WorldWideScience

Sample records for gender role stereotypes

  1. Gender Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellemers, Naomi

    2018-01-04

    There are many differences between men and women. To some extent, these are captured in the stereotypical images of these groups. Stereotypes about the way men and women think and behave are widely shared, suggesting a kernel of truth. However, stereotypical expectations not only reflect existing differences, but also impact the way men and women define themselves and are treated by others. This article reviews evidence on the nature and content of gender stereotypes and considers how these relate to gender differences in important life outcomes. Empirical studies show that gender stereotypes affect the way people attend to, interpret, and remember information about themselves and others. Considering the cognitive and motivational functions of gender stereotypes helps us understand their impact on implicit beliefs and communications about men and women. Knowledge of the literature on this subject can benefit the fair judgment of individuals in situations where gender stereotypes are likely to play a role.

  2. Girls' math performance under stereotype threat: the moderating role of mothers' gender stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasetto, Carlo; Alparone, Francesca Romana; Cadinu, Mara

    2011-07-01

    Previous research on stereotype threat in children suggests that making gender identity salient disrupts girls' math performance at as early as 5 to 7 years of age. The present study (n = 124) tested the hypothesis that parents' endorsement of gender stereotypes about math moderates girls' susceptibility to stereotype threat. Results confirmed that stereotype threat impaired girls' performance on math tasks among students from kindergarten through 2nd grade. Moreover, mothers' but not fathers' endorsement of gender stereotypes about math moderated girls' vulnerability to stereotype threat: performance of girls whose mothers strongly rejected the gender stereotype about math did not decrease under stereotype threat. These findings are important because they point to the role of mothers' beliefs in the development of girls' vulnerability to the negative effects of gender stereotypes about math. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  3. Reversing Implicit Gender Stereotype Activation as a Function of Exposure to Traditional Gender Roles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lemus, Soledad; Spears, Russell; Bukowski, Marcin; Moya, Miguel; Lupianez, Juan

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of exposure to traditional gender roles on the activation of gender stereotypes in Spanish women. An associative procedure was used to expose participants to stereotypical vs. counterstereotypical gender roles, and a word categorization task with stereotypically feminine

  4. Evolution of gender stereotypes in Spain: traits and roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sáez, Mercedes; Morales, J Francisco; Lisbona, Ana

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study is twofold: to determine whether (and how) gender stereotypes have changed over time through a comparison of two different sets of data collected in 1993 (N=1255) and 2001 (N=1255) from a representative sample of the Spanish population, and to examine the relation between gender traits and roles and its stability over time. In addition, special attention is paid to the psychometric properties of the measures of gender traits and roles used in the study. The content of gender stereotypes was found to remain stable over the target period of time, confirming the classical typology (a higher assignment of expressive-communal traits to women and of instrumental-agentic traits to men). The structure of the gender-role questionnaire allows us to distinguish between family-role and work-role stereotyping. Gender-role stereotyping shows a marked decline between 1993 and 2001, a result that contrasts with the stability of trait-role stereotyping. The fact that a very low correlation is observed at the two time points between these two components of gender stereotyping strongly suggests their independence.

  5. Social role effects on gender stereotyping in Germany and Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinmetz, J.; Bosak, J.; Sczesny, S.; Eagly, A. H.

    Social role theory postulates that gender stereotypes are restrained for men and women observed in the same social role. Cultural differences in the valuation of communal attributes might moderate this effect. To examine this possibility, 288 participants (144 German, 144 Japanese) estimated the

  6. Stereotyping gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger

    2011-01-01

    , there is still some way to go before genuine gender equality and emancipation may become reality, in spite of Denmark’s image as egalitarian society. To try to explain this paradox, the paper explores gender perceptions by analysing how men and women talk about gender in focus group discussions and how the two...... gender categories evaluate themselves and the Other in their quest for social identities. Analysis of the focus group data indicates that, more often than not, the interviewees resort to stereotyping in their construction of identities. Using the Appraisal framework (Martin and White 2005) for analysing...... stereotypical categorizations made by the interviewees, the article argues that employees in the bank tend to reproduce and perpetuate a patriarchal management system in spite of various forces pulling in a new post-patriarchal direction where gender is just one of many identities....

  7. Gender Differences in Child Aggression : Relations With Gender-Differentiated Parenting and Parents' Gender-Role Stereotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endendijk, Joyce J.; Groeneveld, Marleen G.; van der Pol, Lotte D.; van Berkel, Sheila R.; Hallers-Haalboom, Elizabeth T.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Mesman, Judi

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the association between child gender and child aggression via parents' physical control, moderated by parents' gender-role stereotypes in a sample of 299 two-parent families with a 3-year-old child in the Netherlands. Fathers with strong stereotypical gender-role

  8. Gender Stereotyping in Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hussain

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender stereotyping and gender role development is one of the debatable concerns to sociologists especially those who are interested in sociology of gender. This study attempts to investigate the role of family inculcating gender stereotyping in Pakhtun culture and its impact on gender role development conducted in public-sector universities of Malakand Division, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. The data were collected through in-depth interview method using interview guide as a tool of data collection. A sample size of 24 respondents consisting male and female students and teachers (8 samples from each university through purposive sampling technique was selected from three universities in the region, that is, University of Malakand, University of Swat, and Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University Sharingal (main campus. The collected information has been analyzed qualitatively where primary information has been linked with secondary data for further elaboration and attainment of grounded facts. The study reveals that gender stereotyping and gender role formation are sociocultural and relational constructs, which are developed and inculcated in the institutional network, social interaction, and social relationships especially in family. The study indicated that in family sphere, gender stereotyping and gender role formation are the outcome of gender socialization, differential familial environment, and parents’ differential role with children. The study recommends that gender-balanced familial environment, adopting the strategy of gender mainstreaming and positive role of media, can overcome gender stereotyping and reduce its impacts on gender and social role formation.

  9. Girls' Math Performance under Stereotype Threat: The Moderating Role of Mothers' Gender Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasetto, Carlo; Alparone, Francesca Romana; Cadinu, Mara

    2011-01-01

    Previous research on stereotype threat in children suggests that making gender identity salient disrupts girls' math performance at as early as 5 to 7 years of age. The present study (n = 124) tested the hypothesis that parents' endorsement of gender stereotypes about math moderates girls' susceptibility to stereotype threat. Results confirmed…

  10. Stereotype Threat, Gender-Role Conformity, and New Zealand Adolescent Males in Choirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Penelope; Rubie-Davies, Christine Margaret; Hattie, John Allan

    2017-01-01

    Choirs have been stereotypically gendered feminine in many national contexts. When gender-role conformity has been expected in such settings, male choral participation and performance has often been rendered gender incongruent and consequently threatening. Gender stereotype threat was explored as a factor which might instigate a potentially…

  11. Gender Differences in Child Aggression: Relations With Gender-Differentiated Parenting and Parents' Gender-Role Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endendijk, Joyce J; Groeneveld, Marleen G; van der Pol, Lotte D; van Berkel, Sheila R; Hallers-Haalboom, Elizabeth T; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Mesman, Judi

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the association between child gender and child aggression via parents' physical control, moderated by parents' gender-role stereotypes in a sample of 299 two-parent families with a 3-year-old child in the Netherlands. Fathers with strong stereotypical gender-role attitudes and mothers were observed to use more physical control strategies with boys than with girls, whereas fathers with strong counterstereotypical attitudes toward gender roles used more physical control with girls than with boys. Moreover, when fathers had strong attitudes toward gender roles (stereotypical or counterstereotypical), their differential treatment of boys and girls completely accounted for the gender differences in children's aggressive behavior a year later. Mothers' gender-differentiated parenting practices were unrelated to gender differences in child aggression. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  12. Gender Stereotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellemers, N.

    There are many differences between men and women. To some extent, these are captured in the stereotypical images of these groups. Stereotypes about the way men and women think and behave are widely shared, suggesting a kernel of truth. However, stereotypical expectations not only reflect existing

  13. Cognitive Distraction and African American Women's Endorsement of Gender Role Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kalynda; Craig-Henderson, Kellina

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of cognitive distraction on the endorsement of gender role stereotypes in one sample of African American female participants. Participants' awareness and endorsement of gender role stereotypes for male and females was assessed. Following random assignment to distraction or no distraction conditions, they…

  14. Gender roles and gender stereotypes in teaching literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordić-Petković Vladislava

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gender, identity and sexuality have to be more closely integrated into the broader discussion of literature and language, which can be achieved only through wider application of literary texts in the teaching process. Teaching literature to students of English serves not only the purpose of building an understanding of the human experience, but also tackles the issues of femininity and masculinity and helps sensitize the students to the gender differences and the codes of patriarchal society which result in male dominance. Poems by Emily Dickinson, Sylvia Plath and Anne Sexton have proved as valuable texts in teaching gender, as will be discussed in the paper, which focuses on Plath‘s „Lady Lazarus” and the strategies the educator can select in order to achieve the desired objective.

  15. Analysis of current gender stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Castillo-Mayén

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gender stereotypes are beliefs about attributes associated to women and men that reveal gender discrimination. In order to identify changes of gender discrimination, the study of the stereotypes that prevail nowadays is essential. With this in mind, a scale consisting of 258 stereotypic characteristics was elaborated. This scale comprised two versions, one for female and one for male, which permits the understanding of how each gender is perceived currently. Both versions were filled out by 164 undergraduates (50% women. Taking into account those stereotypes that are still differentially assigned to each gender, this study identifies current gender stereotypes that are independent of sociodemographic characteristics, such as age or sex. In addition, new gender stereotypes emerged recently were gathered, and important changes of stereotypes were emphasized, especially those of feminine stereotypes. According to social role theory, these changes are the consequence of social roles changes. Conclusions highlight that, although part of the results involve progress on the achievement of equality, traditional stereotypic characteristics are still referred to each gender, which perpetuate discrimination.

  16. Gender Stereotype Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A.; Weber, Susanna; Simoes, Elisabeth; Sokolov, Alexander N.

    2014-01-01

    Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior. PMID:25517903

  17. Gender stereotype susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A; Weber, Susanna; Simoes, Elisabeth; Sokolov, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior.

  18. Has the Traditional Social Perception on Nurses Changed?: attribution of Stereotypes and Gender Roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aranda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nursing has traditionally been regarded as a female profession. However, in recent years there has been an increase of men. Despite this change, patriarchy still has a profound influence on how general population, patients and even nursing students perceive this occupation. Taking this background into account, the present research aims to analyze gender stereotype and gender role assignment to male and female nurses. A quasi-experimental study was conducted on 121 participants from three groups: patients, non-patients and nursing students. Gender stereotypes and gender roles assignment were analyzing using two factors: level of social domination orientation, and the group membership. Results showed that the gender stereotypes assignment to male and female nurses displayed some similarities; therefore a less stereotypical perception was observed comparing with other recent research. Moreover, participants low in social dominance orientation indicated a preference to traditional gender roles. Considering the group we found a traditional assignment of gender stereotypes over female and male nurses, even among nursing students. In sum, despite the dynamism of the nurses' social perception, still remains a gender bias that needs to be avoided.

  19. The role of androgynous gender stereotypes in entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez i Quintana, Anna; Hormiga Pérez, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have addressed the phenomenon of entrepreneurship from a gender perspective. In many of them, the gender perspective consists of analyzing the differences shown in the behavior of entrepreneurs based on their biological sex. This approach has several limitations in interpreting the phenomenon and, moreover, developing supportive policies. This paper addresses entrepreneurship from the perspective of the role orientation associated with gender. Based on a questionnaire to 780 ...

  20. The role of the prefrontal cortex in controlling gender-stereotypical associations: a TMS investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Mattavelli, Giulia; Platania, Elisa; Papagno, Costanza

    2011-06-01

    Stereotypes associated with gender, race, ethnicity and religion are powerful forces in human social interactions. Previous neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies point to a role of the prefrontal cortex in controlling stereotypical responses. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in combination with an Implicit Association Test (IAT) to highlight the possible causal role of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the right anterior dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (aDMPFC) in controlling gender-stereotypical responses. Young male and female participants were tested. Our results showed that applying TMS over the left DLPFC and the right aDMPFC increased the gender-stereotypical bias in male participants compared to when TMS was applied to a control site (vertex). This suggests that both the left DLPFC and the right aDMPFC play a direct role in stereotyping. Females did not show a significant gender bias on the IAT; correspondingly their responses were unaffected by TMS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pemberian Stereotype Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Saguni, Fatimah

    2014-01-01

    Gender stereotypes are broad categories which reflect the impressions and beliefs about appropriate behavior for women and men. Stereotypical masculine or feminine in the students could produce significant consequences. Gender experts stated that the existence of gender differences in mathematics and natural science are caused by the experience possessed by boys and girls. According to the cognitive view of the interaction between children in the social environment is key to the development o...

  2. Gender stereotypes in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Čeněk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on stereotypes of women as managers. The literature review summarizes the most common areas of gender stereotypes. In the empirical part we conducted research on a sample of 111 respondents (students. Research data was obtained by administration of translated and adapted questionnaire Women as Managers Scale (L. Peters et al.. Psychometric analysis of the questionnaire was conducted and its factor structure verified. The goal of this study was to create and pilot Czech adaptation of the questionnaire as an instrument for diagnostics of gender stereotypes in different types of organizations

  3. Has the traditional social perception on nurses changed? Attribution of stereotypes and gender roles

    OpenAIRE

    Aranda Lopez, Maria; Castillo Mayén, María del Rosario; Montes Berges, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Nursing has traditionally been regarded as a female profession. However, in recent years there has been an increase of men. Despite this change, patriarchy still has a profound influence on how general population, patients and even nursing students perceive this occupation. Taking this background into account, the present research aims to analyze gender stereotype and gender role assignment to male and female nurses. A quasi-experimental study was conducted on 121 participants from three grou...

  4. Transcending Frozen Gender Stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Troels Bo Haarh; Svanborg, Mikkel; Kühn, Lena; Lomholm Chemnitz, Marie; Barba, Clara; Howard Kitchen, Nikolaj

    2013-01-01

    This project is centered around examining the root of gender stereotyping and discrimination. It entails an account for the heteronormative matrix as an inhibiting norm that was coined by Judith Butler. This ground-giving model will be explored and then applied to Simon Baron-Cohen who participates in the project as a representation of the heteronormative matrix. Cordelia Fine allows us to understand how the matrix influences our way of thinking and performing gender. Gender neutrality is the...

  5. Undoing Gender Stereotypes in Hindi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pande, Anjali

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic prerequisite for using any language is the willingness of the speaker to follow the rules of the game. Socially defined norms of language use then tend to set the limits within which one can express oneself using this language. Whether these norms set the speaker free or whether they act as constraints in a free expression of Self, is a question that will be raised in this article. Using examples from Hindi, the paper highlights the role of such norms of language use in perpetuating gender stereotypes. Gender stereotypes get constructed as part of a broader process of social differentiation but the site of this construction is to a large extent the normal everyday discourse. A normal classroom discussion amongst university students in New Delhi thus shows how deep rooted such stereotypes are and how effectively they get perpetuated through language and linguistic norms in Indian society. The basic premise in this paper is that meanings are context-specific, they are not fixed and they get created in discourse. But since language use is one thread in social fabric, it serves as an instrument to construct and perpetuate gender stereotypes. The paper is more of an essay on issues that became obvious about gender stereotypes during two classroom discussions. It should not therefore be taken as a study into the deeper aspects of gender representation in Hindi.

  6. Gender Stereotypes among Road Users

    OpenAIRE

    Kabalevskaya, Alexandra I.

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the mechanism of stereotyping as exemplified by gender stereotypes of road users. Gender stereotypes are not only viewed as an a priori image of a percept, but also examined ‘in action’ — at the very moment of their actualization with road users. In the paper we have identified the content of road users’ gender stereotypes; analyzed the behaviour of male and female drivers, pinpointing a number of gender-specific behavioural features; demonstrated that male and female dr...

  7. Gender stereotypes among road users

    OpenAIRE

    Dontsov, Alexander; Kabalevskaya, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the mechanism of stereotyping as exemplified by gender stereotypes of road users. Gender stereotypes are not only viewed as an a priori image of a percept, but also examined ‘in action’ at the very moment of their actualization with road users. In the paper we have identified the content of road users’ gender stereotypes; analyzed the behaviour of male and female drivers, pinpointing a number of gender-specific behavioural features; demonstrated that male and female driv...

  8. A Theory of Productive Activity: The Relationships among Self-Concept, Gender, Sex Role Stereotypes, and Work-Emergent Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yount, Kristen R.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a theoretical framework that focuses on the division of labor by gender to account for both sex role stereotypes and the correspondence between these stereotypes and self-concepts of women and men. According to this framework, self-images of adults are largely constituted by attributes generated by their productive activity. (Author/ABB)

  9. Gender Stereotypes among Road Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabalevskaya, Alexandra I.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the mechanism of stereotyping as exemplified by gender stereotypes of road users. Gender stereotypes are not only viewed as an a priori image of a percept, but also examined ‘in action’ — at the very moment of their actualization with road users. In the paper we have identified the content of road users’ gender stereotypes; analyzed the behaviour of male and female drivers, pinpointing a number of gender-specific behavioural features; demonstrated that male and female driving differ from each other in terms of speed, intensity and roughness; and identified the conditions and mechanisms underlying the actualization of gender stereotypes. Based on video and audio materials, we have found that drivers’ gender-specific behavioural features are perceivable to road users: such features trigger the actualization of gender stereotypes as attributive schemes, which determine the interaction between road users, while also laying the foundation for gender stereotypes.

  10. Heroes and housewives: the role of gender and gender stereotypes in parenting and child development

    OpenAIRE

    Endendijk, Joyce Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Gender is one of the most important organizers of social life, from the cradle to the grave. In the family context gender shapes biological, social, and cognitive processes at both the parent and child level. The general aim of the studies presented in this dissertation is to provide more insight into the role of child gender, parent gender, and sibling gender composition in the socio-emotional development of children. In Chapter 2 the extent to which mothers and fathers use differential cont...

  11. Beyond gender stereotypes in language comprehension: self sex-role descriptions affect the brain's potentials associated with agreement processing

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo eCanal; Paolo eCanal; Alan eGarnham; Jane eOakhill

    2015-01-01

    We recorded Event-Related Potentials to investigate differences in the use of gender information during the processing of reflexive pronouns. Pronouns either matched the gender provided by role nouns (such as king or engineer) or did not. We compared two types of gender information, definitional information, which is semantic in nature (a mother is female), or stereotypical (a nurse is likely to be female). When they followed definitional role-nouns, gender-mismatching pronouns elicited a P60...

  12. Analysis of current gender stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Rosario Castillo-Mayén; Beatriz Montes-Berges

    2014-01-01

    Gender stereotypes are beliefs about attributes associated to women and men that reveal gender discrimination. In order to identify changes of gender discrimination, the study of the stereotypes that prevail nowadays is essential. With this in mind, a scale consisting of 258 stereotypic characteristics was elaborated. This scale comprised two versions, one for female and one for male, which permits the understanding of how each gender is perceived currently. Both versions were filled out by 1...

  13. Factors Relating to Managerial Stereotypes: The Role of Gender of the Employee and the Manager and Management Gender Ratio

    OpenAIRE

    Stoker, Janka I.; Van der Velde, Mandy; Lammers, Joris

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Several studies have shown that the traditional stereotype of a ?good? manager being masculine and male still exists. The recent changes in the proportion of women and female managers in organizations could affect these two managerial stereotypes, leading to a stronger preference for feminine characteristics and female leaders. This study examines if the gender of an employee, the gender of the manager, and the management gender ratio in an organization are related to employees? manag...

  14. The Development of Sex Role Stereotypes in the Third Year: Relationships to Gender Labeling, Gender Identity, Sex-Typed Toy Preference, and Family Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinraub, Marsha; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The onset and development of preschoolers' awareness of sex role stereotypes, gender labeling, gender identity, and sex-typed toy preference were explored in 26-, 31-, and 36-month-old children. Family characteristics that affect early sex role development also were investigated. (Author/RH)

  15. The influence of gender role stereotyping on women's experiences of female same-sex intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassouneh, Dena; Glass, Nancy

    2008-03-01

    Female same-sex intimate partner violence (FSSIPV) is a serious problem that affects the health and safety of lesbian and bisexual women. To begin to address the paucity of research, a mixed methods study was conducted to identify shared and unique risk and protective factors for FSSIPV. This article reports on qualitative findings related to the influence of gender role stereotyping on women's experiences of FSSIPV. Findings indicate that gender role stereotyping shapes women's experiences of FSSIPV by influencing individual, familial, community, and societal perceptions and responses to this phenomenon.

  16. Beyond Gender Stereotypes in Language Comprehension: Self Sex-Role Descriptions Affect the Brain's Potentials Associated with Agreement Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal, Paolo; Garnham, Alan; Oakhill, Jane

    2015-01-01

    We recorded Event-Related Potentials to investigate differences in the use of gender information during the processing of reflexive pronouns. Pronouns either matched the gender provided by role nouns (such as "king" or "engineer") or did not. We compared two types of gender information, definitional information, which is semantic in nature (a mother is female), or stereotypical (a nurse is likely to be female). When they followed definitional role-nouns, gender-mismatching pronouns elicited a P600 effect reflecting a failure in the agreement process. When instead the gender violation occurred after stereotypical role-nouns the Event Related Potential response was biphasic, being positive in parietal electrodes and negative in anterior left electrodes. The use of a correlational approach showed that those participants with more "feminine" or "expressive" self sex-role descriptions showed a P600 response for stereotype violations, suggesting that they experienced the mismatch as an agreement violation; whereas less "expressive" participants showed an Nref effect, indicating more effort spent in linking the pronouns with the possible, although less likely, counter-stereotypical referent.

  17. Beyond gender stereotypes in language comprehension: self sex-role descriptions affect the brain's potentials associated with agreement processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo eCanal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We recorded Event-Related Potentials to investigate differences in the use of gender information during the processing of reflexive pronouns. Pronouns either matched the gender provided by role nouns (such as king or engineer or did not. We compared two types of gender information, definitional information, which is semantic in nature (a mother is female, or stereotypical (a nurse is likely to be female. When they followed definitional role-nouns, gender-mismatching pronouns elicited a P600 effect reflecting a failure in the agreement process. When instead the gender violation occurred after stereotypical role-nouns the ERP response was biphasic, being positive in parietal electrodes and negative in anterior left electrodes. The use of a correlational approach showed that those participants with more feminine or expressive self sex-role descriptions showed a P600 response for stereotype violations, suggesting that they experienced the mismatch as an agreement violation; whereas less expressive participants showed an Nref effect, indicating more effort spent in linking the pronouns with the possible, although less likely, counter-stereotypical referent.

  18. Gender-marked age stereotypes in english proverbs and sayings

    OpenAIRE

    Галапчук-Тарнавська, Олена Михайлівна; Halapchuk-Tarnavska, Olena M.

    2014-01-01

    Gender stereotypes are characteristic features of male/female gender group behavior that are expected by a society.Gender stereotypes in the Ukrainian language are viewed as ethnic stereotypes and perform the function of accumulating and systemizing the social, cultural and historical experiences of the Ukrainian people.Gender-marked age stereotypes are widely accepted believes held about certain age that are perceived as being appropriate for women and men.Family roles are also subject to ch...

  19. Factors Relating to Managerial Stereotypes: The Role of Gender of the Employee and the Manager and Management Gender Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Janka I; Van der Velde, Mandy; Lammers, Joris

    2012-03-01

    PURPOSE: Several studies have shown that the traditional stereotype of a "good" manager being masculine and male still exists. The recent changes in the proportion of women and female managers in organizations could affect these two managerial stereotypes, leading to a stronger preference for feminine characteristics and female leaders. This study examines if the gender of an employee, the gender of the manager, and the management gender ratio in an organization are related to employees' managerial stereotypes. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: 3229 respondents working in various organizations completed an electronic questionnaire. FINDINGS: The results confirm our hypotheses that, although the general stereotype of a manager is masculine and although most prefer a man as a manager, female employees, employees with a female manager, and employees working in an organization with a high percentage of female managers, have a stronger preference for feminine characteristics of managers and for female managers. Moreover, we find that proximal variables are much stronger predictors of these preferences than more distal variables. IMPLICATIONS: Our study suggests that managerial stereotypes could change as a result of personal experiences and changes in the organizational context. The results imply that increasing the proportion of female managers is an effective way to overcome managerial stereotyping. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: This study examines the influence on managerial stereotypes of various proximal and distal factors derived from theory among a large group of employees (in contrast to students).

  20. The colour of gender stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Sheila J; Macrae, C Neil

    2011-08-01

    Despite legislative attempts to eliminate gender stereotyping from society, the propensity to evaluate people on the basis of their sex remains a pernicious social problem. Noting the critical interplay between cultural and cognitive factors in the establishment of stereotypical beliefs, the current investigation explored the extent to which culturally transmitted colour-gender associations (i.e., pink is for girls, blue is for boys) set the stage for the automatic activation and expression of gender stereotypes. Across six experiments, the results demonstrated that (1) consumer choice for children's goods is dominated by gender-stereotyped colours (Experiment 1); (2) colour-based stereotypic associations guide young children's behaviour (Experiment 2); (3) colour-gender associations automatically activate associated stereotypes in adulthood (Experiments 3-5); and (4) colour-based stereotypic associations bias impressions of male and female targets (Experiment 6). These findings indicate that, despite prohibitions against stereotyping, seemingly innocuous societal practices may continue to promote this mode of thought. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Conflict in intimate vs non-intimate relationships : When gender role stereotyping overrides biased self-other judgment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluwer, ES; de Dreu, CKW; Buunk, BP

    1998-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to explore whether bias in self-other judgments pertains to conflict in intimate relationships and is overruled by gender role stereotypes in non-intimate relationships between males and females, it was predicted that when the opponent was one's intimate partner, both

  2. Art and Fairy Tales in an Interdisciplinary Interplay: Teaching Interventions towards Negotiation and Subversion of Gender Roles and Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moula, Evangelia; Kabouropoulou, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The interdisciplinary project under discussion is suitable to be addressed to students of either primary or secondary education and it interweaves the art of painting with fairy tales. The aims of the project are: the deeper understanding of the complexity of human nature and the sensitization of students regarding gender roles and stereotypes. On…

  3. Occupational Gender Stereotypes and Problem-Solving in Italian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginevra, Maria Cristina; Nota, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The first purpose of the study was to establish how Italian adolescents perceive jobs in the newly emerging economy sectors as well as more traditional jobs from gender-stereotyped and gender-segregated perspectives. The second purpose was to verify the role of problem-solving and gender in gender-role stereotyping. A total of 217 Italian high…

  4. Adolescents' Judgments of Homophobic Harassment toward Male and Female Victims: The Role of Gender Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Katherine E.; Horn, Stacey S.

    2017-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-six adolescents, drawn from a high school in a Midwestern suburb, provided judgments of a hypothetical incident of homophobic harassment with either a male or female victim. Participants also completed a revised version of the Macho Scale, measuring their endorsement of gender stereotypes (a = 0.75). Without the interaction…

  5. The relationship between gender role stereotypes and requisite managerial characteristics: the case of nursing and midwifery professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkery, Elaine; Tiernan, Siobhan; Morley, Michael

    2014-09-01

    To examine the relationship between gender role stereotypes and requisite managerial characteristics within the nursing and midwifery profession. Studies have been carried out to determine gender role stereotypes and requisite managerial characteristics across a number of industries and among student samples. No study has been carried out within the nursing and midwifery profession. In order to allow for direct comparisons with previous research Schein's Descriptive Index (SDI) was used. A total 239 undergraduate and 171 postexperience responses were collected. Female nurses and midwives did not gender type the managerial role, whereas males gender typed the managerial role in favour of men. Student nurses and midwives recorded a stronger correlation between women and management than their qualified counterparts. Males gender typed the managerial role in favour of men. With an increase in numbers of men joining the profession and increased representation of males at the Clinical Nurse Manager (CMN) level there is a possibility that the profession will become two tiered. Health care organisations should pay careful consideration to career development and implement career structures which ensure equal access to managerial roles for both genders. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Gender differences in child aggression : Relations with gender-differentiated parenting and parents’ gender stereotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endendijk, J. J.; Groeneveld, M.G.; Van der Pol, L.D.; van Berkel, S. R.; Hallers-Haalboom, E.T.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J.; Mesman, J.

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the association between child gender and child aggression via parents’ physical control, moderated by parents’ gender-role stereotypes in a sample of 299 two-parent families with a 3-year-old child in the Netherlands. Fathers with strong stereotypical gender-role

  7. Gender Stereotypes in Same-Sex Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Bro, Jesper Koch; Jensen, Ditte; Stokholm, Martin Valdemar Sachse; Kristoffersen, Simone Ryegaard; Tranberg, Line Falk

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Through five qualitative interviews with people that currently are or have been in same-sex relationship, analyzed by applying the theories of social constructivism by Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckmann and Queer theorist Judith Butler, the project explores heterosexual stereotypes in same-sex relationships. The result is a thoroughgoing analysis where it appears from the interviews as if the interviewed people reproduce heterosexual stereotypical gender roles in their relationships...

  8. Heroes and housewives : the role of gender and gender stereotypes in parenting and child development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endendijk, Joyce Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Gender is one of the most important organizers of social life, from the cradle to the grave. In the family context gender shapes biological, social, and cognitive processes at both the parent and child level. The general aim of the studies presented in this dissertation is to provide more insight

  9. Ambivalent Sexism as a Mediator for Sex Role Orientation and Gender Stereotypes in Romantic Relationships: A Study in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferzan Curun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the mediating effects of ambivalent sexism (hostile and benevolent in the relationship between sex role orientation (masculinity and femininity and gender stereotypes (dominance and assertiveness in college students. The variables were measured using the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI, the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI, and the Attitudes toward Gender Stereotypes in Romantic Relationships Scale (AGSRRS. These inventories were administered to 250 undergraduate students at Istanbul University in Istanbul and Suleyman Demirel University in Isparta, Turkey. Results indicate that benevolent sexism mediates the relationship between hostile sexism and male dominance. Benevolent sexism also mediates femininity and male dominance, as well as femininity and male assertiveness. Hostile sexism was mediated only between the masculine personality trait and benevolent sexism. The present findings expand the literature on sex role orientation by revealing evidence that masculine and feminine individuals experience ambivalent sexism distinctively. The results are discussed in terms of the assumptions of sex role orientation, ambivalent sexism, and gender stereotypes.

  10. Leveraging the Social Role of Dad to Change Gender Stereotypes of Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bernadette; Banchefsky, Sarah

    2018-04-01

    Trait stereotypes of men tend to be more fixed and negative than those of women. The current studies test whether stereotypes of men can be shifted through leveraging their social role as fathers. Trait attributes perceived to characterize women and moms were highly redundant, but those of men and dads were less so; moreover, men were perceived more negatively than dads, women, and moms (Study 1). Perceivers for whom the social role father was made salient rated men more similarly to dads, and no less similarly to men, and rated men more positively relative to a control condition (Study 2). Finally, among men, a threat to the category men resulted in greater opposition to benevolent social policies, but not if the social role father was primed (Study 3). Discussion focuses on positive consequences of increasing the psychological connection between men and fatherhood.

  11. The Development of Spontaneous Gender Stereotyping in Childhood: Relations to Stereotype Knowledge and Stereotype Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banse, Rainer; Gawronski, Bertram; Rebetez, Christine; Gutt, Helene; Morton, J. Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The development of spontaneous gender stereotyping in children was investigated using the newly developed Action Interference Paradigm (AIP). This task consists of assigning gender-stereotypical toys as quickly as possible to boys and girls in either a stereotype-congruent or a stereotype-incongruent manner. A pilot study with 38 children (mean…

  12. Counter-stereotypical pictures as a strategy for overcoming spontaneous gender stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eimear eFinnegan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present research investigated the use of counter-stereotypical pictures as a strategy for overcoming spontaneous gender stereotypes when certain social role nouns and professional terms are read. Across two experiments, participants completed a judgement task in which they were presented with word pairs comprised of a role noun with a stereotypical gender bias (e.g. beautician and a kinship term with definitional gender (e.g. brother. Their task was to quickly decide whether or not both terms could refer to one person. In each experiment they completed 2 blocks of such judgement trials separated by a training session in which they were presented with pictures of people working in gender counter-stereotypical (Experiment 1 or gender stereotypical roles (Experiment 2. To ensure participants were focused on the pictures, they were also required to answer 4 questions on each one relating to the character’s leisure activities, earnings, job satisfaction and personal life. Accuracy of judgements to stereotype incongruent pairings was found to improve significantly across blocks when participants were exposed to counter-stereotype images (9.87% as opposed to stereotypical images (0.12%, while response times decreased significantly across blocks in both studies. It is concluded that exposure to counter-stereotypical pictures is a valuable strategy for overcoming spontaneous gender stereotype biases in the short term.

  13. Beyond Gender Stereotypes in Language Comprehension: Self Sex-Role Descriptions Affect the Brain’s Potentials Associated with Agreement Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Canal, Paolo; Garnham, Alan; Oakhill, Jane

    2015-01-01

    We recorded Event-Related Potentials to investigate differences in the use of gender information during the processing of reflexive pronouns. Pronouns either matched the gender provided by role nouns (such as “king” or “engineer”) or did not. We compared two types of gender information, definitional information, which is semantic in nature (a mother is female), or stereotypical (a nurse is likely to be female). When they followed definitional role-nouns, gender-mismatching pronouns elicited a...

  14. The development of spontaneous gender stereotyping in childhood: relations to stereotype knowledge and stereotype flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banse, Rainer; Gawronski, Bertram; Rebetez, Christine; Gutt, Hélène; Morton, J Bruce

    2010-03-01

    The development of spontaneous gender stereotyping in children was investigated using the newly developed Action Interference Paradigm (AIP). This task consists of assigning gender-stereotypical toys as quickly as possible to boys and girls in either a stereotype-congruent or a stereotype-incongruent manner. A pilot study with 38 children (mean age 5.1 years) provided evidence for spontaneous gender stereotyping in the AIP, which was reflected in higher latencies for stereotype-incongruent compared with stereotype-congruent toy assignments. The main study, with 66 children (aged 5, 8 and 11 years), compared the development of spontaneous stereotyping with established measures of stereotype flexibility and stereotype knowledge. Stereotype flexibility showed a strong increase from age 5 to 11. In contrast, stereotype knowledge and spontaneous stereotyping remained stable at high levels. The results provide evidence for a dissociation between stereotype flexibility and spontaneous stereotyping, suggesting that spontaneous stereotyping may be more closely related to stereotype knowledge than to stereotype flexibility.

  15. Perceptions of domestic violence in lesbian relationships: stereotypes and gender role expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Betsi; Terrance, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    In light of evidence suggesting that violence between lesbian couples is oftentimes dismissed as "mutually combative," expectations that support this perception were examined. Participants (N = 287) evaluated a domestic violence situation within the context of a lesbian partnership. As physical appearance may be used to support gender- and heterosexist-based stereotypes relating to lesbians, participants evaluated a domestic violence incident wherein the physical appearance of both the victim and perpetrator were systematically varied. Overall, women perceived the situation as more dangerous than did men. However, among women, the plausibility of the victim's claim, and blame assigned to the perpetrator and victim, varied as a function of the physical appearance of the couple. Implications of this research as well as future directions are discussed.

  16. ADVERTISING COMMUNICATION AND GENDER STEREOTYPES

    OpenAIRE

    DALIA PETCU; SORIN SUCIU; VASILE GHERHEŞ; CIPRIAN OBRAD

    2012-01-01

    Our article maintains that advertising communication, as a form of commercial communication, is an important part of public communication. Ads are not just forms of promoting products or services, but also modern forms of speech that contribute significantly to the formation of the individual’s identity in contemporary societies. The study aims to identify and analyze the presence of gender stereotypes in Romanian media advertising.

  17. The Living Gender Curriculum: Helping FCS Students Analyze Gender Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein-Schultz, Martha

    2016-01-01

    The concept of gender stereotypes permeates the lives of youth in the United States. This article provides background information and rationale for incorporating gender stereotype analysis into family and consumer sciences (FCS) coursework. The critical analysis of gender stereotypes includes numerous activities and assessments that encourage…

  18. Challenging gender stereotypes: resistance and exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Killen, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    The likelihood of resisting gender-stereotypic peer group norms, along with expectations about personal resistance, was investigated in 9- to 10-year-olds and 13- to 14-year-olds (N = 292). Participants were told about a stereotype conforming group (boys playing football; girls doing ballet) and a stereotype nonconforming group (boys doing ballet; girls playing football). Contrary to expectations from gender-stereotyping research, participants stated that they would personally resist gender-stereotypic norms, and more so than they would expect their peers to resist. However, expecting peers to resist declined with age. Participants expected that exclusion from the group was a consequence for challenging the peer group, and understood the asymmetrical status of gender stereotypes with an expectation that it would be more difficult for boys to challenge stereotypes than for girls. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  19. When Using a Negative Gender Stereotype as an Excuse Increases Gender Stereotyping in Others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkley, Melissa; Andrade, Angela; Burkley, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Prior work has shown that women use gender stereotypes to excuse their stereotypic failures, and doing so incurs negative costs. This study examined if the audience who witnesses a woman using such a stereotypic excuse also incurs costs in the form of increased gender stereotype endorsement. Male and female participants reviewed a survey supposedly completed by a female target who recently took a math exam. In this survey, the female target either performed well or poorly on the exam, and when asked to explain her performance, either invoked a gender stereotype as an excuse (e.g., women are worse at math than men) or not. The results indicated that men (but not women) showed greater gender stereotype endorsement after reading about a female target that invoked a stereotypic excuse. These results suggest that when women use a gender stereotype as an excuse, they may unintentionally cause some observers to increase their endorsement of gender stereotypes.

  20. CODING LOGICAL MECHANISM AND STEREOTYPING IN GENDER CYBER HUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truly Almendo Pasaribu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender-related humors have their own way of being funny; and this research aims to find out how and why they are funny. For this purpose, both researchers have collected 50 gender cyber humors and analyzed them, first, to decode how their logical mechanism relates to specific linguistic features, and secondly, to uncover how gender stereotyping contributes to the comical effects. The twisting of logic and linguistic ambiguity is analyzed formally using Attardos (2001 General Theory of Verbal Humor (GTVH and supported by gender studies. The findings reveal that the logical mechanism consists of elements of incongruities, and gender stereotyping presents negative stereotypical images. The analysis further shows that some gender stereotypical images ridicule traditional roles of man and woman while others make fun of non-traditional representations. This shift from women only to both men and women as targets of gender humors has been an impact of effective feminist movements.

  1. Subliminal Gender Stereotypes: Who Can Resist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Breen, Jolien A; Spears, Russell; Kuppens, Toon; de Lemus, Soledad

    2018-05-01

    We examine women's responses to subliminal gender stereotypes, that is, stereotypes present outside conscious awareness. Previous research suggests that subtle stereotypes elicit acceptance and assimilation, but we predict that subliminal exposure to gender stereotypes will trigger resistance in some women. Specifically, we expect resistance to occur among women who are relatively strongly identified with feminists, but not with the broader group of women. We predict that resistance takes the form of persistence in stereotypically masculine domains and (implicit) in-group bias. Indeed, we found that subliminal exposure to stereotypes (vs. counter-stereotypes) led women who identify relatively strongly with feminists, but less strongly with women, to (a) persist in a math task, (b) show increased willingness to sacrifice men in a Moral Choice Dilemma task, and (c) show implicit in-group bias on an evaluative priming task. This evidence of resistance suggests that members of devalued groups are more resilient than previously thought.

  2. Gender Stereotypes in Children's Picture Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narahara, May M.

    Research has examined how gender stereotypes and sexism in picture books affect the development of gender identity in young children, how children's books in the last decade have portrayed gender, and how researchers evaluate picture books for misrepresentations of gender. A review of the research indicated that gender development is a critical…

  3. [An Investigation of Factors Associated with Emotional Exhaustion among Hospital Nurses: Adherence to "Maternal Affection" and Agreement with Stereotypical Gender Roles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Rei; Nomura, Kyoko; Hiraike, Haruko; Murakami, Aya; Tanabe, Ayumi; Tsuchiya, Akiko; Okinaga, Hiroko

    2018-01-01

    To investigate factors including adherence to "maternal affection" and stereotypical gender roles associated with emotional exhaustion among hospital nurses. In 2014, among 2,690 workers recruited for this study, 891 participated with written informed consent. Of these, we investigated 464 hospital nurses. Adherence to maternal affection and emotional exhaustion were measured using valid and reliable scales developed by Egami (2005, 12 items) and Kubo (1992, 5 items), respectively. Stereotypical gender role was measured by asking "how much do you agree with the idea that women should stay home and men should work?". Workfamily conflict was measured in terms of the discrepancy in priority in life (i.e., a work or a private life) between the participant's ideal and the real world. The majority of our participants were women (86%), aged 39 or younger (80%), and single (70%). About one-quarter had workfamily conflict (26%) and agreed with the stereotypical gender role (28%). The mean scores of emotional exhaustion and adherence to maternal affection were 17.2 (out of 25) and 30.8 (out of 48), respectively. A stepwise multivariable model showed that being a woman (p=0.028), being young (p=0.022), being single (p=0.007), and having workfamily conflict (pgender role were not significantly associated with emotional exhaustion. This study demonstrated that adherence to "maternal affection" and stereotypical gender roles were not associated with psychological burnout. Special attention should be paid to hospital nurses who are women, young, or single, or who have workfamily conflict.

  4. Rethinking stereotype reliance. Understanding the connection between female candidates and gender stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Nichole M

    2013-01-01

    Increasing numbers of female candidates are running for Congress in American national elections. Despite the rise in female candidates running for office, women are not significantly increasing their presence in the House and Senate. A much hypothesized influence over the electoral fates of female candidates is the role of gender stereotypes. However, political science scholars have struggled to pinpoint the effect of stereotypes on vote choice, if there is any effect. This essay compares the way social psychology and political science scholars theoretically, conceptually and empirically test for gender stereotype influence over evaluations of female candidates and politicians. Differences emerge in the theoretical assumptions made in the two disciplines, the types of measures used in research, and the empirical tests conducted to demonstrate the presence or absence of stereotypes in evaluations of women. The discussion explores how scholars studying female candidates and politicians can integrate insights from social psychology to clarify the role of stereotypes in candidate evaluation and choice.

  5. Factors Relating to Managerial Stereotypes : The Role of Gender of the Employee and the Manager and Management Gender Ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoker, Janka I.; Van der Velde, Mandy; Lammers, Joris

    Several studies have shown that the traditional stereotype of a "good" manager being masculine and male still exists. The recent changes in the proportion of women and female managers in organizations could affect these two managerial stereotypes, leading to a stronger preference for feminine

  6. The gendered stereotype of the 'good manager': Sex role expectations towards male and female managers

    OpenAIRE

    Gmür, Markus

    2006-01-01

    In the past 30 years, U.S. and international studies have shown that societal expectations of the 'good manager' are closely related to the male stereotype. However, it is not clear, whether this stereotype is the same for men andwomen alike in managerial positions. The results of a German study with 625 students and 376 professionals participating between 1997 and 2005 are presentedin the short note below. The main findings of the study are: 1. Female managers are expected to conform more cl...

  7. Deconstructing Gender Stereotypes in Leak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengah Bawa Atmadja

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The belief of Balinese people towards leak still survive. Leak is a magic based on durgaism that can transform a person from human to another form, such as apes, pigs, etc. People tend to regard leak as evil. In general, the evilness is constructed in gender stereotypes, so it is identified that leak are always women. This idea is a power game based on the ideology of patriarchy that provides legitimacy for men to dominate women with a plea for social harmony. As a result, women are marginalized in the Balinese society. Women should be aware of so it would provide encouragement for them to make emancipatory changes dialogically. Kepercayaan orang Bali terhadap leak tetap bertahan sampai saat ini. Leak adalah sihir yang berbasiskan durgaisme yang dapat mengakibatkan seseorang bisa merubah bentuk dari manusia ke wujud yang lain, misalnya kera, babi, dll. Leak termasuk magi hitam sehingga dinilai bersifat jelek. Pada umumnya perempuan diidentikkan dengan leak sehingga melahirkan asumsi yang bermuatan steriotip gender bahwa leak = perempuan. Gagasan ini merupakan permainan kekuasaan berbasis ideologi patriarkhi dan sekaligus memberikan legitimasi bagi laki-laki untuk menguasai perempuan dengan dalih demi keharmonisan sosial. Akibatnya, perempuan menjadi termarginalisasi pada masyarakat Bali.  Perempuan harus menyadarinya sehingga memberikan dorongan bagi mereka untuk melakukan perubahan secara dialogis emansipatoris.

  8. [Gender stereotypes arising in a state of gender awareness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Y

    2001-12-01

    This study examined the structure of gender stereotypes which might arise in the state of gender awareness that was triggered by social situations where people perceived their gender differences strongly. Out of 1,500 residents in Tokyo aged between 20-60, 342 females and 313 males were randomly chosen and answered the questions about gender consciousness in the state of gender awareness. A factor analysis revealed that "maternity" and "trustworthiness" were the dominant dimensions of gender stereotypes in the state of gender awareness, and that trustworthiness particularly formed the basis of gender stereotypes. Generation differences in gender stereotypes were also revealed between women in their 40 s and 50 s, and between men in their 30 s and 40 s. Generally, power for men and nurture for women were more likely to be perceived in a state of gender awareness.

  9. Israeli Kindergarten Children's Gender Constancy for Others' Counter-Stereotypic Toy Play and Appearance: The Role of Sibling Gender and Relative Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karniol, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    To test divergent theoretical predictions as to the impact of having a younger or older, same-sex sibling or opposite-sex sibling on other gender constancy, Israeli kindergarten children in two-child families responded to a gender constancy task in which a male and female picture target engaged in counter-stereotypic toy play and adopted…

  10. CRITICAL RETHINKING OF GENDER STEREOTYPES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. CHINWE EZEIFEKA

    MDGs). ... of idioms in enforcing gender stereotypes relate to its strong cognitive and emotive ... establishing a relationship between one domain of meaning and another ..... young widow may be transferred to any eligible sibling of the husband in a ...

  11. Analyzing Gender Stereotyping in Bollywood Movies

    OpenAIRE

    Madaan, Nishtha; Mehta, Sameep; Agrawaal, Taneea S; Malhotra, Vrinda; Aggarwal, Aditi; Saxena, Mayank

    2017-01-01

    The presence of gender stereotypes in many aspects of society is a well-known phenomenon. In this paper, we focus on studying such stereotypes and bias in Hindi movie industry (Bollywood). We analyze movie plots and posters for all movies released since 1970. The gender bias is detected by semantic modeling of plots at inter-sentence and intra-sentence level. Different features like occupation, introduction of cast in text, associated actions and descriptions are captured to show the pervasiv...

  12. Internalized gender stereotypes vary across socioeconomic indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Dietrich, Julia; Schnabel, Konrad; Ortner, Tuulia; Eagly, Alice; Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Kröger, Lea; Holst, Elke

    2013-01-01

    In the following we aim to approach the question of why, in most domains of professional and economic life, women are more vulnerable than men to becoming targets of prejudice and discrimination by proposing that one important cause of this inequality is the presence of gender stereotypes in many domains of society. We describe two approaches employed to measure gender stereotypes: An explicit questionnaire based on rating scales and a newly developed Implicit Association Test assessing gende...

  13. [Gender and job satisfaction in stereotypical masculine and feminine occupations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipińska-Grobelny, Agnieszka; Goździk, Iwona

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to analyze the relationship between gender and job satisfaction among employees involved in a stereotypical masculine (tram driver) and a stereotypical feminine occupation (nurse). It was expected that people with feminine gender schema would be more satisfied with their traditionally feminine occupations compared with those with masculine gender schema and vice versa. A group of 103 individuals, including 47 females (15 tram drivers and 32 nurses) and 56 males (41 tram drivers and 15 nurses) completed the following battery of instruments: The Bem Sex Role Inventory by Kuczyńska, Job Affect Scale by Brief, et al. Job Descriptions Questionnaire by Neuberger and Allerbeck. The results of the study showed that gender proved to be a variable that differentiates the level of job satisfaction (both overall satisfaction and satisfaction with different components) only as regards stereotypical feminine occupations. Moreover, individuals with feminine gender schema working in a stereotypical feminine occupation are more satisfied with co-workers and work conditions, and those with masculine gender schema involved in a stereotypical masculine occupation are more satisfied with a supervisor. The gender analysis can be an important tool for the recruitment and selection procedures and plays an essential role in assessing the person-environment fit.

  14. On stereotypes, media and redressing gendered social inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, J.

    2010-01-01

    ‘Combating gender stereotypes: The role of education and the media’ was one of the two central themes of a ministerial conference of the Council of Europe (24-25 May 2010, Baku, Azerbaijan). The conference aims to develop cross-European policy directed at gender equality. This talk suggests that any

  15. Understanding the Gender Gap in Mathematics Achievement: The Role of Self-Efficacy and Stereotype Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwery, Denise; Hulac, David; Schweinle, Amy

    2016-01-01

    This literature review provides school psychologists with an understanding of the important issues related to the gender gap in mathematics achievement. The extant literature suggests that girls tend to receive lower scores than boys on standardized math tests, but in general these differences tend to be small. However, girls have better classroom…

  16. Stereotype or grammar? The representation of gender when two-year-old and three-year-old French-speaking toddlers listen to role nouns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy, Arik; Gygax, Pascal; Gabriel, Ute; Zesiger, Pascal

    2016-11-01

    Using a preferential looking paradigm, the current study examined the role that grammatical gender plays when preschool French-speaking toddlers process role nouns in the masculine form (e.g., chanteurs masculine 'singers'). While being auditorily prompted with "Look at the 'a role noun'!", two- and three-year-olds were presented with two pictures of two characters ('boy-boy' versus 'girl-boy') with attributes of the given role noun (e.g., singers with microphone and music notes). All role nouns were presented in the masculine plural form, which, despite its use to refer to mixed-gender groups, can be interpreted as referring to men. We expected toddlers to be biased by stereotypes, yet when non-stereotypical role nouns were presented, toddlers were not influenced by grammatical gender, but by their own sex (even more so for three-year-old toddlers). The absence of sensitivity to grammatical cues for either age group is discussed in terms of the developmental awareness of grammatical gender.

  17. Gender Trait Stereotypes: A Comparison of 1978 and 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Betsy Q.; Babbitt, Brian C.

    This study examined stability and change in gender role stereotypes by comparing responses to items on the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) for the typical woman and man in 1978 and in 1986. Subjects were college students enrolled in an introductory psychology course in 1978 (N=85) and in 1986 (N=219). Subjects rated the typical man or typical woman…

  18. The interaction of morphological and stereotypical gender information in Russian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eGarnham

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous research, for example in English, French, German, and Spanish, has investigated the interplay between grammatical gender information and stereotype gender information (e.g. that secretaries are usually female, in many cultures, in the interpretation of both singular noun phrases (the secretary and plural nouns phrases, particularly so-called generic masculines – noun that have masculine grammatical gender but that should be able to refer to both groups of men and mixed groups of men and women. Since the studies have been conducted in cultures with broadly similar stereotypes, the effects generally reflect differences in the grammatical systems of the languages. Russian has a more complex grammatical gender system than the languages previously studied, and, unlike those languages frequently presents examples in which grammatical gender is marked on the predicate (in an inflection on the verb. In this study we collected stereotype norms for 160 role names in Russian, providing a useful resource for further work in this language. We also conducted a reading time study examining the interaction of grammatical and stereotype gender information in the interpretation of both Russian singular noun phrases, and plurals that were (potentially generic masculines. Our results show that, although both types of gender information are used, as available, the effects of grammatical marking on the predicate are not as strong as those.

  19. Chronic Stereotype Threat Is Associated With Mathematical Achievement on Representative Sample of Secondary Schoolgirls: The Role of Gender Identification, Working Memory, and Intellectual Helplessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedyńska, Sylwia; Krejtz, Izabela; Sedek, Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    Stereotype threat affects performance in many different groups across many different domains. Despite a large body of experimental research on situational stereotype threat, little attention has been paid to the consequences of repeated experience of stereotype threat. Using structural equation modeling on data from a representative sample of girls from secondary schools, the current research examined the relations of chronic stereotype threat with mathematical achievement, and effectiveness of working memory functions. Moving beyond past theory, this study examined a new mechanism by which chronic stereotype threat decreases school achievement – namely intellectual helplessness. We assumed that repeated experience of stereotype threat works as intellectual helplessness training. After the phase of cognitive mobilization, cognitive exhaustion appears, because the individual has no gain from intense cognitive effort. Corroborating previous research on acute stereotype threat, we demonstrated that chronic stereotype threat is negatively associated with mathematical achievement. Additionally, it was also associated with lower effectiveness of working memory functions, which seems to show depletion of working memory as an effect of chronic stereotype threat. The results also demonstrated that both mediational paths from chronic stereotype threat to mathematical achievement: through working memory depletion and through intellectual helplessness were significant but only for girls that were highly identified with their gender group. In sum, we extended a well-established model of acute stereotype threat to its chronic version and suggested a new mechanism of chronic stereotype threat, which involves intellectual helplessness. Implications for stereotype threat theory and educational practice are discussed. PMID:29666599

  20. Chronic Stereotype Threat Is Associated With Mathematical Achievement on Representative Sample of Secondary Schoolgirls: The Role of Gender Identification, Working Memory, and Intellectual Helplessness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Bedyńska

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Stereotype threat affects performance in many different groups across many different domains. Despite a large body of experimental research on situational stereotype threat, little attention has been paid to the consequences of repeated experience of stereotype threat. Using structural equation modeling on data from a representative sample of girls from secondary schools, the current research examined the relations of chronic stereotype threat with mathematical achievement, and effectiveness of working memory functions. Moving beyond past theory, this study examined a new mechanism by which chronic stereotype threat decreases school achievement – namely intellectual helplessness. We assumed that repeated experience of stereotype threat works as intellectual helplessness training. After the phase of cognitive mobilization, cognitive exhaustion appears, because the individual has no gain from intense cognitive effort. Corroborating previous research on acute stereotype threat, we demonstrated that chronic stereotype threat is negatively associated with mathematical achievement. Additionally, it was also associated with lower effectiveness of working memory functions, which seems to show depletion of working memory as an effect of chronic stereotype threat. The results also demonstrated that both mediational paths from chronic stereotype threat to mathematical achievement: through working memory depletion and through intellectual helplessness were significant but only for girls that were highly identified with their gender group. In sum, we extended a well-established model of acute stereotype threat to its chronic version and suggested a new mechanism of chronic stereotype threat, which involves intellectual helplessness. Implications for stereotype threat theory and educational practice are discussed.

  1. Chronic Stereotype Threat Is Associated With Mathematical Achievement on Representative Sample of Secondary Schoolgirls: The Role of Gender Identification, Working Memory, and Intellectual Helplessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedyńska, Sylwia; Krejtz, Izabela; Sedek, Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    Stereotype threat affects performance in many different groups across many different domains. Despite a large body of experimental research on situational stereotype threat, little attention has been paid to the consequences of repeated experience of stereotype threat. Using structural equation modeling on data from a representative sample of girls from secondary schools, the current research examined the relations of chronic stereotype threat with mathematical achievement, and effectiveness of working memory functions. Moving beyond past theory, this study examined a new mechanism by which chronic stereotype threat decreases school achievement - namely intellectual helplessness. We assumed that repeated experience of stereotype threat works as intellectual helplessness training. After the phase of cognitive mobilization, cognitive exhaustion appears, because the individual has no gain from intense cognitive effort. Corroborating previous research on acute stereotype threat, we demonstrated that chronic stereotype threat is negatively associated with mathematical achievement. Additionally, it was also associated with lower effectiveness of working memory functions, which seems to show depletion of working memory as an effect of chronic stereotype threat. The results also demonstrated that both mediational paths from chronic stereotype threat to mathematical achievement: through working memory depletion and through intellectual helplessness were significant but only for girls that were highly identified with their gender group. In sum, we extended a well-established model of acute stereotype threat to its chronic version and suggested a new mechanism of chronic stereotype threat, which involves intellectual helplessness. Implications for stereotype threat theory and educational practice are discussed.

  2. The Development of Gender Stereotype Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Carol Lynn; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Children of 4 to 10 years of age were told about children whose sex was not specified and who had a masculine or feminine toy or characteristic. Results indicated that children first learn characteristics relevant to their own sex, and that older children's stereotypic judgments about gender are more extreme than those of younger children. (BC)

  3. Comparison of gender stereotypes with gender differences across generations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kouřilová, Sylvie; Hřebíčková, Martina

    43 2008, 3-4 (2008), s. 709-709 ISSN 0020-7594. [International Congress of Psychology /XXIX/. 21.07.2008-25.07.2008, Berlin] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/07/1561 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : gender differences * gender stereotypes * five-factor model Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  4. The effects of gender stereotypic and counter-stereotypic textbook images on science performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Jessica J; Woodzicka, Julie A; Wingfield, Lylan C

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effect of gender stereotypic and counter-stereotypic images on male and female high school students' science comprehension and anxiety. We predicted stereotypic images to induce stereotype threat in females and impair science performance. Counter-stereotypic images were predicted to alleviate threat and enhance female performance. Students read one of three chemistry lessons, each containing the same text, with photograph content varied according to stereotype condition. Participants then completed a comprehension test and anxiety measure. Results indicate that female students had higher comprehension after viewing counter-stereotypic images (female scientists) than after viewing stereotypic images (male scientists). Male students had higher comprehension after viewing stereotypic images than after viewing counter-stereotypic images. Implications for alleviating the gender gap in science achievement are discussed.

  5. The Teacher and Sex Role Stereotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Anne McCreary

    1974-01-01

    In this article, selected research findings are presented on sex role learning, sex role stereotyping, in general and in the school setting, the effect of such stereotyping on the student, and some suggestions for the teacher. (Author/JA)

  6. The effect of stereotypes and prejudices regarding gender roles on the relation between nurses and "Muslim fathers" in health institutions within the Community of Madrid (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pascual, Juan Luis; Esteban-Gonzalo, Laura; Rodríguez-García, Marta; Gómez-Cantarino, Sagrario; Moreno-Preciado, Manuel

    2017-10-01

    Modern Western societies are characterized by a considerable cultural and ethnic diversity whereby different groups and minorities live side by side. However, not all people are viewed in the same light by the autochthonous population. This is particularly true in the case of Muslim immigrants, who are often prone to negative stereotyping and prejudice. This has become increasingly apparent since the 2001 terrorist attacks in New York and the subsequent attacks in various Western countries. This study seeks to analyze the relation between female nurses and those labeled by nurses as "Muslim fathers," as part of a research project on the care of immigrant children in Madrid (Spain). The findings promote reflection on the effects of nurses' stereotypes and prejudices regarding the gender roles of "Muslim fathers" and the relations between these groups. These prejudices can lead to situations of cultural imposition and/or discrimination. Self-reflection regarding stereotypes and prejudices is necessary in order to provide culturally competent care. The anthropobiological approach by Marie Françoise Collière may be useful for extending this type of care universally, not only to immigrant groups, as everyone, including nurses, patients, and family members, belong to part of a specific sociocultural context. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Gender Stereotyping and the Jersey Shore: A Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline S. Anderson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reality television is a highly popular genre, with a growing body of scholarly research. Unlike scripted programming, which offers fictional storylines, reality television relies heavily on cast member’s reactions to carefully crafted situations. This study examined the relationship between reality television and gender role stereotyping in a seminal reality television show, MTV’s Jersey Shore. Content analysis was used to conduct an in-depth examination of the first season of Jersey Shore, investigating three gendered issues: physical appearance, social roles and behavioral traits. Findings demonstrated the carefully manufactured relationship between gender role stereotyping and reality television programming in Jersey Shore, and illustrate the development of the female reality show character as related to sexualized behavior and social/emotional gender stereotypes. The depiction of female reality show characters seems to have increased its level of sensationalism, while continuing to be clichéd and conventional, while depiction of male characters is beginning to push the boundaries of being typecast in regards to their physical appearance and role in performing domestic tasks. Additionally, physical alterations on screen were many, warranting further investigation of this behavior.

  8. Can gender-fair language reduce gender stereotyping and discrimination?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eSczesny

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gender-fair language (GFL aims at reducing gender stereotyping and discrimination. Two principle strategies have been introduced to make languages gender-fair and to treat women and men symmetrically: neutralization and feminization. Neutralization is achieved, for example, by replacing male-masculine forms (policeman with gender-unmarked forms (police officer, whereas feminization relies on the use of feminine forms to make female referents visible (i.e., the applicant ... he or she instead of the applicant ... he. Integrating research on language structures, language policies, and individual language behavior, the present paper provides an overview of whether and under what circumstances GFL contributes to the reduction of gender stereotyping and discrimination.

  9. Can Gender-Fair Language Reduce Gender Stereotyping and Discrimination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sczesny, Sabine; Formanowicz, Magda; Moser, Franziska

    2016-01-01

    Gender-fair language (GFL) aims at reducing gender stereotyping and discrimination. Two principle strategies have been employed to make languages gender-fair and to treat women and men symmetrically: neutralization and feminization. Neutralization is achieved, for example, by replacing male-masculine forms (policeman) with gender-unmarked forms (police officer), whereas feminization relies on the use of feminine forms to make female referents visible (i.e., the applicant… he or she instead of the applicant… he). By integrating research on (1) language structures, (2) language policies, and (3) individual language behavior, we provide a critical review of how GFL contributes to the reduction of gender stereotyping and discrimination. Our review provides a basis for future research and for scientifically based policy-making.

  10. Gender Stereotyping and Self-Stereotyping Attitudes: A Large Field Study of Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Tor; Smith, Nina; Smith, Valdemar

    2017-01-01

    The dearth of women in top managerial positions is characterized by a high persistence and insensitivity to changes and differences in institutions and policies. This suggests it could be caused by slowly changing social norms and attitudes in the labor market, such as gender stereotypes and gender identity. This paper examines gender stereotypes and self-stereotyping in a large cross section of (about 2,970) managers at different job levels in (1,875) Danish private-sector firms. The survey ...

  11. CRITICAL RETHINKING OF GENDER STEREOTYPES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. CHINWE EZEIFEKA

    society; to scrutinize texts and discursive practices to determine their .... word widow conjures up the image-schema of someone who is dirty. ... stereotypic role is to keep the husband‟s house, cook his meals, enjoy as much of it as she.

  12. Exaggerating Accessible Differences: When Gender Stereotypes Overestimate Actual Group Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyal, Tal; Epley, Nicholas

    2017-09-01

    Stereotypes are often presumed to exaggerate group differences, but empirical evidence is mixed. We suggest exaggeration is moderated by the accessibility of specific stereotype content. In particular, because the most accessible stereotype contents are attributes perceived to differ between groups, those attributes are most likely to exaggerate actual group differences due to regression to the mean. We tested this hypothesis using a highly accessible gender stereotype: that women are more socially sensitive than men. We confirmed that the most accessible stereotype content involves attributes perceived to differ between groups (pretest), and that these stereotypes contain some accuracy but significantly exaggerate actual gender differences (Experiment 1). We observe less exaggeration when judging less accessible stereotype content (Experiment 2), or when judging individual men and women (Experiment 3). Considering the accessibility of specific stereotype content may explain when stereotypes exaggerate actual group differences and when they do not.

  13. Explaining gender differences in competitiveness: Gender-task stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Große, Niels Daniel; Riener, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Gender-specific patterns of self-selection into competitive and cooperative environments may have multiple reasons. One of the most prominent explanations to this point is, that there are inherent differences between men and women when it comes to preferences regarding competition. We take a different point of view and claim that gender-task stereotypes are able to explain a large part of the under-representation of women in tournament like environments. We conduct an experiment with a quanti...

  14. Ethical aspects of gender stereotypes in Romanian advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Frunza, Mihaela; Grad, Iulia; Frunza, Sandu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we aim at arguing that the advertising agencies – as significant organizations in the field of public communication – should follow the example of business corporations that are voluntarily using ethical practices to increase the trust of customers. One area where this can be done safely and constructively is the area of gender stereotypes in advertisement. By removing gender stereotypes and promoting non-stereotypical, creative images of gender relations, ads can simultaneously...

  15. Gender Stereotyping and the Jersey Shore: A Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline S. Anderson; Sharmila Pixy Ferris

    2016-01-01

    Reality television is a highly popular genre, with a growing body of scholarly research. Unlike scripted programming, which offers fictional storylines, reality television relies heavily on cast member’s reactions to carefully crafted situations. This study examined the relationship between reality television and gender role stereotyping in a seminal reality television show, MTV’s Jersey Shore. Content analysis was used to conduct an in-depth examination of the first season of ...

  16. Women leaders in academia, gender and stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Carolina Moncayo Orjuela

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the leadership characteristics typical of women in managerial positions in higher education institutions, starting from a particular literary approach and found in research regarding this topic. It is based on the subjective constructions of social duality between the masculine and feminine genders and attributes in the social relations of power. Also, within the conceptual framework examines leadership as a social construction and, therefore, their dependence on the various social characterizations. To fulfill the goal four themes were set. They allow the categorization of the literature review, namely: leadership and development, gender and stereotypes, leadership and gender, and to end, women's leadership in education institutions. Finally, we present the results of the literature research, where the transactional transformational, participative and authoritarian leadership styles are clearly evident, from which the transformational, characteristic of women, is the must in power and leadership positions in higher education institutions.

  17. Gender Stereotypes in Science Education Resources : A Visual Content Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoven, A.H.; Rodrigues, Dos Santos Russo P.M.; Land, A.M.; Saxena, A.; Rodenburg, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    More men are studying and working in science fields than women. This could be an effect of the prevalence of gender stereotypes (e.g., science is for men, not for women). Aside from the media and people’s social lives, such stereotypes can also occur in education. Ways in which stereotypes are

  18. Unfair tournaments: gender stereotyping and wage discrimination among Italian graduates

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Castagnetti; Luisa Rosti

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the gender pay gap among Italian university graduates on entry to the labor market, and stresses the importance of gender stereotypes on subjective assessment of individual productivity. We build upon previous research about gender and wage inequality introducing tournament theory as a convenient framework for the gender pay gap analysis. We hypothesize that the effects of gender stereotypes make occupational tournaments unfair. As a consequence, male workers have higher ...

  19. Positive stereotypes, negative outcomes: Reminders of the positive components of complementary gender stereotypes impair performance in counter-stereotypical tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahalon, Rotem; Shnabel, Nurit; Becker, Julia C

    2018-04-01

    Gender stereotypes are complementary: Women are perceived to be communal but not agentic, whereas men are perceived to be agentic but not communal. The present research tested whether exposure to reminders of the positive components of these gender stereotypes can lead to stereotype threat and subsequent performance deficits on the complementary dimension. Study 1 (N = 116 female participants) revealed that compared to a control/no-stereotype condition, exposure to reminders of the stereotype about women's communality (but not to reminders of the stereotype about women's beauty) impaired women's math performance. In Study 2 (N = 86 male participants), reminders of the stereotype about men's agency (vs. a control/no-stereotype condition) impaired men's performance in a test of socio-emotional abilities. Consistent with previous research on stereotype threat, in both studies the effect was evident among participants with high domain identification. These findings extend our understanding of the potentially adverse implications of seemingly positive gender stereotypes. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  20. "Keeping in mind the gender stereotype": the role of need for closure in the retrieval-induced forgetting of female managers' qualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica, Gennaro; Pierro, Antonio; Pellegrini, Valerio; De Cristofaro, Valeria; Giannini, Annamaria; Kruglanski, Arie W

    2018-05-19

    The present research addressed the question of whether need for closure (NFC; Kruglanski in The psychology of closed mindedness, Psychology Press, New York, 2004) biases individuals' memory of female leaders. Merging research on role congruity theory of leadership (Koenig et al. in Psychol Bull 4:616-642, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023557 ) and research on retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF, Anderson et al. in J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cognit 20:1063-1087, 1994. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.65.5.861 ), we hypothesized and found that high-NFC participants show (1) a higher RIF of dimensions commonly associated with the leadership prototype (agentic/masculine) ascribed to female manager targets, when selectively retrieved dimensions commonly associated with the female prototype (communal/feminine) were ascribed to the same target; and (2) a lessened RIF of female stereotypical dimensions ascribed to female manager targets, when selectively retrieved prototypical leadership dimensions were ascribed to the same target. Overall, the present findings suggest that when faced with women leaders, high NfC enhances the accessibility of gender stereotype-congruent memories and reduces the accessibility of prototypical leadership ones, thus reducing the RIF of communal/feminine memories.

  1. True gender ratios and stereotype rating norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eGarnham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a study comparing, in English, perceived distributions of men and women in 422 named occupations with actual real world distributions. The first set of data was obtained from previous a large-scale norming study, whereas the second set was mostly drawn from UK governmental sources. In total, real world ratios for 290 occupations were obtained for our perceive vs. real world comparison, of which 205 were deemed to be unproblematic. The means for the two sources were similar and the correlation between them was high, suggesting that people are generally accurate at judging real gender ratios, though there were some notable exceptions. Beside this correlation, some interesting patterns emerged from the two sources, suggesting some response strategies when people complete norming studies. We discuss these patterns in terms of the way real world data might complement norming studies in determining gender stereotypicality.

  2. Students' Gender Stereotypes about Running in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron E.; Lin, Shuqiong; Gao, Zan; Francis, Xueying

    2018-01-01

    Two hundred forty-six students (132 boys, 114 girls) were tracked from fifth to eighth grades, and changes in gender stereotypes about running as a male sport, running performance, interest in running, and intention for future running participation were assessed. Results revealed that neither sex held gender stereotypes about running as a male…

  3. Mathematically Gifted Adolescent Females' Mixed Sentiment toward Gender Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chen-yao

    2015-01-01

    There has been a paucity of research on gifted individuals' perceptions of gender stereotypes. The purpose of this study was to explore mathematically gifted adolescent females' perceptions of gender stereotypes through a research design of the qualitative multiple case study involving the constant comparison and the Three C's analysis scheme.…

  4. Refusing the Stereotype: Decoding Negative Gender Imagery through a School-Based Digital Media Literacy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Naomi; White, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The media plays a significant role in shaping cultural norms and attitudes, concomitantly reinforcing "body" and "beauty" ideals and gender stereotypes. Unrealistic, photoshopped and stereotyped images used by the media, advertising and fashion industries influence young people's body image and impact on their feelings of body…

  5. Gender-stereotyping and cognitive sex differences in mixed- and same-sex groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirnstein, Marco; Coloma Andrews, Lisa; Hausmann, Markus

    2014-11-01

    Sex differences in specific cognitive abilities are well documented, but the biological, psychological, and sociocultural interactions that may underlie these differences are largely unknown. We examined within a biopsychosocial approach how gender stereotypes affect cognitive sex differences when adult participants were tested in mixed- or same-sex groups. A total of 136 participants (70 women) were allocated to either mixed- or same-sex groups and completed a battery of sex-sensitive cognitive tests (i.e., mental rotation, verbal fluency, perceptual speed) after gender stereotypes or gender-neutral stereotypes (control) were activated. To study the potential role of testosterone as a mediator for group sex composition and stereotype boost/threat effects, saliva samples were taken before the stereotype manipulation and after cognitive testing. The results showed the typical male and female advantages in mental rotation and verbal fluency, respectively. In general, men and women who were tested in mixed-sex groups and whose gender stereotypes had not been activated performed best. Moreover, a stereotype threat effect emerged in verbal fluency with reduced performance in gender stereotyped men but not women. Testosterone levels did not mediate the effects of group sex composition and stereotype threat nor did we find any relationship between testosterone and cognitive performance in men and women. Taken together, the findings suggest that an interaction of gender stereotyping and group sex composition affects the performance of men and women in sex-sensitive cognitive tasks. Mixed-sex settings can, in fact, increase cognitive performance as long as gender-stereotyping is prevented.

  6. Social Perception through Gender Stereotypes of Partner Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor M. Cantera

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The overall goal of this research was to assess the degree of social attachment of certain stereotypes about gender (male provider; female caregiver and violence (violent, peaceful woman and is framed in the context of a debate about the extent and limits of a gender approach when it comes to understanding and preventing violence in different types of partner. 741 people were involved in the research, two thirds of them women, living in Spain, Mexico, Puerto Rico and El Salvador. In each country, they agreed to a stratified convenience sample according to criteria of gender, age, education level, occupational status and sexual orientation. In one session lasting between 35 and 60 minutes, the participants first answered an IAT (Implicit Association Test and then a series of items in a questionnaire with closed and open ended questions. One section includes 48 items referring to “activities” that the person must categorize numerically on a scale of 1-7, with a semantic differential format, and whose poles are “male” and “woman.” In this series two scales of 24 items each are mixed: hardness and tenderness. From the information obtained it is seen that samples from all countries organize their perception of partner violence according to gender stereotypes. Men and women both perceived attributes of the hardness scale to be masculine, and those of tenderness to be feminine, with these perceived differences in terms of gender role behaviors being even more enhanced and further polarized by the women. The socio-cultural anchor of the gender violence stereotype has theoretical and social implications in that it visualizes abuse from a man to a woman in the heterosexual couple and blurs that which occurs in other forms of partner. This raises topics which should be urgently addressed in the research agenda.

  7. Gender-role stereotypes and interpersonal behavior: How addicted patients view their ideal male and female therapist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, J.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Weert-van Oene, G.H. de; Gijs, L.A.C.L.

    2000-01-01

    This study focuses on the influences of self-perceived interpersonal behavior of addicted inpatients (n = 107) on the stereotypes of their ideal male and female therapist. Based on the interpersonal model of personality patients were asked to describe their ideal male and female therapist.

  8. Activating gender stereotypes during online spoken language processing: evidence from Visual World Eye Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyykkönen, Pirita; Hyönä, Jukka; van Gompel, Roger P G

    2010-01-01

    This study used the visual world eye-tracking method to investigate activation of general world knowledge related to gender-stereotypical role names in online spoken language comprehension in Finnish. The results showed that listeners activated gender stereotypes elaboratively in story contexts where this information was not needed to build coherence. Furthermore, listeners made additional inferences based on gender stereotypes to revise an already established coherence relation. Both results are consistent with mental models theory (e.g., Garnham, 2001). They are harder to explain by the minimalist account (McKoon & Ratcliff, 1992) which suggests that people limit inferences to those needed to establish coherence in discourse.

  9. Objective assessment of gender roles: Gender Roles Test (GRT-36).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Juan; Quiroga, M Angeles; del Olmo, Isabel; Aróztegui, Javier; Martín, Arantxa

    2011-11-01

    This study was designed to develop a computerized test to assess gender roles. This test is presented as a decision-making task to mask its purpose. Each item displays a picture representing an activity and a brief sentence that describes it. Participants have to choose the most suitable sex to perform each activity: man or woman. The test (Gender Roles Test, GRT-36) consists of 36 items/activities. The program registers both the choices made and their response times (RTs). Responses are considered as stereotyped when the chosen sex fits stereotyped roles and non-stereotyped when the chosen sex does not fit stereotyped roles. Individual means (RTs) were computed for stereotyped and non-stereotyped responses, differentiating between domestic and work spheres. A "D" score, reflecting the strength of association between activities and sex, was calculated for each sphere and sex. The study incorporated 78 participants (69% women and 31% men) ranging from 19 to 59 years old. The results show that: (a) reading speed does not explain the variability in the RTs; (b) RTs show good internal consistency; (c) RTs are shorter for stereotyped than for neutral stimuli; (d) RTs are shorter for stereotyped than for non-stereotyped responses. Intended goals are supported by obtained results. Scores provided by the task facilitate both group and individual detailed analysis of gender role, differentiating the gender role assigned to men from that assigned to women, at the domestic and work spheres. Obtained data fall within the scope of the genderology and their implications are discussed.

  10. Licensed Practical Nurses' Sex Role Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallston, Barbara Strudler; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined whether sex-role stereotypes would affect nurses' (N=32) attitudes toward simulations of male and female patients. Emotional style and patients' diagnosis were manipulated. Results showed significant sex-role differences and stereotypical attitudes. Male patients were rated more positively, and were more likely to possess traditional male…

  11. Men as cultural ideals: Cultural values moderate gender stereotype content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, Amy J C; Wolf, Elizabeth Baily; Glick, Peter; Crotty, Susan; Chong, Jihye; Norton, Michael I

    2015-10-01

    Four studies tested whether cultural values moderate the content of gender stereotypes, such that male stereotypes more closely align with core cultural values (specifically, individualism vs. collectivism) than do female stereotypes. In Studies 1 and 2, using different measures, Americans rated men as less collectivistic than women, whereas Koreans rated men as more collectivistic than women. In Study 3, bicultural Korean Americans who completed a survey in English about American targets rated men as less collectivistic than women, whereas those who completed the survey in Korean about Korean targets did not, demonstrating how cultural frames influence gender stereotype content. Study 4 established generalizability by reanalyzing Williams and Best's (1990) cross-national gender stereotype data across 26 nations. National individualism-collectivism scores predicted viewing collectivistic traits as more-and individualistic traits as less-stereotypically masculine. Taken together, these data offer support for the cultural moderation of gender stereotypes hypothesis, qualifying past conclusions about the universality of gender stereotype content. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Threatening the Heart and Mind of Gender Stereotypes: Can Imagined Contact Influence the Physiology of Stereotype Threat?

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that when a gender stereotype is made salient and the target of the stereotype is asked to perform in the stereotyped domain, targets of the stereotype often perform at a lower level compared to situations when the stereotype was not made salient (Spencer, Steele, & Quinn, 1999). Current models of stereotype threat show that increased physiological arousal and reduced working memory capacity partially explain this decrement in performance (Ben-Zeev, Fein, & Inzlicht, 2005; Sch...

  13. Ethical Aspects of Gender Stereotypes in Romanian Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRUNZA Mihaela

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we aim at arguing that the advertising agencies – as significant organizations in the field of public communication – should follow the example of business corporations that are voluntarily using ethical practices to increase the trust of customers. One area where this can be done safely and constructively is the area of gender stereotypes in advertisement. By removing gender stereotypes and promoting non-stereotypical, creative images of gender relations, ads can simultaneously promote their brands as open-minded, creative and modern and inspire building the trust of their customers.

  14. Prejudices in Cultural Contexts: Shared Stereotypes (Gender, Age) Versus Variable Stereotypes (Race, Ethnicity, Religion).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Susan T

    2017-09-01

    Some prejudices share cross-cultural patterns, but others are more variable and culture specific. Those sharing cross-cultural patterns (sexism, ageism) each combine societal status differences and intimate interdependence. For example, in stereotypes of sex and age, lower status groups-women and elders-gain stereotypic warmth (from their cooperative interdependence) but lose stereotypic competence (from their lower status); men and middle-aged adults show the opposite trade-off, stereotypically more competent than warm. Meta-analyses support these widespread ambivalent (mixed) stereotypes for gender and age across cultures. Social class stereotypes often share some similarities (cold but competent rich vs. warm but incompetent poor). These compensatory warmth versus competence stereotypes may function to manage common human dilemmas of interacting across societal and personal positions. However, other stereotypes are more variable and culture specific (ethnicity, race, religion). Case studies of specific race/ethnicities and religions reveal much more cultural variation in their stereotype content, supporting their being responses to particular cultural contexts, apparent accidents of history. To change stereotypes requires understanding their commonalities and differences, their origins and patterns across cultures.

  15. Perception of intentions and actions: gender stereotype susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A; Wecker, Matthias; Krombholz, Kerstin; Sokolov, Arseny A

    2010-01-22

    Gender differences are evident in the comprehension of social signals, but the underlying basis for these differences is unclear. There is some indication that gender effects have neurobiological sources. Here we manipulated stereotype messages about gender differences in a social cognition task, on which no gender gap has previously been documented. The outcome indicates that manipulation of stereotype messages elicits gender effects. A positive message enhances performance, whereas a negative message diminishes it. Furthermore, this effect is more pronounced in females, with a greater force of a negative stereotype message. The study provides novel insights into the possible sources of gender related fluctuations in social cognition. The findings are discussed in terms of behavioral components and brain mechanisms underpinning gender effects in social cognition. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Transsexualism: An Issue of Sex-Role Stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Janice

    Transsexualism offers a unique perspective on gender identity, sex-role stereotyping, and sex differences in a patriarchal society. It is also an important medical ethical issue which raises questions of bodily mutilation and integrity, nature versus technology, medical research priorities, unnecessary surgery, and the medical model, as well as…

  17. The impact of nontraditionalism on the malleability of gender stereotypes in Spain and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra, Esther Lopez; Garcia-Retamero, Rocio

    2011-08-01

    Gender stereotypes and inequalities are based on and sustained by people's perception of gender roles. The evolution of these gender roles, however, might be substantially different depending on cultural and social evolution in different countries. In a study, we investigated stereotypes in Germany and Spain, where residents might have different beliefs about gender roles due to their different social evolution after the Second World War and their economic and social advances. Results showed that in both countries people's expectations of differences in masculine characteristics between men and women were less noticeable than perceptions in the past or present. We also demonstrated that people perceive an increase in masculinity in women. This increase is more evident in Spaniards than in Germans. In estimations about the past, present, and future, Spaniards also perceived an increase of gender-stereotypic feminine characteristics more in men than in women. Our results are consistent with the predictions of social role theory, as gender stereotypes can include dynamic aspects and the content of these stereotypes is rooted in social roles.

  18. Gender, Stereotype Threat and Mathematics Test Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Tsui; Xiao Y. Xu; Edmond Venator

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Stereotype threat has repeatedly been shown to depress womens scores on difficult math tests. An attempt to replicate these findings in China found no support for the stereotype threat hypothesis. Our math test was characterized as being personally important for the student participants, an atypical condition in most stereotype threat laboratory research. Approach: To evaluate the effects of this personal demand, we conducted three experiments. Results: ...

  19. Stereotypes in Four Current AOUM Sexuality Education Curricula: Good Girls, Good Boys, and the New Gender Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Sharon; Graling, Kelly; Lustig, Kara

    2011-01-01

    It has long been noted that sexuality education curricula contain gender stereotypes and heterosexism that may be harmful to people of all genders. Many of the stereotypes and sources of heterosexism that have been discussed in the literature have to do with old-fashioned and restrictive roles for men and women and focus on heterosexual sex and…

  20. The effect of gender stereotype activation on entrepreneurial intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishal K; Turban, Daniel B; Bhawe, Nachiket M

    2008-09-01

    In this study, the impact of implicit and explicit activation of gender stereotypes on men's and women's intentions to pursue a traditionally masculine career, such as entrepreneurship, was examined. On the basis of stereotype activation theory, it was hypothesized that men and women would confirm the gender stereotype about entrepreneurship when it was presented implicitly but disconfirm it when it was presented explicitly. Hypotheses were tested by randomly assigning 469 business students to one of 6 experimental conditions and then measuring their entrepreneurial intentions. Results supported the hypothesis when entrepreneurship was associated with stereotypically masculine characteristics but not when it was associated with traditionally feminine characteristics. Men also had higher entrepreneurial intention scores compared with women when no stereotypical information about entrepreneurship was presented, suggesting that underlying societal stereotypes associating entrepreneurship with masculine characteristics may influence people's intentions. However, men and women reported similar intentions when entrepreneurship was presented as gender neutral, suggesting that widely held gender stereotypes can be nullified. Practical implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  1. Gender stereotype-inconsistent acts are seen as more acceptable than stereotype-consistent acts, if they are clever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijs, M.H.J.; Lammers, J.; Ratliff, Kate A.

    2015-01-01

    Four studies show that gender stereotype-inconsistent behavior is seen as more acceptable than gender stereotype-consistent behavior, if it is clever. Four studies found consistently that participants rated the behavior of a man who relied on attractiveness or passiveness (stereotypically female) to

  2. Gender and Age Differences in Awareness and Endorsement of Gender Stereotypes about Academic Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Copping, Kristine E.; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Kinlaw, C. Ryan

    2014-01-01

    We measured age and gender differences in children's awareness and endorsement of gender stereotypes about math, science, and verbal abilities in 463 fourth, sixth, and eighth graders. Children reported their perceptions of adults' beliefs and their own stereotypes about gender differences in academic abilities. Consistent with study…

  3. Stereotype Threat and Gender Differences in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunny, Cijy Elizabeth; Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Clark, Lauren; Marchand, Gwen

    2017-01-01

    Stereotype threat theory (STT) offers one explanation for achievement differences in math and science for both women and minority students. Specifically, STT posits that the perceived risk of confirming a negative stereotype about an individual's identity group acts as a psychological burden that negatively impacts performance. This study examined…

  4. Stereotyped: Investigating Gender in Introductory Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Shanda; Momsen, Jennifer; Offerdahl, Erika; Kryjevskaia, Mila; Christensen, Warren; Montplaisir, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Research in science education has documented achievement gaps between men and women in math and physics that may reflect, in part, a response to perceived stereotype threat. Research efforts to reduce achievement gaps by mediating the impact of stereotype threat have found success with a short values-affirmation writing exercise. In biology and…

  5. Gender Stereotypes of Personality: Universal and Accurate?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Löckenhoff, C. E.; Chan, W.; McCrae, R. R.; De Fruyt, F.; Jussim, L.; De Bolle, L. J.; Costa Jr., P. T.; Sutin, A. R.; Realo, A.; Allik, J.; Nakazato, K.; Shimonaka, Y.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Graf, Sylvie; Yik, M.; Ficková, E.; Brunner-Sciarra, M.; Leibovich de Figueroa, N.; Schmidt, V.; Ahn, C.; Ahn, H.; Aguilar-Vafaie, M.E.; Siuta, J.; Szmigielska, B.; Cain, T.R.; Crawford, J.T.; Mastor, K.A.; Rolland, J. P.; Nansubuga, F.; Miramontez, D.R.; Benet-Martínez, V.; Rossier, J.; Bratko, D.; Marušić, I.; Halberstadt, J.; Knežević, G.; Martin, T. A.; Gheorghiu, M.; Smith, P. B.; Barbaranelli, C.; Wang, L.; Shakespeare-Finch, J.; Lima, M.P.; Klinkosz, W.; Sekowski, A.; Alcalay, L.; Simonetti, F.; Avdeyeva, T.V.; Pramila, V.S.; Terracciano, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 5 (2014), s. 675-694 ISSN 0022-0221 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-25656S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : personality * gender/sex roles * development Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 1.929, year: 2014 http://jcc.sagepub.com/content/45/5/675

  6. Analysis of gender stereotypic characteristics in leaders and subordinates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura Lupano Perugini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was realized to analyze the way leaders and subordinates describe themselves in relation to perceived gender stereotypic characteristics and, to verify if exists differences in these characteristics according position (leader/ subordinate. Participate 612 individuals, 329 male (54% y 283 female (46%, age average = 37,54 years (DE=11,88. 59 % of the participants occupied executive positions and the rest were subordinates. It was utilized and abbreviate version of the Bem Sex Roles (Bem, 1974 to data recollection. The obtained results show that male leaders describe themselves mainly with agentic-masculine attributes (e.g. dominant, compared with subordinates who describe themselves with communal- feminine characteristics (e.g. submission. On the other hand, the female leaders describe themselves mainly with androgyny attributes combining qualities of both genders (e.g. dominant and sensible to the needs of others; however the female subordinates show communal attributes (e.g. submission

  7. Expertise in unexpected places: Children's acceptance of information from gender counter-stereotypical experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boseovski, Janet J; Hughes, Chelsea; Miller, Stephanie E

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined children's willingness to accept novel information from expert informants with nontraditional gender role interests. Four- to 8-year-olds heard conflicting information about traditionally feminine or masculine domains from a gender counter-stereotypical expert (e.g., a boy with expertise in ballet) and a layperson of the other gender (e.g., a girl with little knowledge about ballet). Participants were asked which informant was correct, who they would prefer to learn from in the future, and to rate their liking of each informant. Overall, participants selected the gender counter-stereotypical expert as correct. Four- to 5-year-olds reported a preference to learn from same-gender participants in the future irrespective of expertise, whereas 6- to 8-year-olds reported wanting to learn from counter-stereotypical experts. Boys showed relatively greater acceptance of information from a male counter-stereotypical expert than from a female counter-stereotypical expert. Although participants reported greater liking of same-gender informants, liking evaluations were largely positive irrespective of gender norm deviations. Implications for children's acceptance of gender nonconforming activities are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The time course from gender categorization to gender-stereotype activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaobin; Li, Qiong; Sun, Shan; Zuo, Bin

    2018-02-01

    Social categorization is the foundation of stereotype activation, and the process from social categorization to stereotype activation is rapid. However, the time from social categorization to stereotype activation is unknown. This study involves a real-time measurement of the time course of gender-stereotype activation beginning with gender categorization using event-related potential technology with a face as the priming stimulus. We found that 195 ms after a face stimulus was presented, brain waves stimulated by male or female gender categorization showed a clear separation, with male faces stimulating larger N200 waves. In addition, 475 ms after a face stimulus appeared or 280 ms after the gendercategorization process occurred, gender-stereotype-consistent and gender-stereotype-inconsistent stimuli were distinct, with gender-stereotype-inconsistent stimuli inducing larger N400 waves. These results indicate that during gender-stereotype activation by face perception, gender categorization occurs approximately 195 ms after seeing a face stimulus and a gender stereotype is activated at approximately 475 ms.

  9. Politicy of care in the criticism towards gender stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Maria Raquel Gomes Maia; Fonseca, Rosa Maria Godoy Serpa da; Padilla, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    analyze gender inequalities among Brazilian women in Portugal and in contemporary nursing based on care politicity in the light of gender; disclose oppression of the female produced by the stereotypes that look upon women as natural caregivers; point out politicity to deconstruct gender stereotypes. theoretical reflection with narrative review of literature to analyze classic references in the feminist epistemology combined with the care politicity thesis. the similarities between the stereotypes of the Brazilian Eves and the Portuguese Maries as either the sexualized or sanctified nurse are inserted in the Jewish-Christian moral genealogy that reaffirms the subservience of the female to the male. by attaching priority to care that needs non-care to expand the possibilities of care giving, the theoretical assumption of politicy of care can contribute to subvert the stereotypical images of Brazilian women in Portuguese lands and in contemporary nursing.

  10. An Investigation of Gender Stereotypes as Revealed through Children's Creative Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray-Schlegel, Mary Ann; Gray-Schlegel, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Examines the creative writing of third- and sixth-grade students for gender differences when provided with story starters that introduced either a male or a female character. Finds that identifiable difference and trends related to gender and age appeared in the stories, reflecting the pervasiveness and power of sex-role stereotypes. (RS)

  11. Young Children's Classification, Stereotyping and Play Behaviour for Gender Neutral and Ambiguous Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherney, Isabelle D.; Dempsey, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Developmental intergroup theory would predict that children develop fewer or weaker stereotypes about toys that have less distinguishable gender attributes than those that are clearly associated with a gender. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of neutral and ambiguous toys in 31 three- to five-year-old children's play behaviour…

  12. Backlash against gender stereotype-violating preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Jessica; Moss-Racusin, Corinne; Lopez, Michael; Williams, Katherine

    2018-01-01

    While there is substantial evidence that adults who violate gender stereotypes often face backlash (i.e. social and economic penalties), less is known about the nature of gender stereotypes for young children, and the penalties that children may face for violating them. We conducted three experiments, with over 2000 adults from the US, to better understand the content and consequences of adults' gender stereotypes for young children. In Experiment 1, we tested which characteristics adults (N = 635) believed to be descriptive (i.e. typical), prescriptive (i.e. required), and proscriptive (i.e. forbidden) for preschool-aged boys and girls. Using the characteristics that were rated in Experiment 1, we then constructed vignettes that were either 'masculine' or 'feminine', and manipulated whether the vignettes were said to describe a boy or a girl. Experiment 2 (N = 697) revealed that adults rated stereotype-violating children as less likeable than their stereotype-conforming peers, and that this difference was more robust for boys than girls. Experiment 3 (N = 731) was a direct replication of Experiment 2, and revealed converging evidence of backlash against stereotype-violating children. In sum, our results suggest that even young children encounter backlash from adults for stereotype violations, and that these effects may be strongest for boys.

  13. Math-Gender Stereotypes in Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvencek, Dario; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Greenwald, Anthony G.

    2011-01-01

    A total of 247 American children between 6 and 10 years of age (126 girls and 121 boys) completed Implicit Association Tests and explicit self-report measures assessing the association of (a) "me" with "male" (gender identity), (b) "male" with "math" (math-gender stereotype), and (c) "me" with "math" (math self-concept). Two findings emerged.…

  14. Developing a Teachers' Gender Stereotype Scale toward Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurlu, Özge

    2017-01-01

    Gender has become a focus of mathematics education research. While some research show that there are no differences between boys and girls, numerous research studies have indicated that boys have outperformed girls. It is suggested that gender stereotypes, such as expecting girls to show less achievement in mathematics compared to boys, have an…

  15. Gender role stereotype and poor working condition pose obstacles for female doctors to stay in full-time employment: alumnae survey from two private medical schools in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Miki; Nomura, Kyoko; Higaki, Yuko; Akaishi, Yu; Seki, Masayasu; Kobayashi, Shizuko; Komoda, Takayuki; Otaki, Junji

    2013-03-01

    The shortage of physicians has become a serious problem in Japan. It has been pointed out that an increase in the number of female doctors may contribute to the aggravation of this shortage because it is known that women work fewer hours than male doctors. Here, we investigated how many female doctors had ever resigned from a full-time position, and elucidated the reasons why female doctors find it difficult to stay in full-time employment. An alumnae survey of 2 private medical schools was conducted in 2007. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to 1423 graduates and 711 responded with informed consent (response rate, 50%; mean age, 39 years). Overall, 55% of the respondents had previously resigned from full-time employment, of which 90% resigned within 10 years of graduating from medical school. The difficulty in balancing work, childbirth and child rearing (45%) were the top 2 reasons for resignation, followed by physical problems (12%) and long working hours (8%). Among those who resigned, only 33% returned to full-time employment. Women who had at least 1 child were only 30% of those who had never resigned and 84% of those who had previously resigned. The majority of study subjects, regardless of experience of resignation (88%), agreed that women should continue to work even after childbirth. In conclusion, the results of this study suggested that many female doctors resigned from a full-time position within 10 years of graduating from medical school, largely because of the gender role stereotype and poor working conditions.

  16. Nature or Nurture? Gender Roles Scavenger Hunt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Shannon; Maurer-Starks, Suanne

    2008-01-01

    The examination of gender roles and stereotypes and their subsequent impact on sexual behavior is a concept for discussion in many sex education courses in college and sex education units in high school. This analysis often leads to a discussion of the impact of nature vs. nurture on gender roles. The gender roles scavenger hunt is an interactive…

  17. Changes in Sex-Role Stereotyping in Caldecott Medal Award Picture Books 1938-1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ann M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Caldecott Medal Award picture books were examined to determine whether the pictures and text presented children with stereotypical or gender-dependent sex-role behaviors. The books examined showed that sex-role stereotyping has decreased over time but still remains prevalent in each of the 11 categories used to evaluate the books. (TJQ)

  18. Flexibility of Gender Stereotypes: Italian Study on Comparative Gender-consistent and Gender-inconsistent Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Sagone

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this study is flexibility in gender stereotyping linked to attribution of toys, socio-cognitive traits, and occupations in 160 Italian children aged 6 to 12 years. We used the Gender Toys Choice, the Gender Traits Choice, and the Gender Jobs Choice, a selected set of colored cards containing masculine and feminine stimuli to assign to a male or female or both male and female silhouette (the flexible-choice technique. In order to verify the change of flexibility in gender stereotyping, we made use of four cartoon stories with male and female characters with typical or atypical traits and performing gender-consistent or gender-inconsistent activities. Results indicated that the exposure to cartoon stories with gender-inconsistent information rather than cartoon stories with gender-consistent information increased flexibility in gender stereotyping, showing age differences in favor of children aged 11-12. Implications in relation to the developmental-constructivist approach were noted.

  19. Boys in India challenge gender stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses CEDPA's Better Life Options Program in India. The program was initiated in 1987 to challenge gender inequities. The program offers over 400,000 girls a chance to develop skills and self-confidence for increasing their options in education, social mobility, work, health, and family and community roles. CEDPA's partner, Prerana, offers an integrated program that provides literacy training, vocational skills, after-school tutoring, health education, and family life education for about 600 girls/year. Vocational training includes nontraditional skills, such as video production and electronics. Prerana established a parallel program in 1994 for boys and young men that aims to change attitudes about girls and women and traditional gender roles. The program offers vocational skills, such as cooking and candle-making. Family life education teaches gender awareness and provides counseling and services for reproductive health. The Prerana program emphasizes men's shared responsibility in parenthood and sexual behavior, shared contribution to family income, health and nutrition, and prevention of violence against women. Since 1994, the program has included 1200 boys in 6 villages in New Delhi. Boys' enrollment is increasing; several young men have volunteered to become depot holders of contraceptive supplies in their villages. For example, one young man who was part of the Prerana program went on to be a depot holder and then a family planning promoter and counselor. He interacts with both young and older men. His contributions were well received by his village.

  20. Evidence for the social role theory of stereotype content: observations of groups' roles shape stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Anne M; Eagly, Alice H

    2014-09-01

    In applying social role theory to account for the content of a wide range of stereotypes, this research tests the proposition that observations of groups' roles determine stereotype content (Eagly & Wood, 2012). In a novel test of how stereotypes can develop from observations, preliminary research collected participants' beliefs about the occupational roles (e.g., lawyer, teacher, fast food worker, chief executive officer, store clerk, manager) in which members of social groups (e.g., Black women, Hispanics, White men, the rich, senior citizens, high school dropouts) are overrepresented relative to their numbers in the general population. These beliefs about groups' typical occupational roles proved to be generally accurate when evaluated in relation to data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Then, correlational studies predicted participants' stereotypes of social groups from the attributes ascribed to group members' typical occupational roles (Studies 1a, 1b, and 1c), the behaviors associated with those roles (Study 2), and the occupational interest profile of the roles (Study 3). As predicted by social role theory, beliefs about the attributes of groups' typical roles were strongly related to group stereotypes on both communion and agency/competence. In addition, an experimental study (Study 4) demonstrated that when social groups were described with changes to their typical social roles in the future, their projected stereotypes were more influenced by these future roles than by their current group stereotypes, thus supporting social role theory's predictions about stereotype change. Discussion considers the implications of these findings for stereotype change and the relation of social role theory to other theories of stereotype content. 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  1. Gender Stereotypes in Science Education Resources: A Visual Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhoven, Anne H; Russo, Pedro; Land-Zandstra, Anne M; Saxena, Aayush; Rodenburg, Frans J

    2016-01-01

    More men are studying and working in science fields than women. This could be an effect of the prevalence of gender stereotypes (e.g., science is for men, not for women). Aside from the media and people's social lives, such stereotypes can also occur in education. Ways in which stereotypes are visible in education include the use of gender-biased visuals, language, teaching methods, and teachers' attitudes. The goal of this study was to determine whether science education resources for primary school contained gender-biased visuals. Specifically, the total number of men and women depicted, and the profession and activity of each person in the visuals were noted. The analysis showed that there were more men than women depicted with a science profession and that more women than men were depicted as teachers. This study shows that there is a stereotypical representation of men and women in online science education resources, highlighting the changes needed to create a balanced representation of men and women. Even if the stereotypical representation of men and women in science is a true reflection of the gender distribution in science, we should aim for a more balanced representation. Such a balance is an essential first step towards showing children that both men and women can do science, which will contribute to more gender-balanced science and technology fields.

  2. Traditional Sex and Gender Stereotypes in the Relationships of Non-Disclosing Behaviorally Bisexual Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Karolynn; Meunier, Étienne

    2018-06-04

    Traditional stereotypes about sex and gender present men as assertive, aggressive, sexually adventurous, and emotionally restrained, and women as docile, passive, sexually modest, and emotionally sensitive. Past research has shown that such stereotypes impose constraints on heterosexual relationships that decrease sexual satisfaction for men and women. This study examined the impact of traditional sex and gender stereotypes on a sample of 203 behaviorally bisexual men who were in a heterosexual relationship with a woman to whom they did not disclose their same-sex behaviors. Participants' descriptions of their partners reified several traditional stereotypes regarding men's and women's sexual dispositions (e.g., men are more sexually adventurous than women), role during sex (e.g., men should be dominant and women submissive), relationship desires (i.e., women prefer long-term intimate relationships and men prefer unattached sexual gratification), and emotional involvement (e.g., women are emotionally sensitive and men emotionally detached). These stereotypes shaped participants' sexual relations with women and men, which were widely conceived as acts of domination-submission. Perceiving women as more skilled for emotional intimacy and affection, most participants would only develop intimate relationships with them; however, some participants also perceived women as too emotionally sensitive and described men as better companions. Many participants were dissatisfied with these gender norms although they conformed to them, further supporting that traditional sex and gender stereotypes impose constraints on relationships that can limit authentic sexual expression and intimate satisfaction.

  3. GENDER STEREOTYPES IN THE SCHOOL DROPOUT: CASE EL FUERTE, SINALOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalva Ruíz-Ramírez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender stereotypes are accepted preconceptions of what should be a man and a woman. Affect all areas of life, in the relationships that stablished in the family and the school. Within education, these stereotypes are reflected in the access, retention and completion of education degrees, as well as the area of study that preferred the women and men. They also have different effects on the causes of dropout depending on the gender to which they belong. This article aims to show the influence of gender stereotypes on dropout students and high school students in rural areas, specifically in three schools located in the municipality of El Fuerte, Sinaloa, the academic unit (AU San Blas and its extensions La Constancia and Las Higueras of Los Natoches. The results were obtained through a wider investigation in 2013.

  4. Gender Stereotypes and Discrimination: How Sexism Impacts Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christia Spears; Stone, Ellen A

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we summarize and integrate some of the latest developmental science research on gender stereotypes and discrimination in childhood and adolescence. We focus on five forms of sexism: (a) stereotypes and discrimination against boys regarding their school behaviors and disciplinary actions; (b) stereotypes and discrimination against girls in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) domains; (c) stereotypes and discrimination in sports; (d) peer gendered harassment, including sexual harassment and teasing because of gender atypicality or nonconformity; and (e) sexualized gender stereotypes that sexually objectify girls and assume boys are sexually voracious. First, we document each type of sexism and examine children's awareness and perceptions of that bias, including their own self-reports and attributions. We examine the implications of this sexism for children and adolescents' developmental health (i.e., social, academic, and psychological well-being). We then draw connections between these various areas of research, focusing on how these different forms of sexism interact to reduce equity and justice among children and negatively impact positive developmental outcomes. The chapter concludes with suggestions for future research. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Threatening the heart and mind of gender stereotypes: Can imagined contact influence the physiology of stereotype threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ben; Friedman, Bruce H

    2016-01-01

    Research shows that when a gender stereotype is made salient and the target of the stereotype is asked to perform in the stereotyped domain, targets of the stereotype often perform at a lower level compared to situations when the stereotype was not made salient. The noticeable absence of female faculty and students in math and science departments at coed universities throughout the United States may increase the belief in gender stereotypes and discourage women from pursuing careers in these fields. Contact with counterstereotypical exemplars, such as female science experts, decreases belief in gender stereotypes and increases women's motivation to pursue careers in science. Thus, the present study examined whether imagining an interpersonal interaction with a counterstereotypical exemplar removes the physiological and performance effects of stereotype threat. Subjects were asked to imagine either a nature scene or meeting a female math professor, and were also assigned to either a control or stereotype threat condition. Imagination was used because studies have shown it to be an effective method of simulating interpersonal contact. Subjects were 139 young women (mean age 19 years) recruited from a pool of undergraduates. Results showed that the stereotype threat manipulation elicited greater vagal withdrawal and poorer working memory capacity during the n-back, and that vagal withdrawal was attenuated when the stereotype threat manipulation was preceded by a brief imagined interaction with a counterstereotypical exemplar. This study provides novel evidence that exposure to counterstereotypical exemplars can diminish cardiovascular reactions to salient information about threatening gender stereotypes. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  6. Combating gender stereotypes in the education system: success stories

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    GEC 2015. Conferência realizada em Helsínquia, de 9-10 october 2014. Conferência de Abertura do Painel 2 – Combating gender stereotypes in the education system: success stories, da Conferência promovida pelo Conselho da Europa sobre “Combating gender stereotypes in and through education”. Apresentam-se alguns desafios decorrentes do combate ao sexismo na escola e propõem-se algumas linhas de ação, ao nível individual, coletivo, organizacional e institucional. info:eu-repo/semantics/pub...

  7. Gender Stereotypes And Self-Perceptions Among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin C. Bosner

    2011-01-01

    In spite of advances made, women in general still do not achieve the same earnings or positions as men do in corporate America. Gender stereotyping has been identified as a major hurdle for women both in business and on college campuses. This study explores gender stereotypes and self-perception of 338 students enrolled in undergraduate business courses at two Western New York colleges.  Using a variation of the Schein Descriptive Index, attitudes about self, same sex and the typical man and ...

  8. Challenging gender stereotypes: Theory of mind and peer group dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Rizzo, Michael T; Killen, Melanie

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the social cognitive skills related to challenging gender stereotypes, children (N = 61, 3-6 years) evaluated a peer who challenged gender stereotypic norms held by the peer's group. Participants with false belief theory of mind (FB ToM) competence were more likely than participants who did not have FB ToM to expect a peer to challenge the group's stereotypes and propose that the group engage in a non-stereotypic activity. Further, participants with FB ToM rated challenging the peer group more positively. Participants without FB ToM did not differentiate between their own and the group's evaluation of challenges to the group's stereotypic norms, but those with ToM competence asserted that they would be more supportive of challenging the group norm than would the peer group. Results reveal the importance of social-cognitive competencies for recognizing the legitimacy of challenging stereotypes, and for understanding one's own and other group perspectives. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Young and Older Adults' Gender Stereotype in Multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobach, Tilo; Woszidlo, Alesia

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated discrepancies between two components of stereotyping by means of the popular notion that women are better at multitasking behaviors: the cognitive structure in individuals (personal belief) and the perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs (perceived belief of groups). With focus on this notion, we examined whether there was empirical evidence for the stereotype's existence and whether and how it was shared among different age groups. Data were collected from 241 young (n = 129) and older (n = 112) German individuals. The reported perceptions of gender effects at multitasking were substantial and thus demonstrated the existence of its stereotype. Importantly, in young and older adults, this stereotype existed in the perception of attributed characteristics by members of a collective (perceived belief of groups). When contrasting this perceived belief of groups and the personal belief, older adults showed a similar level of conformation of the gender stereotype while young adults were able to differentiate between these perspectives. Thus, young adults showed a discrepancy between the stereotype's components cognitive structure in individuals and perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs.

  10. Sex Role Stereotypes Are Alive and Well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Sara E.

    Two studies, in late 1988 and early 1990, examined sex-role stereotypes held by northeastern liberal arts college students (N=719) and southern state university college students (N=145). The first study used the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) and compared ratings of men and women with the traditional sex-roles represented by the PAQ in…

  11. Forming impressions: effects of facial expression and gender stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Tay

    2014-04-01

    The present study of 138 participants explored how facial expressions and gender stereotypes influence impressions. It was predicted that images of smiling women would be evaluated more favorably on traits reflecting warmth, and that images of non-smiling men would be evaluated more favorably on traits reflecting competence. As predicted, smiling female faces were rated as more warm; however, contrary to prediction, perceived competence of male faces was not affected by facial expression. Participants' female stereotype endorsement was a significant predictor for evaluations of female faces; those who ascribed more strongly to traditional female stereotypes reported the most positive impressions of female faces displaying a smiling expression. However, a similar effect was not found for images of men; endorsement of traditional male stereotypes did not predict participants' impressions of male faces.

  12. The Responders' Gender Stereotypes Modulate the Strategic Decision-Making of Proposers Playing the Ultimatum Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Eve F; Causse, Mickael; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Despite the wealth of studies investigating factors affecting decisions, not much is known about the impact of stereotypical beliefs on strategic economic decision-making. In the present study, we used the ultimatum game paradigm to investigate how participants playing as proposer modulate their strategic economic behavior, according to their game counterparts' stereotypical identity (i.e., responders). The latter were introduced to the participants using occupational role nouns stereotypically marked with gender paired with feminine or masculine proper names (e.g., linguist-Anna; economist-David; economist-Cristina; linguist-Leonardo). When playing with male-stereotyped responders, proposers quickly applied the equity rule, behaving fairly, while they adopted a strategic behavior with responders characterized by female stereotypes. They were also longer to make their offers to female than to male responders but both kinds of responders received comparable offers, suggesting a greater cognitive effort to treat females as equally as males. The present study explicitly demonstrates that gender stereotypical information affect strategic economic decision-making and highlights a possible evolution of gender discrimination into a more insidious discrimination toward individuals with female characteristics.

  13. The Responders’ Gender Stereotypes Modulate the Strategic Decision-Making of Proposers playing the Ultimatum Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Florianne Fabre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the wealth of studies investigating factors affecting decisions, not much is known about the impact of stereotypical beliefs on strategic economic decision-making. In the present study, we used the ultimatum game paradigm to investigate how participants playing as proposer modulate their strategic economic behavior, according to their game counterparts’ stereotypical identity (i.e., responders. The latter were introduced to the participants using occupational role nouns stereotypically marked with gender paired with feminine or masculine proper names (e.g., linguist-Anna; economist-David; economist-Cristina; linguist-Leonardo. When playing with male-stereotyped responders, proposers quickly applied the equity rule, behaving fairly, while they adopted a strategic behavior with responders characterized by female stereotypes. They were also longer to make their offers to female than to male responders but both kinds of responders received comparable offers, suggesting a greater cognitive effort to treat females as equally as males. The present study explicitly demonstrates that gender stereotypical information affect strategic economic decision-making and highlights a possible evolution of gender discrimination into a more insidious discrimination toward individuals with female characteristics.

  14. The Responders’ Gender Stereotypes Modulate the Strategic Decision-Making of Proposers Playing the Ultimatum Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Eve F.; Causse, Mickael; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Despite the wealth of studies investigating factors affecting decisions, not much is known about the impact of stereotypical beliefs on strategic economic decision-making. In the present study, we used the ultimatum game paradigm to investigate how participants playing as proposer modulate their strategic economic behavior, according to their game counterparts’ stereotypical identity (i.e., responders). The latter were introduced to the participants using occupational role nouns stereotypically marked with gender paired with feminine or masculine proper names (e.g., linguist-Anna; economist-David; economist-Cristina; linguist-Leonardo). When playing with male-stereotyped responders, proposers quickly applied the equity rule, behaving fairly, while they adopted a strategic behavior with responders characterized by female stereotypes. They were also longer to make their offers to female than to male responders but both kinds of responders received comparable offers, suggesting a greater cognitive effort to treat females as equally as males. The present study explicitly demonstrates that gender stereotypical information affect strategic economic decision-making and highlights a possible evolution of gender discrimination into a more insidious discrimination toward individuals with female characteristics. PMID:26834684

  15. Negative Gender Ideologies and Gender-Science Stereotypes Are More Pervasive in Male-Dominated Academic Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Banchefsky

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Male-dominated work environments often possess masculine cultures that are unwelcoming to women. The present work investigated whether male-dominated academic environments were characterized by gender ideologies with negative implications for women. A survey of 2622 undergraduates across a variety of academic majors examined how gender imbalance within the major corresponded with students’ gender ideologies. We hypothesized that men in male-dominated domains might justify their dominance and prototypical status by adopting gender ideologies and stereotypes that denigrate women and treat men as the normative and superior group. Confirming this hypothesis, men in increasingly male-dominated academic majors were more likely to endorse Assimilationism—that women should adapt and conform to masculine work norms in order to succeed—and Segregationism—that men and women should pursue traditional social roles and careers. Moreover, they were less likely to endorse Gender Blindness—that attention to gender should be minimized. They were also more likely to agree with the gender-science stereotype that men do better in math and science than women. In contrast, gender imbalance in the major did not influence women’s gender ideologies, and women in increasingly male-dominated majors were significantly less likely to endorse the gender-science stereotype.

  16. Gender Stereotyping and Female Pupils' Perception of Studying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender Stereotyping and Female Pupils' Perception of Studying Advanced Level Sciences: A Survey of One Province in Zimbabwe. C Pinias, VS Matswetu. Abstract. In spite of advances in the field of science and technology, females are still under-represented in the sciences. The study sought to explore the perceptions of ...

  17. Reducing the Effects of Gender Stereotypes on Performance Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Cara C.; Baltes, Boris B.

    2002-01-01

    Examined whether a structured free recall intervention could decrease the influence of traditional gender stereotypes on the performance evaluations of women. College students provided performance ratings for vignettes describing the performance of male and female professors. Without the intervention, raters who had traditional stereotypes…

  18. Exposure to sexism can decrease implicit gender stereotype bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos, Miguel R.; Barreto, Manuela; Ellemers, Naomi; Moya, Miguel; Ferreira, Lucia; Calanchini, Jimmy

    Two studies examined the effect of exposure to sexism on implicit gender bias, focusing specifically on stereotypes of men as competent and women as warm. Male and female participants were exposed to sexism or no sexism. In both Experiment 1 (Implicit Association Task; N = 115) and Experiment 2

  19. Sex Stereotyping of Infants: A Review of Gender Labeling Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Marilyn; Karraker, Katherine Hildebrandt

    1989-01-01

    Reviews studies of adult and child response to male and female infants based on preconceived sex stereotypes. Evaluates overall conclusions from studies. Indicates that knowledge of infant's gender is not a consistent determinant of adults' reactions but more strongly influences children's reactions. Considers implications for sex role…

  20. Theory of Mind Is Related to Children's Resource Allocations in Gender Stereotypic Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Michael T.; Killen, Melanie

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated the relations between 4- to 6-year-old children's (N = 67) gender stereotypes, resource allocations, and mental state knowledge in gender-stereotypic contexts. Participants were told vignettes about female and male characters completing gender-stereotyped activities (making dolls or trucks). Children held stereotypic…

  1. "Michael Can't Read!" Teachers' Gender Stereotypes and Boys' Reading Self-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retelsdorf, Jan; Schwartz, Katja; Asbrock, Frank

    2015-01-01

    According to expectancy-value theory, the gender stereotypes of significant others such as parents, peers, or teachers affect students' competence beliefs, values, and achievement-related behavior. Stereotypically, gender beliefs about reading favor girls. The aim of this study was to investigate whether teachers' gender stereotypes in relation to…

  2. Gender and Musical Instrument Stereotypes in Middle School Children: Have Trends Changed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrape, Elizabeth R.; Dittloff, Alexandra L.; Callahan, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have established that gender stereotypes are associated with children's choice of musical instrument. Though some have suggested that these gender stereotypes may be trending toward change, other studies have indicated that gender stereotypes are long-standing and still very much at issue. This descriptive study of middle school…

  3. Gender Stereotyped Descriptors in Children's Picture Books: Does "Curious Jane" Exist in the Literature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Bowker, Diane M.

    1996-01-01

    Subtle effects of gender stereotyping in children's literature were studied in 30 noted children's books from 1984 through 1994. Results show more males in titles and pictures, with no difference in central roles. Males were described as more active, but adjectives used for females were more positively evaluated. (SLD)

  4. Social Perception through Gender Stereotypes of Partner Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Leonor M. Cantera; Josep M. Blanch

    2010-01-01

    The overall goal of this research was to assess the degree of social attachment of certain stereotypes about gender (male provider; female caregiver) and violence (violent, peaceful woman) and is framed in the context of a debate about the extent and limits of a gender approach when it comes to understanding and preventing violence in different types of partner. 741 people were involved in the research, two thirds of them women, living in Spain, Mexico, Puerto Rico and El Salvador. In each co...

  5. Parent-child math anxiety and math-gender stereotypes predict adolescents' math education outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casad, Bettina J.; Hale, Patricia; Wachs, Faye L.

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents' math anxiety including parents' own math anxiety and children's endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In Study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent's math anxiety interacts with daughters' and sons' anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children's math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa) for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA). Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents' math anxiety in the effects of children's math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents' math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms. PMID:26579000

  6. Parent-Child Math Anxiety and Math-Gender Stereotypes Predict Adolescents’ Math Education Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina J Casad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents’ math anxiety including parents’ own math anxiety and children’s endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent’s math anxiety interacts with daughters’ and sons’ anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children’s math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA. Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and for boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents’ math anxiety in the effects of children’s math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents’ math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms.

  7. Parent-child math anxiety and math-gender stereotypes predict adolescents' math education outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casad, Bettina J; Hale, Patricia; Wachs, Faye L

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents' math anxiety including parents' own math anxiety and children's endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In Study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent's math anxiety interacts with daughters' and sons' anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math devaluing. Parents with lower math anxiety showed a positive relationship to children's math outcomes when children also had lower anxiety. The strongest relationships were found with same-gender dyads, particularly Mother-Daughter dyads. Study 2 showed that endorsement of math-gender stereotypes predicts math anxiety (and not vice versa) for performance beliefs and outcomes (self-efficacy and GPA). Further, math anxiety fully mediated the relationship between gender stereotypes and math self-efficacy for girls and boys, and for boys with GPA. These findings address gaps in the literature on the role of parents' math anxiety in the effects of children's math anxiety and math anxiety as a mechanism affecting performance. Results have implications for interventions on parents' math anxiety and dispelling gender stereotypes in math classrooms.

  8. Mothers’ Academic Gender Stereotypes and Education-Related Beliefs About Sons and Daughters in African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Dana; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Okeke-Adeyanju, Ndidi; Rowley, Stephanie J.

    2010-01-01

    The role of African American mothers’ academic gender stereotype endorsement in shaping achievement-related expectations for and perceptions of their own children was examined. Mothers (N = 334) of 7th and 8th graders completed measures of expectations for their children’s future educational attainment, perceptions of their children’s academic competence, and academic gender stereotypes. Consistent with hypotheses, mothers held less favorable expectations for sons and perceived sons to be less academically competent than daughters. In addition, mothers reported stereotypes favoring girls over boys in academic domains; stereotype endorsement, in turn, was related to mothers’ educational expectations for and beliefs about the academic competence of their own children, even with youths’ actual achievement controlled. Negative stereotypes about the academic abilities of African American boys may create a negative feedback loop, thereby contributing to the maintenance of the gender gap in African Americans’ educational outcomes. PMID:20648228

  9. Chronic Stereotype Threat Is Associated With Mathematical Achievement on Representative Sample of Secondary Schoolgirls: The Role of Gender Identification, Working Memory, and Intellectual Helplessness

    OpenAIRE

    Sylwia Bedyńska; Izabela Krejtz; Grzegorz Sedek

    2018-01-01

    Stereotype threat affects performance in many different groups across many different domains. Despite a large body of experimental research on situational stereotype threat, little attention has been paid to the consequences of repeated experience of stereotype threat. Using structural equation modeling on data from a representative sample of girls from secondary schools, the current research examined the relations of chronic stereotype threat with mathematical achievement, and effectiveness ...

  10. Gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicts girls' and boys' trait-state discrepancy in math anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieg, Madeleine; Goetz, Thomas; Wolter, Ilka; Hall, Nathan C

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics is associated with anxiety for many students; an emotion linked to lower well-being and poorer learning outcomes. While findings typically show females to report higher trait math anxiety than males, no gender differences have to date been found in state (i.e., momentary) math anxiety. The present diary study aimed to replicate previous findings in investigating whether levels of academic self-concept was related to this discrepancy in trait vs. state anxiety measures. Additionally, mathematics-related gender stereotype endorsement (mathematics is a male domain) was investigated as an additional predictor of the trait-state discrepancy. The sample included 755 German 9th and 10th graders who completed self-report measures of trait math anxiety, math self-concept, and gender stereotype endorsement, in addition to state measures of anxiety after math classes by use of a standardized diary for 2-3 weeks (N within = 6207). As expected, females reported higher trait math anxiety but no gender differences were found for state math anxiety. Also in line with our assumptions, multilevel analyses showed the discrepancy between trait and state anxiety to be negatively related to students' self-concept (i.e., a lower discrepancy for students with higher self-concepts). Furthermore, gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicted the trait-state discrepancy: When controlling for self-concept in mathematics, females who endorsed the gender stereotype of math being a male domain more strongly overestimated their trait math anxiety as compared to their state anxiety whereas this effect was not significant for males. The present findings suggest that gender stereotype endorsement plays an important role in explaining gender differences in math anxiety above and beyond academic self-concept. Implications for future research and educational practice are discussed.

  11. Gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicts girls' and boys' trait-state discrepancy in math anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine eBieg

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics is associated with anxiety for many students; an emotion linked to lower well-being and poorer learning outcomes. While findings typically show females to report higher trait math anxiety than males, no gender differences have to date been found in state (i.e., momentary math anxiety. The present diary study aimed to replicate previous findings in investigating whether levels of academic self-concept was related to this discrepancy in trait versus state anxiety measures. Additionally, mathematics-related gender stereotype endorsement (mathematics is a male domain was investigated as an additional predictor of the trait-state discrepancy. The sample included 755 German 9th and 10th graders who completed self-report measures of trait math anxiety, math self-concept, and gender stereotype endorsement, in addition to state measures of anxiety after math classes by use of a standardized diary for 2-3 weeks (Nwithin = 6207. As expected, females reported higher trait math anxiety but no gender differences were found for state math anxiety. Also in line with our assumptions, multilevel analyses showed the discrepancy between trait and state anxiety to be negatively related to students’ self-concept (i.e., a lower discrepancy for students with higher self-concepts. Furthermore, gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicted the trait-state discrepancy: When controlling for self-concept in mathematics, females who endorsed the gender stereotype of math being a male domain more strongly overestimated their trait math anxiety as compared to their state anxiety whereas this effect was not significant for males. The present findings suggest that gender stereotype endorsement plays an important role in explaining gender differences in math anxiety above and beyond academic self-concept. Implications for future research and educational practice are discussed.

  12. Gender sensitive language policies and deconstruction of gender stereotypes in textbooks of Spanish as a foreign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Kuzmanović Jovanović

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of gender representations in Spanish/L2 textbooks on perpetuation or deconstruction of gender stereotypes in the classroom. Although the results of numerous studies of gender representation in such books performed in the past two decades suggest that teaching materials have been an important instrument in perpetuating gender stereotypes, recent researches have revealed certain changes in this area. The present analysis supports these findings. The research corpus consists of eleven textbooks of Spanish/L2 (level A1 and A2 by different Spanish publishers, all of them published in the last four years. The gender roles in which women and men appear are critically analyzed. The results of the analysis suggest that there has been a conscious effort by both authors and editors in order to change the stereotypical gender representation in these didactic materials. We offer an explanation for these changes suggesting that they can be accounted for by the action of a different model of gender sensitive language policies, the bottom-up model, where the crucial factors of change are not the activities of the official institutions but rather are to be found in different communities of practice, i.e., all people involved in creating, publishing and distributing teaching materials, as well as linguists who investigate the relationship between language and gender.

  13. What Do True Gender Ratios and Stereotype Norms Really Tell Us?

    OpenAIRE

    Gygax, Pascal M.; Garnham, Alan; Doehren, Sam

    2016-01-01

    We present a Focused Review on work that was conducted to compare perceived distributions of men and women in occupations and other social roles with actual real world distributions. In previous work, we showed that means for the two sources were similar and the correlation between them was high. However, in the present paper, although we argue that comparing subjective gender stereotype norms and real world data about gender ratios is an interesting endeavor, we also discuss the limits to an...

  14. Gender stereotyping in EFL grammar textbooks. A diachronic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Lewandowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gender stereotyping in educational materials (especially in EFL textbooks has been a common theme in linguistic research (cf., e. g., Hellinger 1980; Porreca 1984; Freebody/Baker 1987; Sunderland 1994; Lee/Collins 2010. However, very little attention has been paid to the representation of men and women in EFL/ESL grammar textbooks; i. e. the way both genders are portrayed in constructed examples of usage and practice sentences. The present contribution is intended to fill this gap. The paper investigates the scope of gender stereotyping from a diachronic perspective: it seeks to demonstrate whether and how the images of men and women have changed following the dissemination of guidelines for non-sexist language and equal treatment of the two genders in English language educational materials. To this aim, two corpora have been compiled. The first one includes sentences derived from three EFL textbooks published in the 1970s and 1980s, while the other one contains analogous data from three 21st century titles. The contrastive analysis of the sentences in the two corpora across 11 semantic domains has found that the recently published grammar textbooks portray the two genders in a much less stereotyped way than the 20th century course books.

  15. Cognitive consistency and math-gender stereotypes in Singaporean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvencek, Dario; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Kapur, Manu

    2014-01-01

    In social psychology, cognitive consistency is a powerful principle for organizing psychological concepts. There have been few tests of cognitive consistency in children and no research about cognitive consistency in children from Asian cultures, who pose an interesting developmental case. A sample of 172 Singaporean elementary school children completed implicit and explicit measures of math-gender stereotype (male=math), gender identity (me=male), and math self-concept (me=math). Results showed strong evidence for cognitive consistency; the strength of children's math-gender stereotypes, together with their gender identity, significantly predicted their math self-concepts. Cognitive consistency may be culturally universal and a key mechanism for developmental change in social cognition. We also discovered that Singaporean children's math-gender stereotypes increased as a function of age and that boys identified with math more strongly than did girls despite Singaporean girls' excelling in math. The results reveal both cultural universals and cultural variation in developing social cognition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Stereotype Threat and Gender Differences in Performance on a Novel Visuospatial Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Susan Miller; Collaer, Marcia L.

    2009-01-01

    Stereotype threat research has shown that being a member of a negatively stereotyped group may result in impaired performance on tests of skills thought to be relevant to the stereotype. This study investigated whether stereotype threat influences gender differences in performance on a novel test of visuospatial ability. Undergraduates (N = 194)…

  17. Syrian refugees: thinking beyond gender stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Lokot

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The dominant gender narratives among NGOs responding to Syrian refugees, and their subsequent interventions, are based on sometimes simplistic understandings of the ‘traditional’ Syrian household and power dynamics.

  18. Gender Compatibility, Math-Gender Stereotypes, and Self-Concepts in Math and Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Ravinder; Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita; Poondej, Chanut

    2016-01-01

    Positive self-assessment of ability in the quantitative domains is considered critical for student participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics field studies. The present study investigated associations of gender compatibility (gender typicality and contentedness) and math-gender stereotypes with self-concepts in math and…

  19. Sex and the money--How gender stereotypes modulate economic decision-making: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Eve F; Causse, Mickael; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina

    2015-08-01

    In the present event-related potential study, we investigated whether and how participants playing the ultimatum game as responders modulate their decisions according to the proposers' stereotypical identity. The proposers' identity was manipulated using occupational role nouns stereotypically marked with gender (e.g., Teacher; Engineer), paired with either feminine or masculine proper names (e.g., Anna; David). Greater FRN amplitudes reflected the early processing of the conflict between the strategic rule (i.e., earning as much money as possible) and ready-to-go responses (i.e., refusing unequal offers and discriminating proposers according to their stereotype). Responders were found to rely on a dual-process system (i.e., automatic and heuristic-based system 1 vs. cognitively costly and deliberative system 2), the P300 amplitude reflecting the switch from a decision making system to another. Greater P300 amplitudes were found in response to both fair and unfair offers and male-stereotyped proposers' offers reflecting an automatic decision making based on heuristics, while lower P300 amplitudes were found in response to 3€ offers and the female-stereotyped proposers' offers reflecting a more deliberative reasoning. Overall, the results indicate that participants were more motivated to engage in a costly deliberative reasoning associated with an increase in acceptation rate when playing with female-stereotyped proposers, who may have induced more positive and emphatic feelings in the participants than did male-stereotyped proposers. Then, we assume that people with an occupation stereotypically marked with female gender and engaged in an economic negotiation may benefit from their occupation at least in the case their counterparts lose their money if the negotiation fails. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sexual orientation and gender: stereotypes and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandfort, Theo G M

    2005-12-01

    In this essay, I explore empirical research about the relationship between sexual orientation and gender. Both concepts have multiple meanings, which hinder an unequivocal understanding of the relationship between the two concepts. One of the first studies assumed to establish a relationship between male homosexuality and femininity was conducted by L. M. Terman and C. C. Miles (1936). The study actually gives a much more complicated picture of the relationship. Terman and Miles actually found two groups of homosexual men with, respectively, extremely high masculinity and extremely high femininity scores. Subsequently, various other studies examined the relationship between sexual orientation and gender, introducing the concept of androgyNY. While these studies were executed, major changes took place in the homosexual world, which have been characterized as the masculinization of culture. It is unclear how these changes relate to the masculine and feminine properties of the men involved. Various suggestions are made for further research on the relation between gender and sexual orientation.

  1. Social comparison, self-stereotyping, and gender differences in self-construals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimond, Serge; Chatard, Armand; Martinot, Delphine; Crisp, Richard J; Redersdorff, Sandrine

    2006-02-01

    Four studies examined gender differences in self-construals and the role of social comparison in generating these differences. Consistent with previous research, Study 1 (N=461) showed that women define themselves as higher in relational interdependence than men, and men define themselves as higher in independence/agency than women. Study 2 (N=301) showed that within-gender social comparison decreases gender differences in self-construals relative to a control condition, whereas between-genders comparison increases gender differences on both relational interdependence and independence/agency. Studies 3 (N=169) and 4 (N=278) confirmed these findings and showed that changing self-construal changes gender differences in social dominance orientation. Across the 4 studies, strong evidence for the role of in-group stereotyping as mediator of the effect of gender on self-construal was observed on the relational dimension but not on the agentic dimension. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Young and older adults’ gender stereotype in multitasking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilo eStrobach

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated discrepancies between two components of stereotyping by means of the popular notion that women are better at multitasking behaviors: the cognitive structure in individuals (personal belief and the perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs (perceived belief of groups. With focus on this notion, we examined whether there was empirical evidence for the stereotype’s existence and whether and how it was shared among different age groups. Data were collected from 241 young (n = 129 and older (n = 112 German individuals. The reported perceptions of gender effects at multitasking were substantial and thus demonstrated the existence of its stereotype. Importantly, in young and older adults, this stereotype existed in the perception of attributed characteristics by members of a collective (perceived belief of groups. When contrasting this perceived belief of groups and the personal belief, older adults showed a similar level of conformation of the gender stereotype while young adults were able to differentiate between these perspectives. Thus, young adults showed a discrepancy between the stereotype’s components cognitive structure in individuals and perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs.

  3. Gender Stereotyping and Empowerment in Nigeria Society ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender inequality is one of the contemporary issues which have featured prominently in both national and international debates for quite some time now in both developed and developing countries of the world. This has obviously thwarted women status in curriculum implementation in Nigeria education. This observation ...

  4. Gender Stereotypes in Advertising: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmeyer, Lynn

    Television and television advertising, because of their pervasiveness and intrusiveness, have been identified by many as potent, formative, and usually negative influences within our culture. Print media, including magazine advertising, although perhaps less potent, are perceived as equally important. The effects of gender portrayals on audiences…

  5. Gender Stereotypes and the Reshaping of Stigma in Rehabilitative Eldercare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg Jensen, Maya Christiane

    2017-01-01

    Rehabilitation policies are becoming increasingly popular in eldercare as a means to ensure dignity and reduce costs. This paper examines the implications of rehabilitation within Danish homecare work, a type of work that is often stigmatized due to its associations with low-status ‘dirty’ body w...... understanding of the ambiguous and varying ways rehabilitative eldercare reshapes and reinforces stigma and gender stereotypes among women who do ‘dirty’ body work....

  6. Academic gender stereotypes of pre-service teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirović Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at studying the content of academic gender stereotypes of pre-service teachers who are being prepared for working in different cycles of education. The sample included 408 students of teaching programmes of the Teacher Training College, Faculty of Mathematics and Faculty of Philology in Belgrade. It has been established that future class and subject teachers have gender stereotypes about the interests and achievements of students in different school subjects. pre-service teachers from both groups are of the opinion that girls get interested more easily than boys in the majority of school subjects, as well as that girls are more talented for the subjects in the field of humanities and languages, while boys are more talented for the subjects in the field of sciences. Pre-service teachers estimate that boys typically have a low achievement in languages, arts and music, while girls have a low achievement in physics, computer science, technical sciences and physical education. Since teachers’ gender stereotypes can affect students’ achievement, educational and career choices, it is important to raise awareness about the content and consequences of such beliefs in teachers and focus on certain actions towards their altering. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179034: Od podsticanja inicijative, saradnje, stvaralaštva u obrazovanju do novih uloga i identiteta u društvu i br. 47008: Unapređivanje kvaliteta i dostupnosti obrazovanja u procesima modernizacije Srbije

  7. Unhealthy interactions: the role of stereotype threat in health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Joshua; Burgess, Diana; Phelan, Sean M; Juarez, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype threat is the unpleasant psychological experience of confronting negative stereotypes about race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, or social status. Hundreds of published studies show how the experience of stereotype threat can impair intellectual functioning and interfere with test and school performance. Numerous published interventions derived from this research have improved the performance and motivation of individuals targeted by low-ability stereotypes. Stereotype threat theory and research provide a useful lens for understanding and reducing the negative health consequences of interracial interactions for African Americans and members of similarly stigmatized minority groups. Here we summarize the educational outcomes of stereotype threat and examine the implications of stereotype threat for health and health-related behaviors.

  8. The potential impact of gender stereotypes for nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, C

    1996-11-01

    The move towards evidence-based health care has meant an increasing pressure on paramedical professionals to become more research aware and research active. However, despite various initiatives designed to encourage research, there remains within nursing a notable paucity of relevant published research. While numerous explanations have been put forward in an attempt to account for this shortfall, they have tended to focus on structural/organizational barriers rather than difficulties located at the individual level. However, Hicks, in studies of midwives and nurse managers suggests that one critical perspective may be the stereotypes and assumptions associated with the nursing profession, these being so diametrically opposed to the core skills required of researchers that they operate as a natural deterrent to research activities of any sort. Embedded within this theory is the notion of gender roles, which are archetypally feminine for nursing yet archetypally masculine for research. However, Hicks' studies, which were both variants of Asch's Central Trait Theory, focused on women both as the hypothetical subject of the exercise involved and as participants. If research is bound up with gender attributions in the way she suggests, it would be necessary to ask if this is still relevant when the gender of the hypothetical figure at the centre of the study is changed. To this end, the present study was conducted which, apart from the modification just highlighted, was a replication of Hicks' earlier studies. In brief, two groups of participants rated a hypothetical male candidate for a nursing post along 15 bipolar dimensions. The candidate had been described by his referee using six adjectives, of which five were identical for each group. However, the final phrase used to describe the first group's candidate was "good clinician' while for the second group it was "good researcher'. The ratings given by the two groups along the 15 dimensions were then compared. It was

  9. Fairy Tales: Attraction and Stereotypes in Same-Gender Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felmlee, Diane; Orzechowicz, David; Fortes, Carmen

    2010-02-01

    We examine the process of romantic attraction in same-gender relationships using open and closed-ended questionnaire data from a sample of 120 men and women in Northern California. Agreeableness (e.g., kind, supportive) and Extraversion (e.g., fun, sense of humor) are the two most prominent bases of attraction, followed by Physical Attractiveness (e.g., appearance, sexy). The least important attractors represent traits associated with material success (e.g., financially secure, nice house). We also find evidence of seemingly contradictory attraction processes documented previously in heterosexual romantic relationships, in which individuals become disillusioned with the qualities in a partner that were initially appealing. Our findings challenge common stereotypes of same-gender relationships. The results document broad similarities between same-gender and cross-gender couples in attraction.

  10. Gender compatibility, math-gender stereotypes, and self-concepts in math and physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Ravinder; Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita; Poondej, Chanut

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] Positive self-assessment of ability in the quantitative domains is considered critical for student participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics field studies. The present study investigated associations of gender compatibility (gender typicality and contentedness) and math-gender stereotypes with self-concepts in math and physics. Statistical analysis of survey data was based on a sample of 170 male and female high school science students matched on propensity scores based on age and past GPA scores in math. Results of MANCOVA analyses indicated that the combination of high personal gender compatibility with low endorsement of math-gender stereotypes was associated with low gender differentials in math and physics self-concepts whereas the combination of high personal gender compatibility with high endorsement of math-gender stereotypes was associated with high gender differentials in math and physics self-concepts. These results contribute to the recent theoretical and empirical work on antecedents to the math and physics identities critical to achieving gender equity in STEM fields.

  11. Assessing gender stereotypes and sexual risk practices in men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasch Gallén, Ángel; Tomás Aznar, Concepción; Rubio Aranda, Encarnación

    2017-06-22

    To analyze the construct validity and the internal consistency of the 12-item Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI-12) questionnaire and to study the association between gender stereotypes and sexual risk practices in men who have sex with men (MSM). Cross-sectional study of 601 MSM who voluntarily and anonymously responded to an online survey on risk practices and gender stereotypes. The BSRI-12 was used to obtain gender stereotypes (masculine, feminine, undifferentiated and androgynous). For data analysis, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the BSRI-12 and logistic regression were performed. Two main factors (Cronbach alpha 0.95 and 0.81) were obtained from the EFA. Using the androgynous roles as the reference category, we found lower odds of engaging in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) among those who endorse feminine roles (OR: 0.53; 95%CI: 0.29-0.95). Endorsing masculine roles with alcohol consumption (OR: 1.92; 95%CI: 1.15-3.20) or the undifferentiated when not knowing the partner's serological status (OR: 1.55; 95%CI: 1.02-2.35) were associated with higher odds of UAI compared to those endorsing the androgynous roles. Undifferentiated participants also perform receptive UAI using poppers (OR: 2.19; 95%CI: 1.24-3.87), and insertive UAI not knowing the serological status of the sexual partner (OR: 1.69; 95%CI: 1.04-2.76) compared to androgynous participants. The BSRI is a valid and consistent instrument for identifying gender stereotypes in MSM. A greater proportion of participants within the undifferentiated and the masculine category engage in risk practices with the influence of substance consumption and unawareness of their sexual partner's serological status. The information obtained may be useful to define intervention and prevention programs. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Overcoming Gender Stereotypes & Improving Learning through the Participation of the

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carme Garcia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of research on how the daily participation of the "Other Women" women without an academic background or from cultural and ethnic minorities contributes to overcoming sexist stereotypes. The study demonstrates that their participation in instrumental learning activities transforms stereotypical beliefs about the skills of women without academic education, immigrant women, or those from cultural minorities. It can also be observed that their participation in decision-making spaces and in learning activities promotes student learning. In short, this study demonstrates that we need to include the "Other Women" into our diverse schools to progress towards the achievement of gender equity in education and society, and to create more positive learning experiences for all children.

  13. Latitude Reduction Based on Gender Categorization and Gender Stereotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skewes, Lea

    This dissertation consists of four articles; two articles which apply experimental methodologies from social psychology, and two articles which apply queer theory. These two different methodologies are applied in order to uncover different kinds of asymmetrical power relations driven by sex/gender...... to take a step back from our sex/gender categories, and unveil which effects categorizing by sex/gender has on people who are considered unintelligible by the categories. Therefore, this language philosophical perspective offers tools to analyse non-binary sexed/gendered people, and the sex/gender...... categorization. The social psychology methodology is applied in order to capture fundamental psychological mechanism at play in patriarchal society – striving to unveil gender inequalities between the binary categories of men and women. The queer theoretical meta-perspective is applied in order to allow us...

  14. Battle of the sexes: gender stereotype confirmation and reactance in negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kray, L J; Thompson, L; Galinsky, A

    2001-06-01

    The authors examined how gender stereotypes affect negotiation performance. Men outperformed women when the negotiation was perceived as diagnostic of ability (Experiment 1) or the negotiation was linked to gender-specific traits (Experiment 2), suggesting the threat of negative stereotype confirmation hurt women's performance relative to men. The authors hypothesized that men and women confirm gender stereotypes when they are activated implicitly, but when stereotypes are explicitly activated, people exhibit stereotype reactance, or the tendency to behave in a manner inconsistent with a stereotype. Experiment 3 confirmed this hypothesis. In Experiment 4, the authors examined the cognitive processes involved in stereotype reactance and the conditions under which cooperative behaviors between men and women can be promoted at the bargaining table (by activating a shared identity that transcends gender).

  15. The effects of stereotypes of women's performance in male-dominated hierarchies: Stereotype threat activation and reduction through role models

    OpenAIRE

    Latu, V.; Schmid Mast, M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent progress in increasing gender equality in organizations, workplace hierarchies remain male-dominated in most domains. We discuss how gender stereotypes contribute to holding women back in leadership and workplace domains and how we can reduce the negative effects of gender stereotypes. In the first part of the chapter we discuss how awareness of negative stereotypes of women in leadership can decrease women's performance and self-related cognitions in leadership tasks such as m...

  16. Gender Concepts and Gender Stereotypes in a Linguistic Picture of the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliia Petrivna Maslova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article comprehends the notion of a concept and a stereotypes in the linguistic picture of the world through the prism of a gender perspective. The linguistic and philosophical interpretations of the above concepts by well-known scholars are described, special attention is paid to their scientific research. The observation of the city of the world is based on the understanding of the following: the name of the city of culture, the historical city of culture, the special culture of the world, the city of culture, the information picture of the world. The gender stereotypes, concepts and the conceptosphere in interaction with the language are analyzed in detail.

  17. When stereotypes become 'scientific' statements: dealing with gender issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madureira, Ana Flávia do Amaral

    2009-06-01

    The theoretical analysis by Watzlawik (Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science 2009) demonstrates the scientific fragility of the constructs of masculinity and femininity based on the oversimplification and overlapping between three levels of analysis: group differences, inter-individual differences and intra-individual differences. Watzlawik presents fresh and relevant contributions in terms of methodological issues, especially about the construction of scientific generalizations. Here I focus on issues related to the transformation of stereotypes in statements about gender differences that claim to be 'scientific'--outlining the socio-political agendas of such statements.

  18. Role of Interethnic Stereotypes in Intercultural Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Guo Lijun

    2014-01-01

    The article is dedicated to research of ethnic stereotypes in intercultural communication. A key focus is made on development of ethnocultural stereotypes. Functions of ethnocultural stereotypes as well as effective communication are analyzed; here we study moments, which enable or hinder effective communications.

  19. Stereotype threat? Effects of inquiring about test takers' gender on conceptual test performance in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maries, Alexandru; Singh, Chandralekha

    2015-12-01

    It has been found that activation of a stereotype, for example by indicating one's gender before a test, typically alters performance in a way consistent with the stereotype, an effect called "stereotype threat." On a standardized conceptual physics assessment, we found that asking test takers to indicate their gender right before taking the test did not deteriorate performance compared to an equivalent group who did not provide gender information. Although a statistically significant gender gap was present on the standardized test whether or not students indicated their gender, no gender gap was observed on the multiple-choice final exam students took, which included both quantitative and conceptual questions on similar topics.

  20. Estereotipos y roles sociales de la mujer en el cine deportivo Stereotypes and social role of women in sports gender films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín PIEDRA DE LA CUADRA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Este documento profundiza en el rol y cualidades asociadas a la mujer en el cine deportivo de la primera década del siglo XXI, objeto de estudio poco habitual en el segmento de la investigación cinematográfica. Para ello, se determinó una muestra compuesta por 74 películas, seleccionadas a través de un muestreo no probabilístico por cuotas y mediante un diseño de investigación de tipo descriptivo, siendo el análisis de contenido el instrumento elegido para llevarlo a cabo. Los resultados arrojaron que se reflejaba con fidelidad el modelo imperante en la actualidad, así como el canon moderno que se atribuye al sexo femenino, lo cual debería cuestionar el peso que supone la industria cinematográfica como instrumento de normalización en el tratamiento de la mujer.This paper explores the role and qualities associated to women in sports movies of the first decade of the 21st century and it represents an unusual study in the segment of film research. To do this, we investigated a sample of 74 films, selected through a non-probability quota sampling and research design using a descriptive, content analysis as an instrument to carry it out. The results showed that the prevailing model of our society is faithfully reflected, and the same happens to the modern canon attributed to females, which should question the importance of the film industry as a means of correction in the treatment of women.

  1. Stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Bordalo; Nicola Gennaioli; Andrei Shleifer

    2014-01-01

    We present a model of stereotypes in which a decision maker assessing a group recalls only that group's most representative or distinctive types relative to other groups. Because stereotypes highlight differences between groups, and neglect likely common types, they are especially inaccurate when groups are similar. In this case, stereotypes consist of unlikely, extreme types. When stereotypes are inaccurate, they exhibit a form of base rate neglect. They also imply a form of confirmation bia...

  2. Critical Media Literacy and Gender: Teaching Middle School Children about Gender Stereotypes and Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchner, Laurel; Markowitz, Linda; Hedley, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of the implementation of a small-scale critical media literacy curriculum unit focused on gender stereotypes, especially as they pertain to occupations. The research question was whether students exposed to the critical media literacy (CML) curriculum were more likely than students not exposed to believe: that…

  3. Do Teachers Equate Male and Masculine with Lower Academic Engagement? How Students' Gender Enactment Triggers Gender Stereotypes at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyder, Anke; Kessels, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Girls presently outperform boys in overall academic success. Corresponding gender stereotypes portray male students as lazy and troublesome and female students as diligent and compliant. The present study investigated whether these stereotypes impact teachers' perceptions of students and whether students' visible enactment of their gender at…

  4. Gender Stereotypes in Children's Books: Their Prevalence and Influence on Cognitive and Affective Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Sharyl Bender; Lach, Mary Alyce

    1990-01-01

    Examines gender stereotyping in children's picture books. A survey of current material indicates only a small increase in the number and prominence of female characters. Discusses the history of gender stereotypes in children's literature and their effect on cognitive development. (DM)

  5. Through Pink and Blue glasses : designing a dispositional empathy game using gender stereotypes and Virtual Reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, Daphne A.; van Kessel, Caro R.; Janssen, Sam

    2017-01-01

    Society is affected by gender stereotypes and a decrease of dispositional empathy (empathy as a stable character trait). We believe there is an overall lack of awareness how gender stereotypes affect us as individuals, both male and female, and our society as a whole. This paper reports on the

  6. Gender Stereotypes and Selling Techniques in Television Advertising: Effects on Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Debra; Knupfer, Nancy Nelson

    This paper examines gender messages within television advertisements. Society is shaped by the suggestions of television advertisers who influence consumers' beliefs on how people should look or act, and many of these advertisements perpetuate stereotypes. Any consideration of the influence of gender stereotyping within TV advertising must first…

  7. Through Pink and Blue glasses : Designing a dispositional empathy game using gender stereotypes and Virtual Reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, Daphne A.; Van Kessel, Caro R.; Janssen, Sam

    2017-01-01

    Society is affected by gender stereotypes and a decrease of dispositional empathy (empathy as a stable character trait). We believe there is an overall lack of awareness how gender stereotypes affect us as individuals, both male and female, and our society as a whole. This paper reports on the

  8. Do Gender-Science Stereotypes Predict Science Identification and Science Career Aspirations among Undergraduate Science Majors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundiff, Jessica L.; Vescio, Theresa K.; Loken, Eric; Lo, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    The present research examined whether gender-science stereotypes were associated with science identification and, in turn, science career aspirations among women and men undergraduate science majors. More than 1,700 students enrolled in introductory science courses completed measures of gender-science stereotypes (implicit associations and…

  9. Gender Stereotypes and Women's Reports of Liking and Ability in Traditionally Masculine and Feminine Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Debra L.

    2008-01-01

    Gender stereotypes were examined for their causal influence on women's reported liking for and perceived ability to succeed in traditionally masculine and feminine occupations. One hundred twenty-one women were assigned to either a gender-stereotype activation or filler task and then completed measures of liking for, and perceived ability to…

  10. The cognitive costs of the counter-stereotypic: gender, emotion, and social presence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Megan K; Kelly, Janice R; Williams, Kipling D

    2014-01-01

    We explored the concurrent and subsequent cognitive consequences of the experience of gender counter-stereotypic emotions. Participants experiencing gender counter-stereotypic emotions were expected to display less emotional expression and demonstrate poorer cognitive performance when in the public condition than when in the private condition. Seventy-one women and 66 men completed an anger- or sadness-inducing task privately or publicly. Participants completed two cognitive tasks: one during and one after the emotion-induction task. Participants exhibited poorer performance during and following gender counter-stereotypic emotions only in the public condition. Direct evidence for greater suppression of gender counter-stereotypic emotions in the public conditions was not obtained. These results suggest that the same public emotional events may be differentially cognitively depleting depending on one's gender, potentially contributing to the perpetuation of stereotypes.

  11. Congruence between gender stereotypes and activity preference in self-identified tomboys and non-tomboys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Carol Lynn; Dinella, Lisa M

    2012-06-01

    The major goal was to examine a central tenet of cognitive approaches to gender development, namely, that congruence exists between personal gender stereotypes and behaviors. Item-by-item comparisons of girls' stereotypes about activities and their preferences for activities were conducted, for both girls who claimed to be tomboys and those who did not. Congruence was expected for all girls, but because of their gender non-normative interests, tomboys may exhibit less congruence. A secondary goal was to examine factors that might influence congruence, specifically, whether tomboys develop more inclusive stereotypes and develop greater understanding of stereotype variability. Participants included 112 girls (7-12 years old, M age=9). Girls were interviewed about their activity preferences, beliefs about girls' and boys' activity preferences, understanding variability of stereotypes, and identification as tomboys. Tomboys (30% of the sample) and non-tomboys did not differ in their liking of or in the number of liked feminine activities. However, tomboys showed more interest in masculine activities than non-tomboys. Tomboys and non-tomboys did not differ in stereotype inclusiveness, although tomboys showed a trend toward more inclusive stereotypes. Both groups showed high levels of congruence between stereotypes and preferences. Congruence was stronger for nontomboys (14 times more likely to exhibit responses congruent with stereotypes vs. incongruent ones), as compared to tomboys who were four times more likely to exhibit responses congruent with stereotypes versus incongruent ones. Implications of these findings for cognitive approaches to gender development are discussed.

  12. Neural processing of gendered information is more robustly associated with mothers' gendered communication with children than mothers' implicit and explicit gender stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endendijk, Joyce J; Spencer, Hannah; Bos, Peter A; Derks, Belle

    2018-04-26

    Processes like gender socialization (the ways in which parents convey information to their children about how girls and boys should behave) often happen unconsciously and might therefore be studied best with neuroscientific measures. We examined whether neural processing of gender-stereotype-congruent and incongruent information is more robustly related to mothers' gendered socialization of their child than mothers' implicit and explicit gender stereotypes. To this end, we examined event-related potentials (ERPs) of mothers (N = 35) completing an implicit gender-stereotype task and mothers' gender stereotypes in relation to observed gendered communication with their child (2-6 years old) in a naturalistic picture-book-reading setting. Increased N2 activity (previously related to attentional processes) to gender stimuli in the implicit gender-stereotype task was associated with mothers' positive evaluation of similar gendered behaviors and activities in the picture book they read with their child. Increased P300 activity (previously related to attention to unexpected events) to incongruent trials in the gender-stereotype task was associated with a more positive evaluation of congruent versus incongruent pictures. Compared to mothers' gender stereotypes, neural processing of gendered information was more robustly related to how mothers talk to their children about boys' and girls' stereotype-congruent and incongruent behavior, and masculine and feminine activities.

  13. Gender roles in agricultural production in the Seychelles | Uzokwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the role of each member of the family in food production, investigated the type of farming activities the farm families are engaged in, gender specific roles, level of participation of the female gender, gender stereotypes and suggested the use of the information for policy advocacy and strengthening of ...

  14. Mothers' Academic Gender Stereotypes and Education-Related Beliefs about Sons and Daughters in African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Dana; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Okeke-Adeyanju, Ndidi

    2010-01-01

    The role of African American mothers' academic gender stereotype endorsement in shaping achievement-related expectations for and perceptions of their own children was examined. Mothers (N = 334) of 7th and 8th graders completed measures of expectations for their children's future educational attainment, perceptions of their children's academic…

  15. Gender-Role Portrayals in Television Advertising Across the Globe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthes, Jörg; Prieler, Michael; Adam, Karoline

    Although there are numerous studies on gender-role portrayals in television advertising, comparative designs are clearly lacking. With content analytical data from a total of 13 Asian, American, and European countries, we study the stereotypical depiction of men and women in television advertisements. Our sample consists of 1755 ads collected in May 2014. Analyzing the gender of the primary character and voiceover, as well as the age, associated product categories, home- or work setting, and the working role of the primary character, we concluded that gender stereotypes in TV advertising can be found around the world. A multilevel model further showed that gender stereotypes were independent of a country's gender indices, including Hofstede's Masculinity Index, GLOBE's Gender Egalitarianism Index, the Gender-related Development Index, the Gender Inequality Index, and the Global Gender Gap Index. These findings suggest that gender stereotyping in television advertising does not depend on the gender equality prevalent in a country. The role of a specific culture in shaping gender stereotypes in television advertising is thus smaller than commonly thought.

  16. Error-related negativity varies with the activation of gender stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingguo; Shu, Liangchao; Wang, Xiaoyi; Dai, Shenyi; Che, Hongmin

    2008-09-19

    The error-related negativity (ERN) was suggested to reflect the response-performance monitoring process. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the activation of gender stereotypes influences the ERN. Twenty-eight male participants were asked to complete a tool or kitchenware identification task. The prime stimulus is a picture of a male or female face and the target stimulus is either a kitchen utensil or a hand tool. The ERN amplitude on male-kitchenware trials is significantly larger than that on female-kitchenware trials, which reveals the low-level, automatic activation of gender stereotypes. The ERN that was elicited in this task has two sources--operation errors and the conflict between the gender stereotype activation and the non-prejudice beliefs. And the gender stereotype activation may be the key factor leading to this difference of ERN. In other words, the stereotype activation in this experimental paradigm may be indexed by the ERN.

  17. Female Surgeons as Counter Stereotype: The Impact of Gender Perceptions on Trainee Evaluations of Physician Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassiotto, Magali; Li, Jie; Maldonado, Yvonne; Kothary, Nishita

    2018-02-02

    Similar to women in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics disciplines, women in medicine are subject to negative stereotyping when they do not adhere to their sex-role expectations. These biases may vary by specialty, largely dependent on the gender's representation in that specialty. Thus, females in male-dominated surgical specialties are especially at risk of stereotype threat. Herein, we present the role of gender expectations using trainee evaluations of physician faculty at a single academic center, over a 5-year period (2010-2014). Using Graduate Medical Education evaluation data of physician faculty from MedHub, we examined the differences in evaluation scores for male and female physicians within specialties that have traditionally had low female representation (e.g., surgical fields) compared to those with average or high female representation (e.g., pediatrics). Stanford Medicine residents and fellows' MedHub ratings of their physician faculty from 2010 to 2014. A total of 3648 evaluations across 1066 physician faculty. Overall, female physicians received lower median scores than their male counterparts across all specialties. When using regression analyses controlling for race, age, rank, and specialty-specific characteristics, the negative effect persists only for female physicians in specialties with low female representation. This finding suggests that female physicians in traditionally male-dominated specialties may face different criteria based on sex-role expectations when being evaluated by trainees. As trainee evaluations play an important role in career advancement decisions, dictate perceptions of quality within academic medical centers and affect overall job satisfaction, we propose that these differences in evaluations based merely on gender stereotypes could account, in part, for the narrowing pipeline of women promoted to higher ranks in academic medicine. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published

  18. Gender Roles: Listening to Classroom Talk about Literary Characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Barbara G.; Townsend, Jane S.

    1999-01-01

    Examines patterns of talk and the nature of talk in two different classrooms discussing Shakespeare's "Hamlet." Finds that the images of Hamlet and Gertrude were strikingly different: in the college class, the characters were confined to stereotypical gender roles; while in the high-school class, such stereotypes were refuted. (SR)

  19. Black Lesbian, Gay and Transgender Representations in Films: Stereotypes, Power Relations and Gender Roles : An intersectional analysis of the films Set It Off, Tangerine and Moonlight

    OpenAIRE

    Paralik, Besire

    2017-01-01

    This thesis investigates the black lesbian, gay, transgender representations in three US-American films. Using feminist film theory and intersectionality theory, the thesis analyzes the films Set It Off, Tangerine and Moonlight. This analysis includes three themes: 1) Stereotypes including drugs, violence and low socioeconomic status 2) Power relations including white and/or heterosexual supremacy 3) Representation of gender. Overall the study seeks to understand and explore the ways of how i...

  20. Do casual gaming environments evoke stereotype threat? Examining the effects of explicit priming and avatar gender

    OpenAIRE

    Kaye, L. K.; Pennington, C.; McCann, J. J.

    2018-01-01

    Despite relatively equal participation rates between females and males in casual gaming, females often report stigmatisation and prejudice towards their gaming competency within this sub-domain. Applying the theoretical framework of “stereotype threat”, this research examined the influence of explicit stereotype priming on females’ casual gameplay performance and related attitudes. It also investigated whether the gender of the game avatar heightens susceptibility to stereotype threat. One hu...

  1. "Maybe She Was Provoked": Exploring Gender Stereotypes About Male and Female Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarduzio, Jennifer A; Carlyle, Kellie E; Harris, Kate Lockwood; Savage, Matthew W

    2017-01-01

    The current study is concerned with the different types of gender stereotypes that participants may draw upon when exposed to news stories about intimate partner violence (IPV). We qualitatively analyzed open-ended responses examining four types of gender stereotypes-aggression, emotional, power and control, and acceptability of violence. We offer theoretical implications that extend past research on intimate terrorism and situational couple violence, the gender symmetry debate, and how stereotypes are formed. We also discuss practical implications for journalists who write stories about IPV and individuals who provide services to victims and perpetrators. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. "Shake It Baby, Shake It": Media Preferences, Sexual Attitudes and Gender Stereotypes Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Engels, Rutger C M E; Bogers, Sanne; Kloosterman, Monique

    2010-12-01

    In this study exposure to and preferences for three important youth media (TV, music styles/music TV, internet) were examined in relation to adolescents' permissive sexual attitudes and gender stereotypes (i.e., views of men as sex-driven and tough, and of women as sex objects). Multivariate structural analysis of data from a school-based sample of 480 13 to 16-year-old Dutch students revealed that preferences, rather than exposure were associated with attitudes and stereotypes. For both girls and boys, preferences for hip-hop and hard-house music were associated positively with gender stereotypes and preference for classical music was negatively associated with gender stereotypes. Particularly for boys, using internet to find explicit sexual content emerged as a powerful indicator of all attitudes and stereotypes.

  3. Gender Stereotyping and Affective Attitudes Towards Science in Chinese Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingxin; Hu, Weiping; Jiannong, Shi; Adey, Philip

    2010-02-01

    This study explores explicit and implicit gender-science stereotypes and affective attitudes towards science in a sample of Chinese secondary school students. The results showed that (1) gender-science stereotyping was more and more apparent as the specialization of science subjects progresses through secondary school, becoming stronger from the 10th grade; girls were more inclined to stereotype than boys while this gender difference decreased with increasing grade; (2) girls tend to have an implicit science-unpleasant/humanities-pleasant association from the 8th grade, while boys showed a negative implicit attitude towards science up to the 11th grade. In self-report, girls preferred humanities to science, while boys preferred science to humanities; (3) implicit affective attitude was closely related to implicit stereotype. In particular, implicit affective attitude has a stronger predictive power on stereotype than the other way around, the result of which may have more significance for girls.

  4. “Shake It Baby, Shake It”: Media Preferences, Sexual Attitudes and Gender Stereotypes Among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Bogers, Sanne; Kloosterman, Monique

    2010-01-01

    In this study exposure to and preferences for three important youth media (TV, music styles/music TV, internet) were examined in relation to adolescents’ permissive sexual attitudes and gender stereotypes (i.e., views of men as sex-driven and tough, and of women as sex objects). Multivariate structural analysis of data from a school-based sample of 480 13 to 16-year-old Dutch students revealed that preferences, rather than exposure were associated with attitudes and stereotypes. For both girls and boys, preferences for hip-hop and hard-house music were associated positively with gender stereotypes and preference for classical music was negatively associated with gender stereotypes. Particularly for boys, using internet to find explicit sexual content emerged as a powerful indicator of all attitudes and stereotypes. PMID:21212809

  5. Math-Gender Stereotypes and Career Intentions: An Application of Expectancy-Value Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jingjing; Zuo, Bin; Wen, Fangfang; Yan, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to negative math-gender stereotypes undermines the intentions of female college students to engage in careers in the math field, yet the mechanisms by which such stereotypes relate to girls' career intentions remain unclear. We simultaneously tested multiple mediators in a sample of 186 female students from one high school in central…

  6. Parents' Gender-Stereotyped Perceptions of Newborns: The Eye of the Beholder Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karraker, Katherine Hildebrandt; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Assessed parental gender-stereotyped perceptions of their newborn infant within a group of 40, mostly Caucasian, pairs of parents. Findings show stereotyped descriptions (that is, finer features, less strong, more delicate, and so on) were used when comparing newborn girls with boys. These perceptions persisted across a one-week time interval.…

  7. Korean Children's Evaluation of Parental Restrictions Regarding Gender-Stereotypic Peer Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoonjung; Lee-Kim, Jennie; Killen, Melanie; Park, Kyoungja; Kim, Jihyun

    2012-01-01

    Korean children's evaluations of parental restrictions of children's activities based on gender stereotypic expectations were investigated. Third and sixth grade Korean (N = 128) children evaluated scenarios in which a boy or girl desired to play ballet or soccer. Participants used stereotypes to support children's desires to play…

  8. Gender stereotypes: an explanation to the underrepresentation of women in emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaccia, Thierry; Delplanq, Hervé; Triby, Emmanuel; Bartier, Jean-Claude; Leman, Cécile; Hadef, Hysham; Pottecher, Thierry; Dupeyron, Jean-Pierre

    2010-07-01

    Women are underrepresented in emergency medicine (EM) residency programs in comparison with many other specialties. The reasons for this are unclear. One hypothesis is that negative gender stereotypes about EM careers might exist among female medical students. In the field of education, negative gender stereotypes are known to lead to career avoidance, because they tend to decrease self-efficacy perception. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of negative gender stereotypes about EM practice among medical students and to measure the effects of these stereotypes on females' self-efficacy perception toward EM learning. A survey was conducted of the 255 third-year medical students from three medical schools who attended a mandatory EM academic program in France. They completed an anonymous questionnaire exploring their gender stereotypes about EM practice and their self-efficacy perception toward EM learning. Gender stereotypes are common among medical students, especially in women. Self-efficacy perception is negatively correlated to female students' belief that EM careers are better suited for men (p stereotypes among female medical students may lead to EM career avoidance, because of the decrease in their self-efficacy perception toward EM learning. 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine

  9. Age and Gender Differences in Facial Attractiveness, but Not Emotion Resemblance, Contribute to Age and Gender Stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Palumbo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Considerable research has shown effects of facial appearance on trait impressions and group stereotypes. We extended those findings in two studies that investigated the contribution of resemblance to emotion expressions and attractiveness to younger adults (YA and older adults (OA age and gender stereotypes on the dimensions of warmth and competence. Using connectionist modeling of facial metrics of 240 neutral younger and older faces, Study 1 found that, neutral expression older faces or female faces showed greater structural resemblance to happy expressions and less resemblance to angry expressions than did younger or male faces, respectively. In addition, neutral female faces showed greater resemblance to surprise expressions. In Study 2, YA and OA rated the faces of Study 1 for attractiveness and for 4 traits that we aggregated on the dimensions of competence (competent, healthy and warmth (trustworthy, not shrewd. We found that YA, but not OA, age stereotypes replicated previous research showing higher perceived warmth and lower perceived competence in older adults. In addition, previously documented gender stereotypes were moderated by face age for both YA and OA. The greater attractiveness of younger than older faces and female than male faces influenced age and gender stereotypes, including these deviations from prior research findings using category labels rather than faces. On the other hand, face age and face sex differences in emotion resemblance did not influence age or gender stereotypes, contrary to prediction. Our results provide a caveat to conclusions about age and gender stereotypes derived from responses to category labels, and they reveal the importance of assessing stereotypes with a methodology that is sensitive to influences of group differences in appearance that can exacerbate or mitigate stereotypes in more ecologically valid contexts. Although the gender differences in attractiveness in the present study may not have

  10. Age and Gender Differences in Facial Attractiveness, but Not Emotion Resemblance, Contribute to Age and Gender Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Rocco; Adams, Reginald B; Hess, Ursula; Kleck, Robert E; Zebrowitz, Leslie

    2017-01-01

    Considerable research has shown effects of facial appearance on trait impressions and group stereotypes. We extended those findings in two studies that investigated the contribution of resemblance to emotion expressions and attractiveness to younger adults (YA) and older adults (OA) age and gender stereotypes on the dimensions of warmth and competence. Using connectionist modeling of facial metrics of 240 neutral younger and older faces, Study 1 found that, neutral expression older faces or female faces showed greater structural resemblance to happy expressions and less resemblance to angry expressions than did younger or male faces, respectively. In addition, neutral female faces showed greater resemblance to surprise expressions. In Study 2, YA and OA rated the faces of Study 1 for attractiveness and for 4 traits that we aggregated on the dimensions of competence (competent, healthy) and warmth (trustworthy, not shrewd). We found that YA, but not OA, age stereotypes replicated previous research showing higher perceived warmth and lower perceived competence in older adults. In addition, previously documented gender stereotypes were moderated by face age for both YA and OA. The greater attractiveness of younger than older faces and female than male faces influenced age and gender stereotypes, including these deviations from prior research findings using category labels rather than faces. On the other hand, face age and face sex differences in emotion resemblance did not influence age or gender stereotypes, contrary to prediction. Our results provide a caveat to conclusions about age and gender stereotypes derived from responses to category labels, and they reveal the importance of assessing stereotypes with a methodology that is sensitive to influences of group differences in appearance that can exacerbate or mitigate stereotypes in more ecologically valid contexts. Although the gender differences in attractiveness in the present study may not have generalizability

  11. Hillary Clinton Framed - Gender Stereotypes in the Media Coverage of the 2016 United States Presidential Election

    OpenAIRE

    Mjønerud, Ingunn

    2017-01-01

    This thesis empirically examines the manner in which gender shaped the media coverage of the 2016 United States Presidential Election through the news frames that were employed to discuss Hillary Rodham Clinton and her historical candidacy. This is examined by exploring gender stereotypes and how these stereotypes can influence the success of women seeking positions of high power, before analyzing the major news stories surrounding Clinton and her campaign according to this theory. The result...

  12. Gender differences in risk preferences and stereotypes: Experimental evidence from a matrilineal and a patrilineal society

    OpenAIRE

    Pondorfer, Andreas; Omar Mahmoud, Toman; Rehdanz, Katrin; Schmidt, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    We use a controlled experiment to analyze gender differences in risk preferences and stereotypes about risk preferences of men and women across two distinct island societies in the Pacific: the patrilineal Palawan in the Philippines and the matrilineal Teop in Papua New Guinea. We find no gender differences in actual risk preferences, but evidence for culture-specific stereotypes. Like men in Western societies, Palawan men overestimate women's actual risk aversion. By contrast, Teop men under...

  13. Gender role models in fictional novels for emerging adult lesbians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jennifer R; Rostosky, Sharon S; Riggle, Ellen D B

    2013-01-01

    Novels provide role models for young adult lesbians and thus may influence their identity development. This study focused on 16 lesbian protagonists identified in 11 young adult novels that received 2011 Lambda Literary Award nominations. Content analyses revealed six themes. Three themes defied traditional gender stereotypes: Asserting Oneself, Pursuing Intimacy with Another Woman, and Breaking Free of Constraints to Authentic Self-Expression. Three themes reinforced gender stereotypes: Negative Emotional Experiences Associated with Lesbian Identity, Traditional Masculine Gender Expression, and Traditional Gender Role-Based Sexual Scripts. Each theme is discussed in light of its possible contribution to lesbian identity development.

  14. Gendered mental disorders: masculine and feminine stereotypes about mental disorders and their relation to stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen, Guy; Ebersole, Ashley; Casner, Robert; Coston, Nykhala

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that stereotypes can intersect. For example, the intersection of stereotypes about gender and mental disorders could result in perceptions of gendered mental disorders. In the current research, Studies 1 and 2 showed that people view specific disorders as being masculine or feminine. The masculine stereotype included antisocial personality disorder, addictions, and paraphilias. The feminine stereotype included eating disorders, histrionic personality disorder, body dysmorphia, and orgasmic disorder. In both studies, the perception of disorders as masculine was positively correlated with stigma. Study 3 showed that the positive correlation between masculinity and stigma also occurred when examining specific symptoms rather than full mental disorders. The findings provide further evidence for the intersection of stereotypes and indicate a novel factor in the understanding of stigma.

  15. GENDER ROLES IN PAKISTANI-URDU WEDDING SONGS

    OpenAIRE

    Syeda Bushra Zaidi

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study of Pakistani-Urdu wedding songs allows a closer look at the gender situation, and towards the understanding of the process of construction and perpetuation of gender-based stereotypes. However, the major concern of this study is to understand the portrayal of each gender along with the question that does such portrayal underlines the traditional gender roles and gender inequality. Taking a discourse analysis perspective, this study analyzes textu...

  16. Interactive effects of sex hormones and gender stereotypes on cognitive sex differences--a psychobiosocial approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Markus; Schoofs, Daniela; Rosenthal, Harriet E S; Jordan, Kirsten

    2009-04-01

    Biological and social factors have been shown to affect cognitive sex differences. For example, several studies have found that sex hormones have activating effects on sex-sensitive tasks. On the other hand, it has been shown that gender stereotypes can influence the cognitive performance of (gender-) stereotyped individuals. However, few studies have investigated the combined effects of both factors. The present study investigated the interaction between sex hormones and gender stereotypes within a psychobiosocial approach. One hundred and fourteen participants (59 women) performed a battery of sex-sensitive cognitive tasks, including mental rotation, verbal fluency, and perceptual speed. Saliva samples were taken immediately after cognitive testing. Levels of testosterone (T) were analysed using chemiluminescence immunoassay (LIA). To activate gender stereotypes, a questionnaire was applied to the experimental group that referred to the cognitive tasks used. The control group received an identical questionnaire but with a gender-neutral content. As expected, significant sex differences favouring males and females appeared for mental rotation and verbal fluency tasks, respectively. The results revealed no sex difference in perceptual speed. The male superiority in the Revised Vandenberg and Kuse Mental Rotations Tests (MRT-3D) was mainly driven by the stereotype-active group. No significant sex difference in MRT-3D appeared in the control group. The MRT-3D was also the task in which a strong gender-stereotype favouring males was present for both males and females. Interestingly, T levels of the stereotype-activated group were 60% higher than that of male controls. The results suggest that sex hormones mediate the effects of gender stereotypes on specific cognitive abilities.

  17. Cautious caregivers: gender stereotypes and the sexualization of men nurses' touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Joan A

    2002-11-01

    The aim of this research was to explore the experience of men nurses and the ways in which gender relations structure different work experiences for women and men in the same profession. Men are now entering the nursing profession in record numbers and challenging the notion that men are inappropriate in caregiver roles or incapable of providing compassionate and sensitive care. A limitation of the current state of knowledge regarding caring and men nurses is that it is primarily focused on men nursing students, not practising nurses. Little is known about men nurses' practices of caring and how such practices reflect the gendered nature of nursing and nurses' caring work. The theme of men nurses as cautious caregivers emerged from data that were collected in two rounds of semi-structured interviews with eight men nurses practising in Nova Scotia, Canada. Thematic analysis, informed by feminist theory and masculinity theory, was used as the method for analysing the data. For men nurses, the stereotype of men as sexual aggressors is compounded by the stereotype that men nurses are gay. These stereotypes sexualize men nurses' touch and create complex and contradictory situations of acceptance, rejection and suspicion of men as nurturers and caregivers. They also situate men nurses in highly stigmatized roles in which they are subject to accusations of inappropriate behaviour. For men nurses, this situation is lived as a heightened sense of vulnerability and the continual need to be cautious while touching and caring for patients. Ultimately, this situation impacts on the ability of men nurses to do the caring work they came into nursing to do.

  18. Ethnic variation in gender-STEM stereotypes and STEM participation: an intersectional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Laurie T; Blodorn, Alison; Adams, Glenn; Garcia, Donna M; Hammer, Elliott

    2015-04-01

    Stereotypes associating men and masculine traits with science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields are ubiquitous, but the relative strength of these stereotypes varies considerably across cultures. The present research applies an intersectional approach to understanding ethnic variation in gender-STEM stereotypes and STEM participation within an American university context. African American college women participated in STEM majors at higher rates than European American college women (Study 1, Study 2, and Study 4). Furthermore, African American women had weaker implicit gender-STEM stereotypes than European American women (Studies 2-4), and ethnic differences in implicit gender-STEM stereotypes partially mediated ethnic differences in STEM participation (Study 2 and Study 4). Although African American men had weaker implicit gender-STEM stereotypes than European American men (Study 4), ethnic differences between men in STEM participation were generally small (Study 1) or nonsignificant (Study 4). We discuss the implications of an intersectional approach for understanding the relationship between gender and STEM participation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Choking under the pressure of a positive stereotype: gender identification and self-consciousness moderate men's math test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagler, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Choking under pressure occurs when an individual underperforms due to situational pressure. The present study examined whether being the target of a positive social stereotype regarding math ability causes choking among men. Gender identification and self-consciousness were hypothesized to moderate the effect of math-gender stereotypes on men's math test performance. Men high in self-consciousness but low in gender identification significantly underperformed when exposed to gender-relevant test instructions. No significant effects were found under a gender-irrelevant condition. These findings are discussed in the contexts of research on stereotype threat, stereotype lift, and choking under pressure.

  20. GENDER ROLES IN PAKISTANI-URDU WEDDING SONGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Bushra Zaidi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study of Pakistani-Urdu wedding songs allows a closer look at the gender situation, and towards the understanding of the process of construction and perpetuation of gender-based stereotypes. However, the major concern of this study is to understand the portrayal of each gender along with the question that does such portrayal underlines the traditional gender roles and gender inequality. Taking a discourse analysis perspective, this study analyzes textual data from the lyrics of the seventeen wedding songs. The song selection was based on purposive sampling technique. The data were collected through transcription and recording of the audios of the songs. As a result of thematic analysis thirteen themes emerged, ten portraying the female gender and four portraying the male gender. These themes reveal important findings that support and reinforce the gender-based stereotypes and also reflect gender hierarchy, normative heterosexual relationships, kinship norms and gender subversions.

  1. Preventing violence against women by challenging gender stereotypes in Scottish primary schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Butler, Antoinette Mary

    2016-01-01

    Gender violence is a major public health issue in Europe; it is normalized and partly legitimized by gender stereotypes. An example of a primary prevention education programme designed to challenge the attitudes that underpin gender violence, particularly violence against women, is the Zero...... Tolerance Respect (ZTR) programme developed for Scottish pupils. Given the importance of early preventative action in this area, this paper analyses how gender stereotypes were challenged in ZTR materials for primary pupils aged 10-12 years. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the content...... of the seven lessons in the ZTR primary school programme; the materials were also evaluated in relation to best practice within attitudinal change promotion. Analysis shows that ZTR empowers pupils to reflect on and confront gender stereotypes by developing pupils’ social awareness, as respect is characterized...

  2. Occupational gender stereotypes: is the ratio of women to men a powerful determinant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Tomoko

    2013-04-01

    Gendered division of occupational choices still exists in contemporary Japanese society. Women are underrepresented in traditionally male-dominated fields, while few men occupy positions in traditionally female-dominated areas. The purpose of the present study was to examine occupational gender stereotypes and its relation to the female-to-male ratio of jobholders. Participants were 540 Japanese (262 women, 278 men) who participated in an Internet survey. The results showed that the female-to-male ratio of jobholders was a strong predictor of gender stereotyping. That is to say, contemporary Japanese recognized male-dominated occupations as typically masculine and female-dominated ones as typically feminine. Gender comparisons revealed that men rated female-dominated occupations as more feminine in nature than did women, while women rated male-dominated occupations as more masculine than did men. Future implications for career interventions focusing on occupational gender stereotypes were also discussed.

  3. Gender and gender role differences in self- and other-estimates of multiple intelligences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanowicz, Agata; Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    This study examined participant gender and gender role differences in estimates of multiple intelligences for self, partner, and various hypothetical, stereotypical, and counter-stereotypical target persons. A general population sample of 261 British participants completed one of four questionnaires that required them to estimate their own and others' multiple intelligences and personality traits. Males estimated their general IQ slightly, but mathematic IQ significantly higher than females, who rated their social and emotional intelligence higher than males. Masculine individuals awarded themselves somewhat higher verbal and practical IQ scores than did female participants. Both participant gender and gender role differences in IQ estimates were found, with gender effects stronger in cognitive and gender role than in "personal" ability estimates. There was a significant effect of gender role on hypothetical persons' intelligence evaluations, with masculine targets receiving significantly higher intelligence estimates compared to feminine targets. More intelligent hypothetical figures were judged as more masculine and less feminine than less intelligent ones.

  4. Gender stereotypes and education: A comparative content analysis of Malaysian, Indonesian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi school textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Kazi Md Mukitul; Asadullah, M Niaz

    2018-01-01

    Using government secondary school English language textbooks from Malaysia, Indonesia, Pakistan and Bangladesh, we conducted a quantitative content analysis in order to identify gender stereotypes in school education. In total, 21 categories of exclusion and quality of representation were used to study gender stereotypes. Our analysis confirms a pro-male bias in textbooks: the aggregate female share is 40.4% in textual and pictorial indicators combined. Female occupations are mostly traditional and less prestigious while the characters are predominantly introverted and passive in terms of personality traits. Women are also shown to be mostly involved in domestic and in-door activities while men have a higher presence in professional roles. Systematic underrepresentation of females is evident regardless of whether we look at the text or pictures. A cross-country analysis shows that the female share in picture content is only 35.2% in Malaysia and Bangladesh. Overall, the proportion of female to male characters (text and pictures combined) is balanced in Malaysia and Indonesia (44.4% and 44.1% respectively) while this share is only 24.4% and 37.3% in Pakistani and Bangladeshi textbooks respectively. The finding of underrepresentation of women in Pakistani textbooks, in terms of quality and quantity, is robust to the selection of province-, grade- and subject-specific textbooks, as well as the range and type of categories used.

  5. Gender stereotypes and education: A comparative content analysis of Malaysian, Indonesian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi school textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Kazi Md. Mukitul

    2018-01-01

    Using government secondary school English language textbooks from Malaysia, Indonesia, Pakistan and Bangladesh, we conducted a quantitative content analysis in order to identify gender stereotypes in school education. In total, 21 categories of exclusion and quality of representation were used to study gender stereotypes. Our analysis confirms a pro-male bias in textbooks: the aggregate female share is 40.4% in textual and pictorial indicators combined. Female occupations are mostly traditional and less prestigious while the characters are predominantly introverted and passive in terms of personality traits. Women are also shown to be mostly involved in domestic and in-door activities while men have a higher presence in professional roles. Systematic underrepresentation of females is evident regardless of whether we look at the text or pictures. A cross-country analysis shows that the female share in picture content is only 35.2% in Malaysia and Bangladesh. Overall, the proportion of female to male characters (text and pictures combined) is balanced in Malaysia and Indonesia (44.4% and 44.1% respectively) while this share is only 24.4% and 37.3% in Pakistani and Bangladeshi textbooks respectively. The finding of underrepresentation of women in Pakistani textbooks, in terms of quality and quantity, is robust to the selection of province-, grade- and subject-specific textbooks, as well as the range and type of categories used. PMID:29351305

  6. The Responders’ Gender Stereotypes Modulate the Strategic Decision-Making of Proposers playing the Ultimatum Game

    OpenAIRE

    Fabre, Eve Floriane; Causse, Mickael; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Despite the wealth of studies investigating factors affecting decisions, not much is known about the impact of stereotypical beliefs on strategic economic decision-making. In the present study, we used the ultimatum game paradigm to investigate how participants playing as proposer modulate their strategic economic behavior, according to their game counterparts’ stereotypical identity (i.e., responders). The latter were introduced to the participants using occupational role nouns stereotypical...

  7. Tears or Fears? Comparing Gender Stereotypes about Movie Preferences to Actual Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wühr, Peter; Lange, Benjamin P.; Schwarz, Sascha

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the accuracy of gender-specific stereotypes about movie-genre preferences for 17 genres. In Study 1, female and male participants rated the extent to which 17 movie genres are preferred by women or men. In Study 2, another sample of female and male participants rated their own preference for each genre. There were three notable results. First, Study 1 revealed the existence of gender stereotypes for the majority of genres (i.e., for 15 of 17 genres). Second, Study 2 revealed the existence of actual gender differences in preferences for the majority of genres (i.e., for 11 of 17 genres). Third, in order to assess the accuracy of gender stereotypes on movie preferences, we compared the results of both studies and found that the majority of gender stereotypes were accurate in direction, but inaccurate in size. In particular, the stereotypes overestimated actual gender differences for the majority of movie genres (i.e., 10 of 17). Practical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:28392774

  8. Tears or Fears? Comparing Gender Stereotypes about Movie Preferences to Actual Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wühr, Peter; Lange, Benjamin P; Schwarz, Sascha

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the accuracy of gender-specific stereotypes about movie-genre preferences for 17 genres. In Study 1, female and male participants rated the extent to which 17 movie genres are preferred by women or men. In Study 2, another sample of female and male participants rated their own preference for each genre. There were three notable results. First, Study 1 revealed the existence of gender stereotypes for the majority of genres (i.e., for 15 of 17 genres). Second, Study 2 revealed the existence of actual gender differences in preferences for the majority of genres (i.e., for 11 of 17 genres). Third, in order to assess the accuracy of gender stereotypes on movie preferences, we compared the results of both studies and found that the majority of gender stereotypes were accurate in direction, but inaccurate in size. In particular, the stereotypes overestimated actual gender differences for the majority of movie genres (i.e., 10 of 17). Practical and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  9. The roles of gender and profession on gender role expectations of pain in health care professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesolowicz DM

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Danielle M Wesolowicz, Jaylyn F Clark, Jeff Boissoneault, Michael E Robinson Department of Clinical Health Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Introduction: Gender-related stereotypes of pain may account for some assessment and treatment disparities among patients. Among health care providers, demographic factors including gender and profession may influence the use of gender cues in pain management decision-making. The Gender Role Expectations of Pain Questionnaire was developed to assess gender-related stereotypic attributions of pain regarding sensitivity, endurance, and willingness to report pain, and has not yet been used in a sample of health care providers. The purpose of this study was to examine the presence of gender role expectation of pain among health care providers. It was hypothesized that health care providers of both genders would endorse gender stereotypic views of pain and physicians would be more likely than dentists to endorse these views. Methods: One-hundred and sixty-nine providers (89 dentists, 80 physicians; 40% women were recruited as part of a larger study examining providers’ use of demographic cues in ­making pain management decisions. Participants completed the Gender Role Expectations of Pain Questionnaire to assess the participant’s views of gender differences in pain sensitivity, pain endurance, and willingness to report pain. Results: Results of repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that health care providers of both genders endorsed stereotypic views of pain regarding willingness to report pain (F(1,165=34.241, P<0.001; d=0.479. Furthermore, female dentists rated men as having less endurance than women (F(1,165=4.654, P=0.032; d=0.333. Conclusion: These findings affirm the presence of some gender-related stereotypic views among health care providers and suggest the presence of a view among health care providers that men are underreporting their pain in comparison to women

  10. Gender Stereotypes and Gendered Vocational Aspirations among Swiss Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjar, Andreas; Aeschlimann, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Horizontal gender inequalities appear to be rather stable, with girls more often choosing "female" service professions, and boys choosing career paths related to science, technology, engineering or Mathematics. Purpose: Non-egalitarian patriarchal gender-role orientations and gender associations (perceived femininity) of the…

  11. GREEK «ΦΥΣΙΣ» AS THE BASIS OF GENDER STEREOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Storozhuk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Considering the fact that the concept «by nature» formed the basis of diametrically different approaches to the interpretation of the place and role of women not only in Greek society, but determined the gender relations up to this time, the article examines the features of the interpretation of the term «nature» («φύσις» in Greek outlook and the impact of natural-philosophical ideas on the evolution of gender relations of Ancient period. Methodology of the study is caused by interdisciplinary approach, involving not only the use of scientific methods such as analysis, synthesis and generalization and so on. Basic principles of philosophical hermeneutics, hypothetical-deductive method and contextual analysis are used at the same time. Originality lies in the denial of existing idea in contemporary intellectual discourse that the concept «by nature» is a conceptual prerequisite for ensuring gender inequality. Against this background, it is shown that gender equality and inequalities are both caused by the dominant in the public worldview meta-narrative paradigm and specific features of interpretation of the concept «by nature» (or «nature». So when nature is seen in physiological or empirical sense, it establishes a pattern of gender inequality. The same can occur in cases of dogmatization and mythologizing of empiricism, which appears on the ideological level as a meta-narrative. However, when the concept of «nature» acquires metaphysical meaning and is viewed as a kind of potentiality that is actualized in the presence of favorable conditions prerequisites of gender equality are emerging. Conclusions. Having considered the proposed by Greek philosophy approaches to gender interaction as a kind of stereotypes, we conclude that the development of gender relations in individual historical terms was caused by the specificity of the dominant narrative of life and world order.

  12. Parents' Gender Ideology and Gendered Behavior as Predictors of Children's Gender-Role Attitudes: A Longitudinal Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Halpern, Hillary; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen

    2016-05-01

    The current study utilized longitudinal, self-report data from a sample of 109 dual-earner, working-class couples and their 6-year-old children living in the northeastern United States. Research questions addressed the roles of parents' gender ideology and gendered behaviors in predicting children's development of gender-role attitudes. It was hypothesized that parents' behavior would be more influential than their ideology in the development of their children's attitudes about gender roles. Parents responded to questionnaires assessing their global beliefs about women's and men's "rightful" roles in society, work preferences for mothers, division of household and childcare tasks, division of paid work hours, and job traditionality. These data were collected at multiple time points across the first year of parenthood, and during a 6-year follow-up. At the final time point, children completed the Sex Roles Learning Inventory (SERLI), an interactive measure that assesses gender-role attitudes. Overall, mothers' and fathers' behaviors were better predictors of children's gender-role attitudes than parents' ideology. In addition, mothers and fathers played unique roles in their sons' and daughters' acquisition of knowledge about gender stereotypes. Findings from the current study fill gaps in the literature on children's gender development in the family context-particularly by examining the understudied role of fathers in children's acquisition of knowledge regarding gender stereotypes and through its longitudinal exploration of the relationship between parents' gender ideologies, parents' gendered behaviors, and children's gender-role attitudes.

  13. Preventing violence against women by challenging gender stereotypes in Scottish primary schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Butler, Antoinette Mary

    2016-01-01

    stereotypes for the individual pupil. Moreover, further attention could have been given to surrounding powerful discourses and media representations that may be at odds with the messages of the programme. The present study illustrates that the growing field of public health can be supported through an “all......Gender violence is a major public health issue in Europe; it is normalized and partly legitimized by gender stereotypes. An example of a primary prevention education programme designed to challenge the attitudes that underpin gender violence, particularly violence against women, is the Zero...... Tolerance Respect (ZTR) programme developed for Scottish pupils. Given the importance of early preventative action in this area, this paper analyses how gender stereotypes were challenged in ZTR materials for primary pupils aged 10-12 years. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the content...

  14. An Intersectional Analysis of Gender and Ethnic Stereotypes: Testing Three Hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavami, Negin; Peplau, Letitia Anne

    2013-01-01

    We compared perceived cultural stereotypes of diverse groups varying by gender and ethnicity. Using a free-response procedure, we asked 627 U.S. undergraduates to generate 10 attributes for 1 of 17 groups: Asian Americans, Blacks, Latinos, Middle Eastern Americans, or Whites; men or women; or 10 gender-by-ethnic groups (e.g., Black men or Latina…

  15. Voice Quality and Gender Stereotypes: A Study of Lebanese Women with Reinke's Edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matar, Nayla; Portes, Cristel; Lancia, Leonardo; Legou, Thierry; Baider, Fabienne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Women with Reinke's edema (RW) report being mistaken for men during telephone conversations. For this reason, their masculine-sounding voices are interesting for the study of gender stereotypes. The study's objective is to verify their complaint and to understand the cues used in gender identification. Method Using a self-evaluation study,…

  16. Reconsidering the Impact of Gender Stereotypes on the Advancement of Women in Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agars, Mark D.

    2004-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, gender issues in the workplace have received much attention. A review of this literature, however, reveals limited investigation of the impact of gender stereotypes on personnel decisions and the demographic differences present in upper management. In fact, this issue has rarely received serious attention. A…

  17. Implicit Gender Stereotypes and Essentialist Beliefs Predict Preservice Teachers' Tracking Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nürnberger, Miriam; Nerb, Josef; Schmitz, Florian; Keller, Johannes; Sütterlin, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which differences in implicit and explicit math--language gender stereotypes, and essentialist beliefs among preservice teachers affect tracking recommendations for math/science versus language-oriented secondary schools. Consistent with expectations, the results suggest that student's gender influences…

  18. Gender roles revised?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to deepen the understanding of how mobile phone usage is related to gender in general and the negotiation of gender roles in particular. It will focus on how women in Kenya appropriate mobile phones and how the appropriation is influenced by prevailing gender norms...... but also in turn is influencing gender relations. Mobile phone use is strongly intertwined with everyday life and thus this chapter will approach mobile phone use, as practices or a site where gender roles are potentially negotiated, challenged but also reinforced. Geographically the study that constituted...... the basis for this chapter is set in Kenya, where family relations and gender roles is presently undergoing changes. The data was gathered in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya, an area, which is predominantly rural, but also home to the city Eldoret and its surrounding peri-urban areas. The situation for women...

  19. Beyond Cinematic Stereotypes. Using Religion to Imagine Gender Differently

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Sjö

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In films, religious characters are often gendered in quite traditional ways, but there are some notable exceptions. This article discusses two Scandinavian films that partly break the mold. The analysis illustrates how in films varied forms of religion are gen¬dered quite differently, and explores the ways in which religious themes can open up for alternative male and female characters. Different ways of understanding the representations are discussed and related to views on the place and role of religion in the contemporary Scandinavian context. The article draws on the mediatization of religion theory as a theoretical framework, but also highlights the challenges that complex images of gender and religion pose to this theory.

  20. Gender stereotypes, aggression, and computer games: an online survey of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Kamala O

    2004-12-01

    Computer games were conceptualized as a potential mode of entry into computer-related employment for women. Computer games contain increasing levels of realism and violence, as well as biased gender portrayals. It has been suggested that aggressive personality characteristics attract people to aggressive video games, and that more women do not play computer games because they are socialized to be non-aggressive. To explore gender identity and aggressive personality in the context of computers, an online survey was conducted on women who played computer games and women who used the computer but did not play computer games. Women who played computer games perceived their online environments as less friendly but experienced less sexual harassment online, were more aggressive themselves, and did not differ in gender identity, degree of sex role stereotyping, or acceptance of sexual violence when compared to women who used the computer but did not play video games. Finally, computer gaming was associated with decreased participation in computer-related employment; however, women with high masculine gender identities were more likely to use computers at work.

  1. Sexual Self-Descriptions and Gender Stereotypes in College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Fernández Liporace

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents partial results from a study carried out to analyze the way young college students self-describe their sexual behavior in relation with sex. Data show significant differences in certain adjectives, linked with traditional roles assigned to women and men in sexual relationships; an additional comparison with results about gender sterotypes reported by Williams & Best (1994 is made. A survey on sociodemographic data and a list of 70 adjectives that describe sexual behaviors were administered to a sample of 248 college students from Buenos Aires city and its suburban area.

  2. On the Gender-Science Stereotypes held by Scientists: Explicit accord with Gender-Ratios, Implicit accord with Scientific Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick L Smyth

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Women’s representation in science has changed substantially, but unevenly, over the past 40 years. In health and biological sciences, for example, women’s representation among U.S. scientists is now on par with or greater than men’s, while in physical sciences and engineering they remain a clear minority. We investigated whether variation in proportions of women in scientific disciplines is related to differing levels of male-favoring explicit or implicit stereotypes held by students and scientists in each discipline. We hypothesized that science-is-male stereotypes would be weaker in disciplines where women are better represented. This prediction was tested with a sample of 176,935 college-educated participants (70% female, including thousands of engineers, physicians, and scientists. The prediction was supported for the explicit stereotype, but not for the implicit stereotype. Implicit stereotype strength did not correspond with disciplines’ gender ratios, but, rather, correlated with two indicators of disciplines’ scientific intensity, positively for men and negatively for women. From age 18 on, women who majored or worked in disciplines perceived as more scientific had substantially weaker science-is-male stereotypes than did men in the same disciplines, with gender differences larger than 0.8 standard deviations in the most scientifically-perceived disciplines. Further, particularly for women, differences in the strength of implicit stereotypes across scientific disciplines corresponded with the strength of scientific values held by women in the disciplines. These results are discussed in the context of dual process theory of mental operation and balanced identity theory. The findings point to the need for longitudinal study of the factors’ affecting development of adults’ and, especially, children’s implicit gender stereotypes and scientific identity.

  3. On the gender-science stereotypes held by scientists: explicit accord with gender-ratios, implicit accord with scientific identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Frederick L; Nosek, Brian A

    2015-01-01

    Women's representation in science has changed substantially, but unevenly, over the past 40 years. In health and biological sciences, for example, women's representation among U.S. scientists is now on par with or greater than men's, while in physical sciences and engineering they remain a clear minority. We investigated whether variation in proportions of women in scientific disciplines is related to differing levels of male-favoring explicit or implicit stereotypes held by students and scientists in each discipline. We hypothesized that science-is-male stereotypes would be weaker in disciplines where women are better represented. This prediction was tested with a sample of 176,935 college-educated participants (70% female), including thousands of engineers, physicians, and scientists. The prediction was supported for the explicit stereotype, but not for the implicit stereotype. Implicit stereotype strength did not correspond with disciplines' gender ratios, but, rather, correlated with two indicators of disciplines' scientific intensity, positively for men and negatively for women. From age 18 on, women who majored or worked in disciplines perceived as more scientific had substantially weaker science-is-male stereotypes than did men in the same disciplines, with gender differences larger than 0.8 standard deviations in the most scientifically-perceived disciplines. Further, particularly for women, differences in the strength of implicit stereotypes across scientific disciplines corresponded with the strength of scientific values held by women in the disciplines. These results are discussed in the context of dual process theory of mental operation and balanced identity theory. The findings point to the need for longitudinal study of the factors' affecting development of adults' and, especially, children's implicit gender stereotypes and scientific identity.

  4. Intergenerational Transmission of Prejudice, Sex Role Stereotyping, and Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, Megan; Fishbein, Harold D.; Ritchey, P. Neal

    2004-01-01

    The attitudes of 111 ninth and eleventh graders and both of their biological parents were independently assessed for prejudice against people with HIV/ AIDS, homosexuals, Blacks, and fat people, as well as for male and female sex role stereotyping. This study corrected for two shortcomings in previous research: neglecting to assess both parents…

  5. Leadership Positions and Sex Role Stereotyping among Gifted Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnes, Frances A.; D'Ilio, Victor R.

    1989-01-01

    Gifted children in grades 4 through 6 were presented with a list of 34 leadership positions and asked whether men, women, or either sex could hold that position. Analysis indicated that boys tended to have more traditional sex role stereotypes than did girls. (Author/DB)

  6. Multiple standards of aging: gender-specific age stereotypes in different life domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornadt, Anna E; Voss, Peggy; Rothermund, Klaus

    2013-12-01

    Whereas it is often stated that aging might have more negative consequences for the evaluation of women compared to men, evidence for this assumption is mixed. We took a differentiated look at age stereotypes of men and women, assuming that the life domain in which older persons are rated moderates gender differences in age stereotypes. A sample of 298 participants aged 20-92 rated 65 - year-old men and women on evaluative statements in eight different life domains. Furthermore, perceptions of gender- and domain-specific age-related changes were assessed by comparing the older targets to 45 - year-old men and women, respectively. The results speak in favor of the domain specificity of evaluative asymmetries in age stereotypes for men and women, and imply that an understanding of gendered perceptions of aging requires taking into account the complexities of domain-specific views on aging.

  7. Transforming discriminatory sex roles and gender stereotyping : the implementation of Article 5(a) CEDAW for the realisation of women's right to be free from gender-based violence in Jamaica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biholar, R.G.

    2013-01-01

    Gender-based violence against women is a stubborn problem worldwide. It still affects the everyday lives of many women around the world. This scourge has deep social and cultural roots, which foster a vicious cycle of gender violence. Embedded constructions of femininity and masculinity based on

  8. Tears or Fears? Comparing Gender Stereotypes about Movie Preferences to Actual Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Wühr, Peter; Lange, Benjamin P.; Schwarz, Sascha

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the accuracy of gender-specific stereotypes about movie-genre preferences for 17 genres. In Study 1, female and male participants rated the extent to which 17 movie genres are preferred by women or men. In Study 2, another sample of female and male participants rated their own preference for each genre. There were three notable results. First, Study 1 revealed the existence of gender stereotypes for the majority of genres (i.e., for 15 of 17 genres). Second, Study 2 re...

  9. Ambient belonging: how stereotypical cues impact gender participation in computer science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheryan, Sapna; Plaut, Victoria C; Davies, Paul G; Steele, Claude M

    2009-12-01

    People can make decisions to join a group based solely on exposure to that group's physical environment. Four studies demonstrate that the gender difference in interest in computer science is influenced by exposure to environments associated with computer scientists. In Study 1, simply changing the objects in a computer science classroom from those considered stereotypical of computer science (e.g., Star Trek poster, video games) to objects not considered stereotypical of computer science (e.g., nature poster, phone books) was sufficient to boost female undergraduates' interest in computer science to the level of their male peers. Further investigation revealed that the stereotypical broadcast a masculine stereotype that discouraged women's sense of ambient belonging and subsequent interest in the environment (Studies 2, 3, and 4) but had no similar effect on men (Studies 3, 4). This masculine stereotype prevented women's interest from developing even in environments entirely populated by other women (Study 2). Objects can thus come to broadcast stereotypes of a group, which in turn can deter people who do not identify with these stereotypes from joining that group.

  10. A Mediational Model Explaining the Connection Between Religiosity and Anti-Homosexual Attitudes in Italy: The Effects of Male Role Endorsement and Homosexual Stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piumatti, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to better understand the relationship between religiosity and anti-homosexual attitudes in Italy by examining the mediation effects of male role endorsement and homosexual stereotyping. A sample of 5,522 Italian residents (age range = 18-74) was drawn from a cross-sectional national representative survey carried out in 2011. Measures included general religiosity, male role endorsement, homosexual stereotyping, social acceptance of homosexuality, and homosexual rights endorsement. Structural equation modeling was used to test the mediational effects of male role endorsement and homosexual stereotyping on the relationship between general religiosity and attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Results showed that both male role endorsement and homosexual stereotyping partially mediated the relationship. In a model where religiosity and both mediators positively explained anti-homosexual attitudes, male role endorsement was the strongest mediator. Endorsement of gender role beliefs and homosexual stereotyping may thus exacerbate the connection between religiosity and anti-homosexual attitudes among Italians.

  11. Stereotype susceptibility narrows the gender gap in imagined self-rotation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wraga, Maryjane; Duncan, Lauren; Jacobs, Emily C; Helt, Molly; Church, Jessica

    2006-10-01

    Three studies examined the impact of stereotype messages on men's and women's performance of a mental rotation task involving imagined self-rotations. Experiment 1 established baseline differences between men and women; women made 12% more errors than did men. Experiment 2 found that exposure to a positive stereotype message enhanced women's performance in comparison with that of another group of women who received neutral information. In Experiment 3, men who were exposed to the same stereotype message emphasizing a female advantage made more errors than did male controls, and the magnitude of error was similar to that for women from Experiment 1. The results suggest that the gender gap in mental rotation performance is partially caused by experiential factors, particularly those induced by sociocultural stereotypes.

  12. Translating Gender Stereotypes: An Overview on Global Telefiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pérez L. de Heredia

    2016-02-01

    Placing considerable importance on ideology in Translation Studies and, by doing so, refusing and turning down the view of the translation as a neutral bridge, an invisible agent, we will pay attention to the fact that not only linguistic but especially cultural, and even ideological, differences arouse when dealing with the act of translating. In particular, we will focus on the subject of manipulation and rewriting of stereotypes in the field of audiovisual translation.

  13. Young and Older Adults' Gender Stereotype in Multitasking

    OpenAIRE

    Strobach, Tilo; Woszidlo, Alesia

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated discrepancies between two components of stereotyping by means of the popular notion that women are better at multitasking behaviors: the cognitive structure in individuals (personal belief) and the perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs (perceived belief of groups). With focus on this notion, we examined whether there was empirical evidence for the stereotype’s existence and whether and how it was shared among different age groups. Data were collec...

  14. Gender stereotypes about intellectual ability emerge early and influence children's interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Lin; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Cimpian, Andrei

    2017-01-27

    Common stereotypes associate high-level intellectual ability (brilliance, genius, etc.) with men more than women. These stereotypes discourage women's pursuit of many prestigious careers; that is, women are underrepresented in fields whose members cherish brilliance (such as physics and philosophy). Here we show that these stereotypes are endorsed by, and influence the interests of, children as young as 6. Specifically, 6-year-old girls are less likely than boys to believe that members of their gender are "really, really smart." Also at age 6, girls begin to avoid activities said to be for children who are "really, really smart." These findings suggest that gendered notions of brilliance are acquired early and have an immediate effect on children's interests. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. When gentlemen are first and ladies are last: effects of gender stereotypes on the order of romantic partners' names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, Peter; Watson, Nila; Fletcher, Laura; McQueen, Grant

    2011-03-01

    A preference to name stereotypically masculine before stereotypically feminine individuals explains why men are typically named before women, as on the Internet, for example (Study 1). Heterosexual couples are named with men's names first more often when such couples are imagined to conform to gender stereotypes (Studies 2 and 3). First-named partners of imaginary same-sex couples are attributed more stereotypically masculine attributes (Study 4). Familiarity bounds these effects of stereotypes on name order. People name couples they know well with closer people first (Study 5), and consequently name familiar heterosexual couples with members of their own gender first (Study 6). These studies evidence a previously unknown effect of the semantics of gender stereotypes on sentence structure in the everyday use of English. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Perceived Gender Based Stereotypes in Educational Technology Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolliger, Doris U.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers point out gender differences in the adoption and use of technology. Men tend to be the early adopters of computer technologies, whereas women are thought of as laggards. Several writings exist that identified ads in the media as gender biased. Thomas and Treiber, who examined race, gender, and status in popular magazines, indicate that…

  17. Children's Implicit and Explicit Gender Stereotypes about Mathematics and Reading Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Elizabeth A.; Lopata, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Study objectives were to clarify children's gender-based implicit and explicit mathematics and reading stereotypes, and to determine if implicit and explicit measures were related or represented distinct constructs. One hundred and fifty-six boys and girls (mean age 11.3 years) from six elementary schools completed math or reading stereotype…

  18. Conformity under uncertainty: reliance on gender stereotypes in online hiring decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, Eric Luis; Silberzahn, Raphael

    2014-02-01

    We apply Bentley et al.'s theoretical framework to better understand gender discrimination in online labor markets. Although such settings are designed to encourage employer behavior in the northwest corner of Homo economicus, actual online hiring decisions tend to drift southeast into a "confirmation bias plus weak feedback loops" pattern of discrimination based on inaccurate social stereotypes.

  19. The Effect of Target Age on the Activation of Gender Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powlishta, Kimberly K.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the impact of target age on gender stereotyping. College and elementary students viewed photographs of men, women, boys, and girls, rating each for masculine, feminine, and neutral personality traits. Adults also rated likelihood of masculine and feminine traits in adults versus children. Target age had important implications for…

  20. Musicians Crossing Musical Instrument Gender Stereotypes: A Study of Computer-Mediated Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeles, Harold F.; Hafeli, Mary; Sears, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined computer-mediated communication (CMC) -- blogs and responses to YouTube postings -- to better understand how CMCs reflect adolescents' attitudes towards musicians playing instruments that cross gender stereotypes. Employing purposive sampling, we used specific search terms, such as "girl drummer", to identify a…

  1. Re-ment--Reverse Mentoring as a Way to Deconstruct Gender Related Stereotypes in ICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permoser, Kathrin

    2017-01-01

    In applying a reverse mentoring approach, the project "re-ment" aims at raising the interest of female students for Information and Communication Technology (ICT) professions and at contributing to the deconstruction of gender stereotypes in this field. This approach offers a completely new and innovative perspective in the field of…

  2. "Shake It Baby, Shake It": Media Preferences, Sexual Attitudes and Gender Stereotypes Among Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogt, T.F.M. ter; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Bogers, S.; Kloosterman, M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study exposure to and preferences for three important youth media (TV, music styles/music TV, internet) were examined in relation to adolescents' permissive sexual attitudes and gender stereotypes (i.e., views of men as sex-driven and tough, and of women as sex objects). Multivariate

  3. Women's Representation in Science Predicts National Gender-Science Stereotypes: Evidence from 66 Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David I.; Eagly, Alice H.; Linn, Marcia C.

    2015-01-01

    In the past 40 years, the proportion of women in science courses and careers has dramatically increased in some nations but not in others. Our research investigated how national differences in women's science participation related to gender-science stereotypes that associate science with men more than women. Data from ~350,000 participants in 66…

  4. Toys, sociocognitive traits, and occupations: Italian children's endorsement of gender stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caroli, Maria Elvira; Sagone, Elisabetta

    2007-06-01

    In a sample of 136 Italian children ages 8 to 12 years (M = 9.6, SD = 1.2; 68 boys, 68 girls), gender stereotypes related to gender-typed toys, traits, and occupational choices were examined, using the forced-choice technique between a male and a female silhouette. Stereotypy was established considering boys' and girls' choices for the 70%-100% range. Differences in gender stereotyping for age and sex of participants were verified. Analysis indicated children attributed toys prevalently connected with aesthetic aspect and domestic activities to the female silhouette, while technology, warfare, locomotion, and construction toys were attributed to the male. Children attributed physical and verbal aggressiveness and dominance to the male silhouette; the female profile was exclusively characterized by sweetness. The occupational stereotypical male model was structured in both practical-manual activities and of highly cultural and specialist relevance, while for the female model the number of activities, mainly of a domestic type, were reduced. Significant main effect of sex of children was found, but no significant age-related differences in the three domains. Results were discussed within the framework of gender-stereotype theories.

  5. The Sexualized Girl: A Within-Gender Stereotype among Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Ellen A.; Brown, Christia Spears; Jewell, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Two studies (conducted in 2013) examined whether elementary-aged children endorse a within-gender stereotype about sexualized girls. In Study 1, children (N = 208) ages 6-11 rated sexualized girls as more popular but less intelligent, athletic, and nice compared to nonsexualized girls. These distinctions were stronger for girls and older children,…

  6. Doctor/Nurse, Teacher/Caretaker: Children's Gendered Choice of Adult Occupation in Interviews and Role Plays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Becky

    1996-01-01

    In interviews, 81 British girls and 64 boys aged 7-11 chose a diverse, less gender-stereotyped selection of jobs. There were differences in the types and attributes of jobs chosen by girls and boys, and few children chose jobs traditional for the opposite sex. In role playing, a majority chose gender-stereotypical occupational roles. (SK)

  7. Parent-child math anxiety and math-gender stereotypes predict adolescents' math education outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Casad, Bettina J.; Hale, Patricia; Wachs, Faye L.

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined social determinants of adolescents’ math anxiety including parents’ own math anxiety and children’s endorsement of math-gender stereotypes. In study 1, parent-child dyads were surveyed and the interaction between parent and child math anxiety was examined, with an eye to same- and other-gender dyads. Results indicate that parent’s math anxiety interacts with daughters’ and sons’ anxiety to predict math self-efficacy, GPA, behavioral intentions, math attitudes, and math de...

  8. The Cost of Acting "Girly": Gender Stereotypes and Educational Choices

    OpenAIRE

    Favara, Marta

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at horizontal sex segregation in education as a factor contributing to gender segregation in the labor market. Economic theories fail to explain why women with the same years of schooling and educational attainment as men are under-represented in many technical degrees, which typically lead to better paid occupations. Following Akerlof and Kranton (2000), I research whether gender identity affects boys' and girls' educational choices and when the gendered pattern appears firs...

  9. Stereotype-based faultlines and out-group derogation in diverse teams: The moderating roles of task stereotypicality and need for cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanciu, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Alignment of individuals on more than one diversity attribute (i.e., faultlines) may lead to intergroup biases in teams, disrupting the efficiency expectancies. Research has yet to examine if this can be a consequence of a stereotypical consistency between social and information attributes of diversity. The present study tests the hypothesis that, in a team with a stereotype-based faultline (a stereotypical consistency between gender and skills), there is increased out-group derogation compared to a team with a stereotype-inconsistent faultline. Furthermore, the study proposes that tasks can activate stereotypes, and the need for cognition dictates whether stereotypes are applied. The findings confirm the hypothesis and additionally provide evidence that tasks that activate gender stereotypes emphasize out-group derogation, especially for team members with low need for cognition.

  10. Gender and Instrument Associations, Stereotypes, and Stratification: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wych, Gina M. F.

    2012-01-01

    This literature review examines and synthesizes 30 years of research into the relationship between gender and musical instruments. Specifically, the review focuses on how this relationship affects instrument selection by grade school students entering a school music program. Topics include the gender typing of musical instruments, instrument…

  11. 'Her market has closed': Critical rethinking of gender stereotypes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These gender categorizations tend to position women in the domestic and repressed sphere leaving the public and liberal operating space to the males, seemingly negating the postmodern concepts of gender equality and women empowerment. The work argues that these idioms have become clichéd in the present age ...

  12. Mathematics and Gender Stereotypes in One Jewish and One Druze Grade 5 Classroom in Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mittelberg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report findings from qualitative case studies of two grade 5 classrooms in Israel, one Jewish and one Druze. The aim was to identify classroom factors contributing to the differences in the gendered patterns of mathematics outcomes for Jewish and Arab Israeli students. Marked differences were found in the teachers' gender-related interactions with students, and their beliefs and expectations of boys' and girls' mathematical capabilities. The Jewish teacher held conventional gender-stereotyped beliefs of male mathematical superiority. The Druze teacher believed that girls required affirmative action to overcome implied gender biases in favour of males in the Druze community. The findings support earlier research and theoretical perspectives on gender-related issues in the mathematics classroom. In particular, when teachers hold gender-biased beliefs and expectations, students' classroom experiences and mathematics learning outcomes are impacted along gender lines.

  13. Women are not less field independent than men-the role of stereotype threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drążkowski, Dariusz; Szwedo, Jakub; Krajczewska, Aleksandra; Adamczuk, Anna; Piątkowski, Krzysztof; Jadwiżyc, Marcin; Rakowski, Adam

    2017-10-01

    Prior research has shown that females are less field independent (FI) than males. However, when gender identity is salient, performance on tests assessing constructs similar to FI may be hindered, because of stereotype threat. This study examined the impact of stereotype threat on gender differences in FI. We expected that (a) reporting one's own gender prior to FI testing and (b) having an opposite-gender experimenter would activate stereotype threat, and in turn result in lower performance on a test of FI among females. Overall, 170 participants were randomly assigned to one of eight conditions in a between-participants design varying the participant's gender, experimenter's gender and timing of the gender question (before vs. after test). Results showed that reporting one's gender before the FI test led to lower FI performance among females. Furthermore, females achieved higher FI when experimenters were females and gender questions were administered after the FI test. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  14. Traditional Masculinity and Femininity: Validation of a New Scale Assessing Gender Roles

    OpenAIRE

    Kachel, Sven; Steffens, Melanie C.; Niedlich, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Gender stereotype theory suggests that men are generally perceived as more masculine than women, whereas women are generally perceived as more feminine than men. Several scales have been developed to measure fundamental aspects of gender stereotypes (e.g., agency and communion, competence and warmth, or instrumentality and expressivity). Although omitted in later version, Bem's original Sex Role Inventory included the items ?masculine? and ?feminine? in addition to more specific gender-stereo...

  15. Gender stereotypes and linguistic sexism present in books in educational context for children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Finco

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, since the 1970s, there has been a significant debate on the studies on linguistic sexism that have contributed to the problematization of the presence of gender stereotypes in children's literature. This article presents a historical reconstruction of the debate developed in Italy in the last forty years. The debate showed the importance of problematizing the patterns of identity and behavior transmitted through reading in educational contexts for children. This context also led to the drafting of the Polite Project, which invites editors to be respectful with gender differences, both text and images. It presents important research on the problem of the presence of stereotyped messages of gender present in books for children and the changes that have occurred throughout this process.

  16. Implicit and Explicit Gender Beliefs in Spatial Ability: Stronger Stereotyping in Boys than Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Heyden, Karin M; van Atteveldt, Nienke M; Huizinga, Mariette; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in spatial ability are a seriously debated topic, given the importance of spatial ability for success in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and girls' underrepresentation in these domains. In the current study we investigated the presence of stereotypic gender beliefs on spatial ability (i.e., "spatial ability is for boys") in 10- and 12-year-old children. We used both an explicit measure (i.e., a self-report questionnaire) and an implicit measure (i.e., a child IAT). Results of the explicit measure showed that both sexes associated spatial ability with boys, with boys holding more male stereotyped attitudes than girls. On the implicit measure, boys associated spatial ability with boys, while girls were gender-neutral. In addition, we examined the effects of gender beliefs on spatial performance, by experimentally activating gender beliefs within a pretest-instruction-posttest design. We compared three types of instruction: boys are better, girls are better, and no sex differences. No effects of these gender belief instructions were found on children's spatial test performance (i.e., mental rotation and paper folding). The finding that children of this age already have stereotypic beliefs about the spatial capacities of their own sex is important, as these beliefs may influence children's choices for spatial leisure activities and educational tracks in the STEM domain.

  17. Implicit and Explicit Gender Beliefs in Spatial Ability: Stronger Stereotyping in Boys than Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Vander Heyden

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in spatial ability are a seriously debated topic, given the importance of spatial ability for success in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM and girls’ underrepresentation in these domains. In the current study we investigated the presence of stereotypic gender beliefs on spatial ability (i.e., ‘spatial ability is for boys’ in 10- and 12-year-old children. We used both an explicit measure (i.e., a self-report questionnaire and an implicit measure (i.e., a child IAT. Results of the explicit measure showed that both sexes associated spatial ability with boys, with boys holding more male stereotyped attitudes than girls. On the implicit measure, boys associated spatial ability with boys, while girls were gender-neutral. In addition, we examined the effects of gender beliefs on spatial performance, by experimentally activating gender beliefs within a pretest – instruction – posttest design. We compared three types of instruction: boys are better, girls are better, and no sex differences. No effects of these gender belief instructions were found on children’s spatial test performance (i.e., mental rotation and paper folding. The finding that children of this age already have stereotypic beliefs about the spatial capacities of their own sex is important, as these beliefs may influence children’s choices for spatial leisure activities and educational tracks in the STEM domain.

  18. Word embeddings quantify 100 years of gender and ethnic stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Nikhil; Schiebinger, Londa; Jurafsky, Dan; Zou, James

    2018-04-17

    Word embeddings are a powerful machine-learning framework that represents each English word by a vector. The geometric relationship between these vectors captures meaningful semantic relationships between the corresponding words. In this paper, we develop a framework to demonstrate how the temporal dynamics of the embedding helps to quantify changes in stereotypes and attitudes toward women and ethnic minorities in the 20th and 21st centuries in the United States. We integrate word embeddings trained on 100 y of text data with the US Census to show that changes in the embedding track closely with demographic and occupation shifts over time. The embedding captures societal shifts-e.g., the women's movement in the 1960s and Asian immigration into the United States-and also illuminates how specific adjectives and occupations became more closely associated with certain populations over time. Our framework for temporal analysis of word embedding opens up a fruitful intersection between machine learning and quantitative social science.

  19. SEX-ROLE STEREOTYPE DALAM REKRUTMEN PEGAWAI AKUNTANSI DAN KEUANGAN: OBSERVASI TERHADAP POLA REKRUITMEN TERBUKA DI MEDIA MASA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Narsa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A Sex-role stereotype is the belief that differing traits and abilities make men and women particularly well suited to different roles. The objectives of this research were to know if there is stereotype gender prerequisite in recruitment of finance and accounting staff. Observation conducted to advertisement for job opening at Jawa Pos news paper during four months and ten days. We found amounted 301 vacancies for finance and accounting staff. Result of these study show companies that want to recruit staff tend to bias for the gender issues. Companies that require sex tend to men orientation for the specific job and women for the other. This reflects there are sex-role stereotype in the recruitment process of finance and accounting staff. Good Job specification should not be discriminative about the gender. The Restrictive may be expense of the firm that is losing potential candidate. Sex requires have to base on logic consideration and about many job characteristic and environment. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui apakah terjadi bias gender dalam penentuan spesifikasi/qualifikasi karyawan bidang akuntansi dan keuangan dalam proses rekrutmen. Data diperoleh melalui observasi mengenai iklan rekruitmen tenaga akuntansi dan keuangan yang dipublikasikan secara terbuka di Harian Pagi Jawa Pos yang terbit di Jawa Timur, khususnya Surabaya selama 4 bulan 10 hari. Total ada 301 formasi jabatan dan bidang pekerjaan yang diiklankan. Hasil dari penelitian ini mengungkapkan para pengguna tenaga akuntansi cenderung mempersyaratkan jenis kelamin. Jenis kelamin laki-laki secara dominan lebih dipersyaratkan hampir untuk semua bidang akuntansi kecuali untuk spesifikasi administrasi dan staf akuntanai. Hasil ini mencerminkan esensi dari Sex-role stereotypes bahwa spesifikasi pekerjaan tertentu sesuai untuk jenis kelamin tertentu. Kata kunci: sex-role stereotype, rekruitmen, akuntansi dan keuangan

  20. Race is gendered: how covarying phenotypes and stereotypes bias sex categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kerri L; Freeman, Jonathan B; Pauker, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    We argue that race and sex categories are psychologically and phenotypically confounded, affecting social categorizations and their efficiency. Sex categorization of faces was facilitated when the race category shared facial phenotypes or stereotypes with the correct sex category (e.g., Asian women and Black men) but was impaired when the race category shared incompatible phenotypes or stereotypes with the correct sex category (e.g., Asian men and Black women). These patterns were evident in the disambiguation of androgynous faces (Study 1) and the efficiency of judgments (Studies 1, 2, 4, and 5). These patterns emerged due to common facial phenotypes for the categories Black and men (Studies 3 and 5) and due to shared stereotypes among the categories Black and men and the categories Asian and women (Studies 4 and 5). These findings challenge the notion that social categories are perceived independent of one another and show, instead, that race is gendered.

  1. The Sexualized Girl: A Within-Gender Stereotype Among Elementary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Ellen A; Brown, Christia Spears; Jewell, Jennifer A

    2015-01-01

    Two studies (conducted in 2013) examined whether elementary-aged children endorse a within-gender stereotype about sexualized girls. In Study 1, children (N = 208) ages 6-11 rated sexualized girls as more popular but less intelligent, athletic, and nice compared to nonsexualized girls. These distinctions were stronger for girls and older children, and in accordance with our developmental intergroup theoretical framework, were related to children's cognitive development and media exposure. Study 2 (N = 155) replicated the previous findings using more ecologically valid and realistic images of girls and further explored individual differences in the endorsement of the sexualized girl stereotype. Additional results indicated that the belief that girls should be appearance focused predicted their endorsement of the sexualized girl stereotype. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  2. Are Parents' Academic Gender Stereotypes and Changes in Them Related to Their Perceptions of Their Child's Mathematical Competence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raty, Hannu; Karkkainen, Riitta

    2011-01-01

    In the course of their child's school years, a group of parents were asked to assess their child's mathematical competence and indicate whether they endorsed the gender stereotype pertaining to it. Once the child had entered upper primary school, the consistent stereotypic parents tended to rate their boys' mathematical competence higher than the…

  3. Gender and Ethnic Stereotypes in Student Teachers' Judgments: A New Look from a Shifting Standards Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Katharina; Kessels, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    Teacher judgments of student performance might be biased by stereotypes, which can result in disadvantages for members of negatively stereotyped social groups. On the basis of the shifting standards theory, we examined gender and ethnic biases in student teachers' judgments. According to this theory, whether such judgment biases are masked or…

  4. Estereotipos y Roles de Género en la Evaluación Laboral y Personal de Hombres y Mujeres en Cargos de Dirección Gender Stereotypes and Roles in the Labor and Personal Evaluation of Men and Women in Management Positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Godoy

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available En base a la teoría de la congruencia de roles (Eagly, 1987, este estudio analizó cómo estereotipos y roles de género afectaban la evaluación que recibía un hombre y una mujer gerente. El estudio fue cuasi experimental, transversal e inter sujeto. Participaron 242 ejecutivos, quienes debían leer la descripción de un gerente hombre o mujer y evaluarle en varios dominios laborales y personales. Se realizaron análisis univariados, multivariados y de mediciones repetidas de la varianza, considerando sexo del evaluado y del participante y ámbito (laboral y personal. No se encontraron diferencias en las evaluaciones con respecto al sexo de los participantes o de los evaluados. Sí se encontró un efecto principal del ámbito, recibiendo gerentes hombres y mujeres una evaluación mayor en el entorno laboral que en el personal.Based on the congruence role theory (Eagly, 1987, this study analyzed how gender stereotypes and gender role expectations influenced the evaluations of either a female or a male executive officer. The study was quasi-experimental and transversal, with a mixed design. Two hundred and forty two managers were asked to read the description of an executive officer and evaluate the target on various domains in both work and personal settings. One-way, factorial, and repeated measures analysis of variance were performed, considering target's and participant's sex and setting (work or intimate setting. The results showed that neither the participant's nor the target's sex influenced evaluations. However, a main effect was found for setting, such that both men and women were better evaluated in the working setting than in the personal setting.

  5. Event-related potential evidence of accessing gender stereotypes to aid source monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leynes, P Andrew; Crawford, Jarret T; Radebaugh, Anne M; Taranto, Elizabeth

    2013-01-23

    Source memory for the speaker's voice (male or female) was investigated when semantic knowledge (gender stereotypes) could and could not inform the episodic source judgment while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Source accuracy was greater and response times were faster when stereotypes could predict the speaker's voice at test. Recollection supported source judgments in both conditions as indicated by significant parietal "old/new" ERP effects (500-800ms). Prototypical late ERP effects (the right frontal "old/new" effect and the late posterior negativity, LPN) were evident when source judgment was based solely on episodic memory. However, these two late ERP effects were diminished and a novel, frontal-negative ERP with left-central topography was observed when stereotypes aided source judgments. This pattern of ERP activity likely reflects activation of left frontal or left temporal lobes when semantic knowledge, in the form of a gender stereotype, is accessed to inform the episodic source judgment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Persistence of Gender Stereotypes in Teaching History. A Study Through Textbooks and Perceptions of Students in Compulsory Secondary Education in Spain

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    Cosme Jesús Gómez-Carrasco

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the persistence of gender stereotypes in History Education. This study is conducted through an iconographic analysis of textbooks and the perception of students in Secondary Education in Spain. The educational reforms carried out in Spain over the last twenty five years have improved some aspects of gender equality, especially the introduction of some cross-cutting themes related to this subject. However, investigations related to sexism in school materials have revealed the persistence of some gender clichés. To do this research, we have analysed 128 pictures on three History textbooks for fourth grade students of Compulsory Secondary Education in Spain. In the analysis, various categories were combined and they allowed a multifactorial study. Furthermore, these data have been contrasted with the answers given to a questionnaire on gender stereotypes by 152 students of two grades. The results show that, despite the improvement of textbooks, an imbalance still survives in the representation of male and female genders and in the images associated with them. In the answers to the questionnaire, disparate findings are also perceived. Although some sexist prejudices seem to be overcome, especially those related to the role of men and women at home, images and negative stereotypes about gender relations and women’s role still persist.

  7. Why Does Gender Matter? Counteracting Stereotypes with Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aina, Olaiya E.; Cameron, Petronella A.

    2011-01-01

    The early gender bias experiences that children encounter can shape their attitudes and beliefs related to their development of interpersonal and intrapersonal relationships, access to education equality, participation in the corporate work world, as well as stifling their physical and psychological well being. For early childhood educators, being…

  8. Parents' Gender Ideology and Gendered Behavior as Predictors of Children's Gender-Role Attitudes: A Longitudinal Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Halpern, Hillary; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    The current study utilized longitudinal, self-report data from a sample of 109 dual-earner, working-class couples and their 6-year-old children living in the northeastern United States. Research questions addressed the roles of parents’ gender ideology and gendered behaviors in predicting children’s development of gender-role attitudes. It was hypothesized that parents' behavior would be more influential than their ideology in the development of their children's attitudes about gender roles. Parents responded to questionnaires assessing their global beliefs about women's and men's "rightful" roles in society, work preferences for mothers, division of household and childcare tasks, division of paid work hours, and job traditionality. These data were collected at multiple time points across the first year of parenthood, and during a 6-year follow-up. At the final time point, children completed the Sex Roles Learning Inventory (SERLI), an interactive measure that assesses gender-role attitudes. Overall, mothers’ and fathers’ behaviors were better predictors of children’s gender-role attitudes than parents’ ideology. In addition, mothers and fathers played unique roles in their sons’ and daughters’ acquisition of knowledge about gender stereotypes. Findings from the current study fill gaps in the literature on children’s gender development in the family context—particularly by examining the understudied role of fathers in children’s acquisition of knowledge regarding gender stereotypes and through its longitudinal exploration of the relationship between parents’ gender ideologies, parents’ gendered behaviors, and children’s gender-role attitudes. PMID:27445431

  9. The Interaction between Gender Stereotypes and Life Values as Factors in the Choice of Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razumnikova, O. M.

    2005-01-01

    The author states that, the sex-role identity of both men and women forms and changes as a function of the conditions of upbringing, schooling, and the degree of pressure of sex-role stereotypes that are instilled by the mass media. In spite of the proclaimed "equal opportunities" for men and women when it comes to acquiring some…

  10. Fairy Tales: Attraction and Stereotypes in Same-Gender Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Felmlee, Diane; Orzechowicz, David; Fortes, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    We examine the process of romantic attraction in same-gender relationships using open and closed-ended questionnaire data from a sample of 120 men and women in Northern California. Agreeableness (e.g., kind, supportive) and Extraversion (e.g., fun, sense of humor) are the two most prominent bases of attraction, followed by Physical Attractiveness (e.g., appearance, sexy). The least important attractors represent traits associated with material success (e.g., financially secure, nice house). W...

  11. Beyond stereotypes? Talking about gender in school booktalk

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson Barajas, Katarina

    2008-01-01

    The Swedish educational system states that work in schools should depict and mediate equality. One way of achieving this is through fiction, which according to the syllabus provides students with knowledge about the living conditions of women and men during different epochs and places. The present paper examines gender in a Swedish school, analysing ‘book club’ discussions, using a discursive approach. The data consist of video-recorded teacher-led booktalk sessions, involving small groups of...

  12. Gender and management: stereotypes and attributions for a sucessful career

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, Conceição; Amâncio, Lígia

    1996-01-01

    The experiment reported here belongs to a larger research project, which aims at analyzing the effects of gender representation and expectations on the perception of managerial power and success. In this experiment 240 high school students of both sexes received a short description of a successful manager. The actor's sex, marital status (married/divorced) and sector of activity of the organization (electronics/health) where the manager currently worked were manipulated in this description...

  13. Gender-Role Portrayals in Television Advertising Across the Globe

    OpenAIRE

    Matthes, J?rg; Prieler, Michael; Adam, Karoline

    2016-01-01

    Although there are numerous studies on gender-role portrayals in television advertising, comparative designs are clearly lacking. With content analytical data from a total of 13 Asian, American, and European countries, we study the stereotypical depiction of men and women in television advertisements. Our sample consists of 1755 ads collected in May 2014. Analyzing the gender of the primary character and voiceover, as well as the age, associated product categories, home- or work setting, and ...

  14. Who's funny: gender stereotypes, humor production, and memory bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickes, Laura; Walker, Drew E; Parris, Julian L; Mankoff, Robert; Christenfeld, Nicholas J S

    2012-02-01

    It has often been asserted, by both men and women, that men are funnier. We explored two possible explanations for such a view, first testing whether men, when instructed to be as funny as possible, write funnier cartoon captions than do women, and second examining whether there is a tendency to falsely remember funny things as having been produced by men. A total of 32 participants, half from each gender, wrote captions for 20 cartoons. Raters then indicated the humor success of these captions. Raters of both genders found the captions written by males funnier, though this preference was significantly stronger among the male raters. In the second experiment, male and female participants were presented with the funniest and least funny captions from the first experiment, along with the caption author's gender. On a memory test, both females and males disproportionately misattributed the humorous captions to males and the nonhumorous captions to females. Men might think men are funnier because they actually find them so, but though women rated the captions written by males slightly higher, our data suggest that they may regard men as funnier more because they falsely attribute funny things to them.

  15. Gender stereotypes among women engineering and technology students in the UK: lessons from career choice narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Abigail; Dainty, Andrew; Bagilhole, Barbara

    2012-12-01

    In the UK, women remain under-represented in engineering and technology (E&T). Research has, therefore, investigated barriers and solutions to women's recruitment, retention and progression. Recruitment into the sector may be supported by exploring the career decisions of women and men who have chosen to study E&T. Triangulating quantitative and qualitative data from E&T students at a UK university, this paper examines the gendered nature of career choice narratives. It finds that women often maintain contradictory views; upholding gendered stereotypes about women's suitability for the so-called masculine work, yet also subscribing to ideals that the sector is accessible to all who wish to work in it. This is explained using an individualist framework in which women construct an autonomous sense of self, yet are also shaped by a gendered self. Women's discourse around career choice, therefore, reveals the problematic nature of gender norms for achieving gender equity in E&T.

  16. Gender moderates the impact of stereotype threat on cognitive function in cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looby, Alison; Earleywine, Mitch

    2010-09-01

    Research reveals mixed results for the effects of cannabis on cognitive functioning. These divergent results might stem from stereotype threat (ST), which occurs when individuals believe that a group to which they belong is inferior, resulting in poor test performance. Widespread media coverage of purported cannabis-related deficits in cognitive functioning may elicit ST among cannabis users, particularly among men, who may be more likely than women to identify with the cannabis-user stereotype. To investigate this hypothesis, cannabis users (30 male, 27 female) read a summary of research indicating either that cannabis produced deficits (ST condition), or that cannabis actually created no changes in cognitive functions. Participants then completed cognitive tests. Examination of the gender x condition interaction revealed significant results on 4 tests: the California Verbal Learning Test-II immediate recall task, the Controlled Oral Word Association Test for number of words generated and number of switches between clusters, and the Digit Symbol Substitution Task. Males exposed to ST performed worse on all tests compared to men not exposed to ST, while women exposed to ST performed better than women not exposed. These results suggest that cognitive deficits observed in male cannabis users may be attributed to ST rather than decreased functioning. Surprisingly, women in the ST condition scored higher than controls. Perhaps female users do not identify with the typical cannabis stereotype. This study highlights the importance of disconfirming relevant stereotypes prior to examination of the cognitive abilities of cannabis users. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Gender role biases on Indian television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, S K

    1989-01-01

    Gender role biases in Indian television have served to reinforce and even enhance the degradation of women in the broader society. A content analysis of 20 news programs, 20 fictionalized serials, and 100 commercials conducted over a 3-week period in 1988 indicated that women are portrayed as victims, caretakers, and sex objects while men are presented as masters, doers, and intellectuals. Of the 400 hours of news programs studied, men newsmakers accounted for 71% of the content while women were featured in only 10% of the segments. Even then, women's portrayal in the news tended to center on their roles as beneficiaries of welfare schemes, victims of accidents, or as the wives of male dignitaries. Fictionalized dramas reinforced the sex role stereotypes of men as decisive, assertive, dominant, and career- oriented, and of women as emotionally dependent, eager to please, sentimental, and primarily concerned with family relationships. Female characters in these series were most often housewives, secretaries, teachers, or nurses. Women were featured more often (56% of content) than men in Indian commercials, yet were shown performing stereotyped female activities such as shopping, preparing meals, and dressing to obtain the sexual approval of men. This sex role stereotyping in the media is seriously impeding the struggles of women in India to achieve economic and political autonomy. To promote more positive role modeling and change women's self-image, Indian television must move immediately to portray women achieving self-realization through their careers and social participation and to depict cooperation between men and women in performing household chores.

  18. Impact of Gender Stereotype on Secondary School Students’ Self-Concept and Academic Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Igbo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of gender stereotype as a predictor of secondary school students’ self-concept and academic achievement. The study was guided by four purposes, four research questions, and four hypotheses. The study adopted ex post facto design. The research sample was drawn from eight government/public senior secondary schools in Udi education zone. Nine schools were randomly selected from the 227 schools. A total of 342 senior secondary II school (SSII students made up the sample of the study. A 20-item students’ stereotype self-concept questionnaire (SSSCQ was adapted from Marsh’s Self Descriptive Questionnaire II (SDQII, and a 10-item students’ mathematics achievement test (SMAT was developed by the researchers after reviewing related literature. This was done with the help of experts in the areas. The instruments were face and content validated and used for the collection of data. In analyzing the data, mean and standard deviation were used in answering the research questions while a t test was used in testing the four hypotheses. The findings of the study indicate that gender stereotype has significant influence on students’ self-concept and academic achievement in favor of the male students. On the other hand, school location has significant influence on academic achievement of students but has no significant influence on students’ self-concept.

  19. Stereotype Threat, Anxiety, Instructor Gender, and Underperformance in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitanoff, Susan; Pandey, Carol

    2017-01-01

    Whatever their major, students are often required to take at least one course in statistics. After graduation, statistics is a key skill in numerous workplace settings. However, for many, it is a particularly difficult course. One factor that may play a role is the lingering misconception that women are not as good as men in mathematics subjects…

  20. Making gender matter: the role of gender-based expectancies and gender identification on women's and men's math performance in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Kimmo; Lindholm, Torun

    2007-08-01

    It is well established that an emphasis on gender differences may have a negative effect on women's math performance in USA, Germany and the Netherlands. It has further been found that an individual's identification with the stereotyped group may moderate effects of negative stereotypes. The present study investigated how gender-based expectancies affected the math performance of women and men in Sweden, a nation with a smaller gender gap than in other countries, and a strong cultural emphasis on gender equality. Participants, 112 female and 74 male undergraduate math students from Swedish universities, completed a difficult math test in which their gender was either linked to their test performance or not. Men performed better than women when gender was made relevant among participants who did not see their gender as an important aspect of their identity, while participants high in gender identification were unaffected by gender identity relevance. Moreover, the gender relevance manipulation affected men's performance more than women's. The results deviate from findings on US samples, indicating that the role of group identification as a moderator of stereotype-based expectancy effects is complex, and that factors in the cultural context may interact with individual differences in identification to determine the impact of negative stereotypes.

  1. Gender and stereotypes in motivation to study computer programming for careers in multimedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubé, Wendy; Lang, Catherine

    2012-03-01

    A multimedia university programme with relatively equal numbers of male and female students in elective programming subjects provided a rare opportunity to investigate female motivation to study and pursue computer programming in a career. The MSLQ was used to survey 85 participants. In common with research into deterrence of females from STEM domains, females displayed significantly lower self-efficacy and expectancy for success. In contrast to research into deterrence of females from STEM domains, both genders placed similar high values on computer programming and shared high extrinsic and intrinsic goal orientation. The authors propose that the stereotype associated with a creative multimedia career could attract female participation in computer programming whereas the stereotype associated with computer science could be a deterrent.

  2. Enduring Influence of Stereotypical Computer Science Role Models on Women's Academic Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheryan, Sapna; Drury, Benjamin J.; Vichayapai, Marissa

    2013-01-01

    The current work examines whether a brief exposure to a computer science role model who fits stereotypes of computer scientists has a lasting influence on women's interest in the field. One-hundred undergraduate women who were not computer science majors met a female or male peer role model who embodied computer science stereotypes in appearance…

  3. What Women and Men Should Be, Shouldn't Be, Are Allowed To Be, and Don't Have To Be: The Contents of Prescriptive Gender Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Deborah A.; Carranza, Erica

    2002-01-01

    Presents a framework to characterize the contents of prescriptive gender stereotypes; distinguishes between prescriptions and proscriptions that are intensified or relaxed by virtue of one's gender. Two studies examined the framework's utility for characterizing prescriptive gender stereotypes in society overall and on a highly masculine college…

  4. Analysing Resistance of Stereotyped Sexuality via ‘Gender Performance’ in The Silk Fan and Under the Blanket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Soleha binti Mohd Noor

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Existing studies had shown that gender stereotyping is still evident in contemporary Malaysian English literature particularly in novels. By using the concepts of ‘gender performance’ and ‘performativity’ introduced by Judith Butler’s Gender Trouble (1990, the current study aims to prove that there is an act of resistance among the new generations/contemporary Malaysian writers against the gender norms placed on sexuality. These writers resisted the norms by performing “gender trouble” through the construction of their characters’ gender identity. Two short stories are selected from 25 Malaysian Short Stories: Best of Silverfish New Writing 2001 – 2005 as the scope of the study to answer these questions; (a what are the stereotypedgender performances’ of the characters’ sexuality in the two selected short stories?, and (b how do contemporary Malaysian writers resist stereotyped sexuality using ‘gender performance’ in their writings? The study found that the selected characters from the short story The Silk Fan and Under the Blanket, do perform “gender trouble” in resisting gender expectations on their sexuality. Thus, based on the results of this study, it is hoped that the misconceptions on gender and the conventional way of thinking about sexuality and gender in Malaysian society can be somewhat liberated.

  5. Voice Quality and Gender Stereotypes: A Study of Lebanese Women With Reinke's Edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matar, Nayla; Portes, Cristel; Lancia, Leonardo; Legou, Thierry; Baider, Fabienne

    2016-12-01

    Women with Reinke's edema (RW) report being mistaken for men during telephone conversations. For this reason, their masculine-sounding voices are interesting for the study of gender stereotypes. The study's objective is to verify their complaint and to understand the cues used in gender identification. Using a self-evaluation study, we verified RW's perception of their own voices. We compared the acoustic parameters of vowels produced by 10 RW to those produced by 10 men and 10 women with healthy voices (hereafter referred to as NW) in Lebanese Arabic. We conducted a perception study for the evaluation of RW, healthy men's, and NW voices by naïve listeners. RW self-evaluated their voices as masculine and their gender identities as feminine. The acoustic parameters that distinguish RW from NW voices concern fundamental frequency, spectral slope, harmonicity of the voicing signal, and complexity of the spectral envelope. Naïve listeners very often rate RW as surely masculine. Listeners may rate RW's gender incorrectly. These incorrect gender ratings are correlated with acoustic measures of fundamental frequency and voice quality. Further investigations will reveal the contribution of each of these parameters to gender perception and guide the treatment plan of patients complaining of a gender ambiguous voice.

  6. Gender stereotypes in occupational choice: a cross-sectional study on a group of Italian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaci T

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Tiziana Ramaci,1 Monica Pellerone,1 Caterina Ledda,2 Giovambattista Presti,1 Valeria Squatrito,1 Venerando Rapisarda2 1Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, “Kore” University of Enna, Enna, 2Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy Background: Gender beliefs represent cultural schemas for interpreting or making sense of the social and employment world, as they can influence attitudes, career aspirations, and the vocational decision process of young people, especially the adolescence.Materials and methods: This study examined the influence of gender stereotypes on the choice of career in adolescents. A group of 120 students were recruited to complete an ad hoc questionnaire, Scale of Perceived Occupational Self-Efficacy, and Semantic Differentials. The objectives of the study were to analyze the relationship between occupational self-efficacy and professional preference; to measure the influence of independent variables, such as age and gender, on the representation that students have of themselves and of the profession; and to identify the predictor variables of self-efficacy in the vocational decision.Results: Data showed that the distance between professional identity and social identity increases with age. Results underline that males seem to perceive themselves more self-efficient in military, scientific–technological, and agrarian professions than females. Furthermore, the type of job performed by parents appears to be a self-efficacy predictor variable in the choice of professions in the services area.Conclusion: Individuals’ perceived occupational self-efficacy, gender, age, and parents’ profession have implications for exploratory behavior. The conditions that make gender differences salient are more likely to favor self-representations of the career and consistent assessments with these representations. Keywords: adolescent, gender stereotypes, occupational

  7. Ingredients of gender-based stereotypes about food. Indirect influence of food type, portion size and presentation on gendered intentions to eat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazza, Nicoletta; Guidetti, Margherita; Butera, Fabrizio

    2015-08-01

    The association between certain foods and masculinity or femininity has been widely discussed in different disciplines. However, extant research has yet to clarify which are the critical dimensions lending these gender connotations to food and thus impacting on the willingness to eat it. We present a study on the role of food type, portion size, and dish presentation as potential factors constituting the gender-based stereotype about food, and their indirect or mediated effect on the intention of men and women to eat certain feminine/masculine stereotyped foods. We manipulated the three features cited above in a 2 (food type: Caprese vs. hamburger) × 2 (portion size: small vs. big) × 2 (presentation: elegant vs. rough) full factorial design. Results confirmed a model of moderated mediation: the Caprese salad, the small portion and the elegantly presented dish (in respect to the hamburger, the big portion and the roughly presented dish) tend to be considered "feminine food", and thus women expressed a more pronounced intention to eat it than men. The implications of the findings for both theory and practice are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Gender stereotypes in psychosocial care for female crack and powder cocaine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Érika Barbosa de Oliveira; Pereira, Adriana Lenho de Figueiredo; Penna, Lúcia Helena Garcia

    2018-05-10

    The study analyzed health professionals' conceptions toward female users of crack and powder cocaine currently receiving psychosocial care, based on a gender perspective. Seventeen health professionals were interviewed, and systematic observations were made of the spaces for collective care in a Center for Psychosocial Care specializing in alcohol and drug addiction in Greater Metropolitan Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Analysis of the interviews and field diaries using the hermeneutic-dialectic method revealed three categories: frailty as a constitutive attribute of women's condition, the women's emotional addiction to crack and powder cocaine use, and gender stereotypes during psychosocial care. The health professionals voiced a traditional view of the heterosexual, docile, and maternal woman and reproduced stereotypical concepts when addressing female crack and cocaine users as sensitive, frail individuals, emotionally dependent on men and more involved in the home and family. These professionals need a more refined understanding of gender issues in the mental health-disease process in order to allow overcoming preconceived notions and reductionist health care practices.

  9. The Impact of Gender Stereotypes on the Self-Concept of Female Students in STEM Subjects with an Under-Representation of Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Bernhard; Luttenberger, Silke; Paechter, Manuela

    2017-01-01

    It's possible to assume that women who study STEM topics with a low proportion of females have successfully overcome barriers in school and the family, making them less prone to stereotypic views, and influences. The present study focuses on these kinds of factors and analyzes to which degree family factors, school-related factors, and individual stereotypes may influence a woman's academic self-concept. The following study presents a latent regression model which is based on a survey of 296 women from different German universities, all of whom are part of STEM programs of study that have stereotypes, support in school, and family support contribute to the self-concept in STEM. Gender stereotypes were negatively related to students' STEM-specific self-concept in the selected sample. This study also reveals negative family-related influences that lower a woman's self-concept. Positive predictors on the other hand included school aspects that are found in the students' favorite subjects at school. The results of the study provide important aspects for STEM education. Even though the students participating in the study presumably had good grades in STEM, stereotypes still corrupted their self-concept. One of the reasons for this might lie in stereotypes that attribute girls' achievements to diligence instead of talent. The results also point out that direct support, particularly by parents, can have a negative impact on female students' self-concept. Activities that are meant to support pupils directly may actually backfire and transport stereotypes instead. This stresses the need for indirect support during socialization, e.g., by providing opportunities for children to have positive experiences or by giving them the chance to meet role models that are enthusiastic about their STEM professions. These kinds of measures have the potential to spur students' interest in STEM subjects—something that in the present study proved to be especially beneficial for women

  10. The Impact of Gender Stereotypes on the Self-Concept of Female Students in STEM Subjects with an Under-Representation of Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Bernhard; Luttenberger, Silke; Paechter, Manuela

    2017-01-01

    It's possible to assume that women who study STEM topics with a low proportion of females have successfully overcome barriers in school and the family, making them less prone to stereotypic views, and influences. The present study focuses on these kinds of factors and analyzes to which degree family factors, school-related factors, and individual stereotypes may influence a woman's academic self-concept. The following study presents a latent regression model which is based on a survey of 296 women from different German universities, all of whom are part of STEM programs of study that have stereotypes, support in school, and family support contribute to the self-concept in STEM. Gender stereotypes were negatively related to students' STEM-specific self-concept in the selected sample. This study also reveals negative family-related influences that lower a woman's self-concept. Positive predictors on the other hand included school aspects that are found in the students' favorite subjects at school. The results of the study provide important aspects for STEM education. Even though the students participating in the study presumably had good grades in STEM, stereotypes still corrupted their self-concept. One of the reasons for this might lie in stereotypes that attribute girls' achievements to diligence instead of talent. The results also point out that direct support, particularly by parents, can have a negative impact on female students' self-concept. Activities that are meant to support pupils directly may actually backfire and transport stereotypes instead. This stresses the need for indirect support during socialization, e.g., by providing opportunities for children to have positive experiences or by giving them the chance to meet role models that are enthusiastic about their STEM professions. These kinds of measures have the potential to spur students' interest in STEM subjects-something that in the present study proved to be especially beneficial for women

  11. Breaking Away From the Male Stereotype of a Specialist: Gendered Language Affects Performance in a Thinking Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Kollmayer

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This experimental online-survey study investigated if different written language forms in German have an effect on male bias in thinking. We used answers to the specialist riddle as an indicator for male bias in mental representations of expertise. The difficulty of this thinking task lies in the fact that a gender-unspecified specialist is often automatically assumed to be a man due to gender stereotypes. We expected that reading a text in gender-fair language before processing the specialist riddle helps readers achieve control over automatically activated gender stereotypes and thus facilitates the restructuring and reinterpretation of the problem, which is necessary to reach the conclusion that the specialist is a woman. We randomly assigned 517 native German speakers (68% women to reading a text on expertise written either in gender-fair language or in masculine generics. Subsequently, participants were asked to solve the specialist riddle. The results show that reading a text in gender-fair language before processing the riddle led to higher rates of answers indicating that the specialist is a women compared to reading a text in masculine generics (44% vs. 33% in women and men regardless of their self-stereotyping concerning agency and communion. The findings indicate that reading even a very short text in gender-fair language can help people break their gender-stereotype habit and thus reduce male bias in thinking. Our research emphasizes the importance of using gender-fair language in German-language texts for reducing gender stereotypes.

  12. Children's Recall and Recognition of Sex Role Stereotyped and Discrepant Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepanier-Street, Mary L.; Kropp, Jerri Jaudon

    1987-01-01

    Investigated the influence of differing levels of sex role stereotyped and discrepant information on immediate and delayed memory. Compared kindergarten and second-grade children's recall and recognition of stereotyped, moderately discrepant, and highly discrepant pictures. Results suggested significantly better recall of highly discrepant…

  13. On the gender–science stereotypes held by scientists: explicit accord with gender-ratios, implicit accord with scientific identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Frederick L.; Nosek, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Women's representation in science has changed substantially, but unevenly, over the past 40 years. In health and biological sciences, for example, women's representation among U.S. scientists is now on par with or greater than men's, while in physical sciences and engineering they remain a clear minority. We investigated whether variation in proportions of women in scientific disciplines is related to differing levels of male-favoring explicit or implicit stereotypes held by students and scientists in each discipline. We hypothesized that science-is-male stereotypes would be weaker in disciplines where women are better represented. This prediction was tested with a sample of 176,935 college-educated participants (70% female), including thousands of engineers, physicians, and scientists. The prediction was supported for the explicit stereotype, but not for the implicit stereotype. Implicit stereotype strength did not correspond with disciplines' gender ratios, but, rather, correlated with two indicators of disciplines' scientific intensity, positively for men and negatively for women. From age 18 on, women who majored or worked in disciplines perceived as more scientific had substantially weaker science-is-male stereotypes than did men in the same disciplines, with gender differences larger than 0.8 standard deviations in the most scientifically-perceived disciplines. Further, particularly for women, differences in the strength of implicit stereotypes across scientific disciplines corresponded with the strength of scientific values held by women in the disciplines. These results are discussed in the context of dual process theory of mental operation and balanced identity theory. The findings point to the need for longitudinal study of the factors' affecting development of adults' and, especially, children's implicit gender stereotypes and scientific identity. PMID:25964765

  14. Venus and Mars or Down to Earth: Stereotypes and Realities of Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Susan T

    2010-11-01

    Psychological scientists, like lay people, often think in categorical dichotomies that contrast men and women and exaggerate the differences between groups. These value-laden divides tend to privilege one side over the other, often to the advantage of the scientists' own identity group. Besides balancing perspectives in the academic marketplace of ideas, scientists can recognize the complexity of stigma. Gender, like many categories, entails two fundamental dimensions that characterize intergroup stigma (and all interpersonal perception): perceived warmth and competence. These dimensions identify groups viewed with ambivalence (e.g., traditional women are stereotypically warm but incompetent, whereas professional women are allegedly competent but cold). In gender and in other areas, psychological scientists can go beyond value-laden dichotomies and consider the fundamental, continuous dimensions along which we think about stigma. © The Author(s) 2010.

  15. VENUS AND MARS OR DOWN TO EARTH: STEREOTYPES AND REALITIES OF GENDER DIFFERENCES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    Psychological scientists, like lay people, often think in categorical dichotomies that contrast men and women and exaggerate the differences between groups. These value-laden divides tend to privilege one side over the other, often to the advantage of the scientists’ own identity group. Besides balancing perspectives in the academic marketplace of ideas, scientists can recognize the complexity of stigma. Gender, like many categories, entails two fundamental dimensions that characterize intergroup stigma (and all interpersonal perception): perceived warmth and competence. These dimensions identify groups viewed with ambivalence (e.g., traditional women are stereotypically warm but incompetent, whereas professional women are allegedly competent but cold). In gender and in other areas, psychological scientists can go beyond value-laden dichotomies and consider the fundamental, continuous dimensions along which we think about stigma. PMID:23678365

  16. Can gender priming eliminate the effects of stereotype threat? The case of simple dynamic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungwitz, Vivien; Sedlmeier, Peter; Schwarz, Marcus

    2018-05-31

    Mathematics and mental rotation are classic fields where it has been shown that priming women with their gender identity impedes performance. Whereas past research focused mainly on stereotype threat effects in women in a narrowly defined context, this study broadened the research focus: We primed 264 women and men equally with a male, a neutral, or a female prime before they had to solve a simple dynamic system task. As expected, female-primed women subsequently performed worst of all six groups. Solution rates were almost 14% higher for the women in the male-primed condition. Men performed better than women in all three priming conditions. However, this difference was reduced in the male-primed condition as women's performance had increased as anticipated. Unexpected was a decline in the male performance in the same condition. The study showed that gender priming had a significant effect on women in tasks involving simple dynamic systems. However, mathematical knowledge and area of occupation clearly were stronger predictors for both men and women. Priming alone cannot eliminate the effects of stereotype threat. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. The influence of gender stereotypes on eating habits among Costa Rican adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Fuster-Baraona, Tamara; Garita, Carlos; Sánchez, Marta; Smith-Castro, Vanesa; Valverde-Cerros, Oscar; Colon-Ramos, Uriyoán

    2015-01-01

    To identify the influence of gender stereotypes on eating habits among Costa Rican adolescents. Qualitative, descriptive research was used in this study. Adolescents and parents were recruited from socioeconomically diverse populations in rural and urban areas of San José, Costa Rica. Subjects were 92 adolescents (14 to 17 years old) and 48 parents. Focus group data were transcribed and entered into the qualitative data analysis software Atlas.ti version 5.0. Analyses were grounded on the social cognitive theory. Five themes emerged from the focus group discussions: (1) Costa Rican adolescents associate the consumption of moderate quantities of healthy foods with femininity and male homosexuality. (2) The consumption of hearty portions of nonhealthy foods was associated with masculinity and male heterosexuality. (3) There is an emerging view that it is acceptable for heterosexual male adolescents to take care of their bodies through healthy eating. (4) Body care among female adolescents is an element of femininity and body image. (5) Parents reinforce their daughters' persistent concern with weight control because they perceive it as feminine behavior. Health promoters should be aware of the existing and changing food stereotypes around gender as an avenue for the promotion of healthy eating.

  18. Gender stereotypes in occupational choice: a cross-sectional study on a group of Italian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaci, Tiziana; Pellerone, Monica; Ledda, Caterina; Presti, Giovambattista; Squatrito, Valeria; Rapisarda, Venerando

    2017-01-01

    Gender beliefs represent cultural schemas for interpreting or making sense of the social and employment world, as they can influence attitudes, career aspirations, and the vocational decision process of young people, especially the adolescence. This study examined the influence of gender stereotypes on the choice of career in adolescents. A group of 120 students were recruited to complete an ad hoc questionnaire, Scale of Perceived Occupational Self-Efficacy, and Semantic Differentials. The objectives of the study were to analyze the relationship between occupational self-efficacy and professional preference; to measure the influence of independent variables, such as age and gender, on the representation that students have of themselves and of the profession; and to identify the predictor variables of self-efficacy in the vocational decision. Data showed that the distance between professional identity and social identity increases with age. Results underline that males seem to perceive themselves more self-efficient in military, scientific-technological, and agrarian professions than females. Furthermore, the type of job performed by parents appears to be a self-efficacy predictor variable in the choice of professions in the services area. Individuals' perceived occupational self-efficacy, gender, age, and parents' profession have implications for exploratory behavior. The conditions that make gender differences salient are more likely to favor self-representations of the career and consistent assessments with these representations.

  19. "Someone like Me Can Be Successful": Do College Students Need Same-Gender Role Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Penelope

    2006-01-01

    Two studies examined the extent to which matching on gender determines the impact of career role models on the self. Because women face negative stereotypes regarding their competence in the workplace, they may derive particular benefit from the example of an outstanding woman who illustrates the possibility of overcoming gender barriers to…

  20. GENDER MAINSTREAMING POLICY IN ISLAMIC EDUCATION IN INDONESIA: STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS ON GENDER ROLES IN ISLAMIC PRIMARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitti Azisah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Indonesian government has made a strong commitment to eliminate gender discrimination. To achieve greater gender equality and equity, President Abdurrahman Wahid issued the Presidential Instruction Number 9 Year 2000 to promote gender mainstreaming with the objective of achieving gender equality and equity in all sectors of life. This paper investigates gender perspec-tives of the students in three Islamic Primary schools: one state school and two private schools in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The data were gathered by using a number of techniques: group interviews, student drawings, listing famous people and selecting favorite person from their lists of famous people. Three main points emerged from the study: 1 the majority of students had gender-neutral views on sports/games, employment and a range of other social activities; 2 persistent gender stereotyping of some roles by students; and 3 the students from the three schools had divergent views on gender roles and gender identities.

  1. Gender roles on social networking sites: Investigating reciprocal relationships between Dutch adolescents' hypermasculinity and hyperfemininity and sexy online self-presentations

    OpenAIRE

    van Oosten, J.M.F.; Vandenbosch, L.; Peter, J.

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that adolescents play out stereotypical gender roles in their self-presentations in social media. However, longitudinal research on the relationships between (sexy) online self-presentation and adolescents' gender role orientation is lacking. The present study investigated whether endorsing a stereotypical gender role orientation (i.e., hypermasculinity for boys, hyperfemininity for girls) predisposes adolescents to engage in sexy self-presentation or to look a...

  2. Judging the gender of the inanimate: Benevolent sexism and gender stereotypes guide impressions of physical objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Benjamin R

    2017-09-01

    Within a given culture, sexist ideologies and stereotypes are largely characterized by their prescriptive expectations for the types of social and behavioural domains men and women occupy. The activities that take place within these respective domains, however, frequently involve designed, physical artefacts. This study reports a pair of studies that test whether sexist schemas are capable of guiding not only impressions of men and women as social groups, but also their impressions of the inanimate objects associated with these groups. In Study 1, benevolent sexism was found to predict a greater willingness to classify physical objects as being either highly feminine or highly masculine, even when these objects had a neutral rating by the sample as a whole. In Study 2, stereotypes consistent with legitimizing ideologies (i.e., competence and warmth) predicted rating associated objects in complementary ways, in terms of greater liking of feminine objects but greater presumed competence needed for using masculine objects. These results demonstrate how sexist beliefs and attitudes are capable of bleeding into people's impressions of the physical world. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Gender Stereotypes in Cinderella (ATU 510A and The Princess on the Glass Mountain (ATU 530

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kärri Toomeos-Orglaan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the best-known role-based stereotypes in European fairy tales is that of an active male and a passive female. Awareness of such a stereotype is connected with the feminist approach that criticises the domination of the male point of view in fairy tales and the depiction of women from the position of men. The article focuses on analysing if and how the stereotype is realised in the context of two fairy tale types – Cinderella (ATU 510A and The Princess on the Glass Mountain (ATU 530. According to Bengt Holbek, fairy tales as symbolic texts are closely connected to the real world as they refer to the latter through fantastic phenomena and events. Holbek is interested in the meaning of magical elements in the living tradition: according to him the world of fairy tales does not reflect the real world directly, but reveals the storytellers’ and their audiences’ ideas of what the latter should be like. What emerges as an important question is whose vision is transmitted by such fairy tale interpretations; whether researchers are able to interpret the meanings the tales might have had for the storytellers, or whether it is just the viewpoint of the researcher that is reflected.

  4. A meta-analysis of gender stereotypes and bias in experimental simulations of employment decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Amanda J; D'Mello, Susan D; Sackett, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    Gender bias continues to be a concern in many work settings, leading researchers to identify factors that influence workplace decisions. In this study we examine several of these factors, using an organizing framework of sex distribution within jobs (including male- and female-dominated jobs as well as sex-balanced, or integrated, jobs). We conducted random effects meta-analyses including 136 independent effect sizes from experimental studies (N = 22,348) and examined the effects of decision-maker gender, amount and content of information available to the decision maker, type of evaluation, and motivation to make careful decisions on gender bias in organizational decisions. We also examined study characteristics such as type of participant, publication year, and study design. Our findings revealed that men were preferred for male-dominated jobs (i.e., gender-role congruity bias), whereas no strong preference for either gender was found for female-dominated or integrated jobs. Second, male raters exhibited greater gender-role congruity bias than did female raters for male-dominated jobs. Third, gender-role congruity bias did not consistently decrease when decision makers were provided with additional information about those they were rating, but gender-role congruity bias was reduced when information clearly indicated high competence of those being evaluated. Fourth, gender-role congruity bias did not differ between decisions that required comparisons among ratees and decisions made about individual ratees. Fifth, decision makers who were motivated to make careful decisions tended to exhibit less gender-role congruity bias for male-dominated jobs. Finally, for male-dominated jobs, experienced professionals showed smaller gender-role congruity bias than did undergraduates or working adults. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Japanese anime and women's gender-role changing

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Shunyao

    2015-01-01

    Feminism is a fast growing phenomenon in recent years. This paper started with the historical conflict of marriage and feminism, then researched the connection between anime and gender-role. Since Japanese anime was imported to China in 1980s, it has influenced the generation born in 1980s and 1990s in many aspects of their growth. These well-educated people perceived the Japanese culture and values through anime. This study connected gender stereotypes and marriage, and how Chinese well-educ...

  6. Characteristics Expected in Fields of Higher Education and Gender Stereotypical Traits Related to Academic Success: A Mirror Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verniers, Catherine; Martinot, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test whether the content of a gender stereotype concerning general academic achievement matched the characteristics deemed to predict success in the fields of higher education dominated by women and men respectively. A sample of 207 undergraduate students rated the extent to which characteristics ascribed to…

  7. Gender Stereotypes of Children's Toys: Investigating the Perspectives of Adults Who Have and Do Not Have Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekee, Kristy; Brown, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Often certain types of toys are considered more appropriate either for boys or for girls to play with. Therapists often use toys to engage children in intervention activities to promote skill development. This study investigated the gender stereotype perspectives of children's toys held by adults who were and were not parents. Fifty-two…

  8. The Persistence of Traditional Gender Stereotypes: Evidence from the Distribution of Academic Honors at a Female-Majority University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, A. Lynn; Phillips, G. Michael

    2010-01-01

    A shift from male-majority to female-majority university campuses has opened up new areas for research on gender bias, stereotypes, and discrimination. At one large state university on the west coast, there were more female than male graduates in Spring, 2008 in 7 out of 8 colleges, including the traditionally male-majority areas of business and…

  9. CULTURE AND GENDER ROLE DIFFERENCES

    OpenAIRE

    Angelica-Nicoleta NECULĂESEI (ONEA)

    2015-01-01

    Culture influences thinking, language and human behaviour. The social environment, in which individuals are born and live, shapes their attitudinal, emotional and behavioural reactions and the perceptions about what is happening around. The same applies in the case of assigned/assumed roles in society based on gender. Cultural dimensions that reflect differences in gender roles, but also elements related to the ethics of sexual difference were highlighted by many researchers. The presentation...

  10. Clearing the air: identity safety moderates the effects of stereotype threat on women's leadership aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Paul G; Spencer, Steven J; Steele, Claude M

    2005-02-01

    Exposing participants to gender-stereotypic TV commercials designed to elicit the female stereotype, the present research explored whether vulnerability to stereotype threat could persuade women to avoid leadership roles in favor of nonthreatening subordinate roles. Study 1 confirmed that exposure to the stereotypic commercials undermined women's aspirations on a subsequent leadership task. Study 2 established that varying the identity safety of the leadership task moderated whether activation of the female stereotype mediated the effect of the commercials on women's aspirations. Creating an identity-safe environment eliminated vulnerability to stereotype threat despite exposure to threatening situational cues that primed stigmatized social identities and their corresponding stereotypes.

  11. Sex, cheating, and disgust: enhanced source memory for trait information that violates gender stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroneisen, Meike; Bell, Raoul

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines memory for social-exchange-relevant information. In Experiment 1 male and female faces were shown together with behaviour descriptions of cheating, altruistic, and neutral behaviour. Previous results have led to the hypothesis that people preferentially remember schema-atypical information. Given the common gender stereotype that women are kinder and less egoistic than men, this atypicality account would predict that source memory (that is, memory for the type of context to which a face was associated) should be enhanced for female cheaters in comparison to male cheaters. The results of Experiment 1 confirmed this hypothesis. Experiment 2 reveals that source memory for female faces associated with disgusting behaviours is enhanced in comparison to male faces associated with disgusting behaviours. Thus the atypicality effect generalises beyond social-exchange-relevant information, a result which is inconsistent with the assumption that the findings can be ascribed to a highly specific cheater detection module.

  12. Gender roles for Alice and Bob

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Philip

    2013-04-01

    As the head of a department that is striving to achieve bronze status under the Athena SWAN (Scientific Women's Academic Network) programme, I have become extremely sensitive to gender stereotyping, and I am afraid that the "Alice and Bob" image on the cover of your March issue on quantum frontiers set off some alarm bells.

  13. Watching Aggressive, Attractive, Female Protagonists Shapes Gender Roles for Women Among Male and Female Undergraduate Viewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Laramie D; Setters, Tiffany

    2011-07-01

    The impact of exposure to media representations of aggressive, attractive, female protagonists on audiences' gender role expectations for women was explored through a laboratory experiment with 122 undergraduates from a large university on the west coast of the United States. Participants viewed a segment of a major Hollywood motion picture that featured a female protagonist who was either highly attractive or less attractive and either highly aggressive or not aggressive. Viewing clips featuring a female protagonist who was both aggressive and stereotypically attractive led to greater endorsement of stereotypically feminine and stereotypically masculine gender role expectations for women. The effect on endorsement of stereotypically masculine expectations was partially mediated by the perception that the protagonist was a good role model for women. Although women endorsed both feminine and masculine gender role expectations for women more strongly than men, the effects of exposure to aggressive, attractive, female protagonists were similar for both male and female participants. Results are discussed in terms of gender stereotype activation and superwoman expectations for women.

  14. The Role of Automatic Obesity Stereotypes in Real Hiring Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agerstrom, Jens; Rooth, Dan-Olof

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether automatic stereotypes captured by the implicit association test (IAT) can predict real hiring discrimination against the obese. In an unobtrusive field experiment, job applications were sent to a large number of real job vacancies. The applications were matched on credentials but differed with respect to the applicant's…

  15. The role of testing realism on experimentally obtained stereotype strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Errol R; Whitfield, Richard C

    2011-01-01

    It has been shown (Hoffmann 2009) that pencil-and-paper tests, when used to determine stereotype strength, may yield data quite different to that obtained from hardware tests. The purpose of this research was to determine the level of realism required in order to have stereotypes that are consistent with real-world values. It is surprising that there does not appear to be any published research addressing this problem; all previous researches have considered either paper/pencil or hardware tests or sometimes both, but no level of simulation in between these techniques. In order to determine the effect of level of testing realism, a specific example was chosen to test, that of water tap operation stereotypes. Tests used verbal questioning, photographs of tap arrangements, a partial hardware arrangement and finally a full hardware setup. The results of these four levels of realism were very different and illustrated that, only with a full realistic simulation, did participants respond as might be expected in a real-world environment, illustrating the importance of testing realism when determining population stereotypes. This result has strong implications for product designers when selecting appropriate layouts of displays and controls and the linkages relating these. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Social constructions of gender roles, gender-based violence and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The links between gender roles, gender-based violence and HIV/AIDS risk are complex and culturally specific. In this qualitative study we investigated how women and men in two black communities in the Western Cape, South Africa, constructed their gender identities and roles, how they understood gender-based violence ...

  17. The Role of Gender in Workplace Stress: A Critical Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyllensten, Kristina; Palmer, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this review was to evaluate research relating to the role of gender in the level of workplace stress. A further aim was to review literature relating to stressors of particular relevance to working women. These stressors included, multiple roles, lack of career progress and discrimination and stereotyping. Design: Systematic…

  18. Gender, Gender Roles Affecting Mate Preferences in Turkish College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazioglu, A. Esra Ismen

    2008-01-01

    The subject of this study is gender and gender roles affecting mate preferences. The sample of the study consists of 300 undergraduates and master students. To identify students' gender roles the Sex Role Evaluation Inventory (Bem, 1974) is used. The Question List (Bacanli 2001; Buss et. al., 1990) is applied to the sample group to determine the…

  19. Gender Roles and Expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana A. Eisenchlas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available One consequence of the advent of cyber communication is that increasing numbers of people go online to ask for, obtain, and presumably act upon advice dispensed by unknown peers. Just as advice seekers may not have access to information about the identities, ideologies, and other personal characteristics of advice givers, advice givers are equally ignorant about their interlocutors except for the bits of demographic information that the latter may offer freely. In the present study, that information concerns sex. As the sex of the advice seeker may be the only, or the predominant, contextual variable at hand, it is expected that that identifier will guide advice givers in formulating their advice. The aim of this project is to investigate whether and how the sex of advice givers and receivers affects the type of advice, through the empirical analysis of a corpus of web-based Spanish language forums on personal relationship difficulties. The data revealed that, in the absence of individuating information beyond that implicit in the advice request, internalized gender expectations along the lines of agency and communality are the sources from which advice givers draw to guide their counsel. This is despite the trend in discursive practices used in formulating advice, suggesting greater language convergence across sexes.

  20. On the Leaky Math Pipeline: Comparing Implicit Math-Gender Stereotypes and Math Withdrawal in Female and Male Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Melanie C.; Jelenec, Petra; Noack, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Many models assume that habitual human behavior is guided by spontaneous, automatic, or implicit processes rather than by deliberate, rule-based, or explicit processes. Thus, math-ability self-concepts and math performance could be related to implicit math-gender stereotypes in addition to explicit stereotypes. Two studies assessed at what age…

  1. Gender-, Race-, and Income-Based Stereotype Threat: The Effects of Multiple Stigmatized Aspects of Identity on Math Performance and Working Memory Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tine, Michele; Gotlieb, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the relative impact of gender-, race-, and income-based stereotype threat and examined if individuals with multiple stigmatized aspects of identity experience a larger stereotype threat effect on math performance and working memory function than people with one stigmatized aspect of identity. Seventy-one college students of the…

  2. The Impact of Gender Stereotypes on the Self-Concept of Female Students in STEM Subjects with an Under-Representation of Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Ertl

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It's possible to assume that women who study STEM topics with a low proportion of females have successfully overcome barriers in school and the family, making them less prone to stereotypic views, and influences. The present study focuses on these kinds of factors and analyzes to which degree family factors, school-related factors, and individual stereotypes may influence a woman's academic self-concept. The following study presents a latent regression model which is based on a survey of 296 women from different German universities, all of whom are part of STEM programs of study that have <30% females. It was investigated to which degree individual stereotypes, support in school, and family support contribute to the self-concept in STEM. Gender stereotypes were negatively related to students' STEM-specific self-concept in the selected sample. This study also reveals negative family-related influences that lower a woman's self-concept. Positive predictors on the other hand included school aspects that are found in the students' favorite subjects at school. The results of the study provide important aspects for STEM education. Even though the students participating in the study presumably had good grades in STEM, stereotypes still corrupted their self-concept. One of the reasons for this might lie in stereotypes that attribute girls' achievements to diligence instead of talent. The results also point out that direct support, particularly by parents, can have a negative impact on female students' self-concept. Activities that are meant to support pupils directly may actually backfire and transport stereotypes instead. This stresses the need for indirect support during socialization, e.g., by providing opportunities for children to have positive experiences or by giving them the chance to meet role models that are enthusiastic about their STEM professions. These kinds of measures have the potential to spur students' interest in STEM subjects

  3. Moderating the stereotypical views of health and social care students: the role of interprofessional education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Rebecca; Macleod Clark, Jill

    2015-01-01

    The potential of interprofessional education (IPE) to influence the perceptions and attitudes of health and social care professionals towards their colleagues in other disciplines is well recognized. However, empirical evidence for the positive impact of IPE on stereotypical beliefs has been limited. We report the findings of a pioneering, large scale study designed to assess the influence of IPE on these beliefs. A pre-test, post-test, quasi experimental design compared students' stereotypical views at the beginning and end of undergraduate studies. 580 students from 10 health and social care professional groups undertook assessed IPE modules over 3 years (the intervention group). Baseline and post-course stereotype ratings were compared with those of 672 students in a comparison group, not exposed to IPE modules. Baseline stereotype profiles showed clear variations in the way different professions were perceived, indicating stereotypical beliefs about the characteristics of each profession. Rating patterns were similar for intervention and comparison groups. At graduation, only minor changes were observed in the overall rating patterns for both groups. However, more ratings had decreased in the intervention group than the comparison group, suggesting that IPE may play a role in moderating more extreme stereotyping of colleagues in other professions.

  4. CULTURE AND GENDER ROLE DIFFERENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica-Nicoleta NECULĂESEI (ONEA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Culture influences thinking, language and human behaviour. The social environment, in which individuals are born and live, shapes their attitudinal, emotional and behavioural reactions and the perceptions about what is happening around. The same applies in the case of assigned/assumed roles in society based on gender. Cultural dimensions that reflect differences in gender roles, but also elements related to the ethics of sexual difference were highlighted by many researchers. The presentation of these issues from the interdisciplinary perspective is the subject of this article. Briefly, the article refers to: importance of communication in transmission of roles of those two sexes, cultural dimensions that reflect role differences invarious cultures, discrimination issues and ethics of sexual difference.

  5. Self Views of African American Youth are Related to the Gender Stereotypes and Academic Attributions of Their Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Stephanie; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rouland, Karmen

    2012-01-01

    We examined relations among African American mothers’ (N = 392) stereotypes about gender differences in mathematics, science, and reading performance, parents’ attributions about their children’s academic successes and failures, and their seventh and eighth grade children’s academic self-views (domain-specific ability attributions and self-concept). Parents’ stereotypes about gender differences in abilities were related to their ability attributions for their children’s successes and failures within academic domains. Mothers’ attributions, in turn, were related to children’s attributions, particularly among girls. Mothers’ attributions of their children’s successes to domain-specific ability were related to the self-concepts of daughters, and failure attributions were related to domain-specific self-concepts of sons. The influences of parents’ beliefs on young adolescents’ identity beliefs are discussed. PMID:23878519

  6. Similarities and Differences between Parents and Children with Respect to Gender Prejudice: the Intertwinement between Family and Cultural Stereotype Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Alfieri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have investigated the similarities and differences in gender prejudice between parents and their offspring. This work is divided into two phases: our goal in Phase I was to investigate whether any similarity exists in the prejudice response profiles of parents and their young adult offspring. Phase II sought to uncover the levels of unique similarity between parents and child in gender prejudice (cultural stereotype effect. Participants were 293 Italian families (young adult child, mother and father, for a total of 879 people. Each participants completed the Ambivalent Sexism (Glick & Fiske, 1996 and Ambivalence toward Men (Glick & Fiske, 1999 scales. As our research included family data, specific analysis were used, such dyadic indexes (Kenny, Kashy & Cook, 2006. Results reveal that (1 the response profiles of parents and offspring are dissimilar, and (2 the slight shared variance between them is determined by the cultural stereotype effect.

  7. Self Views of African American Youth are Related to the Gender Stereotypes and Academic Attributions of Their Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Stephanie; Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Rouland, Karmen

    2013-01-01

    We examined relations among African American mothers' ( N = 392) stereotypes about gender differences in mathematics, science, and reading performance, parents' attributions about their children's academic successes and failures, and their seventh and eighth grade children's academic self-views (domain-specific ability attributions and self-concept). Parents' stereotypes about gender differences in abilities were related to their ability attributions for their children's successes and failures within academic domains. Mothers' attributions, in turn, were related to children's attributions, particularly among girls. Mothers' attributions of their children's successes to domain-specific ability were related to the self-concepts of daughters, and failure attributions were related to domain-specific self-concepts of sons. The influences of parents' beliefs on young adolescents' identity beliefs are discussed.

  8. Pretty as a Princess: Longitudinal Effects of Engagement With Disney Princesses on Gender Stereotypes, Body Esteem, and Prosocial Behavior in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Rasmussen, Eric E; Nelson, David A; Birkbeck, Victoria

    2016-11-01

    This study examined level of engagement with Disney Princess media/products as it relates to gender-stereotypical behavior, body esteem (i.e. body image), and prosocial behavior during early childhood. Participants consisted of 198 children (M age  = 58 months), who were tested at two time points (approximately 1 year apart). Data consisted of parent and teacher reports, and child observations in a toy preference task. Longitudinal results revealed that Disney Princess engagement was associated with more female gender-stereotypical behavior 1 year later, even after controlling for initial levels of gender-stereotypical behavior. Parental mediation strengthened associations between princess engagement and adherence to female gender-stereotypical behavior for both girls and boys, and for body esteem and prosocial behavior for boys only. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  9. Stereotype threat as a determinant of burnout or work engagement. Mediating role of positive and negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedyńska, Sylwia; Żołnierczyk-Zreda, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Stereotype threat as an example of serious interpersonal strain at workplace can lead either to impaired work engagement or it can motivate workers to strengthen their efforts to disconfirm a stereotype and can result in excessive work engagement. Thus, the basic aim of the study was to examine whether stereotype threat is related to burnout or to work engagement. The mediating role of the negative and positive emotions were also tested in the classical approach. Mediational analysis revealed a linear relation of stereotype threat and burnout, mediated by negative emotions and a quadratic relationship between stereotype threat and work engagement. In the latter analysis none of the mediators were significant. Therefore, the results showed that both burnout and work engagement are associated with stereotype threat at the workplace, probably depending on the stage of response to the stereotype threat. Further research should confirm these associations in a longitudinal study.

  10. The Impact of Gender Stereotypes on Legal Perceptions of Lesbian Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasarhaley, Nesa E; Lynch, Kellie R; Golding, Jonathan M; Renzetti, Claire M

    2015-05-19

    The present study examined legal perceptions of lesbian intimate partner violence (IPV) in an experimental context. Undergraduate women and men from the Southeastern United States (N = 217) read a trial summary in which the defendant was charged with physically assaulting her same-sex partner. The trial varied as to whether the victim and defendant were depicted via images as either feminine or masculine. Participants rendered verdicts and made judgments about the victim and defendant (e.g., credibility). Results indicated that the victim's and defendant's masculine or feminine appearance affected these judgments. Female participants viewed a masculine victim as more credible than a feminine victim when the defendant was masculine. When the victim was masculine, they viewed a masculine defendant as more responsible for the victim's injuries than a feminine defendant. Male participants had higher sympathy for a masculine versus feminine victim overall, but had more anger toward a masculine defendant versus a feminine defendant accused of assaulting a feminine victim. Finally, fewer participants mentioned the defendant's history of violence as a reason for a guilty of felony verdict for a feminine victim with a feminine defendant versus all other combinations of victim and defendant masculine/feminine appearance. Results are discussed in terms of gender stereotypes influencing legal decision-making in IPV cases among lesbian couples. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Is the gap more than gender? A longitudinal analysis of gender, gender role orientation, and earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Timothy A; Livingston, Beth A

    2008-09-01

    This study investigated the relationships among gender, gender role orientation (i.e., attitudes toward the gendered separation of roles at work and at home), and earnings. A multilevel model was conceptualized in which gender role orientation and earnings were within-individual variables that fluctuate over time (although predictors of between-individual differences in gender role orientation were also considered). Results indicated that whereas traditional gender role orientation was positively related to earnings, gender significantly predicted the slope of this relationship: Traditional gender role orientation was strongly positively associated with earnings for men; it was slightly negatively associated with earnings for women. Occupational segregation partly explained these gender differences. Overall, the results suggest that although gender role attitudes are becoming less traditional for men and for women, traditional gender role orientation continues to exacerbate the gender wage gap.

  12. Discussing Gender Roles and Equality by Reading "Max: The Stubborn Little Wolf"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Gilberto P.; Leija, María G.

    2014-01-01

    In the beginning of this article, the authors share the story of Mr. Paredes, a fourth grade teacher in a bilingual classroom, who explains his approach in selecting particular pieces of children's literature that address gender roles and equity. His hope, he states, is that the students will be able to identify the stereotype and challenge…

  13. GENDER ROLE AND PERSONALITY DISORDERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonsky, E. David; Jane, J. Serrita; Turkheimer, Eric; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Many researchers have hypothesized relationships between personality disorders and gender role (i.e., masculinity and femininity). However, research has not addressed if people who are masculine or feminine more often meet the criteria for personality disorders. The present study examined whether college students (N = 665, 60% women) higher in masculinity or femininity more often exhibited features of the 10 DSM-IV personality disorders. Feminine men exhibited more features of all the personality disorders except antisocial. Dependent traits were associated with higher femininity and lower masculinity. Antisocial traits were associated with masculinity. Both men and women who typically behaved consistent with their gender had more narcissistic and histrionic features, whereas participants who typically behaved unlike their gender had more features of the Cluster A personality disorders. PMID:12489312

  14. Intersecting Race and Gender Cues are Associated with Perceptions of Gay Men's Preferred Sexual Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lick, David J; Johnson, Kerri L

    2015-07-01

    Preferences for anal sex roles (top/bottom) are an important aspect of gay male identity, but scholars have only recently begun to explore the factors that covary with these preferences. Here, we argue that the gendered nature of both racial stereotypes (i.e., Black men are masculine, Asian men are feminine) and sexual role stereotypes (i.e., tops are masculine, bottoms are feminine) link the categories Asian/bottom and the categories Black/top. We provide empirical evidence for these claims at three levels of analysis: At the cultural level based upon gay men's stereotypic beliefs about others (Study 1), at the interpersonal level based upon gay men's perceptions of others' sexual role preferences (Study 2), and at the intrapersonal level based upon racially diverse men's self-reported sexual roles on a public hookup website (Study 3). These studies offer the first systematic evidence of linkages between race categories and sexual roles in gay male communities.

  15. Children and Adults Use Gender and Age Stereotypes in Ownership Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Sarah; Defeyter, Margaret A.; Friedman, Ori

    2014-01-01

    In everyday life, we are often faced with the problem of judging who owns an object. The current experiments show that children and adults base ownership judgments on group stereotypes, which relate kinds of people to kinds of objects. Moreover, the experiments show that reliance on stereotypes can override another means by which people make…

  16. "...But that's Just the Stereotype": Gender and Ethnicity in Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basit, Tehmina N.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the role of gender and ethnicity in young minority ethnic British citizens' transition to adulthood. As part of a larger study using a mixed methods approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with 20 young men and women aged 14-24 at different stages of education, employment and non-employment. By employing Bourdieu's…

  17. Challenging Gender Stereotypes through Literature: Picture Books with Strong Female Characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chick, Kay A.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the importance of using picture books to encourage development of gender role equity. Provides guidelines for selection of children's literature with capable female characters. Includes examples from recently published picture books. Presents discussion questions that teachers might use to help students focus on female character…

  18. GENDER ROLE AND PERSONALITY DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Klonsky, E. David; Jane, J. Serrita; Turkheimer, Eric; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2002-01-01

    Many researchers have hypothesized relationships between personality disorders and gender role (i.e., masculinity and femininity). However, research has not addressed if people who are masculine or feminine more often meet the criteria for personality disorders. The present study examined whether college students (N = 665, 60% women) higher in masculinity or femininity more often exhibited features of the 10 DSM-IV personality disorders. Feminine men exhibited more features of all the persona...

  19. Buffers or Boosters? The Role of HRM Practices in Older Workers' Experience of Stereotype Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Eduardo André da Silva; Cabral-Cardoso, Carlos José

    2018-01-02

    Building on the social identity approach and the HRM literature, this two-wave cross-sectional study examined the effects of negative age-based metastereotypes on the age-based stereotype threat experience of older workers and on organizational disidentification. The moderator role of HRM practices in the relationship between negative age-based metastereotypes and age-based stereotype threat was also investigated. Older workers survey results (n = 469) from 14 manufacturing companies indicated that negative age-based metastereotypes correlate positively with stereotype threat. Moderation results showed that age-awareness HRM practices (training for older workers) reinforced age-based stereotype threat, whereas general HRM practices (recognition and respect) impaired it. The article suggests that the combination of age-based metastereotypes with a stereotype threat framework contributes to further understand older workers' beliefs and attitudes. It also indicates that to be effective, HRM practices should emphasize positive social identities older workers share with their colleagues, rather than giving older workers special treatment that may, after all, reinforce stigmatization.

  20. Sex-Role Stereotyping and Work: Opportunities for the Home Economics Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Jerry

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of two problems: (1) That career choices of men and women are limited by sex role stereotypes and (2) that occupations related to home economics and other traditionally female occupations tend to be low-pay, dead-end jobs. Some solutions and teaching strategies are offered. (HD)

  1. FREESTYLE: Reducing Barriers to Personal Success by Overcoming Sex-Role Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Pat

    "Freestyle," a new television series, is designed to expand career awareness of children ages 9 through 12 and reduce the limiting effects of sex role and ethnic stereotyping. The series is a product of the Television Career Awareness Project (TV CAP), a consortium of six agencies funded by a grant from the National Institute of Education (NIE).…

  2. Toward the Development of the Stereotypic Roles for Black Women Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Anita Jones; Witherspoon, Karen McCurtis; Speight, Suzette L.

    2004-01-01

    Preliminary findings on the validation of the Stereotypic Roles for Black Women Scale (SRBWS) are presented. A sample of 186 African American women took the SRBWS along with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Racial Identity Attitude Scale-B. A confirmatory factor analysis supported a four-factor structure of the scale, and moderate…

  3. The Relationship between Demographic Factors and Gender Role Attitudes in Women Referring to Mashhad Health Care Centers in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Fazeli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim:  Gender roles are affected by biosocial and cultural factors. These roles have significant impacts on one’s professional, social, and family life. Therefore, given the recent changes in gender roles in Iran, we aimed to determine the relationship between demographic factors and gender role attitudes among women. Methods:This cross-sectional study was conducted on 712 females, selected via stratified sampling. Data were collected using a demographic checklist and a gender role questionnaire including 2 sections: gender role stereotypes and gender egalitarianism. The validity of this questionnaire was confirmed by content validity and its reliability was verified by internal consistency (α=0.77. For data analysis, ANOVA and correlation coefficient tests were performed, using SPSS version16. Results: The mean scores of gender role stereotypes and egalitarianism were 29.55±4.33 and 112.55±14.64, respectively. Stereotypic and egalitarian attitudes were significantly correlated with age, family size, duration of marriage, women’s age at first childbirth, educational level, intentions to pursue education in future, and occupational status. Conclusion: As to the finding, gender role attitudes were influenced by social, economic, and demographic factors in Iran. By paying attention to these factors, we can implement proper interventions in order to promote personal and social health among women.

  4. Is the Gap More than Gender? A Longitudinal Analysis of Gender, Gender Role Orientation, and Earnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Timothy A.; Livingston, Beth A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships among gender, gender role orientation (i.e., attitudes toward the gendered separation of roles at work and at home), and earnings. A multilevel model was conceptualized in which gender role orientation and earnings were within-individual variables that fluctuate over time (although predictors of…

  5. Gender differences in locomotor and stereotypic behavior associated with l-carnitine treatment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenga, Salvatore; Itri, Elenora; Hauser, Peter; De Tolla, Louis; Yu, Sui-Foh; Testa, Giuseppe; Pappalardo, Maria Angela; Trimarchi, Francesco; Amato, Antonino

    2011-02-01

    The carnitines exert neuroprotective and neuromodulatory actions, and carnitine supplementation increases locomotor activity (LMA) in experimental animals. We measured 13 indexes of LMA and 3 indexes of stereotypic activity (STA) in adult male and female caged mice. In a randomized 4-week trial, 10 males and 10 females received 50 mg/kg body weight PO l-carnitine, and another 10 males and 10 females received placebo. Compared with placebo-treated females, placebo-treated males had a greater number of stereotypies (NSTs), stereotypy counts (STCs), stereotypy time (STT), and right front time (RFT), but smaller total distance traveled (TDT), margin distance (MD), number of vertical movements (NVMs), and left rear time (LRT). Compared with placebo-treated males, carnitine-treated males had greater horizontal activity (HA), movement time (MT), NVM, STT, TDT, STC, MD, LRT, and clockwise revolutions (CRs), but smaller left front time (LFT) and RFT. Compared with placebo-treated females, carnitine-treated females had greater NST, STC, STT, LFT, and RFT, but smaller NM, HA, NVM, VA, MT, anticlockwise revolutions (ACRs), CR, TDT, and MD; right rear time (RRT) remained statistically insignificant across all comparisons. In summary, l-carnitine caused gender differences to persist for STC, diminish for NST and STT, disappear for LRT and NVM, change in the opposite direction for TDT and MD, appear de novo for HA, VA, NM, MT, and LFT, and remain absent for RRT and ACR. Some indexes of LMA and STA are sexually dimorphic in adult mice, and l-carnitine differentially maintains, diminishes/cancels, inverts, or creates the sexual dimorphism of particular indexes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Angel, handmaiden, battleaxe or whore? A study which examines changes in newly recruited student nurses' attitudes to gender and nursing stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinks, Annette M; Bradley, Eleanor

    2004-02-01

    This article presents the findings of a comparative study, which investigated the attitudes of two groups of newly recruited student nurses to gender and nursing stereotypes. The 1992 sample (n=100) was a group of student nurses who were in their second day of studies of a Project 2000 type curriculum. The 2002 sample (n=96) were in their second month of studies of a "Fitness for Practice" curriculum [Fitness for Practice (the 'Peach Report'), UKCC, London, 1999]. Data were collected using a questionnaire, which utilised a Likert scale for measurement of attitudes to statements pertaining to gender and nursing stereotypes. The findings reveal significant differences between the characteristics of the two groups of students. For example, the 2002 group were generally older and had more healthcare experience. However, male representation in the sample groups was similar. The overall high scores and implied propensity towards beliefs in gender and nursing stereotypes in the 1992 study was found not to be the case for the 2002 sample. This is particularly true of most statements related to gender stereotypes, nursing as 'feminine', male nurse stereotyping and issues related to nurses' uniform. However, there is less evidence of changes in attitudes towards female nursing stereotypes with indecision being a general feature of both the 1992 and 2002 responses.

  7. Gender Role Attitude with an Emphasis on Ethnicity and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Falahati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gender roles defined as the patterns of behavior which are approved by society and culture. In other words gender role is the way men and women doing to recognition as feminine and masculine and culture, and society accepted and encourage those behaviors as appropriate behavior for men and women. Present study aimed to study gender role attitude using Islamic gender role attitude scale. A sample of 400 male and female students at public universities including Allameh-Tabataba'i University, Tehran University and the University of Kurdistan was drawn. Respondents were selected using random sampling method and data were collected with questionnaire. Results revealed that there were no traditional gender role attitude among students and all the respondents have professional and liberal attitude toward gender roles. There were significant gender differences between male and female in gender role attitude so that female students have more liberal attitude. In terms of ethnicity there were gender differences in Fars and Lur attitude, so that male have professional and female have liberal attitude. Among Kurdish respondents, male and female have liberal attitude while among Turkish, both male and female have traditional-professional attitude.

  8. From Stereotypes of Gender Difference to Stereotypes of Theory: A Response to Hayley Davis' Review of Deborah Tannen's "Gender and Discourse."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerian, Keli

    1997-01-01

    Responding to Hayley Davis' view of gender in discourse, asserts that she misinterprets Deborah Tannen as claiming that all men are well-intentioned and misunderstood, and that this misinterpretation is a theme appearing throughout Davis' review of Tannen's collection of essays, "Gender and Discourse". (29 references) (CK)

  9. Stereotype threat and lift effects in motor task performance: the mediating role of somatic and cognitive anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, Raphael

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to replicate the stereotype threat and lift effects in a motor task in a neutral sex-typed activity, using somatic and cognitive anxiety as key mediators of these phenomena. It was hypothesized that an ingroup/outgroup social categorization based on gender would have distinctive effects for female and male participants. A total of 161 French physical education students were randomly assigned to three threat conditions--no threat, female threat, and male threat--thus leading to a 3 x 2 (threat by gender) design. The analyses revealed a stereotype lift effect on the performances for both male and female participants, as well as a stereotype threat effect only for female participants. They also indicated that somatic anxiety had a mediating effect on the performance of female participants targeted by a negative stereotype, but that it had a facilitating effect on their performance. The stereotype threat and lift effects on motor tasks were replicated in a neutral sex-typed activity and somatic anxiety seems to have a facilitating mediating effect of the relationships between the gender-conditions (control or female threat) interaction and free-throw performance. The model used to distinguish somatic and cognitive anxiety appeared to be a relevant means of explaining the stereotype threat and lift mechanisms.

  10. Promoting Educational Equity through School Libraries. Module 2: Sexism and Sex-Role Stereotyping in School Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Tyler, Karen Beyard

    The second learning module in a continuing education program for inservice school media specialists focuses on sex stereotyping and ways in which inaccurate ideas about sex differences are transmitted through instructional materials in exploring the following questions: (1) Why do school materials communicate sexist ideas and sex-role stereotypes?…

  11. Asian and Pacific Islander women scientists and engineers: A narrative exploration of model minority, gender, and racial stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Pauline W. U.

    2002-04-01

    This qualitative study uses narrative methodology to understand what becoming a scientist or engineer entails for women stereotyped as model minorities. Interviews with four Chinese and Japanese women focused on the social contexts in which science is encountered in classrooms, families, and community. Interpretation was guided by theories that individuals construct personal narratives mediated by cultural symbolic systems to make meaning of experiences. Narratives revealed that Confucian cultural scripts shaped gender expectations even in families several generations in America. Regardless of parents' level of education, country of birth, and number of children, educational expectations, and resources were lower for daughters. Parents expected daughters to be compliant, feminine, and educated enough to be marriageable. Findings suggest K-12 gender equity science practices encouraged development of the women's interests and abilities but did not affect parental beliefs. The author's 1999 study of Hawaiians/Pacific Islander and Filipina female engineers is included in implications for teacher education programs sensitive to gender, culture, ethnicity, and language.

  12. Gender role affects experimental pain responses: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabas, O A; Tashani, O A; Tabasam, G; Johnson, M I

    2012-10-01

    Gender role refers to the culturally and socially constructed meanings that describe how women and men should behave in certain situations according to feminine and masculine roles learned throughout life. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the relationship between gender role and experimental pain responses in healthy human participants. We searched computerized databases for studies published between January 1950 and May 2011 that had measured gender role in healthy human adults and pain response to noxious stimuli. Studies were entered into a meta-analysis if they calculated a correlation coefficient (r) for gender role and experimental pain. Searches yielded 4465 'hits' and 13 studies were eligible for review. Sample sizes were 67-235 participants and the proportion of female participants was 45-67%. Eight types of gender role instrument were used. Meta-analysis of six studies (406 men and 539 women) found a significant positive correlation between masculine and feminine personality traits and pain threshold and tolerance, with a small effect size (r = 0.17, p = 0.01). Meta-analysis of four studies (263 men and 297 women) found a significant negative correlation between gender stereotypes specific to pain and pain threshold and tolerance, with a moderate effect size (r = -0.41, p Gender stereotypes specific to pain scales showed stronger associations with sex differences in pain sensitivity response than masculine and feminine personality trait scales. © 2012 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  13. Traditional Masculinity and Femininity: Validation of a New Scale Assessing Gender Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachel, Sven; Steffens, Melanie C.; Niedlich, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Gender stereotype theory suggests that men are generally perceived as more masculine than women, whereas women are generally perceived as more feminine than men. Several scales have been developed to measure fundamental aspects of gender stereotypes (e.g., agency and communion, competence and warmth, or instrumentality and expressivity). Although omitted in later version, Bem's original Sex Role Inventory included the items “masculine” and “feminine” in addition to more specific gender-stereotypical attributes. We argue that it is useful to be able to measure these two core concepts in a reliable, valid, and parsimonious way. We introduce a new and brief scale, the Traditional Masculinity-Femininity (TMF) scale, designed to assess central facets of self-ascribed masculinity-femininity. Studies 1–2 used known-groups approaches (participants differing in gender and sexual orientation) to validate the scale and provide evidence of its convergent validity. As expected the TMF reliably measured a one-dimensional masculinity-femininity construct. Moreover, the TMF correlated moderately with other gender-related measures. Demonstrating incremental validity, the TMF predicted gender and sexual orientation in a superior way than established adjective-based measures. Furthermore, the TMF was connected to criterion characteristics, such as judgments as straight by laypersons for the whole sample, voice pitch characteristics for the female subsample, and contact to gay men for the male subsample, and outperformed other gender-related scales. Taken together, as long as gender differences continue to exist, we suggest that the TMF provides a valuable methodological addition for research into gender stereotypes. PMID:27458394

  14. Traditional Masculinity and Femininity: Validation of a New Scale Assessing Gender Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachel, Sven; Steffens, Melanie C; Niedlich, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Gender stereotype theory suggests that men are generally perceived as more masculine than women, whereas women are generally perceived as more feminine than men. Several scales have been developed to measure fundamental aspects of gender stereotypes (e.g., agency and communion, competence and warmth, or instrumentality and expressivity). Although omitted in later version, Bem's original Sex Role Inventory included the items "masculine" and "feminine" in addition to more specific gender-stereotypical attributes. We argue that it is useful to be able to measure these two core concepts in a reliable, valid, and parsimonious way. We introduce a new and brief scale, the Traditional Masculinity-Femininity (TMF) scale, designed to assess central facets of self-ascribed masculinity-femininity. Studies 1-2 used known-groups approaches (participants differing in gender and sexual orientation) to validate the scale and provide evidence of its convergent validity. As expected the TMF reliably measured a one-dimensional masculinity-femininity construct. Moreover, the TMF correlated moderately with other gender-related measures. Demonstrating incremental validity, the TMF predicted gender and sexual orientation in a superior way than established adjective-based measures. Furthermore, the TMF was connected to criterion characteristics, such as judgments as straight by laypersons for the whole sample, voice pitch characteristics for the female subsample, and contact to gay men for the male subsample, and outperformed other gender-related scales. Taken together, as long as gender differences continue to exist, we suggest that the TMF provides a valuable methodological addition for research into gender stereotypes.

  15. Gender stereotypes in occupational choice: a cross-sectional study on a group of Italian adolescents [Erratum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaci T

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ramaci T, Pellerone M, Ledda C, Presti G, Squatrito V, Rapisarda V. Psychol Res Behav Manag. 2017;10:109–117. On page 116, Reference section, an error was introduced in the numbering regarding reference 44. The correct reference details are:44. Wraga M, Duncan L, Jacobs EC, Helt M, Church J. Stereotype susceptibility narrows the gender gap in imagined self-rotation performance. Psychon Bull Rev. 2006;13(5:813–819.The reference citation in the main text is correct.Read the original article

  16. Gender role, sexual orientation and suicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Kathleen Kara; Euton, Stephanie J; Jones, Jamie N; Schmidt, Norman B

    2005-07-01

    There has been interest in the relationship between homosexuality, gender role and suicide risk. Though homosexuals are more likely to identify as cross-gender, research has not simultaneously examined sexual orientation and gender role in assessing suicide risk. In the current study, the unique and interactive effects of sexual orientation and gender role were assessed in regard to suicidal ideation, related psychopathology and measures of coping. 77 participants were recruited from an undergraduate psychology subject pool (n=47) or from gay, lesbian and transgender student organizations (n=30) and assessed on measures of gender role, homosexuality, and psychopathology. Consistent with expectations, cross-gender role (i.e., personality traits associated with the opposite sex) is a unique predictor of suicidal symptoms. Moreover, gender role accounted for more of the overall variance in suicidal symptoms, positive problem orientation, peer acceptance and support, than sexual orientation. After accounting for gender role, sexual orientation contributed little to the variance in suicidal symptoms, associated pathology and problem-solving deficits. There was no support for gender role by sexual orientation interaction effects. The cross-sectional nature of the data limits statements regarding causality. Cross-gendered individuals, regardless of sexual orientation, appear to have higher risk for suicidal symptoms. Researchers and clinicians should assess gender role in evaluations of youth samples.

  17. Gender Roles in Chika Unigwe's The Phoenix

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Gender roles, gender relations, novelist, Globalization. Introduction ... It is pertinent to note that although the word feminism has its roots in the Latin word femina ..... determination to live (25). .... A Glossary of Literary Terms. 8th ed.

  18. Stereotypes of women solders about army and military service

    OpenAIRE

    Yu. A. Kalahin

    2014-01-01

    Modern armed forces are characterized by increasing feminization process. This is an objective process of feminization of society characterized by increasing role of women in the armed forces. Gender stereotypes are studied in the theory of gender. Today, the main areas of research include gender: a study of the evolution of gender, stratification research function of gender, the study of gender as a cultural symbol. The Armed Forces of Ukraine study the problem of the feminization of t...

  19. Gender Differences in Leader Emergence Persist Even for Dominant Women: An Updated Confirmation of Role Congruity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Barbara A.; Yoder, Janice D.

    2004-01-01

    Role congruity theory predicts that women will be less likely than men to emerge as leaders when expectations for the leader role are incongruent with gender stereotypes. A 2 x 2 x 3 design that crossed the sex of the dominant partner, mixed- and same-sex dyads, and masculine, feminine, and neutral tasks involved 120 dyads of unacquainted college…

  20. Differential Fecundity, Markets and Gender Roles

    OpenAIRE

    Aloysius Siow

    1996-01-01

    Women are fecund for a shorter period of their lives than men. This paper investigates how differential fecundity interacts with marriage, labor and financial markets to affect gender roles. The main findings of the paper are: (i) Differential fecundity does not have any market invariant gender effect. (ii) Gender roles depend on competition for mates in the marriage market and the way in which ex-post differences in earnings affect that competition. (iii) Gender differences in the labor mark...

  1. Teachers and parents as a source of stereotype formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đerić Ivana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Teachers and parents play an important role in developing and maintaining stereotype beliefs in children and youth, and therefore this paper discusses their role and importance for the development and manifestations of stereotypes in children. Authors' intention is to introduce the readers to the developmental prerequisites of stereotype formation in children and youth, to point out to the ways in which adults exert influence on children's understanding of stereotypes and to discover how stereotypes mediate in the interaction between teachers and parents. Studies imply that the development of stereotype beliefs in children is conditioned by developmental changes on the cognitive level and that the first indications of stereotypes occur in the third, that is, fourth year of life. The first sources of stereotype formation are parents, who, as a model for socialization, promote the social and cultural norms and express certain behavioral patterns which are then "imprinted" in the repertoire of child's behavior. Teachers present an important source of stereotypes, whether we are talking about their roles in carrying over the pattern of the dominant culture or we are dealing with the stereotypical perception of the pupils of different categories (such as, for example, ethnic background, gender. This paper also points out to the categories of pupils that are more sensitive to stereotypes in educational context.

  2. Sex Role Stereotyping in Saturday Morning Cartoon Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Sandra L.; Valentine, K. B.

    1979-01-01

    Explores the role children's cartoon programs may play in forming sex role identities in children through the presentation of sex-typed personality attributes of the cartoon characters. Fourteen dependent variables of cartoon character personality were analyzed by sex of the character and sex of the viewer. (JVP)

  3. Gender roles on social networking sites: Investigating reciprocal relationships between Dutch adolescents' hypermasculinity and hyperfemininity and sexy online self-presentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosten, J.M.F.; Vandenbosch, L.; Peter, J.

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that adolescents play out stereotypical gender roles in their self-presentations in social media. However, longitudinal research on the relationships between (sexy) online self-presentation and adolescents' gender role orientation is lacking. The present study

  4. Gender, gender roles and completion of nursing education: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katrina; Muldoon, Orla T; Moutray, Marianne

    2010-05-01

    The current worldwide nursing shortage and high attrition of nursing students remain a challenge for the nursing profession. The aim of this paper was to investigate how key psychological attributes and constructions differentiate between completers and non-completers of nursing education. A questionnaire including measures of gender role identity and perceived gender appropriateness of careers was administered to 384 students early in the first year of the course. At the end of the programme attrition rates were obtained. The findings indicate that males were more likely to leave the course than females. Furthermore, those who completed the course tended to view nursing as more appropriate for women, in contrast to the non-completers who had less gender typed views. The female-dominated nature of nursing, prevalent stereotypes and gender bias inherent in nursing education seem to make this an uncomfortable place for males and those with less gendered typed views. Whilst it is acknowledged that attrition is undoubtedly a complex issue with many contributing factors, the nursing profession need to take steps to address this bias to ensure their profession is open equally to both female and male recruits. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The malleability of gender stereotypes: influence of population size on perceptions of men and women in the past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Müller, Stephanie M; López-Zafra, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies on the malleability of gender stereotypes show that they are flexible, dynamic structures that change with the passage of time. In a study, we examined perceptions about men and women of the past, present, and future in Spain and focused on the influence of an important demographic variable on these perceptions: the population size of people's location of residence. Results showed that people perceived an increase in similarity of men and women from the past to the present and from the present to the future. In less-populated locations, however, men and women were more gender stereotyped and, consequently, still perceived to be further from equality than those in more populated areas. We concluded that the study of dynamic gender stereotypes benefits from extensive research in populations that vary in their demographic characteristics and shows the importance of recent movements in rural areas supporting women's participation in the modernization process.

  6. Tween Girls' Perception of Gender Roles and Gender Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Birgitte; Chan, Kara; Cappello, Gianna

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The present study aims to examine girls' perception of gender roles and gender identities in Hong Kong. Design/methodology/approach – A total of 16 girls aged 10 to 12 were asked to take pictures from the media that could illustrate “what girls or women should or should not be; and what...... girls or women should or should not do”. Qualitative interviews were conducted. Findings – Analysis of interviews and images captured found that tween girls' perceived gender roles for females were based on a mixture of traditional and contemporary role models. Girls in Hong Kong demonstrated...

  7. Appraising Gender Role Portrayals in TV Commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbe, Richard H.; Langefeld, Carl D.

    1993-01-01

    Examines gender role orientations of characters in prime time television advertisements through the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) completed by 426 college students (43.2% females). Results confirm the appropriateness of the scale for self- and person-perception ratings. Uses of the BSRI in gender role research are discussed. (SLD)

  8. Gender bias in leader evaluations: merging implicit theories and role congruity perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Crystal L; Burnette, Jeni L

    2013-10-01

    This research extends our understanding of gender bias in leader evaluations by merging role congruity and implicit theory perspectives. We tested and found support for the prediction that the link between people's attitudes regarding women in authority and their subsequent gender-biased leader evaluations is significantly stronger for entity theorists (those who believe attributes are fixed) relative to incremental theorists (those who believe attributes are malleable). In Study 1, 147 participants evaluated male and female gubernatorial candidates. Results supported predictions, demonstrating that traditional attitudes toward women in authority significantly predicted a pro-male gender bias in leader evaluations (and progressive attitudes predicted a pro-female gender bias) with an especially strong effect for those with more entity-oriented, relative to incrementally oriented person theories. Study 2 (119 participants) replicated these findings and demonstrated the mediating role of these attitudes in linking gender stereotypes and leader role expectations to biased evaluations.

  9. Mexican-American adolescents' gender role attitude development: the role of adolescents' gender and nativity and parents' gender role attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegraff, Kimberly A; McHale, Susan M; Zeiders, Katharine H; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Perez-Brena, Norma J; Wheeler, Lorey A; Rodríguez De Jesús, Sue A

    2014-12-01

    Gender development has long term implications for education and career endeavors and family formation behaviors, but we know very little about the role of sociocultural factors in developmental and individual differences. In this study, we investigated one domain of gender development, gender role attitudes, in Mexican-American adolescents (N = 246; 51 % female), using four phases of longitudinal data across 8 years. Data were collected when adolescents averaged 12.51 years (SD = 0.58), 14.64 years (SD = 0.59), 17.72 years (SD = 0.57), and 19.60 years of age (SD = 0.66). Mothers' and fathers' gender role attitudes also were assessed in Phases 1, 3, and 4. Findings revealed that gender attitude development varied as a function of the interaction between adolescents' nativity and gender. Among Mexico-born adolescents, females exhibited significant declines in traditional attitudes from early to late adolescence, but males' attitudes were stable over time. U.S.-born females and males, in contrast, did not differ in their gender attitude trajectories. Examining the links between mothers', fathers', and adolescents' gender role attitudes revealed within-person associations between mothers' and adolescents' gender role attitudes: on occasions when mothers reported more traditional attitudes relative to their own cross-time average, adolescents also reported more traditional attitudes than usual. In addition, fathers' more traditional gender role attitudes were associated with daughters', but not sons', more traditional gender role attitudes at the between-person level. The discussion focuses on the interpretation of Mexican-American adolescents' gender role attitude development from a cultural ecological perspective.

  10. Mexican American Adolescents’ Gender Role Attitude Development: The Role of Adolescents’ Gender and Nativity and Parents’ Gender Role Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.; McHale, Susan M.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Perez-Brena, Norma J.; Wheeler, Lorey A.; Rodríguez De Jesús, Sue A.

    2014-01-01

    Gender development has long term implications for education and career endeavors and family formation behaviors, but we know very little about the role of sociocultural factors in developmental and individual differences. In this study, we investigated one domain of gender development, gender role attitudes, in Mexican American adolescents (N = 246; 51% female), using four phases of longitudinal data across eight years. Data were collected when adolescents averaged 12.51 years (SD = 0.58), 14.64 years (SD = 0.59), 17.72 years (SD = 0.57), and 19.60 years of age (SD = 0.66). Mothers’ and fathers’ gender role attitudes also were assessed in Phases 1, 3, and 4. Findings revealed that gender attitude development varied as a function of the interaction between adolescents’ nativity and gender. Among Mexico-born adolescents, females exhibited significant declines in traditional attitudes from early to late adolescence, but males’ attitudes were stable over time. U.S.-born females and males, in contrast, did not differ in their gender attitude trajectories. Examining the links between mothers’, fathers’, and adolescents’ gender role attitudes revealed within-person associations between mothers’ and adolescents’ gender role attitudes: on occasions when mothers reported more traditional attitudes relative to their own cross-time average, adolescents also reported more traditional attitudes than usual. In addition, fathers’ more traditional gender role attitudes were associated with daughters’, but not sons’, more traditional gender role attitudes at the between-person level. The discussion focuses on the interpretation of Mexican American adolescents’ gender role attitude development from a cultural ecological perspective. PMID:24777649

  11. On the Gender-Science Stereotypes held by Scientists: Explicit accord with Gender-Ratios, Implicit accord with Scientific Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick L Smyth; Brian A. Nosek; Brian A. Nosek

    2015-01-01

    Women’s representation in science has changed substantially, but unevenly, over the past 40 years. In health and biological sciences, for example, women’s representation among U.S. scientists is now on par with or greater than men’s, while in physical sciences and engineering they remain a clear minority. We investigated whether variation in proportions of women in scientific disciplines is related to differing levels of male-favoring explicit or implicit stereotypes held by students and sc...

  12. Gender Roles, Gender (In)equality and Fertility: An Empirical Test of Five Gender Equity Indices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, M.

    2010-01-01

    The division of gender roles in the household and societal level gender (in)equality have been situated as one of the most powerful factors underlying fertility behaviour. Despite continued theoretical attention to this issue by demographers, empirical research integrating gender roles and equity in

  13. Stereotypes of women solders about army and military service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Kalahin

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the results of the study showed that among women soldiers are not common stereotypes of patriarchal views on the presence of women in the military. The results showed dissemination of gender­determined stereotypes that structure the military activity in male and female. Stereotypes denying the allocation of military activity differences for men and women, are also common among women soldiers. Analysis of the results of the study revealed a new group of respondents who share the dominant stereotypes about the role of women in the military.

  14. Does Stereotype Threat Affect Women in Academic Medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Diana Jill; Joseph, Anne; van Ryn, Michelle; Carnes, Molly

    2012-01-01

    Multiple complex factors contribute to the slow pace of women’s advancement into leadership positions in academic medicine. In this article, the authors propose that stereotype threat--under which individuals who are members of a group characterized by negative stereotypes in a particular domain perform below their actual abilities in that domain when group membership is emphasized--may play an important role in the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions in academic medicine. Research to objectively assess the impact of stereotype threat for women in academic medicine is feasible and necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Still, a number of conditions present in the academic medicine community today have been shown to trigger stereotype threat in other settings, and stereotype threat fits with existing research on gender in academic medicine. In the meantime, academic health centers should implement relatively simple measures supported by experimental evidence from other settings to reduce the risk of stereotype threat, including: (1) introducing the concept of stereotype threat to the academic medicine community; (2) engaging all stakeholders, male and female, to promote identity safety by enacting and making faculty aware of policies to monitor potential instances of discrimination, and training faculty to provide performance feedback that is free of gender bias; (3) counteracting the effects of sex segregation at academic health centers by increasing exposure to successful female leaders; (4) reducing gender stereotype priming by avoiding stereotypically male criteria for promotion, grants, and awards; and (5) building leadership efficacy among female physicians and scientists. PMID:22361794

  15. Does stereotype threat affect women in academic medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Diana Jill; Joseph, Anne; van Ryn, Michelle; Carnes, Molly

    2012-04-01

    Multiple complex factors contribute to the slow pace of women's advancement into leadership positions in academic medicine. In this article, the authors propose that stereotype threat--under which individuals who are members of a group characterized by negative stereotypes in a particular domain perform below their actual abilities in that domain when group membership is emphasized--may play an important role in the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions in academic medicine. Research to objectively assess the impact of stereotype threat for women in academic medicine is feasible and necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Still, a number of conditions present in the academic medicine community today have been shown to trigger stereotype threat in other settings, and stereotype threat fits with existing research on gender in academic medicine. In the meantime, academic health centers should implement relatively simple measures supported by experimental evidence from other settings to reduce the risk of stereotype threat, including (1) introducing the concept of stereotype threat to the academic medicine community, (2) engaging all stakeholders, male and female, to promote identity safety by enacting and making faculty aware of policies to monitor potential instances of discrimination, and training faculty to provide performance feedback that is free of gender bias, (3) counteracting the effects of sex segregation at academic health centers by increasing exposure to successful female leaders, (4) reducing gender stereotype priming by avoiding stereotypically male criteria for promotion, grants, and awards, and (5) building leadership efficacy among female physicians and scientists.

  16. Distinguishing stereotype threat from priming effects : On the role of the social self and threat-based concerns (Retracted article. See vol. 104, pg. 196, 2013)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marx, David M.; Stapel, Diederik A.

    It has been argued that priming negative stereotypic traits is sufficient to cause stereotype threat. The present research challenges this assumption by highlighting the role of the social self and targets' concerns about confirming a negative group-based stereotype. Specifically, in 3 experiments

  17. Recognizing the centrality of gender identity and stereotype knowledge in gender development and moving toward theoretical integration: reply to Bandura and Bussey (2004).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Carol Lynn; Ruble, Diane N; Szkrybalo, Joel

    2004-09-01

    Most of the critique in the A. Bandura and K. Bussey (see record 2004-18097-001) commentary is a misunderstanding or misrepresentation of the points made by C. L. Martin, D. N. Ruble, and J. Szkrybalo in their 2002 Psychological Bulletin article (see record 2002-18663-003). First, Martin et al. never intended to present a comprehensive theory; instead, it was a review of 2 different cognitive approaches to gender development. Second, there is no time line test that has been failed; instead, gender cognitions may occur earlier than initially believed. Third, Bandura and Bussey dismissed central gender cognitions-gender identity and gender stereotype knowledge-despite considerable evidence in their support. Fourth, Bandura and Bussey never addressed the gaps and ambiguities inherent in their theory that Martin et al. questioned in their earlier article. Finally, Bandura and Bussey's misunderstandings of cognitive theorists' views on socialization agents, sociocultural influences, agency, and motivation created theoretical rifts where none exist. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  18. Examining the Relationship between Male Rape Myth Acceptance, Female Rape Myth Acceptance, Victim Blame, Homophobia, Gender Roles, and Ambivalent Sexism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Michelle; Gilston, Jennifer; Rogers, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between male rape myth acceptance, female rape myth acceptance, attitudes toward gay men, a series of gender role and sexism measures, victim blame and assault severity were investigated. It was predicted that men would display more negative, stereotypical attitudes than women and that male rape myth endorsement would be related…

  19. Exploring Teachers' and Students' Gender Role Bias and Students' Confidence in STEM Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Sarah; Rice, Lindsay; Greenlee, Eric

    2017-01-01

    There is a shortfall of girls and women pursuing STEM disciplines, a deficit that may be partially attributed to subtle forms of bias that are tied to traditional gender role stereotypes. The current study examined these subtle biases in high school teachers and students in two ways: by asking teachers and students to attribute masculine and…

  20. The influence of child gender role and maternal feedback to child stress on the emergence of the gender difference in depressive rumination in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Stephanie J; Mezulis, Amy H; Hyde, Janet S

    2010-07-01

    Extensive research has linked a greater female tendency to ruminate about depressed feelings or mood to the gender difference in depression. However, the developmental origins of the gender difference in depressive rumination are not well understood. We hypothesized that girls and women may be more likely to ruminate because rumination represents a gender-stereotyped coping style that is associated with a more feminine gender role identity, maternal encouragement of emotion expression, and passive coping responses to stress. This study examined whether child self-reported gender role identity and observed maternal responses to child stress mediated the emergent gender difference in depressive rumination in adolescence. Maternal gender role attitudes were further hypothesized to moderate the relationship between child sex and mediating variables. Rumination and gender role identity were assessed in 316 youths and their mothers in a longitudinal study from age 11 to age 15; in addition, 153 mother-child dyads participated in an observational task at age 11 from which maternal responses to a child stressor were coded. Results indicated that greater feminine gender role identity among children and encouragement of emotion expression by mothers at age 11 significantly mediated the association between child sex and the development of depressive rumination at age 15, even after controlling for rumination at age 11. Maternal gender role attitudes significantly moderated the relationship between child sex and maternal encouragement of emotion expression, such that mothers who endorsed more traditional gender role attitudes themselves were particularly likely to encourage emotion expression in their daughters.

  1. Masculinity and gender roles among Puerto Rican men: machismo on the U.S. mainland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, J B

    1998-01-01

    The literature on masculinity and gender roles in American life has mostly over-looked Latino men, or has stereotyped them by means of a distorted concept of machismo. A reconceptualization of masculinity and machismo among Puerto Rican men is presented, based on a multidimensional view of their historical and current sociocultural reality. Relevant clinical and social services for Puerto Rican men are discussed and directions for future research are suggested.

  2. Dual Career Mothers' Role Conflict, Parental Roles, and Gender Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella-Shaw, Mary; And Others

    The increasing numbers of married women working make the study of dual career mothers an important topic for the psychology of women. Such research is vital to helping women integrate careers with family life. A study was conducted to examine the extent to which gender role, number of hours worked per week, and number and age of children relate to…

  3. Why Are Women Underrepresented in Computer Science? Gender Differences in Stereotypes, Self-Efficacy, Values, and Interests and Predictors of Future CS Course-Taking and Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses why women are underrepresented in Computer Science (CS). Data from 1319 American first-year college students (872 female and 447 male) indicate that gender differences in computer self-efficacy, stereotypes, interests, values, interpersonal orientation, and personality exist. If students had had a positive experience in their…

  4. Pretty as a Princess: Longitudinal Effects of Engagement with Disney Princesses on Gender Stereotypes, Body Esteem, and Prosocial Behavior in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M.; Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Rasmussen, Eric E.; Nelson, David A.; Birkbeck, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    This study examined level of engagement with Disney Princess media/products as it relates to gender-stereotypical behavior, body esteem (i.e. body image), and prosocial behavior during early childhood. Participants consisted of 198 children (M[subscript age] = 58 months), who were tested at two time points (approximately 1 year apart). Data…

  5. Reading is for girls!? The negative impact of preschool teachers' traditional gender role attitudes on boys' reading related motivation and skills

    OpenAIRE

    Wolter, Ilka; Braun, Edith; Hannover, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    According to gender stereotypes, reading is for girls. In this study, we investigated the role of preschool teachers in transmitting such gendered expectations. We suggest that boys are less motivated to read in preschool, and less competent in reading 1 year later in primary school, if their preschool teacher holds a traditional gender role attitude than if the teacher has egalitarian beliefs. In 135 independent dyads of a female preschool teacher (N = 135) and one boy (n = 65) or one girl (...

  6. The impact of gender stereotypes on the evaluation of general practitioners' communication skills: an experimental study using transcripts of physician-patient encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolai, Jennifer; Demmel, Ralf

    2007-12-01

    The present study has been designed to test for the effect of physicians' gender on the perception and assessment of empathic communication in medical encounters. Eighty-eight volunteers were asked to assess six transcribed interactions between physicians and a standardized patient. The effects of physicians' gender were tested by the experimental manipulation of physicians' gender labels in transcripts. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two testing conditions: (1) perceived gender corresponds to the physician's true gender; (2) perceived gender differs from the physician's true gender. Empathic communication was assessed using the Rating Scales for the Assessment of Empathic Communication in Medical Interviews. A 2 (physician's true gender: female vs. male)x2 (physician's perceived gender: female vs. male)x2 (rater's gender: female vs. male) mixed multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) yielded a main effect for physician's true gender. Female physicians were rated higher on empathic communication than male physicians irrespective of any gender labels. The present findings suggest that gender differences in the perception of physician's empathy are not merely a function of the gender label. These findings provide evidence for differences in male and female physicians' empathic communication that cannot be attributed to stereotype bias. Future efforts to evaluate communication skills training for general practitioners may consider gender differences.

  7. Perception of victims of rape and perception of gender social roles among college students in Southwest Nigeria: validation of a 5-item gender scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opekitan, Afe Taiwo; Ogunsemi, Olawale; Osalusi, Bamidele; Adeleye, Olufunke; Ale, Ayotunde

    2017-08-29

    Our study focused on the perception of victims of rape and the relationship with the perception of social roles for gender among college students in southwest Nigeria using a 5-item gender social scale and a perception of victims of rape questionnaire. The study was done among 312 college students in Southwest Nigeria and explored the perception of victims of rape and gender social roles. The aim was to determine the relationship between perception of rape victims and view of gender social roles. We used a perception of rape victims questionnaire and a validated 5-item gender social roles scale to assess the views of participants. The findings revealed that females had better perception of victims of rape than males. Females also had more positive views of females' social roles involving gender. However, there was poor perception on work-related social roles and the traditional concept of headship in the varied situations described on the 5-item gender social scale. Old stereotypes of typically blaming victims of rape were not common beliefs among college students. There were no significant correlations between perception of victims of rape and perception of gender social roles among college students. Seemingly, the perception of victims of rape does not have a significant relationship with the concept of gender social roles.

  8. Gender Roles, Gender (Inequality and Fertility: An Empirical Test of Five Gender Equity Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Mills

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The division of gender roles in the household and societal level gender (inequality have been situated as one of the most powerful factors underlying fertility behaviour. Despite continued theoretical attention to this issue by demographers, empirical research integrating gender roles and equity in relation to fertility remains surprisingly sparse. This paper first provides a brief review of previous research that has examined gender roles and fertility followed by a comparison of six prominent gender equality indices: Gender-related Development Index (GDI, Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM, Gender Gap Index (GGI, Gender Equality Index (GEI, the European Union Gender Equality Index (EU-GEI and the Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI. The paper then tests how five of these indices impact fertility intentions and behaviour using a series of multilevel (random-coefficient logistic regression models, applying the European Social Survey (2004/5. The GDI, with its emphasis on human development, adjusted for gender, has the strongest and significant effect on fertility intentions. The EU-GEI, which focuses on the universal caregiver model, uncovers that more equity significantly lowers fertility intentions, but only for women. The remaining indicators show no significant impact. The paper concludes with a reflection and suggestions for future research.

  9. [Effects of mere subliminal exposure on trait judgments and the role of stereotyped knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Ayumi

    2004-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of repeated exposures to male and female targets on trait impressions and the role of stereotyped knowledge for the target's social category in impression formation process. The participants were repeatedly exposed to slides of male and female faces for subliminal durations. For each of 12 pairs containing both previously presented slide and newly presented slide, the participants made forced-choice liking judgments (Experiment 1), trait judgments (Experiment 2) and recognition judgments (Experiments 1 and 2). It was found that participants' attitude toward the targets became more positive, even though target recognition was not significantly greater than the chance level. Yet, when the dimension of judgment was stereotypically associated with the target's social category, exposure effects were obtained for the targets whose social category and its dimension were inferentially matched, but not obtained for the targets whose social category and its dimension were not inferentially matched. Some theoretical implications of the role of social category information in the mere exposure phenomenon are discussed.

  10. The relationship between a less gender-stereotypical parenthood and alcohol-related care and death: A registry study of Swedish mothers and fathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Backhans Mona

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In general men tend to drink more alcohol and experience more alcohol-related sickness, injuries and mortality than women. In this paper, the overall hypothesis was that increased gender similarity in the division of parental duties would lead to convergence in alcohol-related harm. The aim was to analyse whether the risk of alcohol harm differs between parents who fit a gender-stereotypical versus those with a less gender-stereotypical division of childcare and paid work. Methods The study sample was a retrospective registry-based cohort study of all Swedish couples who had their first child together in 1978 (N = 49,120. A less gender-stereotypical parenthood was indicated by paternity leave for fathers (1978–1979 and full-time work for mothers (1980. The outcome was inpatient care and/or death caused by alcohol psychosis, alcoholism, liver disease, or alcohol intoxication in the two decades following (1981–2001. Our main statistical method was multivariate logistic regression with odds ratios used to estimate relative risks. Results The main results show that fathers who took paternity leave had 18% lower risk of alcohol-related care and/or death than other fathers. Mothers who worked full-time about two years after having a child had 71% higher risk than mothers who were unemployed or worked part-time. Conclusion A less gender-stereotypical division of duties between parents in early parenthood may contribute to a long-term decreased gender disparity regarding risky alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm. In order to know more about the causal direction however, future research has to consider subjects' drinking patterns in the years prior to parenthood.

  11. The relationship between a less gender-stereotypical parenthood and alcohol-related care and death: A registry study of Swedish mothers and fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Månsdotter, Anna; Backhans, Mona; Hallqvist, Johan

    2008-01-01

    Background In general men tend to drink more alcohol and experience more alcohol-related sickness, injuries and mortality than women. In this paper, the overall hypothesis was that increased gender similarity in the division of parental duties would lead to convergence in alcohol-related harm. The aim was to analyse whether the risk of alcohol harm differs between parents who fit a gender-stereotypical versus those with a less gender-stereotypical division of childcare and paid work. Methods The study sample was a retrospective registry-based cohort study of all Swedish couples who had their first child together in 1978 (N = 49,120). A less gender-stereotypical parenthood was indicated by paternity leave for fathers (1978–1979) and full-time work for mothers (1980). The outcome was inpatient care and/or death caused by alcohol psychosis, alcoholism, liver disease, or alcohol intoxication in the two decades following (1981–2001). Our main statistical method was multivariate logistic regression with odds ratios used to estimate relative risks. Results The main results show that fathers who took paternity leave had 18% lower risk of alcohol-related care and/or death than other fathers. Mothers who worked full-time about two years after having a child had 71% higher risk than mothers who were unemployed or worked part-time. Conclusion A less gender-stereotypical division of duties between parents in early parenthood may contribute to a long-term decreased gender disparity regarding risky alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm. In order to know more about the causal direction however, future research has to consider subjects' drinking patterns in the years prior to parenthood. PMID:18793385

  12. The relationship between a less gender-stereotypical parenthood and alcohol-related care and death: a registry study of Swedish mothers and fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Månsdotter, Anna; Backhans, Mona; Hallqvist, Johan

    2008-09-15

    In general men tend to drink more alcohol and experience more alcohol-related sickness, injuries and mortality than women. In this paper, the overall hypothesis was that increased gender similarity in the division of parental duties would lead to convergence in alcohol-related harm. The aim was to analyse whether the risk of alcohol harm differs between parents who fit a gender-stereotypical versus those with a less gender-stereotypical division of childcare and paid work. The study sample was a retrospective registry-based cohort study of all Swedish couples who had their first child together in 1978 (N = 49,120). A less gender-stereotypical parenthood was indicated by paternity leave for fathers (1978-1979) and full-time work for mothers (1980). The outcome was inpatient care and/or death caused by alcohol psychosis, alcoholism, liver disease, or alcohol intoxication in the two decades following (1981-2001). Our main statistical method was multivariate logistic regression with odds ratios used to estimate relative risks. The main results show that fathers who took paternity leave had 18% lower risk of alcohol-related care and/or death than other fathers. Mothers who worked full-time about two years after having a child had 71% higher risk than mothers who were unemployed or worked part-time. A less gender-stereotypical division of duties between parents in early parenthood may contribute to a long-term decreased gender disparity regarding risky alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm. In order to know more about the causal direction however, future research has to consider subjects' drinking patterns in the years prior to parenthood.

  13. Shift in social order – shift in gender roles? Migration experience and gender roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Havlin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Does gender matter in the context of immigration? What significance does it gain through time? Does transition from one gender role to another result in redistribution of family roles? These are the main questions which this paper addresses through scientific discourse and empiric research. In particular the paper deals with the question whether the transition from one gender role to another in the course of immigration triggers the liberalization of gender roles in the families of East-European immigrants (from Ukraine, Russia, Kazakhstan, and Armenia in Germany. This is investigated through semi-structured biographical interviews with female immigrants to Germany conducted by the author in 2012-2014. The findings illustrate a specific shift of gender roles in the context of migration. On the one hand, willingly or through circumstances, immigrant women are more likely to be involved in the decision-making process, to adapt to a breadwinner role, and to undertake the communication functions with official institutions (often due to better language proficiency. On the other hand, men are more likely to be more engaged in the caregiver roles for offspring, to maintain native language in communication with children (from mother tongue to ‘father tongue’, and to fulfill housekeeping duties. These patterns are rather untypical for post-soviet gender roles, with their increasing tendency to the renaissance of traditional gender roles. The question of whether a shift in gender roles related to migration from one country to another leads towards the greater liberalization of gender roles still remains debatable. But migration experience reinforces the transformation of gender roles which initially are not only distinct but also unequal. Thus, migration can accelerate restructuring of the gender relationship. In turn, a new social order imposes – on immigrants – a demand for greater flexibility of gender roles in the family and for diversity in

  14. The Making of a Man: Rethinking and Challenging Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chick, Kay A.

    2014-01-01

    Five literature selections with detailed instructional strategies offer practicing and preservice teachers lessons to help students think deeply about traditional male stereotypes, gender role development, and acceptance of individual differences. Incorporating gender variant books and techniques into early childhood and elementary teacher…

  15. What Can Boys and Girls Do? Preschoolers' Perspectives Regarding Gender Roles across Domains of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Erin R.; Tisak, Marie S.; Tisak, John

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has examined at what age and in what contexts males and females develop gender-congruent stereotypes. Research indicates that social experience may provide a great influence on the presence of such stereotypes, but this is likely influenced by the development of gender schemas. The current study interviewed 99 children…

  16. Gender stereotypes in management: a comparative study of communist and postcommunist Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curşeu, Petru Lucian; Boroş, Smaranda

    2011-08-01

    This study sets out to investigate the changes in the perception of women in leading positions in communist and postcommunist Romania. The study uses a noninvasive paradigm of analyzing the content of obituaries for women and men in leading positions published in a national journal, and shows that the gender gap in management widened during the postcommunist period. In postcommunist Romania, women are perceived as being less able to lead/manage and more relational in their leadership style as compared to men, while in the communist period the gender differences were not significant.

  17. Expressing pride: Effects on perceived agency, communality, and stereotype-based gender disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosi, Prisca; Spörrle, Matthias; Welpe, Isabell M; Heilman, Madeline E

    2016-09-01

    Two experimental studies were conducted to investigate how the expression of pride shapes agency-related and communality-related judgments, and how those judgments differ when the pride expresser is a man or a woman. Results indicated that the expression of pride (as compared to the expression of happiness) had positive effects on perceptions of agency and inferences about task-oriented leadership competence, and negative effects on perceptions of communality and inferences about people-oriented leadership competence. Pride expression also elevated ascriptions of interpersonal hostility. For agency-related judgments and ascriptions of interpersonal hostility, these effects were consistently stronger when the pride expresser was a woman than a man. Moreover, the expression of pride was found to affect disparities in judgments about men and women, eliminating the stereotype-consistent differences that were evident when happiness was expressed. With a display of pride women were not seen as any more deficient in agency-related attributes and competencies, nor were they seen as any more exceptional in communality-related attributes and competencies, than were men. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Relationship between gender role attitude and fertility rate in women referring to health centers in Mashhad in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golmakani, Nahid; Fazeli, Elham; Taghipour, Ali; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi

    2015-01-01

    Fertility rate apparently is a non-interventional behavior, but in practice, it is influenced by social values and norms in which culture and traditional beliefs play a significant role. In this regard, some studies have shown that gender roles can be associated with reproductive behaviors. With regard to the importance of annual reduction of population growth rate and its outcomes, the present study was performed to determine the relationship between gender role attitude and fertility rate in women referring to Mashhad health centers in 2013. The present study is an analytical cross-sectional and multistage sampling study performed on 712 women. Data were collected by a questionnaire consisting of two sections: Personal information and gender role attitude questionnaire that contained two dimensions, i.e. gender stereotypes and gender egalitarianism. Its validity was determined by content validity and its reliability by internal consistency (r = 0.77). Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16. Initial analysis of the data indicated that there was a significant relationship between acceptance of gender stereotypes (P = 0.008) and gender egalitarianism (P role attitude and fertility. Paying attention to women's attitude is very important for successful planning in the improvement of fertility rate and population policy.

  19. Gender Stereotyping and the Influence of Race in Sport among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, James; Soohoo, Sonya; Reel, Justine; Ratliffe, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    One of the most dreaded insults in sports is, "You throw like a girl," because it epitomizes society's gender logic about physiological differences between men and women. Although physiological differences between the sexes exist, people label these abilities and behaviors as masculine or feminine as a result of social and cultural expectations.…

  20. Do Women Prefer Pink? : The Effect of a Gender Stereotypical Stock Portfolio on Investing Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prast, H.M.; Rossi, M.; Torricelli, C.; Druta, C.

    We investigate whether lack of familiarity may contribute to an explanation of the gender gap in stock market participation and risk taking. We use ads in widely read women magazines to select companies that we assume to be more familiar to women than to men, and construct a “pink” portfolio. We

  1. Do women prefer pink? : The effect of a gender stereotypical stock portfolio on investing decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prast, Henriette; Rossi, M.; Torricelli, C.; Sansone, D.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate whether lack of familiarity may contribute to an explanation of the gender gap in stock market participation and risk taking. We use ads in widely read women magazines to select companies that we assume to be more familiar to women than to men, and construct a “pink” portfolio. We

  2. Gender Stereotypic Interest Patterns as Determinants of Cognitive Abilities in Transsexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Mark R.; Heritage, Jeanette G.

    The designation "transsexual" refers to those who persistently believe their gender to be incongruous with their anatomical morphology. This study involves a group of 21 female sexual reversal surgery (SRS) candidates and a group of 59 male SRS candidates to observe if transsexual cognitive ability patterns are correlated with levels of…

  3. Gender Discrimination as a Function of Stereotypic and Counterstereotypic Behavior: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobel, Thalma E.; Mashraki-Pedhatzur, Sharon; Mantzur, Ahmed; Libby, Sharon

    2000-01-01

    Investigated seventh graders' gender discrimination from a cross-cultural perspective. Israeli Arabs and Jews rated two hypothetical male candidates for class representative (who were generally masculine or outstandingly feminine) on their beliefs about their ability to be elected and their willingness to interact with them. Both groups…

  4. Problems in the Pipeline: Stereotype Threat and Women's Achievement in High-Level Math Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Catherine; Aronson, Joshua; Harder, Jayne Ann

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that negative stereotypes can undermine women's performance on mathematics tests. Despite considerable laboratory evidence for the role of "stereotype threat" in girls' and women's math test performance, the relevance of such findings for the "real world" gender test-score gap remains unclear and debates about causes focus…

  5. Gender-role conflict and gender-role orientation in a sample of gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Namok; Herdman, Kevin; Fuqua, Dale R; Newman, Jody L

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study was designed to examine the relationship between gender role dimensions derived from the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) and the 4 dimensions of gender role conflict represented on the Gender Role Conflict Scale (GRCS) using a sample (N = 400) composed of exclusively gay men. Results from regression of 3 BSRI scores (femininity, social masculinity, personal masculinity) on the 4 subscale scores of the GRCS indicated that gender role conflict was most strongly and positively associated with the negative aspect of masculinity (social masculinity), accounting for about 11% of variability in social masculinity scores. In particular, the success-power-competition dimension of the GRCS was the major predictor of social masculinity in gay men. Gender role conflict was also strongly but negatively associated with femininity, accounting for approximately 10% of the variance in femininity scores among the men in the sample. Implications and recommendations for further studies are discussed.

  6. The role of prevention focus under stereotype threat: Initial cognitive mobilization is followed by depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ståhl, Tomas; Van Laar, Colette; Ellemers, Naomi

    2012-06-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that stereotype threat induces a prevention focus and impairs central executive functions. The present research examines how these 2 consequences of stereotype threat are related. The authors argue that the prevention focus is responsible for the effects of stereotype threat on executive functions and cognitive performance. However, because the prevention focus is adapted to deal with threatening situations, the authors propose that it also leads to some beneficial responses to stereotype threat. Specifically, because stereotype threat signals a high risk of failure, a prevention focus initiates immediate recruitment of cognitive control resources. The authors further argue that this response initially facilitates cognitive performance but that the additional cognitive demands associated with working under threat lead to cognitive depletion over time. Study 1 demonstrates that stereotype threat (vs. control) facilitates immediate cognitive control capacity during a stereotype-relevant task. Study 2 experimentally demonstrates the process by showing that stereotype threat (vs. control) facilitates cognitive control as a default, as well as when a prevention focus has been experimentally induced, but not when a promotion focus has been induced. Study 3 shows that stereotype threat facilitates initial math performance under a prevention focus, whereas no effect is found under a promotion focus. Consistent with previous research, however, stereotype threat impaired math performance over time under a prevention focus, but not under a promotion focus. 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  7. The influence of sexually explicit internet material and peers on stereotypical beliefs about women's sexual roles: similarities and differences between adolescents and adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research on the influence of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) on adolescents' stereotypical beliefs about women's sexual roles has three shortcomings. First, the role of peers has been neglected; second, stereotypical beliefs have rarely been studied as causing the use of SEIM and

  8. The Development of Children's Gender-Science Stereotypes: A Meta-analysis of 5 Decades of U.S. Draw-A-Scientist Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David I; Nolla, Kyle M; Eagly, Alice H; Uttal, David H

    2018-03-20

    This meta-analysis, spanning 5 decades of Draw-A-Scientist studies, examined U.S. children's gender-science stereotypes linking science with men. These stereotypes should have weakened over time because women's representation in science has risen substantially in the United States, and mass media increasingly depict female scientists. Based on 78 studies (N = 20,860; grades K-12), children's drawings of scientists depicted female scientists more often in later decades, but less often among older children. Children's depictions of scientists therefore have become more gender diverse over time, but children still associate science with men as they grow older. These results may reflect that children observe more male than female scientists in their environments, even though women's representation in science has increased over time. © 2018 Society for Research in Child Development.

  9. The second shift reflected in the second generation: do parents' gender roles at home predict children's aspirations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Alyssa; Schmader, Toni; Block, Katharina; Baron, Andrew Scott

    2014-07-01

    Gender inequality at home continues to constrain gender equality at work. How do the gender disparities in domestic labor that children observe between their parents predict those children's visions for their future roles? The present research examined how parents' behaviors and implicit associations concerning domestic roles, over and above their explicit beliefs, predict their children's future aspirations. Data from 326 children aged 7 to 13 years revealed that mothers' explicit beliefs about domestic gender roles predicted the beliefs held by their children. In addition, when fathers enacted or espoused a more egalitarian distribution of household labor, their daughters in particular expressed a greater interest in working outside the home and having a less stereotypical occupation. Fathers' implicit gender-role associations also uniquely predicted daughters' (but not sons') occupational preferences. These findings suggest that a more balanced division of household labor between parents might promote greater workforce equality in future generations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Sex Trait Stereotypes in Malaysian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Colleen

    1985-01-01

    To examine the development of sex-role stereotyping in Malaysia, 80 children were tested with the Sex Stereotype Measurement II. Results revealed that stereotyping increases with age, that the male stereotype is more easily recognized than the female, and that boys are more familiar with the male stereotype than are girls. (KH)

  11. Gender stereotypes and superior conformity of the self in a sample of cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félonneau, Marie-Line; Causse, Elsa; Constant, Aymery; Contrand, Benjamin; Messiah, Antoine; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    In the field of driving, people tend to think they are more competent and more cautious than others. This is the superior conformity of the self (SCS). Our main hypothesis was that, among cyclists, women would show a higher SCS on cautiousness, though men would show a higher SCS concerning competence. 1799 cyclists provided a self-assessment of their own cautiousness and of other people's cautiousness. The same procedure was used for competence. Consistent with the hypothesis, the SCS was gender-specific: it was more prominent for women concerning cautiousness and more prominent for men concerning competence. These results could explain why people tend to ignore the safety campaigns. They also indicate the importance of adapting messages concerning safety measures to gender. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reasons behind current gender imbalances in senior global health roles and the practice and policy changes that can catalyze organizational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, C; Chama, P K; Mugisha, M; Matsiko, C W; Oketcho, V

    2017-01-01

    The paper distils results from a review of relevant literature and two gender analyses to highlight reasons for gender imbalances in senior roles in global health and ways to address them. Organizations, leadership, violence and discrimination, research and human resource management are all gendered. Supplementary materials from gender analyses in two African health organizations demonstrate how processes such as hiring, deployment and promotion, and interpersonal relations, are not 'gender-neutral' and that gendering processes shape privilege, status and opportunity in these health organizations. Organizational gender analysis, naming stereotypes, substantive equality principles, special measures and enabling conditions to dismantle gendered disadvantage can catalyze changes to improve women's ability to play senior global health roles in gendered organizations. Political strategies and synergies with autonomous feminist movements can increase women's full and effective participation and equal opportunities. The paper also presents organizational development actions to bring about more gender egalitarian global health organizations.

  13. Nurturer, Victim, Seductress: Gendered Roles in Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-20

    Becomes Her: The Changing Roles of Women’s Role in Terror." Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, Winter/Spring 2010: 91-98. ———. Dying to Kill...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION . REPORT NUMBER Joint Forces Staff College Joint Advanced Warflghting School 7800 Hampton Blvd...STAFF COLLEGE JOINT ADVANCED WARFIGHTING SCHOOL Nurturer, Victim, Seductress: Gendered Roles in

  14. Nurses' work role in the context of gender and Chinese culture: an online forum study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi

    2010-06-01

    Nurses in Taiwan are seen as "angels in white." This image conveys that nurses are caring, kind, patient, and full of love. Another popular image of nurses is that of a candle, which implies that nurses bring light to others by sacrificing their "self." These images also reflect accurately the traditional role of women in the Chinese patriarchal society. Hence, gender and culture effects on nurses' perceptions of their work role cannot be ignored. The purpose of this article was to explore nurses' perceptions of their work role on the basis of the perspectives of Chinese gender role and culture. This study was conducted using a Web-based online forum for 4 weeks. Twenty nurses completed discussions of questions in four topic areas. Thematic analysis was used to analyze data. Three themes were identified: (a) gendered work, (b) low social status, and (c) tensions among nurses. Findings indicate that certain stereotypes regarding gender roles in Taiwanese society constrained the professional growth of nurses and nursing. The social status of nurses was found to be relatively low, and nurses were at a relatively high risk of developing powerless behaviors. Nursing leaders and administrators should understand the impact of gender and Chinese culture on nursing and pay attention to the situation of nurses to provide more gender-sensitive and positive work environments for nurses.

  15. Disinhibition of stereotyping: Context, prejudice, and target characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawakami, K.L.; Spears, R.; Dovidio, J.F.

    2002-01-01

    The present research examined the moderating influences of individual differences in sexism on the application of gender stereotypes to stereotypic versus nonstereotypic targets as a function of contexts that induced sex stereotypic or counterstereotypic responses. Specifically, participants first

  16. Lifestyle integration-gender based stereotypes: a study on Schein‟s career anchors within an ODeL HEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marili Williams

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on research that examined the differences between the aspirations of females and males in the workplace in terms of Schein‟s career anchors and enablers. The stereotype that females only work to ensure enhanced family lifestyles remains evident in the daily life of all (Hoobler, Lemmon & Wyane, 2014, p. 704; Mihail, 2006. Furthermore the stereotype that males‟ focus is much more ambitious in terms of reaching the highest managerial achievement/technical/ functional competence is regarded as a reality within society (Hoobler, Lemmon & Wyane, 2014, p. 704; Mihail, 2006. Insight into the question whether females work to live or live to work was investigated and this article reports on the differences between females and males regarding their work life ambitions. The data resulted from a quantitative research approach and the population consisted of 4 200 employees within an Open Distance electronic Learning (ODeL Higher Education Institution (HEI in South Africa. The focus was on the composition of a structured career conversation framework, using the original Schein career anchors (Schein, 1978; 1990; 1996 and the three-factor career-enabler model, developed by Grobler, Bezuidenhout and Rudolph (2014. Descriptive statistics, chi-square statistics as well as independent t-test analysis was used to identify the differences between genders with regard to career anchors and career enablers in different career stages. The results of the analysis illustrated that females focus more on the autonomy/independence- and lifestyle integration career anchors than males in the first 3 years of employment, thereafter their focus remains more on the lifestyle integration career anchor than males. Males however focus more on the general managerial career anchor in the first 3 years of their careers than women; and after 3 years males‟ focus moves more to the entrepreneurial creativity career anchor. The reported differences between

  17. Concept priming and pain: an experimental approach to understanding gender roles in sex-related pain differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Stephanie L; Rasinski, Heather M; Geers, Andrew L; Helfer, Suzanne G; France, Christopher R

    2011-04-01

    Prior research has found that sex differences in pain are partially due to individual variations in gender roles. In a laboratory study, we tested the hypothesis that the presence of covert gender role cues can also moderate the extent to which women and men experience pain. Specifically, we varied gender role cues by asking male and female participants to write about instances in which they behaved in a stereotypically feminine, masculine, or neutral manner. Pain and cardiovascular reactivity to the cold pressor task were then assessed. Results revealed that, when primed with femininity, men reported less pain and anxiety from the cold pressor task than women. However, no differences existed between the sexes in the masculine or neutral prime conditions. The results indicate that covert gender cues can alter pain reports. Further, at least in some situations, feminine role cues may be more influential on pain reports than masculine role cues.

  18. The moderating effect of gender role on the relationships between gender and attitudes about body and eating in a sample of Italian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampis, J; Cataudella, S; Busonera, A; De Simone, S; Tommasi, M

    2017-03-13

    The differential prevalence of eating disorders in males and females can be explained by the impact of gender-role orientations. Inside the Italian socio-cultural context, gender socialization can be influenced by stereotypical gender beliefs, and this may contribute to the psychological distress of individuals who identify with discrepant gender roles from their biological sex. Our study explored, within the Italian context, the potential moderating effect of masculinity and femininity on the relationships between gender and attitudes about body and eating. Nine hundred and twenty Italian male and female adolescents (M = 427, F = 493; age 14-21 years) completed the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2) and the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI). A moderating effect of gender role on the relationship between gender and bulimia, and drive of thinness emerged. Girls with higher levels of masculinity scored higher on bulimia than did their counterparts with lower levels, and boys with higher levels of femininity scored higher on bulimia and on drive for thinness than did their counterparts with lower levels. Data did not reveal a moderating effect of gender role on the relationship between gender and body satisfaction. Our data suggest that adolescents who endorsed a gender role that is socially considered discrepant from their biological sex (girls with higher levels of masculinity and boys with higher levels of femininity) are more likely to show higher level of bulimia and drive of thinness. This suggests the need for prevention and treatment programmes for eating disorders that take into account individuals' gender-role orientation and the influence that culturally dominant gender beliefs can exert on it.

  19. Gender Roles in Chika Unigwe's The Phoenix | Akani | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines gender roles in Chika Unigwe's The Phoenix (2007). In examining these gender roles, the paper focuses on the roles of both female and male genders in the novel in order to tease out issues that border on the marriage institution and gender complementarity in a multicultural setting. As we have ...

  20. Reducing the Effect of Stereotype Threat: The Role of Coaction Contexts and Regulatory Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fangfang; Zuo, Bin; Wu, Yang; Dong, Xuanhao; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of competition and cooperation contexts, as well as regulatory fit, on reducing the negative influence of stereotype threat. Experiment 1 demonstrated that in high stereotype threat conditions, participants in the cooperation context scored significantly higher on a math test than those in the competition…

  1. Reading is for girls!? The negative impact of preschool teachers' traditional gender role attitudes on boys' reading related motivation and skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Ilka; Braun, Edith; Hannover, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    According to gender stereotypes, reading is for girls. In this study, we investigated the role of preschool teachers in transmitting such gendered expectations. We suggest that boys are less motivated to read in preschool, and less competent in reading 1 year later in primary school, if their preschool teacher holds a traditional gender role attitude than if the teacher has egalitarian beliefs. In 135 independent dyads of a female preschool teacher (N = 135) and one boy (n = 65) or one girl (n = 70) we measured teacher's gender role attitude, child's reading related motivation as well as precursors of reading skills in preschool, and child's reading skills at the end of first grade in primary school. As expected, the more traditional preschool teachers' gender role attitude was, the weaker was boys' motivation to (learn to) read while girls' motivation was unrelated to teachers' gender role attitude. In either gender, motivation in preschool predicted reading skills at the end of first grade. PMID:26379592

  2. Reading is for girls!? The negative impact of preschool teachers' traditional gender role attitudes on boys' reading related motivation and skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Ilka; Braun, Edith; Hannover, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    According to gender stereotypes, reading is for girls. In this study, we investigated the role of preschool teachers in transmitting such gendered expectations. We suggest that boys are less motivated to read in preschool, and less competent in reading 1 year later in primary school, if their preschool teacher holds a traditional gender role attitude than if the teacher has egalitarian beliefs. In 135 independent dyads of a female preschool teacher (N = 135) and one boy (n = 65) or one girl (n = 70) we measured teacher's gender role attitude, child's reading related motivation as well as precursors of reading skills in preschool, and child's reading skills at the end of first grade in primary school. As expected, the more traditional preschool teachers' gender role attitude was, the weaker was boys' motivation to (learn to) read while girls' motivation was unrelated to teachers' gender role attitude. In either gender, motivation in preschool predicted reading skills at the end of first grade.

  3. Reading is for girls!? The negative impact of preschool teachers' traditional gender role attitudes on boys' reading related motivation and skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilka eWolter

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available According to gender stereotypes, reading is for girls. In this study, we investigated the role of preschool teachers in transmitting such gendered expectations. We suggest that boys are less motivated to read in preschool, and less competent in reading one year later in primary school, if their preschool teacher holds a traditional gender role attitude than if the teacher has egalitarian beliefs. In 135 independent dyads of a female preschool teacher (N=135 and one boy (n=65 or one girl (n=70 we measured teacher's gender role attitude, child's reading related motivation as well as precursors of reading skills in preschool, and child's reading skills at the end of first grade in primary school. As expected, the more traditional preschool teachers' gender role attitude was, the weaker was boys' motivation to (learn to read while girls' motivation was unrelated to teachers' gender role attitude. In either gender, motivation in preschool predicted reading skills at the end of first grade.

  4. Eroticizing inequality in the United States: the consequences and determinants of traditional gender role adherence in intimate relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Diana T; Fetterolf, Janell C; Rudman, Laurie A

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the research on traditional gender-role adherence and sexuality for heterosexual men and women. Specifically, the consequences and predictors of following traditional gender roles of female submissiveness and male dominance in sexual relationships is examined. Despite evidence that men and women's sexual roles are becoming more egalitarian over time, empirical evidence suggests that the traditional sexual roles continue to dominate heterosexual relations. This article explores whether the sexual context is one in which both men and women feel particularly compelled to engage in gender stereotypic behavior, and why. In addition, this article reports on research that finds that men and women have automatic associations between sexuality and power that reinforce their gender stereotypic behavior in sexual contexts. The negative effects of traditional gender-role adherence for women's sexual problems and satisfaction is demonstrated. This article concludes that traditional sexual scripts are harmful for both women's and men's ability to engage in authentic, rewarding sexual expression, although the female submissive role may be particularly debilitating. Future directions of research are suggested, including interventions to reduce women's adherence to the sexually submissive female script.

  5. Stereotypes about sex related personality traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Avsec

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available In present research, stereotypes about sex differences in personality traits were examined. They were compared to traits, included in two masculinity and femininity questionnaires and to big five factors. Results indicate the presence of gender stereotypes and their similarity to stereotypes, discovered in other studies. The majority of attributes that comprise stereotypes about average man pertain to assertive and controlling tendency, but in stereotypes about average woman caring and nurturant qualities predominate.

  6. Perceptual fluency and judgments of vocal aesthetics and stereotypicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, Molly; McGuire, Grant

    2015-05-01

    Research has shown that processing dynamics on the perceiver's end determine aesthetic pleasure. Specifically, typical objects, which are processed more fluently, are perceived as more attractive. We extend this notion of perceptual fluency to judgments of vocal aesthetics. Vocal attractiveness has traditionally been examined with respect to sexual dimorphism and the apparent size of a talker, as reconstructed from the acoustic signal, despite evidence that gender-specific speech patterns are learned social behaviors. In this study, we report on a series of three experiments using 60 voices (30 females) to compare the relationship between judgments of vocal attractiveness, stereotypicality, and gender categorization fluency. Our results indicate that attractiveness and stereotypicality are highly correlated for female and male voices. Stereotypicality and categorization fluency were also correlated for male voices, but not female voices. Crucially, stereotypicality and categorization fluency interacted to predict attractiveness, suggesting the role of perceptual fluency is present, but nuanced, in judgments of human voices. © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  7. Development of Gender Discrimination: Role of Stereotypic and Counterstereotypic Gender Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etaugh, Claire; Duits, Terri

    1990-01-01

    A group of 76 male and female toddlers identified drawings depicting boys and girls alone or with sex-typical or sex-atypical toys by responding "girl" or "boy,""girls' toy" or "boys' toy." The youngest girls outperformed the youngest boys in identifying toys. Otherwise, responses in general improved with…

  8. Pretty in pink: The early development of gender-stereotyped colour preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobue, Vanessa; Deloache, Judy S

    2011-09-01

    Parents commonly dress their baby girls in pink and their baby boys in blue. Although there is research showing that children prefer the colour blue to other colours (regardless of gender), there is no evidence that girls actually have a special preference for the colour pink. This is the focus of the current investigation. In a large cross-sectional study, children aged 7 months to 5 years were offered eight pairs of objects and asked to choose one. In every pair, one of the objects was always pink. By the age of 2, girls chose pink objects more often than boys did, and by the age of 2.5, they had a significant preference for the colour pink over other colours. At the same time, boys showed an increasing avoidance of pink. These results thus reveal that sex differences in young children's preference for the colour pink involves both an increasing attraction to pink by young girls and a growing avoidance of pink by boys. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

  9. MEDIA DAN GENDER (Studi Deskriptif Representasi Stereotipe Perempuan dalam Iklan di Televisi Swasta)

    OpenAIRE

    Yanti Dwi Astuti

    2016-01-01

    Gender stereotypes in television advertising have become a topic of a long debate, especially among media scholars. The case became a serious problem, because of gender bias ads will affect the way we think about the role and way of functioning of gender in society. This study describes how television commercials have given gender role stereotypes against women. It is becoming important to be studied further to see how people receive messages about gender norms. This study uses descriptive an...

  10. Co-educar la mirada contra los estereotipos de género en TV Co-educating the gaze against gender stereotypes in TV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Belmonte Arocha

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan en este trabajo un conjunto de series de televisión que plantean una representación estereotípica de los géneros. Pese a su aparente modernidad, múltiples productos culturales-televisivos siguen siendo portadores de discursos que reproducen la desigualdad en la representación de lo femenino y lo masculino, a través de estereotipos de género que actúan como modelos de desigualdad para la construcción de identidad de sus jóvenes espectadores. Frente a ellas, una alfabetización audiovisual, desde un enfoque coeducativo, podría ser un buen instrumento contra la desigualdad. TV serials analyzed in this paper show a representation of stereotyped gender. These cultural products, despite its apparent modernity, reproduce inequalities in the representation of the feminine and masculine through gender stereotypes which are sexist models for the construction of gender identity among its young viewers. Besides, a gender and co-education approach for an audiovisual alphabetization should be a good way against inequality.

  11. Inferences About Sexual Orientation: The Role of Stereotypes, Faces, and The Gaydar Myth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, William T. L.; Devine, Patricia G.; Bischmann, Alyssa A.; Hyde, Janet S.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, we investigate the pop cultural idea that people have a sixth sense, called “gaydar,” to detect who is gay. We propose that “gaydar” is an alternate label for using stereotypes to infer orientation (e.g., inferring that fashionable men are gay). Another account, however, argues that people possess a facial perception process that enables them to identify sexual orientation from facial structure (Rule et al., 2008). We report five experiments testing these accounts. Participants made gay-or-straight judgments about fictional targets that were constructed using experimentally-manipulated stereotypic cues and real gay/straight people’s face cues. These studies revealed that orientation is not visible from the face—purportedly “face-based” gaydar arises from a third-variable confound. People do, however, readily infer orientation from stereotypic attributes (e.g., fashion, career). Furthermore, the folk concept of gaydar serves as a legitimizing myth: Compared to a control group, people stereotyped more when led to believe in gaydar, whereas people stereotyped less when told gaydar is an alternate label for stereotyping. Discussion focuses on the implications of the gaydar myth and why, contrary to some prior claims, stereotyping is highly unlikely to result in accurate judgments about orientation. PMID:26219212

  12. Inferences About Sexual Orientation: The Roles of Stereotypes, Faces, and The Gaydar Myth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, William T L; Devine, Patricia G; Bischmann, Alyssa A; Hyde, Janet S

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, we investigated the pop cultural idea that people have a sixth sense, called "gaydar," to detect who is gay. We propose that "gaydar" is an alternate label for using stereotypes to infer orientation (e.g., inferring that fashionable men are gay). Another account, however, argues that people possess a facial perception process that enables them to identify sexual orientation from facial structure. We report five experiments testing these accounts. Participants made gay-or-straight judgments about fictional targets that were constructed using experimentally manipulated stereotypic cues and real gay/straight people's face cues. These studies revealed that orientation is not visible from the face-purportedly "face-based" gaydar arises from a third-variable confound. People do, however, readily infer orientation from stereotypic attributes (e.g., fashion, career). Furthermore, the folk concept of gaydar serves as a legitimizing myth: Compared to a control group, people stereotyped more often when led to believe in gaydar, whereas people stereotyped less when told gaydar is an alternate label for stereotyping. Discussion focuses on the implications of the gaydar myth and why, contrary to some prior claims, stereotyping is highly unlikely to result in accurate judgments about orientation.

  13. Is Gender or Gender-Role Orientation a Better Predictor of Empathy in Adolescence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karniol, Rachel; Gabay, Rivi; Ochion, Yael; Harari, Yael

    1998-01-01

    Assessed the relative contribution of gender and gender role orientation to empathy and its development in 119 Israeli 8th and 11th graders. When the contribution of masculinity/femininity was covaried, empathy was found unrelated to gender. Findings are discussed in terms of socialization of emotions and gender role orientation. (SLD)

  14. Gender Role Orientation and Anxiety Symptoms among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palapattu, Anuradha G.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2006-01-01

    The present study evaluated gender role theory as an explanation for the observed gender differences in anxiety symptoms among adolescents. Specifically, the relation between gender, gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity), self-esteem, and anxiety symptoms was examined in a community sample of 114 African Americans aged 14 to…

  15. Exploring Stereotypical Perceptions of Female Players in Digital Gaming Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Linda K; Gresty, Claire E; Stubbs-Ennis, Natasha

    2017-12-01

    Gender stereotypes are still reported to exist in digital gaming contexts, despite the fact that participation of females is relatively equal to that of males. The current research explored a number of factors and their impact upon stereotypical perceptions and attitudes toward female players. This included avatar gender, gender identity by gaming context, as well as more general gender-role beliefs. We undertook two studies, each utilizing an online questionnaire targeted toward online players. Study 1 recruited online gamers (N = 489) and compared competence perceptions of players, which varied by player gender (male, female) and avatar gender (male, female), whereby four conditions were established. Overall, player competence was perceived to be highest when male avatars were used, specifically when female players were depicted in this way. Study 2 explored the relationships between male social identity and gender-role beliefs, with sexist attitudes in gaming, and whether this varied by gaming context (massively multiplayer online [MMO] vs. first-person shooter [FPS]). Male online gamers (N = 193) were recruited, of which 112 were MMO players, and 81 were FPS players. It was found that identifying as male social identity was not related to sexist attitudes in either gaming context. However, more general gender-role beliefs were related to sexist attitudes. The findings indicate that although certain stereotypes exist (e.g., competence perceptions), these are not necessarily harvested by players' identities within communities, but may derive through more operational functions such as avatar gender.

  16. Priming media stereotypes reduces support for social welfare policies: the mediating role of empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James D; Olivo, Nelgy; Gibson, Nathan; Reed, William; Ashburn-Nardo, Leslie

    2009-04-01

    Two experiments involving White participants tested the influence of media-based priming of Black stereotypes on support for government policy that assisted Black versus White persons-in-need. Experiment 1 showed that priming the "Black criminal" stereotype through exposure to photographs of Blacks looting after Hurricane Katrina reduced policy support for Black evacuees-in-need but did not influence support responses toward White evacuees-in-need. Experiment 2 showed that priming the "promiscuous Black female" stereotype through exposure to sexual rap music reduced policy support for a Black pregnant woman-in-need but did not influence support responses toward a White pregnant woman-in-need. Further tests of mediated moderation demonstrated that in both experiments, the interactive influence of priming Black stereotypes and race of persons-in-need on policy support was mediated by empathic responding.

  17. Stereotypes and advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starčević Slađana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Many times, we have had a chance to hear that marketing communications are something that can move ahead of time. However, there are many areas in which they are moving slowly than time, without consideration of provided conditions. One of these areas is gender portraying, that is, accepted roles of women and men in the society. We cannot deny that gentle movements have been made towards their more realistic presentation, but a persistent claim that results from recent researches is that marketing communications and particularly advertising, as instrument that most directly reflects this theme, has remained rather resistant to changes in the society. Consequently values that have been built in brands with help of advertising are rather obsolete. Differently speaking, advertising has a showdown with stereotyping - as an assignment of a (usually negative label to certain groups of people based on a certain belief about how these people tend to behave in the society.

  18. Altering gender role expectations: effects on pain tolerance, pain threshold, and pain ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael E; Gagnon, Christine M; Riley, Joseph L; Price, Donald D

    2003-06-01

    The literature demonstrating sex differences in pain is sizable. Most explanations for these differences have focused on biologic mechanisms, and only a few studies have examined social learning. The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of gender-role stereotypes to sex differences in pain. This study used experimental manipulation of gender-role expectations for men and women. One hundred twenty students participated in the cold pressor task. Before the pain task, participants were given 1 of 3 instructional sets: no expectation, 30-second performance expectation, or a 90-second performance expectation. Pain ratings, threshold, and tolerance were recorded. Significant sex differences in the "no expectation" condition for pain tolerance (t = 2.32, df = 38, P differ in their pain tolerance, pain threshold, or pain ratings. This is the first empirical study to show that manipulation of expectations alters sex differences in laboratory pain.

  19. Gender differences in trusting strangers: Role of the target's gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Zhang, Jianxin

    2016-06-01

    Previous findings on gender differences in the behaviors of individuals, including trusting behaviors, are inconsistent. A criticism is that these studies neglect contextual factors. The present study aims to examine how the target's gender, as a primary context factor, influences the trusting behavior of individuals in one survey and two experimental situations. Results indicate that people tend to trust strangers of the opposite gender more than those of the same gender in mixed-gender situations. Furthermore, females trust females much more than males trust males. The results help people understand that when talking about gender differences in interpersonal situations, the gender identity of target persons should be considered. These findings are somewhat in conflict with those of previous studies conducted in Western cultures, and suggest that culture should also be explored in future studies on gender differences in interpersonal relationships. © 2016 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Gender differences in depression across parental roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Kevin; Pace, Garrett T

    2015-04-01

    Prior research has focused on the relationship between parenthood and psychological well-being, with mixed results. Some studies have also addressed potential gender differences in this relationship, again yielding varied findings. One reason may be methodological choices pursued in these studies, including the lack of focus on combined parental roles (for example, biological parent and stepparent). The authors used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 (N = 6,276) and multinomial treatment models to address how combined roles influence depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers. Further, they explored potential gender differences. Their results indicated that having multiple parental roles is negatively associated with psychological well-being for both men and women, whereas childlessness is more negative for women, and specific parental role combinations affect mothers and fathers differently. Within the context of changing family structure in the United States, these results have important implications for social workers and other mental health professionals-particularly with regard to screening for depression among parents, who are less likely to seek mental health counseling than childless adults.

  1. Aggression Toward Gay Men as Gender Role Enforcement: Effects of Male Role Norms, Sexual Prejudice, and Masculine Gender Role Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Dominic J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined sexual prejudice and masculine gender role stress as mediators of the relations between male gender norms and anger and aggression toward gay men. Participants were 150 self-identified heterosexual men who completed measures of adherence to male gender role norms, sexual prejudice, masculine gender role stress, and state anger. Participants then viewed a video depicting intimate relationship behavior between two gay men, reported state anger a second time, and competed in a laboratory aggression task against either a heterosexual or a gay male. Results indicated that adherence to the antifemininity norm exerted an indirect effect, primarily through sexual prejudice, on increases in anger. Adherence to the status and antifemininity norms exerted indirect effects, also through sexual prejudice, on physical aggression toward the gay, but not the heterosexual, male. Findings provide the first multivariate evidence for determinants of aggression toward gay men motivated by gender role enforcement. PMID:19558440

  2. Gender-role behavior of second-generation Turks: The role of partner choice, gender ideology and societal context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huschek, D.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Liefbroer, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores and compares gender-role behavior of second-generation Turks in six European countries. On the individual level, we study the role of gender ideology and consequences of (transnational) partner choice on four aspects of gender-role behavior; childcare, routine household tasks,

  3. Gender-role behavior of second-generation Turks: the role of partner choice, gender ideology and societal context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huschek, D.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Liefbroer, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores and compares gender-role behavior of second-generation Turks in six European countries. On the individual level, we study the role of gender ideology and consequences of (transnational) partner choice on four aspects of gender-role behavior; childcare, routine household tasks,

  4. Stereotype Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Steven J; Logel, Christine; Davies, Paul G

    2016-01-01

    When members of a stigmatized group find themselves in a situation where negative stereotypes provide a possible framework for interpreting their behavior, the risk of being judged in light of those stereotypes can elicit a disruptive state that undermines performance and aspirations in that domain. This situational predicament, termed stereotype threat, continues to be an intensely debated and researched topic in educational, social, and organizational psychology. In this review, we explore the various sources of stereotype threat, the mechanisms underlying stereotype-threat effects (both mediators and moderators), and the consequences of this situational predicament, as well as the means through which society and stigmatized individuals can overcome the insidious effects of stereotype threat. Ultimately, we hope this review alleviates some of the confusion surrounding stereotype threat while also sparking further research and debate.

  5. Mill, Gender Ideal and Gender Oppression: Do Feminists Need to Abolish Gender Roles?

    OpenAIRE

    Popa, Bogdan

    2011-01-01

    While feminist scholarship generally looks at Mill’s ambiguities as confusions or flaws, I suggest that Mill’s ambivalence has to be taken at face value by feminist theory.Many feminists – and particularly liberal feminists- feel that human beings cannot develop their true potential until they would live in a society where men and women have complete equality. One solution to this problem is to abolish gender roles, or to value social and legal norms because they promote gender neutrality. Be...

  6. Zing Zing Bang Bang: How Do You Know What She Really Meant. Gender Bias in Response to Irony: The Role of Who is Speaking to Whom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanowicz Anna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Literature points towards the role of context in irony interpretation and the existence of gender differences in language use. We decided to examine the influence of interlocutors’ gender stereotypes on interpreting and reacting to ironic criticism in conversation. To this end, we designed two experiments gathering participants’ responses to the same ironic utterances voiced both by women and by men in control and gender stereotype activation conditions. Results of the first experiment showed that women tended to use irony significantly more often when responding to a man than to another woman. The second, ongoing experiment will additionally examine participants’ response times and total time of utterance in respect to their addressee’s gender. The results are discussed with regard to the social comparison theory (Turner, Hogg, Oakes, Reicher, & Wetherell, 1987 and the linguistic intergroup bias theory (Wigboldus & Douglas, 2007.

  7. [Gender (role) aspects in doctor-patient communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieverding, M; Kendel, F

    2012-09-01

    Aspects of gender and gender roles are important factors influencing the interactions between physicians and their patients. On the one hand, gender roles have an impact on the behavior of the patients, such as in health care utilization or use of preventive examinations. On the other hand, gender issues influence doctors' actions with respect to communication, diagnosis, and treatment. Here, a gender bias may lead to misdiagnosis and inadequate treatment. In this paper certain pertinent aspects of gender roles in the doctor-patient relationship are discussed and illustrated by empirical findings.

  8. Gender, multiple roles, role meaning, and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, R W

    1995-06-01

    This paper examines gender differences in the consequences of combining spouse, parent, and worker roles for mental health. I suggest that work and family roles have different meanings for males and females, and that differences in the meaning of these roles may be partially responsible for why the mental health advantages of holding multiple roles are fewer for women than for men. Based on qualitative analyses of follow-up, in-depth interviews with 40 employed married parents who participated in a community panel study of mental health, I find that sex differences in the perceived relationship between work and family roles may help account for sex differences in distress by contributing to male-female differences in both the extent and nature of work-parent conflicts, attributions of responsibility for marital problems, feelings of guilt, and self-evaluations as parents and spouses. By identifying gender differences in the meaning of roles among individuals who have the same multiple role configuration, and suggesting how these differences can help explain sex differences in well-being; this research may expand existing theories about the mental health consequences of multiple role involvements.

  9. Gender and Gender-Role Orientation Differences on Adolescents' Coping with Peer Stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn-Ormachea, Jill M.; Hillman, Stephen B.; Sawilowsky, Shlomo S.

    2004-01-01

    Gender and gender-role orientation differences were explored on adolescents' coping with peer stressors. Eighth-grade and ninth-grade public junior high school students (N = 285) completed the COPE, reporting the strategies they recently used to deal with a stressful peer-related situation. Measures of gender-role orientation (Bem Sex-Role…

  10. Gender-Role Identity, Attitudes toward Marriage, and Gender-Segregated School Backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsurada, Emiko; Sugihara, Yoko

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between Japanese college students' gender role identity and attitudes toward marriage, exploring the effects of gender-segregated school backgrounds on gender role identity and attitudes toward marriage. Women without any coeducational school background had relatively strong masculinity and desired to marry at older…

  11. The role of gender in videogames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piedad SAUQUILLO MATEO

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Education for equality requires the involvement of each and every one of the agencies involved in this process. In this work we wanted to know if the most played video games by children and adolescents transmit content that contribute to their education for equality or not. We have analysed the content of the ten most played games by children and adolescents, according to the values and disvalues transmited, focusing our attention on the model representation of women and gender roles. Lastly, we have tried to establish some conclusions and teach guidelines, leaving open the possibility of developing future research along these lines.

  12. The Effects of Stereotyped Toys and Gender on Play Assessment in Children Aged 18-47 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherney, Isabelle D.; Kelly-Vance, Lisa; Glover, Katrina Gill; Ruane, Amy; Ryalls, Brigette Oliver

    2003-01-01

    Presents a study in which children, ages 18-47 months (n=30), were observed for 30 minutes in a playroom to determine if: (1) stereotyped toys impact children's play; (2) their behavior influences cognitive development; and (3) which toys are appropriate for the assessment sessions. Includes references. (CMK)

  13. Teacher’s role model ingender education of students

    OpenAIRE

    Elvira Dode

    2015-01-01

    Gender education as an important part of education, affects by the role and attitudes of teachers. Including gender perspective in schools is a prerequisite in alienable of human development, instead insuring gender equality it is considered as respecting human rights. Elimination of the gender stereotypes has a two-fold significance since itemsurest gender equality not only in the school system but even in the society as a whole. Gender stereotype messages, regardless by hidden or displaye...

  14. Predicting date rape perceptions: the effects of gender, gender role attitudes, and victim resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Katherine A; McCloskey, Kathy A

    2013-08-01

    The effects of participant gender and victim resistance on date rape perceptions have been inconsistent. Participant gender role attitudes may contribute to these inconsistencies. We found women with traditional gender role attitudes were least likely to agree that the perpetrator was guilty of rape. Participants were less convinced of the perpetrator's guilt when the victim resisted verbally than when she resisted verbally and physically, and participants with traditional gender role attitudes were less convinced of the negative impact on the victim when she resisted verbally than when she resisted verbally and physically. Perhaps previous inconsistencies resulted from varying proportions of men and women with traditional versus liberal gender role attitudes in the samples.

  15. Gender identity and gender role orientation in female assigned patients with disorders of sex development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Aino K; Fagerholm, Riitta; Santtila, Pekka; Miettinen, Päivi J; Taskinen, Seppo

    2012-11-01

    Gender identity and gender role orientation were assessed in 24 female assigned patients with disorders of sex development. A total of 16 patients were prenatally exposed to androgens, of whom 15 had congenital adrenal hyperplasia and 1 was virilized due to maternal tumor. Eight patients had 46,XY karyotype, of whom 5 had partial and 3 had complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. Gender identity was measured by the 27-item Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults with 167 female medical students as controls, and gender role was assessed by the femininity and masculinity subscales of the 30-item Bem Sex Role Inventory with 104 female and 64 male medical students as controls. No patient reached the cutoff for gender identity disorder on the Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults. However, patients with 46,XY karyotype demonstrated a somewhat more conflicted gender identity, although the overall differences were relatively small. As to gender role orientation, patients with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome had high scores on the femininity and masculinity scales of the Bem Sex Role Inventory, which made them the most androgynous group. Our findings, although clinically not clear cut, suggest that patients with disorders of sex development are a heterogeneous group regarding gender identity and gender role outcomes, and that this issue should be discussed with the family when treatment plans are made. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Gender Difference in Prejudice Toward Redheads

    OpenAIRE

    Climenhage, L. James

    2014-01-01

    Many stereotypes about persons with red hair are both gender-specific and derogatory. These stereotypes often stand in stark contrast to gender-role stereotypes for men and for women. In three studies, the current research considered if prejudice directed at redheads is, in part, a result of bias against gender-atypical people. In Study 1, participants read about a bullying incident in which the victim was a boy or girl with red hair or another hair colour. Redheads, in general, were seen as ...

  17. Negative attitudes toward Muslims in the Netherlands : The role of symbolic threat, stereotypes, and moral emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirtz, C.; van der Pligt, Joop; Doosje, Bertjan

    2016-01-01

    The present study addresses negative attitudes toward Muslims in The Netherlands, and combines ideas from integrated threat theory and socio-functional perspectives on threats and emotions. We proposed a model in which symbolic threat and negative stereotypes predict prejudice, social distance, and

  18. Memory for stereotype (in)consistent information : The role of in-group identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doosje, Bertjan; Spears, Russell; de Redelijkheid, Hans; van Onna, Joost

    Effects of identification with one's group on memory of stereotype consistent and inconsistent information about one's group were examined in two studies. In the first study, we focused on supporters of a low status soccer team, and observed that diehard fans were more likely to remember

  19. Women's Stereotypic Roles: A Replication and Standardization of the AWS and PAQ for Selected Ethnic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Edwin E.; And Others

    A replication of two previous studies, this study examined the effect of both sex and ethnicity on attitudes toward women, self-reported masculinity-femininity, and masculine-feminine stereotypic attitudes. The Attitudes Toward Women Scale (AWS) and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) were administered to 367 college students (112 Anglos,…

  20. Students' Gender-Related Choices and Achievement in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugovic, Ivana

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the research was to explore the role of motivation, gender roles and stereotypes in the explanation of students' educational outcomes in a stereotypically male educational domain: physics. Eccles and colleagues' expectancy-value model was used as a theoretical framework for the research. The research sample included 736 grammar school…