and treatment characteristics between the three hospital levels. In conclusion, patient selection bias which will influence results does occur. A fairly aggressive attitude towards local disease was found, but the low proportion of patients undergoing lymph node dissection not only leads to questions regarding the efficacy of this treatment policy, but also casts doubt on the validity of staging of stomach cancer. Morbidity and mortality rates are still high. The consequences of the differences revealed between hospital groups are difficult to interpret. Proponents of both regionalization of treatment and small hospital care may find arguments for their case in the data.

  11. Practical stereology of the stomach and intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyengaard, Jens R; Alwasel, Saleh H

    2014-01-01

    We provide a practical review of the opportunities made available by design-unbiased stereology to estimate cell number, total volume, mean volume and mean height in the rat stomach using enterochromaffin-like cells as an example. The second example comprises estimation of the surface area of well-defined segments of rat colon and the volumes of different layers following surgery and/or treatment which may result in the atrophy or growth of the colon. The pros and cons of the stereologic designs are discussed and the pitfalls and some solutions to these are elucidated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of stomach cancer in Shiraz, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Mehrabani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide, cancer of stomach is still the fourth common cancer and the second cause of mortality among all cancers affecting annually 870,000 subjects. This study aims to determine the frequency and the characteristics of gastric cancer in southern Iran. Materials and Methods: 10,800 of all cancers registered in Fars Hospital-based Cancer Registry were surveyed among which 574 cases were gastric cancer in both genders and all age groups. From January 2002 to December 2007, all hospital-based data were recorded according to International Classification of Disease for Oncology (ICD-O and registered cases included all invasive cancers in ICD-10 categories of C-00 to C-80 and all duplicate cases were eliminated. Results: Among all registered cancers, there were 574 cases of gastric cancer including 69.3% males. The mean age of patients was 58.1 ± 14.8 years, 25.4% with a history of in their first relatives and most of them were smokers (50.9% and from low socioeconomic class (45.5%. Metastasis was visible in 182 patients and majority of them underwent surgery (64.3%. The majority of gastric cancer patients were older than 50 years, smokers, low socioeconomic class, and female in favor of adenocarcinoma. Conclusion: Our results showed that in our area, treatment programs and health plans should focus on men, patients older than 50 years and with adenocarcinoma, smokers, and those in a low income level.

  13. Increased stomach cancer risk following radiotherapy for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, M; Fossa, S D; Stovall, M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abdominal radiotherapy for testicular cancer (TC) increases risk for second stomach cancer, although data on the radiation dose-response relationship are sparse. METHODS: In a cohort of 22,269 5-year TC survivors diagnosed during 1959-1987, doses to stomach subsites were estimated...... for 92 patients who developed stomach cancer and 180 matched controls. Chemotherapy details were recorded. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Cumulative incidence of second primary stomach cancer was 1.45% at 30 years after TC diagnosis. The TC survivors who received...... radiotherapy (87 (95%) cases, 151 (84%) controls) had a 5.9-fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-20.7) increased risk of stomach cancer. Risk increased with increasing stomach dose (P-trend

  14. Dysaccommodation of the stomach: therapeutic nirvana?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisschops, R; Tack, J

    2007-02-01

    Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a highly prevalent gastrointestinal disorder and has a complex pathophysiology. Impaired fundic relaxation in response to a meal is present in 40% of patients with FD. This review focuses on impaired gastric accommodation of the stomach as a pathophysiological mechanism and the possible therapeutic targets that can be derived from the current knowledge of the neuroregulation of the accommodation reflex. First the different means of gastric accommodation assessment are described and the relationship between symptoms and impaired gastric accommodation. The different therapeutic options are subsequently discussed in view of their molecular target, based on the different receptor subtypes involved in the accommodation reflex. Although impaired gastric accommodation is highly prevalent in dyspeptic patients and basic knowledge about the accommodation reflex enables to develop pathophysiologically targeted therapies, it is unlikely that therapies aimed at dysaccommodation of the stomach will lead to symptom relief in all dyspeptic patients. A major challenge is the development of methods that readily identify impaired accommodation in clinical practice.

  15. Stomach Infrastructure: Lessons for Democracy and Good Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Olusegun Stober

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, a new paradigm shift occurred in Nigeria which defiled the expectation of many social and political analysts. This paradigm was later titled ‘Stomach Infrastructure’ – a concept of inducing potential voters to support a particular candidate in an election, creating thus a new barometer for measuring good governance. To understand the concept of stomach infrastructure, this study makes a graphical comparison between stomach infrastructure and physical infrastructure, as they are both ...

  16. Generation of stomach tissue from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Taka-aki K; Ninomiya, Naoto; Sekine, Mari; Komazaki, Shinji; Wang, Pi-Chao; Asashima, Makoto; Kurisaki, Akira

    2015-08-01

    Successful pluripotent stem cell differentiation methods have been developed for several endoderm-derived cells, including hepatocytes, β-cells and intestinal cells. However, stomach lineage commitment from pluripotent stem cells has remained a challenge, and only antrum specification has been demonstrated. We established a method for stomach differentiation from embryonic stem cells by inducing mesenchymal Barx1, an essential gene for in vivo stomach specification from gut endoderm. Barx1-inducing culture conditions generated stomach primordium-like spheroids, which differentiated into mature stomach tissue cells in both the corpus and antrum by three-dimensional culture. This embryonic stem cell-derived stomach tissue (e-ST) shared a similar gene expression profile with adult stomach, and secreted pepsinogen as well as gastric acid. Furthermore, TGFA overexpression in e-ST caused hypertrophic mucus and gastric anacidity, which mimicked Ménétrier disease in vitro. Thus, in vitro stomach tissue derived from pluripotent stem cells mimics in vivo development and can be used for stomach disease models.

  17. Occurrence of Bifidobacteriaceae in human hypochlorhydria stomach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattarelli, Paola; Brandi, Giovanni; Calabrese, Carlo; Fornari, Fabio; Prati, Gian Maria; Biavati, Bruno; Sgorbati, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Background The human stomach, when healthy, is not a suitable host for microorganisms, but in pathological conditions such as gastritis, when gastric acid secretion is impaired, microbial overgrowth can be observed. Apart from Helicobacter pylori, the composition of microbiota, resident or exogenously introduced during neutral/high pH conditions, has not been investigated thoroughly. Thus, it is possible that Bifidobacteriaceae, important autochthonous and beneficial bacteria of human gastrointestinal microbiota, could over-colonize the stomach of hypochlorhydria patients suffering from autoimmune atrophic gastritis (AAG) or omeprazole-treated (OME) gastritis. This prompted us to characterize the Bifidobacteriaceae in such patients’ gastric microbiota and to study its abnormal colonization. Methods Samples of gastric juices, and antrum and corpus mucosa from 23 hypochlorhydria patients (13 AAG and 10 OME) and from 10 control volunteers with base-line normochlorhydria, were cultivated in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) and selective Bifidobacterium-Tryptone-Phytone-Yeast extract (Bif-TPY) media. The isolates were characterized by the fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase (F6PPK) test, electrophoresis of cellular proteins, the fermentation test, guanine-cytosine% DNA content, and DNA–DNA hybridization. Negative F6PPK isolates were characterized by order-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results A total of 125 isolates, assigned to the Bifidobacteriaceae family on the basis of their morphology, were obtained from AAG and OME patients, but not from normal subjects. Of these isolates, 55 were assigned to the Bifidobacteriaceae family on the basis of their fructose-6-phosphoketolase (PPK) activity, PPK being the key taxonomic enzyme of this family. The remaining 70 isolates, which were PPK-negative, were attributed to the Actinomycetales order following specific primer PCR analysis. We observed a significantly higher abundance of Bifidobacteriaceae (Bifidobacterium

  18. Giant Hyperplastic Polyp in the Stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazilet Uğur DUMAN

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyperplastic polyps, which account for nearly 75% of all gastric polyps, are generally small (<1 cm, single, sessile, polyps and located in antrum. They are usually asymptomatic. A 77-year-old man was admitted to hospital due to severe fatigue as a consequence of irondeficiency anemia. The upper gastrointestinal endoscopy which was done to discover an etiological factor revealed a papillomatous mass 6 cm in diameter that had a malignant endoscopic appearance. Numerous macroscopic sections were taken since larger gastric polyps (especially those greater than 2 cm in diameter have a greater risk of malignancy development. No dysplasia was detected on histological and immunohistochemical evaluation and it was therefore diagnosed as a giant hyperplastic polyp in the stomach. The large size of the polyp in the presented case led us to emphasize the importance of searching for dysplasia in such cases.

  19. Serrated adenoma of stomach: A premalignancy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Achutha Ail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Serrated adenoma is a newly described entity in the group of gastric adenomas. Until date only 20 cases of gastric serrated adenoma have been reported. It is an important entity to be diagnosed accurately as it has a very high-risk of malignant transformation, especially those located in the cardia of stomach. Serrated adenoma associated with adenocarcinoma is more frequent in the elderly, but pure serrated adenoma is common in the young, in whom follow-up is mandatory. Gastric serrated adenoma has distinct location, definite histomorphology and characteristic Ki-67 immunohistochemical staining. Ki-67 staining helps to differentiated pure serrated adenoma from those associated with adenocarcinoma. We present a young adult male, incidentally detected to have gastric serrated adenoma.

  20. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for stomach neoplasms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mitsuhiro Fujishiro

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in techniques of therapeutic endoscopy for stomach neoplasms are rapidly achieved. One of the major topics in this field is endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). ESD is a new endoscopic technique using cutting devices to remove the tumor by thefollowing three steps: injecting fluid into the submucosa to elevate the tumor from the muscle layer, pre-cutting the surrounding mucosa of the tumor, and dissecting the connective tissue of the submucosa beneath the tumor. So the tumors are resectable in an en bloc fashion, regardless of the size, shape, coexisting ulcer,and location. Indication for ESD is strictly confined by two aspects: the possibility of nodal metastases and technical difficulty, which depends on the operators. Although long-term outcome data are still lacking, short-term outcomes of ESD are extremely favourable and laparotomy with gastrectomy is replaced with ESD in some parts of therapeutic strategy for early gastric cancer.

  1. Carbon Dioxide Exchange in Complex Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Matthias; Rotach, Mathias; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Gohm, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    On a global scale the budget of carbon dioxide (CO_2) bears a quite substantial uncertainty, which is commonly understood to be mainly due to land-surface exchange processes. In this project we investigate to what extent complex topography can amplify these land-surface exchange processes. The hypothesis is that, on the meso-scale, topography adds additional atmospheric mechanisms that drive the exchange of CO2 at the surface. This sensitivity model study investigates an idealized sine shaped valley with the atmospheric numerical model Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) coupled to the community land model (CLM) to study the effect of complex topography on the CO2 budget compared to flat terrain. The experiment is designed to estimate the effect of the topography during maximum ecosystem exchange in summer using meteorological and ecosystem conditions at solstice, the 21. of June. Systematic variation of meteorological initial conditions, plant functional types and the topography creates an ensemble that unveils the fundamental factors that dominate the differences of CO2 between simulations with topography compared to plain surfaces in the model. The sign and magnitude of the difference between the CO2 exchange over topography and over a plain simulation are strongly dependent on the CLM plant functional type, the initial temperature, the initial relative humidity, the latitude and the area height distribution of the topography. However, in this model experiment the topography is, in the mean, a sink to the CO2 budget in the order of 5% per day.

  2. Clinical Application of the Spleen-stomach Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hai-feng

    2004-01-01

    @@ The spleen-stomach theory is a very valuablecomposition of the TCM. It is originated from Neijing (), initiated in Jin-Yuan periods and the idea "spleen and stomach is the postnatal base of life" in Piweilun () written by LI Dong-yuan established its theoretical basis. Directed by this theory, the author cured several cases, and it is now reported below.

  3. [Studies on trace elements in cancerous stomach tissue of the patients with stomach cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, M

    1990-05-01

    This study was performed to find out whether copper, zinc, manganese, selenium and iron concentrations in the cancerous and normal stomach tissues of the patients with stomach cancer vary within the malignant stages and Borrmann classification or not, and to investigate the interaction of copper, zinc, manganese, selenium and iron concentrations in blood of these patients. Copper concentration in cancerous tissues was not statistically significant as compared with normal tissues. Plasma and whole blood copper concentration of Stage IV showed a significant higher level than that of stage I. Zinc concentration in cancerous tissues was not statistically significant as compared with normal tissues. Selenium concentration in cancerous tissues showed a statistically significant high level as compared with that in normal tissues. Plasma selenium concentration of Stage III showed a significant lower level than that of stage I. Iron concentration in cancerous tissues showed a significantly lower level than that in normal tissues at stage IV. Whole blood iron concentration was low levels in proportion to the progress of stomach cancer. The correlation of selenium concentration between in cancerous tissues and in whole blood of these patients was significant with the correlation coefficient of 0.340. The correlation of iron concentration between in cancerous tissues and in whole blood of these patients was significant with the correlation coefficient of 0.423. The correlation between iron concentration in cancerous tissues and hemoglobin concentration in whole blood of these patients was significant with the correlation coefficient of 0.361.

  4. Stomach Infrastructure: Lessons for Democracy and Good Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Olusegun Stober

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, a new paradigm shift occurred in Nigeria which defiled the expectation of many social and political analysts. This paradigm was later titled ‘Stomach Infrastructure’ – a concept of inducing potential voters to support a particular candidate in an election, creating thus a new barometer for measuring good governance. To understand the concept of stomach infrastructure, this study makes a graphical comparison between stomach infrastructure and physical infrastructure, as they are both dividends of democracy. But to sum it up, stomach infrastructure is, first and foremost about the people’s survival. It is a living and stress-free man that can enjoy the benefit of a modern city or world class physical infrastructures. Thus, building stomach infrastructure is about following the natural sequence of actions in governance. It is about understanding the bottom-top, gradual approaches in developmental strides. It is about carrying everybody along, everyone at his own pace.

  5. High-resolution land topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massonnet, Didier; Elachi, Charles

    2006-11-01

    After a description of the background, methods of production and some scientific uses of high-resolution land topography, we present the current status and the prospect of radar interferometry, regarded as one of the best techniques for obtaining the most global and the most accurate topographic maps. After introducing briefly the theoretical aspects of radar interferometry - principles, limits of operation and various capabilities -, we will focus on the topographic applications that resulted in an almost global topographic map of the earth: the SRTM map. After introducing the Interferometric Cartwheel system, we will build on its expected performances to discuss the scientific prospects of refining a global topographic map to sub-metric accuracy. We also show how other fields of sciences such as hydrology may benefit from the products generated by interferometric radar systems. To cite this article: D. Massonnet, C. Elachi, C. R. Geoscience 338 (2006).

  6. Stomach Cancer Risk After Treatment for Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Lindsay M.; Dores, Graça M.; Curtis, Rochelle E.; Lynch, Charles F.; Stovall, Marilyn; Hall, Per; Gilbert, Ethel S.; Hodgson, David C.; Storm, Hans H.; Johannesen, Tom Børge; Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita E.; Andersson, Michael; Fossa, Sophie D.; Hauptmann, Michael; Holowaty, Eric J.; Joensuu, Heikki; Kaijser, Magnus; Kleinerman, Ruth A.; Langmark, Frøydis; Pukkala, Eero; Vaalavirta, Leila; van den Belt-Dusebout, Alexandra W.; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Travis, Lois B.; Aleman, Berthe M.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Treatment-related stomach cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among the growing number of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors, but risks associated with specific HL treatments are unclear. Patients and Methods We conducted an international case-control study of stomach cancer nested in a cohort of 19,882 HL survivors diagnosed from 1953 to 2003, including 89 cases and 190 matched controls. For each patient, we quantified cumulative doses of specific alkylating agents (AAs) and reconstructed radiation dose to the stomach tumor location. Results Stomach cancer risk increased with increasing radiation dose to the stomach (Ptrend < .001) and with increasing number of AA-containing chemotherapy cycles (Ptrend = .02). Patients who received both radiation to the stomach ≥ 25 Gy and high-dose procarbazine (≥ 5,600 mg/m2) had strikingly elevated stomach cancer risk (25 cases, two controls; odds ratio [OR], 77.5; 95% CI, 14.7 to 1452) compared with those who received radiation < 25 Gy and procarbazine < 5,600 mg/m2 (Pinteraction < .001). Risk was also elevated (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.3 to 6.4) among patients who received radiation to the stomach ≥ 25 Gy but procarbazine < 5,600 mg/m2; however, no procarbazine-related risk was evident with radiation < 25 Gy. Treatment with dacarbazine also increased stomach cancer risk (12 cases, nine controls; OR, 8.8; 95% CI, 2.1 to 46.6), after adjustment for radiation and procarbazine doses. Conclusion Patients with HL who received subdiaphragmatic radiotherapy had dose-dependent increased risk of stomach cancer, with marked risks for patients who also received chemotherapy containing high-dose procarbazine. For current patients, risks and benefits of exposure to both procarbazine and subdiaphragmatic radiotherapy should be weighed carefully. For patients treated previously, GI symptoms should be evaluated promptly. PMID:23980092

  7. Surface Micro Topography Replication in Injection Moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlø, Uffe Rolf; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Kjær, Erik Michael

    2005-01-01

    The surface micro topography of injection moulded plastic parts can be important for aesthetical and technical reasons. The quality of replication of mould surface topography onto the plastic surface depends among other factors on the process conditions. A study of this relationship has been...

  8. SECTION 6.2 SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY ANALYSIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seah, M. P.; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2005-01-01

    Surface physical analysis, i.e. topography characterisation, encompasses measurement, visualisation, and quantification. This is critical for both component form and for surface finish at macro-, micro- and nano-scales. The principal methods of surface topography measurement are stylus profilomet...

  9. Giant gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Sever; Barbu, Emil; Ionescu, Călin; Costache, Adrian; Bălăşoiu, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal malignancies of the digestive tract. Gastric localization is the most frequent. The aim of this study is to evaluate the importance of immunohistochemical factors (CD117, CD34, α-SMA, vimentin, p53, Ki67) in diagnostic and size tumor and mitotic activity as prognostic factors for these tumors. We present the case of a 66-year-old male patient with a giant gastric GIST. Like in the vast majority, the symptomatology in this patient has long been faint, despite the large tumor size, and when it became manifest, it was nonspecific. Imagery wise, the computer tomography (CT) scan was the most efficient, showing the origin of the tumor from the greater curvature of the stomach, its dimensions, as well as the relations with the other abdominal viscera. Surgery in this patient was en-bloc, according to the principles of GIST. The histological aspect is characterized by a proliferation of spindle cells positive for CD117 and CD34. Despite complete microscopic resection, the size of the tumor (25×20×27 cm) and the mitotic activity (21÷5 mm2) remains important relapse factor.

  10. The stomach ulcer: character of morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherbinina M.B.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Until now there were not completely known the causes of ulcerogenesis and chronisation of ulcerous gastric lesions as well as mechanisms of disorders of regeneration of gastroduodenal mucosa at all. The aim of this work was revealing the structural peculiarities of gastric mucosa that led to forming chronic ulcers. There was performed the histological examination of 24 biopsies in patients with mediogastral ulcer as well as the material of autopsies of 18 persons died due to the hemorrhage from gastric peptic ulcer. The biopsy material from curvature minor of gastric corpus in 12 persons without gastroduodenal diseases was control. There were determined the thickness of mucosa, thickness of submucosa, submucosal-mucosal index, height of superficial epitheliocytes and their nuclear diameter, nuclear-cytoplasmic interrelations, volume summary density of microcirculation in mucosa, mitotic index of growth zone of gastric glands using morphometry. Chronic gastric ulcers showed to form in the background of prolonged chronic gastritis associated with Helicobacter pylori. The structural peculiarities wall of a stomach which developed as result of progressing the chronic inflammation and led to forming the chronic ulcers were thickening submucosal layer as well as its sclerosis and hialinization, decrease of volumous summary density of microcircula-tion.

  11. Enteric neural crest cells regulate vertebrate stomach patterning and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Sandrine; McKey, Jennifer; Sagnol, Sébastien; de Santa Barbara, Pascal

    2015-01-15

    In vertebrates, the digestive tract develops from a uniform structure where reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions pattern this complex organ into regions with specific morphologies and functions. Concomitant with these early patterning events, the primitive GI tract is colonized by the vagal enteric neural crest cells (vENCCs), a population of cells that will give rise to the enteric nervous system (ENS), the intrinsic innervation of the GI tract. The influence of vENCCs on early patterning and differentiation of the GI tract has never been evaluated. In this study, we report that a crucial number of vENCCs is required for proper chick stomach development, patterning and differentiation. We show that reducing the number of vENCCs by performing vENCC ablations induces sustained activation of the BMP and Notch pathways in the stomach mesenchyme and impairs smooth muscle development. A reduction in vENCCs also leads to the transdifferentiation of the stomach into a stomach-intestinal mixed phenotype. In addition, sustained Notch signaling activity in the stomach mesenchyme phenocopies the defects observed in vENCC-ablated stomachs, indicating that inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway is essential for stomach patterning and differentiation. Finally, we report that a crucial number of vENCCs is also required for maintenance of stomach identity and differentiation through inhibition of the Notch signaling pathway. Altogether, our data reveal that, through the regulation of mesenchyme identity, vENCCs act as a new mediator in the mesenchymal-epithelial interactions that control stomach development. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Topography and Landforms of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Peter G.; Warner, Michael B.

    2005-01-01

    EXPLANATION The digital elevation model of Ecuador represented in this data set was produced from over 40 individual tiles of elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Each tile was downloaded, converted from its native Height file format (.hgt), and imported into a geographic information system (GIS) for additional processing. Processing of the data included data gap filling, mosaicking, and re-projection of the tiles to form one single seamless digital elevation model. For 11 days in February of 2000, NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), the German Aerospace Center (DLR), and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) flew X-band and C-band radar interferometry onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor. The mission covered the Earth between 60?N and 57?S and will provide interferometric digital elevation models (DEMs) of approximately 80% of the Earth's land mass when processing is complete. The radar-pointing angle was approximately 55? at scene center. Ascending and descending orbital passes generated multiple interferometric data scenes for nearly all areas. Up to eight passes of data were merged to form the final processed SRTM DEMs. The effect of merging scenes averages elevation values recorded in coincident scenes and reduces, but does not completely eliminate, the amount of area with layover and terrain shadow effects. The most significant form of data processing for the Ecuador DEM was gap-filling areas where the SRTM data contained a data void. These void areas are a result of radar shadow, layover, standing water, and other effects of terrain, as well as technical radar interferometry phase unwrapping issues. To fill these gaps, topographic contours were digitized from 1:50,000 - scale topographic maps which date from the mid-late 1980's (Souris, 2001). Digital contours were gridded to form elevation models for void areas and subsequently were merged with the SRTM data through GIS and remote sensing image-processing techniques

  13. Stomach anatomy and use in defining systemic relationships of the cetacean family ziphiidae (beaked whales)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mead, James G

    2007-01-01

    Members of the Cetacean family Ziphiidae (Beaked whales) exhibit surprising diversity in stomach anatomy, particularly in the number of connecting chambers between the main and pyloric stomachs. Sixty...

  14. Synchronous Epithelioid Stromal Tumour and Lipoma in the Stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeel Al-Brahim

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An 82-year-old man presented with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. A polypoid lesion of the distal stomach with focal ulceration was seen at endoscopy. This was treated by a partial gastrectomy. The resected stomach contained two separate tumours near the pylorus: a gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST and an adjacent lipoma. The literature includes case reports of synchronously occurring GIST and adenocarcinoma, GIST and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and GIST and carcinoid tumour. Herein is the first case report of two distinct mesenchymal tumors coexisting in the stomach.

  15. Suture granuloma of the stomach following total colectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belleza, N A; Lowman, R M

    1978-04-01

    Stitch granuloma is rarely a consideration in the differential diagnosis of stomach lesions. This report documents the occurrence of a granulomatous mass of gastric origin simulating an intramural tumor.

  16. What Are the Risk Factors for Stomach Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... syndrome are at greatly increased risk of getting colorectal cancer and have a slightly increased risk of getting stomach cancer. It is caused by mutations in the APC gene. BRCA1 and BRCA2 People who carry mutations of ...

  17. HDlive rendering images of the fetal stomach: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inubashiri, Eisuke; Abe, Kiyotaka; Watanabe, Yukio; Akutagawa, Noriyuki; Kuroki, Katumaru; Sugawara, Masaki; Maeda, Nobuhiko; Minami, Kunihiro; Nomura, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to show reconstruction of the fetal stomach using the HDlive rendering mode in ultrasound. Seventeen healthy singleton fetuses at 18-34 weeks' gestational age were observed using the HDlive rendering mode of ultrasound in utero. In all of the fetuses, we identified specific spatial structures, including macroscopic anatomical features (e.g., the pyrous, cardia, fundus, and great curvature) of the fetal stomach, using the HDlive rendering mode. In particular, HDlive rendering images showed remarkably fine details that appeared as if they were being viewed under an endoscope, with visible rugal folds after 27 weeks' gestational age. Our study suggests that the HDlive rendering mode can be used as an additional method for evaluating the fetal stomach. The HDlive rendering mode shows detailed 3D structural images and anatomically realistic images of the fetal stomach. This technique may be effective in prenatal diagnosis for examining detailed information of fetal organs.

  18. Stomach cancer risk after treatment for hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, Lindsay M; Dores, Graça M; Curtis, Rochelle E;

    2013-01-01

    Treatment-related stomach cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among the growing number of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors, but risks associated with specific HL treatments are unclear....

  19. Arctic cisco stomach content data, Prudhoe Bay, August 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set documents the stomach contents of age-0 Arctic cisco (Coregonus autumnalis) captured in Prudhoe Bay, Alaska in August 2009. The analysis of this data...

  20. Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Stomach: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Woon Ju; Cho, June Sik; Shin, Kyung Sook; Jeong, Hyung Yong; Noh; Seung Moo; Song, Kyu Sang [Chungnam University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors (peripheral PNETs) are very rare and highly aggressive soft tissue malignancies originating from the neural crest. To the best of our knowledge, only a few cases of peripheral PNETs of the stomach have been reported in the literature. We report a case of large peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the stomach with MDCT findings in a 22-year-old man presenting epigastric pain and vomiting

  1. Diets of introduced predators using stable isotopes and stomach contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckstroth, A.M.; Miles, A.K.; Chandra, S.

    2007-01-01

    In a study of predation on ground-nesting birds at South San Francisco Bay (South Bay), California, USA, we analyzed stomach contents and stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen to identify commonly consumed prey. We obtained the stomach contents from 206 nonnative red foxes (Vulpes vulpes regalis) collected in the South Bay area and Monterey County during 1995-2001 and from 68 feral cats (Felis silvestris) from the South Bay area during 2001-2002. We determined prey identity, biomass, and frequency, described seasonal diet trends, and derived an Index of Relative Importance. Avian species were the most frequent prey we found in the stomachs of red foxes from South Bay (61%), whereas small rodents were most frequent for red foxes from Monterey County (62%). Small rodents were the most frequent prey we found in feral cats (63%). Carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures for foxes supported stomach content findings. However, isotope results indicated that cats received a majority of their energy from a source other than rodents and outside the natural system, which differed from the stomach content analysis. We demonstrated the utility of both stable isotope and stomach content analyses to establish a more complete understanding of predators' diets. This information aids natural resource managers in planning and evaluating future predator-removal programs and increases our understanding of the impacts of nonnative foxes and cats on native species.

  2. Bioptate phase tomography of the stomach wall in the diagnostics of pre-cancer and cancer of the stomach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peresunko, O. P.; Moysiuk, T. G.; Tryfonyuk, Liliya

    2012-01-01

    The paper was presented principles of a new polarization-correlation approach to the evaluation of microscopic images of biological tissues of different physiological state. Introduced a new option - the complex degree of mutual polarization. Was presented the method of experimental measurement of the coordinate distribution of degree of polarization states of polarization coherence laser point images of the stomach tissue.The optical model of polycrystalline networks of the stomach wall histological sections is suggested. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of statistical (statistical moments of the 1st-4th order) parameters are presented. They characterize the coordinate distributions of complex degree of mutual polarization in the points of laser images of the stomach histological sections. The diagnostic criteria of stomach cancer nascency and its severity degree differentiation are determined.

  3. Sensory properties of menthol and smoking topography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman Allison C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although there is a great deal known about menthol as a flavoring agent in foods and confections, less is known about the particular sensory properties of menthol cigarette smoke. Similarly, although smoking topography (the unique way an individual smokes a cigarette has been well studied using non-menthol cigarettes, there is relatively less known about how menthol affects smoking behavior. The objective of this review is to assess the sensory properties of menthol tobacco smoke, and smoking topography associated with menthol cigarettes. The cooling, analgesic, taste, and respiratory effects of menthol are well established, and studies have indicated that menthol’s sensory attributes can have an influence on the positive, or rewarding, properties associated smoking, including ratings of satisfaction, taste, perceived smoothness, and perceived irritation. Despite these sensory properties, the data regarding menthol’s effect on smoking topography are inconsistent. Many of the topography studies have limitations due to various methodological issues.

  4. Enhanced Characterization of Niobium Surface Topography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xu, Hui Tian, Charles Reece, Michael Kelley

    2011-12-01

    Surface topography characterization is a continuing issue for the Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) particle accelerator community. Efforts are underway to both to improve surface topography, and its characterization and analysis using various techniques. In measurement of topography, Power Spectral Density (PSD) is a promising method to quantify typical surface parameters and develop scale-specific interpretations. PSD can also be used to indicate how chemical processes modifiesy the roughnesstopography at different scales. However, generating an accurate and meaningful topographic PSD of an SRF surface requires careful analysis and optimization. In this report, polycrystalline surfaces with different process histories are sampled with AFM and stylus/white light interferometer profilometryers and analyzed to indicate trace topography evolution at different scales. evolving during etching or polishing. Moreover, Aan optimized PSD analysis protocol will be offered to serve the SRF surface characterization needs is presented.

  5. Gendered Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milwertz, Cecilia Nathansen; Cai, Yiping

    2017-01-01

    Both the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and Nordic countries (Sweden, Iceland, Denmark, Norway and Finland) view gender equality as a social justice issue and are politically committed towards achieving gender equality nationally and internationally. Since China has taken a proactive position o...... on globalization and global governance, gender equality is possibly an area that China may wish to explore in collaboration with the Nordic countries....

  6. SECTION 6.2 SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY ANALYSIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seah, M. P.; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2005-01-01

    Surface physical analysis, i.e. topography characterisation, encompasses measurement, visualisation, and quantification. This is critical for both component form and for surface finish at macro-, micro- and nano-scales. The principal methods of surface topography measurement are stylus profilometry...... representing some average property of the surface under examination. Measurement methods, as well as their application and limitations, are briefly reviewed, including standardisation and traceability issues....

  7. Dynamic Topography of the Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Bering Sea. Comparisons also indicate that MDT estimates derived from the latest Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment geoid model have more in common...with the presented sea surface topography than with the MDTs based on earlier versions of the geoid . The presented MDT will increase the accuracy of...estimating the geoid in the Bering Sea. 15. SUBJECT TERMS dynamic topography, sea surface height, Bering Sea, 4DVar 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: a

  8. Diagnostic significance of gas distension technique of the stomach with gas-forming agent on CT scan of stomach cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rho, Tae Jin; Song, Chang June; Choi, Joong Chan; Park, Cheong Hee; Cho, June Sik; Rhee, Byung Chull [Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Dajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-10-15

    CT is a valuable method for preoperative staging of patients with stomach cancers. However, in patients with poor distension of the stomach and scanty fat between the stomach and adjacent organs, CT findings may indicate a false impression of gastric wall thickening and cannot provide the precise extent of stomach cancer. We studied the usefulness of gastric distension by gas-forming agent in 28 cases of pathologically confirmed gastric cancers on CT. Comparative analysis between CT findings and surgical pathologic findings was done in 22 cases who underwent surgery. The results were as follows; 1. Conventional CT failed to define the wall thickening or masses of the stomach, in 14 cases of 23 advanced gastric cancers, while CT with gas distension technique allowed good visualization in all advanced gastric cancers. 2. In 2 cases of 5 early gastric cancers, CT with gas distension technique could detect focal thickening of the gastric wall, even less than 1cm thickness. 3. Among 13 cases with indistinguishable border between stomach and liver on conventional CT, 7 cases were diagnosed as negative invasion on CT with gas distension technique and 5 cases of these were confirmed by surgery. 4. Among 11 cases with indistinguishable border between stomach and pancreas on conventional CT, 3 cases were diagnosed as negative invasion on CT with gas distension technique, all of which were confirmed by surgery. 5. There was no significant difference between conventional CT and CT with gas distension technique of the stomach to diagnose invasion into transverse colon, transverse colon, transverse mesocolon, lymph node metastasis, and various distant metastasis.

  9. Corneal topography measurements for biometric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan D.

    The term biometrics is used to describe the process of analyzing biological and behavioral traits that are unique to an individual in order to confirm or determine his or her identity. Many biometric modalities are currently being researched and implemented including, fingerprints, hand and facial geometry, iris recognition, vein structure recognition, gait, voice recognition, etc... This project explores the possibility of using corneal topography measurements as a trait for biometric identification. Two new corneal topographers were developed for this study. The first was designed to function as an operator-free device that will allow a user to approach the device and have his or her corneal topography measured. Human subject topography data were collected with this device and compared to measurements made with the commercially available Keratron Piccolo topographer (Optikon, Rome, Italy). A third topographer that departs from the standard Placido disk technology allows for arbitrary pattern illumination through the use of LCD monitors. This topographer was built and tested to be used in future research studies. Topography data was collected from 59 subjects and modeled using Zernike polynomials, which provide for a simple method of compressing topography data and comparing one topographical measurement with a database for biometric identification. The data were analyzed to determine the biometric error rates associated with corneal topography measurements. Reasonably accurate results, between three to eight percent simultaneous false match and false non-match rates, were achieved.

  10. Perforation in the bypassed stomach following laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papasavas, Pavlos K; Yeaney, Woodrow W; Caushaj, Philip F; Keenan, Robert J; Landreneau, Rodney J; Gagné, Daniel J

    2003-10-01

    Access to the bypassed stomach is difficult following laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGBP). The bypassed stomach is not readily available for endoscopic or radiographic evaluation. Diagnosis and treatment of peptic ulcer disease and its complications in the excluded stomach becomes difficult. We present a case of perforation in the bypassed stomach following LRYGBP secondary to peptic ulcer disease.

  11. Spatial Analysis of Stomach Cancer Incidence in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakzad, Reza; Khani, Yousef; Pakzad, Iraj; Momenimovahed, Zohre; Mohammadian-Hashejani, Abdollah; Salehiniya, Hamid; Towhidi, Farhad; Makhsosi, Behnam Reza

    2016-01-01

    Stomach cancer, the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death through the world, is very common in parts of Iran. Geographic variation in the incidence of stomach cancer is due to many different factors. The aim of this study was to assess the geographical and spatial distribution of stomach cancer in Iran using data from the cancer registry program in Iran for the year 2009. The reported incidences of stomach cancer for different provinces were standardized to the world population structure. ArcGIS software was used to analyse the data. Hot spots and high risk areas were determined using spatial analysis (Getis-Ord Gi). Hot and cold spots were determined as more than or less than 2 standard deviations from the national average, respectively. A significance level of 0.10 was used for statistical judgment. In 2009, a total of 6,886 cases of stomach cancers were reported of which 4,891 were in men and 1,995 in women (standardized incidence rates of 19.2 and 10.0, respectively, per 100,000 population). The results showed that stomach cancer was concentrated mainly in northwest of the country in both men and women. In women, northwest provinces such as Ardebil, East Azerbaijan, West Azerbaijan, Gilan, and Qazvin were identified as hot spots (pQazvin, Zanjan and Kurdistan, the incidences were higher than the national average and these were identified as hot spots (P<0.01). As stomach cancer is clustered in the northwest of the country, further epidemiological studies are needed to identify factors contributing to this concentration.

  12. Gender Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Erving

    A heavily illustrated discussion of the ways in which men and women are portrayed in advertisements is presented. The three essays which precede the 56 pages of illustrations discuss gender expressions, characteristics of public and private pictures, and gender commercials. The author notes that advertisements do not depict how men and women…

  13. Gender Discourse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAN Fan-min

    2016-01-01

    Gender discourse was paid much attention in recent years. The primary objective of this fundamental research is to perceive the distinction between direct and indirect in gender discourse. The method used in this study is known as contrastive and analysis which illustrates men and women's differences.

  14. On Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James Q.

    1993-01-01

    Explores differences between males and females and their manifestation in biology and culture. Cultures differ, not in whether they cope with the socialization of males to invest in child rearing, but in how they deal with this problem. Issues of gender and power and gender and child rearing are discussed. (SLD)

  15. Gender Diversities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen; Siim, Birte

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses the European Year for Combating Poverty and Social Exclusion (2010) (EY 2010) with the aim of identifying the nature of gender diversities in EU policies. We argue that the EU handles issues related to gender and diversity in particular ways; this approach is characterized...... by non-citizen/citizen and redistribution/recognition divisions. Employing intersectionality as the methodological approach to gender diversities, the article shows how gender and ethnicity are articulated in the policy-making process which led to the adoption of EY 201, the activities undertaken during...... the EY 2010, and the evaluation of EY 2010. The case study is suitable for developing a dynamic multi-level model for analysing gendered diversities at the transnationmal level: It illustrates how the EU policy frame interacts with particular national contexts in promoting or hundering the advancement...

  16. Exceptionally rare cause of a total stomach resection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jadwiga Snarska; Krzysztof Jacyna; Jacek Janiszewski; Danuta Shafie; Katarzyna Iwanowicz; Anna Zurada

    2012-01-01

    The first-ever case of a 54-year-old woman who overdosed on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in an attempt at suicide.Before that incident,she had not been treated for coexisting diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis or depression.At the time of admission to the General Surgery Department,the patient reported pains in the epigastric region with accompanying nausea and vomiting with mucous content as well as the inability to ingest food orally.Despite parenteral and enteral feeding,the patient exhibited a drop in body mass.The histopathologic examination of a sample taken from the stomach during gastroscopy showed some non-specific necrotic and inflammatory masses with granulation.Intraoperatively,a very small,infiltrated stomach with an initial section of duodenum was identified.A total stomach resection together with the reconstruction of digestive tract continuity was performed using the Roux-Y method.Histopathologic examination of the stomach revealed a deep,chronic and exacerbated inflammatory condition with an extensive ulceration over the entire length of the stomach,reaching up to the pylorus.Additionally,numerous lymphatic glands with inflammatory reaction changes were observed.

  17. [Treatment of complications of pylorus preserving stomach resection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubianskiĭ, V G; Leont'ev, S V; Kuznetsov, G L

    2002-01-01

    Causes of unsatisfactory outcomes of pylorus preserving stomach resection are analyzed, method of prophylaxis and surgical correction is proposed. Pylorus preserving stomach resection was performed in 207 patients with chronic gastric ulcer. 2 groups of patients were compared: 166 patients who have undergone pylorus preserving stomach resection by Maky--Gorobashko (group 1); 41 patients operated according to an original method of suprapyloric stomach resection with preserving of distal Latarget nerves on serous-muscular flap formed from lesser curvature of the stomach (group 2). Of 122 examined patients of group 1 excellent and good long-term results according to Visick's criteria were achieved in 101 (82.79%), satisfactory--in 12 (9.84%), unsatisfactory--in 9 (7.37%). Bad stump evacuation due to a stable spasm of the denervated pylorus and hypokinesia of the stump were the main causes of unsatisfactory results. In group 2-39 of 41 patients were examined in long-term period. Excellent and good results were achieved in 38 patients, satisfactory--in 1. There were no unsatisfactory results.

  18. Survival in hostile territory: the microbiota of the stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ines; Nell, Sandra; Suerbaum, Sebastian

    2013-09-01

    The human stomach is a formidable barrier to orally ingested microorganisms and was long thought to be sterile. The discovery of Helicobacter pylori, a carcinogenic bacterial pathogen that infects the stomach mucosa of more than one half of all humans globally, has started a major paradigm shift in our understanding of the stomach as an ecological niche for bacteria. The special adaptations that enable H. pylori to colonize this well-protected habitat have been intensively studied over the last three decades. In contrast, our knowledge concerning bacteria other than H. pylori in the human stomach is still quite limited. However, a substantial body of evidence documents convincingly that bacteria can regularly be sampled from the stomachs of healthy adults. Commonly detected phyla include Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria, and characteristic genera are Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, and Propionibacterium. In this review, we summarize the available literature about the gastric microbiota in humans and selected model animals, discuss the methods used in its characterization, and identify gaps in our knowledge that need to be addressed to advance our understanding of the bacterial colonization of the different layers of the gastric mucosa and its potential role in health and disease. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [New concepts on precancerous lesions of the stomach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, M; Takagi, S

    1995-12-01

    As for precancerous lesion of the stomach detail analysis of endoscopic follow-up cases and histopathological investigations brought some new informations on its carcinogenesis. In this paper recent several reports were introduced and discussed on new opinion of precancerous conditions such as adenoma, intestinal metaplasia, gastric ulcer, remnant stomach and H. pylori. Gastric adenoma was considered to be neoplastic because of high incidence of carcinoma in situ. The stomach coexisted with adenoma showed high percentage of new arising tumor in same stomach and therefore, we can say that these are thought to be high risk group for well differentiated adenocarcinoma. Concerning the relation between intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer we have never obtained final conclusion. However, it is likely that incomplete type of intestinal metaplasia appeared to be coexistent with gastric cancer, especially intestinal type carcinoma, which was thought to be paracancerous lesions. Recent advance of molecular biology has indicated new knowledge on gastric carcinogenesis, suggestive of multistep pathways. According to their reports, genomic instanbility appeared frequently in gastric adenoma and intestinal metaplasia as well as gastric carcinoma. Gastric carcinogenesis for ulcer, remnant stomach and H. pylori was also discussed. In near future the mechanism of gastric carcinogenesis is expected to be solved from view point of genetic events.

  20. Electronic Cigarette Topography in the Natural Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R J Robinson

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a clinical, observational, descriptive study to quantify the use patterns of electronic cigarette users in their natural environment. Previously published work regarding puff topography has been widely indirect in nature, and qualitative rather than quantitative, with the exception of three studies conducted in a laboratory environment for limited amounts of time. The current study quantifies the variation in puffing behaviors among users as well as the variation for a given user throughout the course of a day. Puff topography characteristics computed for each puffing session by each subject include the number of subject puffs per puffing session, the mean puff duration per session, the mean puff flow rate per session, the mean puff volume per session, and the cumulative puff volume per session. The same puff topography characteristics are computed across all puffing sessions by each single subject and across all subjects in the study cohort. Results indicate significant inter-subject variability with regard to puffing topography, suggesting that a range of representative puffing topography patterns should be used to drive machine-puffed electronic cigarette aerosol evaluation systems.

  1. Gender remix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick

    2002-01-01

    of a subjective identity. Based on interviews with children of immigrants from patriarchal societies living in Norway, one of the countries in the world where gender equality has reached furthest, the article reveals the tension they experience between the ways gender issues are dealt with in their families...... and in the surrounding society. Their gender constructions cannot be understood only in light of cultural influence, as if on a scale running from conformity to parents? culture to conformity to Norwegian culture. There is something really new in the making ­ new combinations and new creations ­ reflecting...

  2. Vascular anatomy of the stomach related to resection procedures strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudius, V; Procházka, V; Pavlovský, Z; Prudius, D; Kala, Z

    2017-04-01

    This study is focused on the vascular anatomy of the stomach in relation to the gastric pull-up construction. The vascular anatomy was studied on forty-one human specimens. We find out the differences in blood supplement between anterior and posterior wall. It was maked an review of the main trunk arteries of the stomach. To display the vessels of the stomach we used diaphanoscopy, digital shooting in special mode and micro preparation of the vessels. We find out that left gastric artery gives more branches to the posterior wall and right gastroepiploic artery (RGEA) gives more branches to the anterior wall. But brunches of RGEA are longer on the posterior wall than on the anterior. Also we are offering the new classification of the RGEA related to gastric pull-up construction. This classification based not only on the anatomical shapes of RGEA but on the properties of the flow dynamics through the artery.

  3. Granulocytic Sarcoma of the Stomach Presenting as Dysphagia during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Sekaran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Granulocytic sarcoma also known as extramedullary myeloid sarcoma or chloroma is an uncommon manifestation of leukemia and presents as a deposit of leukemic cells outside the bone marrow. We report a case of a twenty-five-year-old pregnant woman who presented with progressive dysphagia and recurrent postprandial vomiting. Upper GI endoscopy had shown large flat laterally spread nodular lesions in the cardia and proximal body of stomach. Biopsies from the gastric lesion showed granulocytic sarcoma of the stomach. Concurrent peripheral and bone marrow picture was suggestive of acute myeloid leukemia (AML–M4. There is limited reported literature on granulocytic sarcoma of the stomach. Concurrent gastric granulocytic sarcoma involving cardia and AML in pregnancy has not been reported till date.

  4. Acute Dilatation, Ischemia, and Necrosis of Stomach without Perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manash Ranjan Sahoo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute gastric dilatation can have multiple etiologies which may lead to ischemia of the stomach. Without proper timely diagnosis and treatment, potentially fatal events such as gastric perforation, haemorrhage, and other serious complications can occur. Here we present a 36-year-old man who came to the casualty with pain abdomen and distension for 2 days. Clinically, abdomen was asymmetrically distended more in the left hypochondrium and epigastrium region. Straight X-ray abdomen showed opacified left hypochondrium with nonspecific gaseous distension of bowel. Exploratory laparotomy revealed dilated stomach with patchy gangrene over lesser curvature and fundic area. About 4 litres of brownish fluid along with semisolid undigested food particles was sucked out (mainly undigested pieces of meat. Limited resection of gangrenous areas and primary repair were done along with feeding jejunostomy. Necrosis of the stomach was confirmed on histopathology. The patient recovered well and was discharged on the tenth postoperative day.

  5. Role of taurine on acid secretion in the rat stomach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Taurine has chemical structure similar to an inhibitory neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Previous studies on GABA in the stomach suggest GABAergic neuron is involved in acid secretion, but the effects of taurine are poor understood. Methods The effects of taurine on acid secretion, signal transduction, and localization of taurinergic neurons were determined in the rat stomach using everted whole stomach, RIA kit and immunohistochemical methods. Results We used antibodies against taurine-synthesizing enzyme, cysteine sulfuric acid decarboxylase (CSAD), and taurine. CSAD- and taurine-positive cells were found in the muscle and mucosal layers. Distributions of CSAD- and taurine-positive cells in both mucosal and muscle layers were heterogeneous in the stomach. Taurine at 10-9~10-4 M induced acid secretion, and the maximum secretion was at 10-5 M, 1.6-fold higher than the spontaneous secretion. Taurine-induced acid secretion was completely inhibited by bicuculline and atropine but not by cimetidine, proglumide, or strychnine. Atropine and tetrodotoxin (TTX) completely inhibited the acid secretion induced by low concentrations of taurine and partially inhibited induced by high concentrations. Verapamil, a calcium blocker agent, inhibited acid output elicited by taurine. We assumed all Ca2+ channels involved in the response to these secretagogues were equally affected by verapamil. Intracellular cAMP (adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphat) in the stomach significantly increased with taurine treatment in a dose-dependent manner. High correlation (r=0.859, p taurine concentrations with cAMP was observed. Conclusions Our results demonstrated for the first time in taurine-induced acid secretion due to increase intracellular calcium may act through the A type of GABA receptors, which are mainly located on cholinergic neurons though cAMP pathway and partially on nonneuronal cells in the rat stomach. PMID:21294907

  6. Fish stomach contents in benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TH. Tupinambás

    Full Text Available The choice of sampling gears to assess benthic macroinvertebrate communities depends on environmental characteristics, study objectives, and cost effectiveness. Because of the high foraging capacity and diverse habitats and behaviors of benthophagous fishes, their stomach contents may offer a useful sampling tool in studies of benthic macroinvertebrates, especially in large, deep, fast rivers that are difficult to sample with traditional sediment sampling gear. Our objective was to compare the benthic macroinvertebrate communities sampled from sediments with those sampled from fish stomachs. We collected benthic macroinvertebrates and fish from three different habitat types (backwater, beach, riffle in the wet season, drying season, and dry season along a single reach of the Grande River (Paraná River Basin, southeast Brazil. We sampled sediments through use of a Petersen dredge (total of 216 grabs and used gill nets to sample fish (total of 36 samples. We analyzed the stomach contents of three commonly occurring benthophagous fish species (Eigenmannia virescens, Iheringichthys labrosus, Leporinus amblyrhynchus. Chironomids dominated in both sampling methods. Macroinvertebrate taxonomic composition and abundances from fish stomachs differed from those from sediment samples, but less so from riffles than from backwater and beach habitats. Macroinvertebrate taxa from E. virescens stomachs were more strongly correlated with sediment samples from all three habitats than were those from the other two species. The species accumulation curves and higher mean dispersion values, compared with with sediment samples suggest that E. virescens is more efficient than sediment samples and the other fish studied at collecting benthic taxa. We conclude that by analyzing the stomach contents of benthophagous fishes it is possible to assess important characteristics of benthic communities (dispersion, taxonomic composition and diversity. This is especially true

  7. Role of taurine on acid secretion in the rat stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Jau-Der

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taurine has chemical structure similar to an inhibitory neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA. Previous studies on GABA in the stomach suggest GABAergic neuron is involved in acid secretion, but the effects of taurine are poor understood. Methods The effects of taurine on acid secretion, signal transduction, and localization of taurinergic neurons were determined in the rat stomach using everted whole stomach, RIA kit and immunohistochemical methods. Results We used antibodies against taurine-synthesizing enzyme, cysteine sulfuric acid decarboxylase (CSAD, and taurine. CSAD- and taurine-positive cells were found in the muscle and mucosal layers. Distributions of CSAD- and taurine-positive cells in both mucosal and muscle layers were heterogeneous in the stomach. Taurine at 10-9~10-4 M induced acid secretion, and the maximum secretion was at 10-5 M, 1.6-fold higher than the spontaneous secretion. Taurine-induced acid secretion was completely inhibited by bicuculline and atropine but not by cimetidine, proglumide, or strychnine. Atropine and tetrodotoxin (TTX completely inhibited the acid secretion induced by low concentrations of taurine and partially inhibited induced by high concentrations. Verapamil, a calcium blocker agent, inhibited acid output elicited by taurine. We assumed all Ca2+ channels involved in the response to these secretagogues were equally affected by verapamil. Intracellular cAMP (adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphat in the stomach significantly increased with taurine treatment in a dose-dependent manner. High correlation (r=0.859, p Conclusions Our results demonstrated for the first time in taurine-induced acid secretion due to increase intracellular calcium may act through the A type of GABA receptors, which are mainly located on cholinergic neurons though cAMP pathway and partially on nonneuronal cells in the rat stomach.

  8. Multiple Acid Sensors Control Helicobacter pylori Colonization of the Stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Julie Y; Goers Sweeney, Emily; Guillemin, Karen; Amieva, Manuel R

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori's ability to respond to environmental cues in the stomach is integral to its survival. By directly visualizing H. pylori swimming behavior when encountering a microscopic gradient consisting of the repellent acid and attractant urea, we found that H. pylori is able to simultaneously detect both signals, and its response depends on the magnitudes of the individual signals. By testing for the bacteria's response to a pure acid gradient, we discovered that the chemoreceptors TlpA and TlpD are each independent acid sensors. They enable H. pylori to respond to and escape from increases in hydrogen ion concentration near 100 nanomolar. TlpD also mediates attraction to basic pH, a response dampened by another chemoreceptor TlpB. H. pylori mutants lacking both TlpA and TlpD (ΔtlpAD) are unable to sense acid and are defective in establishing colonization in the murine stomach. However, blocking acid production in the stomach with omeprazole rescues ΔtlpAD's colonization defect. We used 3D confocal microscopy to determine how acid blockade affects the distribution of H. pylori in the stomach. We found that stomach acid controls not only the overall bacterial density, but also the microscopic distribution of bacteria that colonize the epithelium deep in the gastric glands. In omeprazole treated animals, bacterial abundance is increased in the antral glands, and gland colonization range is extended to the corpus. Our findings indicate that H. pylori has evolved at least two independent receptors capable of detecting acid gradients, allowing not only survival in the stomach, but also controlling the interaction of the bacteria with the epithelium.

  9. Multiple Acid Sensors Control Helicobacter pylori Colonization of the Stomach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Julie Y.; Goers Sweeney, Emily; Guillemin, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori’s ability to respond to environmental cues in the stomach is integral to its survival. By directly visualizing H. pylori swimming behavior when encountering a microscopic gradient consisting of the repellent acid and attractant urea, we found that H. pylori is able to simultaneously detect both signals, and its response depends on the magnitudes of the individual signals. By testing for the bacteria’s response to a pure acid gradient, we discovered that the chemoreceptors TlpA and TlpD are each independent acid sensors. They enable H. pylori to respond to and escape from increases in hydrogen ion concentration near 100 nanomolar. TlpD also mediates attraction to basic pH, a response dampened by another chemoreceptor TlpB. H. pylori mutants lacking both TlpA and TlpD (ΔtlpAD) are unable to sense acid and are defective in establishing colonization in the murine stomach. However, blocking acid production in the stomach with omeprazole rescues ΔtlpAD’s colonization defect. We used 3D confocal microscopy to determine how acid blockade affects the distribution of H. pylori in the stomach. We found that stomach acid controls not only the overall bacterial density, but also the microscopic distribution of bacteria that colonize the epithelium deep in the gastric glands. In omeprazole treated animals, bacterial abundance is increased in the antral glands, and gland colonization range is extended to the corpus. Our findings indicate that H. pylori has evolved at least two independent receptors capable of detecting acid gradients, allowing not only survival in the stomach, but also controlling the interaction of the bacteria with the epithelium. PMID:28103315

  10. Dietary flavonoid intake and risk of stomach and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hae Dong; Kim, Jeongseon

    2013-02-21

    Stomach and colorectal cancers are common cancers and leading causes of cancer deaths. Because the alimentary tract can interact directly with dietary components, stomach and colorectal cancer may be closely related to dietary intake. We systematically searched published literature written in English via PubMed by searching for terms related to stomach and colorectal cancer risk and dietary flavonoids up to June 30, 2012. Twenty-three studies out of 209 identified articles were finally selected for the analysis. Log point effect estimates and the corresponding standard errors were calculated using covariate-adjusted point effect estimates and 95%CIs from the selected studies. Total dietary flavonoid intake was not associated with a reduced risk of colorectal or stomach cancer [odds ratio (OR) (95%CI) = 1.00 (0.90-1.11) and 1.07 (0.70-1.61), respectively]. Among flavonoid subclasses, the intake of flavonols, flavan-3-ols, anthocyanidins, and proanthocyanidins showed a significant inverse association with colorectal cancer risk [OR (95%CI) = 0.71 (0.63-0.81), 0.88 (0.79-0.97), 0.68 (0.56-0.82), and 0.72 (0.61-0.85), respectively]. A significant association was found only between flavonols and stomach cancer risk based on a limited number of selected studies [OR (95%CI) = 0.68 (0.46-0.99)]. In the summary estimates from case-control studies, all flavonoid subclasses except flavones and flavanones were inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk, whereas neither total flavonoids nor any subclasses of flavonoids were associated with colorectal cancer risk in the summary estimates based on the cohort studies. The significant association between flavonoid subclasses and cancer risk might be closely related to bias derived from the case-control design. There was no clear evidence that dietary flavonoids are associated with reduced risk of stomach and colorectal cancer.

  11. Moiré topography in odontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Yeras, A.

    2003-07-01

    For several decades, measurement of optical techniques has been used in different branches of science and technology. One of these techniques is the so-called moiré topography (MT) that enables the accurate measurement of different parts of the human body topography. This investigation presents the measurement of topographies of teeth and gums using an automated system of shadow moiré and the phase shift method in an original way. The fringe patterns used to compute the shape and the shape matrix itself are presented in the article. The phase shift method ensures precisions up to the order of microns. Advantages and disadvantages of using the MT are included. Besides, some positive and negative aspects concerned with the implementation of this technique in odontology are shown in the article.

  12. Gastritis cystica polyposa in the unoperated stomach: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeo Jin; Kim, Kyung Ah; Chung, Yong Eun; Lim, Joon Seok; Jeon, Hyae Min [Severance Hospital/Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Gastritis cystica polyposa (GCP) is an uncommon lesion that usually develops at the gastroenterostomy site. A 57 year old man visited a hospital with a complaint of melena. He did not have any surgical history or past medical history. Endoscopy was performed to evaluate the cause of melena, and a polypoid cystic mass in the stomach was found on an endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography. The polypoid cystic mass did not show any enhancing solid portion on a computed tomography. The gastric lesion was conclusively confirmed as GCP through endoscopic submucosal dissection. We report a rare case of GCP that occurred in an unoperated stomach.

  13. The stomach of the Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, K J; Stafford, Y M

    1991-12-01

    The Kafue lechwe is endemic to the Kafue Flats area of Zambia. It is semi-aquatic in habit, feeding upon grasses above and below the waterline. The volume of the lechwe rumen is 17 L in the male and 14 L in the female. It has strong and definite pillars. The interior of the rumen is papillated except in the roof area and on the pillars. The omasum has more than 70 laminae which are papillated on the reticular end. The anatomy of the lechwe stomach is similar to the stomachs of other water dependent grazers such as Bohor Reedbuck, Waterbuck, Uganda Kob and Puku.

  14. Traumatic rupture of the stomach after Heimlich maneuver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ham, A C; Lange, J F

    1990-01-01

    Fatal complications following the performance of the Heimlich maneuver have been reported. A 76-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with signs of respiratory distress, abdominal pain and distension one day after airway obstruction and subsequent resuscitation. Despite successful immediate laparotomy and repair of a ruptured stomach, she later succumbed to the sequelae of aspiration of gastric contents and dehiscence of the gastric tear. This is the 4th case of stomach rupture and the 7th reported fatal complication following the Heimlich maneuver. It is recommended that persons who undergo the Heimlich maneuver be examined and observed by a physician, as soon as possible, to rule out complications.

  15. Stereotyping gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger

    2011-01-01

    This paper takes its starting point in the problem faced by a specific Danish bank that women are grossly underrepresented in management positions, in spite of the great measure of initiatives taken over more than a century to ensure equal opportunities in Denmark. Danish women got the vote in 1915......, there is still some way to go before genuine gender equality and emancipation may become reality, in spite of Denmark’s image as egalitarian society. To try to explain this paradox, the paper explores gender perceptions by analysing how men and women talk about gender in focus group discussions and how the two...... gender categories evaluate themselves and the Other in their quest for social identities. Analysis of the focus group data indicates that, more often than not, the interviewees resort to stereotyping in their construction of identities. Using the Appraisal framework (Martin and White 2005) for analysing...

  16. Gender dysphoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... concept Gender dysphoria is not the same as homosexuality. Identity conflicts need to continue over time to ... to be the opposite sex. Treatment Individual and family therapy is recommended for children to create a ...

  17. Stomach emptiness in fishes: Sources of variation and study design implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, M.R.; Angradi, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    This study summarizes fish stomach content data from 369,000 fish from 402 species in 1,096 collections and reports on the percentage of individuals with empty stomachs. The mean percentage of individuals with empty stomachs among all species, locations, habitats, seasons, regions, and collection methods was 26.4%. Mean percentage of individuals with empty stomachs varied significantly among fish collection gear types, taxonomic orders, trophic groups, feeding behaviors, and habitats, and with species length at maturity. Most of the variation in percentage of individuals with empty stomachs was explained by species length at maturity, fish collection gear type, and two autecological factors: trophic group (piscivore percentage of individuals with empty stomachs > non-piscivore percentage of individuals with empty stomachs) and feeding habitat (water column feeder percentage of individuals with empty stomachs > benthic feeder percentage of individuals with empty stomachs). After accounting for variation with fish length, the percentage of individuals with empty stomachs did not vary with the stomach removal collection method (dissection vs. gastric lavage), feeding time (diurnal or nocturnal), or time of collection (day or night). The percentage of individuals with empty stomachs was similar between fresh and saltwater fish, but differed within finer habitat classifications and appeared to follow a general prey availability or productivity gradient: percentage of individuals with empty stomachs of open ocean collections > estuary collections, lentic > lotic, and pelagic > littoral. Gear type (active or passive) was the most influential factor affecting the occurrence of empty stomachs that can be readily controlled by researchers.

  18. Effects of patterned topography on biofilm formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Ravikumar

    2011-12-01

    Bacterial biofilms are a population of bacteria attached to each other and irreversibly to a surface, enclosed in a matrix of self-secreted polymers, among others polysaccharides, proteins, DNA. Biofilms cause persisting infections associated with implanted medical devices and hospital acquired (nosocomial) infections. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are the most common type of nosocomial infections accounting for up to 40% of all hospital acquired infections. Several different strategies, including use of antibacterial agents and genetic cues, quorum sensing, have been adopted for inhibiting biofilm formation relevant to CAUTI surfaces. Each of these methods pertains to certain types of bacteria, processes and has shortcomings. Based on eukaryotic cell topography interaction studies and Ulva linza spore studies, topographical surfaces were suggested as a benign control method for biofilm formation. However, topographies tested so far have not included a systematic variation of size across basic topography shapes. In this study patterned topography was systematically varied in size and shape according to two approaches 1) confinement and 2) wetting. For the confinement approach, using scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy, orienting effects of tested topography based on staphylococcus aureus (s. aureus) (SH1000) and enterobacter cloacae (e. cloacae) (ATCC 700258) bacterial models were identified on features of up to 10 times the size of the bacterium. Psuedomonas aeruginosa (p. aeruginosa) (PAO1) did not show any orientational effects, under the test conditions. Another important factor in medical biofilms is the identification and quantification of phenotypic state which has not been discussed in the literature concerning bacteria topography characterizations. This was done based on antibiotic susceptibility evaluation and also based on gene expression analysis. Although orientational effects occur, phenotypically no difference

  19. Corrosive acid strictures of the stomach (a case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehendale V

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Two patients presented with history of suicidal acid ingestion. Both the patients developed strictures exclusively in the stomach without involvement of the oesophagus, after a period of 12 weeks. The mechanism of this involvement is presented. The literature on this subject is briefly reviewed.

  20. Myoelectric activity of the stomach : gastroelectromyography and electrogastrography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.P.M. Smout

    1980-01-01

    textabstractThe musculature of the distal two-thirds of the stomach generates electrical signals that are related, in a complex manner, to the (peristaltic) contractions of these muscles. These electrical signals originate in ion shifts from the intracellular to the extracellular space and vice-vers

  1. A cadaveric study for structural variations of the stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yesupadam

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: The present study discussed about the shape of the stomach and the majority of specimens shown and ldquo;J and rdquo; shape. Remaining are reverse and ldquo;L and rdquo; shape; cresentic and cylindrical shaped. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(8.000: 3473-3478

  2. Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Stomach: A Rare Entity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Entity – Case Report and Brief Review of Literature. Rashmi Patnayak ... weight. She gave a history of on and off fever 2 months back, which was ... remains unknown. This is an additional .... origin of pure SCC of the stomach.[3] They include.

  3. Anatomical variation of arterial supply to the rabbit stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Reona; Tanimoto, Yoshimasa; Kishimoto, Miori; Shibata, Hideshi

    2016-05-03

    Gastric stasis is common in rabbits, and gastrotomy may be performed to cure this pathological condition. Detailed descriptions of the arterial supply to the stomach are essential for this surgical operation, but published descriptions are limited. Here, we investigated anatomical variations of the arterial supply to the stomach in 43 New Zealand White rabbits by injecting colored latex into arteries. We observed that the left gastric artery that arose as the second branch from the celiac artery provided 1-3 parietal and 1-3 visceral branches to the stomach, with various branching patterns depending on the case. In 34 of 43 cases, the left gastric artery ended upon entering the gastric wall at the lesser curvature, whereas in the remaining cases, the artery continued as the hepatic artery without entering the gastric wall. The right gastric artery that branched off from the gastroduodenal artery also supplied the lesser curvature sinistrally but did not anastomose with the left gastric artery. In 40 cases, the hepatic artery provided 1-4 pyloric branches. In the fundic region, the short gastric arteries arose from the splenic artery and varied in number from 2 to 6. The right and left gastroepiploic arteries anastomosed to give 2-7 branches to the greater curvature. The results showed that many variations occurred in the arteries supplying the rabbit stomach, suggesting that such variations should be considered when performing veterinary surgical treatments in rabbits.

  4. Clinical and Endoscopic Features of Metastatic Tumors in the Stomach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ga Hee; Ahn, Ji Yong; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Park, Young Soo; Kim, Min-Ju; Choi, Kee Don; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Choi, Kwi-Sook; Kim, Do Hoon; Lim, Hyun; Song, Ho June; Lee, Gin Hyug; Kim, Jin-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Metastasis to the stomach is rare. The aim of this study was to describe and analyze the clinical outcomes of cancers that metastasized to the stomach. Methods We reviewed the clinicopathological aspects of patients with gastric metastases from solid organ tumors. Thirty-seven cases were identified, and we evaluated the histology, initial presentation, imaging findings, lesion locations, treatment courses, and overall patient survival. Results Endoscopic findings indicated that solitary lesions presented more frequently than multiple lesions and submucosal tumor-like tumors were the most common appearance. Malignant melanoma was the tumor that most frequently metastasized to the stomach. Twelve patients received treatments after the diagnosis of gastric metastasis. The median survival period from the diagnosis of gastric metastasis was 3.0 months (interquartile range, 1.0 to 11.0 months). Patients with solitary lesions and patients who received any treatments survived longer after the diagnosis of metastatic cancer than patients with multiple lesions and patients who did not any receive any treatments. Conclusions Proper treatment with careful consideration of the primary tumor characteristics can increase the survival period in patients with tumors that metastasize to the stomach, especially in cases with solitary metastatic lesions in endoscopic findings. PMID:25473071

  5. Computer decision support system for the stomach cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, E. V.; Sukhova, O. G.; Korenevskaya, P. Y.; Ovcharova, V. S.; Kudryavtseva, I. O.; Vlasova, S. V.; Grebennikova, O. P.; Burov, D. A.; Yemelyanova, G. S.; Selchuk, V. Y.

    2017-01-01

    The paper considers the creation of the computer knowledge base containing the data of histological, cytologic, and clinical researches. The system is focused on improvement of diagnostics quality of stomach cancer - one of the most frequent death causes among oncologic patients.

  6. Localized amyloidosis of the stomach: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gianluca Rotondano; Raffaele Salerno; Fabio Cipolletta; Maria Antonia Bianco; Antonino De Gregorio; Raffaele Miele; Antonio Prisco; Maria Lucia Garofano; Livio Cipolletta

    2007-01-01

    We report an unusual case of primary amyloidosis of the stomach in a patient complaining of dyspeptic symptoms. The diagnosis was confirmed histologically and other gastrointestinal site or systemic involvement was ruled out. Uncharacteristic dyspeptic symptoms may hide this rare metabolic disease.

  7. Local resection of the stomach for gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinami, Shinichi; Funaki, Hiroshi; Fujita, Hideto; Nakano, Yasuharu; Ueda, Nobuhiko; Kosaka, Takeo

    2016-06-24

    The local resection of the stomach is an ideal method for preventing postoperative symptoms. There are various procedures for performing local resection, such as the laparoscopic lesion lifting method, non-touch lesion lifting method, endoscopic full-thickness resection, and laparoscopic endoscopic cooperative surgery. After the invention and widespread use of endoscopic submucosal dissection, local resection has become outdated as a curative surgical technique for gastric cancer. Nevertheless, local resection of the stomach in the treatment of gastric cancer in now expected to make a comeback with the clinical use of sentinel node navigation surgery. However, there are many issues associated with local resection for gastric cancer, other than the normal indications. These include gastric deformation, functional impairment, ensuring a safe surgical margin, the possibility of inducing peritoneal dissemination, and the associated increase in the risk of metachronous gastric cancer. In view of these issues, there is a tendency to regard local resection as an investigative treatment, to be applied only in carefully selected cases. The ideal model for local resection of the stomach for gastric cancer would be a combination of endoscopic full-thickness resection of the stomach using an ESD device and hand sutured closure using a laparoscope or a surgical robot, for achieving both oncological safety and preserved functions.

  8. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    For stomach (gastric) cancer, there is no standard or routine screening test for the general U.S. population. Review the evidence on the benefits and harms of screening for gastric cancer using barium-meal photofluorography, gastric endoscopy, or serum pepsinogen in this expert-reviewed summary.

  9. Arterial supply of the stomach of the Egyptian native goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda Mohamed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the origin, course and distribution of the arteries supplying the stomach of the goat which is of extreme clinical importance for surgeon during caprine rumenotomy. Materials and methods: Fifteen adult goats were used in this study to demonstrate the arterial supply of the stomach by injection of the thoracic aorta with red gum milk latex after general anesthesia and slaughtering of the animals. Gross dissection of the arteries of the stomach was done to detect the origin, course and distribution of these arteries. Results: The study revealed that the rumen was richly supplied by the right and left ruminal arteries as well as ruminal branches from the reticular artery. The reticulum was supplied with reticular branches of reticular and accessory reticular arteries. The omasum was vascularized by omasal branches of the left gastric artery. While the abomasum received its entire arterial supply from abomasal branches of the left gastric, left gastroepiploic, right gastric and right gastroepiploic arteries. Conclusion: The stomach of the goat receives its arterial supply from the branches of the right ruminal, left ruminal, reticular, left gastric and hepatic arteries. Rumenotomy could be done in the left aspect of the dorsal ruminal sac, between the area of anastomoses of the terminal branches of the left and right ruminal arteries as the blood supply was minimal, so that bleeding will be low. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(1.000: 80-87

  10. Pellet in the stomach: Where did it come from?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baris Dogu Yildiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gunshot might have unexpected findings in the victim owing to the ballistics of the injury. The trajectory of the bullet plays a central role in the surprising findings in gunshot injuries. We are presenting a case with pellets seen in the stomach after a gunshot.

  11. Mountains: Geology, Topography and Environmental Concerns

    OpenAIRE

    Martin F. Price

    2016-01-01

    Reviewed: Mountains: Geology, Topography and Environmental Concerns. Edited by António José, Bento Gonçalves, and António Avelino Batista Vieria. New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers, 2014. ix + 371 pp. US$ 175.00. ISBN 978-1-63117-288-5.

  12. Mountains: Geology, Topography and Environmental Concerns

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Martin F.

    2016-01-01

    Reviewed: Mountains: Geology, Topography and Environmental Concerns. Edited by António José, Bento Gonçalves, and António Avelino Batista Vieria. New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers, 2014. ix + 371 pp. US$ 175.00. ISBN 978-1-63117-288-5.

  13. Mountains: Geology, Topography and Environmental Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin F. Price

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Mountains: Geology, Topography and Environmental Concerns. Edited by António José, Bento Gonçalves, and António Avelino Batista Vieria. New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers, 2014. ix + 371 pp. US$ 175.00. ISBN 978-1-63117-288-5.

  14. Geostatistical modeling of topography using auxiliary maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengl, T.; Bajat, B.; Blagojević, D.; Reuter, H.I.

    2008-01-01

    This paper recommends computational procedures for employing auxiliary maps, such as maps of drainage patterns, land cover and remote-sensing-based indices, directly in the geostatistical modeling of topography. The methodology is based on the regression-kriging technique, as implemented in the R pa

  15. Influence of mesoscale topography on vortex intensity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The effect of mesoscale topography on multi-vortex self-organization is investigated numerically in this paper using a barotropic primitive equation model with topographic term. In the initial field there are one DeMaria major vortex with the maximum wind radius rm of 80 km at the center of the computational domain, and four meso-β vortices in the vicinity of rm to the east of the major vortex center.When there is no topography present, the initial vortices self-organize into a quasi-final state flow pattern, I.e. A quasi-axisymmetric vortex whose intensity is close to that of the initial major vortex. However, when a mesoscale topography is incorporated, the spatial scale of the quasi-final state vortex reduces, and the relative vorticity at the center of the vortex and the local maximum wind speed remarkably increase. The possible mechanism for the enhancement of the quasi-final state vortex might be that the negative relative vorticity lump,generated above the mesoscale topography because of the constraint of absolute vorticity conservation, squeezes the center of positive vorticity towards the mountain slope area, and thus reduces the spatial range of the major vortex. Meanwhile, because the total kinetic energy is basically conservative, the squeezing directly leads to the concentration of the energy in a smaller area, I.e. The strengthening of the vortex.

  16. Exploring scaling laws in surface topography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abedini, M.J. [Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada)], E-mail: abedini@shirazu.ac.ir; Shaghaghian, M.R. [Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-11-30

    Surface topography affects many soil properties and processes, particularly surface water storage and runoff. Application of fractal analysis helps understand the scaling laws inherent in surface topography at a wide range of spatial scales and climatic regimes. In this research, a high resolution digital elevation model with a 3 mm resolution on one side of the spectrum and large scale DEMs, with a 500 m spatial resolution on the other side were used to explore scaling laws in surface topography. With appropriate exploratory spatial data analysis of both types of data sets, two conventional computational procedures - variogram and Box Counting Methods (BCM) - address scaling laws in surface topography. The results respect scaling laws in surface topography to some extent as neither the plot treatment nor the direction treatment has a significant impact on fractal dimension variability. While in the variogram method, the change in slope in Richardson's plots appears to be the norm rather than the exception; Richardson's plots resulting from box counting implementation lack such mathematical behavior. These breaks in slope might have useful implications for delineating homogeneous hydrologic units and detecting change in trend in hydrologic time series. Furthermore, it is shown that fractal dimension cannot be used to capture anisotropic variabilities both within and among micro-plots. In addition, its numerical value remains insignificant at the 5% level in moving from one direction to another and also from one spatial scale to another while the ordinate intercept could discriminate the surface roughness variability from one spatial scale to another.

  17. Localization of ANP-synthesizing cells in rat stomach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Hui Li; Li-Hui Pan; Chun-Yu Li; Chang-Lin Zhu; Wen-Xie Xu

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the morphological positive expression of antrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)-synthesizing cells and ultrastructural localization and the relationship between ANP-synthesizing cells and microvessel density in the stomach of rats and to analyze the distribution of the three histologically distinct regions of ANP-synthesizing cells.METHODS: Using immunohistochemical techniques, we studied positive expression of ANP-synthesizing cells in rat stomach. A postembedding immunogold microscopy technique was used for ultrastructural localization of ANP-synthesizing cells. Microvessel density in the rat stomach was estimated using tannic acid-ferric chloride (TAFC) method staining. Distribution of ANP-synthesizing cells were studied in different regions of rat stomach histochemically.RESULTS: Positive expression of ANP-synthesizing cells were localized in the gastric mucosa of rats. Localization of ANP-synthesizing cells identified them to be enterochrochromaffin cells (EC) by using a postembedding immunogold electron microscopy technique. EC cells were in the basal third of the cardiac mucosa region.ANP-synthesizing cells existed in different regions of rat stomach and its density was largest in the gastric cardiac region, and the distribution order of ANP-synthesizing cells in density was cardiac region, pyloric region and fundic region in mucosa layer. We have also found a close relationship between ANP-synthesizing cells and microvessel density in gastric mucosa of rats using TAFC staining.CONCLUSION: ANP-synthesizing cells are expressed in the gastric mucosa. EC synthesize ANP. There is a close relationship between ANP-synthesizing cells and microvessel density in gastric mucosa of rats.The distribution density of ANP-synthesizing cells is largest in the gastric cardiac region.

  18. Gender Equality From A Gender Budgeting Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nyevero Maruzani; Nogget Matope; Efiritha Chauraya

    2012-01-01

    Gender budgeting, which is also known as gender responsive budgeting , tracks how budgets respond to gender equality and women’s rights requirement. This entails investing in and making available mechanisms, guidelines and indicators that enable gender equality advocates to track progress, benefit incidence and show how supposedly gender neutral budgets impact on men and women. The aim of this discussion is to highlight the importance of gender budgeting in addressing gender disparities while...

  19. Regarding gender relations: Gender identity or gender interaction styles?

    OpenAIRE

    Bazán Ramírez, Aldo

    1996-01-01

    This study discusses sorne assumptions from the social determinism in the construction of gender roles, gender-typed identities, and gender relarions inequities. Ir is proposed that gender sryles of interaction are relatively invariant forms or dispositions related ro specific contexts of social interaction. Iris not enough ro say that socialization factors such as the family, school, mass media, and rhe inirial social group relations generare a typed gender identity or gender seggregation, b...

  20. Radiation dose and subsequent risk for stomach cancer in long-term survivors of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinerman, Ruth A; Smith, Susan A; Holowaty, Eric

    2013-01-01

    To assess the dose-response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer.......To assess the dose-response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer....

  1. Gendered Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Bo

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the gendered nature of urban politics in Cape Town by focusing on a group of female, township politicians. Employing the Deleuzian concept of `wild connectivity', it argues that these politically entrepreneurial women were able to negotiate a highly volatile urban landscape...... space also drew on quite traditional notions of female respectability. Furthermore, the article argues, the form of wild connectivity to an extent was a function of the political transition, which destabilized formal structures of gendered authority. It remains a question whether this form...... of connectivity might endure, as Capetonian politics assumes a post-apartheid structure....

  2. Stereotyping gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger

    2011-01-01

    gender categories evaluate themselves and the Other in their quest for social identities. Analysis of the focus group data indicates that, more often than not, the interviewees resort to stereotyping in their construction of identities. Using the Appraisal framework (Martin and White 2005) for analysing...... stereotypical categorizations made by the interviewees, the article argues that employees in the bank tend to reproduce and perpetuate a patriarchal management system in spite of various forces pulling in a new post-patriarchal direction where gender is just one of many identities....

  3. Gender remix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick

    2002-01-01

    of a subjective identity. Based on interviews with children of immigrants from patriarchal societies living in Norway, one of the countries in the world where gender equality has reached furthest, the article reveals the tension they experience between the ways gender issues are dealt with in their families...... the particular social situation of the young people of immigrant origin. The feelings of obligations and debt toward the parents are strong, as well as the adherence to traditional family values. Still there is clearly a tendency that ideas about individual rights, such as women?s and children?s rights to decide...

  4. Topography data from the Elwha River delta, Washington, September 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of the data release presents topography data from the Elwha River delta collected in September 2014. Topography data were collected on foot with global...

  5. The Synchronous Prevalence of Colorectal Neoplasms in Patients with Stomach Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sang Su; Jung, Woon Tae; Kim, Cha Young; Ha, Chang Yoon; Min, Hyun Ju; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Tae Hyo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The association between stomach cancer and colorectal cancer is controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the synchronous prevalence of colorectal neoplasms in patients with stomach cancer. Methods A total of 123 patients with stomach cancer (86 male) and 246 consecutive, age- and sex-matched persons without stomach cancer were analyzed from July 2005 to June 2010. All of them underwent colonoscopy within 6 months after undergoing gastroscopy. Results The prevalence of...

  6. The Synchronous Prevalence of Colorectal Neoplasms in Patients with Stomach Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sang Su; Jung, Woon Tae; Kim, Cha Young; Ha, Chang Yoon; Min, Hyun Ju; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Tae Hyo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The association between stomach cancer and colorectal cancer is controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the synchronous prevalence of colorectal neoplasms in patients with stomach cancer. Methods A total of 123 patients with stomach cancer (86 male) and 246 consecutive, age- and sex-matched persons without stomach cancer were analyzed from July 2005 to June 2010. All of them underwent colonoscopy within 6 months after undergoing gastroscopy. Results The prevalence of...

  7. Stomach anatomy and use in defining systemic relationships of the Cetacean family Ziphiidae (beaked whales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, James G

    2007-06-01

    Members of the Cetacean family Ziphiidae (Beaked whales) exhibit surprising diversity in stomach anatomy, particularly in the number of connecting chambers between the main and pyloric stomachs. Sixty-one stomachs of five beaked whale species were examined, including Berardius, Hyperoodon, Mesoplodon, Tasmacetus, and Ziphius. Specimens were obtained post mortem from beach-stranded individuals, with the exception of 30 Berardius specimens that were taken at a whaling station in Japan. Most specimens were collected by the Marine Mammal Program of the National Museum of Natural History, with the exception of one specimen of Mesoplodon steinegeri, which from the Los Angeles County Museum and one specimen of Tasmacetus from the Museum of New Zealand. Additional data are included from published accounts. A single species was examined for all of the genera but Mesoplodon, where there was material for 7 of 13 known species. The sample of Berardius bairdii was sufficient (n = 30) to determine species-specific variation in compartment counts. Chamber anatomy was explored by means of manual palpation. Results indicate that ziphiid stomachs can be separated into at least three principal groups: generalized ziphiid stomach (one main stomach, one pyloric stomach), derived stomach type I (two main stomachs, one pyloric stomach), and derived stomach type II (two main stomachs, two pyloric stomachs). Generalized stomachs are found in Hyperoodon, Tasmacetus, Ziphius, Mesoplodon densirostris, M. perrini, and M. stejnegeri. Derived stomachs of type I are found in Berardius, and of type II are found in Mesoplodon bidens, M. europaeus, and M. mirus. The ziphiids clearly form a distinct group of cetaceans in their utilization of differences in stomach morphology. These anatomical differences may serve to elucidate systematic relationships among the ziphiids. Further study is necessary to establish whether these differences correlate with specialized adaptations related to an aquatic

  8. Nutrition deficiency increases the risk of stomach cancer mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Li Qing

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the study is to determine whether exposure to malnutrition during early life is associated with increased risk of stomach cancer in later life. Methods The design protocol included analyzing the trend of gastric cancer mortality and nutrition and evaluating the association between nutrient deficiency in early life and the risk of gastric cancer by hierarchical age–period–birth cohort (APC analysis using general log-linear Poisson models and to compare the difference between birth cohorts who were exposed to the 1959–1961 Chinese famine and those who were not exposed to the famine. Data on stomach cancer mortality from 1970 to 2009 and the dietary patterns from 1955 to 1985 which included the 1959–1961 Chinese famine period in the Zhaoyuan County population were obtained. The nutrition information was collected 15 years prior to the mortality data as based on the latest reference of disease incubation. Results APC analysis revealed that severe nutrition deficiency during early life may increase the risk of stomach cancer. Compared with the 1960–1964 birth cohort, the risk for stomach cancer in all birth cohorts from 1900 to 1959 significantly increased; compared with the 1970–1974 cohort, the risk for stomach cancer in the 1975–1979 cohort significantly increased, whereas the others had a steadily decreased risk; compared with 85–89 age group in the 2005–2009 death survey, the ORs decreased with younger age and reached significant levels for the 50–54 age group after adjusting the confounding factors. The 1930 to 1964 group (exposed to famine had a higher mortality rate than the 1965 to 1999 group (not exposed to famine. For males, the relative risk (RR was 2.39 and the 95% confidence interval (CI was 1.51 to 3.77. For females, RR was 1.64 and 95% CI was 1.02 to 2.62. Conclusion The results of the present study suggested that prolonged malnutrition during early life may increase the risk of

  9. The decline in stomach cancer mortality : exploration of future trends in seven European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amiri, Masoud; Janssen, Fanny; Kunst, Anton E.

    2011-01-01

    Mortality from stomach cancer has fallen steadily during the past decades. The aim of this paper is to assess the implication of a possible continuation of the decline in stomach cancer mortality until the year 2030. Annual rates of decline in stomach cancer mortality from 1980 to 2005 were determin

  10. The decline in stomach cancer mortality: exploration of future trends in seven European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Amiri (Masoud); F. Janssen (Fanny); A.E. Kunst (Anton)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMortality from stomach cancer has fallen steadily during the past decades. The aim of this paper is to assess the implication of a possible continuation of the decline in stomach cancer mortality until the year 2030. Annual rates of decline in stomach cancer mortality from 1980 to 2005 w

  11. File list: DNS.Dig.20.AllAg.Stomach [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Dig.20.AllAg.Stomach hg19 DNase-seq Digestive tract Stomach SRX089271,SRX100995...85,SRX214043,SRX055192 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Dig.20.AllAg.Stomach.bed ...

  12. File list: DNS.Dig.50.AllAg.Stomach [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Dig.50.AllAg.Stomach hg19 DNase-seq Digestive tract Stomach SRX089271,SRX100995...43,SRX055185,SRX055192 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Dig.50.AllAg.Stomach.bed ...

  13. File list: ALL.Dig.50.AllAg.Stomach [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Dig.50.AllAg.Stomach hg19 All antigens Digestive tract Stomach SRX252741,SRX252...01194,SRX121286,SRX055202,SRX121291,SRX214043,SRX252723,SRX055185,SRX055192,SRX252726 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Dig.50.AllAg.Stomach.bed ...

  14. The decline in stomach cancer mortality: exploration of future trends in seven European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amiri, M.; Janssen, F.; Kunst, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    Mortality from stomach cancer has fallen steadily during the past decades. The aim of this paper is to assess the implication of a possible continuation of the decline in stomach cancer mortality until the year 2030. Annual rates of decline in stomach cancer mortality from 1980 to 2005 were

  15. The decline in stomach cancer mortality: exploration of future trends in seven European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Amiri (Masoud); F. Janssen (Fanny); A.E. Kunst (Anton)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractMortality from stomach cancer has fallen steadily during the past decades. The aim of this paper is to assess the implication of a possible continuation of the decline in stomach cancer mortality until the year 2030. Annual rates of decline in stomach cancer mortality from 1980 to 2005

  16. File list: ALL.Dig.05.AllAg.Stomach [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Dig.05.AllAg.Stomach hg19 All antigens Digestive tract Stomach SRX252720,SRX252...55162,SRX121286,SRX055202,SRX201194,SRX055185,SRX121291,SRX055192,SRX214043,SRX252726 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Dig.05.AllAg.Stomach.bed ...

  17. The decline in stomach cancer mortality : exploration of future trends in seven European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amiri, Masoud; Janssen, Fanny; Kunst, Anton E.

    Mortality from stomach cancer has fallen steadily during the past decades. The aim of this paper is to assess the implication of a possible continuation of the decline in stomach cancer mortality until the year 2030. Annual rates of decline in stomach cancer mortality from 1980 to 2005 were

  18. The decline in stomach cancer mortality: exploration of future trends in seven European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Amiri (Masoud); F. Janssen (Fanny); A.E. Kunst (Anton)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractMortality from stomach cancer has fallen steadily during the past decades. The aim of this paper is to assess the implication of a possible continuation of the decline in stomach cancer mortality until the year 2030. Annual rates of decline in stomach cancer mortality from 1980 to 2005 w

  19. The decline in stomach cancer mortality: exploration of future trends in seven European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amiri, M.; Janssen, F.; Kunst, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    Mortality from stomach cancer has fallen steadily during the past decades. The aim of this paper is to assess the implication of a possible continuation of the decline in stomach cancer mortality until the year 2030. Annual rates of decline in stomach cancer mortality from 1980 to 2005 were determin

  20. File list: DNS.Dig.05.AllAg.Stomach [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Dig.05.AllAg.Stomach hg19 DNase-seq Digestive tract Stomach SRX089271,SRX100995...91,SRX055192,SRX214043 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Dig.05.AllAg.Stomach.bed ...

  1. File list: ALL.Dig.10.AllAg.Stomach [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Dig.10.AllAg.Stomach hg19 All antigens Digestive tract Stomach SRX252720,SRX252...21286,SRX055202,SRX201194,SRX055185,SRX121291,SRX055192,SRX214043,SRX252723,SRX252726 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Dig.10.AllAg.Stomach.bed ...

  2. File list: DNS.Dig.10.AllAg.Stomach [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Dig.10.AllAg.Stomach hg19 DNase-seq Digestive tract Stomach SRX089271,SRX100995...91,SRX055192,SRX214043 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Dig.10.AllAg.Stomach.bed ...

  3. File list: NoD.Dig.50.AllAg.Stomach [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Dig.50.AllAg.Stomach hg19 No description Digestive tract Stomach SRX252741,SRX2...52720,SRX252731,SRX252737,SRX252723,SRX252726 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Dig.50.AllAg.Stomach.bed ...

  4. File list: NoD.Dig.10.AllAg.Stomach [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Dig.10.AllAg.Stomach hg19 No description Digestive tract Stomach SRX252720,SRX2...52731,SRX252741,SRX252737,SRX252723,SRX252726 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Dig.10.AllAg.Stomach.bed ...

  5. File list: NoD.Dig.05.AllAg.Stomach [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Dig.05.AllAg.Stomach hg19 No description Digestive tract Stomach SRX252720,SRX2...52731,SRX252741,SRX252737,SRX252723,SRX252726 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Dig.05.AllAg.Stomach.bed ...

  6. File list: NoD.Dig.20.AllAg.Stomach [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Dig.20.AllAg.Stomach hg19 No description Digestive tract Stomach SRX252741,SRX2...52720,SRX252731,SRX252737,SRX252723,SRX252726 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Dig.20.AllAg.Stomach.bed ...

  7. File list: ALL.Dig.20.AllAg.Stomach [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Dig.20.AllAg.Stomach hg19 All antigens Digestive tract Stomach SRX252741,SRX252...01194,SRX121286,SRX055202,SRX121291,SRX055185,SRX214043,SRX055192,SRX252723,SRX252726 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Dig.20.AllAg.Stomach.bed ...

  8. Surface micro topography replication in injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlø, Uffe Rolf

    , the topography itself, and other factors were also investigated. The experimental work is based on a multi-purpose experimental injection mould with a collection of test surface inserts manufactured by EDM (electrical discharge machining). Experimental production took place with an injection moulding machine......Thermoplastic injection moulding is a widely used industrial process that involves surface generation by replication. The surface topography of injection moulded plastic parts can be important for aesthetical or technical reasons. With the emergence of microengineering and nanotechnology additional...... in a clean room environment. The mould and the injection moulding machine were fitted with transducers for subsequent process analysis. A total of 13 different plastic material grades were applied. Topographical characterisation was performed with an optical laser focus detection instrument. Replication...

  9. Impact of watershed topography on hyporheic exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Alice; Ridolfi, Luca; Boano, Fulvio

    2016-08-01

    Among the interactions between surface water bodies and aquifers, hyporheic exchange has been recognized as a key process for nutrient cycling and contaminant transport. Even though hyporheic exchange is strongly controlled by groundwater discharge, our understanding of the impact of the regional groundwater flow on hyporheic fluxes is still limited because of the complexity arising from the multi-scale nature of these interactions. In this work, we investigate the role of watershed topography on river-aquifer interactions by way of a semi-analytical model, in which the landscape topography is used to approximate the groundwater head distribution. The analysis of a case study shows how the complex topographic structure is the direct cause of a substantial spatial variability of the aquifer-river exchange. Groundwater upwelling along the river corridor is estimated and its influence on the hyporheic zone is discussed. In particular, the fragmentation of the hyporeic corridor induced by groundwater discharge at the basin scale is highlighted.

  10. New null screen design for corneal topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-García, Manuel; Estrada-Molina, Amilcar; Díaz-Uribe, Rufino

    2011-09-01

    In this work we report the design of a null screen for corneal topography. Here we assume that the corneal surface is an ellipsoid with a diameter of 12 mm and a curvature radius of 7.8 mm. To avoid the difficulties in the alignment of the test system due to the face contour (eyebrows, nose, or eyelids), we design a conical null-screen with spots (similar to ellipses) drawn on it in such a way that its image, which is formed by reflection on the test surface, becomes an exact radial array of circular spots if the surface is perfect. Additionally, we performed a numerical simulation introducing Gaussian random errors in the coordinates of the centroids of the spots on the image plane, and in the coordinates of the sources (spots on the null-screen) in order to obtain the conical null-screen that reduces the error in the evaluation of the topography.

  11. Scholte waves generated by seafloor topography

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Yingcai; Liu, Jing; Fehler, Michael C

    2013-01-01

    Seafloor topography can excite strong interface waves called Scholte waves that are often dispersive and characterized by slow propagation but large amplitude. This type of wave can be used to invert for near seafloor shear wave velocity structure that is important information for multi-component P-S seismic imaging. Three different approaches are taken to understand excitation of Scholte waves and numerical aspects of modeling Scholte waves, including analytical Cagniard-de Hoop analysis, the boundary integral method and a staggered grid finite difference method. For simple media for which the Green's function can be easily computed, the boundary element method produces accurate results. The finite difference method shows strong numerical artifacts and stagnant artificial waves can be seen in the vicinity of topography at the fluid-solid interface even when using fine computational grids. However, the amplitude of these artificial waves decays away from the seafloor. It is sensible to place receivers away fr...

  12. Topography over South America from ERS altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Anita; Frey, Herb; DiMarzio, John; Tsaoussi, Lucia

    1997-01-01

    The results of the surface topography mapping of South America during the ERS-1 geodetic mission are presented. The altimeter waveforms, the range measurement, and the internal and Doppler range corrections were obtained. The atmospheric corrections and solid tides were calculated. Comparisons between Shuttle laser altimetry and ERS-1 altimetry grid showed good agreement. Satellite radar altimetry data can be used to improve the topographic knowledge of regions for which only poor elevation data currently exist.

  13. ATM Coastal Topography-Alabama 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Yates, Xan; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Bonisteel, Jamie M.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived first surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Alabama coastline, acquired October 3-4, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative scanning Lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning Lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface, and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of Lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for pre-survey flight line definition, flight path plotting, Lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is routinely used to create maps that

  14. ATM Coastal Topography-Mississippi, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Yates, Xan; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Klipp, Emily S.; Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the Mississippi coastline, from Lakeshore to Petit Bois Island, acquired September 9-10, 2001. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative scanning lidar instrument originally developed by NASA, and known as the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM), was used during data acquisition. The ATM system is a scanning lidar system that measures high-resolution topography of the land surface and incorporates a green-wavelength laser operating at pulse rates of 2 to 10 kilohertz. Measurements from the laser-ranging device are coupled with data acquired from inertial navigation system (INS) attitude sensors and differentially corrected global positioning system (GPS) receivers to measure topography of the surface at accuracies of +/-15 centimeters. The nominal ATM platform is a Twin Otter or P-3 Orion aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the ATM system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS

  15. Curvature sensor for the measurement of the static corneal topography and the dynamic tear film topography in the human eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruppetta, Steve; Koechlin, Laurent; Lacombe, François; Puget, Pascal

    2005-10-01

    A system to measure the topography of the first optical surface of the human eye noninvasively by using a curvature sensor is described. The static corneal topography and the dynamic topography of the tear film can both be measured, and the topographies obtained are presented. The system makes possible the study of the dynamic aberrations introduced by the tear film to determine their contribution to the overall ocular aberrations in healthy eyes, eyes with corneal pathologies, and eyes wearing contact lenses.

  16. Digestion of Nucleic Acids Starts in the Stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yanfang; Dong, Ping; An, Ran; Xue, Changhu; Ge, Yinlin; Wei, Liangzhou; Liang, Xingguo

    2015-07-14

    The ingestion of nucleic acids (NAs) as a nutritional supplement or in genetically modified food has attracted the attention of researchers in recent years. Discussions over the fate of NAs led us to study their digestion in the stomach. Interestingly, we found that NAs are digested efficiently by human gastric juice. By performing digests with commercial, recombinant and mutant pepsin, a protein-specific enzyme, we learned that the digestion of NAs could be attributed to pepsin rather than to the acidity of the stomach. Further study showed that pepsin cleaved NAs in a moderately site-specific manner to yield 3'-phosphorylated fragments and the active site to digest NAs is probably the same as that used to digest protein. Our results rectify the misunderstandings that the digestion of NAs in the gastric tract begins in the intestine and that pepsin can only digest protein, shedding new light on NA metabolism and pepsin enzymology.

  17. Metastatic pancreatic cancer presenting as linitis plastica of the stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Shivani; Mulki, Ramzi; Sher, Daniel

    2016-03-08

    Metastatic disease from pancreatic carcinoma involving the stomach is an unusual event, and the pattern of spread in the form of linitis plastica, to our knowledge, has not been reported previously. Local recurrence after curative resection for pancreatic cancer is the most common pattern of disease. We report a case of metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma presenting as linitis plastica of the stomach 4 years after curative resection. A 52-year-old man presented with epigastric pain and melaena 4 years after undergoing a Whipple's procedure for a poorly-differentiated pancreatic adenocarcinoma, stage IB; T2N0M0. CT imaging of the abdomen revealed thickening of the gastric wall, and subsequent oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD) revealed diffuse friable erythaematous tissue. The biopsy specimen obtained during the OGD revealed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, with similar appearance to the prior specimen obtained from the pancreas. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  18. Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Stomach: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min Jeong; An, Soyeon; Lee, Seung Soo; Kim, Beom Su; Kim, Jihun

    2016-09-01

    Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/PNET) is a highly aggressive small round cell tumor that mainly occurs in the bone or soft tissue of children or young adults but is extremely rare in the stomach. A 55-year-old man presented with melena and anemia. On endoscopy, an ulcerofungating mass was observed in the high body and total gastrectomy was performed. Histologically, the mass consisted of small round cells with scanty cytoplasm and inconspicuous nucleoli. They often formed perivascular pseudorosettes and multinucleated giant cells were frequently observed. The tumor cells strongly expressed CD99, FLI1, and chromogranin and weakly expressed synaptophysin and CD56. EWS-FLI1 fusion transcript was confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. ES/PNET is frequently misdiagnosed because of its similarity with small cell carcinoma. Although gastric ES/PNET is very rare, it should be included in differential diagnoses of small round cell tumor in the stomach.

  19. Yellow-billed cuckoo in stomach of tiger shark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, G.B.; Clark, E.

    1962-01-01

    On 20 May 1961 an immature female tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier), 2.3 meters in length and weighing 52 kg, was caught in the Gulf of Mexico several miles offshore from Sarasota, Florida, by personnel of the Cape Haze Marine Laboratory. The contents of its stomach included a leg and some feathers of a land bird. The leg was sent to the Bird and Mammal Laboratories, Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, Washington, D.C., where it was identified by Mrs. R. C. Laybourne as that of a Yellow-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus). In addition to this bird, the stomach contained a blue crab, several sea catfishes (Galeichthys felis), and part of a black nose shark (Carcharhinus acronatus).

  20. Gelation of mucin: Protecting the stomach from autodigestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansil, Rama

    2011-03-01

    In this talk I will describe the molecular mechanisms involved in the remarkable ability of the mucus lining of the stomach for protecting the stomach from being digested by the acidic gastric juices that it secretes. These physical properties can be attributed to the presence of a high molecular weight glycoprotein found in mucus, called mucin. Rheology and other measurements show that gastric mucin forms a gel under acidic pH. A model of gelation based on the interplay of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions will be discussed. Molecular Dynamics simulation studies of folding and aggregation of mucin domains provide further support for this model. The relevance of gelation to the motion of the ulcer causing bacterium H. pylori will be discussed.

  1. Raman spectroscopic identification of normal and malignant human stomach cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jipeng Yang; Jianyu Guo; Liangping Wu; Zhenrong Sun; Weiying Cai; Zugeng Wang

    2005-01-01

    @@ Micro-Raman spectroscopy is employed to identify the normal and malignant human stomach cells. For the cancer cell, the reduced intensity of the Raman peak at 1250 cm-1 indicates that the protein secondary structure transforms from β-sheet or disordered structures to α-helical, while the increased intensity of the symmetric PO2 stretching vibration mode at 1094 cm-1 shows the increased DNA content.

  2. Spatial distribution of osteoblast activating peptide in the rat stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreldin, Ahmed E; Sogabe, Maina; Yamano, Yoshiaki; Uehara, Masato; Mahdy, Mohamed A A; Elnasharty, Mohamed A; Sayed-Ahmed, Ahmed; Warita, Katsuhiko; Hosaka, Yoshinao Z

    2016-03-01

    Osteoblast activating peptide (OBAP) was previously reported to be expressed in the rat stomach and to have a vital role in osteogenesis, but its distribution in rat stomach has not been determined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to identify the cell types expressing OBAP in the rat stomach. The stomachs of twelve 10-to-11-week-old male Jc1:SD rats were used. Samples were collected for immunohistochemistry, immunoelectron microscopy and dot blot assay. Immunohistochemical investigation revealed that OBAP was distributed mainly in parietal cells without any expression in chief cells, X/A-like cells or enterochromaffin-like cells. Moreover, OBAP-immunopositive cells were observed mainly in the upper and lower parts of the gastric gland. Significantly high optical density of immunopositive cells was observed in the upper and lower gastric gland regions. The dot blot assay confirmed that OBAP is secreted by parietal cells and that it is present in the gastric gland lumen. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that OBAP was confined to the mitochondrial inner membrane within parietal cells and that the number of mitochondria in the upper and lower parts of the gastric epithelium was significantly larger than the number in the middle part of the gastric epithelium. Based on the results, it was concluded that OBAP is mainly produced by mitochondria of parietal cells in the upper and lower parts of the gastric epithelium. Moreover, the presence of OBAP in the gastric gland lumen suggests an exocrine mechanism of release. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Mechanical characterization of stomach tissue under uniaxial tensile action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Z G; Li, W; Zhou, Z R

    2015-02-26

    In this article, the tensile properties of gastric wall were investigated by using biomechanical test and theoretical analysis. The samples of porcine stomach strips from smaller and greater curvature of the stomach were cut in longitudinal and circumferential direction, respectively. The loading-unloading, stress relaxation, strain creep, tensile fracture tests were performed at mucosa-submucosa, serosa-muscle and intact layer, respectively. Results showed that the biomechanical properties of the porcine stomach depended on the layers, orientations and locations of the gastric wall and presented typical viscoelastic, nonlinear and anisotropic mechanical properties. During loading-unloading test, the stress of serosa-muscle layer in the longitudinal direction was 15-20% more than that in the circumferential direction at 12% stretch ratio, while it could reach about 40% for the intact layer and 50% for the mucosa-submucosa layer. The results of stress relaxation and strain creep showed that the variation degree was obviously faster in the circumferential direction than that in the longitudinal direction, and the ultimate residual values were also different for the different layers, orientations and locations. In the process of fracture test, the serosa-muscle layer fractured firstly followed by the mucosa-submucosa layer when the intact layer was tested, the longitudinal strips firstly began to fracture and the required stress value was about twice as much as that in the circumferential strips. The anisotropy and heterogeneity of mechanical characterization of the porcine stomach were related to its complicated geometry, structure and functions. The results would help us to understand the biomechanics of soft organ tissue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Simultaneous large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the stomach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tadashi Terada; Hirotoshi Maruo

    2011-01-01

    A large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the stomach is very rare. A 76-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital because of epigastralgia and nausea. Endoscopy revealed 2 large tumors in the stomach. He did not have multiple endocrine neoplasia type Ⅰ or Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Imaging modali-ties, including computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, revealed no other tumors. Gas-trectomy, cholecystectomy, and lymph node dissection were performed. The resected stomach had 2 tumors: one was an antral ulcerated type 3 tumor measuring 5 cm x 5 cm, and the other was a polypoid type 1 tumor measuring 6 cm x 6 cm x 3 cm in the fundus. Micro-scopically, the antral ulcerated tumor was a well differ-entiated adenocarcinoma with deep invasion. The fun-dus polypoid tumor was a LCNEC, being composed of malignant large cells arranged in trabecular and nested patterns. The tumor cells were large and the nuclei were vesicular. Nucleoli were frequently present, and there were many mitotic figures, apoptotic bodies, and necrotic areas. Much lymphovascular permeation was seen. Seven out of 29 dissected lymph nodes showed metastatic foci; 6 were from the LCNEC and 1 from the adenocarcinoma. Many intravascular tumor emboli of LCNEC were seen in the peritoneum around the lymph nodes. Mucins were present in the adenocarcinoma but not in the LCNEC. Immunohistochemically, the LCNEC tumor cells were positive for pancytokeratins, synaptophysin (50% positive), chromogranin A (10% positive), Ki-67 (90% labeled), and platelet-derived growth factor-α (80% positive). They were negative for KIT, p53, CD56, and neuron-specific enolase. The non-cancerous stomach showed a normal number of endocrine cells. The patient is now treated with adju-vant chemotherapy.

  5. [Adenocarcinoma of lung cancer with solitary metastasis to the stomach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Sung Ae; Lee, Kyung Hee

    2014-09-25

    Although hematogenous metastasis of cancer to the gastrointestinal track is rare, it sometime has been reported in patients with malignant melanoma and breast cancer. However, it is extremely rare for lung cancer to metastasize to the stomach, not to mention solitary gastric metastasis. Herein, the authors report a case of a 69-year-old man who was initially diagnosed with lung cancer with synchronous primary gastric cancer which proved to be lung cancer with solitary gastric metastasis after the operation.

  6. Submucous lipoma of the stomach: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallie, N R; Peters, J A

    1976-01-01

    A 54-year-old woman presented with a 4-day history of melena and a 1-day history of hematemesis. Radiographs were suggestive of a malignant gastric polyp. Gastrotomy revealed a polyp projecting from the anterior wall of the stomach. The polyp was exised and the patient has since been well. Although rare, gastric lipomas are important because they may cause hemorrhage, abdominal pain, syspepsia and pyloric obstruction; moreover, they are amenable to surgical treatment.

  7. MDCT imaging of the stomach: advances and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Prashant; Prakash, Anjali; Pradhan, Gaurav; Vidholia, Aditi; Nagpal, Nishant; Saboo, Sachin S; Kuehn, David M; Khandelwal, Ashish

    2017-01-01

    The stomach may be involved by a myriad of pathologies ranging from benign aetiologies like inflammation to malignant aetiologies like carcinoma or lymphoma. Multidetector CT (MDCT) of the stomach is the first-line imaging for patients with suspected gastric pathologies. Conventionally, CT imaging had the advantage of simultaneous detection of the mural and extramural disease extent, but advances in MDCT have allowed mucosal assessment by virtual endoscopy (VE). Also, better three-dimensional (3D) post-processing techniques have enabled more robust and accurate pre-operative planning in patients undergoing gastrectomy and even predict the response to surgery for patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for weight loss. The ability of CT to obtain stomach volume (for bariatric surgery patients) and 3D VE images depends on various patient and protocol factors that are important for a radiologist to understand. We review the appropriate CT imaging protocol in the patients with suspected gastric pathologies and highlight the imaging pearls of various gastric pathologies on CT and VE.

  8. Microfluidic optoelectronic sensor for salivary diagnostics of stomach cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberman, Yael; Sonkusale, Sameer R

    2015-05-15

    We present a microfluidic optoelectronic sensor for saliva diagnostics with a potential application for non-invasive early diagnosis of stomach cancer. Stomach cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. The primary identified cause is infection by a gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori. These bacteria secrete the enzyme urease that converts urea into carbon dioxide (CO2) and ammonia (NH3), leading to their elevated levels in breath and body fluids. The proposed optoelectronic sensor will detect clinically relevant levels of CO2 and NH3 in saliva that can potentially be used for early diagnosis of stomach cancer. The sensor is composed of the embedded in a microfluidic device array of microwells filled with ion-exchange polymer microbeads doped with various organic dyes. The optical response of this unique highly diverse sensor is monitored over a broad spectrum, which provides a platform for cross-reactive sensitivity and allows detection of CO2 and NH3 in saliva at ppm levels.

  9. After 3 years of starvation: duodenum swallowed remaining stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillenbrand, Andreas; Waidner, Uta; Henne-Bruns, Doris; Maria Wolf, Anna; Buttenschoen, Klaus

    2009-05-01

    A 42-year-old morbidly obese patient (BMI 44.1 kg/m(2)) was admitted to our emergency room with upper abdominal pain, nausea, and cholestasis. Nine years ago, a vertical banded gastroplasty had been performed (former BMI 53.5 kg/m(2)) with a subsequent weight loss to BMI 33.0 kg/m(2). After regaining weight up to a BMI of 47.6 kg/m(2), 5 years ago a conversion to a gastric bypass was realized. A computed tomography of the abdomen showed an invagination of the remaining stomach into the duodenum causing obstruction of the orifice of common bile duct. The patient underwent an open desinvagination of the intussusception and resection of the remaining stomach. Gastroduodenal intussusception is rare and mostly secondary to gastric lipoma. To prevent this rare but serious complication, the remaining stomach could be fixed at the crura of the diaphragm, tagged to the anterior abdominal wall by temporary gastrostomy tube, or resected.

  10. OpenTopography: Enabling Online Access to High-Resolution Lidar Topography Data and Processing Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Christopher; Nandigam, Viswanath; Baru, Chaitan; Arrowsmith, J. Ramon

    2013-04-01

    High-resolution topography data acquired with lidar (light detection and ranging) technology are revolutionizing the way we study the Earth's surface and overlying vegetation. These data, collected from airborne, tripod, or mobile-mounted scanners have emerged as a fundamental tool for research on topics ranging from earthquake hazards to hillslope processes. Lidar data provide a digital representation of the earth's surface at a resolution sufficient to appropriately capture the processes that contribute to landscape evolution. The U.S. National Science Foundation-funded OpenTopography Facility (http://www.opentopography.org) is a web-based system designed to democratize access to earth science-oriented lidar topography data. OpenTopography provides free, online access to lidar data in a number of forms, including the raw point cloud and associated geospatial-processing tools for customized analysis. The point cloud data are co-located with on-demand processing tools to generate digital elevation models, and derived products and visualizations which allow users to quickly access data in a format appropriate for their scientific application. The OpenTopography system is built using a service-oriented architecture (SOA) that leverages cyberinfrastructure resources at the San Diego Supercomputer Center at the University of California San Diego to allow users, regardless of expertise level, to access these massive lidar datasets and derived products for use in research and teaching. OpenTopography hosts over 500 billion lidar returns covering 85,000 km2. These data are all in the public domain and are provided by a variety of partners under joint agreements and memoranda of understanding with OpenTopography. Partners include national facilities such as the NSF-funded National Center for Airborne Lidar Mapping (NCALM), as well as non-governmental organizations and local, state, and federal agencies. OpenTopography has become a hub for high-resolution topography

  11. Interferometer for measuring dynamic corneal topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micali, Jason Daniel

    The cornea is the anterior most surface of the eye and plays a critical role in vision. A thin fluid layer, the tear film, coats the outer surface of the cornea and serves to protect, nourish, and lubricate the cornea. At the same time, the tear film is responsible for creating a smooth continuous surface where the majority of refraction takes place in the eye. A significant component of vision quality is determined by the shape of the cornea and stability of the tear film. It is desirable to possess an instrument that can measure the corneal shape and tear film surface with the same accuracy and resolution that is currently performed on common optical elements. A dual interferometer system for measuring the dynamic corneal topography is designed, built, and verified. The completed system is validated by testing on human subjects. The system consists of two co-aligned polarization splitting Twyman-Green interferometers designed to measure phase instantaneously. The primary interferometer measures the surface of the tear film while the secondary interferometer simultaneously tracks the absolute position of the cornea. Eye motion, ocular variation, and a dynamic tear film surface will result in a non-null configuration of the surface with respect to the interferometer system. A non-null test results in significant interferometer induced errors that add to the measured phase. New algorithms are developed to recover the absolute surface topography of the tear film and corneal surface from the simultaneous interferometer measurements. The results are high-resolution and high-accuracy surface topography measurements of the in vivo cornea that are captured at standard camera frame rates. This dissertation will cover the development and construction of an interferometer system for measuring the dynamic corneal topography of the human eye. The discussion starts with the completion of an interferometer for measuring the tear film. The tear film interferometer is part of an

  12. Generation of Solitary Rossby Waves by Unstable Topography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hong-Wei; YIN Bao-Shu; DONG Huan-He

    2012-01-01

    The effect of topography on generation of the solitary Rossby waves is researched. Here, the topography, as a forcing for waves generation, is taken as a function of longitude variable x and time variable t, which is called unstable topography. With the help of a perturbation expansion method, a forced mKdv equation governing the evolution of amplitude of the solitary Rossby waves is derived from quasi-geostrophic vortieity equation and is solved by the pseudo-spectral method. Basing on the waterfall plots, the generational features of the solitary Rossby waves under the influence of unstable topography and stable topography are compared and some conclusions are obtained.

  13. Primary lymphoblastic B-cell lymphoma of the stomach: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao-Xia He; Ming-Hua Zhu; Wei-Qiang Liu; Li-Li Wu; Xiong-Zeng Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Primary stomach lymphoblastic B-cell lymphoma (B-LBL) is a rare tumor. We describe a primary stomach B-LBL in a 38 years old female who presented with nonspecific complaints of fatigue and vomiting for 2 mo.Gastrofiberscopy revealed a large gastric ulcer, which was successfully resected. Pathology showed a lymphoblastic cell lymphoma arising from the stomach, and there was no evidence of disease at any extrastomach site.Immunohistochemical staining and gene rearrangement studies supported that the stomach tumor was a clonal B-cell lymphoma. Therefore, the diagnosis of B-LBL was made based on the stomach specimen.

  14. Stomach in Contact with the Bladder: A Sonographic Sign of Left Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Horacio; Meller, César; Vázquez, Lucía; Otaño, Lucas

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of the characteristics of the fetal stomach should be part of every routine prenatal ultrasound after 11 weeks. A position that has not been previously described in the literature is the stomach in contact with the bladder. We describe 6 cases with the ultrasonographic finding of the stomach in contact with the bladder, all of them in fetuses with left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Even though the reasons for this striking position of the stomach are not clear, our series highlights the fact that the visualization of the stomach in contact with the bladder may be a specific sonographic marker of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Gender matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torm, Nina; Bjerge, Benedikte; Trifkovic, Neda

    such training may be in closing the gender wage gap. We use a matched employer–employee panel dataset to assess why firms train and whether formal training affects wage outcomes in Vietnamese SMEs. Training is generally found to be firm-sponsored and specific in nature. We find that training is associated......, firm-sponsored on-the-job training helps close the gender wage gap.......In many developing countries the skill base is a cause of concern with respect to international competition. Firm-provided training is generally seen as an important tool for bridging the skills gap between labour force and private sector demand. Yet little is known about how successful...

  16. Support of long-wavelength topography on Mercury inferred from MESSENGER measurements of gravity and topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Peter B.; Zuber, Maria T.; Phillips, Roger J.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2015-02-01

    To explore the mechanisms of support of surface topography on Mercury, we have determined the admittances and correlations of topography and gravity in Mercury's northern hemisphere from measurements obtained by NASA's MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft. These admittances and correlations can be interpreted in the context of a number of theoretical scenarios, including flexural loading and dynamic flow. We find that long-wavelength (spherical harmonic degree l shallow crustal compensation and are weakly correlated with positive mass anomalies in the mantle. The center of the Caloris basin features some of the thinnest crust on the planet, and the basin is underlain by a large negative mass anomaly. We also explore models of dynamic flow in the presence of compositional stratification above the liquid core. If there is substantial compositional stratification in Mercury's solid outer shell, relaxation of perturbed compositional interfaces may be capable of creating and sustaining long-wavelength topography.

  17. [Gender mainstreaming and nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiu-Hung

    2011-12-01

    Gender mainstreaming is one of the most important strategies in promoting global gender equality. The Taiwan government launched policies on gender mainstreaming and gender impact assessment in 2007 in response to strong public and academic advocacy work. With rising awareness of gender issues, nursing professionals in Taiwan should keep pace with global trends and become actively involved in advancing gender-mainstreaming policies. This article shows that nursing professionals should prepare themselves by cultivating gender competence, understanding gender-related regulations, recognizing the importance of gender impact assessment implementation, integrating gender issues into nursing education, conducting gender-related research and participating in decision-making processes that promote gender mainstreaming. Nursing professionals should enhance their knowledge and understanding of gender mainstreaming-related issues and get involved in the gender-related decision-making process in order to enhance gender awareness and women's health and further the professional development of nurses.

  18. Gender Identity and Gender Confusion in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Gender Identity Development in Children Page Content Article Body ​What's the ... children, the match between biological sex and gender identity is not so ... gender development in children. See the related article, Gender Non- ...

  19. Corneal topography and soft contact lens fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Graeme; Schnider, Cristina; Hunt, Chris; Efron, Suzanne

    2010-05-01

    To determine which ocular topography variables affect soft contact lens fit. Fifty subjects each wore three pairs of soft lenses in random succession (Vistakon Acuvue 2, Vistakon Acuvue Advance, Ciba Vision Night & Day), and various aspects of lens fit were evaluated. The steeper base curves of each type were worn in one eye and the flatter base curves in the other eye. Corneal topography data were collected using a Medmont E300 corneal topographer (Camberwell, Australia). Corneal curvature, shape factor (SF), and corneal height were measured over a 10 mm chord and also over the maximum measurable diameter. These were measured in the horizontal, vertical, steepest, and flattest meridians. With each lens type, the steeper base curve provided the best fit on the greatest proportion of eyes and the significant differences in various aspects of fit were noted between base curves. For each lens type, there was no significant difference in mean K-reading between those eyes best fit with the steeper base curve and those eyes best fit with the flatter base curve. Two of the lenses showed a positive correlation between centration and horizontal corneal height (maximum), whereas one lens showed a negative correlation between centration and horizontal SF (SF = e). Several lenses showed a positive correlation between post-blink movement and horizontal or vertical corneal SF. The measurement of corneal topography using current Placido disc instrumentation allows a better prediction of soft lens fit than by keratometry, but it is not reliable enough to enable accurate selection of the best fitting base curve. Some correlations are evident between corneal measurements; however, trial fitting remains the method of choice for selection of soft lens base curve.

  20. Macromolecular Topography Leaps into the Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, J.; Bellamy, H.; Snell, E. H.; Borgstahl, G.

    2003-01-01

    A low-cost, real-time digital topography system is under development which will replace x-ray film and nuclear emulsion plates. The imaging system is based on an inexpensive surveillance camera that offers a 1000x1000 array of 8 im square pixels, anti-blooming circuitry, and very quick read out. Currently, the system directly converts x-rays to an image with no phosphor. The system is small and light and can be easily adapted to work with other crystallographic equipment. Preliminary images have been acquired of cubic insulin at the NSLS x26c beam line. NSLS x26c was configured for unfocused monochromatic radiation. Six reflections were collected with stills spaced from 0.002 to 0.001 degrees apart across the entire oscillation range that the reflections were in diffracting condition. All of the reflections were rotated to the vertical to reduce Lorentz and beam related effects. This particular CCD is designed for short exposure applications (much less than 1 sec) and so has a relatively high dark current leading to noisy raw images. The images are processed to remove background and other system noise with a multi-step approach including the use of wavelets, histogram, and mean window filtering. After processing, animations were constructed with the corresponding reflection profile to show the diffraction of the crystal volume vs. the oscillation angle as well as composite images showing the parts of the crystal with the strongest diffraction for each reflection. The final goal is to correlate features seen in reflection profiles captured with fine phi slicing to those seen in the topography images. With this development macromolecular topography finally comes into the digital age.

  1. Welcome to Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Richard

    2013-11-01

    I am delighted to welcome readers to this inaugural issue of Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties (STMP). In these days of citation indexes and academic reviews, it is a tough, and maybe a brave, job to start a new journal. But the subject area has never been more active and we are seeing genuine breakthroughs in the use of surfaces to control functional performance. Most manufactured parts rely on some form of control of their surface characteristics. The surface is usually defined as that feature on a component or device, which interacts with either the environment in which it is housed (or in which the device operates), or with another surface. The surface topography and material characteristics of a part can affect how fluids interact with it, how the part looks and feels and how two bearing parts will slide together. The need to control, and hence measure, surface features is becoming increasingly important as we move into a miniaturized world. Surface features can become the dominant functional features of a part and may become large in comparison to the overall size of an object. Research into surface texture measurement and characterization has been carried out for over a century and is now more active than ever, especially as new areal surface texture specification standards begin to be introduced. The range of disciplines for which the function of a surface relates to its topography is very diverse; from metal sheet manufacturing to art restoration, from plastic electronics to forensics. Until now, there has been no obvious publishing venue to bring together all these applications with the underlying research and theory, or to unite those working in academia with engineering and industry. Hence the creation of Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties . STMP will publish the best work being done across this broad discipline in one journal, helping researchers to share common themes and highlighting and promoting the extraordinary benefits this

  2. EAARL Coastal Topography - Sandy Hook 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Stevens, Sara; Yates, Xan; Bonisteel, Jamie M.

    2008-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of Gateway National Recreation Area's Sandy Hook Unit in New Jersey, acquired on May 16, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then

  3. Bessel Function Model for Corneal Topography

    CERN Document Server

    Okrasiński, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider a new nonlinear mathematical model for corneal topography formulated as two-point boudary value problem. We derive it from first physical principles and provide some mathematical analysis. The existence and uniqeness theorems are proved as well as various estimates on exact solution. At the end we fit the simplified model based on Modified Bessel Function of the First Kind with the real corneal data consisting of matrix of 123x123 points and obtain an error of order of 1%.

  4. Boerhaave’s syndrome in a patient with an upside down stomach: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shin; Hosoya, Yoshinori; Kurashina, Kentaro; Matsumoto, Shiro; Kanamaru, Rihito; Ui, Takashi; Haruta, Hidenori; Kitayama, Joji; Lefor, Alan K.; Sata, Naohiro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Spontaneous esophageal perforation, or Boerhaave’s syndrome, is a life-threating condition which usually requires emergent surgery. An upside down stomach is defined as a gastric volvulus in a huge supradiaphragmatic sac. In general, this condition can result in ischemia and perforation of the stomach. This is the first report of a patient with Boerhaave’s syndrome and an upside down stomach. Case presentation A 79-year-old woman presented with sudden epigastric pain following hematemesis. Evaluation of the patient showed both an esophageal perforation and an upside down stomach. Surgical drainage and irrigation of the mediastinum and pleural cavities were undertaken emergently. Due to the concurrent gastric volvulus, a gastrostomy was placed to fix and decompress the stomach. The patient had an uneventful hospital course and was discharged. Discussion and conclusion Boerhaave’s syndrome is a rare but severe complication caused by excessive vomiting, due to a sudden elevation in intraluminal esophageal pressure resulting in esophageal perforation. Acute gastric volvulus can result in ischemia and perforation of the stomach, but has not previously been reported with esophageal perforation. The most likely mechanism associating an upside down stomach with Boerhaave’s syndrome is acute gastric outlet obstruction resulting in vomiting, and subsequent esophageal perforation. Perforation of the esophagus as well as perforation of the stomach must be considered in patients with an upside down stomach although both upside down stomach and Boerhaave’s syndrome are rare clinical entities. PMID:26710329

  5. Measurement of the topography of human cadaver lenses using the PAR corneal topography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Viviana; Manns, Fabrice; Zipper, Stanley; Sandadi, Samith; Hamaoui, Marie; Tahi, Hassan; Ho, Arthur; Parel, Jean-Marie A.

    2001-06-01

    To measure the radius of curvature and asphericity of the anterior and posterior surfaces of crystalline lenses of human Eye-Bank eyes using the PAR Corneal Topography System. The measured values will be used in an optical model of the eye for lens refilling procedures.

  6. Analysis Of Scoliosis By Back Shape Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Smith, Alan R.; Harris, John D.

    1983-07-01

    The use of surface topography for the assessment of scoliotic deformity in the clinic depends firstly on the quality of measures which reliably characterise deformity of the back, and secondly on the ease and speed with which these measures can be applied. A method of analysis of back shape measurements is presented which can be applied to any topographic measurement system. Measures presented are substantially independent of minor changes in the patient's posture in rotation and flexion from one clinic to the next, and yet sensitive enough to indicate significant improvement or degeneration of the disease. The presentation shows (1) horizontal cross-sections at ten levels up the back from sacrum to vertebra prominens, (2) angles of rotation of the surface over a small region about the spine, (3) three vertical profiles following the line of the spine, and (4) measures of maximum kyphosis and lordosis. Dependence on the operator has been reduced to a minimum. Extreme care in positioning the patient is unnecessary and those spinous processes which are easily palpable, the vertebra prominens and the two dimples over the posterior superior iliac spines are marked. Analysis proceeds entirely automatically once the basic shape data have been supplied. Applications of the technique to indirect moire topography and a television topographic measurement system are described.

  7. Topography Influences Adherent Cell Regulation of Osteoclastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, M; Cooper, L F; Ogino, Y; Mendonca, D; Liang, R; Yang, S; Mendonca, G; Uoshima, K

    2016-03-01

    The importance of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption in the process of osseointegration has not been widely considered. In this study, cell culture was used to investigate the hypothesis that the function of implant-adherent bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in osteoclastogenesis is influenced by surface topography. BMSCs isolated from femur and tibia of Sprague-Dawley rats were seeded onto 3 types of titanium surfaces (smooth, micro, and nano) and a control surface (tissue culture plastic) with or without osteogenic supplements. After 3 to 14 d, conditioned medium (CM) was collected. Subsequently, rat bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) were cultured in media supplemented with soluble receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) as well as BMSC CM from each of the 4 surfaces. Gene expression levels of soluble RANKL, osteoprotegerin, tumor necrosis factor α, and M-CSF in cultured BMSCs at different time points were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The number of differentiated osteoclastic cells was determined after tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. Analysis of variance and t test were used for statistical analysis. The expression of prominent osteoclast-promoting factors tumor necrosis factor α and M-CSF was increased by BMSCs cultured on both micro- and nanoscale titanium topographies (P cells at the implant-bone interface may indirectly control osteoclastogenesis and bone accrual around endosseous implants. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  8. Foregut duplication cysts of the stomach with respiratory epithelium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Theodosios Theodosopoulos; Athanasios Marinis; Konstantinos Karapanos; Georgios Vassilikostas; Nikolaos Dafnios; Lazaros Samanides; Eleni Carvounis

    2007-01-01

    Gastrointestinal duplication is a congenital rare disease entity. Gastric duplication cysts seem to appear even more rarely. Herein, two duplications cysts of the stomach in a 46 year-old female patient are presented.Abdominal computed tomography demonstrated a cystic lesion attached to the posterior aspect of the gastric fundus, while upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was negative. An exploratory laparotomy revealed a non-communicating cyst and a smaller similar cyst embedded in the gastrosplenic ligament. Excision of both cysts along with the spleen was performed and pathology reported two smooth muscle coated cysts with a pseudostratified ciliated epithelial lining (respiratory type).

  9. Plexiform angiomyxoid myofi broblastic tumor of the stomach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshihisa; Takahashi; Masako; Suzuki; Toshio; Fukusato

    2010-01-01

    Plexiform angiomyxoid myofibroblastic tumor of the stomach is a unique mesenchymal tumor that we first described in 2007.The tumor is very rare,and to date,only 18 cases confirmed by immunohistochemistry have been reported in the literature.The patients' ages ranged from 7 to 75 years(mean,43 years),and the male-to-female ratio was approximately 1:1.Representative clinical symptoms are ulceration,associated upper gastrointestinal bleeding(hematemesis),and anemia.The tumors are located at the antrum in all c...

  10. Does stomach have mesentery? Learning from gastric cancer surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Objective:This study will first confirm the existence of mesogastrium (gastric mesentery) and then examine its architecture and suggest improvements in the surgical methods for excision of gastric cancer.Methods:By employing video laparoscopy, a number of proximal segments of dorsal mesogastrium were found being extensively scattered around the pancreas. In this study, these segments were histologically analyzed and studied.Results:The structure of the mesogastrium was identiifed intraoperatively and then conifrmed both grossly and histologically atfer the operation. Conclusion:This study suggests for the first time a “Table Model” to describe the relationship between the stomach and gastric mesenteries.

  11. EAARL Coastal Topography - Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Sallenger, Abby; Wright, C. Wayne; Travers, Laurinda J.; Lebonitte, James

    2008-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived coastal topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey areas for the purposes of geomorphic change studies following major storm events. The USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program's National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project is a multi-year undertaking to identify and quantify the vulnerability of U.S. shorelines to coastal change hazards such as effects of severe storms, sea-level rise, and shoreline erosion and retreat. Airborne Lidar surveys conducted during periods of calm weather are compared to surveys collected following extreme storms in order to quantify the resulting coastal change. Other applications of high-resolution topography include habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, volumetric change detection, and event assessment. The purpose of this project is to provide highly detailed and accurate datasets of the northern Gulf of Mexico coastal areas, acquired on September 19, 2004, immediately following Hurricane Ivan. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532 nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking RGB (red-green-blue) digital camera, a high-resolution multi

  12. Topography Of Helicobacter Pylori Gastritis In Different Biopsy Sites Of Gastric Mucosa Of Residents Of A High Risk Area For Gastric Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikaeili J

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many recent studies have examined potential risk factors of H. pylori gastritis to improve our understanding of the early events in gastric carcinogenesis. We evaluated the extent and topography of chronic gastritis in a high risk area for gastric cardia cancer and investigated the critical role of H.pylori, risk index and age in its pathogenesis. Materials and Methods: During a national population-based endoscopic survey, we enrolled 508 participants aged ≥40 from urban and rural areas of Meshkin-Shahr, Ardebil province of Iran. After informed consent, all underwent complete upper GI endoscopy. At least one mucosal biopsy was obtained from 6 standard sites: three of antrum (sites 1, 2, 3, two of corpus (sites 4, 5 and one of cardia (site 6. Severity, activity and combined inflammatory scores (CIS of chronic gastritis and H.pylori infection status were assessed according to modified Sydney Classification of Gastritis. Statistical effects of H.pylori, age, gender, and residency place on mean gastritis severity, activity and CIS were separately calculated in each site. Results: Total of 508 participants with mean age (±SD of 54.6(±SD were enrolled. 234(46.1% were male and 274(53.9% were female. Histologically 80.5% of cases were H.pylori positive. Mean activity scores of all sites except for site 5 are significantly (P<0.01 higher in H.pylori + cases. Mean CIS of all sites was significantly (P<0.01 higher in H.pylori + patients. In 44% of infected subjects, CIS of the corpus was at least equally as severe as that in antrum. Also in 54% of H.pylori + cases, cardia’s CIS was ≥ than antral CIS. Age had a significant (P<0.01 negative relationship with CIS of antral site, but this relationship in cardia was positive and more potent. Conclusion: H.pylori is the main cause of gastritis activity in all sites of stomach; this causality is more potent in antrum and cardia. Continuous cardia inflammation in advanced age may contribute to

  13. Corneal Topography Analysis of Stromal Corneal Dystrophies

    OpenAIRE

    Kocluk, Yusuf; Yalniz-Akkaya, Zuleyha; Burcu, Ayse; Ornek, Firdevs

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to compare the corneal topography and tomography parameters of macular corneal dystrophy (MCD), granular corneal dystrophy (GCD) and lattice corneal dystrophy (LCD) patients obtained by Scheimpflug imaging system. Methods: The charts, photographs and topography images of patients were reviewed retrospectively. This study included 73 eyes of 73 patients (28 MCD, 20 GCG and 25 LCD patients). Topography images were obtained by Pentacam (Oculus Optikgerate, Wetzlar, Germany...

  14. Dynamic Topography at Earth's Surface: Fact or Fiction? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithgow-Bertelloni, C. R.; Silver, P. G.

    2009-12-01

    Contributions to Earth’s surface topography range from short-wavelength uncompensated features due to tectonic activity, to variations in crustal structure and long-wavelength deflections of the lithosphere caused by mantle dynamics. The latter we call dynamic topography. Dynamic topography elevates or depresses the surface even if the density anomaly giving rise to flow is deep in the mantle. Dynamic topography is also a major contributor to Earth’s gravitational potential and to surface deformation. However, direct observations of dynamic topography are elusive, because signals are obscured by the isostatic contribution due to crustal and lithospheric structure. The only seemingly unequivocal signals of dynamically supported topography have been found over mantle upwellings on both continents (Africa [Lithgow-Bertelloni and Silver, 1998] and Arabia [Daradich et al., 2004]) and oceanic basins (North-Atlantic [Conrad et al., 2004]). Recent work on Africa’s geomorphic history [Moore et al., 2009] and North Atlantic gravity and topography have called even these results into questions. In downwelling regions (near slabs) no clear signals have been found. I will explore why this dichotomy may exist and relate it to the need for dynamic topography in mantle flow models, with an eye towards the effects of phase transitions, lateral variations in viscosity and layered convection. I will also present recent results on dynamic topography over flat slab segments that overturn the conventional wisdom and explain basin topography in the Andean foreland. Along with the new models I will discuss a recent global lithospheric structure model with which to compute the residual topography, i.e. the “observed” dynamic topography.

  15. Gravity Terrain Effect of the Seafloor Topography in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lun-Tao Tong Tai-Rong Guo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Gravity terrain correction is used to compensate for the gravitational effects of the topography residual to the Bouguer plate. The seafloor topography off the eastern offshore of Taiwan is extremely rugged, and the depth of the sea bottom could be greater than 5000 m. In order to evaluate the terrain effect caused by the seafloor topography, a modern computer algorithm is used to calculate the terrain correction based on the digital elevation model (DEM.

  16. The linguistics of gender.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berkum, J.J.A.

    1996-01-01

    This chapter explores grammatical gender as a linguistic phenomenon. First, I define gender in terms of agreement, and look at the parts of speech that can take gender agreement. Because it relates to assumptions underlying much psycholinguistic gender research, I also examine the reasons why gender

  17. Roles of radiation dose and chemotherapy in the etiology of stomach cancer as a second malignancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Belt-Dusebout, Alexandra W; Aleman, Berthe M P; Besseling, Gijs

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the roles of radiation dose, chemotherapy, and other factors in the etiology of stomach cancer in long-term survivors of testicular cancer or Hodgkin lymphoma. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We conducted a cohort study in 5,142 survivors of testicular cancer or Hodgkin lymphoma treated...... in the Netherlands between 1965 and 1995. In a nested case-control study, detailed information on treatment, smoking, gastrointestinal diseases, and family history was collected for 42 patients with stomach cancer and 126 matched controls. For each subject, the mean radiation dose to the stomach was estimated....... Relative risks (RRs) of stomach cancer and the radiation-related excess relative risk (ERR) per gray were calculated by conditional logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The risk of stomach cancer was 3.4-fold increased compared with the general population. The risk increased with increasing mean stomach...

  18. Bias in estimating food consumption of fish from stomach-content analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna; Lewy, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This study presents an analysis of the bias introduced by using simplified methods to calculate food intake of fish from stomach contents. Three sources of bias were considered: (1) the effect of estimating consumption based on a limited number of stomach samples, (2) the effect of using average...... contents derived from pooled stomach samples rather than individual stomachs, and (3) the effect of ignoring biological factors that affect the evacuation of prey. Estimating consumption from only two stomach samples yielded results close to the actual intake rate in a simulation study. In contrast to this......, a serious positive bias was introduced by estimating food intake from the contents of pooled stomach samples. An expression is given that can be used to correct analytically for this bias. A new method, which takes into account the distribution and evacuation of individual prey types as well as the effect...

  19. Origin of bending in uncoated microcantilever - Surface topography?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmoji, K.; Prabakar, K.; Tripura Sundari, S., E-mail: sundari@igcar.gov.in; Jayapandian, J.; Tyagi, A. K.; Sundar, C. S. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2014-01-27

    We provide direct experimental evidence to show that difference in surface topography on opposite sides of an uncoated microcantilever induces bending, upon exposure to water molecules. Examination on opposite sides of the microcantilever by atomic force microscopy reveals the presence of localized surface features on one side, which renders the induced stress non-uniform. Further, the root mean square inclination angle characterizing the surface topography shows a difference of 73° between the opposite sides. The absence of deflection in another uncoated microcantilever having similar surface topography confirms that in former microcantilever bending is indeed induced by differences in surface topography.

  20. Paraneoplastic neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder associated with stomach carcinoid tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harbi, Talal; Al-Sarawi, Adnan; Binfalah, Mohamed; Dermime, Said

    2014-09-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), or Devic's syndrome, is an autoimmune central nervous system demyelinating disorder primarily affecting the spinal cord and the optic nerves. It is characterized by the presence of NMO antibodies, alongside clinical and radiological findings. NMO and NMO-spectrum disorders (NMO-SD) have been reported in autoimmune disorders, and are infrequently described as a paraneoplastic syndrome with cancers of lung, breast, and carcinoid tumors of the thyroid. We report a patient who presented with severe vomiting, blurring of vision, vertigo, diplopia, left hemiparesis and hemisensory loss and ataxia. She was found to have a longitudinally-extensive demyelinating lesion extending from the medulla to the upper cervical spinal cord on MRI. Her gastric endoscopy revealed carcinoid tumor of the stomach, and classic paraneoplastic antibodies in the serum were negative. She had extremely high serum gastrin level and high titer of NMO IgG autoantibody. The patient made an excellent recovery with tumor resection and immunotherapy, with both clinical and radiological improvement. On rare instances, NMO or NMO-SD may present as a paraneoplastic neurological syndrome associated with carcinoid tumor of the stomach.

  1. Endoscopic banding ligation can effectively resect hyperplastic Polyps of stomach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ching-Chu Lo; Wen-Chi Chen; E-Ming Wang; Kwok-Hung Lai; Ping-I Hsu; Gin-Ho Lo; Hui-Hwa Tseng; Hui-Chun Chen; Ping-Ning Hsu; Chiun-Ku Lin; Hoi-Hung Chan; Wei-Lun Tsai

    2003-01-01

    AIM: Bleeding and perforation are the major and serious complications associated with endoscopic polypectomy. To develop a safe and effective method to resect hyperplastic polyps of the stomach, we employed rubber bands to strangulate hyperplastic polyps and to determine the possibility of inducing avascular necrosis in these lesions.METHODS: Forty-seven patients with 72 hyperplastic polyps were treated with endoscopic banding ligation (EBL). On 14 days after endoscopic ligation, follow-up endoscopies were performed to assess the outcomes of the strangulated polyps.RESULTS: After being strangulated by the rubber bands,all of the polyps immediately became congested (100 %),and then developed cyanotic changes (100 %) approximately 4 minutes later. On follow-up endoscopy 2 weeks later, all the polyps except one had dropped off. The only one residual polyp shrank with a rubber band in its base, and it also dropped off spontaneously during subsequent follow-up.No complications occurred during or following the ligation procedures.CONCLUSION: Gastric polyps develop avascular necrosis following ligation by rubber bands. Employing suction equipment, EBL can easily capture sessile polyps. It is an easy, safe and effective method to eradicate hyperplastic polyps of the stomach.

  2. Identification of Helicobacter pylori genes that contribute to stomach colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, David N; Shepherd, Benjamin; Kraemer, Petra; Hall, Michael K; Sycuro, Laura K; Pinto-Santini, Delia M; Salama, Nina R

    2007-02-01

    Chronic infection of the human stomach by Helicobacter pylori leads to a variety of pathological sequelae, including peptic ulcer and gastric cancer, resulting in significant human morbidity and mortality. Several genes have been implicated in disease related to H. pylori infection, including the vacuolating cytotoxin and the cag pathogenicity island. Other factors important for the establishment and maintenance of infection include urease enzyme production, motility, iron uptake, and stress response. We utilized a C57BL/6 mouse infection model to query a collection of 2,400 transposon mutants in two different bacterial strain backgrounds for H. pylori genetic loci contributing to colonization of the stomach. Microarray-based tracking of transposon mutants allowed us to monitor the behavior of transposon insertions in 758 different gene loci. Of the loci measured, 223 (29%) had a predicted colonization defect. These included previously described H. pylori virulence genes, genes implicated in virulence in other pathogenic bacteria, and 81 hypothetical proteins. We have retested 10 previously uncharacterized candidate colonization gene loci by making independent null alleles and have confirmed their colonization phenotypes by using competition experiments and by determining the dose required for 50% infection. Of the genetic loci retested, 60% have strain-specific colonization defects, while 40% have phenotypes in both strain backgrounds for infection, highlighting the profound effect of H. pylori strain variation on the pathogenic potential of this organism.

  3. Nardilysin regulates inflammation, metaplasia, and tumors in murine stomach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuto; Ikuta, Kozo; Kimura, Takeshi; Chiba, Tsutomu; Oshima, Hiroko; Oshima, Masanobu; Nishi, Eiichiro; Seno, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Chronic inflammation contributes to a wide variety of human disorders. In the stomach, longstanding gastritis often results in structural alterations in the gastric mucosa, including metaplastic changes and gastric cancers. Therefore, it is important to elucidate factors that are involved in gastric inflammation. Nardilysin (N-arginine dibasic convertase; Nrdc) is a metalloendopeptidase of the M16 family that promotes ectodomain shedding of the precursor forms of various growth factors and cytokines by enhancing the protease activities of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) proteins. Here, we have demonstrated that Nrdc crucially regulates gastric inflammation caused by Helicobacter felis infection or forced expression of prostaglandin E2 in K19-C2mE mice. Metaplastic changes following gastric inflammation were suppressed by the deletion of Nrdc. Furthremore, the deletion of Nrdc significantly suppressed N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced gastric tumorigenesis in the murine stomach. These data may lead to a global therapeutic approach against various gastric disorders by targeting Nrdc. PMID:28230087

  4. Stomach-interposed cholecystogastrojejunostomy: A palliative approach for periampullary carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Yi Hao; Xiang-Qian Su; Jia-Fu Ji; Xin-Fu Huang; Bao-Cai Xing

    2005-01-01

    AIM: For patients of periampullary carcinoma found to be unresectable at the time of laparotomy, surgical palliation is the primary choice of treatment. Satisfactory palliation to maximize the quality of life with low morbidity and mortality is the gold standard for a good procedure.Our aim is to explore such a procedure as an alternative to the traditional ones.METHODS: A modified double-bypass procedure is performed by, in addition to the usual gastrojejunostomy,implanting a mushroom catheter from the gall bladder into the jejunum through the interposed stomach as an internal drainage. A retrospective review was performed including 22 patients with incurable periampullary carcinomas who underwent this surgery.RESULTS: Both jaundice and impaired liver function improved significantly after surgery. No postoperative deaths, cholangitis, gastrojejunal, biliary anastomotic leaks, recurrent jaundice or late gastric outlet obstruction occurred. Delayed gastric emptying occurred in two patients. The total surgical time was 150±26 min. The estimated blood loss was 160±25 mL. The mean length of hospital stay after surgery was 22±6 d. The mean survival was 8 mo (range 1.5-18 mo).CONCLUSION: In patients of unresectable periampullary malignancies, stomach-interposed cholecystogastrojejunostomy is a safe, simple and efficient technique for palliation.

  5. Primary Ewing Sarcoma/Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safi Khuri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/PNET is a tumor of small round cells arising in skeletal tissues. These tumors rarely arise in the stomach. We present a 31-year-old healthy female patient who was admitted to our surgical ward due to upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Upper endoscopy revealed a large ulcerated bleeding mass originating from the lesser curvature. Biopsy revealed tumor cell immunoreactivity positive for CD99, vimentin, and Ki67 (an index of proliferation. These findings were compatible with gastric ES/PNET. The fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis result for the EWSR1 gene rearrangement (11: 22 translocation was positive. The patient refused neoadjuvant treatment and thus underwent an operation during which a mass at the lesser curvature of the stomach was found. The mass was adhering to the pancreatic tail and to the mesentery of the transverse and descending colon. Total gastrectomy, distal pancreatectomy, splenectomy, and left adrenalectomy were done. The patient refused adjuvant treatment. She is free of disease 3 years after surgery.

  6. Primary Ewing Sarcoma/Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Stomach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuri, Safi; Gilshtein, Hayim; Sayidaa, Sa'd; Bishara, Bishara; Kluger, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES/PNET) is a tumor of small round cells arising in skeletal tissues. These tumors rarely arise in the stomach. We present a 31-year-old healthy female patient who was admitted to our surgical ward due to upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Upper endoscopy revealed a large ulcerated bleeding mass originating from the lesser curvature. Biopsy revealed tumor cell immunoreactivity positive for CD99, vimentin, and Ki67 (an index of proliferation). These findings were compatible with gastric ES/PNET. The fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis result for the EWSR1 gene rearrangement (11: 22 translocation) was positive. The patient refused neoadjuvant treatment and thus underwent an operation during which a mass at the lesser curvature of the stomach was found. The mass was adhering to the pancreatic tail and to the mesentery of the transverse and descending colon. Total gastrectomy, distal pancreatectomy, splenectomy, and left adrenalectomy were done. The patient refused adjuvant treatment. She is free of disease 3 years after surgery. PMID:27920700

  7. Laser-induced fluorescence detection of stomach cancer using hypericin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dets, Sergiy M.; Buryi, Alexander N.; Melnik, Ivan S.; Joffe, Alexander Y.; Rusina, Tatyana V.

    1996-12-01

    Natural photodynamic pigment hypericin having intrinsic antitumor properties was applied for fluorescence detection of cancer. Clinical investigation of hypericin was performed to ensure high tumor/normal fluorescence contrast in digestion organs. Laser-induced autofluorescence and exogenous fluorescence analysis of normal tissue and stomach adenocarcinoma was performed using helium-cadmium laser (8 mW, 442 nm). Twenty-one patients have undergone procedure of fluorescence detection of tumors before and after photosensitization. For sensitization of patients we used five or seven capsules containing hypericin in amount of 1 mg which have been administered orally. Strong yellow-red fluorescence of hypericin in tissue with maximum at 603 nm and autofluorescence peak at 535 nm gives an intensity ratio I(603 nm)/I(535 nm) of 2 - 2.5 from cancerous tissue and provides 85% specificity. Preliminary in vivo results of auto- and fluorescence analysis using hypericin photosensitization from one patient with esophageal cancer and eleven patients with stomach cancer proven histologically are encouraging and indicate the high reliability of laser-induced fluorescence technique with hypericin in detection of early stage malignant lesions.

  8. A middle age addicted man with caustic stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Nouri Broujerdi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The term caustic generally refers to alkaline and the term corrosive generally refers to acidic agents' injury; however, in medical literature caustic is frequently a term applied to both substances. Ingested alkali typically damage the esophagus more than stomach or duodenum, whereas acids usually cause more severe gastric injury. Since esophagus has a slightly alkaline pH, its epithelium is more resistant to acids, so that only 6 to 20% of those who ingest these substances present lesions in this organ. Case : A middle-aged addicted man who drunk hydrochloric acid accidentally had extensive necrosis of the stomach with remarkable sparing of the esophagus on second look exploration. A total gastrectomy with a Roux-en-Y esophago-jejunostomy with feeding jejunostomy was performed. Conclusion : In caustic GI injury, patients who are operated on and found to have no evidence of extensive esophago-gastric necrosis, a biopsy of the posterior gastric wall should be performed to exclude occult injury. If histologically there is a question of viability, a second look operation should be performed within 36 hours.

  9. Liposarcoma of the stomach: A rare case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Konstantinos Tepetes; Gregory Christodoulidis; Michael E Spyridakis; Maria Nakou; George Koukoulis; Konstantinos Hatzitheofilou

    2007-01-01

    Liposarcoma is the most common soft tissue sarcoma and accounts for 15%-20% of all mesenchymal malignancies. The tumor occurs most frequently in the limbs, retroperitoneum and rarely has a visceral location.We report a case of a gastric liposarcoma in a male patient. A 68 years old male patient was admitted to hospital for abdominal discomfort and fullness lasting for a month. He reported rare episodes of vomiting.The CT examination revealed a large epigastric mass(8 cm × 4 cm) involving the lesser curvature of the stomach, in contact with the pancreas and gallbladder.Fatty areas within the mass were evident. A total gastrectomy together with cholecystectomy was performed. The histopathological diagnosis was a well differentiated liposarcoma. The patient did not undergo any adjuvant treatment, he is under close follow up and two years later he is disease free. We report this case due to the rarity of this tumor in the stomach (nine cases reported in the literature).

  10. Real-time monitoring of ischemia inside stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahirbegi, Islam Bogachan; Mir, Mònica; Samitier, Josep

    2013-02-15

    The low pH in the gastric juice of the stomach makes it difficult to fabricate stable and functional all-solid-state pH ISE sensors to sense ischemia, mainly because of anion interference and adhesion problem between the ISE membrane and the electrode surface. In this work, the adhesion of ISE membrane on solid surface at low pH was improved by modifying the surface with a conductive substrate containing hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups. This creates a stable and robust candidate for low pH applications. Moreover, anion interference problem at low pH was solved by integration of all-solid-state ISE and internal reference electrodes on an array. So, the same tendencies of anion interferences for all-solid-state ISE and all-solid-state reference electrodes cancel each other in differential potentiometric detection. The developed sensor presents a novel all-solid-state potentiometric, miniaturized and mass producible pH ISE sensor for detecting ischemia on the stomach tissue on an array designed for endoscopic applications.

  11. Impairment of the proximal to distal tonic gradient in the human diabetic stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Y W; Hong, Y S; Ko, E-J; Lee, J Y; Min, B-H; Sohn, T S; Kim, J J; Rhee, P-L

    2014-02-01

    Little has been known about the contractile characteristics of diabetic stomach. We investigated spontaneous contractions and responses to acetylcholine in the gastric muscle in diabetic patients and non-diabetic control subjects according to the region of stomach. Gastric specimens were obtained from 26 diabetics and 55 controls who underwent gastrectomy at Samsung Medical Center between February 2008 and November 2011. Isometric force measurements were performed using circular muscle strips from the different regions of stomach under basal condition and in response to acetylcholine. Basal tone of control was higher in the proximal stomach than in the distal (0.63 g vs 0.46 g, p = 0.027). However, in diabetics, basal tone was not significantly different between the proximal and distal stomach (0.75 g vs 0.62 g, p = 0.32). The distal stomach of diabetics had higher basal tone and lower frequency than that of control (0.62 g vs 0.46 g, p = 0.049 and 4.0/min vs 4.9/min, p = 0.049, respectively). After exposure to acetylcholine, dose-dependent increases of basal tone, peak, and area under the curve (AUC) were noticed in both proximal and distal stomach of the two groups. In the proximal stomach, however, the dose-dependent increase of basal tone and AUC was less prominent in diabetics than in control. On the contrary to control, the proximal to distal tonic gradient was not observed in diabetic stomach. Diabetic stomach also had lower frequency of spontaneous contraction in the distal stomach and less acetylcholine-induced positive inotropic effect in the proximal stomach than control. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Carcinoma of the stomach: A review of epidemiology, pathogenesis, molecular genetics and chemoprevention

    OpenAIRE

    Nagini, Siddavaram

    2012-01-01

    Carcinoma of the stomach is still the second most common cause of cancer death worldwide, although the incidence and mortality have fallen dramatically over the last 50 years in many regions. The incidence of gastric cancer varies in different parts of the world and among various ethnic groups. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, the 5-year survival rate of stomach cancer is only 20 per cent. Stomach cancer can be classified into intestinal and diffuse types based on epidemiological ...

  13. The effect of stomach fullness on food intake of whiting in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna

    2002-01-01

    The probability of a North Sea whiting Merlangius merlangus stomach containing fresh food was depressed when partially digested food was already present in the stomach. The lowered probability was detected even at levels where the fish was physiologically able to ingest an average meal. The feeding...... probability of c. 15% of the fish caught was predicted to be severely decreased at the level of partially digested food found in the stomachs. No effect of stomach fullness on meal size was found. indicating that the saturation is affecting search activity rather than prey or meal size selection. The diurnal...

  14. The synchronous prevalence of colorectal neoplasms in patients with stomach cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Su; Jung, Woon Tae; Kim, Cha Young; Ha, Chang Yoon; Min, Hyun Ju; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Tae Hyo

    2011-10-01

    The association between stomach cancer and colorectal cancer is controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the synchronous prevalence of colorectal neoplasms in patients with stomach cancer. A total of 123 patients with stomach cancer (86 male) and 246 consecutive, age- and sex-matched persons without stomach cancer were analyzed from July 2005 to June 2010. All of them underwent colonoscopy within 6 months after undergoing gastroscopy. The prevalence of colorectal neoplasms was significantly higher in the stomach cancer group (35.8%) than in the control group (17.9%) (P Colorectal neoplasms were more prevalent in the patients with stomach cancer (odds ratio [OR], 3.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.71 to 5.63). In particular, the difference in the prevalence of colorectal neoplasms was more prominent in the patients above 50 years old (OR, 3.54; 95% CI, 1.80 to 6.98). The results showed that the synchronous prevalence of colorectal neoplasms was higher in patients with stomach cancer than in those without stomach cancer. Therefore, patients with stomach cancer should be regarded as a high-risk group for colorectal neoplasms, and colonoscopy should be recommended for screening.

  15. The effect of stomach fullness on food intake of whiting in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna

    2002-01-01

    The probability of a North Sea whiting Merlangius merlangus stomach containing fresh food was depressed when partially digested food was already present in the stomach. The lowered probability was detected even at levels where the fish was physiologically able to ingest an average meal. The feeding...... probability of c. 15% of the fish caught was predicted to be severely decreased at the level of partially digested food found in the stomachs. No effect of stomach fullness on meal size was found. indicating that the saturation is affecting search activity rather than prey or meal size selection. The diurnal...

  16. Australian topography from Seasat overland altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Herbert; Brenner, Anita C.

    1990-01-01

    Retracking of overland returns from the Seasat altimeter using algorithms originally developed for recovering elevations over ice has led to the successful recovery of high quality continental topography over Australia and other continents. Cross-over analysis both before and after orbit adjustment shows the altimetric data over land to have a 2-3 m quality. Direct comparison of gridded Seasat data with surface data re-averaged in the same way shows excellent agreement except where Seasat data are sparse, due either to poor track spacing or to dropouts caused by loss of tracker lock over steeply sloping ground. These results suggest that useful topographic data can be derived from Seasat and the more recent Geosat altimeters for parts of the world where surface data are few or of poor quality.

  17. EAARL topography: Dry Tortugas National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Patterson, Matt; Nayegandhi, Amar; Patterson, Judd

    2008-01-01

    This lidar-derived submarine topography map was produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Program, National Park Service (NPS) South Florida/Caribbean Network Inventory and Monitoring Program, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Wallops Flight Facility. One objective of this research is to create techniques to survey coral reefs for the purposes of habitat mapping, ecological monitoring, change detection, ad event assessment (for example: bleaching, hurricanes, disease outbreaks). As part of this project, data from an innovative instrument under development at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, the NASA Experimental Airborne Advanced Research Lidar (EAARL) are being used. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in this realm for measuring water depth and conducting cross-environment surveys. High spectral resolution, water-column correction, and low costs were found to be key factors in providing accurate and affordable imagery to managers of coastal tropical habitats.

  18. Mean Dynamic Topography of the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Sinead Louise; Mcadoo, David C.; Laxon, Seymour W.; Zwally, H. Jay; Yi, Donghui; Ridout, Andy; Giles, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    ICESat and Envisat altimetry data provide measurements of the instantaneous sea surface height (SSH) across the Arctic Ocean, using lead and open water elevation within the sea ice pack. First, these data were used to derive two independent mean sea surface (MSS) models by stacking and averaging along-track SSH profiles gathered between 2003 and 2009. The ICESat and Envisat MSS data were combined to construct the high-resolution ICEn MSS. Second, we estimate the 5.5-year mean dynamic topography (MDT) of the Arctic Ocean by differencing the ICEn MSS with the new GOCO02S geoid model, derived from GRACE and GOCE gravity. Using these satellite-only data we map the major features of Arctic Ocean dynamical height that are consistent with in situ observations, including the topographical highs and lows of the Beaufort and Greenland Gyres, respectively. Smaller-scale MDT structures remain largely unresolved due to uncertainties in the geoid at short wavelengths.

  19. Gravity and topography. [of planet Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, P. B.; Banerdt, W. B.; Lindal, G. F.; Sjogren, W. L.; Slade, M. A.; Bills, B. G.; Smith, D. E.; Balmino, G.

    1992-01-01

    The paper summarizes the fundamental gravity field constants for Mars and a brief historical review of early determinations and current-day accurate estimates. These include the planetary gravitational constant, global figure, dynamical oblateness, mean density, and rotational period. Topographic results from data acquired from the 1967 opposition to the most recent, 1988, opposition are presented. Both global and selected local topographic variations and features are discussed. The inertia tensor and the nonhydrostatic component of Mars are examined in detail. The dimensionless moment of inertia about the rotational axis is 0.4 for a body of uniform density and 0.37621 if Mars were in hydrostatic equilibrium. By comparing models of both gravity and topography, inferences are made about the degree and depth of compensation in the interior and stresses in the lithosphere.

  20. Corneal topography matching by iterative registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjie; Elsheikh, Ahmed; Davey, Pinakin G; Wang, Weizhuo; Bao, Fangjun; Mottershead, John E

    2014-11-01

    Videokeratography is used for the measurement of corneal topography in overlapping portions (or maps) which must later be joined together to form the overall topography of the cornea. The separate portions are measured from different viewpoints and therefore must be brought together by registration of measurement points in the regions of overlap. The central map is generally the most accurate, but all maps are measured with uncertainty that increases towards the periphery. It becomes the reference (or static) map, and the peripheral (or dynamic) maps must then be transformed by rotation and translation so that the overlapping portions are matched. The process known as registration, of determining the necessary transformation, is a well-understood procedure in image analysis and has been applied in several areas of science and engineering. In this article, direct search optimisation using the Nelder-Mead algorithm and several variants of the iterative closest/corresponding point routine are explained and applied to simulated and real clinical data. The measurement points on the static and dynamic maps are generally different so that it becomes necessary to interpolate, which is done using a truncated series of Zernike polynomials. The point-to-plane iterative closest/corresponding point variant has the advantage of releasing certain optimisation constraints that lead to persistent registration and alignment errors when other approaches are used. The point-to-plane iterative closest/corresponding point routine is found to be robust to measurement noise, insensitive to starting values of the transformation parameters and produces high-quality results when using real clinical data.

  1. Gender Awareness Raising & EFL

    OpenAIRE

    長坂, 達彦; ナガサカ, タツヒコ; Tatsuhiko, Nagasaka

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this short paper is to provide an example of classroom application of the concept of gender roles within the broader framework of Gender Awareness. More generally, it attempts to introduce growing interest in Gender Awareness within the context of changing perspective on Language Learning. What is understood by "gender roles" or "gender domain" will be examined. Explicit and traditional concept of gender roles will be briefly discussed with the relationship between explicit and imp...

  2. Gender Awareness Raising & EFL

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this short paper is to provide an example of classroom application of the concept of gender roles within the broader framework of Gender Awareness. More generally, it attempts to introduce growing interest in Gender Awareness within the context of changing perspective on Language Learning. What is understood by "gender roles" or "gender domain" will be examined. Explicit and traditional concept of gender roles will be briefly discussed with the relationship between explicit and imp...

  3. Wettability influences cell behavior on superhydrophobic surfaces with different topographies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourenco, B.N.; Marchioli, G.; Song, W; Reis, R L; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Karperien, Hermanus Bernardus Johannes; van Apeldoorn, Aart A.; Mano, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Surface wettability and topography are recognized as critical factors influencing cell behavior on biomaterials. So far only few works have reported cell responses on surfaces exhibiting extreme wettability in combination with surface topography. The goal of this work is to study whether cell behavi

  4. Wettability influences cell behavior on superhydrophobic surfaces with different topographies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lourenco, B.N.; Marchioli, G.; Song, W; Reis, R.L.; Blitterswijk, van C.A.; Karperien, H.B.J.; Apeldoorn, van A.A.; Mano, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Surface wettability and topography are recognized as critical factors influencing cell behavior on biomaterials. So far only few works have reported cell responses on surfaces exhibiting extreme wettability in combination with surface topography. The goal of this work is to study whether cell behavi

  5. Effect of Surface Topography on Stress Concentration Factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Zhengkun; LIAO Ridong

    2015-01-01

    Neuber rule and Arola-Ramulu model are widely used to predict the stress concentration factor of rough specimens. However, the height parameters and effective valley radius used in these two models depend strongly on the resolution of the roughness-measuring instruments and are easily introduce measuring errors. Besides, it is difficult to find a suitable parameter to characterize surface topography to quantitatively describe its effect on stress concentration factor. In order to overcome these disadvantages, profile moments are carried out to characterize surface topography, surface topography is simulated by superposing series of cosine components, the stress concentration factors of different micro cosine-shaped surface topographies are investigated by finite element analysis. In terms of micro cosine-shaped surface topography, an equation using the second profile moment to estimate the stress concentration factor is proposed, predictions for the stress concentration factor using the proposed expression are within 10% error compared with the results of finite element analysis, which are more accurate than other models. Moreover, the proposed equation is applied to the real surface topography machined by turning. Predictions for the stress concentration factor using the proposed expression are within 10% of the maximum stress concentration factors and about 5% of the effective stress concentration factors estimated from the finite element analysis for three levels of turning surface topographies under different simulated scales. The proposed model is feasible in predicting the stress concentration factors of real machined surface topographies.

  6. Silk film topography directs collective epithelial cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian D Lawrence

    Full Text Available The following study provides new insight into how surface topography dictates directed collective epithelial cell sheet growth through the guidance of individual cell movement. Collective cell behavior of migrating human corneal limbal-epithelial cell sheets were studied on highly biocompatible flat and micro-patterned silk film surfaces. The silk film edge topography guided the migratory direction of individual cells making up the collective epithelial sheet, which resulted in a 75% increase in total culture elongation. This was due to a 3-fold decrease in cell sheet migration rate efficiency for movement perpendicular to the topography edge. Individual cell migration direction is preferred in the parallel approach to the edge topography where localization of cytoskeletal proteins to the topography's edge region is reduced, which results in the directed growth of the collective epithelial sheet. Findings indicate customized biomaterial surfaces may be created to direct both the migration rate and direction of tissue epithelialization.

  7. Having the stomach for it: a contribution to Neanderthal diets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Laura T.; Stringer, Chris B.

    2014-07-01

    Due to the central position of diet in determining ecology and behaviour, much research has been devoted to uncovering Neanderthal subsistence strategies. This has included indirect studies inferring diet from habitat reconstruction, ethnographic analogy, or faunal assemblages, and direct methods, such as dental wear and isotope analyses. Recently, studies of dental calculus have provided another rich source of dietary evidence, with much potential. One of the most interesting results to come out of calculus analyses so far is the suggestion that Neanderthals may have been eating non-nutritionally valuable plants for medicinal reasons. Here we offer an alternative hypothesis for the occurrence of non-food plants in Neanderthal calculus based on the modern human ethnographic literature: the consumption of herbivore stomach contents.

  8. Symptomatic Primary (AL Amyloidosis of the Stomach and Duodenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reidar Fossmark

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary (AL amyloidosis of the gastrointestinal tract is relatively rare, and symptomatic amyloidosis of the stomach is even more seldom. We present the case of a patient who was referred to upper endoscopy because of weight loss, nausea, and vomiting. Large areas of intramucosal hemorrhages were seen, and biopsies resulted in profuse bleeding stopped with endoscopic clips. The biopsies showed amyloid depositions and further workup revealed that the patient also had cardiac and neuropathic involvements. The patient started treatment with dexamethasone, melphalan and bortezomib. After treatment was started the nausea and epigastric discomfort improved, and a reduction in the biochemical markers troponin T, NT-proBNP, and M-component was observed. Gastric amyloidosis is rarely seen at upper endoscopy in patients without a previously established diagnosis, but the unusual endoscopic findings and bleeding tendency after biopsy should be kept in mind by gastroenterologists.

  9. Vascular anatomy of the stomach related to gastric tube construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buunen, M; Rooijens, P P G M; Smaal, H J; Kleinrensink, G J; van der Harst, E; Tilanus, H W; Lange, J F

    2008-01-01

    In view of constructing a gastric tube after esophagus resection, the vascular anatomy of the greater curvature of the stomach, especially the connection between the left and right gastro-epiploic arteries, was investigated. The vascular anatomy was studied in 20 embalmed human specimens. After dissection a gastric tube of 4 cm wide was constructed, using the greater gastric curvature. Various lengths of the arterial arcades were measured. In 70% an anastomosis between the right and left gastro-epiploic arteries was present. With the construction of an isoperistaltic gastric tube, in which the left gastro-epiploic artery is left in situ (ligating it at the splenic hilus), there is an 18.7% increase of length of arterial arcade along the gastric tube. Leaving the left gastro-epiploic artery in situ increases the feeding arterial arcaded-length along the gastric tube with 5.0 cm (19%).

  10. Medical management of acid-peptic disorders of the stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eswaran, Sheila; Roy, Michael A

    2005-10-01

    In the past 30 years, medicine has witnessed an unprecedented evolution in acid-peptic disorder management, fueled by major advances in our understanding of the physiology of acid secretion and the gastric mucosal barrier. The other pivotal development in understanding these disorders has been the recognition of Helicobacter pylori's role in the pathophysiology of peptic ulcer disease,chronic gastritis, and even gastric malignancy. This evolution continues as H pylori wanes in significance, and medicine is challenged by treating iatrogenic conditions brought on by ulcerogenic anti-inflammatory drugs. Following a description of the relevant physiology and biochemistry of gastric acid secretion and the gastric mucosal barrier, this article describes the current medicinal arsenal available to treat acid-peptic disorders of the stomach.

  11. Voluminous bleeding stomach GIST: reflections on etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracino, Valerio; Maggi, Gustavo; Altobelli, Simone; Lambiase, Carlo; Danza, Costantina; D'Amico, Giampiero

    2009-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) constitute a heterogeneous group of neoplasms which, although rare (around 1% of the total number of malignant tumours), are the most common mesenchymal tumours of the gastrointestinal tract. In the past they were not very well known, whereas today, thanks to the remarkable progress made in the immunohistochemical and molecular fields, considerable knowledge has been acquired, offering new opportunities for classification and, above all, for a more adequate multidisciplinary treatment of this pathology. In this study, the authors report a case of a bleeding GIST of the stomach which they recently observed and discuss it in the light of recent reflections on the aetiopathogenesis, diagnosis and therapy of these tumours in the literature.

  12. Comparative secretome analysis of rat stomach under different nutritional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia L. Senin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The fact that gastric surgery is at the moment the most effective treatment to fight against obesity highlights the relevance of gastric derived proteins as potential targets to treat this pathology. Taking advantage of a previously established gastric explant model for endocrine studies, the proteomic analysis of gastric secretome was performed. To validate this gastric explant system for proteomic analysis, the identification of ghrelin, a classical gastric derived peptide, was performed by MS. In addition, the differential analysis of gastric secretomes under differential nutritional status (control feeding vs fasting vs re-feeding was performed. The MS identified proteins are showed in the present manuscript. The data supplied in this article is related to the research article entitled “Comparative secretome analysis of rat stomach under different nutritional status” [1].

  13. The Results of Intraoperative Radiotherapy for Stomach Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ji Hoon; Kang, Min Kyu; Kim, Myung Se; Kim, Sung Kyu; Yun, Sang Mo; Kim, Sung Hoon [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    We retrospectively analyzed the long-term results of radical surgery and intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) in patients with stomach cancer. From 1988 to 1994, 51 patients were treated with curative surgery and IORT. Postoperative external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) was administered to 30 patients, while adjuvant chemotherapy was administered to 35 patients. A dose of 15 Gy was irradiated with a 9 MeV electron beam as the IORT and a median dose of EBRT was 43.2 Gy (range, 7.2 to 45 Gy). The follow-up period ranged from 1-254 months, with a median follow-up period of 64 months. The median age of all the patients was 58 years (range, 30 to 71 years). The distribution of pathologic stage (American Joint Committee on Cancer [AJCC] 2002 tumor-note-metastasis [TNM]) was as follows: 13 stage I (25.5%), 10 stage II (19.6%), 25 stage III (49.0%), and 3 stage IV (5.9%). Distant metastases occurred in 11 patients (10 in the peritoneum and 1 in bone), including one patient with concurrent local recurrence (anastomosis site). The 5-year locoregional control, disease free survival and overall survival rates were 94.7%, 66.5%, and 51.7%, respectively. For the multivariate analysis, age, TNM stage, and EBRT were significant prognostic factors for overall survival, and only TNM stage for disease free survival. We could have achieved a high loco-regional control rate in patients with locally advanced stomach cancer by adding IORT to radical surgery. However, the benefit of IORT on survival remains to be elucidated.

  14. New Global Bathymetry and Topography Model Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. H.; Sandwell, D. T.; Marks, K. M.

    2008-12-01

    A new version of the "Smith and Sandwell" global marine topography model is available in two formats. A one-arc-minute Mercator projected grid covering latitudes to +/- 80.738 degrees is available in the "img" file format. Also available is a 30-arc-second version in latitude and longitude coordinates from pole to pole, supplied as tiles covering the same areas as the SRTM30 land topography data set. The new effort follows the Smith and Sandwell recipe, using publicly available and quality controlled single- and multi-beam echo soundings where possible and filling the gaps in the oceans with estimates derived from marine gravity anomalies observed by satellite altimetry. The altimeter data have been reprocessed to reduce the noise level and improve the spatial resolution [see Sandwell and Smith, this meeting]. The echo soundings database has grown enormously with new infusions of data from the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVO), the National Geospatial-intelligence Agency (NGA), hydrographic offices around the world volunteering through the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO), and many other agencies and academic sources worldwide. These new data contributions have filled many holes: 50% of ocean grid points are within 8 km of a sounding point, 75% are within 24 km, and 90% are within 57 km. However, in the remote ocean basins some gaps still remain: 5% of the ocean grid points are more than 85 km from the nearest sounding control, and 1% are more than 173 km away. Both versions of the grid include a companion grid of source file numbers, so that control points may be mapped and traced to sources. We have compared the new model to multi-beam data not used in the compilation and find that 50% of differences are less than 25 m, 95% of differences are less than 130 m, but a few large differences remain in areas of poor sounding control and large-amplitude gravity anomalies. Land values in the solution are taken from SRTM30v2, GTOPO30 and ICESAT data

  15. Percent Stomach Emptiness in Fish Collections: Sources of Variation and Study Design Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    We summarized fish stomach content data from 369,000 fish from 402 species in 1,096 collections made between 1925 and 2009 and report on the percentage of individuals with empty stomachs (PES). The mean PES among all species, locations, habitats, dates, and collection methods was...

  16. Lactobacillus reuteri 100-23 Modulates Urea Hydrolysis in the Murine Stomach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, C.M.; Loach, D.; Lawley, B.; Bell, T.; Sims, I.M.; O'Toole, P.W.; Zomer, A.L.; Tannock, G.W.

    2014-01-01

    Comparisons of in vivo (mouse stomach) and in vitro (laboratory culture) transcriptomes of Lactobacillus reuteri strain 100-23 were made by microarray analysis. These comparisons revealed the upregulation of genes associated with acid tolerance, including urease production, in the mouse stomach. Ina

  17. Percent Stomach Emptiness in Fish Collections: Sources of Variation and Study Design Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    We summarized fish stomach content data from 369,000 fish from 402 species in 1,096 collections made between 1925 and 2009 and report on the percentage of individuals with empty stomachs (PES). The mean PES among all species, locations, habitats, dates, and collection methods was...

  18. Regulation of mouse stomach development and Barx1 expression by specific microRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeong-Moo; Woo, Janghee; Kanellopoulou, Chryssa; Shivdasani, Ramesh A.

    2011-01-01

    Although microRNAs (miRNAs) are postulated to fine-tune many developmental processes, their relationships with specific targets and tissues remain largely undefined. The mesenchymal transcription factor Barx1 controls spleen and stomach morphogenesis and is required to specify stomach-specific epithelium in adjacent endoderm. Barx1 expression is precisely regulated in space and time, with a sharp drop in stomach levels after epithelial specification. We tested the hypothesis that specific miRNAs mediate this marked decline in Barx1 levels. Depletion of the miRNA-processing enzyme Dicer in cultured stomach mesenchyme and conditional Dicer gene deletion in mice significantly increased Barx1 levels, disrupted stomach and intestine development and caused spleen agenesis. Computational and experimental studies identified miR-7a and miR-203 as candidate miRNAs that regulate Barx1 and are expressed in inverse proportion to it in the fetal mouse stomach. Through specific interactions with cognate sequences in the Barx1 3′ untranslated region, miR-7a and miR-203 repress Barx1 expression in stomach mesenchymal cells and its function in inducing gastric epithelium. These results indicate that miRNAs are required for proper digestive tract organogenesis and that miR-7a and miR-203 control expression of the stomach homeotic regulator Barx1. PMID:21307095

  19. Disparities in survival of stomach cancer among different socioeconomic groups in North-East Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemerink, Ester J. M.; Hospers, Geke A. P.; Mulder, Nanno H.; Siesling, Sabine; van der Aa, Maaike A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Survival differences in stomach cancer are depended on patient, tumour and treatment factors. Some populations are more prone to develop stomach cancer, such as people with low socioeconomic status (SES). The aim of this population based study was to assess whether differences in socioec

  20. A prospective cohort study on vegetable and fruit consumption and stomach cancer risk in the netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botterweck, A.A.M.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    The association between vegetable and fruit consumption and stomach cancer risk was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study among 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 years at the start in September 1986. Analyses were based on 282 incident stomach cancer cases after 6.3 years of follow-up. Age- an

  1. Histological, surface ultrastructural, and histochemical study of the stomach of red piranha, Pygocentrus nattereri (Kner

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    Ghosh Saroj Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The structural characterization and function of the stomach in the omnivore Pygocentrus nattereri were described using light and scanning electron microscopy. The sac-like stomach was morphologically divided into the cardiac and pyloric regions. The histological structure of the stomach consisted of four layers of the mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, and serosa. The superficial epithelium of the cardiac stomach was lined with columnar epithelial cells and the glandular epithelium contained numerous gastric glands. Gastric glands were completely absent in the pyloric portion. The mucosal surface of the stomach was a meshwork of various folds, provided with oval or rounded columnar epithelial cells which were densely packed with short, stubby microvilli. The occasional presence of conspicuous gastric pits was surrounded by epithelial cells. The localization and chemical nature of acid and neutral mucins in the various cells of the stomach was studied by employing combined the Alcian Blue-Periodic Acid Schiff (AB-PAS technique. The deposition of glycogen was detected in the gastric glands as well as in the epithelial lining of the stomach. The utmost reactions for protein and tryptophan were recorded in the gastric glands of mucosa. The cellular organization and histochemical characterization of the stomach are discussed in relation to the feeding and digestion of the fish concerned.

  2. Regional surface geometry of the rat stomach based on three-dimensional curvature analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao Donghua [Center of Excellence in Visceral Biomechanics and Pain, Aalborg Hospital, DK-9100 Aalborg (Denmark); Zhao Jingbo [Center of Excellence in Visceral Biomechanics and Pain, Aalborg Hospital, DK-9100 Aalborg (Denmark); Gregersen, Hans [Center of Excellence in Visceral Biomechanics and Pain, Aalborg Hospital, DK-9100 Aalborg (Denmark)

    2005-01-21

    A better understanding of gastric accommodation and gastric perception requires knowledge of regional gastric geometry and local gastric tension throughout the stomach. An analytic method based on medical imaging data was developed in this study to describe the three-dimensional (3D) rat stomach geometry and tension distribution. The surface principal radii of curvatures were simulated and the surface tension was calculated in the glandular and non-glandular region of the stomach at pressures from 0 Pa to 800 Pa. The radii of curvature and tension distribution in the stomach were non-homogeneous. The radii of curvature in the glandular stomach were larger than those in the non-glandular region at pressures less than 100 Pa (P < 0.001). When the pressure increased to more than 200 Pa, the radii of curvature in the non-glandular stomach was larger than in the glandular stomach (P < 0.05). The curvature and tension distribution mapping using medical imaging technology and 3D models can be used to characterize and distinguish the physical behaviour in separate regions of the stomach.

  3. CT findings of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung Min; Lee, Chang Hee; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Park, Cheol Min [Guro Hospital of Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-15

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma is a rare tumor of the stomach with an incidence ranging from 0.04% to 0.4% of all diagnosed gastric cancers. We report a case of squamous cell carcinoma in the stomach associated with hypertrophic gastropathy and observed as a huge mass and wall thickening on the greater curvature site by a multidetector CT.

  4. Gastric Anatomic Type Is Associated with Obesity and Gender

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    Yu Jen Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To enhance our understanding of the associations among gastric anatomy, obesity, and gender. Methods: 777 randomly selected participants received health checkups, including a series of radiographs of the upper gastrointestinal tract (UGI; the findings were linked with each corresponding subject's gender and BMI. We measured the length, angle, and different portions of the stomach with the subjects in the standing position using radiographs to classify all individuals into anatomic types 1 through 6 based on gastric morphology. The gastric morphology was identified based on the initial UGI examination: 166 follow-up UGI radiographs at 12 ± 1.5 months to evaluate whether the stability of gastric anatomy persisted over time. Results: There was a significant difference in anatomic types between females and males (p Conclusion: Gastric anatomic types were associated with obesity and gender.

  5. A case of a glomus tumor of the stomach resected by laparoscopy endoscopy cooperative surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajo, Keiichiro; Chonan, Akimichi; Tsuboi, Rumiko; Nihei, Kousuke; Iwaki, Tomoyuki; Yamaoka, Hajime; Sato, Shun; Matsuda, Tomomi; Nakahori, Masato; Endo, Mareyuki

    2016-09-01

    A 56-year-old woman who was found to have a submucosal tumor (SMT) of the stomach in a medical check-up was admitted to our hospital for a detailed investigation of the SMT. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed an SMT of 20mm at the anterior wall of the antrum of the stomach. Endoscopic ultrasonography showed a hyperechoic tumor in the fourth layer of the stomach wall. CT examination showed a strongly enhancing tumor on arterial phase images and persistent enhancement on portal venous phase images. Laparoscopy endoscopy cooperative surgery was performed with a diagnosis of SMT of the stomach highly suspicious of a glomus tumor. Immunohistochemistry revealed expression of α-SMA but no expression of desmin, c-kit, CD34, or S-100. The tumor was finally diagnosed as a glomus tumor of the stomach.

  6. The muscular organization of the stomach of capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris): an architectural view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Priscilla Teixeira de Barros; de Souza, Wilson Machado; da Silva Neto, Paulo Bezerra; Barretto, Carla Siqueira de Figueiredo; Ribeiro, Antonio Augusto Coppi Maciel

    2005-03-01

    Twenty-two stomachs from adult capybaras were used in this study, and an acid digestion mesoscopic technique was pursued using different concentrations of nitric acid to observe the muscular organization of the stomach. The capybara's stomach possessed a muscular coat composed of four layers or strata: external longitudinal, external oblique, circular and internal oblique. Also, the cardiac and pyloric sphincter muscles were comprised of three or two different layers, respectively. Furthermore, the internal oblique fibres were observed extending from the cardiac portion of the stomach to the smaller curvature, where they participated in the formation of the Ansa cardiaca together with the external longitudinal fibres. This muscular architectural arrangement was compared to that in small rodents (rat, hamster, guinea pig), as well as in rabbits and pigs. In conclusion, the stomach of the capybara has a very particular, complex and defined muscular organization that differs from that in other rodents, or domestic animals, in particular, pigs.

  7. Combined endoscopic and laparoscopic approach for palliative resection of metastatic melanoma of the stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritchard SA

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metastatic tumours of the stomach present a clinical dilemma for the surgeon. Palliative surgical resection can alleviate symptoms and prolong survival in selected patients. However, previous studies have used open methods of surgical resection with potentially high morbidity and mortality. We describe the use of laparoscopic wedge resection of the stomach for palliative resection of metastatic melanoma to highlight the benefits of this technique. Case presentation A 58 year old male was investigated for iron deficiency anaemia while under treatment for pulmonary metastatic malignant melanoma. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed a 5 cm diameter ulcer on the anterior wall of the stomach, biopsies from the ulcer confirmed metastatic melanoma. Laparoscopic wedge resection of the stomach lesion was performed without complication. Conclusion Laparoscopic approach has many benefits and is useful for the palliative resection of rare tumours of the stomach in order to preserve the quality of life. Its use should be considered in selected patients.

  8. Evaluation of the cynomolgus monkey stomach: recommendations for standard sampling procedures in nonclinical safety studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Justin D; Mirabile, Rosanna C; Thomas, Heath C

    2008-02-01

    The cynomolgus macaque is the most commonly used nonhuman primate in nonclinical toxicity testing, but the macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the stomach in the cynomolgus macaque is poorly described. To develop a reliable sampling method for histologic evaluation of the cynomolgus macaque stomach in regulatory toxicity studies, the stomachs of control animals were prospectively evaluated using an extensive sectioning pattern. The stomach of the cynomolgus macaque differs from that described for the human stomach and has a prominent fundus that lacks parietal cells. A description of the macroscopic and microscopic anatomy is presented along with a recommended sectioning pattern for nonclinical toxicity studies and discussion of species differences. A thorough understanding of normal anatomy and species comparisons are critical to interpretation of potential toxicity findings and assessment of risk in humans.

  9. Topography Simulation for Nanometer Semiconductor Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun‑Gu; Yoon, Sukin; Won, Taeyoung

    2006-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel scheme for simulating the topography of nanometer semiconductor processes. Since the proposed scheme considers only the surface cells moving forward and backward during etching or deposition, the simulator does not suffer from an increased memory requirement due to the complexity of the high aspect-ratio structure built on the wafer. This method consists of steps for calculating the front surface moving forward and backward and converting the cell structure into a tetrahedral mesh structure for subsequent numerical simulation. This method mitigates the excessive memory requirement through a dynamic allocating scheme wherein only topographical data at the surface cell are taken into account. A spillover algorithm is also implemented in the simulator so that any excessive etching or deposition which is more than the rate acceptable at the exposed cell during a single time step is reconsidered in the adjacent cells. Our proposed scheme was verified for structures with complex geometry, such as a thin film transistor-liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) structure, a read only memory (ROM) or a dynamic random access memory (DRAM) cell.

  10. Quantum Loop Topography for Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Kim, Eun-Ah

    2017-05-01

    Despite rapidly growing interest in harnessing machine learning in the study of quantum many-body systems, training neural networks to identify quantum phases is a nontrivial challenge. The key challenge is in efficiently extracting essential information from the many-body Hamiltonian or wave function and turning the information into an image that can be fed into a neural network. When targeting topological phases, this task becomes particularly challenging as topological phases are defined in terms of nonlocal properties. Here, we introduce quantum loop topography (QLT): a procedure of constructing a multidimensional image from the "sample" Hamiltonian or wave function by evaluating two-point operators that form loops at independent Monte Carlo steps. The loop configuration is guided by the characteristic response for defining the phase, which is Hall conductivity for the cases at hand. Feeding QLT to a fully connected neural network with a single hidden layer, we demonstrate that the architecture can be effectively trained to distinguish the Chern insulator and the fractional Chern insulator from trivial insulators with high fidelity. In addition to establishing the first case of obtaining a phase diagram with a topological quantum phase transition with machine learning, the perspective of bridging traditional condensed matter theory with machine learning will be broadly valuable.

  11. Topography of cerebellar deficits in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Giuliana; Manto, Mario

    2012-06-01

    The cerebellum is a key-piece for information processing and is involved in numerous motor and nonmotor activities, thanks to the anatomical characteristics of the circuitry, the enormous computational capabilities and the high connectivity to other brain areas. Despite its uniform cytoarchitecture, cerebellar circuitry is segregated into functional zones. This functional parcellation is driven by the connectivity and the anatomo-functional heterogeneity of the numerous extra-cerebellar structures linked to the cerebellum, principally brain cortices, precerebellar nuclei and spinal cord. Major insights into cerebellar functions have been gained with a detailed analysis of the cerebellar outputs, with the evidence that fundamental aspects of cerebrocerebellar operations are the closed-loop circuit and the predictions of future states. Cerebellar diseases result in disturbances of accuracy of movements and lack of coordination. The cerebellar syndrome includes combinations of oculomotor disturbances, dysarthria and other speech deficits, ataxia of limbs, ataxia of stance and gait, as well as often more subtle cognitive/behavioral impairments. Our understanding of the corresponding anatomo-functional maps for the human cerebellum is continuously improving. We summarize the topography of the clinical deficits observed in cerebellar patients and the growing evidence of a regional subdivision into motor, sensory, sensorimotor, cognitive and affective domains. The recently described topographic dichotomy motor versus nonmotor cerebellum based upon anatomical, functional and neuropsychological studies is also discussed.

  12. TRANSCENDENTAL ASPECTS OF GENDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr V. Khmel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the basic principles of gender philosophy applying methodological tools of communicative pragmatics; to demonstrate how gender construct can provide gender humanism formation as one of the ideals of democratic society; to specify gender glossary terms such as “gender democracy”, “gender equality” and “gender justice”. Methodology. In order to investigate a theoretical framework in feminist philosophy, methodological tools of communicative pragmatics and discursive ethics that were elaborated by modern German philosophers J. Habermas, K.-O. Apel for analyzing ethical gender principles and their legitimation ways have been used in this research. Scientific novelty. Based on methodological differences in concepts of J. Habermas and K.-O. Apel, two opposite approaches to gender concept analysis – rational and pragmatic (Habermas and transcendental conceptual (K.-O. Apel have been found out. The article helps to specify the framework of categories and concepts. According to the legitimation way of gender ethical theory it was discovered that such notions as “gender democracy”, “gender equality” and “gender justice” do not have the same meanings. According to the analysis of communicative action program and consensus, the “gender equality” concept by Habermas is an artificial social construct that is methodologically grounded in cognitivism and diminishes the possibilities of gender values legitimation. According to K.-O. Apel, the concept of “gender justice” is based on transcendental moral and ethical sense of opposite genders unity and does not discharge unequal distribution of responsibilities and any invasion as well as represents certain extent of their difference. Conclusions. Fast growing gender changes in the society face ageold drawbacks of moral and spiritual principles of communities, taking into account social and cultural, national and gender identity. Thorough understanding of

  13. Evaluation and clinical significance of the stomach age model for evaluating aging of the stomach-a multicenter study in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background A higher prevalence of chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) occurs in younger adults in Asia. We used Stomach Age to examine the different mechanisms of CAG between younger adults and elderly individuals, and established a simple model of cancer risk that can be applied to CAG surveillance. Methods Stomach Age was determined by FISH examination of telomere length in stomach biopsies. Δψm was also determined by flow cytometry. Sixty volunteers were used to confirm the linear relationship between telomere length and age while 120 subjects were used to build a mathematical model by a multivariate analysis. Overall, 146 subjects were used to evaluate the validity of the model, and 1,007 subjects were used to evaluate the relationship between prognosis and Δage (calculated from the mathematical model). ROC curves were used to evaluate the relationship between prognosis and Δage and to determine the cut-off point for Δage. Results We established that a tight linear relationship between the telomere length and the age. The telomere length was obvious different between patients with and without CAG even in the same age. Δψm decreased in individuals whose Stomach Age was greater than real age, especially in younger adults. A mathematical model of Stomach Age (real age + Δage) was successfully constructed which was easy to apply in clinical work. A higher Δage was correlated with a worse outcome. The criterion of Δage >3.11 should be considered as the cut-off to select the subgroup of patients who require endoscopic surveillance. Conclusion Variation in Stomach Age between individuals of the same biological age was confirmed. Attention should be paid to those with a greater Stomach Age, especially in younger adults. The Δage in the Simple Model can be used as a criterion to select CAG patients for gastric cancer surveillance. PMID:25057261

  14. Epithelial topography for repetitive tooth formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Gaete

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During the formation of repetitive ectodermally derived organs such as mammary glands, lateral line and teeth, the tissue primordium iteratively initiates new structures. In the case of successional molar development, new teeth appear sequentially in the posterior region of the jaw from Sox2+ cells in association with the posterior aspect of a pre-existing tooth. The sequence of molar development is well known, however, the epithelial topography involved in the formation of a new tooth is unclear. Here, we have examined the morphology of the molar dental epithelium and its development at different stages in the mouse in vivo and in molar explants. Using regional lineage tracing we show that within the posterior tail of the first molar the primordium for the second and third molar are organized in a row, with the tail remaining in connection with the surface, where a furrow is observed. The morphology and Sox2 expression of the tail retains characteristics reminiscent of the earlier stages of tooth development, such that position along the A-P axes of the tail correlates with different temporal stages. Sox9, a stem/progenitor cell marker in other organs, is expressed mainly in the suprabasal epithelium complementary with Sox2 expression. This Sox2 and Sox9 expressing molar tail contains actively proliferating cells with mitosis following an apico-basal direction. Snail2, a transcription factor implicated in cell migration, is expressed at high levels in the tip of the molar tail while E-cadherin and laminin are decreased. In conclusion, our studies propose a model in which the epithelium of the molar tail can grow by posterior movement of epithelial cells followed by infolding and stratification involving a population of Sox2+/Sox9+ cells.

  15. Global dynamic topography: geoscience communities requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewez, T.; Costeraste, J.

    2012-04-01

    The advent of free-of-charge global topographic data sets SRTM and Aster GDEM have enabled testing a host of geoscience hypotheses. This is because they first revealed the relief of previously unavailable earth landscapes, enabled quantitative geomorphometric analyses across entire landscapes and improved the resolution of measurements. Availability of such data is now considered standard, and though resolved at 30-m to 90-m pixel, which is amazing seeing where we come from, they are now regarded as mostly obsolete given the sub-meter imagery coming through web services like Google Earth. Geoscientists now appear to desire two additional features: field-scale-compatible elevation datasets (i.e. meter-scale digital models and sub-meter elevation precision) and dispose of regularly updated topography to retrieve earth surface changes, while retaining the key for success: data availability at no charge. A new satellite instrument is currently under phase 0 study at CNES, the French space agency, to fulfil these aims. The scientific community backing this demand is that of natural hazards, glaciology and to a lesser extent the biomass community. The system under study combines a native stereo imager and a lidar profiler. This combination provides spatially resolved elevation swaths together with absolute along-track elevation control point profiles. Data generated through this system, designed for revisit time better than a year, is intended to produce not only single acquisition digital surface models, colour orthoimages and small footprint full-wave-form lidar profiles to update existing topographic coverages, but also time series of them. This enables 3D change detection with centimetre-scale planimetric precision and metric vertical precision, in complement of classical spectral change appoaches. The purpose of this contribution, on behalf of the science team, is to present the mission concepts and philosophy and the scientific needs for such instrument including

  16. NITROGEN CONCENTRATION OF STOMACH CONTENTS AS AN INDEX OF DIETARY NITROGEN FOR HISPID COTTON RATS (SIGMODON HISPIDUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the reliability of using nitrogen concentration of stomach contents from hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) as an index of diet nitrogen. Stomach contents of cotton rats fed diets varying in nitrogen concentration were analyzed for stomach nitrogen. Regression a...

  17. NITROGEN CONCENTRATION OF STOMACH CONTENTS AS AN INDEX OF DIETARY NITROGEN FOR HISPID COTTON RATS (SIGMODON HISPIDUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the reliability of using nitrogen concentration of stomach contents from hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) as an index of diet nitrogen. Stomach contents of cotton rats fed diets varying in nitrogen concentration were analyzed for stomach nitrogen. Regression a...

  18. Morphogenesis and three-dimensional movement of the stomach during the human embryonic period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaigai, N; Nako, A; Yamada, S; Uwabe, C; Kose, K; Takakuwa, T

    2014-05-01

    The stomach develops as the local widening of the foregut after Carnegie stage (CS) 13 that moves in a dramatic and dynamic manner during the embryonic period. Using the magnetic resonance images of 377 human embryos, we present the morphology, morphometry, and three-dimensional movement of the stomach during CS16 and CS23. The stomach morphology revealed stage-specific features. The angular incisura and the cardia were formed at CS18. The change in the angular incisura angle was approximately 90° during CS19 and CS20, and was stomach revealed that the stomach gradually becomes "deflected" during development. The stomach may appear to move to the left laterally and caudally due to its deflection and differential growth. The track of the reference points in the stomach may reflect the visual three-dimensional movement. The movement of point M, representing the movement of the greater curvature, was different from that of points C (cardia) and P (pyloric antrum). The P and C were located just around the midsagittal plane in all the stages observed. Point M moved in the caudal-left lateral direction until CS22. Moreover, the vector CP does not rotate around the dorsoventral axis, as widely believed, but around the transverse axis. The plane CPM rotated mainly around the longitudinal axis. The data obtained will be useful for prenatal diagnosis in the near future.

  19. Distribution of nitric oxide synthase in stomach myenteric plexus of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Peng; Jin-Bin Feng; Hong Yon; Yun Zhao; Shi-Liang Wang

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To study the distribution of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in rat stomach myenteric plexus. METHODS: The distribution of NOS in gastric wall was studied in quantity and location by the NADPH-diaphorase (NDP) histochemical staining method and whole mount preparation technique. RESULTS: NOS was distributed in whole stomach wall, most of them were located in myenteric plexus, and distributed in submucosal plexus. The shape of NOS positive neurons was basically similar, most of them being round and oval in shape. But their density, size and staining intensity varied greatly in the different parts of stomach. The density was 62 -± 38 cells/mm2(antrum), 43 ± 32 cells/mm2(body), and 32 ± 28 cells/mm2 (fundus), respectively. The size and staining intensity of NOS positive neurons in the fundus were basically the same, the neurons being large and dark stained, while they were obviously different in antrum. In the body of the stomach, the NOS positive neurons were in an intermediate state from fundus to antrum. There were some beadlike structures which were strung together by NOS positive varicosities in nerve fibers, some were closely adherent to the outer walls of blood vessels. CONCLUSION: Nitric oxide might he involved in the modulation of motility, secretion and blood ciroulation of the stomach, and the significant difference of NOS positive neurons in different parts of stomach myenteric plexus may be related to the physiologic function of stomach.

  20. [Is the stomach a main landmark on the abdominal circumference? Audit of 3 operators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, A-C; Blanc, J; Grangé, G

    2016-05-01

    The fetal weight estimation depends largely on the accuracy of abdominal circumference. The quality criteria are standardized to minimize variability and include visualization of the stomach. The objective of this study is to investigate the presence or absence of the stomach on the abdominal circumference for 3 different operators. We conducted re-reading of 204 ultrasound images in the second and third trimester of pregnancy, performed by three operators, at the maternity Port Royal in Paris in 2013. On these images, the presence of the stomach was sought and other quality criteria were verified. Among the 204 images, 166 included the stomach (81%). When studying for each of the three operators, there were 79%, 72% and 98% of the stomach into the abdominal circumference, a significant difference between operators (P=0.0029). Regarding the secondary criteria, the quality criteria found most often were the calipers and well placed ellipse (89%). According to the previous studies, the stomach seems to be a reference to search. Our study shows variability depending on the different operators. If a hierarchy of quality criteria is to be considered, the stomach does not seem to be the first criterion to search. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Gene methylation profile of gastric cancerous tissue according to tumor site in the stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupcinskaite-Noreikiene, Rita; Ugenskiene, Rasa; Noreika, Alius; Rudzianskas, Viktoras; Gedminaite, Jurgita; Skieceviciene, Jurgita; Juozaityte, Elona

    2016-01-26

    There is considerable information on the methylation of the promoter regions of different genes involved in gastric carcinogenesis. However, there is a lack of information on how this epigenetic process differs in tumors originating at different sites in the stomach. The aim of this study is to assess the methylation profiles of the MLH1, MGMT, and DAPK-1 genes in cancerous tissues from different stomach sites. Samples were acquired from 81 patients suffering stomach adenocarcinoma who underwent surgery for gastric cancer in the Lithuanian University of Health Sciences Hospital Kaunas Clinics in 2009-2012. Gene methylation was investigated with methylation-specific PCR. The study was approved by the Lithuanian Biomedical Research Ethics Committee. The frequencies of methylation in cancerous tissues from the upper, middle, and lower thirds of the stomach were 11.1, 23.1, and 45.4%, respectively, for MLH1; 22.2, 30.8, and 57.6%, respectively, for MGMT; and 44.4, 48.7, and 51.5%, respectively, for DAPK-1. MLH1 and MGMT methylation was observed more often in the lower third of the stomach than in the upper third (p stomach (coefficient, -0.48; p = 0.01). DAPK-1 and MLH1 methylation correlated inversely in tumors in the middle-third of the stomach (coefficient, -0.41; p = 0.01). Gene promoter methylation depends on the gastric tumor location.

  2. Analysis of Stomach and Gut Microbiomes of the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica) from Coastal Louisiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gary M.; Judd, Craig; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Smith, Conor

    2012-01-01

    We used high throughput pyrosequencing to characterize stomach and gut content microbiomes of Crassostrea virginica, the Easter oyster, obtained from two sites, one in Barataria Bay (Hackberry Bay) and the other in Terrebonne Bay (Lake Caillou), Louisiana, USA. Stomach microbiomes in oysters from Hackberry Bay were overwhelmingly dominated by Mollicutes most closely related to Mycoplasma; a more rich community dominated by Planctomyctes occurred in Lake Caillou oyster stomachs. Gut communities for oysters from both sites differed from stomach communities, and harbored a relatively diverse assemblage of phylotypes. Phylotypes most closely related to Shewanella and a Chloroflexi strain dominated the Lake Caillou and Hackberry Bay gut microbiota, respectively. While many members of the stomach and gut microbiomes appeared to be transients or opportunists, a putative core microbiome was identified based on phylotypes that occurred in all stomach or gut samples only. The putative core stomach microbiome comprised 5 OTUs in 3 phyla, while the putative core gut microbiome contained 44 OTUs in 12 phyla. These results collectively revealed novel microbial communities within the oyster digestive system, the functions of the oyster microbiome are largely unknown. A comparison of microbiomes from Louisiana oysters with bacterial communities reported for other marine invertebrates and fish indicated that molluscan microbiomes were more similar to each other than to microbiomes of polychaetes, decapods and fish. PMID:23251548

  3. Stomach cancer incidence rates among Americans, Asian Americans and Native Asians from 1988 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeerae; Park, Jinju; Nam, Byung-Ho; Ki, Moran

    2015-01-01

    Stomach cancer is the second most common cancer in Eastern Asia, accounting for approximately 50% of all new cases of stomach cancer worldwide. Our objective was to compare the stomach cancer incidence rates of Asian Americans in Los Angeles with those of native Asians to assess the etiology of stomach cancer from 1988 to 2011. To examine these differences, Asian Americans (Korean, Japanese, Chinese, and Filipino Americans living in Los Angeles, California, USA) and native Asians (from Korea, Japan, China, and the Philippines) were selected for this study. Using the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents database, stomach cancer incidence rates were examined. Data from the National Cancer Registry of Korea were used for native Koreans. Between native countries, the incidence rates in Japan, China, the Philippines, and the US declined over time, but the incidence in Korea has remained constant. The incidences among Asian immigrants were lower than those among native Asians. The incidence rates of males were approximately 2 times higher than those among females in Asian countries were. The effect of immigration on stomach cancer incidence suggests that lifestyle factors are a significant determinant of stomach cancer risk. However, the incidence in Korea remains the highest of these countries.

  4. Alteration of cadherin isoform expression and inhibition of gap junctions in stomach carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To explore cell malignant phenotype correlated changes of cell surface adhesion molecules and cell-cell communication in carcinogenesis, human stomach transformed and cancer cell lines were investigated. Expressions of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, ?-catenin, ?-catenin as well as gap junction (GJ) protein Cx32 were studied by utilization of immunoblotting, immunocytochemical and fluorescent dye transfer methods. Mammalian normal stomach mucosal cells expressed E-cadherin but not N-cadherin. E-cadherin immunofluorescence was detected at cell membranous adherens junctions (AJ) where colocalization with immunofluorescent staining of inner surface adhesion plaque proteins ?- and ?-catenins was observed. The existence of E-cadherin/ catenin (?-, ?-) protein complexes as AJ was suggested. In transformed and stomach cancer cells E-cadherin was inhibited, instead, N-cadherin was expressed and localized at membranous AJ where co-staining with ?- and ?-catenin fluorescence was observed. Formation of N-cadherin/catenin (?-, ?-) protein complex at AJs of transformed and cancer cells was suggested. The above observations were further supported by immunoblotting results. Normal stomach muscosal and transformed cells expressed Cx32 at membranous GJ and were competent of gap junction communication (GJIC). In stomach cancer cells, Cx32 was inhibited and GJIC was defective. The results suggested that changes of signal pathways mediated by both cell adhesion and cell communication systems are associated intracellular events of stomach carcinogenesis. The alteration of cadherin isoform from E- to N-cadherin in transformed and stomach cancer cells is the first report.

  5. Rossby waves with linear topography in barotropic fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Rossby waves are the most important waves in the atmosphere and ocean, and are parts of a large-scale system in fluid. The theory and observation show that, they satisfy quasi-geostrophic and quasi-static equilibrium approximations. In this paper, solitary Rossby waves induced by linear topography in barotropic fluids with a shear flow are studied. In order to simplify the problem, the topography is taken as a linear function of latitude variable y, then employing a weakly nonlinear method and a perturbation method, a KdV (Korteweg-de Vries) equation describing evolution of the amplitude of solitary Rossby waves induced by linear topography is derived. The results show that the variation of linear topography can induce the solitary Rossby waves in barotropic fluids with a shear flow, and extend the classical geophysical theory of fluid dynamics.

  6. Coastal Topography—Anegada, British Virgin Islands, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A seamless (bare earth and submerged) topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for a portion of the submerged environs of Anegada, British Virgin Islands, was...

  7. Surface topography evolvement of galvanized steels in sheet metal forming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Ying-ke; YU Zhong-qi; ZHANG Wei-gang; JIANG Hao-min; LIN Zhong-qin

    2009-01-01

    U-channel forming tests were performed to investigate the surface topography evolvement of hot-dip galvanized(GI) and galvannealed(GA) steels and the effects of die hardness on sheet metal forming(SMF). Experimental results indicate that the surface roughness values of the two galvanized steels increase with the number of forming, i.e., the surface topographies of galvanized steels are roughened in SMF. Moreover, GI steel has a better ability of damage-resistance than GA steel. The mechanisms of topography evolvement are different in the forming of GI and GA steels. Scratch is the main form of surface damage in the forming of GI steels. The severity of scratch can be decreased by increasing die hardness. GA steel results in exfoliating of the coating firstly and then severe scratching. The surface topography of galvannealed steels can be improved by increasing die hardness. However, the hardness should not be too high.

  8. Tectonic control on the persistence of glacially sculpted topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasicek, Günther; Larsen, Isaac J; Montgomery, David R

    2015-08-14

    One of the most fundamental insights for understanding how landscapes evolve is based on determining the extent to which topography was shaped by glaciers or by rivers. More than 10(4) years after the last major glaciation the topography of mountain ranges worldwide remains dominated by characteristic glacial landforms such as U-shaped valleys, but an understanding of the persistence of such landforms is lacking. Here we use digital topographic data to analyse valley shapes at sites worldwide to demonstrate that the persistence of U-shaped valleys is controlled by the erosional response to tectonic forcing. Our findings indicate that glacial topography in Earth's most rapidly uplifting mountain ranges is rapidly replaced by fluvial topography and hence valley forms do not reflect the cumulative action of multiple glacial periods, implying that the classic physiographic signature of glaciated landscapes is best expressed in, and indeed limited by, the extent of relatively low-uplift terrain.

  9. Engineering microscale topographies to control the cell–substrate interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkhah, Mehdi; Edalat, Faramarz; Manoucheri, Sam; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Cells in their in vivo microenvironment constantly encounter and respond to a multitude of signals. While the role of biochemical signals has long been appreciated, the importance of biophysical signals has only recently been investigated. Biophysical cues are presented in different forms including topography and mechanical stiffness imparted by the extracellular matrix and adjoining cells. Microfabrication technologies have allowed for the generation of biomaterials with microscale topographies to study the effect of biophysical cues on cellular function at the cell–substrate interface. Topographies of different geometries and with varying microscale dimensions have been used to better understand cell adhesion, migration, and differentiation at the cellular and sub-cellular scales. Furthermore, quantification of cell-generated forces has been illustrated with micropillar topographies to shed light on the process of mechanotransduction. In this review, we highlight recent advances made in these areas and how they have been utilized for neural, cardiac, and musculoskeletal tissue engineering application. PMID:22521491

  10. EAARL Submerged Topography-U.S. Virgin Islands 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A submerged topography elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model, or DEM) of a portion of the U.S. Virgin Islands was produced from remotely sensed,...

  11. EAARL Submerged Topography-U.S. Virgin Islands 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A submerged topography elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model, or DEM) of a portion of the U.S. Virgin Islands was produced from remotely sensed,...

  12. Application of SAR Imagery in Submarine Topography Surveys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宁川; 梁开龙; 桂力民

    2004-01-01

    An important research area in oceanographic surveying and mapping is to obtain submarine topography by remote sensing technique, especially by SAR imagery. In this article, problems related to SAR imagery are analyzed to provide references for the further research.

  13. Influence of Parent Material and Topography on some Soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Parent Material and Topography on some Soil Properties in Southwestern Nigeria. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... on soils formed on banded gneiss and quartzite schist parent materials.

  14. Coastal Topography—Anegada, British Virgin Islands, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A seamless (bare earth and submerged) topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for a portion of the submerged environs of Anegada, British Virgin Islands, was...

  15. Geoid height versus topography for oceanic plateaus and swells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandwell, David T.; Mackenzie, Kevin R.

    1989-01-01

    Gridded geoid height data (Marsh et al.l, 1986) and gridded bathymetry data (Van Wykhouse, 1973) are used to estimate the average compensation depths of 53 oceanic swells and plateaus. The relationship between geoid height and topography is examined using Airy and thermal compensation models. It is shown that geoid height is linearly related to topography between wavelengths of 400 and 4000 m as predicted by isostatic compensation models. The geoid/topography ratio is dependent on the average depth of compensation. The intermediate geoid/topography ratios of most thermal swells are interpreted as a linear combination of the decaying thermal swell signature and that of the persisting Airy-compensated volcanic edifice.

  16. Mapping Indigenous Settlement Topography in the Caribbean Using Drones

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sonnemann, Till; Ulloa Hung, Jorge; Hofman, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    ...; predominantly conglomerations of shells, ceramics and lithics. While archaeological material may not always be visible on the surface, particular settlement patterns may be identifiable by a topography created through cultural action...

  17. Synchronous Double Malignant Tumors Consisting of Stomach and Hodgkin’s Lymphoma with Collision between Gastric Adenocarcinoma and Hodgkin’s Lymphoma in the Stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Yanagawa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the rare case of a 72-year-old man with double cancers (gastric adenocarcinoma and Hodgkin’s lymphoma with collision between gastric adenocarcinoma and Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Abdominal computed tomography showed increased wall thickness in the fundus region of the stomach and multiple lymph node swellings in the lesser curvature, periceliac and left cardial regions. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed an ulcer approximately 5 cm in diameter with a malignant appearance in the fundus region of the stomach. On histopathologic examination, two completely different tumors were recognized in the stomach. One tumor was a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma characterized by poorly developed tubular structures associated with prominent lymphoid infiltration of the stroma. The other tumor was found to have proliferated in the wall of the stomach, with diffuse granulomatous lesions and bordering the adenocarcinoma. Large atypical lymphoid cells with prominent nucleoli and enlarged mononuclei or multinuclei were seen in the latter tumor. Hodgkin’s lymphoma was also found in the swollen lesser curvature lymph nodes. As a result, gastric adenocarcinoma and metastasis of Hodgkin’s lymphoma were collided in the stomach. In conclusion, this case might be helpful in exploring the occurrence mechanism of tumor collision between lymphoma and carcinoma.

  18. [Watermelon stomach: Chronic renal failure and/or imatinib?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnac, Richard; Blaison, Dominique; Brahimi, Saïd; Schendel, Adeline; Levasseur, Thomas; Takin, Romulus

    2015-11-01

    Watermelon stomach or gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) syndrome is an uncommon cause of sometimes severe upper gastro-intestinal bleeding. Essentially based on a pathognomonic endoscopic appearance, its diagnosis may be unrecognised because mistaken with portal hypertensive gastropathy, while treatment of these two entities is different. Its etiopathogeny remains still unclear, even if it is frequently associated with different systemic illnesses as hepatic cirrhosis, autoimmune disorders and chronic renal failure. The mechanism inducing these vascular ectasia may be linked with mechanical stress on submucosal vessels due to antropyloric peristaltic motility dysfunction modulated by neurohormonal vasoactive alterations. Because medical therapies are not very satisfactory, among the endoscopic modalities, argon plasma coagulation seems to be actually the first-line treatment because the most effective and safe. However, surgical antrectomy may be sometimes necessary. Recently GAVE syndrome appeared as a new adverse reaction of imatinib mesylate, one of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors used in chronic myeloid leukemia, and we report here the observation of such a pathology in one patient treated at the same time by haemodialysis and by imatinib mesylate for chronic myeloid leukemia.

  19. Implications of Helicobacter pylori infection for stomach cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen J. Goodman

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence has implicated Helicobacter pylori, an established cause of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer, in the etiology of gastric cancer. Control of this infection would reduce the occurrence of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer and might substantially lower the risk of stomach cancer as well. The public health impact of this infectious agent warrants efforts to identify preventive measures. This paper reviews the evidence linking H. pylori infection to gastric cancer and evaluates the potential for control in high-risk populations. Current obstacles to H. pylori control are discussed, including the link to poor socioeconomic conditions, difficulty in identifying incident cases, lack of natural immunity to reinfection, limited effectiveness of antibiotic therapy in high-prevalence populations, and incomplete knowledge regarding the reservoir of infection, mode of transmission, host susceptibility factors, and the potential for developing an effective vaccine. Worthwhile avenues of research include studies designed to identify modifiable risk factors for acquisition of the infection, modifiable host factors that may increase resistance to chronic infection, more effective antibiotic therapies, and effective vaccines.

  20. Structural study of the frog Rana temporaria larval stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, J; Villaro, A C; Bodegas, M E; Valverde, E; Sesma, P

    1993-10-01

    The gastric wall of Rana temporaria tadpoles consists of a well-developed mucosa and thin muscular and serosa layers. Three cellular types--mucous, ciliated and endocrine cells--make up the lining epithelium. Different types of endocrine cells exist. Argyrophylic endocrine cells can be recognized in semithin sections of plastic-embedded material while non-argyrophylic endocrine cells can only be identified under the electron microscope. Glands are composed mainly of well-differentiated oxyntic cells and, occasionally, scarce endocrine cells. Oxyntic cells show abundant mitochondria and smooth endoplasmic reticulum, but do not contain zymogen granules as do those present in adults. Secretory canaliculi with microvilli are also well-developed. The lamina propria contains numerous vascular sinuses and nerve bundles which innervate the endothelium and some endocrine cells. The neuroendocrine regulation of frog gastric functions seems therefore to have developed in young tadpoles. Nerve fibers also innervate the muscular propria, which is composed of a single layer of smooth muscle cells. Underlying the muscle, connective fibers and a flattened layer of mesothelial cells make up the serosa. In summary, the structure of the frog larval stomach shows a well-differentiated histological pattern, especially referring to surface epithelium and glands. Some of the histological traits will also be present in adult frogs while others are characteristic of the tadpole's stage.

  1. Myoepithelial carcinoma of the stomach: a diagnostic pitfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chih-En; Hsieh, Yu-Hsi; Wei, Chang-Kuo; Huang, Hsuan-Ying; Chi, Chen-Lin

    2015-04-14

    Myoepithelioma/myoepithelial carcinomas are not commonly found in soft tissues and are especially rare at visceral sites. This report describes a case of a rare low-grade myoepithelial carcinoma of the stomach. A 61-year-old female patient presented with postprandial abdominal discomfort. Endoscopy revealed a 1.1 cm submucosal lesion. Local excision was performed after malignancy was confirmed by biopsy. The resection margin is free of tumor and she received no adjuvant therapy. The tumor was characterized by multinodular growth with biphasic epithelioid and spindle components. Infiltrative margin and nuclear pleomorphism are seen. Tumor cells were positive for both epithelial and myoepithelial markers. Evidence of epithelial differentiation was confirmed by electron microscopy. No EWSR1 rearrangement was detected. The final diagnosis was low-grade myoepithelial gastric carcinoma. The patient is currently well, and no evidence of recurrence or metastasis was found after ten-month of follow-up. Myoepithelial carcinoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a biphasic gastric tumor.

  2. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Genotypes, Dietary Habits and Susceptibility to Stomach Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChangmingGao; TakezakiToshiro; JianzhongWu; JianhuoDing; YantingLiu; SupingLi; PingSu; XuHu; TianliongXu; HamajimaNobuyuki; TajimaKazuo

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the relation among methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genotypes, dietary habits and the risk of stomach cancer (SC).METHODS A case-control study was conducted with 107 cases of SC and 200 population-based controls in Chuzhou district, Huaian, Jiangsu province, China. The epidemiological data were collected, and DNA of peripheral blood leukocytes was obtained from all of the subjects..MTHFR genotypes were detected by PCR-RFLP. RESULTS (1) The prevalence of the MTHFR C/T or T/T genotypes was found to be significantly different between controls (68.5%) and SC cases (79.4%,P=0.0416), the increased risk had an adjusted OR of 1.79 (95%C1:1.01-3.19). (2) Among subjects who had a low intake of garlic or Chinese onion, MTHFR C/T or T/T genotypes significantly increased the risk of developing SC. Among non-tea drinkers or among subjects who had a frequent intakeof meat, the carriers of the MTHFR C/T or T/T genotypes had a higher risk of SC than individuals with the C/C type MTHFR. CONCLUSION The polymorphism of MTHFR C677T was associated with increased risk of developing SC, and that individuals with differing genotypes may have different susceptibilities to SC, based on their exposure level to environmental factors.

  3. Localized amyloidosis of the stomach mimicking a superficial gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Miwako; Fujino, Yasuteru; Muguruma, Naoki; Murayama, Noriaki; Okamoto, Koichi; Kitamura, Shinji; Kimura, Tetsuo; Kishi, Kazuhiro; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Uehara, Hisanori; Takayama, Tetsuji

    2016-06-01

    A 73-year-old man was referred to our hospital for further examination of a depressed lesion in the stomach found by cancer screening gastroscopy. A barium upper gastrointestinal series showed an area of irregular mucosa measuring 15 mm on the anterior wall of the gastric body. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a 15 mm depressed lesion on the anterior wall of the lower gastric body. We suspected an undifferentiated adenocarcinoma from the appearance and took some biopsies. However, histology of the specimens revealed amyloidal deposits in the submucosal layer without malignant findings. Congo red staining was positive for amyloidal protein and green birefringence was observed under polarized light microscopy. Congo red staining with prior potassium permanganate incubation confirmed the light chain (AL) amyloid type. There were no amyloid deposits in the colon or duodenum. Computed tomography of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis showed no remarkable findings. Thus, this case was diagnosed as a localized gastric amyloidosis characterized by AL type amyloid deposition in the mucosal or submucosal layer. As the clinical outcome of gastric AL amyloidosis seems favorable, this case is scheduled for periodic examination to recognize potential disease progression and has been stable for 2 years.

  4. Implications of Helicobacter pylori infection for stomach cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodman Karen J.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence has implicated Helicobacter pylori, an established cause of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer, in the etiology of gastric cancer. Control of this infection would reduce the occurrence of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer and might substantially lower the risk of stomach cancer as well. The public health impact of this infectious agent warrants efforts to identify preventive measures. This paper reviews the evidence linking H. pylori infection to gastric cancer and evaluates the potential for control in high-risk populations. Current obstacles to H. pylori control are discussed, including the link to poor socioeconomic conditions, difficulty in identifying incident cases, lack of natural immunity to reinfection, limited effectiveness of antibiotic therapy in high-prevalence populations, and incomplete knowledge regarding the reservoir of infection, mode of transmission, host susceptibility factors, and the potential for developing an effective vaccine. Worthwhile avenues of research include studies designed to identify modifiable risk factors for acquisition of the infection, modifiable host factors that may increase resistance to chronic infection, more effective antibiotic therapies, and effective vaccines.

  5. [THE INFLUENCE OF LEU-ENKEPHALIN AND MEDICAL PLANTS ON MOTOR ACTIVITY OF STOMACH IN DOGS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vymjatnina, Z K; Prosekina, E Y; Tomova, T A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the real research was a study influence of leu-enkephalin and extracts from the leaves of goose-grass large, of burdock of felted and root of chicory on the motor function of stomach for dogs. The study was carried out on 6 outbred dogs-males, by mass 14-17 kg, with the fistula of stomach by Basov. A leu-enkephalin ("Vector", Russia) was entered intravenously in a dose 7 mcg/kg. The corresponding plant-based preparations entered perorally during 10-14 days to beginning of experiments, on an empty stomach, in a volume a no more than 20 ml. Experiments put in a morning clock, in 16-18 hours after eating, after the careful washing of stomach. For 30 mines to the record of motive activity of stomach an animal was enter a peptide or gave a corresponding extract as water or spirit infusion. At the choice of doses of vegetable preparations came from the before obtained data about the antiulcerous action of the used plants. The conduct of peptide rendered considerable stimulant influence on motor activity of stomach, that was expressed in the increase of period of work and increase of force of reductions especially tonic. All used plants preparations rendered modulating influence on motive activity of stomach. Changes consisted in strengthening of tonic and oppressing of phase component. The most considerable decline of amount of phase reductions caused application of extract of goose-grass. Not only an amount but also force of phase reductions diminished thus. An extract from the root of chicory less considerably reduced the arnount of Phase reJuctions, but here substantially increased their force. All used herbal medicines stimulated tonic activity. Thus, peptide and all studied herbal medicines stimulated motion activity of the stomach that could cause acceleration of evacuation of food to duodenum. Such effect should be considered while choosing the medicine for correction of stomach functional activity.

  6. Morphological study of the oesophagus and stomach of the Gopher snake Pituophis catenifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamas, W; Reeves, R

    2011-08-01

    The gastrointestinal tract of the snake has various distinctions from mammals, birds and other reptiles. Five gopher snakes (Pituophis catenifer) were studied in relation to the gross anatomical measurements of visceral organs relative to body length as well as the histology of the oesophagus and the stomach. The oesophagus closely resembles the empty stomach upon gross examination. A small palpable thickening was observed at the junction of the oesophagus with the stomach. In both the oesophagus and the stomach, there were cellular and structural differences observed in the tunica mucosa which can be linked to the feeding habits and natural biology of the snake when compared to those of mammals. Both oesophagus and stomach were lined by simple columnar to pseudostratified columnar epithelium. There were no glands in the wall of the oesophagus. Scattered ciliated triangular cells (brush cells) were present among the columnar epithelial cells in the distal portion of the oesophagus. The stomach can be divided into three portions (proximal, middle and distal). The stomach has a small non-glandular portion with low folds. After this small non-glandular portion, glands started to appear and gradually increase in quantity. The largest quantity of glands appeared in the middle portion of the stomach with more branching folds resulting in a decrease in the lumen diameter. The tunica muscularis increased in thickness at the oesophageal and the pyloric-duodenal junctions. Positive statistical correlations were established in thickness of the tunica muscularis between proximal and distal portions of the oesophagus and the stomach. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Radiation Dose and Subsequent Risk for Stomach Cancer in Long-term Survivors of Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinerman, Ruth A., E-mail: kleinerr@mail.nih.gov [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Maryland (United States); Smith, Susan A. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Holowaty, Eric [Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Hall, Per [Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Pukkala, Eero [Finnish Cancer Registry, Institute for Statistical and Epidemiological Cancer Research, Helsinki (Finland); Vaalavirta, Leila [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Stovall, Marilyn; Weathers, Rita [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gilbert, Ethel [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Maryland (United States); Aleman, Berthe M.P. [Department of Radiotherapy, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kaijser, Magnus [Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Michael [Department of Oncology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark); Storm, Hans [Cancer Prevention and Documentation, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen (Denmark); Joensuu, Heikki [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Lynch, Charles F. [Department of Epidemiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); and others

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To assess the dose–response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: We conducted a nested, matched case–control study of 201 cases and 378 controls among 53,547 5-year survivors of cervical cancer diagnosed from 1943 to 1995, from 5 international, population-based cancer registries. We estimated individual radiation doses to the site of the stomach cancer for all cases and to corresponding sites for the matched controls (overall mean stomach tumor dose, 2.56 Gy, range 0.03-46.1 and after parallel opposed pelvic fields, 1.63 Gy, range 0.12-6.3). Results: More than 90% of women received radiation therapy, mostly with external beam therapy in combination with brachytherapy. Stomach cancer risk was nonsignificantly increased (odds ratio 1.27-2.28) for women receiving between 0.5 and 4.9 Gy to the stomach cancer site and significantly increased at doses ≥5 Gy (odds ratio 4.20, 95% confidence interval 1.41-13.4, P{sub trend}=.047) compared with nonirradiated women. A highly significant radiation dose–response relationship was evident when analyses were restricted to the 131 cases (251 controls) whose stomach cancer was located in the middle and lower portions of the stomach (P{sub trend}=.003), whereas there was no indication of increasing risk with increasing dose for 30 cases (57 controls) whose cancer was located in the upper stomach (P{sub trend}=.23). Conclusions: Our findings show for the first time a significant linear dose–response relationship for risk of stomach cancer in long-term survivors of cervical cancer.

  8. Contrast Reversal of Topography Artifacts in a Transmission SNOM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi; WANG Shu-Feng; ZHANG Jia-Sen; GONG Qi-Huang

    2005-01-01

    @@ We demonstrate the contrast reversal behaviour of topography artifacts by changing the diameter of the collection diaphragm in a transmission scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM). This originates from the change of the approach curves. Such contrast reversal phenomenon is used to distinguish the artifact signal from the true optical signal of the SNOM image. We also show that continuously changing the diaphragm to a proper diameter can greatly reduce topography artifacts.

  9. 3D surface topography formation in ultra-precision turning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽伟; 董申; 程凯

    2004-01-01

    The generation process of 3 D surface topography in ultra-precision turning is analyzed, as the result of superimposing between actual roughness surface, waviness surface and geometrical form texture surface. From the viewpoints of machine technical system and manufacturing process, factors influencing on roughness surface,waviness surface and geometrical form texture surface in ultra-precision turning are discussed further. The 3D topography of ideal roughness surface and actual surface affected by cutting vibration are simulated respectively.

  10. Lower mantle heterogeneity, dynamic topography and the geoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, B. H.; Clayton, R. W.; Richards, M. A.; Comer, R. P.; Dziewonski, A. M.

    1985-01-01

    Density contrasts in the lower mantle, recently imaged using seismic tomography, drive convective flow which results in kilometers of dynamically maintained topography at the core-mantle boundary and at the earth's surface. The total gravity field due to interior density constrasts and boundary topography predicts the largest wavelength components of the geoid remarkably well. Neglecting dynamic surface deformation leads to geoid anomalies of opposite sign than are observed.

  11. Topography-modified refraction (TMR): adjustment of treated cylinder amount and axis to the topography versus standard clinical refraction in myopic topography-guided LASIK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellopoulos, Anastasios John

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the safety, efficacy, and contralateral eye comparison of topography-guided myopic LASIK with two different refraction treatment strategies. Private clinical ophthalmology practice. A total of 100 eyes (50 patients) in consecutive cases of myopic topography-guided LASIK procedures with the same refractive platform (FS200 femtosecond and EX500 excimer lasers) were randomized for treatment as follows: one eye with the standard clinical refraction (group A) and the contralateral eye with the topographic astigmatic power and axis (topography-modified treatment refraction; group B). All cases were evaluated pre- and post-operatively for the following parameters: refractive error, best corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), topography (Placido-disk based) and tomography (Scheimpflug-image based), wavefront analysis, pupillometry, and contrast sensitivity. Follow-up visits were conducted for at least 12 months. Mean refractive error was -5.5 D of myopia and -1.75 D of astigmatism. In group A versus group B, respectively, the average UDVA improved from 20/200 to 20/20 versus 20/16; post-operative CDVA was 20/20 and 20/13.5; 1 line of vision gained was 27.8% and 55.6%; and 2 lines of vision gained was 5.6% and 11.1%. In group A, 27.8% of eyes had over -0.50 diopters of residual refractive astigmatism, in comparison to 11.7% in group B (Prefractive astigmatism of more than -0.5 diopters. Topography-modified refraction (TMR): topographic adjustment of the amount and axis of astigmatism treated, when different from the clinical refraction, may offer superior outcomes in topography-guided myopic LASIK. These findings may change the current clinical paradigm of the optimal subjective refraction utilized in laser vision correction.

  12. Periodic activity of secretory glands of stomach in ulcer erosion of gastro-duodenal zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Rudenko

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available It was fixed, that development of atophanum-carbacholimun ulcer of the gastroduodenal zone invoked various changes of secretory activity of the stomach. The changes directly depend on a progress of pathological process. As this takes place the reaction of stomach secretory glands varies under the stimulation with histamine: the decrease of stomach secretory glands’ work capacity till 10th day and its increase after 10–15th day were observed. Disorders of the glands’ ultradian rhythms at initial stages of modeling of gastrointestinal nervous regulation disturbances testify to dependence of periodic activity of gastrointestinal tract on resistance of regulatory mechanisms correlation.

  13. [Influence of electro-stimulation at auriculo-stomach point in electrogastrogram of peptic ulcer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, G W; Yang, Y; Liang, S Z

    1994-11-01

    Through observation on electrogastrogramm (EGG) with electro-stimulation at Auriculo-Stomach and Auriculo-Heart points and in 60 gastric and duodenal ulcer patients without any treatment as control. Results showed that after electro-stimulation at Stomach point the EGG amplitude of ulcer patients' gastric antrum and corpus was reduced (P 0.05). There were also no effects of three methods on the EGG frequency of ulcer patients' gastric antrum and corpus (P < 0.05). It proves that electro-stimulation at Stomach point has some therapeutic effect to ulcer patients.

  14. MRI for advanced gastric cancer; Especially for scirrhous cancer of the stomach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homma, Hisato; Masuko, Eiichi; Saito, Tadanori; Ikeda, Shigeyuki (National Sapporo Hospital (Japan)); Mezawa, Synichi; Betsuyaku, Takashi; Niitsu, Yoshiro

    1993-01-01

    We conducted MRI examinations in 92 patients with advanced gastric cancer and evaluated the clinical potential of MRI for diagnosis of scirrhous cancer of the stomach. The feature of scirrhous cancer of stomach by MRI are: (1) thickened gastric wall, (2) shortening of T1 and T2 values; and (3) clear contrast between the gastric mucosae and cancer areas found in the T1 and T2 weighted images (preservation of the mucosae). MRI for scirrhous cancer of the stomach is thought a useful image diagnosis as an adjunct method to gastric X-ray and gastric endoscopy. (author).

  15. NON HODGKIN'S LYMPHOMA OF STOMACH WITH SPONTANEOUS PERFORATION: A CASE REPORT WITH REVIEW OF LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishikant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stomach is the commonest extranodal site of lymphomas. A case of Non - Hodgkin’s Lymphoma of stomach is reported here for its unusual way of presentation. Fifty year old male presented with features of perforation peritonitis , which on exploration turned out to be a Non - Hodgkin’s lymphoma of stomach with perforation. Usually gastric lymphomas are diagnosed on upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examination and biopsy in patients with epigastric pain , early satiety and weight loss. Detailed review of literature denotes that spontaneous perforation in a case of lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract is uncommon , although many cases of perforation after chemo or radiotherapy are reported.

  16. Right intrathoracic stomach secondary to congenital hiatal hernia with organoaxial torsion: a report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mee Eun; Pyun, Hae Wook; Kim, Mi Ran; Kim, Hee Jin; Kim, Byoung Young; Lee, Jong Gil [Fatima Hospital, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Right intrathoracic stomach associated with organoaxial torsion is a rare form of congenital hiatal hernia. We report the radiologic findings in two cases of complete or partial right intrathoracic stomach secondary to congenital hiatal hernia. The barium meal test demonstrated the presence of complete or partial right intrathoracic stomach and non-obstructive organoaxial torsion with the greater curvature lying against the right chest wall. The esophagogastric junction was located above the diaphragm. CT revealed a cystic mass in the right posterior mediastinum. This cystic lesion should be differentiated from other congenital mediastinal cysts.

  17. Cognitive “Boy stories”: urban folklore and urban topographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Žikić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The culturally cognitive perception of Belgrade’s topographies is considered through its deployment, symbolic use and narrative foundation. As the explanatory material-one football-media incident, the use of certain areas of the city in a spectacleceremonial manner, knowledge and lore of certain elements of the Belgrade topographies and the organization of «the football Belgrade»-were considered. The attitude is taken that the topography of a city is a multifaceted cultural constituent, whose structure of particular meaning, as a part of cultural communication, is determined by the very fact it is an urban space. Physical aspects of spatial-ness are reduced to relationism, i.e. it has a meaning for the cultural communication only when the elements of urban topographies are brought into correlation. Other characteristics of physical spatial-ness are irrelevant for such communication. Meaning relations in which elements of urban topographies exist are formed on the very fact of them being urban, that is, the afore mentioned denotation that is ascribed to space, stems from those cultural features and artifacts that are associated in a given milieu with certain concrete elements of urban topographies.

  18. Retinal ganglion cell topography in elasmobranchs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzano, A; Collin, S P

    2000-04-01

    Retinal wholemounts are used to examine the topographic distribution of retinal cells within the ganglion cell layer in a range of elasmobranchs from different depths. The retina is examined for regional specializations for acute vision in six species of selachians, Galeocerdo cuvieri, Hemiscyllium ocellatum, Scyliorhinus canicula, Galeus melastomus, Etmopterus spinax, Isistius brasiliensis, one species of batoid, Raja bigelowi and one species of chimaera, Hydrolagus mirabilis. These species represent a range of lifestyles including pelagic, mesopelagic and benthic habitats, living from shallow water to the sea bottom at a depth of more than 3000 m. The topography of cells within the ganglion cell layer is non-uniform and changes markedly across the retina. Most species possess an increased density of cells across the horizontal (dorsal) meridian or visual streak, with a density range of 500 to 2,500 cells per mm(2) with one or more regional increases in density lying within this specialized horizontal area. It is proposed that the higher spatial resolving power provided by the horizontal streak in these species mediates panoramic vision in the lower frontal visual field. Only I. brasiliensis possesses a concentric arrangement of retinal iso-density contours in temporal retina or an area centralis, thereby increasing spatial resolving power in a more specialized part of the visual field, an adaptation for its unusual feeding behavior. In Nissl-stained material, amacrine and ganglion cell populations could be distinguished on the criteria of soma size, soma shape and nuclear staining. Quantitative analyses show that the proportion of amacrine cells lying within the ganglion cell layer is non-uniform and ranges between 0.4 and 12.3% in specialized retinal areas and between 8.2 and 48.1% in the peripheral non-specialized regions. Analyses of soma area of the total population of cells in the ganglion cell layer also show that the pelagic species possess significantly

  19. Crust rheology, slab detachment and topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duretz, T.; Gerya, T. V.

    2012-04-01

    The collision between continents following the closure of an ocean can lead to the subduction of continental crust. The introduction of buoyant crust within subduction zones triggers the development of extensional stresses in slabs which eventually result in their detachment. The dynamic consequences of slab detachment affects the development of topography, the exhumation of high-pressure rocks and the geodynamic evolution of collision zones. We employ two-dimensional thermo-mechanical modelling in order to study the importance of crustal rheology on the evolution of spontaneous subduction-collision systems and the occurrence of slab detachment. The modelling results indicate that varying the rheological structure of the crust can results in a broad range of collisional evolutions involving slab detachment, delamination (associated to slab rollback), or the combination of both mechanisms. By enhancing mechanical coupling at the Moho, a strong crust leads to the deep subduction of the crust (180 km). These collisions are subjected to slab detachment and subsequent coherent exhumation of the crust accommodated by eduction (inversion of subduction sense) and thrusting. In these conditions, slab detachment promotes the development of a high (> 4.5 km) and narrow (delamination of the lithosphere, preventing slab detachment to occur. Further shortening leads to buckling and thickening of the crust resulting in the development of topographic bulging on the lower plate. Collisions involving rheologically layered crust are characterised by a decoupling level at mid-crustal depths. These initial condition favours the delamination of the upper crust as well as the deep subduction of the lower crust. These collisions are thus successively affected by delamination and slab detachment and both processes contribute to the exhumation of the subducted crust. A wide (> 200 km) topographic plateau develops as the results of the buoyant extrusion of the upper crust onto the foreland

  20. Gender Difference in Proverbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Jia

    2013-01-01

      The language research about gender has been a heated topic in linguistics. Gender difference and sexism in language is a natural phenomenon during its use and development. It is the fact that language is discriminatory against women.

  1. Alterations of neurochemical expression of the coeliac-superior mesenteric ganglion complex (CSMG) neurons supplying the prepyloric region of the porcine stomach following partial stomach resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palus, Katarzyna; Całka, Jarosław

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the response of the porcine coeliac-superior mesenteric ganglion complex (CSMG) neurons projecting to the prepyloric area of the porcine stomach to peripheral neuronal damage following partial stomach resection. To identify the sympathetic neurons innervating the studied area of stomach, the neuronal retrograde tracer Fast Blue (FB) was applied to control and partial stomach resection (RES) groups. On the 22nd day after FB injection, following laparotomy, the partial resection of the previously FB-injected stomach prepyloric area was performed in animals of RES group. On the 28th day, all animals were re-anaesthetized and euthanized. The CSMG complex was then collected and processed for double-labeling immunofluorescence. In control animals, retrograde-labelled perikarya were immunoreactive to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine β-hydroxylase (DβH), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and galanin (GAL). Partial stomach resection decreased the numbers of FB-positive neurons immunopositive for TH and DβH. However, the strong increase of NPY and GAL expression, as well as de novo-synthesis of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and leu5-Enkephalin (LENK) was noted in studied neurons. Furthermore, FB-positive neurons in all pigs were surrounded by a network of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART)-, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-, and substance P (SP)-, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-, LENK- and nNOS- immunoreactive nerve fibers. This may suggest neuroprotective contribution of these neurotransmitters in traumatic responses of sympathetic neurons to peripheral axonal damage.

  2. Gender Inequality and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Busse, Matthias; Spielmann, Christian

    2005-01-01

    The paper empirically explores the international linkages between gender inequality and trade flows of a sample of 92 developed and developing countries. The focus is on comparative advantage in labour-intensive manufactured goods. The results indicate that gender wage inequality is positively associated with comparative advantage in labour-intensive goods, that is, countries with a larger gender wage gap have higher exports of these goods. Also, gender inequality in labour force activity rat...

  3. The semiotics of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buren, J

    1992-01-01

    The semiotics of gender are investigated in this article for the purpose of exploring the way that deep unconscious motives in relationship to cultural biases give rise to gender concepts. Theories of semiotic processes, including Jacques Lacan's concept of the psychoanalytic signifier, are explained briefly and applied to the signs of gender. The article concludes that gender concepts develop out of biology, unconscious feelings, and social patterning, and are not given, natural, and irrevocable.

  4. Workshop I: Gender Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Eden; Kurup, Anitha; Meza-Montes, Lilia; Shastri, Prajval; Ghose, Shohini

    2015-12-01

    Participants in the Gender Studies workshop of the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics discussed the gender question in science practice from a policy perspective, informed by investigations from the social science disciplines. The workshop's three sessions—"Equity and Education: Examining Gender Stigma in Science," "A Comparative Study of Women Scientists and Engineers: Experiences in India and the US," and "Toward Gender Equity Through Policy: Characterizing the Social Impact of Interventions—are summarized, and the resulting recommendations presented.

  5. Extra-Esophageal Pepsin from Stomach Refluxate Promoted Tonsil Hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Jeong, Han-Sin; Kim, Kyung Mi; Lee, Ye Jin; Jung, Myeong Hee; Park, Jung Je; Kim, Jin Pyeong; Woo, Seung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastroesophageal reflux is associated with numerous pathologic conditions of the upper aerodigestive tract. Gastric pepsin within reflux contributes to immunologic reactions in the tonsil. In this study, we aimed to find the relationships between pepsin and tonsillar hypertrophy. Methods and finding We explored the notion whether tonsillar hypertrophy was due to pepsin-mediated gastric reflux in tonsil hypertrophy. Fifty-four children with tonsil hypertrophy and 30 adults with tonsillitis were recruited before surgical treatment. Blood and tonsil tissues from each patient were harvested for analysis of changes in lymphocyte and macrophage numbers coupled with histological and biochemical analysis. Pepsin was expressed at different levels in tonsil tissues from each tonsillar hypertrophy. Pepsin-positive cells were found in the crypt epithelium, surrounding the lymphoid follicle with developing fibrosis, and also surrounding the lymphoid follicle that faced the crypt. And also, pepsin staining was well correlated with damaged tonsillar squamous epithelium and TGF-β1 and iNOS expression in the tonsil section. In addition, pepsin and TGF-β1-positive cells were co-localized with CD68-positive cells in the crypt and surrounding germinal centers. In comparison of macrophage responsiveness to pepsin, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) were noticeably larger in the presence of activated pepsin in the child group. Furthermore, CD11c and CD163-positive cells were significantly increased by activated pepsin. However, this was not seen for the culture of PBMNCs from the adult group. Conclusions The lymphocytes and monocytes are in a highly proliferative state in the tonsillar hypertrophy and associated with increased expression of pro-inflammatory factors as a result of exposure to stomach reflux pepsin. PMID:27058240

  6. Extra-Esophageal Pepsin from Stomach Refluxate Promoted Tonsil Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Jeong, Han-Sin; Kim, Kyung Mi; Lee, Ye Jin; Jung, Myeong Hee; Park, Jung Je; Kim, Jin Pyeong; Woo, Seung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux is associated with numerous pathologic conditions of the upper aerodigestive tract. Gastric pepsin within reflux contributes to immunologic reactions in the tonsil. In this study, we aimed to find the relationships between pepsin and tonsillar hypertrophy. We explored the notion whether tonsillar hypertrophy was due to pepsin-mediated gastric reflux in tonsil hypertrophy. Fifty-four children with tonsil hypertrophy and 30 adults with tonsillitis were recruited before surgical treatment. Blood and tonsil tissues from each patient were harvested for analysis of changes in lymphocyte and macrophage numbers coupled with histological and biochemical analysis. Pepsin was expressed at different levels in tonsil tissues from each tonsillar hypertrophy. Pepsin-positive cells were found in the crypt epithelium, surrounding the lymphoid follicle with developing fibrosis, and also surrounding the lymphoid follicle that faced the crypt. And also, pepsin staining was well correlated with damaged tonsillar squamous epithelium and TGF-β1 and iNOS expression in the tonsil section. In addition, pepsin and TGF-β1-positive cells were co-localized with CD68-positive cells in the crypt and surrounding germinal centers. In comparison of macrophage responsiveness to pepsin, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) were noticeably larger in the presence of activated pepsin in the child group. Furthermore, CD11c and CD163-positive cells were significantly increased by activated pepsin. However, this was not seen for the culture of PBMNCs from the adult group. The lymphocytes and monocytes are in a highly proliferative state in the tonsillar hypertrophy and associated with increased expression of pro-inflammatory factors as a result of exposure to stomach reflux pepsin.

  7. Cerebral metastasis from hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We first report a rare case of metastasis from gastric hepatoid adenocarcinoma (HAC) to cerebral parenchyma, in a 50-year-old Chinese patient. He complained of a one-month history of a paroxysm of headache in the left temple and pars parietalis accompanied with binocular caligation caligo, insensible feeling of limbs and transient anepia. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a spherical occupying lesion in the left posterior-temple lobe which was clinically diagnosed as a metastatic tumor. Three years ago, the patient accepted total gastrectomy as he was pathologically diagnosed at gastroscopy having an adenocarcinoma. Eight months after gastrectomy, the occupying lesion in liver was detected by ultrasound and CT, and he accepted transcatheter arterial embolization. Before operation of the brain metastasis, no obvious abnormality was found in liver by ultrasound. Histopathological characteristics of the brain tumor were identical to those of stomach tumor. The growth pattern of both tumors showed solid cell nests. The tumor cells were polygonal, and had abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm and round nuclei with obvious nucleoli. Sinusoid-like blood spaces were located between nodular tumor cells. Immunohistochemistrystained tumor cells were positive for AFP and negative for Hep-Par-1. According to these histopathological findings, both tumors were diagnosed as HAC and metastatic HAC. The patient remained alive 16 mo after tumorectomy of the cerebral metastasis. The differential diagnosis of brain metastasis from metastatic tumors should use a panel of antibodies to avoid confusing with the brain metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This paper describes this rare case of metastasis from gastric hepatoid adenocarcinoma to cerebral parenchyma, and provides a review of the literature concerning its histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics.

  8. Gender and Adolescent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, David G.; Pauletti, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes and critiques recent trends in research and theory on the role of gender in adolescent development. First, gender differences in key areas of adolescent functioning are reviewed. Second, research on 3 constructs that are especially relevant to the investigation of within-gender individual differences in gender…

  9. Gendered Representations of Fandom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürsimsek, Ödül A

    2016-01-01

    discursive perspective that demonstrates that gender dynamics plays a role in interpreting the material related to fiction and the points of view of the other fan groups. The audience discourse that is shaped and negotiated by men and women who deliberate the so-called gendered interests in online mixed-gender...

  10. Gender, Identity and CMC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Simeon J.

    1997-01-01

    Some research and popularized accounts have claimed computer-mediated communication (CMC) based interactions are free of gender inequality though a growing body of research has documented gender differences in access and practice. This article examines both positions and cultural aspects of gender identities to make clear the centrality of gender…

  11. Gender: a battlefield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Guidi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the campaign against gender studies and LGBT rights conducted in France and Italy by the Catholic Church together with traditionalist movements and conservative politicians. They accuse that which they call the "gender theory" of corrupting the youth and undermining the traditional family as well as sexual customs and gender identities.

  12. Gender and Adolescent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, David G.; Pauletti, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes and critiques recent trends in research and theory on the role of gender in adolescent development. First, gender differences in key areas of adolescent functioning are reviewed. Second, research on 3 constructs that are especially relevant to the investigation of within-gender individual differences in gender…

  13. Gender: An Interdisciplinary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Wendy; Ridgeway, Cecilia L.

    2010-01-01

    This article is intended to identify research opportunities for gender scholars in all disciplines. The authors explain why a truly interdisciplinary approach is necessary to study gender and offer their current thinking about how to pursue this goal. They first provide a description of gender as it plays out at the individual, interpersonal, and…

  14. Large hiatal hernia in infancy with right intrathoracic stomach along with left sided morgagni hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Uzma; Mazhar, Naveed; Zameer, Shahla

    2014-11-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a very common intrathoracic fetal anomaly with Morgagni hernia typically seen on right side anteriorly and Bochdalek hernia on left side posteriorly, because of the protective effects of liver and heart on either side respectively. Hiatal hernias range from herniation of a small portion of stomach into thoracic cavity to herniation of entire stomach into the left thoracic cavity. Very rarely the herniated stomach has been reported in the right thoracic cavity. Early diagnosis and treatment of all diaphragmatic hernias is essential to reduce the associated morbidity and mortality. We present a very rare and interesting case of an 18 months old baby girl with reverse scenarios. She had a large hiatal hernia with right intrathoracic stomach along with a left sided Morgagni hernia in combination.

  15. Examination of equine glandular stomach lesions for bacteria, including Helicobacter spp by fluorescence in situ hybridisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    husted, Louise; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Olsen, Susanne N.;

    2010-01-01

    Background: The equine glandular stomach is commonly affected by erosion and ulceration. The aim of this study was to assess whether bacteria, including Helicobacter, could be involved in the aetiology of gastric glandular lesions seen in horses. Results: Stomach lesions, as well as normal...... by cloning and sequencing. Mucosal lesions were found in 36/63 stomachs and included hyperplastic rugae, polypoid structures and focal erosions. None of the samples were tested positive for urease activity or for FISH using the Helicobacter genus specific probe. In samples of lesions, as well as normal...... faecium. The Enterococcus were found colonising the mucosal surface, while E. fergusonii organisms were also demonstrated intraepithelial. Conclusion: Gastric Helicobacter spp. could not be verified as being involved in lesions of the glandular stomach of the horse. Since E. fergusonii has been described...

  16. Effects of a hydrogen sulfide donor on spontaneous contractile activity of rat stomach and jejunum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafigullin, M Y; Zefirov, R A; Sabirullina, G I; Zefirov, A L; Sitdikova, G F

    2014-07-01

    We studied the effect of sodium hydrosulfite (NaHS), a donor of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), on spontaneous contractive activity of isolated preparations of rat stomach and jejunum under isometric conditions. NaHS in concentrations of 10-200 μM reduced the amplitude, tonic tension, and frequency of contractions of the preparations. Blockade of K(+) channels with a non-specific antagonist tetraethylammonium (10 mM) increased contraction amplitude in the stomach strip and jejunum segment. The effects of NaHS on all parameters of contractile activity of the stomach and jejunum were fully preserved against the background of tetraethylammonium application. These data suggest that H2S in physiologically relevant concentrations inhibited spontaneous contractile activity of smooth muscle cells in rat stomach and jejunum by reducing the amplitude and frequency of contractions and decreased tonic tension without affecting the function of voltage- and calcium-dependent K(+) channels.

  17. Variations in stomach contents and biochemical composition of tissues in some marine fishes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jacob, P.G.; Rajagopal, M.D.

    Relationship between calorific values and protein, fat and carbohydrate of the stomach contents (food) and body tissues of marine fishes, Sardinella longiceps, Valenciennes, Rastrelliger kanagurta (Cuvier), Otolithus ruber (Schneider) and Lactarius...

  18. Gastric adenocarcinoma with choriocarcinomatous differentiation in the remnant stomach, 54 years after Billroth II partial gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Yildirim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The gastric remnant cancer is defined as a cancer that has developed 5 or more years after distal gastric resection for benign diseases of the stomach. The choriocarcinomatous differentiation of adenocarcinoma in the stomach is a very rare tumor. A 75-year-old woman underwent resection of remnant stomach which she had operated for benign gastric pathology 54 years ago. Pathologic examination of the resection revealed areas of choriocarcinomatous differentiation in addition to classical adenocarcinoma. In the literature on English language, this report presents the first case of adenocarcinoma associated with choriocarcinomatous differentiation in the gastric remnant. The treatment of these patients depends on the clinical setting, and early diagnosis is an important factor for the treatment strategies. Therefore, due to the probability of arising adenocarcinoma in the remnant stomach, the patient should be investigated with endoscopic examination periodically, despite the long postoperative period.

  19. Diverging breast and stomach cancer incidence and survival in migrants in The Netherlands, 1996–2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, M.; Aarts, M.J.; Siesling, Sabine; van der Aa, M.A.; Visser, O.; Coebergh, J.W.W.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Migrant populations usually experience a health transition with respect to their cancer risk as a result from environmental changes and acculturation processes. We investigated potentially contrasting experiences with breast and stomach cancer risk and survival in migrants to the

  20. Breast and stomach cancer incidence and survival in migrants in the Netherlands, 1996-2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, Melina; Aarts, Mieke Josepha; Siesling, Sabine; van der Aa, Maaike; Visser, Otto; Coebergh, Jan Willem

    2011-01-01

    Migrant populations experience a health transition that influences their cancer risk, determined by environmental changes and acculturation processes. In this retrospective cohort study, we investigated differences in breast and stomach cancer risk and survival in migrants to the Netherlands.

  1. Bias in estimating food consumption of fish from stomach-content analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna; Lewy, Peter

    2004-01-01

    , a serious positive bias was introduced by estimating food intake from the contents of pooled stomach samples. An expression is given that can be used to correct analytically for this bias. A new method, which takes into account the distribution and evacuation of individual prey types as well as the effect......This study presents an analysis of the bias introduced by using simplified methods to calculate food intake of fish from stomach contents. Three sources of bias were considered: (1) the effect of estimating consumption based on a limited number of stomach samples, (2) the effect of using average...... of other food in the stomach on evacuation, is suggested for estimating the intake of separate prey types. Simplifying the estimation by ignoring these factors biased estimates of consumption of individual prey types by up to 150% in a data example....

  2. Examination of equine glandular stomach lesions for bacteria, including Helicobacter spp by fluorescence in situ hybridisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    husted, Louise; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Olsen, Susanne N.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The equine glandular stomach is commonly affected by erosion and ulceration. The aim of this study was to assess whether bacteria, including Helicobacter, could be involved in the aetiology of gastric glandular lesions seen in horses. Results: Stomach lesions, as well as normal...... by cloning and sequencing. Mucosal lesions were found in 36/63 stomachs and included hyperplastic rugae, polypoid structures and focal erosions. None of the samples were tested positive for urease activity or for FISH using the Helicobacter genus specific probe. In samples of lesions, as well as normal...... faecium. The Enterococcus were found colonising the mucosal surface, while E. fergusonii organisms were also demonstrated intraepithelial. Conclusion: Gastric Helicobacter spp. could not be verified as being involved in lesions of the glandular stomach of the horse. Since E. fergusonii has been described...

  3. Stomach contents of cetaceans incidentally caught along Mangalore and Chennai coasts of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Anoop A.; Yousuf, K. S.; Kumaran, P. L.; Harish, N.; Anoop, B.; Afsal, V. V.; Rajagopalan, M.; Vivekanandan, E.; Krishnakumar, P. K.; Jayasankar, P.

    2008-03-01

    The stomachs of 32 individuals of seven cetacean species incidentally caught in gill net and purseseine fisheries along Mangalore and Chennai coasts (India) between 2004 and 2006 were examined. The whole stomach (fore-gut, mid-gut and hind-gut) was examined in all cases. Prey remains (666 prey items comprising six species of teleosts, one crustacean and one squid species) were found in the stomachs of eight individuals (the remaining 24 stomachs were found to be empty). All cetaceans were found to feed mostly on teleosts with wide range of trophic levels. Based on an index that included frequency of occurrence, percentage by number and by weight, the oil sardine Sardinella longiceps was the main prey in the sample. Cetaceans appear to favour both pelagic as well as demersal prey, possibly indicating surface and benthic feeding habits.

  4. Diaphragmatic suture with tubular stomach to prevent early delayed gastric emptying after esophagectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Sun; Weiping Shi; Yusheng Shu; Hongcan Shi; Shichun Lu; Kang Wang

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical ef icacy of a diaphragmatic suture with tubular stomach to prevent delayed gastric emptying (DGE) after esophagectomy through the cervico-tho-racoabdominal approach. Methods A total of 980 patients with esophageal cancer undergoing esophagectomy through the cer-vico-thoracoabdominal approach were retrospectively included in this study and divided into two groups. Al patients underwent tubular stomach creation (group A; n = 530) or a diaphragmatic suture and tubular stomach creation (group B; n = 450). The incidence of early DGE was observed. Results The incidence of early DGE in group A was significantly higher than that in group B (P Conclusion This observation study suggests that the use of a diaphragmatic suture with tubular stomach through the cervico-thoracoabdominal approach can decrease the incidence of early DGE after esopha-gectomy.

  5. Cutaneous paraneoplastic disorders in stomach cancer: Collaboration between oncologically active dermatologists and clinical oncologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejna, Michael; Wöll, Ewald; Tschandl, Philipp; Raderer, Markus

    2016-07-01

    To our knowledge this is the first systemic review that provides an overview of the cutaneous paraneoplastic syndromes (CPS) (i.e., clinical manifestations, pathomechanisms, and treatment modalities) occurring in stomach cancer. CPS are caused by substances produced by stomach cancer and may precede, coincide with, or follow the diagnosis of this malignancy. More than 20 possible CPS in association with stomach cancer have been identified. CPS mostly compromises the patient's quality of life by skin impairment plus discomfort and are often associated with a dismal prognosis on survival. Studies of these CPS not only in stomach cancer have partially contributed to the understanding of pathomechanism and since CPS may be the presenting sign of an occult cancer, cognizance of their features and clinical implications are of considerable importance. Patients with these syndromes should have an appropriate work-up for a possibly occult malignancy with consecutive successful early treatment.

  6. Stomach Fermentation in East African Colobus Monkeys in Their Natural State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohwaki, Kyoko; Hungate, R. E.; Lotter, Leonard; Hofmann, R. R.; Maloiy, Geoffrey

    1974-01-01

    The microbial fermentation in the stomachs of two monkeys, Colobus polykomos, collected in Kenya, was studied. The gas accumulated within the stomach contained H2 but no CH4. Volatile fatty acid concentrations were high, but accumulated acid prevented determination of the fermentation rate in untreated, incubated stomach contents. Upon addition of bicarbonate, a very rapid rate could be demonstrated. Some D- and L-lactate were in the stomach contents. Starchy seeds or fruits rather than leaves appeared to have been consumed. Microscopically, the most prominent microorganisms seen were large, very refringent cocci, possibly Sarcina ventriculi, and various smaller cocci and rods. The 28 cultured strains of bacteria included 14 Staphylococcus, 2 Streptococcus, 10 Propionibacterium, and 2 Peptostreptococcus. The culture count constituted 10 to 20% of the direct count. No protozoa or cellulolytic bacteria were found. Images PMID:4207763

  7. Topography-modified refraction (TMR: adjustment of treated cylinder amount and axis to the topography versus standard clinical refraction in myopic topography-guided LASIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanellopoulos AJ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Anastasios John Kanellopoulos1,2 1LaserVision Clinical and Research Institute, Athens, Greece; 2Department of Ophthalmology, NYU Medical School, New York, NY, USA Purpose: To evaluate the safety, efficacy, and contralateral eye comparison of topography-guided myopic LASIK with two different refraction treatment strategies. Setting: Private clinical ophthalmology practice. Patients and methods: A total of 100 eyes (50 patients in consecutive cases of myopic topography-guided LASIK procedures with the same refractive platform (FS200 femtosecond and EX500 excimer lasers were randomized for treatment as follows: one eye with the standard clinical refraction (group A and the contralateral eye with the topographic astigmatic power and axis (topography-modified treatment refraction; group B. All cases were evaluated pre- and post-operatively for the following parameters: refractive error, best corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA, topography (Placido-disk based and tomography (Scheimpflug-image based, wavefront analysis, pupillometry, and contrast sensitivity. Follow-up visits were conducted for at least 12 months. Results: Mean refractive error was -5.5 D of myopia and -1.75 D of astigmatism. In group A versus group B, respectively, the average UDVA improved from 20/200 to 20/20 versus 20/16; post-operative CDVA was 20/20 and 20/13.5; 1 line of vision gained was 27.8% and 55.6%; and 2 lines of vision gained was 5.6% and 11.1%. In group A, 27.8% of eyes had over -0.50 diopters of residual refractive astigmatism, in comparison to 11.7% in group B (P<0.01. The residual percentages in both groups were measured with refractive astigmatism of more than –0.5 diopters. Conclusion: Topography-modified refraction (TMR: topographic adjustment of the amount and axis of astigmatism treated, when different from the clinical refraction, may offer superior outcomes in topography-guided myopic LASIK. These findings

  8. Gendered Personality Disposition and Gender Role Attitudes among Israeli Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Liat

    1999-01-01

    Examines the relationship between gendered personality dispositions and two aspects of gender role attitudes (occupational sex typing and gender role stereotypes). Indicates that gendered personality disposition affects occupational sex typing, whereas gender has the strongest effect on stereotypes of gender roles in the family and society.…

  9. Plexiform Schwannoma of the Stomach in Neurofibromatosis Type 2: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Jung [Dept. of Pathology, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yeom, Dong Heon; Cho, Hyun Sun; Cho, Woo Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Plexiform schwannoma is a relatively rare benign subepithelial tumor arising from the peripheral nerve sheath, and associated with Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2). There are a few reports of plexiform schwannomas arising from the gastrointestinal tract, and to our knowledge, there is no report of it arising from the stomach in a patient with NF2. Here we present the first case of a plexiform schwannoma of the stomach in an NF2 patient a submucosal tumor on radiologic finding.

  10. Control of stomach smooth muscle development and intestinal rotation by transcription factor BARX1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayewickreme, Chenura D; Shivdasani, Ramesh A

    2015-09-01

    Diverse functions of the homeodomain transcription factor BARX1 include Wnt-dependent, non-cell autonomous specification of the stomach epithelium, tracheo-bronchial septation, and Wnt-independent expansion of the spleen primordium. Tight spatio-temporal regulation of Barx1 levels in the mesentery and stomach mesenchyme suggests additional roles. To determine these functions, we forced constitutive BARX1 expression in the Bapx1 expression domain, which includes the mesentery and intestinal mesenchyme, and also examined Barx1(-/)(-) embryos in further detail. Transgenic embryos invariably showed intestinal truncation and malrotation, in part reflecting abnormal left-right patterning. Ectopic BARX1 expression did not affect intestinal epithelium, but intestinal smooth muscle developed with features typical of the stomach wall. BARX1, which is normally restricted to the developing stomach, drives robust smooth muscle expansion in this organ by promoting proliferation of myogenic progenitors at the expense of other sub-epithelial cells. Undifferentiated embryonic stomach and intestinal mesenchyme showed modest differences in mRNA expression and BARX1 was sufficient to induce much of the stomach profile in intestinal cells. However, limited binding at cis-regulatory sites implies that BARX1 may act principally through other transcription factors. Genes expressed ectopically in BARX1(+) intestinal mesenchyme and reduced in Barx1(-/-) stomach mesenchyme include Isl1, Pitx1, Six2 and Pitx2, transcription factors known to control left-right patterning and influence smooth muscle development. The sum of evidence suggests that potent BARX1 functions in intestinal rotation and stomach myogenesis occur through this small group of intermediary transcription factors.

  11. MRI of the stomach: a pictorial review with a focus on oncological applications and gastric motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheybani, Arman; Menias, Christine O; Luna, Antonio; Fowler, Kathryn J; Hara, Amy Kiyo; Silva, Alvin C; Yano, Motoyo; Sandrasegaran, Kumar

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this pictorial review is to demonstrate gastric pathology seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and discuss the essential MRI sequences for the evaluation of benign and malignant gastric pathologies. Common tumors of the stomach, polyposis syndromes, iatrogenic conditions, as well as other conditions of the stomach will be reviewed. The utility of MRI in the evaluation of patients with gastric malignancies and disorders of gastric motility will also be discussed.

  12. Rationale in diagnosis and screening of atrophic gastritis with stomach-specific plasma biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Agréus, Lars; Kuipers, Ernst J; Kupcinskas, Limas; Malfertheiner, Peter; Di Mario, Francesco; Leja, Marcis; Mahachai, Varocha; Yaron, Niv; Van Oijen, Martijn; Perez, Guillermo Perez; Rugge, Massimo; Ronkainen, Jukka; Salaspuro, Mikko; Sipponen, Pentti; Sugano, Kentaro

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Atrophic gastritis (AG) results most often from Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. AG is the most important single risk condition for gastric cancer that often leads to an acid-free or hypochlorhydric stomach. In the present paper, we suggest a rationale for noninvasive screening of AG with stomach-specific biomarkers. Methods The paper summarizes a set of data on application of the biomarkers and describes how the test results could be interpreted in practice. Res...

  13. Glomus Tumor of the Stomach - A Case Report and A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabowski, Mariusz; Paszkowski, Adam; Skotarczak, Jerzy; Dorobisz, Tadeusz; Leśniak, Michał; Janczak, Dawid; Janczak, Dariusz

    2016-12-01

    The study presented a case of a patient with a glomus tumor of the stomach, a mesenchymal neoplasm manifesting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (Forrest IB). The patient was operated twice. First, he underwent elective laparotomy, during which Billroth I (Rydygier's method) gastric resection was performed. This his was followed by Billroth II resection with Braun's anastomosis. Histopathological examination revealed glomus tumor tissue. Literature data on the glomus tumor of the stomach are presented.

  14. Cell lineage distribution atlas of the human stomach reveals heterogeneous gland populations in the gastric antrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eunyoung; Roland, Joseph T; Barlow, Brittney J; O'Neal, Ryan; Rich, Amy E; Nam, Ki Taek; Shi, Chanjuan; Goldenring, James R

    2014-11-01

    The glands of the stomach body and antral mucosa contain a complex compendium of cell lineages. In lower mammals, the distribution of oxyntic glands and antral glands define the anatomical regions within the stomach. We examined in detail the distribution of the full range of cell lineages within the human stomach. We determined the distribution of gastric gland cell lineages with specific immunocytochemical markers in entire stomach specimens from three non-obese organ donors. The anatomical body and antrum of the human stomach were defined by the presence of ghrelin and gastrin cells, respectively. Concentrations of somatostatin cells were observed in the proximal stomach. Parietal cells were seen in all glands of the body of the stomach as well as in over 50% of antral glands. MIST1 expressing chief cells were predominantly observed in the body although individual glands of the antrum also showed MIST1 expressing chief cells. While classically described antral glands were observed with gastrin cells and deep antral mucous cells without any parietal cells, we also observed a substantial population of mixed type glands containing both parietal cells and G cells throughout the antrum. Enteroendocrine cells show distinct patterns of localisation in the human stomach. The existence of antral glands with mixed cell lineages indicates that human antral glands may be functionally chimeric with glands assembled from multiple distinct stem cell populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Analysis of Mortality of Stomach Cancer in China from 1990-1992

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiudiSun; YaliZhang; LiandiLi; YoulinQiao

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the impact of stom'ach cancer on the Chinese population by epidemiological analysis of its distributional mortality.METHODS Data from 1990-1992 on stomach cancer mortality collected by a sampling survey involved one tenth of the total Chinese population.RESULTS The crude mortality rate of stomach cancer in China was 25.2per 105 (32.8 per 105for males and 17.0 per 105 for females), which comprised23.2% of the total cancer deaths from 1990 to 1992, making stomach cancerthe leading cause of cancer death. The stomach cancer mortality rate ofmales was 1.9 times of that of females. The Chinese mortality rates ofstomach cancer adjusted by the world standard population were 40.8 per105 and 18.6 per 105 for males and females, which were 4.2-7.9 (for males)and 3.8-8.0 (for females) times of those in developed countries. Age-adjusted mortality rates of stomach cancer in China have distinctgeographical differences: form the lowest of 2.5 per 105 to the highest of153.0 per 105 in the 263 selected sites, and 15.3 per 105 in urban areas and24.4 per 105 in rural areas, a difference of 1.6 times.CONCW$10N The prevention and treatment of stomach cancer in L;n~na,especially in the countryside and the under-developed areas in thenorthwest, should be a long-term focus in preventing of cancers of thedigestive system. Urgent measures for prevention and early detection of stomach cancer should be taken.

  16. Soy isoflavone intake and stomach cancer risk in Japan: From the Takayama study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Keiko; Tsuji, Michiko; Tamura, Takashi; Konishi, Kie; Kawachi, Toshiaki; Hori, Akihiro; Tanabashi, Shinobu; Matsushita, Shogen; Tokimitsu, Naoki; Nagata, Chisato

    2015-08-15

    Although several experimental studies suggested that soy isoflavone intake inhibits the growth of stomach cancer, previous epidemiological studies have observed inconsistent results. We evaluated the associations of soy or isoflavone intake with stomach cancer incidence after considering several lifestyle factors, including salt intake, in a population-based prospective cohort study in Japan. Subjects were 14,219 men and 16,573 women aged 35 years or older in September 1992. Soy and isoflavone intakes, assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire, were controlled for the total energy intake. Cancer incidence was mainly confirmed through regional population-based cancer registries. Until March 2008, 441 men and 237 women developed stomach cancer. After adjustments for multiple confounders, a significantly decreased relative risk of stomach cancer was observed in the highest vs. lowest quartile of soy intake; the estimated hazard ratios were 0.71 (95% CI: 0.53, 0.96) for men (p for trend = 0.039) and 0.58 (95% CI: 0.36, 0.94) for women (p for trend = 0.003). Similar inverse associations between isoflavone intake and stomach cancer risk were also observed in women. Higher intake of non-fermented soy foods was significantly associated with a lower risk of stomach cancer (p for trend: 0.022 in men and 0.005 in women), whereas there was no significant association between the intake of fermented soy foods and a risk of stomach cancer. These results suggest that a high intake of soy isoflavone, mainly nonfermented soy foods, have a protective effect against stomach cancer.

  17. Family history, body mass index and survival in Japanese patients with stomach cancer: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Yuko; Kawai, Masaaki; Fujiya, Tsuneaki; Suzuki, Masaki; Noguchi, Tetsuya; Yamanami, Hideaki; Kakugawa, Yoichiro; Nishino, Yoshikazu

    2015-01-15

    Family history and nutritional status may affect the long-term prognosis of stomach cancer, but evidence is insufficient and inconsistent. To clarify the prognostic factors of stomach cancer, we conducted a prospective study of 1,033 Japanese patients with histologically confirmed stomach cancer who were admitted to a single hospital between 1997 and 2005. Family history of stomach cancer and pretreatment body mass index (BMI) were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Clinical data were retrieved from a hospital-based cancer registry. All patients were completely followed up until December, 2008. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated according to family history in parents and siblings and BMI category. During a median follow-up of 5.3 years, 403 all-cause and 279 stomach cancer deaths were documented. Although no association with family history was observed in the patients overall, analysis according to age group found an increased risk of all-cause death associated with a history in first degree relatives (HR = 1.61, 95% CI: 0.93-2.78, p = 0.09) and with a parental history (HR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.06-3.26) among patients aged under 60 years at diagnosis. BMI was related to all-cause and stomach cancer death among patients aged 60 and over, showing a J-shaped pattern (HR of all-cause death = 2.28 for BMI stomach cancer, especially parental history, may affect mortality among younger stomach cancer patients, whereas nutritional status may be a prognostic factor in older patients.

  18. Electron microscopic and autoradiographic analysis of the distribution of the vagus nerve in the ferret stomach

    OpenAIRE

    Al Muhtaseb, M. H. [محمد هاشم المحتسب; Kittani, H. F.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, tritiated leucine was injected into the vagal dorsal motor nucleus after acute and chronic partial vagotomy. The method of sampling of the stomach, application of % 2 test and the analysis of the electron microscopic autoradiographs revealed that the distribution of silver grains over the axon profiles were uniformly distributed over the body and pyloric areas of the stomach. Also a % test showed that the number of grains is independent of the area chosen. Statistical analysis ...

  19. Regeneration of the vagus nerve after highly selective vagotomy, an autoradiographic study in the ferret stomach .

    OpenAIRE

    Al Muhtaseb, M. H. [محمد هاشم المحتسب; Abu-Khalaf, M.

    1995-01-01

    This study investigates the regeneration of the vagal nerve fibres after highly selective vagotomy in the ferret stomach by using the autoradiographic technique. Autoradiographic examination of the body of the stomach in the acute experimental animals has failed to show any labelled nerve fibres after highly selective vagotomy while the pylorus has shown many labelled nerve fibres . These observations indicate that the highly selective vagotomy has been performed properly and adequately. ...

  20. Topography and functional information of plasma membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    By using atomic force microscope (AFM), the topography and function of the plasmalemma surface of the isolated protoplasts from winter wheat mesophyll cells were observed, and compared with dead protoplasts induced by dehydrating stress. The observational results revealed that the plasma membrane of living protoplasts was in a state of polarization. Lipid layers of different cells and membrane areas exhibited distinct active states. The surfaces of plasma membranes were unequal, and were characterized of regionalisation. In addition, lattice structures were visualized in some regions of the membrane surface. These typical structures were assumed to be lipid molecular complexes, which were measured to be 15.8±0.09 nm in diameter and 1.9±0.3 nm in height. Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional imaging showed that the plasmalemma surfaces of winter wheat protoplasts were covered with numerous protruding particles. In order to determine the chemical nature of the protruding particles, living protoplasts were treated by proteolytic enzyme. Under the effect of enzyme, large particles became relatively looser, resulting that their width was increased and their height decreased. The results demonstrated that these particles were likely to be of protein nature. These protein particles at plasmalemma surface were different in size and unequal in distribution. The diameter of large protein particles ranged from 200 to 440 nm, with a central micropore, and the apparent height of them was found to vary from 12 to 40 nm. The diameter of mid-sized protein particles was between 40―60 nm, and a range of 1.8―5 nm was given for the apparent height of them. As for small protein particles, obtained values were 12―40 nm for their diameter and 0.7―2.2 nm for height. Some invaginated pits were also observed at the plasma membrane. They were formed by the endocytosis of protoplast. Distribution density of them at plasmalemma was about 16 pits per 15 μm2. According to their

  1. Topography and functional information of plasma membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN DeLan; CHEN JianMin; SONG YanMei; ZHU ChuanFeng; PAN GeBo; WAN LiJun

    2008-01-01

    By using atomic force microscope (AFM), the topography and function of the plasmalemma surface of the isolated protoplasta from winter wheat mesophyll cells were observed, and compared with dead protoplssts induced by dehydrating stress. The observational results revealed that the plasma membrane of living protoplasta was in a state of polarization. Lipid layers of different cells and membrane areas exhibited distinct active states. The surfaces of plasma membranes were unequal, and were characterized of regionalisation. In addition, lattice structures were visualized in some regions of the membrane surface. These typical structures were assumed to be lipid molecular complexes, which were measured to be 15.8±0.09 nm in diameter and 1.9±0.3 nm in height. Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional imaging showed that the plasmalemma surfaces of winter wheat protoplasta were covered with numerous protruding particles. In order to determine the chemical nature of the protruding particles, living protoplasts were treated by proteolytic enzyme. Under the effect of enzyme, large particles became relatively looser, resulting that their width was increased and their height decreased.The results demonstrated that these particles were likely to be of protein nature. These protein particles at plasmalemma surface were different in size and unequal in distribution. The diameter of large protein particles ranged from 200 to 440 nm, with a central micropore, and the apparent height of them was found to vary from 12 to 40 nm. The diameter of mid-sized protein particles was between 40-60 nm,and a range of 1.8-5 nm was given for the apparent height of them. As for small protein particles, obtained values were 12-40 nm for their diameter and 0.7-2.2 nm for height. Some invaginated pits were also observed at the plasma membrane. They were formed by the endocytosis of protoplsst. Distributlon density of them at plasmalemma was about 16 pits per 15 μm2. According to their size, we

  2. Expression, Distribution and Role of Aquaporin Water Channels in Human and Animal Stomach and Intestines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Cui; Chen, Zhuang; Jiang, Zongyong

    2016-08-29

    Stomach and intestines are involved in the secretion of gastrointestinal fluids and the absorption of nutrients and fluids, which ensure normal gut functions. Aquaporin water channels (AQPs) represent a major transcellular route for water transport in the gastrointestinal tract. Until now, at least 11 AQPs (AQP1-11) have been found to be present in the stomach, small and large intestines. These AQPs are distributed in different cell types in the stomach and intestines, including gastric epithelial cells, gastric glands cells, absorptive epithelial cells (enterocytes), goblet cells and Paneth cells. AQP1 is abundantly distributed in the endothelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract. AQP3 and AQP4 are mainly distributed in the basolateral membrane of epithelial cells in the stomach and intestines. AQP7, AQP8, AQP10 and AQP11 are distributed in the apical of enterocytes in the small and large intestines. Although AQP-null mice displayed almost no phenotypes in gastrointestinal tracts, the alterations of the expression and localization of these AQPs have been shown to be associated with the pathology of gastrointestinal disorders, which suggests that AQPs play important roles serving as potential therapeutic targets. Therefore, this review provides an overview of the expression, localization and distribution of AQPs in the stomach, small and large intestine of human and animals. Furthermore, this review emphasizes the potential roles of AQPs in the physiology and pathophysiology of stomach and intestines.

  3. Electrical events underlying organized myogenic contractions of the guinea pig stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, G David S; Edwards, Frank R

    2006-11-01

    The stomach generates a characteristic pattern of coordinated activity whereby rings of contraction regularly start in the corpus and migrate slowly down the stomach to the duodenum. This behaviour persists after isolating the stomach and after blocking nervous activity; hence the response is myogenic, resulting from organized contractions of smooth muscle cells lying in the stomach wall. Each ring of contraction is triggered by a long lasting wave of depolarization, termed a slow wave. Slow waves are now known to be generated by sets of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), which intermingle with gastric smooth muscle cells. This article describes some studies which identify the roles played by ICC in the on-going generation of coordinated gastric movements. Intramuscular ICC in the corpus generate slow waves and these provide the dominant pacemaker frequency in the stomach. Corporal slow waves, in turn, activate a network of myenteric ICC, which starts in the antrum and slowly conducts waves of depolarization down the stomach. As these waves pass over bundles of circularly orientated muscle cells, they activate a set of intramuscular ICC which lie in the circular muscle layer: these generate slow waves that rapidly spread radially, so triggering each ring of contraction.

  4. Rationale in diagnosis and screening of atrophic gastritis with stomach-specific plasma biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agréus, Lars; Kuipers, Ernst J; Kupcinskas, Limas; Malfertheiner, Peter; Di Mario, Francesco; Leja, Marcis; Mahachai, Varocha; Yaron, Niv; Van Oijen, Martijn; Perez, Guillermo Perez; Rugge, Massimo; Ronkainen, Jukka; Salaspuro, Mikko; Sipponen, Pentti; Sugano, Kentaro; Sung, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Atrophic gastritis (AG) results most often from Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. AG is the most important single risk condition for gastric cancer that often leads to an acid-free or hypochlorhydric stomach. In the present paper, we suggest a rationale for noninvasive screening of AG with stomach-specific biomarkers. Methods The paper summarizes a set of data on application of the biomarkers and describes how the test results could be interpreted in practice. Results In AG of the gastric corpus and fundus, the plasma levels of pepsinogen I and/or the pepsinogen I/pepsinogen II ratio are always low. The fasting level of gastrin-17 is high in AG limited to the corpus and fundus, but low or non-elevated if the AG occurs in both antrum and corpus. A low fasting level of G-17 is a sign of antral AG or indicates high intragastric acidity. Differentiation between antral AG and high intragastric acidity can be done by assaying the plasma G-17 before and after protein stimulation, or before and after administration of the proton pump inhibitors (PPI). Amidated G-17 will rise if the antral mucosa is normal in structure. H. pylori antibodies are a reliable indicator of helicobacter infection, even in patients with AG and hypochlorhydria. Conclusions Stomach-specific biomarkers provide information about the stomach health and about the function of stomach mucosa and are a noninvasive tool for diagnosis and screening of AG and acid-free stomach. PMID:22242613

  5. Role of Indigenous Lactobacilli in Gastrin-Mediated Acid Production in the Mouse Stomach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hidenori; Nakano, Yasuhiro; Matsuoka, Takashi; Kumaki, Nobue; Asami, Yukio; Koga, Yasuhiro

    2011-01-01

    It is known that the stomach is colonized by indigenous lactobacilli in mice. The aim of this study was to examine the role of such lactobacilli in the development of the stomach. For a DNA microarray analysis, germ-free BALB/c mice were orally inoculated with 109 CFU lactobacilli, and their stomachs were excised after 10 days to extract RNA. As a result, lactobacillus-associated gnotobiotic mice showed dramatically decreased expression of the gastrin gene in comparison to germ-free mice. The mean of the log2 fold change in the gastrin gene was −4.3. Immunohistochemistry also demonstrated the number of gastrin-positive (gastrin+) cells to be significantly lower in the lactobacillus-associated gnotobiotic mice than in the germ-free mice. However, there was no significant difference in the number of somatostatin+ cells in these groups of mice. Consequently, gastric acid secretion also decreased in the mice colonized by lactobacilli. In addition, an increase in the expression of the genes related to muscle system development, such as nebulin and troponin genes, was observed in lactobacillus-associated mice. Moreover, infection of germ-free mice with Helicobacter pylori also showed the down- and upregulation of gastrin and muscle genes, respectively, in the stomach. These results thus suggested that indigenous lactobacilli in the stomach significantly affect the regulation of gastrin-mediated gastric acid secretion without affecting somatostatin secretion in mice, while H. pylori also exerts such an effect on the stomach. PMID:21803885

  6. Fetal Stomach Position Predicts Neonatal Outcomes in Isolated Left-Sided Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, Amaya M; Lusk, Leslie A; Keller, Roberta L; Filly, Roy A

    2016-01-01

    We sought to determine the relationship between the degree of stomach herniation by antenatal sonography and neonatal outcomes in fetuses with isolated left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). We retrospectively reviewed neonatal medical records and antenatal sonography of fetuses with isolated left CDH cared for at a single institution (2000-2012). Fetal stomach position was classified on sonography as follows: intra-abdominal, anterior left chest, mid-to-posterior left chest, or retrocardiac (right chest). Ninety fetuses were included with 70% surviving to neonatal discharge. Stomach position was intra-abdominal in 14% (n = 13), anterior left chest in 19% (n = 17), mid-to-posterior left chest in 41% (n = 37), and retrocardiac in 26% (n = 23). Increasingly abnormal stomach position was linearly associated with an increased odds of death (OR 4.8, 95% CI 2.1-10.9), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO; OR 5.6, 95% CI 1.9-16.7), nonprimary diaphragmatic repair (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.4-5.5), prolonged mechanical ventilation (OR 5.9, 95% CI 2.3-15.6), and prolonged respiratory support (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.6-9.9). All fetuses with intra-abdominal stomach position survived without substantial respiratory morbidity or need for ECMO. Fetal stomach position is strongly associated with neonatal outcomes in isolated left CDH. This objective tool may allow for accurate prognostication in a variety of clinical settings. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. The results of Helicobacter pylori eradication on repeated bleeding in patients with stomach ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, Darko; Vcev, Aleksandar; Soldo, Ivan; Timarac, Jasna; Dmitrović, Branko; Misević, Tonci; Ivezić, Zdravko; Kraljik, Nikola

    2005-06-01

    The triple therapy of Helicobacter pylori eradication prevents repeated bleeding from stomach ulcer. The aim of this one-way blind prospective study was to evaluate the efficiency of the two-week triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication in preventing renewed bleeding in patients with stomach ulcer within one year. This research included 60 hospitalized patients with bleeding stomach ulcer and positive Helicobacter pylori infection, 34 men and 26 women (average age 59.7 years). The patients were given therapeutic scheme of omeprazol--amoxicilin--metrodinazol (OAM) eradication for 14 days. Eradication of H. pylori infection was defined as lack of proof of the infection one month or several months after therapy suspension. By applying triple OAM therapy within two weeks the eradication was successful in 72%. In the group of 17 H. pylori positive patients there were 8 patients (47.6%) with repeated stomach ulcer and 3 patients (18%) with bleeding. Within the group of 43 H. pylori negative patients there were only 2 patients (4.65%) with repeated stomach ulcer and 1 patient (2%) with bleeding, during the observed period of 12 months. This research confirms the hypothesis about the necessity of eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with bleeding stomach ulcer as prevention of repeated bleeding.

  8. Expression, Distribution and Role of Aquaporin Water Channels in Human and Animal Stomach and Intestines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Zhu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Stomach and intestines are involved in the secretion of gastrointestinal fluids and the absorption of nutrients and fluids, which ensure normal gut functions. Aquaporin water channels (AQPs represent a major transcellular route for water transport in the gastrointestinal tract. Until now, at least 11 AQPs (AQP1–11 have been found to be present in the stomach, small and large intestines. These AQPs are distributed in different cell types in the stomach and intestines, including gastric epithelial cells, gastric glands cells, absorptive epithelial cells (enterocytes, goblet cells and Paneth cells. AQP1 is abundantly distributed in the endothelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract. AQP3 and AQP4 are mainly distributed in the basolateral membrane of epithelial cells in the stomach and intestines. AQP7, AQP8, AQP10 and AQP11 are distributed in the apical of enterocytes in the small and large intestines. Although AQP-null mice displayed almost no phenotypes in gastrointestinal tracts, the alterations of the expression and localization of these AQPs have been shown to be associated with the pathology of gastrointestinal disorders, which suggests that AQPs play important roles serving as potential therapeutic targets. Therefore, this review provides an overview of the expression, localization and distribution of AQPs in the stomach, small and large intestine of human and animals. Furthermore, this review emphasizes the potential roles of AQPs in the physiology and pathophysiology of stomach and intestines.

  9. Review of salt consumption and stomach cancer risk:Epidemiological and biological evidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Qin Wang; Paul D Terry; Hong Yan

    2009-01-01

    Stomach cancer is still the fourth most common cancer; thus, it remains an important public health burden worldwide, especially in developing countries. The remarkable geographic variations in the rates of stomach cancer indicate that dietary factors, including a range of food groups to which salt and/or nitrates have been added, may affect stomach cancer risk. In this paper, we review the results from ecologic, case-control and cohort studies on the relationship between salt or salted foods and stomach cancer risk. The majority of ecological studies indicated that the average salt intake in each population was closely correlated with gastric cancer mortality. Most casecontrol studies showed similar results, indicating a moderate to high increase in risk for the highest level of salt or salted food consumption. The overall results from cohort studies are not totally consistent, but are suggestive of a moderate direct association. Since salt intake has been correlated with Helicobacter pylori ( H pylori) infection, it is possible that these two factors may synergize to promote the development of stomach cancer. Additionally, salt may also cause stomach cancer through directly damaging gastric mucus, improving temporary epithelial proliferation and the incidence of endogenous mutations, and inducing hypergastrinemia that leads to eventual parietal cell loss and progression to gastric cancer. Based on the considerable evidence from ecological, case-control and cohort studies worldwide and the mechanistic plausibility, limitation on salt and salted food consumption is a practical strategy for preventing gastric cancer.

  10. Quality of life estimate in stomach, colon, and rectal cancer patients in a hospital in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Muhong; Lan, Yanhong; Luo, Shali

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the outcome and coping patterns of patients with stomach, colon, and rectal cancer in a hospital in China. Health-related quality of life was assessed in 118 stomach, colon, and rectal cancer patients in Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, China, using the generic version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life (QOL) Questionnaire Core 30 Items, Self-rated Anxiety Scores (SAS), Self-rated Depression Scores (SDS), Medical Coping Modes of Questionnaire (MCMQ), and Social Support Requirement Scale (SSRS) questionnaires. The overall QOL was 50.7 ± 6.5, 48.1 ± 7.7, and 47.6 ± 6.4, respectively, for stomach, colon, and rectal cancer groups. Correlations between QOL and SAS and SDS in stomach cancer patients were significantly higher than observed in the cohort of colon or rectal cancer patients (Spearman coefficient of 0.366 and 0.129, respectively). Cluster analysis of MCMQ data revealed four identifiable patterns (resign, confront, avoid-confront, and avoid-resign) of coping in the study group. Subjective support was significantly higher than objective support (p Stomach, colon, and rectal cancer patients had anxiety and depression stemming from their cancer diagnosis and postdiagnosis treatment, and sex dependency was prevalent in SSRS response. Coping patterns were reliable indicators of psychosocial side effects in patients with stomach, colon, and rectal cancers.

  11. The Evolution of Stomach Acidity and Its Relevance to the Human Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, DeAnna E; Koltz, Amanda M; Lambert, Joanna E; Fierer, Noah; Dunn, Rob R

    2015-01-01

    Gastric acidity is likely a key factor shaping the diversity and composition of microbial communities found in the vertebrate gut. We conducted a systematic review to test the hypothesis that a key role of the vertebrate stomach is to maintain the gut microbial community by filtering out novel microbial taxa before they pass into the intestines. We propose that species feeding either on carrion or on organisms that are close phylogenetic relatives should require the most restrictive filter (measured as high stomach acidity) as protection from foreign microbes. Conversely, species feeding on a lower trophic level or on food that is distantly related to them (e.g. herbivores) should require the least restrictive filter, as the risk of pathogen exposure is lower. Comparisons of stomach acidity across trophic groups in mammal and bird taxa show that scavengers and carnivores have significantly higher stomach acidities compared to herbivores or carnivores feeding on phylogenetically distant prey such as insects or fish. In addition, we find when stomach acidity varies within species either naturally (with age) or in treatments such as bariatric surgery, the effects on gut bacterial pathogens and communities are in line with our hypothesis that the stomach acts as an ecological filter. Together these results highlight the importance of including measurements of gastric pH when investigating gut microbial dynamics within and across species.

  12. The Evolution of Stomach Acidity and Its Relevance to the Human Microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeAnna E Beasley

    Full Text Available Gastric acidity is likely a key factor shaping the diversity and composition of microbial communities found in the vertebrate gut. We conducted a systematic review to test the hypothesis that a key role of the vertebrate stomach is to maintain the gut microbial community by filtering out novel microbial taxa before they pass into the intestines. We propose that species feeding either on carrion or on organisms that are close phylogenetic relatives should require the most restrictive filter (measured as high stomach acidity as protection from foreign microbes. Conversely, species feeding on a lower trophic level or on food that is distantly related to them (e.g. herbivores should require the least restrictive filter, as the risk of pathogen exposure is lower. Comparisons of stomach acidity across trophic groups in mammal and bird taxa show that scavengers and carnivores have significantly higher stomach acidities compared to herbivores or carnivores feeding on phylogenetically distant prey such as insects or fish. In addition, we find when stomach acidity varies within species either naturally (with age or in treatments such as bariatric surgery, the effects on gut bacterial pathogens and communities are in line with our hypothesis that the stomach acts as an ecological filter. Together these results highlight the importance of including measurements of gastric pH when investigating gut microbial dynamics within and across species.

  13. Gender Discrimination in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖敏慧

    2014-01-01

    Gender discrimination in language is usually defined as discrimination based on sex, especially discrimination against women. With the rise of women’s liberation movement in the 1960s and 1970s, and the improvement of women’s social status in recent years, gender discrimination in English attracts more and more attention. Based on previous studies, this thesis first dis⁃cusses the manifestations of gender discrimination in English vocabulary and address terms, then analyzes the factors of gender dis⁃crimination in English from social and cultural perspectives, finally puts forward some methods that are good for avoiding or elim⁃inating gender discrimination in English.

  14. Geology, Bedrock - BEDROCK_TOPOGRAPHY_MM36_IN: Bedrock Topography Contours, Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:500,000, Line Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Bedrock topography was converted from the original published map, Indiana Geological Survey Miscellaneous Map 36. The contours define the elevation/topography of the...

  15. Geology, Bedrock - BEDROCK_TOPOGRAPHY_MM36_IN: Bedrock Topography Contours, Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:500,000, Line Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Bedrock topography was converted from the original published map, Indiana Geological Survey Miscellaneous Map 36. The contours define the elevation/topography of the...

  16. Gender determination in populus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLetchie, D.N. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Tuskan, G.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Gender, the expression of maleness or femaleness, in dioecious plants has been associated with changes in morphology, physiology, ecological position, and commercial importance of several species, including members of the Salicaceae family. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain the expression of gender in Salicaceae, including sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian genes, quantitative genes, environment, and genotype-by-environment interactions. Published reports would favor a genetic basis for gender. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers associated with gender in a segregating family of hybrid poplars. Bulked segregant analysis and chi-squared analysis were used to test for the occurrence of sex chromosomes, individual loci, and chromosome ratios (i.e., ploidy levels) as the mechanisms for gender determination. Examination of 2488 PCR based RAPD markers from 1219 primers revealed nine polymorphic bands between male and female bulked samples. However, linkage analysis indicated that none of these markers were significantly associated with gender. Chisquared results for difference in male-to-female ratios between diploid and triploid genotypes also revealed no significant differences. These findings suggest gender is not controlled via sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian loci or ratios of autosome to gender-determining loci. It is possible that gender is determined genetically by regions of the genome not sampled by the tested markers or by a complex of loci operating in an additive threshold manner or in an epistatic manner. It is also possible that gender is determined environmentally at an early zygote stage, canalizing gender expression.

  17. Gender stereotype susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina A Pavlova

    Full Text Available Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior.

  18. Gender stereotype susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A; Weber, Susanna; Simoes, Elisabeth; Sokolov, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior.

  19. Gender Stereotype Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A.; Weber, Susanna; Simoes, Elisabeth; Sokolov, Alexander N.

    2014-01-01

    Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior. PMID:25517903

  20. Gender Orders Unbound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    During the last thirty years, the modernisation of gender relations has been dynamic and comprehensive, shaped by the conflicting forces of globalisation as well as women's movements around the world. As the patterns of segregation and discrimination of the classical industrial gender order erode...... issues are the chances and the barriers for equality and new forms of gender reciprocity and solidarity.......During the last thirty years, the modernisation of gender relations has been dynamic and comprehensive, shaped by the conflicting forces of globalisation as well as women's movements around the world. As the patterns of segregation and discrimination of the classical industrial gender order erode......, new complexities and contentions in gender relations emerge at various sites such as politics, work and families. The main aim of the book is to trace formal as well as informal gender contracts as they emerge in everyday life and also in new norms and regulations set by state and enterprises. Core...

  1. Gender in medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Malterud, Kirsti

    2009-01-01

    are regarded as normal to the extent that female values disappear or need to be blatantly highlighted in order to be recognized. We have applied this frame of reference to understand how the idea of gender neutrality has been established in medicine. The average medical practitioner, teacher, or researcher...... is a man. We suggest that notions of normality subtly construct gender in medicine in ways where men become normal, while women become deviant. Finally, we discuss strengths and pitfalls of three different strategies which have been used by gender researchers in health to challenge andronormativity......: demonstrating gender differences, revealing the consequences of gendered power inequalities, and deconstructing the meaning of gender. Conclusions: We conclude that gender still matters in medicine....

  2. Gender roles revised?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to deepen the understanding of how mobile phone usage is related to gender in general and the negotiation of gender roles in particular. It will focus on how women in Kenya appropriate mobile phones and how the appropriation is influenced by prevailing gender norms......’s mobile phone use in everyday life, to shed light on the relationship between gender, mobile phone and development in Kenya and to answer the following questions: How is mobile phones integrated in the everyday life of Kenyan women (rural, peri-urban and urban)? How can women’s different usages of mobile...... phones be understood in relation to, and inform us about changing gender relations in contemporary Kenya? The chapter demonstrates that on the one hand, distinctive gendered usage of mobile phones is present - practices that are direct consequences of prevailing gender roles. On the other hand...

  3. Present-day dynamic and residual topography in Central Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şengül Uluocak, Ebru; Pysklywec, Russell; Göǧüş, Oǧuz H.

    2016-09-01

    The Central Anatolian orogenic plateau is represented by young volcanism, rapid plateau uplift and distinctive (past and active) tectonic deformation. In this study, we consider observational data in terms of regional present-day geodynamics in the region. The residual topography of Central Anatolia was derived to define the regional isostatic conditions according to Airy isostasy and infer the potential role of `dynamic topography'. 2-D thermomechanical forward models for coupled mantle-lithosphere flow/deformation were conducted along an N-S directional profile through the region (e.g. northern/Pontides, interior and southern/Taurides). These models were based on seismic tomography data that provide estimates about the present-day mantle thermal structure beneath the Anatolian plate. We compare the modelling results with calculated residual topography and independent data sets of geological deformation, gravity and high surface heat flow/widespread geothermal activity. Model results suggest that there is ˜1 km of mantle flow induced dynamic topography associated with the sublithospheric flow driven by the seismically inferred mantle structure. The uprising mantle may have also driven the asthenospheric source of volcanism in the north (e.g. Galatia volcanic province) and the Cappadocia volcanic province in the south while elevating the surface in the last 10 Myr. Our dynamic topography calculations emphasize the role of vertical forcing under other orogenic plateaux underlain by relatively thin crust and low-density asthenospheric mantle.

  4. Present-day dynamic and residual topography in Central Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şengül Uluocak, Ebru; Pysklywec, Russell; Göǧüş, Oǧuz H.

    2016-09-01

    The Central Anatolian orogenic plateau is represented by young volcanism, rapid plateau uplift and distinctive (past and active) tectonic deformation. In this study, we consider observational data in terms of regional present-day geodynamics in the region. The residual topography of Central Anatolia was derived to define the regional isostatic conditions according to Airy isostasy and infer the potential role of `dynamic topography'. 2-D thermomechanical forward models for coupled mantle-lithosphere flow/deformation were conducted along an N-S directional profile through the region (e.g. northern/Pontides, interior and southern/Taurides). These models were based on seismic tomography data that provide estimates about the present-day mantle thermal structure beneath the Anatolian plate. We compare the modelling results with calculated residual topography and independent data sets of geological deformation, gravity and high surface heat flow/widespread geothermal activity. Model results suggest that there is ˜1 km of mantle flow induced dynamic topography associated with the sublithospheric flow driven by the seismically inferred mantle structure. The uprising mantle may have also driven the asthenospheric source of volcanism in the north (e.g. Galatia volcanic province) and the Cappadocia volcanic province in the south while elevating the surface in the last 10 Myr. Our dynamic topography calculations emphasize the role of vertical forcing under other orogenic plateaux underlain by relatively thin crust and low-density asthenospheric mantle.

  5. A new simplex approach to highlight multi-scale feeding behaviors in forager species from stomach contents: application to insectivore lizard population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmar, Nabil; Roux, Maurice

    2014-04-01

    Stomach contents represent complex mixture systems which depend on feeding mode and level of forager species (carnivores, herbivores) as well as on natural availability/distribution of food resources (preys, plants). Such mixture systems can be considered as small black boxes condensing wide ecological information on (i) feeding behaviors of predator (or herbivore) and (ii) local diversity of preys (or host plants). Feeding behaviors of a hunter species toward different prey taxa show a complex variability whose investigation requires multivariate statistical tools. This paper presents a new computational approach which statistically analyzes stomach contents' variability in a predator population to graphically highlight different feeding behaviors. It is a simulation approach iteratively combining the variability of different diet patterns by using a simplex mixture design. Average combinatorial results are graphically visualized to highlight scale-dependent relationships between consumption rates of different food types found in the stomachs. The simplex approach was applied on different subpopulations of Phrynosoma douglassi brevirostre, an insectivore lizard species. These subpopulations were initially defined by different criteria including statistical clusters, gender and sampling periods. Results highlighted successive trade-offs over months of captured potential preys switching from small and less mobile preys to large and flying ones. In these dietary transitions, P. douglassi manifested a systematic memorization of previous preys and a gradual foraging learning of the next ones. These results highlighted lightness on dietary flexibility helping this specialist predator to switch between diets based on different potential preys. Adult male and adult female lizards showed different feeding behaviors due to some predation lag-time between them and different dietary ratios toward the same considered preys.

  6. Mercury's Thermal Evolution, Dynamical Topography and Geoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziethe, Ruth; Benkhoff, Johannes

    stagnant lid comprises roughly half the mantle after only 0.5Ga. Since the rigid lithosphere does not take part in the convection anymore, the heat coming from the interior (due to the cooling of the large core) can only be transported through the lithosphere by thermal conduction. This is a significantly less effective mechanism of heat transport than convection and hence the lithosphere forms an insulating layer. As a result, the interior is kept relatively warm.Because the mantle is relatively shallow compared to the planet's radius, and additionally the thick stagnant lid is formed relatively rapid, the convection is confined to a layer of only about 200km to 300km. Convection structures are therefore relatively small structured. The flow patterns in the early evolution show that mantle convection is characterized by numerous upwelling plumes, which are fed by the heat flow from the cooling core. These upwellings are relatively stable regarding their spatial position. As the core cools down the temperature anomalies become colder and less pronounced but not less numerous. In our calculations, a region of partial melt in the mantle forms immediately after the start of the model at a depths of roughly 220km. While in the entire lower mantle the temperature exceeds the solidus, the highest melt degrees can be found in the upwelling plumes. The partial molten region persists a significant time (up to 2.5Ga). How long the partial molten zone actually survives depends strongly on the initial conditions of the model. For instance, an outer layer with a reduced thermal conductivity would keep the lower mantle significantly warmer and a molten layer survives longer. The hot upwellings cause a surface deformation (dynamical topography) which itself causes a gravity anomaly. Due to the weak constraints of important parameters (e.g. sulfur content of the core, mantle rheology, amount and distribution of radiogenic heat sources, planetary contraction, thermal conductivity, etc

  7. Crystal quality analysis and improvement using x-ray topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maj, J. A.; Goetze, K.; Macrander, A. T.; Zhong, Y. C.; Huang, X. R.; Maj, L.

    2008-08-01

    The Topography X-ray Laboratory of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory operates as a collaborative effort with APS users to produce high performance crystals for APS X-ray beamline experiments. For many years the topography laboratory has worked closely with an on-site optics shop to help ensure the production of crystals with the highest quality, most stress-free surface finish possible. It has been instrumental in evaluating and refining methods used to produce high quality crystals. Topographical analysis has shown to be an effective method to quantify and determine the distribution of stresses, to help identify methods that would mitigate the stresses and improve the Rocking curve, and to create CCD images of the crystal. This paper describes the topography process and offers methods for reducing crystal stresses in order to substantially improve the crystal optics.

  8. Sintered silver joints via controlled topography of electronic packaging subcomponents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wereszczak, Andrew A.

    2014-09-02

    Disclosed are sintered silver bonded electronic package subcomponents and methods for making the same. Embodiments of the sintered silver bonded EPSs include topography modification of one or more metal surfaces of semiconductor devices bonded together by the sintered silver joint. The sintered silver bonded EPSs include a first semiconductor device having a first metal surface, the first metal surface having a modified topography that has been chemically etched, grit blasted, uniaxial ground and/or grid sliced connected to a second semiconductor device which may also include a first metal surface with a modified topography, a silver plating layer on the first metal surface of the first semiconductor device and a silver plating layer on the first metal surface of the second semiconductor device and a sintered silver joint between the silver plating layers of the first and second semiconductor devices which bonds the first semiconductor device to the second semiconductor device.

  9. Crystal quality analysis and improvement using x-ray topography.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maj, J.; Goetze, K.; Macrander, A.; Zhong, Y.; Huang, X.; Maj, L.; Univ. of Chicago

    2008-01-01

    The Topography X-ray Laboratory of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory operates as a collaborative effort with APS users to produce high performance crystals for APS X-ray beamline experiments. For many years the topography laboratory has worked closely with an on-site optics shop to help ensure the production of crystals with the highest quality, most stress-free surface finish possible. It has been instrumental in evaluating and refining methods used to produce high quality crystals. Topographical analysis has shown to be an effective method to quantify and determine the distribution of stresses, to help identify methods that would mitigate the stresses and improve the Rocking curve, and to create CCD images of the crystal. This paper describes the topography process and offers methods for reducing crystal stresses in order to substantially improve the crystal optics.

  10. The Effects of Micro- and Nano-Topography on Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolind, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Cells continuously make decisions on what proteins to express, and when to divide, differentiate and commit suicide, through a complex network of intracellular processes. The signals that determine the cellular processes reside within the extracellular matrix. They involve soluble signaling...... the effect of topography on cells has received much attention understanding how important this is for the rational design of bio-interfaces. Nevertheless, there is still a limited understanding of the effect of topography on cells making it impossible to tailor a biomaterial with specific cellular activity...... at the substrate surface. The major aim of this PhD thesis has been to understand the effect of micro- and nano-topography on focal adhesion assembly and cell spreading, as well as its effect on proliferation and differentiation of cells. Such knowledge will provide a more rational approach to optimize...

  11. Spray-coatable negative photoresist for high topography MEMS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Markus; Voigt, Anja; Haas, Sven; Schwenzer, Falk; Schwenzer, Gunther; Reuter, Danny; Gruetzner, Gabi; Geßner, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    In microsystem technology, the lithographical processing of substrates with a topography is very important. Interconnecting lines, which are routed over sloped topography sidewalls from the top of the protecting wafer to the contact pads of the device wafer, are one example of patterning over a topography. For structuring such circuit paths, a photolithography process, and therefore a process for homogeneous photoresist coating, is required. The most flexible and advantageous way of depositing a homogeneous photoresist film over structures with high topography steps is spray-coating. As a pattern transfer process for circuit paths in cavities, the lift-off process is widely used. A negative resist, like ma-N (MRT) or AZnLOF (AZ) is favoured for lift-off processes due to the existing negative angle of the sidewalls. Only a few sprayable negative photoresists are commercially available. In this paper, the development of a novel negative resist spray-coating based on a commercially available single-layer lift-off resist for spin-coating, especially for the patterning of structures inside the cavity and on the cavity wall, is presented. A variety of parameters influences the spray-coating process, and therefore the patterning results. Besides the spray-coating tool and the parameters, the composition of the resist solution itself also influences the coating results. For homogeneous resist coverage over the topography of the substrate, different solvent combinations for diluting the resist solution, different chuck temperatures during the coating process, and also the softbake conditions, are all investigated. The solvent formulations and the process conditions are optimized with respect to the homogeneity of the resist coverage on the top edge of the cavities. Finally, the developed spray-coating process, the resist material and the process stability are demonstrated by the following applications: (i) lift-off, (ii) electroplating, (iii) the wet and (iv) the dry

  12. Effect of topography on sulfate redistribution in Cumulonimbus cloud development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujović, Dragana; Vučković, Vladan; Curić, Mlađen

    2014-03-01

    An aqueous chemical module is created and included into a complex three-dimensional atmospheric cloud-resolving mesoscale model. In the chemical module, oxidation of S(IV) by ozone and hydrogen peroxide in cloud-water and rainwater, as important process of the sulfate production is included. To examine the impact of topography on the sulfate redistribution in a clean and a polluted environment, the complex topography of Serbia is included in the model. Numerical simulations of an isolated summer Cumulonimbus cloud shows that thunderstorms generate very strong vertical sulfate redistribution from the planetary boundary layer to the upper troposphere. This redistribution is sensitive to cloud dynamics, while cloud microphysics and precipitation determine wet removal of the chemical species. In simulations with realistic topography, the chemical species are transported over larger distances close to the surface, while in the upper atmosphere, there is no difference compared to the simulations without topography. The sensitivity tests of cloud chemistry to the physical processes are made. Omission of nucleation and impact scavenging of aerosols in the model simulations shows that 75.8 and 62.5 % of total sulfur mass deposited in the base experiment for the clean and the polluted environment, respectively, is the result of other processes. Exclusion of oxidation accounted for 19.2 and 37.7 % of total sulfur deposited for clean and polluted environment. Ignoring the ice phase almost not change mass of deposited sulfur: there is an increase of 2.9 and 1.5 % for clean and polluted atmosphere, respectively. Real topography conditions affect the sulfate redistribution in the sense of greater possibilities of transport. Numerical simulations without real topography give an artificial increase of deposited sulfur mass of about 25-30 %.

  13. Signatures of molecular recognition from the topography of electrostatic potential

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dhimoy K Roy; P Balanarayan; Shridhar R Gadre

    2009-09-01

    The recognition of interaction between two molecules is analysed via the topography of their molecular electrostatic potentials (MESP). The point of recognition between two species is proposed to be the geometry at which there is a change in the nature of the set of MESP critical points of one of the molecules vis-a-vis with its MESP topography at infinite separation. These results are presented for certain model systems such as pyridine and benzene dimers, cytosine-guanine and adenine-thymine base pairs in various orientations of approach of the two species.

  14. Mulitple Origins of Sand Dune-Topography Interactions on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggin, H.; Ewing, R. C.; Hayes, A.; Cisneros, J.; Epps, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    The interaction between sand dune patterns and topographic obstacles is a primary signal of sand transport direction in the equatorial region of Saturn's moon, Titan. The streamlined, tear drop appearance of the sand-dune patterns as they wrap around obstacles and a dune-free zone on the east side of many obstacles gives the impression that sand transport is from the west to east at equatorial latitudes. However, the physical mechanism behind the dune-obstacle interaction is not well explained, leaving a gap in our understanding of the equatorial sand transport and implied wind directions and magnitudes on Titan. In order to better understand this interaction and evaluate wind and sand transport direction, we use morphometric analysis of optical images on Earth and Cassini SAR images on Titan combined with analog wind tunnel experiments to study dune-topography interactions. Image analysis is performed in a GIS environment to map spatial variations in dune crestline orientations proximal to obstacles. We also use digital elevation models to and analyze the three-dimensional geometry - height, length, width and slope of the dune-topography relationships on Earth. Preliminary results show that dune patterns are deflected similarly around positive, neutral, or negative topography, where positive topography is greater than the surrounding dune height, neutral topography is at dune height and negative topography is lower than dune heights. In the latter case these are typically intra-dune field playas. The obstacle height, width, slope and wind variability appear to play a primary role in determining if a lee-dune, rather than a dune-free lee-zone, develops. In many cases a dune-free playa with evaporite and mud desiccation polygons forms lee-ward of the obstacle. To support and elaborate on the mapping and spatial characterization of dune-topography interactions, a series of experiments using a wind tunnel were conducted. Wind tunnel experiments examine the formation

  15. A model for Faraday pilot-waves over variable topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Luiz

    2016-11-01

    In 2005 Yves Couder and co-workers discovered that droplets walking on a vibrating bath posses certain features previously thought to be exclusive to quantum systems. These millimetric droplets synchronize with their Faraday wavefield, creating a macroscopic pilot-wave system. In this talk we exploit the fact that the waves generated are nearly monochromatic and propose a hydrodynamic model capable of capturing the interaction between bouncing drops and a variable topography. We show that our model is able to reproduce some important experiments involving the drop-topography interaction, such as non-specular reflection and single-slit diffraction.

  16. A model for Faraday pilot waves over variable topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Luiz M.

    2017-01-01

    Couder and Fort discovered that droplets walking on a vibrating bath possess certain features previously thought to be exclusive to quantum systems. These millimetric droplets synchronize with their Faraday wavefield, creating a macroscopic pilot-wave system. In this paper we exploit the fact that the waves generated are nearly monochromatic and propose a hydrodynamic model capable of quantitatively capturing the interaction between bouncing drops and a variable topography. We show that our reduced model is able to reproduce some important experiments involving the drop-topography interaction, such as non-specular reflection and single-slit diffraction.

  17. Processed meat consumption, dietary nitrosamines and stomach cancer risk in a cohort of Swedish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Susanna C; Bergkvist, Leif; Wolk, Alicja

    2006-08-15

    Processed meat consumption has been associated with an increased risk of stomach cancer in some epidemiological studies (mainly case-control). Nitrosamines may be responsible for this association, but few studies have directly examined nitrosamine intake in relation to stomach cancer risk. We prospectively investigated the associations between intakes of processed meat, other meats and N-nitrosodimethylamine (the most frequently occurring nitrosamine in foods) with risk of stomach cancer among 61,433 women who were enrolled in the population-based Swedish Mammography Cohort. Information on diet was collected at baseline (between 1987 and 1990) and updated in 1997. During 18 years of follow-up, 156 incident cases of stomach cancer were ascertained. High consumption of processed meat, but not of other meats (i.e., red meat, fish and poultry), was associated with a statistically significant increased risk of stomach cancer. After adjustment for potential confounders, the hazard ratios for the highest compared with the lowest category of intake were 1.66 (95% CI = 1.13-2.45) for all processed meats, 1.55 (95% CI = 1.00-2.41) for bacon or side pork, 1.50 (95% CI = 0.93-2.41) for sausage or hotdogs and 1.48 (95% CI= 0.99-2.22) for ham or salami. Stomach cancer risk was 2-fold higher among women in the top quintile of N-nitrosodimethylamine intake when compared with those in the bottom quintile (hazard ratio = 1.96; 95% CI = 1.08-3.58). Our findings suggest that high consumption of processed meat may increase the risk of stomach cancer. Dietary nitrosamines might be responsible for the positive association.

  18. Extraction of Stomach Region from X-Ray Image(Special Edition for the 10th Anniversary of Department of Information Processing Engineering)

    OpenAIRE

    小林, 富士男; 長谷井, 稔; 坪井, 始; 田中, 始男; 美咲, 隆吉; 富田, 将英; コバヤシ, フジオ; ハセイ, ミノル; ツボイ, ハジメ; タナカ, モトオ; ミサキ, タカヨシ; トミタ, マサヒデ; Fujio, KOBAYASHI; Minoru, HASEI; Hajime, TSUBOI

    1996-01-01

    Recently, the screening system is popularized, a large number of diagnosis is the work of doctors. There are differences between individuals in the shape of their stomachs. The shape of stomach changes every second. In this paper, the extraction method of stomach region from x-ray image is described. First, the reasonable approximation can be made by general processing. Next, the contour of stomach region is extracted exactly using the knowledges about the stomach and its shape. This method i...

  19. Gender similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research.

  20. Gender equality and meritocracy

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Stina

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines how gender equality measures and discourses are reconciled with notions of merit in academia. Gender equality is often defined as equal rights for women and men and has become a widely accepted political goal and vision. Meritocratic principles build on the assumption that everyone, regardless of gender, class, race and sexuality, has the same opportunities to advance provided they are sufficiently hardworking and intelligent. Meritocratic principles thus build on the ass...

  1. Gender Inequality since 1820

    OpenAIRE

    Carmichael, Sarah; Dilli, Selin; Rijpma, Auke

    2014-01-01

    Historically, gender inequalities in health status, socio-economic standing and political rights have been large. This chapter documents gender differences in life expectancy and birth rates (to cover health status); in average years of schooling, labour force participation, inheritance rights and marriage age (to cover socioeconomic status); and in parliamentary seats and suffrage (to cover political rights). A composite indicator shows strong progress in reducing gender inequality in the pa...

  2. Screening Helicobacter pylori genes induced during infection of mouse stomachs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aparna Singh; Nathaniel Hodgson; Ming Yan; Jungsoo Joo; Lei Gu; Hong Sang; Emmalena Gregory-Bryson

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect of in vivo environment on gene expression in Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) as it relates to its survival in the host.METHODS:In vivo expression technology (IVET) systems are used to identify microbial virulence genes.We modified the IVET-transcriptional fusion vector,pIVET8,which uses antibiotic resistance as the basis for selection of candidate genes in host tissues to develop two unique IVET-promoter-screening vectors,pIVET11 and pIVET12.Our novel IVET systems were developed by the fusion of random Sau3A DNA fragments of H.pylori and a tandem-reporter system of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase and beta-galactosidase.Additionally,each vector contains a kanamycin resistance gene.We used a mouse macrophage cell line,RAW 264.7 and mice,as selective media to identify specific genes that H.pylori expresses in vivo.Gene expression studies were conducted by infecting RAW 264.7 cells with H.pylori.This was followed by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis to determine the relative expression levels of in vivo induced genes.RESULTS:In this study,we have identified 31 in vivo induced (ivi) genes in the initial screens.These 31 genes belong to several functional gene families,including several well-known virulence factors that are expressed by the bacterium in infected mouse stomachs.Virulence factors,vacA and cagA,were found in this screen and are known to play important roles in H.pylori infection,colonization and pathogenesis.Their detection validates the efficacy of these screening systems.Some of the identified ivi genes have already been implicated to play an important role in the pathogenesis of H.pylori and other bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae.Transcription profiles of all ivi genes were confirmed by real time PCR analysis of H.pylori RNA isolated from H.pylori infected RAW 264.7 macrophages.We compared the expression profile of H.pylori and RAW 264.7 coculture with that of H.pylori only

  3. Intersectionality, Diversity and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2016-01-01

    In the discourses of Danish politicians on ethno-national diversity and integration, the notion of diversity is gendered, especially the articulation of the ‘working woman’ and her labor market participation. Equality, diversity and gender are, thus, intertwined in political, discursive construct......In the discourses of Danish politicians on ethno-national diversity and integration, the notion of diversity is gendered, especially the articulation of the ‘working woman’ and her labor market participation. Equality, diversity and gender are, thus, intertwined in political, discursive...

  4. American alligator digestion rate of blue crabs and its implications for stomach contents analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nifong, James C.; Rosenblatt, Adam E.; Johnson, Nathan A.; Barichivich, William; Silliman, Brian; Heithaus, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Stomach contents analysis (SCA) provides a snap-shot observation of a consumer's diet. Interpretation of SCA data can be complicated by many factors, including variation in gastric residence times and digestion rates among prey taxa. Although some SCA methods are reported to efficiently remove all stomach contents, the effectiveness of these techniques has rarely been tested for large irregular shaped prey with hard exoskeletons. We used a controlled feeding trial to estimate gastric residency time and decomposition rate of a large crustacean prey item, the Blue Crab (Callinectes sapidus), which is consumed by American Alligators (Alligator mississippiensis), an abundant apex predator in coastal habitats of the southeastern United States. The decomposition rate of C. sapidus in the stomachs of A. mississippiensis followed a predictable pattern, and some crab pieces remained in stomachs for at least 14 days. We also found that certain portions of C. sapidus were prone to becoming caught within the stomach or esophagus, meaning not all crab parts are consistently recovered using gastric lavage techniques. However, because the state of decomposition of crabs was predictable, it is possible to estimate time since consumption for crabs recovered from wild alligators. This information, coupled with a detailed understanding of crab distributions and alligator movement tactics could help elucidate patterns of cross-ecosystem foraging by the American Alligator in coastal habitats

  5. Intestinal and diffuse carcinoma of the stomach among the ethnic and dialect groups in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, M; Lee, Y S

    1987-08-15

    This study attempts to determine the relative prevalence of intestinal-type and diffuse-type carcinomas (using a modified Lauren classification of gastric carcinomas) and to evaluate its significance in relation to the difference in stomach cancer risks among the different ethnic and Chinese dialect groups in Singapore. Of the 648 cases of primary adenocarcinoma of the stomach studied, 405 (62.5%) were of the intestinal type, 206 (31.8%) of the diffuse type, and 37 (5.7%) of the mixed type. Men had higher proportions of intestinal-type carcinoma than women. The intestinal-diffuse carcinoma ratio increased progressively with age. Although the relative intestinal-diffuse carcinoma ratios in women appeared to reflect the relative incidence rates of stomach cancer of the different ethnic and dialect groups, the ratios in men were inconsistent. Indian men had a higher intestinal-diffuse carcinoma ratio than Chinese men despite a lower incidence of stomach cancer. Hokkien men had the highest incidence of stomach cancer and the lowest intestinal-diffuse carcinoma ratio among the Chinese dialect groups. The use of the ratio as an indicator of relative risks for gastric cancer between populations of different genetic makeup is inconsistent and unreliable.

  6. Clearance of Streptococcus suis in Stomach Contents of Differently Fed Growing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Warneboldt

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus (S. suis translocates across the intestinal barrier of piglets after intraintestinal application. Based on these findings, an oro-gastrointestinal infection route has been proposed. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the survival of S. suis in the porcine stomach. Whereas surviving bacteria of S. suis serotypes 2 and 9 were not detectable after 60 min of incubation in stomach contents with a comparatively high gastric pH of 5 due to feeding of fine pellets, the number of Salmonella Derby bacteria increased under these conditions. Further experiments confirmed the clearance of S. suis serotypes 2 and 9 within 30 min in stomach contents with a pH of 4.7 independently of the bacterial growth phase. Finally, an oral infection experiment was conducted, feeding each of 18 piglets a diet mixed with 1010 CFU of S. suis serotype 2 or 9. Thorough bacteriological screenings of various mesenteric-intestinal lymph nodes and internal organs after different times of exposure did not lead to any detection of the orally applied challenge strains. In conclusion, the porcine stomach constitutes a very efficient barrier against oro-gastrointenstinal S. suis infections. Conditions leading to the passage of S. suis through the stomach remain to be identified.

  7. HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF RED PEPPER ON THE STOMACH OF ADULT WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah O. Adjene

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Histological effects of red pepper commonly used as spice in food on the stomach of adult wistar rats were carefully investigated. The rats of both sexes (n=24, average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into two treatments (n=16 and control (n=6 groups. The rats in the treatments groups received 1g and 2g of red pepper thoroughly mixed with 20g of their feeds for 7 and 14 days, while the control rats received equal amounts of feeds without the red pepper added. The rats were fed with grower's mash purchased from Edo feeds and flour mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day eight and fifteen of the experiment respectively.The stomach was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formol saline for routine histological procedure after H & E method.The histological findings after H&E methods indicated that the treated sections of the stomach showed some level of cellular hypertrophy, congestion of blood vessels degenerative changes disruption and distortion of the cytoarchitecture of the stomach.These findings indicate that red pepper may have some deleterious effects on the microanatomy of the stomach of adult wistar rat at higher doses. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these findings be carried out.

  8. Fourth ventricular administration of ghrelin induces relaxation of the proximal stomach in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobashi, Motoi; Yanagihara, Mamoru; Fujita, Masako; Mitoh, Yoshihiro; Matsuo, Ryuji

    2009-02-01

    The effects of fourth ventricular administration of ghrelin on motility of the proximal stomach were examined in anesthetized rats. Intragastric pressure (IGP) was measured using a balloon situated in the proximal part of the stomach. Administration of ghrelin into the fourth ventricle induced relaxation of the proximal stomach in a dose-dependent manner. Significant reduction of IGP was observed at doses of 3, 10, or 30 pmol. The administration of ghrelin (10 or 30 pmol) with growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) antagonist ([D-Lys3] GHRP-6; 1 nmol) into the fourth ventricle did not induce a significant change in IGP. The sole administration of [D-Lys3] GHRP-6 also did not induce a significant change in IGP. Bilateral sectioning of the vagi at the cervical level abolished the relaxation induced by the administration of ghrelin (10 or 30 pmol) into the fourth ventricle, suggesting that relaxation induced by ghrelin is mediated by vagal preganglionic neurons. Microinjections of ghrelin (200 fmol) into the caudal part of the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) induced obvious relaxation of the proximal stomach. Similar injections into the intermediate part of the DVC did not induce significant change. Dose-response analyses revealed that the microinjection of 2 fmol of ghrelin into the caudal DVC significantly reduced IGP. These results revealed that ghrelin induced relaxation in the proximal stomach via GHS-R situated in the caudal DVC.

  9. Identification of neuroanatomic circuits from spinal cord to stomach in mouse: retrograde transneuronal viral tracing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Da-Wei; Liu, Cheng; Tian, Xue-Bi; Xiang, Hong-Bing

    2014-01-01

    To determine the spinal innervation and neuronal connections is important for studying gastric carbohydrate metabolism and motor responses. Neurons involved in the efferent control of the stomach were identified following visualization of pseudorabies virus (PRV)-614 retrograde tracing. PRV-614 was injected into the ventral stomach wall in 13 adult C57BL/6J strain male mice. On the fifth day postinjection, animals were humanely sacrificed, and spinal cords were removed and sectioned, and processed for PRV visualization. The virus injected into the ventral stomach wall was specifically transported to the thoracic spinal cord. At 5 d after injection of the PRV-614, stomach enlargement and tissue edema were found, and PRV-614 positive cells were found in the intermediolateral cell column, the intercalates nucleus or the central autonomic nucleus of spinal cord segments T3 to L1, and major PRV-614 labeled cells were focused in the T6-10 segment. Our results revealed neuroanatomical circuits between stomach and the spinal intermediolateral cell column neurons.

  10. In silico analysis of stomach lineage specific gene set expression pattern in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandi, Narayanan Sathiya; Suganya, Sivagurunathan; Rajendran, Suriliyandi

    2013-10-04

    Stomach lineage specific gene products act as a protective barrier in the normal stomach and their expression maintains the normal physiological processes, cellular integrity and morphology of the gastric wall. However, the regulation of stomach lineage specific genes in gastric cancer (GC) is far less clear. In the present study, we sought to investigate the role and regulation of stomach lineage specific gene set (SLSGS) in GC. SLSGS was identified by comparing the mRNA expression profiles of normal stomach tissue with other organ tissue. The obtained SLSGS was found to be under expressed in gastric tumors. Functional annotation analysis revealed that the SLSGS was enriched for digestive function and gastric epithelial maintenance. Employing a single sample prediction method across GC mRNA expression profiles identified the under expression of SLSGS in proliferative type and invasive type gastric tumors compared to the metabolic type gastric tumors. Integrative pathway activation prediction analysis revealed a close association between estrogen-α signaling and SLSGS expression pattern in GC. Elevated expression of SLSGS in GC is associated with an overall increase in the survival of GC patients. In conclusion, our results highlight that estrogen mediated regulation of SLSGS in gastric tumor is a molecular predictor of metabolic type GC and prognostic factor in GC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Acute Volvulus of Stomach in Children%小儿急性胃扭转

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹大卫; 郑毓珊; 任德胜

    1984-01-01

    The authors report 2 cases of acute volvulus of stomach in children caused by congenital abnormality of the diaphragm.A boy of 3 with diaphragmatic eventration complicated with acute omento-axial volvulus of stomach was misdiagnosed as acute pancreatitis and acute gastric dilatation due to lack of obvious respiratory distress on admission.Only at laparotomy was the necrotic part of the volvular stomach found and resected and the peritoneal cavity drained.Plication of the affected hemidiaphragm and gastropexy were done 2 months later.Another boy of 4 with histus hernia complicated with acute mixed volvulus of stomach was correctly diagnosed before operation.The stomach was reduced from the thorax;followed by hiatal ring repair as well as gastropexy.Both operations were satisfactory.%@@ 小儿急性胃扭转比较少见,国内文献报告不多,我院在1982年收治伴有膈肌发育障碍的急性胃扭转2例.

  12.  Incidence of Stomach Cancer in Oman and the Other Gulf Cooperation Council Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Sharples

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available  Objectives: Stomach cancer is the most common cancer among males in Oman and the second most frequent among females from 1997 to 2007. Reports have suggested the rate is higher in Oman than in the other GCC countries. This study aims to describe the epidemiology of stomach cancer in Oman and to explore the apparent differences in the incidence of stomach cancer between Oman and the other Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC countries.Methods: Data were obtained from the Omani National Cancer Registry (1997 - 2007 and from Gulf Centre for Cancer Registration reports (1998 - 2004.Results: The annual average age-adjusted incidence rates for stomach cancer in Oman were 10.1 per 100,000 for males and 5.6 per 100,000 for females between 1997 and 2007. The age-adjusted incidence varied by region within Oman, and the incidence rate was higher in Oman than in most other GCC countries between 1998 and 2004.Conclusion: Further investigation of the completeness and accuracy of cancer registration is essential for exploration of variations in stomach cancer rates in the GCC countries.

  13. Distribution of trace metal concentrations in paired cancerous and non-cancerous human stomach tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehmet Yaman; Gokce Kaya; Hayrettin Yekeler

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To assess whether trace metal concentrations (which influence metabolism as both essential and non-essential elements) are increased or decreased in cancerous tissues and to understand the precise role of these metals in carcinogenesis.METHODS: Concentrations of trace metals including Cd,Ni, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mg and Ca in both cancerous and noncancerous stomach tissue samples were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Tissue samples were digested using microwave energy. Slotted tube atom trap was used to improve the sensitivity of copper and cadmium in flame AAS determinations.RESULTS: From the obtained data in this study,the concentrations of nickel, copper and iron in the cancerous human stomach were found to be significantly higher than those in the non-cancerous tissues, by using t-test for the paired samples. Furthermore, the average calcium concentrations in the cancerous stomach tissue samples were found to be significantly lower than those in the non-cancerous stomach tissue samples by using t-test. Exceedingly high Zn concentrations (207-826 mg/kg) were found in two paired stomach tissue samples from both cancerous and non-cancerous parts.CONCLUSION: In contrast to the literature data for Cu and Fe, the concentrations of copper, iron and nickel in cancerous tissue samples are higher than those in the non-cancerous samples. Furthermore, the Ca levels are lower in cancerous tissue samples than in non-cancerous tissue samples.

  14. A model of slow wave propagation and entrainment along the stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buist, Martin L; Corrias, Alberto; Poh, Yong Cheng

    2010-09-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) isolated from different regions of the stomach generate spontaneous electrical slow wave activity at different frequencies, with cells from the proximal stomach pacing faster than their distal counterparts. However, in vivo there exists a uniform pacing frequency; slow waves propagate aborally from the proximal stomach and subsequently entrain distal tissues. Significant resting membrane potential (RMP) gradients also exist within the stomach whereby membrane polarization generally increases from the fundus to the antrum. Both of these factors play a major role in the macroscopic electrical behavior of the stomach and as such, any tissue or organ level model of gastric electrophysiology should ensure that these phenomena are properly described. This study details a dual-cable model of gastric electrical activity that incorporates biophysically detailed single-cell models of the two predominant cell types, the ICC and smooth muscle cells. Mechanisms for the entrainment of the intrinsic pacing frequency gradient and for the establishment of the RMP gradient are presented. The resulting construct is able to reproduce experimentally recorded slow wave activity and provides a platform on which our understanding of gastric electrical activity can advance.

  15. Clearance of Streptococcus suis in Stomach Contents of Differently Fed Growing Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneboldt, Franziska; Sander, Saara J; Beineke, Andreas; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Kamphues, Josef; Baums, Christoph Georg

    2016-08-06

    Streptococcus (S.) suis translocates across the intestinal barrier of piglets after intraintestinal application. Based on these findings, an oro-gastrointestinal infection route has been proposed. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the survival of S. suis in the porcine stomach. Whereas surviving bacteria of S. suis serotypes 2 and 9 were not detectable after 60 min of incubation in stomach contents with a comparatively high gastric pH of 5 due to feeding of fine pellets, the number of Salmonella Derby bacteria increased under these conditions. Further experiments confirmed the clearance of S. suis serotypes 2 and 9 within 30 min in stomach contents with a pH of 4.7 independently of the bacterial growth phase. Finally, an oral infection experiment was conducted, feeding each of 18 piglets a diet mixed with 10(10) CFU of S. suis serotype 2 or 9. Thorough bacteriological screenings of various mesenteric-intestinal lymph nodes and internal organs after different times of exposure did not lead to any detection of the orally applied challenge strains. In conclusion, the porcine stomach constitutes a very efficient barrier against oro-gastrointenstinal S. suis infections. Conditions leading to the passage of S. suis through the stomach remain to be identified.

  16. Recurrent gene loss correlates with the evolution of stomach phenotypes in gnathostome history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, L Filipe C; Gonçalves, Odete; Mazan, Sylvie; Tay, Boon-Hui; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Wilson, Jonathan M

    2014-01-22

    The stomach, a hallmark of gnathostome evolution, represents a unique anatomical innovation characterized by the presence of acid- and pepsin-secreting glands. However, the occurrence of these glands in gnathostome species is not universal; in the nineteenth century the French zoologist Cuvier first noted that some teleosts lacked a stomach. Strikingly, Holocephali (chimaeras), dipnoids (lungfish) and monotremes (egg-laying mammals) also lack acid secretion and a gastric cellular phenotype. Here, we test the hypothesis that loss of the gastric phenotype is correlated with the loss of key gastric genes. We investigated species from all the main gnathostome lineages and show the specific contribution of gene loss to the widespread distribution of the agastric condition. We establish that the stomach loss correlates with the persistent and complete absence of the gastric function gene kit--H(+)/K(+)-ATPase (Atp4A and Atp4B) and pepsinogens (Pga, Pgc, Cym)--in the analysed species. We also find that in gastric species the pepsinogen gene complement varies significantly (e.g. two to four in teleosts and tens in some mammals) with multiple events of pseudogenization identified in various lineages. We propose that relaxation of purifying selection in pepsinogen genes and possibly proton pump genes in response to dietary changes led to the numerous independent events of stomach loss in gnathostome history. Significantly, the absence of the gastric genes predicts that reinvention of the stomach in agastric lineages would be highly improbable, in line with Dollo's principle.

  17. Expression of neuropeptide W in rat stomach mucosa: regulation by nutritional status, glucocorticoids and thyroid hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminos, Jorge E; Bravo, Susana B; García-Rendueles, María E R; Ruth González, C; Garcés, Maria F; Cepeda, Libia A; Lage, Ricardo; Suárez, Miguel A; López, Miguel; Diéguez, Carlos

    2008-02-07

    Neuropeptide W (NPW) is a recently identified neuropeptide that binds to G-protein-coupled receptor 7 (GPR7) and 8 (GPR8). In rodent brain, NPW mRNA is confined to specific nuclei in hypothalamus, midbrain and brainstem. Expression of NPW mRNA has also been confirmed in peripheral organs such as stomach. Several reports suggested that brain NPW is implicated in the regulation of energy and hormonal homeostasis, namely the adrenal and thyroid axes; however the precise physiological role and regulation of peripheral NPW remains unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of nutritional status on the regulation of NPW in stomach mucosa. Our results show that in this tissue, NPW mRNA and protein expression is negatively regulated by fasting and food restriction, in all the models we studied: males, females and pregnant females. Next, we examined the effect of glucocorticoids and thyroid hormones on NPW mRNA expression in the stomach mucosa. Our data showed that NPW expression is decreased in this tissue after glucocorticoid treatment or hyperthyroidism. Conversely, hypothyroidism induces a marked increase in the expression of NPW in rat stomach. Overall, these data indicate that stomach NPW is regulated by nutritional and hormonal status.

  18. [Disturbances of gastrointestinal motility of the stomach in patients with chronic gastric erosions and biliary tract disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svintsitskyĭ, A S; Solovĭova, H A

    2012-12-01

    Article dwells on comparison data about motor function of the stomach in the three groups of patients: with gastric erosions and biliary tract diseases, duodenal ulcer disease, chronic gastritis. It is shown, that patients with gastric erosions and biliary tract diseases are characterized by slower evacuation function of the stomach, hypotonus of the stomach. Frequency of duodenal reflux in this group of patients is very high (85,9 %).

  19. A HYBRID THINNING ALGORITHM FOR BINARY TOPOGRAPHY MAP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A hybrid thinning algorithm for binary topography maps is proposed on the basis of parallel thinning templates in this paper.The algorithm has a high processing speed and the strong ability of noise immunity and preservation of connectivity and skeleton symmetry. Experimental results show that the algorithm can solve t he thinning problem of binary maps effectively.

  20. The Effect of Substrate Topography on Coating Cathodic Delamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinell, Claus E.; Sørensen, Per A.; Kiil, Søren

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the effect of steel substrate topography on coating cathodic delamination. The study showed that the surface preparation can be used to control and minimize the rate of cathodic delamination. The coating should have maximum wetting properties so that substrates with high...

  1. The effect of asteroid topography on surface ablation deflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Jay W.; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2017-02-01

    Ablation techniques for deflecting hazardous asteroids deposit energy into the asteroid's surface, causing an effective thrust on the asteroid as the ablating material leaves normal to the surface. Although it has long been recognized that surface topography plays an important role in determining the deflection capabilities, most studies to date have ignored this aspect of the model. This paper focuses on understanding the topography for real asteroid shapes, and how this topography can change the deflection performance of an ablation technique. The near Earth asteroids Golevka, Bennu, and Itokawa are used as the basis for this study, as all three have high-resolution shape models available. This paper shows that naive targeting of an ablation method without accounting for the surface topography can lower the deflection performance by up to 20% in the cases studied in terms of the amount of acceleration applied in the desired direction. If the ablation thrust level is assumed to be 100 N, as used elsewhere in the literature, this misapplication of thrust translates to tens of kilometers per year in decreased semimajor axis change. However, if the ablation method can freely target any visible point on the surface of the asteroid, almost all of this performance can be recovered.

  2. Short wavelength topography on the inner-core boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Aimin; Masson, Yder; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2007-01-02

    Constraining the topography of the inner-core boundary is important for studies of core-mantle coupling and the generation of the geodynamo. We present evidence for significant temporal variability in the amplitude of the inner core reflected phase PKiKP for an exceptionally high-quality earthquake doublet, observed postcritically at the short-period Yellowknife seismic array (YK), which occurred in the South Sandwich Islands within a 10-year interval (1993/2003). This observation, complemented by data from several other doublets, indicates the presence of topography at the inner-core boundary, with a horizontal wavelength on the order of 10 km. Such topography could be sustained by small-scale convection at the top of the inner core and is compatible with a rate of super rotation of the inner core of approximately 0.1-0.15 degrees per year. In the absence of inner-core rotation, decadal scale temporal changes in the inner-core boundary topography would provide an upper bound on the viscosity at the top of the inner core.

  3. Topographie en tomographie en coherence optique (OCT) des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ceci permettrait de reconsidérer le glaucome comme un problème de santé publique afin de ... English Title: OCT topography of large cup-disc ratio in Lome ... The reference for the disc topogramm for comparison in this study is data from 19th ...

  4. Water balance and topography predict fire and forest structure patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van R. Kane; James A. Lutz; C. Alina Cansler; Nicholas A. Povak; Derek J. Churchill; Douglas F. Smith; Jonathan T. Kane; Malcolm P. North

    2015-01-01

    Mountainous topography creates fine-scale environmental mosaics that vary in precipitation, temperature, insolation, and slope position. This mosaic in turn influences fuel accumulation and moisture and forest structure. We studied these the effects of varying environmental conditions across a 27,104 ha landscape within Yosemite National Park, California, USA, on the...

  5. Ocean and laboratory observations on waves over topography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, F.P. A.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis addresses the observation, analysis and dynamics of waves as being trapped, generated and focused by sloping topography. ---Shelf waves with diurnal tidal frequency off Greenland--- Tidal analysis has been carried out on current measurements at a “cross-shelf” transect off Greenland at 7

  6. An anatomical and functional topography of human auditory cortical areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle eMoerel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI throughout the last decades have enabled the detailed anatomical and functional inspection of the human brain non-invasively, to date there is no consensus regarding the precise subdivision and topography of the areas forming the human auditory cortex. Here, we propose a topography of the human auditory areas based on insights on the anatomical and functional properties of human auditory areas as revealed by studies of cyto- and myelo-architecture and fMRI investigations at ultra-high magnetic field (7 Tesla. Importantly, we illustrate that - whereas a group-based approach to analyze functional (tonotopic maps is appropriate to highlight the main tonotopic axis - the examination of tonotopic maps at single subject level is required to detail the topography of primary and non-primary areas that may be more variable across subjects. Furthermore, we show that considering multiple maps indicative of anatomical (i.e. myelination as well as of functional properties (e.g. broadness of frequency tuning is helpful in identifying auditory cortical areas in individual human brains. We propose and discuss a topography of areas that is consistent with old and recent anatomical post mortem characterizations of the human auditory cortex and that may serve as a working model for neuroscience studies of auditory functions.

  7. EAARL topography-Potato Creek watershed, Georgia, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Fredericks, Xan; Jones, J.W.; Wright, C.W.; Brock, J.C.; Nagle, D.B.

    2011-01-01

    This DVD contains lidar-derived first-surface (FS) and bare-earth (BE) topography GIS datasets of a portion of the Potato Creek watershed in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River basin, Georgia. These datasets were acquired on February 27, 2010.

  8. An anatomical and functional topography of human auditory cortical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerel, Michelle; De Martino, Federico; Formisano, Elia

    2014-01-01

    While advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) throughout the last decades have enabled the detailed anatomical and functional inspection of the human brain non-invasively, to date there is no consensus regarding the precise subdivision and topography of the areas forming the human auditory cortex. Here, we propose a topography of the human auditory areas based on insights on the anatomical and functional properties of human auditory areas as revealed by studies of cyto- and myelo-architecture and fMRI investigations at ultra-high magnetic field (7 Tesla). Importantly, we illustrate that-whereas a group-based approach to analyze functional (tonotopic) maps is appropriate to highlight the main tonotopic axis-the examination of tonotopic maps at single subject level is required to detail the topography of primary and non-primary areas that may be more variable across subjects. Furthermore, we show that considering multiple maps indicative of anatomical (i.e., myelination) as well as of functional properties (e.g., broadness of frequency tuning) is helpful in identifying auditory cortical areas in individual human brains. We propose and discuss a topography of areas that is consistent with old and recent anatomical post-mortem characterizations of the human auditory cortex and that may serve as a working model for neuroscience studies of auditory functions.

  9. A Mathematical Approach for Evaluation of Surface Topography Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Haghi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The probability characteristics of surface topography parameters described by the composition of the deterministic component and the homogeneous random normal field were analysed. Formulae for the calculation of the mathematical expectation of the Ras parameter and the evaluation of its variance are given.

  10. Oral Streptococci Biofilm Formation on Different Implant Surface Topographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo Cardoso Pita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the subgingival microbiota is dependent on successive colonization of the implant surface by bacterial species. Different implant surface topographies could influence the bacterial adsorption and therefore jeopardize the implant survival. This study evaluated the biofilm formation capacity of five oral streptococci species on two titanium surface topographies. In vitro biofilm formation was induced on 30 titanium discs divided in two groups: sandblasted acid-etched (SAE- n=15 and as-machined (M- n=15 surface. The specimens were immersed in sterilized whole human unstimulated saliva and then in fresh bacterial culture with five oral streptococci species: Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Streptococcus cricetus. The specimens were fixed and stained and the adsorbed dye was measured. Surface characterization was performed by atomic force and scanning electron microscopy. Surface and microbiologic data were analyzed by Student’s t-test and two-way ANOVA, respectively (P0.05. S. sanguinis exhibited similar behavior to form biofilm on both implant surface topographies, while S. salivarius showed the lowest ability to form biofilm. It was concluded that biofilm formation on titanium surfaces depends on surface topography and species involved.

  11. The subthalamic nucleus : Part I: Development, cytology, topography and connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marani, Enrico; Heida, Tjitske; Lakke, Egbert A.J.F.; Usunoff, Kamen G.

    2008-01-01

    This monograph on the subthalamic nucleus accentuates in Part I the gap between experimental animal and human information concerning subthalamic development, cytology, topography and connections. The light and electron microscopical cytology concerns the open nucleus concept and the neuronal types p

  12. Linking topography to tonotopy in the mouse auditory thalamocortical circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hackett, Troy A; Rinaldi Barkat, Tania; O'Brien, Barbara M J;

    2011-01-01

    The mouse sensory neocortex is reported to lack several hallmark features of topographic organization such as ocular dominance and orientation columns in primary visual cortex or fine-scale tonotopy in primary auditory cortex (AI). Here, we re-examined the question of auditory functional topography...

  13. Geoid-to-topography ratios on Venus: A global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Mark; Solomon, Sean C.

    1993-01-01

    Recently available spherical harmonic solutions for the geoid and topography of Venus are sufficiently high resolution that they can be used to address questions concerning the relationship between geoid and topography on a regional scale. We have approached this question by mapping the geoid-to-topography ratio (GTR) on a systematic global basis. For a given point on the surface, we consider the geoid and elevation values at all points on a gridded representation of those fields located within a specified distance of the reference point. From the set of paired values, we determine the correlation coefficient and the best-fitting straight line. The latter is the GTR at that position, and the former is a measure of the significance of the derived ratio. This procedure is then repeated for all points on the global grid, yielding maps of the GTR and the correlation coefficient. Unlike previous studies of the GRT on Venus, this apprach permits us to make an objective and systematic search for regions with anomalous GTR's as well as areas that do not demonstrate any strong correlation between geoid and topography. These maps can be updated regularly as new harmonic models of the Venus geoid are produced from new Magellan tracking data. This procedure permits the development of a global perspective on the relationship between GTR and venusian surface tectonics.

  14. Recent advances in engineering topography mediated antibacterial surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Jafar; Chatterjee, Kaushik

    2015-09-01

    The tendency of bacterial cells to adhere and colonize a material surface leading to biofilm formation is a fundamental challenge underlying many different applications including microbial infections associated with biomedical devices and products. Although, bacterial attachment to surfaces has been extensively studied in the past, the effect of surface topography on bacteria-material interactions has received little attention until more recently. We review the recent progress in surface topography based approaches for engineering antibacterial surfaces. Biomimicry of antibacterial surfaces in nature is a popular strategy. Whereas earlier endeavors in the field aimed at minimizing cell attachment, more recent efforts have focused on developing bactericidal surfaces. However, not all such topography mediated bactericidal surfaces are necessarily cytocompatible thus underscoring the need for continued efforts for research in this area for developing antibacterial and yet cytocompatible surfaces for use in implantable biomedical applications. This mini-review provides a brief overview of the current strategies and challenges in the emerging field of topography mediated antibacterial surfaces.

  15. Fabrication of cell container arrays with overlaid surface topographies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truckenmuller, R.; Giselbrecht, S.; Escalante-Marun, M.; Groenendijk, M.; Papenburg, B.; Rivron, N.; Unadkat, H.; Saile, V.; Subramaniam, V.; Berg, A. van den; Blitterswijk, C. Van; Wessling, M.; Boer, J. den; Stamatialis, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents cell culture substrates in the form of microcontainer arrays with overlaid surface topographies, and a technology for their fabrication. The new fabrication technology is based on microscale thermoforming of thin polymer films whose surfaces are topographically prepatterned on a

  16. Fabrication of cell container arrays with overlaid surface topographies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truckenmüller, R.K.; Giselbrecht, S.; Escalante, M.; Groenendijk, M.N.W.; Papenburg, B.J.; Rivron, N.C.; Unadkat, H.V.; Saile, V.; Subramaniam, V.; Blitterswijk, van C.A.; Wessling, M.; Boer, de J.; Stamatialis, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents cell culture substrates in the form of microcontainer arrays with overlaid surface topographies, and a technology for their fabrication. The new fabrication technology is based on microscale thermoforming of thin polymer films whose surfaces are topographically prepatterned on a

  17. Combination Chemotherapy With or Without Vismodegib in Treating Patients With Advanced Stomach Cancer or Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-16

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  18. Climate dominated topography in a tectonically active mountain range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, B. A.; Ehlers, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Tests of the interactions between tectonic and climate forcing on Earth's topography often focus on the concept of steady-state whereby processes of rock deformation and erosion are opposing and equal. However, when conditions change such as the climate or tectonic rock uplift, then surface processes act to restore the balance between rock deformation and erosion by adjusting topography. Most examples of canonical steady-state mountain ranges lie within the northern hemisphere, which underwent a radical change in the Quaternary due to the onset of widespread glaciation. The activity of glaciers changed erosion rates and topography in many of these mountain ranges, which likely violates steady-state assumptions. With new topographic analysis, and existing patterns of climate and rock uplift, we explore a mountain range previously considered to be in steady-state, the Olympic Mountains, USA. The broad spatial trend in channel steepness values suggests that the locus of high rock uplift rates is coincident with the rugged range core, in a similar position as high temperature and pressure lithologies, but not in the low lying foothills as has been previously suggested by low-temperature thermochronometry. The details of our analysis suggest the dominant topographic signal in the Olympic Mountains is a spatial, and likely temporal, variation in erosional efficiency dictated by orographic precipitation, and Pleistocene glacier ELA patterns. We demonstrate the same topographic effects are recorded in the basin hypsometries of other Cenozoic mountain ranges around the world. The significant glacial overprint on topography makes the argument of mountain range steadiness untenable in significantly glaciated settings. Furthermore, our results suggest that most glaciated Cenozoic ranges are likely still in a mode of readjustment as fluvial systems change topography and erosion rates to equilibrate with rock uplift rates.

  19. Upper-Mantle Flow Driven Dynamic Topography in Eastern Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengul Uluocak, Ebru; Pysklywec, Russell; Eken, Tuna; Hakan Gogus, Oguz

    2016-04-01

    Eastern Anatolia is characterized by 2 km plateau uplift -in the last 10 Myrs-, high surface heat flow distribution, shallow Curie-point depth, anomalous gravity field. Seismological observations indicate relatively high Pn and Sn attenuation and significant low seismic velocity anomalies in the region. Moreover, the surface geology is associated predominantly with volcanic rocks in which melt production through mantle upwelling (following lithospheric delamination) has been suggested. It has been long known that the topographic loading in the region cannot be supported by crustal thickness (~45 km) based on the principle of Airy isostasy. Recent global geodynamic studies carried out for evaluating the post-collisional processes imply that there is an explicit dynamic uplift in Eastern Anatolia and its adjacent regions. In this study we investigate the instantaneous dynamic topography driven by 3-D upper-mantle flow in Eastern Anatolia. For this purpose we conducted numerous thermo-mechanical models using a 2-D Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) finite element method. The available P-wave tomography data extracted along 10 profiles were used to obtain depth-dependent density anomalies in the region. We present resulting dynamic topography maps and estimated 3D mantle flow velocity vectors along these 2-D cross sections for each profile. The residual topography based on crustal thickness and observed topography was calculated and compared with other independent datasets concerning geological deformation and dynamic topography predictions. The results indicate an upper mantle driven dynamic uplift correlated with the under-compensated characteristic in Eastern Anatolia. We discuss our results combined with 3D mantle flow by considering seismic anisotropy studies in the region. Initial results indicate that high dynamic uplift and the localized low Pn velocities in concurrence with Pn anisotropy structures show nearly spatial coherence in Eastern Anatolia.

  20. Shape and topography corrections for planetary nuclear spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prettyman, Thomas H.; Hendricks, John S.

    2015-11-01

    The elemental composition of planetary surfaces can be determined using gamma ray and neutron spectroscopy. Most planetary bodies for which nuclear spectroscopy data have been acquired are round, and simple, analytic corrections for measurement geometry can be applied; however, recent measurements of the irregular asteroid 4 Vesta by Dawn required more detailed corrections using a shape model (Prettyman et al., Science 2012). In addition, subtle artifacts of topography have been observed in low altitude measurements of lunar craters, with potential implications for polar hydrogen content (Eke et al., JGR 2015). To explore shape and topography effects, we have updated the general-purpose Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX to include a polygonal shape model (Prettyman and Hendricks, LPSC 2015). The shape model is fully integrated with the code’s 3D combinatorial geometry modules. A voxel-based acceleration algorithm enables fast ray-intersection calculations needed for Monte Carlo. As modified, MCNPX can model neutron and gamma ray transport within natural surfaces using global and/or regional shape/topography data (e.g. from photogrammetry and laser altimetry). We are using MCNPX to explore the effect of small-scale roughness, regional-, and global-topography for asteroids, comets and close-up measurements of high-relief features on larger bodies, such as the lunar surface. MCNPX can characterize basic effects on measurements by an orbiting spectrometer such as 1) the angular distribution of emitted particles, 2) shielding of galactic cosmic rays by surrounding terrain and 3) re-entrant scattering. In some cases, re-entrant scattering can be ignored, leading to a fast ray-tracing model that treats effects 1 and 2. The algorithm is applied to forward modeling and spatial deconvolution of epithermal neutron data acquired at Vesta. Analyses of shape/topography effects and correction strategies are presented for Vesta, selected small bodies and cratered

  1. The Study on the Attenuation of X-ray and Imaging Quality by Contents in Stomach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Kyung Rae; Ji, Youn Sang; Kim, Chang Bok; Choi, Seong Kwan; Moon, Sang In [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Gwangju Health College University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Dieter, Kevin [Dept. of Physical Therapy, Gwangju Health College University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    This study examined the change in the attenuation of X-rays with the ROI (Region of Interest) in DR (Digital Radiography) according to the stomach contents by manufacturing a tissue equivalent material phantom to simulate real stomach tissue based on the assumption that there is some attenuation of X-rays and a difference in imaging quality according to the stomach contents. The transit dosage by the attenuation of X-rays decreased with increasing protein thickness, which altered the average ROI values in the film and DR images. A comparison of the change in average ROI values of the film and DR image showed that the image in film caused larger density changes with varying thickness of protein than the image by DR. The results indicate that NPO (nothing by mouth) is more important in film system than in DR system.

  2. Anatomical stomach description of dog fish, Hydrolycus armatus (Jardine & Schomburgk, 1841, (Teleostei: Cynodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlane de Medeiros Costa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolycus armatus (dog fish is a Teleostei of Cynodontidae Family that forms a distinct group of Neotropical Characiformes. This species is a predator, pelagic, freshwater and carnivorous and ichthyophagic feeding habits. Biological studies on fish are important in fishery, already that they are used as parameters to keep the exploitation to sustainable levels. This study aimed to describe the stomach anatomy of H. armatus, in order to generate basic information of this body of this vertebrate. We used ten (10 specimens of H. armatus, from the Teles Pires, city of Carlinda-MT, being this dissected and analyzed. The stomach of saccular format presented the regions cardial, pyloric and fundic, last being this last larger than the others. The anatomical features presented by the liver and stomach of H. armatus confirmed the relationship between the anatomy of these organs and their feeding habits being these, therefore, characteristics of predatory species, carnivorous and preferably ichthyophagics.

  3. Stomach arteriovenous malformation resected by laparoscopy-assisted surgery: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Kazuhito; Cho, Kazumitsu; Takao, Yoshimune; Fukuoka, Takeshi; Uchida, Eiji

    2016-05-01

    Arteriovenous malformations of the stomach are an uncommon cause of upper GI bleeding. We report a case of stomach arteriovenous malformation in an 85-year-old Asian man who presented with massive hematemesis. Initial esophagogastroduodenoscopy did not detect this lesion, but contrast multi-detector CT confirmed GI bleeding. Multi-detector CT revealed a mass of blood vessels underlying the submucosa that arose from the right gastroepiploic artery. Repeat esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed that the lesion was a submucosal tumor with erosion and without active bleeding in the lower body of the stomach on the greater curvature. We performed partial gastrectomy via laparoscopy-assisted surgery. The histopathological diagnosis was arteriovenous malformation. © 2016 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. [Endoscopic treatment of chemical burns to the stomach with mucosa ulceration and necrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalbandova, D A; Sogreshilin, S S; Pinchuk, T P; Klokova, T V; Il'iashenko, K K

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of acute poisoning with caustic substances in Russia is higher than in other countries and is reported by different authors as accounting for 10-32% cases among the patients admitted to acute poisoning treatment centres. Especially unfavorable prognosis is considered for necrotizing burns to the stomach that increase the risk of severe complications leading to disability of patients. The study aimed at improving the treatment of necrotizing chemical burn to the stomach by the infusion of a 5% Mexidole solution into the edges of a burn lesion at different stages of the treatment course. The paper presents the outcomes of patients who sustained chemical burns to the stomach with mucosa ulceration and necrosis, and provides an assessment of early endoscopic treatment effect.

  5. Exophytic Colon Cancer: Resemblance to a Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor of the Stomach: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chul Hi; Kim, Ha Na; Byun, Sung Su; Ha, Seung Yeon [Gachon University of Medicine and Science, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    An exophytic adenocarcinoma of the colon is very rare with only a few reports to date. To the best of our knowledge, the CT appearance of colon cancer, which simulated the classic appearance of a GIST has only been reported once in the world's literature. We recently evaluated a patient with a large lobulated mass involving the stomach, pancreas and colon. The CT appearance of the case was consistent with the diagnosis of an exophytic gastric GIST. However, at surgery, the patient was found to have a large ulcerated carcinoma of the colon near the splenic flexure that had invaded the stomach and pancreas. We report a case of an exophytic adenocarcinoma of the colon that resembled the classic appearance of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach.

  6. Three cases of laparoscopic total gastrectomy with intracorporeal esophagojejunostomy for gastric cancer in remnant stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yu; Mou, Yi-Ping; Chen, Ke; Xu, Xiao-Wu; Cai, Jia-Qin; Wu, Di; Zhou, Yu-Cheng

    2014-11-13

    Gastric cancer in remnant stomach is a rare tumor but with poor prognosis. Compared with conventional open surgery, laparoscopic gastrectomy has potential benefits for these patients due to advantages resulting from its minimally invasive approach. Herein, we report on three patients with gastric cancer in remnant stomach who underwent laparoscopic total gastrectomy with intracorporeal esophagojejunostomy successfully. The operative time was 280, 250 and 225 minutes, the estimated blood loss was 100, 80 and 50 ml and the length of postoperative hospital stay was seven, eight and nine days respectively. Our experience has suggested that laparoscopic total gastrectomy with intracorporeal esophagojejunostomy can be a safe, feasible and promising option for patients with gastric cancer in remnant stomach.

  7. Neurochemical mechanism of the gastrointestinal interdigestive migrating motor complex in rats with acute inflammatory stomach ache

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoli Xu; Qin Li; Lv Zhou; Liqiang Ru

    2012-01-01

    The normal gastrointestinal interdigestive migrating motor complex cycle was interrupted, and paroxysmal contraction appeared after formaldehyde-induced stomach ache. Activities of nitric oxide synthase, acetylcholinesterase and vasoactive intestinal peptide neurons were significantly reduced, whereas activities of calcitonin gene-related peptide neurons were significantly increased in the pyloric sphincter muscular layer, myenteric nerve plexus and submucous nerve plexus. Electroacupuncture at Zusanli (ST36) suppressed paroxysmal contraction in rats with formaldehyde-induced stomach ache, and neurons in the enteric nervous system were normal. These results indicated that nitrergic neurons, cholinergic neurons, vasoactive intestinal peptide neurons and calcitonin gene-related peptide neurons in the enteric nervous system may be involved in changes to the gastrointestinal interdigestive migrating motor complex following stomach ache, and that electroacupuncture can regulate this process.

  8. Gender-Atypical Mental Illness as Male Gender Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michniewicz, Kenneth S; Bosson, Jennifer K; Lenes, Joshua G; Chen, Jason I

    2016-07-01

    The present study examined whether men view gender-atypical (i.e., feminine) psychological disorders as threats to their gender status. Men and women (N = 355) rated their expectations of gender status loss, feelings of distress, and help-seeking intentions in response to 10 different stereotypically masculine and feminine psychological disorders. Men as compared to women expected greater gender status loss for, and reported more distress to, gender-atypical versus gender-typical disorders. Expectations of gender status loss partially mediated the link between participant gender and distress at the thought of gender-atypical disorders. These findings suggest that feminine disorders pose more powerful gender status threats for men than masculine disorders do and that men's expectations of gender status loss for feminine disorders drive their negative reactions to these mental illnesses. The discussion emphasizes the importance of considering the gender-typicality of disorders, and the implications of these findings for clinical interventions.

  9. Personality, Gender, and Crying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter, M.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; van Heck, G.L.

    2001-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in crying as well as associations between basic personality traits and self-reported indices of crying. Forty-eight men and 56 women completed the Five-Factor Personality Inventory and the Adult Crying Inventory. Substantial gender differences were demonstrated

  10. Interrupting Gendered Assessment Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Gaell M.

    This paper is part of the symposium on "Gender and Assessment of Physics in Context: Getting It Right!" It examines ways in which current practices privilege the "masculine" over the "feminine" and presents an agenda for gender inclusive assessment practices. It is argued that physics like other domains of knowledge, is a constructed entity, and…

  11. Gender Differences in Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Barbara B.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an overview of the research on gender differences in leadership, examines the impact of sex stereotyping, looks at the organizational effects of various types of leadership, and argues for the acceptance of a diversity of non-gender-linked leadership styles. (43 references) (LRW)

  12. Are Numbers Gendered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, James E. B.; Bodenhausen, Galen V.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the possibility that nonsocial, highly generic concepts are gendered. Specifically, we investigated the gender connotations of Arabic numerals. Across several experiments, we show that the number 1 and other odd numbers are associated with masculinity, whereas the number 2 and other even numbers are associated with femininity, in ways…

  13. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIA POPESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study of female entrepreneurship traditionally has been inspired by gender equality issues. Female entrepreneurs were assumed to experience gender-related discrimination and to experience more difficulties when starting up and running a business than their male counterparts. Today research and policy have been more and more fuelled by the idea that female entrepreneurs are important for economic progress. Even when issues such as barriers and obstacles to female entrepreneurs are raised in the gender and entrepreneurship debate, this is usually done from the perspective that female entrepreneurs are an untapped resource and have potential to contribute to a country’s economic performance. Indeed, although gender equality is one of the arguments underlying the support for female entrepreneurs within the European Union, the argument that female entrepreneurs (have the potential tocontribute to economic performance continues to play a role here. The global growth of female entrepreneurship in the last decades has been accompanied by an increase in the number of studies on female entrepreneurship. Unlike most existing studies, which focus primarily upon female entrepreneurship in Western European countries, the present thesis investigates gender differences in entrepreneurship in the Eastern European countries. Different aspects of entrepreneurship are studied including the individual, the organization and the environment. A systematic distinction is made between direct and indirect gender effects on entrepreneurship to be able to disentangle ‘pure’ gender effects from effects of factors that are correlated with gender.

  14. Are Numbers Gendered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, James E. B.; Bodenhausen, Galen V.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the possibility that nonsocial, highly generic concepts are gendered. Specifically, we investigated the gender connotations of Arabic numerals. Across several experiments, we show that the number 1 and other odd numbers are associated with masculinity, whereas the number 2 and other even numbers are associated with femininity, in ways…

  15. Gender, Toys and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Becky

    2010-01-01

    In spite of continuing patterning of curriculum subject preference and choice by gender, there has been little recent attention to the argument developed in the 1970s that children play with different toys according to their gender, and that these provide girls and boys with (different) curriculum-related skills. The article describes a…

  16. Gender Orders Unbound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , new complexities and contentions in gender relations emerge at various sites such as politics, work and families. The main aim of the book is to trace formal as well as informal gender contracts as they emerge in everyday life and also in new norms and regulations set by state and enterprises. Core...

  17. Grammatical Gender in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordag, Denisa; Pechmann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In three experiments native speakers of Czech translated bare nouns and gender-marked adjective + noun phrases into German, their second language (L2). In Experiments 1-3 we explored the so-called gender interference effect from first language (L1) as observed in previous picture naming studies (naming latencies were longer when the L1 noun and…

  18. Gender Inequality since 1820

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmichael, Sarah; Dilli, Selin; Rijpma, Auke

    2014-01-01

    Historically, gender inequalities in health status, socio-economic standing and political rights have been large. This chapter documents gender differences in life expectancy and birth rates (to cover health status); in average years of schooling, labour force participation, inheritance rights and

  19. Gender Inequality since 1820

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmichael, Sarah; Dilli, Selin; Rijpma, Auke

    2014-01-01

    Historically, gender inequalities in health status, socio-economic standing and political rights have been large. This chapter documents gender differences in life expectancy and birth rates (to cover health status); in average years of schooling, labour force participation, inheritance rights and m

  20. Gender Inequality since 1820

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmichael, Sarah|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/35751405X; Dilli, Selin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370724267; Rijpma, Auke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314174982

    2014-01-01

    Historically, gender inequalities in health status, socio-economic standing and political rights have been large. This chapter documents gender differences in life expectancy and birth rates (to cover health status); in average years of schooling, labour force participation, inheritance rights and m