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Sample records for gender schema theory

  1. Androgyny Versus Gender Schema: A Comment on Bem's Gender Schema Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Janet T.; Helmreich, Robert L.

    1981-01-01

    A logical contradiction in Bem's (1981) theory is outlined. The Bem Sex Role Inventory cannot measure a unidimensional construct, gender schema, and two independent constructs--masculinity and femininity. Such instruments measure self-images of instrumental and expressive personality traits which show little relationship to the constructs…

  2. Using Gender Schema Theory to Examine Gender Equity in Computing: a Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosto, Denise E.

    Women continue to constitute a minority of computer science majors in the United States and Canada. One possible contributing factor is that most Web sites, CD-ROMs, and other digital resources do not reflect girls' design and content preferences. This article describes a pilot study that considered whether gender schema theory can serve as a framework for investigating girls' Web site design and content preferences. Eleven 14- and 15-year-old girls participated in the study. The methodology included the administration of the Children's Sex-Role Inventory (CSRI), Web-surfing sessions, interviews, and data analysis using iterative pattern coding. On the basis of their CSRI scores, the participants were divided into feminine-high (FH) and masculine-high (MH) groups. Data analysis uncovered significant differences in the criteria the groups used to evaluate Web sites. The FH group favored evaluation criteria relating to graphic and multimedia design, whereas the MH group favored evaluation criteria relating to subject content. Models of the two groups' evaluation criteria are presented, and the implications of the findings are discussed.

  3. SCHEMA THEORY IN READING CLASS

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    Fahriany Fahriany

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Comprehension is making a sense out of text. It is a process of using reader’s existing knowledge (schemata to interpret texts in order to construct meaning. Many reading experts agree that the schema theory is one of the reasonable theories of human information processing. Schemata, the plural of schema, are believed to be the building blocks of cognition. This paper discusses the role of readers’ preexisting knowledge on linguistics code as well as readers’ knowledge of the world (schema, which for the case of reading has similar importance of the printed words in the text. It is argued that the more non visual information the reader posses, the less visual information is needed. For teaching and learning, teachers are expected to use different strategies in order to deal with different students’ preexisting knowledge and schema to maximize students’ learning.

  4. Self-Schema Theory and Gender-Related Behaviors: Research on Some Correlates of University Women's Participation in Mathematics, Science and Athletic Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lips, Hilary M.; And Others

    The usefulness of the self-schema construct for understanding and predicting human behavior and the reason for the gender-relatedness of certain behaviors and experiences were investigated in three studies. The studies examined cognitive correlates of two gender-related behaviors that are more characteristic of and problematic for women than for…

  5. Using Schema Theory to Teach American History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duis, Mac

    1996-01-01

    Asserts that the most effective use of schema theory in history instruction requires placing students in the decision- making roles of historical figures. A more detailed discussion of the same historical event follows this initial exercise. Students then compare their decisions with their historical counterparts. (MJP)

  6. Are Parents' Gender Schemas Related to Their Children's Gender-Related Cognitions? A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Harriet R.; Leaper, Campbell

    2002-01-01

    Used meta-analysis to examine relationship of parents' gender schemas and their offspring's gender-related cognitions, with samples ranging in age from infancy through early adulthood. Found a small but meaningful effect size (r=.16) indicating a positive correlation between parent gender schema and offspring measures. Effect sizes were influenced…

  7. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas

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    Alexios Arvanitis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes.

  8. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitis, Alexios; Hantzi, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes.

  9. Gender Schema and Prejudicial Recall: How Children Misremember, Fabricate, and Distort Gendered Picture Book Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frawley, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Children's perceptions of gender are greatly influenced by the illustrations/text they encounter in picture books. While transacting with authentic literature, children build gender schema that guide processing of subsequent information. This knowledge can bias memory to a point where children misremember or distort information to make it fit…

  10. [Cognition-correlation indices of gender schema: tests of validity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, E

    1994-02-01

    Four-hundred and seventy-seven subjects evaluated a set of traits and behaviors in terms of how masculine and feminine they were and in terms of how well they represented their real and ideal self-images. Within-individual correlation coefficients between these evaluations were proposed as measures of psychological gender schemata, because they would represent the degree of matching between the subjects' gender-image and ideal/real self-images of gender-related attributes. The present study aims at examining the construct validity of these measures, by testing them to psychological variables that are known to reflect gender identity. The individual difference variables used as criteria were (a) satisfaction with one's own sex, (b) general happiness, (c) self-esteem (d) gender-conflict, and (e) school and occupational achievement need. Correlations between the gender-schema indices and the criteria variables supported the construct validity of those measures. Advantages of the present measurement over the conventional simple trait approach, such as BSRI, or PAQ are discussed.

  11. Dynamic Assessment or Schema Theory: The Case of Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farangi, Mohamad Reza; Kheradmand Saadi, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Not only is listening considered as an active skill nowadays, but also different approaches are suggested to incorporate it effectively into language classrooms. Our purpose, here, is to compare two approaches claiming to be effective in enhancing EFL learners' listening capabilities including schema theory and dynamic assessment. Through a…

  12. Explaining sex differences in managerial career satisfier preferences: the role of gender self-schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddleston, Kimberly A; Veiga, John F; Powell, Gary N

    2006-03-01

    Using survey data from 400 managers, the authors examined whether gender self-schema would explain sex differences in preferences for status-based and socioemotional career satisfiers. Female gender self-schema, represented by femininity and family role salience, completely mediated the relationship between managers' sex and preferences for socioemotional career satisfiers. However, male gender self-schema, represented by masculinity and career role salience, did not mediate the relationship between managers' sex and preferences for status-based career satisfiers. As expected, male managers regarded status-based career satisfiers as more important and socioemotional career satisfiers as less important than female managers did. The proposed conceptualization of male and female gender self-schemas, which was supported by the data, enhances understanding of adult self-schema and work-related attitudes and behavior.

  13. Young Adolescents' Gender-, Ethnicity-, and Popularity-Based Social Schemas of Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemans, Katherine H.; Graber, Julia A.

    2016-01-01

    Social schemas can influence the perception and recollection of others' behavior and may create biases in the reporting of social events. This study investigated young adolescents' (N = 317) gender-, ethnicity-, and popularity-based social schemas of overtly and relationally aggressive behavior. Results indicated that participants associated overt…

  14. The attention schema theory: a mechanistic account of subjective awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Michael S A; Webb, Taylor W

    2015-01-01

    We recently proposed the attention schema theory, a novel way to explain the brain basis of subjective awareness in a mechanistic and scientifically testable manner. The theory begins with attention, the process by which signals compete for the brain's limited computing resources. This internal signal competition is partly under a bottom-up influence and partly under top-down control. We propose that the top-down control of attention is improved when the brain has access to a simplified model of attention itself. The brain therefore constructs a schematic model of the process of attention, the 'attention schema,' in much the same way that it constructs a schematic model of the body, the 'body schema.' The content of this internal model leads a brain to conclude that it has a subjective experience. One advantage of this theory is that it explains how awareness and attention can sometimes become dissociated; the brain's internal models are never perfect, and sometimes a model becomes dissociated from the object being modeled. A second advantage of this theory is that it explains how we can be aware of both internal and external events. The brain can apply attention to many types of information including external sensory information and internal information about emotions and cognitive states. If awareness is a model of attention, then this model should pertain to the same domains of information to which attention pertains. A third advantage of this theory is that it provides testable predictions. If awareness is the internal model of attention, used to help control attention, then without awareness, attention should still be possible but should suffer deficits in control. In this article, we review the existing literature on the relationship between attention and awareness, and suggest that at least some of the predictions of the theory are borne out by the evidence.

  15. A Critique of Schema Theory in Reading and a Dual Coding Alternative (Commentary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoski, Mark; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Evaluates schema theory and presents dual coding theory as a theoretical alternative. Argues that schema theory is encumbered by lack of a consistent definition, its roots in idealist epistemology, and mixed empirical support. Argues that results of many empirical studies used to demonstrate the existence of schemata are more consistently…

  16. A Release from Proactive Interference Analysis of Gender Schema Encoding for Occupations in Adults and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, D.W.; Gregory-Domingue, A.; Rice, K.; Tone, K.

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined gender schema encoding (activation of gender stereotypes) in the absence deliberate purposes relating to people (stereotype application). A release from proactive interference short-term-memory task was used. College (Experiment 1) and sixth-grade (Experiment 2) participants were asked to retain item identity and…

  17. The Attention Schema Theory: A Foundation for Engineering Artificial Consciousness

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    Michael S. A. Graziano

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the attention schema theory is to explain how an information-processing device, the brain, arrives at the claim that it possesses a non-physical, subjective awareness and assigns a high degree of certainty to that extraordinary claim. The theory does not address how the brain might actually possess a non-physical essence. It is not a theory that deals in the non-physical. It is about the computations that cause a machine to make a claim and to assign a high degree of certainty to the claim. The theory is offered as a possible starting point for building artificial consciousness. Given current technology, it should be possible to build a machine that contains a rich internal model of what consciousness is, attributes that property of consciousness to itself and to the people it interacts with, and uses that attribution to make predictions about human behavior. Such a machine would “believe” it is conscious and act like it is conscious, in the same sense that the human machine believes and acts.

  18. The explanatory power of Schema Theory: theoretical foundations and future applications in Ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Katherine L; Stanton, Neville A

    2013-01-01

    Schema Theory is intuitively appealing although it has not always received positive press; critics of the approach argue that the concept is too ambiguous and vague and there are inherent difficulties associated with measuring schemata. As such, the term schema can be met with scepticism and wariness. The purpose of this paper is to address the criticisms that have been levelled at Schema Theory by demonstrating how Schema Theory has been utilised in Ergonomics research, particularly in the key areas of situation awareness, naturalistic decision making and error. The future of Schema Theory is also discussed in light of its potential roles as a unifying theory in Ergonomics and in contributing to our understanding of distributed cognition. We conclude that Schema Theory has made a positive contribution to Ergonomics and with continued refinement of methods to infer and represent schemata it is likely that this trend will continue. This paper reviews the contribution that Schema Theory has made to Ergonomics research. The criticisms of the theory are addressed using examples from the areas of situation awareness, decision making and error.

  19. The attention schema theory: a mechanistic account of subjective awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor W. Webb

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We recently proposed the attention schema theory, a novel way to explain the brain basis of subjective awareness in a mechanistic and scientifically testable manner. The theory begins with attention, the process by which signals compete for the brain’s limited computing resources. This internal signal competition is partly under a bottom-up influence and partly under top-down control. We propose that the top-down control of attention is improved when the brain has access to a simplified model of attention itself. The brain therefore constructs a schematic model of the process of attention, the ‘attention schema’, in much the same way that it constructs a schematic model of the body, the ‘body schema’. The content of this internal model leads a brain to conclude that it has a subjective experience. One advantage of this theory is that it explains how awareness and attention can sometimes become dissociated; the brain’s internal models are never perfect, and sometimes a model becomes dissociated from the object being modeled. A second advantage of this theory is that it explains how we can be aware of both internal and external events. The brain can apply attention to many types of information including external sensory information and internal information about emotions and cognitive states. If awareness is a model of attention, then this model should pertain to the same domains of information to which attention pertains. A third advantage of this theory is that it provides testable predictions. If awareness is the internal model of attention, used to help control attention, then without awareness, attention should still be possible but should suffer deficits in control. In this article, we review the existing literature on the relationship between attention and awareness, and suggest that at least some of the predictions of the theory are borne out by the evidence.

  20. A schema theory analysis of students' think aloud protocols in an STS biology context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Catherine Louise

    This dissertation study is a conglomerate of the fields of Science Education and Applied Cognitive Psychology. The goal of this study is to determine what organizational features and knowledge representation patterns high school students exhibit over time for issues pertinent to science and society. Participants are thirteen tenth grade students in a diverse suburban-urban classroom in a northeastern state. Students' think alouds are recorded, pre-, post-, and late-post treatment. Treatment consists of instruction in three Science, Technology, and Society (STS) biology issues, namely the human genome project, nutrition and health, and stem cell research. Coding and analyses are performed using Marshall's knowledge representations---identification knowledge, elaboration knowledge, planning knowledge, and execution knowledge, as well as qualitative research analysis methods. Schema theory, information processing theory, and other applied cognitive theory provide a framework in which to understand and explain students' schema descriptions and progressions over time. The results show that students display five organizational features in their identification and elaboration knowledge. Students also fall into one of four categories according to if they display prior schema or no prior schema, and their orientation "for" or "against," some of the issues. Students with prior schema and orientation "against" display the most robust schema descriptions and schema progressions. Those with no prior schemas and orientation "against" show very modest schema progressions best characterized by their keyword searches. This study shows the importance in considering not only students' integrated schemas but also their individual schemes. A role for the use of a more schema-based instruction that scaffolds student learning is implicated.

  1. Schema-Based Analysis of Gendered Self-Disclosure in Persian: Writing for Dating Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadady, Ebrahim; Mehr, Somayeh Javadi

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a textual analysis of letters written by 21 male and 21 female participants in Persian. Each writer wrote two letters, one to a dating service and another one to a hypothetical person chosen and introduced by the center. Therefore, a total of 84 letters were collected from the participants. Schema theory was used to find the…

  2. Procrastination and suicide proneness: A moderated-mediation model for cognitive schemas and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klibert, Jeffrey; LeLeux-LaBarge, Kayla; Tarantino, Nicholas; Yancey, Thresa; Lamis, Dorian A

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the direct and indirect paths between procrastination and suicide proneness while considering gender differences. Participants included 547 undergraduates from a southeastern university. Procrastination was positively related to suicide proneness for both genders, although this relation was stronger for women. Moderated-mediation analyses with bootstrapping highlighted insufficient self-control schemas as a mediator in the relation between procrastination and suicide proneness. However, indirect pathways did not vary by gender. Results represent an extension of the Procrastination-Health Model by highlighting the contribution of cognitive factors in explaining the relation between procrastination and suicide proneness.

  3. Parametric Design of Outdoor Broadcasting Studio Based on Schema Theory

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    Zhu Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly demonstrates that the schema is an important way for the architect to cognize architecture form logic. It connects schema to algorithm of parametric design in order to seek the “algorithm schema” generation in parametric design of architecture. Meanwhile, this paper discusses the generative process and methods of the “algorithm schema” in parametric design of architecture by describing a case of outdoor broadcasting studio of Hunan Economic Radio. It also reveals the importance of “algorithm schema” for the cognition and architectural form logic generation.

  4. An Analysis of School Administration Using Schema Theory.

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    Nagy, Philip

    The use of a schema analysis, or hierarchical classification system, to identify problem-solving approaches among principals with different levels of experience is examined in this paper. Forty-one students in Ontario--10 undergraduate teacher preparation students, 8 teachers with principal qualifications, and 23 principals grouped according to 3…

  5. Choosing the Right Path: Image Schema Theory as a Foundation for Concept Invention

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    Hedblom, Maria M.; Kutz, Oliver; Neuhaus, Fabian

    2015-12-01

    Image schemas are recognised as a fundamental ingredient in human cognition and creative thought. They have been studied extensively in areas such as cognitive linguistics. With the goal of exploring their potential role in computational creative systems, we here study the viability of the idea to formalise image schemas as a set of interlinked theories. We discuss in particular a selection of image schemas related to the notion of `path', and show how they can be mapped to a formalised family of microtheories reflecting the different aspects of path following. Finally, we illustrate the potential of this approach in the area of concept invention, namely by providing several examples illustrating in detail in what way formalised image schema families support the computational modelling of conceptual blending.

  6. Gender Differences in Maladaptive Cognitive Schema in Orphans in Dakahlia, Egypt

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    Abdel-Hady El-Gilany

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the gender differences of maladaptive cognitive schema among orphans in Dakahlia governorate orphanages. A cross-sectional comparative study included 152 orphan boys and 48 orphan girls in all orphanages homes in Dakahlia governorate, Egypt. Data collection tools included a structured interview questionnaire for personal data; early maladaptive schema questionnaire-short form (EMSQ-SF. The mean score of the total YSQ and all the subscales, except self-sacrifice and unrelenting standards, are significantly higher among females than males. Attention should be given to the psychological care of the orphans especially security, trust, confidence, and autonomy with more attention to orphan girls.

  7. Simulation of a Schema Theory-Based Knowledge Delivery System for Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, W. S., Jr.; Mavor, Anne S.

    A future, automated, interactive, knowledge delivery system for use by researchers was tested using a manual cognitive model. Conceptualized from schema/frame/script theories in cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence, this hypothetical system was simulated by two psychologists who interacted with four researchers in microbiology to…

  8. Sex-Role Development in Young Children: Relationships to Behavioral and Attitudinal Measures of Parental Gender Schemas.

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    Perry, Louise C.; Morgan, Amy K.

    To explore early sex-role development, this study examined the gender schemas of parents in relation to the sex-typed toy preferences of their own young children. Subjects were 82 parents of children between the ages of 3 and 8. Test stimuli consisted of 2 equivalent lists of 24 occupations, each list containing 8 occupations coded as typically…

  9. Verticality and containment in song and improvisation: an application of schema theory to Nordoff-Robbins music therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigen, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    This study illustrates the use of a new musicological method for analyzing music in music therapy. It examines two pieces of clinical music through the constructs of schema theory. It begins with an argument for enhanced musical analysis in music therapy as a means of elevating the status of explanation in music therapy. Schema theory is introduced as a means of integrating musical with clinical concerns. Some basic ideas in schema theory are explained and the schemas of VERTICALITY and CONTAINER are presented as central ones in the analysis of music. Two transcriptions-one of a composed song and one of an improvisation-are examined in detail to illustrate how decisions in the temporal, melodic, and harmonic dimensions of the music are linked to specific clinical goals. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of this type of musicological analysis for explanatory theory in music therapy.

  10. The effects of gender role orientation on team schema: a multivariate analysis of indicators in a US Federal health care organization.

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    Scherer, R F; Petrick, J A

    2001-02-01

    In this empirical study of 649 employees at a federally supported health care facility in the United States, the authors investigated the effects of individual gender role orientation on team schema. The results indicated (a) that nontraditional male and female employees perceived the greatest amount of group cohesion in their team schemas and (b) that both traditional and nontraditional male employees perceived greater problem-solving potential in their team schemas. Meaningful implications for team composition are discussed.

  11. Gender theory and the family business

    OpenAIRE

    Staffansson Pauli, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Gender Theory started in understanding and explain women's role in society and are also now including men and masculinities, Gender Theory has recently been adapted to family business research. This chapter will briefly introduce Gender Theory and its development, before reviewing how it has been used in family business research. Arguing that the family business context is suitable in studying gender phenomena, the chapter outlines several ways through which Gender Theory could yield new insi...

  12. Event schemas in autism spectrum disorders: the role of theory of mind and weak central coherence.

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    Loth, Eva; Gómez, Juan Carlos; Happé, Francesca

    2008-03-01

    Event schemas (generalized knowledge of what happens at common real-life events, e.g., a birthday party) are an important cognitive tool for social understanding: They provide structure for social experiences while accounting for many variable aspects. Using an event narratives task, this study tested the hypotheses that theory of mind (ToM) deficits and weak central coherence (WCC, a local processing bias) undermine different aspects of event knowledge in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Event narratives of ASD ToM-failers were overall significantly impaired. ASD ToM-passers showed more specific abnormalities relating to variable activities, and some of these were significantly associated to WCC. Abnormalities in event knowledge might help linking ASD-typical social deficits in real-life situations and the adherence to inflexible routines.

  13. The Schema Axiom as Foundation of a Theory for Measurement and Representation of Consciousness. No. 38.

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    Bierschenk, Bernhard

    In this study, the Kantian schema has been applied to natural language expression. The novelty of the approach concerns the way in which the Kantian schema interrelates the analytic with the synthetic mode in the construction of the presented formalism. The main thesis is based on the premise that the synthetic, in contrast to the analytic,…

  14. Early maladaptive schemas in adult survivors of interpersonal trauma: foundations for a cognitive theory of psychopathology

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    Thanos Karatzias

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the association between psychological trauma and early maladaptive schemas (EMS is well established in the literature, no study to date has examined the relationship of EMS to PTSD and psychopathologies beyond depression and anxiety in a sample of adult survivors of interpersonal trauma. This information may be useful in helping our understanding on how to best treat interpersonal trauma. Objective: We set out to investigate the association between EMS and common forms of psychopathology in a sample of women with a history of interpersonal trauma (n=82. We have hypothesised that survivors of interpersonal trauma will present with elevated EMS scores compared to a non-clinical control group (n=78. We have also hypothesised that unique schemas will be associated with unique psychopathological entities and that subgroups of interpersonal trauma survivors would be present in our sample, with subgroups displaying different profiles of schema severity elevations. Method: Participants completed measures of trauma, psychopathology, dissociation, self-esteem, and the Young Schema Questionnaire. Results: It was found that survivors of interpersonal trauma displayed elevated EMS scores across all 15 schemas compared to controls. Although the pattern of associations between different psychopathological features and schemas appears to be rather complex, schemas in the domains of Disconnection and Impaired Autonomy formed significant associations with all psychopathological features in this study. Conclusions: Our findings support the usefulness of cognitive behavioural interventions that target schemas in the domains of Disconnection and Impaired Autonomy in an effort to modify existing core beliefs and decrease subsequent symptomatology in adult survivors of interpersonal trauma.

  15. Toward a Theory of Disability and Gender.

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    Gerschick, Thomas J.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a theory of the connections between disabilities and gender, arguing that because bodies are so central to gender, people with disabilities are vulnerable to being denied gender recognition. Though both sexes experience devaluation and discrimination when disabled, being disabled further diminishes women's already devalued status. For…

  16. Gendered Investments in Career and Family: Validating a Measure of Motherhood Schemas among Undergraduate Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savela, Alexandra Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    One persistent trend characterizing many work-family arrangements is the tendency for women to invest more heavily in the family sphere compared to men and to compromise career pursuits for their children or partner. Discovering which factors perpetuate these gender-stratified investments in work and family is necessary because, along with…

  17. Schemas and memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Dorothy; Langston, Rosamund F; Kakeyama, Masaki; Bethus, Ingrid; Spooner, Patrick A; Wood, Emma R; Witter, Menno P; Morris, Richard G M

    2007-04-06

    Memory encoding occurs rapidly, but the consolidation of memory in the neocortex has long been held to be a more gradual process. We now report, however, that systems consolidation can occur extremely quickly if an associative "schema" into which new information is incorporated has previously been created. In experiments using a hippocampal-dependent paired-associate task for rats, the memory of flavor-place associations became persistent over time as a putative neocortical schema gradually developed. New traces, trained for only one trial, then became assimilated and rapidly hippocampal-independent. Schemas also played a causal role in the creation of lasting associative memory representations during one-trial learning. The concept of neocortical schemas may unite psychological accounts of knowledge structures with neurobiological theories of systems memory consolidation.

  18. Family Change and Gender Differences: Implications for Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.

    1988-01-01

    Examines theories of gender differences. Discusses alpha bias, exaggeration of gender opposition, as characteristic of psychodynamic and sex role theories; and beta bias, denial of gender differences, as evident in systems theories. Calls for new model of gender differences which recognizes asymmetry in women's and men's roles and…

  19. Problem-Based Learning Associated by Action-Process-Object-Schema (APOS) Theory to Enhance Students' High Order Mathematical Thinking Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrikah, Achmad

    2016-01-01

    The research has shown a model of learning activities that can be used to stimulate reflective abstraction in students. Reflective abstraction as a method of constructing knowledge in the Action-Process-Object-Schema theory, and is expected to occur when students are in learning activities, will be able to encourage students to make the process of…

  20. Balancing the Roles of Explicit Instruction of Text Form Language and Schema Theory in Student Non-Fiction Writing: Problems and Possibilities

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    Broer van Arragon, Kathleen

    2003-01-01

    The focus of this study will be on the intersection of the following domains: Second Language Acquisition research on cohesion and coherence, discourse acquisition of young children, the effect of text form-focused instruction on student non-fiction writing and the impact of schema theory on student decision-making during the writing process.

  1. Inventário Feminino dos Esquemas de Gênero do Autoconceito (IFEGA Feminine Inventory of the Self-Concept's Gender Schemas (IFEGA

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    Adriana Giavoni

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste artigo foi elaborar e validar o Inventário Feminino dos Esquemas de Gênero do Autoconceito (IFEGA. Composto por duas escalas (masculina e feminina, este instrumento avalia os esquemas masculino e feminino do autoconceito das mulheres. A amostra foi composta por estudantes universitárias do sexo feminino. Análises fatoriais foram realizadas para ambas as escalas (Principal Axis Factoring, com rotações oblíquas e ortogonais, assim como foram avaliados os índices de consistência interna dos fatores (Alfa de Cronbach para que o instrumento fosse apropriadamente validado. Os resultados demonstraram que ambas as escalas são compostas por estruturas multifatoriais. Devidamente validado, o IFEGA pode ser utilizado para avaliar os esquemas masculino e feminino do autoconceito de indivíduos do sexo feminino.The purpose of this article was to elaborate and validate the Feminine Inventory of the Self-Concept's Gender Schemas (IFEGA. Composed by two scales (masculine and feminine scales, this instrument evaluates female self-concept's gender schemas. The sample was composed by female university students. Factorial analysis for both scales (Principal Axis Factoring with oblique and orthogonal rotations was performed, as well as the internal factors consistency analysis (Cronbach's Alpha, in order to validate the instrument. The results showed that IFEGA´s scales are composed by multifactorial structures. It can be stated that both scales may be used in the evaluation of the female self-concept's gender schemas.

  2. Constraint driven schema merging

    OpenAIRE

    Li, X.

    2012-01-01

    Schema integration is the process of consolidating several source schemas to generate a unified view, called the mediated schema, so that information scattered in the sources can be served uniformly from the mediated schema. Schema integration occurs in many scenarios such as data integration, logical database design, data warehousing and schema evolution. To make the mediated schema useful for data interoperability tasks, mappings between the source schemas and the mediated schema have to be...

  3. Lossless Conditional Schema Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Guttorm; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    2003-01-01

    The paper considers conditional schema evolution, where schema changes change the schema of the tuples that satisfy the change condition. When the schema of a relation change some tuples may no longer fit the current schema. Handling the mismatch between the intended schema of tuples and the reco......The paper considers conditional schema evolution, where schema changes change the schema of the tuples that satisfy the change condition. When the schema of a relation change some tuples may no longer fit the current schema. Handling the mismatch between the intended schema of tuples...... and the recorded schema of tuples is at the core of a DBMS that supports schema evolution. We propose to keep track of schema mismatches at the level of individual tuples, and prove that conditionally evolving schemas, in contrast to current commercial database systems, are lossless when the schema evolves...

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Gender-Related Cognition and Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Anne; Shirley, Louisa; Candy, Julia

    2004-01-01

    Gender schema theory proposes that children's acquisition of gender labels and gender stereotypes informs gender-congruent behaviour. Most previous studies have been cross-sectional and do not address the temporal relationship between knowledge and behaviour. We report the results of a longitudinal study of gender knowledge and sex-typed behaviour…

  5. Effects of bombing after five years: Development of early maladaptive cognitive schemas in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoloski-Končar Nataša

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study is to examine effects of bombing on development of early maladaptive schemas in children who live in directly bombed towns in comparison with children who live in towns not directly exposed to bombing. The subjects were twelve years old at the moment of testing (February 2005 meaning that they were at the age of seven during the bombing. Additional aim was to examine gender differences in development of early maladaptive schemas. The theory of Young (1990 provided framework for the study. According to the theory, early maladaptive cognitive schemas, which present basis for psychological disorder later in life, begin to develop in childhood in connection with traumatic experiences and/or other aversive circumstances. The results showed that the early maladaptive schemas are more frequent in children from directly exposed towns; and in male subjects comparing with females.

  6. Why "Gender" Disappeared from the Gender Gap: (Re-)Introducing Gender Identity Theory to Educational Gender Gap Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantieghem, Wendelien; Vermeersch, Hans; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2014-01-01

    Educational gender gap research tries to explain the differential achievement of boys and girls at secondary school, which manifests in many western countries. Several explanatory frameworks are used for this purpose, such as masculinities theory. In this review article, the history of educational gender gap research in Anglo-Saxon literature and…

  7. Gender, Environment and the Theory of Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Célia Di Ciommo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We use the theory of complexity to analise gender questions, showing that those are built by society in an exchange of interactions between nature and culture. The bioanthropological rootsand and the sociocultural characteristics contain different experiences, knowledge and wisdom, in a complex organization in which oposition does notmean extinction, and difference does not imply hierarchy. We can apply Morin’s “tetralogical ring” concept, which admits disorder, organization, order and interaction to the understanding of the impasse between masculine and feminine, humans and non-humans, towards a paradigmatic change in the social and environmental relations.

  8. Security-Based Mechanism for Proactive Routing Schema Using Game Theory Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham Amraoui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Game theory may offer a useful mechanism to address many problems in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs. One of the key concepts in the research field of such networks with Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (OLSR is the security problem. Relying on applying game theory to study this problem, we consider two strategies during this suggested model: cooperate and not-cooperate. However, in such networks, it is not easy to identify different actions of players. In this paper, we have essentially been inspired from recent advances provided in game theory to propose a new model for security in MANETs. Our proposal presents a powerful tool with a large number of players where interactions are played multiple times. Moreover, each node keeps a cooperation rate (CR record of other nodes to cope with the behaviors and mitigate aggregate effect of other malicious devices. Additionally, our suggested security mechanism does not only take into consideration security requirements, but also take into account system resources and network performances. The simulation results using Network Simulator 3 are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposal.

  9. Lay theories of gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Sen, Radhika

    2013-01-01

    This study examined lay theories regarding gender identity disorder (GID). Pilot interviews were completed with participants (n = 10) regarding their views on possible causes and treatments of GID. Participants (mainly young British people and students; n = 124) then completed a questionnaire that was based on the interviews and a review of the salient literature on lay theories. As hypothesized, participants believed most in biomedical causes and treatments of GID. Factor analysis (with varimax rotation) identified 4 factors in relation to causes of GID: upbringing and personal factors, pregnancy and brain abnormalities, environmental factors, and biomedical causes. Five factors that were identified in relation to the cure/treatment of GID were psychological assistance and personal factors, extreme medical and behavioral changes, alternative therapies, external factors, and medical treatments. The results indicated that participants neither agreed nor strongly disagreed about causes and cures regarding GID, but that these beliefs were logically related. Limitations, particularly of sampling, were considered.

  10. Lossless conditional schema evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Guttorm; Böhlen, Michael

    2004-01-01

    is a precondition for a flexible semantics that allows to correctly answer general queries over evolving schemas. The key challenge is to handle attribute mismatches between the intended and recorded schema in a consistent way. We provide a parametric approach to resolve mismatches according to the needs......Conditional schema changes change the schema of the tuples that satisfy the change condition. When the schema of a relation changes some tuples may no longer fit the current schema. Handling the mismatch between the intended schema of tuples and the recorded schema of tuples is at the core...... of a DBMS that supports schema evolution. We propose to keep track of schema mismatches at the level of individual tuples, and prove that evolving schemas with conditional schema changes, in contrast to database systems relying on data migration, are lossless when the schema evolves. The lossless property...

  11. Incorporating rapid neocortical learning of new schema-consistent information into complementary learning systems theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, James L

    2013-11-01

    The complementary learning systems theory of the roles of hippocampus and neocortex (McClelland, McNaughton, & O'Reilly, 1995) holds that the rapid integration of arbitrary new information into neocortical structures is avoided to prevent catastrophic interference with structured knowledge representations stored in synaptic connections among neocortical neurons. Recent studies (Tse et al., 2007, 2011) showed that neocortical circuits can rapidly acquire new associations that are consistent with prior knowledge. The findings challenge the complementary learning systems theory as previously presented. However, new simulations extending those reported in McClelland et al. (1995) show that new information that is consistent with knowledge previously acquired by a putatively cortexlike artificial neural network can be learned rapidly and without interfering with existing knowledge; it is when inconsistent new knowledge is acquired quickly that catastrophic interference ensues. Several important features of the findings of Tse et al. (2007, 2011) are captured in these simulations, indicating that the neural network model used in McClelland et al. has characteristics in common with neocortical learning mechanisms. An additional simulation generalizes beyond the network model previously used, showing how the rate of change of cortical connections can depend on prior knowledge in an arguably more biologically plausible network architecture. In sum, the findings of Tse et al. are fully consistent with the idea that hippocampus and neocortex are complementary learning systems. Taken together, these findings and the simulations reported here advance our knowledge by bringing out the role of consistency of new experience with existing knowledge and demonstrating that the rate of change of connections in real and artificial neural networks can be strongly prior-knowledge dependent. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Understanding Schemas and Emotion in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Cath

    2010-01-01

    This book makes explicit connections between young children's spontaneous repeated actions and their representations of their emotional worlds. Drawing on the literature on schemas, attachment theory and family contexts, the author takes schema theory into the territory of the emotions, making it relevant to the social and emotional development…

  13. Cognitive schemas among mental health professionals: Adaptive or maladaptive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo Saddichha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Maladaptive cognitive schemas can lead to biases during clinical assessment or psychotherapeutic interventions. This study aimed to explore the cognitive schemas among mental health professionals. Materials and Methods: 100 mental health professionals, of both genders, equally divided between psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, and psychiatric nurses, were approached and administered the Young Schema Questionnaire - Short Form after written informed consent. Results: Males had higher maladaptive schemas than female respondents across all schema domains, viz., disconnection/rejection, impaired autonomy, impaired limits, other-directedness, and overvigilance (P ≤ 0.05. Psychiatrists had higher maladaptive schemas than psychologists (P ≤ 0.05. Age was weakly but positively corelated with the schemas of self-sacrifice (P = 0.038 and unrelenting standards (P = 0.002 . Conclusions: Mental health professionals also may have maladaptive schemas, which needs to be addressed through schema therapy.

  14. Clinical implications of contemporary gender theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulish, Nancy

    2010-04-01

    The current intellectual scene in psychoanalysis is marked by vigorous theoretical controversies about gender. The ideas being debated have important implications for clinical work, which have not been thoroughly explicated or integrated into common practice. These implications include the following: gender can accrue idiosyncratic meanings; gender identity is considered fluid and rigidity of gender identity deemed problematic; gender-related conflicts are typically described as divergent; analysis of superego conflicts related to gender becomes particularly important; and, finally, gender-related biases are seen as inevitable and must be taken into account in the clinical situation. A detailed clinical example illustrates the application of these ideas. While the more dramatic cases related to gender have been more frequent subjects of study, conflicts about gender are everyday occurrences for our patients and deserve further attention.

  15. Approaching Southern Theory: Explorations of Gender in South African Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Debbie; Morrell, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on the five other papers from South Africa in this issue of "Gender and Education" to consider how Southern theory has been developed and is developing in relation to gender and education in South Africa. We argue that Southern theory is not an on-the-shelf solution to global geopolitical inequalities but a work in…

  16. Making Theory Relevant: The Gender Attitude and Belief Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Janice

    2013-01-01

    This article describes and evaluates the Gender Attitude and Belief Inventory (GABI), a teaching tool designed to aid students in (a) realizing how sociological theory links to their personal beliefs and (b) exploring any combination of 11 frequently used theoretical perspectives on gender, including both conservative theories (physiological,…

  17. Gender, Educational Theory and Educational Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgnakke, Karen

    1996-01-01

    The article gives an overview of research in gender and adult education and discusses the different approaches and strategies in critical research......The article gives an overview of research in gender and adult education and discusses the different approaches and strategies in critical research...

  18. The effects of female "Thin Ideal" media on men's appearance schema, cognitive performance, and self-evaluations: A self-determination theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Amanda; Blanchard, Céline

    2017-09-01

    Research has primarily focused on the consequences of the female thin ideal on women and has largely ignored the effects on men. Two studies were designed to investigate the effects of a female thin ideal video on cognitive (Study 1: appearance schema, Study 2: visual-spatial processing) and self-evaluative measures in male viewers. Results revealed that the female thin ideal predicted men's increased appearance schema activation and poorer cognitive performance on a visual-spatial task. Constructs from self-determination theory (i.e., global autonomous and controlled motivation) were included to help explain for whom the video effects might be strongest or weakest. Findings demonstrated that a global autonomous motivation orientation played a protective role against the effects of the female thin ideal. Given that autonomous motivation was a significant moderator, SDT is an area worth exploring further to determine whether motivational strategies can benefit men who are susceptible to media body ideals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Troubling Histories and Theories: Gender and the History of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Joyce

    2003-01-01

    Discusses gender influences and ways that history and theory have interacted in influencing women's contribution and recognition in educational history. Focuses on several historians' views and how some have eventually written women back into the historical picture of education. (KDR)

  20. The theory of gender identity disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J K

    1982-01-01

    Experience with more than 500 patients over the last decade has led to the conclusion that the quest for sex reassignment is a symptomatic compromise formation serving defensive and expressive functions. The symptoms are the outgrowth of developmental trauma affecting body ego and archaic sense of self and caused by peculiar symbiotic and separation-individuation phase relationships. The child exists in the pathogenic (and reparative) maternal fantasy in order to repair her body image and to demonstrate the interconvertability of the sexes. Gender identity exists not as a primary phenomenon, but in a sense as a tertiary one. There is, no doubt, a tendency to gender-differentiate in a way concordant with biological endowment. Nevertheless, gender formation is seriously compromised by earlier psychological difficulty. Gender identity is a fundamental acquisition in the developing personality, but it is part of a hierarchical series beginning with archaic body ego, early body image, and primitive selfness, representing their extension into sexual and reproductive spheres. Gender identity consolidates during separation-individuation and gender pathology bears common features with other preoedipal syndromes. Transsexualism is closely linked to perversions, and the clinical syndromes may shade from one into another. However, what is kept at the symbolic level in the perversions must be made concrete in transsexualism. In this regard there is a close relation to psychosis. The clinical complaint of the transsexual is a condensation of remarkable proportions. When the transsexual says that he is a girl trapped in a man's body, he sincerely means what he says. As with other symptoms, however, it takes a long time before he begins to say what he means.

  1. A Theory of Gender Wage Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Jellal, Mohamed; Nordman, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce uncertainty of the labour productivity of women in a competitive model of wage determination. We demonstrate that more qualified women are then offered much lower wages than men at the equilibrium. This result is consistent with the glass ceiling hypothesis according to which there exist larger gender wage gaps at the upper tail of the wage distribution.

  2. Gendered language attitudes: exploring language as a gendered construct using Rasch measurement theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knisely, Kris A; Wind, Stefanie A

    2015-01-01

    Gendered language attitudes (GLAs) are gender-based perceptions of language varieties based on connections between gender-related and linguistic characteristics of individuals, including the perception of language varieties as possessing degrees of masculinity and femininity. This study combines substantive theory about language learning and gender with a model based on Rasch measurement theory to explore the psychometric properties of a new measure of GLAs. Findings suggest that GLAs is a unidimensional construct and that the items used can be used to describe differences among students in terms of the strength of their GLAs. Implications for research, theory, and practice are discussed. Special emphasis is given to the teaching and learning of languages.

  3. A Theory of Gender Discrimination Based on the Household

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Francois

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a new theory of gender discrimination in competitive labour markets which does not rely on any inherent gender asymmetries. Women and men are organized into households with each having identical household specific human capital. When labour market characteristics (effort, wages) differ, the possibility of mutually beneficial within household trades arises. Discrimination involves occupational segregation with men obtaining high paying efficiency wage jobs and women in piec...

  4. Disability and Gender: Reflections on Theory and Research

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Carol

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews theory and research on disability and gender from a UK perspective. It reflects upon the theoretical perspectives and debates that are to be found in UK disability studies today, and considers their relevance for research on the gendered nature of disability. Themes in empirical research are noted, as is the representation and treatment of disability in mainstream feminism(s). The paper warns about the danger of exclusion through nominal inclusion.

  5. Using Queer Theory to Rethink Gender Equity in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaise, Mindy; Taylor, Affrica

    2012-01-01

    Queer theory is a new theory about gender. It is relevant to early childhood educators who wish to find new ways of understanding and challenging persistent gender stereotypes. The theory links gender stereotypes to the norms of heterosexuality. It is definitely "not" a theory about gay and lesbian identity. Queer theory is "queer" because it…

  6. DDML Schema Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-08

    XML schema govern DDML instance documents. For information about XML, refer to RCC 125-15, XML Style Guide.2 Figure 4 provides an XML snippet of a...we have documented three main types of information .  User Stories: A user story describes a specific requirement of the schema in the terms of a...instance document is a schema -valid XML file that completely describes the information in the test case in a manner that satisfies the user story

  7. Hegemonic masculinity: combining theory and practice in gender interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel; Morrell, Robert; Hearn, Jeff; Lundqvist, Emma; Blackbeard, David; Lindegger, Graham; Quayle, Michael; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Gottzén, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    The concept of hegemonic masculinity has been used in gender studies since the early-1980s to explain men's power over women. Stressing the legitimating power of consent (rather than crude physical or political power to ensure submission), it has been used to explain men's health behaviours and the use of violence. Gender activists and others seeking to change men's relations with women have mobilised the concept of hegemonic masculinity in interventions, but the links between gender theory and activism have often not been explored. The translation of 'hegemonic masculinity' into interventions is little examined. We show how, in South Africa and Sweden, the concept has been used to inform theoretically-based gender interventions and to ensure that men are brought into broader social efforts to build gender equity. We discuss the practical translational challenges of using gender theory broadly, and hegemonic masculinity in particular, in a Swedish case study, of the intervention Machofabriken [The Macho Factory], and illustrate how the concept is brought to life in this activist work with men. The concept has considerable practical application in developing a sustainable praxis of theoretically grounded interventions that are more likely to have enduring effect, but evaluating broader societal change in hegemonic masculinity remains an enduring challenge.

  8. A theory of family, economy, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, J

    1988-03-01

    Historically, the requirements of population replacement have interacted with modes of subsistence technology to shape the differential distribution of power and prestige by sex. Two assumptions undergird Huber's argument: in all societies, producers have more power than consumers; those who control the distribution of valued goods beyond the family have the most power. Evidence comes from societies based on foraging, the hoe, the plow, herding, and industrial technologies. Huber concludes that changes in the work people do have altered the stratification and family systems of plow societies. Declines in mortality and fertility and changes in lactation customs have reduced the time that women spend pregnant or nursing. Increases in educational levels and employment rates enable women to provide sizable shares of family income. These trends have increased the centrality of individual goal attainment in the Western ideational system. Now women, along with men, have been swept into the occupational streams of the industrial revolution, though not quite into the mainstream. Still in question is the extent to which women will hold a fair share of top positions. This will hinge on responsibility for housework and childcare early in a woman's career, a time when most single parents or couples lack resources to command full-time quality care for the daily needs of their children. Ambitious women can avoid much conflict by remaining childless, but that is the point; ambitious men need not make that choice. Women cannot become men's social equals until the most talented women can aspire as realistically as their male counterparts to contribute in proportion to their talents. Thus, the overlap of family, economy, and gender, reshaped by continuing technological change, continues to affect women's status. Industrialization 1st turned the cost-benefit ratio of children upside down. Then wives were drawn into the labor force, raising the opportunity cost of their time, and

  9. Gender performance and cosmopolitan practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy-Petersen, Nina; Woodward, Ian; Skrbis, Zlatko

    2016-01-01

    of discursive narrativization, it is likely to be navigated and applied through gender-ideologies. Applying the methodological concept of cognitive schema to a set of qualitative data, and focusing on expressions of hospitality towards others within local communities, we inductively assemble evidence to show...... that men and women have differently articulated cosmopolitan imaginations. In conclusion, we consider what our empirical attention to gender might mean for how we advance critical theories of cosmopolitanism....

  10. Database Application Schema Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Quintus Beyers

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The application schema layer of a Database Management System (DBMS can be modified to deliver results that may warrant a forensic investigation. Table structures can be corrupted by changing the metadata of a database or operators of the database can be altered to deliver incorrect results when used in queries. This paper will discuss categories of possibilities that exist to alter the application schema with some practical examples. Two forensic environments are introduced where a forensic investigation can take place in. Arguments are provided why these environments are important. Methods are presented how these environments can be achieved for the application schema layer of a DBMS. A process is proposed on how forensic evidence should be extracted from the application schema layer of a DBMS. The application schema forensic evidence identification process can be applied to a wide range of forensic settings.

  11. The gender wage gap and the overcrowding theory

    OpenAIRE

    Cobo Bru, María

    2017-01-01

    Treball Final de Grau. Grau en Finances i Comptabilitat. Codi: FC1049. Curs acadèmic 2016-2017 “The gender wage gap and the overcrowding theory” is a study based on the obstacles of the female gender when they try to get a job, besides to promote and obtain senior positions. In order to understand the situation as well as the effect and context of the wage gap, we have analyzed different theories and documents. We have emphasized in concepts like overcrowding and wage gap as the most im...

  12. Neurobiology of Schemas and Schema-Mediated Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Asaf; Marlatte, Hannah

    2017-08-01

    Schemas are superordinate knowledge structures that reflect abstracted commonalities across multiple experiences, exerting powerful influences over how events are perceived, interpreted, and remembered. Activated schema templates modulate early perceptual processing, as they get populated with specific informational instances (schema instantiation). Instantiated schemas, in turn, can enhance or distort mnemonic processing from the outset (at encoding), impact offline memory transformation and accelerate neocortical integration. Recent studies demonstrate distinctive neurobiological processes underlying schema-related learning. Interactions between the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), hippocampus, angular gyrus (AG), and unimodal associative cortices support context-relevant schema instantiation and schema mnemonic effects. The vmPFC and hippocampus may compete (as suggested by some models) or synchronize (as suggested by others) to optimize schema-related learning depending on the specific operationalization of schema memory. This highlights the need for more precise definitions of memory schemas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Spiritual self-schema therapy, drug abuse, and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, David; Avants, S Kelly; Margolin, Arthur

    2003-01-01

    This case report describes the use of Spiritual Self-Schema (3-S) therapy in the treatment of an HIV-positive inner-city drug user maintained on methadone and referred for additional treatment due to unremitting cocaine use. 3-S therapy is a manual-guided intervention based on cognitive self-schema theory. Its goal is to help the patient create, elaborate, and make accessible a cognitive schema--the "spiritual" self-schema-that is incompatible with drug use and other HIV risk behaviors. 3-S therapy facilitates a cognitive shift from the habitual activation of the "addict" self-schema, with its drug-related cognitions, scripts and action plans, to the "spiritual" self-schema, with its associated repertoire of harm reduction beliefs and behaviors.

  14. Gender theories or theories and gender? If and how feminist gender studies became a new science field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlise Matos

    Full Text Available This article seeks to define what would be the order of gender studies within the Brazilian academic setting today. Given three sets of distinct reflections, the article tries to explore gender initially understood as a "theme" and a "concept" to subvert it and postulate gender today as a new scientific field. These three sets of reflections refer to: 1 the place of the current art of gender and feminist studies in Brazilian academic reflections; 2 the consequent attempt to explain and delimit the theoretical conceptions in these studies, which includes the objective of going beyond a mere concept, tool or analytic construction, establishing a new field of study in social and human sciences and even a new epistemology in the sciences; and 3 the discussions of the implications and consequences that such an initiative would have on the sciences, in addition to bringing contributions to a feminist epistemology as well as postulating a science with a multicultural and emancipating character.

  15. Sources of emotional maltreatment and the differential development of unconditional and conditional schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Molly C; Lumley, Margaret N

    2012-01-01

    Schema theory posits that experiences of maltreatment result in the early development of maladaptive schemas (EMS; Young, Klosko, & Weishaar, 2003, Schema therapy: A practitioner's guide, The Guilford Press: New York, NY). EMS are organized by conditionality; unconditional schemas are theorized to develop early in childhood predominantly in response to experiences of parenting and conditional schemas are theorized to develop later in life in response to other relationships. Despite this distinction, minimal previous research has investigated their differential development. The current study examined the relative contributions of parental and other (peer and intimate partner) emotional maltreatment (EMT) in the differential development of unconditional and conditional schemas. Ninety-seven undergraduate students retrospectively reported their maltreatment experiences using the Lifetime Experiences Questionnaire and completed the Young Schema Questionnaire to measure EMS. Consistent with hypotheses, parental EMT was the strongest predictor of unconditional schemas. Unexpectedly, parental EMT also emerged as the strongest predictor of conditional schemas. Theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  16. Increasing selective exposure to health messages by targeting person versus behavior schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, Meridith E; Brannon, Laura A; Pilling, Valerie K

    2006-01-01

    Schema correspondence theory (Brannon and Brock, 1994) was applied to the topic of selective exposure to health information. The following question was asked: When do people prefer to expose themselves to health-relevant information tailored to match their own needs and values (i.e., recipient self-schema matching) versus the values and goals that the healthy behavior brings to mind (i.e., behavior schema matching)? In general, recipient self-schema matched messages tended to be preferred over behavior schema matched messages. However, this tendency was attenuated to the extent that the behavior had a very well defined (prototypical) schema.

  17. Improving Listening Comprehension through a Whole-Schema Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellermeyer, Deborah

    1993-01-01

    Examines the development of the schema, or cognitive structure, theory of reading comprehension. Advances a model for improving listening comprehension within the classroom through a teacher-facilitated approach which leads students to selecting and utilizing existing schema within a whole-language environment. (MDM)

  18. Early maladaptive schemas in personality disordered individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovev, Martina; Jackson, Henry J

    2004-10-01

    The present study aimed to examine the specificity of schema domains in three personality disorder (PD) groups, namely borderline (BPD), obsessive-compulsive (OCPD), and avoidant PD (AvPD), and to correctly identify the three PD groups on the basis of these schemas. The sample consisted of 48 clinical participants diagnosed with PDs and assigned to 1 of 3 groups on the basis of their Axis II diagnoses (BPD: n = 13; OCPD: n = 13; AvPD: n = 22). High scores on Dependence/Incompetence, Defectiveness/ Shame and Abandonment were found for the BPD group. Such pattern appears to be most consistent with Young's theory of BPD. Consistent with the theory and empirical findings of Beck et al. (1990, 2001), OCPD was associated with elevations on the Unrelenting Standards schema domain, but not on Emotional Inhibition, which was found to be elevated for AvPD. In conclusion, the present study suggests that there are different patterns of schema domains across different PDs and that the Schema Questionnaire (SQ) is potentially useful in differentiating between these PDs.

  19. Gender Theories or Theories and Gender? If and how Feminist Gender Studies became a New Science Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlise Matos

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to define what would be the order of gender studies within the Brazilian academic setting today. Given three sets of distinct reflections, the article tries to explore gender initially understood as a “theme” and a “concept” to subvert it and postulate gender today as a new scientific field. These three sets of reflections refer to: 1 the place of the current art of gender and feminist studies in Brazilian academic reflections; 2 the consequent attempt to explain and delimit the theoretical conceptions in these studies, which includes the objective of going beyond a mere concept, tool or analytic construction, establishing a new field of study in social and human sciences and even a new epistemology in the sciences; and 3 the discussions of the implications and consequences that such an initiative would have on the sciences, in addition to bringing contributions to a feminist epistemology as well as postulating a science with a multicultural and emancipating character.

  20. Bartlett's concept of schema in reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2013-01-01

    dimensions in relation to embodied action and memory “reconstruction,” shows how these temporal dynamics are later abandoned by early cognitive “schema” theories which revert to the metaphor of storage, and explores strategies by which we might fruitfully bring schema back into psychology as an embodied...... an activity of “turning around upon schemata,” humans can create ruptures in their seamless flow of activity in an environment and take active control over mind and behavior. This paper contextualizes Bartlett’s concept of schema within broader theoretical developments of his time, examines its temporal...

  1. Money Affects Theory of Mind Differently by Gender.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garret Ridinger

    Full Text Available Theory of Mind (ToM--the ability to understand other's thoughts, intentions, and emotions--is important for navigating interpersonal relationships, avoiding conflict, and empathizing. Prior research has identified many factors that affect one's ToM ability, but little work has examined how different kinds of monetary incentives affect ToM ability. We ask: Does money affect ToM ability? If so, how does the effect depend on the structure of monetary incentives? How do the differences depend on gender? We hypothesize that money will affect ToM ability differently by gender: monetary rewards increase males' motivation to express ToM ability while simultaneously crowding out females' motivation. This prediction is confirmed in an experiment that varies the structure of monetary rewards for correct answers in the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET. RMET scores decrease for females and increase for males with individual payments, and this effect is stronger with competitively-structured payments. RMET scores do not significantly change when monetary earnings go to a charity. Whether money improves or hinders ToM ability, and, hence, success in social interactions, thus depends on the interaction of gender and monetary incentive structure.

  2. The DSD Schema Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarlund, Nils; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2002-01-01

    be specified as a set of trees. For example, XHTML is a user domain corresponding to a set of XML documents that make sense as hypertext. A notation for defining such a set of XML trees is called a schema language. We believe that a useful schema notation must identify most of the syntactic requirements......XML (Extensible Markup Language), a linear syntax for trees, has gathered a remarkable amount of interest in industry. The acceptance of XML opens new venues for the application of formal methods such as specification of abstract syntax tree sets and tree transformations. A user domain may...... on tree nodes depend on their context. We also support a general, declarative mechanism for inserting default elements and attributes. Also, we include a simple technique for reusing and evolving DSDs through selective redefinitions. The expressiveness of DSD is comparable to that of the schema language...

  3. Early maladaptive schemas in adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipsen, Alexandra; Lam, Alexandra P; Breit, Sigrid; Lücke, Caroline; Müller, Helge H; Matthies, Swantje

    2017-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine whether adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) demonstrate sets of dysfunctional cognitive beliefs and behavioural tendencies according to Jeffrey Young's schema-focused therapy model. Sets of dysfunctional beliefs (maladaptive schemas) were assessed with the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ-S2) in 78 adult ADHD patients and 80 control subjects. Patients with ADHD scored significantly higher than the control group on almost all maladaptive schemas. The 'Failure', 'Defectiveness/Shame', 'Subjugation' and 'Emotional Deprivation' schemas were most pronounced in adult ADHD patients, while only 'Vulnerability to Harm or Illness' did not differ between the two groups. The schemas which were most pronounced in adult patients with ADHD correspond well with their learning histories and core symptoms. By demonstrating the existence of early maladaptive schemas in adults suffering from ADHD, this study suggests that schema theory may usefully be applied to adult ADHD therapy.

  4. Schema-Based Text Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensar, Ferhat

    2015-01-01

    Schema is one of the most common terms used for classifying and constructing knowledge. Therefore, a schema is a pre-planned set of concepts. It usually contains social information and is used to represent chain of events, perceptions, situations, relationships and even objects. For example, Kant initially defines the idea of schema as some…

  5. Exploring the cognitive schemas as individual or group structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Arzenšek

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes some features of the theory of cognitive schemas. The discussion focuses on the issue of appropriate level to explore the cognitive schemas: the individual-, above individual- or the level of larger social systems, depending on the characteristics of social cognition and the nature of cognitive schemas. Currently researchers of cognitive schemas focus on the interaction between motivational, cognitive and other personal and situational variables and on their influence on behavior. Cognitive schemas are seen as the result of mutual interplay between personal, environmental and situational variables. The answer to the appropriate level of exploration question is found to depend on the paradigm within which the individual researchers work and also on the nature of the research problem.

  6. Prosocial self-schemas, self-awareness, and children's prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froming, W J; Nasby, W; McManus, J

    1998-09-01

    Three studies examined the hypothesis that a child's prosocial self-schema predicts prosocial behavior. In Study 1, only self-aware boys showed a self-schema-behavior relation. Study 2 altered both salience of donating opportunity and relationship of recipient to donor. The hypothesized Self-Awareness x Self-Schema interaction was significant, and there were no gender differences. Study 3 systematically manipulated the salience of the donating opportunity. All participants were self-aware. For boys in high and low salience conditions, prosocial self-schema predicted donating behavior. For girls, prosocial self-schema predicted behavior only in the high salience condition. The findings demonstrate that self-schemas can regulate behavior when participants are self-aware. Girls, however, may require higher salience of the donating opportunity for the self-schema to affect their behavior.

  7. Challenging gender stereotypes: Theory of mind and peer group dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Rizzo, Michael T; Killen, Melanie

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the social cognitive skills related to challenging gender stereotypes, children (N = 61, 3-6 years) evaluated a peer who challenged gender stereotypic norms held by the peer's group. Participants with false belief theory of mind (FB ToM) competence were more likely than participants who did not have FB ToM to expect a peer to challenge the group's stereotypes and propose that the group engage in a non-stereotypic activity. Further, participants with FB ToM rated challenging the peer group more positively. Participants without FB ToM did not differentiate between their own and the group's evaluation of challenges to the group's stereotypic norms, but those with ToM competence asserted that they would be more supportive of challenging the group norm than would the peer group. Results reveal the importance of social-cognitive competencies for recognizing the legitimacy of challenging stereotypes, and for understanding one's own and other group perspectives. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Social Psychology and Gender: A New Direction through Feminist Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grella, Christine E.

    Traditionally, social psychology has conceptualized sex and gender as subject variables with sex as a biological substrate and gender as a sociocultural consequence of sex. These ideas rest on the assumption of two distinct biological categories. However, gender is better thought of in dialectical rather than oppositional terms. Gender is both…

  9. The Gender Division of Labor and the Reproduction of Female Disadvantage: Toward an Integrated Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafetz, Janet Saltzman

    1988-01-01

    Presents a theory of mechanisms sustaining and reproducing systems of gender stratification, central amongst which is gender division of labor, within both the family and the wider society. Asserts men create dominant social functions which contribute further to gender stratification. Maintains women then choose that which they would otherwise be…

  10. Multitemporal conditional schema evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Guttorm; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    2004-01-01

    Schema evolution is the ability of the database to respond to changes in the real world by allowing the schema to evolve.  The multidimensional conditionally evolving schema (MD-CES) is a conceptual model for conditional schema changes, which modify the schema of those tuples that satisfy...

  11. SchemaOnRead Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, Michael J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    SchemaOnRead provides tools for implementing schema-on-read including a single function call (e.g., schemaOnRead("filename")) that reads text (TXT), comma separated value (CSV), raster image (BMP, PNG, GIF, TIFF, and JPG), R data (RDS), HDF5, NetCDF, spreadsheet (XLS, XLSX, ODS, and DIF), Weka Attribute-Relation File Format (ARFF), Epi Info (REC), Pajek network (PAJ), R network (NET), Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), SPSS (SAV), Systat (SYS), and Stata (DTA) files. It also recursively reads folders (e.g., schemaOnRead("folder")), returning a nested list of the contained elements.

  12. Gender Discrimination and Growth: Theory and Evidence from India

    OpenAIRE

    Berta Esteve-Volart

    2004-01-01

    Gender inequality is an acute and persistent problem, especially in developing countries. This paper argues that gender discrimination is an inefficient practice. We model gender discrimination as the complete exclusion of females from the labor market or as the exclusion of females from managerial positions. The distortions in the allocation of talent between managerial and unskilled positions, and in human capital investment, are analyzed. It is found that both types of discrimination lower...

  13. XML Schema Languages: Beyond DTD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannides, Demetrios

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of XML (extensible markup language) and the traditional DTD (document type definition) format focuses on efforts of the World Wide Web Consortium's XML schema working group to develop a schema language to replace DTD that will be capable of defining the set of constraints of any possible data resource. (Contains 14 references.) (LRW)

  14. Gender and causal concepts: Implications for comparative theory building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazur, A.G.; Spierings, N.

    2016-01-01

    Clear conceptualization should be at the core of every comparative study. Gender scholars have a long history of challenging the public/private divide in conventional notions of the political and laying bare the gendered or androcentric character of established concepts such as welfare states

  15. Designing XML schemas for bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, Russel Elton; Burton, Philip John

    2003-06-01

    Data interchange bioinformatics databases will, in the future, most likely take place using extensible markup language (XML). The document structure will be described by an XML Schema rather than a document type definition (DTD). To ensure flexibility, the XML Schema must incorporate aspects of Object-Oriented Modeling. This impinges on the choice of the data model, which, in turn, is based on the organization of bioinformatics data by biologists. Thus, there is a need for the general bioinformatics community to be aware of the design issues relating to XML Schema. This paper, which is aimed at a general bioinformatics audience, uses examples to describe the differences between a DTD and an XML Schema and indicates how Unified Modeling Language diagrams may be used to incorporate Object-Oriented Modeling in the design of schema.

  16. Men's sexual self-schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, B L; Cyranowski, J M; Espindle, D

    1999-04-01

    Sexual self-schemas are cognitive generalizations about sexual aspects of oneself. In Part 1, a measure of men's sexual self-schema is developed. Studies of test-retest and internal consistency reliability and validity studies of factor analysis, internal structure, convergent and discriminant validity, process, group difference, and change are provided. The construct consists of 3 dimensions: passionate-loving, powerful-aggressive, and open-minded-liberal traits. In Part 2, the data suggest that men's sexual schema is derived from past sexual experience, is manifest in current sexual experience, and guides future sexual behavior. In Part 3, the data document the cognitive processing aspects of sexual schema. Consistent with the investigators' schema research with women, these data substantiate the importance of cognitive representations of sexuality.

  17. Gender, general theory of crime and computer crime: an empirical test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Byongook; McCluskey, John D; McCluskey, Cynthia P; Lee, Sangwon

    2013-04-01

    Regarding the gender gap in computer crime, studies consistently indicate that boys are more likely than girls to engage in various types of computer crime; however, few studies have examined the extent to which traditional criminology theories account for gender differences in computer crime and the applicability of these theories in explaining computer crime across gender. Using a panel of 2,751 Korean youths, the current study tests the applicability of the general theory of crime in explaining the gender gap in computer crime and assesses the theory's utility in explaining computer crime across gender. Analyses show that self-control theory performs well in predicting illegal use of others' resident registration number (RRN) online for both boys and girls, as predicted by the theory. However, low self-control, a dominant criminogenic factor in the theory, fails to mediate the relationship between gender and computer crime and is inadequate in explaining illegal downloading of software in both boy and girl models. Theoretical implication of the findings and the directions for future research are discussed.

  18. Trans-generational transfer of early maladaptive schemas – a preliminary study performed on a non-clinical group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Mącik

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The maladaptive schemas theory assumes the creation of schemas as a result of relationships with parents during childhood. The aim of the study was to answer questions about the relations between dysfunctional parents’ schemas and their parental attitudes and their children’s schemas. Participants and procedure Eighty people participated in the study: 20 full families with grown children: a daughter and a son. The Questionnaire of Retrospective Assessment of Parental Attitudes (KPR-Roc by Plopa and the Young Schema Questionnaire in its short form (YSQ-S3 were used. Results The results indicate that in the case of daughters the relationships between parental attitudes and schemas relate primarily to the perception of the mother’s attitudes. The strongest positive relationship between maladaptive daughter’s schemas were in relation to an excessively demanding attitude of the mother. There were no relations between the perception of the father’s attitudes and schemas of daughters. In the case of boys there were less significant correlations for both the perception of the mother and father. With regard to the relationship between parents’ schemas and children’s schemas, such mothers’ schemas as defectiveness, vulnerability to harm or illness and absolute severity and such fathers’ schemas as defectiveness, entanglement and self-sacrifice showed especially strong links with daughters’ schemas. The strongest relationships with sons’ schemas occurred in relation to the mother’s schema connected with pessimism and the father’s vulnerability to harm. Conclusions Young’s schemas theory seems to be significant from the perspective of understanding intergenerational transfers of beliefs and accompanying behaviours.

  19. Modeling business objects with XML schema

    CERN Document Server

    Daum, Berthold

    2003-01-01

    XML Schema is the new language standard from the W3C and the new foundation for defining data in Web-based systems. There is a wealth of information available about Schemas but very little understanding of how to use this highly formal specification for creating documents. Grasping the power of Schemas means going back to the basics of documents themselves, and the semantic rules, or grammars, that define them. Written for schema designers, system architects, programmers, and document authors, Modeling Business Objects with XML Schema guides you through understanding Schemas from the basic concepts, type systems, type derivation, inheritance, namespace handling, through advanced concepts in schema design.*Reviews basic XML syntax and the Schema recommendation in detail.*Builds a knowledge base model step by step (about jazz music) that is used throughout the book.*Discusses Schema design in large environments, best practice design patterns, and Schema''s relation to object-oriented concepts.

  20. A Social Role Theory Perspective on Gender Gaps in Political Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekman, Amanda B.; Schneider, Monica C.

    2010-01-01

    Men and women tend to espouse different political attitudes, as widely noted by both journalists and social scientists. A deeper understanding of why and when gender gaps exist is necessary because at least some gender differences in the political realm are both pervasive and impactful. In this article, we apply a social role theory framework to…

  1. The Extreme Male Brain Theory and Gender Role Behaviour in Persons with an Autism Spectrum Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauder, J. E. A.; Cornet, L. J. M.; Ponds, R. W. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    According to the Extreme Male Brain theory persons with autism possess masculinised cognitive traits. In this study masculinisation of gender role behaviour is evaluated in 25 persons with an autism spectrum condition (ASC) and matched controls with gender role behaviour as part of a shortened version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality…

  2. Using Gender Role Conflict Theory in Counseling Male-to-Female Transgender Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Stephen R.; McDonough, Tracy A.; White, Maureen; Vogel, David L.; Taylor, Lareena

    2010-01-01

    Ignoring gender socialization while counseling transgender clients neglects a significant aspect of the transgender experience. To address this, the authors review the literature on gender role conflict (GRC) theory as it pertains to the transgender experience of biological males whose authentic self is female. They explore the main types of…

  3. Theories of Family Labor as Applied to Gender Differences in Caregiving for Elderly Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Nancy J.

    1989-01-01

    Examined four popular hypotheses of family labor--time-available, socialization/ideology, external-resources, and specialization-of-tasks--to explain gender differences in caregiving to elderly parents. Data from adults with mother over age 70 revealed that these theories of gender differences in divisions of family labor did not adequately…

  4. Exploring Physical Activity by Ethnicity and Gender in College Students Using Social Cognitive Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehl, Eric J.; Blanchard, Chris M.; Kupperman, Janet; Sparling, Phillip; Rhodes, Ryan; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Courneya, Kerry S.

    2012-01-01

    Intervention;The psychological determinants of physical activity (PA) among college students may vary by ethnicity and gender, but few studies have considered these characteristics. This study tested constructs from Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) by ethnicity and gender to explain differences in PA. A total of 231 Blacks (70% female) and 218 White…

  5. Feminist theory, African gender history and transitional justice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gendered historical consciousness of colonialism and the post-colonial state in. Africa. ..... took over the growing and marketing of crops which were formerly understood .... Black feminist thought: knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of.

  6. Relationships between Childhood Traumatic Experiences, Early Maladaptive Schemas and Interpersonal Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    KAYA TEZEL, Fulya; TUTAREL KIŞLAK, Şennur; BOYSAN, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cognitive theories of psychopathology have generally proposed that early experiences of childhood abuse and neglect may result in the development of early maladaptive self-schemas. Maladaptive core schemas are central in the development and maintenance of psychological symptoms in a schema-focused approach. Psychosocial dysfunction in individuals with psychological problems has been consistently found to be associated with symptom severity. However, till date, linkages between psychosocial functioning, early traumatic experiences and core schemas have received little attention. The aim of the present study was to explore the relations among maladaptive interpersonal styles, negative experiences in childhood and core self-schemas in non-clinical adults. Methods A total of 300 adults (58% women) participated in the study. The participants completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, Young Schema Questionnaire, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and Interpersonal Style Scale. Results Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the Disconnection and Rejection and Impaired Limits schema domains were significant antecedents of maladaptive interpersonal styles after controlling for demographic characteristics and childhood abuse and neglect. Associations of child sexual abuse with Emotionally Avoidant, Manipulative and Abusive interpersonal styles were mediated by early maladaptive schemas. Early maladaptive schemas mediated the relations of emotional abuse with Emotionally Avoidant and Avoidant interpersonal styles as well as the relations of physical abuse with Avoidant and Abusive interpersonal styles. Conclusion Interpersonal styles in adulthood are significantly associated with childhood traumatic experiences. Significant relations between early traumatic experiences and maladaptive interpersonal styles are mediated by early maladaptive schemas. PMID:28360715

  7. Relationships between Childhood Traumatic Experiences, Early Maladaptive Schemas and Interpersonal Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya Tezel, Fulya; Tutarel Kişlak, Şennur; Boysan, Murat

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive theories of psychopathology have generally proposed that early experiences of childhood abuse and neglect may result in the development of early maladaptive self-schemas. Maladaptive core schemas are central in the development and maintenance of psychological symptoms in a schema-focused approach. Psychosocial dysfunction in individuals with psychological problems has been consistently found to be associated with symptom severity. However, till date, linkages between psychosocial functioning, early traumatic experiences and core schemas have received little attention. The aim of the present study was to explore the relations among maladaptive interpersonal styles, negative experiences in childhood and core self-schemas in non-clinical adults. A total of 300 adults (58% women) participated in the study. The participants completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, Young Schema Questionnaire, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and Interpersonal Style Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the Disconnection and Rejection and Impaired Limits schema domains were significant antecedents of maladaptive interpersonal styles after controlling for demographic characteristics and childhood abuse and neglect. Associations of child sexual abuse with Emotionally Avoidant, Manipulative and Abusive interpersonal styles were mediated by early maladaptive schemas. Early maladaptive schemas mediated the relations of emotional abuse with Emotionally Avoidant and Avoidant interpersonal styles as well as the relations of physical abuse with Avoidant and Abusive interpersonal styles. Interpersonal styles in adulthood are significantly associated with childhood traumatic experiences. Significant relations between early traumatic experiences and maladaptive interpersonal styles are mediated by early maladaptive schemas.

  8. Data mapping for transformation from RDB schema to RDF schema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, K.R.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discussed the data mapping for transformation from relational database (RDB) schema to resource description frame (RDF) Schema. During transformation process between these two schemas, weaknesses like compatibility issues, update query and complexity in relationships are generated. We proposed an approach to overcome these issues particularly when data is transformed from RDB to RDF for semantic web applications, As, for evolving data keeping changes intact is hard and difficult to sustain. Main focus of this study is to map up common features found in both data models of RDB and Semantic Web (SW) based schemas using either form of XML as an intermediate which will help in improving transformation results. These data mappings can further help in gaining better compatibility options for data transformation. (author)

  9. Validation of Schema Coping Inventory and Schema Mode Inventory in Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk-Herbrink, M.F.; Roelofs, J.; Broers, N.J.; Rijkeboer, M.M.; Arntz, A.; Bernstein, D.P.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated whether the schema therapy constructs of schema coping and schema modes have validity in adolescents. We examined the validity and reliability of the Schema Coping Inventory (SCI) and an 80-item version of the Schema Mode Inventory (SMI) in a mixed sample of adolescents.

  10. Gender bias in leader evaluations: merging implicit theories and role congruity perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Crystal L; Burnette, Jeni L

    2013-10-01

    This research extends our understanding of gender bias in leader evaluations by merging role congruity and implicit theory perspectives. We tested and found support for the prediction that the link between people's attitudes regarding women in authority and their subsequent gender-biased leader evaluations is significantly stronger for entity theorists (those who believe attributes are fixed) relative to incremental theorists (those who believe attributes are malleable). In Study 1, 147 participants evaluated male and female gubernatorial candidates. Results supported predictions, demonstrating that traditional attitudes toward women in authority significantly predicted a pro-male gender bias in leader evaluations (and progressive attitudes predicted a pro-female gender bias) with an especially strong effect for those with more entity-oriented, relative to incrementally oriented person theories. Study 2 (119 participants) replicated these findings and demonstrated the mediating role of these attitudes in linking gender stereotypes and leader role expectations to biased evaluations.

  11. Physical Fitness and Self-Image: An Evaluation of the Exercise Self-Schema Questionnaire Using Direct Measures of Physical Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jafra D; Vanness, J Mark; Cardinal, Bradley J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to perform a construct validity assessment of Kendzierski's exercise self-schema theory questionnaire using objective measures of health-related physical fitness. This study tested the hypothesis that individuals with an exercise self-schema would possess significantly greater physical fitness than those who did not across three domains of health-related physical fitness: Body composition, cardiovascular fitness, and upper-body muscular endurance. Undergraduate student participants from one private university on the west coast of the United States completed informed consent forms and the exercise self-schema questionnaire within a classroom setting or at an on-campus outside tabling session. Participants not meeting inclusion criteria for Kendzierski's three original schema groups were categorized as "unschematic," and were included within MANCOVA/ANCOVA analyses, where gender served as the covariate. Participants underwent lab-based fitness assessments administered in accordance with the 2013 American College of Sports Medicine Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription. The hypothesis of this study was partially supported. Specifically, exerciser schematics were significantly leaner than aschematics (p = .002) and they had greater levels of upper-body muscular endurance compared to both aschematic and nonexerciser schematics (p = .002). However, no differences were observed for cardiovascular fitness (i.e., predicted V02Max p = .410). The findings of this study help to establish the construct validity of Kendizerski's self-report exercise self-schema categorization scheme. Visual inspection of the data, as well as computed effect size measures suggest exercise self-schema is associated with dimensions of one's physical fitness.

  12. The "Mother" of All Schemas: Creating Cognitive Dissonance in Children's Fantasy Literature Using the Mother Figure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palkovich, Einat Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Mothers are essential facilitators of early Theory of Mind development and intrinsic to the acquisition, as well as the content, of many basic schemas learnt in infancy. In this article it is argued that the "mother" schema in children's literature can ease a child's transition into literary discourse by exploiting the child's…

  13. Teaching Feminist Theory via Philosophy: Political Implications of an Ontological Inquiry in Judith Butler's "Gender Trouble."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artese, Brian

    Rather than begin an undergraduate class in feminist theory with the assertion that such theory is important because of its social implications--and then attempt to prove it--it is more effective to begin with a more neutral philosophical discussion that will act as a foundation for its premises. Judith Butler's essay "Gender Trouble"…

  14. "Putting My Man Face on": A Grounded Theory of College Men's Gender Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Keith E.; Jones, Susan R.

    2009-01-01

    The theory that emerged from this constructivist grounded theory study of 10 college men's experiences depicts their gender identity as developed through constant interaction with society's expectations of them as men. In order to try to meet these perceived expectations, participants described putting on a performance that was like wearing a mask…

  15. Reading pleasure : Light in August and the theory of the gendered gaze

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, [No Value

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses various components of the theory of the gendered gaze, in order to construct a framework for an analysis of how William Faulkner understood and fictionally presented the mechanism of the gaze in Light in August. Linking theory and praxis, this article explores the relationship

  16. SCHEMA CONGRUITY – A BASIS FOR EVALUATING AMBIENT ADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurca Maria Alina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical basis for evaluating ambient advertising in relation to the schema. Ambient advertising, a creative form of out-of-home advertising that conveys direct and contextual messages by using and often altering existing elements of the environment in a way that surprises the target audience, appears to be a solution to the increasing clutter from the media. This study draws on the schema congruity theory to offer a better understanding of how consumers are processing information received from advertisements. Schemas are organized structures of knowledge and expectations that consumers develop in order to categorize the incoming information, and that they access every time they are experiencing a new situation. The schema-based approach is important in understanding consumer behavior because consumers are facing an environment filled with similar brands and products promoted by ads that sound and look alike. According to schema congruity theory information perceived as schema congruent offers a confortable feeling of familiarity and generates limited cognitive processing, whereas schema incongruent information generates surprise and triggers extensive cognitive processing in order to help individual make sense of the unusual situation. Taking into consideration the combination of the different levels of expectancy and relevancy there have been identified three congruency situations: extreme congruity, moderate incongruity and extreme incongruity. Existing research shows that moderate incongruent information offers the best results in recall and recognition and also the highest affect levels compared to extreme congruity and extreme incongruity. Based on evidence from literature this study attempts to position ambient advertising in the moderate incongruity category, thus theoretically proving the assumed effectiveness of this promotional tool. Therefore, this paper is a starting point in bringing the

  17. Gender equality and smoking: a theory-driven approach to smoking gender differences in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Usama; Beltrán, Paula; Fernández, Esteve; Navas-Acien, Ana; Bolumar, Francisco; Franco, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    The intersection between gender and class can aid in understanding gender differences in smoking. To analyse how changes in gender inequality relate to differences in smoking prevalence by gender, education and birth cohort in Spain over the past five decades (1960-2010). The Gender Inequality Index (GII) was calculated in 5-year intervals from 1960 to 2010. GII ranges from 0 to 1 (1=highest inequality) and encompasses three dimensions: reproductive health, empowerment and labour market. Estimates of female and male smoking prevalence were reconstructed from representative National Health Surveys and stratified by birth cohort and level of education. We calculated female-to-male smoking ratios from 1960 to 2010 stratified by education and birth cohort. Gender inequality in Spain decreased from 0.65 to 0.09 over the past 50 years. This rapid decline was inversely correlated (r=-0.99) to a rising female-to-male smoking ratio. The youngest birth cohort of the study (born 1980-1990) and women with high education levels had similar smoking prevalences compared with men. Women with high levels of education were also the first to show a reduction in smoking prevalence, compared with less educated women. Gender inequality fell significantly in Spain over the past 50 years. This process was accompanied by converging trends in smoking prevalence for men and women. Smoking prevalence patterns varied greatly by birth cohort and education levels. Countries in earlier stages of the tobacco epidemic should consider gender-sensitive tobacco control measures and policies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. [Schema Therapy: An Approach for Treating Narcissistic Personality Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, E; Behary, W

    2015-08-01

    In this article, we review the history of the construct of narcissism and the diagnostic criteria for narcissistic personality disorder. We then discuss some etiological models of narcissism and introduce the model of Jeffrey Young, who developed Schema Therapy (ST) as an alternative to standard cognitive therapy for patients with personality disorders. ST differs from standard cognitive therapies in important respects, including limited reparenting, a focus on the patient's basic needs, and emotional activating techniques in addition to cognitive and behavioral ones. We then discuss Young's theory of basic needs, early maladaptive schemas, and schema modes. According to ST theory, narcissists are traumatized in the schema domain having to do with attachment needs. They are prone to vulnerable emotions in response to narcissistic injuries, although they often do not show these emotions directly. Instead, they use maladaptive coping strategies, resulting in emotional states, known as "schema modes". This includes the Self-Aggrandizer mode and Detached Self-Soother mode, in which a superior, arrogant self-presentation and addictive or compulsive behavior serve a self-regulatory function. These concepts are illustrated by case examples of patients with Narcissistic Personality Disorder. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Sexual Selection Revisited ? Towards a Gender-Neutral Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Abstract In a recent issue of this journal, Vandermassen suggested that feminists should include sexual selection theory and evolutionary psychology in a unifying theory of human nature. In response, this article aims to offer some insight into the development of sexual selection theory, to caution against Vandermassen's unreserved assimilation and to promote the opposite ongoing integration ? an inclusion of gender perspectives into evolutionary biology. In society today, opinions...

  20. Creativity: an organizational schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Richard J

    2009-09-01

    To describe an organizational schema of human creativity. Previous research has concluded that creativity involves something novel and useful, but whether creativity is common or rare, domain-specific or domain-general, quantitative or qualitative, or personal or social remains unresolved. Extant research from neurobiology, psychology, cognitive science, and neuroeconomics was used to generate a novel synthesis that explains human creative behavior. Creativity is the attempt to bridge the gap between what is and what should be. It emerges from the interplay of 5 commonly shared factors: motivation, perception, action, temperament, and social interaction. The reward value of what exists compared with an imagined possibility generates the motivational voltage that drives the creative effort. Action to attain the goal requires a dexterously executed plan, and dexterity levels are influenced by both practice effects and biologic biases. Temperament sustains the creative effort during periods of nonreward in anticipation of goal completion. Societal esthetics measure the success of creative efforts. Personal skill sets derived from nature and nurture vary between individuals and determine one's own creative phenotype. Despite great qualitative and quantitative differences between individuals, the neurobiologic principles of creative behavior are the same from the least to the most creative among us.

  1. Promoting Gender Equity in STEM: Theory and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    This presentation will begin by briefly reviewing data on the current status of women in STEM disciplines: degrees earned, careers pursued, obstacles encountered. Next, it will draw on social science research to illuminate a variety of underlying causes for gender disparities in STEM. These, in turn, will be shown to suggest an array of concrete actions that individual scientists, group leaders, and institutions can take to improve gender diversity; a few that the speaker has found especially effective in her role as a college dean will be noted. While the primary focus of the talk will be on women in physics, some of the broader issues encountered by sexual and gender minorities in STEM will also be discussed. In the remainder of the presentation, two particular interventions in which the speaker has been involved for the past several years will be covered in more detail: one aimed at building career skills of women physicists in developing nations and the other aimed at improving the climate for LGBT physicists here in the United States. These illustrate the wide array of opportunities open to all of us for making our field more inclusive.

  2. Gender differences in ethical perceptions of business practices: a social role theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, G R; Crown, D F; Spake, D F

    1997-12-01

    This study presents a meta-analysis of research on gender differences in perceptions of ethical decision making. Data from more than 20,000 respondents in 66 samples show that women are more likely than men to perceive specific hypothetical business practices as unethical. As suggested by social role theory (A. H. Eagly, 1987), the gender difference observed in precareer (student) samples declines as the work experience of samples increases. Social role theory also accounts for greater gender differences in nonmonetary issues than in monetary issues. T. M. Jones's (1991) issue-contingent model of moral intensity helps explain why gender differences vary across types of behavior. Contrary to expectations, differences are not influenced by the sex of the actor or the target of the behavior and do not depend on whether the behavior involves personal relationships or action vs. inaction.

  3. Gender differences in smiling: An evolutionary neuroandrogenic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Lee

    2006-07-30

    Studies have found that, under a wide variety of social circumstances, females are more likely than males to smile. The present article offers a theoretical explanation for this difference based on the premise that testosterone (along with other sex hormones) has evolved the tendency to alter brain functioning in ways that inhibit male smiling, especially during their most reproductively active years. Underlying the theory are the assumptions that (a) females have been naturally selected for preferring to mate with males who have the ability to assist in long-term child rearing primarily by provisioning resources, that (b) males partially accommodate this female preference by competing with rival males who are also vying for resources with which to attract mates, and that (c) male smiling interferes with their ability to most effectively intimidate rivals. If this reasoning is correct, genes must be involved in promoting the tendency to compete for resources, the most likely location for which would be on the Y-chromosome. According to the present theory, these genes operate in part by inhibiting social signals of fear and submissiveness. An additional element of the theory asserts that testosterone alters brain functioning in ways that shift the neocortex away from the left (more "prosocial and friendly") hemisphere toward the right (less "prosocial and friendly") hemisphere. Current evidence bearing on the theory is reviewed and a number of largely untested hypotheses are derived from the theory for future assessment of its predictive power.

  4. Feminist theory and the study of gender and education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, Sandra

    1987-12-01

    This paper considers the three main Western feminist theoretical frameworks — liberal, socialist and radical — and their educational applications. Examples of studies using each approach are discussed. Liberal feminists writing about education use concepts of equal opportunities, socialization, sex roles and discrimination. Their strategies involve altering socialization practices, changing attitudes and making use of relevant legislation. Critics of the liberal school point to conceptual limitations and the liberal reluctance to confront power and patriarchy. Socialist feminists analyze the role of the school in the perpetuation of gender divisions under capitalism. Major concepts are socio-cultural reproduction and to a lesser extent acceptance of and resistance to gender-based patterns of behaviour. So far socialist-feminist educational writing is mainly theoretical rather than practical and has therefore been criticized for its over-determinism and insufficient empiric foundation. Radical feminists in education have concentrated mainly on the male monopolization of knowledge and culture and on sexual politics in schools. Strategies involve putting women's and girls' concerns first, through separate-sex groups when necessary. Critics argue that radical feminism tends towards biological reductionism, description rather than explanation and also contains methodological weaknesses. Mutual criticism of perspectives seems less destructive in educational writing than in some other categories of feminist scholarship. All the theoretical frameworks are subject to the same pressures including the oppressive power of structures, the resilience of individuals, and the tension between universality (how women are the same) and diversity (how women differ on attributes like class and race).

  5. Gender, General Strain Theory, Negative Emotions, and Disordered Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquero, Nicole Leeper; Fox, Kristan; Piquero, Alex R.; Capowich, George; Mazerolle, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Much of the prior work on General Strain Theory (GST) has focused on how strain and negative emotions interrelate to produce criminal--especially violent--activity. Very little research has extended GST to examine other types of non-criminal, negative behavior, such as self-harming behaviors associated with disordered eating, a traditionally…

  6. Gender and Evolutionary Theory in Workplace Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Erika; Wright, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Ideas from evolutionary theories are increasingly taken up in health promotion. This article seeks to demonstrate how such a trend has the potential to embed essentialist and limiting stereotypes of women and men in health promotion practice. Design: We draw on material gathered for a larger ethnographic study that examined how…

  7. Basic Emotions, Natural Kinds, Emotion Schemas, and a New Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Carroll E

    2007-09-01

    Research on emotion flourishes in many disciplines and specialties, yet experts cannot agree on its definition. Theorists and researchers use the term emotion in ways that imply different processes and meanings. Debate continues about the nature of emotions, their functions, their relations to broad affective dimensions, the processes that activate them, and their role in our daily activities and pursuits. I will address these issues here, specifically in terms of basic emotions as natural kinds, the nature of emotion schemas, the development of emotion-cognition relations that lead to emotion schemas, and discrete emotions in relation to affective dimensions. Finally, I propose a new paradigm that assumes continual emotion as a factor in organizing consciousness and as an influence on mind and behavior. The evidence reviewed suggests that a theory that builds on concepts of both basic emotions and emotion schemas provides a viable research tool and is compatible with more holistic or dimensional approaches. © 2007 Association for Psychological Science.

  8. Schema Evolution for Stars and Snowflakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaas, Christian; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Rasmussen, Bjørn

    2004-01-01

    The most common implementation platform for multidimensional data warehouses is RDBMSs storing data in relational star and snowflake schemas. DW schemas evolve over time, which may invalidate existing analysis queries used for reporting purposes. However, the evolution properties of star...

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Children's Theory of Mind, Self-Concept, and Gender-Role Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosacki, Sandra Leanne

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal relations between theory of mind (ToM) understanding, self-perceptions, and perceptions of gender-role orientation in 28 school-aged children, (16 girls, 12 boys, aged 8-12 years). Theory of mind and perceptions of self were assessed at Time 1 (T1, M = 8 y 5 m) and two years later at Time 2 (T2, M = 10 y 4…

  10. Social Learning Theory, Gender, and Intimate Partner Violent Victimization: A Structural Equations Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Ráchael A; Cochran, John K; Maskaly, Jon; Sellers, Christine S

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the applicability of Akers's Social Learning Theory (SLT) to explain intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization. In doing so, we draw on the Intergenerational Transmission of Violence Theory (IGT) to extend the scope of SLT to the explanation of victimization and for a consideration of uniquely gendered pathways in its causal structure. Using a structural equation modeling approach with self-report data from a sample of college students, the present study tests the extent to which SLT can effectively explain and predict IPV victimization and the degree, if any, to which the social learning model is gender invariant. Although our findings are largely supportive of SLT and, thus, affirm its extension to victimization as well as perpetration, the findings are also somewhat mixed. More significantly, in line with IGT literature, we find that the social learning process is not gender invariant. The implications of the latter are discussed.

  11. Religious Affiliation, Religiosity, Gender, and Rape Myth Acceptance: Feminist Theory and Rape Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael D; Sligar, Kylie B; Wang, Chiachih D C

    2018-04-01

    Rape myths are false beliefs about rape, rape victims, and rapists, often prejudicial and stereotypical. Guided by feminist theory and available empirical research, this study aimed to examine the influences of gender, religious affiliation, and religiosity on rape myth acceptance of U.S. emerging adults. A sample of 653 university students aged 18 to 30 years were recruited from a large public university in the southern United States to complete the research questionnaires. Results indicated that individuals who identified as Roman Catholic or Protestant endorsed higher levels of rape myth acceptance than their atheist or agnostic counterparts. Men were found more likely to ascribe to rape myths than their female counterparts. Religiosity was positively associated with rape myth acceptance, even after controlling the effect of conservative political ideology. No significant interaction was found between gender and religious affiliation or gender and religiosity. Limitations, future research directions, and implications of the findings are discussed from the perspective of feminist theory.

  12. Towards Online and Transactional Relational Schema Transformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wevers, L.; Hofstra, Matthijs; Tammens, Menno; Huisman, Marieke; van Keulen, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we want to draw the attention of the database community to the problem of online schema changes: changing the schema of a database without blocking concurrent transactions. We have identified important classes of relational schema transformations that we want to perform online, and we

  13. Social Support Theory: A New Framework for Exploring Gender Differences in Business Owner Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle

    The paper argues that to advance knowledge about small firm networks and consider the impact of gender, research should also consider the network experiences of women business owners. To engage in such research, this paper proposes a conceptual model of business owner networking which is informed...... by social support theory....

  14. Resisting Dominant Discourses: Implications of Indigenous, African Feminist Theory and Methods for Gender and Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilisa, Bagele; Ntseane, Gabo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we explore tensions between Western gender theory and research, and post-colonial and indigenous feminist standpoints, which challenge us to re-define our roles as feminist-activist educators and researchers working with formerly colonised and historically marginalised communities. We discuss how African and Black feminist approaches…

  15. “Making difference: theories on gender, body and behaviour”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Citeli

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the nineteenth century, when Darwin published his work on evolution, several female scientists have reacted by adopting basically two points of view: while some deny the potential of the biological sciences to explain social arrangements, others reinterpret biology studies on sex differences, admitting that these may explain human behavior and social inequality. In an attempt to appraise how social differences are assigned to the human body, this article discusses theoretical trends in recent works of biological sciences, which try to either reaffirm or deny the plausibility of theories that resort to sex differences presumably located in the body (brains, genes, male and female physiology to explain variations in human beings’ skills, abilities, cognitive patterns, and sexuality. And, given the influence of the media on our views on male and female, it also discusses the repercussion of such essentialist views on national and international print media.

  16. The Development of Vocational Schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neimeyer, Greg J.; Metzler, April

    1987-01-01

    Together with findings relating higher structural development to higher levels of career decision-making, self-efficacy, and career decidedness, the results of three studies were interpreted as providing qualified support for the assumption that vocational schemas undergo organizational development. (Author/ABB)

  17. Silent films and strange stories: theory of mind, gender, and social experiences in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Rory T; Hughes, Claire

    2013-01-01

    In this study of two hundred and thirty 8- to 13-year-olds, a new "Silent Films" task is introduced, designed to address the dearth of research on theory of mind in older children by providing a film-based analogue of F. G. E. Happé's (1994) Strange Stories task. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that all items from both tasks loaded onto a single theory-of-mind latent factor. With effects of verbal ability and family affluence controlled, theory-of-mind latent factor scores increased significantly with age, indicating that mentalizing skills continue to develop through middle childhood. Girls outperformed boys on the theory-of-mind latent factor, and the correlates of individual differences in theory of mind were gender specific: Low scores were related to loneliness in girls and to peer rejection in boys. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  18. More similarities than differences in contemporary theories of social development?: a plea for theory bridging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaper, Campbell

    2011-01-01

    Many contemporary theories of social development are similar and/or share complementary constructs. Yet, there have been relatively few efforts toward theoretical integration. The present chapter represents a call for increased theory bridging. The problem of theoretical fragmentation in psychology is reviewed. Seven highlighted reasons for this predicament include differences between behavioral sciences and other sciences, theoretical paradigms as social identities, the uniqueness assumption, information overload, field fixation, linguistic fragmentation, and few incentives for theoretical integration. Afterward, the feasibility of theoretical synthesis is considered. Finally, some possible directions are proposed for theoretical integration among five contemporary theories of social and gender development: social cognitive theory, expectancy-value theory, cognitive-developmental theory, gender schema theory, and self-categorization theory.

  19. Investigating m-Health Acceptance from a Protection Motivation Theory Perspective: Gender and Age Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xitong; Han, Xiaocui; Zhang, Xiaofei; Dang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Chun

    2015-08-01

    Mobile health (m-health) services are becoming increasingly important and widely accepted. However, empirical studies on potential users' m-health acceptance behavior remain underexplored. Indeed, m-health adoption is not only a technology acceptance behavior, but also a health-related behavior. Based on the Protection Motivation Theory, this article explores users' m-health adoption behavior from the perspectives of threat appraisal and coping appraisal, and also examines the moderating role of gender and age through a survey of potential users. The survey was conducted among 500 potential m-health service participants. Our results show that threat appraisal and coping appraisal factors influence adoption intention through attitude. It is also found that gender and age play different moderating roles with threat appraisal and coping appraisal factors. Gender and age play different roles between threat appraisal and coping appraisal factors in the acceptance of m-health. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  20. Automatic schema evolution in Root

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, R.; Rademakers, F.

    2001-01-01

    ROOT version 3 (spring 2001) supports automatic class schema evolution. In addition this version also produces files that are self-describing. This is achieved by storing in each file a record with the description of all the persistent classes in the file. Being self-describing guarantees that a file can always be read later, its structure browsed and objects inspected, also when the library with the compiled code of these classes is missing. The schema evolution mechanism supports the frequent case when multiple data sets generated with many different class versions must be analyzed in the same session. ROOT supports the automatic generation of C++ code describing the data objects in a file

  1. Self-schema and social comparison explanations of body dissatisfaction: a laboratory investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Patricia; Thompson, J Kevin

    2007-03-01

    The current study was an investigation of the self-schema and social comparison theories of body dissatisfaction. The social comparison manipulation consisted of exposure to one of three levels of comparison figure: upward, downward, or no comparison. Two different imagery exercises served to prime either a participants' appearance self-schema, or a non-appearance schema. Participants completed state measures of body image and mood at pre- and posttest. Results indicated no significant interaction between priming and social comparison and no significant main effect for priming. However, there was a significant effect of social comparison, such that those in the downward comparison condition showed an increase in body satisfaction and positive mood. Results are discussed in the context of self-schema theory and social comparison, and suggestions are given for future research that might further shed light on these theoretical approaches for understanding body dissatisfaction.

  2. The cognitive import of the narrative schema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Peer

    2007-01-01

    schema within continental semiotics, and through an interpretation of Heider & Simmel’s study on apparent behavior it establishes the cognitive import of the narrative schema and its origin in visual perception; finally it gives examples of the meaning organizing import of the narrative schema.......This paper aims at establishing the origin of the narrative schema in the perception of intentional movements. The distinction between mechanical and intentional movements is vital for human beings, and the narrative schema, which is underpinned by this distinction, is therefore a basic cognitive...... principle of intelligibility. This is the reason why the narrative schema is by no means confined to the domain of the literary work of art. It is rather a major principle for the combination of partial significations in many other domains. The paper explores the role traditionally assigned to the narrative...

  3. XML Schema Guide for Primary CDR Submissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document presents the extensible markup language (XML) schema guide for the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics’ (OPPT) e-CDRweb tool. E-CDRweb is the electronic, web-based tool provided by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the submission of Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) information. This document provides the user with tips and guidance on correctly using the version 1.7 XML schema. Please note that the order of the elements must match the schema.

  4. Computing the Importance of Schema Elements Taking Into Account the Whole SCHEMA

    OpenAIRE

    Villegas Niño, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Conceptual Schemas are one of the most important artifacts in the development cycle of information systems. To understand the conceptual schema is essential to get involved in the information system that is described within it. As the information system increases its size and complexity, the relative conceptual schema will grow in the same proportion making di cult to understand the main concepts of that schema/information system. The thesis comprises the investigat...

  5. Defining the XML schema matching problem for a personal schema based query answering system

    OpenAIRE

    Smiljanic, M.; van Keulen, Maurice; Jonker, Willem

    2004-01-01

    In this report, we analyze the problem of personal schema matching. We define the ingredients of the XML schema matching problem using constraint logic programming. This allows us to thourougly investigate specific matching problems. We do not have the ambition to provide for a formalism that covers all kinds of schema matching problems. The target is specifically personal schema matching using XML. The report is organized as follows. Chapter 2 provides a detailed description of our research ...

  6. The cognitive import of the narrative schema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Peer

    2007-01-01

    principle of intelligibility. This is the reason why the narrative schema is by no means confined to the domain of the literary work of art. It is rather a major principle for the combination of partial significations in many other domains. The paper explores the role traditionally assigned to the narrative...... schema within continental semiotics, and through an interpretation of Heider & Simmel’s study on apparent behavior it establishes the cognitive import of the narrative schema and its origin in visual perception; finally it gives examples of the meaning organizing import of the narrative schema....

  7. The CostGlue XML Schema

    OpenAIRE

    Furfari, Francesco; Potort?, Francesco; Savić, Dragan

    2008-01-01

    An XML schema for scientific metadata is described. It is used for the CostGlue archival program, developed in the framework of the European Union COST Action 285: "Modelling and simulation tools for research in emerging multi-service telecommunications". The schema is freely available under the GNU LGPL license at http://wnet.isti.cnr.it/software/costglue/schema/2007/CostGlue.xsd, or at its official repository, at http://lt.fe.uni-lj. si/costglue/schema/2007/costglue.xsd.

  8. The gender of science: reflections on the actor-network theory and the feminist perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Pugliese Cardoso

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses some of the principles that guide the descriptive forms of the actor-network theory (ANT of Bruno Latour and feminist standpoint theory formulated by Sandra Harding and Evelyn Fox Keller, through my research on the "Marie Curie Case". As a singular case between gender and science, the goal of thispaper is to play with ANT certainties against feminist perspective uncertainties. In the other hand, the certainties of feminist perspective are put against the uncertainties of ANT. With this counterpoint we intend to promote a reaction - in the chemical sense of the word – to the descriptive forms of the actor-network theory and feminist perspective taking away the obviousness of some of their assumptions. Doing that, we explore the moves of those reactions and their effects to the description which we do about science.

  9. Beyond Sexual Orientation: Integrating Gender/Sex and Diverse Sexualities via Sexual Configurations Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Anders, Sari M

    2015-07-01

    Sexual orientation typically describes people's sexual attractions or desires based on their sex relative to that of a target. Despite its utility, it has been critiqued in part because it fails to account for non-biological gender-related factors, partnered sexualities unrelated to gender or sex, or potential divergences between love and lust. In this article, I propose Sexual Configurations Theory (SCT) as a testable, empirically grounded framework for understanding diverse partnered sexualities, separate from solitary sexualities. I focus on and provide models of two parameters of partnered sexuality--gender/sex and partner number. SCT also delineates individual gender/sex. I discuss a sexual diversity lens as a way to study the particularities and generalities of diverse sexualities without privileging either. I also discuss how sexual identities, orientations, and statuses that are typically seen as misaligned or aligned are more meaningfully conceptualized as branched or co-incident. I map out some existing identities using SCT and detail its applied implications for health and counseling work. I highlight its importance for sexuality in terms of measurement and social neuroendocrinology, and the ways it may be useful for self-knowledge and feminist and queer empowerment and alliance building. I also make a case that SCT changes existing understandings and conceptualizations of sexuality in constructive and generative ways informed by both biology and culture, and that it is a potential starting point for sexual diversity studies and research.

  10. Schema building profiles among elementary school students in solving problems related to operations of addition to fractions on the basis of mathematic abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gembong, S.; Suwarsono, S. T.; Prabowo

    2018-03-01

    Schema in the current study refers to a set of action, process, object and other schemas already possessed to build an individual’s ways of thinking to solve a given problem. The current study aims to investigate the schemas built among elementary school students in solving problems related to operations of addition to fractions. The analyses of the schema building were done qualitatively on the basis of the analytical framework of the APOS theory (Action, Process, Object, and Schema). Findings show that the schemas built on students of high and middle ability indicate the following. In the action stage, students were able to add two fractions by way of drawing a picture or procedural way. In the Stage of process, they could add two and three fractions. In the stage of object, they could explain the steps of adding two fractions and change a fraction into addition of fractions. In the last stage, schema, they could add fractions by relating them to another schema they have possessed i.e. the least common multiple. Those of high and middle mathematic abilities showed that their schema building in solving problems related to operations odd addition to fractions worked in line with the framework of the APOS theory. Those of low mathematic ability, however, showed that their schema on each stage did not work properly.

  11. Decisions, Decisions: A Schema for Expert Decisionmaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stape, Christopher J.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a schema for expert decisionmaking that can be used as a performance support tool. The ringshaped schema can be used in two ways: (1) beginning at the center with problemsetting and working outward to other supporting factors, or (2) skimming over the factors located in the outer ring to find a topic related to information about the…

  12. How schema and novelty augment memory formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kesteren, Marlieke T R; Ruiter, Dirk J; Fernández, Guillén; Henson, Richard N

    Information that is congruent with existing knowledge (a schema) is usually better remembered than less congruent information. Only recently, however, has the role of schemas in memory been studied from a systems neuroscience perspective. Moreover, incongruent (novel) information is also sometimes

  13. XML Schema Representation of DICOM Structured Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K P; Hu, Jingkun

    2003-01-01

    The Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) Structured Reporting (SR) standard improves the expressiveness, precision, and comparability of documentation about diagnostic images and waveforms. It supports the interchange of clinical reports in which critical features shown by images and waveforms can be denoted unambiguously by the observer, indexed, and retrieved selectively by subsequent reviewers. It is essential to provide access to clinical reports across the health care enterprise by using technologies that facilitate information exchange and processing by computers as well as provide support for robust and semantically rich standards, such as DICOM. This is supported by the current trend in the healthcare industry towards the use of Extensible Markup Language (XML) technologies for storage and exchange of medical information. The objective of the work reported here is to develop XML Schema for representing DICOM SR as XML documents. We briefly describe the document type definition (DTD) for XML and its limitations, followed by XML Schema (the intended replacement for DTD) and its features. A framework for generating XML Schema for representing DICOM SR in XML is presented next. None applicable. A schema instance based on an SR example in the DICOM specification was created and validated against the schema. The schema is being used extensively in producing reports on Philips Medical Systems ultrasound equipment. With the framework described it is feasible to generate XML Schema using the existing DICOM SR specification. It can also be applied to generate XML Schemas for other DICOM information objects.

  14. Schema Versioning for Multitemporal Relational Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Castro, Cristina; Grandi, Fabio; Scalas, Maria Rita

    1997-01-01

    Investigates new design options for extended schema versioning support for multitemporal relational databases. Discusses the improved functionalities they may provide. Outlines options and basic motivations for the new design solutions, as well as techniques for the management of proposed schema versioning solutions, includes algorithms and…

  15. Implementing XML Schema Naming and Design Rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubell, Joshua [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Kulvatunyou, Boonserm [ORNL; Morris, Katherine [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Harvey, Betty [Electronic Commerce Connection, Inc.

    2006-08-01

    We are building a methodology and tool kit for encoding XML schema Naming and Design Rules (NDRs) in a computer-interpretable fashion, enabling automated rule enforcement and improving schema quality. Through our experience implementing rules from various NDR specifications, we discuss some issues and offer practical guidance to organizations grappling with NDR development.

  16. The relationship between exercise schema and identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, T.R.; Strachan, S.M.; Verkooijen, K.T.

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the relationship between exercise-related schemas and identity and their unique contributions in predicting exercise-related cognitions and behaviour. Analyses were conducted on data from two studies that used the same measures of exercise schema and identity but differed on

  17. XML Schema Representation of DICOM Structured Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K. P.; Hu, Jingkun

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) Structured Reporting (SR) standard improves the expressiveness, precision, and comparability of documentation about diagnostic images and waveforms. It supports the interchange of clinical reports in which critical features shown by images and waveforms can be denoted unambiguously by the observer, indexed, and retrieved selectively by subsequent reviewers. It is essential to provide access to clinical reports across the health care enterprise by using technologies that facilitate information exchange and processing by computers as well as provide support for robust and semantically rich standards, such as DICOM. This is supported by the current trend in the healthcare industry towards the use of Extensible Markup Language (XML) technologies for storage and exchange of medical information. The objective of the work reported here is to develop XML Schema for representing DICOM SR as XML documents. Design: We briefly describe the document type definition (DTD) for XML and its limitations, followed by XML Schema (the intended replacement for DTD) and its features. A framework for generating XML Schema for representing DICOM SR in XML is presented next. Measurements: None applicable. Results: A schema instance based on an SR example in the DICOM specification was created and validated against the schema. The schema is being used extensively in producing reports on Philips Medical Systems ultrasound equipment. Conclusion: With the framework described it is feasible to generate XML Schema using the existing DICOM SR specification. It can also be applied to generate XML Schemas for other DICOM information objects. PMID:12595410

  18. From Freud to Feminism: Gendered Constructions of Blame Across Theories of Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi, Corry; Alaggia, Ramona; Fallon, Barbara

    2018-04-01

    Most theories of child sexual abuse are, to some degree, gendered, with nonoffending mothers bearing the burden of blame, ideologically and legally, for the transgressions of predominantly male offenders. This article explores the social construction of blame for child sexual abuse via critical analyses of evolving theoretical perspectives on maternal culpability for the inception and maintenance of abuse dynamics. Drawing on selected conceptual and research knowledge that supports and refutes anecdotal claims, this synthesis of the literature culminates in the proposal of an evidence-informed, feminist-grounded, multitheoretical child sexual abuse framework that disrupts dominant mother-blaming discourse and guides socially just and ethically responsive policy, practice, and research.

  19. Age and gender dependent development of Theory of Mind in 6- to 8-years old children

    OpenAIRE

    Calero, Cecilia I.; Salles, Alejo; Semelman, Mariano; Sigman, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    The ability to attribute different mental states to distinct individuals, or Theory of Mind (ToM), is widely believed to be developed mostly during preschool years. How different factors such as gender, number of siblings, or coarse personality traits affect this development is not entirely agreed upon. Here, we introduce a computerized version of the scaled ToM suite of tasks introduced by Wellman and Liu (2004), which allows us to meaningfully test ToM development on children 6 to 8-years o...

  20. Age and gender dependent development of theory of mind in 6 to 8-years old children.

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia Ines Calero; Alejo eSalles; Mariano eSemelman; Mariano eSigman; Mariano eSigman

    2013-01-01

    The ability to attribute different mental states to distinct individuals, or Theory of Mind (ToM), is widely believed to be developed mostly during preschool years. How different factors such as gender, number of siblings or coarse personality traits affect this development is not entirely agreed upon. Here, we introduce a computerized version of the scaled ToM suite of tasks introduced by Wellman and Liu (2004), which allows us to meaningfully test ToM development on children 6 to 8-years ol...

  1. Gender and General Strain Theory: A Comparison of Strains, Mediating, and Moderating Effects Explaining Three Types of Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Byongook; Morash, Merry

    2017-01-01

    The present study of 659 Korean adolescents tests General Strain Theory's (GST) utility in explaining gender differences in delinquency causation. It models the effects of key strains, negative emotions, and a composite measure of several conditioning factors separately for boys and girls and for delinquency. Consistent with the theory, males and…

  2. [Psychological gender in clinical depression. Preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpitalak, Malwina; Prochwicz, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Psychosocial and social theories of mood disorders indicate that factors connected with women's gender roles could create a higher risk of depression. The fact that social role is an important factor associated with depressive disorders suggests that not only a biological but also a psychological gender influences the vulnerability to depression. Gender schema theory was applied to investigate a role of femininity in depressive disorders. It was predicted that patients who identify themselves with the traditional feminine gender role will be more depressed than androgynous and undifferentiated patients or individuals with high level of masculinity. Sixty one patients suffering from affective disorder participated in this research. The Polish adaptation of Bem Sex - Role Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory were used to investigate the association between psychological gender and symptoms of depression. The results indicated that there is a significant connection between the type of psychological gender and the level of depression. The highest level of depression was shown by undifferentiated patients, femininity was also found to be associated with a great number of depressive symptoms. These findings also suggest that androgynous individuals and patients with a high level of masculinity tend to be less depressed. Psychological gender is an important factor which interacts to create a higher depression risk in men and women.

  3. Leadership: Why gender and culture matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayman, Roya; Korabik, Karen

    2010-04-01

    For decades, understanding of leadership has been largely based on the results of studies carried out on White men in the United States. We review major theories and models of leadership as they pertain to either gender or culture. We focus on 3 approaches to leadership: trait (including leadership categorization or implicit leadership theory), behavioral (including the two-factor, transformational-transactional leadership, and leader-member exchange models), and contingency (i.e., contingency model of leadership effectiveness and normative decision making). We discuss how dynamics related to either culture or gender (e.g., stereotypes and schemas, ingroup-outgroup interaction, role expectations, power and status differentials) can have an important impact on many aspects of leadership. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. GENDER RELATIONS AND KNOWLEDGE IN PSYCHOLOGY: CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE CRITICAL THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Dadico

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some recent discussions raised by the feminist critical theory, which contribute to put in question the scientific objectivity of Psychology. It is alleged, first, a false neutrality of genre, built on the idea of a generic human being. This discussion leads to a necessary revision of supposedly universal concepts. One of these concepts is that of justice that pervades studies on moral in Psychology of Development. At the same time, it discusses the prevalence of a certain gender in universities, by establishing and legitimizing specific experiences in the construction of knowledge in the area. It explores works of feminist authors identified with the Critical Theory, focusing on the question of identity, as well as the political implications of language concepts involved in their positions. Finally, dialoguing with authors of the first generation of the Frankfurt School, it is proposed to consider the dialectic between concept and experience for building new knowledge and strategies for gender equality. It is expected to show that the feminist critique reached important pillars of psychology, which, like science, cannot remain inert in front of the new challenges. The various fields of psychology need to mobilize for construction of emancipatory strategies in order to ensure the very validity of the knowledge produced in the area.

  5. Exploiting Schemas in Data Synchronization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foster, J. Nathan; Greenwald, Michael B.; Kirkegaard, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Increased reliance on optimistic data replication has led to burgeoning interest in tools and frameworks for disconnected updates to replicated data.We have implemented a generic synchronization framework, called HARMONY, that can be used to build state-based synchronizers for a wide variety...... of tree-structureddata formats. A novel feature of this framework is that the synchronization process - in particular, the recognition of conflicts - is driven by the schema of the structures being synchronized.We formalize HARMONY's synchronization algorithm, state a simple and intuitive specification......, and illustrate, using simple address books as a case study, how it can be used to synchronize trees representing a variety of specific forms of applicationdata, including sets, records, tuples, and relations....

  6. Manipulation of the body schema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laessoe, Uffe; Barth, Lasse; Skeie, Sindre

    2017-01-01

    Summary Clinical experience advocates sensory stimulation to increase the body sensation and adjust the body schema, which may be disturbed in some patients. Unilateral massage may affect the body midline orientation, but little evidence is available to support the effect of this practice. Twenty......-one healthy young people participated in this experimental study. Two force plates measured weight distribution between the legs in standing position before and after unilateral manual stimulation of the lower extremities. Stimulation of the leg with initial least weight-bearing increased the load on this leg...... significantly from 48.2% to 49.0% and a similar but reverse effect was seen when stimulating the contra-lateral leg. When analysing the data with respect to stimulation of the non-dominant leg, the stimulation increased the weight-bearing on this leg from 49.6% to 51.3%. These findings indicate that external...

  7. The secure base script: associated with early maladaptive schemas related to attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Heather R; Bailey, Heidi N; Lumley, Margaret N

    2014-12-01

    To examine the relations between traditionally assessed early maladaptive schemas and the attachment-specific secure base script (a script-like representation of what individuals expect to happen when they face distress), to inform our understanding of beliefs about the self in relation to others. The present study took an ecologically driven approach, assessing knowledge of the secure base script from descriptions of current relationships. A cross-sectional design was used. One hundred forty-six undergraduate students, recruited as part of a larger study on adversity and self-concept, provided narrative descriptions of their current relationships. Narratives were coded for attachment-related 'secure base' content using a secure base script scale for relationship narratives. Early maladaptive schemas were assessed with the Young Schema Questionnaire, and attachment was additionally evaluated using the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire. Self-reported attachment avoidance and anxiety were related to secure base script content in theory-consistent ways. The extent to which participants described secure base script content was inversely associated with four out of five maladaptive schemas characterized most centrally by disconnection from others. Furthermore, these associations remained significant when controlling for self-reported attachment style. Self-reported attachment avoidance and anxiety also were related to maladaptive schemas in a predictable pattern. Results bridge cognitive and attachment theories, supporting the interrelatedness of secure base script knowledge assessed in current relationships, and schema-related content regarding connectedness with others. Better integration of theories regarding internal representations may serve to enrich psychotherapeutic formulation from a variety of clinical perspectives. Schema Therapy's (Young, Klosko, & Weishaar, 2003 , Schema therapy: A practitioner's guide. New York: Guilford Press) early

  8. The predictive value of early maladaptive schemas in paranoid responses to social stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundag, Johanna; Ascone, Leonie; Lincoln, Tania M

    2018-01-01

    Social stress and negatively valenced cognitive representations of the self (self-schemas) play an important role in the formation of delusions. However, it has not been investigated whether and which self-schemas explain paranoid responses to social stress. Building on the framework of schema theory, the aim of this study was thus to investigate whether more pronounced early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) were associated with increased paranoid ideation after a social stress induction in patients with persecutory delusions (PD). Patients with PD (n = 20) and healthy controls (n = 40) were assessed for EMSs with the Young Schema Questionnaire. They were then exposed to a social stress situation in which they were socially excluded in a Cyberball paradigm. Prior to and after the social stress induction, paranoid symptoms were assessed. Patients with PD responded with a stronger increase in paranoia and revealed a significantly higher EMS total score compared to the healthy controls. As expected, higher increases in paranoia following the social stress were accounted for by higher EMS total scores. Exploratory analyses showed that particularly the specific EMSs Defectiveness/Shame and Enmeshment/Undeveloped Self were associated with the increase in paranoia. EMSs are associated with stress-related symptom increases in patients with PD. It thus seems worthwhile to further investigate the relevance of specific schemas for paranoia. The findings also suggest that addressing EMSs in psychological treatment of patients with PD holds potential. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Preferences, constraints or schemas of devotion? Exploring Norwegian mothers' withdrawals from high-commitment careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halrynjo, Sigtona; Lyng, Selma Therese

    2009-06-01

    Despite decades of focus on gender equality and work-family balance, parenthood still affects mothers' and fathers' careers differently. Drawing on in-depth interviews with Norwegian mothers who are relinquishing high-commitment careers of law and consultancy, this paper questions the adequacy of established explanations emphasizing constraints vs. individual preferences. Our sample of female professionals living in a well-developed welfare state is particularly apt to explore the processes and mechanisms upholding the statistically gendered pattern of women reducing their work commitment after childbirth. These doubly privileged mothers might be considered to have the best odds for combining career and work commitment with motherhood. Thus, we argue that the approach emphasizing practical constraints does not sufficiently account for the withdrawal from high-commitment careers among these female professionals. Nevertheless, we are not content with the claim of Preference Theory that this shift in commitment is merely a matter of 'not-so-dedicated' women discovering their 'genuine' preferences. Rather, in order to understand why and how this shift occurs, we explore the culturally constructed rationalities and schemas of both work and family devotions. We specifically examine the circumstances, mechanisms and steps in a seemingly individual process of making the shift in commitment from a promising career to a family-friendly job. Moreover, the analysis demonstrates how generous parental leave arrangements designed to enhance gender equality and work-family balance by simply reducing practical constraints may have limited--or even counterproductive--impact within high-commitment occupations where the 'irreplaceability' of workers is taken for granted. Our findings indicate that unless the culturally (re)produced discourses, demands and expectations of both work and family are exposed and challenged, even intentionally gender neutral work-family policies will

  10. XML Schema Guide for Secondary CDR Submissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document presents the extensible markup language (XML) schema guide for the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics’ (OPPT) e-CDRweb tool. E-CDRweb is the electronic, web-based tool provided by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the submission of Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) information. This document provides the user with tips and guidance on correctly using the version 1.1 XML schema for the Joint Submission Form. Please note that the order of the elements must match the schema.

  11. Evaluation of Relationship between Schemas and Panic Disorder through a Case Treated with Schema Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Yancar Demir

    2014-08-01

    Discussion: Early maladaptive schemas and inadaptive ways of behaviors that has been developed by patients to handle these schemas may underly the axis I disorder symptoms such as anxiety, depression, drug abuse and psychosomatic disorders. As we look have a look at our patient, it can be said that her seperation with parents before elementary school may have led to her schemas of desertion and distrust and also teacher being over guarding at the levels of harming sovereignty to compensate the absence of the parents forms the basis of schemas of dependence / incompatence, being harmed and weakness against ilnesses. These schemas may be the reason of the patient's inability to handle certain life problems that may be triggering her panic attack symptoms. Schema therapy led to awareness of the patient about her schemas. Patient who had been thought of more functional ways coping instead of inadaptive ways was free of her panic attack symptoms which were resistant to medical treatment. The schema therapy proceess that has been going on with our patient is a good example for schema therapy that was originally developed for treatment for axis II disorders may also be effective for axis 1 disorders. [JCBPR 2014; 3(2.000: 109-115

  12. XCEDE: an extensible schema for biomedical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadde, Syam; Aucoin, Nicole; Grethe, Jeffrey S; Keator, David B; Marcus, Daniel S; Pieper, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The XCEDE (XML-based Clinical and Experimental Data Exchange) XML schema, developed by members of the BIRN (Biomedical Informatics Research Network), provides an extensive metadata hierarchy for storing, describing and documenting the data generated by scientific studies. Currently at version 2.0, the XCEDE schema serves as a specification for the exchange of scientific data between databases, analysis tools, and web services. It provides a structured metadata hierarchy, storing information relevant to various aspects of an experiment (project, subject, protocol, etc.). Each hierarchy level also provides for the storage of data provenance information allowing for a traceable record of processing and/or changes to the underlying data. The schema is extensible to support the needs of various data modalities and to express types of data not originally envisioned by the developers. The latest version of the XCEDE schema and manual are available from http://www.xcede.org/ .

  13. Schema for Spacecraft-Command Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, Sharon; Garcia, Celina; Maxwell, Scott; Wright, Jesse

    2008-01-01

    An Extensible Markup Language (XML) schema was developed as a means of defining and describing a structure for capturing spacecraft command- definition and tracking information in a single location in a form readable by both engineers and software used to generate software for flight and ground systems. A structure defined within this schema is then used as the basis for creating an XML file that contains command definitions.

  14. Suicidal ideation in transgender people: Gender minority stress and interpersonal theory factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Rylan J; Michaels, Matthew S; Bliss, Whitney; Rogers, Megan L; Balsam, Kimberly F; Joiner, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Research has revealed alarmingly high rates of suicidal ideation (SI) and suicide attempts among transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) people. This study aims to analyze the role of factors from the gender minority stress and resilience (GMSR) model (Testa, Habarth, Peta, Balsam, & Bockting, 2015), the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (IPTS; Joiner, 2005; Van Orden et al., 2010), and the potential integration of these factors, in explaining SI in this population. A convenience sample of 816 TGNC adults responded to measures of current SI, gender minority stressors, and IPTS factors. Path analysis was utilized to test 2 models. Model 1 evaluated the associations between external minority stressors and SI through internal minority stressors. Model 2 examined the relationships between internal minority stressors and SI through IPTS variables (perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness). All GMSR external stressors (rejection, nonaffirmation, victimization, and discrimination), internal stressors (internalized transphobia, negative expectations, and nondisclosure), and IPTS factors (thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness) were related to SI. Both models demonstrated good fit. Model 1 revealed that rejection, nonaffirmation, and victimization were related to SI through experiences of internalized transphobia and negative expectations. Model 2 indicated that internalized transphobia and negative expectations were associated with SI through IPTS factors. The models demonstrate pathways through which GMSR and IPTS constructs relate to one another and confer risk for SI among TGNC individuals. These pathways and several recently proposed constructs examined here provide promising directions for future research and clinical interventions in this area. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Maladaptive Schemas as Mediators in the Relationship Between Child Sexual Abuse and Displaced Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Ana; Ozerinjauregi, Nagore; Herrero-Fernández, David

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is one of the most serious forms of abuse due to the psychological consequences that persist even into adulthood. Expressions of anger among child sexual abuse survivors remain common even years after the event. While child sexual abuse has been extensively studied, the expression of displaced aggression has been studied less. Some factors, such as the maladaptive early schemas, might account for this deficiency. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationships between child sexual abuse, displaced aggression, and these schemas according to gender and determine if these early schemas mediate the relationship between child sexual abuse and displaced aggression. A total of 168 Spanish subjects who were victims of child sexual abuse completed measures of childhood trauma, displaced aggression, and early maladaptive schemas. The results depict the relationship between child sexual abuse, displaced aggression, and early maladaptive schemas. Women scored higher than men in child sexual abuse, emotional abuse, disconnection or rejection and impaired autonomy. Mediational analysis found a significant mediation effect of disconnection or rejection on the relationship between child sexual abuse and displaced aggression; however, impaired autonomy did not mediate significantly.

  16. Understanding gender differences in m-health adoption: a modified theory of reasoned action model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofei; Guo, Xitong; Lai, Kee-Hung; Guo, Feng; Li, Chenlei

    2014-01-01

    Mobile health (m-health) services are becoming increasingly popular in healthcare, but research on m-health adoption is rare. This study was designed to obtain a better understanding of m-health adoption intention. We conducted an empirical research of a 481-respondent sample consisting of 44.7% women and 55.3% men and developed a modified theory of reasoned action (TRA) model by incorporating the nonlinearities between attitude and subjective norms and the moderating effect of gender. The results indicate that, based on the study population in China: (1) facilitating conditions, attitude, and subjective norms are significant predictors of m-health adoption intention; (2) the model including the nonlinearities enhances its explanatory ability; (3) males enjoy a higher level of m-health adoption intention compared with females; (4) the modified TRA model can predict men's behavior intention better than that of women; and (5) males have an Edgeworth-Pareto substitutability between attitude and subjective norms in predicting m-health adoption intention. Thus, we found gender differences in m-health adoption from the perspective of social psychology.

  17. Partitioning an object-oriented terminology schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, H; Perl, Y; Halper, M; Geller, J; Kuo, F; Cimino, J J

    2001-07-01

    Controlled medical terminologies are increasingly becoming strategic components of various healthcare enterprises. However, the typical medical terminology can be difficult to exploit due to its extensive size and high density. The schema of a medical terminology offered by an object-oriented representation is a valuable tool in providing an abstract view of the terminology, enhancing comprehensibility and making it more usable. However, schemas themselves can be large and unwieldy. We present a methodology for partitioning a medical terminology schema into manageably sized fragments that promote increased comprehension. Our methodology has a refinement process for the subclass hierarchy of the terminology schema. The methodology is carried out by a medical domain expert in conjunction with a computer. The expert is guided by a set of three modeling rules, which guarantee that the resulting partitioned schema consists of a forest of trees. This makes it easier to understand and consequently use the medical terminology. The application of our methodology to the schema of the Medical Entities Dictionary (MED) is presented.

  18. Examining the Scope and Concept of Schema: Should We Look Beyond Cognitive Structures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank M. Dattilio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, cognitive therapy and the cognitive-behavior therapies have focused on three levels of cognitive phenomenon: automatic thoughts, cognitive distortion, and underlying assumptions. Underlying assumptions constitute the general notion of what is referred to as "schema." Schemas have traditionally served as sort of a template for the way in which an individual views him/herself, the world, and others. In addition, a proposed model has also appeared in the professional literature that includes memory structures and multimodal representations of stored information that serve to explain the concept of schema in general. Recently, some controversial research has raised the question as to whether separate memory cell networks in the body may play an additional role beyond cognitive structures.This article reviews some of the research on the role of neuropeptides in the process of memory and emotions and raises the question of whether or not an expansion of the concept of schema should be considered. The article also discusses what scientific support exists at this time and whether we can draw any clinical implications from such a theory. The article also discusses the impact of this theory on the view of schema resistance and the role of cognitive therapy, particularly as it relates to conditions involving trauma.

  19. Negative self-schemas and the onset of depression in women: longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jonathan; Heron, Jon; Lewis, Glyn; Araya, Ricardo; Wolke, Dieter

    2005-04-01

    Beck's cognitive theory of depression has received little empirical support. To test whether those with negative self-schemas were at risk of onset of depression. Data were collected by postal questionnaire from 12,003 women recruited during early pregnancy; questionnaires included measures of depressive symptoms and negative self-schemas. Regular questionnaires were sent during pregnancy and following childbirth. Of 8540 women not depressed when recruited, 8.6% (95% CI 8.0-9.2) became depressed 14 weeks later. Those in the highest tertile for negative self-schema score were more likely to become depressed than those in the lowest tertile (odds ratio 3.04, 95% CI 2.48-3.73). The association remained after adjustment for baseline depressive symptoms and previous depression (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.27-2.02) and was of similar magnitude for onset 3 years later. Holding a negative self-schema is an independent risk factor for the onset of depression in women. This finding supports a key element of Beck's cognitive theory. Understanding more about how negative self-schemas arise should help inform preventive policies.

  20. Topological Schemas of Memory Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babichev, Andrey; Dabaghian, Yuri A.

    2018-01-01

    Hippocampal cognitive map—a neuronal representation of the spatial environment—is widely discussed in the computational neuroscience literature for decades. However, more recent studies point out that hippocampus plays a major role in producing yet another cognitive framework—the memory space—that incorporates not only spatial, but also non-spatial memories. Unlike the cognitive maps, the memory spaces, broadly understood as “networks of interconnections among the representations of events,” have not yet been studied from a theoretical perspective. Here we propose a mathematical approach that allows modeling memory spaces constructively, as epiphenomena of neuronal spiking activity and thus to interlink several important notions of cognitive neurophysiology. First, we suggest that memory spaces have a topological nature—a hypothesis that allows treating both spatial and non-spatial aspects of hippocampal function on equal footing. We then model the hippocampal memory spaces in different environments and demonstrate that the resulting constructions naturally incorporate the corresponding cognitive maps and provide a wider context for interpreting spatial information. Lastly, we propose a formal description of the memory consolidation process that connects memory spaces to the Morris' cognitive schemas-heuristic representations of the acquired memories, used to explain the dynamics of learning and memory consolidation in a given environment. The proposed approach allows evaluating these constructs as the most compact representations of the memory space's structure. PMID:29740306

  1. Topological Schemas of Memory Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Babichev

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal cognitive map—a neuronal representation of the spatial environment—is widely discussed in the computational neuroscience literature for decades. However, more recent studies point out that hippocampus plays a major role in producing yet another cognitive framework—the memory space—that incorporates not only spatial, but also non-spatial memories. Unlike the cognitive maps, the memory spaces, broadly understood as “networks of interconnections among the representations of events,” have not yet been studied from a theoretical perspective. Here we propose a mathematical approach that allows modeling memory spaces constructively, as epiphenomena of neuronal spiking activity and thus to interlink several important notions of cognitive neurophysiology. First, we suggest that memory spaces have a topological nature—a hypothesis that allows treating both spatial and non-spatial aspects of hippocampal function on equal footing. We then model the hippocampal memory spaces in different environments and demonstrate that the resulting constructions naturally incorporate the corresponding cognitive maps and provide a wider context for interpreting spatial information. Lastly, we propose a formal description of the memory consolidation process that connects memory spaces to the Morris' cognitive schemas-heuristic representations of the acquired memories, used to explain the dynamics of learning and memory consolidation in a given environment. The proposed approach allows evaluating these constructs as the most compact representations of the memory space's structure.

  2. Differences in the neural signature of remembering schema-congruent and schema-incongruent events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brod, Garvin; Lindenberger, Ulman; Werkle-Bergner, Markus; Shing, Yee Lee

    2015-08-15

    New experiences are remembered in relation to one's existing world knowledge or schema. Recent research suggests that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) supports the retrieval of schema-congruent information. However, the neural mechanisms supporting memory for information violating a schema have remained elusive, presumably because incongruity is inherently ambiguous in tasks that rely on world knowledge. We present a novel paradigm that experimentally induces hierarchically structured knowledge to directly contrast neural correlates that contribute to the successful retrieval of schema-congruent versus schema-incongruent information. We hypothesize that remembering incongruent events engages source memory networks including the lateral PFC. In a sample of young adults, we observed enhanced activity in the dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC), in the posterior parietal cortex, and in the striatum when successfully retrieving incongruent events, along with enhanced connectivity between DLPFC and striatum. In addition, we found enhanced mPFC activity for successfully retrieved events that are congruent with the induced schema, presumably reflecting a role of the mPFC in biasing retrieval towards schema-congruent episodes. We conclude that medial and lateral PFC contributions to memory retrieval differ by schema congruency, and highlight the utility of the new experimental paradigm for addressing developmental research questions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Defining the XML schema matching problem for a personal schema based query answering system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smiljanic, M.; van Keulen, Maurice; Jonker, Willem

    In this report, we analyze the problem of personal schema matching. We define the ingredients of the XML schema matching problem using constraint logic programming. This allows us to thourougly investigate specific matching problems. We do not have the ambition to provide for a formalism that covers

  4. SchemaOnRead: A Package for Schema-on-Read in R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, Michael J.

    2016-08-01

    Schema-on-read is an agile approach to data storage and retrieval that defers investments in data organization until production queries need to be run by working with data directly in native form. Schema-on-read functions have been implemented in a wide range of analytical systems, most notably Hadoop. SchemaOnRead is a CRAN package that uses R’s flexible data representations to provide transparent and convenient support for the schema-on-read paradigm in R. The schema-on- read tools within the package include a single function call that recursively reads folders with text, comma separated value, raster image, R data, HDF5, NetCDF, spreadsheet, Weka, Epi Info, Pajek network, R network, HTML, SPSS, Systat, and Stata files. The provided tools can be used as-is or easily adapted to implement customized schema-on-read tool chains in R. This paper’s contribution is that it introduces and describes SchemaOnRead, the first R package specifically focused on providing explicit schema-on-read support in R.

  5. Children's Understandings of Characters' Beliefs in Persuasive Arguments: Links with Gender and Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczyk, Anna M.; Bosacki, Sandra L.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the role of gender plays in the relation between children's theory of mind (ToM) and persuasion. We explored children's use of the belief information of the characters involved within a persuasive situation. In two studies, children (four- to eight-year-olds) performed a comic strip task that described a…

  6. Gender Differences in Leader Emergence Persist Even for Dominant Women: An Updated Confirmation of Role Congruity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Barbara A.; Yoder, Janice D.

    2004-01-01

    Role congruity theory predicts that women will be less likely than men to emerge as leaders when expectations for the leader role are incongruent with gender stereotypes. A 2 x 2 x 3 design that crossed the sex of the dominant partner, mixed- and same-sex dyads, and masculine, feminine, and neutral tasks involved 120 dyads of unacquainted college…

  7. Understanding Women's Risk for HIV Infection Using Social Dominance Theory and the Four Bases of Gendered Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Levy, Sheri R.

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical models to date have fallen short of accounting for the alarming worldwide rates of HIV infection in women through heterosexual contact. In this article, social dominance theory and the four bases of gendered power--force, resource control, social obligations, and consensual ideologies--are used to organize and explain international…

  8. Gender Differences in College Leisure Time Physical Activity: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior and Integrated Behavioral Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beville, Jill M.; Umstattd Meyer, M. Renée; Usdan, Stuart L.; Turner, Lori W.; Jackson, John C.; Lian, Brad E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: National data consistently report that males participate in leisure time physical activity (LTPA) at higher rates than females. This study expanded previous research to examine gender differences in LTPA of college students using the theory of planned behavior (TPB) by including 2 additional constructs, descriptive norm and…

  9. A Comparative Analysis of Multiple Intelligence Theory with Relationship to Gender and Grade Level in Selected Schools in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteng, Ellen N.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the relationships between Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligence Theory and students' gender, age, grade level, and enrollment into a public or private school. The research determined students' dominant intelligences and investigated whether students' intelligences may be influenced by demographic variables such as…

  10. Early Maladaptive Schemas Related to Unipolar and Bipolar Depression: Similarities and Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nergis LAPSEKİLİ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective and methodology: Cognitive theory of depression has begun to examine the difference between bipolar and unipolar depression in the context of thinking features. Yet, little is known about the same and seperated points of bipolar and unipolar depression. The objective is evaluating relationship between cognitive schemas of bipolar and unipolar patients. Bipolar and unipolar depression patients and a control group were enrolled in the study. Beck Depression Inventory, Young Mania Scale and Young Schema Questionnaire were administered to the groups. Results: There was significant difference between unipolar and control groups in “Abandonment/instability”. In “mistrust/ abuse” significant difference was between unipolar and bipolar and between unipolar and control groups. ln “entitlement/self-centeredness” difference was between unipolar and control groups. In all other schemas, difference was between unipolar and control and bipolar and control groups. In these schemas, control group had significantly lower scores than others. Unipolar and bipolar groups were similar. Conclusion: In patient groups, schemas like defectiveness, incompetence, failure, vulnerability to danger and undeveloped self were indicative of low self-perception. This case draws attention to distortions in self-perception. When the absence of difference between bipolar and controls in “mistrust/abuse” and “abandonment/instability” schemas is evaluated in terms of cognitive triad, it is suggested that environmental perspective in this group of patients did not exhibit pessimistic features. The only significantly different schema between unipolar and bipolar groups was “mistrust/ abuse”. This suggests that bipolar group didn’t have negative thoughts like unipolar patients about the perception of the enviroment.

  11. Moral Schemas and Tacit Judgement or How the Defining Issues Test Is Supported by Cognitive Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narvaez, Darcia; Bock, Tonia

    2002-01-01

    Discusses three core moral judgement ideas: (1) modern schema theory, (2) automatic decision-making frequency, and (3) implicit processes as the default mode of human information processing. Compares the Defining Issues Test (measures the beginnings of moral judgement) and the Lawrence Kohlberg Moral Judgement Interview (measures the highest level…

  12. African Americans: Race as a Self-Schema Affecting Physical Activity Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Louis Jr.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines theoretical and empirical contributions to racial differences in spot performance and describes a framework for viewing race as a movement self-schema. The roles of television, modeling, expectation theory, and sociological influences are discussed as possible activators of racial movement self-schemata. (JB)

  13. Gender perspective on the factors predicting recycling behavior: Implications from the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztekin, Ceren; Teksöz, Gaye; Pamuk, Savas; Sahin, Elvan; Kilic, Dilek Sultan

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the role of some socio-psychological attributes in explaining recycling behavior of Turkish university community from a gender perspective within the context of the theory of planned behavior with an additional variable (past experience). The recycling behavior of whole sample, females and males, has been examined in 3 sessions -depending on the arguments that explain gendered pattern of private and public environmental behavior and sticking to the fact why females' stronger environmental values, beliefs, and attitudes do not translate consistently into greater engagement in public behavior. As a result of model runs, different variables shaping intention for behavior have been found, namely perceived behavior control for females and past behavior for males. Due to the low percent of the variance in explaining recycling behavior of females, they have been identified as the ones who do not carry out intentions (non-recyclers). Since intentions alone are capable of identifying recyclers accurately but not non-recyclers, there may be other factors to be considered to understand the reason for females not carrying out the intentions. The results of descriptive statistics supported the identification by attitudes toward recycling. Female attitudes were innate (recycling is good, necessary, useful and sensitive), whereas those of males were learnt (recycling is healthy, valuable and correct). Thus, it has been concluded that males' intention for recycling is shaped by their past behavior and the conclusion is supported by males having learnt attitude toward recycling whereas females' lack of intention for recycling is shaped by their perceived behavior control and is supported by their innate attitude for recycling. All in all, the results of the present study provide further support for the utility of the TPB as a model of behavioral prediction and concur with other studies examining the utility of the TPB in the context of recycling

  14. Gender Attributions of Science and Academic Attributes: AN Examination of Undergraduate Science, Mathematics, and Technology Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, W. Jay

    Questionnaire data (n = 297) examined the relationship between gender attributions of science and academic attributes for undergraduate science, mathematics, and technology majors from the perspective of gender schema theory. Female and male respondents perceived that (a) the role of scientist was sex typed as masculine, (b) their majors were more valuable for members of their gender than for those of the opposite gender, (c) their majors were more valuable for themselves than for members of their gender in general. Androgynous attributions of scientists and the value of one's major for women predicted value for oneself, major confidence, and career confidence, and masculine attributions of scientists predicted class participation for female respondents. Feminine attributions of scientists predicted graduate school intent; value for women predicted major confidence and subjective achievement, and value for men predicted value for oneself, course confidence, and career confidence for male respondents.

  15. The Obstacle to Happiness: Early Maladaptive Schemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Barbaros YALCIN

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to determine whether individuals’ early maladaptive schemas predict their happiness levels or not and to find out what early maladaptive schemas prevent individuals’ happiness. Method: Relational screening model was used in the study. The study group consisted of the 253 university students; 198 (%78.3 females and 55 (%21.7 males. “The Qxford Happiness Questionnaire Short Form”, developed by Hills and Argyle (2002 and adapted into Turkish by Dogan and Cotok (2011, and “Young Schema Scale-Short Form 3”, developed by Young et al. (2003 and adapted into Turkish by Soygut, Karaosmanoglu, and Cakir (2009 were used to gather the data for the study. Results: According to the results obtained from the study, it was found out that there is a significantly negative relation between happiness and Vulnerability to Harm & Illness, Pessimism/Negativity, Failure, Social Isolation, Emotional Inhibition, Approval-Seeking and Insufficient Self-Control. Moreover, university students’ Pessimism/Negativity and Failure schemas were found to be the predictors of their happiness levels. Conclusion: Families, teachers and mental health workers should work together to resolve the Pessimism/Negativity and Failure early maladaptive schemas of university students’. It is considered as a preventive measure that the education system must be reviewed. [JCBPR 2018; 7(1.000: 7-13

  16. Specific Dysphoric Symptoms Are Predicted by Early Maladaptive Schemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Trincas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Early maladaptive schemas (EMSs are cognitive patterns resulting from unmet core emotional needs in childhood that have been linked to the development of psychopathology. As depression is a multifaceted phenomenon, we hypothesized that specific dysphoric symptoms would be predicted by different EMSs. Four hundred and fifty-six participants completed a measure of EMSs (Young Schema Questionnaire and reported on the severity of the symptoms of criterion A for major depression in DSM-IV during the occurrence of a dysphoric episode in the previous 12 months. A series of stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed to investigate the predictive power of the EMSs for the severity of each specific depressive symptom. When controlling for gender and current levels of depression, specific symptoms were predicted by different EMSs: sadness by Negativity/Pessimism; anhedonia by Failure; self-harm by Emotional Deprivation and Vulnerability to Harm or Illness; worthlessness by Failure and Negativity/Pessimism; psychomotor retardation/restlessness by Vulnerability to Harm or Illness and Entitlement/Grandiosity; and poor concentration by Insufficient Self-Control/Self-Discipline. The more physical symptoms of fatigue, insomnia/hypersomnia, and appetite loss/appetite gain were not predicted by any of the EMSs. Although the cross-sectional design of the study does not allow for conclusions about the direction of effects, results suggest that depression is not a unitary phenomenon and provide a possible explanation for previous inconsistent findings.

  17. Sex differences in aggression among children of low and high gender inequality backgrounds: a comparison of gender role and sexual selection theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivette, Amy E; Eisner, Manuel; Malti, Tina; Ribeaud, Denis

    2014-01-01

    It is well understood in aggression research that males tend to exhibit higher levels of physical aggression than females. Yet there are still a number of gaps in our understanding of variation in sex differences in children's aggression, particularly in contexts outside North America. A key assumption of social role theory is that sex differences vary according to gender polarization, whereas sexual selection theory accords variation to the ecological environment that consequently affects male competition [Archer, J. (2009). Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 32, 249-311; Kenrick, D., & Griskevicious, V. (2009). More holes in social roles [Comment]. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 32, 283-285]. In the present paper, we explore these contradicting theoretical frameworks by examining data from a longitudinal study of a culturally diverse sample of 863 children at ages 7-13 in Zurich, Switzerland. Making use of the large proportion of children from highly diverse immigrant background we compare the size of the sex difference in aggression between children whose parents were born in countries with low and with high levels of gender inequality. The results show that sex differences in aggression are generally larger among children with parents from high gender inequality backgrounds. However, this effect is small in comparison to the direct effect of a child's biological sex. We discuss implications for future research on sex differences in children's aggression. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The Comparison of Maladaptive Schema and Lifestyles in Drug Dependence and Non-Drug Dependence People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahideh Purmohammad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare early maladaptive schemas and life styles in drug dependences and normal population to recognize their role in drug dependence. Due to their importance in interpretation of special situations, cognitive schemas and life styles have a significant role in cognitive theories. Methods: The method of this research were post-facto and sectional styles. The population were included of 100 drug dependence adults and 100 non-drug dependence who were selected by at-reach methods. Young early maladaptive schema-short form and Basic Adlerian scales for interpersonal success-adult form questionnaires were used. Findings: the results showed that there were significant differences between early maladaptive schemas and life styles in groups under research. Conclusion: the study showed that drug dependence people suffer from high levels of early maladaptive schemas and their life styles are maladaptive. As a result, in prediction of dependence to drug and in treating it too much attention must be given to cognitive factors.

  19. Learning causes reorganization of neuronal firing patterns to represent related experiences within a hippocampal schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Sam; Robinson, Nick T M; Herrera, Lauren; Churchill, Jordana C; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2013-06-19

    According to schema theory as proposed by Piaget and Bartlett, learning involves the assimilation of new memories into networks of preexisting knowledge, as well as alteration of the original networks to accommodate the new information. Recent evidence has shown that rats form a schema of goal locations and that the hippocampus plays an essential role in adding new memories to the spatial schema. Here we examined the nature of hippocampal contributions to schema updating by monitoring firing patterns of multiple CA1 neurons as rats learned new goal locations in an environment in which there already were multiple goals. Before new learning, many neurons that fired on arrival at one goal location also fired at other goals, whereas ensemble activity patterns also distinguished different goal events, thus constituting a neural representation that linked distinct goals within a spatial schema. During new learning, some neurons began to fire as animals approached the new goals. These were primarily the same neurons that fired at original goals, the activity patterns at new goals were similar to those associated with the original goals, and new learning also produced changes in the preexisting goal-related firing patterns. After learning, activity patterns associated with the new and original goals gradually diverged, such that initial generalization was followed by a prolonged period in which new memories became distinguished within the ensemble representation. These findings support the view that consolidation involves assimilation of new memories into preexisting neural networks that accommodate relationships among new and existing memories.

  20. Neither dichotomous nor split, but schema-related negative interpersonal evaluations characterize borderline patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieswerda, Simkje; Barnow, Sven; Verheul, Roel; Arntz, Arnoud

    2013-02-01

    Cognitive models explain extreme thoughts, affects, and behaviors of patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) by specific mal-adaptive schemas and dichotomous thinking. Psychodynamic theories ascribe these to splitting. This study expanded the study of Veen and Arntz (2000) and investigated whether extreme evaluations in BPD are (1) dichotomous, negativistic, or split; (2) limited to specific (schema-related) interpersonal situations; and (3) related to traumatic childhood experiences. BPD (n = 18), cluster C personality disorder (n = 16), and nonpatient (n = 17) groups were asked to judge 16 characters portrayed in film fragments in a specific or nonspecific context and with negative, positive, or neutral roles on visual analogue scales. These scales were divided in negative-positive trait opposites related to BPD schemas, negative-positive trait opposites unrelated to BPD schemas, and neutral trait opposites. Interpersonal evaluations of patients with BPD were (1) negativistic; (2) schema related; and (3) partially related to traumatic childhood experiences. Negative evaluations of caring characters in an intimate context particularly characterized BPD. No evidence was found for dichotomous thinking or splitting in BPD.

  1. Multiple human schemas and the communication-information sources use: An application of Q-methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Shahvali

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted with the aim of developing a communication and information model for greenhouse farmers in Yazd city using schema theory. Performing the Q methodology together with the factor analysis, as such, the different variables were loaded over the five schematic factors which included the human philosophical nature, ideological, economic, social, and environmental-conservation beliefs. Running AMOS,of course, it was also unveiled that the philosophical, ideological, social, economic and environmental schemas influence directly on the personal communication-information sources use. Furthermore, the environmental-conservation schema affects directly and indirectly the personal communication-information sources use. More importantly, this study indicated the important role of the indigenous sources which play in constructing, evaluating and retrieving the environmental knowledge in respondents. The research predisposes a suitable context for policymakers who seek to draw up much more effective and appropriate communication and information strategies to address the specific target groups’ needs.

  2. How schema and novelty augment memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kesteren, Marlieke T R; Ruiter, Dirk J; Fernández, Guillén; Henson, Richard N

    2012-04-01

    Information that is congruent with existing knowledge (a schema) is usually better remembered than less congruent information. Only recently, however, has the role of schemas in memory been studied from a systems neuroscience perspective. Moreover, incongruent (novel) information is also sometimes better remembered. Here, we review lesion and neuroimaging findings in animals and humans that relate to this apparent paradoxical relationship between schema and novelty. In addition, we sketch a framework relating key brain regions in medial temporal lobe (MTL) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during encoding, consolidation and retrieval of information as a function of its congruency with existing information represented in neocortex. An important aspect of this framework is the efficiency of learning enabled by congruency-dependent MTL-mPFC interactions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Theory of Mind Is Related to Children's Resource Allocations in Gender Stereotypic Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Michael T.; Killen, Melanie

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated the relations between 4- to 6-year-old children's (N = 67) gender stereotypes, resource allocations, and mental state knowledge in gender-stereotypic contexts. Participants were told vignettes about female and male characters completing gender-stereotyped activities (making dolls or trucks). Children held stereotypic…

  4. Age and gender dependent development of Theory of Mind in 6- to 8-years old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero, Cecilia I; Salles, Alejo; Semelman, Mariano; Sigman, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    The ability to attribute different mental states to distinct individuals, or Theory of Mind (ToM), is widely believed to be developed mostly during preschool years. How different factors such as gender, number of siblings, or coarse personality traits affect this development is not entirely agreed upon. Here, we introduce a computerized version of the scaled ToM suite of tasks introduced by Wellman and Liu (2004), which allows us to meaningfully test ToM development on children 6 to 8-years old. We find that kids this age are still not entirely proficient in all ToM tasks, and continue to show a progression of performance with age. By testing this new age range, too, we are able to observe a significant advantage of girls over boys in ToM performance. Other factors such as number of siblings, birth order, and coarse personality traits show no significant relation with the ToM task results. Finally, we introduce a novel way to quantify the scaling property of the suite involving a sequence of set inclusions on one hand and a comparison between specially tailored sets of logistic models on the other. These measures confirm the validity of the scale in the 6- to 8-years old range.

  5. Age and gender dependent development of theory of mind in 6 to 8-years old children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Ines Calero

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to attribute different mental states to distinct individuals, or Theory of Mind (ToM, is widely believed to be developed mostly during preschool years. How different factors such as gender, number of siblings or coarse personality traits affect this development is not entirely agreed upon. Here, we introduce a computerized version of the scaled ToM suite of tasks introduced by Wellman and Liu (2004, which allows us to meaningfully test ToM development on children 6 to 8-years old. We find that kids this age are still not entirely proficient in all ToM tasks, and continue to show a progression of performance with age. By testing this age range, too, we are able to observe a significant advantage of girls over boys in ToM performance. Other factors such as number of siblings, birth order, and coarse personality traits show no significant relation with the ToM task results. Finally, we introduce a novel way to quantify the scaling property of the suite involving a sequence of set inclusions and also, a comparison between specially tailored sets of logistic models. These measures confirm the validity of the scale in the 6 to 8-years old range.

  6. Linked data querying through FCA-based schema indexing

    OpenAIRE

    Brosius, Dominik; Staab, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    The effciency of SPARQL query evaluation against Linked Open Data may benefit from schema-based indexing. However, many data items come with incomplete schema information or lack schema descriptions entirely. In this position paper, we outline an approach to an indexing of linked data graphs based on schemata induced through Formal Concept Analysis. We show how to map queries onto RDF graphs based on such derived schema information. We sketch next steps for realizing and optimizing the sugges...

  7. Mental schemas hamper memory storage of goal-irrelevant information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sweegers, C.C.G.; Coleman, G.A.; van Poppel, E.A.M.; Cox, R.; Talamini, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Mental schemas exert top-down control on information processing, for instance by facilitating the storage of schema-related information. However, given capacity-limits and competition in neural network processing, schemas may additionally exert their effects by suppressing information with low

  8. The Academic Self-Schema: An Experimental Illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinot, Delphine; Monteil, Jean-Marc

    1995-01-01

    Existence of an academic self-schema was studied with 142 French eighth and ninth graders and 50 high school students. Both success and failure schemas appeared to exist, but the academic failure schema was only observed for the variable self-description time. (SLD)

  9. Schema therapy for aggressive offenders with personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen-de Vos, M.; Bernstein, D.P.; Arntz, A.; Tafrate, R.C.; Mitchell, D.

    2014-01-01

    Schema therapy (ST) is increasingly used in personality-disordered (PD) patients. ST is an integrative psychotherapy that blends elements of cognitive-behavioral, psychodynamic and experiential approaches. The key concepts in ST are early maladaptive schemas, (dysfunctional) coping styles and schema

  10. Validation of the schema mode concept in personality disordered offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen-de Vos, M.; Bernstein, D.P.; Clark, L.A.; de Vogel, V.; Bogaerts, S.; Slaats, M.; Arntz, A.

    Purpose: A core element of Schema Therapy (ST) is ‘schema modes’ or fluctuating emotional states. ST assumes that particular personality pathology consists of specific combinations of maladaptive schema modes. There is confirmatory evidence for the modes hypothesized to be central to borderline and

  11. Validation of the schema mode concept in personality disordered offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marije Keulen-de Vos; David P. Bernstein; Lee Anna Clark; Vivienne de Vogel; Stefan Bogaerts; Mariëtte Slaats; Arnoud Arntz

    2017-01-01

    A core element of Schema Therapy (ST) is ‘schema modes’ or fluctuating emotional states. ST assumes that particular personality pathology consists of specific combinations of maladaptive schema modes. There is confirmatory evidence for the modes hypothesized to be central to borderline and

  12. Validation of the schema mode concept in personality disordered offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen-de Vos, Marije; Bernstein, David P.; Clark, Lee Anna; de Vogel, Vivienne; Bogaerts, S.; Slaats, Mariette; Arntz, Arnoud

    2017-01-01

    Purpose A core element of Schema Therapy (ST) is schema modes' or fluctuating emotional states. ST assumes that particular personality pathology consists of specific combinations of maladaptive schema modes. There is confirmatory evidence for the modes hypothesized to be central to borderline and

  13. Paradigms in migration research: exploring "moorings" as a schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, B

    1995-12-01

    "When considering where migration research interests may proceed, this article suggests much could be gained by considering theories of human motivation which, in the field of social psychology, represents a theoretical progression from the behavioural and cognitive approaches. The article suggests that combining theories of human motivation with the developing understanding of cultural influences may provide linkages between, on the one hand, the personal realm of migration and, on the other, the regional institutional framework of politicoeconomic structure within which people make their decisions.... The focus is on the migrant who remains within the same broad cultural context (such as within the same nation or ethnic group), but travels away from the confines of the general area in which he or she previously resided. Thus a person undertaking intraurban relocation is not regarded here as a 'migrant', and the schema proposed will probably not apply to international migration." excerpt

  14. [Body schema, multisensory integration and developmental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinersmann, Annika; Lücke, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    Our body is both, the object experiencing the world and the subject of our self- experience. As an object, the body provides sensory information via the bodily surface, which is processed and integrated into a coherent representation of the body, the body schema. This representation is considered to form a crucial structure underlying bodily self-identification. The process of integrating multimodal information into a coherent body representation has received extensive research interest with the aim to further clarify its neuronal correlates and functioning in health and disease. However, little is known about the ontogenetic functioning of body schema or multisensory integration processing and their role in the development of socio-emotional in children. This narrative overview discusses implication of a dysfunctional body schematic functioning for socio-emotional competencies. A general introduction on body schematic processes is followed by a narrative review of current findings on the maturation of the body schema and multisensory integration. We finally outline implications for the self- and socio-emotional development in children and discuss possible implications for a role of disrupted body schema functions in developmental disorders. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Treatment for Chronic Depression Using Schema Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renner, F.; Arntz, A.; Leeuw, I.; Huibers, M.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Schema therapy (ST) is an integrative treatment approach to chronic lifelong problems with an established effectiveness for treating personality disorders. This article describes the adaptation of ST to chronic depression by reviewing the literature on the underlying risk factors to chronic

  16. Type Checking with XML Schema in XACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Christian; Møller, Anders

    to support XML Schema as type formalism. The technique is able to model advanced features, such as type derivations and overloaded local element declarations, and also datatypes of attribute values and character data. Moreover, we introduce optional type annotations to improve modularity of the type checking...

  17. Consumers' attitude and intention towards organic food purchase: An extension of theory of planned behavior in gender perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Irianto, Heru

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study the variables affecting the consumer attitude to buy organic food that in turn affects the purchasing intention. Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used to explain this. The study variables include health consciousness, environmental consciousness, organic food price, attitude, subjective norm, intentions to purchase organic food and gender. Survey method was used, with the sample containing 200 respondents intending to purchase organic food in Su...

  18. Mental Schemas Hamper Memory Storage of Goal-Irrelevant Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweegers, C C G; Coleman, G A; van Poppel, E A M; Cox, R; Talamini, L M

    2015-01-01

    Mental schemas exert top-down control on information processing, for instance by facilitating the storage of schema-related information. However, given capacity-limits and competition in neural network processing, schemas may additionally exert their effects by suppressing information with low momentary relevance. In particular, when existing schemas suffice to guide goal-directed behavior, this may actually reduce encoding of the redundant sensory input, in favor of gaining efficiency in task performance. The present experiment set out to test this schema-induced shallow encoding hypothesis. Our approach involved a memory task in which faces had to be coupled to homes. For half of the faces the responses could be guided by a pre-learned schema, for the other half of the faces such a schema was not available. Memory storage was compared between schema-congruent and schema-incongruent items. To characterize putative schema effects, memory was assessed both with regard to visual details and contextual aspects of each item. The depth of encoding was also assessed through an objective neural measure: the parietal old/new ERP effect. This ERP effect, observed between 500-800 ms post-stimulus onset, is thought to reflect the extent of recollection: the retrieval of a vivid memory, including various contextual details from the learning episode. We found that schema-congruency induced substantial impairments in item memory and even larger ones in context memory. Furthermore, the parietal old/new ERP effect indicated higher recollection for the schema-incongruent than the schema-congruent memories. The combined findings indicate that, when goals can be achieved using existing schemas, this can hinder the in-depth processing of novel input, impairing the formation of perceptually detailed and contextually rich memory traces. Taking into account both current and previous findings, we suggest that schemas can both positively and negatively bias the processing of sensory input

  19. An Interpersonal Investigation of Sexual Self-Schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Kyle; Rehman, Uzma S; Fallis, Erin E; Goodnight, Jackson A

    2016-02-01

    A sexual self-schema is a cognitive generalization about sexual aspects of the self. In the current study, we examined how an individual's sexual self-schema influenced the processing of self and partner related sexual information. Specifically, we investigated how sexual self-schemas related to own and partner sexual satisfaction and how they influenced perceptions of partner sexual satisfaction. Participants were 117 heterosexual couples in committed, long-term relationships. Both partners completed measures assessing their sexual self-schemas, their own sexual satisfaction, and perceptions of partner sexual satisfaction. Consistent with our predictions, own sexual schema was associated with own sexual satisfaction. For men, more positive sexual self-schemas were associated with greater sexual satisfaction, and for women, more negative sexual self-schemas were associated with lower sexual satisfaction. For both men and women, there was no significant association between own sexual self-schema and partner sexual satisfaction. Sexual self-schemas directly and indirectly influenced an individual's perception of the partner's sexual satisfaction, such that men and women with more positive sexual self-schemas rated their partners as more sexually satisfied, after controlling for the partner's self-reported level of sexual satisfaction. Our findings demonstrated that sexual self-schemas are relevant to own sexual satisfaction as well as the processing of interpersonally relevant sexual information, specifically one's perceptions of partner sexual satisfaction.

  20. Market Earnings and Household Work: New Tests of Gender Performance Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    I examine the contested finding that men and women engage in gender performance through housework. Prior scholarship has found a curvilinear association between earnings share and housework that has been interpreted as evidence of gender performance. I reexamine these findings by conducting the first such analysis to use high-quality time diary…

  1. Implementing Feminist Theory in Engineering: Obstacles within the Gender Studies Tradition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udén, Maria K.

    2017-01-01

    Scholars have noted that there is hesitation to utilise findings from gender studies in engineering education. Issues within gender studies may be part of the matching problem. Debates concerning two concepts for new engineering paradigms are investigated: "care" and "heterogeneity." Their appeals and the respective…

  2. Influence of Social Cognitive and Gender Variables on Technological Academic Interest among Spanish High-School Students: Testing Social Cognitive Career Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Carmen; Inda, Mercedes; Fernández, Carmen Mª

    2016-01-01

    This study tested social cognitive career theory (SCCT) in the technological domain with 2,359 high-school students in Asturias (Spain). Path analyses were run to determine the influence of gender on the SCCT model and to explain the influence of personal (emotional state, gender-role attitudes), contextual (perceived social supports and…

  3. Supervisor-employee power distance incompatibility, gender similarity, and relationship conflict: A test of interpersonal interaction theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Katrina A; Dust, Scott B; Ziegert, Jonathan C

    2018-03-01

    According to interpersonal interaction theory, relational harmony surfaces when two individuals have compatible interaction styles. Building from this theory, we propose that supervisor-employee power distance orientation incompatibility will be related to employees' experience of higher levels of relationship conflict with their supervisors. Additionally, we propose an asymmetrical incongruence effect such that relationship conflict will be highest when supervisors are high in power distance and employees are low in power distance. Furthermore, we address calls in interpersonal interaction research for more direct attention to the social context of the dyadic interaction and explore the moderating effects of supervisor-employee gender (dis)similarity on the relationship between this incompatibility and conflict. We propose that supervisor-employee gender dissimilarity (e.g., male-female or female-male pairs) acts as a conditional moderator, neutralizing the power distance incongruence effect and the asymmetrical incongruence effect. Using 259 supervisor-employee dyads in the physical therapy industry, the hypotheses were generally supported. Theoretical and practical implications regarding the unique benefits of power distance compatibility and gender diversity in supervisor-employee dyads are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Socio economic gender inequality in Nigeria: A review of theory and measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Odozi, John C.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to synthesize the various views of gender inequality and various indicators used to measure it. It argues that women lag behind men in most indicators of socio-economic development and they constitute the majority of the poor, the unemployed and the socially disadvantaged. Productive differences as espoused by the traditional neoclassical as well as the institutions and markets advancement are not sufficient to explain gender inequality. The political economy view o...

  5. Discourse on Leadership and Gender Awareness in Higher Education Publications: A View through the Lens of Feminist Phase Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy M. Delmas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Using Feminist Phase Theory (FPT as our analytical framework, we studied the status of gender awareness and influence in higher education leadership development trends in four premier higher education journals for the years 2008, 2011, and 2014. Our analysis was accomplished through the review of articles and book reviews published in two US and two international journals: Higher Education (Netherlands, Higher Education Quarterly (UK, Journal of Higher Education (US, and The Review of Higher Education (US. Study results indicated progress toward a multifocal set of perspectives in which gender was not an issue; rather other concerns such as social justice or diversity were the focus. Data also indicated that while gender was no longer a specific focus of the literature, it was still an underlying concern. Gender and leadership are still being examined, intentionally or not. An additional finding revealed through the study of these journals is a lack of research about leadership in higher education, particularly in the US. A focus on understanding leadership does not appear to be a priority among this higher education community.

  6. The role of gender and sexual experience in predicting adolescent condom use intentions using the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Antonia; Mullan, Barbara A; Sainsbury, Kirby; Kuczmierczyk, Andrzej R

    2014-08-01

    To examine how the prediction of condom-related cognitions, intentions, and behaviour amongst adolescents may differ according to gender and sexual experience within a theory of planned behaviour (TPB) framework. Adolescents (N = 306) completed questionnaires about sexual experience, condom use, TPB variables, perceived risk, and safe sex knowledge. Significant differences in TPB variables, perceived risk, and knowledge were found; males and sexually experienced participants were generally less positive about condom use. Twenty percent of the variance in attitudes was accounted for by four variables; specifically, female gender, no previous sexual experience, better safe sex knowledge, and greater risk perceptions were associated with more positive attitudes. The prediction of intentions separately amongst sexually experienced (R(2) = 0.468) and inexperienced (R(2) = 0.436) participants revealed that, for the former group, attitudes and subjective norms were the most important considerations. In contrast, among the inexperienced participants, attitudes and the gender-by-perceived risk interaction term represented significant influences. The results suggest that interventions designed to improve adolescents' intentions to use condoms and rates of actual condom use should consider differences in gender and sexual experience.

  7. Does Gender Matter in Explaining Delinquency and Suicidal Thoughts? An Examination of General Strain Theory in South Korean Youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Minwoo; Kim, Eunyoung

    2017-06-01

    This study attempts to explore the potential extension of general strain theory (GST) by applying the hypotheses proposed by Broidy and Agnew to a sample of South Korean youths. Specifically, this study examines whether particular forms of strain and stressors have differential effects across genders on various deviant outcomes, delinquency, and suicidal thoughts. Multiple regression analyses using longitudinal data of 3,125 South Korean youths revealed mixed support for the GST proposition. Females experienced a higher level of both anger and depression than males. However, the experience of negative emotions is partly gendered in general. This study also found that different negative emotions and strain/stress factors are important and demonstrate gendered pathways in the case of delinquency. However, it also revealed that similar types of strains and stressors and negative emotions were significant and positive for suicidal thoughts for both males and females. Furthermore, a model examining the impacts of conditioning variables on suicidal thoughts highlighted that depression is particularly important in females. These findings indicate that various types of deviant outcomes and strain-stressors provide a fuller understanding of both similarities and differences by gender.

  8. Organization of physical interactomes as uncovered by network schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Eric; Nabieva, Elena; Chazelle, Bernard; Singh, Mona

    2008-10-01

    Large-scale protein-protein interaction networks provide new opportunities for understanding cellular organization and functioning. We introduce network schemas to elucidate shared mechanisms within interactomes. Network schemas specify descriptions of proteins and the topology of interactions among them. We develop algorithms for systematically uncovering recurring, over-represented schemas in physical interaction networks. We apply our methods to the S. cerevisiae interactome, focusing on schemas consisting of proteins described via sequence motifs and molecular function annotations and interacting with one another in one of four basic network topologies. We identify hundreds of recurring and over-represented network schemas of various complexity, and demonstrate via graph-theoretic representations how more complex schemas are organized in terms of their lower-order constituents. The uncovered schemas span a wide range of cellular activities, with many signaling and transport related higher-order schemas. We establish the functional importance of the schemas by showing that they correspond to functionally cohesive sets of proteins, are enriched in the frequency with which they have instances in the H. sapiens interactome, and are useful for predicting protein function. Our findings suggest that network schemas are a powerful paradigm for organizing, interrogating, and annotating cellular networks.

  9. LEARNING TO BE BAD: ADVERSE SOCIAL CONDITIONS, SOCIAL SCHEMAS, AND CRIME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Ronald L.; Burt, Callie Harbin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we develop and test a new approach to explain the link between social factors and individual offending. We argue that seemingly disparate family, peer, and community conditions lead to crime because the lessons communicated by these events are similar and promote social schemas involving a hostile view of people and relationships, a preference for immediate rewards, and a cynical view of conventional norms. Further, we posit that these three schemas are interconnected and combine to form a criminogenic knowledge structure that gives rise to situational interpretations legitimating criminal behavior. Structural equation modeling with a sample of roughly 700 hundred African American teens provided strong support for the model. The findings indicated that persistent exposure to adverse conditions such as community crime, discrimination, harsh parenting, deviant peers and low neighborhood collective efficacy increased commitment to the three social schemas. The three schemas were highly intercorrelated and combined to form a latent construct that strongly predicted increases in crime. Further, in large measure the effect of the various adverse conditions on increases in crime was indirect through their impact on this latent construct. We discuss the extent to which the social schematic model presented in the paper might be used to integrate concepts and findings from several of the major theories of criminal behavior. PMID:21760641

  10. Self-regulation versus habit: the influence of self-schema on fruit and vegetable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allom, Vanessa; Mullan, Barbara

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the determinants of fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption with the application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and the additional variables of self-schema, habit and self-regulation. While it has been shown that those with a healthy-eater self-schema are more likely to carry out their healthy dietary intentions, the underlying processes that influence this relationship have received limited empirical attention. Recent findings on dietary behaviour suggest that self-regulatory ability and habit strength may have dissimilar effects on the intention-behaviour relationship within schematics and non-schematics. Self-report questionnaires regarding F&V consumption cognitions and two tests of self-regulation were administered to 209 university students. One week later, participants completed questionnaires on their behaviour. The TPB significantly predicted intentions and prospective behaviour. Self-schema did not moderate the relationship between intention and behaviour. However, within healthy-eater schematics, those with high intention and high self-regulatory ability were more likely to consume F&V, while within non-schematics, those with low intention and high habit strength were more likely to consume F&V. The findings support the use of the TPB in predicting F&V consumption and the validity of the self-schema distinction. Implications for designing interventions are discussed.

  11. Effect of Content Schema, Vocabulary Knowledge, and Reading Comprehension on Translation Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Kafipour

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Schemata refer to all kinds of knowledge which are gained throughout the lifetime. Few studies tried to integrate schema theory and the next two crucial factors in translation and learning which are vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Thus, the present research aimed at delineating the potential effect of these three factors on translation performance of Iranian undergraduate students majoring in translator training. To this end, 172 Iranian undergraduate students majoring in translator training were selected based on two-step cluster sampling. To collect data, the participants answered a set of 6 open-ended questions to measure the students’ content schema along with a vocabulary size test, reading comprehension test, and translation task. To analyze data, Pearson correlation coefficient as well as stepwise multiple regressions was conducted through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 17. Data analysis indicated that the independent variables significantly correlated with translation performance. In addition, multiple regressions analysis specified reading comprehension as the main contributing variable and content schema as the second in students’ translation performance. It also showed that vocabulary knowledge could not be a predicting factor in translation performance of the learners; the reason may refer to the inseparable component of their translation task that is dictionary. The results highlighted the role of content schema in translation performance of the learners.

  12. Psychometric Properties of the Italian Version of the Young Schema Questionnaire L-3: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristide Saggino

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Schema Therapy (ST is a well-known approach for the treatment of personality disorders. This therapy integrates different theories and techniques into an original and systematic treatment model. The Young Schema Questionnaire L-3 (YSQ-L3 is a self-report instrument, based on the ST model, designed to assess 18 Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs. During the last decade, it has been translated and validated in different countries and languages. This study aims to establish the psychometric properties of the Italian Version of the YSQ-L3. We enrolled two groups: a clinical (n = 148 and a non-clinical one (n = 918. We investigated the factor structure, reliability and convergent validity with anxiety and depression between clinical and non-clinical groups. The results highlighted a few relevant findings. Cronbach's alpha showed significant values for all the schemas. All of the factor models do not seem highly adequate, even if the hierarchical model has proven to be the most significant one. Furthermore, the questionnaire confirms the ability to discriminate between clinical and non-clinical groups and could represent a useful tool in the clinical practice. Limitations and future directions are discussed.

  13. Early maladaptive schemas, parental attitudes and temperament, and the evolution of borderline and avoidant personality features – the search for interdependencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Mącik

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the presented study was the preliminary verification of the Jeffrey Young’s theory of early maladaptive schemas and their role in the genesis of personality disorders. According to Young, negative parental attitudes towards the child and the moderating influence of the child’s temperament can develop the schemas. Coping with schemas shapes the traits of a personality disorder. Methods: Four hundred and thirty-five subjects from a non-clinical group were tested. They completed the Young Schema Questionnaire – Short Form (YSQ-S3, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders – Personality Questionnaire part (SCID-II, Questionnaire of Retrospective Assessment of Parental Attitudes (KPR-Roc and Questionnaire of the Formal Characteristics of Behaviour–Temperament Inventory (FCB-TI. The SCID-II was used to determine specific features of behaviour. For the presented study borderline and avoidant personality patterns were chosen. Results: Explanatory models were created using regression analysis. The models were composed of: 1 schemas, 2 schemas, temperament, 3 schemas, parental attitudes, 4 all variables. In the case of borderline features, the models explain 26%, 30%, 35% and 36% of the variance of personality traits, respectively. The most appropriate model 3  includes the following schemas: Abandonment, Defectiveness, Self-Sacrifice, Pessimism and parental attitudes: Overdemandingness, Autonomy, Overprotection of the father and Autonomy and Inconsistency of the mother. In the case of avoidant traits, models explain 40%, 47%, 41% and 49% of the variance, respectively. For avoidant traits temperament is more important than parental attitudes – significant factors are: Social Isolation, Vulnerability to Harm, Subjugation, Self-Sacrifice, Emotional Inhibition, Pessimism and temperamental traits: Emotional Reactivity and Activity. Conclusion: The presented preliminary analysis confirms Young

  14. Association of parasuicidal behaviour to early maladaptive schemas and schema modes in patients with BPD: The Oulu BPD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Virpi; Vuorenmaa, Elina; Lindeman, Sari; Tuulari, Jyrki; Hakko, Helinä

    2016-02-01

    The present study aimed to examine which early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) and schema modes emerged in parasuicidal and non-parasuicidal patients with BPD participating in the Oulu BPD study. The patients' EMSs were assessed using the Young Schema Questionnaire, and schema modes using the Young Atkinson Mode Inventory. Sixty patients with BPD responded to both the schema and schema mode questionnaires; of these, 46 (76.7%) fulfilled the criteria for parasuicidality. In BPD patients with parasuicidality, the EMSs of emotional deprivation, abandonment/instability, mistrust/abuse and social isolation were the most prevalent, and the schema modes of vulnerable child, angry child, detached protector and compliant surrender were prominent. In patients without parasuicidality, the schema modes of healthy adult and happy child were the most prevalent. Significant correlations were observed between the schema modes of detached protector, vulnerable child, punitive parent and angry child and almost every EMS in BPD patients with parasuicidality. Our preliminary findings suggest that associations between certain EMSs and schema modes to parasuicidality in BPD patients may provide valuable information when planning and implementing their treatment. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Boris Hirsch: Monopsonistic Labour Markets and the Gender Pay Gap. Theory and Empirical Evidence. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Jochmann-Döll

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Der mögliche Beitrag monopsonistischer Arbeitsmarktmodelle zur Erklärung der geschlechterbezogenen Entgeltlücke (Gender Pay Gap steht im Zentrum der Dissertation von Boris Hirsch. Nach den Theorien des räumlichen und des dynamischen Monopsons sind Unternehmen deshalb in der Lage, geringere Entgelte an Frauen zu zahlen, weil deren Arbeitsangebot auf Unternehmensebene weniger elastisch ist und sie bei einem Arbeitsplatzwechsel höhere Verluste in Kauf nehmen müssen. Die Ausnutzung der Monopsonmacht und die mit dem Robinson’schen Ansatz beschreibbare Diskriminierung durch die Unternehmen führten zu unterschiedlichen Entgelten zwischen Frauen und Männern. Die von Hirsch getroffenen theoretischen Annahmen werden für den deutschen Arbeitsmarkt empirisch bestätigt; durch sie lässt sich mindestens ein Drittel des Gender Pay Gap erklären.The possible contribution of monopsonistic job market models to the explanation of the gender-based payment gap (Gender Pay Gap is at the center of Boris Hirsch’s dissertation. According to the theories of the regional and the dynamic monopson, companies are able to pay women lower wages because their labor supply on the company level is less flexible and because they have to accept higher losses in the case of a job change. The companies’ abuse of the monopsonistic power and the discrimination, which can be explained with the Robinson approach, lead to unequal wages between men and women. Hirsch’s theoretical hypotheses are validated empirically for the German employment market; with them, at least a third of the Gender Pay Gap can be explained.

  16. Gstruct: a system for extracting schemas from GML documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Zhu, Fubao; Guan, Jihong; Zhou, Shuigeng

    2008-10-01

    Geography Markup Language (GML) becomes the de facto standard for geographic information representation on the internet. GML schema provides a way to define the structure, content, and semantic of GML documents. It contains useful structural information of GML documents and plays an important role in storing, querying and analyzing GML data. However, GML schema is not mandatory, and it is common that a GML document contains no schema. In this paper, we present Gstruct, a tool for GML schema extraction. Gstruct finds the features in the input GML documents, identifies geometry datatypes as well as simple datatypes, then integrates all these features and eliminates improper components to output the optimal schema. Experiments demonstrate that Gstruct is effective in extracting semantically meaningful schemas from GML documents.

  17. Psychosocial Factors, Maladaptive Cognitive Schemas, and Depression in Young Adults: An Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Cankaya, Banu

    2002-01-01

    The present study examined a psychosocial-cognitive model that integrates recent findings on the independent effects of early maladaptive cognitive schemas (EMSs; Young, 1994) and psychosocial factors/stressors; viz., social support, expressed emotion, stressful life events and daily hassles, on level of depressive symptoms in young adults. Consistent with Beck's theory of depression, the expectation was that individuals with the EMSs would be more likely to respond to psychosocial stressors...

  18. Exploring revictimization process among Turkish women: The role of early maladaptive schemas on the link between child abuse and partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmaca, Sinem; Gençöz, Tülin

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the current study is to explore the revictimization process between child abuse and neglect (CAN), and intimate partner violence (IPV) based on the schema theory perspective. For this aim, 222 married women recruited in four central cities of Turkey participated in the study. Results indicated that early negative CAN experiences increased the risk of being exposed to later IPV. Specifically, emotional abuse and sexual abuse in the childhood predicted the four subtypes of IPV, which are physical, psychological, and sexual violence, and injury, while physical abuse only associated with physical violence. To explore the mediational role of early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) on this association, first, five schema domains were tested via Parallel Multiple Mediation Model. Results indicated that only Disconnection/Rejection (D/R) schema domains mediated the association between CAN and IPV. Second, to determine the particular mediational roles of each schema, eighteen EMS were tested as mediators, and results showed that Emotional Deprivation Schema and Vulnerability to Harm or Illness Schema mediated the association between CAN and IPV. These findings provided an empirical support for the crucial roles of EMSs on the effect of revictimization process. Clinical implications were discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An Examination of the Gender Inclusiveness of Current Theories of Sexual Violence in Adulthood: Recognizing Male Victims, Female Perpetrators, and Same-Sex Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchik, Jessica A; Hebenstreit, Claire L; Judson, Stephanie S

    2016-04-01

    Although the majority of adulthood sexual violence involves a male perpetrator and a female victim, there is also substantial evidence that members of both genders can be victims and perpetrators of sexual violence. As an alternative to viewing sexual violence within gender-specific terms, we advocate for the use of a gender inclusive conceptualization of sexual aggression that takes into account the factors that contribute to sexual victimization of, and victimization by, both men and women. The goal of the current review is to examine the need and importance of a gender inclusive conceptualization of sexual violence and to discuss how compatible our current theories are with this conceptualization. First, we examine evidence of how a gender-specific conceptualization of sexual violence aids in obscuring assault experiences that are not male to female and how this impacts victims of such violence. We specifically discuss this impact regarding research, law, public awareness, advocacy, and available victim treatment and resources. Next, we provide an overview of a number of major sexual violence theories that are relevant for adult perpetrators and adult victims, including neurobiological and integrated biological theories, evolutionary psychology theory, routine activity theory, feminist theory, social learning and related theories, typology approaches, and integrated theories. We critically examine these theories' applicability to thinking about sexual violence through a gender inclusive lens. Finally, we discuss further directions for research, clinical interventions, and advocacy in this area. Specifically, we encourage sexual violence researchers and clinicians to identify and utilize appropriate theoretical frameworks and to apply these frameworks in ways that incorporate a full range of sexual violence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. A Bayesian Network Schema for Lessening Database Inference

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chang, LiWu; Moskowitz, Ira S

    2001-01-01

    .... The authors introduce a formal schema for database inference analysis, based upon a Bayesian network structure, which identifies critical parameters involved in the inference problem and represents...

  1. Math-Gender Stereotypes and Career Intentions: An Application of Expectancy-Value Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jingjing; Zuo, Bin; Wen, Fangfang; Yan, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to negative math-gender stereotypes undermines the intentions of female college students to engage in careers in the math field, yet the mechanisms by which such stereotypes relate to girls' career intentions remain unclear. We simultaneously tested multiple mediators in a sample of 186 female students from one high school in central…

  2. What's the Place of Queer Theory in Studies of Gender, Sexuality, and Education on the Periphery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Mary Lou

    2016-01-01

    This article is an exploration of the problem of theorizing gender and sexuality of people who Raewyn Connell might describe as coming from the global periphery, but whose lives and futures are also enmeshed in the politics, policies, and pedagogies of the metropole. Elizabeth Povinelli has done extensive research on Indigenous people in the…

  3. Should we give up on the State? Feminist theory, African gender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transitional Justice, scholars have examined in very thoughtful ways the relationship of feminism and feminist theory to the field of transitional justice and post-conflict. This article examines some of this work and suggests ways that we might build on these insights by working more with feminist theories of the state, feminist ...

  4. Targeting "risky" gender ideologies: constructing a community-driven, theory-based HIV prevention intervention for youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laub, C; Somera, D M; Gowen, L K; Díaz, R M

    1999-04-01

    Since the beginning of the HIV epidemic, school-based HIV prevention education targeting youth has taken many forms. Although there has been some success, educators continue to be challenged by situations in which youth are knowledgeable about HIV but continue to engage in risky sexual behavior. In this article, the authors propose that the underlying or implicit theories about teenagers' sexual risk behavior that guide most of these prevention activities are not accurate descriptions or valid explanations of sexual risk in this population. The article is divided into three major sections. First, the authors articulate the theories underlying HIV prevention activities that are typically found in standard school-based prevention curricula, discussing both their limitations and strengths. Second, they discuss their increased awareness of the role of gender ideologies and sexual scripts in the sexual lives of youth. Finally, the authors describe their current HIV prevention activity ("The Game") as it emerges and is shaped by their increasing understanding of the critical role of gender-based ideologies and sexual scripts in young people's sexual risk behavior.

  5. Image schemas and mimetic schemas in cognitive linguistics and gesture studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cienki, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Image schemas have been a fundamental construct in cognitive linguistics, providing grounds for psychological, philosophical, as well as linguistic research. Given the focus in cognitive linguistics on embodied experience as a fundamental basis for language structure and meaning, the employment of

  6. The Interaction Between Schema Matching and Record Matching in Data Integration

    KAUST Repository

    Gu, Binbin; Li, Zhixu; Zhang, Xiangliang; Liu, An; Liu, Guanfeng; Zheng, Kai; Zhao, Lei; Zhou, Xiaofang

    2016-01-01

    Schema Matching (SM) and Record Matching (RM) are two necessary steps in integrating multiple relational tables of different schemas, where SM unifies the schemas and RM detects records referring to the same real-world entity. The two processes have

  7. Implementation of outpatient schema therapy for borderline personality disorder: study design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadort, M.; Arntz, A.; Smit, J.H.; Giesen-Bloo, J.; Eikelenboom, M.J.; Spinhoven, P.; Asselt, van T.; Wensing, M.; Dyck, van R.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Schema Therapy (ST) is an integrative psychotherapy based upon a cognitive schema model which aims at identifying and changing dysfunctional schemas and modes through cognitive, experiential and behavioral pathways. It is specifically developed for patients with personality

  8. Implementation of outpatient schema therapy for borderline personality disorder: study design.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadort, M.; Arntz, A.; Smit, J.H.; Giesen-Bloo, J.; Eikelenboom, M.; Spinhoven, P.; Asselt, T. van; Wensing, M.J.P.; Dyck, R. van

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Schema Therapy (ST) is an integrative psychotherapy based upon a cognitive schema model which aims at identifying and changing dysfunctional schemas and modes through cognitive, experiential and behavioral pathways. It is specifically developed for patients with personality disorders.

  9. Chapter 17. Electric schema and its changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feik, K.; Kmosena, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter an electric schema and its changes of the A1 nuclear power plant in Jaslovske Bohunice (the Slovak Republic) are described. Three turbogenerators with power 50 MW were installed in the A1 NPP. Basic description of electrical equipment installed according authentic project and authentic conception of accidental cooling are presented in detail. New conception and equipment of accidental and super-accidental after-cooling of the A1 NPP as well as final solution of electrical part with new functions of accidental and super-accidental after-cooling are presented. Shortcomings of electrical equipment, which originated and were eliminated during construction and operation, are also described.

  10. The European Construction Social Partners: Gender Equality in Theory and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Elsebet Frydendal

    2005-01-01

    that play a role in women's integration. The responses indicate that the construction industry still displays inertia and conservatism, and that the social partners coroborate rather than counter this. They express a "discourse" of gender equality, but this does not automatically lead to equal opportunity......This article explores the social partners' role in a gender quality agenda in construction at skilled operative level. It draws on a survey of the European construction social partners that investigated the presence of women in skilled trades and the policies, collective agreements and practices...... policies or programmes. The social partners have a platform to make inroads and to change the industry from within, but need further encouragement to put this on their agenda....

  11. Implementing feminist theory in engineering: obstacles within the gender studies tradition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udén, Maria K.

    2017-05-01

    Scholars have noted that there is hesitation to utilise findings from gender studies in engineering education. Issues within gender studies may be part of the matching problem. Debates concerning two concepts for new engineering paradigms are investigated: care and heterogeneity. Their appeals and the respective complications which they tend to be associated with are revisited. Two examples are explored in detail. The tensions revealed lead to the contents of technical work. More social sciences content in engineering education is sometimes suggested, as a way to support more humane approaches. But, if the calculations that decide how many bolts of what dimension are to be put where are 'masculinist reductionism', it still remains that someone will have to do those calculations. Is emphasis on social issues really what we want from engineers?

  12. Post-Fordist reconfigurations of gender, work and life: theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Breda; Ciolfi, Luigina; de Carvalho, Aparecido Fabiano Pinatti; D'Andrea, Anthony; Wixted, Lisa

    2017-12-01

    Based on an in-depth study with 56 informants (25 women and 31 men), across the ICT (information and communication technology), creative and academic sectors in one city/regional hub in Ireland, this article investigates the so-called revolution in work/life practices associated with the post-Fordist labour processes of the Knowledge Economy from the perspectives of workers themselves. Recent theorizations of post-Fordist work patterns emphasize a rearranging of work and life place boundaries; a reconfiguring of work and life time boundaries; and a dissolving of the gendered boundaries of work and life (production and social reproduction) (Adkins and Dever ; Morini and Fumagalli ; Gill and Pratt ; Weeks ; Hardt and Negri ). Our findings suggest that, instead of dissolving boundaries, workers constantly struggle to draw boundaries between what counts as work and as life, and that this varies primarily in relation to gender and stage in a gendered life trajectory. Work extensification is compensated for via a perceived freedom to shape one's own life, which is articulated in terms of individualized boundary-drawing. While younger men embraced 'always on' work, they also articulated anxieties about how these work habits might interfere with family aspirations. This was also true for younger women who also struggled to make time for life in the present. For mothers, boundary drawing was articulated as a necessity but was framed more in terms of personal choice by fathers. Although all participants distinguished between paid work and life as distinct sites of value, boundaries were individually drawn and resist any easy mapping of masculinity and femininity onto the domains of work and life. Instead, we argue that it is the process of boundary drawing that reveals gendered patterns. The personalized struggles of these relatively privileged middle-class workers centre on improving the quality of their lives, but raise important questions about the political possibilities

  13. The Study of early maladaptive Schemas in Men Dependent on Drugs and those Not Dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Firoozi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Objectives of the Study Dependence on drugs is a prevalent problem throughout the world, in general and in Iran, in particular. Such a phenomenon is associated with numerous negative consequences. Given the changes in the consumption patterns in different countries, especially in Iran, and the abuse of drugs, identifying the factors which may pave the way for drug abuse is absolutely essential, which can be taken into account in setting the objectives of therapy programs. Cognizant of this, the present study has sought to study early maladaptive schemas in men dependent on drugs and those that are not. Materials and Method: The research design adopted in the present study was causal-comparative. The populaiton of interest was all the men dependent on drugs in the city of Yasouj, who had presented to recovery centers affiliated to welfare organization and Yasouj University of Medical Sciences in the year 2014 and were undergoing treatment. Using multi-stage cluster sampling, initially out of 23 centers for recovery programs, four centers were randomly chosen. Following that, out of each center, 20 and in total, 80 clients were chosen as the sample through convenience sampling. In addition, 80 men not dependent on drugs were chosen through matching with the sample dependent on drugs in terms of age, gender and locality. For the purpsoe of measuing early maladaptive schemas, we made use of the short version of Young’s early maladaptive Schemas Questionnaire. In order to determine the prevalent schemas in men dependent on drugs and those not dependent and the difference between the two groups, use was made of independent-sample t-test and effect size (d. Findings: The findings suggest that mean values of those dependent on drugs in all the schemas in quesiton were significantly higher than those of men not dependent. Although the difference in effect size of all schemas fell in the domain of the large effect, the largest

  14. Early Maladaptive Schemas in Patients with and without Migraine and Tension Headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Rezaei Dogaheh

    2015-12-01

    Methods:  The present study was of cross sectional and correlational studies. The measures included  Headache Disability Inventory and Young Early Maladaptive Schemas Questionnaire (Short Form. The  population of the study was Tehran adult patients with migraine and tension headache aged 18 to 55  years. The final study sample included 69 participants with migraine or tension headaches and 86 non- clinical samples of both genders. After referring by psychiatrists, they were selected by convenient and  targeted sampling. The two groups were matched based on sex and education. Results: Migraine and tension headache sufferers and non-clinical participants were significantly  different in 9 schemas including Emotional deprivation, Abandonment/instability, Mistrust/abuse, Social  isolation/alienation, Failure to achieve, Enmeshment/Undeveloped Self, Subjugation, Self-sacrifice and  Emotional inhibition. In addition, a series of EMSs could significantly predict 61 percent of the total  change in position of tension headaches or migraine group correctly. Discussion: It seems that EMSs are important factors influencing migraine and tension headaches. The  recognition and manipulation of these schemas along with other medical therapies can result in reducing  the symptoms of the disorder. 

  15. Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Schema Assimilation and Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Szu-Han; Tse, Dorothy; Morris, Richard G. M.

    2012-01-01

    In humans and in animals, mental schemas can store information within an associative framework that enables rapid and efficient assimilation of new information. Using a hippocampal-dependent paired-associate task, we now report that the anterior cingulate cortex is part of a neocortical network of schema storage with NMDA receptor-mediated…

  16. Family Functioning and Maladaptive Schemas: The Moderating Effects of Optimism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, John R.; Gunty, Amy L.

    2008-01-01

    Authoritarian parenting is often shown to be associated with negative outcomes for children, including the development of maladaptive schemas. However, this is not the case for all children who experience Authoritarian parenting. Optimism is examined as a moderator in the relationship between Authoritarian parenting and maladaptive schemas that…

  17. Schema Design Alternatives for Multi-Granular Data Warehousing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2010-01-01

    Data warehousing is widely used in industry for reporting and analysis of huge volumes of data at different levels of detail. In general, data warehouses use standard dimensional schema designs to organize their data. However, current data warehousing schema designs fall short in their ability...

  18. Titulus Scuola: the new file classification schema for Italian schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Penzo Doria

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the new file classification schema national for Italian schools, produced by the Italian Directorate General of Archives of the Ministry for Cultural Heritage, within the project Titulus Scuola. This classification schema represents the starting point for a standard documental system, aimed at the digital administration.

  19. Effects of self-schema elaboration on affective and cognitive reactions to self-relevant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, L E; Stahlberg, D; Dauenheimer, D

    2000-02-01

    The basic assumption of the integrative self-schema model (ISSM; L.-E. Petersen, 1994; L.-E. Petersen, D. Stahlberg, & D. Dauenheimer, 1996; D. Stahlberg, L.-E. Petersen, & D. Dauenheimer, 1994, 1999) is that self-schema elaboration (schematic vs. aschematic) affects reactions to self-relevant information. This assumption is based on the idea that schematic dimensions occupy a more central position in the cognitive system than aschematic dimensions. In the first study, this basic prediction could be clearly confirmed: The results showed that schematic dimensions possessed stronger cognitive associations with other self-relevant cognitions as well as a higher resistance to change than aschematic dimensions did. In the second study, the main assumptions of the ISSM concerning the affective and cognitive reactions to self-relevant feedback were tested: The ISSM proposes that, on schematic dimensions, reactions to self-relevant feedback will most likely follow principles of self-consistency theory, whereas on aschematic dimensions positive feedback should elicit the most positive reactions that self-enhancement theory would predict. The experimental results clearly confirmed the hypotheses derived from the ISSM for affective reactions. Cognitive reactions, however, were in line with self-consistency principles and were not modified by the elaboration of the self-schema dimension involved.

  20. The psychology of thinking before the cognitive revolution: Otto Selz on problems, schemas, and creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Hark, Michel

    2010-02-01

    Otto Selz has been hailed as one of the most important precursors of the cognitive revolution, yet surprisingly few studies of his work exist. He is often mentioned in the context of the Würzburg School of the psychology of thinking and sometimes in the context of Gestalt psychology. In this paper, it is argued that Selz's emphasis on the role of problems and schemas in the direction of thought processes and creativity sets him apart from the program of the Würzburg School. On the other hand, by developing a theory of thinking that is exclusively at the intentional level, Selz also differs from psychologists that take physics as a model for psychology, such as the Gestalt psychology of Wolfgang Kihler. Special emphasis is given in this paper to Selz's use of the concept of problem or task and the concept of the schema. It is further argued that the concept of the schema is the result of Selz's adaptation of the theory of relations as developed by the philosopher Meinong. The paper begins with a sketch of Selz's life that ended so tragically.

  1. Attack Classification Schema for Smart City WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Garcia-Font

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas around the world are populating their streets with wireless sensor networks (WSNs in order to feed incipient smart city IT systems with metropolitan data. In the future smart cities, WSN technology will have a massive presence in the streets, and the operation of municipal services will be based to a great extent on data gathered with this technology. However, from an information security point of view, WSNs can have failures and can be the target of many different types of attacks. Therefore, this raises concerns about the reliability of this technology in a smart city context. Traditionally, security measures in WSNs have been proposed to protect specific protocols in an environment with total control of a single network. This approach is not valid for smart cities, as multiple external providers deploy a plethora of WSNs with different security requirements. Hence, a new security perspective needs to be adopted to protect WSNs in smart cities. Considering security issues related to the deployment of WSNs as a main data source in smart cities, in this article, we propose an intrusion detection framework and an attack classification schema to assist smart city administrators to delimit the most plausible attacks and to point out the components and providers affected by incidents. We demonstrate the use of the classification schema providing a proof of concept based on a simulated selective forwarding attack affecting a parking and a sound WSN.

  2. Attack Classification Schema for Smart City WSNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Font, Victor; Garrigues, Carles; Rifà-Pous, Helena

    2017-04-05

    Urban areas around the world are populating their streets with wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in order to feed incipient smart city IT systems with metropolitan data. In the future smart cities, WSN technology will have a massive presence in the streets, and the operation of municipal services will be based to a great extent on data gathered with this technology. However, from an information security point of view, WSNs can have failures and can be the target of many different types of attacks. Therefore, this raises concerns about the reliability of this technology in a smart city context. Traditionally, security measures in WSNs have been proposed to protect specific protocols in an environment with total control of a single network. This approach is not valid for smart cities, as multiple external providers deploy a plethora of WSNs with different security requirements. Hence, a new security perspective needs to be adopted to protect WSNs in smart cities. Considering security issues related to the deployment of WSNs as a main data source in smart cities, in this article, we propose an intrusion detection framework and an attack classification schema to assist smart city administrators to delimit the most plausible attacks and to point out the components and providers affected by incidents. We demonstrate the use of the classification schema providing a proof of concept based on a simulated selective forwarding attack affecting a parking and a sound WSN.

  3. Integrating Social Justice into the Practice of CBFT: A Critical Look at Family Schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Elizabeth O; McDowell, Teresa

    2017-07-01

    Many families come to therapy struggling with the negative consequence of social inequity. Family therapy modalities have been developed to address these negative consequences and attend to power and social equity (Transformative family therapy: Just families in a just society. Boston, MA: Pearson Education; Socio-emotional relationship therapy. New York, NY: Springer). We argue that many family therapy modalities can be adapted to include social equity (Applying critical social theory in family therapy practice. AFTA Springer Series. New York, NY: Springer Publishing). Specifically, cognitive behavioral family therapy can be used to address the inequality in social systems that negatively affect the family system. We focus on schema formation and suggest an emphasis on societal schemas within the therapy milieu as a tool to help families see how societal inequality can affect the problems faced in family life. © 2016 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  4. Various types of numerical schema for the one-dimensional spherical geometry transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaber, Abdelouhab.

    1981-07-01

    Mathematical and numerical studies of new schemas possessing high accuracy spatial variable properties are described and the corresponding studies presented. In order to do this, the [0,R] x [-1,+1] rectangle is decomposad into Ksub(ij) = [rsub(i),rsub(i+1)] x [μsub(j),μsub(j+1) ] rectangles. Continuous finite element methods employing polynominals of degree 1 in μ and degree 2 in r are defined for each elements. In chapter I, different ways of rendering the particular equation (for μ = -1) discrete are studied. In chapter II, numerical schemas are described and their stability investigated. In chapter III, error estimation theories are exposed and numerical results for different second members, S, given [fr

  5. The Interactive Origin and the Aesthetic Modelling of Image-Schemas and Primary Metaphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Isabel C; Español, Silvia A; Pérez, Diana I

    2018-06-02

    According to the theory of conceptual metaphor, image-schemas and primary metaphors are preconceptual structures configured in human cognition, based on sensory-motor environmental activity. Focusing on the way both non-conceptual structures are embedded in early social interaction, we provide empirical evidence for the interactive and intersubjective ontogenesis of image-schemas and primary metaphors. We present the results of a multimodal image-schematic microanalysis of three interactive infant-directed performances (the composition of movement, touch, speech, and vocalization that adults produce for-and-with the infants). The microanalyses show that adults aesthetically highlight the image-schematic structures embedded in the multimodal composition of the performance, and that primary metaphors are also lived as embedded in these inter-enactive experiences. The findings allow corroborating that the psychological domains of cognition and affection are not in rivalry or conflict but rather intertwined in meaningful experiences.

  6. Core schemas and suicidality in a chronically traumatized population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Lissa; Callahan, Kelley; Forman, Evan; Mendelsohn, Michaela; Herman, Judith

    2008-01-01

    The Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ) has been demonstrated to tap into core beliefs, or maladaptive schemas, of clinical populations. This study used the YSQ to investigate maladaptive schemas of 137 chronically traumatized patients seeking outpatient psychiatric treatment and to assess whether specific schemas might be associated with suicide risk in this population. Participants completed a modified version of the YSQ-S (short form), post-traumatic diagnostic scale, dissociative experiences scale and self-harm and risk behaviors questionnaire-revised at treatment intake. Significant correlations were found between most YSQ scales and the post-traumatic diagnostic scale, and between all YSQ scales and the dissociative experiences scale. Suicide risk variables were most highly correlated with the social isolation/alienation, defectiveness/shame and failure YSQ scales, suggesting that these schemas may mark individuals at particularly high risk for suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. These results offer important implications for the assessment and treatment of high-risk traumatized patients.

  7. Self-Schemata for Movement Activities: The Influence of Race and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Louis, Jr.; And Others

    This study investigated the influence of race and gender on students' self-schema for movement activities. Study participants were 168 male and female seventh- and eighth-grade students, both African American and Euro American, from a semi-rural school in a Southeastern state. The Physical Activity Schema Analysis (PASA) was administered to…

  8. Dilemmas in the Danish approach to gender equality : gender equality without gender quota

    OpenAIRE

    ROLANDSEN AGUSTÍN, Lise; SIIM, Birte

    2015-01-01

    The paper addresses the dilemmas, contradictions and paradoxes in the Danish approach to gender quotas and gender equality and discusses the intersections of citizenship, democracy and gender justice. Gender research understands gender quota as a means to achieve equal rights, gender equality and gender parity. Gender theory has conceptualized gender parity as one step towards achieving gender justice in all arenas of social, political and economic life. The Danish cases illustrate that conte...

  9. [The mediating role of the interpersonal schemas between parenting styles and psychological symptoms: a schema focused view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soygüt, Gonca; Cakir, Zehra

    2009-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to examine the relationships between perceived parenting styles and interpersonal schemas. The second purpose was to investigate the mediator role of interpersonal schemas between perceived parenting styles and psychological symptoms. University students (N=94), ages ranging between 17-26, attending to different faculty and classes, have completed Interpersonal Schema Questionnaire, Young Parenting Inventory and Symptom Check List-90. A series of regression analyses revealed that perceived parenting styles have predictive power on a number of interpersonal schemas. Further analyses pointed out that the mediator role of Hostility situation of interpersonal schemas between psychological symptoms and normative, belittling/criticizing, pessimistic/worried parenting styles on the mother forms (Sobel z= 1.94-2.08, p parenting styles (Sobel z= 2.20-2.86, p parenting styles on interpersonal schemas. Moreover, the mediator role of interpersonal schemas between perceived parenting styles and psychological symptoms was also observed. Excluding pessimistic/anxious parenting styles, perceived parenting styles of mothers and fathers differed in their relation to psychological symptoms. In overall evaluation, we believe that, although schemas and parental styles have some universalities in relation to their impacts on psychological health, further research is necessary to address their implications and possible paternal differences in our collectivistic cultural context.

  10. Testing Requirements to Manage Data Exchange Specifications in Enterprise Integration - A Schema Design Quality Focus.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulvatunyou, Boonserm [ORNL; Ivezic, Nenad [ORNL; Buhwan, Jeong [POSTECH University, South Korea

    2004-07-01

    In this paper, we describe the requirements to test W3C XML Schema usage when defining message schemas for data exchange in any large and evolving enterprise integration project. We then decompose the XML Schema testing into four (4) aspects including the message schema conformance to the XML Schema specification grammar, the message schema conformance to the XML Schema specification semantics, the message schema conformance to design quality testing, and canonical semantics testing of the message schema. We describe these four testing aspects in some detail and point to other related efforts. We further focus to provide some technical details for the message schema design quality testing. As a future work, we describe the requirements for canonical semantics testing and potential solution approaches. Finally, we describe an implementation architecture for the message schema design quality testing.

  11. Commentary: Should Gender Differences Be Included in the Evolutionary Upgrade to Cognitive Load Theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Andy

    2017-01-01

    Recent upgrades to cognitive load theory suggest that evolutionary processes have shaped the way that working memory processes cultural and social information. According to evolutionarily educational psychologists, some forms of information are processed with lower working memory loads than other forms. The former are evolutionarily salient and…

  12. "Learning to Listen": Boys' Gender Narratives--Implications for Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Francis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to critically investigate year 6 and year 9 boys' constructions of masculinity in the light of theories of inclusive masculinity and to consider the implications of the findings for critical masculinities scholarship in educational research. Design/methodology/approach: Qualitative data was collected through…

  13. Relationships among Vocal Jazz Improvisation Achievement, Jazz Theory Knowledge, Imitative Ability, Musical Experience, Creativity, and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madura, Patrice Dawn

    1996-01-01

    Reports on a study that examined the nature of vocal jazz improvisation and the factors that influence achievement in improvisation. Participating subjects performed two jazz improvisation tasks that were measured for tonal, rhythmic, and expressive items. Correlating independent variables included jazz theory knowledge, jazz experience, and…

  14. Silent Films and Strange Stories: Theory of Mind, Gender, and Social Experiences in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Rory T.; Hughes, Claire

    2013-01-01

    In this study of two hundred and thirty 8- to 13-year-olds, a new "Silent Films" task is introduced, designed to address the dearth of research on theory of mind in older children by providing a film-based analogue of F. G. E. Happe's (1994) Strange Stories task. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that all items from both tasks loaded…

  15. Evaluating the Mathematics Interest Inventory Using Item Response Theory: Differential Item Functioning across Gender and Ethnicities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Tianlan; Chesnut, Steven R.; Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Stevens, Tara; Olivárez, Arturo, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    As the United States has begun to lag behind other developed countries in performance on mathematics and science, researchers have sought to explain this with theories of teaching, knowledge, and motivation. We expand this examination by further analyzing a measure of interest that has been linked to student performance in mathematics and…

  16. Gender and theory of mind in preschoolers' group effort: evidence for timing differences behind children's earliest social loafing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R Bruce; Thornton, Bill

    2014-01-01

    This study explored mental state reasoning within the context of group effort and possible differences in development between boys and girls. Preschool children (59 girls, 47 boys) were assessed for theory of mind (ToM) ability using classic false belief tests. Children participated in group effort conditions that alternated from one condition, where individual effort was transparent and obvious, to one where individual effort remained anonymous. The aim was to investigate if emergent mental state reasoning, after controlling for age, was associated with the well-known phenomenon of reduced effort in group tasks ("social loafing"). Girls had slightly higher ToM scores and social loafing than boys. Hierarchical regression, controlling for age, indicated that understanding of others' false beliefs uniquely predicted social loafing and interacted weakly with gender status.

  17. Gender differences in college leisure time physical activity: application of the theory of planned behavior and integrated behavioral model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beville, Jill M; Meyer, M Renée Umstattd; Usdan, Stuart L; Turner, Lori W; Jackson, John C; Lian, Brad E

    2014-01-01

    National data consistently report that males participate in leisure time physical activity (LTPA) at higher rates than females. This study expanded previous research to examine gender differences in LTPA of college students using the theory of planned behavior (TPB) by including 2 additional constructs, descriptive norm and self-efficacy, from the integrated behavioral model. Participants were college students (N = 621) from a large public university in the southeastern United States. A self-report, classroom-based assessment with validated and reliable measures of LTPA, TPB constructs, descriptive norm, self-efficacy, and demographics was conducted in fall 2009. Regression analyses revealed attitude (β = .119), intention (β = .438), self-efficacy (β = .166), body mass index (BMI) (β = -.084), and sports participation (β = .081) as significantly associated with LTPA for females (R (2) = .425, p students.

  18. Divorce and Childhood Chronic Illness: A Grounded Theory of Trust, Gender, and Third-Party Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Luke T; Coleman, Marilyn; Ganong, Lawrence H; Gayer, Debra

    2016-05-01

    Divorced parents face distinct challenges in providing care for chronically ill children. Children's residence in two households necessitates the development of family-specific strategies to ensure coparents' supervision of regimen adherence and the management of children's health care. Utilizing a risk and resilience perspective, a grounded theory study was conducted with 14 divorced parents of children with chronic illnesses. The importance of trust, gender, and relationships with third-party care providers emerged as key themes related to the development of effective coparenting relationships for maintaining children's health. Divorced parents were best able to support the management of their children's chronic conditions when care providers operated as neutral third parties and intermediaries. Collaborative family care may require health care practitioners to avoid being drawn into contentious inter-parental conflicts. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. On the nature of motivational orientations: implications of assessed goals and gender differences for motivational goal theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Tapia, Jesús; Huertas, Juan A; Ruiz, Miguel A

    2010-05-01

    In a historical revision of the achievement goal construct, Elliot (2005) recognized that there is little consensus on whether the term "goal" in "achievement goal orientations" (GO) is best represented as an "aim", as an overarching orientation encompassing several "aims", or as a combination of aims and other processes -self-regulation, etc.-. Elliot pointed also that goal theory research provides evidence for different models of GO. As there were no consensus on these issues, we decided to get evidence about the nature and structure of GO, about the role of gender differences in the configuration of such structure, and about relations between GO, expectancies, volitional processes and achievement. A total of 382 university students from different faculties of two public universities of Madrid (Spain) that voluntarily accepted to fill in a questionnaire that assessed different goals, expectancies and self-regulatory processes participated in the study. Scales reliability, confirmatory factor analyses, multiple-group analyses, and correlation and regression analyses were carried out. Results support the trichotomous model of GO, the consideration of GO as a combination of aims and other psychological processes, showed some gender differences and favour the adoption of a multiple goal perspective for explaining students' motivation.

  20. Item response theory analysis of the life orientation test-revised: age and gender differential item functioning analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steca, Patrizia; Monzani, Dario; Greco, Andrea; Chiesi, Francesca; Primi, Caterina

    2015-06-01

    This study is aimed at testing the measurement properties of the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) for the assessment of dispositional optimism by employing item response theory (IRT) analyses. The LOT-R was administered to a large sample of 2,862 Italian adults. First, confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated the theoretical conceptualization of the construct measured by the LOT-R as a single bipolar dimension. Subsequently, IRT analyses for polytomous, ordered response category data were applied to investigate the items' properties. The equivalence of the items across gender and age was assessed by analyzing differential item functioning. Discrimination and severity parameters indicated that all items were able to distinguish people with different levels of optimism and adequately covered the spectrum of the latent trait. Additionally, the LOT-R appears to be gender invariant and, with minor exceptions, age invariant. Results provided evidence that the LOT-R is a reliable and valid measure of dispositional optimism. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Capital, Gender, and Politics: Towards a Marxist Feminist Theory of Bioconvergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly E Happe

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay theorizes bioconvergent political subjectivity as that which is made possible by the production and circulation of new forms of “bio” capital. Turning to the Marxist concept of variable capital, the essay describes subjectivity as that which is inextricably bound with one’s position relative to the circulation of labor power, capital, and commodities, a positionality residing at the interstices of race, gender, and class. Turning to biomedical labor as an exemplary case, the essay considers how the refusal to either fully accept or reject new systems of value made possible by late capitalism and a logic of speculation demonstrates how and where resistance and critique are possible.​

  2. Diatheses to Depression: The Interactions of Schema Propositions, Schema Structure, and Negative Life Events

    OpenAIRE

    Cankaya, Banu

    2006-01-01

    Drawing from the meta-construct model of cognition (Ingram, 1984; Ingram & Kendall, 1986), the goal of the present study was to examine whether the structural (i.e., self-complexity; SC, Linville, 1985) and propositional components of schemas (dysfunctional attitudes; DAS, Weissman & Beck, 1978), independently and in interaction with each other and stressors, lead to changes in depressive symptoms. The prediction was that if negative self-attributes across different self-aspects in a specifi...

  3. System Schema Analysis of County Economy Talents Shortages Based on the Perspective of Returning-home Entrepreneurship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    According to the discussion of domestic scholars on county talents,we know that the researches concerning county human resources mainly focus on discussing the problems such as the total amount,distribution,quality and introduction of county talents though the analysis of coordination between talents and county economic development,and the research of relationship between industry adjustment and talents need.However,there have no relevant documents about the analysis and discussion of county talents problems based on system schema theory.In view of this reality,on the basis of the introduction of the system schema theory propounded by management guru Peter Senge,we conduct the feedback schema analysis of the restricted factors of talents shortages during county economic development;establish the growth limits schema of county talents system;analyze the functioning mechanism of the total amount,distribution,quality and introduction of county talents on the development of county economy;discuss the relationship between the individual quality,social relation and emotional need of returning-home start-up,and talents resource shortage;propose the countermeasures and suggestions to mitigate the shortage of county talents,in order to optimize the allocation of county human resources,and promote the county’s economic development.

  4. Symbols and schemas in emotional eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Suzanne C.

    1995-01-01

    . Particularly the aspects of security and pleasure are suggested to be important motivators for emotional eating. How these symbolic meanings relate to eating as a regulatory device for emotions is explained by a schema- theoretical approach distinguishing between automatic adaptation mechanisms and strategic......Emotional eating behaviour has been of interest to psychologists exclusively as a disorder. However, evidence suggests that it is a common aspect of normal food habits, initiated by both positive and negative emotions in order to regulate these. T behaviour thus serves to regain or preserve...... the psycho-mental homeostasis. To explain this phenomenon it is first shown which symbolic meanings are associated with eating and foods. The numerous connotations can be grouped into four basic dimensions: Security and pleasure as self-oriented, and status and prestige as socially oriented emotional symbols...

  5. Love Schemas, Preferences in Romantic Partners, and Reactions to Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Bachman

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have proposed that people possess different love schemas and that these schemas may shape romantic preferences and reactions to impending commitments.In Study 1, we tested two hypotheses: Hypothesis 1: Men and women will prefer potential dates who possess an “ideal” love schema (i.e., the secure. Hypothesis 2: If the ideal is unavailable, men and women will prefer potential dates whose love schemas are similar to their own. In order to test these hypotheses, men and women from the University of Hawaii, who varied in love schemas, were asked to indicate their preferences for potential romantic partners who varied in physical attractiveness, body type, and love schemas. It was found that people did indeed prefer the ideal (the secure and (secondarily those who were similar to them in attachment style—be it clingy, skittish, casual, or disinterested.Study 2 was designed to test Hypothesis 3: Participants’ love schemas will shape their cognitions, feelings, and behaviors when they find themselves on the brink of making a serious romantic commitment. In order to test this hypothesis, men and women from the University of Hawaii were surveyed. Again, as predicted, it was found that the more strongly men and women endorsed the secure schema, the more calm and confident (and the less fearful and trapped they felt when confronting pending commitments. The more strongly they endorsed the clingy, skittish, fickle, casual, and uninterested schemas, the less confident and calm and the more fearful and trapped they felt when confronting an impending commitment.

  6. "Brave Men" and "Emotional Women": A Theory-Guided Literature Review on Gender Bias in Health Care and Gendered Norms towards Patients with Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samulowitz, Anke; Gremyr, Ida; Eriksson, Erik; Hensing, Gunnel

    2018-01-01

    Despite the large body of research on sex differences in pain, there is a lack of knowledge about the influence of gender in the patient-provider encounter. The purpose of this study was to review literature on gendered norms about men and women with pain and gender bias in the treatment of pain. The second aim was to analyze the results guided by the theoretical concepts of hegemonic masculinity and andronormativity. A literature search of databases was conducted. A total of 77 articles met the inclusion criteria. The included articles were analyzed qualitatively, with an integrative approach. The included studies demonstrated a variety of gendered norms about men's and women's experience and expression of pain, their identity, lifestyle, and coping style. Gender bias in pain treatment was identified, as part of the patient-provider encounter and the professional's treatment decisions. It was discussed how gendered norms are consolidated by hegemonic masculinity and andronormativity. Awareness about gendered norms is important, both in research and clinical practice, in order to counteract gender bias in health care and to support health-care professionals in providing more equitable care that is more capable to meet the need of all patients, men and women.

  7. From Stereotypes of Gender Difference to Stereotypes of Theory: A Response to Hayley Davis' Review of Deborah Tannen's "Gender and Discourse."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerian, Keli

    1997-01-01

    Responding to Hayley Davis' view of gender in discourse, asserts that she misinterprets Deborah Tannen as claiming that all men are well-intentioned and misunderstood, and that this misinterpretation is a theme appearing throughout Davis' review of Tannen's collection of essays, "Gender and Discourse". (29 references) (CK)

  8. A longitudinal study of children’s theory of mind, self-concept, and gender-role orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Leanne Bosacki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the longitudinal relations between theory of mind (ToM understanding, self-perceptions, and perceptions of gender-role orientation in 28 school-aged children, (16 girls, 12 boys, aged 8-12 years. Theory of mind and perceptions of self were assessed at Time 1 (T1, M = 8 y 5 m and two years later at Time 2 (T2, M = 10 y 4 m. Negative correlation was found between T1 ToM and T2 Perceptions of Moral Self (r = -.55, p = .004. Positive correlations were found between T1 Perceived Masculinity and T1 ToM (r = .682, p = .015. No relations were found between ToM T1 and T2 (r = .281, ns, as well as between T1 and T2 Self- Understanding scores (r = .244, ns. Positive relations were found between self--understanding and ToM at T1 only (r = .394, p = .038. Implications for children’s socioemotional development are discussed.

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Children’s Theory of Mind, Self-Concept, and Gender-Role Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Leanne BOSACKI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the longitudinal relations between theory of mind (ToM understanding, self-perceptions, and perceptions of gender-role orientation in 28 school-aged children, (16 girls, 12 boys, aged 8-12 years. Theory of mind and perceptions of self were assessed at Time 1 (T1, M = 8 y 5 m and two years later at Time 2 (T2, M = 10 y 4 m. Negative correlation was found between T1 ToM and T2 Perceptions of Moral Self (r = -.55, p = .004. Positive correlations were found between T1 Perceived Masculinity and T1 ToM (r = .682, p = .015. No relations were found between ToM T1 and T2 (r = .281, ns, as well as between T1 and T2 Self-Understanding scores (r = .244, ns. Positive relations were found between self--understanding and ToM at T1 only (r = .394, p = .038. Implications for children’s socioemotional development are discussed.

  10. Schema Design and Normalization Algorithm for XML Databases Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Abou El-Seoud

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the problem of schema design and normalization in XML databases model. We show that, like relational databases, XML documents may contain redundant information, and this redundancy may cause update anomalies. Furthermore, such problems are caused by certain functional dependencies among paths in the document. Based on our research works, in which we presented the functional dependencies and normal forms of XML Schema, we present the decomposition algorithm for converting any XML Schema into normalized one, that satisfies X-BCNF.

  11. A Semantic Analysis of XML Schema Matching for B2B Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaewook

    2011-01-01

    One of the most critical steps to integrating heterogeneous e-Business applications using different XML schemas is schema matching, which is known to be costly and error-prone. Many automatic schema matching approaches have been proposed, but the challenge is still daunting because of the complexity of schemas and immaturity of technologies in…

  12. Insights from epidemiological game theory into gender-specific vaccination against rubella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Eunha; Kochin, Beth; Galvani, Alison

    2009-10-01

    Rubella is a highly contagious childhood disease that causes relatively mild symptoms. However, rubella can result in severe congenital defects, known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), if transmitted from a mother to a fetus. Consequently, women have higher incentive to vaccinate against rubella than men do. Within the population vaccination reduces transmission but also increases the average age of infection and possibly the risk of CRS among unvaccinated females. To evaluate how the balance among these factors results in optimal coverage of vaccination, we developed a game theoretic age-structured epidemiological model of rubella transmission and vaccination. We found that high levels of vaccination for both genders are most effective in maximizing average utility across the population by decreasing the risk of CRS and reducing transmission of rubella. By contrast, the demands for vaccines driven by self-interest among males and females are 0% and 100% acceptance, respectively, if the cost of vaccination is relatively low. Our results suggest that the rubella vaccination by males that is likely to be achieved on voluntary basis without additional incentives would have been far lower than the population optimum, if rubella vaccine were offered separately instead of combined with measles and mumps vaccination as the MMR vaccine.

  13. The relevance of self-esteem and self-schemas to persecutory delusions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesting, Marie-Luise; Lincoln, Tania Marie

    2013-10-01

    Self-esteem is frequently targeted in psychological approaches to persecutory delusions (PD). However, its precise role in the formation and maintenance of PD is unclear and has been subject to a number of theories: It has been hypothesized that PD function to enhance self-esteem, that they directly reflect negative conceptualizations of the self, that self-esteem follows from the perceived deservedness of the persecution (poor-me versus bad-me-paranoia) and that the temporal instability of self-esteem is relevant to PD. In order to increase our understanding of the relevance of self-esteem to PD, this article systematically reviews the existing research on self-esteem in PD in the light of the existing theories. We performed a literature search on studies that investigated self-esteem in PD. We included studies that either investigated self-esteem a) within patients with PD or compared to controls or b) along the continuum of subclinical paranoia in the general population. We used a broad concept of self-esteem and included paradigms that assessed implicit self-esteem, specific self-schemas and dynamic aspects of self-esteem. The literature search identified 317 studies of which 52 met the inclusion criteria. The reviewed studies consistently found low global explicit self-esteem and negative self-schemas in persons with PD. The studies therefore do not support the theory that PD serve to enhance self-esteem but underline the theory that they directly reflect specific negative self-schemas. There is evidence that low self-esteem is associated with higher perceived deservedness of the persecution and that PD are associated with instable self-esteem. Only few studies investigated implicit self-esteem and the results of these studies were inconsistent. We conclude by proposing an explanatory model of how self-esteem and PD interact from which we derive clinical implications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Delusions of Gender - Gender Benders

    OpenAIRE

    Uhlig, Louise; Zampetis, Marios Stylianos; Lochte, Frans; Ahmed, Samira M.; Karlsen, Luna Maria Stjerneby

    2014-01-01

    “Taking Cordelia Fine’s Delusions of Gender as it point of departure, together with popular gender theories by Simon Baron-Cohen and Louann Brizendine, we raise the following question: how strong is the foundation of biological determinism and how can we decide?” In this project the point of departure is taken in Cordelia Fine’s book Delusions of Gender. Fine brings forth several published scientific studies on gender differences, and she systematically debunks them one by one. This research ...

  15. Inpatient schema therapy for nonresponsive patients with personality pathology: Changes in symptomatic distress, schemas, schema modes, coping styles, experienced parenting styles, and mental well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Grietje M; Chakhssi, Farid; Westerhof, Gerben J

    2016-12-01

    This study provides an evaluation of group schema therapy (ST) for inpatient treatment of patients with personality pathology who did not respond to previous psychotherapeutic interventions. Forty-two patients were assessed pre- and posttreatment, and 35 patients were evaluated at follow-up 6 months later. The results showed a dropout rate of 35%. Those who dropped out did not differ from those who completed treatment with regard to demographic and clinical variables; the only exception was that those who dropped out showed a lower prevalence of mood disorders. Furthermore, intention-to-treat analyses showed a significant improvement in maladaptive schemas, schema modes, maladaptive coping styles, mental well-being, and psychological distress after treatment, and these improvements were maintained at follow-up. On the other hand, there was no significant change in experienced parenting style as self-reported by patients. Changes in schemas and schema modes measured from pre- to posttreatment were predictive of general psychological distress at follow-up. Overall, these preliminary findings suggest that positive treatment results can be obtained with group ST-based inpatient treatment for patients who did not respond to previous psychotherapeutic interventions. Moreover, these findings are comparable with treatment results for patients without such a nonresponsive treatment history. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Coming Out of the Shadows and the Closet: Visibility Schemas Among Undocuqueer Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros, Jesus; Bracho, Christian

    2018-01-16

    Centering the experiences of 31 undocuqueer immigrants, this study seeks to understand the ways that undocuqueer immigrants negotiate the boundaries of social performance by revealing or concealing their gender, sexuality, and immigration status. Findings of this study reveal how, in order to avoid the constant threat of rejection (both legal and social), undocuqueer immigrants engage visibility schemas and make strategic decisions about coming out of the shadows and the closet across different contexts. Undocuqueer immigrants' narratives reveal the ways the closet resembles the shadows in that both provide protection from the outside world, yet neither are considered suitable places for sustaining life. This study raises implications for both research and policy by considering how the intersection of gender, sexuality, and immigration status nullifies neoliberal narratives of coming out as an empowering process and illustrating the uneven landscapes of social acceptance and political control that undocuqueer immigrants must negotiate.

  17. Early Maladaptive Schemas in the Patients with Somatoform Disorders

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    Ýsmet Kýrpýnar

    2014-08-01

    Method: We investigated a total of 28 patients aged 18-65 years, were diagnosed as Hypochondriasis or Somatization Disorder according to DSM-IV and 30 healthy controls. All participitans were assessed with The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-1. Data were obtained by using a Sociodemographic Questionnaire and Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form 3. Results: The main age of patients was 36,71 ± 10.39. Most of the patients were female, married and housewives. All early maladaptive schema scores of patients with somatoform disorders were higher than healthy controls. Conclusion: All early maladaptive schemas have been found to be related to somatoform disorders in this study. The role of not a specific one but a total of maladaptive schemas in etiology may reflect the unspecific general sources of the tendency to somatoform disorders. [JCBPR 2014; 3(2.000: 84-93

  18. [Schema therapy: an integrative approach for personality disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roediger, Eckhard; Dieckmann, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Schema Therapy (ST) is a comprehensive approach deriving from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for the treatment of chronic personality problems. ST extends CBT in 3 major issues: 1. The Schema-Mode-Model. 2. The therapeutic relationship. 3. The intensive use of experiential techniques. Schemas are persistent, rigid, and dysfunctional patterns preventing the patient from further personal emotive-interpersonal development. The central focus of the therapeutic process is the relationship between the therapist and the patient. Supported by the therapeutic relationship the patient gets in touch with painful childhood experiences. In ST, the core schemas are identified, put into a biographical context, and weakened by using several specific therapeutic techniques including experiential methods and strategies taken from Gestalt therapy that enrich traditional CBT techniques. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. XML DTD and Schemas for HDF-EOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Richard; Yang, Jingli

    2008-01-01

    An Extensible Markup Language (XML) document type definition (DTD) standard for the structure and contents of HDF-EOS files and their contents, and an equivalent standard in the form of schemas, have been developed.

  20. Young adults' social drinking as explained by an augmented theory of planned behaviour: the roles of prototypes, willingness, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Friederike; Sieverding, Monika

    2010-09-01

    This study focused on young adults' alcohol consumption in social contexts. A dual-process model (including reasoned action and social reaction) was applied by combining the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and the prototype/willingness model. A key question was whether willingness and actor and abstainer prototype variables would augment the TPB by increasing explained variance. Participants completed questionnaires prior to spending an evening socializing over the weekend (Time 1). Behavioural data were obtained by telephone interviews a few days after the social drinking occasion (Time 2). N=300 people (mean age 25 years) took part in the study. The outcome measure of pure alcohol in grams was calculated based on participants' reports about their consumed drinks. Multigroup path analyses were conducted because of sex differences on behavioural and psychological variables. The TPB explained 35% of the variance in men's and 41% in women's alcohol consumption. Augmentation with prototype perception and willingness contributed significantly to the prediction of intention (DeltaR(2)=.07) and alcohol consumption for men (DeltaR(2)=.14). A significant interaction implied that willingness led to heavy drinking particularly among those men who made negative evaluations of the abstainer prototype. Women's alcohol consumption is explained by TPB variables via a more controlled reasoned-action path only, whereas additional processes (e.g., pursuing the actor image intentionally, rejecting the abstainer image more intuitively) are important for men. The moderating role of gender is discussed in light of traditional gender roles and recent trends in alcohol consumption.

  1. Developing schemas for assessing social competences among unskilled young people

    OpenAIRE

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Aarkrog, Vibe

    2017-01-01

    Social competences are crucial parts of vocational education and training (VET) competences. As part of a development project preparing unskilled young people for VET, an action research project was conducted with the aim of developing a schema for assessing and grading social competences. The development included defining the social competences as well as three levels for assessing these competences. The schema was developed in cooperation with the assessors, i.e., representatives from workp...

  2. Group schema therapy for eating disorders: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Fiona; Smith, Evelyn; Brockman, Rob; Simpson, Susan

    2018-01-01

    The treatment of eating disorders is a difficult endeavor, with only a relatively small proportion of clients responding to and completing standard cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). Given the prevalence of co-morbidity and complex personality traits in this population, Schema Therapy has been identified as a potentially viable treatment option. A case series of Group Schema Therapy for Eating Disorders (ST-E-g) yielded positive findings and the study protocol outlined in this article aims to extend upon these preliminary findings to evaluate group Schema Therapy for eating disorders in a larger sample ( n  = 40). Participants undergo a two-hour assessment where they complete a number of standard questionnaires and their diagnostic status is ascertained using the Eating Disorder Examination. Participants then commence treatment, which consists of 25 weekly group sessions lasting for 1.5 h and four individual sessions. Each group consists of five to eight participants and is facilitated by two therapists, at least one of who is a registered psychologist trained on schema therapy. The primary outcome in this study is eating disorder symptom severity. Secondary outcomes include: cognitive schemas, self-objectification, general quality of life, self-compassion, schema mode presentations, and Personality Disorder features. Participants complete psychological measures and questionnaires at pre, post, six-month and 1-year follow-up. This study will expand upon preliminary research into the efficacy of group Schema Therapy for individuals with eating disorders. If group Schema Therapy is shown to reduce eating disorder symptoms, it will hold considerable promise as an intervention option for a group of disorders that is typically difficult to treat. ACTRN12615001323516. Registered: 2/12/2015 (retrospectively registered, still recruiting).

  3. Early maladaptive schemas of emotional deprivation, social isolation, shame and abandonment are related to a history of suicide attempts among patients with major depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Astinsadaf, Sommayyeh; Akhondi, Amineh; Haghighi, Mohammad; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Nazaribadie, Marzieh; Jahangard, Leila; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2017-08-01

    Patients with psychiatric disorders have an exceptionally high risk of completed or attempted suicide. This holds particularly true for patients with major depressive disorders. The aim of the present study was to explore whether patients with major depressive disorders (MDD) and a history of suicide attempts differed in their early maladaptive schemas from patients with MDD but without such a history or from healthy controls. Ninety participants took part in the study. Of these, 30 were patients with MDD who had made a recent suicide attempt; 30 were patients with MDD but no suicide attempts, and 30 were gender- and age-matched healthy controls. Participants completed questionnaires covering socio-demographic characteristics and the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ- RE2R) to assess early maladaptive schemas. Experts rated patients' MDD with the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. Patients did not differ in experts' ratings of symptoms of depression. Compared to healthy controls, patients with MDD recorded higher scores on maladaptive schemas such as recognition seeking, negativity/pessimism, and insufficient self-control. Compared to patients without suicide attempts and healthy controls, those who had made a suicide attempt had higher scores on dimensions such as failure, mistrust, emotional inhibition, social isolation, and abandonment/instability. Compared to healthy controls, patients with MDD had more pronounced maladaptive schemas, but this was more marked in patients with a history of suicide attempts. The results suggest that suicide attempts and poorer psychological functioning are related. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Metadata Schema Used in OCLC Sampled Web Pages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yu

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The tremendous growth of Web resources has made information organization and retrieval more and more difficult. As one approach to this problem, metadata schemas have been developed to characterize Web resources. However, many questions have been raised about the use of metadata schemas such as which metadata schemas have been used on the Web? How did they describe Web accessible information? What is the distribution of these metadata schemas among Web pages? Do certain schemas dominate the others? To address these issues, this study analyzed 16,383 Web pages with meta tags extracted from 200,000 OCLC sampled Web pages in 2000. It found that only 8.19% Web pages used meta tags; description tags, keyword tags, and Dublin Core tags were the only three schemas used in the Web pages. This article revealed the use of meta tags in terms of their function distribution, syntax characteristics, granularity of the Web pages, and the length distribution and word number distribution of both description and keywords tags.

  5. Group Schema Therapy for Eating Disorders: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan G Simpson

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the use of Group Schema Therapy for Eating Disorders (ST-E-g in a case-series of eight participants with chronic eating disorders and high levels of co-morbidity. Treatment was comprised of 20 sessions which included cognitive, experiential and interpersonal strategies, with an emphasis on behavioural change. Specific schema-based strategies focused on bodily felt-sense and body-image, as well as emotional regulation skills. Six attended until end of treatment, two dropped-out at mid-treatment. Eating disorder severity, global schema severity, shame and anxiety levels were reduced between pre- and post therapy, with a large effect size at follow-up. Clinically significant improvement in eating severity was found in four out of six completers. Group completers showed a mean reduction in schema severity of 43% at post-treatment, and 59% at follow-up. By follow-up, all completers had achieved over 60% improvement in schema severity. Self-report feedback suggests that group factors may catalyze the change process in schema therapy by increasing perceptions of support and encouragement to take risks and try out new behaviours, whilst providing a de-stigmatising and de-shaming therapeutic experience.

  6. The Relationship of Early Maladaptive Schemas, Attributional Styles and Learned Helplessness among Addicted and Non-Addicted Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaghaghy, Farhad; Saffarinia, Majid; Iranpoor, Mohadeseh; Soltanynejad, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Addiction is considered as one of the major problems in family and community in the world. According to cognitive view, organizing the experiences determines how to behave. Due to their importance in interpretation of special situations, cognitive schemas and attributional styles have a significant role in cognitive theories. The aim of this study was to compare early maladaptive schemas and attributional styles in addicts and non-addicts to recognize their role in addiction. In this causal-comparative study, 200 addicted and non-addicted men were randomly selected. Young early maladaptive schema and attributional styles questionnaires were used. Data analysis was performed by independent t-test, Pearson correlation and regression. The study population included 81 addicted and 90 non-addicted men. There were significant differences between early maladaptive schemas and attributional styles in the two groups of addicted and non-addicted men (P learned helplessness. A direct relationship was found between learned helplessness and frequency of addiction treatments (r ═ 0.234, P learned helplessness were less successful in addiction treatment and more likely to use drugs again after treatment. These issues show that addiction institutions and therapists have to pay attention to cognitive factors for addiction prevention.

  7. Schema therapy for borderline personality disorder: a comprehensive review of its empirical foundations, effectiveness and implementation possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempértegui, Gabriela A; Karreman, Annemiek; Arntz, Arnoud; Bekker, Marrie H J

    2013-04-01

    Borderline personality disorder is a serious psychiatric disorder for which the effectiveness of the current pharmacotherapeutical and psychotherapeutic approaches has shown to be limited. In the last decades, schema therapy has increased in popularity as a treatment of borderline personality disorder; however, systematic evaluation of both effectiveness and empirical evidence for the theoretical background of the therapy is limited. This literature review comprehensively evaluates the current empirical status of schema therapy for borderline personality disorder. We first described the theoretical framework and reviewed its empirical foundations. Next, we examined the evidence regarding effectiveness and implementability. We found evidence for a considerable number of elements of Young's schema model; however, the strength of the results varies and there are also mixed results and some empirical blanks in the theory. The number of studies on effectiveness is small, but reviewed findings suggest that schema therapy is a promising treatment. In Western-European societies, the therapy could be readily implemented as a cost-effective strategy with positive economic consequences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Role of Ontologies in Schema-based Program Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bures, Tomas; Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd; Nistor, Eugen C.

    2004-01-01

    Program synthesis is the process of automatically deriving executable code from (non-executable) high-level specifications. It is more flexible and powerful than conventional code generation techniques that simply translate algorithmic specifications into lower-level code or only create code skeletons from structural specifications (such as UML class diagrams). Key to building a successful synthesis system is specializing to an appropriate application domain. The AUTOBAYES and AUTOFILTER systems, under development at NASA Ames, operate in the two domains of data analysis and state estimation, respectively. The central concept of both systems is the schema, a representation of reusable computational knowledge. This can take various forms, including high-level algorithm templates, code optimizations, datatype refinements, or architectural information. A schema also contains applicability conditions that are used to determine when it can be applied safely. These conditions can refer to the initial specification, to intermediate results, or to elements of the partially-instantiated code. Schema-based synthesis uses AI technology to recursively apply schemas to gradually refine a specification into executable code. This process proceeds in two main phases. A front-end gradually transforms the problem specification into a program represented in an abstract intermediate code. A backend then compiles this further down into a concrete target programming language of choice. A core engine applies schemas on the initial problem specification, then uses the output of those schemas as the input for other schemas, until the full implementation is generated. Since there might be different schemas that implement different solutions to the same problem this process can generate an entire solution tree. AUTOBAYES and AUTOFILTER have reached the level of maturity where they enable users to solve interesting application problems, e.g., the analysis of Hubble Space Telescope images

  9. The Application of Karl Popper's Three Worlds Schema to Questions about Information in the Fields of Complexity, Cybernetics, and Informatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Nugent

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available More technically leaning disciplines such as informatics, complexity theory, and cybernetics often make simplifying assumptions about human beings and their causal/informational roles within larger techo-social systems. This paper employs the philosopher Karl Popper's three worlds schema to explore in depth the unique ways in which conscious human subjects process and create knowledge and information. The three worlds represent the physical world, the subjective world of the conscious subject, and the world of language, models, and schemas. The works of major philosophers are invoked to consider what makes conscious human subjects unique in the context of information systems. Context-based understandings, the expressive facet of consciousness, and experience-based valuing emerge as key themes that we believe could strengthen the fields of informatics, complexity theory, and cybernetics.

  10. Adult age differences in memory for schema-consistent and schema-inconsistent objects in a real-world setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prull, Matthew W

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined age-related differences in the inconsistency effect, in which memory is enhanced for schema-inconsistent information compared to schema-consistent information. Young and older adults studied schema-consistent and schema-inconsistent objects in an academic office under either intentional or incidental encoding instructions, and were given two recognition tests either immediately or after 48 hr: A yes/no item recognition test that included modified remember/know judgments and a token recognition test that required determining whether an original object was replaced with a different object with the same name. Young and older adults showed equivalent inconsistency effects in both item and token recognition tests, although older adults reported phenomenologically less rich memories of schema-inconsistent objects relative to young adults. These findings run counter to previous reports suggesting that aging is associated with processing declines at encoding that impair memory for details of schema-inconsistent or distinctive events. The results are consistent with a retrieval-based account in which age-related difficulties in retrieving contextual details can be offset by environmental support.

  11. [Gender and job satisfaction in stereotypical masculine and feminine occupations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipińska-Grobelny, Agnieszka; Goździk, Iwona

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to analyze the relationship between gender and job satisfaction among employees involved in a stereotypical masculine (tram driver) and a stereotypical feminine occupation (nurse). It was expected that people with feminine gender schema would be more satisfied with their traditionally feminine occupations compared with those with masculine gender schema and vice versa. A group of 103 individuals, including 47 females (15 tram drivers and 32 nurses) and 56 males (41 tram drivers and 15 nurses) completed the following battery of instruments: The Bem Sex Role Inventory by Kuczyńska, Job Affect Scale by Brief, et al. Job Descriptions Questionnaire by Neuberger and Allerbeck. The results of the study showed that gender proved to be a variable that differentiates the level of job satisfaction (both overall satisfaction and satisfaction with different components) only as regards stereotypical feminine occupations. Moreover, individuals with feminine gender schema working in a stereotypical feminine occupation are more satisfied with co-workers and work conditions, and those with masculine gender schema involved in a stereotypical masculine occupation are more satisfied with a supervisor. The gender analysis can be an important tool for the recruitment and selection procedures and plays an essential role in assessing the person-environment fit.

  12. Body schema building during childhood and adolescence: a neurosensory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaiante, C; Barlaam, F; Cignetti, F; Vaugoyeau, M

    2014-01-01

    In order to perceive and act in its environment, the individual's body and its interactions with the sensory and social environment are represented in the brain. This internal representation of the moving body segments is labeled the body schema. Throughout life, body schema develops based on the sensory information used by the moving body and by its interactions with the environment including other people. Internal representations including body schema and representations of the outside world develop with learning and actions throughout ontogenesis and are constantly updated based on different sensory inputs. The aim of this review is to present some concepts and experimental data about body schema, internal representations and updating process during childhood and adolescence, as obtained using a neurosensory approach. From our developmental studies, it was possible to explore the slow maturation of the sensorimotor representations by examining the anticipatory control. By manipulating proprioceptive and visual information, which are at the heart of the construction of body schema, we wished to highlight notable differences between adolescents and young adults on both a postural and perceptual level, which confirms the late maturation of multisensory integration for central motor control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Do female dieters have an "eating disorder" self-schema?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Sarah; Cooper, Myra

    2016-01-01

    The processing of schema-related information is important in the maintenance of specific eating disorder (ED)-related belief systems and psychopathology. To date, most research on differences in the processing of ED schematic information has used interview or self-report questionnaire measures. Dieting is a known risk factor for EDs and dieters have been included in some studies. However, they have not been compared with non-dieters on a novel, objective measure of ED related schema processing. The current study recruited healthy female volunteers from the community and divided them into dieting (n = 25) and non-dieting (n = 24) groups using rigorous criteria. ED self-schemas with content unrelated to eating, weight and shape were measured using a self-schema processing task. Dieters endorsed significantly more ED relevant words compared to non-dieters, whereas non-dieters rejected significantly more ED relevant words compared to dieters. Reaction times to endorsements and rejections were non-significant when the two groups were compared. In a surprise recall task, dieters recalled significantly more ED relevant words. The results of this study support the presence of ED self-schemas with negative content unrelated to eating, weight and shape in otherwise healthy dieters. Implications for future research and the early identification of individuals vulnerable to EDs are discussed.

  14. The image schema and innate archetypes: theoretical and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, John

    2016-02-01

    Based in contemporary neuroscience, Jean Knox's 2004 JAP paper 'From archetypes to reflective function' honed her position on image schemas, thereby introducing a model for archetypes which sees them as 'reliably repeated early developmental achievements' and not as genetically inherited, innate psychic structures. The image schema model is used to illustrate how the analyst worked with a patient who began life as an unwanted pregnancy, was adopted at birth and as an adult experienced profound synchronicities, paranormal/telepathic phenomena and visions. The classical approach to such phenomena would see the intense affectivity arising out of a ruptured symbiotic mother-infant relationship constellating certain archetypes which set up the patient's visions. This view is contrasted with Knox's model which sees the archetype an sich as a developmentally produced image schema underpinning the emergence of later imagery. The patient's visions can then be understood to arise from his psychoid body memory related to his traumatic conception and birth. The contemporary neuroscience which supports this view is outlined and a subsequent image schema explanation is presented. Clinically, the case material suggests that a pre-birth perspective needs to be explored in all analytic work. Other implications of Knox's image schema model are summarized. © 2016, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  15. Self-schema in irritable bowel syndrome and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, B B; Garfinkel, P E; Jeejeebhoy, K N; Scher, H; Shulhan, D; Di Gasbarro, I

    1990-01-01

    Some investigators have suggested that irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) represents a physiologic expression of an affective disorder. This study investigated whether IBS patients differed in their self-schema from depressed patients. Self-schema refers to a cognitive framework of the individual's beliefs, attitudes, and self-perceptions which is stored in memory and which influences incoming information. The sample consisted of 21 IBS patients, 21 psychiatric outpatients with major depression (MD), and 19 normal controls. All groups were age matched. Subjects completed a structured psychiatric interview (Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) and a Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), in addition to a test of self-schema, which involved rating and recall of a variety of "depressed" and "nondepressed" content adjectives. Consistent with previous work on self-schema, the MD group recalled significantly more depressed adjectives rated under the self-referent task than the Control group (p less than 0.05) and, also, the IBS group (p less than 0.05). Most striking was the finding that a subgroup of IBS patients who met criteria for MD (43% of the sample) recalled significantly more self-referent nondepressed words (and less self-referent depressed words) than the MD group (p less than 0.05). In other words, IBS patients with MD do not view themselves as depressed. These findings suggest that while some IBS and depressed psychiatric outpatients may share depressive symptoms, these groups can be differentiated by their self-schema.

  16. Topological schemas of cognitive maps and spatial learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey eBabichev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial navigation in mammals is based on building a mental representation of their environment---a cognitive map. However, both the nature of this cognitive map and its underpinning in neural structures and activity remains vague. A key difficulty is that these maps are collective, emergent phenomena that cannot be reduced to a simple combination of inputs provided by individual neurons. In this paper we suggest computational frameworks for integrating the spiking signals of individual cells into a spatial map, which we call schemas. We provide examples of four schemas defined by different types of topological relations that may be neurophysiologically encoded in the brain and demonstrate that each schema provides its own large-scale characteristics of the environment---the schema integrals. Moreover, we find that, in all cases, these integrals are learned at a rate which is faster than the rate of complete training of neural networks. Thus, the proposed schema framework differentiates between the cognitive aspect of spatial learning and the physiological aspect at the neural network level.

  17. Topological Schemas of Cognitive Maps and Spatial Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babichev, Andrey; Cheng, Sen; Dabaghian, Yuri A

    2016-01-01

    Spatial navigation in mammals is based on building a mental representation of their environment-a cognitive map. However, both the nature of this cognitive map and its underpinning in neural structures and activity remains vague. A key difficulty is that these maps are collective, emergent phenomena that cannot be reduced to a simple combination of inputs provided by individual neurons. In this paper we suggest computational frameworks for integrating the spiking signals of individual cells into a spatial map, which we call schemas. We provide examples of four schemas defined by different types of topological relations that may be neurophysiologically encoded in the brain and demonstrate that each schema provides its own large-scale characteristics of the environment-the schema integrals. Moreover, we find that, in all cases, these integrals are learned at a rate which is faster than the rate of complete training of neural networks. Thus, the proposed schema framework differentiates between the cognitive aspect of spatial learning and the physiological aspect at the neural network level.

  18. A Metadata Schema for Geospatial Resource Discovery Use Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Hardy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a metadata schema that focuses on GIS discovery use cases for patrons in a research library setting. Text search, faceted refinement, and spatial search and relevancy are among GeoBlacklight's primary use cases for federated geospatial holdings. The schema supports a variety of GIS data types and enables contextual, collection-oriented discovery applications as well as traditional portal applications. One key limitation of GIS resource discovery is the general lack of normative metadata practices, which has led to a proliferation of metadata schemas and duplicate records. The ISO 19115/19139 and FGDC standards specify metadata formats, but are intricate, lengthy, and not focused on discovery. Moreover, they require sophisticated authoring environments and cataloging expertise. Geographic metadata standards target preservation and quality measure use cases, but they do not provide for simple inter-institutional sharing of metadata for discovery use cases. To this end, our schema reuses elements from Dublin Core and GeoRSS to leverage their normative semantics, community best practices, open-source software implementations, and extensive examples already deployed in discovery contexts such as web search and mapping. Finally, we discuss a Solr implementation of the schema using a "geo" extension to MODS.

  19. The missing link? Testing a schema account of unitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibon, Roni; Greve, Andrea; Henson, Richard

    2018-05-09

    Unitization refers to the creation of a new unit from previously distinct items. The concept of unitization has been used to explain how novel pairings between items can be remembered without requiring recollection, by virtue of new, item-like representations that enable familiarity-based retrieval. We tested an alternative account of unitization - a schema account - which suggests that associations between items can be rapidly assimilated into a schema. We used a common operationalization of "unitization" as the difference between two unrelated words being linked by a definition, relative to two words being linked by a sentence, during an initial study phase. During the following relearning phase, a studied word was re-paired with a new word, either related or unrelated to the original associate from study. In a final test phase, memory for the relearned associations was tested. We hypothesized that, if unitized representations act like schemas, then we would observe some generalization to related words, such that memory would be better in the definition than sentence condition for related words, but not for unrelated words. Contrary to the schema hypothesis, evidence favored the null hypothesis of no difference between definition and sentence conditions for related words (Experiment 1), even when each cue was associated with multiple associates, indicating that the associations can be generalized (Experiment 2), or when the schematic information was explicitly re-activated during Relearning (Experiment 3). These results suggest that unitized associations do not generalize to accommodate new information, and therefore provide evidence against the schema account.

  20. What is Gender Equality? A General Review of Gender Politics and Gendered Bodies in Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Ishida, Yoriko

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the connections among the concepts of sex, gender, and bodies because understanding their meanings is essential for gender studies and feminist theory, especially with relation to gender politics in sports.

  1. Merleau-Ponty's sexual schema and the sexual component of body integrity identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Preester, Helena

    2013-05-01

    Body integrity identity disorder (BIID), formerly also known as apotemnophilia, is characterized by a desire for amputation of a healthy limb and is claimed to straddle or to even blur the boundary between psychiatry and neurology. The neurological line of approach, however, is a recent one, and is accompanied or preceded by psychodynamical, behavioural, philosophical, and psychiatric approaches and hypotheses. Next to its confusing history in which the disorder itself has no fixed identity and could not be classified under a specific discipline, its sexual component has been an issue of unclarity and controversy, and its assessment a criterion for distinguishing BIID from apotemnophilia, a paraphilia. Scholars referring to the lived body-a phenomenon primarily discussed in the phenomenological tradition in philosophy-seem willing to exclude the sexual component as inessential, whereas other authors notice important similarities with gender identity disorder or transsexualism, and thus precisely focus attention on the sexual component. This contribution outlines the history of BIID highlighting the vicissitudes of its sexual component, and questions the justification for distinguishing BIID from apotemnophilia and thus for omitting the sexual component as essential. Second, we explain a hardly discussed concept from Maurice Merleau-Ponty's Phenomenology of Perception (1945a), the sexual schema, and investigate how the sexual schema could function in interaction with the body image in an interpretation of BIID which starts from the lived body while giving the sexual component its due.

  2. What constitutes a health-enabling neighborhood? A grounded theory situational analysis addressing the significance of social capital and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Malin; Emmelin, Maria

    2013-11-01

    Variations in health between neighborhoods are well known and the conceptualization of social capital has contributed to an understanding of how contextual factors influence these differences. Studies show positive health-effects from living in high social capital areas, at least for some population sub-groups. The aim of this qualitative study was to understand what constitutes a 'health-enabling' neighborhood. It follows up results from a social capital survey in northern Sweden indicating that the health effects of living in a high social capital neighborhood is gendered in favor of women. A grounded theory situational analysis of eight focus group discussions--four with men and four with women--illustrated similar and different positions on how neighborhood characteristics influence health. A neighborhood, where people say hi to each other ("hi-factor") and where support between neighbors exist, were factors perceived as positive for health by all, as was a good location, neighborhood greenness and proximity to essential arenas. Women perceived freedom from demands, feeling safe and city life as additional health enabling factors. For men freedom to do what you want, a sense of belonging, and countryside life were important. To have burdensome neighbors, physical disturbances and a densely living environment were perceived as negative for health in both groups while demands for a well styled home and feeling unsafe were perceived as negative for health among women. Neighborhood social capital, together with other elements in the living environment, has fundamental influence on people's perceived health. Our findings do not confirm that social capital is more important for women than for men but that distinctive form of social capital differ in impact. Investing in physical interventions, such as planning for meeting places, constructing attractive green areas, and making neighborhoods walking-friendly, may increase human interactions that is instrumental for

  3. PARTICIPATORY DESIGN: AN INTERSUBJECTIVE SCHEMA FOR DECISION MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Sanya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is participatory design (PD; a field that has been in existence since the 1960s. Reflections on a PD project in which the author played a central role revealed that existing literature does not engage adequately with intersubjective decision-making in PD processes. In this paper, appropriation and re-imagination of the Nordic framework for performance-based standards results in a novel multidimensional schema with five mutually related steps. Analysis indicates that the schema has a capacity for enhancing intersubjectivity in PD decision-making while also rendering the process more malleable to multiple viewpoints and their fusion into progressively definitive shared outcomes. In the conclusions, prospects for projective and reflective application of the schema explore its transformative capacity for professional and lay participants and its potential role in engendering critical design pedagogy.

  4. A decision-making schema for the detection of glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockburn, D M

    1979-02-01

    A schema is proposed for management of optometrical patients who may have glaucoma or any of 22 risk factors of glaucoma. The assessment system has established decision points and management pathways based on risk factors in glaucoma which employ only clinical procedures appropriate to current optometrical practice. This schema is particularly designed to permit diagnosis of early angle-closure glaucoma while the disease is in the symptomless phase, prior to chronic elevation of intraocular pressure and the development of damage to the optic disc and visual fields. A recommendation is made for inclusion of the Van Herick test as routine and in the assessment of patients entering the schema. Gonioscopy should form part of the diagnostic workup, but an alternative pathway is established for use when this technique is omitted.

  5. Antimnemonic effects of schemas in young and older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badham, Stephen P.; Maylor, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Schema-consistent material that is aligned with an individual’s knowledge and experience is typically more memorable than abstract material. This effect is often more extreme in older adults and schema use can alleviate age deficits in memory. In three experiments, young and older adults completed memory tasks where the availability of schematic information was manipulated. Specifying nonobvious relations between to-be-remembered word pairs paradoxically hindered memory (Experiment 1). Highlighting relations within mixed lists of related and unrelated word pairs had no effect on memory for those pairs (Experiment 2). This occurred even though related word pairs were recalled better than unrelated word pairs, particularly for older adults. Revealing a schematic context in a memory task with abstract image segments also hindered memory performance, particularly for older adults (Experiment 3). The data show that processing schematic information can come with costs that offset mnemonic benefits associated with schema-consistent stimuli. PMID:25980799

  6. Generating XML schemas for DICOM structured reporting templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luyin; Lee, Kwok Pun; Hu, Jingkun

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the authors describe a methodology to transform programmatically structured reporting (SR) templates defined by the Digital Imaging and Communications for Medicine (DICOM) standard into an XML schema representation. Such schemas can be used in the creation and validation of XML-encoded SR documents that use templates. Templates are a means to put additional constraints on an SR document to promote common formats for specific reporting applications or domains. As the use of templates becomes more widespread in the production of SR documents, it is important to ensure validity of such documents. The work described in this paper is an extension of the authors' previous work on XML schema representation for DICOM SR. Therefore, this paper inherits and partially modifies the structure defined in the earlier work.

  7. Predicting Early Maladaptive Schemas Using Baumrind's Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmali Kooraneh, Ahmad; Amirsardari, Leili

    2015-06-01

    Families play an essential role in maintaining children's mental, social, and physical health. The family provides the first and the most important social context for human development. The present study aimed to predict early maladaptive schemas using Baumrind's parenting styles (root development). A total of 357 undergraduate students of Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Iran, were selected through random cluster sampling during 2013 and 2014. The students were assessed using the Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (SQ-SF) and the Baumrind's parenting styles inventories. The result of regression analysis showed that Baumrind's parenting styles are significant predictors of early maladaptive schemas (P parenting style has some features such as showing high levels of warmth or encouraging kids to express their own possibly divergent opinions. The authoritarian parenting style, however, possesses traits such as heartlessness, impassiveness, strictness, and lack of attention to the children's developmental needs, which is not acceptable.

  8. Cultural schemas for racial identity in Canadian television advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Shyon; Ho, Loretta

    2014-05-01

    What meanings are attached to race in advertising? We analyze a sample of prime-time Canadian television advertising to identify cultural schemas for what it means to be White, Black, and East/Southeast Asian. Our empirical focus is on food and dining advertising. Through quantitative content analysis of associations between race and food subtypes, we show that there are systematic differences in the types of foods that groups are associated with. Through a qualitative content analysis of the commercials, we illuminate these quantitative patterns and discuss six cultural schemas for racial identity. The schemas allow for both diversity and privilege in the representation of Whites, and poignant contrasts regarding status and emotionality in the narrow representations of the other two groups.

  9. Developing schemas for assessing social competences among unskilled young people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Aarkrog, Vibe

    2017-01-01

    competences. The schema was developed in cooperation with practitioners, i.e. representatives from workplaces, from municipal youth guidance centres, and from VET colleges. Based on the experiences accrued in developing the schema, the article discusses how personal and social competences can be assessed......Personal and social competences are crucial parts of VET competences. As part of a development project preparing unskilled young people for vocational education and training, a research project was conducted with the aim of developing a schema for assessing and grading personal and social...... and graded. The central finding is that personal and social competences are assessed in relation to specific work tasks or situations, meaning that personal and social competences are context-specific....

  10. Pink Frilly Dresses and the Avoidance of All Things "Girly": Children's Appearance Rigidity and Cognitive Theories of Gender Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, May Ling; Ruble, Diane N.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Zosuls, Kristina M.; Lurye, Leah E.; Greulich, Faith K.

    2014-01-01

    Many young children pass through a stage of gender appearance rigidity; girls insist on wearing dresses, often pink and frilly, whereas boys refuse to wear anything with a hint of femininity. In 2 studies, we investigated the prevalence of this apparent hallmark of early gender development and its relation to children's growing identification with…

  11. Early Maladaptive Schemas in Opiate and Stimulant Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Karami

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Early maladaptive schemas are valid representations of unpleasant childhood experiences that shape a person’s viewpoints of the world, and lead to clinical symptoms such as depression, personality disorders, and substance abuse. Given the importance of this matter, we conducted a research on early maladaptive schemas in substance-abusers, to allow more appropriate preventive measures to be taken with a better understanding of the issue. Methods: For this descriptive-comparative study, 115 patients (91 opiate users and 24 stimulant users visiting drug addiction treatment centers were selected through convenience sampling from persons who were admitted to substance abuse treatment centers (Methadone Maintenance therapy centers, addiction treatment camps and self-help groups and Narcotics Anonymous (NA of Yasuj. Data were collected using a Demographic Information Questionnaire and Young’s Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (SQ-SF. Data analysis was done with ANOVA and t-tests. Results: The results showed a significant difference (P<0.05 between users of opiates and stimulants in terms of vulnerability to harm or illness, enmeshment, subjugation, emotional inhibition, entitlement, insufficient self-control/self-discipline, emotional  deprivation, social isolation, defectiveness, failure/shame, and dependence. The average score of the stimulant-users was higher than that of opiate-users in all the schemas except for the dimensions of abandonment, mistrust, and unrelenting standards. Discussion: Stimulant users have more early maladaptive schemas and are at a greater risk of psychological vulnerability. Early maladaptive schemas can be used by clinicians and researchers as a psychopathology and treatment method for substance dependence disorder.

  12. Schema for the LANL infrasound analysis tool, infrapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannemann, Fransiska Kate [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Marcillo, Omar Eduardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-04-14

    The purpose of this document is to define the schema used for the operation of the infrasound analysis tool, infrapy. The tables described by this document extend the CSS3.0 or KB core schema to include information required for the operation of infrapy. This document is divided into three sections, the first being this introduction. Section two defines eight new, infrasonic data processing-specific database tables. Both internal (ORACLE) and external formats for the attributes are defined, along with a short description of each attribute. Section three of the document shows the relationships between the different tables by using entity-relationship diagrams.

  13. The affective component of secure base schema in a Japanese and a Chinese sample: Evidence from affective priming paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Kato

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The affective priming paradigm (Murphy & Zajonc, 1993 was adapted to assess the affective component of the secure base schema in a Japanese (Study 1 and a Chinese sample (Study 2. The priming effects of secure base pictures and positive pictures on evaluation of neutral stimuli were examined. The attachment dimensions, both anxiety and avoidance, were also measured for all participants. The subliminal priming of secure base pictures was found to lead to greater positive liking ratings to neutral stimuli than neutral priming pictures or no pictures in the Chinese but not in the Japanese sample. The results were discussed in the context of the dual-process theory of the secure base schema.

  14. Metacognitions and emotional schemas: a new cognitive perspective for the distinction between unipolar and bipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batmaz, Sedat; Ulusoy Kaymak, Semra; Kocbiyik, Sibel; Turkcapar, Mehmet Hakan

    2014-10-01

    Clinicians need to make the differential diagnosis of unipolar and bipolar depression to guide their treatment choices. Looking at the differences observed in the metacognitions, and the emotional schemas, might help with this differentiation, and might provide information about the distinct psychotherapeutical targets. Three groups of subjects (166 unipolar depressed, 140 bipolar depressed, and 151 healthy controls) were asked to fill out the Metacognitions Questionnaire-30 (MCQ-30), and the Leahy Emotional Schema Scale (LESS). The clinicians diagnosed the volunteers according to the criteria of DSM-IV-TR with a structured clinical interview (MINI), and rated the moods of the subjects with the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), and the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS). Statistical analyses were undertaken to identify the group differences on the MCQ-30, and the LESS. The bipolar and unipolar depressed patients' scores on the MCQ-30 were significantly different from the healthy controls, but not from each other. On the LESS dimensions of guilt, duration, blame, validation, and acceptance of feelings, all three groups significantly differed from each other. There were no statistically different results on the LESS dimensions of comprehensibility, consensus, and expression. The mood disordered groups scored significantly different than the healthy controls on the LESS dimensions of simplistic view of emotions, numbness, rationality, rumination, higher values, and control. These results suggest that the metacognitive model of unipolar depression might be extrapolated for patients with bipolar depression. These results are also compatible to a great extent with the emotional schema theory of depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. "Macho" Beliefs Moderate the Association Between Negative Sexual Episodes and Activation of Incompetence Schemas in Sexual Context, in Gay and Heterosexual Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Maria Manuela; Nobre, Pedro

    2017-04-01

    Despite the existence of conceptual models of sexual dysfunction based on cognitive theory, few studies have tested the role of vulnerability factors such as sexual beliefs as moderators of the activation of cognitive schemas in response to negative sexual events. To test the moderator role of dysfunctional sexual beliefs in the association between the frequency of negative sexual episodes and the activation of incompetence schemas in gay and heterosexual men. Five-hundred seventy-five men (287 gay, 288 heterosexual) who completed an online survey on cognitive-affective dimensions and sexual functioning were selected from a larger database. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to test the hypothesis that dysfunctional sexual beliefs moderate the association between the frequency of unsuccessful sexual episodes and the activation of incompetence schemas. Participants completed the Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire and the Questionnaire of Cognitive Schemas Activated in Sexual Context. Findings indicated that men's ability for always being ready for sex, to satisfy the partner, and to maintain an erection until ending sexual activity constitute "macho" beliefs that moderate the activation of incompetence schemas when unsuccessful sexual events occur in gay and heterosexual men. In addition, activation of incompetence schemas in response to negative sexual events in gay men was moderated by the endorsement of conservative attitudes toward moderate sexuality. The main findings suggested that psychological interventions targeting dysfunctional sexual beliefs could help de-catastrophize the consequences of negative sexual events and facilitate sexual functioning. Despite being a web-based study, it represents the first attempt to test the moderator role of dysfunctional sexual beliefs in the association between the frequency of unsuccessful sexual episodes and the activation of incompetence schemas in gay and heterosexual men. Overall, findings

  16. Self-Schemas, Depression, and the Processing of Personal Information in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammen, Constance; Zupan, Brian A.

    1984-01-01

    Investigates the applicability of the self-as-schema model to children and examines the extent of negative self-schemas in relatively depressed children among 61 elementary school students; most of the students were between 8 and 12 years old. Results were consistent with the self-as-schema hypotheses, and mood congruent content-specific recall…

  17. Timing of schema activation and memory: Inhibited access to inconsistent information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksterhuis, A.; Knippenberg, A. van

    1995-01-01

    In the present experiment, recognition of consistent and inconsistent information was measured as a function of time of schema activation. A schema was either activated before or after encoding, or not at all. Schema activation after encoding reduced recognition of inconsistent information while

  18. 77 FR 46986 - Revisions to Electric Quarterly Report Filing Process; Availability of Draft XML Schema

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... Supplementary Information Section below for details. DATES: The draft XML Schema is now available at the links...] Revisions to Electric Quarterly Report Filing Process; Availability of Draft XML Schema AGENCY: Federal... Regulatory Commission is making available on its Web site ( http://www.ferc.gov ) a draft of the XML schema...

  19. Age-related schema reliance of judgments of learning in predicting source memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Liang-Zi; Tang, Wei-Hai; Liu, Xi-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Source memory refers to mental processes of encoding and making attributions to the origin of information. We investigated schematic effects on source attributions of younger and older adults for different schema-based types of items, and their schema-utilization of judgments of learning (JOLs) in estimating source memory. Participants studied statements presented by two speakers either as a doctor or a lawyer: those in the schema-after-encoding condition were informed their occupation only before retrieving, while those of schema-before-encoding were presented the schematic information prior to study. Immediately after learning every item, they made judgments of the likelihood for it to be correctly attributed to the original source later. In the test, they fulfilled a task of source attributing. The results showed a two-edged effect of schemas: schema reliance improved source memory for schema-consistent items while impaired that for schema-inconsistent items, even with schematic information presented prior to encoding. Compared with younger adults, older adults benefited more from schema-based compensatory mechanisms. Both younger and older adults could make JOLs based on before-encoding schematic information, and the schema-based JOLs were more accurate in predicting source memory than JOLs made without schema support. However, even in the schema-after-encoding condition, older adults were able to make metacognitive judgments as accurately as younger adults did, though they did have great impairments in source memory itself.

  20. ECG Rhythm Analysis with Expert and Learner-Generated Schemas in Novice Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blissett, Sarah; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo; Sibbald, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Although instruction using expert-generated schemas is associated with higher diagnostic performance, implementation is resource intensive. Learner-generated schemas are an alternative, but may be limited by increases in cognitive load. We compared expert- and learner-generated schemas for learning ECG rhythm interpretation on diagnostic accuracy,…

  1. Gender similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research.

  2. Predicting Unprotected Sex and Unplanned Pregnancy among Urban African-American Adolescent Girls Using the Theory of Gender and Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Janet E; Zenilman, Jonathan; Rose, Eve; Wingood, Gina; DiClemente, Ralph

    2016-06-01

    Reproductive coercion has been hypothesized as a cause of unprotected sex and unplanned pregnancies, but research has focused on a narrow set of potential sources of reproductive coercion. We identified and evaluated eight potential sources of reproductive coercion from the Theory of Gender and Power including economic inequality between adolescent girls and their boyfriends, cohabitation, and age differences. The sample comprised sexually active African-American female adolescents, ages 15-21. At baseline (n = 715), 6 months (n = 607), and 12 months (n = 605), participants completed a 40-min interview and were tested for semen Y-chromosome with polymerase chain reaction from a self-administered vaginal swab. We predicted unprotected sex and pregnancy using multivariate regression controlling for demographics, economic factors, relationship attributes, and intervention status using a Poisson working model. Factors associated with unprotected sex included cohabitation (incidence risk ratio (IRR) 1.48, 95 % confidence interval (1.22, 1.81)), physical abuse (IRR 1.55 (1.21, 2.00)), emotional abuse (IRR 1.31 (1.06, 1.63)), and having a boyfriend as a primary source of spending money (IRR 1.18 (1.00, 1.39)). Factors associated with unplanned pregnancy 6 months later included being at least 4 years younger than the boyfriend (IRR 1.68 (1.14, 2.49)) and cohabitation (2.19 (1.35, 3.56)). Among minors, cohabitation predicted even larger risks of unprotected sex (IRR 1.93 (1.23, 3.03)) and unplanned pregnancy (3.84 (1.47, 10.0)). Adolescent cohabitation is a marker for unprotected sex and unplanned pregnancy, especially among minors. Cohabitation may have stemmed from greater commitment, but the shortage of affordable housing in urban areas could induce women to stay in relationships for housing. Pregnancy prevention interventions should attempt to delay cohabitation until adulthood and help cohabiting adolescents to find affordable housing.

  3. [The foundation of "feminine" and "masculine". Useful theories for the training of future physicians concerning the importance of gender].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risberg, G

    2000-11-15

    A gender perspective on health and consultation is part of medical education today. Teaching about gender must not focus on differences between men and women as essential, biological, and unchangeable. The meaning of "feminine" and "masculine" is largely a social construction, i.e. the behavior and character of an individual are seldom determined by sex. Furthermore, women and men live under different conditions and have different positions in society. Medical students need to be aware of this and reflect upon the influence it may have on their professional role and practice. To achieve this awareness, knowledge about the construction of gender is needed. This article reviews relevant research in this field. The gender of the physician is used as a basis and illustration of this.

  4. Gender Invariance of the Gambling Behavior Scale for Adolescents (GBS-A): An Analysis of Differential Item Functioning Using Item Response Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Maria Anna; Chiesi, Francesca; Izzo, Viola A; Primi, Caterina

    2017-01-01

    As there is a lack of evidence attesting the equivalent item functioning across genders for the most employed instruments used to measure pathological gambling in adolescence, the present study was aimed to test the gender invariance of the Gambling Behavior Scale for Adolescents (GBS-A), a new measurement tool to assess the severity of Gambling Disorder (GD) in adolescents. The equivalence of the items across genders was assessed by analyzing Differential Item Functioning within an Item Response Theory framework. The GBS-A was administered to 1,723 adolescents, and the graded response model was employed. The results attested the measurement equivalence of the GBS-A when administered to male and female adolescent gamblers. Overall, findings provided evidence that the GBS-A is an effective measurement tool of the severity of GD in male and female adolescents and that the scale was unbiased and able to relieve truly gender differences. As such, the GBS-A can be profitably used in educational interventions and clinical treatments with young people.

  5. XML Schema of PaGE-OM: fuge.xsd [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ://www.omg.org/spec/PAGE-OM/20090722/snp schemaLocation=snp.xsd/> ..._source type=fuge:Ontology_source/> _source> ...ogy_term/> _term> Ontology term, defined in more detail in FuGE (http://fuge.sourceforge.net/). This

  6. An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Schema Modes in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A schema therapy approach to eating disorders, the focus of the present papers, ..... of “never quite meeting up or being ... the one who gets the awards or the ... that she is alone because she is worthless and unlovable. But this is too painful to ...

  7. PRISM: Enmeshment of illness and self-schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Fiona; Sharpe, Louise; Schrieber, Leslie

    2004-01-01

    The Pictorial Representation of Illness and Self Measure (PRISM) is a recently developed tool purported to assess burden of suffering due to illness. The nature of the PRISM task suggests a conceptual link to the illness self-schema construct hypothesised to be present in some individuals with chronic illness. This study investigates the relationship between PRISM and schema as measured by cognitive bias. 43 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) completed an information-processing task involving endorsement of positive and negative illness words as descriptors of themselves, followed by free recall of the words. The outcome measures were endorsement and recall bias for negative illness words. Patients also completed the PRISM task and were assessed on other physical and psychological variables. PRISM did not correlate significantly with age, depression, functional impairment or disease activity. In a multiple regression analysis, only recall bias made an independent contribution to PRISM. Illness self-schema appears to play a significant role in determining the way in which SLE patients complete the PRISM task. This is discussed in light of a schema enmeshment model recently proposed in the cognitive bias literature. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. Exploiting emergent schemas to make RDF systems more efficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, Minh Duc; Boncz, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We build on our earlier finding that more than 95% of the triples in actual RDF triple graphs have a remarkably tabular structure, whose schema does not necessarily follow from explicit metadata such as ontologies, but for which an RDF store can automatically derive by looking at the data using

  9. Deriving an emergent relational schema from RDF data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, Minh Duc; Passing, Linnea; Erling, Orri; Boncz, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We motivate and describe techniques that allow to detect an "emergent" relational schema from RDF data. We show that on a wide variety of datasets, the found structure explains well over 90% of the RDF triples. Further, we also describe technical solutions to the semantic challenge to give short

  10. The role of schema salience in ad processing and evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loef, J.; Antonides, G.; van Raaij, W.F.

    2002-01-01

    Advertising grids such as the Rossiter-Percy grid (Rossiter & Percy 1991, 1997) propose that brand-matching advertising is more effective than brand-mismatching advertising. However, for the match hypothesis to hold the brand schema needs to be salient in ad processing and evaluation. In this study

  11. Exploiting emergent schemas to make RDF systems more efficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.-D. Pham (Minh-Duc); P.A. Boncz (Peter)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe build on our earlier finding that more than 95 % of the triples in actual RDF triple graphs have a remarkably tabular structure, whose schema does not necessarily follow from explicit metadata such as ontologies, but for which an RDF store can automatically derive by looking at

  12. Developing Schemas for Assessing Social Competences among Unskilled Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibe Aarkrog

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Social competences are crucial parts of vocational education and training (VET competences. As part of a development project preparing unskilled young people for VET, an action research project was conducted with the aim of developing a schema for assessing and grading social competences. The development included defining the social competences as well as three levels for assessing these competences. The schema was developed in cooperation with the assessors, i.e., representatives from workplaces, municipal youth guidance centres, and VET colleges. There were two main findings. First, the definitions of the competences and the levels for assessing the competences are related to the context in which the competences should be developed. Second, even though the definitions should be related to the specific contexts, to be manageable they should not be too elaborate. The aim of the project being to develop a schema that practitioners in general can use for assessing young peoples' social competences in relation to work-based training, the study concludes that further research is needed to clarify whether the schema can be used without instruction or training.

  13. Emotion Regulation in Schema Therapy and Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fassbinder, E.; Schweiger, U.; Martius, D.; Brand-de Wilde, O.; Arntz, A.

    2016-01-01

    Schema therapy (ST) and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) have both shown to be effective treatment methods especially for borderline personality disorder. Both, ST and DBT, have their roots in cognitive behavioral therapy and aim at helping patient to deal with emotional dysregulation. However,

  14. Argumentation Schema and the Myside Bias in Written Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Christopher R.; Britt, M. Anne; Butler, Jodie A.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a cognitive argumentation schema for written arguments and presents three empirical studies on the "myside" bias--the tendency to ignore or exclude evidence against one's position. Study 1 examined the consequences of conceding, rebutting, and denying other-side information. Rebuttal led to higher ratings of…

  15. On the applicability of schema integration techniques to database interoperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, Mark W.W.; Apers, Peter M.G.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the applicability of schema integration techniques developed for tightly-coupled database interoperation to interoperation of databases stemming from different modelling contexts. We illustrate that in such an environment, it is typically quite difficult to infer the real-world semantics

  16. The Role of Schema Salience in Ad Processing and Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Loef (Joost); G. Antonides (Gerrit); W.F. van Raaij (Fred)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAdvertising grids such as the Rossiter-Percy grid (Rossiter & Percy 1991, 1997) propose that brand-matching advertising is more effective than brand-mismatching advertising. However, for the match hypothesis to hold the brand schema needs to be salient in ad processing and evaluation. In

  17. Parental Practices and the Development of Maladaptive Schemas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunty, Amy L.; Buri, John R.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between Young's (1999) Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) and several parental variables was investigated. The parental variables of interest were: (a) Nurturance, (b) Authority, (c) Intrusiveness, (d) Psychological Control, (e) Overprotection, and (f) Parentification. Regression analyses revealed that these parental practices…

  18. Representation of categories: metaphorical use of the container schema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, I.; Pecher, D.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we investigated whether the mental representation of the concept categories is represented by the container image schema (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980). In two experiments participants decided whether two pictures were from the same category (animal or vehicle). Pictures were

  19. Enabling knowledge representation on the Web by extending RDF Schema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekstra, Jeen; Klein, Michel; Decker, Stefan; Fensel, Dieter; Van Harmelen, Frank; Horrocks, Ian

    2002-01-01

    Recently, a widespread interest has emerged in using ontologies on the Web. Resource Description Framework Schema (RDFS) is a basic tool that enables users to define vocabulary, structure and constraints for expressing meta data about Web resources. However, it includes no provisions for formal

  20. Early Maladaptive Schemas in Depressed Women and Its Relationship with Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Bolat KONUKÇU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Objective: Schemas are deep enduring cognitive structures that are the source of dysfunctional cognitions, emotions and behaviors, activate after critical incidents in depression. A subset of schemas called Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMS which are hyphotised to arise from early traumatic and adverse life events are also claimed to be related with not only personality disorders but also mood disorders. In this study we aimed to investigate the relationship between early maladaptive schemas and depression and relationship between schema scores and depression severity in depressed women and compare it with non-depressed controls.Methods: 40 women attending to an outpatient psychiatry clinic and 30 healthy controls participated. All participants were assessed with SCID-1. Data were obtained by using a Sociodemographic Questionnaires, Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form 3 (YSQ and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI.Results: All except one (enmeshment/undeveloped self maladaptive schema scores of depressed women were higher than controls. BDI was correlated to some schema and schema domain scores in both depressed and control groups but the correlations were stronger in control group. Mean emotional deprivation, negativism, abandonment and instability, failure EMS scores showed the highest difference between two groups. The schema domains most related to depression symptom severity were disconnection and rejection, impaired autonomy and performance.Conclusions: Almost all early maladaptive schemas are related to depression, and some schemas are related to depression symptom severity but these correlations are weaker in control group. This may mean that EMS are stable and mood independent structures. Although other schemas are related to depression, mostly related EMS in women might be emotional deprivation schema. These schemas may also overlap with Beck’s unlovability core belief or sociotropy dimension

  1. Assessing the Implicit Theory of Willpower for Strenuous Mental Activities Scale: Multigroup, across-gender, and cross-cultural measurement invariance and convergent and divergent validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Christopher M; Job, Veronika

    2018-05-21

    Why do some people struggle with self-control (colloquially called willpower) whereas others are able to sustain it during challenging circumstances? Recent research showed that a person's implicit theories of willpower-whether they think self-control capacity is a limited or nonlimited resource-predict sustained self-control on laboratory tasks and on goal-related outcomes in everyday life. The present research tests the Implicit Theory of Willpower for Strenuous Mental Activities Scale (or ITW-M) Scale for measurement invariance across samples and gender within each culture, and two cultural contexts (the U.S. and Switzerland/Germany). Across a series of multigroup confirmatory factor analyses, we found support for the measurement invariance of the ITW-M scale across samples within and across two cultures, as well as across men and women. Further, the analyses showed expected patterns of convergent (with life-satisfaction and trait-self-control) and discriminant validity (with implicit theory of intelligence). These results provide guidelines for future research and clinical practice using the ITW-M scale for the investigation of latent group differences, for example, between gender or cultures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Peculiarities of Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Garduno, Sylvia Aide Figueroa; Kovacova, Nikola; Arjona, Ruben Campos

    2017-01-01

    This project challenges the essentialist notions of gender in fantasy genre. The trilogy of Miss Peregrine’s Peculiar Children will shed light on the shifting patterns of gender performativity in fantasy. To drive our analysis, we will resort to Judith Butler’s theory of gender performativity, Joseph Campbell’s monomyth and William Indick’s study of fantasy and myth.

  3. Gender and Adolescent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, David G.; Pauletti, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes and critiques recent trends in research and theory on the role of gender in adolescent development. First, gender differences in key areas of adolescent functioning are reviewed. Second, research on 3 constructs that are especially relevant to the investigation of within-gender individual differences in gender…

  4. Stressful Life Events: Moderators of the Relationships of Gender and Gender Roles to Self-Reported Depression and Suicidality among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waelde, Lynn C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examines whether relationships of self-reported depression and suicidality to gender roles or gender are moderated by stressful life events. Results with 290 female and 247 male undergraduates support the androgyny model of adjustment and a self-schema model of depression. (SLD)

  5. Early maladaptive schemas and social anxiety in adolescents: the mediating role of anxious automatic thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun; Hankin, Benjamin L

    2013-04-01

    Cognitive models state that cognitions are organized hierarchically, so that the underlying schemas affect behavior via more automatic, superficial cognitive processes. This study aimed to demonstrate that early maladaptive schemas predict anxious automatic thoughts, and to show that such automatic thoughts act as mediators between schemas and prospective changes in social anxiety symptoms. The study also examined an alternative reverse model in which schemas acted as mediators between automatic thoughts and social anxiety. A total of 1052 adolescents (499 girls and 553 boys; M(age)=13.43; SD(age)=1.29) completed measures of early maladaptive schemas, socially anxious automatic thoughts, and social anxiety symptoms at Times 1, 2, and 3. The results revealed bidirectional longitudinal relationships among schemas and automatic thoughts that were consistent in content (e.g., the disconnection/rejection schemas and automatic thoughts of negative self-concept). Furthermore, the automatic thoughts of anticipatory negative evaluation by others at Time 2 mediated the relationship between the other-directedness schemas at Time 1 and social anxiety symptoms at Time 3. These findings are consistent with hierarchical cognitive models of social anxiety given that deeper schemas predict more surface-level thoughts. They also support that these more surface-level thoughts contribute to perpetuating schemas. Finally, results show that early maladaptive schemas of the other-directedness domain play a relevant role in the development and maintenance of social anxiety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Whether Social Schema Violations Help or Hurt Creativity Depends on Need for Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocłowska, Małgorzata A; Baas, Matthijs; Crisp, Richard J; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2014-08-01

    Although people and events that disconfirm observers' expectancies can increase their creativity, sometimes such social schema violations increase observers' rigidity of thought and undermine creative cognition. Here we examined whether individual differences in the extent to which people prefer structure and predictability determine whether social schema violations facilitate or hamper creativity. Participants in Study 1 formed impressions of a schema-inconsistent female mechanic (vs. a schema-consistent male mechanic). Following schema-inconsistent rather than -consistent information, participants low (high) in need for structure showed better (impeded) creative performance. Participants in Study 2 memorized a series of images in which individuals were placed on a schema-inconsistent (vs. consistent) background (e.g., an Eskimo on the desert vs. on a snowy landscape). Following schema-inconsistent imagery, participants low (high) in need for structure increased (decreased) divergent thinking. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  7. Re-Theorizing Intimate Partner Violence through Post-Structural Feminism, Queer Theory, and the Sociology of Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Cannon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we apply three theoretical frameworks, poststructural feminism, queer, and sociology of gender to the issue of intimate partner violence (IPV in order to better account for heterosexual female perpetration and same-sex IPV. Although the traditional feminist paradigm—that assumes men use violence as an extension of patriarchy against their female victims—has been useful in explaining some instances of IPV, it does not adequately frame instances of heterosexual female perpetration and IPV in same-sex relationships. Therefore, in this article we seek to add to existing literature by re-theorizing IPV using poststructural feminism, queer, and sociology of gender perspectives, and their attendant understanding of power as dynamic, fluid, and relational and gender as both interactional and structural, in order to open up new ways of framing IPV and encourage new lines of empirical research resulting in better policy proscriptions and treatment interventions.

  8. Effects of gender, age, and diabetes duration on dietary self-care in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: a Self-Determination Theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Stéphanie; Senécal, Caroline; Guay, Frédéric; Nouwen, Arie

    2011-09-01

    This study tests a model derived from Self-Determination Theory (SDT) (Deci and Ryan, 2000) to explain the mechanisms by which non-modifiable factors influence dietary self-care in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (n = 289). SEM analyses adjusted for HbA1c levels revealed that longer diabetes duration and female gender were indicative of poorer dietary self-care. This effect was mediated by contextual and motivational factors as posited by SDT. Poorer autonomy support from practitioners was predominant in girls with longer diabetes duration. Perceived autonomous motivation and self-efficacy were indicative of greater autonomy support, and led to better dietary self-care.

  9. The Gender of "Energy": Language, Social Theory, and Cultural Change in Women's Lands in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Keridwen N

    2015-01-01

    Within women's intentional communities, women use the phrase women's energy to describe certain social interactions, a sense of community, and ideas about how gender is done or performed. For example, energy can express both difference in communication style between men and women and male dominance in social situations. During my fieldwork in these communities, I explored how this phrase suggests a reference to a precultural female body, but it is also sometimes used to explicitly reject biological reasons for gender difference. The term is easily understandable to a wide range of women from varying class backgrounds and encompasses both the unconscious side of social interactions and a possibility for future change.

  10. Workplace-based assessment: raters' performance theories and constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govaerts, M J B; Van de Wiel, M W J; Schuwirth, L W T; Van der Vleuten, C P M; Muijtjens, A M M

    2013-08-01

    Weaknesses in the nature of rater judgments are generally considered to compromise the utility of workplace-based assessment (WBA). In order to gain insight into the underpinnings of rater behaviours, we investigated how raters form impressions of and make judgments on trainee performance. Using theoretical frameworks of social cognition and person perception, we explored raters' implicit performance theories, use of task-specific performance schemas and the formation of person schemas during WBA. We used think-aloud procedures and verbal protocol analysis to investigate schema-based processing by experienced (N = 18) and inexperienced (N = 16) raters (supervisor-raters in general practice residency training). Qualitative data analysis was used to explore schema content and usage. We quantitatively assessed rater idiosyncrasy in the use of performance schemas and we investigated effects of rater expertise on the use of (task-specific) performance schemas. Raters used different schemas in judging trainee performance. We developed a normative performance theory comprising seventeen inter-related performance dimensions. Levels of rater idiosyncrasy were substantial and unrelated to rater expertise. Experienced raters made significantly more use of task-specific performance schemas compared to inexperienced raters, suggesting more differentiated performance schemas in experienced raters. Most raters started to develop person schemas the moment they began to observe trainee performance. The findings further our understanding of processes underpinning judgment and decision making in WBA. Raters make and justify judgments based on personal theories and performance constructs. Raters' information processing seems to be affected by differences in rater expertise. The results of this study can help to improve rater training, the design of assessment instruments and decision making in WBA.

  11. The semiotics of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buren, J

    1992-01-01

    The semiotics of gender are investigated in this article for the purpose of exploring the way that deep unconscious motives in relationship to cultural biases give rise to gender concepts. Theories of semiotic processes, including Jacques Lacan's concept of the psychoanalytic signifier, are explained briefly and applied to the signs of gender. The article concludes that gender concepts develop out of biology, unconscious feelings, and social patterning, and are not given, natural, and irrevocable.

  12. Age differences and schema effects in memory for crime information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overman, Amy A; Wiseman, Kimberly D; Allison, Meredith; Stephens, Joseph D W

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: This study investigated age-related differences in memory for crime information. Older adults have been found to rely more than young adults on schema- and stereotype-based processing in memory, and such age differences may have implications in the criminal justice system. Some prior research has examined schema-based processing among older adults in legal settings, but no studies have tested for schema effects on older adults' memory for specific details of a crime. Older adults (N = 56, ages 65-93) and young adults (N = 52, ages 18-22) read a passage about a criminal suspect's "bad" or "good" childhood, and then read a crime report containing incriminating, exonerating, and neutral details with regard to the suspect. Participants were subsequently tested on recognition of accurate versus altered details from the crime report. Participants also rated the suspect"s guilt, and completed a battery of neuropsychological tests. Correct and false recognition rates were analyzed with ANOVA to compare means across age group, evidence type, and background type, and guilt ratings were analyzed with linear regression using neuropsychological scores as predictors. Among older adults, an interaction was found between evidence type (incriminating/exonerating) and suspect's background (good/bad childhood) in false recognition of altered details from the crime report, supporting the hypothesis that schema-based processing influenced older adult memory from crime information. Additionally, although guilt ratings were not related to the suspect's background for either age group, they were predicted by older adults' short-delay recall (β = -.37), suggesting that cognitive decline may play a role in older adults' interpretations of evidence. The findings suggest reduced cognitive capacity in older adults increases schema-based processing in memory for crime information, and are consistent with research in other domains that has demonstrated greater schema

  13. SCHeMA web-based observation data information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novellino, Antonio; Benedetti, Giacomo; D'Angelo, Paolo; Confalonieri, Fabio; Massa, Francesco; Povero, Paolo; Tercier-Waeber, Marie-Louise

    2016-04-01

    It is well recognized that the need of sharing ocean data among non-specialized users is constantly increasing. Initiatives that are built upon international standards will contribute to simplify data processing and dissemination, improve user-accessibility also through web browsers, facilitate the sharing of information across the integrated network of ocean observing systems; and ultimately provide a better understanding of the ocean functioning. The SCHeMA (Integrated in Situ Chemical MApping probe) Project is developing an open and modular sensing solution for autonomous in situ high resolution mapping of a wide range of anthropogenic and natural chemical compounds coupled to master bio-physicochemical parameters (www.schema-ocean.eu). The SCHeMA web system is designed to ensure user-friendly data discovery, access and download as well as interoperability with other projects through a dedicated interface that implements the Global Earth Observation System of Systems - Common Infrastructure (GCI) recommendations and the international Open Geospatial Consortium - Sensor Web Enablement (OGC-SWE) standards. This approach will insure data accessibility in compliance with major European Directives and recommendations. Being modular, the system allows the plug-and-play of commercially available probes as well as new sensor probess under development within the project. The access to the network of monitoring probes is provided via a web-based system interface that, being implemented as a SOS (Sensor Observation Service), is providing standard interoperability and access tosensor observations systems through O&M standard - as well as sensor descriptions - encoded in Sensor Model Language (SensorML). The use of common vocabularies in all metadatabases and data formats, to describe data in an already harmonized and common standard is a prerequisite towards consistency and interoperability. Therefore, the SCHeMA SOS has adopted the SeaVox common vocabularies populated by

  14. A Theory of Productive Activity: The Relationships among Self-Concept, Gender, Sex Role Stereotypes, and Work-Emergent Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yount, Kristen R.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a theoretical framework that focuses on the division of labor by gender to account for both sex role stereotypes and the correspondence between these stereotypes and self-concepts of women and men. According to this framework, self-images of adults are largely constituted by attributes generated by their productive activity. (Author/ABB)

  15. Ethnic and gender differences in applicants' decision-making processes: An application of the theory of reasoned action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooft, E.A.J.; Born, M.Ph.; Taris, T.W.; van der Flier, H.

    2006-01-01

    Although a growing proportion of the new entrants into the workforce consist of women and ethnic minorities, relatively little is known about the recruitment and job choice processes of these applicant groups. Therefore, this study investigated cultural and gender differences in job application

  16. Ethnic and gender differences in applicants’ decision-making processes: an application of the theory of reasoned action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A.J. van Hooft (Edwin); M.Ph. Born (Marise); T.W. Taris (Toon); H. van der Flier (Henk)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAlthough a growing proportion of the new entrants into the workforce consist of women and ethnic minorities, relatively little is known about the recruitment and job choice processes of these applicant groups. Therefore this study investigated cultural and gender differences in job

  17. Ethnic and gender differences in applicants' decision-making processes: An application of the theory of reasoned action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A.J. van Hooft (Edwin); M.Ph. Born (Marise); T.W. Taris (Toon); H. van der Flier (Henk)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAlthough a growing proportion of the new entrants into the workforce consist of women and ethnic minorities, relatively little is known about the recruitment and job choice processes of these applicant groups. Therefore, this study investigated cultural and gender differences in job

  18. Gender-based Differential Item Functioning in the Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior for the Study of Entrepreneurial Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampetakis, Leonidas A.; Bakatsaki, Maria; Litos, Charalambos; Kafetsios, Konstantinos G.; Moustakis, Vassilis

    2017-01-01

    Over the past years the percentage of female entrepreneurs has increased, yet it is still far below of that for males. Although various attempts have been made to explain differences in mens’ and women’s entrepreneurial attitudes and intentions, the extent to which those differences are due to self-report biases has not been yet considered. The present study utilized Differential Item Functioning (DIF) to compare men and women’s reporting on entrepreneurial intentions. DIF occurs in situations where members of different groups show differing probabilities of endorsing an item despite possessing the same level of the ability that the item is intended to measure. Drawing on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), the present study investigated whether constructs such as entrepreneurial attitudes, perceived behavioral control, subjective norms and intention would show gender differences and whether these gender differences could be explained by DIF. Using DIF methods on a dataset of 1800 Greek participants (50.4% female) indicated that differences at the item-level are almost non-existent. Moreover, the differential test functioning (DTF) analysis, which allows assessing the overall impact of DIF effects with all items being taken into account simultaneously, suggested that the effect of DIF across all the items for each scale was negligible. Future research should consider that measurement invariance can be assumed when using TPB constructs for the study of entrepreneurial motivation independent of gender. PMID:28386244

  19. Gender-based Differential Item Functioning in the Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior for the Study of Entrepreneurial Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampetakis, Leonidas A; Bakatsaki, Maria; Litos, Charalambos; Kafetsios, Konstantinos G; Moustakis, Vassilis

    2017-01-01

    Over the past years the percentage of female entrepreneurs has increased, yet it is still far below of that for males. Although various attempts have been made to explain differences in mens' and women's entrepreneurial attitudes and intentions, the extent to which those differences are due to self-report biases has not been yet considered. The present study utilized Differential Item Functioning (DIF) to compare men and women's reporting on entrepreneurial intentions. DIF occurs in situations where members of different groups show differing probabilities of endorsing an item despite possessing the same level of the ability that the item is intended to measure. Drawing on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), the present study investigated whether constructs such as entrepreneurial attitudes, perceived behavioral control, subjective norms and intention would show gender differences and whether these gender differences could be explained by DIF. Using DIF methods on a dataset of 1800 Greek participants (50.4% female) indicated that differences at the item-level are almost non-existent. Moreover, the differential test functioning (DTF) analysis, which allows assessing the overall impact of DIF effects with all items being taken into account simultaneously, suggested that the effect of DIF across all the items for each scale was negligible. Future research should consider that measurement invariance can be assumed when using TPB constructs for the study of entrepreneurial motivation independent of gender.

  20. What Can Boys and Girls Do? Preschoolers' Perspectives Regarding Gender Roles across Domains of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Erin R.; Tisak, Marie S.; Tisak, John

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has examined at what age and in what contexts males and females develop gender-congruent stereotypes. Research indicates that social experience may provide a great influence on the presence of such stereotypes, but this is likely influenced by the development of gender schemas. The current study interviewed 99 children…

  1. Towards a New Theory of Feminist Coalition: Accounting for the Heterogeneity of Gender, Race, Class, and Sexuality through an Exploration of Power and Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Jeanine Boux

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a novel theory of feminist coalition that centers and redefines the concepts of power and responsibility. After outlining several key ways in which feminist coalition work has been addressed by both theorists and practitioners, it goes on to explore how accounting for the complex experiences of identity rooted in factors such as race, class, gender, and sexuality continues to complicate the process of coalition building and theorizing. From these foundations, the article develops a theory of feminist coalition that speaks to how such a movement—or organizations within such a movement—can drive the political will for transformation and turn this will into political action without glossing over vital differences in people’s daily experiences of gender as it intersects with other systems of domination and oppression. The key argument made herein is that an explicit focus on power and responsibility can help us develop more functional answers to critical and still pressing questions, such as: Who is included—explicitly or implicitly—in feminist coalitions? And what issues, or agendas, are we working towards changing through these coalitions?

  2. XML schemas and mark-up practices of taxonomic literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penev, Lyubomir; Lyal, Christopher Hc; Weitzman, Anna; Morse, David R; King, David; Sautter, Guido; Georgiev, Teodor; Morris, Robert A; Catapano, Terry; Agosti, Donat

    2011-01-01

    We review the three most widely used XML schemas used to mark-up taxonomic texts, TaxonX, TaxPub and taXMLit. These are described from the viewpoint of their development history, current status, implementation, and use cases. The concept of "taxon treatment" from the viewpoint of taxonomy mark-up into XML is discussed. TaxonX and taXMLit are primarily designed for legacy literature, the former being more lightweight and with a focus on recovery of taxon treatments, the latter providing a much more detailed set of tags to facilitate data extraction and analysis. TaxPub is an extension of the National Library of Medicine Document Type Definition (NLM DTD) for taxonomy focussed on layout and recovery and, as such, is best suited for mark-up of new publications and their archiving in PubMedCentral. All three schemas have their advantages and shortcomings and can be used for different purposes.

  3. Lover and learner: Exploring relational schema change following relationship dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunson, Julie A; Øverup, Camilla S; Acitelli, Linda K

    2018-03-27

    Romantic relationships are known to be very influential, but less is known about how these relationships, and particularly the breakup of these relationships, may affect individuals' relational schemas, or their expectations for relationships. Undergraduate students reported on how their views of themselves, romantic partners, and relationships changed after breaking up with a past partner. Results suggest that relational schemas change following relationship dissolution and that there are both positive and negative aspects to this change. There was also some evidence that aspects of the past relationship predicted change and the valence of change, and that change and the valence of change were related to aspects of current relationship quality. These results are an important first step in understanding how past romantic relationships influence people's expectations about relationships and, by extension, their health and wellbeing.

  4. Conjugate schema and basis representation of crossover and mutation operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazadi, S T

    1998-01-01

    In genetic search algorithms and optimization routines, the representation of the mutation and crossover operators are typically defaulted to the canonical basis. We show that this can be influential in the usefulness of the search algorithm. We then pose the question of how to find a basis for which the search algorithm is most useful. The conjugate schema is introduced as a general mathematical construct and is shown to separate a function into smaller dimensional functions whose sum is the original function. It is shown that conjugate schema, when used on a test suite of functions, improves the performance of the search algorithm on 10 out of 12 of these functions. Finally, a rigorous but abbreviated mathematical derivation is given in the appendices.

  5. Gendered Perceptions of Typical Engineers across Specialties for Engineering Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Margaret S.; Bryan, Kimberley K.

    2018-01-01

    Young women do not choose to be engineers nearly as often as young men, and they tend to cluster in particular specialties when they do. We examine these patterns and the role of gender schemas as applied to perceptions of typical engineers in understanding the choices that women make in terms of engineering specialties. We use Part 1 of two waves…

  6. Consolidation differentially modulates schema effects on memory for items and associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kesteren, Marlieke T R; Rijpkema, Mark; Ruiter, Dirk J; Fernández, Guillén

    2013-01-01

    Newly learned information that is congruent with a preexisting schema is often better remembered than information that is incongruent. This schema effect on memory has previously been associated to more efficient encoding and consolidation mechanisms. However, this effect is not always consistently supported in the literature, with differential schema effects reported for different types of memory, different retrieval cues, and the possibility of time-dependent effects related to consolidation processes. To examine these effects more directly, we tested participants on two different types of memory (item recognition and associative memory) for newly encoded visuo-tactile associations at different study-test intervals, thus probing memory retrieval accuracy for schema-congruent and schema-incongruent items and associations at different time points (t = 0, t = 20, and t = 48 hours) after encoding. Results show that the schema effect on visual item recognition only arises after consolidation, while the schema effect on associative memory is already apparent immediately after encoding, persisting, but getting smaller over time. These findings give further insight into different factors influencing the schema effect on memory, and can inform future schema experiments by illustrating the value of considering effects of memory type and consolidation on schema-modulated retrieval.

  7. An Investigation of the Relationship between Maladaptive Primary Schemas and Happiness in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Davood Mohammadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Maladaptive Primary Schemas are fighting for their survival. On the other hand, several variables can relate to adolescents’ identity. One of these variables is happiness. This research was conducted to determine the relationship between happiness and maladaptive primary schemas in male and female adolescents and also comparing the level of happiness and use of this schemas in students. Methods: This research was a correlational study, which its sample size was estimated to be 212 subjects, who were selected using random sampling. Data collection tools were Young Schema Questionnaire and Oxford Happiness Inventory. Data analysis was performed using Pearson correlation coefficient and spontaneous regression. Results: There was significant relationships between happiness and distrust/abuse and obedience schemas in males and entitlement/grandiosity schemas and unrelenting standards in females. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that boys who have obedience schema have higher level of happiness compared to those who do not have this schema, and boys who have distrust/abuse schema have lower level of happiness. Also, girls who have entitlement/grandiosity schema have higher level of happiness.

  8. Consolidation differentially modulates schema effects on memory for items and associations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlieke T R van Kesteren

    Full Text Available Newly learned information that is congruent with a preexisting schema is often better remembered than information that is incongruent. This schema effect on memory has previously been associated to more efficient encoding and consolidation mechanisms. However, this effect is not always consistently supported in the literature, with differential schema effects reported for different types of memory, different retrieval cues, and the possibility of time-dependent effects related to consolidation processes. To examine these effects more directly, we tested participants on two different types of memory (item recognition and associative memory for newly encoded visuo-tactile associations at different study-test intervals, thus probing memory retrieval accuracy for schema-congruent and schema-incongruent items and associations at different time points (t = 0, t = 20, and t = 48 hours after encoding. Results show that the schema effect on visual item recognition only arises after consolidation, while the schema effect on associative memory is already apparent immediately after encoding, persisting, but getting smaller over time. These findings give further insight into different factors influencing the schema effect on memory, and can inform future schema experiments by illustrating the value of considering effects of memory type and consolidation on schema-modulated retrieval.

  9. Utilizing Nested Normal Form to Design Redundancy Free JSON Schemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Yin Mok

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available JSON (JavaScript Object Notation is a lightweight data-interchange format for the Internet. JSON is built on two structures: (1 a collection of name/value pairs and (2 an ordered list of values (http://www.json.org/. Because of this simple approach, JSON is easy to use and it has the potential to be the data interchange format of choice for the Internet. Similar to XML, JSON schemas allow nested structures to model hierarchical data. As data interchange over the Internet increases exponentially due to cloud computing or otherwise, redundancy free JSON data are an attractive form of communication because they improve the quality of data communication through eliminating update anomaly. Nested Normal Form, a normal form for hierarchical data, is a precise characterization of redundancy. A nested table, or a hierarchical schema, is in Nested Normal Form if and only if it is free of redundancy caused by multivalued and functional dependencies. Using Nested Normal Form as a guide, this paper introduces a JSON schema design methodology that begins with UML use case diagrams, communication diagrams and class diagrams that model a system under study. Based on the use cases’ execution frequencies and the data passed between involved parties in the communication diagrams, the proposed methodology selects classes from the class diagrams to be the roots of JSON scheme trees and repeatedly adds classes from the class diagram to the scheme trees as long as the schemas satisfy Nested Normal Form. This process continues until all of the classes in the class diagram have been added to some JSON scheme trees.

  10. PARTICIPATORY DESIGN: AN INTERSUBJECTIVE SCHEMA FOR DECISION MAKING

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Sanya

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this paper is participatory design (PD); a field that has been in existence since the 1960s. Reflections on a PD project in which the author played a central role revealed that existing literature does not engage adequately with intersubjective decision-making in PD processes. In this paper, appropriation and re-imagination of the Nordic framework for performance-based standards results in a novel multidimensional schema with five mutually related steps. Analysis indicates that t...

  11. Data Warehouse Design from HL7 Clinical Document Architecture Schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecoraro, Fabrizio; Luzi, Daniela; Ricci, Fabrizio L

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a semi-automatic approach to extract clinical information structured in a HL7 Clinical Document Architecture (CDA) and transform it in a data warehouse dimensional model schema. It is based on a conceptual framework published in a previous work that maps the dimensional model primitives with CDA elements. Its feasibility is demonstrated providing a case study based on the analysis of vital signs gathered during laboratory tests.

  12. Answering SPARQL queries modulo RDF Schema with paths

    OpenAIRE

    Alkhateeb, Faisal; Euzenat, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    alkhateeb2013a; SPARQL is the standard query language for RDF graphs. In its strict instantiation, it only offers querying according to the RDF semantics and would thus ignore the semantics of data expressed with respect to (RDF) schemas or (OWL) ontologies. Several extensions to SPARQL have been proposed to query RDF data modulo RDFS, i.e., interpreting the query with RDFS semantics and/or considering external ontologies. We introduce a general framework which allows for expressing query ans...

  13. Predicting Early Maladaptive Schemas Using Baumrind?s Parenting Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Esmali Kooraneh, Ahmad; Amirsardari, Leili

    2015-01-01

    Background: Families play an essential role in maintaining children?s mental, social, and physical health. The family provides the first and the most important social context for human development. Objectives: The present study aimed to predict early maladaptive schemas using Baumrind?s parenting styles (root development). Patients and Methods: A total of 357 undergraduate students of Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Iran, were selected through random cluster sampling during 2013 and 20...

  14. Predicting Early Maladaptive Schemas Using Baumrind’s Parenting Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmali Kooraneh, Ahmad; Amirsardari, Leili

    2015-01-01

    Background: Families play an essential role in maintaining children’s mental, social, and physical health. The family provides the first and the most important social context for human development. Objectives: The present study aimed to predict early maladaptive schemas using Baumrind’s parenting styles (root development). Patients and Methods: A total of 357 undergraduate students of Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Iran, were selected through random cluster sampling during 2013 and 2014. The students were assessed using the Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (SQ-SF) and the Baumrind’s parenting styles inventories. Results: The result of regression analysis showed that Baumrind’s parenting styles are significant predictors of early maladaptive schemas (P parenting style has some features such as showing high levels of warmth or encouraging kids to express their own possibly divergent opinions. The authoritarian parenting style, however, possesses traits such as heartlessness, impassiveness, strictness, and lack of attention to the children’s developmental needs, which is not acceptable. PMID:26288648

  15. Cultural schema and design activity in an architectural design studio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökçe Ketizmen Önal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on the cognitive activities and on the structure and quality of knowledge flow involved in architectural design education is increasing. These studies generally focus on the interaction between student and instructor, including processes such as producing ideas, solving display problems, and integrating design strategies. These studies commonly include computational evaluations and confirmation of the coding of knowledge. They may also include the determination of designer׳s thoughts and cognitive actions of design process, as well as the analysis and digitization of verbal protocols during the design process. In most of these studies, the designer׳s cultural and psychological components are not considered. Accordingly, research on the effects of designers’ cultural schema on design activity in design studios is limited. This study aimed to solve this problem by analyzing the relationship between design activity and the designer׳s cultural schema in a design studio. We performed an experimental study based on a specific conceptual framework and a research model aimed at identifying the relationships among cultural schemas, the architectural design process, and design studios.

  16. Boris Hirsch: Monopsonistic Labour Markets and the Gender Pay Gap. Theory and Empirical Evidence. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag 2010.

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Jochmann-Döll

    2011-01-01

    Der mögliche Beitrag monopsonistischer Arbeitsmarktmodelle zur Erklärung der geschlechterbezogenen Entgeltlücke (Gender Pay Gap) steht im Zentrum der Dissertation von Boris Hirsch. Nach den Theorien des räumlichen und des dynamischen Monopsons sind Unternehmen deshalb in der Lage, geringere Entgelte an Frauen zu zahlen, weil deren Arbeitsangebot auf Unternehmensebene weniger elastisch ist und sie bei einem Arbeitsplatzwechsel höhere Verluste in Kauf nehmen müssen. Die Ausnutzung der Monopsonm...

  17. TRANSCENDENTAL ASPECTS OF GENDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr V. Khmel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the basic principles of gender philosophy applying methodological tools of communicative pragmatics; to demonstrate how gender construct can provide gender humanism formation as one of the ideals of democratic society; to specify gender glossary terms such as “gender democracy”, “gender equality” and “gender justice”. Methodology. In order to investigate a theoretical framework in feminist philosophy, methodological tools of communicative pragmatics and discursive ethics that were elaborated by modern German philosophers J. Habermas, K.-O. Apel for analyzing ethical gender principles and their legitimation ways have been used in this research. Scientific novelty. Based on methodological differences in concepts of J. Habermas and K.-O. Apel, two opposite approaches to gender concept analysis – rational and pragmatic (Habermas and transcendental conceptual (K.-O. Apel have been found out. The article helps to specify the framework of categories and concepts. According to the legitimation way of gender ethical theory it was discovered that such notions as “gender democracy”, “gender equality” and “gender justice” do not have the same meanings. According to the analysis of communicative action program and consensus, the “gender equality” concept by Habermas is an artificial social construct that is methodologically grounded in cognitivism and diminishes the possibilities of gender values legitimation. According to K.-O. Apel, the concept of “gender justice” is based on transcendental moral and ethical sense of opposite genders unity and does not discharge unequal distribution of responsibilities and any invasion as well as represents certain extent of their difference. Conclusions. Fast growing gender changes in the society face ageold drawbacks of moral and spiritual principles of communities, taking into account social and cultural, national and gender identity. Thorough understanding of

  18. On the effectiveness of XML schema validation for countering XML signature wrapping attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Meiko; Meyer, Christopher; Somorovsky, Juraj

    2011-01-01

    In the context of security of Web Services, the XML Signature Wrapping attack technique has lately received increasing attention. Following a broad range of real-world exploits, general interest in applicable countermeasures rises. However, few approaches for countering these attacks have been...... investigated closely enough to make any claims about their effectiveness. In this paper, we analyze the effectiveness of the specific countermeasure of XML Schema validation in terms of fending Signature Wrapping attacks. We investigate the problems of XML Schema validation for Web Services messages......, and discuss the approach of Schema Hardening, a technique for strengthening XML Schema declarations. We conclude that XML Schema validation with a hardened XML Schema is capable of fending XML Signature Wrapping attacks, but bears some pitfalls and disadvantages as well....

  19. Neural mechanisms of mental schema: a triplet of delta, low beta/spindle and ripple oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohki, Takefumi; Takei, Yuichi

    2018-02-06

    Schemas are higher-level knowledge structures that integrate and organise lower-level representations. As internal templates, schemas are formed according to how events are perceived, interpreted and remembered. Although these higher-level units are assumed to play a fundamental role in our daily life from an early age, the neuronal basis and mechanisms of schema formation and use remain largely unknown. It is important to elucidate how the brain constructs and maintains these higher-level units. In order to examine the possible neural underpinnings of schema, we recapitulate previous work and discuss their findings related to schemas as the brain template. We specifically focused on low beta/spindle oscillations, which are assumed to be the key components of schemas, and propose that the brain template is implemented with a triplet of neural oscillations, that is delta, low beta/spindle and ripple oscillations. © 2018 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Job Satisfaction and Employee's Self-Schema at Workplace: a Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrad, Aida

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine the relationship between job satisfaction and self-schema amongst employees at the workplace. The results of the study revealed that self-schema derived from feelings and attitudes of employees based on their satisfaction at the workplace; and, explained that employees' schemas are various, completely. This study likewise considered on job satisfaction as a main organizational factor that increases the amount of performance and presence of empl...

  1. Sexual Self Schema as a Moderator of Sexual and Psychological Outcomes for Gynecologic Cancer Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Carpenter, Kristen M.; Andersen, Barbara L.; Fowler, Jeffrey M.; Maxwell, G. Larry

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Gynecologic cancer patients are at high risk for emotional distress and sexual dysfunction. The present study tested sexual self schema as an individual difference variable that might be useful in identifying those at risk for unfavorable outcomes. First, we tested schema as a predictor of sexual outcomes,including bodychangestress. Second,we examined schema as a contributor to broader quality of life outcomes, specifically as a moderator of the relationship between sexual satisfacti...

  2. Job Satisfaction and Employee’s Self-Schema at Workplace: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Aida Mehrad

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine the relationship between job satisfaction and self-schema amongst employees at the workplace. The results of the study revealed that self-schema derived from feelings and attitudes of employees based on their satisfaction at the workplace; and, explained that employees' schemas are various, completely. This study likewise considered on job satisfaction as a main organizational factor that increases the amount of performance and presence of empl...

  3. A Comparison of Early Maladaptive Schemas in Crystal Addicted Individuals and Normal Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Asadi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of present research was to compare early maladaptive schemas in crystal addicted individuals and normal individuals. Method: In this ex post facto research, two groups of subjects (normal adolescent=30 and addicted adolescent=30 were selected via cluster sampling and convenience sampling respectively. Yang early maladaptive schemas questionnaire were conducted, then data were analyzed using multiple analysis of variance. Results: The results revealed that there was significant difference between both groups in early maladaptive schemas. Conclusion: The findings provided empirical support for the proposition that early maladaptive schemas may influence on tendency of adolescent toward substance abuse.

  4. The Role of the Emotional Intelligence and Emotional Schema in Womenn’s Marital Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    جعفر حسني

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the role of emotional intelligence and emotional schema in marital satisfaction among women. A sample of 200 married women (100 employed and 100 household women was selected randomly and completed measures of emotional schemas, emotional intelligence, and marital satisfaction. The results of stepwise regression analysis showed that attention and clarity components of emotional intelligence are significant predictors of most marital satisfaction dimensions. Also, blame, agreement, simplistic view of emotions and higher values towards emotional schemas predicted different dimensions of marital satisfaction. Based on the findings it can be concluded that the emotional intelligence and effective emotional schema play a key role in marital satisfaction.

  5. The Role of Child Abuse and Neglect in Predicting the Early Maladaptive Schemas Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Narimani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of child abuse and neglect in predicting the early maladaptive schemas domains.Materials and Methods: This is a causal-comparative research. Sampling was performed using multistage clustering and simple random sampling methods. 500 individuals constituted the preliminary sample. After identifying 140 abused individuals, they were compared to 140 ordinary persons. In order to collect the data, the 53-item version of Bernstein Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, and Yang Schema Questionnaire: Short Form 2 (YSQ-SF2 were used. To analyze the data, multivariate regression coefficient enter method was deployed.Results: Results showed that about 24% of the variance of the disconnection and rejection maladaptive schema domain, as well as 12% of the variance of the impaired autonomy and performance maladaptive schema domain were explained by the emotional abuse, physical abuse, and physical neglect. 13% of the other-directedness maladaptive schema domain variance, 6% of the impaired limits maladaptive schema domain, and 5% of the overvigilance and inhibition maladaptive schema domain variance were explained by the emotional abuse.Conclusion: According to the findings, it can be concluded that one could predict schemas and their respective domains with regards to abused children. Abused children are likely to develop maladaptive schemas and cognitive distortions due to the dull and harsh atmosphere of the family and its unhealthy environment.

  6. In Quest of a Gender-Inclusive Theory of Leadership: Contributions from Research on Women Leaders in School Unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intriligator, Barbara A.

    Current research on women leaders has concentrated on four themes, all of which have been treated in terms of male-oriented leadership theory. Some studies have concentrated on social and psychological differences between men and women leaders, while a second group notes workplace attitudes toward stereotyped male and female traits. Both of these…

  7. Recovering from "Yo Mama Is so Stupid": (En)gendering a Critical Paradigm on Black Feminist Theory and Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Rochelle

    2011-01-01

    This article offers an analysis of the dozens using Black feminist theory. The dozens are a ritualized verbal game of insults that historically have used sexual offenses against Black women as the vehicle for insults. Rather than simply viewing the dozens as a cultural phenomenon, the article draws a connection between its occurrence in West…

  8. Gender, Language, and Social Influence: A Test of Expectation States, Role Congruity, and Self-Categorization Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Scott A.; Palomares, Nicholas A.; Anderson, Grace L.; Bondad-Brown, Beverly

    2009-01-01

    This study compares self-categorization, expectation states, and role congruity theories' explanations for female influence. Male and female participants (N = 267) listened to a recording of a female speaker who used either tentative or assertive language under conditions that led participants to categorize her as a woman or as college-educated.…

  9. An examination of gender bias on the eighth-grade MEAP science test as it relates to the Hunter Gatherer Theory of Spatial Sex Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong-Hall, Judy Gail

    The purpose of this study was to apply the Hunter-Gatherer Theory of sex spatial skills to responses to individual questions by eighth grade students on the Science component of the Michigan Educational Assessment Program (MEAP) to determine if sex bias was inherent in the test. The Hunter-Gatherer Theory on Spatial Sex Differences, an original theory, that suggested a spatial dimorphism concept with female spatial skill of pattern recall of unconnected items and male spatial skills requiring mental movement. This is the first attempt to apply the Hunter-Gatherer Theory on Spatial Sex Differences to a standardized test. An overall hypothesis suggested that the Hunter-Gatherer Theory of Spatial Sex Differences could predict that males would perform better on problems involving mental movement and females would do better on problems involving the pattern recall of unconnected items. Responses to questions on the 1994-95 MEAP requiring the use of male spatial skills and female spatial skills were analyzed for 5,155 eighth grade students. A panel composed of five educators and a theory developer determined which test items involved the use of male and female spatial skills. A MANOVA, using a random sample of 20% of the 5,155 students to compare male and female correct scores, was statistically significant, with males having higher scores on male spatial skills items and females having higher scores on female spatial skills items. Pearson product moment correlation analyses produced a positive correlation for both male and female performance on both types of spatial skills. The Hunter-Gatherer Theory of Spatial Sex Differences appears to be able to predict that males could perform better on the problems involving mental movement and females could perform better on problems involving the pattern recall of unconnected items. Recommendations for further research included: examination of male/female spatial skill differences at early elementary and high school levels to

  10. OFFl Models: Novel Schema for Dynamical Modeling of Biological Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbunugafor, C Brandon; Robinson, Sean P

    2016-01-01

    Flow diagrams are a common tool used to help build and interpret models of dynamical systems, often in biological contexts such as consumer-resource models and similar compartmental models. Typically, their usage is intuitive and informal. Here, we present a formalized version of flow diagrams as a kind of weighted directed graph which follow a strict grammar, which translate into a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) by a single unambiguous rule, and which have an equivalent representation as a relational database. (We abbreviate this schema of "ODEs and formalized flow diagrams" as OFFL.) Drawing a diagram within this strict grammar encourages a mental discipline on the part of the modeler in which all dynamical processes of a system are thought of as interactions between dynamical species that draw parcels from one or more source species and deposit them into target species according to a set of transformation rules. From these rules, the net rate of change for each species can be derived. The modeling schema can therefore be understood as both an epistemic and practical heuristic for modeling, serving both as an organizational framework for the model building process and as a mechanism for deriving ODEs. All steps of the schema beyond the initial scientific (intuitive, creative) abstraction of natural observations into model variables are algorithmic and easily carried out by a computer, thus enabling the future development of a dedicated software implementation. Such tools would empower the modeler to consider significantly more complex models than practical limitations might have otherwise proscribed, since the modeling framework itself manages that complexity on the modeler's behalf. In this report, we describe the chief motivations for OFFL, carefully outline its implementation, and utilize a range of classic examples from ecology and epidemiology to showcase its features.

  11. Use of Schema on Read in Earth Science Data Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, M.; Hegde, M.; Smit, C.; Pilone, P.; Pham, L.

    2017-12-01

    Traditionally, NASA Earth Science data archives have file-based storage using proprietary data file formats, such as HDF and HDF-EOS, which are optimized to support fast and efficient storage of spaceborne and model data as they are generated. The use of file-based storage essentially imposes an indexing strategy based on data dimensions. In most cases, NASA Earth Science data uses time as the primary index, leading to poor performance in accessing data in spatial dimensions. For example, producing a time series for a single spatial grid cell involves accessing a large number of data files. With exponential growth in data volume due to the ever-increasing spatial and temporal resolution of the data, using file-based archives poses significant performance and cost barriers to data discovery and access. Storing and disseminating data in proprietary data formats imposes an additional access barrier for users outside the mainstream research community. At the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data Information Services Center (GES DISC), we have evaluated applying the "schema-on-read" principle to data access and distribution. We used Apache Parquet to store geospatial data, and have exposed data through Amazon Web Services (AWS) Athena, AWS Simple Storage Service (S3), and Apache Spark. Using the "schema-on-read" approach allows customization of indexing—spatial or temporal—to suit the data access pattern. The storage of data in open formats such as Apache Parquet has widespread support in popular programming languages. A wide range of solutions for handling big data lowers the access barrier for all users. This presentation will discuss formats used for data storage, frameworks with support for "schema-on-read" used for data access, and common use cases covering data usage patterns seen in a geospatial data archive.

  12. Use of Schema on Read in Earth Science Data Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Mahabaleshwara; Smit, Christine; Pilone, Paul; Petrenko, Maksym; Pham, Long

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, NASA Earth Science data archives have file-based storage using proprietary data file formats, such as HDF and HDF-EOS, which are optimized to support fast and efficient storage of spaceborne and model data as they are generated. The use of file-based storage essentially imposes an indexing strategy based on data dimensions. In most cases, NASA Earth Science data uses time as the primary index, leading to poor performance in accessing data in spatial dimensions. For example, producing a time series for a single spatial grid cell involves accessing a large number of data files. With exponential growth in data volume due to the ever-increasing spatial and temporal resolution of the data, using file-based archives poses significant performance and cost barriers to data discovery and access. Storing and disseminating data in proprietary data formats imposes an additional access barrier for users outside the mainstream research community. At the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data Information Services Center (GES DISC), we have evaluated applying the schema-on-read principle to data access and distribution. We used Apache Parquet to store geospatial data, and have exposed data through Amazon Web Services (AWS) Athena, AWS Simple Storage Service (S3), and Apache Spark. Using the schema-on-read approach allows customization of indexing spatially or temporally to suit the data access pattern. The storage of data in open formats such as Apache Parquet has widespread support in popular programming languages. A wide range of solutions for handling big data lowers the access barrier for all users. This presentation will discuss formats used for data storage, frameworks with This presentation will discuss formats used for data storage, frameworks with support for schema-on-read used for data access, and common use cases covering data usage patterns seen in a geospatial data archive.

  13. OFFl Models: Novel Schema for Dynamical Modeling of Biological Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Brandon Ogbunugafor

    Full Text Available Flow diagrams are a common tool used to help build and interpret models of dynamical systems, often in biological contexts such as consumer-resource models and similar compartmental models. Typically, their usage is intuitive and informal. Here, we present a formalized version of flow diagrams as a kind of weighted directed graph which follow a strict grammar, which translate into a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs by a single unambiguous rule, and which have an equivalent representation as a relational database. (We abbreviate this schema of "ODEs and formalized flow diagrams" as OFFL. Drawing a diagram within this strict grammar encourages a mental discipline on the part of the modeler in which all dynamical processes of a system are thought of as interactions between dynamical species that draw parcels from one or more source species and deposit them into target species according to a set of transformation rules. From these rules, the net rate of change for each species can be derived. The modeling schema can therefore be understood as both an epistemic and practical heuristic for modeling, serving both as an organizational framework for the model building process and as a mechanism for deriving ODEs. All steps of the schema beyond the initial scientific (intuitive, creative abstraction of natural observations into model variables are algorithmic and easily carried out by a computer, thus enabling the future development of a dedicated software implementation. Such tools would empower the modeler to consider significantly more complex models than practical limitations might have otherwise proscribed, since the modeling framework itself manages that complexity on the modeler's behalf. In this report, we describe the chief motivations for OFFL, carefully outline its implementation, and utilize a range of classic examples from ecology and epidemiology to showcase its features.

  14. Gendering, courtship and pay equality: developing attraction theory to understand work-life balance and entrepreneurial activity

    OpenAIRE

    Ridley-Duff, R.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This paper examines one of the most intractable problems of the last 40 years: the difficulty in closing the pay inequality gap. Current wisdom is that the pay gap exists because of men's power to control the workplace, and men's dominant position in society generally. This paper examines an emergent literature on matriarchal power structures and proposes Attraction Theory as a holistic framework. Prior Work: This paper acknowledges a range of feminist literature that examines the...

  15. Knowledge Representation from Classification Schema to Semantic Web (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia-Adriana Tomescu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim to approach in this essay the technical paths used to represent hibrid documents in online environment using specific standars. The multimedia contents increase and the diverse storage formats need refined instruments for the search and retrieval process. Dedicated applications require a high level of interperability therefore the necesity of standardization. This study tries to argument theoretically the need to set and reflect logically the media objects properties in metadata schema and to illustrate the importance of ontologies and taxonomies in online environment representation.

  16. Negative self-schema: the effects of induced depressed mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, L J; Teasdale, J D; Broadbent, D E

    1988-05-01

    A depth-of-processing incidental recall paradigm, previously used as a measure of negative self-schema in depressed patients (Derry & Kuiper, 1981), was administered to normal subjects in whom depressed or neutral mood had been induced. Subjects in whom depressed mood was induced showed a pattern of recall similar to that previously found for depressed patients, suggesting (1) that at least some of the effects observed in depressed patients were a function of transient mood state, rather than persistent characteristics, and (2) that these effects of depressed mood also occur in individuals who have not been selected for vulnerability to clinical depression.

  17. SCHeMA open and modular in situ sensing solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercier-Waeber, Marie Louise; Novellino, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Marine environments are highly vulnerable and influenced by a wide diversity of anthropogenic and natural substances and organisms that may have adverse effects on the ecosystem equilibrium, on living resources and, ultimately, on human health. Identification of relevant types of hazards at the appropriate temporal and spatial scale is crucial to detect their sources and origin, to understand the processes governing their magnitude and distribution, and to ultimately evaluate and manage their risks and consequences preventing economic losses. This can be addressed only by the development of innovative, compact, rugged, automated, sensor networks allowing long-term monitoring. Development of such tools is a challenging task as it requires many analytical and technical innovations. The FP7-OCEAN 2013-SCHeMA project aims to contribute to meet this challenge by providing an open and modular sensing solution for autonomous in situ high resolution mapping of a range of anthropogenic and natural chemical compounds (trace metals, nutrients, anthropogenic organic compounds, toxic algae species and toxins, species relevant to the carbon cycle). To achieve this, SCHeMA activities focus on the development of : 1) an array of miniature sensor probes taking advantage of various innovative solutions, namely: (polymer-based) gel-integrated sensors; solid state ion-selective membrane sensors coupled to an on-line desalination module; mid-infrared optical sensors; optochemical multichannel devices; enOcean technology; 2) dedicated hardware, firmware and software components allowing their plug-and-play integration, localization as well as wireless bidirectional communication via advanced OGC-SWE wired/wireless dedicated interfaces; 3) a web-based front-end system compatible with EU standard requirements and principles (INSPIRE, GEO/GEOSS) and configured to insure easy interoperability with national, regional and local marine observation systems. This lecture will present examples of

  18. Non-English Majors' Listening Teaching Based on Lexical Chunks Theory and Schema Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoyu

    2016-01-01

    English listening is seen as a vital means of linguistic input for Chinese EFL (English as a Foreign Language) learners, which lays a solid foundation for English learning and communication with English speakers. Besides, with increasing of scores of the listening part in the newly-reformed CET-4 and CET-6 (CET refers to college English test in…

  19. Moving away from a cultural deficit to a holistic perspective: Traditional gender role values, academic attitudes, and educational goals for Mexican descent adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña-Watson, Brandy; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Dornhecker, Marianela; Martinez, Ashley J; Nagoshi, Julie L

    2016-04-01

    Latina/o youth lag behind Asian American and non-Latina/o White youth in many academic areas. Previous research has taken a deficit approach to understand the factors that affect academic outcomes for Latina/o youth often neglecting to highlight both the potential positive and negative contributions of gender role values. The present study took a holistic perspective to understand the affect of traditional Latina/o gender role values (i.e., marianismo, machismo, and caballerismo) on the academic attitudes and educational goals of Mexican descent youth. Structural equation models were tested to examine the associations of "positive" and "negative" gender role values on educational goals using 524 Mexican descent adolescents from a mid-sized city in southern Texas. We hypothesized that positive aspects of traditional Latina/o gender role values (i.e., "positive marianismo" and caballerismo) would be associated with more positive attitudes toward academics and higher educational goals. We further expected negative gender role values (i.e., "negative marianismo" and machismo) to have the opposite effect. Additionally, based on the theory of planned behavior and gender schema theory, academic attitudes were hypothesized to mediate the relation between gender role values and educational goals. An alternative model was tested in which educational goals mediated the relation between gender roles and academic attitudes. Results indicated that both models fit the data well, and recommendations are made for future longitudinal research aimed at disentangling the directionality of the relations in the model. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Gender differences in condom use prediction with Theory of Reasoned Action and Planned Behaviour: the role of self-efficacy and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Silva, A; Sánchez-García, M; Nunes, C; Martins, A

    2007-10-01

    There is much evidence that demonstrates that programs and interventions based on the theoretical models of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) have been effective in the prevention of the sexual transmission of HIV. The objective of this work is to compare the effectiveness of both models in the prediction of condom use, distinguishing two components inside the variable Perceived Behavioural Control of the TPB model: self-efficacy and control. The perspective of gender differences is also added. The study was carried out in a sample of 601 Portuguese and Spanish university students. The results show that the females have a higher average in all the TPB variables than males, except in the frequency of condom use: females request the use of condoms less frequently than males. On the other hand, for both females and males the TPB model predicts better condom-use intention than the TRA. However there are no differences between the two models in relation to the prediction of condom-use behaviour. For prediction of intention, the most outstanding variable among females is attitude, while among males they are subjective norm and self-efficacy. Finally, we analyze the implications of these data from a theoretical and practical point of view.

  1. JSON Schema for Attribute-based Access Control for Network Resource Security

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Linklater, G

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available rules of varying complexity. ABAC rule languages are often based on serializable object modeling and schema languages as in the case of XACML which is based on XML Schema. XACML is a standard by OASIS, and is the current de facto standard for ABAC. While...

  2. Design of an international multicentre RCT on group schema therapy for borderline personality disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetzelaer, P.; Farrell, J.; Evers, S.M.A.A.; Jacob, G.A.; Lee, C.W.; Brand, O.; van Breukelen, G.; Fassbinder, E.; Fretwell, H.; Harper, R.P.; Lavender, A.; Lockwood, G.; Malogiannis, I.A.; Schweiger, U.; Startup, H.; Stevenson, T.; Zarbock, G.; Arntz, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe and highly prevalent mental disorder. Schema therapy (ST) has been found effective in the treatment of BPD and is commonly delivered through an individual format. A group format (group schema therapy, GST) has also been developed. GST has

  3. Teaching Learning Disabled Adolescents to Think Critically Using a Problem-Solving Schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joanna P.; Ellsworth, Nancy J.

    1990-01-01

    This study examined effectiveness of an instructional program designed to teach learning-disabled adolescents (N=70) to make better personal decisions. A pretest/posttest comparison design found that following instruction students showed better ability to both identify general schema for decision making and apply schema to novel problem…

  4. Stress Leads to Aberrant Hippocampal Involvement When Processing Schema-Related Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Susanne; Kluen, Lisa Marieke; Fernández, Guillén; Schwabe, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Prior knowledge, represented as a mental schema, has critical impact on how we organize, interpret, and process incoming information. Recent findings indicate that the use of an existing schema is coordinated by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), communicating with parietal areas. The hippocampus, however, is crucial for encoding…

  5. XML schema matching: balancing efficiency and effectiveness by means of clustering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smiljanic, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we place our research in the scope of a tool which looks for information within XML data on the Internet. We envision a personal schema querying system which enables a user to express his information need by specifying a personal XML schema. The user can also ask queries over his

  6. Social Information Processing as a Mediator between Cognitive Schemas and Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation assessed whether cognitive schemas of justification of violence, mistrust, and narcissism predicted social information processing (SIP), and SIP in turn predicted aggressive behavior in adolescents. A total of 650 adolescents completed measures of cognitive schemas at Time 1, SIP in ambiguous social scenarios at…

  7. The Evolution of a Coding Schema in a Paced Program of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Charlene A.; Cudney, Shirley; Sullivan, Therese

    2010-01-01

    A major task involved in the management, analysis, and integration of qualitative data is the development of a coding schema to facilitate the analytic process. Described in this paper is the evolution of a coding schema that was used in the analysis of qualitative data generated from online forums of middle-aged women with chronic conditions who…

  8. XSAMS: XML Schema for Atoms, Molecules and Solids. Summary report of an IAEA Consultants' Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braams, B J [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2010-05-15

    Experts on atomic and molecular data and their exchange met at National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki-City, Japan, to review progress in the implementation of XSAMS, the XML Schema for Atoms, Molecules and Solids, and to discuss further development of the Schema. The proceedings of the meeting are summarized here. (author)

  9. XSAMS: XML Schema for Atoms, Molecules and Solids. Summary report of an IAEA Consultants' Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braams, B.J.

    2010-05-01

    Experts on atomic and molecular data and their exchange met at National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki-City, Japan, to review progress in the implementation of XSAMS, the XML Schema for Atoms, Molecules and Solids, and to discuss further development of the Schema. The proceedings of the meeting are summarized here. (author)

  10. Schema-Driven Facilitation of New Hierarchy Learning in the Transitive Inference Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, Dharshan

    2013-01-01

    Prior knowledge, in the form of a mental schema or framework, is viewed to facilitate the learning of new information in a range of experimental and everyday scenarios. Despite rising interest in the cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying schema-driven facilitation of new learning, few paradigms have been developed to examine this issue in…

  11. The Potential Role of Conflict Resolution Schemas in Adolescent Psychosocial Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutengren, Goran; Palmerus, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Four specific schemas of cognitive structures that adolescents may hold concerning interpersonal disagreements with their parents were identified, each reflecting an authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or a neglecting parenting style. To examine the occurrence of such schemas across high and low levels of psychosocial adjustment, 120 Swedish…

  12. Hostility Ratings by Parents at Risk for Child Abuse: Impact of Chronic and Temporary Schema Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farc, Maria-Magdalena; Crouch, Julie L.; Skowronski, John J.; Milner, Joel S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Two studies examined whether accessibility of hostility-related schema influenced ratings of ambiguous child pictures. Based on the social information processing model of child physical abuse (CPA), it was expected that CPA risk status would serve as a proxy for chronic accessibility of hostile schema, while priming procedures were used…

  13. Consolidation differentially modulates schema effects on memory for items and associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kesteren, Marlieke T R; Rijpkema, Mark; Ruiter, Dirk J; Fernández, Guillén

    2013-01-01

    Newly learned information that is congruent with a preexisting schema is often better remembered than information that is incongrSaveuent. This schema effect on memory has previously been associated to more efficient encoding and consolidation mechanisms. However, this effect is not always

  14. Consolidation differentially modulates schema effects on memory for items and associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kesteren, M.T. van; Rijpkema, M.J.P.; Ruiter, D.J.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2013-01-01

    Newly learned information that is congruent with a preexisting schema is often better remembered than information that is incongruent. This schema effect on memory has previously been associated to more efficient encoding and consolidation mechanisms. However, this effect is not always consistently

  15. Analysis of the blocking behaviour of schema transformations in relational database systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wevers, L.; Hofstra, Matthijs; Tammens, Menno; Huisman, Marieke; van Keulen, Maurice

    In earlier work we have extended the TPC-C benchmark with basic and complex schema transformations. This paper uses this benchmark to investigate the blocking behaviour of online schema transformations in PostgreSQL, MySQL and Oracle 11g. First we discuss experiments using the data definition

  16. MS SQL Server 7.0 as a Platform for a Star Join Schema Data Warehouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Otto; Alnor, Karl

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we construct a Star Join Schema and show how this schema can be created using the basic tools delivered with SQL Server 7.0. Major objectives are to keep the operational database unchanged so that data loading can be done without disturbing the business logic of the operational...

  17. Beacon- and Schema-Based Method for Recognizing Algorithms from Students' Source Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherkhani, Ahmad; Malmi, Lauri

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for recognizing algorithms from students programming submissions coded in Java. The method is based on the concept of "programming schemas" and "beacons". Schemas are high-level programming knowledge with detailed knowledge abstracted out, and beacons are statements that imply specific…

  18. Individual and Sociocultural Influences on Pre-Adolescent Girls' Appearance Schemas and Body Dissatisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinton, Meghan M.; Birch, Leann L.

    2006-01-01

    Appearance schemas, a suggested cognitive component of body image, have been associated with body dissatisfaction in adolescent and adult samples. This study examined girls' weight status (BMI), depression, and parent, sibling, peer, and media influences as predictors of appearance schemas in 173 pre-adolescent girls. Hierarchical regression…

  19. Life Event Stress and Binge Eating Among Adolescents: The Roles of Early Maladaptive Schemas and Impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Luo, Xingwei; Cai, Taisheng; He, Jinbo; Lu, Yao; Wu, Siyao

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the relationships between life event stress, early maladaptive schemas, impulsivity and binge eating among adolescents and investigated the effects of early maladaptive schemas and impulsivity on the relationship between life event stress and binge eating. Specifically, we examined a moderated mediation model in which early maladaptive schemas mediated this relationship and impulsivity moderated the mediation effect. Life event stress, early maladaptive schemas, impulsivity and binge eating were investigated in a sample of 2172 seventh-, eighth- and tenth-grade middle and high school students (mean age = 14.55 years, standard deviation = 1.29). The results indicated that adolescents with greater life event stress, more early maladaptive schemas and higher levels of impulsivity displayed more severe binge eating. In addition, early maladaptive schemas mediated the relationship between life event stress and binge eating, while impulsivity moderated this relationship. Furthermore, impulsivity also moderated the mediation effect of early maladaptive schemas; as impulsivity levels increased, the strength of the association between life event stress and early maladaptive schemas increased. This study illustrates the importance of understanding individual differences and their effects on the relationship between life event stress and binge eating. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. A Test of Social Cognitive Theory to Explain Men's Physical Activity During a Gender-Tailored Weight Loss Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Myles D; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Collins, Clare E; Callister, Robin; Morgan, Philip J

    2016-11-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading contributor to the burden of disease in men. Social-cognitive theories may improve physical activity (PA) interventions by identifying which variables to target to maximize intervention impact. This study tested the utility of Bandura's social cognitive theory (SCT) to explain men's PA during a 3-month weight loss program. Participants were 204 overweight/obese men (M [SD] age = 46.6 [11.3] years; body mass index = 33.1 [3.5] kg/m 2 ). A longitudinal, latent variable structural equation model tested the associations between SCT constructs (i.e., self-efficacy, outcome expectations, intention, and social support) and self-reported moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and examined the total PA variance explained by SCT. After controlling for Time 1 cognitions and behavior, the model fit the data well (χ 2 = 73.9, degrees of freedom = 39, p social support. This study provides some evidence supporting the tenets of SCT when examining PA behavior in overweight and obese men. Future PA and weight loss interventions for men may benefit by targeting self-efficacy and intention, but the utility of targeting social support and outcome expectations requires further examination. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Methodology for Automatic Ontology Generation Using Database Schema Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JungHyen An

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An ontology is a model language that supports the functions to integrate conceptually distributed domain knowledge and infer relationships among the concepts. Ontologies are developed based on the target domain knowledge. As a result, methodologies to automatically generate an ontology from metadata that characterize the domain knowledge are becoming important. However, existing methodologies to automatically generate an ontology using metadata are required to generate the domain metadata in a predetermined template, and it is difficult to manage data that are increased on the ontology itself when the domain OWL (Ontology Web Language individuals are continuously increased. The database schema has a feature of domain knowledge and provides structural functions to efficiently process the knowledge-based data. In this paper, we propose a methodology to automatically generate ontologies and manage the OWL individual through an interaction of the database and the ontology. We describe the automatic ontology generation process with example schema and demonstrate the effectiveness of the automatically generated ontology by comparing it with existing ontologies using the ontology quality score.

  2. Prospective evaluation of a cognitive vulnerability-stress model for depression: the interaction of schema self-structures and negative life events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeds, Pamela M; Dozois, David J A

    2010-12-01

    This study tested the diathesis-stress component of Beck's (1967) cognitive theory of depression. Initially, participants completed measures assessing cognitive organization of the self-schema and depressive symptoms. One year later, participants completed measures assessing cognitive organization of the self-schema, depressive symptoms, and negative life events. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses, controlling for initial depression, indicated that more tightly interconnected negative content was associated with greater elevations in depressive symptoms following the occurrence of life events. More diffusely interconnected positive content for interpersonal self-referent information also interacted with life events to predict depressive symptoms. Cognitive organization dimensions showed moderate to high stability across the follow-up, suggesting that they may be trait-like vulnerability factors. Implications for the cognitive vulnerability-stress model of depression are discussed. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Schema bias in source monitoring varies with encoding conditions: support for a probability-matching account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Beatrice G; Vaterrodt, Bianca; Bayen, Ute J

    2012-09-01

    Two experiments examined reliance on schematic knowledge in source monitoring. Based on a probability-matching account of source guessing, a schema bias will only emerge if participants do not have a representation of the source-item contingency in the study list, or if the perceived contingency is consistent with schematic expectations. Thus, the account predicts that encoding conditions that affect contingency detection also affect schema bias. In Experiment 1, the schema bias commonly found when schematic information about the sources is not provided before encoding was diminished by an intentional source-memory instruction. In Experiment 2, the depth of processing of schema-consistent and schema-inconsistent source-item pairings was manipulated. Participants consequently overestimated the occurrence of the pairing type they processed in a deep manner, and their source guessing reflected this biased contingency perception. Results support the probability-matching account of source guessing. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. How Do DSM-5 Personality Traits Align With Schema Therapy Constructs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Bo; Lee, Christopher; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-08-01

    DSM-5 offers an alternative model of personality pathology that includes 25 traits. Although personality disorders are mostly treated with psychotherapy, the correspondence between DSM-5 traits and concepts in evidence-based psychotherapy has not yet been evaluated adequately. Suitably, schema therapy was developed for treating personality disorders, and it has achieved promising evidence. The authors examined associations between DSM-5 traits and schema therapy constructs in a mixed sample of 662 adults, including 312 clinical participants. Associations were investigated in terms of factor loadings and regression coefficients in relation to five domains, followed by specific correlations among all constructs. The results indicated conceptually coherent associations, and 15 of 25 traits were strongly related to relevant schema therapy constructs. Conclusively, DSM-5 traits may be considered expressions of schema therapy constructs, which psychotherapists might take advantage of in terms of case formulation and targets of treatment. In turn, schema therapy constructs add theoretical understanding to DSM-5 traits.

  5. The self-schema model: a theoretical approach to the self-concept in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, K F

    1996-04-01

    Over the last several decades, the self-concept has been implicated as a important determinant of eating disorders (ED). Although considerable progress has been made, questions remain unanswered about the properties of self-concept that distinguish women with an ED from other populations, and mechanisms that link the self-concept to the disordered behaviors. Markus's self-schema model is presented as a theoretical approach to explore the role of the self-concept in ED. To show how the schema model can be integrated with existing work on the self-concept in ED, a framework is proposed that addresses the number, content, and accessibility of the self-schemas. More specifically, it is posited that a limited collection of positive self-schemas available in memory, in combination with a chronically and inflexibly accessible body-weight self-schema, lead to the disordered behaviors associated with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.

  6. [Independent and interdependent self-schema in Japanese adolescents and elders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Toshitake

    2007-12-01

    The study investigated the functions of self-schema pertaining to independent and interdependent self-construal. Four groups of participants, who had (a) independent schema, (b) interdependent schema, (c) both schemata, or (d) neither schema (aschematic), were compared in cognitive performance on a schema-relevant information processing task. Study I, with college students, found that interdependent schemata were used in the task by the interdependent (b) and the both (c) group, but independent schemata were not used by the independent (a) and the both (c) group. Study II, with aged participants, found that not only the interdependent schemata were used by the interdependent (b) and the both (c) group, but also independent schemata were used by the independent (a) and the both (c) group. These findings provide evidence for Takata's (2004) hypotheses that the interdependent self is internalized in adolescence and the independent self develops after adulthood in Japanese culture.

  7. Gender, equity, and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    Although equity theory has served as a theoretical framework applying to most individuals in most situations, empirical research suggests that gender may affect the utility of equity theory in explaining organizational behaviors. Studies have indicat...

  8. Initial investigation of the effects of an experimentally learned schema on spatial associative memory in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buuren, Mariët; Kroes, Marijn C W; Wagner, Isabella C; Genzel, Lisa; Morris, Richard G M; Fernández, Guillén

    2014-12-10

    Networks of interconnected neocortical representations of prior knowledge, "schemas," facilitate memory for congruent information. This facilitation is thought to be mediated by augmented encoding and accelerated consolidation. However, it is less clear how schema affects retrieval. Rodent and human studies to date suggest that schema-related memories are differently retrieved. However, these studies differ substantially as most human studies implement pre-experimental world-knowledge as schemas and tested item or nonspatial associative memory, whereas animal studies have used intraexperimental schemas based on item-location associations within a complex spatial layout that, in humans, could engage more strategic retrieval processes. Here, we developed a paradigm conceptually linked to rodent studies to examine the effects of an experimentally learned spatial associative schema on learning and retrieval of new object-location associations and to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying schema-related retrieval. Extending previous findings, we show that retrieval of schema-defining associations is related to activity along anterior and posterior midline structures and angular gyrus. The existence of such spatial associative schema resulted in more accurate learning and retrieval of new, related associations, and increased time allocated to retrieve these associations. This retrieval was associated with right dorsolateral prefrontal and lateral parietal activity, as well as interactions between the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and medial and lateral parietal regions, and between the medial prefrontal cortex and posterior midline regions, supporting the hypothesis that retrieval of new, schema-related object-location associations in humans also involves augmented monitoring and systematic search processes. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3416662-09$15.00/0.

  9. Why Did This Happen to Me? Cognitive Schema Disruption and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Victims of Sexual Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Caroline Vaile; Collinsworth, Linda L.; Fitzgerald, Louise F.

    2010-01-01

    Many trauma researchers have proposed cognitive schemas as a heuristic device to understand the elusive process of integrating traumatic events. We examined the schemas of a sample (N = 257) of female participants classified by exposure to sexual trauma, nonsexual trauma, and no trauma experience. Cognitive schema was assessed with the Traumatic…

  10. Therapists' thoughts on therapy: clinicians' perceptions of the therapy processes that distinguish schema, cognitive behavioural and psychodynamic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boterhoven De Haan, Katrina L; Lee, Christopher W

    2014-01-01

    Debates continue over shared factors in therapy processes between different theoretical orientations. By seeking the opinions of practicing clinicians, this study aimed to elucidate the similarities and differences between cognitive-behavioural (CBT), psychodynamic (PDT), and schema therapy (ST) approaches. Forty-eight practitioners aligning with one of the three approaches were asked to identify crucial processes in their therapy using a modified online version of the Psychotherapy Process Q-set. Distinct differences between each theoretical orientation with few shared common factors were found. A comparison with ratings from previous studies indicated that CBT therapists have not changed over the last 20 years, whereas PDT therapists have changed and the differences appeared consistent with modern PDT theory. The differences between the therapy approaches were consistent with theories underlying each model. PDT therapists valued a neutral relationship, CBT therapists emphasized a didactic interaction, and therapists form a ST orientation placed a greater emphasis on emotional involvement.

  11. New Technologies Smart, or Harm Work-Family Boundaries Management? Gender Differences in Conflict and Enrichment Using the JD-R Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghislieri, Chiara; Emanuel, Federica; Molino, Monica; Cortese, Claudio G.; Colombo, Lara

    2017-01-01

    Background: The relationship between technology-assisted supplemental work and well-being outcomes is a recent issue in scientific literature. Whether the use of technology for work purpose in off-work time may have a positive or negative impact on work-family balance remains an open question and the role of gender in this relationship is poorly understood. Aim: According to the JD-R theory, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between off-work hours technology assisted job demand (off-TAJD) and both work-family conflict (WFC) and work-family enrichment (WFE). Moreover, it considered two general job demands, workload and emotional dissonance, and one job resource, supervisory coaching. Method: The hypotheses were tested with a convenience sample of 671 workers. Data were collected with a self-report questionnaire and analyzed with SPSS 23 and through multi-group structural equation model (SEM) (Mplus 7). Results: The estimated SEM [Chi-square (510) = 1041.29; p work-life interface by analyzing the association between off-TAJD and WFC and Enrichment. Our findings suggest it is important to pay attention to gender differences in the study of the impact of supplemental work carried out during off-work hours using technology on the work-life interface. In fact, employee perception of Company demands of being available during off-work time, with the use of technology, may have different consequences for men and women, indicating potential differences in the centrality of the working role. Practical implications, at both cultural and organizational levels, should address the use of technology during leisure time. PMID:28713300

  12. New Technologies Smart, or Harm Work-Family Boundaries Management? Gender Differences in Conflict and Enrichment Using the JD-R Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghislieri, Chiara; Emanuel, Federica; Molino, Monica; Cortese, Claudio G; Colombo, Lara

    2017-01-01

    Background: The relationship between technology-assisted supplemental work and well-being outcomes is a recent issue in scientific literature. Whether the use of technology for work purpose in off-work time may have a positive or negative impact on work-family balance remains an open question and the role of gender in this relationship is poorly understood. Aim: According to the JD-R theory, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between off-work hours technology assisted job demand (off-TAJD) and both work-family conflict (WFC) and work-family enrichment (WFE). Moreover, it considered two general job demands, workload and emotional dissonance, and one job resource, supervisory coaching. Method: The hypotheses were tested with a convenience sample of 671 workers. Data were collected with a self-report questionnaire and analyzed with SPSS 23 and through multi-group structural equation model (SEM) (Mplus 7). Results: The estimated SEM [Chi-square (510) = 1041.29; p work-life interface by analyzing the association between off-TAJD and WFC and Enrichment. Our findings suggest it is important to pay attention to gender differences in the study of the impact of supplemental work carried out during off-work hours using technology on the work-life interface. In fact, employee perception of Company demands of being available during off-work time, with the use of technology, may have different consequences for men and women, indicating potential differences in the centrality of the working role. Practical implications, at both cultural and organizational levels, should address the use of technology during leisure time.

  13. The Problem of Gender Categorisation: Addressing Dilemmas Past and Present in Gender and Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Becky; Paechter, Carrie

    2015-01-01

    Developments in the field of gender theory as applied to education since the 1970s are briefly reviewed in order to highlight key challenges and debates around gender categorisation and identification in gender and education. We argue that conundrums of categorisation have haunted, and continue to haunt, the field of gender theory, and empirical…

  14. Alcohol Use among Recent Immigrant Latino/a Youth: Acculturation, Gender, and the Theory of Reasoned Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Rosiers, Sabrina E. Des; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Huang, Shi; Villamar, Juan A.; Soto, Daniel; Pattarroyo, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Objective Latino/a youth are at risk for alcohol use. This risk seems to rise with increasing U.S. cultural orientation and decreasing Latino cultural orientation, especially among girls. To ascertain how acculturation may influence Latino/a youth alcohol use, in this study we integrated an expanded multi-domain model of acculturation with the Theory of Reasoned Action. Design Participants were 302 recent Latino/a immigrant youth (141 girls, 160 boys; 152 from Miami, 150 from Los Angeles) who completed surveys at 4 time points. Youth completed measures of acculturation (measured in terms of Latino/a practices, Latino/a identity, collectivistic values; U.S. cultural practices, U.S. identity, and individualistic values), attitudes toward drinking, perceived subjective norms regarding alcohol use, intention to drink, and alcohol use. Results Structural equation modeling indicated that collectivistic values predicted more perceived disapproval of drinking, which negatively predicted intention to drink. Intention to drink predicted elevated alcohol use. Conclusion Although the association between collectivistic values and social disapproval of drinking was relatively small (β=.19, p collectivistic values may help protect Latino/a immigrant youth from alcohol use by influencing their perceived social disapproval of drinking, leading to lower intention to drink. Educational preventive interventions aimed at reducing or preventing alcohol use in recent Latino/a immigrant youth could promote collectivistic values and disseminate messages about the negative consequences of drinking. PMID:27220730

  15. Alcohol use among recent immigrant Latino/a youth: acculturation, gender, and the Theory of Reasoned Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Schwartz, Seth J; Unger, Jennifer B; Zamboanga, Byron L; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Huang, Shi; Villamar, Juan A; Soto, Daniel; Pattarroyo, Monica

    2016-12-01

    Latino/a youth are at risk for alcohol use. This risk seems to rise with increasing US cultural orientation and decreasing Latino cultural orientation, especially among girls. To ascertain how acculturation may influence Latino/a youth alcohol use, we integrated an expanded multi-domain model of acculturation with the Theory of Reasoned Action. Participants were 302 recent Latino/a immigrant youth (141 girls, 160 boys; 152 from Miami, 150 from Los Angeles) who completed surveys at 4 time points. Youth completed measures of acculturation, attitudes toward drinking, perceived subjective norms regarding alcohol use, intention to drink, and alcohol use. Structural equation modeling indicated that collectivistic values predicted more perceived disapproval of drinking, which negatively predicted intention to drink. Intention to drink predicted elevated alcohol use. Although the association between collectivistic values and social disapproval of drinking was relatively small (β = .19, p < .05), findings suggest that collectivistic values may help protect Latino/a immigrant youth from alcohol use by influencing their perceived social disapproval of drinking, leading to lower intention to drink. Educational preventive interventions aimed at reducing or preventing alcohol use in recent Latino/a immigrant youth could promote collectivistic values and disseminate messages about the negative consequences of drinking.

  16. Assessing Psychopathy Among Justice Involved Adolescents with the PCL: YV: An Item Response Theory Examination Across Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Siny; Schmidt, Karen M.; Vincent, Gina M.; Salekin, Randall T.; Moretti, Marlene M.; Odgers, Candice L.

    2014-01-01

    This study used an item response theory (IRT) model and a large adolescent sample of justice involved youth (N = 1,007, 38% female) to examine the item functioning of the Psychopathy Checklist – Youth Version (PCL: YV). Items that were most discriminating (or most sensitive to changes) of the latent trait (thought to be psychopathy) among adolescents included “Glibness/superficial charm”, “Lack of remorse”, and “Need for stimulation”, whereas items that were least discriminating included “Pathological lying”, “Failure to accept responsibility”, and “Lacks goals.” The items “Impulsivity” and “Irresponsibility” were the most likely to be rated high among adolescents, whereas “Parasitic lifestyle”, and “Glibness/superficial charm” were the most likely to be rated low. Evidence of differential item functioning (DIF) on four of the 13 items was found between boys and girls. “Failure to accept responsibility” and “Impulsivity” were endorsed more frequently to describe adolescent girls than boys at similar levels of the latent trait, and vice versa for “Grandiose sense of self-worth” and “Lacks goals.” The DIF findings suggest that four PCL: YV items function differently between boys and girls. PMID:25580672

  17. “Brave Men” and “Emotional Women”: A Theory-Guided Literature Review on Gender Bias in Health Care and Gendered Norms towards Patients with Chronic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Samulowitz, Anke; Gremyr, Ida; Eriksson, Erik; Hensing, Gunnel

    2018-01-01

    Background. Despite the large body of research on sex differences in pain, there is a lack of knowledge about the influence of gender in the patient-provider encounter. The purpose of this study was to review literature on gendered norms about men and women with pain and gender bias in the treatment of pain. The second aim was to analyze the results guided by the theoretical concepts of hegemonic masculinity and andronormativity. Methods. A literature search of databases was conducted. A tota...

  18. Schema di annotazione per la dottrina giuridica: il caso di studio della banca dati DoGi‑Dottrina Giuridica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Agnoloni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interoperability today is the key term for the enhancement of databases published on the web: the data, when isolated, have little value, on the contrary, their value increases significantly when different datasets, produced and published independently by different providers, can be reused and freely mashed by third parties. The use of data for new purposes not foreseen by organizations and individuals who publish "raw data" is one of the advantages of linked open data model. To achieve these benefits content and relationships between the entities described in the dataset should be explicitly represented in standard web formats (XML, RDF, URI. The DoGi-Legal Literature database, one of the most valuable sources for online access to legal doctrine, created and managed by the Institute of Legal Information Theory and Techniques of the CNR is following this direction. This paper will define the schema of the data representing the database in RDF format. This will make the DoGi database interoperable between different data and service providers (libraries, publishers, information services for accessing national and European legal information, allowing the creation of new advanced services to be made available on the web of data. In particular, the contribution will focus on the goal to promote semantic interoperability between the DoGi classification schema and other semantic indexing tools in legal domain.

  19. Knowledge Representation from Classification Schema to Semantic Web (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia-Adriana Tomescu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this essay we aim to investigate knowledge as approach of describing possible worlds through classification schema, taxonomies, ontologies and semantic web. We focus on the historical background and the methods of culture and civilization representation. In this regard, we studied the ancient concern to classify knowledge, from the biblical period when the Tree Metaphor concentrated the essence of knowledge, to the Francis Bacon classification and then Paul Otlet and we analysed the languages used in the scientific fields and then in the information science filed, emphasizing on the improvements of the ICT: hypertext and semantic web. We paid a special attention to the knowledge construction through math language and exchange standards. The reason of the approach comes from the logic and philosophic base of the knowledge representation that underline the idea that only properly structured scientific domains ensure the progress of the society.

  20. Cultural styles, relational schemas, and prejudice against out-groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Burks, J; Nisbett, R E; Ybarra, O

    2000-08-01

    Two studies provide evidence that Latins (i.e., Mexicans and Mexican Americans) are guided by a concern with socioemotional aspects of workplace relations to a far greater degree than are Anglo-Americans. The focus on socioemotional considerations results in Latins having a relatively greater preference for workgroups having a strong interpersonal orientation. Preferred relational style had a far greater impact on preferences for workgroups and judgments about their likely success than did the ethnic composition of the workgroups for both Latins and Anglo-Americans. Evidence that the two groups differ markedly in relational schemas comes from examination of suggestions about how group performance could be improved, judgments about whether a focus on socioemotional concerns necessarily entails a reduction in task focus, and recall for socioemotional aspects of workgroup interactions. Implications for the dynamics of intercultural contact are discussed.

  1. [Clinical judgment is a schema. Conceptual proposals and training perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagels, Marc

    2017-06-01

    Clinical judgment is a critical concept for the development of nursing and nursing education. Its theoretical origins are multiple and its definition is not yet consensus. The analysis of the scientific and professional literature shows heterogeneous and dispersed points of views, notably on the role of intuition, on its cognitive and metacognitive dimensions, and on its proximity to other concepts. Between professional stakes and epistemological constructions, clinical judgment is still an emerging concept.To overcome the obstacle and contribute to the theoretical effort, we will argue that clinical judgment must be analyzed as a schema. It presents all the characteristics : diagnosis and information necessary for reasoning, rational decision-making process, metacognitive control and evaluation of decision-making. Perspectives then open to better understand the nursing activity.In conclusion, recommendations for developing clinical judgment in training will be presented.

  2. La Palabre: A New Schema for Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, William Patrick; Reed, Paul

    2016-08-01

    The Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa has led to a paradigm shift in the way the global community responds to outbreaks of disease. This new paradigm places even greater emphasis on collaboration in global health. The palabre, the traditional African practice of mediation and decision-making in the public sphere, offers a schema from which to view current and future global health engagement. This process of dialogue and exchange has many applications to global health exemplified recently by the West African Disaster Preparedness Initiative (WADPI), a follow-on activity to the Operation United Assistance (OUA) Ebola Response effort. WADPI, utilizing the structure of a palabre, seeks to catalyze and synergize constructive collaboration to set a foundation for disaster response in West Africa for years to come. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:541-543).

  3. Healthy-eater self-schema and dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noureddine, Samar; Stein, Karen

    2009-03-01

    The types and amounts of foods consumed have been shown to influence the health risks of individuals. Empirical evidence has documented a link between high dietary fat and low fiber intake and the risks for cardiovascular disease, some types of cancer, and obesity. Dietary surveys of Americans show higher fat and lower fiber intake than stipulated in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, despite the noted increase in public awareness regarding the importance of adopting healthy eating habits. The lack of congruence between the availability of dietary knowledge and behavioral adherence to dietary recommendations suggests a need to further understand the predictors of dietary intake. In this study, the authors used the schema model of the self-concept to explore the role of self-beliefs in predicting dietary intake in community-dwelling, working-class, middle-aged adults.

  4. (Configuring gender in Bible translation: Cultural, translational and gender critical intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Punt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The gendered intersection of cultural studies and Bible translation is under acknowledged. Accounting for gender criticism in translation work requires, besides responsible theory and practice of translation, also attention to interwoven gender critical aspects. After a brief investigation of the intersections between biblical, translation and gender studies, translation in a few Pauline texts with bearing on gender and sexuality are investigated.

  5. A Data-driven Concept Schema for Defining Clinical Research Data Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Gregory W.; Hoxha, Julia; Ravichandran, Praveen Chandar; Mendonça, Eneida A.; Hanauer, David A; Weng, Chunhua

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The Patient, Intervention, Control/Comparison, and Outcome (PICO) framework is an effective technique for framing a clinical question. We aim to develop the counterpart of PICO to structure clinical research data needs. METHODS We use a data-driven approach to abstracting key concepts representing clinical research data needs by adapting and extending an expert-derived framework originally developed for defining cancer research data needs. We annotated clinical trial eligibility criteria, EHR data request logs, and data queries to electronic health records (EHR), to extract and harmonize concept classes representing clinical research data needs. We evaluated the class coverage, class preservation from the original framework, schema generalizability, schema understandability, and schema structural correctness through a semi-structured interview with eight multidisciplinary domain experts. We iteratively refined the schema based on the evaluations. RESULTS Our data-driven schema preserved 68% of the 63 classes from the original framework and covered 88% (73/82) of the classes proposed by evaluators. Class coverage for participants of different backgrounds ranged from 60% to 100% with a median value of 95% agreement among the individual evaluators. The schema was found understandable and structurally sound. CONCLUSIONS Our proposed schema may serve as the counterpart to PICO for improving the research data needs communication between researchers and informaticians. PMID:27185504

  6. Cognitive structures in women with sexual dysfunction: the role of early maladaptive schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Cátia; Nobre, Pedro J

    2013-07-01

    Cognitive schemas are often related to psychological problems. However, the role of these structures within sexual problems is not yet well established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence and importance of early maladaptive schemas on women's sexual functioning and cognitive schemas activated in response to negative sexual events. A total of 228 women participated in the study: a control sample of 167 women without sexual problems, a subclinical sample of 37 women with low sexual functioning, and a clinical sample of 24 women with sexual dysfunction. Participants completed several self-reported measures: the Schema Questionnaire, the Questionnaire of Cognitive Schema Activation in Sexual Context, the Brief Symptom Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Female Sexual Function Index. Findings indicated that women with sexual dysfunction presented significantly more early maladaptive schemas from the Impaired Autonomy and Performance domain, particularly failure (P depreciation (P < 0.01, η(2) = 0.05), and difference/loneliness (P < 0.01, η(2) = 0.05) schemas. Results supported differences between women with and without sexual problems regarding cognitive factors. This may have implications for the knowledge, assessment, and treatment of sexual dysfunction in women. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  7. PERANGKAT LUNAK ANTAR MUKA GRAFIS SCHEMA DAN CUBE EDITOR MS ANALYSIS SERVICE BERBASIS WEB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faizal Johan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aplikasi Web telah menjadi bagian yang tidak terpisahkan lagi dalam kehidupan sehari-hari. Seiring dengan meningkatnya teknologi internet membuat seorang administrator tidak perlu berada didepan komputer server untuk dapat melakukan pekerjaan administratif seperti membuat analisis proses secara online dari sebuah schema database untuk dibuat schema cube (data warehousing dan melakukan perubahan pada schema yang sudah dibuat.Untuk dapat melakukan hal tersebut SQL Server 7.0 maupun SQL Server 2000 telah menyediakan fasilitas pengaksesan tabel dimensi, cube, relasi dan koneksi database dalam Analysis Manager menggunakan DSO (Decision Support Object library component MS OLAP. Dengan adanya DSO connection, seorang administrator dapat memanipulasi schema, tabel, cube, dimension, relasi suatu schema cube dari database SQL Server secara langsung dengan menggunakan bahasa pemrograman yang mendukung, seperti MS Visual Basic, VBScript, MS Visual C++, MS.Net. Dalam penelitian ini dibuat aplikasi berbasis web yang merupakan tahap awal dari OLAP (Online Analytical Processing suatu schema database dengan menggunakan SQL Analysis Service, Analysis Manager yang memungkinkan seorang administrator database untuk dapat melakukan pekerjaan administratif khususnya membuat schema dan cube (fact table dari database yang dianalisis, membuat dan mengedit dimensi, dimana saja tanpa harus berada di komputer server. Kata Kunci : DSO, Cube, Measure,GUI, dimensi, fact table, ADO MD, SQL DMO, OLAP.

  8. Sexual self-schema and depressive symptoms after prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Michael A; Carpenter, Kristen M

    2015-04-01

    The years following prostate cancer treatment are characterized by changes in sexual functioning and risk for depressive symptoms. Sexual self-schema (SSS) is a cognitive generalization about sexual aspects of the self that are associated with sexual behavior, affect, and the processing of sexually relevant information. This study tested if men's SSS moderates the impact of sexual morbidity on depressive symptoms. Men (N = 66) treated for localized prostate cancer in the preceding 2 years were assessed at T1 and 4 months later (T2). Questionnaires included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Sexual Self-schema Scale for Men, Sexual Experience Scale, and Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite. Regressions controlled for age, sexual activity, and T1 depressive symptoms revealed no significant effect of SSS on depressive symptoms; however, better sexual functioning was related to fewer depressive symptoms (B = -0.25, p < 0.05). Results showed significant interactions between SSS and sexual outcomes. Among men with high SSS, poor sexual functioning was associated with increased depressive symptoms; loss of sexual function was particularly distressing. There was no significant effect of sexual functioning. Among men with high SSS, there was an inverse relationship between sexual engagement and depressive symptoms. Among men with lower SSS, greater frequency of sexual behavior was associated with increased depressive symptoms. SSS may be an important individual difference in determining the impact of sexual morbidity on psychological adjustment. Men high on SSS are more vulnerable to psychological consequences of lower sexual functioning and less engagement in sexual activities. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Emotion regulation in schema therapy and dialectical behavior therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Fassbinder

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Schema therapy (ST and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT have both shown to be effective treatment methods especially for borderline personality disorder. Both, ST and DBT, have their roots in cognitive behavioral therapy and aim at helping patient to deal with emotional dysregulation. However, there are major differences in the terminology, explanatory models and techniques used in the both methods. This article gives an overview of the major therapeutic techniques used in ST and DBT with respect to emotion regulation and systematically puts them in the context of James Gross’ process model of emotion regulation. Similarities and differences of the two methods are highlighted and illustrated with a case example. A core difference of the two approaches is that DBT directly focusses on the acquisition of emotion regulation skills, whereas ST does seldom address emotion regulation directly. All DBT-modules (mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotion regulation, interpersonal effectiveness are intended to improve emotion regulation skills and patients are encouraged to train these skills on a regular basis. DBT assumes that improved skills and skills use will result in better emotion regulation. In ST problems in emotion regulation are seen as a consequence of adverse early experiences (e.g. lack of safe attachment, childhood abuse or emotional neglect. These negative experiences have led to unprocessed psychological traumas and fear of emotions and result in attempts to avoid emotions and dysfunctional meta-cognitive schemas about the meaning of emotions. ST assumes that when these underlying problems are addressed, emotion regulation improves. Major ST techniques for trauma processing, emotional avoidance and dysregulation are limited reparenting, empathic confrontation and experiential techniques like chair dialogues and imagery rescripting.

  10. Emotion Regulation in Schema Therapy and Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbinder, Eva; Schweiger, Ulrich; Martius, Desiree; Brand-de Wilde, Odette; Arntz, Arnoud

    2016-01-01

    Schema therapy (ST) and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) have both shown to be effective treatment methods especially for borderline personality disorder. Both, ST and DBT, have their roots in cognitive behavioral therapy and aim at helping patient to deal with emotional dysregulation. However, there are major differences in the terminology, explanatory models and techniques used in the both methods. This article gives an overview of the major therapeutic techniques used in ST and DBT with respect to emotion regulation and systematically puts them in the context of James Gross' process model of emotion regulation. Similarities and differences of the two methods are highlighted and illustrated with a case example. A core difference of the two approaches is that DBT directly focusses on the acquisition of emotion regulation skills, whereas ST does seldom address emotion regulation directly. All DBT-modules (mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotion regulation, interpersonal effectiveness) are intended to improve emotion regulation skills and patients are encouraged to train these skills on a regular basis. DBT assumes that improved skills and skills use will result in better emotion regulation. In ST problems in emotion regulation are seen as a consequence of adverse early experiences (e.g., lack of safe attachment, childhood abuse or emotional neglect). These negative experiences have led to unprocessed psychological traumas and fear of emotions and result in attempts to avoid emotions and dysfunctional meta-cognitive schemas about the meaning of emotions. ST assumes that when these underlying problems are addressed, emotion regulation improves. Major ST techniques for trauma processing, emotional avoidance and dysregulation are limited reparenting, empathic confrontation and experiential techniques like chair dialogs and imagery rescripting. PMID:27683567

  11. 'You already drank my beer, I can decide anything': using structuration theory to explore the dynamics of alcohol use, gender-based violence and HIV risk among female sex workers in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leddy, Anna M; Kerrigan, Deanna; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Mbwambo, Jessie; Likindikoki, Samuel; Underwood, Carol R

    2018-03-16

    Female sex workers experience high rates of gender-based violence and HIV. Alcohol has been shown to facilitate women's risk of both gender-based violence and HIV; however, little research has explored how aspects of the sex work environment shape this risk. Drawing on structuration theory, this study explored how social conduct is patterned across time and space within the sex work environment to influence alcohol consumption, gender-based violence and HIV risk among female sex workers. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 24 female sex workers enrolled in an ongoing community randomised controlled trial of a combination HIV prevention intervention in Iringa, Tanzania. Data were analysed using both inductive and deductive approaches. Findings reveal how routine interactions between female sex workers and their clients occur at three moments of time and space during the sex exchange process to facilitate alcohol consumption and increase women's risk of gender-based violence and HIV. Findings also highlight how sex workers utilise collective agency to address aspects of the sex work environment that place them at risk of alcohol abuse, gender-based violence and HIV. Implications for future interventions to prevent gender-based violence and HIV among female sex workers in Tanzania and similar contexts are discussed.

  12. Gender Mainstreaming as a Knowledge Process: towards an understanding of perpetuation and change in gender blindness and gender bias

    OpenAIRE

    Cavaghan, Rosalind

    2012-01-01

    This thesis locates itself in wider developments in gender theory and examinations of the state’s production of gender inequality. It responds to two research problems in existing literature. Firstly, scholars have developed increasingly complex theorisations of the social construction of gender and the state’s role in it. This body of research has shown how gender blindness and gender bias in state policies produce inequality and how gender structures priorities, hierarchies and roles wit...

  13. Decision-Making Theories and Models: A Discussion of Rational and Psychological Decision-Making Theories and Models: The Search for a Cultural-Ethical Decision-Making Model

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Arnaldo

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines rational and psychological decision-making models. Descriptive and normative methodologies such as attribution theory, schema theory, prospect theory, ambiguity model, game theory, and expected utility theory are discussed. The definition of culture is reviewed, and the relationship between culture and decision making is also highlighted as many organizations use a cultural-ethical decision-making model.

  14. The interaction between schema matching and record matching in data integration (extended abstract)

    KAUST Repository

    Gu, Binbin

    2017-05-18

    Schema Matching (SM) and Record Matching (RM) are two necessary steps in integrating multiple relational tables of different schemas, where SM unifies the schemas and RM detects records referring to the same real-world entity. The two processes have been thoroughly studied separately, but few attention has been paid to the interaction of SM and RM. In this work we find that, even alternating them in a simple manner, SM and RM can benefit from each other to reach a better integration performance (i.e., in terms of precision and recall). Therefore, combining SM and RM is a promising solution for improving data integration.

  15. A Multianalyzer Machine Learning Model for Marine Heterogeneous Data Schema Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main challenges that marine heterogeneous data integration faces are the problem of accurate schema mapping between heterogeneous data sources. In order to improve the schema mapping efficiency and get more accurate learning results, this paper proposes a heterogeneous data schema mapping method basing on multianalyzer machine learning model. The multianalyzer analysis the learning results comprehensively, and a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation system is introduced for output results’ evaluation and multi factor quantitative judging. Finally, the data mapping comparison experiment on the East China Sea observing data confirms the effectiveness of the model and shows multianalyzer’s obvious improvement of mapping error rate.

  16. A Multianalyzer Machine Learning Model for Marine Heterogeneous Data Schema Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wang; Jiajin, Le; Yun, Zhang

    2014-01-01

    The main challenges that marine heterogeneous data integration faces are the problem of accurate schema mapping between heterogeneous data sources. In order to improve the schema mapping efficiency and get more accurate learning results, this paper proposes a heterogeneous data schema mapping method basing on multianalyzer machine learning model. The multianalyzer analysis the learning results comprehensively, and a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation system is introduced for output results' evaluation and multi factor quantitative judging. Finally, the data mapping comparison experiment on the East China Sea observing data confirms the effectiveness of the model and shows multianalyzer's obvious improvement of mapping error rate. PMID:25250372

  17. The interaction between schema matching and record matching in data integration (extended abstract)

    KAUST Repository

    Gu, Binbin; Li, Zhixu; Zhang, Xiangliang; Liu, An; Liu, Guanfeng; Zheng, Kai; Zhao, Lei; Zhou, Xiaofang

    2017-01-01

    Schema Matching (SM) and Record Matching (RM) are two necessary steps in integrating multiple relational tables of different schemas, where SM unifies the schemas and RM detects records referring to the same real-world entity. The two processes have been thoroughly studied separately, but few attention has been paid to the interaction of SM and RM. In this work we find that, even alternating them in a simple manner, SM and RM can benefit from each other to reach a better integration performance (i.e., in terms of precision and recall). Therefore, combining SM and RM is a promising solution for improving data integration.

  18. Towards the XML schema measurement based on mapping between XML and OO domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakić, Gordana; Budimac, Zoran; Heričko, Marjan; Pušnik, Maja

    2017-07-01

    Measuring quality of IT solutions is a priority in software engineering. Although numerous metrics for measuring object-oriented code already exist, measuring quality of UML models or XML Schemas is still developing. One of the research questions in the overall research leaded by ideas described in this paper is whether we can apply already defined object-oriented design metrics on XML schemas based on predefined mappings. In this paper, basic ideas for mentioned mapping are presented. This mapping is prerequisite for setting the future approach to XML schema quality measuring with object-oriented metrics.

  19. “Brave Men” and “Emotional Women”: A Theory-Guided Literature Review on Gender Bias in Health Care and Gendered Norms towards Patients with Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Samulowitz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite the large body of research on sex differences in pain, there is a lack of knowledge about the influence of gender in the patient-provider encounter. The purpose of this study was to review literature on gendered norms about men and women with pain and gender bias in the treatment of pain. The second aim was to analyze the results guided by the theoretical concepts of hegemonic masculinity and andronormativity. Methods. A literature search of databases was conducted. A total of 77 articles met the inclusion criteria. The included articles were analyzed qualitatively, with an integrative approach. Results. The included studies demonstrated a variety of gendered norms about men’s and women’s experience and expression of pain, their identity, lifestyle, and coping style. Gender bias in pain treatment was identified, as part of the patient-provider encounter and the professional’s treatment decisions. It was discussed how gendered norms are consolidated by hegemonic masculinity and andronormativity. Conclusions. Awareness about gendered norms is important, both in research and clinical practice, in order to counteract gender bias in health care and to support health-care professionals in providing more equitable care that is more capable to meet the need of all patients, men and women.

  20. [Attachment patterns, self-esteem, gender schema in anorexia and bulimia nervosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefik, Barbara; Iniewicz, Grzegorz; Ulasińska, Romualda

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was comparison of perception of attachment patterns between adolescent girls suffering from anorexia nervosa (restrictive type), bulimia nervosa and healthy peers. Moreover, we tried to find the differences between the groups in self-esteem and identification with the culture-defined sex role. We examined 40 patients with anorexia, 32 with bulimia and 63 girls from the comparison group. Three questionnaires were used: Parental Bonding Instrument, The Culture-Free Self-Esteem Inventory and Psychological Sex Inventory. Results indicate that the parents' emotional commitment in relations with daughters from the clinical sample is weaker, and they are controlled by parents more then those from the control group. In all groups, the mothers' emotional commitment correlates positively with daughters' social self-esteem. In the anorectic group, fathers' control correlates negatively with daughters' identification with the culture-defined feminine role. In the bulimic group, fathers' emotional commitment correlates positively with self-esteem as well as daughters' identification with the culture-defined masculine role. The results concerning the bonds between the ED patients and their parents indicating dysfunctions of the bonds are generally consistent with the data from literature. Additionally they show the relationship between quality of the bonds between the patients and parents and its influence on development of self-evaluation and a sense of feminity/masculinity in anorectic and bulimic girls.

  1. Dilemmas in the Danish Approach to Gender Quotas and Gender Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    The paper addresses the dilemmas, contradictions and paradoxes in the Danish approach to gender quotas and gender equality. Gender theory has presented diverse arguments for gender quota: justice, resources and women’s interests. Gender quota can be understood as a means to achieve gender parity...... and gender justice in all arenas of society political and economic life. The belief in gender theory and research has been that gender quota would and should be a means to achieve equal rights and gender equality. Recently a new discourse and rhetoric of profitability of gender equality within a range...... of institutions from business to higher education has become prominent in many arenas. One example is the Report on gender equality between men and women in the EU, which argues that gender quotas are not only beneficial for women’s rights but also for industry, for society, and for men...

  2. Police Officer Schema of Sexual Assault Reports: Real Rape, Ambiguous Cases, and False Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venema, Rachel M

    2016-03-01

    While extensive research has studied sexual assault reporting behaviors and described negative experiences with the criminal justice system among victim-survivors, fewer studies have explored police officer attitudes, knowledge, and thought processes that may affect victims' perceptions of negative interactions and unsatisfactory outcomes within reported sexual assault cases. This study explores police officer understanding of the definition of sexual assault and characteristics that influence their perceptions and response. Ten police officers were interviewed within one police department in a midsized city in the Great Lakes region. The study uses a modified grounded theory approach. Findings suggest that officers employ distinct schema of reported sexual assaults. Case characteristics, perceived credibility of the victim, and types of evidence formed categorizations of false reports, ambiguous cases, and legitimate sexual assaults. Police officers describe the ways in which perceptions of the case may or may not influence the response and point to areas for improvement within police procedure. The study findings provide insight into recommendations for improved police interviewing and response to reported sexual assaults. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. New Technologies Smart, or Harm Work-Family Boundaries Management? Gender Differences in Conflict and Enrichment Using the JD-R Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Ghislieri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationship between technology-assisted supplemental work and well-being outcomes is a recent issue in scientific literature. Whether the use of technology for work purpose in off-work time may have a positive or negative impact on work-family balance remains an open question and the role of gender in this relationship is poorly understood.Aim: According to the JD-R theory, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between off-work hours technology assisted job demand (off-TAJD and both work-family conflict (WFC and work-family enrichment (WFE. Moreover, it considered two general job demands, workload and emotional dissonance, and one job resource, supervisory coaching.Method: The hypotheses were tested with a convenience sample of 671 workers. Data were collected with a self-report questionnaire and analyzed with SPSS 23 and through multi-group structural equation model (SEM (Mplus 7.Results: The estimated SEM [Chi-square (510 = 1041.29; p < 0.01; CFI = 0.95; TLI = 0.95; RMSEA = 0.06 (0.05, 0.06; SRMR = 0.05. M = 319/F = 352] showed that off-TAJD was positively related to WFC in both subsamples; off-TAJD was positively related also to WFE only in the Male group. Workload was positively related to WFC in both Male and Female subsamples. Emotional dissonance was positively related to WFC in both subsamples and was negatively related to WFE. Supervisory coaching was strongly, positively related to WFE in both groups, and only in the Male subsample presented a low negative relationship with WFC.Conclusion: This study contributes to the literature on new challenges in work-life interface by analyzing the association between off-TAJD and WFC and Enrichment. Our findings suggest it is important to pay attention to gender differences in the study of the impact of supplemental work carried out during off-work hours using technology on the work-life interface. In fact, employee perception of Company demands of being available

  4. Toward an Integrated Gender-Linked Model of Aggression Subtypes in Early and Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Godleski, Stephanie A.

    2010-01-01

    An integrative model is proposed for understanding the development of physical and relational aggression in early and middle childhood. The central goal was to posit a new theoretical framework that expands on existing social-cognitive and gender schema models (i.e., Social Information-Processing Model of Children's Adjustment [N. R. Crick & K. A.…

  5. Model integration and a theory of models

    OpenAIRE

    Dolk, Daniel R.; Kottemann, Jeffrey E.

    1993-01-01

    Model integration extends the scope of model management to include the dimension of manipulation as well. This invariably leads to comparisons with database theory. Model integration is viewed from four perspectives: Organizational, definitional, procedural, and implementational. Strategic modeling is discussed as the organizational motivation for model integration. Schema and process integration are examined as the logical and manipulation counterparts of model integr...

  6. Schema architecture and their relationships to transaction processing in distributed database systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apers, Peter M.G.; Scheuermann, P.

    1991-01-01

    We discuss the different types of schema architectures which could be supported by distributed database systems, making a clear distinction between logical, physical, and federated distribution. We elaborate on the additional mapping information required in architecture based on logical distribution

  7. Building HVAC control knowledge data schema – Towards a unified representation of control system knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yan; Treado, Stephen J.; Messner, John I.

    2016-12-01

    Building control systems for Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) play a key role in realizing the functionality and operation of building systems and components. Building Control Knowledge (BCK) is the logic and algorithms embedded throughout building control system. There are different methods to represent the BCK. These methods differ in the selection of BCK representing elements and the format of those elements. There is a lack of standard data schema, for storing, retrieving, and reusing structured BCK. In this study, a modular data schema is created for BCK representation. The data schema contains eleven representing elements, i.e., control module name, operation mode, system schematic, control flow diagram, data point, alarm, parameter, control sequence, function, and programming code. Each element is defined with specific attributes. This data schema is evaluated through a case study demonstration. The demonstration shows a new way to represent the BCK with standard formats.

  8. Automation and schema acquisition in learning elementary computer programming : implications for the design of practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Merrienboer, Jeroen J.G.; van Merrienboer, J.J.G.; Paas, Fred G.W.C.

    1990-01-01

    Two complementary processes may be distinguished in learning a complex cognitive skill such as computer programming. First, automation offers task-specific procedures that may directly control programming behavior, second, schema acquisition offers cognitive structures that provide analogies in new

  9. Ontology-Based Big Dimension Modeling in Data Warehouse Schema Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem

    2013-01-01

    During data warehouse schema design, designers often encounter how to model big dimensions that typically contain a large number of attributes and records. To investigate effective approaches for modeling big dimensions is necessary in order to achieve better query performance, with respect...... partitioning, vertical partitioning and their hybrid. We formalize the design methods and propose an algorithm that describes the modeling process from an OWL ontology to a data warehouse schema. In addition, this paper also presents an effective ontology-based tool to automate the modeling process. The tool...... can automatically generate the data warehouse schema from the ontology of describing the terms and business semantics for the big dimension. In case of any change in the requirements, we only need to modify the ontology, and re-generate the schema using the tool. This paper also evaluates the proposed...

  10. Logical thinking in the pyramidal schema of concepts the logical and mathematical elements

    CERN Document Server

    Geldsetzer, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    This book proposes a new way of formalizing in logic and mathematics - a "pyramidal graph system," devised by the author and based on Porphyrian trees and modern concepts of classification, in both of which pyramids act as the organizing schema.

  11. Racial-ethnic self-schemas: Multi-dimensional identity-based motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyserman, Daphna

    2008-01-01

    Prior self-schema research focuses on benefits of being schematic vs. aschematic in stereotyped domains. The current studies build on this work, examining racial-ethnic self-schemas as multi-dimensional, containing multiple, conflicting, and non-integrated images. A multidimensional perspective captures complexity; examining net effects of dimensions predicts within-group differences in academic engagement and well-being. When racial-ethnicity self-schemas focus attention on membership in both in-group and broader society, engagement with school should increase since school is not seen as out-group defining. When racial-ethnicity self-schemas focus attention on inclusion (not obstacles to inclusion) in broader society, risk of depressive symptoms should decrease. Support for these hypotheses was found in two separate samples (8th graders, n = 213, 9th graders followed to 12th grade n = 141). PMID:19122837

  12. Job Satisfaction and Employee’s Self-Schema at Workplace: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Mehrad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to determine the relationship between job satisfaction and self-schema amongst employees at the workplace. The results of the study revealed that self-schema derived from feelings and attitudes of employees based on their satisfaction at the workplace; and, explained that employees' schemas are various, completely. This study likewise considered on job satisfaction as a main organizational factor that increases the amount of performance and presence of employees at the workplace. Also, it focused on self-schema that pivotal role in employees believes about themselves. Moreover, lack of attention to job satisfaction that influenced on employees' scheme appeared some abnormal organizational behaviors at workplace. Thus, the present study supports job satisfaction to achieve appropriate scheme among employees at the workplace.

  13. Adult age differences in memory in relation to availability and accessibility of knowledge-based schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuckle, T Y; Vanderleck, V F; Harsany, M; Lapidus, S

    1990-03-01

    Three experiments investigated whether, over adulthood, the use of schemas to process and remember new information increases (developmental shift hypothesis), decreases (production deficiency hypothesis) or remains constant (age-invariance hypothesis). Effects of schema access were studied by having young, middle-aged, and old music experts and nonexperts recall information that was relevant or irrelevant to music (Experiment 1) and by comparing young and old participants' memory for prose passages when they knew or did not know the subject of the passage (Experiments 2 and 3). In each case, schema access facilitated memory equally across age levels, supporting the age-invariance hypothesis and implying that the basic structures and operations of memory do not necessarily change with age. Possible limits on the independence of age and schema utilization were considered in relation to the conditions under which each of the two alternative hypotheses might hold.

  14. Identity salience and the influence of differential activation of the social self-schema on advertising response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forehand, Mark R; Deshpandé, Rohit; Reed, Americus

    2002-12-01

    The authors examined how identity primes and social distinctiveness influence identity salience (i.e., the activation of a social identity within an individual's social self-schema) and subsequent responses to targeted advertising. Across 2 studies, individuals who were exposed to an identity prime (an ad element that directs attention to the individual's social identity) and who were socially distinctive (minorities in the immediate social context) expressed systematically different evaluations of spokespersons and the advertisements that featured them. Specifically, Asian (Caucasian) participants responded most positively (negatively) to Asian spokespeople and Asian-targeted advertising when the participants were both primed and socially distinctive. No main effects of identity primes or social distinctiveness were found. The implications of these findings for identity theory, advertising practice, and intervention communications are discussed.

  15. Therapy of anorexia and Young’s early maladaptive schemas. Longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Mącik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Young’s early maladaptive schemas are defined as convictions about oneself acquired in childhood, formed by a child in response to deprivation of his or her basic needs, especially in the area of relationships. In the case of anorexia, the role of the family and relations is emphasized as crucial for the genesis of this disorder. The aim of the research was to investigate whether Young’s early maladaptive schemas change during the therapy, which would prognosticate higher treatment efficiency. Participants and procedure The study group included 30 women suffering from anorexia, starting their 6-week therapeutic program. The procedure included double measurement: during the administration and discharge. The respondents filled in the Young Schema Questionnaire in its short form (YSQ-S3 (twice, the Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS adapted by Juczyński (twice, and a demographic chart (once. Results The intensity of all schemas decreased after completion of the therapeutic program; the differences were mostly statistically significant. The composition of the most intense schemas did not change significantly: unrelenting standards and abandonment were the highest during both measurements. What changed were the interrelations between the schemas. They are also connected with the acceptance of the illness (the weaker they are, the greater the acceptance, and the stronger the relations and with psychological well-being, especially during the post-therapy measurement. Conclusions The schemas seem to be significant from the perspective of understanding anorexia. They are susceptible to be changed by integrative therapies. Nevertheless, it seems that in order to achieve a durable change, schema therapy should be applied.

  16. Effects of drinker self-schema on drinking- and smoking-related information processing and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Kuie; Stein, Karen F; Corte, Colleen

    2018-01-02

    Co-occurrence of drinking and smoking is prevalent in undergraduate students. A drinker self-schema-cognition about the self as the drinker-is a common identity in undergraduates and a well-known predictor of drinking behaviors. Given that smoking commonly occurs in the context of drinking, a drinker self-schema may be a cognitive mechanism to motivate co-occurring alcohol and tobacco use (i.e., cross-substance facilitation hypothesis). This study was to determine whether the drinker self-schema influences the processing of drinking- and smoking-related information and facilitates the co-occurrence of alcohol and tobacco use in undergraduate students who drink and smoke but do not self-identify as smokers. This study was the second phase of a 2-phase study. Of the 330 who completed phase 1 (online survey), 99 completed the phase 2 study. Phase 2 was an in-person session that included a computerized information processing task to measure endorsements and response latencies for drinking- and smoking-related attributes, and a computerized Timeline Followback that was used to measure 90-day alcohol- and tobacco-use behaviors. The 5-item drinker self-schema scale, administered in phase 1, was used to measure the strength of the drinker self-schema. A higher drinker self-schema score was associated with more endorsements of positive attributes for drinking and smoking, fewer endorsements of negative attributes for smoking, faster processing of agreements with positive alcohol-use-related attributes, higher levels of drinking and smoking, and more days of co-occurring alcohol and tobacco use. Findings provide preliminary evidence to support the cross-substance facilitation hypothesis that the drinker self-schema facilitates the processing of not only drinking-related but also smoking-related stimuli and behaviors. Undergraduates who have higher drinker self-schema scores may be vulnerable to co-occurring alcohol and tobacco use.

  17. Design and implement of system for browsing remote seismic waveform based on B/S schema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Xuefeng; Shen Junyi; Wang Zhihai; Sun Peng; Jin Ping; Yan Feng

    2006-01-01

    Browsing remote seismic waveform based on B/S schema is of significance in modern seismic research and data service, and the technology should be improved urgently. This paper describes the basic plan, architecture and implement of system for browsing remote seismic waveform based on B/S schema. The problem to access, browse and edit the waveform data on serve from client only using browser has been solved. On this basis, the system has been established and been in use. (authors)

  18. The Role of Metacognitive Processes and Emotional Schemas in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevinc ULUSOY

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: It can be suggested that treatment objectives at psychotherapy approaches for OCD should involve ruminative response style and TAF ‘Moral’ dimension when all the results evaluated together. While emotional schemas don’t predict OCD severity directly, emotional schemas can have indirect effects on severity of disorder when the correlation between other scales considered. [JCBPR 2015; 4(3.000: 173-183

  19. Do they practice what we teach? Follow-up evaluation of a Schema Therapy training programme

    OpenAIRE

    Kingston, Deborah; Moghaddam, Nima; Beckley, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated a three-day Schema Therapy training programme for trainee clinical psychologists. The training used an experiential model of learning, which was intended to encourage the transfer of knowledge and techniques from the learning environment into clinical practice. Using a mixed-methods approach, the training programme was evaluated in terms of: (1) self-reported changes in knowledge, confidence and willingness to use Schema Therapy-informed techniques; (2) whether the tra...

  20. Relationships between early alcohol experiences, drinker self-schema, drinking and smoking in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Kuei; Corte, Colleen; Stein, Karen F

    2018-02-23

    Drinking and smoking commonly co-occur in undergraduate students. Although an identity as a drinker is a known predictor of alcohol use and alcohol problems, and early evidence suggests that it also predicts smoking, the role of these behaviors in the development of an identity as a drinker is unknown. In this study, we conceptualized a drinker identity as an enduring memory structure referred to as a self-schema, and conducted a preliminary investigation of the relationships between early drinking experiences, drinker self-schema, and alcohol and tobacco use in undergraduate students. Three-hundred thirty undergraduates who reported current alcohol and tobacco use were recruited for an on-line survey study. Frequency of alcohol and tobacco use in the past 30 days, drinker self-schema, and early experiences with alcohol were measured. Structural equation modeling showed parental alcohol problems were associated with early onset of drinking. Early onset of drinking and high school friends' drinking were associated with more alcohol use and alcohol-related problems in high school. Alcohol problems during high school were associated with high drinker self-schema scores, which were associated with high frequency of alcohol and tobacco use during college. The indirect effects through the drinker self-schema were significant. Though cross-sectional, this preliminary examination supports theoretical predictions that early alcohol experiences may contribute to development of the drinker self-schema, which as expected, was positively associated with alcohol and tobacco use in college. Longitudinal studies that track the unfolding of drinking behavior and the contextual factors that are associated with it on the development of the self-drinker schema are essential to confirm the theoretical model. If supported, implications for intervention at different developmental stages to prevent early onset of drinking, limit adolescent alcohol use, and modify the development of a