WorldWideScience

Sample records for gender role conflict

  1. The Gender Role Conflict Literature: Fruits of Sustained Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppner, P. Paul; Heppner, Mary J.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-five years ago, when the men's movement was in its beginning stages, O'Neil recognized the importance of understanding more about the impact of men's gender role conflict. This ensuing quarter century of research has produced a much more nuanced and sophisticated understanding of gender role conflict than we had then. In his integrative…

  2. Male Therapists' Clinical Bias: Influence of Client Gender Roles and Therapist Gender Role Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisch, Andrew F.; Mahalik, James R.

    1999-01-01

    Examines male therapists' gender-role conflict, client sexual orientation, and client emotional expression as they interrelate with clinical judgments about male clients. Results indicate that therapist gender-role-conflict factors, in combination with client sexual orientation and emotional expression, were associated with therapists' ratings of…

  3. Toward a Complexity Paradigm for Understanding Gender Role Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, Carolyn Zerbe

    2008-01-01

    The well-developed body of theory and research on men's gender role conflict provides an excellent foundation for developing increasingly complex models of men's gender-related concerns. Theorists and researchers are encouraged to incorporate themes related to social structural aspects of gender as well as to examine the ways in which men's…

  4. Male Gender Role Conflict and Multiculturalism: Implications for Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Stephen R.

    2008-01-01

    The new multicultural guidelines reemphasized the importance of developing knowledge of, and skills in working with, individuals outside of the majority group. In this article, the author will detail recent advances in understanding how identified consequences of male gender role socialization, specifically male gender role conflict (GRC),…

  5. Thinking Complexly about Men, Gender Role Conflict, and Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Stephen R.

    2008-01-01

    O'Neil (2008) defines male gender role conflict (GRC) as a psychological state in which the socialized male gender role has negative consequences for the person or others. Building on this, many now realize that the mechanisms through which these negative consequences occur, rather than being global, are instead contextual. That is, different men…

  6. Male Gender Role Conflict and Multiculturalism: Implications for Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Stephen R.

    2008-01-01

    The new multicultural guidelines reemphasized the importance of developing knowledge of, and skills in working with, individuals outside of the majority group. In this article, the author will detail recent advances in understanding how identified consequences of male gender role socialization, specifically male gender role conflict (GRC),…

  7. Thinking Complexly about Men, Gender Role Conflict, and Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Stephen R.

    2008-01-01

    O'Neil (2008) defines male gender role conflict (GRC) as a psychological state in which the socialized male gender role has negative consequences for the person or others. Building on this, many now realize that the mechanisms through which these negative consequences occur, rather than being global, are instead contextual. That is, different men…

  8. A Definition of Gender Role Conflict among Black Professional Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ora

    2011-01-01

    There is very little literature that depicts the parental role of Black professional fathers positively or that samples Black participants from the upper economic strata. The purpose of this study is to gain insight into how Black professional fathers experience or perceive gender role conflict and identify clinical implications. Grounded in…

  9. Gender Role Conflict, Professional Role Confidence, and Intentional Persistence in Engineering Students in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xueyan; Wang, Xinhong; Zhang, Lin; Weidman, John C.

    2017-01-01

    In the current study, the relationship between gender role conflict, professional role confidence, and intentional persistence was examined using data from a survey of male and female Chinese engineering students. Intentional persistence was significantly associated with gender role conflict and professional role confidence; however, the pattern…

  10. Gender Role Conflict, Professional Role Confidence, and Intentional Persistence in Engineering Students in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xueyan; Wang, Xinhong; Zhang, Lin; Weidman, John C.

    2017-01-01

    In the current study, the relationship between gender role conflict, professional role confidence, and intentional persistence was examined using data from a survey of male and female Chinese engineering students. Intentional persistence was significantly associated with gender role conflict and professional role confidence; however, the pattern…

  11. Men in Traditional and Nontraditional Careers: Gender Role Attitudes, Gender Role Conflict, and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Thomas A.; Borders, L. DiAnne

    2006-01-01

    Men established in traditional (mechanical engineering, n = 100) and nontraditional (elementary school counseling, n = 100) careers were compared on their career compromise choices (sex type vs. prestige), adherence to masculinity ideology, gender role conflict, and job satisfaction. The engineers tended to choose sex type over prestige; the…

  12. An Exploration of Gender-Role Expectations and Conflict among Women Rugby Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Melissa A.; Jome, LaRae M.

    2007-01-01

    Gender-role conflict theory has suggested that women athletes will experience role conflict because they are attempting to enact both feminine and masculine gender roles, yet research findings have shown mixed support for this notion. The purpose of this study was to explore how women rugby players negotiate gender-role expectations and conflict…

  13. An Exploration of Gender-Role Expectations and Conflict among Women Rugby Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Melissa A.; Jome, LaRae M.

    2007-01-01

    Gender-role conflict theory has suggested that women athletes will experience role conflict because they are attempting to enact both feminine and masculine gender roles, yet research findings have shown mixed support for this notion. The purpose of this study was to explore how women rugby players negotiate gender-role expectations and conflict…

  14. Using Gender Role Conflict Theory in Counseling Male-to-Female Transgender Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Stephen R.; McDonough, Tracy A.; White, Maureen; Vogel, David L.; Taylor, Lareena

    2010-01-01

    Ignoring gender socialization while counseling transgender clients neglects a significant aspect of the transgender experience. To address this, the authors review the literature on gender role conflict (GRC) theory as it pertains to the transgender experience of biological males whose authentic self is female. They explore the main types of…

  15. Using Gender Role Conflict Theory in Counseling Male-to-Female Transgender Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Stephen R.; McDonough, Tracy A.; White, Maureen; Vogel, David L.; Taylor, Lareena

    2010-01-01

    Ignoring gender socialization while counseling transgender clients neglects a significant aspect of the transgender experience. To address this, the authors review the literature on gender role conflict (GRC) theory as it pertains to the transgender experience of biological males whose authentic self is female. They explore the main types of…

  16. Complexity, Contextualism, and Multiculturalism: Responses to the Critiques and Future Directions for the Gender Role Conflict Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, James M.

    2008-01-01

    The author reacts to three reviews by Carolyn Enns, Stephen Wester, and P. Paul and Mary Heppner on "The Counseling Psychologist" Major Contribution "Summarizing 25 Years of Research on Men's Gender Role Conflict Using the Gender Role Conflict Scale: New Research Paradigms and Clinical Implications." The reviews provide support for assessing the…

  17. Complexity, Contextualism, and Multiculturalism: Responses to the Critiques and Future Directions for the Gender Role Conflict Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, James M.

    2008-01-01

    The author reacts to three reviews by Carolyn Enns, Stephen Wester, and P. Paul and Mary Heppner on "The Counseling Psychologist" Major Contribution "Summarizing 25 Years of Research on Men's Gender Role Conflict Using the Gender Role Conflict Scale: New Research Paradigms and Clinical Implications." The reviews provide support for assessing the…

  18. Measuring Men's Gender Norms and Gender Role Conflict/Stress in a High HIV-Prevalence South African Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottert, Ann; Barrington, Clare; Pettifor, Audrey; McNaughton-Reyes, Heath Luz; Maman, Suzanne; MacPhail, Catherine; Kahn, Kathleen; Selin, Amanda; Twine, Rhian; Lippman, Sheri A

    2016-08-01

    Gender norms and gender role conflict/stress may influence HIV risk behaviors among men; however scales measuring these constructs need further development and evaluation in African settings. We conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to evaluate the Gender Equitable Men's Scale (GEMS) and the Gender Role Conflict/Stress (GRC/S) scale among 581 men in rural northeast South Africa. The final 17-item GEMS was unidimensional, with adequate model fit and reliability (alpha = 0.79). Factor loadings were low (0.2-0.3) for items related to violence and sexual relationships. The final 24-item GRC/S scale was multidimensional with four factors: Success, power, competition; Subordination to women; Restrictive emotionality; and Sexual prowess. The scale had adequate model fit and good reliability (alpha = 0.83). While GEMS is a good measure of inequitable gender norms, new or revised scale items may need to be explored in the South African context. Adding the GRC/S scale to capture men's strain related to gender roles could provide important insights into men's risk behaviors.

  19. Syrian Women and the Refugee Crisis: Surviving the Conflict, Building Peace, and Taking New Gender Roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumna Asaf

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Women and men experience conflicts differently. Women, even as non-combatants, suffer a great harm. Wars are gendered, both in causes and consequences. Women are deliberately excluded from formal peace negotiations. Work done for the reconstruction of conflict ridden societies, fail to recognize with women’s realities and needs. Despite that, women have remained influential at the grassroots level in peace-building and rehabilitation. The paper uses the example of Syria, to explore beyond the most prominent perception of women borne out of an armed conflict, i.e., of the ‘victims of war’ and assesses, in how many different ways women have survived the Syrian conflict and have made efforts for peace, informally and formally, challenging the narrative of women as just a group with special needs and requirements. For this purpose, the paper has content analysis of the previous research, data, reports, mainstream news articles, and other relevant information on the topics of housing, food, health, work and financial security, changed roles, isolation, and gender-based violence to understand how women’s role in all these spheres are shaping new narratives for women, peace and security, distinct from the prevalent existing ones.

  20. An exploratory study of communication, gender-role conflict, and social support of parents of children treated at children's hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey A

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the relationships between communication and social support of parents of children with cancer (N = 44), and the importance of gender-role conflict in fathers. Structural equation modeling and the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model were used to test the expected relationships between communication, social support, gender-role conflict, and anxiety, and to control for sample nonindependence. Results suggest communication increases perceived emotional and instrumental social support between parents, and instrumental support from fathers results in less anxiety for mothers. When fathers experienced more conflict about their role as financial supporter for the family (i.e., career achievement gender-role conflict), fathers perceived less instrumental and emotional support from their wives. However, fathers who experienced more conflict about career achievement were also less anxious. A second measure of fathers' gender-role conflict (i.e., emotional expression) was unrelated to either mothers' or fathers' outcomes. The role of gender, communication, and social support in the context of pediatric oncology is discussed.

  1. The Role of Gender and How It Relates to Conflict Management Style and School Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Chris Harriet; Martin, Barbara N.; Hutchinson, Sandy

    2006-01-01

    This investigation focused on principals, by gender, and the impact that the principals' conflict management style had on cultural aspects in schools. Findings were: principals with a conflict management style that is high in dominating show lower school culture scores in professional development, and, conversely, principals with a conflict…

  2. Conflict in intimate vs non-intimate relationships : When gender role stereotyping overrides biased self-other judgment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluwer, ES; de Dreu, CKW; Buunk, BP

    1998-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to explore whether bias in self-other judgments pertains to conflict in intimate relationships and is overruled by gender role stereotypes in non-intimate relationships between males and females, it was predicted that when the opponent was one's intimate partner, both

  3. The Relationships of Racial Identity and Gender Role Conflict to Self-Esteem of Asian American Undergraduate Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Yen Ling; McEwen, Marylu K.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted using a sample of Asian American male college students (N = 173) from one east coast public, research institution and one west coast public, research institution to explore the relationships of racial identity and gender role conflict with self-esteem. The study employed the People of Color Racial Identity Attitudes Scale,…

  4. The Relationships of Racial Identity and Gender Role Conflict to Self-Esteem of Asian American Undergraduate Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Yen Ling; McEwen, Marylu K.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted using a sample of Asian American male college students (N = 173) from one east coast public, research institution and one west coast public, research institution to explore the relationships of racial identity and gender role conflict with self-esteem. The study employed the People of Color Racial Identity Attitudes Scale,…

  5. Friendship and gender in preschoolers’ conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania M. Sperb

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigated the role of friendship and gender on conflict episodes of 48 preschoolers aged approximately 5 years and 8 months. Children were organized in dyads of same-sex friends and non-friends. Conflict situations were coded according to incidence, type, termination strategies, and finalizations. Gender differences were detected for type of conflict, with girls using more reasons for oppositions than boys. Termination strategies were used with a joint effect of friendship and gender: girl-friends preferred the tactic of standing firm whereas boy-friends chose more negotiation as means to deal with a disagreement, compared to the non-friend dyads. As for the results on conflict finalizations, friendship relations accounted for a significant difference found for agreement, while gender showed to be related to the use of disengagement among girls. Combined analysis between termination strategies and conflict finalizations indicated two significant differences: the first was related to friendship, through which children used more negotiation leading to agreement; the second showed a joint effect of friendship and gender, where non-friend girls tended to negotiate to reach disengagement, more often that non-friend boys. Findings for termination strategies – with girl-friends being more incisive and firm with their partners – diverge from the results provided by empirical literature, where boys are described as more autonomy- and domain oriented, and girls are prone to intimacy and social well-being in their relationships. Results are discussed with basis on previous studies conducted on conflict among preschoolers with considerations about the effects of gender and type of relationship.

  6. Gender conflict and worldview defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsche, Immo; Jonas, Eva

    2005-12-01

    Applying social identity and terror management theory assumptions to gender conflict we predicted that mortality salience (MS) would lead to an increase in pro-women attitudes in women and a decrease in these attitudes in men. After a MS versus control manipulation, 32 female and 24 male university students evaluated (fictitious) courses in psychology dealing with and supporting the promotion of women. In accordance with our prediction the results showed a significant interaction between sex and MS, indicating that men and women differed in their judgment only under MS but not in the control condition. Whereas men reacted with an increased negative evaluation of the pro-women courses following MS, women on the other hand showed an increased positive evaluation of the courses. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  7. Negotiating reproduction: religion, gender and sexuality in political conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Kanckos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author discusses the role of ethics and religion in the context of the current political debate on assisted reproduction in Finland. There is reason to ask why the issues of family structures, gender roles and sexuality cause conflict situations in politics and society. How should we understand the nature of political conflicts concerning family, gender and sexuality? For a proper understanding of these conflicts, we need a nuanced analysis of the role of ethics and religion in political debates in a secular European culture. In this article the author focuses on two examples drawn from Finnish discussions of assisted reproduction. The first example comes from recent parliamentary discussion of assisted reproduction, and the second example from how the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Finland has reflected on the same issue.

  8. Conflict Resolution in Mexican American Adolescents' Friendships: Links with Culture, Gender and Friendship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Shawna M.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Delgado, Melissa Y.

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to describe the conflict resolution practices used in Mexican American adolescents' friendships, to explore the role of cultural orientations and values and gender-typed personality qualities in conflict resolution use, and to assess the connections between conflict resolution and friendship quality. Participants were 246…

  9. Gender roles revised?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to deepen the understanding of how mobile phone usage is related to gender in general and the negotiation of gender roles in particular. It will focus on how women in Kenya appropriate mobile phones and how the appropriation is influenced by prevailing gender norms......’s mobile phone use in everyday life, to shed light on the relationship between gender, mobile phone and development in Kenya and to answer the following questions: How is mobile phones integrated in the everyday life of Kenyan women (rural, peri-urban and urban)? How can women’s different usages of mobile...... phones be understood in relation to, and inform us about changing gender relations in contemporary Kenya? The chapter demonstrates that on the one hand, distinctive gendered usage of mobile phones is present - practices that are direct consequences of prevailing gender roles. On the other hand...

  10. Women (Do Not Belong Here: Gender-Work Identity Conflict among Female Police Officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Veldman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The current paper examines antecedents and consequences of perceiving conflict between gender and work identities in male-dominated professions. In a study among 657 employees working in 85 teams in the police force, we investigated the effect of being different from team members in terms of gender on employees’ perception that their team members see their gender identity as conflicting with their work identity. As expected in the police force as a male-dominated field, the results showed that gender-dissimilarity in the team was related to perceived gender-work identity conflict for women, and not for men. In turn, perceiving gender-work identity conflict was related to lower team identification for men and women. Although lowering team identification might enable employees to cope with conflicting social identities and hence protect the self, this may also have its costs, as lower team identification predicted higher turnover intentions, more burn-out symptoms, less extra role behavior, lower job satisfaction, lower work motivation, and lower perceived performance. Additionally, for women, experiencing support from their team members and team leader showed a trend to mitigate the relationship between gender-dissimilarity and perceived gender-work identity conflict, and a positive diversity climate was marginally related to less perceived gender-work identity conflict. The results show the importance of the team context in shaping a climate of (incompatible identities for numerically underrepresented and historically undervalued social group members in order to hinder or protect their work outcomes.

  11. Women (Do Not) Belong Here: Gender-Work Identity Conflict among Female Police Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Jenny; Meeussen, Loes; Van Laar, Colette; Phalet, Karen

    2017-01-01

    The current paper examines antecedents and consequences of perceiving conflict between gender and work identities in male-dominated professions. In a study among 657 employees working in 85 teams in the police force, we investigated the effect of being different from team members in terms of gender on employees' perception that their team members see their gender identity as conflicting with their work identity. As expected in the police force as a male-dominated field, the results showed that gender-dissimilarity in the team was related to perceived gender-work identity conflict for women, and not for men. In turn, perceiving gender-work identity conflict was related to lower team identification for men and women. Although lowering team identification might enable employees to cope with conflicting social identities and hence protect the self, this may also have its costs, as lower team identification predicted higher turnover intentions, more burn-out symptoms, less extra role behavior, lower job satisfaction, lower work motivation, and lower perceived performance. Additionally, for women, experiencing support from their team members and team leader showed a trend to mitigate the relationship between gender-dissimilarity and perceived gender-work identity conflict, and a positive diversity climate was marginally related to less perceived gender-work identity conflict. The results show the importance of the team context in shaping a climate of (in)compatible identities for numerically underrepresented and historically undervalued social group members in order to hinder or protect their work outcomes.

  12. Women (Do Not) Belong Here: Gender-Work Identity Conflict among Female Police Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Jenny; Meeussen, Loes; Van Laar, Colette; Phalet, Karen

    2017-01-01

    The current paper examines antecedents and consequences of perceiving conflict between gender and work identities in male-dominated professions. In a study among 657 employees working in 85 teams in the police force, we investigated the effect of being different from team members in terms of gender on employees’ perception that their team members see their gender identity as conflicting with their work identity. As expected in the police force as a male-dominated field, the results showed that gender-dissimilarity in the team was related to perceived gender-work identity conflict for women, and not for men. In turn, perceiving gender-work identity conflict was related to lower team identification for men and women. Although lowering team identification might enable employees to cope with conflicting social identities and hence protect the self, this may also have its costs, as lower team identification predicted higher turnover intentions, more burn-out symptoms, less extra role behavior, lower job satisfaction, lower work motivation, and lower perceived performance. Additionally, for women, experiencing support from their team members and team leader showed a trend to mitigate the relationship between gender-dissimilarity and perceived gender-work identity conflict, and a positive diversity climate was marginally related to less perceived gender-work identity conflict. The results show the importance of the team context in shaping a climate of (in)compatible identities for numerically underrepresented and historically undervalued social group members in order to hinder or protect their work outcomes. PMID:28220097

  13. Validación de la versión española de la Gender Role Conflict Scale for Adolescents (GRCS-A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Larrañaga

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available La Gender Role Conflict Scale for Adolescents (GRCS-A mide el conflicto de rol de género de los adolescentes. La GRCS-A se compone de cuatro factores referidos a distintos patrones de conflicto (afecto limitado entre hombres, emotividad restringida, conflicto entre trabajo, escuela y familia, y necesidad de éxito y logro. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar la estructura factorial de la versión española de la GRCS-A y la congruencia factorial con los datos de la versión inglesa. Nuestra muestra está compuesta por 1595 estudiantes varones de Enseñanza Secundaria y Bachillerato de diferentes centros educativos de Castilla-La Mancha y Castilla y León (España. Se examinó la correlación de la escala con el sexismo y el acoso escolar, y se analizaron las diferencias de acuerdo a la edad en la experimentación de los distintos patrones de conflicto. Los análisis factoriales, exploratorio y confirmatorio, replicaron la estructura factorial de la versión original y las correlaciones mostraron que el conflicto de rol de género está relacionado con el sexismo y el acoso escolar. El análisis de regresión mostró la influencia de la edad en el conflicto de rol de género.

  14. Adventures with "Robin Hood": Gender and Conflict on a First-Year Bulletin Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Describes the use of an electronic bulletin board in a first-year composition class. Explores power relationships and issues of gender, conflict, and authority while focusing on one young man's role on the bulletin board. (SR)

  15. 女大学生性别角色冲突对锻炼投入的影响%Influence of Gender-role Conflict on Exercise Involvement of Female University Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董宝林; 张欢

    2016-01-01

    Based on social gender theory and investment theory,on the basis of discussing the characteristics of the current situation of gender-role conflict and physical exercise involvement of female students,to explore the influence of gender-role conflict on physical exercise involvement of female students, through used SAGE' s Role Conflict Inventory(RCI)and Physical Exercise Involvement Scale(PEIS),this paper investigated 1026 female university students in Zhejiang Province,Shanghai,and Jiangsu Province. Results indicated that female students could feel or experience the moderate level of gender-role con⁃flict,moreover,could show a good state of involvement in physical exercise involvement. Female students' physical exercise involvement and gender-role con⁃flict were both the same identity in demographic of grade variables ,while the level of their physical exercise involvement had a significant difference at the level of conflict(The more intense conflict,the less investment). Gender-role conflict in exercise had a negative influence on female students' exercise in⁃volvement(r=-0.379,P<0.01). The negative regression effect of gender-role conflict was significantly on physical exercise involvement ,and explained“In⁃sistent vigor”,“Absorption-satisfaction”,and“Value cognition”13%,11% and 12% of the variance respectively,and the gender role conflict' s negative prediction were highest on“Insistent vigor”(β=-0.363),it confirmed that the gender role conflict was an important factor which restricts the female students to exercise the active degree and the degree of persistence. Conclusion:Relieving the gender-role conflict in physical exercise might be one effective way to improve the level of female students' physical exercises investment. This research conclusion provides important practical implications for formulate female students' physical exercise decision.%以社会性别理论和投入理论为框架,在探讨女大学生性别角色冲

  16. CULTURE AND GENDER ROLE DIFFERENCES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Angelica-Nicoleta NECULĂESEI (ONEA)

    2015-01-01

    .... The same applies in the case of assigned/assumed roles in society based on gender. Cultural dimensions that reflect differences in gender roles, but also elements related to the ethics of sexual difference were highlighted by many researchers...

  17. Gendered Personality Disposition and Gender Role Attitudes among Israeli Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Liat

    1999-01-01

    Examines the relationship between gendered personality dispositions and two aspects of gender role attitudes (occupational sex typing and gender role stereotypes). Indicates that gendered personality disposition affects occupational sex typing, whereas gender has the strongest effect on stereotypes of gender roles in the family and society.…

  18. Adolescents’, Mothers’, and Fathers’ Gendered Coping Strategies during Conflict: Youth and Parent Influences on Conflict Resolution and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Kristine; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Schreiber, Jane E; Hastings, Paul; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    We observed gendered coping strategies and conflict resolution outcomes used by adolescents and parents during a conflict discussion task to evaluate associations with current and later adolescent psychopathology. We studied 137 middle-to-upper-middle class predominantly Caucasian families of adolescents (aged 11–16 years, 65 males) who represented a range of psychological functioning including normative (~1/3) sub-clinical (~1/3) and clinical (~1/3) levels of problems. Adolescent coping strategies played key roles both in the extent to which parent-adolescent dyads resolved conflict and in the trajectory of psychopathology symptom severity over a two-year period. Gender-prototypic adaptive coping strategies were observed in parents but not youth, i.e. more problem-solving by fathers than mothers and more regulated emotion-focused coping by mothers than fathers. Youth-mother dyads more often achieved full resolution of conflict than youth-father dyads. There were generally not bidirectional effects among youth and parents’ coping across the discussion except boys’ initial use of angry/hostile coping predicted fathers’ angry/hostile coping. The child was more influential than the parent on conflict resolution. This extended to exacerbation/alleviation of psychopathology over two years: higher conflict resolution mediated the association of adolescents’ use of problem-focused coping with decreases in symptom severity over time. Lower conflict resolution mediated the association of adolescents’ use of angry/hostile emotion coping with increases in symptom severity over time. Implications of findings are considered within a broadened context of the nature of coping and conflict resolution in youth-parent interactions, as well as how these processes impact on youth well-being and dysfunction over time. PMID:26439060

  19. The cost of ignoring gender in conflict and post-conflict situations: A feminist perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Puechguirbal

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available

    This article focuses on the cost of ignoring gender when analyzing conflict and post-conflict environments. It explains how a feminist perspective allows us to uncover hidden gender power relations and deconstruct the so-called gender-neutral approach in international relations. By highlighting the differential impact of war on women and men as regards security issues, we understand why the cessation of hostility is not always synonymous with peace for women. We also understand how patriarchy resurfaces after a war and marginalizes women who are mainly seen as powerless victims and sidelined in peace talks that promote a conservative return to the status quo ante bellum.

  20. Gender relations and conflicts in fathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J

    1995-01-01

    The Caribbean Child Development Centre (CCDC) sought data to support the development of ways to meet regional parenting education needs. When CCDC realized that data on the relationship of Caribbean men and the family were virtually nonexistent, it conducted a survey of 700 men in two urban and two rural communities and sponsored discussion groups composed of men and women from the same or adjacent communities. The specific goals were 1) to provide a sociohistorical perspective on the family roles of men in the region; 2) to describe current male attitudes and behaviors related to family life and childbearing; 3) to generate data using participatory research techniques; 4) to present the data in a form useful to a wide audience; and 5) to create research tools that could be applied elsewhere in the region. The study revealed that a man's family is defined differently at different points of his life and that the primary role of the man in a Jamaican family is that of provider. The primary role of a mother is seen as providing care of the children and the home. Despite the pervasive nature of these beliefs, socioeconomic change has made it difficult for men and women to fulfill their traditional roles. Thus, a man can choose to demonstrate manhood by being a progenitor, by acquiring a large number of women, by engaging in criminal or violent behavior, by migrating to seek work, or by nurturing his children and participating in domestic tasks. It was found that men contribute more to family life than stereotypes suggest but that male status is not enhanced by participating in domestic chores. Fatherhood is an important step toward maturity, but children born early in a man's life may be cut off from the man when the mother enters another relationship. As may be expected, poverty and economic deprivation affect child-rearing practices in a negative manner. Future research should be directed to how well children born in early relationships are reared by stepfathers

  1. Gender identity and gender role orientation in female assigned patients with disorders of sex development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Aino K; Fagerholm, Riitta; Santtila, Pekka; Miettinen, Päivi J; Taskinen, Seppo

    2012-11-01

    Gender identity and gender role orientation were assessed in 24 female assigned patients with disorders of sex development. A total of 16 patients were prenatally exposed to androgens, of whom 15 had congenital adrenal hyperplasia and 1 was virilized due to maternal tumor. Eight patients had 46,XY karyotype, of whom 5 had partial and 3 had complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. Gender identity was measured by the 27-item Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults with 167 female medical students as controls, and gender role was assessed by the femininity and masculinity subscales of the 30-item Bem Sex Role Inventory with 104 female and 64 male medical students as controls. No patient reached the cutoff for gender identity disorder on the Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults. However, patients with 46,XY karyotype demonstrated a somewhat more conflicted gender identity, although the overall differences were relatively small. As to gender role orientation, patients with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome had high scores on the femininity and masculinity scales of the Bem Sex Role Inventory, which made them the most androgynous group. Our findings, although clinically not clear cut, suggest that patients with disorders of sex development are a heterogeneous group regarding gender identity and gender role outcomes, and that this issue should be discussed with the family when treatment plans are made. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Mainstreaming Gender Into Conflict And Peace Building Through Women Led Madras’s In Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zil-e-Huma

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Armed conflict has many significant effects on gender relations. Women and girls have special vulnerabilities to many forms of violence. Women bear many consequences of wars and suffer violations of human rights in situations of armed conflict including terrorism, rape, disappearance, ethnic cleansing, family separation, displacement, and social and psychological traumas. Peace building is generally defined as initiatives that are designed to prevent the eruption or return of armed conflict. As argued in this initiative, and as increasingly recognized in scholarship and diplomacy, religion can be used or mobilized to promote either conflict or peace building. There are strong connections among women and peace building processes. United Nations Security Council unanimously passed Resolution 1325 (SCR, 1325, recognized that armed conflict affects women in different ways and women plays an important role in conflict prevention, conflict resolution, and peace building processes. Mostly, women’s engagement in religious peacemaking is often invisible because, in many contemporary conflict zones and faith traditions, men tend to dominate formal religious leadership. Historical tendencies of male domination in security matters - and violent conflict specifically – accentuate women’s invisibility. And it is evident that women are crucial in conflict situations, because women’s perspectives, needs and unique leverage are often ignored by policy makers and scholars in the design of traditional religious peacemaking initiatives. This suggests new ways of understanding peace processes and making them more effective. This paper focuses on mainstreaming a gender approach to peace building, emphasizing the interests and needs of women and girls in post-conflict situations. The paper presents a bottom-up approach to religious peace building, exploring how institutes led by women, home based madrassas, can play a crucial role in rebuilding peace in

  3. Regulative Effect of Social Support on Relationship Between Gender Role Conflict and Stress of Senior High School Students%性别角色冲突对高中生心理压力的影响:社会支持的调节作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐凯

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the relationship between gender role conflict and stress of Chi-nese high school students ,and to examine the moderating roles of social support in this link .Methods:The Gender Role Conflict Scale ,Perceived Social Support Scale and Psychological Stress Scale were used to investigate 620 high school students .Results:Gender Role Conflict was extremely positively correlated with psychological stress ,negatively correlated with social support;After productly term of gender role con-flict and social support entering into the regression equation , significant interactions were following:Be-tween family support and restrictive emotionality (β=0.134,P<0.01),between family support and con-flict between work and family relations (β=-0 .163 ,P<0 .001 ) .Conclusion:The gender role conflict has significantly predicted effect on psychological stress .Social support is served to partly moderate the associ-ation between gender role conflict and psychological stress .%目的:探索高中生性别角色冲突与心理压力的关系,检验社会支持对两者的调节效应。方法:采用性别角色冲突量表、中学生应激源量表和领悟社会支持量表,对620名高中生进行问卷调查。结果:高中生性别角色冲突与心理压力呈现显著正相关,与社会支持呈现显著负相关;性别角色冲突和社会支持的乘积项纳入回归方程后,限制性情感与家庭支持(β=0.134,P<0.01)以及工作-家庭冲突与家庭支持(β=-0.163,P<0.001)的交互作用显著。结论:高中生性别角色冲突对心理压力具有显著的预测作用,社会支持对高中生性别角色冲突与心理压力关系起部分调节作用。

  4. Evolutionary Developmental Explanations of Gender Differences in Interpersonal Conflict: A Response to Trnka (2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon P. D. Ingram

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In focusing on gender differences in anger expression, Trnka (2013 provides a useful complement to the article by Ingram et al., (2012 analyzing gender differences in children's narratives about peer conflict. I agree that gender differences in anger are more likely to be the result of differential socialization processes regarding the expression of anger than by innate differences in the experience of anger. Gender differences in intersexual anger and aggression are likely to be affected by the social context, and especially whether a female is interacting with a romantic partner or an unknown male. The implication of socialization in anger expression raises the possibility that culture plays a causal role in encouraging cooperative breeding by inhibiting inter-female aggressive displays. Another of Trnka's proposals, that the expression of anger contributes to reconciliation and inhibits long-term relationship damage, is intuitively plausible and supported by the research literature, but not by data from the current study.

  5. Gender, Gender Roles Affecting Mate Preferences in Turkish College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazioglu, A. Esra Ismen

    2008-01-01

    The subject of this study is gender and gender roles affecting mate preferences. The sample of the study consists of 300 undergraduates and master students. To identify students' gender roles the Sex Role Evaluation Inventory (Bem, 1974) is used. The Question List (Bacanli 2001; Buss et. al., 1990) is applied to the sample group to determine the…

  6. Gender, Gender Roles Affecting Mate Preferences in Turkish College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazioglu, A. Esra Ismen

    2008-01-01

    The subject of this study is gender and gender roles affecting mate preferences. The sample of the study consists of 300 undergraduates and master students. To identify students' gender roles the Sex Role Evaluation Inventory (Bem, 1974) is used. The Question List (Bacanli 2001; Buss et. al., 1990) is applied to the sample group to determine the…

  7. University Faculty Gender Roles Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Sue; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Surveyed 400 college faculty men and women to determine gender role preferences and perceptions. Perceptions of the ideal woman, ideal man, most women, most men, and self were measured. Results from the Sex Role Trait Inventory show that both men and women faculty preferences and perceptions were generally very similar. Implications are discussed.…

  8. Gender Roles and Expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana A. Eisenchlas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available One consequence of the advent of cyber communication is that increasing numbers of people go online to ask for, obtain, and presumably act upon advice dispensed by unknown peers. Just as advice seekers may not have access to information about the identities, ideologies, and other personal characteristics of advice givers, advice givers are equally ignorant about their interlocutors except for the bits of demographic information that the latter may offer freely. In the present study, that information concerns sex. As the sex of the advice seeker may be the only, or the predominant, contextual variable at hand, it is expected that that identifier will guide advice givers in formulating their advice. The aim of this project is to investigate whether and how the sex of advice givers and receivers affects the type of advice, through the empirical analysis of a corpus of web-based Spanish language forums on personal relationship difficulties. The data revealed that, in the absence of individuating information beyond that implicit in the advice request, internalized gender expectations along the lines of agency and communality are the sources from which advice givers draw to guide their counsel. This is despite the trend in discursive practices used in formulating advice, suggesting greater language convergence across sexes.

  9. Conflict resolution and peace building: the gender question in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Research Review ... The paper examines the strategic approaches adopted by women and the socio-cultural obstacles that ... On the contrary, they are made to believe that their rightful gender role is in the home front as housewives, ...

  10. Work-Family Conflict and Self-Rated Health: the Role of Gender and Educational Level. Baseline Data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griep, Rosane Härter; Toivanen, Susanna; van Diepen, Cornelia; Guimarães, Joanna M N; Camelo, Lidyane V; Juvanhol, Leidjaira Lopes; Aquino, Estela M; Chor, Dóra

    2016-06-01

    This study examined gender differences in the association between work-family conflict and self-rated health and evaluated the effect of educational attainment. We used baseline data from ELSA-Brasil, a cohort study of civil servants from six Brazilian state capitals. Our samples included 12,017 active workers aged 34-72 years. Work-family conflict was measured by four indicators measuring effects of work on family, effects of family in work and lack of time for leisure and personal care. Women experienced more frequent work-family conflict, but in both genders, increased work-family conflict directly correlated with poorer self-rated health. Women's educational level interacted with three work-family conflict indicators. For time-based effects of work on family, highly educated women had higher odds of suboptimal self-rated health (OR = 1.54; 95 % CI = 1.19-1.99) than less educated women (OR = 1.14; 95 % CI = 0.92-1.42). For strain-based effects of work on family, women with higher and lower education levels had OR = 1.91 (95 % CI 1.48-2.47) and OR = 1.40 (95 % CI 1.12-1.75), respectively. For lack of time for leisure and personal care, women with higher and lower education levels had OR = 2.60 (95 % CI = 1.95-3.47) and OR = 1.11 (95 % CI = 0.90-1.38), respectively. Women's education level affects the relationship between work-family conflict and self-rated health. The results may contribute to prevention activities.

  11. Objective assessment of gender roles: Gender Roles Test (GRT-36).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Juan; Quiroga, M Angeles; del Olmo, Isabel; Aróztegui, Javier; Martín, Arantxa

    2011-11-01

    This study was designed to develop a computerized test to assess gender roles. This test is presented as a decision-making task to mask its purpose. Each item displays a picture representing an activity and a brief sentence that describes it. Participants have to choose the most suitable sex to perform each activity: man or woman. The test (Gender Roles Test, GRT-36) consists of 36 items/activities. The program registers both the choices made and their response times (RTs). Responses are considered as stereotyped when the chosen sex fits stereotyped roles and non-stereotyped when the chosen sex does not fit stereotyped roles. Individual means (RTs) were computed for stereotyped and non-stereotyped responses, differentiating between domestic and work spheres. A "D" score, reflecting the strength of association between activities and sex, was calculated for each sphere and sex. The study incorporated 78 participants (69% women and 31% men) ranging from 19 to 59 years old. The results show that: (a) reading speed does not explain the variability in the RTs; (b) RTs show good internal consistency; (c) RTs are shorter for stereotyped than for neutral stimuli; (d) RTs are shorter for stereotyped than for non-stereotyped responses. Intended goals are supported by obtained results. Scores provided by the task facilitate both group and individual detailed analysis of gender role, differentiating the gender role assigned to men from that assigned to women, at the domestic and work spheres. Obtained data fall within the scope of the genderology and their implications are discussed.

  12. CULTURE AND GENDER ROLE DIFFERENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica-Nicoleta NECULĂESEI (ONEA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Culture influences thinking, language and human behaviour. The social environment, in which individuals are born and live, shapes their attitudinal, emotional and behavioural reactions and the perceptions about what is happening around. The same applies in the case of assigned/assumed roles in society based on gender. Cultural dimensions that reflect differences in gender roles, but also elements related to the ethics of sexual difference were highlighted by many researchers. The presentation of these issues from the interdisciplinary perspective is the subject of this article. Briefly, the article refers to: importance of communication in transmission of roles of those two sexes, cultural dimensions that reflect role differences invarious cultures, discrimination issues and ethics of sexual difference.

  13. Role conflict, role ambiguity, and job satisfaction in nurse executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrant, Theresa; Sabo, Carolyn E

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the results of a cross-sectional correlational survey design of nurse executives' (NEs') views on role conflict, role ambiguity, job satisfaction, and depression. A total of 380 surveys were returned from 1000 randomly selected participants. Four instruments were utilized, 1 for demographic data and 3 established instruments. Results indicated that the respondents had low to moderate amounts of role ambiguity, high levels of job satisfaction, low levels of depression, a negative relationship between role conflict and role ambiguity and job satisfaction, and a positive relationship between role conflict and depression. Furthermore, although levels of role conflict are decreasing, levels of role ambiguity are increasing. Neither educational level nor age was related to the dependent variables. Role conflict and role ambiguity are both forms of role stress. This study indicates that stress levels are not overwhelming to the NE and may be encouraging development of required skills. Healthcare organizations will continue to evolve and increase in complexity putting pressure on NEs in their many roles. Although this study did not consider strategies for coping with stress, this important avenue needs to be considered as NEs move forward with more extensive roles in the leadership of our healthcare system.

  14. Teachers' Burnout, Depression, Role Ambiguity and Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papastylianou, Antonia; Kaila, Maria; Polychronopoulos, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates issues associated with teachers' burnout in primary education as related to depression and role conflict-ambiguity. At the time of the study the participants (562 teachers) were working in seventy nine (79) Primary Education State Schools in Greece (Athens and two prefectures in the southern part of the country). The…

  15. Homework Practices: Role Conflicts Concerning Parental Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräu, Karin; Harring, Marius; Weyl, Christin

    2017-01-01

    This article on hand discusses results of an ethnographic study which aims to perform a detailed description of practices of doing homework in a domestic environment. Based on the international state of research, first the question and the methodical approach will be explained, subsequently the role conflicts and stress ratios developed while…

  16. Negotiating gender roles through media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jessica

    phones are “emerging as the first extensive form of electronic communication system in many regions of Africa and Asia” (Tenhunen 2008). Mobile phone use and media consumption in general is strongly intertwined with everyday life, yet research on the appropriation of new media in an everyday life setting....... The interviews deal both with media use and gender and the aim of this paper is to connect the two in order to better grasp how media becomes a platform where gender roles are discussed and negotiated, how media content, whether it is soap operas or call in shows on radio, are used to reflect on one’s own...

  17. Gender difference in work-family conflict among Japanese information technology engineers with preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watai, Izumi; Nishikido, Noriko; Murashima, Sachiyo

    2008-01-01

    Since the Family Policy Act, which requires companies to develop action plans to support their employees who have children in an attempt to reverse the declining birthrate in Japan, was enacted in 2003, many Japanese organizations and occupational health staff have become interested in work-family conflict (WFC), especially WFC in employees with young children. A cross-sectional survey of regularly employed information technology (IT) engineers with preschool children in Japan was conducted to examine the gender difference in WFC, relationship of WFC with outcomes, and predictors of WFC by gender. Data from 78 male and 102 female respondents were analyzed. There was no significant gender difference in total level of WFC. However, the level of work interference with family (WIF) was significantly higher in males than in females and the level of family interference with work (FIW) was significantly higher in females. Regarding outcomes, WIF was significantly related to depression and fatigue in both genders. Moreover, different predictors were related to WIF and FIW by gender. A family-friendly culture in the company was related to WIF only in males. To prevent depression and cumulative fatigue in employees with young children, occupational practitioners have to pay attention to not only employees' work stress but also their family stress or amount of family role in both genders.

  18. Is the Gap More than Gender? A Longitudinal Analysis of Gender, Gender Role Orientation, and Earnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Timothy A.; Livingston, Beth A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships among gender, gender role orientation (i.e., attitudes toward the gendered separation of roles at work and at home), and earnings. A multilevel model was conceptualized in which gender role orientation and earnings were within-individual variables that fluctuate over time (although predictors of…

  19. Is the Gap More than Gender? A Longitudinal Analysis of Gender, Gender Role Orientation, and Earnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Timothy A.; Livingston, Beth A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships among gender, gender role orientation (i.e., attitudes toward the gendered separation of roles at work and at home), and earnings. A multilevel model was conceptualized in which gender role orientation and earnings were within-individual variables that fluctuate over time (although predictors of…

  20. Adolescent and Adult Reasoning about Gender Roles and Fairness in Benin, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conry-Murray, Clare

    2009-01-01

    This study examined reasoning about gender roles in a traditional society in Benin, West Africa. Ninety-seven male and female adolescents and adults evaluated conflicts between a husband and a wife over gender norms to determine whether gender norms, are judged to be moral or conventional. Although most attributed decision-making power to the…

  1. Adolescent and Adult Reasoning about Gender Roles and Fairness in Benin, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conry-Murray, Clare

    2009-01-01

    This study examined reasoning about gender roles in a traditional society in Benin, West Africa. Ninety-seven male and female adolescents and adults evaluated conflicts between a husband and a wife over gender norms to determine whether gender norms, are judged to be moral or conventional. Although most attributed decision-making power to the…

  2. Salience and conflict of work and family roles among employed men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knežević, Irena; Gregov, Ljiljana; Šimunić, Ana

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the salience of work and family roles and to study the connection between role salience and the interference of different types of roles among working men and women. Self-assessment measurement scales were applied. The research involved 206 participants; 103 employed married couples from different regions of Croatia. The results show that roles closely connected to family are considered the most salient. However, men are mostly dedicated behaviourally to the role of a worker. Women dedicate more time and energy to the roles of a spouse, a parent, and a family member whereas men are more oriented towards the leisurite role. The highest level of conflict was perceived when it comes to work disturbing leisure. Gender differences appeared only for work-to-marriage conflict, with men reporting higher conflict than women. The research found proof of only some low correlations between the salience of different types of roles and work-family conflict.

  3. Nature or Nurture? Gender Roles Scavenger Hunt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Shannon; Maurer-Starks, Suanne

    2008-01-01

    The examination of gender roles and stereotypes and their subsequent impact on sexual behavior is a concept for discussion in many sex education courses in college and sex education units in high school. This analysis often leads to a discussion of the impact of nature vs. nurture on gender roles. The gender roles scavenger hunt is an interactive…

  4. Nature or Nurture? Gender Roles Scavenger Hunt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Shannon; Maurer-Starks, Suanne

    2008-01-01

    The examination of gender roles and stereotypes and their subsequent impact on sexual behavior is a concept for discussion in many sex education courses in college and sex education units in high school. This analysis often leads to a discussion of the impact of nature vs. nurture on gender roles. The gender roles scavenger hunt is an interactive…

  5. The Social Role Conflict of the Male Nurses from the Angle of Gender%从社会性别角度看待男护士的社会角色冲突

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦颖; 李乐之

    2011-01-01

    社会性别理论是女权主义的智慧结晶.这一概念将三次女权主义浪潮的胜利成果从实践上升到理论,并扩展到社会生活的多个方面.从社会性别理论浅谈当今中国社会中存在的社会性别、社会性别分工与护士女性化间的矛盾,剖析由此产生的男性护士就业尴尬的原因和并提出应对策略.%Gender theory is essence of feminist. This concept made the victory of feminism movement rise from practice to theory, and extended to various aspects of daily life. In this paper, from the angle of gender theory, I discuss the conflict between gender or gender- based division of labor and the feminization of nursing professions, which is the existence in contemporary Chinese society. At last, in this article, I analyze the reasons for the embarrassment of the male nurses'employment and propose the corresponding strategies.

  6. Marital Status, Gender, and Home-to-Job Conflict among Employed Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomaguchi, Kei M.

    2012-01-01

    Although researchers argue that single parents perceive more work-family conflict than married parents, little research has examined nuances in such differences. Using data from the 2002 National Study of Changing Workforce (N = 1,430), this study examines differences in home-to-job conflict by marital status and gender among employed parents.…

  7. Gender Roles, Gender (In)equality and Fertility : An Empirical Test of Five Gender Equity Indices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, M.

    2010-01-01

    The division of gender roles in the household and societal level gender (in)equality have been situated as one of the most powerful factors underlying fertility behaviour. Despite continued theoretical attention to this issue by demographers, empirical research integrating gender roles and equity in

  8. Gender Roles, Gender (In)equality and Fertility : An Empirical Test of Five Gender Equity Indices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, M.

    2010-01-01

    The division of gender roles in the household and societal level gender (in)equality have been situated as one of the most powerful factors underlying fertility behaviour. Despite continued theoretical attention to this issue by demographers, empirical research integrating gender roles and equity in

  9. Mexican-American adolescents' gender role attitude development: the role of adolescents' gender and nativity and parents' gender role attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegraff, Kimberly A; McHale, Susan M; Zeiders, Katharine H; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Perez-Brena, Norma J; Wheeler, Lorey A; Rodríguez De Jesús, Sue A

    2014-12-01

    Gender development has long term implications for education and career endeavors and family formation behaviors, but we know very little about the role of sociocultural factors in developmental and individual differences. In this study, we investigated one domain of gender development, gender role attitudes, in Mexican-American adolescents (N = 246; 51 % female), using four phases of longitudinal data across 8 years. Data were collected when adolescents averaged 12.51 years (SD = 0.58), 14.64 years (SD = 0.59), 17.72 years (SD = 0.57), and 19.60 years of age (SD = 0.66). Mothers' and fathers' gender role attitudes also were assessed in Phases 1, 3, and 4. Findings revealed that gender attitude development varied as a function of the interaction between adolescents' nativity and gender. Among Mexico-born adolescents, females exhibited significant declines in traditional attitudes from early to late adolescence, but males' attitudes were stable over time. U.S.-born females and males, in contrast, did not differ in their gender attitude trajectories. Examining the links between mothers', fathers', and adolescents' gender role attitudes revealed within-person associations between mothers' and adolescents' gender role attitudes: on occasions when mothers reported more traditional attitudes relative to their own cross-time average, adolescents also reported more traditional attitudes than usual. In addition, fathers' more traditional gender role attitudes were associated with daughters', but not sons', more traditional gender role attitudes at the between-person level. The discussion focuses on the interpretation of Mexican-American adolescents' gender role attitude development from a cultural ecological perspective.

  10. Mexican American Adolescents’ Gender Role Attitude Development: The Role of Adolescents’ Gender and Nativity and Parents’ Gender Role Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.; McHale, Susan M.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Perez-Brena, Norma J.; Wheeler, Lorey A.; Rodríguez De Jesús, Sue A.

    2014-01-01

    Gender development has long term implications for education and career endeavors and family formation behaviors, but we know very little about the role of sociocultural factors in developmental and individual differences. In this study, we investigated one domain of gender development, gender role attitudes, in Mexican American adolescents (N = 246; 51% female), using four phases of longitudinal data across eight years. Data were collected when adolescents averaged 12.51 years (SD = 0.58), 14.64 years (SD = 0.59), 17.72 years (SD = 0.57), and 19.60 years of age (SD = 0.66). Mothers’ and fathers’ gender role attitudes also were assessed in Phases 1, 3, and 4. Findings revealed that gender attitude development varied as a function of the interaction between adolescents’ nativity and gender. Among Mexico-born adolescents, females exhibited significant declines in traditional attitudes from early to late adolescence, but males’ attitudes were stable over time. U.S.-born females and males, in contrast, did not differ in their gender attitude trajectories. Examining the links between mothers’, fathers’, and adolescents’ gender role attitudes revealed within-person associations between mothers’ and adolescents’ gender role attitudes: on occasions when mothers reported more traditional attitudes relative to their own cross-time average, adolescents also reported more traditional attitudes than usual. In addition, fathers’ more traditional gender role attitudes were associated with daughters’, but not sons’, more traditional gender role attitudes at the between-person level. The discussion focuses on the interpretation of Mexican American adolescents’ gender role attitude development from a cultural ecological perspective. PMID:24777649

  11. Railway Station Role in Composing Urban Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Conticelli

    2011-12-01

    nodes, their complex dynamics and the role of the most important players involved in these developments.Contemporary main rail stations are addressed as complex systems operating in a condition characterized by a dynamic balance among the different elements which form them; the interpretation of their polysemic nature allows to identify the most suitable design procedures and intervention strategies to make stations the privileged places where to compose the conflicts between contemporary city and railway. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to identify and to analyze crucial issues in order to build new liveable and effective developments. They refer, for instance, to the rail station configuration in order to be at the same time an efficient interchange transportation node and a meaningful and multifunctional city centre, but also to the detection of the most suitable tools and procedures to drive the urban and infrastructural transformations and to the proper involvement in the decision process of the different stakeholders who could be interested in these urban changes.

  12. Role ambiguity, employee gender, and workplace friendship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Yu; Mao, Hsiao-Yen; Hsieh, An-Tien

    2012-06-01

    The importance of workplace friendship is recognized by researchers and practitioners, but its antecedents with respect to work roles are not well understood. Employees' gender might moderate a relationship between work roles and friendships. Data from a survey of 221 international tourist hotel employees showed that a key aspect of job support, role ambiguity, was negatively related to having workplace friendships. However, employees' gender did not moderate this relationship. Role clarity (the opposite of role ambiguity) may facilitate workplace friendships.

  13. Peace process in cultural conflict: The role of the media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dov Shinar

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explores (1 the cultural nature of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict; (2 the "intractability" of cultural conflicts; (3 conflict management models: reconciliation/"end-of-conflict" versus "conflict transformation" and their relation to cultural conflict; (4 the serious consequences of the wrong matching of models and conflicts, such as using the reconciliation model in cultural conflict; (5 the changing role of the media in international relations, and their contribution to the "crisis of expectations" that came to fruition in September 2000, with the eruption of the Intifada; (6 the possibility of the media contributing to peace processes; and (7 implications of the media adoption of the conflict transformation model. The premises are that, unlike other violent confrontations, the Middle Eastern conflict is fundamentally cultural, particularly in its Palestinian-Israeli version; that cultural conflicts are "intractable" (Lederach, 1998; Burgess&Burgess, 1996; Kraybill, 1995, in the sense that they are very difficult, perhaps impossible to resolve; that reconciliation is not the only possible or desirable outcome of conflict: transformation (Vayrynen, 1991 is another viable option; that mistaken interpretations of conflict-resolution strategies can lead to "crises of expectations" in policy-making, in the media, and in public opinion; and that the media can play important roles in these processes.

  14. Gender Identity Conflict in Young Boys following Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, William H.

    1985-01-01

    Three boys, aged 4-7, wanted to be feminine and dressed in women's clothes following a difficult divorce with custody and visitation strife. In brief psychotherapy, gender seemed related to issues of loss and aggression. On followup, all three were symptomatically improved. Gender disturbance symptom in boys may come about as regressive reaction…

  15. Work-family role conflict and job performance among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Work-family role conflict and job performance among women bankers in the federal ... the study made use of a sample of 920 female bankers from selected banks. ... fact that work-family role conflict generates some kind of stress and instability ...

  16. Views on gender roles of university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Vefikuluçay Yılmaz

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available AbtractAim: This study was conducted with the aim to determine point of view of final-year university students at Hacettepe University on gender roles regarding work life, social life, marriage and family life. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study. The questionnaire was applied to a total of 448 students including 250 females and 198 males. Results: The results of the study reveal that views of students on gender roles related to work life, social life, marriage and family life exhibit statistically significant differences among the sexes for most of the statements given. Conclusions: It was identified that male students have more traditional views on gender roles related to work and marriage life. It was identified that female and male students have more egalitarian views on gender roles related to social and family life. The results of the study are important in that views on gender roles are revealed among most university students. The finding that university students still have a traditional perspective on social gender roles indicates that universities has failed to a certain degree in achieving its goal toward educating intellectual and open-minded individuals, and it reveals the need for sensitiveness in equality of gender roles besides the acquirement of professional knowledge.

  17. Implementing peace journalism: The role of conflict stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard Bläsi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to put the ideas of peace journalism into practice have so far largely neglected the role of the different stages of conflicts. With reference to an empirically-based model of six factors that influence the production of conflict coverage, this article examines how the preconditions of news production differ in three different stages of conflict: (1 nonviolent conflict, (2 violent conflict, (3 aftermath of violent conflict. The author shows how the differing preconditions of news production impact the chances for realising peace journalism. In the light of findings that suggest that peace journalism is harder to realise in wartime and if the journalists' own country is involved, the author argues in favour of changing the focus of implementation towards nonviolent stages of conflict. The ideas of peace journalism must be anchored within a society in peacetime; only then will they have a chance of sustainable realisation in wartime.

  18. Cross-Gender Violence Perpetration and Victimization among Early Adolescents and Associations with Attitudes toward Dating Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windle, Michael; Mrug, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in cross-gender violence perpetration and victimization (ranging from mild, e.g., push, to severe, e.g., assault with a knife or gun) and attitudes toward dating conflict, among an urban sample of 601 early adolescents (78% African-American). Comparisons across gender groups for cross-gender (e.g.,…

  19. Cross-Gender Violence Perpetration and Victimization among Early Adolescents and Associations with Attitudes toward Dating Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windle, Michael; Mrug, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in cross-gender violence perpetration and victimization (ranging from mild, e.g., push, to severe, e.g., assault with a knife or gun) and attitudes toward dating conflict, among an urban sample of 601 early adolescents (78% African-American). Comparisons across gender groups for cross-gender (e.g.,…

  20. Gender Roles:Biases or Differences?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏静

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to probe into the two distinct gender roles-males and females-in several ways, and further answers the question“what on earth cause the salient differentiation in gender roles, biases or differences? ”In conclusion, the author holds that it is the physiological and psychological differences in the two sexes that result in the differed distribution of such vari-ous duties which males and females are supposed to fulfill as the current society has expected.

  1. Growing up in Violent Communities: Do Family Conflict and Gender Moderate Impacts on Adolescents' Psychosocial Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Lorraine M.; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert H.; Casey, Patrick H.; Conners-Burrow, Nicola A.; Barrett, Kathleen W.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the moderating effects of family conflict and gender on the relationship between community violence and psychosocial development at age 18. The study sample consisted of 728 children and families who were part of the Infant Health and Development Program study of low-birth-weight, pre-term infants. In this sample, adolescent…

  2. Conflict Resolution in Mexican-Origin Couples: Culture, Gender, and Marital Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lorey A.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Thayer, Shawna M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined associations between Mexican-origin spouses' conflict resolution strategies (i.e., nonconfrontation, solution orientation, and control) and (a) gender-typed qualities and attitudes, (b) cultural orientations, and (c) marital quality in a sample of 227 couples. Results of multilevel modeling revealed that Mexican cultural…

  3. Neglected Voices : Untold Stories of Gender, Conflict and Transitional Justice in the Great Lakes Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, Theo

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation consists out of an introduction and one book chapter and three journal articles that are based on extensive field research in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo and northern Uganda. The three overarching themes of this dissertation are gender, armed conflict and transitional

  4. Team composition and conflict : the role of individual differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greer, Lindred Leura

    2008-01-01

    The effects of team composition and conflict on team outcomes have been largely contradictory. In this dissertation, I strive to unravel these relationships through better incorporating two key factors when understanding relationships between team composition, conflict, and team outcomes - the role

  5. Conflict transformation: A longitudinal investigation of the relationships between different types of intragroup conflict and the moderating role of conflict resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greer, L.L.; Jehn, K.A.; Mannix, E.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, the authors examine the relationships between task, relationship, and process conflict over time. They also look at the role of conflict resolution in determining whether certain forms of intragroup conflict are related to the appearance of other forms of conflict over ti

  6. Adolescents' reasoning about parental gender roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brose, Sara J; Conry-Murray, Clare; Turiel, Elliot

    2013-01-01

    In an examination of how adolescents reason about several factors related to division of childcare labor, 38 adolescents, including 20 girls (M age = 16.36 years, SD = .50) and 18 boys (M age = 16.59 years, SD = .62) were interviewed about conflicts between a mother and a father over which parent should stay home with the child, the authority of the father, and similar issues in a traditional culture. The relative income of each parent was varied. Participants considered the needs of the child most when reasoning about infants, and the right to work most frequently when reasoning about preschoolers (p gender equity and adolescents' future goals were discussed.

  7. Gender and (UnSustainability—Can Communication Solve a Conflict of Norms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Franz-Balsen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In theory, and even more in the practice of sustainability communications, the gender dimension of sustainability has been neglected relative to other fields of the science. The aim of this paper is to show the relevance of gender as an analytical category for research and the importance of gender competence as an indispensable skill for professional sustainability communicators. Understanding how gender norms have contributed to inhibiting sustainable development is key to well-targeted means to communicate visions of sustainable ways of life. Traditional norms of masculinity are clearly in tension with the ethical, ecological and social implications of Sustainable Development, whereas the norms of femininity work against empowerment and participation of women. Current changes in gender relations and gender identities in the western world do not automatically solve this conflict of norms. Therefore, sustainability communication must and can contribute to shaping the social construction of gender towards new “sustainable” norms and ideals for the various gender identities in western societies. In order to achieve this, gender mainstreaming (GM needs to be implemented in the field of sustainability communication, from capacity building for communicators to project design and research. Gender and diversity competence is to become a professional requirement, assuring that traditional “doing gender” is avoided, cultural diversity respected and structural inequalities are made visible. Visions of sustainable societies should include changes in gender relations. The argument is based on sociological studies, gender theories, gender policies, and environmental and sustainability communication studies, empirically supported by biographical studies and media analyses over the last twenty years in Western Europe, mainly Germany.

  8. Neighborhood conflicts: the role of social categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ufkes, E.G.; Otten, S.; Zee, van der K. I.; Giebels, E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – In a multicultural context, this study aims to investigate the effect of ingroup versus outgroup categorization and stereotypes on residents' emotional and behavioral reactions in neighbor-to-neighbor conflicts. Based on the literature on the “black sheep effect”, the authors predicted tha

  9. Gender-role attitudes among Egyptian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensch, Barbara S; Ibrahim, Barbara L; Lee, Susan M; el-Gibaly, Omaima

    2003-03-01

    Using nationally representative survey data, this study explores gender-role attitudes among unmarried adolescents aged 16-19 in Egypt, a society characterized by distinct and often segregated roles for men and women. Adolescents' views about desirable qualities in a spouse as well as more direct indicators of gender-role attitudes are examined, including opinions about whether wives should defer to their husbands, share in household decision making, and have the responsibility for performing domestic tasks. The findings regarding spousal characteristics reflect strong gender differentiation. Girls and boys provide divergent profiles of an ideal spouse, profiles that reflect traditional gender roles. Girls are significantly less likely than boys to favor educational inequality between spouses, however. Neither boys nor girls have egalitarian gender-role attitudes, although girls are significantly more likely to express less traditional attitudes. Multivariate analyses indicate that girls' and boys' attitudes do not vary consistently and significantly by socioeconomic background; in particular, increased schooling does not always promote egalitarian attitudes. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  10. Understanding doctors' ethical challenges as role virtue conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that doctors' ethical challenges can be usefully conceptualised as role virtue conflicts. The hospital environment requires doctors to be simultaneously good doctors, good team members, good learners and good employees. I articulate a possible set of role virtues for each of these four roles, as a basis for a virtue ethics approach to analysing doctors' ethical challenges. Using one junior doctor's story, I argue that understanding doctors' ethical challenges as role virtue conflicts enables recognition of important moral considerations that are overlooked by other approaches to ethical analysis.

  11. Relationship between Gender Roles and Sexual Assertiveness in Married Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmoude, Elham; Firoozi, Mahbobe; Sadeghi Sahebzad, Elahe; Asgharipour, Neghar

    2016-10-01

    Evidence indicates that sexual assertiveness is one of the important factors affecting sexual satisfaction. According to some studies, traditional gender norms conflict with women's capability in expressing sexual desires. This study examined the relationship between gender roles and sexual assertiveness in married women in Mashhad, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 120 women who referred to Mashhad health centers through convenient sampling in 2014-15. Data were collected using Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) and Hulbert index of sexual assertiveness. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16 by Pearson and Spearman's correlation tests and linear Regression Analysis. The mean scores of sexual assertiveness was 54.93±13.20. According to the findings, there was non-significant correlation between Femininity and masculinity score with sexual assertiveness (P=0.069 and P=0.080 respectively). Linear regression analysis indicated that among the predictor variables, only Sexual function satisfaction was identified as the sexual assertiveness summary predictor variables (P=0.001). Based on the results, sexual assertiveness in married women does not comply with gender role, but it is related to Sexual function satisfaction. So, counseling psychologists need to consider this variable when designing intervention programs for modifying sexual assertiveness and find other variables that affect sexual assertiveness.

  12. The Role of Culture in Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    involved (both official and unofficial), or even via public rhetoric exchanged in the media. Kolb and Babbitt note that “caucuses serve obvious...Washington, D.C., 1997), 81. 8 Fred C. Iklé, How Nations Negotiate, Praeger, (New York, 1964), 43-58. 9 Deborah M. Kolb and Eileen F. Babbitt , “Mediation...Ripeness of Conflict: A Fruitful Notion?.” Journal of Peace Research. vol. 31, no. 1, 1994. Kolb, Deborah M. and Eileen F. Babbitt . “Mediation Practice

  13. The role of mediation in resolving workplace relationship conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Donna Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Stress triggered by workplace-based interpersonal conflict can result in damaged relationships, loss of productivity, diminished job satisfaction and increasingly, workers' compensation claims for psychological injury. This paper examined the literature on the role and effectiveness of mediation, as the most common method of Alternative Dispute Resolution, in resolving workplace relationship conflict. Available evidence suggests that mediation is most effective when supported by organisational commitment to ADR strategies, policies and processes, and conducted by independent, experienced and qualified mediators. The United States Postal Service program REDRESS™ is described as an illustration of the successful use of mediation to resolve conflict in the workplace.

  14. Role Ambiguity, Role Conflict and Job Satisfaction among Physical Education Teachers in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koustelios, Athanasios; Theodorakis, Nicholas; Goulimaris, Dimitris

    2004-01-01

    This study examines role conflict, role ambiguity, and job satisfaction among Greek physical education teachers, and the extent to which role conflict and role ambiguity predict job satisfaction. All members of the sample of 61 physical education teachers were employed in Greek "Sport for all" programs. The standard multiple regression…

  15. Parental role models, gender and educational choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryler, H

    1998-09-01

    Parental role models are often put forward as an explanation for the choice of gender-atypical educational routes. This paper aims to test such explanations by examining the impact of family background variables like parental education and occupation, on choice of educational programme at upper secondary school. Using a sample of around 73,000 Swedish teenagers born between 1972 and 1976, girls' and boys' gender-atypical as well as gender-typical educational choices are analysed by means of logistic regression. Parents working or educated within a specific field increase the probability that a child will make a similar choice of educational programme at upper secondary school. This same-sector effect appeared to be somewhat stronger for fathers and sons, while no such same-sex influence was confirmed for girls. No evidence was found that, in addition to a same-sector effect, it matters whether parents' occupations represent gender-traditional or non-traditional models. Parents of the service classes or highly educated parents--expected to be the most gender egalitarian in attitudes and behaviours--have a positive influence upon children's choice of gender-atypical education.

  16. Role conflict, role ambiguity, and burnout in nurses and physicians at a university hospital in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunc, Tulin; Kutanis, Rana Ozen

    2009-12-01

    In many countries currently, health-care professionals experience burnout in their professional life. This study explored the relationship between burnout, and role conflict and role ambiguity in nurses and physicians at a university hospital in Turkey. The data were collected by questionnaires that included sociodemographic variables, Maslach's Burnout Inventory (MBI), and Rizzo's Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity Scales. Two hundred and fifty one health-care professionals (170 physicians and 81 nurses) responded to the survey. There was a strong positive correlation between the MBI and Rizzo's Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity Scales. The nurses showed significantly higher levels of role conflict, role ambiguity, and burnout compared to the physicians. A multiple regression analysis showed that role conflict and role ambiguity might help to explain the higher level of burnout experienced by the nurses compared to the physicians. Future research is needed to develop preventive measures for the burnout of health-care professionals.

  17. Killing Us Softly: Gender Roles in Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne

    1993-10-01

    Recent years have brought an increasing awareness that advertising sells images of success, normalcy, sexuality, and love as well as specific products. Stereotypes of gender roles, reinforced through ideal images of physical beauty and body language, have negative effects on both men and women. The author concludes with a discussion of strategies for effecting change.

  18. Revisiting University Student Gender Role Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Sue; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Studies gender role perceptions of 3,300 college students, of whom 81% were Caucasian. Results show 2,990 students preferred an androgynous Ideal Woman. Women also preferred an androgynous Ideal Man, but men preferred a masculine sex-typed Ideal Man. Men's self-perceptions were androgynous; women's were sex-typed. Findings suggest little…

  19. The Myth of Unadaptable Gender Roles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breidahl, Karen Nielsen; Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    2016-01-01

    It is a predominant assumption in contemporary political and academic debates that gender roles and attitudes supporting women’s paid work among immigrants are deep-rooted and stable over time. However, the actual work–family orientations among immigrants are rarely studied. The purpose...

  20. Gender Roles in Chika Unigwe's The Phoenix

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines gender roles in Chika Unigwe's The Phoenix (2007). In ... of man. The rise of feminist movements/campaigns in Africa can be traced more to ..... Ortner, Sherry B. “Reading America: Preliminary Notes on Class and Culture.

  1. Adolescent Gender-Role Identity and Mental Health: Gender Intensification Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priess, Heather A.; Lindberg, Sara M.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2009-01-01

    Gender intensification, an increased pressure for adolescents to conform to culturally sanctioned gender roles, has been posited as an explanation for the emergence of the gender difference in depression. This longitudinal study assessed whether 410 individuals became more stereotypical in their gender-role identity across adolescence and whether…

  2. Adolescent Gender-Role Identity and Mental Health: Gender Intensification Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priess, Heather A.; Lindberg, Sara M.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2009-01-01

    Gender intensification, an increased pressure for adolescents to conform to culturally sanctioned gender roles, has been posited as an explanation for the emergence of the gender difference in depression. This longitudinal study assessed whether 410 individuals became more stereotypical in their gender-role identity across adolescence and whether…

  3. Stress, depression and role conflict in working mothers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    2003-05-08

    May 8, 2003 ... research indicates that there is a direct relationship between inordinate degrees of stress ... This is often considered stressful for working mothers as they tend to carry a greater domestic burden. ... Marriage and parenthood have been linked to increased role conflict and overload, with the role of parent per-.

  4. Gender Identity and Sex Role of Patients Operated on for Bladder Exstrophy-Epispadias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskinen, Seppo; Suominen, Janne S; Mattila, Aino K

    2016-08-01

    We evaluated whether genital deformity has an impact on gender identity and sex role in patients operated on for bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex. A total of 62 adolescents and adults operated on for bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex were mailed questionnaires evaluating gender identity (Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults) and sex role (Bem Sex Role Inventory). Of the patients 33 responded and the results were compared with 99 gender matched controls. On the gender identity questionnaire female patients had median scores similar to those of their gender matched controls (4.93 vs 4.89, p = 0.412) but in males the score was lower compared to controls (4.87 vs 4.96, p = 0.023), indicating somewhat more conflicted gender identity. However, no patient had gender dysphoria. Female sex role index was higher in female patients vs controls (5.9 vs 5.3, p = 0.003) but was comparable between male patients and controls (5.2 vs 5.0, p = 0.459). Masculine sex role indices were comparable between female patients and controls as well as between male patients and controls. Of 32 patients 17 were considered to have androgynous sex role, as were 24 of 97 controls (p = 0.004). The exact diagnosis (bladder exstrophy or epispadias) or dissatisfaction with appearance of the genitals had no impact on gender identity or on sex role indices. Male patients had lower gender identity scores compared to controls and female sex role was enhanced among female patients. Androgynous sex role was more common in patients vs controls. Gender dysphoria was not noted in any patient. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The emergence of gender differences in physical aggression in the context of conflict between young peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Dale F; Nash, Alison; Caplan, Marlene; Swartzentruber, Jan; Ishikawa, Fumiko; Vespo, Jo Ellen

    2011-06-01

    It is well known that a gender difference in physical aggression emerges by the preschool years. We tested the hypothesis that the gender difference is partly due to changing tactics in peer interaction. Observations of girls' and boys' social initiatives and reactions to opportunities for conflict were made, using the Peer Interaction Coding System (PICS) in four independent samples of children between 9 and 36 months of age, which were aggregated to form a summary data set (N= 323), divided into two age bands (below or above 24 months of age). Linear mixed-model analyses revealed significant age by gender interactions in the use of bodily force in response to peers' initiatives and in the tendency to use bodily force at later stages of conflicts with peers. The gender difference in use of force was not explained by differences in the use of verbal tactics. These cross-sectional findings suggest that girls are initially more likely than boys to use reactive aggression, but then desist, whereas boys increase their use of force to defend their territory and possessions. The difference between older and younger girls likely reflects girls' abilities to regulate their behaviour in response to social challenges and the fact that girls are explicitly socialized to yield to peers' demands.

  6. Explicit and implicit assessment of gender roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Juan; Quiroga, M Ángeles; Escorial, Sergio; Privado, Jesús

    2014-05-01

    Gender roles have been assessed by explicit measures and, recently, by implicit measures. In the former case, the theoretical assumptions have been questioned by empirical results. To solve this contradiction, we carried out two concatenated studies based on a relatively well-founded theoretical and empirical approach. The first study was designed to obtain a sample of genderized activities of the domestic sphere by means of an explicit assessment. Forty-two raters (22 women and 20 men, balanced on age, sex, and level of education) took part as raters. In the second study, an implicit assessment of gender roles was carried out, focusing on the response time given to the sample activities obtained from the first study. A total of 164 adults (90 women and 74 men, mean age = 43), with experience in living with a partner and balanced on age, sex, and level of education, participated. Taken together, results show that explicit and implicit assessment converge. The current social reality shows that there is still no equity in some gender roles in the domestic sphere. These consistent results show considerable theoretical and empirical robustness, due to the double implicit and explicit assessment.

  7. Equality and gender amongst young Basque people: A crossroads of continuities, conflicts and ruptures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Luz Esteban Galarza

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research we present in this article is to offer a general overview of the situation in the Basque Country concerning gender equality/inequality among young people. This paper is based on qualitative research conducted with young Basque people (15-30 years old. In the first part, a portrait of the young Basque population is presented with regard to formal equality and changes occurring in Spanish and Basque society over the last three decades, as well as a brief review of youth studies focusing on gender analysis. In the second part, the main results of this research are outlined, following three main lines of enquiry in relation to the maintenance or transformation of asymmetrical gender models: continuities, conflicts and ruptures.

  8. Is a Principal Still a Teacher? Us Women Administrators' Accounts of Role Conflict and Role Discontinuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loder, Tondra L.; Spillane, James P.

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined 16 US women school administrators' experiences with role conflict and role discontinuity within their first one to five years of transitioning from teaching to administration. Findings from this theory-building, qualitative study indicate that this transition triggered role conflicts that emerged from the participants'…

  9. Discourses about Gender among Hmong American Policymakers: Conflicting Views about Gender, Culture, and Hmong Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Bic; Leet-Otley, Jill

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we draw on research with Hmong American community members to contribute to a more complex understanding of Hmong culture. Specifically, in a critical discourse analysis of interviews with 3 influential Hmong American politicians, we highlight the divergent perspectives on early marriage, Hmong gender norms, and the struggles of…

  10. Gender Role Orientation and Anxiety Symptoms among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palapattu, Anuradha G.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2006-01-01

    The present study evaluated gender role theory as an explanation for the observed gender differences in anxiety symptoms among adolescents. Specifically, the relation between gender, gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity), self-esteem, and anxiety symptoms was examined in a community sample of 114 African Americans aged 14 to…

  11. Gender Role Orientation and Anxiety Symptoms among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palapattu, Anuradha G.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2006-01-01

    The present study evaluated gender role theory as an explanation for the observed gender differences in anxiety symptoms among adolescents. Specifically, the relation between gender, gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity), self-esteem, and anxiety symptoms was examined in a community sample of 114 African Americans aged 14 to…

  12. Mentoring relationships and the levels of role conflict and role ambiguity experienced by novice nursing faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Jennifer A

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the effect of mentoring on the levels of role conflict and role ambiguity experienced by novice nursing faculty related to their transitions into academe using a descriptive, comparative design. It also measured the relationship between the quality of mentoring experiences of novice nursing faculty and their levels of role conflict and role ambiguity using a correlational design. P. Benner's (1984) novice to expert model was utilized as a framework for successful role transition. J. R. Rizzo, R. J. House, and S. I. Lirtzman's (1970) role conflict and role ambiguity scale was used to measure the levels of role conflict and role ambiguity experienced by novice nursing faculty. Results indicate that participants (n = 224) who were mentored have significantly lower levels of role conflict (M = 3.57) and role ambiguity (M = 3.02) than those who were not mentored (M = 4.62 and M = 3.90, respectively). Also significant, the higher the participants' reported levels of quality of mentoring experiences were, the lower their levels of role conflict and role ambiguity were. The results of this study indicate that mentoring eases the transition of novice nursing faculty from practice into academe by decreasing the degree of role ambiguity and role conflict that they experience.

  13. Interrole Conflict for Dual Career Couples: The Effects of Gender and Parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Carole K.; Gilbert, Lucia A.

    The newly-emerging phenomenon of dual-career marriages was investigated using four major life roles--Professional, Spouse, Parent, and Self as Self-Actualized Person. Six scales were constructed to measure potential conflict in areas represented by specific pairs of these roles (e.g., the area of Professional versus Parent). One major purpose of…

  14. Parents' Gender Ideology and Gendered Behavior as Predictors of Children's Gender-Role Attitudes: A Longitudinal Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Halpern, Hillary; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen

    2016-05-01

    The current study utilized longitudinal, self-report data from a sample of 109 dual-earner, working-class couples and their 6-year-old children living in the northeastern United States. Research questions addressed the roles of parents' gender ideology and gendered behaviors in predicting children's development of gender-role attitudes. It was hypothesized that parents' behavior would be more influential than their ideology in the development of their children's attitudes about gender roles. Parents responded to questionnaires assessing their global beliefs about women's and men's "rightful" roles in society, work preferences for mothers, division of household and childcare tasks, division of paid work hours, and job traditionality. These data were collected at multiple time points across the first year of parenthood, and during a 6-year follow-up. At the final time point, children completed the Sex Roles Learning Inventory (SERLI), an interactive measure that assesses gender-role attitudes. Overall, mothers' and fathers' behaviors were better predictors of children's gender-role attitudes than parents' ideology. In addition, mothers and fathers played unique roles in their sons' and daughters' acquisition of knowledge about gender stereotypes. Findings from the current study fill gaps in the literature on children's gender development in the family context-particularly by examining the understudied role of fathers in children's acquisition of knowledge regarding gender stereotypes and through its longitudinal exploration of the relationship between parents' gender ideologies, parents' gendered behaviors, and children's gender-role attitudes.

  15. The Role of Basic Education in Post-Conflict Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Sultan; Connolly, David; Hardman, Frank; Sundaram, Vanita

    2013-01-01

    The last decade has seen a growing recognition amongst international donors, development agencies, non-government organisations and academics of the vital role education can play in bringing about recovery following violent conflict, natural disaster and other crises. This has led to the development of increasingly targeted and sophisticated…

  16. Psychometric Analysis of Role Conflict and Ambiguity Scales in Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Anwar; Yusoff, Rosman Bin Md.; Khan, Muhammad Muddassar; Yasir, Muhammad; Khan, Faisal

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive Psychometric Analysis of Rizzo et al.'s (1970) Role Conflict & Ambiguity (RCA) scales were performed after its distribution among 600 academic staff working in six universities of Pakistan. The reliability analysis includes calculation of Cronbach Alpha Coefficients and Inter-Items statistics, whereas validity was determined by…

  17. Gender Role Typing and Attachment to Parents and Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Gordon B.; Adams-Curtis, Leah E.

    2000-01-01

    Replicates and extends a study investigating the effects of sex/gender role typing on attachment to parent and peers. Participants were 395 undergraduate freshmen. Finds that androgynous females reported more close childhood friends, gender role typing and closeness to parents were related, and androgynous gender role typing predicted closeness to…

  18. Parental Influence on Children's Socialization to Gender Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Susan D.

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes the impact of parental influence on gender role development and suggests that an androgynous gender role orientation may be more beneficial to children than a strict adherence to traditional gender roles. Families with one or more androgynous parents typically score highest on measures of parental warmth and support. (RJM)

  19. Social Policies and Families in Stress: Gender and Educational Differences in Work-Family Conflict from a European Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notten, Natascha; Grunow, Daniela; Verbakel, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    In modern welfare states, family policies may resolve the tension between employment and care-focused demands. However these policies sometimes have adverse consequences for distinct social groups. This study examined gender and educational differences in working parents' perceived work-family conflict and used a comparative approach to test whether family policies, in particular support for child care and leave from paid work, are capable of reducing work-family conflict as well as the gender and educational gaps in work-family conflict. We use data from the European Social Survey 2010 for 20 countries and 5296 respondents (parents), extended with information on national policies for maternity and parental leave and child care support from the OECD Family Database. Employing multilevel analysis, we find that mothers and the higher educated report most work-family conflict. Policies supporting child care reduce the level of experienced work-family conflict; family leave policy appears to have no alleviating impact on working parents' work-family conflict. Our findings indicate that family policies appear to be unable to reduce the gender gap in conflict perception and even widen the educational gap in work-family conflict.

  20. Gender Differences in Child Aggression: Relations With Gender-Differentiated Parenting and Parents' Gender-Role Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endendijk, Joyce J; Groeneveld, Marleen G; van der Pol, Lotte D; van Berkel, Sheila R; Hallers-Haalboom, Elizabeth T; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Mesman, Judi

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the association between child gender and child aggression via parents' physical control, moderated by parents' gender-role stereotypes in a sample of 299 two-parent families with a 3-year-old child in the Netherlands. Fathers with strong stereotypical gender-role attitudes and mothers were observed to use more physical control strategies with boys than with girls, whereas fathers with strong counterstereotypical attitudes toward gender roles used more physical control with girls than with boys. Moreover, when fathers had strong attitudes toward gender roles (stereotypical or counterstereotypical), their differential treatment of boys and girls completely accounted for the gender differences in children's aggressive behavior a year later. Mothers' gender-differentiated parenting practices were unrelated to gender differences in child aggression. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  1. Role Ambiguity and Role Overload as Important Predictors of Work-Family Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Izzaty Mohamad

    2016-10-01

    the actual survey as the main procedure of collecting data for this study. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the relationship between the work stress and work-family conflict of workers using 97 questionnaires collected from navy in Malaysia. The outcomes of testing hypothesis by using smartPLS path model confirmed two important findings. First, role ambiguity was significantly correlated with work-family conflict. Second, role overload was significantly correlated with work-family conflict. This result confirms that the ability of employees to appropriately manage the ambiguity and overload in performing daily job may reduce reduce work-family conflict in the studied organization.

  2. The Effect of Role Ambiguity and Role Conflict on Performance of Vice Principals: The Mediating Role of Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Kazim

    2013-01-01

    Problem Statement: Role ambiguity and role conflict are considered issues that affect performance and lead to burnout. While numerous studies have analyzed role ambiguity or role conflict in relation to burnout or performance, few studies have studied all of these issues together. Since vice principals are expected to carry out a variety of…

  3. Does child gender moderate the relationship between interparental conflict and child outcomes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baviskar, Siddhartha

    2010-01-01

    sample of children born in September-October 1995. IPC was assessed at age seven using a five-item scale measuring frequency of quarrels between parents on topics common to daily family life. Child outcomes were evaluated at age eleven using three indicators of internalizing (emotional problems, somatic...... and child outcomes. Specifically, gender differences were limited only to conduct problems after controlling for the child’s psycho-social adjustment and health characteristics, mother’s depressive symptoms and disciplinary behaviour and parents’ socio-economic status at age 7. Furthermore, contrary......The hypothesis that child gender moderates the relationship between interparental conflict (IPC), conceptualized as a normative phenomenon, and child outcomes was evaluated using Danish mother data from the Danish Longitudinal Survey of Children (DALSC), which follows a nationally representative...

  4. Does child gender moderate the relationship between interparental conflict and child outcomes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baviskar, Siddhartha

    2010-01-01

    The hypothesis that child gender moderates the relationship between interparental conflict (IPC), conceptualized as a normative phenomenon, and child outcomes was evaluated using Danish mother data from the Danish Longitudinal Survey of Children (DALSC), which follows a nationally representative...... sample of children born in September-October 1995. IPC was assessed at age seven using a five-item scale measuring frequency of quarrels between parents on topics common to daily family life. Child outcomes were evaluated at age eleven using three indicators of internalizing (emotional problems, somatic...... symptoms, psychological symptoms) and two indicators of externalizing symptoms (conduct problems and hyperactivity). OLS regression analyses indicated, overall, that the longitudinal association between IPC and the chosen outcomes was weak and child gender weakly moderated the association between IPC...

  5. Gender Issues--Inclusion Perspectives in Teaching and Learning in Post-Conflict Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahiraj, Iliriana

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the role of women in the development of society generally and in education in particular is a critically important dimension of inclusive thinking. Understanding the challenges confronting women in Kosovo as they strive to be full partners in a post-conflict society which is also an emerging democracy is another substantial dimension…

  6. Gender-role behavior of second-generation Turks: the role of partner choice, gender ideology and societal context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huschek, D.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Liefbroer, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores and compares gender-role behavior of second-generation Turks in six European countries. On the individual level, we study the role of gender ideology and consequences of (transnational) partner choice on four aspects of gender-role behavior; childcare, routine household tasks, fi

  7. Gender-Role Identity, Attitudes toward Marriage, and Gender-Segregated School Backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsurada, Emiko; Sugihara, Yoko

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between Japanese college students' gender role identity and attitudes toward marriage, exploring the effects of gender-segregated school backgrounds on gender role identity and attitudes toward marriage. Women without any coeducational school background had relatively strong masculinity and desired to marry at older…

  8. Reversing Implicit Gender Stereotype Activation as a Function of Exposure to Traditional Gender Roles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lemus, Soledad; Spears, Russell; Bukowski, Marcin; Moya, Miguel; Lupianez, Juan

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of exposure to traditional gender roles on the activation of gender stereotypes in Spanish women. An associative procedure was used to expose participants to stereotypical vs. counterstereotypical gender roles, and a word categorization task with stereotypically feminine

  9. Reversing Implicit Gender Stereotype Activation as a Function of Exposure to Traditional Gender Roles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lemus, Soledad; Spears, Russell; Bukowski, Marcin; Moya, Miguel; Lupianez, Juan

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of exposure to traditional gender roles on the activation of gender stereotypes in Spanish women. An associative procedure was used to expose participants to stereotypical vs. counterstereotypical gender roles, and a word categorization task with stereotypically feminine co

  10. Gender differences in depression across parental roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Kevin; Pace, Garrett T

    2015-04-01

    Prior research has focused on the relationship between parenthood and psychological well-being, with mixed results. Some studies have also addressed potential gender differences in this relationship, again yielding varied findings. One reason may be methodological choices pursued in these studies, including the lack of focus on combined parental roles (for example, biological parent and stepparent). The authors used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 (N = 6,276) and multinomial treatment models to address how combined roles influence depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers. Further, they explored potential gender differences. Their results indicated that having multiple parental roles is negatively associated with psychological well-being for both men and women, whereas childlessness is more negative for women, and specific parental role combinations affect mothers and fathers differently. Within the context of changing family structure in the United States, these results have important implications for social workers and other mental health professionals-particularly with regard to screening for depression among parents, who are less likely to seek mental health counseling than childless adults.

  11. [Gender (role) aspects in doctor-patient communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieverding, M; Kendel, F

    2012-09-01

    Aspects of gender and gender roles are important factors influencing the interactions between physicians and their patients. On the one hand, gender roles have an impact on the behavior of the patients, such as in health care utilization or use of preventive examinations. On the other hand, gender issues influence doctors' actions with respect to communication, diagnosis, and treatment. Here, a gender bias may lead to misdiagnosis and inadequate treatment. In this paper certain pertinent aspects of gender roles in the doctor-patient relationship are discussed and illustrated by empirical findings.

  12. Predicting date rape perceptions: the effects of gender, gender role attitudes, and victim resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Katherine A; McCloskey, Kathy A

    2013-08-01

    The effects of participant gender and victim resistance on date rape perceptions have been inconsistent. Participant gender role attitudes may contribute to these inconsistencies. We found women with traditional gender role attitudes were least likely to agree that the perpetrator was guilty of rape. Participants were less convinced of the perpetrator's guilt when the victim resisted verbally than when she resisted verbally and physically, and participants with traditional gender role attitudes were less convinced of the negative impact on the victim when she resisted verbally than when she resisted verbally and physically. Perhaps previous inconsistencies resulted from varying proportions of men and women with traditional versus liberal gender role attitudes in the samples.

  13. Changing gender roles and attitudes and their implications for well-being around the new millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeting, Helen; Bhaskar, Abita; Benzeval, Michaela; Popham, Frank; Hunt, Kate

    2014-05-01

    Given evidence that gender role attitudes (GRAs) and actual gender roles impact on well-being, we examine associations between GRAs, three roles (marital status, household chore division, couple employment) and psychological distress in working-age men and women. We investigate time-trends reflecting broader social and economic changes, by focusing on three age groups at two dates. We used British Household Panel Survey data from 20- to 64-year-olds in heterosexual couple households in 1991 (N = 5,302) and 2007 (N = 6,621). We examined: levels of traditional GRAs according to gender, age, date, household and employment roles; associations which GRAs and roles had with psychological distress (measured via the GHQ-12); whether psychological distress increased when GRAs conflicted with actual roles; and whether any of these associations differed according to gender, age or date. Gender traditionalism was lower among women, younger people, those participating in 2007 and in 'less traditional' relationships and households. Psychological distress was higher among those with more traditional GRAs and, particularly among men, for those not employed, and there was some evidence of different patterns of association according to age-group. There was limited evidence, among women only, of increased psychological distress when GRAs and actual roles conflicted and/or reductions when GRAs and roles agreed, particularly in respect of household chores and paid employment. Although some aspects of gender roles and attitudes (traditionalism and paid employment) are associated with well-being, others (marital status and household chores), and attitude-role consistency, may have little impact on the well-being of contemporary UK adults.

  14. Gender Track: Research on High School Tracking Systems According to Gender Roles

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    Sociologists of education have used the concept of tracking to analyze educational and occupational differentiation. Previous researches have been gender-biased and overlooked intragender differentiation. This article aims to show : 1) high schools work as an allocation system based on non-meritocratic factors like gender roles ; and 2) each high school can be seen as a "gender track," which allocates students according to gender roles that schools transmit. The author administered a question...

  15. Adolescent Gender-Role Identity and Mental Health: Gender Intensification Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Priess, Heather A.; Lindberg, Sara M.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2009-01-01

    Gender intensification, an increased pressure for adolescents to conform to culturally sanctioned gender roles, has been posited as an explanation for the emergence of the gender difference in depression. This longitudinal study assessed whether individuals became more stereotypical in their gender-role identity across adolescence, and whether such patterns predicted depressive symptoms. Girls reported higher femininity than boys at ages 11, 13, and 15, but girls and boys did not differ in ma...

  16. Gender differences in work stress, related to organizational conflicts and organizational constrains: An empirical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Kaltsidou

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In modern era, stress at workplace is a component of employees' and organizations' daily routine. The current research intends to study the gender differences as far as the ways that stress is witnessed in the workplace is concerned. Participants in this study were 231 Greek adults, employed at various workplaces. During their working hours they were asked to fill in a questionnaire which contained two different measurement scales. The main hypothesis was that men would show interpersonal conflicts at workplace to a larger extent; also that both men and women would not be so different on stress that stems from organizational constraints. The research findings did not confirm all the research hypotheses, because men were found to express their stress at a larger extent through interpersonal conflicts with their colleagues as a result of organizational constraints. The research data on the different stress manifestations at workplace are in accord with the relevant bibliography. Finally, this study contributes to the empirical support of the existence of gender differences in stress manifestations at workplace,even though the questionnaire that was used was no validated in Greece.

  17. The Influence of Peers on Children's Socialization to Gender Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Susan D.

    2000-01-01

    Presents model for major influences on children's gender role socialization: parents, media, school, and peers. Reviews literature on role of peer relationships in development of self concept and perpetuation of gender biases and stereotypes. Concludes that parents should set a positive example of gender fair behavior because children will…

  18. Institutionalized Gender Roles in Women in Love

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娥

    2014-01-01

    In his masterpiece Women in Love, D. H. Lawrence devoted a large amount of space to the depiction of sex, sexuality and male-female relationship, which have always been the concerns of academic circle. Yet, in her study of this novel, the pres-ent author has noticed that the male-female relationships in the novel is largely subject to the institutions and seem doomed to failure. This essay will, with the help of theories of gender criticism, concentrate on the analysis of the institutionalized social and family roles undertaken by the main characters in the novel.

  19. ROLE CONFLICT AND ROLE AMBIGUITY ON LOCAL GOVERNMENT INTERNAL AUDITORS: THE DETERMINANT AND IMPACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agil Novriansa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The bureaucratic reform at the local government level in Indonesia that was instituted in 2012 has turned local government internal auditors into an important part of government governance systems. The role of local government internal auditors has been expanded to include not only the area of audit oversight, but also the areas of anti-corruption-related and consulting activities. These fundamental changes may potentially induce role conflict and role ambiguity among internal auditors. The objective of this study is to examine empirically the determinants and consequences of role conflict and role ambiguity among local government internal auditors. More specifically, this study attempts to examine the extent to which formalization determines role conflict and role ambiguity; it further tests the impact of role conflict and role ambiguity on commitment to independence and job performance. Questionnaires were distributed to 248 local government internal auditors from 12 Regional Inspectorates in the provinces of Yogyakarta, South Sumatra, and East Java. A total of 176 responses were received, and 124 useable responses from the 176 responses were analysed to test the hypotheses. Using Structural Equation Modelling-Partial Least Square the results show that: formalization is negatively related to role conflict and role ambiguity; role ambiguity has a negative impact on commitment to independence; role conflict has a positive impact on job performance; and role ambiguity has a negative impact on job performance. These findings serve as important external validity evidence on the phenomena associated with role conflict and role ambiguity that occur in the public sector, especially among internal auditors at local government institutions.

  20. Assessing the Importance of Gender Roles in Couples' Home ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    based ... impact men and women in this setting, influencing the perceived benefits of ... and policymakers have also supported greater .... 20-24), likely due to sexual relationships between ... specific ways in which gender roles and gender.

  1. Counselling for Gender Sensitivity in Nigeria: Counsellors' Roles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Counselling for Gender Sensitivity in Nigeria: Counsellors' Roles. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... This paper examined the need for Nigerian counsellors to engage in gender sensitive counselling in order to promote ...

  2. Challenging gender roles through STEM education in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenius, Todd J.

    Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics (STEM) education programs are currently being introduced and expanded across "developing" nations. STEM programs often conflict with hegemonic gender norms, for example by targeting girls and women in male dominated societies. However, given the cultural complexity of STEM for girls, implementing educators are rarely asked their point of view on programs from abroad. This study explored the perceptions of educators in Nepal who participated in the Girls Get STEM Skills (GGSS) program, a program funded through the U.S. Department of State for 2015/2016. The 8-month program reached 254 girls across three government schools and included the donation of 30 laptops. In August, 2016, the researcher conducted one-on-one interviews and focus groups with 18 participants at GGSS school sites in Pokhara, Nepal. Qualitative data was gathered on educators' perceptions of teacher roles, Nepal as a developing nation, gender imbalance in STEM, and the GGSS curriculum. The study argues that educators viewed educational topics through the lens of bikas, the Nepali word for development. This suggests that the principal impact of STEM programs--as part of larger development initiatives--may be the creation and reinforcement of new social meanings rather than the tangible impacts of the projects themselves.

  3. Architects: gender-role and hiring decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, A S

    1997-10-01

    To examine architects' judgments of male and female applicants represented by the information in resumés, 204 architects, 156 men and 48 women, licensed in the state of Connecticut participated in a 2(job level) by 2(sex) between-subjects study. Architects were asked how they would rate applicants' potential (including the decision to hire) and gender-role characteristics judged on the basis of one-page resumés. Architects randomly assigned resumés for one of four evaluation conditions (intern or senior architect; male or female), rated the applicant on seven job-related characteristics, e.g., technical skill, potential for advancement, and completed the Bem Sex-role Inventory as they thought items applied to the applicant. Analysis indicated that male architect respondents were more likely to hire male applicants than female applicants as senior architects and that female applicants were judged to be as masculine-typed as were male applicants.

  4. Daughter preference in Japan: A reflection on gender role attitudes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kana Fuse

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Unlike other East Asian nations where preference for sons over daughters still prevails, gender preference for children in Japan has progressively shifted from son preference to a noticeable daughter preference over the past few decades. This emergence of daughter preference is surprising given that gender relations are more traditional in Japan than in other advanced countries. OBJECTIVE I focus on the extent to which individuals' gender preferences are shaped by their gender role attitudes and evaluate whether daughter preference is a reflection of convergence or a persistent divergence in gender roles in Japan. METHODS I use data from the Single Persons subset of the 11th Japanese National Fertility Survey conducted by the National Institute of Population and Social Security Research in 1997. Using multinomial logistic regression, I estimate the relationship between Japanese singles' gender role attitudes and their type of gender preference for children. RESULTS Findings suggest that the effect of gender role attitudes on one's child gender preference differs for men and women. Overall, while daughter preference is associated with nontraditional gender role attitudes for men, daughter preference is associated with traditional attitudes for women. CONCLUSIONS Traditionalism is still driving gender preference, though in a different way for men and women. Emerging daughter preference may not simply be a reflection of improvements in women's status, but in fact it is likely that persistent divergence in gender roles remain in Japan.

  5. Gender and stress : is gender role stress? A reexamination of the relationship between feminine gender role stress and eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, M.H.J.; Boselie, A.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    The present study was, first, aimed at examining the relationship between eating disorders, feminine gender role stress and other types of stress. In addition, we investigated whether eating disordered women compared to non-clinical controls use depressogenic coping more often. We hypothesized that

  6. Gender and stress : is gender role stress? A reexamination of the relationship between feminine gender role stress and eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, M.H.J.; Boselie, A.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    The present study was, first, aimed at examining the relationship between eating disorders, feminine gender role stress and other types of stress. In addition, we investigated whether eating disordered women compared to non-clinical controls use depressogenic coping more often. We hypothesized that

  7. Gender and gender role differences in self- and other-estimates of multiple intelligences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanowicz, Agata; Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    This study examined participant gender and gender role differences in estimates of multiple intelligences for self, partner, and various hypothetical, stereotypical, and counter-stereotypical target persons. A general population sample of 261 British participants completed one of four questionnaires that required them to estimate their own and others' multiple intelligences and personality traits. Males estimated their general IQ slightly, but mathematic IQ significantly higher than females, who rated their social and emotional intelligence higher than males. Masculine individuals awarded themselves somewhat higher verbal and practical IQ scores than did female participants. Both participant gender and gender role differences in IQ estimates were found, with gender effects stronger in cognitive and gender role than in "personal" ability estimates. There was a significant effect of gender role on hypothetical persons' intelligence evaluations, with masculine targets receiving significantly higher intelligence estimates compared to feminine targets. More intelligent hypothetical figures were judged as more masculine and less feminine than less intelligent ones.

  8. Working women's roles in Slovenia: Conflict or enrichment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boštjančič Eva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past, men and women had different experiences in balancing their professional and family lives. This is why they see their roles differently today. Our scope of interest in this article is employed women in Slovenia. Working women's various roles today may lead to conflict or enrichment. This study seeks to determine the connection between their multiple roles, life orientation, and life satisfaction. This study was carried out through Internet questionnaires and it surveyed 1,298 working women. Their average age was 35.6 years. A total of 43% of participants at least had a college degree. The results show that working women are the least satisfied with their leisure time and the most satisfied with their maternal role. Women with higher career satisfaction report about higher life satisfaction. Women with multiple roles are more satisfied with their maternal role but less satisfied with their partners and leisure time. They are also more optimistic.

  9. Gender and Gender Role Differences in Student-Teachers' Commitment to Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Ikupa; Admiraal, Wilfried F.; Berry, Amanda K.

    2016-01-01

    Low commitment to teaching amongst teachers is a problem facing the teaching profession in many countries. Gender might be an important factor in explaining what kinds of prospective teachers are attracted to teaching. This empirical study examined the relationship between student-teachers' gender, gender roles and commitment to teaching within…

  10. Gender and Gender Role Differences in Student-Teachers' Commitment to Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Ikupa; Admiraal, Wilfried F.; Berry, Amanda K.

    2016-01-01

    Low commitment to teaching amongst teachers is a problem facing the teaching profession in many countries. Gender might be an important factor in explaining what kinds of prospective teachers are attracted to teaching. This empirical study examined the relationship between student-teachers' gender, gender roles and commitment to teaching within…

  11. Gender roles and gender stereotypes in teaching literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordić-Petković Vladislava

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gender, identity and sexuality have to be more closely integrated into the broader discussion of literature and language, which can be achieved only through wider application of literary texts in the teaching process. Teaching literature to students of English serves not only the purpose of building an understanding of the human experience, but also tackles the issues of femininity and masculinity and helps sensitize the students to the gender differences and the codes of patriarchal society which result in male dominance. Poems by Emily Dickinson, Sylvia Plath and Anne Sexton have proved as valuable texts in teaching gender, as will be discussed in the paper, which focuses on Plath‘s „Lady Lazarus” and the strategies the educator can select in order to achieve the desired objective.

  12. Why Bolivians are talking about gender roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschen, A

    1998-01-01

    The first hospital to offer no-scalpel vasectomy services in La Paz, Bolivia, introduced its program in 1996. However, over the course of 2 years, only 1 vasectomy was performed. Vasectomy services in La Paz are underutilized due to inadequate counseling, outreach, and use of educational materials. While the national health and population policy mandates the provision of comprehensive reproductive health care for both men and women, Bolivian men rarely seek health care services of any kind because most services are designed mainly for women and children. The only services offered to men are urology related, which focus upon screening for STDs, and workplace-related services, such as for factory workers and miners. Nongovernmental organizations (NGO) are exploring how to increase men's involvement in health care and family planning services. Men need to be made aware of gender issues related to reproductive and sexual health. The Centro de Investigacion Social Tecnologia Apropriada y Capacitacion (CISTAC), a Bolivian NGO which focuses upon research and training in health and social issues, plans to use research, training, and information dissemination to broaden the male role and identity in Bolivia, which will also affect men's access to and receipt of health care services. Toward that end, CISTAC and AVSC co-sponsored a workshop to teach health care program managers about the relationship between gender issues and men's involvement in reproductive health care.

  13. Role conflict, role ambiguity and job satisfaction: Perceptions of the Brazilian controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilu Nuñez Palomino

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT From early times to the present, accounting literature has recorded several situations involving role conflict and ambiguity that cause tension among controllers. The theoretical framework was comprised of the seminal work on Role Theory by Katz and Kahn (1970, and empirical evidence regarding the evolution of the role of controllers in the enterprises. In this study, we used the structural equations technique, which allowed for non-rejection of the two study hypotheses, thus providing evidence that role conflict and ambiguity adversely affect job satisfaction among Brazilian controllers. The sample was comprised of 114 controllers. An electronic questionnaire was used to collect the data, allowing information about the respondents to be captured, along with their perceptions regarding levels of role conflict and ambiguity and job satisfaction. For this, the tools developed by Rizzo, House, and Lirtzman (1970 were used, as well as the Job Satisfaction Index presented by Tarrant and Sabo (2010. The results indicated that Brazilian controllers perceive role conflict and role ambiguity while they perform their duties. Job satisfaction of the controllers isaffected more strongly by role ambiguity than by role conflict. However, despite perceiving these two tensions, executives are moderately satisfied with their current working conditions.

  14. The Gender-Related Role of Teaching Profession in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uygun, Selcuk

    2014-01-01

    Teaching is a professional job that requires expertise. The characteristics of the professionals can affect the quality of the profession. One of these characteristics is gender. In this study, the gender-related role of teaching profession in Turkey is examined. The analysis in a historical perspective of gender distributions of students who have…

  15. The Gender-Related Role of Teaching Profession in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uygun, Selcuk

    2014-01-01

    Teaching is a professional job that requires expertise. The characteristics of the professionals can affect the quality of the profession. One of these characteristics is gender. In this study, the gender-related role of teaching profession in Turkey is examined. The analysis in a historical perspective of gender distributions of students who have…

  16. Investigating the effect of role conflict and role ambiguity on employees' job stress :Articulating the role of work-family conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Soltani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Psychologists and researchers of management sciences are of great interest in subject of stress and the major reason for this is its impact on psychological well-being and organizational consequences. They also recommend that preventing stress called destructive stress results from factors such as role ambiguity, role uncertainty, and organizational policies, and decreases both the individual and organizational performance. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of role conflict and role ambiguity on employees' job stress by explaining the role of work-family conflict. The statistical population of this study is comprised of 530 employees of Iran's central insurance. Using stratified random sampling and Cochran's formula, a sample of 118 employees was selected. We used a researcher-made questionnaire for data gathering. The Cronbach's alpha for this questionnaire was .88 and split-half reliability was .80, which represents for a reliable questionnaire. Furthermore, we used content validity and confirmatory factor analysis to confirm the validity of questionnaire. Data analysis was accomplished by structural equation modeling using the LISREL software v 8.7. Research results indicate that the effect of role ambiguity on work-family conflict is statistically significant (p-value = 62.40. Furthermore, the effect of role ambiguity on job stress was confirmed with significance of 1.83. On the other hand, the effect of role conflict on work-family conflict was not confirmed, because its significance value was negative. However, it was found that the job stress is influenced by role conflict (p-value = 2.35. And finally, the effect of work-family conflict on job stress was confirmed with the number of .93 for its significance value.

  17. Gender Roles and Night-Sky Watching among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, William E.; McGee, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between gender roles and night-sky watching in a sample of college students (N=161). The Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) and the Noctcaelador Inventory (NI) were used to investigate the differences between gender role groups for night-sky watching. The results supported the hypothesis that androgynous…

  18. Gender Roles and Night-Sky Watching among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, William E.; McGee, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between gender roles and night-sky watching in a sample of college students (N=161). The Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) and the Noctcaelador Inventory (NI) were used to investigate the differences between gender role groups for night-sky watching. The results supported the hypothesis that androgynous…

  19. EXAMINING THE EFFECTS OF ROLE CONFLICT AND ROLE AMBIGUITY ON BURNOUT AND JOB SATISFACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EBRU TOLAY SABUNCUOĞLU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of role conflict and role ambiguity on burnout and job satisfaction are examined with a survey whose respondents are 71 research assistants working in the Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences at Dokuz Eylül University. Therefore, a model was developed in order to determine the cause-effect relationships among variables and the path analysis was utilized to test the model. According to the results of this study, it was determined that role conflict and role ambiguity reduce job satisfaction by means of increasing the emotional exhaustion and depersonalization which are burnout dimensions, and thus there is mediating effect of burnout between role conflict-job satisfaction and role ambiguity-job satisfaction.

  20. Daughter preference in Japan: A reflection on gender role attitudes?

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Unlike other East Asian nations where preference for sons over daughters still prevails, gender preference for children in Japan has progressively shifted from son preference to a noticeable daughter preference over the past few decades. This emergence of daughter preference is surprising given that gender relations are more traditional in Japan than in other advanced countries. OBJECTIVE I focus on the extent to which individuals' gender preferences are shaped by their gender role...

  1. Gender role biases on Indian television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, S K

    1989-01-01

    Gender role biases in Indian television have served to reinforce and even enhance the degradation of women in the broader society. A content analysis of 20 news programs, 20 fictionalized serials, and 100 commercials conducted over a 3-week period in 1988 indicated that women are portrayed as victims, caretakers, and sex objects while men are presented as masters, doers, and intellectuals. Of the 400 hours of news programs studied, men newsmakers accounted for 71% of the content while women were featured in only 10% of the segments. Even then, women's portrayal in the news tended to center on their roles as beneficiaries of welfare schemes, victims of accidents, or as the wives of male dignitaries. Fictionalized dramas reinforced the sex role stereotypes of men as decisive, assertive, dominant, and career- oriented, and of women as emotionally dependent, eager to please, sentimental, and primarily concerned with family relationships. Female characters in these series were most often housewives, secretaries, teachers, or nurses. Women were featured more often (56% of content) than men in Indian commercials, yet were shown performing stereotyped female activities such as shopping, preparing meals, and dressing to obtain the sexual approval of men. This sex role stereotyping in the media is seriously impeding the struggles of women in India to achieve economic and political autonomy. To promote more positive role modeling and change women's self-image, Indian television must move immediately to portray women achieving self-realization through their careers and social participation and to depict cooperation between men and women in performing household chores.

  2. Gender-Role Portrayals in Television Advertising Across the Globe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthes, Jörg; Prieler, Michael; Adam, Karoline

    Although there are numerous studies on gender-role portrayals in television advertising, comparative designs are clearly lacking. With content analytical data from a total of 13 Asian, American, and European countries, we study the stereotypical depiction of men and women in television advertisements. Our sample consists of 1755 ads collected in May 2014. Analyzing the gender of the primary character and voiceover, as well as the age, associated product categories, home- or work setting, and the working role of the primary character, we concluded that gender stereotypes in TV advertising can be found around the world. A multilevel model further showed that gender stereotypes were independent of a country's gender indices, including Hofstede's Masculinity Index, GLOBE's Gender Egalitarianism Index, the Gender-related Development Index, the Gender Inequality Index, and the Global Gender Gap Index. These findings suggest that gender stereotyping in television advertising does not depend on the gender equality prevalent in a country. The role of a specific culture in shaping gender stereotypes in television advertising is thus smaller than commonly thought.

  3. Conflicts and Negotiations about framings of gender equality and diversity by political actors within the European public sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    2014-01-01

    that the European Union (EU) approach to gender equality has strengthened the transnational space of mobilization and given actors new possibilities to negotiate about multiple inequalities and direct their claims at different levels. This has at the same time led to a diversification of women’s claims...... and conflicts about the meanings and framings of gender equality and diversity within the EPS. This is illustrated by case studies of the framing of gender equality and ethno-national diversity by political actors in the European Women’s Lobby and the European Parliament. The article proposes...

  4. Primary care mental health workers: role expectations, conflict and ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Peter; Jerrim, Sophie; Gask, Linda

    2004-07-01

    A number of professionals are involved in mental health in primary care. The NHS Plan proposed the introduction of a new professional, the primary care mental health worker (PCMHW), to improve care in this setting. The present study was conducted to examine pilot PCMHW-type roles currently in existence, to explore staff expectations concerning the new PCMHW role and to consider the issues relating to roles in primary care mental health that are raised by this new worker. The study used a case study design, and involved qualitative interviews with 46 managers and clinicians from primary care and specialist mental health services, including pilot PCMHW-type roles. The key findings were as follows: The pilot PCMHW-type roles were almost exclusively related to client work, whereas respondents had far wider role expectations of the new PCMHWs, relating to perceived gaps in current service provision. This highlights the potential for role conflict. Secondly, there was disagreement and ambiguity among some respondents as to the nature of the new PCMHW's role in client work, and its relationship with the work undertaken by other mental health professionals such as counsellors, psychologists and nurses. Given that multiple professionals are involved in mental health care in primary care, issues relating to roles are likely to be crucial in the effective implementation of the new PCMHWs.

  5. Looking through Gendered Lenses: Female Stereotyping in Advertisements and Gender Role Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafky, Sue; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Applies cognitive heuristics theory to the study of gender role stereotyping--75 high schoolers viewed magazine advertisements with stereotypical female images, while 50 others viewed nonstereotypical images; groups then responded to statements about women in a "neutral" photograph. Finds differences in gender role expectations for 6 of…

  6. The Gender Role Perceptions of Male Students at a Prestigious, Single-Gender, Catholic High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Franklin T.; Austin, William P.

    2010-01-01

    This study utilized a data set of categorical responses measuring the gender role views of students (N = 701) from a prestigious, Midwestern, all-male, Catholic high school. Incongruence between student self-perceptions and the realities of gender role miseducation and the embracement of sexist ideology were readily apparent. Findings suggest that…

  7. The Gender Role Perceptions of Male Students at a Prestigious, Single-Gender, Catholic High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Franklin T.; Austin, William P.

    2010-01-01

    This study utilized a data set of categorical responses measuring the gender role views of students (N = 701) from a prestigious, Midwestern, all-male, Catholic high school. Incongruence between student self-perceptions and the realities of gender role miseducation and the embracement of sexist ideology were readily apparent. Findings suggest that…

  8. Learning from Conflicting Texts: The Role of Intertextual Conflict Resolution in Between-Text Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Keiichi

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of intertextual conflict resolution on learning from conflicting texts. In two experiments, participants read sets of two texts under the condition of being encouraged either to resolve a conflict between the texts' arguments (the resolution condition) or to comprehend the arguments (the comprehension…

  9. Women as Mothers and Wives in Paternally Incestuous Families: Coping with Role Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deYoung, Mary

    1994-01-01

    Interviews with 20 women from paternally incestuous families revealed that they felt a moderate degree of conflict between their roles as mother and wife. Strategies for coping with the conflict are categorized (social role redefinition, interpersonal role redefinition, intrapersonal role redefinition, or reactive role behavior) and evaluated in…

  10. Role of Emotional Intelligence in Conflict Management Strategies of Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Başoğul, MD, RN

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: The study determined that nurses' emotional intelligence affects conflict management strategies. To use effective strategies in conflict management, nurses must develop emotional intelligence. Training programs on conflict management and emotional intelligence are needed to improve effective conflict management in healthcare facilities.

  11. Gender Role Violations and the Sexual Double Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaikman, Yuliana; Marks, Michael J; Young, Tara M; Zeiber, Jacqueline A

    2016-12-01

    The sexual double standard (SDS) suggests that women are evaluated negatively and men positively for engaging in similar sexual behaviors. According to social role theory, the SDS exists due to gender role structures. Consequently, perceived violations of women's sexual behavior are associated with the SDS. In addition to gender role violations of sexual behavior, two additional violations of gender roles exist: heterosexual sexual orientation norms and gender role characteristics. The current study aims to investigate whether the SDS persists for sexual orientation-violating and gender role characteristic-violating targets, and to examine which of the three gender role violations influence evaluations of others' sexual behavior. A U.S. sample of 483 participants evaluated target individuals who were either female or male, heterosexual/gay man or lesbian, feminine or masculine, and had 1 or 12 sexual partners. Results indicate that SDS persists for gender role-violating targets but is exhibited differently for targets violating heterosexual sexual orientation norms and gender role characteristics.

  12. Gender-Role Variables and Attitudes toward Homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Bernard E., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Two studies examined the relationships of gender role variables to attitudes toward homosexuality. Results from a literature review and from college student surveys indicated a relationship between gender role beliefs and attitudes toward homosexuality. Findings support the view that heterosexuals' dislike of homosexuals is at least partially…

  13. Investigating the gender differences on bicycle-vehicle conflicts at urban intersections using an ordered logit methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipancic, Joshua; Zangenehpour, Sohail; Miranda-Moreno, Luis; Saunier, Nicolas; Granié, Marie-Axelle

    2016-12-01

    In the literature, a crash-based modeling approach has long been used to evaluate the factors that contribute to cyclist injury risk at intersections. However, this approach has been criticized as crashes are required to occur before contributing factors can be identified and countermeasures can be implemented. Moreover, human factors related to dangerous behaviors are difficult to evaluate using crash-based methods. As an alternative, surrogate safety measures have been developed to address the issue of reliance on crash data. Despite recent developments, few methodologies and little empirical evidence exist on bicycle-vehicle interactions at intersections using video-based data and statistical analyses to identify associated factors. This study investigates bicycle-vehicle conflict severity and evaluates the impact of different factors, including gender, on cyclist risk at urban intersections with cycle tracks. A segmented ordered logit model is used to evaluate post-encroachment time between cyclists and vehicles. Video data was collected at seven intersections in Montreal, Canada. Road user trajectories were automatically extracted, classified, and filtered using a computer vision software to yield 1514 interactions. The discrete choice variable was generated by dividing post-encroachment time into normal interactions, conflicts, and dangerous conflicts. Independent variables reflecting attributes of the cyclist, vehicle, and environment were extracted either automatically or manually. Results indicated that an ordered model is appropriate for analyzing traffic conflicts and identifying key factors. Furthermore, exogenous segmentation was beneficial in comparing different segments of the population within a single model. Male cyclists, with all else being equal, were less likely than female cyclists to be involved in conflicts and dangerous conflicts at the studied intersections. Bicycle and vehicle speed, along with the time of the conflict relative to the red

  14. Gender differences of brain activity in the conflicts based on implicit self-esteem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiko Miyamoto

    Full Text Available There are gender differences in global and domain-specific self-esteem and the incidence of some psychiatric disorders related to self-esteem, suggesting that there are gender differences in the neural basis underlying one's own self-esteem. We investigated gender differences in the brain activity while subjects (14 males and 12 females performed an implicit self-esteem task, using fMRI. While ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC was significantly activated in females, medial and dorsomedial PFC (dmPFC were activated in males in the incongruent condition (self = negative compared with the congruent condition (self = positive. Additionally, scores on the explicit self-esteem test were negatively correlated with vmPFC activity in females and positively correlated with dmPFC activity in males. Furthermore, the functional relationships among the regions found by direct gender comparisons were discussed based on the somatic-marker model. These showed that, compared to males, females more firmly store even the incongruent associations as part of their schematic self-knowledge, and such associations automatically activate the neural networks for emotional response and control, in which vmPFC plays a central role. This may explain female cognitive/behavioral traits; females have more tendency to ruminate more often than males, which sometimes results in a prolonged negative affect.

  15. Organizational role stress among medical school faculty members in Iran: dealing with role conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brommels Mats

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little research has been conducted to investigate role stress experienced by faculty members in medical schools in developing countries. This becomes even more important when the process of reform in medical education has already taken place, such as the case of Iran. The objectives of this study were to investigate and assess the level and source of role-related stress as well as dimensions of conflict among the faculty members of Iranian medical schools. Variables like the length of academic work, academic rank, employment position, and the departments of affiliation were also taken into consideration in order to determine potentially related factors. Methods A survey was conducted at three different ranks of public medical schools. The validated Organizational Role Stress Scale was used to investigate the level of role stress and dimensions of role conflict among medical faculty members. The response rate was 66.5%. Results The findings show that role stress was experienced in high level among almost all faculty members. All three studied medical schools with different ranks are threatened with relatively the same levels of role stress. Specific differences were found among faculty members from different disciplines, and academic ranks. Also having permanent position and the length of services had significant correlation with the level of role stress. The major role- related stress and forms of conflict among faculty members were role overload, role expectation conflict, inter-role distance, resource inadequacy, role stagnation, and role isolation. Conclusion The most role-related stressors and forms of conflict among faculty members include too many tasks and everyday work load; conflicting demands from colleagues and superiors; incompatible demands from their different personal and organizational roles; inadequate resources for appropriate performance; insufficient competency to meet the demands of their role; inadequate

  16. Role Conflict and Ambiguity as Predictors of Job Satisfaction in High School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervoni, Annemarie; DeLucia-Waack, Janice

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between role conflict and role ambiguity, and percentage of time spent on ASCA recommended duties (counseling, coordination, consultation, and large group guidance); and job satisfaction of high school counselors. The Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity Scale and the Job Descriptive Index were…

  17. The role of gender in scholarly authorship

    CERN Document Server

    West, Jevin D; King, Molly M; Correll, Shelley J; Bergstrom, Carl T

    2012-01-01

    Gender disparities appear to be decreasing in academia according to a number of metrics, such as grant funding, hiring, acceptance at scholarly journals, and productivity, and it might be tempting to think that gender inequity will soon be a problem of the past. However, a large-scale analysis based on over eight million papers across the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities re- reveals a number of understated and persistent ways in which gender inequities remain. For instance, even where raw publication counts seem to be equal between genders, close inspection reveals that, in certain fields, men predominate in the prestigious first and last author positions. Moreover, women are significantly underrepresented as authors of single-authored papers. Academics should be aware of the subtle ways that gender disparities can appear in scholarly authorship.

  18. Preventing gender-based violence engendered by conflict: The case of Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blay-Tofey, Morkeh; Lee, Bandy X

    2015-12-01

    Despite a growing awareness of the increased prevalence of intimate partner violence and sexual violence in conflict and post-conflict settings, much less is known about the dynamics, as well as the interventions that would be effective at individual, relational, and structural levels. In addition to the human capital lost by conflict violence, gender-based violence (GBV) poses a grave threat to the post-conflict rehabilitation process. With regard to violence that occurs during and post conflict, research must take into consideration the different types of violence that share similar causes as the larger conflict as well as become widespread as a result of the conflict and use existing frameworks to build future interventions. Researchers are trying to understand the interplay of personal, situational, and socio-cultural factors in conflict settings that combine to cause GBV and lead to guidelines for program planning to address the health and social needs of survivors as well as to prevent further GBV. These actions result from a growing recognition that violence represents a serious public health problem, is an important cause of many physical and psychological illnesses, and can cause social disruptions that impede reconstruction efforts for generations. This review studies the manifestations of GBV during and following the Ivoirian Civil War, juxtaposes them against narratives, as well as lists relevant interventions at the individual, relational, community, and institutional levels. Part of a growing literature that aims to better understand the nature of violence during and after conflict and to plan effective responses to it, this study hopes to suggest solutions for the situation of Côte d'Ivoire and elsewhere.

  19. The development of cognitive gender constancy and sex role preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, D E; Overton, W F

    1978-06-01

    The chief purpose of this study was to examine the development of stable concepts of "boy" and "girl" (gender identity constancy) in kindergartners and first and second graders. Gender constancy was explored in relation to cognitive level (assessed both by grade and conservation measures); whether the concept was applied to the subject himself or to another child; whether the concept was applied to live children or pictorial representations; and sex role preferences (games, television characters, peer preferences). In support of a cognitive-developmental position, gender constancy was found to be related to cognitive level, and most children conformed to a developmental sequence (Guttman scalogram) in which conservation preceded gender constancy. Gender constancy performance was better when the concept was applied to the self versus another child and when applied to pictorial representations versus live forms. Gender constancy was not related to sex role preferences.

  20. Comparison of Masculine and Feminine Gender Roles in Iranian Patients with Gender Identity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Alavi, MD

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Iranian FM‐GID individuals were less feminine than normal men. However, MF‐GID individuals were similar to normal women or more feminine. Cultural considerations remain to be investigated. Alavi K, Eftekhar M and Jalali Nadoushan AH. Comparison of masculine and feminine gender roles in Iranian patients with gender identity disorder. Sex Med 2015;3:261–268.

  1. Forest conflict in Asia and the role of collective action in its management:

    OpenAIRE

    Yasmi, Yurdi; Kelley, Lisa; Enters, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Forest conflict in Asia is on the rise as various stakeholders have different views about and interests in the management of increasingly scarce resources. Unfortunately, in many instances, local communities and indigenous peoples suffer the most when such conflicts play out. The biggest challenge is finding acceptable, fair, and lasting solutions. Focusing on how rights (or a lack thereof) instigate conflict and how collective action plays a role in conflict management, this paper examines e...

  2. THE ROLE OF GENDER EQUALITY IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Khatuna BERISHVILI

    2015-01-01

    To study the problems of gender equality is of great importance for the global business. Gender is a cultural construct, within which our different cultures attach different values, roles and responsibilities to women and men. However, in addition to culture, the gender issues are in close relation with the global business. From this viewpoint, experience of the West is considerable and of great importance. It can be said that the problems of women’s rights and a whole number of barriers, whi...

  3. Team Conflict in ICT-Rich Environments: Roles of Technologies in Conflict Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Ana-Paula

    2008-01-01

    This study looks at how an information and communication technologies (ICT)-rich environment impacts team conflict and conflict management strategies. A case study research method was used. Three teams, part of a graduate class in instructional design, participated in the study. Data were collected through observations of team meetings, interviews…

  4. Understanding women's experience of violence and the political economy of gender in conflict: the case of Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaba, Khuloud; Kapilashrami, Anuj

    2016-05-01

    Political conflicts create significant risks for women, as new forms and pathways of violence emerge, and existing patterns of violence may get amplified and intensified. The systematic use of sexual violence as a tactic of war is well-documented. Emergent narratives from the Middle East also highlight increasing risk and incidence of violence among displaced populations in refugee camps in countries bordering states affected by conflict. However, much less is known about the changing nature of violence and associated risks and lived experiences of women across a continuum of violence faced within the country and across national borders. Discussion on violence against women (VAW) in conflict settings is often stripped of an understanding of the changing political economy of the state and how it structures gender relations, before, during and after a conflict, creating particular risks of violence and shaping women's experiences. Drawing on a review of grey and published literature and authors' experiences, this paper examines this underexplored dimension of VAW in political conflicts, by identifying risk environments and lived realities of violence experienced by women in the Syrian conflict, a context that is itself poorly understood. We argue for multi-level analysis of women's experiences of violence, taking into account the impact of the political economy of the wider region as shaping the lived realities of violence and women's response, as well as their access to resources for resistance and recovery.

  5. Dealing with conflict - The role of the ward sister

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Cremer

    1980-09-01

    Full Text Available In the course of her duties, the ward sister has to contend with many forms of conflict, discord and dissension. These involve conflict of the intrapersonal, interpersonal and intergroup varieties. Conflict is in the main, disruptive and dysfunctional. Skilful management, however, embodying cooperative effort in its reduction can produce constructive and positive results. Conflict management strategies are therefore either restrictive or constructive. Persons in serious conflict suffer varied degrees of personality disequilibrium, which necessitates emotional first aid or crisis intervention. Such primary preventive care is applicable to patients, their relatives, and members of the nursing staff in such need.

  6. Role of Managers in Solving Conflicts in the Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin ŞAHİN YARBAĞ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Conflict means a clash of opinions in the simplest term. It is clear that clash of opinions will be everywhere if human is there and this will cause conflicts. In that case, it is possible and should be expected there will be conflicts in the organizations in which many different people work together, have different cultures and world views, with different education and equipments, different expectations and purposes. Firstly, this study defines conflict and conflict in the organization. It tries to emphasize the importance of the issue of conflict in the organization by focusing on reasons, sources, types and phases of the conflicts. The cause-effect relations are examined and suggestions for both managers and academicians are provided.

  7. Scholarship on gender and sport in Sex Roles and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoppers, A.E.; McDonald, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we critically review how research on girls or women and sport has developed over the last 35 years. We use a post-positivist lens to explore the content of the papers published in Sex Roles in the area of women, gender and sport and examine the shifts in how gender and sport have been

  8. Development and Psychometric Properties Gender Roles Attitude Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyneloglu, Simge; Terzioglu, Fusun

    2011-01-01

    This research was conducted for the purpose of developing a scaling tool to determine university students' attitudes towards gender roles. University students' attitudes should first be determined in order to change this traditional view to gender and to achieve a more egalitarian view. The research sample was comprised of one university's…

  9. Development and Psychometric Properties Gender Roles Attitude Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyneloglu, Simge; Terzioglu, Fusun

    2011-01-01

    This research was conducted for the purpose of developing a scaling tool to determine university students' attitudes towards gender roles. University students' attitudes should first be determined in order to change this traditional view to gender and to achieve a more egalitarian view. The research sample was comprised of one university's…

  10. I Know! It's Backwards Day! Gender Roles and William's Doll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Kleut, Geraldine

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a case study of an exploration of gender roles in a second-grade classroom. The author discusses some of the discursive identities in which she and her students are positioned, and then uses the picture book William's Doll to introduce a discussion of discursive gender identities with her students. She then asks students to…

  11. “Let Us Have a Little Fun”: The Relationship between Gender, Violence and Sexuality in Armed Conflict Situations*

    OpenAIRE

    Zipfel, Gaby

    2013-01-01

    The genealogy of sexual violence in war, inter-war and post-war periods can only be understood through an analysis of the relationship between gender, violence and sexuality. Armed conflicts function as a kind of magnifying glass, making visible definitions of sexual identity constructed through the legitimization of violence. Wartime crimes of sexual violence, viewed until now as limit phenomena characteristic of a state of exception, thus point to regularities whose form and function may va...

  12. Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity of Resident Assistants when Confronted with Alcohol Consumption of Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Mary Beth

    2011-01-01

    Resident assistants serve a vital function within the residence hall; however, the challenges they confront are different from those of other students. For example, resident assistants may deal with over-consumption or illegal consumption of alcohol on campus. Addressing this issue may cause resident assistants to experience role conflict and role…

  13. WHAT CONNECTIONS BETWEEN MARITAL CONFLICT AND PARENTING QUALITY? EVIDENCE FROM PARENT’S GENDER IN SPILLOVER EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Benedetto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The spillover hypothesis posits that negative emotions and behavioral patterns in marital conflicts influence parenting quality and children’s adjustment, through increasing of harsh and incoherent discipline and diminished involvement and affection. Moreover conflicts focused on childrearing issues are particularly distressing for children with often show emotional and behavioral problems. The aim of the study was to explore gender differences in the links between marital conflicts (destructive and constructive tactics, childrearing disagreement and parent-child relationships, in order to verify if there are different pathways for fathers and mothers in spillover effects.   Method. 110 parents (children aged 6-12 years completed the Styles of Conflict Scale (marital conflict style, the Parent Problem Checklist (disagreements about childrearing, the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (parenting practices, and the Parenting Stress Index. Results. The links between conflict tactics and parenting practices change in function of parent’s gender. Mothers refer more frequent childrearing disagreements and increasing in punishment; furthermore - in line with the spillover hypothesis - attack and violence tactics are associated negatively with positive parenting (involvement and warmth. For fathers compromise, avoidance and attack correlate positively with effective parenting (more involvement, affection and consistency disciplinary. Conclusions. A spillover effect, that is, an extension of marital tensions in the relationship with their children with reduced quality of parenting, seems to manifest only for women. These findings, if confirmed by other studies, would be relevant from an clinical point of view to understand how paternal and maternal parenting mediate the effects of the marital disharmony on children’s adjustment.

  14. Role conflict and ambiguity of CEOs in international joint ventures: a transaction cost perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Y; Shenkar, O; Luo, Y; Nyaw, M K

    2001-08-01

    Insights from transaction cost economics were used to study the boundary conditions underlying the role conflict and ambiguity of 265 CEOs in Chinese-based international joint ventures. Role conflict and ambiguity were lower when the contract between parents was more complete. Contract completeness fully mediated the effects of parent objective gap and parent formalization on role ambiguity but only partially so in the case of role conflict. Role conflict was lower when the foreign parent was dominant in the venture but higher when the local parent was dominant. Role conflict and ambiguity were inversely related to cultural distance. Neither construct had a detrimental effect on international joint venture performance. Implications for role theory are discussed.

  15. Role of Gender, Emotional Empathy, Interpersonal Attraction on Moral Judgement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barnabas E Nwankwo

    2013-01-01

      This study investigated the role of emotional empathy, interpersonal attraction and gender on moral judgement among secondaiy school teachers in Ozubulu, in Ekwusigo local government area in Anambra state...

  16. Linguistic Choices and Gender Roles in New Nigerian Literature: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Linguistic Choices and Gender Roles in New Nigerian Literature: An ... This paper is premised on the Systemic Functional approach to text analysis, which ... Specifically, it takes Hasan's (1985) view that without linguistics, the study of ...

  17. Work-Family Conflict,Gender Role,and Job Satisfaction:An Analysis of the Phase III Chinese Women Social Status Survey%工作-家庭冲突、性别角色与工作满意度基于第三期中国妇女社会地位调查的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许琪; 戚晶晶

    2016-01-01

    The negative impact of work‐family conflict on job satisfaction and business management is a much studied subject in the West . However , in China ,academic interest on the subject has not yet gone much beyond the general information on theory and literature , and empirical studies remain rare .This study uses the data from the Phase III Chinese Women Social Status Survey to investigate work‐family conflict and its impact on job satisfaction . Taken into consideration of the patriarchal and patrilineal family structure in China , the analysis pays special attention to the gender difference in the conflict .We find that both work and family constitute the primary sources for work‐family conflicts .It does not matter which of the two causes the conflict , it results in job unsatisfaction .Women are much more affected than men from work and family pressure and subsequently have negative job satisfaction .The finding provides valuable empirical information for theoretical considerations on the subject as well as some practical implications for business management .%本文使用2010年第三期中国妇女社会地位调查数据,研究了工作—家庭冲突对工作满意度的影响及其性别差异,发现来自工作和家庭两方面的角色压力是引发工作—家庭冲突的主要原因,而且无论是因工作影响家庭,还是因为家庭耽误工作,员工都会对工作表达不满。与男性员工相比,工作压力和家庭压力会使女性员工陷入更为严重的工作—家庭冲突,而且女性员工也更可能因为工作影响家庭而降低对工作的满意度。这些发现不仅为工作—家庭冲突及其相关后果的理论研究提供了丰富的经验证据,还为各级管理人员激励员工士气和提高组织绩效提供了很多实践上的启示。

  18. Gender roles for Alice and Bob

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Philip

    2013-04-01

    As the head of a department that is striving to achieve bronze status under the Athena SWAN (Scientific Women's Academic Network) programme, I have become extremely sensitive to gender stereotyping, and I am afraid that the "Alice and Bob" image on the cover of your March issue on quantum frontiers set off some alarm bells.

  19. The role of gender in healthcare communication.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink-Muinen, A. van den

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study has been to obtain more insight into the health condition of fatigued patients, their expectations when visiting the general practitioner (GP), the way they communicate, and possible gender differences. Data consisted of 579 patient questionnaires and 440 video-observations of

  20. The role of women in water management and conflict resolution in Marsabit, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerian, Sarah; Hennink, Monique; Greene, Leslie E; Kiptugen, Daniel; Buri, Jared; Freeman, Matthew C

    2014-12-01

    We employed qualitative methods to explore how conflict over water collection and use impacts women, and the role that women play in water management and conflict resolution in Marsabit, Kenya. Conflicts between domestic and livestock water led to insufficient water for domestic use and intra-household conflict. Women's contributions to water management were valued, especially through informal initiatives, though involvement in statutory water management committees was not culturally appropriate. Promoting culturally appropriate ways to involve women in water management, rather than merely increasing the percentage of women on water committee, may reduce conflicts and increase women's access to domestic water supplies.

  1. Investigation of Starting Romantic Intimacy in Emerging Adulthood in Terms of Self-Esteem, Gender and Gender Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryilmaz, Ali; Atak, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    This study aims, firstly, to examine whether gender plays a decisive role in starting romantic intimacy during the emerging adulthood period; secondly, to compare emerging adults who are assigned different gender roles, in terms of starting romantic intimacy; and thirdly, to analyze the level at which self-esteem and gender roles predict the…

  2. The emergence of gender difference in depressed mood during adolescence: the role of intensified gender socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichstrøm, L

    1999-01-01

    The prevalence of depressive mood was examined in a representative and nationwide sample of approximately 12,000 Norwegian adolescents. From the age of 14, girls scored 0.5 SD above boys in depressed mood, a difference that was stable throughout the adolescent period. At the age of 12, no gender difference was found. The gender difference was due to girls becoming more depressed from 13 to 14 years of age. An extended version of the gender intensification hypothesis (J. P. Hill & M. E. Lynch, 1983) was tested as an explanation for the gender difference in depressed mood. Structural equation modeling and regression analyses showed that the gender difference could be explained, in part, by increased developmental challenges for girls--pubertal development, dissatisfaction with weight and attainment of a mature female body, and increased importance of feminine sex role identification. Depressed mood was not associated with masculinity or school change, as had been predicted.

  3. Effects of Role Conflict on Counselor Trainees' Self-Statements, Anxiety Level, and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Myrna L.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated if and how role conflict affects counselor trainees' self-statements, anxiety level, and performance. Results suggested role conflict may produce few adverse effects on beginning trainees' self-evaluations, affect, or behavior. Trainee performance was inversely related to anxiety level, and anxiety was inversely related to strength of…

  4. The Referee Role and Norms of Equity: A Contribution Toward a Theory of Sibling Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihinger, Marilyn

    1975-01-01

    A theory relates amount of conflict in the sibling relationship to norms of distributive justice, or equity, within the family. The theory is limited to the parental referee role, and the consistency and congruity with which this role is enacted is hypothesized to directly influence the degree of sibling conflict. (Author)

  5. Social role effects on gender stereotyping in Germany and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Social role theory postulates that gender stereotypes are restrained for men and women observed in the same social role. Cultural differences in the valuation of communal attributes might moderate this effect. To examine this possibility, 288 participants (144 German, 144 Japanese) estimated the communal and agentic attributes of an average man or woman described in a male-dominated role, a female-dominated role, or without role information. We hypothesized and found that in Germany and Ja...

  6. “The Role of Innocent Guilt in Conflict Reconciliation”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne-Marie Søndergaard

    2013-01-01

    subject.These thinkers, furthermore, show a connection between guilt and possible victims of wrongdoing, rather than between guilt and personal acts of wrongdoing. Innocent guilt may thus appear in the aftermath of conflicts as an ethical and emotional response to the fact of finding oneself in a post-conflict...

  7. Childhood Abuse and Current Interpersonal Conflict: The Role of Shame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungmeen; Talbot, Nancy L.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether shame-proneness mediates the relationship between women's histories of childhood sexual abuse and their current partner and family conflict and child maltreatment. Previous research has found that women with childhood sexual abuse histories experience heightened shame and interpersonal conflict. However, research…

  8. Intercultural Conflicts: Causes and the Role of Competences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdas Pruskus

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the origins of intercultural conflicts and their causes. It discloses the working mechanism of intercultural conflicts. The author demonstrates that in real life conflicts are caused by the socializing individuals themselves, who are different by their character traits as well as the cultural and intellectual level. Additionally, possibilities of conflict solution are discussed and the conception of competence is presented as explained in works of foreign and Lithuanian authors. The article also reveals the relationship between the constituent elements of the intercultural competence. It shows that proper attention to the acquisition of intercultural competences (linguistic, cultural and communication can be an effective assumption for depreciation of cross-cultural conflicts and thus promote communication and collaboration between the full range of cultures.

  9. Gender Stereotypes and Gender Roles Revealed in the Students Written Work

    OpenAIRE

    Ekşi, Gonca

    2014-01-01

    Masculinity and femininity are two words that entail two opposite images with distinct sets of behaviour and personal attributes. Regardless of how well these definitions fit to each individual man and woman in society, these gender stereotypes are maintained and transmitted within the society throughout years. In return, gender stereotypes and roles affect men and women in society. In this study, 96 English Language Teaching (ELT) junior students are given a questionnaire to get socio-econom...

  10. THE ROLE OF GENDER EQUALITY IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatuna BERISHVILI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To study the problems of gender equality is of great importance for the global business. Gender is a cultural construct, within which our different cultures attach different values, roles and responsibilities to women and men. However, in addition to culture, the gender issues are in close relation with the global business. From this viewpoint, experience of the West is considerable and of great importance. It can be said that the problems of women’s rights and a whole number of barriers, which impede to reach the gender equality have long been a great problem for the leading countries of Europe and America. But one problem remains – the so-called „Glass Ceiling” – the barriers, which impede carrier advance of the female representatives. In the background of such diversity it is interesting to familiarize with the apprehension of gender equality in Georgia.

  11. Gender and (Un)Sustainability—Can Communication Solve a Conflict of Norms?

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Franz-Balsen

    2014-01-01

    In theory, and even more in the practice of sustainability communications, the gender dimension of sustainability has been neglected relative to other fields of the science. The aim of this paper is to show the relevance of gender as an analytical category for research and the importance of gender competence as an indispensable skill for professional sustainability communicators. Understanding how gender norms have contributed to inhibiting sustainable development is key to well-targeted mea...

  12. Comparison of Masculine and Feminine Gender Roles in Iranian Patients with Gender Identity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Kaveh; Eftekhar, Mehrdad; Jalali Nadoushan, Amir Hossein

    2015-12-01

    Gender identity disorders (GID) are heterogeneous disorders that may be influenced by culture and social norms. The aim of this study was to determine masculine and feminine gender roles in a group of Iranian patients with GID and compare these roles with two control groups. Twelve male-to-female (MF) and 27 female-to-male (FM) individuals with GID referred to Tehran Psychiatric Institute in Tehran, I. R. Iran were evaluated by self-report inventories and were compared with two groups of healthy controls (81 men and 89 women). Diagnoses were established based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) criteria. Data analysis was done using analysis of variance and chi-squared test. Masculine and feminine gender roles were assessed by two questionnaires: (i) Gender-Masculine (GM) and Gender-Feminine (GF) scales derived from the Minnesota Multiphasic Inventory-2 (MMPI-2); (ii) Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI). In the scales of masculinity, MF-GID individuals scored as male controls, but lower than female controls. FM-GID individuals scored similar to female controls and higher than male controls. In femininity scales, MF-GID individuals and control women seemed similar, and both scored higher than the other groups. FM-GID persons were considered less feminine than both controls in the GF scale of MMPI-2, but not in the BSRI. In both scales, FM-GID persons had higher scores than control women and MF-GID individuals. Iranian FM-GID individuals were less feminine than normal men. However, MF-GID individuals were similar to normal women or more feminine. Cultural considerations remain to be investigated. Alavi K, Eftekhar M and Jalali Nadoushan AH. Comparison of masculine and feminine gender roles in Iranian patients with gender identity disorder. Sex Med 2015;3:261-268.

  13. Financial Stress, Family Conflict, and Youths' Successful Transition to Adult Roles

    OpenAIRE

    Cobb-Clark, Deborah A.; David C. Ribar

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the effect of mothers’ and youths’ reports of family financial stress and conflict on youths’ transitions into adult roles. We find that mothers’ reports of financial stresses and borrowing constraints are associated with earlier transitions to inactivity and public assistance, while youth reports of financial stresses are associated with earlier nest-leaving. Youths reporting conflict with parents leave school and move out earlier than their peers, while conflict between parents i...

  14. Social role effects on gender stereotyping in Germany and Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinmetz, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411851675; Bosak, J.; Sczesny, S.; Eagly, A. H.

    Social role theory postulates that gender stereotypes are restrained for men and women observed in the same social role. Cultural differences in the valuation of communal attributes might moderate this effect. To examine this possibility, 288 participants (144 German, 144 Japanese) estimated the

  15. Social role effects on gender stereotyping in Germany and Japan.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinmetz, J.; Bosak, J.; Sczesny, S.; Eagly, A. H.

    2014-01-01

    Social role theory postulates that gender stereotypes are restrained for men and women observed in the same social role. Cultural differences in the valuation of communal attributes might moderate this effect. To examine this possibility, 288 participants (144 German, 144 Japanese) estimated the com

  16. Fathers in Turkey: Paternity Characteristics, Gender Role, Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ünüvar, Perihan

    2017-01-01

    Objective of this study is to examine the correlation the quality of paternity, gender roles and communication skills of fathers. The scores in the scale of supporting developmental tasks were used in order to determine the quality of paternity. The other data collection tools were the BEM sex role inventory and the communication skills inventory.…

  17. Androgynous Gender Roles in Later Life: Conceptual Critique and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kathleen; McGee, Jeanne

    Recent theoretical formulations by Gutmann and Sinnott about the nature of men's and women's roles in later life are critiqued on conceptual and empirical grounds. This paper proposes a multidimensional conceptualization of gender role that stresses dynamic linkages between psychological and social psychological levels of analysis. Requisites of a…

  18. Gender-Role Cognition in Three-Year-Old Boys and Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Marion; Peyton, Vicki; Mistry, Rashmita; Hruda, Ludmila; Jacobs, Anne; Caldera, Yvonne; Huston, Aletha; Roy, Carolyn

    2000-01-01

    Investigated preschool children's sex-typical variation in gender labeling, gender role knowledge, and schematicity. Boys were less able to label gender and less knowledgeable about gender roles than girls and knew more about male than female stereotypes. Girls knew more than boys about female roles and as much as boys about male roles. Both…

  19. Relationships among individualism--collectivism, gender, and ingroup/outgroup status, and responses to conflict: a study in China and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Gordon B; Collinsworth, Linda L; Zhao, Peiling; Kohlman, Stephanie; LeClaire, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Responses to conflict were studied in samples of college students from a highly collectivistic society (China, n = 207) and a highly individualistic society (United States n = 209). As predicted, the collectivistic society reported more conflict-reducing behaviors and less verbal or physical aggression. However, the effect of individualism/collectivism was moderated by both the ingroup/outgroup status of the target and gender of the participant. Chinese and US women did not differ on any measure. However, of the four groups, Chinese men reported the most conflict-reducing behaviors and the least physical aggression, whereas US men reported the fewest conflict-reducing behaviors and the greatest physical aggression. As predicted, conflict-reducing behaviors were more common in the ingroup condition and both verbal and physical aggression was more common in the outgroup condition. However, the latter were moderated by gender of the participant. US men reported greater physical aggression than any other group. Neither gender nor society had any effect on the level of indirect aggression. There were no gender or individualism/collectivism effects on indirect aggression. Observed gender effects were attributed to differences in how collectivistic and individualistic societies conceptualize masculinity. The effect sizes associated with the ingroup/outgroup condition were consistently and substantially larger than effect sizes associated with individualism/collectivism or gender.

  20. Role of Emotional Intelligence in Conflict Management Strategies of Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başoğul, Ceyda; Özgür, Gönül

    2016-09-01

    This study analyzes the emotional intelligence levels and conflict management strategies of nurses and the association between them. This cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted with 277 nurses in a stratified random sample from a university hospital in Turkey. The data were collected from nurses who gave their informed consent to participate using a personal information form, the Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory-II and Bar-On's Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-I). Data were assessed by descriptive statistics, t tests, and Pearson correlation analyses, using SPSS software. The levels of the nurses' strategies were as follows: avoiding (M = 2.98), dominating (M = 2.76), and obliging (M = 2.71) were medium; compromising (M = 1.99) and integration (M = 1.96) were low. The levels of the emotional intelligence of nurses (mean = 2.75) were medium on a 5-point scale. Integration (r = .168), obliging (r = .25), dominating (r = .18), and compromising (r = .33), which are conflict management strategies, were positively correlated with scores of emotional intelligence, and avoiding (r = -.25) was negatively correlated with scores of emotional intelligence (p conflict management strategies. To use effective strategies in conflict management, nurses must develop emotional intelligence. Training programs on conflict management and emotional intelligence are needed to improve effective conflict management in healthcare facilities. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Are Universities Role Models for Communities? A Gender Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Cornelia MACARIE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper explores the degree in which universities could/should serve as role models for communities from the perspective of gender integration. Although the theoretical/ moral answer would be affirmative (universities should be in such a position that would allow local communities to regard them as role models of gender integration, the primary empirical analysis leads to another conclusion. A brief theoretical review (that connects gender discrimination, sustainable development, universities and local communities is followed by an empirical analysis that compares the management structures of 12 Romanian Universities of Advanced Research and Education (the best Romanian universities according to a national ranking with those of four local communities where they are located (as geographic proximity would lead to a better diffusion of best practices. Contrary to initial expectations, even in higher education institutions, women are underrepresented both in executive and legislative positions. Since universities are subject to the same major patterns of gender discrimination (such as role theory, glass ceiling and glass elevator as private and public organizations, they lose the moral high ground that theory would suggest. However, medicine and pharmacy universities that can be connected with the traditional roles attributed to women provide better gender integration, but glass escalator phenomena remain present even in these limited fields.

  2. Woman’s Vulnerability in the War and her Role in the Post-Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alonso Andrade Salazar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Addressing violence against women, within the Colombian armed conflict framework and their role in the post-conflict, implies making emphasis on the effects of violence against women, the instrumentalization of their body, the psychological hardship produced by the forced displacement, and their role of social restitution. Women’s role in the post-conflict is unquestionable and necessary in order to make Peace. In this sense, mediation experiences show that when women are part of negotiations, the conciliation processes are more feasible and effective.

  3. A Study of Preferred Conflict-Management Behaviors among Small-School Principals: Effects of Gender and Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestal, Brad; Torres, Mario

    2016-01-01

    It cannot be overstated the broad skill set managers must have to manage conflict in modern organizations (Lang, 2009; Ramani & Zhimin, 2010). Few studies have explored this topic in smaller organizational settings where leaders often assume a greater number of roles and responsibilities. For this reason, this study analyzed preferred conflict…

  4. A Study of Preferred Conflict-Management Behaviors among Small-School Principals: Effects of Gender and Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestal, Brad; Torres, Mario

    2016-01-01

    It cannot be overstated the broad skill set managers must have to manage conflict in modern organizations (Lang, 2009; Ramani & Zhimin, 2010). Few studies have explored this topic in smaller organizational settings where leaders often assume a greater number of roles and responsibilities. For this reason, this study analyzed preferred conflict…

  5. SEXISM AND GENDER ROLE PORTRAYALS IN SPANISH TV COMMERCIALS

    OpenAIRE

    Inés Küster; Joaquín Aldás Manzano; Marcelo Royo; Natalia Vila

    2001-01-01

    This study examines the portrayal of men and women in a sample of Spanish television commercials, attempting to extend past investigations developed in other countries (i.e. USA, United Kingdom and Canada). Traditionally, television commercials have served to reinforce conventional sex role stereotypes. Together with sex role stereotypes, there have been studies of other variables related to the sexist content of commercials. Thus, the present paper focuses on concepts such as gender role, th...

  6. Gender Identity and Gender Role in DSD Patients Raised as Females: A Preliminary Outcome Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Oya; Kutlug, Seyhan; Uysal, Omer; Alikasifoglu, Mujgan; Inceoglu, Derya

    2013-01-01

    Gender identity and gender role are expected to be consistent with gender assignment for optimal DSD management outcome. To our knowledge, our study is the first to attempt evaluation of gender related outcomes in Turkish DSD patients. After receiving institutional ethical board approval and subject (or parent) informed consent, subjects with DSD raised as girls (22 patients 46 XX DSD, 11 patients 46 XY DSD) answered 566 questions of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) questionnaire including 60-item Masculinity-Femininity (MF) subscale which was the focus in this study. Controls (n: 50) were females similar to the probands in age, level of education, relationship status, and having a job or not also answered all questions. The answers were evaluated by a trained psychologist (Derya Inceoglu) on MMPI. For statistical purposes, seven findings were obtained from the data related to the MF subscale from the patients and controls. Of these seven findings (S1-S7), two were associated with masculinity (S3-S4) and another two were associated with femininity (S5-S6). In DSD patients, the percentages of masculinity findings were significantly higher when compared to controls (p gender change to male; only these two patients had the finding stating that sexual impulses could come to existence as actions (S7). In conclusion efforts to identify modifiable factors with negative impact and thus modifying them, and professional guidance may be important in minimizing the encountered gender related problems in DSD patients.

  7. Gender Gaps in College Enrollment: The Role of Gender Sorting across Public High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Dylan; Long, Mark C.

    2013-01-01

    This article uses Florida administrative data to evaluate the role that public high schools play in the growing female advantage in college enrollment. We first show evidence of gender sorting across public high schools that is beyond what one would observe if students were randomly assigned to their schools. Using regression and decomposition…

  8. Gender roles and relationships: Implications for water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, G.

    This study mainstreams gender at household level by showing how the gendered roles and relations between women and men influence access, allocation and use of resources in a rural community, Makhosini, in Swaziland. Implications of the identified gender roles and relationships for water management in Swaziland are highlighted. The working hypotheses of this study are (i) that gender-neutral development initiatives will benefit equally women and men at household level; and (ii) in Swaziland the trend toward irrigated agriculture for food security will have unequal impacts on men and women as access, allocation and use of key resources is highly gendered, privileging men as the value of the resource increases. In this study, a questionnaire was administered to sampled male and female heads of household as well as women under male heads. The heads were asked to indicate the roles they play and key decisions they make in resource use as heads of households. The women under male heads were also asked to indicate their roles and key decision responsibilities. The key resources considered were land and crops produced. Comparative analysis on roles and decisions made as well as access and use of resources and production was done by gender and between the women groups. The results show marked gender differences within households and across resources. Men were overwhelmingly involved in productive roles, giving low priority to reproductive roles. In contrast, priority of women’s roles were reproductive in nature. The key findings are that there were no significant differences in the roles of men and women as heads of households. Women as heads of households assume the same roles as those of men heads suggesting relative gender-neutrality. Also all women played “double-day” roles. However, the data reveals that men dominate decisions on crops to be grown, inputs to be used, disposal of the products and use of income obtained. Only a small percentage of women claimed

  9. Marital conflict and boys' peer relationships: the mediating role of mother-son emotional reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Eric W; MacKinnon-Lewis, Carol; Campbell, Jessica; Frabutt, James M; Lamb, Michael E

    2002-12-01

    This study examined the role of mother-son emotional reciprocity in connections between marital conflict and the quality of boys' peer relationships. Parents from 84 intact families with preadolescent boys reported on the level of conflict in their marital relationship. Observations of mother-son interaction were coded for emotional reciprocity, and assessments of boys' peer relationships were obtained from both teachers and classmates. No direct connection between marital conflict and boys' peer relationships was observed. Rather, marital conflict affected boys' social competence indirectly, through its effect on the emotions expressed between mother and son. The findings support the proposal that emotional processes play an important role in connections between marital conflict and children's peer relationships and suggest that family emotional expressiveness deserves greater attention in both research and intervention.

  10. Jealousy, Gender, Sex Roles, and Dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Margaret E.; And Others

    One hundred adults ages 18 to 42 completed measures of jealousy and dependency in romantic relationships and of sex role traditionalism. Traditionalism and jealousy were correlated, as predicted, but dependency and jealousy were not. For men, but not for women, traditionalism and jealousy were positively correlated. Dependency and traditionalism…

  11. Comparison of Masculine and Feminine Gender Roles in Iranian Patients with Gender Identity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Kaveh; Jalali Nadoushan, Amir Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Gender identity disorders (GID) are heterogeneous disorders that may be influenced by culture and social norms. Aim The aim of this study was to determine masculine and feminine gender roles in a group of Iranian patients with GID and compare these roles with two control groups. Methods Twelve male‐to‐female (MF) and 27 female‐to‐male (FM) individuals with GID referred to Tehran Psychiatric Institute in Tehran, I. R. Iran were evaluated by self‐report inventories and were compared with two groups of healthy controls (81 men and 89 women). Diagnoses were established based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM‐IV) criteria. Data analysis was done using analysis of variance and chi‐squared test. Main Outcome Measures Masculine and feminine gender roles were assessed by two questionnaires: (i) Gender‐Masculine (GM) and Gender‐Feminine (GF) scales derived from the Minnesota Multiphasic Inventory‐2 (MMPI‐2); (ii) Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI). Results In the scales of masculinity, MF‐GID individuals scored as male controls, but lower than female controls. FM‐GID individuals scored similar to female controls and higher than male controls. In femininity scales, MF‐GID individuals and control women seemed similar, and both scored higher than the other groups. FM‐GID persons were considered less feminine than both controls in the GF scale of MMPI‐2, but not in the BSRI. In both scales, FM‐GID persons had higher scores than control women and MF‐GID individuals. Conclusion Iranian FM‐GID individuals were less feminine than normal men. However, MF‐GID individuals were similar to normal women or more feminine. Cultural considerations remain to be investigated. Alavi K, Eftekhar M and Jalali Nadoushan AH. Comparison of masculine and feminine gender roles in Iranian patients with gender identity disorder. Sex Med 2015;3:261–268. PMID:26797060

  12. An evaluation of the role of the mass media in conflict management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An evaluation of the role of the mass media in conflict management: The Niger ... ups and downs to the public within the ambit of social responsibility theory of the ... packaging and presentation to media product consumers without blemish.

  13. Gender Role Beliefs and Parents' Support for Athletic Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Justin E.; Heinze, Kathryn L.; Davis, Matthew M.; Butchart, Amy T.; Singer, Dianne C.; Clark, Sarah J.

    2017-01-01

    Pay-to-play fees in public schools place more support for sport participation in the hands of parents; this may disproportionately affect the ability of girls to garner the benefits of sports. Using an online survey of a national sample of parents (N = 814), we examined the relationship between parents' gender role beliefs, parents' beliefs about…

  14. Effects of Role Models and Gender on Students’ Entrepreneurial Intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karimi, S.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Lans, T.; Chizari, M.; Mulder, M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to, drawing on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), explore the effects of entrepreneurial role models on entrepreneurial intention (EI) and its antecedents and examines the question of whether the effects vary by gender. Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected

  15. Does child gender moderate the relationship between interparental conflict and child outcomes? Findings from the Danish Longitudinal Study of Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Baviskar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that child gender moderates the relationship between interparental conflict (IPC, conceptualized as a normative phenomenon, and child outcomes was evaluated using Danish mother data from the Danish Longitudinal Survey of Children (DALSC, which follows a nationally representative sample of children born in September-October 1995. IPC was assessed at age seven using a five-item scale measuring frequency of quarrels between parents on topics common to daily family life. Child outcomes were evaluated at age eleven using three indicators of internalizing (emotional problems, somatic symptoms, psychological symptoms and two indicators of externalizing symptoms (conduct problems and hyperactivity. OLS regression analyses indicated, overall, that the longitudinal association between IPC and the chosen outcomes was weak and child gender weakly moderated the association between IPC and child outcomes. Specifically, gender differences were limited only to conduct problems after controlling for the child’s psycho-social adjustment and health characteristics, mother’s depressive symptoms and disciplinary behaviour and parents’ socio-economic status at age 7. Furthermore, contrary to expectations derived from the male vulnerability and differential reactivity models, the IPC-conduct problems association was stronger among girls than among boys. In general, IPC predicted a number of outcomes among girls but did not predict any among boys. These findings suggest that it is important in both academic and professional work to consider that the impact of IPC on boys and girls may vary depending on the nature of the conflict and the type of families affected by it. Furthermore, while IPC may not have a direct impact over time, its effects may continue to be felt through other elements of the family system, such as the parent-child relationship.

  16. 'Super Moms' and 'Super Dads': Work-Home Conflicts Affect Both Genders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... THURSDAY, July 27, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Contrary to stereotypes, it's not only women who struggle to balance work and family responsibilities, ... work-family conflicts might not affect men and women in exactly the same way, it is ... at the workplace. According to Shockley's team, only 9 percent of ...

  17. Marital quality and attachment: The mediator role of conflict resolution styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Scheeren

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Certain variables can act as mediators between marital quality, social and emotional aspects of the individuals and their context. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of conflict resolution styles as mediators between attachment styles and marital quality. A total of 214 couples participated in the present study aged between 18 and 75 years, residents in Southern Brazil. Three scales were administered: The Conflict Resolution Style Inventory, Golombok Rust Inventory of Marital State and Adult Attachment Scale. Results indicate that the styles of conflict resolution (positive problem solving, conflict engagement, withdrawal and compliance mediate the relationship between attachment and marital quality. A difference between husbands and wives was observed. These findings suggest the importance of expanding the repertoire of positive strategies of conflict resolution of the couples for the promotion of marital quality.

  18. Objective Work-Nonwork Conflict: From Incompatible Demands to Decreased Work Role Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Sascha; Steinmetz, Holger; Dormann, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Research on work-nonwork conflict (WNC) is based on the assumption that incompatible demands from the work and the nonwork domain hamper role performance. This assumption implies that role demands from both domains interact in predicting role performance, but research has been largely limited to main effects. In this multi-source study, we analyze…

  19. Modeling migration attempts and the role of gender in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litchfield Julie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the 2002 Albanian Living Standards Measurement Survey to model whether an individual has attempted to migrate conditional on having previously considered migrating. The study addresses the methodological concerns that arise from potential selection bias and empirical issues associated with gender differences. We test for the presence of selection bias using a bivariate probit and apply an Oaxaca-style decomposition technique to analyze gender differentials in the conditional probability of attempted migration. We focus on the roles an individual's living standard, geographic location and local labour market conditions exert on the attempt to migrate. Our empirical findings suggest that there are significant differences in both the conditional probability of attempting to migrate and the relative importance of determining factors across gender.

  20. Gender roles and traits in stress and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eMayor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Women have a life-expectancy advantage over men, but a marked disadvantage with regards to morbidity. This is known as the female-male health-survival paradox in disciplines such as medicine, medical sociology and epidemiology. Individual differences in physical and mental health are further notably explained by the degree of stress individuals endure, with women being more affected by stressors than men. Here, we briefly examine the literature on women’s disadvantage in health and stress. Beyond biological considerations, we follow with socio-cognitive explanations of gender differences in health and stress. We show that gender roles and traits (masculinity in particular explain part of the gender differences in stress, notably cognitive appraisal and coping. Stress in turn degrades health. Implications are discussed. In conclusion, traditional socialization is advantageous for men in terms of health.

  1. The role of gender identity in adolescents' antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira Trillo, Vanesa; Mirón Redondo, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of the relevance of the variables sex and gender to explain delinquency is a topic of growing interest in Criminology. This study tests a model of juvenile delinquency that integrates gender identity, the association with deviant peers, and a lack of attachment to conventional contexts. We used a sample of 970 adolescents of both sexes, representative of the urban population, between 12 and 18 years, attending public schools in Galicia (Spain). The results of path analysis confirm that: a) weak attachment to conventional contexts, and belonging to a deviant groups are precedents for deviation of adolescents of both sexes; b) these contexts also contribute to the development of gender identity; and c) gender identity affects the likelihood of deviation: femininity tends to reduce this behavior, and masculinity (in particular, negatively valued masculinity) contributes to increase it. These findings support the adequacy of including gender identity in the explanatory models of delinquency. They also suggest the need to reconsider the role of conventional settings in the socialization of masculinity and, therefore, in the genesis of adolescent delinquency of both sexes.

  2. GENDER IDENTITY AND GENDER ROLE IN DSD PATIENTS RAISED AS FEMALES:A PRELIMINARY OUTCOME STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya eErcan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender identity and gender role are expected to be consistent with gender assignment for optimal DSD management outcome. To our knowledge, our study is the first to attempt evaluation of gender related outcomes in Turkish DSD patients.After receiving institutional ethical board approval and subject (or parent informed consent, subjects with DSD raised as girls (22 patients 46 XX DSD,11 patients 46XY DSD answered 566 questions of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI questionnaire including 60- item Masculinity-Femininity (MF subscale which was the focus in this study. Controls (n:50 were females similar to the probands in age, level of education, relationship status and having a job or not also answered all questions. The answers were evaluated by a trained psychologist(D.I. on MMPI .For statistical purposes, 7 findings were obtained from the data related to the MF subscale from the patients and controls. Of these 7 findings (S1-S7, two were associated with masculinity (S3-S4 and another two were associated with femininity (S5-S6In DSD patients, the percentages of masculinity findings were significantly higher when compared to controls (p< 0.001 and p< 0.001 for S3 and S4 respectively. In controls, the percentages of femininity findings were significantly higher when compared to DSD females (p< 0.001 and p< 0.001 for S5 and S6 respectively.There was no significant difference between 46XX DSD patients and 46XY DSD patients with respect to the percentage of any of the 7 findings. Two patients requested gender change to male;only these two patients had the finding stating that sexual impulses could come to existence as actions(S7.In conclusion efforts to identify modifiable factors with negative impact and thus modifying them, and professional guidance may be important in minimizing the encountered gender related problems in DSD patients

  3. Individual Differences in Gender Role Beliefs Influence Spatial Ability Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Laura J.; Mayer, Richard E.; Bohon, Lisa M.

    2005-01-01

    The gender role hypothesis posits that performance on a cognitive ability test is influenced by whether the test instructions frame the test as measuring a skill that is consistent or inconsistent with the test taker's gender role beliefs. The Bem sex role inventory was used to measure the gender role of female college students, and the group…

  4. Conflicts in Schools, Conflict Management Styles and the Role of the School Leader: A Study of Greek Primary School Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiti, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Conflict may occur in any organization (and hence school) and, for schools, conflict management style is a joint activity and the degree of its effectiveness determines the type of impact of conflict on school performance. This empirical study investigates the potential sources of conflict in Greek primary schools, determine appropriate approaches…

  5. The Effect of Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity on Perceived Levels of Burnout Among Special Education Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Stephen; Iwanicki, Edward F.

    Two components of stress (organizational stress (role conflict and role ambiguity) and perceived teacher burnout) were measured by surveys completed by 443 special education teachers in Connecticut. Data were collected on the Stress Survey for Special Educators, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, and the Role Questionnaire. Multiple regression…

  6. Critical care nurses' perceptions of their roles in family-team conflicts related to treatment plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Marie Patricia; Throndson, Karen; Dyck, Felicia

    2012-03-01

    Conflict over treatment plans is a cause of concern for those working in critical care environments. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe critical care nurses' perceptions of their roles in situations of conflict between family members and health-care providers in intensive care units. Using a qualitative descriptive design, 12 critical care nurses were interviewed individually and 4 experienced critical care nurses participated in focus group interviews. The roles described by the nurses were as follows: providing safe, competent, quality care to patients; building or restoring relationships of trust with families; and supporting other nurses. The nurses highlighted the level of stress when conflict arises, the need to be cautious in providing care and communicating with family members, and the need for support for nurses. More research related to working in situations of conflict is required, as is enhanced education for critical care nurses.

  7. The influence of gender on conflicts of interest in the allocation of limited critical care resources: justice versus care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, D J; Olivarez, M

    1993-03-01

    After noting that the principle of autonomy has been inadequate for the resolution of many of the complex and difficult moral dilemmas involving conflicts of interest in the allocation of limited critical care resources, this paper analyzes the concepts of justice and care as alternative solutions to moral problems and applies them to the issue of repeat organ transplants to a single recipient. These concepts are found to be the basis of the notions of moral reasoning and moral orientation, respectively, which serve in moral development theory as two fundamentally different ways to approach moral problem solving. Following an elaboration of moral reasoning as found in Kohlberg's cognitive moral development theory, the influence of gender on moral reasoning is investigated. The empirical data show that women (mean Defining Issues Test score, 47.18) score significantly higher (P moral reasoning based on the concept of justice for resolving moral dilemmas. Following an elaboration of moral orientation as found in Gilligan's moral theory of the ethics of care, the influence of gender on moral orientation is investigated. The empirical data show that women use the concept of care significantly more often (P moral dilemmas. From these data it is concluded that men are more likely than women to use justice in the resolution of moral dilemmas, such as the conflicts of interest in the allocation of limited critical care resources, but that if women do use, or are required by the social system to use, justice in the resolution of moral dilemmas, they do a better job of it than men.

  8. The roles of the health sector and health workers before, during and after violent conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Caecilie; Barbara, Joanna Santa; Arya, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Starting with a view of war as a significant population health problem, this article explores the roles of health workers in relation to violent conflict. Four different roles are identified, defined by goals and values--military, development, humanitarian and peace. In addition, four dimensions...... of health work are seen as cross-cutting factors influencing health work in violent conflict-- whether the health worker is an insider or outsider to the conflict, whether they are oriented to primary, secondary or tertiary prevention of the mortality and morbidity of war, whether they take an individual...... clinical or a population health approach, and whether they are oriented to policy and whole-sector change or not. This article explores the nature of these roles, the influence of these cross-cutting dimensions, the challenges of each role and finally commonalities and possibilities for cooperation between...

  9. Sexual conflict and the gender load: correlated evolution between population fitness and sexual dimorphism in seed beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnqvist, Göran; Tuda, Midori

    2010-05-07

    Although males and females share much of the same genome, selection is often distinct in the two sexes. Sexually antagonistic loci will in theory cause a gender load in populations, because sex-specific selection on a given trait in one sex will compromise the adaptive evolution of the same trait in the other sex. However, it is currently not clear whether such intralocus sexual conflict (ISC) represents a transient evolutionary state, where conflict is rapidly resolved by the evolution of sexual dimorphism (SD), or whether it is a more chronic impediment to adaptation. All else being equal, ISC should manifest itself as correlated evolution between population fitness and SD in traits expressed in both sexes. However, comparative tests of this prediction are problematic and have been unfeasible. Here, we assess the effects of ISC by comparing fitness and SD across distinct laboratory populations of seed beetles that should be well adapted to a shared environment. We show that SD in juvenile development time, a key life-history trait with a history of sexually antagonistic selection in this model system, is positively related to fitness. This effect is due to a correlated evolution between population fitness and development time that is positive in females but negative in males. Loosening the genetic bind between the sexes has evidently allowed the sexes to approach their distinct adaptive peaks.

  10. The role of academic research and teaching in addressing health in situations of conflict and instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, Lucie

    2014-01-01

    The key roles of academic research and teaching in addressing health in situations of conflict and instability are to better inform and better equip actors with the knowledge and skills to address health problems. The four key contributions of research are: quantifying the health problem, examining the contextual circumstances, investigating the epidemiology of health problems and evaluation of health care and humanitarian interventions. The role of teaching can complement research by distributing its' findings in addition to teaching skill sets to apply this knowledge and conduct further research. Academic research and teaching both play imperative roles in enabling more successful approaches in addressing health in situations of conflict and instability.

  11. Conflict between work and nonwork roles of employees in the mining industry: Prevalence and differences between demographic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsie Steyl

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: International researchers have increasingly recognised the interaction between work and nonwork roles as an interesting and important topic. Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of different work–nonwork conflict subscales and differences between demographic groups in work– nonwork conflict.Motivation for the study: Several studies have shown that demographic groups differ in their experiences of the interaction between work and family life. This may also be true of conflict between work and nonwork roles. The prevalence of work–nonwork conflict and nonwork– work conflict is also very important for organisations that may find the results very valuable for developing organisational and individual interventions and performance management in organisations.Research design, approach and method: The researchers chose a random sample of mining employees (n = 245 from a platinum mine in Rustenburg. The researchers used self-developed items similar to items developed in the Work–nonwork Interference Scale of Koekemoer, Mostert and Rothmann (2010 to measure conflict between work and various nonwork roles. The researchers used descriptive statistics, paired-sample t-tests, multivariate analysis of variance and one-way analysis of variance to analyse the data.Main findings: Work–nonwork conflict was more prevalent than nonwork–work conflict. Work–family conflict was more prevalent than work–domestic conflict and work–religion/ spirituality conflict. The researchers found significant differences for marital status and language groups about work–nonwork conflict. Results showed that participants who spoke African languages experienced higher levels of private–work conflict.Practical/managerial implications: Organisations need to recognise the negative interference or conflict between work and nonwork roles for different demographic groups and address the prevalent work

  12. Therapist’s Gender and Gender Roles: Impact on Attitudes toward Clients in Substance Abuse Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tytti Artkoski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of therapist’s gender and gender roles on attitudes toward clients. Attitudes toward motivational interviewing were also a focus as MI can be hypothesized to be feminine rather than masculine in nature. The subjects ( were Finnish substance abuse therapists. Their attitudes toward clients were measured using a vignette task. Results indicated that female therapists were significantly more positive toward clients than were male therapists. Although females were significantly more feminine than males, they saw themselves as masculine as the males did. The more feminine the therapist was, the more s/he preferred MI. In the future, an examination of this kind should be combined with measurement of treatment processes and outcomes.

  13. Toward a Multidimensional Perspective on Teacher-Coach Role Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, K. Andrew R.; Templin, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Research grounded in role theory and occupational socialization theory point to the potential consequences of occupying the roles of physical education teacher and athletic coach concurrently. Specifically, time constraints and inconsistencies in role requirements, organization, rewards, and modes of accountability in teaching and coaching create…

  14. Gender Norms, Poverty and Armed Conflict in Côte D'Ivoire: Engaging Men in Women's Social and Economic Empowerment Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falb, K. L.; Annan, J.; King, E.; Hopkins, J.; Kpebo, D.; Gupta, J.

    2014-01-01

    Engaging men is a critical component in efforts to reduce intimate partner violence (IPV). Little is known regarding men's perspectives of approaches that challenge inequitable gender norms, particularly in settings impacted by armed conflict. This article describes men's experiences with a women's empowerment program and highlights men's…

  15. Gender Norms, Poverty and Armed Conflict in Côte D'Ivoire: Engaging Men in Women's Social and Economic Empowerment Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falb, K. L.; Annan, J.; King, E.; Hopkins, J.; Kpebo, D.; Gupta, J.

    2014-01-01

    Engaging men is a critical component in efforts to reduce intimate partner violence (IPV). Little is known regarding men's perspectives of approaches that challenge inequitable gender norms, particularly in settings impacted by armed conflict. This article describes men's experiences with a women's empowerment program and highlights men's…

  16. Anxiety in school students: Role of parenting and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhla, Ajay Kumar; Sinha, Prakriti; Sharan, Rajiv; Binay, Yashi; Verma, Vijay; Chaudhury, Suprakash

    2013-07-01

    The prevalence of anxiety is high in school going children; however pattern of parenting and gender of the child are important factors for the development of anxiety. Gender role and parenting patterns are important construct that vary across different sociocultural setting hence are important to be studied in Indian context. In a cross sectional study all students of both sexes studying in class VIII, were assessed using the Spence anxiety scale (children version). The sample consisted of 146 (55% male and 45% female) with a mean age of 12.71 years. A total of 16 (11%) students scored above cutoff for high anxiety, the mean scores across gender shows that female students scored significantly higher in total and all sub types of anxiety. Most of the students perceived their parents 'Democratic' and other two authoritarian and permissive type of parenting were almost equal. There was significantly higher anxiety among the students who perceived their parents as authoritarian. The prevalence of high anxiety was 11% in class VIII students. High anxiety in students was significantly associated with female gender and authoritarian parenting pattern as perceived by the children.

  17. Anxiety in school students: Role of parenting and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar Bakhla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of anxiety is high in school going children; however pattern of parenting and gender of the child are important factors for the development of anxiety. Gender role and parenting patterns are important construct that vary across different sociocultural setting hence are important to be studied in Indian context. Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study all students of both sexes studying in class VIII, were assessed using the Spence anxiety scale (children version. Results: The sample consisted of 146 (55% male and 45% female with a mean age of 12.71 years. A total of 16 (11% students scored above cutoff for high anxiety, the mean scores across gender shows that female students scored significantly higher in total and all sub types of anxiety. Most of the students perceived their parents ′Democratic′ and other two authoritarian and permissive type of parenting were almost equal. There was significantly higher anxiety among the students who perceived their parents as authoritarian. Conclusions: The prevalence of high anxiety was 11% in class VIII students. High anxiety in students was significantly associated with female gender and authoritarian parenting pattern as perceived by the children.

  18. Cross-cultural validity of the masculine and Feminine Gender Role Stress scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Well, S; Kolk, AM; Arrindell, WA

    2005-01-01

    The objective was to examine the usefulness of Dutch versions of the Masculine Gender Role Stress (MGRS; Eisler & Skidmore, 1987) Scale and the Feminine Gender Role Stress (Gillespie & Eisler, 1992) Scale in The Netherlands. Undergraduate students (N = 2,239) completed both gender role stress scales

  19. The Relationship between a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Gender Role Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Jo Ann; Norton, G. Ron; De Luca, Rayleen V.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and gender role attitudes. Female university students rated themselves and their parents on gender role attitudes and history of childhood sexual abuse. Traditional participant gender role attitude and social isolation were associated with reporting being sexually abused as a…

  20. Gender Role and Social Identifications: The Two Major Factors to Shape Turkish Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erden-Imamoglu, Seval

    2013-01-01

    The process of being a woman starts with biological gender but it is shaped by learning the social gender roles. Besides social gender role; age, education, marriage, and motherhood supply social roles and attributions and they have an impact on women identification and their interpersonal relationships. The aim of the study is to investigate…

  1. Testosterone during Pregnancy and Gender Role Behavior of Preschool Children: A Longitudinal, Population Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Melissa; Golombok, Susan; Rust, John; Johnston, Katie J.; Golding, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Related blood levels of testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin in pregnant women to gender role behavior among 342 male and 337 female offspring at 3.5 years. Found that testosterone levels related linearly to girls' gender role behavior. Neither hormone related to boys' gender role behavior. Other factors, including older brothers or…

  2. The Relationship between a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Gender Role Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Jo Ann; Norton, G. Ron; De Luca, Rayleen V.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and gender role attitudes. Female university students rated themselves and their parents on gender role attitudes and history of childhood sexual abuse. Traditional participant gender role attitude and social isolation were associated with reporting being sexually abused as a…

  3. Gender Role and Social Identifications: The Two Major Factors to Shape Turkish Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erden-Imamoglu, Seval

    2013-01-01

    The process of being a woman starts with biological gender but it is shaped by learning the social gender roles. Besides social gender role; age, education, marriage, and motherhood supply social roles and attributions and they have an impact on women identification and their interpersonal relationships. The aim of the study is to investigate…

  4. Cross-cultural validity of the masculine and Feminine Gender Role Stress scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Well, S; Kolk, AM; Arrindell, WA

    The objective was to examine the usefulness of Dutch versions of the Masculine Gender Role Stress (MGRS; Eisler & Skidmore, 1987) Scale and the Feminine Gender Role Stress (Gillespie & Eisler, 1992) Scale in The Netherlands. Undergraduate students (N = 2,239) completed both gender role stress

  5. How Knowledge of Ancient Egyptian Women Can Influence Today's Gender Role: Does History Matter in Gender Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Radwa; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Moftah, Marie Z; Karim, Ahmed A

    2016-01-01

    A gender role is a set of societal norms dictating what types of behaviors are considered desirable or appropriate for a person based on their sex. However, socially constructed gender roles can lead to equal rights between genders but also to severe disadvantages and discrimination with a remarkable variety between different countries. Based on social indicators and gender statistics, "women in the Arab region are on average more disadvantaged economically, politically, and socially than women in other regions." According to Banduras' social learning theory, we argue that profound knowledge of the historical contributions of Ancient Egyptian female pioneers in science, arts, and even in ruling Egypt as Pharaohs can improve today's gender role in Egypt and Middle Eastern countries. Therefore, this article provides an elaborate review of the gender role of women in Ancient Egypt, outlining their prominence, influence, and admiration in ancient societies, and discusses the possible psychological impact of this knowledge on today's gender role. We suggest that future empirical research should investigate how enhancing the knowledge of women from Ancient Egypt can improve today's gender role in Egypt and the Middle East. Bandura's social learning theory is outlined as a possible framework for future research.

  6. How Knowledge of Ancient Egyptian Women Can Influence Today’s Gender Role: Does History Matter in Gender Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Radwa; Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Moftah, Marie Z.; Karim, Ahmed A.

    2017-01-01

    A gender role is a set of societal norms dictating what types of behaviors are considered desirable or appropriate for a person based on their sex. However, socially constructed gender roles can lead to equal rights between genders but also to severe disadvantages and discrimination with a remarkable variety between different countries. Based on social indicators and gender statistics, “women in the Arab region are on average more disadvantaged economically, politically, and socially than women in other regions.” According to Banduras’ social learning theory, we argue that profound knowledge of the historical contributions of Ancient Egyptian female pioneers in science, arts, and even in ruling Egypt as Pharaohs can improve today’s gender role in Egypt and Middle Eastern countries. Therefore, this article provides an elaborate review of the gender role of women in Ancient Egypt, outlining their prominence, influence, and admiration in ancient societies, and discusses the possible psychological impact of this knowledge on today’s gender role. We suggest that future empirical research should investigate how enhancing the knowledge of women from Ancient Egypt can improve today’s gender role in Egypt and the Middle East. Bandura’s social learning theory is outlined as a possible framework for future research. PMID:28105022

  7. Provider biases and choices: the role of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertz, D C

    1993-09-01

    Genetic counseling provides a unique opportunity to test the influence of gender on moral reasoning. The theories of Carol Gilligan on women's "relationship based" framework for ethical decision making were contrasted with Kohlberg's research on men's resolution of conflicts based on abstract, universal principles in an impersonal and fair manner. Discussion also focussed on the theories of sociologists, such as Kanter's that a profession prestige and income as well as the proportion of women in profession determine the approach to ethical problems. This study reports on survey data in 1985 and 1986 collected from medical geneticists in 19 countries that had at least 10 medical geneticists, with at least one available to distribute questionnaires, and the appropriate geographic distribution. The survey did not include genetic counselors and allied professionals. The questionnaire asked for responses to 14 case studies, 4 questions on genetic screening and access to test results, and 12 questions on the goals and conduct of genetic counseling. 62% responded. Sociodemographic data were also collected and analyzed in stepwise logistic regressions. THe results showed that gender was the single most important determinant of ethical decision making and ethical reasoning. There were gender differences in responses to 6 of the 14 cases and, in the US, for a 7th case: sex selection. In the US, women were 4.4 times more likely to counsel indirectly about XYY fetuses and 3.6 more likely to bring up issues like false paternity or genetic carriers in other family members. Patient autonomy was an issued in a case involving a 25-year-old woman who demanded prenatal diagnosis with no genetic or medical indications and another case involving a couple desiring a son after having 4 daughters. Rights based responses were provided by 49% and relationship based responses by 44%. Gilligan's hypothesis was not supported. Similar results were found in a survey of genetic counselors, who

  8. Interpersonal Conflicts and Styles of Managing Conflicts among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conflict, conflict management, student experience, diversity, ethnicity, gender, undergraduate studies, ... it causes disagreements, stress, social chaos, destruction and violence between groups. ... to constructive in the mode of interaction.

  9. Effects of gender, media influences, and traditional gender role orientation on disordered eating and appearance concerns among Latino adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Vera; Corona, Rosalie; Halfond, Raquel

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the main and interaction effects of gender, traditional gender role orientation, and media-influenced sociocultural values and ideals about appearance in a sample of 96 Latino adolescents controlling for age, country of origin, and BMI. Girls and less traditionally oriented youth reported significantly more disordered eating and appearance concerns than did boys and more traditionally oriented youth. Gender moderated the relationship between traditional gender role orientation and disordered eating and appearance concerns. Contrary to our hypothesis, media-influenced sociocultural values and ideals about appearance did not significantly predict disordered eating and appearance concerns. However, the interaction between gender and sociocultural values and ideals about appearance was significant. Our findings highlight the importance of continued research on gender, media, and cultural influences as they relate to disordered eating and appearance concerns among Latino youth.

  10. Gender Difference of Conflict Adaptation in the Multi-source Interference Task%冲突适应的性别差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐丹丹

    2016-01-01

    在认知控制领域中,冲突适应指由冲突所诱发的行为的提升,它反映了人类对冲突所进行的连续调整。为了考察冲突适应的性别差异,本研究记录了56个大学生(男女各半)在完成多源干扰任务时的行为数据。反应时结果显示,女性的整体干扰效应以及在 Flanker 和 Flanker-Simon 条件下的干扰效应都显著小于男性;女性在 Flanker-Simon 条件下的冲突适应明显大于男性。因此,本研究揭示,女性能有效地控制冲突,并更适应高冲突情景。%Sequential multiple sources of interference information can potently conflict with our goal-directed behavior. The present study is designed to investigate the gender difference in conflict adaptation by using the multi-source in-terference task (MSIT). The behavioral data were recorded from 56 Chinese undergraduates (28 females) during performance of the MSIT. The response time (RT) results revealed that females (compared with males) showed sig-nificantly smaller interference effects overall, especially in the Flanker and the Flanker-Simon conditions; Impor-tantly, gender difference in conflict adaptation were marked in the Flanker-Simon condition. In addition, the error rate data did not show any gender difference. Thus, gender difference in conflict adaptation can explain the present results, for example, females can effectively control the behavioral conflict, and adapt to the high-conflict context.

  11. An Analysis of Student Affairs Professionals' Management of Role Conflict and Multiple Roles in Relation to Work/Life Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Nicole Lepone

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this inquiry is to study how student affairs professionals manage role conflict in relation to work/life balance based on the challenging culture of the field. The underlying goals are to identify the barriers or challenges of managing multiple roles as a student affairs administrator and identify strategies to assist employees in…

  12. An Analysis of Student Affairs Professionals' Management of Role Conflict and Multiple Roles in Relation to Work/Life Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Nicole Lepone

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this inquiry is to study how student affairs professionals manage role conflict in relation to work/life balance based on the challenging culture of the field. The underlying goals are to identify the barriers or challenges of managing multiple roles as a student affairs administrator and identify strategies to assist employees in…

  13. Women's Work, Gender Roles, and Intimate Partner Violence in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Anastasia J; Thomas, Nicholas J

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of women's labor force participation to the risk of intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization in the past 12 months, using data for 20,635 currently married women aged 15-49 years from the 2013 nationally representative Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Multilevel logistic regression models of sexual and physical IPV, with interactions between women's work and social norms regarding traditional gender roles, were developed. Approximately 23% of women aged 15-49 years reported IPV victimization in the past 12 months. Results revealed that non-cash work relative to unemployment was positively associated with both forms of IPV victimization, after controlling for other factors. Women's engagement in cash work was positively correlated with sexual IPV. The positive association between cash work and physical IPV victimization was significantly larger for women who resided in localities with greater male approval of wife beating. In localities where husband-dominated decision making was more common, a spousal education gap that favored husbands was more positively associated with sexual IPV. The findings call for integrated IPV prevention and economic empowerment programs that consider gender norms and gender-role beliefs and are adapted to the locality setting, in order to promote social environments in which women can reap the full benefits of their economic empowerment.

  14. All change within the academy: dissonance and role conflict, or the potential for new forms of professionalism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Dillon

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Higher education institutions (HEIs in Britain face ever increasing challenges in the twenty first century as they continue to adapt to public sector management systems originally introduced under the Thatcher government administration, rapid technological advancements, globalisation and policy directives to widen participation. This paper initially foregrounds the changing organisational context of HEIs in Britain by drawing upon relevant literature and case study examples from a post-1992 University. The paper goes on to illustrate some of the micro-consequences of manageralism and marketisation through widening participation and briefly assesses their impact vis-à-vis gender, the pedagogical relationship and workload intensification. The author argues that recent trends and associated organisational changes within HEIs in Britain have led to dissonance and role conflict and the erosion of academic professionalism, but that new forms of professionalism are possible

  15. The relationship between task conflict, task performance and team member satisfaction: the mediating role of relationship conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Task conflict and its potential positive effect on team outcomes has been questioned over the years. The findings have been inconsistent, with different studies indicating that task conflict can be positively related, negatively related or unrelated to measures of team outcomes. This study is a response to the request presented in de Wit, Greer and Jehn s (2012) recent meta-analysis, to further investigate the effect relationship conflict can have on the association between task conflict and...

  16. The Role of Gender in Business Process Management Competence Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbacheva, Elena; Stein, Armin; Schmiedel, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    in technology-related fields; it has been suggested that gender stereotypes are one of the reasons for this underrepresentation. The goal of this research paper is, thus, to better understand the role of gender in the BPM competences supply. In this study 10,405 LinkedIn profiles of BPM professionals were......While Business Process Management (BPM) was originally focused on Information Technology as a key factor driving the efficiency and effectiveness of organizational processes, there is now a growing consensus among practitioners and academics that BPM represents a holistic management approach...... that also takes such factors as corporate governance, human capital, and organizational culture into account. Studies show that the BPM practice faces a shortage of competence supply that stems from a shortage of qualified BPM professionals. At the same time, there is a distinct underrepresentation of women...

  17. Gender Wage Gap Accounting: The Role of Selection Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, Michael; Kim, Seik; Leukhina, Oksana

    2015-10-01

    Mulligan and Rubinstein (2008) (MR) argued that changing selection of working females on unobservable characteristics, from negative in the 1970s to positive in the 1990s, accounted for nearly the entire closing of the gender wage gap. We argue that their female wage equation estimates are inconsistent. Correcting this error substantially weakens the role of the rising selection bias (39 % versus 78 %) and strengthens the contribution of declining discrimination (42 % versus 7 %). Our findings resonate better with related literature. We also explain why our finding of positive selection in the 1970s provides additional support for MR's main hypothesis that an exogenous rise in the market value of unobservable characteristics contributed to the closing of the gender gap.

  18. Harmonization of gender roles as a basis for life quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nešić Ana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Activities that determine the quality of life are related to environmental factors, economic factors, social and personal factors that largely determine the relationships among people and, especially, relations between genders. Particularly important for the quality of life is work, development and work results. Career is now perceived as a development of our own competencies, understanding of the meaning of work through the integration of psychological, sociological, educational, physical and economic factors, which together form the individual's career in life. Women's career developments are often different from men's, due to the phenomenon of the glass ceiling, which represents an invisible barrier to the advancement of women, and which often influences their behaviour. Harmonization of gender roles in business and private life of women is imperative to improve the quality of life all citizens.

  19. Gender hierarchy in the space: the role of gender status in shaping the spatial agency bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnaghi, Andrea; Piccoli, Valentina; Brambilla, Marco; Bianchi, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    According to the Spatial Agency Bias (SAB), more agentic groups (men) are envisioned to the left of less agentic groups (women). This research investigated the role of social status in shaping the spatial representation of gender couples. Participants were presented pairs consisting of one male and one female target who confirmed gender stereotypes. The status of the targets in each pair was systematically varied (high-status vs. low-status job). Participants chose the target order (female/male vs. male/female) they preferred. In line with gender-status expectations (male: high-status, female: low-status), a male in a high-status job led to a spatial arrangement that favored the male/female order, regardless of the status of the female target. The female/male order was favored only when the female had a high-status job and the male a low-status job. No SAB occurred for pairs in which both targets displayed low-status jobs. The implications of status for the SAB are discussed.

  20. The effects of implicit gender role theories on gender system justification: Fixed beliefs strengthen masculinity to preserve the status quo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kray, Laura J; Howland, Laura; Russell, Alexandra G; Jackman, Lauren M

    2017-01-01

    Four studies (n = 1199) tested support for the idea that implicit theories about the fixedness versus malleability of gender roles (entity vs. incremental theories) predict differences in the degree of gender system justification, that is, support for the status quo in relations between women and men in society. Relative to an incremental theory, the holding of an entity theory correlated with more system-justifying attitudes and self-perceptions (Study 1) for men and women alike. We also found that strength of identification with one's gender in-group was a stronger predictor of system justification for men than it was for women, suggesting men's defense of the status quo may be motivated by their membership in a high status group in the social hierarchy. In 3 experiments, we then tested whether exposure to a fixed gender role theory would lead men to identify more with masculine characteristics and their male gender group, thus increasing their defense of the gender system as fair and just. We did not expect a fixed gender role theory to trigger these identity-motivated responses in women. Overall, we found that, by increasing the degree of psychological investment in their masculine identity, adopting a fixed gender role theory increased men's rationalization of the gender status quo compared with when gender roles were perceived to be changeable. This suggests that, when men are motivated to align with their masculine identity, they are more likely to endorse the persistence of gender inequality as a way of affirming their status as "real men." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. A Director's Lot Is Not a Happy One--Using Peer Support To Deal with Role Ambiguity and Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Henry M.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses using peer support to deal with role ambiguity and role conflict for early care and education directors. Examines causes of role conflict development. Suggests developing a support system with other incumbents of boundary jobs that provides for sharing, communicating, listening, letting off steam, and joining together to initiate…

  2. Role conflict and satisfaction in the work-family context: Age differences in the moderating effect of role commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hiu Ching; Jiang, Da; Fung, Helene H

    2015-03-01

    This study examined age differences in the buffering effects of role commitment on the associations between role conflicts and satisfaction from the within-domain and cross-domain perspectives. Eighty-five working mothers participated in the study. Multiple regression analyses revealed that work conflicts were negatively associated with job satisfaction of younger employees but not older employees. Commitment to both work and family buffered against the negative association between family conflicts and family satisfaction for older employees but not younger employees. These findings highlight the importance of role commitment for working mothers across adulthood to cope with the demands in the work-family interface. © 2015 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Development and validation of the work-family-school role conflicts and role-related social support scales among registered nurses with multiple roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lijuan; Song, Rhayun

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop work-family-school role conflicts and role-related social support scales, and to validate the psychometrics of those scales among registered nurses with multiple roles. The concepts, generation of items, and the scale domains of work-family-school role conflicts and role-related social support scales were constructed based on a review of the literature. The validity and reliability of the scales were examined by administering them to 201 registered nurses who were recruited from 8 university hospitals in South Korea. The content validity was examined by nursing experts using a content validity index. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were used to establish the construct validity. The correlation with depression was examined to assess concurrent validity. Finally, internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's alpha coefficients. The work-family-school role conflicts scale comprised ten items with three factors: work-school-to-family conflict (three items), family-school-to-work conflict (three items), and work-family-to-school conflict (four items). The role-related social support scale comprised nine items with three factors: support from family (three items), support from work (three items), and support from school (three items). Cronbach's alphas were 0.83 and 0.76 for the work-family-school role conflicts and role-related social support scales, respectively. Both instruments exhibited acceptable construct and concurrent validity. The validity and reliability of the developed scales indicate their potential usefulness for the assessment of work-family-school role conflict and role-related social support among registered nurses with multiple roles in Korea. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Perceptions of Same-Sex Relationships and Marriage as Gender Role Violations: An Examination of Gendered Expectations (Sexism).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Carol M; Rees, Amy M; Titus, Tana L

    2015-01-01

    The current study sought to add to the literature that has demonstrated a link between sexism and sexual prejudice. The study evaluated whether a community sample with an age range of 19-64 (n = 122), including 32% sexual minority participants, believe that dating, sex, and marriage with same-sex partners are perceived to be gender role violations. Results varied by participant sexual/gender identity (LGBTQ or heterosexual) and political ideology. Liberal LGBTQ persons do not see same-sex relationships as gender role violations; LGBTQ non-liberals and heterosexual liberals rated same-sex relationships as mild violations; and non-liberal heterosexuals perceive same-sex relationships as "moderate" violations. Our results suggest both positive movement in attitudes toward same-sex relationships, including same-sex marriage, and broader recognition that gender identity, gender role expression, and sexual orientation are separate and distinct components of one's overall sexual identity.

  5. Attitudes toward homosexuality among young adults: connections to gender role identity, gender-typed activities, and religiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbaugh, Evan; Lindsey, Eric W

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in attitudes toward homosexuality have been linked to numerous personality and demographic variables. This study investigated the influence that gender role identity, involvement in gender-typed activities, and religiosity plays in this relationship. The sample included 194 undergraduate students from a Northeastern university. Analyses revealed that both males and females who held a more masculine gender role identity and individual commitment to religion scored higher on measures of homophobia and heteronormativity, whereas there was no association between spiritual meaning in life and attitudes toward homosexuality. Among males, but not females, more masculine gender identity and less spiritual meaning in life was associated with greater homophobia. The importance of the findings for research on the origins of attitudes toward individuals with a homosexual orientation are discussed, as well as the potential directions for future research on connections between gender role identity, religious affiliation, and attitudes toward gays and lesbians.

  6. Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Kit

    1996-01-01

    This publication focuses on the theme "Gender." Articles include: (1) "Sex! Violence! Death! Art Education for Boys" (Riita Vira; Finland); (2) "Pedagogy for a Gender Sensitive Art Practice" (Rita Irwin; Canada); (3) "Women's Conscientiousness of Gender in Art and Art Education in Brazil" (Ana Mae Barbosa; Brazil); (4) "Gender Issues in United…

  7. Recalled and current gender role behavior, gender identity and sexual orientation in adults with Disorders/Differences of Sex Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, Nina; Van Kuyk, Maaike; van Kuppenveld, Jet H; Drop, Stenvert L S; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Dessens, Arianne B

    2016-11-01

    The magnitude of sex differences in human brain and behavior and the respective contributions of biology versus socialization remain a topic of ongoing study in science. The preponderance of evidence attests to the notion that sexual differentiation processes are at least partially hormonally mediated, with high levels of prenatal androgens facilitating male-typed and inhibiting female-typed behaviors. In individuals with Disorders/Differences of Sex Development (DSD), hormonal profiles or sensitivities have been altered due to genetic influences, presumably affecting gender(ed) activity interests as well as gender identity development in a minority of the affected population. While continued postnatal androgen exposure in a number of DSD syndromes has been associated with higher rates of gender dysphoria and gender change, the role of a number of mediating and moderating factors, such as initial gender assignment, syndrome severity and clinical management remains largely unclear. Limited investigations of the associations between these identified influences and gendered development outcomes impede optimization of clinical care. Participants with DSD (n=123), recruited in the context of a Dutch multi-center follow-up audit, were divided in subgroups reflecting prenatal androgen exposure, genital appearance at birth and gender of rearing. Recalled childhood play and playmate preferences, gender identity and sexual orientation were measured with questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Data were compared to those of control male (n=46) and female participants (n=79). The findings support that (a) prenatal androgen exposure has large effects on (gendered) activity interests, but to a much lesser extent on sexual orientation and that (b) initial gender of rearing remains a better predictor of gender identity contentedness than prenatal androgen exposure, beyond syndrome severity and medical treatment influences. Nonetheless, 3.3% of individuals with DSD in our

  8. Institutionalization in Taiwan. The role of caregiver gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Hsueh-Fen Sabrina

    2003-10-01

    The role of caregiver gender in the likelihood of institutionalization of Taiwanese older adults was explored in this study. A sample of 78 male and 69 female primary caregivers of elderly patients who had experienced a stroke at least 6 months prior to the study were interviewed. Logistic regression analyses were applied to examine direct and interaction effects of the elderly adult's functioning the caregiver's available resources, the degree of caregiver burden, perceived public opinion toward institutionalization, and precipitating events on the likelihood of institutionalization among Taiwanese male and female caregivers. Women were more likely to institutionalize the older adult for whom they cared. The proposed model correctly predicted the likelihood of institutionalization of an elderly adult based on male versus female caregivers at the 92% level. Perceived public opinion toward institutionalization was the most significant predictor of institutionalization for both genders. Perceived public opinion toward institutionalization has a strong influence on whether or not caregivers institutionalize an elderly relative. This is consistent with Chinese culture in which public opinion has a much stronger effect on individual behavior than in the United States. American concepts of "minding one's own business" do not exist in Taiwan. It is logical that the older adults' level of functioning would predict the likelihood of institutionalization regardless of caregiver gender. In terms of caregiver characteristics, working hours in male caregivers is more predictive, and the quality of the relationship with the older adult was more predictive of institutionalization for female caregivers.

  9. Bullying participant roles and gender as predictors of bystander intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Lyndsay N; Nickerson, Amanda B

    2017-05-01

    Although the importance of peer bystanders in bullying has been recognized, there are few studies that examine the phenomenon in relation to Latané and Darley's (1970) classic Bystander Intervention Model, which states that there are five stages of bystander intervention: (i) notice the event; (ii) interpret the event as an emergency that requires assistance; (iii) accept responsibility for intervening; (iv) know how to intervene or provide help; and (v) implement intervention decisions. This study examined preliminary evidence of reliability and validity of the Bystander Intervention Model in Bullying (Nickerson, Aloe, Livingston, & Feeley, 2014), and the extent to which bullying role behavior (bullying, assisting, victimization, defending, and outsider behavior) and gender predicted each step of the model with a sample of 299 middle school students. Results of a Confirmatory Factor Analysis supported a five-factor structure of the measure corresponding to the steps of the model. There was evidence of convergent validity and Cronbach alpha for each subscale exceeded .75. In addition, students who reported defending their peers were more likely to also engage in all five steps of the bystander intervention model, while victims were more likely to notice events, and outsiders were less likely to intervene. Gender differences and gender interactions were also found. Aggr. Behav. 43:281-290, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Peaceful Economies: Assessing the Role of the Private Sector in Conflict Prevention in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safwan A Khan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan today seems to be embroiled in a number of conflicts that have both domestic as well as international dimensions. Conflicts of course vary, ranging from household disputes to increasing crime resulting from disparities. However, at an aggregated level, conflicts have a societal connotation that reflects deep-rooted divisions within a society. On a macro-level, these conflicts suppress a country’s potential and inhibit future prosperity. Hence, investor confidence has declined in Pakistan as have market opportunities. The poor law and order situation in Karachi over the last few years, for example, has significantly affected the income of daily wage earners, while investors have taken a back seat. Moreover, entrepreneurial activity becomes even more difficult to pursue for those with less capital or access to financing. With the rise in conflicts across the country coupled with a bleak economic situation, communities and businesses have suffered alike. Economic disparities often breed sustained conflicts. In this context, what is needed in Pakistan is an economic environment that engenders strategic peace. The two are complementing factors, and neglecting either can seriously undermine the effectiveness of measures taken for the other. This research study, conducted by Sustainable Development Policy Institute (SDPI in 2013, undertook an analysis of the private sector’s role in achieving sustainable peace in Pakistan. It is important to note that as far as sustainable peace is concerned, the private sector is just one of many actors. In that, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR initiatives by businesses can certainly play an important role. Their main contribution, however, can be to influence public policy in favor of strategic peace across the country. While approaches such as dispute resolution (formal and informal and CSR are important in terms of conflict mitigation, long-term peace is contingent upon a just and equitable system

  11. Analysis of Voltaire's Candide——from the Perspective of Gender Roles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾真真

    2009-01-01

    This essay analyzes the famous French writer's novel Candide from the perspective of gender roles.It introduces some iterary terms related to gender,and explains my understanding of the gender roles some characters have played from the aspects of wars and masculinity, Candide and masculinity,female characters and femininity,and Candide related to feminism.

  12. Gender Inequality and Role-Strained among Male Nursing Students in Selected Nursing Institution, Lagos, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folami, Florence F.

    2017-01-01

    Gender discrimination remains problem in the world as a whole and unfortunately, nursing profession is not immune to this problem. Gender discrimination is rejection or restriction made on the basis of socially constructed gender roles which prevents a person from relishing full human rights. Role strain has been defined as when an individual is…

  13. Leadership and Gender-Role Congruency: A Guide for Wilderness Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmer, Carrie R.

    2001-01-01

    If female outdoor leaders assume a leadership style incongruent to their gender role, they may receive negative evaluations even though situations necessitate such behavior. Male and female outdoor leaders can break down gender-role expectations by identifying their own leadership styles and gender biases, creating awareness in colleagues of…

  14. Gendered experiences of conflict and co-operation in heterosexual relations of Somalis in exile in Gothenburg, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aden, A S; Dahlgren, L; Tarsitani, G

    2004-01-01

    Political upheaval and poverty at home has been forcing many Somalis to immigrate. These immigrants do not only leave their physical house, families, relatives, loved ones, friends, but also familiarities, culture, customs, and often they do end up in no man's land being between their own and new home culture. Available reports suggest that there are about 15,000 Somalis in Sweden and their majority came here from late 1989 to 1996. About one third these immigrants live in and around the city of Gothenburg. This paper explores and describes gendered experiences of conflict and co-operation in heterosexual relations of Somalis in exile in Gothenburg, Sweden. A qualitative sociological in-depth interviews with 6 women and 7 men was performed during May 1999 to January 2000. A follow up focus group interviews with 10 people (2 women and 8 men) was also carried on. The results show that both the Somali culture and Muslim religion do not support the children being taught sex education in schools or the names of the sex organs being pronounced other than to be used as metaphors. The girls, unlike their age group males, experience a very painful and terrifying process during childhood in which their self-esteem is downgraded by means of serious degrading traditional active violence such as female genital mutilation and visible virginity control. The narratives tell stories in which Somali women are degraded and expected to obey in situations characterised by their man's arbitrariness. They are subject to a very extensive form of social control, which is especially pronounced on issues regarding sexuality. Their integrity as women is, consequently set aside. When Somali refugees came to Sweden some of them came to adopt much of the modern lifestyle and cultural norm systems, preferable young people and some of the females. Relating to a new culture with its new expectations on the norm obedience also created changes in self-esteem. Exile situation tends to generate

  15. Counselor Trainees' Self-Statement Responses to Sexually and Physically Abused Clients, and Client Role Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisien, Lynne S.; Long, Bonita C.

    1994-01-01

    Assessed 63 female counselor trainees after viewing videotape of client reporting sexual abuse, physical abuse, or role conflict. Results indicated that trainees who expected to counsel sexually abused client increased their positive self-statements. Applied Schwartz's States-of-Mind model to self-statement ratios, and, according to model,…

  16. Marital Conflict and Growth in Children's Internalizing Symptoms: The Role of Autonomic Nervous System Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Keiley, Margaret; Erath, Stephen; Dyer, W. Justin

    2013-01-01

    We assessed trajectories of children's internalizing symptoms, indexed through anxiety and depression, with a focus on the role of interactions between interparental marital conflict, children's sympathetic nervous system activity indexed by skin conductance level (SCL), and parasympathetic nervous system activity indexed by respiratory sinus…

  17. Building Future Sustainability and Democratic Practices: The Role of Adult Education in Post-Conflict Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaght, Georgia; Kell, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents and analyses a range of literature and policy statements that identifies issues and looks at the role which adult education plays in building communities and peace in post-conflict states. This paper explores and documents these developments in countries in close proximity to Australia which have been viewed by the former…

  18. Marital Conflict and Growth in Children's Internalizing Symptoms: The Role of Autonomic Nervous System Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Keiley, Margaret; Erath, Stephen; Dyer, W. Justin

    2013-01-01

    We assessed trajectories of children's internalizing symptoms, indexed through anxiety and depression, with a focus on the role of interactions between interparental marital conflict, children's sympathetic nervous system activity indexed by skin conductance level (SCL), and parasympathetic nervous system activity indexed by respiratory sinus…

  19. Mental Health Professionals in Children's Advocacy Centers: Is There Role Conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Theodore P.; Fine, Janet E.; Jones, Lisa M.; Walsh, Wendy A.

    2012-01-01

    Two recent chapters in professional books have criticized children's advocacy centers for creating role conflict for mental health professionals because of their work with criminal justice and child protection professionals in children's advocacy centers as part of a coordinated response to child abuse. This article argues that these critiques…

  20. Female Traditional Principals and Co-Principals: Experiences of Role Conflict and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, Ellen Wexler; Kelber, Sheryl Talcott

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a secondary analysis of survey data focusing on role conflict and job satisfaction of 102 female principals. Data were collected from 51 female traditional principals and 51 female co-principals. By examining the traditional and co-principal leadership models as experienced by female principals, this paper addresses the impact…

  1. Coping behaviour of extension agents in role conflict situations: a case study in Xinji county, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, R.Q.

    1998-01-01

    This book is about the coping behaviour of extension agents in role conflict situations in a changing environment in China. The study presents the case of cotton production in Xinji county, China.Chapter 1 gives background information on Chinese agricultural and rural reform since 1978 and its impac

  2. Coping behaviour of extension agents in role conflict situations : a case study in Xinji county, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, R.Q.

    1998-01-01

    This book is about the coping behaviour of extension agents in role conflict situations in a changing environment in China. The study presents the case of cotton production in Xinji county, China.

    Chapter 1 gives background information on Chinese agricultural and rural

  3. Gender inequality vis-à-vis culture and the role of women in socio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender inequality vis-à-vis culture and the role of women in socio-economic ... in most societies and is linked to poverty, violence, the labour market, health, housing, and ... Keywords: culture, women, economic development, gender inequality ...

  4. Re-imagining family and gender roles in Aminatta Forna's Ancestor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Re-imagining family and gender roles in Aminatta Forna's Ancestor Stones. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... This paper examines the interplay between polygyny and gender by exploring the way in which family ...

  5. Now you have my attention: Empathic accuracy pathways in couples and the role of conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sened, Haran; Yovel, Iftah; Bar-Kalifa, Eran; Gadassi, Reuma; Rafaeli, Eshkol

    2017-02-01

    Recent research on empathy finds evidence for 2 different pathways that enable individuals to accurately infer other persons' inner mental states: an automatic, indirect pathway that operates by having a mental state similar to the target's and (correctly) assuming that this state is similar to the target's, and a more controlled direct pathway that involves assessing the target's mental state with no regard for one's own. We present 3 daily diary studies (N = 53, 38 and 80 couples) examining the contribution of these pathways to empathic accuracy in daily assessments of romantic partners' negative moods, and examine the effects of gender and relational conflict on these pathways. Our studies revealed that both pathways consistently contributed to accuracy. Additionally, partners demonstrated greater indirect accuracy on conflict (vs. nonconflict) days, and indirect accuracy was somewhat higher for women than for men on conflict days (with the opposite pattern on nonconflict days). More importantly, we found evidence for a novel third pathway, in which the perception of conflict itself led to (correct) higher estimation of negative affect and thus, to higher accuracy. This pathway figured more consistently for men than for women. In our discussion, we link the pathways obtained in these studies to the extant social neuroscientific literature on empathy systems, arguing that the indirect pathway involves the effects of experience sharing, while the direct and conflict-based pathways involve the mental state attributions (Zaki & Ochsner, 2011). These findings demonstrate the importance of examining various empathic pathways for the understanding of empathic processes. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Smoking Initiation Among Mexican Heritage Youth and the Roles of Family Cohesion and Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, Vandita; Diamond, Pamela M; Spitz, Margaret R; Wilkinson, Anna V

    2015-07-01

    High levels of family conflict increase the risk for early smoking initiation and smoking escalation among adolescents, whereas high levels of warmth and cohesion in the family are protective against smoking initiation. However, little is known about the associations between changes in family function during adolescence on subsequent smoking initiation among Mexican heritage adolescents. In 2005-2006, 1,328 Mexican heritage adolescents aged 11-14 years enrolled in a cohort study to examine nongenetic and genetic factors associated with cigarette experimentation. In 2008-2009, 1,154 participants completed a follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression models were computed to prospectively examine associations between smoking behavior assessed in 2008-2009 and changes in family cohesion and family conflict assessed in both 2005-2006 and 2008-2009, controlling for gender, age, and linguistic acculturation, positive outcome expectations associated with smoking, as well as friends and family smoking behavior. Overall 21% had tried cigarettes by 2008-2009. Consistently low levels of family cohesion (odds ratio [OR] = 3.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38-6.73) and decreases in family cohesion (OR = 2.36; 95% CI, 1.37-4.07), as well as consistently high levels of family conflict (OR = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.08-2.79) and increases in conflict (OR = 1.87; 95% CI, 1.19-2.94) were independent risk factors for smoking initiation among Mexican heritage youth. Our findings suggest that family cohesion protects against adolescent smoking, whereas family conflict increases the risk for smoking. Therefore, intervention programs for adolescents and parents could focus on enhancing family bonding and closeness, which is protective against smoking initiation. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Making gender matter: the role of gender-based expectancies and gender identification on women's and men's math performance in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Kimmo; Lindholm, Torun

    2007-08-01

    It is well established that an emphasis on gender differences may have a negative effect on women's math performance in USA, Germany and the Netherlands. It has further been found that an individual's identification with the stereotyped group may moderate effects of negative stereotypes. The present study investigated how gender-based expectancies affected the math performance of women and men in Sweden, a nation with a smaller gender gap than in other countries, and a strong cultural emphasis on gender equality. Participants, 112 female and 74 male undergraduate math students from Swedish universities, completed a difficult math test in which their gender was either linked to their test performance or not. Men performed better than women when gender was made relevant among participants who did not see their gender as an important aspect of their identity, while participants high in gender identification were unaffected by gender identity relevance. Moreover, the gender relevance manipulation affected men's performance more than women's. The results deviate from findings on US samples, indicating that the role of group identification as a moderator of stereotype-based expectancy effects is complex, and that factors in the cultural context may interact with individual differences in identification to determine the impact of negative stereotypes.

  8. GENDER EQUALITY IN POLITICS IN NEPAL : the Role of Demo Finland to Promote Gender Equality in Nepalese Politics

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The research aims to focus on unequal gender power relation and women’s role in decision-making process in the politics in Nepal. This study also evaluates the role of Demo Finland, a Non-Governmental Organization to politically empower women through its project called Mobilizing Youth for Gender Equality in Politics. The study is based on the qualitative research method. A thematic data analysis is used to analyze the data collected from field. The unstructured interview was conducted w...

  9. Working toward peace in the clinical setting: the role of clinical ethics in conflict resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Robert D

    2002-01-01

    Ethics consultants or committees are often called into situations of conflict. What is their role in conflict resolution? What process should they use? What standards should they apply? The methods of alternative dispute resolution (negotiation, mediation and arbitration) provide a useful model for analysis of procedure, though they may not adequately describe all ethics consultations. Boundaries of acceptable standards may be gleaned from the precepts of medical ethics as well as from statutory and case law. In addition, the believer may obtain guidance from Scripture and prayer.

  10. Interparental Conflict, Parenting, and Childhood Depression in a Diverse Urban Population: The Role of General Cognitive Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Ellen H.; Moreau, Melissa; Cardemil, Esteban V.; Pollastri, Alisha

    2010-01-01

    Research on the mechanisms by which interparental conflict (IPC) affects child depression suggests that both parenting and children's conflict appraisals play important roles, but few studies have explored the role of general cognitive style or included both parenting and cognitions in the same design. Moreover, the effects of IPC on minority…

  11. Realities of Work Life Balance in Nigeria: Perceptions of Role Conflict and Coping Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunde Akanji

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore the perceptions of Work-Life Balance (WLB practices in a developing nation of Nigeria. Evidently, on the threshold of widened globalization propensities, work-life research is beginning to spread outside the western context. Thus, a qualitative approach was employed by conducting 61 in-depth interviews with Nigerian employees (41 women and 20 men working in frontline employments in the banking, telecommunications and insurance sectors about their perceptions of WLB. The findings showed that though conflict situations existed more than work-family enrichment, but under different circumstances due to the long legacy of national challenges facing Nigeria. The apparent role conflicts have generated various coping strategies adapted by participants of study to moderate their perceived work-life conflict and this paper seeks to add to the compendium of WLB discourse on a global scale by examining key barriers detected to hinder its workable practices in Nigeria.

  12. The mediating role of interpersonal conflict at work in the relationship between negative affectivity and biomarkers of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Damiano; Falco, Alessandra; De Carlo, Alessandro; Benevene, Paula; Comar, Manola; Tongiorgi, Enrico; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the association between interpersonal conflict at work (ICW) and serum levels of three possible biomarkers of stress, namely the pro-inflammatory cytokines Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), Interleukin 12 (IL-12), and Interleukin 17 (IL-17). Additionally, this study investigated the role of negative affectivity (NA) in the relationship between ICW and the pro-inflammatory cytokines. Data from 121 employees in an Italian healthcare organization were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results showed that ICW was positively associated with IL-1β, IL-12, and IL-17, after controlling for the effect of gender. Moreover, ICW completely mediated the relationship between NA and the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-12, and IL-17. This mediating effect was significant after controlling for the effect of gender. Overall, this study suggests that work-related stress may be associated with biomarkers of inflammation, and that negative affectivity may influence the stress process affecting the exposure to psychosocial stressors.

  13. Completing the surrogate motherhood process: parental order reporters' attitudes towards surrogacy arrangements, role ambiguity and role conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purewal, Satvinder; Crawshaw, Marilyn; van den Akker, Olga

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the attitudes of parental order reporters (PORs) towards their work with surrogacy arrangements and their experiences of role conflict and role ambiguity. A questionnaire was used to assess PORs' perceptions of their role in parental order [PO] applications, attitudes towards surrogacy arrangements and the legal process and the influence of role ambiguity or conflict. Questionnaires were distributed to all PORs employed by the Children and Family Court Advisory and Support Service in England. Thirty-three PORs participated (response rate 46%) who, on average, had each completed five PO applications (range 1-40). Positive attitudes towards surrogacy and the child's needs for openness about origins were found. Concerns about the inadequacy of preparation and assessment arrangements, overseas arrangements and non-regulation of surrogacy agencies were evident. PORs with high-role ambiguity were more likely to report less positive attitudes towards the emotional consequence of surrogacy on offspring. High scores on role ambiguity and role conflict were reflected in less positive attitudes towards the parties' preparation towards parenthood. These results have implications for training, policy and practice in this area.

  14. Free to Be You and Me: Normal Gender-Role Fluidity--Commentary on Diane Ehrensaft's "Listening and Learning from Gender-Nonconforming Children".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Rona

    2014-01-01

    This paper suggests that gender role fluidity is a normal self state throughout development. It discusses the nonlinear progression of gender role identity that is constantly fluid and reactive to biological, environmental, and psychological changes. Given the normal fluidity of gender role identity, it argues that giving puberty blockers to young children is against the best interests of the child's development.

  15. TECHNOLOGY USAGE AMONG CONSTRUCTION STUDENTS THE MODERATING ROLE OF GENDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ramayah

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use on the extent of personal computer (PC usage among a group of undergraduates at the School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia. It also looks at the moderating role of gender in the above said relationship. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire. A total of 244 students responded to the survey. Results showed that perceived ease of use (β = 0.309, p < 0.01 was positively related to PC usage. A surprising finding of this study was that perceived usefulness was not a significant predictor of PC usage whereas perceived ease of use was. This can be explained in the context of mandated use where the usefulness is no longer an issue and ease of use becomes the primary concern. Gender was not a moderator in the above said relationship but was a significant independent predictor of usage. Males exhibited higher usage of the PC compared to the female students.

  16. Occupational stress in secondary school teachers: examining the role of students’ disruptive behaviour and/or attitud es and the perceived difficulty in conflict management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J. Santiago,

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines not only the role of students‟ disruptive be haviour and/or attitudes but also the difficulties perceived by teachers in managing conflicts as a function of the different sociodemographic and occupational variables (gender, age, professional experience, teaching cycle. The results obtained from a sample consisting in 1386 ESO teachers allow us to conclude that both types of stressors validly discriminate as a function of sociodemographic and occupational variables. Specifically, the stress associated to students‟ disruptive behaviour and to the difficulties faced by teachers in managing conflict has a greater incidence on female teachers, on second cycle teachers and on intermediate stages in the profession. If these findings are corroborated by further research, it would be important to design prevention and/or intervention programmes that are sensitive to these risk factors.

  17. Gender Role, Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation in CAIS ("XY-Women") Compared With Subfertile and Infertile 46,XX Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Franziska; Fliegner, Maike; Krupp, Kerstin; Rall, Katharina; Brucker, Sara; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

    2016-01-01

    The perception of gender development of individuals with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) as unambiguously female has recently been challenged in both qualitative data and case reports of male gender identity. The aim of the mixed-method study presented was to examine the self-perception of CAIS individuals regarding different aspects of gender and to identify commonalities and differences in comparison with subfertile and infertile XX-chromosomal women with diagnoses of Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The study sample comprised 11 participants with CAIS, 49 with MRKHS, and 55 with PCOS. Gender identity was assessed by means of a multidimensional instrument, which showed significant differences between the CAIS group and the XX-chromosomal women. Other-than-female gender roles and neither-female-nor-male sexes/genders were reported only by individuals with CAIS. The percentage with a not exclusively androphile sexual orientation was unexceptionally high in the CAIS group compared to the prevalence in "normative" women and the clinical groups. The findings support the assumption made by Meyer-Bahlburg ( 2010 ) that gender outcome in people with CAIS is more variable than generally stated. Parents and professionals should thus be open to courses of gender development other than typically female in individuals with CAIS.

  18. Gender Differences in Pay Expectations: The Roles of Job Intention and Self-View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Mary; Dubois, Cathy L. Z.; Fox-Cardamone, Lee

    2010-01-01

    Because pay expectations play a role in the persistent gender pay gap, we surveyed 435 undergraduate students to examine the impacts of gender, job intentions, and self-views on the pay expectations of pre-career women and men. Our findings showed a gender gap in which women expected to be paid less than men expected to be paid at the beginning…

  19. Gender, Sex Role, and Career Decision Making of Certified Management Accountants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, David E.

    1985-01-01

    Reports results of investigations into relationships of gender and sex role with career decision making of Certified Management Accountants (CMA). The Bem Sex Role Inventory responses from 87 women CMA's and 87 men CMA's show both gender and sex role to be significantly related to various aspects of career decision making. (Author/SA)

  20. Unwelcoming Classroom Climates: The Role of Gender Microaggressions in CTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Jaime; Struthers, Brice; Yamanaka, Aoi

    2017-01-01

    This chapter reviews the literature, gender and CTE, classroom climate, and faculty-student interactions and presents results of a qualitative study on gender microaggressions in community college CTE classrooms.

  1. Linguistic Choices and Gender Roles in New Nigerian Literature: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    which considers a work of art as a consequence of the social milieu. (Senkoro, 2005). ... notion of gender positioning in Nigerian fiction, or re-assessing same. The paper argues that .... interactions ground the production of gendered language.

  2. Daughter preference in Japan: A reflection of gender role attitudes?

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Unlike other East Asian nations where preference for sons over daughters still prevails, gender preference for children in Japan has progressively shifted from son preference to visible daughter preference over the past few decades. An emergence of daughter preference is also surprising given that gender relations are more traditional in Japan than in other advanced countries. OBJECTIVE I focus on the extent to which individuals’ gender preference s are shaped by their gender rol...

  3. The critical role of conflict resolution in teams: a close look at the links between conflict type, conflict management strategies, and team outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behfar, Kristin J; Peterson, Randall S; Mannix, Elizabeth A; Trochim, William M K

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the linkages between strategies for managing different types of conflict and group performance and satisfaction. Results from a qualitative study of 57 autonomous teams suggest that groups that improve or maintain top performance over time share 3 conflict resolution tendencies: (a) focusing on the content of interpersonal interactions rather than delivery style, (b) explicitly discussing reasons behind any decisions reached in accepting and distributing work assignments, and (c) assigning work to members who have the relevant task expertise rather than assigning by other common means such as volunteering, default, or convenience. The authors' results also suggest that teams that are successful over time are likely to be both proactive in anticipating the need for conflict resolution and pluralistic in developing conflict resolution strategies that apply to all group members. 2008 APA

  4. Sexual Conflict and Gender Gap Effects: Associations between Social Context and Sex on Rated Attractiveness and Economic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouda-Vossos, Amany; Dixson, Barnaby J; Brooks, Robert C

    2016-01-01

    Human mate choice research often concerns sex differences in the importance of traits such as physical attractiveness and social status. A growing number of studies indicate that cues to social context, including other people who appear in stimulus photographs, can alter that individual's attractiveness. Fewer studies, however, consider judgements of traits other than physical attractiveness, such as wealth. Here we manipulate the presence/absence of other people in photographs of target models, and test the effects on judgments of both attractiveness and earnings (a proxy for status). Participants (N = 2044) rated either male or female models for either physical attractiveness or social/economic status when presented alone, with same sex others or with opposite sex others. We collectively refer to this manipulation as 'social context'. Male and female models received similar responses for physical attractiveness, but social context affected ratings of status differently for women and men. Males presented alongside other men received the highest status ratings while females presented alone were given the highest status ratings. Further, the status of females presented alongside a male was constrained by the rated status of that male. Our results suggests that high status may not directly lead to high attractiveness in men, but that status is more readily attributed to men than to women. This divide in status between the sexes is very clear when men and women are presented together, possibly reflecting one underlying mechanism of the modern day gender gap and sexist attitudes to women's economic participation. This adds complexity to our understanding of the relationship between attractiveness, status, and sex in the light of parental investment theory, sexual conflict and economic theory.

  5. Coping behaviour of extension agents in role conflict situations: a case study in Xinji county, China

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, R.Q.

    1998-01-01

    This book is about the coping behaviour of extension agents in role conflict situations in a changing environment in China. The study presents the case of cotton production in Xinji county, China.Chapter 1 gives background information on Chinese agricultural and rural reform since 1978 and its impact for extension system and extension agents. Before the rural reform, Chinese agriculture was collectively managed. The extension system dealt with collective groups of farmers and was used as a po...

  6. Predictor Role of Profession in Explaining Personal Value Priorities and Conflicts between Construction Stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Panahi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationship between “profession” and personal values to explain the potential conflicts between various groups of construction stakeholders. In this study, personal values of three professional groups of project consultants including architects, engineers, and quantity surveyors were assessed through questionnaire survey in the Malaysian construction industry. Using comparative analysis, the personal value priorities and conflicts between these professional groups of stakeholders were identified. The research findings indicated dissimilar patterns of personal values which explain potential conflicts between the stakeholders with different professions in the Malaysian construction industry. Therefore, this research confirmed the predictor role of “profession” variable in explaining personal values although this relationship was an ambiguous issue in the extant literature. This research, through identifying the value priorities of different groups of construction stakeholders, provides better understanding of their different needs, expectations, and preferences which would help project managers to have better perception of the potential conflicts between these groups of construction stakeholders.

  7. The role of gender and friends' gender on peer socialization of adolescent drinking: a prospective multilevel social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Arielle R; Steinley, Douglas; Slutske, Wendy S

    2014-09-01

    Although socializing effects of friends' drinking on adolescent drinking behavior have been firmly established in previous literature, study results on the importance of gender, as well as the specific role that gender may play in peer socialization, are very mixed. Given the increasing importance of gender in friendships (particularly opposite-sex friendships) during adolescence, it is necessary to better understand the nuanced roles that gender can play in peer socialization effects on alcohol use. In addition, previous studies focusing on the interplay between individual gender and friends' gender have been largely dyadic; less is known about potential gendered effects of broader social networks. The current study sought to further investigate potential effects of gender on friends' influence on adolescent drinking behavior with particular emphasis on the number of same-sex and opposite-sex friends within one's friendship network, as well as closeness to these friends. Using Waves I and II of the saturated sample of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), adolescent friendship networks were used to calculate the mean drinking behaviors of adolescent friends. Multi-level models estimated the effects of individual drinking behaviors, friend drinking behaviors, and school-level drinking behaviors on adolescent drinking 1 year later, as well as moderating effects of gender composition of friendship groups and male and female friend closeness on the relationship between friends' drinking behaviors and adolescent drinking behavior. Results documented that gender composition of friendship groups did not influence the effect of friends' drinking on individual drinking 1 year later. However, closeness to friends did influence this relationship. As closeness to male friends decreased, the influence of their drinking behavior increased, for both boys and girls. A similar effect was found for female friends, but only for boys. Female friend

  8. Marital Conflict and Adolescents' Peer Aggression: The Mediating and Moderating Role of Mother-Child Emotional Reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Eric W.; Chambers, Jessica Campbell; Frabutt, James M.; Mackinnon-Lewis, Carol

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the role of mother-adolescent emotional reciprocity in connections between marital conflict and adolescent aggression with peers. Data were collected from a racially diverse community sample of 268 adolescents and their mothers. Adolescents reported on parents' marital conflict, and mother-adolescent positive and negative…

  9. New Technologies Smart, or Harm Work-Family Boundaries Management? Gender Differences in Conflict and Enrichment Using the JD-R Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghislieri, Chiara; Emanuel, Federica; Molino, Monica; Cortese, Claudio G; Colombo, Lara

    2017-01-01

    Background: The relationship between technology-assisted supplemental work and well-being outcomes is a recent issue in scientific literature. Whether the use of technology for work purpose in off-work time may have a positive or negative impact on work-family balance remains an open question and the role of gender in this relationship is poorly understood. Aim: According to the JD-R theory, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between off-work hours technology assisted job demand (off-TAJD) and both work-family conflict (WFC) and work-family enrichment (WFE). Moreover, it considered two general job demands, workload and emotional dissonance, and one job resource, supervisory coaching. Method: The hypotheses were tested with a convenience sample of 671 workers. Data were collected with a self-report questionnaire and analyzed with SPSS 23 and through multi-group structural equation model (SEM) (Mplus 7). Results: The estimated SEM [Chi-square (510) = 1041.29; p < 0.01; CFI = 0.95; TLI = 0.95; RMSEA = 0.06 (0.05, 0.06); SRMR = 0.05. M = 319/F = 352] showed that off-TAJD was positively related to WFC in both subsamples; off-TAJD was positively related also to WFE only in the Male group. Workload was positively related to WFC in both Male and Female subsamples. Emotional dissonance was positively related to WFC in both subsamples and was negatively related to WFE. Supervisory coaching was strongly, positively related to WFE in both groups, and only in the Male subsample presented a low negative relationship with WFC. Conclusion: This study contributes to the literature on new challenges in work-life interface by analyzing the association between off-TAJD and WFC and Enrichment. Our findings suggest it is important to pay attention to gender differences in the study of the impact of supplemental work carried out during off-work hours using technology on the work-life interface. In fact, employee perception of Company demands of being available during off

  10. New Technologies Smart, or Harm Work-Family Boundaries Management? Gender Differences in Conflict and Enrichment Using the JD-R Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Ghislieri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationship between technology-assisted supplemental work and well-being outcomes is a recent issue in scientific literature. Whether the use of technology for work purpose in off-work time may have a positive or negative impact on work-family balance remains an open question and the role of gender in this relationship is poorly understood.Aim: According to the JD-R theory, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between off-work hours technology assisted job demand (off-TAJD and both work-family conflict (WFC and work-family enrichment (WFE. Moreover, it considered two general job demands, workload and emotional dissonance, and one job resource, supervisory coaching.Method: The hypotheses were tested with a convenience sample of 671 workers. Data were collected with a self-report questionnaire and analyzed with SPSS 23 and through multi-group structural equation model (SEM (Mplus 7.Results: The estimated SEM [Chi-square (510 = 1041.29; p < 0.01; CFI = 0.95; TLI = 0.95; RMSEA = 0.06 (0.05, 0.06; SRMR = 0.05. M = 319/F = 352] showed that off-TAJD was positively related to WFC in both subsamples; off-TAJD was positively related also to WFE only in the Male group. Workload was positively related to WFC in both Male and Female subsamples. Emotional dissonance was positively related to WFC in both subsamples and was negatively related to WFE. Supervisory coaching was strongly, positively related to WFE in both groups, and only in the Male subsample presented a low negative relationship with WFC.Conclusion: This study contributes to the literature on new challenges in work-life interface by analyzing the association between off-TAJD and WFC and Enrichment. Our findings suggest it is important to pay attention to gender differences in the study of the impact of supplemental work carried out during off-work hours using technology on the work-life interface. In fact, employee perception of Company demands of being available

  11. Conflict Resolution in the Multicultural Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCour, Misty M.; Tissington, Laura D.

    2011-01-01

    Schools reflect culture at large. This paper will discuss how conflict in schools and ways in which we handle disagreements reflect community standards, including ethnicity and socio economic influences. Also analyzed are changing gender roles with increased female aggression in schools to include the role of technology.

  12. Sex-role identification and violent victimization: gender differences in the role of masculinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Leah E; Mummert, Sadie J

    2014-01-01

    Although sex-role identification has been found to be associated with crime and delinquency, the link between sex-role identification and violent victimization has remained largely unexplored. Using the Add Health data, this study examines sex-role identification and its relationship to violent victimization. The findings suggest that masculinity increases the risk of violent victimization for males, but does not for females. Other differences in risk factors across gender were also found. These findings indicate that masculinity is an important construct in understanding the complexity of why some persons are violently victimized and others are not.

  13. (RE CONSTRUCTING GENDER IN A NEW VOICE: THE ROLE OF GENDER IDENTITY IN SLA, THE CASE OF MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Kow Yip Cheng

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is a qualitative study of Malaysian children aged between four and six years engaged in a story-telling task. The question posed in this piece of research then: Is the role played by gender in SLA? If it does play a role, what then is the nature of this role? The path taken by this study is to analyze discourse in story-telling.

  14. Heroes and housewives : the role of gender and gender stereotypes in parenting and child development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endendijk, Joyce Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Gender is one of the most important organizers of social life, from the cradle to the grave. In the family context gender shapes biological, social, and cognitive processes at both the parent and child level. The general aim of the studies presented in this dissertation is to provide more insight in

  15. Trends in gender differences in accidents mortality: Relationships to changing gender roles and other societal trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Earle

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This study tests five hypotheses concerning trends in gender differences in accidents mortality and accident-related behavior, using data for the US, UK, France, Italy, and Japan, 1950-98. As predicted by the Convergence Hypothesis, gender differences have decreased for amount of driving, motor vehicle accidents mortality, and occupational accidents mortality. However, for many types of accidents mortality, gender differences were stable or increased; these trends often resulted from the differential impact on male and female mortality of general societal trends such as increased illicit drug use or improved health care. Similarly, trends in gender differences in accident-related behavior have shown substantial variation and appear to have been influenced by multiple factors, including gender differences in rates of adoption of different types of innovations.

  16. The relationship between emotional intelligence and learning outcomes, and the mediating role of emotional conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Hjertø, Kjell B.

    2010-01-01

    A field sample of 1100 employees in the army was investigated to study the relationship between the individuals’ self reported emotional intelligence and learning outcomes in work groups, with two dimensions of emotional conflict as mediators, emotional person conflict and emotional task conflict. Most importantly, emotional intelligence predicted positively learning outcomes and emotional task conflict, and predicted negatively emotional person conflict. Further, emotional task ...

  17. Traditional and Nontraditional Gender Roles and Work-Family Interface for Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Kristin M.; Wright, Stephen L.; Jackson, Z. Vance

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we examine traditional and nontraditional gender roles and work-family interface for men and women. Recent empirical literature is reviewed and implications for career counselors are discussed. We discuss changing gender roles in career, marriage, and parenting and provide strategies for helping clients to cope with work-family…

  18. Gender Role Attitudes, Religion, and Spirituality as Predictors of Domestic Violence Attitudes in White College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkel, LaVerne A.; Vandiver, Beverly J.; Bahner, Angela D.

    2004-01-01

    In this study we investigated gender role attitudes, religion, and spirituality as predictors of beliefs about violence against women in a sample of 316 White college students. Results indicated that gender role attitudes were the best overall predictor of domestic violence beliefs. Spirituality also contributed to the models for men and women.…

  19. The Extreme Male Brain Theory and Gender Role Behaviour in Persons with an Autism Spectrum Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauder, J. E. A.; Cornet, L. J. M.; Ponds, R. W. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    According to the Extreme Male Brain theory persons with autism possess masculinised cognitive traits. In this study masculinisation of gender role behaviour is evaluated in 25 persons with an autism spectrum condition (ASC) and matched controls with gender role behaviour as part of a shortened version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality…

  20. Gender Role Perceptions of Mormon Women from Divorced Families: An Adult-Developmental Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafkas, Sara McPhee

    2012-01-01

    More American families now have shifting family forms and gender role practices, but some religious faiths still subscribe to traditional family and gender roles. Following these ideals in modern society can challenge adherents. This qualitative study examined one such faith, considering the perceptions of Mormon (i.e., Latter-day Saint) women…

  1. Traditional and Nontraditional Gender Roles and Work-Family Interface for Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Kristin M.; Wright, Stephen L.; Jackson, Z. Vance

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we examine traditional and nontraditional gender roles and work-family interface for men and women. Recent empirical literature is reviewed and implications for career counselors are discussed. We discuss changing gender roles in career, marriage, and parenting and provide strategies for helping clients to cope with work-family…

  2. The Effect of a Child's Sex on Support for Traditional Gender Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Emily Fitzgibbons; Malhotra, Neil

    2011-01-01

    We examine whether sex of child affects parents' beliefs about traditional gender roles. Using an improved methodological approach that explicitly analyzes the natural experiment via differences in differences, we find that having a daughter (vs. having a son) causes men to reduce their support for traditional gender roles, but a female child has…

  3. Scientist Role Models in the Classroom: How Important Is Gender Matching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Laura D. Carsten; Danielson, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Gender-matched role models are often proposed as a mechanism to increase identification with science among girls, with the ultimate aim of broadening participation in science. While there is a great deal of evidence suggesting that role models can be effective, there is mixed support in the literature for the importance of gender matching. We used…

  4. Exploring Gender Roles' Effects of Turkish Women Teachers on Their Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Mediha

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how gender roles of women teachers affect their practices in the classrooms. Participants in the study were 75 female teachers working in elementary schools in Adana, Turkey. Findings indicated that gender roles of women teachers have important effects on their educational practices. Women teachers…

  5. Cognitive Distraction and African American Women's Endorsement of Gender Role Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kalynda; Craig-Henderson, Kellina

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of cognitive distraction on the endorsement of gender role stereotypes in one sample of African American female participants. Participants' awareness and endorsement of gender role stereotypes for male and females was assessed. Following random assignment to distraction or no distraction conditions, they…

  6. The Relation between Gender Role Orientation and Fear and Anxiety in Nonclinic-Referred Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Knoops, Miranda

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relation between gender role orientation and fear and anxiety in a sample of nonclinic-referred children (N = 209) ages 10 to 13 years. Children and their parents completed questionnaires assessing children's gender role orientation, toy and activity preferences, and fear and anxiety. Results generally indicated that…

  7. Gender Role Perceptions of Mormon Women from Divorced Families: An Adult-Developmental Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafkas, Sara McPhee

    2012-01-01

    More American families now have shifting family forms and gender role practices, but some religious faiths still subscribe to traditional family and gender roles. Following these ideals in modern society can challenge adherents. This qualitative study examined one such faith, considering the perceptions of Mormon (i.e., Latter-day Saint) women…

  8. Exploring Gender Roles' Effects of Turkish Women Teachers on Their Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Mediha

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how gender roles of women teachers affect their practices in the classrooms. Participants in the study were 75 female teachers working in elementary schools in Adana, Turkey. Findings indicated that gender roles of women teachers have important effects on their educational practices. Women teachers…

  9. The Extreme Male Brain Theory and Gender Role Behaviour in Persons with an Autism Spectrum Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauder, J. E. A.; Cornet, L. J. M.; Ponds, R. W. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    According to the Extreme Male Brain theory persons with autism possess masculinised cognitive traits. In this study masculinisation of gender role behaviour is evaluated in 25 persons with an autism spectrum condition (ASC) and matched controls with gender role behaviour as part of a shortened version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality…

  10. Predictors of Level of Voice in Adolescent Girls: Ethnicity, Attachment, and Gender Role Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theran, Sally A.

    2009-01-01

    The current study empirically examined predictors of level of voice (ethnicity, attachment, and gender role socialization) in a diverse sample of 108 14-year-old girls. Structural equation modeling results indicated that parental attachment predicted level of voice with authority figures, and gender role socialization predicted level of voice with…

  11. The Effect of a Child's Sex on Support for Traditional Gender Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Emily Fitzgibbons; Malhotra, Neil

    2011-01-01

    We examine whether sex of child affects parents' beliefs about traditional gender roles. Using an improved methodological approach that explicitly analyzes the natural experiment via differences in differences, we find that having a daughter (vs. having a son) causes men to reduce their support for traditional gender roles, but a female child has…

  12. Students' Perceptions of Socialisation and Gender Role in Japan and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trommsdorff, Gisela; Iwawaki, Saburo

    1989-01-01

    Investigated differences in perceptions of socialization and gender roles in 175 Japanese and 120 German university students. Japanese students reported more parental acceptance and control than German students. Japanese students had more traditional gender-role orientations than German students. (RJC)

  13. Cognitive Distraction and African American Women's Endorsement of Gender Role Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kalynda; Craig-Henderson, Kellina

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of cognitive distraction on the endorsement of gender role stereotypes in one sample of African American female participants. Participants' awareness and endorsement of gender role stereotypes for male and females was assessed. Following random assignment to distraction or no distraction conditions, they…

  14. "By Seeing with Our Own Eyes, It Can Remain in Our Mind": Qualitative Evaluation Findings Suggest the Ability of Participatory Video to Reduce Gender-Based Violence in Conflict-Affected Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurman, Tilly A.; Trappler, Regan M.; Acosta, Angela; McCray, Pamella A.; Cooper, Chelsea M.; Goodsmith, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Gender-based violence is pervasive and poses unique challenges in conflict-affected settings, with women and girls particularly vulnerable to its sequelae. Furthermore, widespread stigmatization of gender-based violence promotes silence among survivors and families, inhibiting access to services. Little evidence exists regarding effective…

  15. "By Seeing with Our Own Eyes, It Can Remain in Our Mind": Qualitative Evaluation Findings Suggest the Ability of Participatory Video to Reduce Gender-Based Violence in Conflict-Affected Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurman, Tilly A.; Trappler, Regan M.; Acosta, Angela; McCray, Pamella A.; Cooper, Chelsea M.; Goodsmith, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Gender-based violence is pervasive and poses unique challenges in conflict-affected settings, with women and girls particularly vulnerable to its sequelae. Furthermore, widespread stigmatization of gender-based violence promotes silence among survivors and families, inhibiting access to services. Little evidence exists regarding effective…

  16. The intersecting roles of violence, gender, and substance use in the emergency department: a research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Esther K; Benz, Madeline; Rybarczyk, Megan; Broderick, Kerry; Linden, Judith; Boudreaux, Edwin D; Ranney, Megan L

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between gender, violence, and substance use in the emergency department (ED) is complex. This article examines the role of gender in the intersection of substance use and three types of violence: peer violence, intimate partner violence, and firearm violence. Current approaches to treatment of substance abuse and violence are similar across both genders; however, as patterns of violence and substance abuse differ by gender, interventions may be more effective if they are designed with a specific gender focus. © 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  17. Attitudes Towards Managing the Work-Family Interface: The Role of Gender and Social Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melrona Kirrane

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The effective management of the work-life interface is an issue increasingly recognised as of strategic importance to organisations and of significance to employees (Forsyth & Polzer-Dedruyne, 2007; Nord et al., 2002; Russell & Bowman, 2000. A pan-European investigation (Brannen et al., 2002 concluded that young Irish people characterize the two domains of work and family as operating in conflict with each other. Given the high rate of workforce participation in the Irish labour market, and the corporate imperative of effective retention strategies (Messersmith, 2007; Cappelli, 2000, understanding how this perspective may influence behavioural intentions with respect to managing the work-family interface will be a valuable insight for organizations. Although gender and social background have long been identified as having a significant impact on the development of a number of work-related attitudes (Barling & Kelloway, 1999, neither dimension has been investigated with respect to their impact on attitudes towards managing the work-family interface. This study aims to establish the relationship between a number of demographic factors and such attitudes. Identifying behavioural intentions among students now ready to enter the labour market, will facilitate the development of more appropriate and robust organizational policies and procedures in relation to managing the work-family interface. Attitudes towards managing the work-family interface were measured using the Career Family Attitudes Measure (Sanders et al., 1998. The results of this study confirm that gender continues to have a strong role in the development of attitudes towards managing the work-family interface. The results also suggest that a number of social background factors, in particular school experience, parental education and parental occupation are strong factors in the development of these attitudes.

  18. Gender role influences on Turkish adolescents' self-identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, A

    1997-01-01

    This study investigated gender role influences on Turkish adolescents' self-identity process as part of the International Self-Identity Research Project. A total of 154 male and 119 female adolescents ages 14 through 17 from urban and rural areas of Turkey were surveyed through a questionnaire. The results indicated that "family" was the dominant source of belongingness for both males and females, followed by "friendships" and "school." Friendships and education were valued more by females than by males. Symbolic items (e.g., relationships, happiness) influenced females' self-identity more than they did males, while males tended to place greater importance on material items (e.g., home, TV, sports equipment). Athletic activities were highly important in males' self-validation process while females were oriented more toward the artistic and creative. General affective attributes (e.g., honesty, respect, thoughtfulness) were similarly valued by males and females as important criteria for self-evaluation. Finally, males were more religious, patriotic, and felt stronger ties to ancestors while females appeared to be more altruistic and placed high importance on social relations.

  19. Gender Differences in Spouse Caregiver Strain: Socialization and Role Explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Baila

    1990-01-01

    Examined gender differences in spouse caregiver strain among 554 spouse caregivers, using a multivariate model in which caregiver strains were a function of caregiver stressors and support resources. The effect of gender was found to be small; wives' greater experience of health strains appeared to result from situational factors and traditional…

  20. ROL-PLAYING AND GENDER ROLES JUEGOS DE ROL Y ROLES DE GÉNERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ramón Carbó García

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the role playing games evolution from the Gender perspective. The authors analyze the evolution of the role playing games and the progressive incorporation of women to this form of games.El artículo analiza la evolución de los juegos de rol desde la perspectiva de los estudios de género. Los autores analizan la evolución de los juegos de rol y la incorporación progresiva de las mujeres a esta forma de ocio.

  1. An Examination of Violence and Gender Role Portrayals in Video Games: Implications for Gender Socialization and Aggressive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Tracy L.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the portrayal of women and the use of violent themes in 33 popular video games. The analysis reveals that traditional gender roles and violence are central to many games. There were no female characters in 41% of games with characters, and women were portrayed as sex objects in 28% of these games. (SLD)

  2. Gender, Sex, and Conflict in the Online Classroom%网络课堂中非生理性别与生理性别对人际冲突的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丹尼尔·诺瓦克; 王敏娟; 凯蒂·奥瑞斯汀

    2008-01-01

    本研究探讨了性别对网络课堂中学生间冲突程度的影响.研究者首先检查了文化和冲突间的关系,并且对性别和冲突间的关联做了文献分析,接着具体探索了生理和非生理性别(sex,gender)、网络学习经验(所上网络课程的多少),和冲突在网络学习环境中的关联.虽然研究男女性别和冲突的文章有很多,但研究更深一步探求抽象性别(即gender,非生理性别)对冲突程度和态度的影响.研究中采用了专门研究性别和冲突的问卷调查工具.%This research examined the effects of gender and sex on classroom conflict levels. At the outset,researchers examined the relationships between culture and conflict and reviewed the relationships between gender and conflict. The study looked for correlations amongst gender, sex, number of online courses taken, and conflict. Since a great many studies examine the relationships between sex and conflict, the research team looked for deeper, gender-based connections to conflict in the online setting. This focus resulted from the lack of current research on the subject and easy access to participants. Thus, the study deployed specialized survey tools that would specifically examine gender and conflict.

  3. Effects of husbands' migration on mental health and gender role ideology of rural Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Jared A; Yamawaki, Niwako; Downs, Samuel D

    2009-07-01

    Our purpose for this study was to investigate the roles of migration in rural Mexican migrant-sending communities. Specifically, we examined the effects of changing gender role ideology on the mental health of wives whose spouses migrated to the United States. The sending group scored significantly higher in egalitarian gender role ideology but lower in general mental health than the nonsending group. We found through mediation analysis that the difference in gender role ideology mediated the difference in mental health between the two groups. Results are contrary to some psychological and feminist literature advocating benefits of masculine or androgynous ideology.

  4. The Effects of Relationship Education on Adolescent Traditional Gender Role Attitudes and Dating Violence Acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Whittaker

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined change in adolescents’ traditional gender role attitudes and dating violence acceptance following completion of a relationship education program. Using data from a larger study evaluating the effects of relationship education for adolescents, beliefs and attitudes were assessed among a diverse sample of 627 youth. Gender differences in changes from pre- to post-test were also examined. Results of repeated measures MANCOVAs revealed a time X gender interaction effect for change in traditional gender role attitudes following relationship education. A significant decrease in traditional gender role attitudes was found for both boys and girls following relationship education, with a steeper decline in traditional gender role attitudes for boys than girls over time. Although there were no significant changes in dating violence acceptance, change in traditional gender role attitudes was correlated with change in dating violence acceptance, such that moving toward more egalitarian attitudes was associated with a decrease in acceptance of dating aggression/violence. Overall, results suggest that adolescents’ attitudes about gender roles and dating violence are open to change when provided relationship education, and changes in these beliefs are linked. Findings from this study have implications for promoting healthy relationships among youth.

  5. Gender Roles, Externalizing Behaviors, and Substance Use Among Mexican-American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    KULIS, STEPHEN; MARSIGLIA, FLAVIO F.; NAGOSHI, JULIE L.

    2010-01-01

    A sample of 60 male and 91 female Mexican-American adolescents (age 13–18) were administered measures of positive (i.e., assertive masculinity, affective femininity) and negative (i.e., aggressive masculinity, submissive femininity) gender roles, internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors, peer substance use, and own substance use (alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana). Negative gender roles were significantly correlated with internalizing and externalizing problems for both boys and girls, with aggressive masculinity also predicting peer substance use for both genders. Assertive masculinity significantly predicted lower alcohol use in boys, and this effect was not mediated by internalizing problems, externalizing problems, or peer substance use. Negative gender roles significantly predicted higher alcohol use in girls, but this effect was almost completely mediated by internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and peer substance use. Results are discussed in terms of gender role socialization among Mexican Americans. PMID:21031145

  6. Sexuality and gender role in autism spectrum disorder: a case control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Bejerot

    Full Text Available The 'extreme male brain theory of autism' describes an extreme male pattern of cognitive traits defined as strong systemising abilities paired with empathising weaknesses in autism spectrum disorder. However, beyond these cognitive traits, clinical observations have suggested an ambiguous gender-typed pattern regarding several sexually dimorphic traits. The aim of the present study was to investigate if patterns of non-cognitive sexually dimorphic traits differed between the autism spectrum disorder and control groups. Fifty adults with autism spectrum disorder and intelligence within the normal range, and 53 neurotypical controls responded to questions on gender role, self-perceived gender typicality and gender identity, as well as sexuality. Measures used were a Swedish modification of the Bem Sex Role Inventory and questions on sexuality and gender designed for the purpose of this study. Our results showed that one common gender role emerged in the autism spectrum disorder group. Masculinity (e.g. assertiveness, leadership and competitiveness was weaker in the autism spectrum disorder group than in the controls, across men and women. Self-perceived gender typicality did not differ between the groups but tomboyism and bisexuality were overrepresented amongst women with autism spectrum disorder. Lower libido was reported amongst both male and female participants with autism spectrum disorder compared with controls. We conclude that the extreme male patterns of cognitive functions in the autistic brain do not seem to extend to gender role and sexuality. A gender-atypical pattern for these types of characteristics is suggested in autism spectrum disorder.

  7. Sexuality and gender role in autism spectrum disorder: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejerot, Susanne; Eriksson, Jonna M

    2014-01-01

    The 'extreme male brain theory of autism' describes an extreme male pattern of cognitive traits defined as strong systemising abilities paired with empathising weaknesses in autism spectrum disorder. However, beyond these cognitive traits, clinical observations have suggested an ambiguous gender-typed pattern regarding several sexually dimorphic traits. The aim of the present study was to investigate if patterns of non-cognitive sexually dimorphic traits differed between the autism spectrum disorder and control groups. Fifty adults with autism spectrum disorder and intelligence within the normal range, and 53 neurotypical controls responded to questions on gender role, self-perceived gender typicality and gender identity, as well as sexuality. Measures used were a Swedish modification of the Bem Sex Role Inventory and questions on sexuality and gender designed for the purpose of this study. Our results showed that one common gender role emerged in the autism spectrum disorder group. Masculinity (e.g. assertiveness, leadership and competitiveness) was weaker in the autism spectrum disorder group than in the controls, across men and women. Self-perceived gender typicality did not differ between the groups but tomboyism and bisexuality were overrepresented amongst women with autism spectrum disorder. Lower libido was reported amongst both male and female participants with autism spectrum disorder compared with controls. We conclude that the extreme male patterns of cognitive functions in the autistic brain do not seem to extend to gender role and sexuality. A gender-atypical pattern for these types of characteristics is suggested in autism spectrum disorder.

  8. Predicting Physical Activity Outcomes During Episodes of Academic Goal Conflict: The Differential Role of Action Planning and Coping Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, Natasha; Gaudreau, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    The moderating role of academic goal conflict in the relations between action planning (AP) and coping planning (CP) with physical activity was tested using samples of university students concurrently pursuing an academic and a physical activity goal. In Study 1 (N = 317), AP was found to positively relate to physical activity goal progress at low, but not at high, levels of goal conflict. CP trended toward being positively related to goal progress at high, but not at low levels of goal conflict. Study 2 (N = 97), using a 1-week daily diary design and measures of self-reported physical activity behavior and goal progress, showed that daily AP positively related to daily physical activity outcomes on days when students experienced lower, but not higher, levels of goal conflict relative to their average. Conversely, CP positively related to daily physical activity outcomes on days when students experienced higher, but not lower, levels of goal conflict.

  9. The impact of formalization, role conflict, role ambiguity, and communication quality on perceived organizational innovativeness in the Cancer Information Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J D; La France, B H; Meyer, M; Speyer, J B; Cox, D

    1998-03-01

    Organizational members' levels of perceived innovativeness represent an insider's viewpoint of the organization's overall approach to innovation. This study tested a model of the impact of formalization, role ambiguity, role conflict, and communication quality on perceived organizational innovativeness in the Cancer Information Service. Data were gathered from self-report questionnaires completed by organizational members (n = 86) within the Cancer Information Service, a geographically dispersed federal government health information program that was implementing innovative intervention strategies related to disseminating health information to the public. Results indicated that although the predicted model provided a good overall fit to the data, there were some problematic paths. A revised model is offered to reconceptualize the relationships among role conflict, role ambiguity, and communication quality. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for managers and scholars who hope to understand the factors that contribute to perceptions of innovativeness in the new organizational forms emerging in the health service arena. These data suggest that formalization makes an important contribution to innovation in the highly uncertain world of new organizational forms.

  10. [Gender role orientation and tobacco and alcohol use among youth in Morelos, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Ayala, Rubén; Rivera-Rivera, Leonor; Leyva-López, Ahideé; Sánchez-Estrada, Marcela; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    To quantify the association between gender role orientation and tobacco and alcohol use among young people of the State of Morelos. Study conducted in 2004-2005, students aged 14 to 24 years (n = 1 730). Sociodemographic variables (area of residence, socioeconomic status), family (parental education and violence), psycho-sociological (gender role, self-esteem, depression, alcohol consumption, tobacco, locus of control, sexual abuse). Logistic regression analysis. Factors associated with use of tobacco: In women, being androgynous undesirable, masculine role, attempted sexual abuse and urban areas. For men, depression and submission. Factors associated with alcohol use: In women, masculine gender role; and in men to be older than 20 years, living in semi-urban and urban area, and internal locus. The machismo is one of the gender role orientations with greater association with the use of tobacco primarily in girls in Mexico, and the masculine or instrumental role with alcohol.

  11. Gender Development Research in Sex Roles: Historical Trends and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cindy Faith; Ruble, Diane N.; Martin, Carol Lynn; Fabes, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    The late 1960s through the 1970s marked an important turning point in the field of gender research, including theory and research in gender development. The establishment of Sex Roles in 1975 as a forum for this research represented an important milestone in the field. In this article, we celebrate the 35th anniversary of Sex Roles and, in particular, its contributions to the field of research on children’s and adolescents’ gender development. We examine the trends in research on gender development published in Sex Roles since its inception and use this analysis as a vehicle for exploring how the field has grown and evolved over the past few decades. We begin with a brief review of the history of this field of research since 1975. Then, we present a descriptive assessment of articles published on gender development in Sex Roles over time, and link this assessment to general trends that have occurred in the study of gender development over the past 35 years. We conclude with a discussion of future directions for the field of gender development. In particular, we highlight areas in which the journal could play a role in promoting more diversity in topics, methods, and ages employed in gender development research. PMID:21747580

  12. Work Stress Adaptation: Roles of Gender, Social Support and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues ... the effects of gender, social support and personality (Type A and Type B) on work stress adaptation. ... One hypothesis was formulated and tested using 2×2×2 ANOVA analysis.

  13. Evolution of gender stereotypes in Spain: traits and roles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    López-Sáez, Mercedes; Morales, J Francisco; Lisbona, Ana

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is twofold: to determine whether (and how) gender stereotypes have changed over time through a comparison of two different sets of data collected in 1993 (N=1255) and 2001 (N=1255...

  14. Role of Actors and Gender Factor in Disaster Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Oguz; Isik, Ozden; Ozcep, Ferhat; Goksu, Goksel

    2014-05-01

    In Turkey, the discussions in the modern sense about disaster management begun after the 1992 Erzincan and the 1995 Dinar earthquakes, faulting in terms of features and effects. These earthquakes are "Urban Earthquakes'' with effects and faulting charectristics, and have led to radical changes in terms of disaster and disaster management. Disaster Management, to become a science in the world, but with the 1999 Izmit and Duzce earthquakes in Turkey has begun to take seriously on the agenda. Firstly, such as Civil Defense and Red Crescent organizations, by transforming its own, have entered into a new organizing effort. By these earthquakes, NGO's have contributed the search-rescue efforts in the field and to the process of normalization of life. Because "the authority and responsibilities" of NGO's could not be determined, and could not be in planning and scenario studies, we faced the problems. Thus, to the citizens of our country-specific "voluntary" has not benefited enough from the property. The most important development in disaster management in 2009, the Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (AFAD) has been the establishment. However, in terms of coordination and accreditation to the target point has been reached yet. Another important issue in disaster management (need to be addressed along with disaster actors) is the role of women in disasters. After the Golcuk Earthquake, successful field works of women and women's victimization has attracted attention in two different directions. Gender-sensitive policies should be noted by the all disaster actors due to the importance of the mitigation, and these policies should take place in laws, regulations and planning.

  15. Sex-Role Egalitarian Attitudes and Gender Role Socialization Experiences of African American Men and Women: A Mixed Methods Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Courtney Christian Charisse

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the sex-role egalitarian attitudes and gender role socialization experiences of African American men and women. A sequential mixed-methods design was employed to research this phenomenon. The Sex-Role Egalitarianism Scale-Short Form BB (SRES-BB) was utilized to assess sex-role egalitarian attitudes (King…

  16. Sex-Role Egalitarian Attitudes and Gender Role Socialization Experiences of African American Men and Women: A Mixed Methods Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Courtney Christian Charisse

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the sex-role egalitarian attitudes and gender role socialization experiences of African American men and women. A sequential mixed-methods design was employed to research this phenomenon. The Sex-Role Egalitarianism Scale-Short Form BB (SRES-BB) was utilized to assess sex-role egalitarian attitudes (King…

  17. Referee or Team Builder? The Director's Role in Managing Staff Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Yvonne

    2004-01-01

    There are as many different definitions of conflict as there are reasons for it to occur. Staff conflict is one of the realities of organizational life. Given the range of things that can cause or contribute to staff conflict, and the likelihood of workplace conflict, the author offers principles that can contribute to resolution of workplace or…

  18. Communicating fatigue in general practice and the role of gender

    OpenAIRE

    Meeuwesen, L.; BENSING, J; Brink-Muinen, A. van den

    2002-01-01

    From the viewpoint of quality of care, doctor-patient communication has become more and more important. Gender is an important factor in communication. Besides, cultural norms and values are likely to influence doctor-patient communication as well. This study examined (1) whether or not communication patterns of gender-dyads in general practice consultations differ across and between Western-European countries, and (2) if so, whether these differences continue to exist when controlling for pa...

  19. The Role of Psychological Capital and Intragroup Conflict on Employees’ Burnout and Quality of Service: A Multilevel Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M Leon-Perez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found a negative association between intragroup conflict and both employees’ health and performance, including the quality of service that employees provide. However, some authors have indicated that such negative effects of intragroup conflict depend on how conflict is managed. In addition, at individual level, research is increasingly emphasizing the role of psychological strengths (i.e., psychological capital as predictors of health and performance. Thus, this research addresses both a main effect at individual level (psychological capital on burnout/quality of service and a moderated cross-level model (2-2-1: intragroup conflict, conflict management climate and burnout/quality of service in a cross-sectional survey study (N = 798 workers nested in 55 units/facilities. Results revealed a main effect of psychological capital on both burnout (r = -.50 and quality of service (r = .28. Also, there was an association between intragroup relationship conflict and burnout (r = .33. Finally, there was an interaction effect in which conflict management climate buffers the negative association between intragroup conflict and quality of service. Practical implications of these results for developing positive and healthy organizations that prevent potential psychosocial risks at group level while promote individual strengths are discussed.

  20. The Role of Psychological Capital and Intragroup Conflict on Employees' Burnout and Quality of Service: A Multilevel Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Perez, Jose M; Antino, Mirko; Leon-Rubio, Jose M

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found a negative association between intragroup conflict and both employees' health and performance, including the quality of service that employees provide. However, some authors have indicated that such negative effects of intragroup conflict depend on how conflict is managed. In addition, at individual level, research is increasingly emphasizing the role of psychological strengths (i.e., psychological capital) as predictors of health and performance. Thus, this research addresses both a main effect at individual level (psychological capital on burnout/quality of service) and a moderated cross-level model (2-2-1: intragroup conflict, conflict management climate and burnout/quality of service) in a cross-sectional survey study (N = 798 workers nested in 55 units/facilities). Results revealed a main effect of psychological capital on both burnout (r = -0.50) and quality of service (r = 0.28). Also, there was an association between intragroup relationship conflict and burnout (r = 0.33). Finally, there was an interaction effect in which conflict management climate buffers the negative association between intragroup conflict and quality of service. Practical implications of these results for developing positive and healthy organizations that prevent potential psychosocial risks at group level while promote individual strengths are discussed.

  1. Macho-Man in School: Toward the Role of Gender Role Self-Concepts and Help Seeking in School Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, Ursula; Steinmayr, Ricarda

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to understand boys' lower academic success by analysing the relationship between sex, gender role self-concept, help seeking attitudes, and school performance in a sample of 182 German 11th grade students (83 girls, 99 boys), age 16. Grades at two points in time, intelligence test data, help-seeking attitudes, gender role…

  2. Macho-Man in School: Toward the Role of Gender Role Self-Concepts and Help Seeking in School Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, Ursula; Steinmayr, Ricarda

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to understand boys' lower academic success by analysing the relationship between sex, gender role self-concept, help seeking attitudes, and school performance in a sample of 182 German 11th grade students (83 girls, 99 boys), age 16. Grades at two points in time, intelligence test data, help-seeking attitudes, gender role…

  3. Gender in Marriage and Life Satisfaction Under Gender Imbalance in China: The Role of Intergenerational Support and SES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huijun; Li, Shuzhuo; Feldman, Marc W

    2013-12-01

    This study examined gender differences in the influence of marital status and marital quality on life satisfaction. The roles of intergenerational support and perceived socioeconomic status in the relationship between marriage and life satisfaction were also explored. The analysis was conducted with data from the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) in 2006, representing 1,317 women and 1,152 men at least 25 years old. Chi-squared tests and logistic regression models were used in this process. Marriage, including marital status and relationship quality, has a protective function for life satisfaction. Marital status is more important for males, but marital quality is more important for females. The moderating roles of intergenerational support and perceived socioeconomic status are gender specific, perhaps due to norms that ascribe different roles to men and women in marriage.

  4. 两性在化解言语冲突时的不同会话策略%Gender Differences of Conversation Strategies in Alleviating Verbal Conflicts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晨钰

    2014-01-01

    People in different genders can present distinct feature in verbal communication and employ different strategies when dealing with different situations. Using recording of remarks from female and male host or guests as a third-party mediator in three TV programs as linguistic data and qualitative analysis as the analyzing method, this present paper aims to find different strategies and its reason adopted by different genders in reconciling verbal conflicts, in order to have a better understanding of gender difference in lan-guage and promote a better cross-gender communication.%两性在言语交际中呈现出不同的语言特点,也会在面临相同的情境时采取不同的会话策略。本文采用三档电视情感节目中男女主持人和嘉宾作为第三方在调解他人言语冲突时的真实会话记录作为语料库,运用定性分析的方法,研究男女两性在化解言语冲突时采取的不同会话策略及其形成原因,从而更好地认识两性语言差异,促进两性和谐顺利交流。

  5. Peace journalism where there is no war. Conflict-sensitive reporting on urban violence and public security in Brazil and its potential role in conflict transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Biazoto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The absence of war in a country like Brazil does not mean peace for its population. High murder rates, police killings, and violent urban conflict (in the favelas and beyond are part of Brazilians’ daily lives. The national media helps construct the discourses of violence which contribute to maintain the status quo – but can the media play a positive role in the conflict and become a force for peace? In attempting to determine whether Peace Journalism is a useful tool for reporting about urban violence in Brazil, this qualitative case study analyzes a special series in Rio de Janeiro newspaper O Globo about a novel public security model in the city – the Pacifier Police Units (UPP – by employing adapted De-Escalation-Oriented Conflict Coverage (DEOCC criteria. The analysis reveals a combination of escalation and de-escalation elements in the series, and while this particular example does not prove to be conflict sensitive, the Peace Journalism framework itself shows great potential if implemented to improve coverage of urban violence in Brazil.

  6. Gender bias in leader evaluations: merging implicit theories and role congruity perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Crystal L; Burnette, Jeni L

    2013-10-01

    This research extends our understanding of gender bias in leader evaluations by merging role congruity and implicit theory perspectives. We tested and found support for the prediction that the link between people's attitudes regarding women in authority and their subsequent gender-biased leader evaluations is significantly stronger for entity theorists (those who believe attributes are fixed) relative to incremental theorists (those who believe attributes are malleable). In Study 1, 147 participants evaluated male and female gubernatorial candidates. Results supported predictions, demonstrating that traditional attitudes toward women in authority significantly predicted a pro-male gender bias in leader evaluations (and progressive attitudes predicted a pro-female gender bias) with an especially strong effect for those with more entity-oriented, relative to incrementally oriented person theories. Study 2 (119 participants) replicated these findings and demonstrated the mediating role of these attitudes in linking gender stereotypes and leader role expectations to biased evaluations.

  7. Gender role affects experimental pain responses: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabas, O A; Tashani, O A; Tabasam, G; Johnson, M I

    2012-10-01

    Gender role refers to the culturally and socially constructed meanings that describe how women and men should behave in certain situations according to feminine and masculine roles learned throughout life. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the relationship between gender role and experimental pain responses in healthy human participants. We searched computerized databases for studies published between January 1950 and May 2011 that had measured gender role in healthy human adults and pain response to noxious stimuli. Studies were entered into a meta-analysis if they calculated a correlation coefficient (r) for gender role and experimental pain. Searches yielded 4465 'hits' and 13 studies were eligible for review. Sample sizes were 67-235 participants and the proportion of female participants was 45-67%. Eight types of gender role instrument were used. Meta-analysis of six studies (406 men and 539 women) found a significant positive correlation between masculine and feminine personality traits and pain threshold and tolerance, with a small effect size (r = 0.17, p = 0.01). Meta-analysis of four studies (263 men and 297 women) found a significant negative correlation between gender stereotypes specific to pain and pain threshold and tolerance, with a moderate effect size (r = -0.41, p pain than the typical man showed higher pain thresholds and tolerances. Gender stereotypes specific to pain scales showed stronger associations with sex differences in pain sensitivity response than masculine and feminine personality trait scales.

  8. A Social Role Theory Perspective on Gender Gaps in Political Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekman, Amanda B.; Schneider, Monica C.

    2010-01-01

    Men and women tend to espouse different political attitudes, as widely noted by both journalists and social scientists. A deeper understanding of why and when gender gaps exist is necessary because at least some gender differences in the political realm are both pervasive and impactful. In this article, we apply a social role theory framework to…

  9. Canadian Early Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Young Children's Gender-Role Play and Cultural Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servos, Jennifer E.; Dewar, Brandy A.; Bosacki, Sandra L.; Coplan, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates early childhood educators' perceptions of children's gender-role play and the impact their cultural background plays in their gender identity and play behaviors. Through qualitative in-depth interviews, early childhood educators in Canada (n = 40) were asked questions relating to their experiences with children from…

  10. Canadian Early Childhood Educators' Perceptions of Young Children's Gender-Role Play and Cultural Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servos, Jennifer E.; Dewar, Brandy A.; Bosacki, Sandra L.; Coplan, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates early childhood educators' perceptions of children's gender-role play and the impact their cultural background plays in their gender identity and play behaviors. Through qualitative in-depth interviews, early childhood educators in Canada (n = 40) were asked questions relating to their experiences with children from…

  11. The Role of Gender in the Socialization of Emotion: Key Concepts and Critical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Amy Kennedy; Denham, Susanne A.

    2010-01-01

    Given the omnipresent role of gender in children's and adolescents' development, it seems necessary to better understand how gender affects the process of emotion socialization. In this introductory chapter, the authors discuss the overarching themes and key concepts discussed in this volume, as well as outline the distinct contribution of each…

  12. The Effect of Interpersonal Relationships on Psychosomatic Symptoms: Moderating Role of Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Su-hsing; Luh, Wei-ming

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of this study were twofold: (1) to verify whether or not gender and interpersonal relationships influence the variance of psychosomatic symptoms in Taiwanese adolescents; and (2) to examine the moderating role of gender between interpersonal relationships and psychosomatic symptoms in Taiwanese adolescents. The present study adopted…

  13. "Someone like Me Can Be Successful": Do College Students Need Same-Gender Role Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Penelope

    2006-01-01

    Two studies examined the extent to which matching on gender determines the impact of career role models on the self. Because women face negative stereotypes regarding their competence in the workplace, they may derive particular benefit from the example of an outstanding woman who illustrates the possibility of overcoming gender barriers to…

  14. The Relation of Gender-Role Orientation to Sexual Experience among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Bernard E., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the relations of gender role self concept, behavior, and sexual attitudes to sexual experience, reasons for intercourse, and contraceptive behavior. Finds that gender is strongly related to all three aspects of sexual behavior for a group of 185 female and 163 male college students. (FMW)

  15. "Someone like Me Can Be Successful": Do College Students Need Same-Gender Role Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Penelope

    2006-01-01

    Two studies examined the extent to which matching on gender determines the impact of career role models on the self. Because women face negative stereotypes regarding their competence in the workplace, they may derive particular benefit from the example of an outstanding woman who illustrates the possibility of overcoming gender barriers to…

  16. Quality of Family Relationships: The Contributions of Family Structures and GenderRole Orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo Sulaiman Olanrewaju

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the whole human population are products of the family, it may be deduced that a substantial proportion of the social-vices besieging the modern world emanate from maladaptive socialization process of the family domain. To achieve a capable and positive functioning socialization process, harmonious and healthy relationships must be ensured among and between each member of the family. Taking into consideration the overarching positive influence of valuable family relationship on healthy family lives, it is highly essential to investigate the predicting factors of good family relationships. Accordingly, this study tested whether family structures and gender role orientations would predict quality of family relationships. Ninety-eight participants who were selected using cluster sampling method from Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria, completed self-report instruments comprising of Index of Family Relations (IFR, Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI and the Personal Data Sheet (PDS. Hypotheses were tested using one-way ANOVA and multiple regressions. Findings suggest that participants from traditional marriage families reported better family relationships than those from single-parent, divorced and court/legal marriage families. Additionally, the expression of feminine traits by family members (regardless of sex seems to account for a well knitted family relationship than the expression of the nearly feminine trait, androgynous trait and nearly masculine trait. Results were discussed in line with previous literature and it was recommended that traditional/customary marriage should not be jettisoned in the process of family formation but should be done in conjunction with court/legal marriage. Similarly, the expression of feminine traits by each family member regardless of their sex should be encouraged to forestall family conflicts and ensure good family relations.

  17. Perception of victims of rape and perception of gender social roles among college students in Southwest Nigeria: validation of a 5-item gender scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opekitan, Afe Taiwo; Ogunsemi, Olawale; Osalusi, Bamidele; Adeleye, Olufunke; Ale, Ayotunde

    2017-08-29

    Our study focused on the perception of victims of rape and the relationship with the perception of social roles for gender among college students in southwest Nigeria using a 5-item gender social scale and a perception of victims of rape questionnaire. The study was done among 312 college students in Southwest Nigeria and explored the perception of victims of rape and gender social roles. The aim was to determine the relationship between perception of rape victims and view of gender social roles. We used a perception of rape victims questionnaire and a validated 5-item gender social roles scale to assess the views of participants. The findings revealed that females had better perception of victims of rape than males. Females also had more positive views of females' social roles involving gender. However, there was poor perception on work-related social roles and the traditional concept of headship in the varied situations described on the 5-item gender social scale. Old stereotypes of typically blaming victims of rape were not common beliefs among college students. There were no significant correlations between perception of victims of rape and perception of gender social roles among college students. Seemingly, the perception of victims of rape does not have a significant relationship with the concept of gender social roles.

  18. War and HIV: sex and gender differences in risk behaviour among young men and women in post-conflict Gulu District, Northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sheetal; Schechter, Martin T; Sewankambo, Nelson K; Atim, Stella; Lakor, Sam; Kiwanuka, Noah; Spittal, Patricia M

    2014-01-01

    Despite growing knowledge of the dynamics of HIV infection during conflict, far less is known about the period that follows cessation of hostilities and its implications for population health. This study sought to fill a lacuna in epidemiological evidence by examining HIV infection and related vulnerabilities of young people living in resource-scarce, post-emergency transit camps that are now home to thousands of displaced people following two decades of war in northern Uganda. In 2010, a cross-sectional demographic and behavioural survey was conducted with 384 transit camp residents aged 15-29 years old in Gulu District. Biological specimens were collected for rapid and confirmatory HIV testing. Separate multivariable logistic regression models by sex identified risk factors for HIV infection. HIV prevalence was 15.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.8%, 21.6%) among females and 9.9% (95% CI: 6.1%, 15.0%) among males. The strongest correlate of HIV infection among men was a non-consensual sexual debut (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.24; 95% CI: 1.37-7.67), and having practiced dry sex (AOR 7.62; 95% CI: 1.56-16.95) was the strongest correlate among women. Conflict-affected men and women experience vulnerability to HIV infection in different ways than may have originally been understood. Post-conflict programme planners must therefore design and implement contextualised, evidence-based responses to HIV that are sensitive to gender and cultural issues.

  19. Role of muscle mass on sprint performance: gender differences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Gomez, Jorge; Rodriguez, German Vicente; Ara, Ignacio; Olmedillas, Hugo; Chavarren, Javier; González-Henriquez, Juan Jose; Dorado, Cecilia; Calbet, José A L

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if gender differences in muscle mass explain the gender differences in running and cycling sprint performance. Body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and running (30 and 300 m test) and cycling (Wingate test) sprint performance were assessed in 123 men and 32 women. Peak power (PP) output in the Wingate test expressed per kg of lower extremities lean mass (LM) was similar in males and females (50.4 +/- 5.6 and 50.5 +/- 6.2 W kg(-1), P = 0.88). No gender differences were observed in the slope of the linear relation between LM and PP or mean power output (MP). However, when MP was expressed per kg of LM, the males attained a 22% higher value (26.6 +/- 3.4 and 21.9 +/- 3.2 W kg(-1), P sprints, even when expressed as a percentage of the whole body mass.

  20. Approaches to Conflict and Conflict Resolution in Toddler Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Nicole; Neilsen-Hewett, Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    The importance of conflict and its resolution for children's short- and long-term adjustment has been well established within the research literature. Conflict and conflict resolution differs according to a number of constructs, including age, gender and relationship status. The purpose of this study was to explore conflict origins, resolution…

  1. Gender roles and acculturation: relationships with cancer screening among Vietnamese American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Anh B; Clark, Trenette T; Belgrave, Faye Z

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of demographic variables and the interplay between gender roles and acculturation on breast and cervical cancer screening outcomes among Vietnamese American women. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 100 Vietnamese women from the Richmond, VA, metropolitan area. Women were recruited to participate in a larger cancer screening intervention. All participants completed measures on demographic variables, gender roles, acculturation, and cancer screening variables. Findings indicated that traditional masculine gender roles were associated with increased self-efficacy for breast and cervical cancer screening. Higher levels of acculturation were associated with higher probability of having had a Papanicolaou test. In addition, acculturation moderated the relationship between traditional female gender roles and cancer screening variables. For highly acculturated women, higher levels of feminine gender roles predicted higher probability of having had a previous clinical breast exam and higher levels of self-efficacy for cervical cancer screening, while the opposite was true for lower acculturated women. The findings of this study indicate the important roles that sociodemographic variables, gender roles, and acculturation play in affecting health attitudes and behaviors among Vietnamese women. These findings also help to identify a potentially high-risk subgroup and existing gaps that need to be targeted by preventive interventions.

  2. The development of sex role stereotypes in the third year: relationships to gender labeling, gender identity, sex-typed toy preference, and family characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinraub, M; Clemens, L P; Sockloff, A; Ethridge, T; Gracely, E; Myers, B

    1984-08-01

    The onset and development of preschoolers' awareness of sex role stereotypes, gender labeling, gender identity, and sex-typed toy preference were explored in 26-, 31-, and 36-month-old children. Gender labeling, gender identity, sex-typed toy preferences, and awareness of adult sex role differences were observed in significantly more 26-month-old children than would have been expected by chance. Verbal gender labeling was observed in a majority of 26-month-olds, while verbal and nonverbal gender identity were observed in a majority of 31-month-olds. Nonverbal gender labeling and awareness of adult sex role differences were observed in a majority of children by 36 months. No evidence of awareness of sex differences in children's toys was found in the majority of children at any age. Awareness of sex role differences in children's toys was not related to awareness of adult sex role differences. Brighter children were more aware of adult sex role differences. Sex-typed toy preference was not related to awareness of sex role differences but was related to gender identity. Predictors of sex role development included the mothers' employment, and the father's personality traits, attitudes toward women, and sex-typed activities in the home. Implications for theories of early sex role development are discussed.

  3. Has the Traditional Social Perception on Nurses Changed?: attribution of Stereotypes and Gender Roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aranda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nursing has traditionally been regarded as a female profession. However, in recent years there has been an increase of men. Despite this change, patriarchy still has a profound influence on how general population, patients and even nursing students perceive this occupation. Taking this background into account, the present research aims to analyze gender stereotype and gender role assignment to male and female nurses. A quasi-experimental study was conducted on 121 participants from three groups: patients, non-patients and nursing students. Gender stereotypes and gender roles assignment were analyzing using two factors: level of social domination orientation, and the group membership. Results showed that the gender stereotypes assignment to male and female nurses displayed some similarities; therefore a less stereotypical perception was observed comparing with other recent research. Moreover, participants low in social dominance orientation indicated a preference to traditional gender roles. Considering the group we found a traditional assignment of gender stereotypes over female and male nurses, even among nursing students. In sum, despite the dynamism of the nurses' social perception, still remains a gender bias that needs to be avoided.

  4. A longitudinal analysis of Hispanic youth acculturation and cigarette smoking: the roles of gender, culture, family, and discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Unger, Jennifer B; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Soto, Daniel; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2013-05-01

    Risk for smoking initiation increases as Hispanic youth acculturate to U.S. society, and this association seems to be stronger for Hispanic girls than boys. To better understand the influence of culture, family, and everyday discrimination on cigarette smoking, we tested a process-oriented model of acculturation and cigarette smoking. Data came from Project RED (Reteniendo y Entendiendo Diversidad para Salud), which included 1,436 Hispanic students (54% girls) from Southern California. We used data from 9th to 11th grade (85% were 14 years old, and 86% were U.S. born) to test the influence of acculturation-related experiences on smoking over time. Multigroup structural equation analysis suggested that acculturation was associated with increased familismo and lower traditional gender roles, and enculturation was linked more with familismo and respeto. Familismo, respeto, and traditional gender roles were linked with lower family conflict and increased family cohesion, and these links were stronger for girls. Familismo and respeto were further associated with lower discrimination. Conversely, fatalismo was linked with worse family functioning (especially for boys) and increased discrimination in both the groups. Discrimination was the only predictor of smoking for boys and girls. In all, the results of the current study indicate that reducing discrimination and helping youth cope with discrimination may prevent or reduce smoking in Hispanic boys and girls. This may be achieved by promoting familismo and respeto and by discouraging fatalistic beliefs.

  5. Are parental gender role beliefs a predictor of change in sexual communication in a prevention program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale McKee, Laura; Forehand, Rex; Miller, Kim S; Whitaker, Daniel J; Long, Nicholas; Armistead, Lisa

    2007-07-01

    This study examined if pre-intervention maternal gender role beliefs predict change in sexual communication in a sexual risk behavior prevention program designed to increase parent-pre-adolescent communication about sex. A sample of 281 African American fourth and fifth graders and their mothers participated in the five-session program and completed computerized questionnaires at baseline, postintervention, and 6-month follow-up. Based on mother report, more egalitarian maternal gender role beliefs predicted greater increases in parent-pre-adolescent communication about sex at postintervention. Based on pre-adolescent report, similar findings emerged at the 6-month follow-up, but only for boys. The relationship of maternal gender role beliefs to changes in sexual communication was not accounted for by maternal comfort with sexual communication with their pre-adolescents. The implications of maternal gender role beliefs in a prevention program designed to increase communication about sexual topics are considered.

  6. Effects of Gendered Language on Gender Stereotyping in Computer-Mediated Communication: The Moderating Role of Depersonalization and Gender-Role Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Ju

    2007-01-01

    This experiment examined what situational and dispositional features moderate the effects of linguistic gender cues on gender stereotyping in anonymous, text-based computer-mediated communication. Participants played a trivia game with an ostensible partner via computer, whose comments represented either prototypically masculine or feminine…

  7. Ambivalent Sexism and Power-Related Gender-role Ideology in Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhixia; Fiske, Susan T; Lee, Tiane L

    2009-06-01

    Glick-Fiske's (1996) Ambivalent Sexism Inventory(ASI) and a new Gender-Role Ideology in Marriage (GRIM) inventory examine ambivalent sexism toward women, predicting power-related, gender-role beliefs about mate selection and marriage norms. Mainland Chinese, 552, and 252 U.S. undergraduates participated. Results indicated that Chinese and men most endorsed hostile sexism; Chinese women more than U.S. women accepted benevolent sexism. Both Chinese genders prefer home-oriented mates (women especially seeking a provider and upholding him; men especially endorsing male-success/female-housework, male dominance, and possibly violence). Both U.S. genders prefer considerate mates (men especially seeking an attractive one). Despite gender and culture differences in means, ASI-GRIM correlations replicate across those subgroups: Benevolence predicts initial mate selection; hostility predicts subsequent marriage norms.

  8. Ambivalent Sexism and Power-Related Gender-role Ideology in Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhixia; Fiske, Susan T.; Lee, Tiane L.

    2013-01-01

    Glick-Fiske's (1996) Ambivalent Sexism Inventory(ASI) and a new Gender-Role Ideology in Marriage (GRIM) inventory examine ambivalent sexism toward women, predicting power-related, gender-role beliefs about mate selection and marriage norms. Mainland Chinese, 552, and 252 U.S. undergraduates participated. Results indicated that Chinese and men most endorsed hostile sexism; Chinese women more than U.S. women accepted benevolent sexism. Both Chinese genders prefer home-oriented mates (women especially seeking a provider and upholding him; men especially endorsing male-success/female-housework, male dominance, and possibly violence). Both U.S. genders prefer considerate mates (men especially seeking an attractive one). Despite gender and culture differences in means, ASI-GRIM correlations replicate across those subgroups: Benevolence predicts initial mate selection; hostility predicts subsequent marriage norms. PMID:24058258

  9. The role of skin conductance level reactivity in the impact of children's exposure to interparental conflict on their attention performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemp, Martina; Bodenmann, Guy; Mark Cummings, E

    2014-02-01

    Previous research suggests that undermining of attention performance might be one decisive underlying mechanism in the link between marital conflict and children's academic maladjustment, but little is known about specific risk patterns in this regard. This study examines, in an experimental approach, the role of children's history of interparental discord and skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) as moderators in the link between analogue marital conflict exposure and children's attention. The attention performance of 57 children, aged 11 to 13 years, was assessed prior to and immediately after a 1-min video exposure to either (a) a couple conflict or (b) a neutral condition. SCLR was measured continuously throughout the stimulus presentation. Results indicated that children's family background of interparental conflict and their physiological reactivity moderated the influence of the experimental stimulus on children's short-term attention performance. Lower SCLR served as a protective factor in children from high-conflict homes exposed to the couple conflict. The current study advances the body of knowledge in this field by identifying risk patterns for the development of attention problems in children in relation to marital conflict exposure.

  10. Perceived Workplace Culture as an Antecedent of Job Stress: The Mediating Role of Work-Family Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminah Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Few studies have tested the mediating effect of work-family conflict on the relationship between workplace culture and job stress. Approach: This study tested a mediation model consisting of job stress as the dependent variable, perceived family-supportive work culture as the independent variable and work-family conflict as the mediator. Data were gathered from 693 employees from private service organizations in the Klang Valley, Malaysia, using self-administered questionnaires. The data were analyzed using correlation and multiple regression analyses. Results: Results of correlation analysis revealed that perceived family-supportive work culture was related to work-family conflict and job stress and work-family conflict was related to job stress. Results of a series of multiple regression analyses indicated that work-family conflict partially mediates the relationship between perceived family-supportive work culture and job stress. Conclusion/Recommendations: Employees who perceive that their organizations are family-supportive seem to experience less stress at the workplace and less work-family conflict. Employers should take into consideration employees’ perceptions of how supportive the organization is of their family needs as a factor that could reduce the experience of work-family conflict and job stress. Employers should also look into the possibility of developing programmes to assist employees in managing work-family roles.

  11. Nurses as image emissaries: are role conflicts impinging on a potential asset for an internal marketing strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafer, J C; Joiner, C

    1984-01-01

    This article addresses role conflict and image problems nurses have with role partners. If these problems were corrected, nurses could be valuable assets in a "team selling" effort to help hospitals build their images. This research integrates sales management concepts and cites literature alluding to sales management research on identical problems.

  12. Work-Family Conflict, Resources, and Role Set Density: Assessing Their Effects on Distress among Working Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Liat; Liberman, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    We explored the relationships between the experience of work-family conflict and levels of distress in the family and at work among a sample of 227 Israeli working mothers. We also examined how role set density (RSD, the number of roles they perform) and personal and environmental resources are related to the women's experience of distress.…

  13. The Role of Social Support on the Relationship between Gender and Career Progression in STEM Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    Association of University Professors, 2001). Wolfinger et al. hypothesize that women have had to adapt to the “male career model” in the academic workplace...THE ROLE OF SOCIAL SUPPORT ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GENDER AND CAREER PROGRESSION IN STEM...in the United States. v AFIT-ENV-MS-15-M-204 THE ROLE OF SOCIAL SUPPORT ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GENDER AND CAREER PROGRESSION IN

  14. Covenant Marriage and the Sanctification of Gendered Marital Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Elizabeth H.; Sanchez, Laura A.; Nock, Steven L.; Wright, James D.

    2009-01-01

    This study contributes to research on the deinstitutionalization of marriage and changing gender ideologies by focusing on a unique group of marriage innovators. With quantitative and qualitative data from the Marriage Matters project (1997-2004), this study used a symbolic interactionist perspective to compare covenant- and standard-married…

  15. Personality Traits and Examination Anxiety: Moderating Role of Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Arezou; Abdul.Kadir, Rusnani bte; Elias, Habibah bte; Baba, Maznah bte

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at examining the moderating effect of gender on the relationship between personality traits and state anxiety. The participants were 375 Iranian high school students (193 males and 182 females). The instruments used were the NEO-FFI-3 Inventory and State Anxiety Inventory. Results of the structural model showed that from the…

  16. The catecholamine response to spaceflight: role of diet and gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, T. P.; Wade, C. E.

    2001-01-01

    Compared with men, women appear to have a decreased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) response to stress. The two manifestations where the sexual dimorphism has been the most pronounced involve the response of the SNS to fluid shifts and fuel metabolism during exercise. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether a similar sexual dimorphism was found in the response to spaceflight. To do so, we compared catecholamine excretion by male and female astronauts from two similar shuttle missions, Spacelab Life Sciences 1 (SLS1, 1991) and 2 (SLS2, 1993) for evidence of sexual dimorphism. To evaluate the variability of the catecholamine response in men, we compared catecholamine excretion from the two SLS missions against the 1996 Life and Microgravity Sciences Mission (LMS) and the 1973 Skylab missions. RESULTS: No gender- or mission-dependent changes were found with epinephrine. Separating out the SLS1/2 data by gender shows that norepinephrine excretion was essentially unchanged with spaceflight in women (98 +/- 10%; n = 3) and substantially decreased with the men (41 +/- 9%; n = 4, P gender-specific effects. We conclude that norepinephrine excretion during spaceflight is both mission and gender dependent. Men show the greater response, with at least three factors being involved, a response to microgravity, energy balance, and the ratio of carbohydrate to fat in the diet.

  17. Communicating fatigue in general practice and the role of gender.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuwesen, L.; Bensing, J.; Brink-Muinen, A. van den

    2002-01-01

    From the viewpoint of quality of care, doctor-patient communication has become more and more important. Gender is an important factor in communication. Besides, cultural norms and values are likely to influence doctor-patient communication as well. This study examined (1) whether or not communicatio

  18. Parental influence on gender and marital role attitudes: implications for intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, D K; Velasquez, J M; Clark, B L; Means-Christensen, A J

    1997-04-01

    This study examined parental influence on specific attitudes toward marital and parental roles and nonspecific gender-role attitudes. Respondents included 173 young adults (127 women and 46 men) and their parents. Young adults' scores on the Role Orientation scale of the Marital Satisfaction Inventory and on masculinity and femininity scales from two self-report inventories (the MMPI-2 and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire) were correlated with their parents' scores on a subset of these same measures. Results indicated that (a) marital and parental role attitudes among young adults are strongly related to specific marital role attitudes of their parents but only modestly related (for women) or unrelated (for men) to nonspecific gender-role attitudes of their parents; (b) broader gender-role attitudes of young men are moderately correlated with their father's attitudes but generally uncorrelated with their mother's attitudes regarding gender roles; and (c) the relationship of young women's gender-role attitudes to both maternal and paternal attitudes is generally weaker and more complex than for young men. Clinical implications of these findings for assessment and intervention with distressed couples are discussed.

  19. The role of computer use and English proficiency in gender wage inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Long Hwa; Chen, Hsin-Fan

    2007-01-01

    This paper uses the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition and accounts for potential identification bias in order to shed light on the role of computer use as well as English ability on the gender wage differential in Taiwan. The results show that both computer use and English proficiency benefit female w...... wage earners and contribute to an equalization of the gender wage gap.......This paper uses the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition and accounts for potential identification bias in order to shed light on the role of computer use as well as English ability on the gender wage differential in Taiwan. The results show that both computer use and English proficiency benefit female...

  20. Gender Role Discrepancy Stress, High-Risk Sexual Behavior, and Sexually Transmitted Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Dennis E; Brookmeyer, Kathryn A; Gentile, Brittany; Berke, Danielle S; Zeichner, Amos

    2016-02-01

    Nearly 20 million new sexually transmitted infections occur every year in the United States. Traditionally, men have demonstrated much greater risk for contraction of and mortality from STDs perhaps because they tend to engage in a number of risky sexual activities. Research on masculinity suggests that gender roles influence males' sexual health by encouraging risk-taking behavior, discouraging access to health services, and narrowly defining their roles as partners. However, despite the propensity of highly masculine men to engage in high-risk sexual behavior, there is reason to suspect that men at the other end of the continuum may still be driven to engage in similar high-risk behaviors as a consequence of gender socialization. Discrepancy stress is a form of gender role stress that occurs when men fail to live up to the ideal manhood derived from societal prescriptions (i.e., Gender Role Discrepancy). In the present study, we surveyed a national sample of 600 men via Amazon Mechanical Turk to assess perceived gender role discrepancy, experience of discrepancy stress, and the associations with risky sexual behavior and potential contraction of STDs. Results indicated that men who believe they are less masculine than the typical man (i.e., gender role discrepancy) and experience distress stemming from this discrepancy (i.e., discrepancy stress) engage in high-risk sexual behavior and are subsequently diagnosed with more STDs. Findings are discussed in relation to implications for primary prevention strategies.

  1. Care guides: an examination of occupational conflict and role relationships in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wholey, Douglas R; White, Katie M; Adair, Richard; Christianson, Jon B; Lee, Suhna; Elumba, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Improving the efficiency and effectiveness of primary care treatment of patients with chronic illness is an important goal in reforming the U.S. health care system. Reducing occupational conflicts and creating interdependent primary care teams is crucial for the effective functioning of new models being developed to reorganize chronic care. Occupational conflict, role interdependence, and resistance to change in a proof-of-concept pilot test of one such model that uses a new kind of employee in the primary care office, a "care guide," were analyzed. Care guides are lay individuals who help chronic disease patients and their providers achieve standard health goals. The aim of this study was to examine the development of occupational boundaries, interdependence of care guides and primary care team members, and acceptance by clinic employees of this new kind of health worker. A mixed methods, pilot study was conducted using qualitative analysis; clinic, provider, and patient surveys; administrative data; and multivariate analysis. Qualitative analysis examined the emergence of the care guide role. Administrative data and surveys were used to examine patterns of interdependence between care guides, physicians, team members, and clinic staff; obtain physician evaluations of the care guide role; and evaluate the effect of care guides on patient perceptions of care coordination and follow-up. Evaluation of implementation of the care guide model showed that (a) the care guide scope of practice was clearly defined; (b) interdependent relationships between care guides and providers were formed; (c) relational triads consisting of patient, care guide, and physician were created; (d) patients and providers were supported in managing chronic disease; and (e) resistance to this model among traditional employees was minimized. The feasibility of implementing a new care model for chronic disease management in the primary care setting, identifying factors associated with a positive

  2. Help to perpetuate traditional gender roles: Benevolent sexism increases engagement in dependency-oriented cross-gender helping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnabel, Nurit; Bar-Anan, Yoav; Kende, Anna; Bareket, Orly; Lazar, Yael

    2016-01-01

    Based on theorizing that helping relations may serve as a subtle mechanism to reinforce intergroup inequality, the present research (N = 1,315) examined the relation between benevolent sexism (i.e., a chivalrous yet subtly oppressive view of women) and helping. In cross-gender interactions, the endorsement of (Studies 1, 3, and 4) or exposure to (Study 2) benevolent sexism predicted (a) men's preference to provide women with dependency-oriented help (i.e., direct assistance) rather than tools for autonomous coping, and (b) women's preference to seek dependency-oriented help rather than tools for autonomous coping. Benevolent sexism did not predict men's and women's engagement in dependency-oriented helping relations in same-gender interactions. Studies 1 and 2 examined behavioral intentions in response to a series of hypothetical scenarios; Studies 3 and 4 examined actual behavior in tests of mathematical and logical ability, and pointed to assumed partner's expectations as a potential mediator. The converging evidence supports the hypothesis that benevolent sexism encourages engagement in cross-gender helping relations that perpetuate traditional gender roles.

  3. Adolescents’ conflict resolution styles toward mothers : The role of parenting and personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Missotten, L.C.; Luyckx, K.; Van Leeuwen, K.; Klimstra, T.A.; Branje, S.T.J.

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, we examined associations between contextual and individual factors and adolescents’ conflict resolution with mothers. In Study 1, we explored links between maternal responsiveness and psychological control and adolescent conflict resolution styles (positive problem solving,

  4. Adolescents’ Conflict Resolution Styles Toward Mothers : The Role of Parenting and Personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Missotten, Lies Christine; Luyckx, Koen; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Klimstra, Theo; Branje, Susan

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, we examined associations between contextual and individual factors and adolescents’ conflict resolution with mothers. In Study 1, we explored links between maternal responsiveness and psychological control and adolescent conflict resolution styles (positive problem solving,

  5. The role of satisfaction, norms and conflict in families' eating behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Svein Ottar; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to analyse the relationship between satisfaction and consumer behaviour by proposing and testing a model of how moral and social influences interact with individual satisfaction and conflict to explain and understand consumer behaviour in a family context, u....... Originality/value - The results highlighted here have important managerial implications for the use of satisfaction data in marketing and will be of use to those working in that field.......Purpose - The purpose of this study is to analyse the relationship between satisfaction and consumer behaviour by proposing and testing a model of how moral and social influences interact with individual satisfaction and conflict to explain and understand consumer behaviour in a family context......-reported data and does not include observational data. It is also based on cross-sectional data. The results underline the importance of social factors when dealing with the relationship between satisfaction and behaviour in a family context. Practical implications - The role of satisfaction as a strategic...

  6. Gender Nonconformity and Birth Order in Relation to Anal Sex Role Among Gay Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Coome, Lindsay A; Monks, D Ashley; VanderLaan, Doug P

    2017-04-04

    Androphilia is associated with an elevated number of older brothers among natal males. This association, termed the fraternal birth order effect, has been observed among gay men who exhibit marked gender nonconformity. Gender nonconformity has been linked to gay men's preferred anal sex role. The present study investigated whether these two lines of research intersect by addressing whether the fraternal birth order effect was associated with both gender nonconformity and a receptive anal sex role (243 gay men, 91 heterosexual men). Consistent with previous research, we identified the fraternal birth order effect in our sample of gay men. Also, gay men were significantly more gender-nonconforming on adulthood and recalled childhood measures compared to heterosexual men. When gay men were compared based on anal sex role (i.e., top, versatile, bottom), all groups showed significantly greater recalled childhood and adult male gender nonconformity than heterosexual men, but bottoms were most nonconforming. Only gay men with a bottom anal sex role showed evidence of a fraternal birth order effect. A sororal birth order effect was found in our sample of gay men, driven by versatiles. No significant associations were found between fraternal birth order and gender nonconformity measures. These results suggest that the fraternal birth order effect may apply to a subset of gay men who have a bottom anal sex role preference and that this subgroup is more gender-nonconforming. However, there were no significant associations between fraternal birth order and gender nonconformity at the individual level. As such, based on the present study, whether processes underpinning the fraternal birth order effect influence gender nonconformity is equivocal.

  7. Fleeing through the Globalised Education System: The Role of Violence and Conflict in International Student Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkegaard, Ane Marie Ørbø; Nat-George, Sisse Mari-Louise Wulff

    2016-01-01

    This article connects directly to the globalisation of both education and conflict, and attends to the intersection between these phenomena, by focusing on conflict-induced student migration, an area, which has until recently been neglected in studies of higher education and migration, and peace and conflict research. The focus is on the very…

  8. Reaping the Benefits of Task Conflict in Teams: The Critical Role of Team Psychological Safety Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Bret H.; Postlethwaite, Bennett E.; Klotz, Anthony C.; Hamdani, Maria R.; Brown, Kenneth G.

    2012-01-01

    Past research suggests that task conflict may improve team performance under certain conditions; however, we know little about these specific conditions. On the basis of prior theory and research on conflict in teams, we argue that a climate of psychological safety is one specific context under which task conflict will improve team performance.…

  9. The Role of Facial Microexpression State (FMES) Change in the Process of Conceptual Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Mei-Hung; Chou, Chin-Cheng; Wu, Wen-Lung; Liaw, Hongming

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores whether facial microexpression state (FMES) changes can be used to identify moments of conceptual conflict, one of the pathways to conceptual change. It is known that when the preconditions of conceptual conflicts are met and conceptual conflicts are detected in students, it is then possible for conceptual change to take place.…

  10. Gender dysphoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... concept Gender dysphoria is not the same as homosexuality. Identity conflicts need to continue over time to ... to be the opposite sex. Treatment Individual and family therapy is recommended for children to create a ...

  11. A review of parenting and adolescent sexual behavior: The moderating role of gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincaid, Carlye; Jones, Deborah J.; Sterrett, Emma; McKee, Laura

    2013-01-01

    In spite of the established link between parenting and adolescent sexual risk behavior, less is known about the role of adolescent gender as a potential moderator of this association. This literature review integrates findings from 24 studies to examine gender as a moderator of the link between parenting and youth sexual risk behavior. Despite the wide variability in methodology across the reviewed studies, findings suggest that monitoring may be more protective against sexual risk behavior for boys than girls, whereas parental warmth and emotional connection may be an especially salient factor for girls. The results of this review support further research on gender as an important factor in better understanding the role of parenting in the development of adolescent sexual behavior. Furthermore, the findings highlight the potential role of gender-specific, tailored family-focused prevention programs targeting sexual behavior. PMID:22366393

  12. The Context of Current Content Analysis of Gender Roles: An Introduction to a Special Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudy, Rena M; Popova, Lucy; Linz, Daniel G

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide context for the quantitative content analyses of gender roles that are to be included in both parts of this special issue. First, a timeline of historical uses of the content analysis methodology is presented. Second, research objectives that frequently drive content analysis of gender roles are described; these include: to support feminist claims, to compare media with real life, to predict effects on audiences, and to detect effects of media producers on content. Third, previous content analyses published in Sex Roles and other gender-focused journals are reviewed and categorized in terms of medium, genre, time span, gender, and nationality. Finally, contributions of each of the articles in this special issue are outlined.

  13. The Context of Current Content Analysis of Gender Roles: An Introduction to a Special Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Lucy; Linz, Daniel G.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide context for the quantitative content analyses of gender roles that are to be included in both parts of this special issue. First, a timeline of historical uses of the content analysis methodology is presented. Second, research objectives that frequently drive content analysis of gender roles are described; these include: to support feminist claims, to compare media with real life, to predict effects on audiences, and to detect effects of media producers on content. Third, previous content analyses published in Sex Roles and other gender-focused journals are reviewed and categorized in terms of medium, genre, time span, gender, and nationality. Finally, contributions of each of the articles in this special issue are outlined. PMID:20694031

  14. Roles in violent interactions in early adolescence: Relations with personality traits, friendship and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Petar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the relations between roles in violent interactions and personality traits (congruent to dimensions of Big Seven lexical model, number of friends, and gender. The study was conducted on a sample of 1095 elementary school students from Serbia (51.4% female, aged 11-14. The results revealed that membership in the victims group corresponds to smaller number of friends, low Extraversion, high Neuroticism and Conscientiousness and male gender, while higher Aggressiveness, Negative and Positive Valence, lower Neuroticism, and male gender increase the odds of membership in the bullies group. The role of bully-victims corresponds to smaller number of friends, higher Negative Valence and Neuroticism, and male gender. The results point to differences between roles in violent interaction with regard to patterns of personality traits and social behavior. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON179006: Psychological foundations of mental health: hereditary and environmental factors

  15. My life with TICs: the role of gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Gil Juárez

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the links between the exposure to, and use of, TICs in both public and private life. I shall explain how, in spite of my own easy access to TICs, barriers of gender or migration have meant that this is not a universal experience - whether in the public or private domain. For some, TICs are habitually under-used and an object of some ignorance; for others, they are both a means and indeed an object of investigation. I shall examine the effects not only of gender and class, but also the production of knowledge about (and access to TICs, as for example in moral panics over videogames and mobile phones. I shall concentrate on TICs in everyday life, and in the construction of the identity of TICs' users.

  16. Diferenças culturais e de gênero em conflitos de pré-escolares Cultural and gender differences in preschool children's conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lima Salum e Morais

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo compara episódios de conflitos entre crianças de quatro a cinco anos de idade, pertencentes a dois grupos culturais: um de uma grande metrópole (São Paulo e outro de uma pequena comunidade praiana do estado de São Paulo (Ubatuba. Foram observadas 39 crianças (20 meninas e 19 meninos. Analisaram-se os motivos, as estratégias de oposição, as reações à oposição e o desenlace de conflitos. Nos dois grupos e gêneros, o motivo mais freqüente para os conflitos foi a disputa por brinquedos e as estratégias de resolução pró-sociais mesclaram-se com as coercitivas. Algumas diferenças comportamentais de gênero encontradas nas crianças de São Paulo, diferentemente do que se observou em Ubatuba, assemelharam-se às verificadas em estudos europeus e norte-americanos: os meninos se mostraram mais agressivos e as meninas, mais conciliadoras. As crianças paulistanas apresentaram maior número de táticas verbais, enquanto as estratégias diretas e proximais predominaram entre as ubatubanas. O estudo evidencia a importância de considerar as influências culturais na resolução de conflitos entre crianças.The study compares conflict episodes of four- to five-year-old children of two cultural groups: one from a big city (São Paulo, and another from a small seashore community in the State of São Paulo (Ubatuba. 20 girls and 19 boys were observed in their free preschool activities. Motives, strategies of opposition, reactions to opposition, and conflicts outcomes were analyzed. The most frequent motive for conflicts was the dispute for toys and other objects. Pro-social and coercive strategies were found in children from both genders and groups. Behavioral differences between genders in the children from São Paulo, differently from what occurred with the children from Ubatuba, were similar to those found in European an North American studies: boys used more aggressive tactics, while girls tended to be more conciliatory. S

  17. Career Plans and Gender-Role Attitudes of College Students in the United States, Japan, and Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinaga, Yasuko; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examines attitudes about careers and gender roles for 156 college students from the United States, 621 from Japan, and 157 from Slovenia. A factor analysis indicates that career values form different factors within each country and gender. In all three countries, women are less traditional in gender role attitudes than men. (SLD)

  18. The dual roles of rural midwives: the potential for role conflict and impact on retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Karen; Usher, Kim; Kelly, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    Nurses and midwives continue to make up the largest proportion of the health workforce. As a result, shortages of nurses and midwives have a significant impact on the delivery of effective health care. Shortages of nurses and midwives are known to be more pronounced in rural and remote areas where recruitment and retention remain problematic. However, rural nurses are often required to be multi-skilled, which has led to expectations that nurses who are also midwives, are required to work across areas of the hospital to help to address shortages. For midwives this issue is even more problematic as they may actually end up spending a very small percentage of their working day involved in the delivery of maternity care. This workforce strategy has the potential to seriously erode the skills of the midwives. Situations such as this are implicated in attrition of midwives because of the role stress that results when they are required to work in models of care where they experience the constant pull to work between departments and across roles. This paper addresses the requirement for midwives in some rural facilities to work across roles of general nurse and midwife and outlines the issues that arise as a result. In particular, the paper links the concepts of Role Theory to the requirement for midwives to work in dual roles and the potential for role stress to develop.

  19. Nurses executive characteristics. Gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozier, C K

    1996-12-01

    Do male nurse executives working in a female-dominated profession adopt more of the female leadership characteristics? A study investigates gender differences of nurse executives on a variety of managerial attributes: sex role, supervision, power, career commitment and work/family conflict. Results also were compared to executives of other professions.

  20. Role descriptions induce gender mismatch effects in eye movements during reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara eReali

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present eye-tracking study investigates the effect of gender typicality on the resolution of anaphoric personal pronouns in English. Participants read descriptions of a person performing a typically male, typically female or gender-neutral occupational activity. The description was followed by an anaphoric reference (he or she which revealed the referent's gender. The first experiment presented roles which were highly typical for men (e.g., blacksmith or for women (e.g., beautician, the second experiment presented role descriptions with a moderate degree of gender typicality (e.g., psychologist, lawyer. Results revealed a gender mismatch effect in early and late measures in the first experiment and in an early measure in the second experiment. Moreover, eye-movement data for highly typical roles correlated with explicit typicality ratings. The results are discussed from a cross-linguistic perspective, comparing natural gender languages and grammatical gender languages. An interpretation of the cognitive representation of typicality beliefs is proposed.

  1. Sexuality and Gender Role in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejerot, Susanne; Eriksson, Jonna M.

    2014-01-01

    The ‘extreme male brain theory of autism’ describes an extreme male pattern of cognitive traits defined as strong systemising abilities paired with empathising weaknesses in autism spectrum disorder. However, beyond these cognitive traits, clinical observations have suggested an ambiguous gender-typed pattern regarding several sexually dimorphic traits. The aim of the present study was to investigate if patterns of non-cognitive sexually dimorphic traits differed between the autism spectrum disorder and control groups. Fifty adults with autism spectrum disorder and intelligence within the normal range, and 53 neurotypical controls responded to questions on gender role, self-perceived gender typicality and gender identity, as well as sexuality. Measures used were a Swedish modification of the Bem Sex Role Inventory and questions on sexuality and gender designed for the purpose of this study. Our results showed that one common gender role emerged in the autism spectrum disorder group. Masculinity (e.g. assertiveness, leadership and competitiveness) was weaker in the autism spectrum disorder group than in the controls, across men and women. Self-perceived gender typicality did not differ between the groups but tomboyism and bisexuality were overrepresented amongst women with autism spectrum disorder. Lower libido was reported amongst both male and female participants with autism spectrum disorder compared with controls. We conclude that the extreme male patterns of cognitive functions in the autistic brain do not seem to extend to gender role and sexuality. A gender-atypical pattern for these types of characteristics is suggested in autism spectrum disorder. PMID:24498228

  2. Performing self, performing character: Exploring gender performativity in online role-playing games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Osborne

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Online narrative (fiction-based role-playing games and massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs provide a ludic structure in which role players enact the gender and sexuality of their avatars. To investigate how role players perceive and perform their avatars' gender and sexuality in online games, I invited role players from MMORPGs and narrative RPGs to participate in an online survey. This study examines how the online game environment mediates players' self-expression and their acceptance of minority identities. Qualitative analysis of the data collected suggests that players who demonstrate empathy with and examination of their avatars' genders and sexualities, and who experience a sense of belonging within the game structure, are able to form positive interpersonal relationships that allow them to accept others' expressed identities.

  3. The role of conflict minerals, artisanal mining, and informal trading networks in African intrastate and regional conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between natural resources and armed conflict gained public and political attention in the 1990s, when it became evident that the mining and trading of diamonds were connected with brutal rebellions in several African nations. Easily extracted resources such as alluvial diamonds and gold have been and continue to be exploited by rebel groups to fund their activities. Artisanal and small-scale miners operating under a quasi-legal status often mine these mineral deposits. While many African countries have legalized artisanal mining and established flow chains through which production is intended to travel, informal trading networks frequently emerge in which miners seek to evade taxes and fees by selling to unauthorized buyers. These networks have the potential to become international in scope, with actors operating in multiple countries. The lack of government control over the artisanal mining sector and the prominence of informal trade networks can have severe social, political, and economic consequences. In the past, mineral extraction fuelled violent civil wars in Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Angola, and it continues to do so today in several other countries. The significant influence of the informal network that surrounds artisanal mining is therefore an important security concern that can extend across borders and have far-reaching impacts.

  4. Girls' math performance under stereotype threat: the moderating role of mothers' gender stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasetto, Carlo; Alparone, Francesca Romana; Cadinu, Mara

    2011-07-01

    Previous research on stereotype threat in children suggests that making gender identity salient disrupts girls' math performance at as early as 5 to 7 years of age. The present study (n = 124) tested the hypothesis that parents' endorsement of gender stereotypes about math moderates girls' susceptibility to stereotype threat. Results confirmed that stereotype threat impaired girls' performance on math tasks among students from kindergarten through 2nd grade. Moreover, mothers' but not fathers' endorsement of gender stereotypes about math moderated girls' vulnerability to stereotype threat: performance of girls whose mothers strongly rejected the gender stereotype about math did not decrease under stereotype threat. These findings are important because they point to the role of mothers' beliefs in the development of girls' vulnerability to the negative effects of gender stereotypes about math.

  5. Culture and vocational interests: the moderating role of collectivism and gender egalitarianism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott-Holland, Catherine J; Huang, Jason L; Ryan, Ann Marie; Elizondo, Fabian; Wadlington, Patrick L

    2013-10-01

    In some cultures, individuals are free to pursue careers that match their personalities. In others, familial and societal expectations regarding career paths may restrict the links between individual personality and interests. Gender role expectations also may vary across cultures and may be associated with gender differences in interests. Past meta-analytic research has shown some career interests are related to personality traits (Barrick, Mount, & Gupta, 2003; Larson, Rottinghaus, & Borgen, 2002), but the cross-cultural variation of these relationships has not been sufficiently explored. Interest and personality data were obtained from an archival data set of 391,485 individuals from 20 countries. Results indicated that in cultures with high in-group collectivism, connections between personality traits and occupational interests may be less pronounced. Cultural gender egalitarianism moderated the level of gender differences in interests, unexpectedly demonstrating that gender differences may be wider in egalitarian cultures. Implications for career guidance in multicultural settings are discussed.

  6. The Examination of the Effects of Biological Gender and Gender Identity Roles on Attitude of the Consumers to Advertisements Applied by Accomodation Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren Güçer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, especially focused on the concept of psychological-based gender identity and researched if there is a differentiation characteristic of consumers’ sex and gender identity roles (masculinity, femininity, androgynous and neutral on consumers’ attitude toward advertisements of accomodation establishments.According to the results,there is a general accordance between biological sex and gender identity roles of individuals and alsothe results of the previous studies were made in different areas in the same subject was supported with determination ofit is possible to participants have gender identity roles different from their biological sex to some extent.Otherwise; determination of theadvertisements ofaccomodationestablishments, contain feminine messages, are more preferred by people who have feminine and androgynous identity than the others; and advertisements ofaccomodationestablishments, contain masculinemessages, are preferred by all gender identity roles are ones of the results

  7. Social policies and families in stress: Gender and educational differences in work-family conflict from a European perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, N.J.W.R.; Grunow, D.; Verbakel, C.M.C.

    2017-01-01

    In modern welfare states, family policies may resolve the tension between employment and care-focused demands. However these policies sometimes have adverse consequences for distinct social groups. This study examined gender and educational differences in working parents' perceived work-family

  8. Mentoring Relationships and the Levels of Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity Experienced by Neophyte Nursing Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    After an examination of the current issues related to the shortages of nurses and nursing faculty in the United States, the importance of facilitating the transition of interested nurse clinicians into their roles as nurse educators in order to address the decreased number of nurses and nursing faculty became apparent. Mentoring in nursing…

  9. Power and Resistance: short theoretical considerations on the role played by humor in public-private conflicts in organizational contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Cristina Salgueiro Marques

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss the role played by humor as a form of resistance in organizations. To reach this intent we systemize a wide range of recent literature produced on the subject in the scope of the critical organizational studies. Our objective is to contribute for the consolidation of a field of research in Brazil that is extremely rich specially when at one hand, it stresses the active tensions of the forces in conflict within the process of opinion formation and, on the other hand the conformation of the social interactions in organizational contexts and their consequences for its cultural and dynamic configurations. Conflict is taken here as a crucial element for setting relations in motion. Therefore it cannot assume the functional and disruptive role as assumed by a functional or structural classic approach. Conflict and resistance represent an important interpretative key on the contemporary public-private tensions.

  10. [The Relationship Between Marital Adjustment and Psychological Symptoms in Women: The Mediator Roles of Coping Strategies and Gender Role Attitudes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Özge; Dağ, İhsan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study were to investigate the mediator role of coping strategies and gender roles attitudes on the relationship between women's marital adjustment and psychological symptoms. 248 married women participated in the study. Participants completed Marital Adjustment Scale, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, Brief Symptom Inventory, Gender Role Attitudes Scale and Demographic Information Form. Regression analyses revealed that Submissive (Sobel z= -2.47, prole on the relationship between marital relationship score and psychological symptom level. Also, having Egalitarian Gender Role Attitude effects the psychological symptoms in relation with the marital relationship, but it is seen that this effect is not higher enough to play a mediator role (Sobel z =-1.21, p>.05). Regression analysis showed that there is a statistically significant correlation between women's marital adjustment and their psychological symptoms, indicating that the marital adjustment decreases as the psychological symptoms increases. It is also found out that submissive and helpless coping approach have mediator roles in this relationship. Also, contrary to expectations, having egalitarian gender role attitude effects the psychological symptoms in relation with the marital relationship, but this effect does not seem to play a mediator role. It is thought that the effects of marriage and couple therapy approaches considering couples’s problem solving and coping styles should be examined in further studies.

  11. Creating Gender Role Behavior: Demonstrating the Impact of Power Differentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lynn H.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a demonstration that draws parallels between the Zimbardo prison experiment and the impact that assignment to low and high power roles can have on the behavior of men and women. Finds that students rated women as more similar to prisoners (subordinate role) and men as more similar to guards (dominant role). (CMK)

  12. The role of occupational attributes in gender earnings inequality, 1970-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Hadas

    2016-01-01

    Grounded in the research on the important role of social structures in forming gender inequalities, this study examines the effect of occupational attributes on the gender earnings gap over four decades. Using the IPUMS-USA from 1970 to 2010, the paper shows that occupational attributes cannot be reduced to the aggregate attributes of their individual incumbents. Rather, the effect of occupations on the gender earnings gap goes far beyond both the distributive role of occupational segregation and the effect of individual wage-related characteristics. Furthermore, occupations not only explain a significant portion of net gender pay gaps, but have also contributed to the narrowing of the gaps over the past several decades, as occupational attributes that favor women's pay have become more dominant over time.

  13. Relationship of submissive behavior and cyberbullying/cybervictimization: The mediation role of gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Peker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the mediating role of gender in relationship between submissive behavior and cyber bullying/cyber victimization. The sample included 193 female and 137 male. Data were obtained using Submissive Behavior Scale and Revized Cyberbullying Inventory and analyzed by SPSS 11.5. Hierarchical regression was used to explore the mediating role of gender in relationship between submissive behavior and cyber bullying/cyber victimization. According to results, submissive behavior was positively related to cyber bullying and cyber victimization. In addition gender was found to fully mediate the relationship between submissive behavior and cyber bullying. However, gender failed to mediate the effects of submissive behavior on cyber victimization. 

  14. Gender differences in ethical perceptions of business practices: a social role theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, G R; Crown, D F; Spake, D F

    1997-12-01

    This study presents a meta-analysis of research on gender differences in perceptions of ethical decision making. Data from more than 20,000 respondents in 66 samples show that women are more likely than men to perceive specific hypothetical business practices as unethical. As suggested by social role theory (A. H. Eagly, 1987), the gender difference observed in precareer (student) samples declines as the work experience of samples increases. Social role theory also accounts for greater gender differences in nonmonetary issues than in monetary issues. T. M. Jones's (1991) issue-contingent model of moral intensity helps explain why gender differences vary across types of behavior. Contrary to expectations, differences are not influenced by the sex of the actor or the target of the behavior and do not depend on whether the behavior involves personal relationships or action vs. inaction.

  15. Relationship of submissive behavior and cyberbullying/cybervictimization: The mediation role of gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Peker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the mediating role of gender in relationship between submissive behavior and cyber bullying/cyber victimization. The sample included 193 female and 137 male. Data were obtained using Submissive Behavior Scale and Revized Cyberbullying Inventory and analyzed by SPSS 11.5. Hierarchical regression was used to explore the mediating role of gender in relationship between submissive behavior and cyber bullying/cyber victimization. According to results, submissive behavior was positively related to cyber bullying and cyber victimization. In addition gender was found to fully mediate the relationship between submissive behavior and cyber bullying. However, gender failed to mediate the effects of submissive behavior on cyber victimization.

  16. Performing Childlore and Gender Roles in a Public School in Metro Manila Gerry M. Lanuza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study, based on my participant observation among selected elementary school students in a public school in Manila, seeks to investigate the reproduction of gender roles in the performance of play by children. Observing the performance of popular childlore and analyzing the lyrics, it employs Huizinga’s phenomenological approach to play, Vygotsky’s socio-cultural approach to child development, and poststructuralist feminist theory of identity, in analyzing rhymes and actions involved in child’s play. The study attempts to explicate how children are socialized into the adult’s gendered universe of meanings, while at the same time emphasizing the contradictory nature of childlore. That is, while childlore, especially chant games, initiates children into the gendered world of adults, it also offers children liminal spaces where children can suspend rigid gender roles.

  17. The Effect of Gender Policies on Fertility: The Moderating Role of Education and Normative Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baizan, Pau; Arpino, Bruno; Delclòs, Carlos Eric

    In this paper, we aim to assess the extent to which individual-level completed fertility varies across contexts characterized by policies supporting different gender division of labor models. We examine key labor market and care policies that shape gender relations in households and in the public domain. We also consider the role of gender norms, which can act as both a moderator and a confounding factor for policy effects. We hypothesize that, by facilitating role compatibility and reducing the gendered costs of childrearing, policies that support gender equality lead to an increase in fertility levels and to a reduction in fertility differentials by the level of education. Using individual-level data from the European Union Survey on Income and Living Conditions for 16 countries, combined with country-level data, we analyze completed fertility through multilevel Poisson's models. We find that the national level of childcare coverage is positively associated with fertility. Family allowances, prevalence of women's part-time employment and length of paid leaves were also found to be positively associated with completed fertility, though the associations were not statistically significant. These variables show a significant positive pattern according to education. A high number of average working hours for men are negatively associated with completed fertility and show a strong negative pattern by educational level. The prevalence of gender-egalitarian norms is highly predictive of fertility levels, yet we found no consistent evidence of a weaker association of gender-equality policies in countries where egalitarian values are less prevalent.

  18. The Impact of Role Conflict, Role Ambiguity and Organizational Climate on the Job Satisfaction of Academic Staff in Research-Intensive Universities in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, John

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on academics in research-intensive universities in the UK and explores their perceptions of organizational climate, role conflict, role ambiguity and job satisfaction. The findings suggest that the universities have multiple organizational climates. Three organizational climate types -- the Clan, the Hierarchy and the Adhocracy…

  19. The Impact of Role Conflict, Role Ambiguity and Organizational Climate on the Job Satisfaction of Academic Staff in Research-Intensive Universities in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, John

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on academics in research-intensive universities in the UK and explores their perceptions of organizational climate, role conflict, role ambiguity and job satisfaction. The findings suggest that the universities have multiple organizational climates. Three organizational climate types -- the Clan, the Hierarchy and the Adhocracy…

  20. Fostering good citizenship through ethical leadership: exploring the moderating role of gender and organizational politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacmar, K Michele; Bachrach, Daniel G; Harris, Kenneth J; Zivnuska, Suzanne

    2011-05-01

    Considering the implications of social exchange theory as a context for social role behavior, we tested relations between ethical leadership and both person- and task-focused organizational citizenship behavior and examined the roles played by employee gender and politics perceptions. Although social exchange theory predicts that ethical leadership is positively associated with citizenship, social role theory predicts that the nature of this relationship may vary on the basis of gender and politics perceptions. Results from data collected from 288 supervisor-subordinate dyads indicate that the pattern of male versus female employees' citizenship associated with ethical leadership depends significantly on their perceptions of politics. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  1. Considerations on the role of federalism in managing ethnic plurality in multinational states in conflict prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rodrigues

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The existence of several ethnic, religious and/or linguistic groups whose rights are not acknowledged or are continuously violated leads to tension with unpredictable consequences. If, in some cases, those groups use peaceful means to ensure that their specificities are acknowledged but, in other cases, there is frequent use of force to attain the same goals. This type of conflict occurred in the western Balkans in the 1990s or still take place in regions such as the Caucasus, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Nigeria or Myanmar in which the ethnic element, together with the religious issue, are the main causes. Though it is true that several solutions have been presented to respond to the tensions inherent to ethnic diversity of multinational States, it is also true that the several theoretical practical models have not always met the objectives and, above all, resolved situations of peace, which are often of negative peace. From minority rights to federalism, we may identify principles whose importance and adequacy to contexts may be defined as formal peace. Nevertheless, it remains important to include and frame those elements within specific cases, considering that each case is different and adapting these principles to a specific situation does not prevent them from being inadequate to a situation apparently similar. It is therefore crucial that considerations are raised on the role a political and administrative organization model such as federalism may play, partly as a complement to the law of minorities as a tool to manage ethnic diversity in States that may be defined as multinational, as well as to prevent ethnic conflicts.

  2. Conflict between work and family roles and satisfaction among nurses in different shift systems in Croatia: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simunić, Ana; Gregov, Ljiljana

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the perception of conflict between work and family roles and job, family, and life satisfaction among nurses in Croatia. One hundred and twenty-nine nurses (married mothers) working in hospitals in Zadar, Šibenik, and Split were divided in four groups according to their worktime schedule. The participants completed a survey, which included a set of sociodemographic-type questions, questions about the level and allocation of family responsibilities between spouses, and scales measuring the perceived negative effects of worktime, psychological demands of the work, work-family conflict, and semantic differential scales for measuring the affective and cognitive-evaluative component of job, family, and life satisfaction. This was the first study in Croatia to deal with work-family conflict among nurses or workers with different shift systems.The results of this study indicate that nurses working morning shifts only experienced less conflict between work and family than other groups of nurses, who worked the morning, afternoon, and the night shift. The cognitive-evaluative component of job satisfaction was the highest among morning shift nurses and the lowest in nurses who worked 12-hour shifts, while the affective component of life satisfaction was the lowest in nurses working irregular and backward rotated shifts. These results confirm that shiftwork makes the work-family role conflict even worse. They also support the view that the type of shift rotation matters.

  3. The Effects of Sex and Gender Role Orientation on Mentorship in Male-Dominated Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandura, Terri A.; Ragins, Belle Rose

    1993-01-01

    Responses from 608 certified public accountants who had mentors showed that biological sex was not related to mentoring, but gender role orientation was. Those with androgynous sex role orientation reported more mentoring functions than did those with masculine or feminine orientations. (SK)

  4. On Motivated Role Selection: Gender Beliefs, Distant Goals, and Career Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Clifford D.; Diekman, Amanda B.

    2009-01-01

    Despite widespread changes in occupational opportunities, men and women continue to show divergent preferences for careers. This research invoked a motivational framework to explain sex-differentiated career interest. From a role congruity perspective (Diekman & Eagly, 2008), the internalization of gender roles leads people to endorse…

  5. The Role of Gender in Workplace Stress: A Critical Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyllensten, Kristina; Palmer, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this review was to evaluate research relating to the role of gender in the level of workplace stress. A further aim was to review literature relating to stressors of particular relevance to working women. These stressors included, multiple roles, lack of career progress and discrimination and stereotyping. Design: Systematic…

  6. The Role of Gender in Workplace Stress: A Critical Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyllensten, Kristina; Palmer, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this review was to evaluate research relating to the role of gender in the level of workplace stress. A further aim was to review literature relating to stressors of particular relevance to working women. These stressors included, multiple roles, lack of career progress and discrimination and stereotyping. Design: Systematic…

  7. Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity as Factors in Work Stress among Managers: A Case Study of Manufacturing Sector in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiz Muhammad Shaikh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of stress at work has been thoroughly investigated in Western countries, particularly the United States. Very little work has been carried out in Southeast Asia. Pakistan has developed very rapidly into a the centre place in South Asia and business centre. Thus, it is probable that managers and workers experience stress as much as their Western counterparts. The data were collected from 100 manufacturing industries workers by using simple random technique. The present research study found that role conflict and role ambiguity were positively and significantly related to work stress among Pakistani managers and work stress was negatively and significantly related to job satisfaction. Two personality variables were chosen as moderator variables, but only one, tolerance of ambiguity showed moderating effects. Locus of control failed to moderate the stressor stress and stress response relationships. Overall, this study demonstrates that stress at work does exist for a sample of Pakistani managers and that the antecedents of this stress all roles related.

  8. Gender Role Attitudes and Male Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration: Normative Beliefs as Moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A; Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Reidy, Dennis E; Hall, Jeffrey E

    2016-02-01

    Commonly used dating violence prevention programs assume that promotion of more egalitarian gender role attitudes will prevent dating violence perpetration. Empirical research examining this assumption, however, is limited and inconsistent. The current study examined the longitudinal association between gender role attitudes and physical dating violence perpetration among adolescent boys (n = 577; 14 % Black, 5 % other race/ethnicity) and examined whether injunctive (i.e., acceptance of dating violence) and descriptive (i.e., beliefs about dating violence prevalence) normative beliefs moderated the association. As expected, the findings suggest that traditional gender role attitudes at T1 were associated with increased risk for dating violence perpetration 18 months later (T2) among boys who reported high, but not low, acceptance of dating violence (injunctive normative beliefs) at T1. Descriptive norms did not moderate the effect of gender role attitudes on dating violence perpetration. The results suggest that injunctive norms and gender role attitudes work synergistically to increase risk for dating violence perpetration among boys; as such, simultaneously targeting both of these constructs may be an effective prevention approach.

  9. Gender Role Attitudes Across the Transition To Adolescent Motherhood in Mexican-Origin Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Russell B.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Jahromi, Laudan B.

    2015-01-01

    Using longitudinal data collected at four time points from 191 dyads of Mexican-origin adolescent first-time mothers and their mother figures, we examined changes in and socialization of traditional gender role attitudes across the transition to parenthood using latent growth curve modeling (LGC) modeling and actor-partner interdependence modeling (APIM). Person-centered analyses indicated that adolescent mothers’, regardless of nativity status, and their foreign-born mother figures’ gender role attitudes became more egalitarian across adolescents’ transition to parenthood, spanning form the 3rd trimester of pregnancy to 36 months postpartum. Further, variable-centered analyses suggested that adolescents’ and their mother figures’ gender role attitudes during adolescents’ third trimester of pregnancy equally contributed to subsequent increases in one another’s gender role attitudes at 10 months postpartum. Importantly, this reciprocal socialization process was not moderated by adolescent mothers’ nor by their mother’ figures’ nativity status. Findings suggest that it is important to understand the cultural and intergenerational family processes that contribute to the development of gender role attitudes during the transition to parenthood for adolescent mothers and their mother figures in Mexican-origin families. PMID:25615441

  10. Gender role attitudes across the transition to adolescent motherhood in Mexican-origin families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Russell B; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Jahromi, Laudan B

    2015-06-01

    Using longitudinal data collected at four time points from 191 dyads of Mexican-origin adolescent first-time mothers and their mother figures, we examined changes in and socialization of traditional gender role attitudes across the transition to parenthood using latent growth curve modeling and actor-partner interdependence modeling. Longitudinal growth models indicated that, regardless of nativity status, adolescent mothers' and their foreign-born mother figures' gender role attitudes became more egalitarian across adolescents' transition to parenthood, spanning from the 3rd trimester of pregnancy to 36 months postpartum. Furthermore, actor-partner interdependence modeling suggested that adolescents' and their mother figures' gender role attitudes during adolescents' third trimester of pregnancy equally contributed to subsequent increases in one another's gender role attitudes at 10 months postpartum. Importantly, this reciprocal socialization process was not moderated by adolescent mothers' nor by their mother figures' nativity status. Findings suggest that it is important to understand the cultural and intergenerational family processes that contribute to the development of gender role attitudes during the transition to parenthood for adolescent mothers and their mother figures in Mexican-origin families.

  11. The Role of Personal Resources in Work-Family Conflict: Implications for Young Mothers' Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunstein-Bercovitz, Hedva; Frish-Burstein, Smadar; Benjamin, Benny A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the role that personal resources (person-environment [PE] congruence and personality types associated with resilience) and work-family conflict (WFC) play in the sense of well-being (as reflected by burnout and life-satisfaction) of mothers of young children. A sample of 146 mothers holding demanding…

  12. How intragroup dynamics affect behavior in intergroup conflict: the role of group norms, prototypicality, and need to belong

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinel, W.; van Kleef, G.A.; van Knippenberg, D.; Hogg, M.A.; Homan, A.C.; Moffit, G.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the role of intragroup dynamics in intergroup conflict. In a computer-mediated negotiation experiment (N = 107), we investigated how a group representative’s standing in the group, group norm, and the representative’s need to belong influence behavior in intergroup negotiations.

  13. Traditional gender roles, forced sex and HIV in Zimbabwean marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugweni, Esther; Pearson, Stephen; Omar, Mayeh

    2012-01-01

    Little is known on how forced sex contributes to the sexual transmission of HIV in marriage. This paper describes traditional gender norms surrounding forced sex in Zimbabwean marriage. Data were collected from 4 focus group discussions and 36 in-depth interviews with married women and men in Harare. Results indicate that hegemonic masculinity characterised by a perceived entitlement to sex, male dominance and being a provider contributed to forced sex in marriage. A femininity characterised by a tolerance of marital rape, the desire to please the husband and submission contributed to women experiencing forced sex. An alternative femininity characterised by sexual pleasure-seeking contributed to women forcing their spouses to have sex. Future HIV interventions must go beyond narrowly advocating for safer sex within marriage and instead address practices that increase risk as well as promote positive marital relationship needs such as mutual respect, love and friendship.

  14. Prenatal stress and gender role behavior in girls and boys: a longitudinal, population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Melissa; Johnston, Katie J; Golombok, Susan; Rust, John; Stevens, Madeleine; Golding, Jean

    2002-09-01

    Prenatal stress influences neural and behavioral sexual differentiation in rodents. Male offspring of stressed pregnancies show reduced masculine-typical characteristics and increased feminine-typical characteristics, whereas female offspring show the opposite pattern, reduced feminine-typical and increased masculine-typical characteristics. These outcomes resemble those seen following manipulations of gonadal hormones and are thought to occur because stress influences these hormones during critical periods of development. Research on prenatal stress and human sexual differentiation has produced inconsistent results, perhaps because studies have used small samples and assessed prenatal stress retrospectively. We related maternal self-reports of prenatal stress to childhood gender role behavior in a prospective, population study of 13,998 pregnancies resulting in 14,138 offspring. Neither stress reported during the first 18 weeks of pregnancy nor stress reported from week 19 of pregnancy to week 8 postnatal related to gender role behavior in male offspring at the age of 42 months. In female offspring, maternal reports of stress during both periods showed only small correlations with masculine-typical behavior. Although this relationship remained significant when other factors that related to stress were controlled, these other factors made larger contributions to girls' gender role behavior than did prenatal stress. In addition, in both boys and girls, older male or female siblings, parental adherence to traditional sex roles, maternal use of tobacco or alcohol during pregnancy, and maternal education all related significantly to gender role behavior. Our results suggest that prenatal stress does not influence the development of gender role behavior in boys and appears to have relatively little, if any, influence on gender role behavior in girls.

  15. The role of romantic attraction and conflict resolution in predicting shorter and longer relationship maintenance among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Israel; Shulman, Shmuel

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the role of romantic attraction and conflict resolution patterns in shorter and longer relationship maintenance among adolescent couples. Data were used from 55 couples aged 15-18 years. Partners completed the Romantic Attraction scale and were observed negotiating a disagreement. Three and 6 months later, they were asked to report whether they were still together. Findings indicated that partners' romantic attraction and the tendency to minimize disagreements during interaction predicted shorter relationship maintenance. In contrast, longer relationship maintenance was predicted by partners' capability to resolve conflicts constructively in a positive atmosphere. Findings are embedded and discussed within Fisher's (2004) evolutionary theory of love.

  16. Childhood Poverty and Late Adolescents’ Blood Pressure Reactivity to and Recovery From an Acute Stressor: The Mediating Role of Family Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W.; Exner-Cortens, Deinera; Kim, Pilyoung; Bartholomew, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Objective Childhood deprivation is inimical to health throughout the life-course. Early experiences of stress could play a role in health inequalities. An important aspect of childhood poverty that has not received much attention is cardiovascular reactivity and recovery to acute stressors. Methods Piecewise, multi-level growth curve regression was used to examine blood pressure reactivity and recovery to mental arithmetic among late adolescents (M(SD) = 17.3 (1.0) years; n = 185) as a function of early childhood poverty (9 years). We also tested whether exposure to family conflict at age 13 mediated expected linkages between childhood poverty and adolescent blood pressure reactivity and recovery to an acute stressor. Results Blood pressure reactivity was unaffected by household income during childhood, but late adolescents with lower household income during childhood showed slower systolic (b=−0.29, p=.004) and diastolic (b=−0.19, p=.002) recovery. These results include age and gender as statistical covariates. The significant poverty impact on systolic but not on diastolic blood pressure recovery was mediated by exposure to family conflict [95% confidence interval −0.1400, −0.0012]. Conclusions We show that late adolescents who grew up in poverty have delayed blood pressure recovery from an acute stressor. Furthermore, childhood exposure to family conflict, a well-documented component of early childhood deprivation, accounted for some of the adverse effects of childhood poverty on stressor recovery among these adolescents. We discuss the importance of considering physiological stress accompanying early experiences of deprivation in thinking about health inequalities. PMID:23960158

  17. Comment on Cross, Fine, Jones, and Walsh (2012): Do Mental Health Professionals Who Serve on/with Child Advocacy Centers Experience Role Conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    Cross, Fine, Jones, and Walsh's (2012) article "Mental Health Professionals in Children's Advocacy Centers: Is There Role Conflict?" challenges two recent publications' criticisms that child advocacy centers create role conflict for mental health professionals and explains how child advocacy centers actually work, describing the different roles…

  18. Gender role attitudes, relationship efficacy, and self-disclosure in intimate relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Rebecca M; Johnson, Matthew D

    2017-02-28

    Drawing from the intimacy process model and data from 5,042 individuals who remained partnered across Waves 1 and 2 of the German Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics (pairfam), this study examined the contributions of traditional gender role attitudes and relationship efficacy in predicting levels of self-disclosure within an intimate relationship. Independent samples t-tests demonstrated females scored higher than males on self-disclosure and relationship efficacy measures but lower on traditional gender role attitudes. An ordinary least squares regression analysis revealed relationship efficacy was a stronger predictor of self-disclosure compared to traditional gender role attitudes, which were not associated with self-disclosure. The findings suggest attitudes with an interpersonal motivational system may be especially important for setting the intimacy process into motion within an intimate union.

  19. Gender differences in suicidal expressions and their determinants among young people in Cambodia, a post-conflict country*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kullgren Gunnar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide among young people is a global public health problem, but adequate information on determinants of suicidal expression is lacking in middle and low income countries. Young people in transitional economies are vulnerable to psychosocial stressors and suicidal expressions. This study explores the suicidal expressions and their determinants among high school students in Cambodia, with specific focus on gender differences. Methods A sample of 320 young people, consisting of 153 boys and 167 girls between 15-18 years of age, was randomly selected from two high schools in Cambodia. Their self-reported suicidal expressions, mental health problems, life-skills dimensions, and exposure to suicidal behavior in others were measured using the Youth Self-Report (YSR, Life-Skills Development Scale (LSDS-Adolescent Form, and Attitude Towards Suicide (ATTS questionnaires. Results Suicidal plans were reported more often by teenage boys than teenage girls (M = 17.3%, F = 5.6%, p = 0.001, whereas girls reported more attempts (M = 0.6%, F = 7.8%, p = 0.012. Young men scored significantly higher on rule-breaking behavior than young women (p = 0.001, whereas young women scored higher on anxious/depression (p = 0.000, withdrawn/depression (p = 0.002, somatic complaints (p = 0.034, social problems (p = 0.006, and internalizing syndrome (p = 0.000. Young men exposed to suicide had significantly higher scores for internalizing syndrome compared to those unexposed (p = 0.001, while young women exposed to suicide scored significantly higher on both internalizing (p = 0.001 and externalizing syndromes (p = 0.012. Any type of exposure to suicidal expressions increased the risk for own suicidal expressions in both genders (OR = 2.04, 95% CI = 1.06-3.91; among young women, however, those exposed to suicide among friends and partners were at greater risk for the serious suicidal expressions (OR = 2.79, 95% CI = 1.00-7.74. Life skills dimension scores

  20. The Role of Institutional Placement, Family Conflict, and Homosexuality in Homelessness Pathways Among Latino LGBT Youth in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, H Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Despite the overrepresentation of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) youth among the homeless, the processes leading to their homelessness are understudied. This ethnographic study sought to elucidate the role of sexual orientation in the pathway to housing instability among young gay men. Fieldwork included 18 months of participant observations in public spaces and at a homeless LGBT youth organization in New York City, as well as formal semistructured interviews with 14 Latino young men and five staff. Three distinct pathways emerged. Some youth became homeless after placement in state systems of care disrupted their social support systems, while others became homeless after extreme family conflict over sexual orientation. Nonetheless, most youths became homeless as a result of long-term processes of family disintegration in which normative adolescent development and disclosure of homosexuality exacerbated preexisting conflict. These findings suggest the need to examine the accumulation of risks before disclosure exacerbates family conflict and increases their risk of homelessness.

  1. Managing Workplace Incivility: The Role of Conflict Management Styles--Antecedent or Antidote?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudel, Jeannie; Reio, Thomas G., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The workforce of the 21st century is dealing with rapid changes and increased competition across industries. Such changes place stress on management and workers alike, increasing the potential for workplace conflict and deviant workplace behaviors, including incivility. The importance of effective conflict management in the workplace has been…

  2. Parental Depressive Symptoms and Children's Sleep: The Role of Family Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Kelly, Ryan J.; Bagley, Erika J.; Wetter, Emily K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: We used a multi-method and multi-informant design to identify developmental pathways through which parental depressive symptoms contribute to children's sleep problems. Environmental factors including adult inter-partner conflict and parent-child conflict were considered as process variables of this relation. Methods: An ethnically and…

  3. Perceived Interparental Conflict and Early Adolescents' Friendships: The Role of Attachment Security and Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Beate; Stutz, Melanie; Ledermann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Although there is strong evidence for the effect of interparental conflict on adolescents' internalizing and externalizing problems, little is known about the effect on the quality of adolescents' relationships. The current study investigates the link between adolescents' friendships and interparental conflict as reported by both parents and…

  4. Managing Workplace Incivility: The Role of Conflict Management Styles--Antecedent or Antidote?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudel, Jeannie; Reio, Thomas G., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The workforce of the 21st century is dealing with rapid changes and increased competition across industries. Such changes place stress on management and workers alike, increasing the potential for workplace conflict and deviant workplace behaviors, including incivility. The importance of effective conflict management in the workplace has been…

  5. When bystanders become bothersome : the negative consequences of bystander conflict and the moderating role of resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Erp, Kim; Rispens, Sonja; Gevers, Josette M.P.; Demerouti, Evangelia

    2014-01-01

    Bystander conflict is a situation in which employees are hindered in their work by parties not involved in the primary process. Public service employees and emergency care workers, such as ambulance employees and firefighters, often encounter this kind of conflict with potentially far-reaching

  6. How Lead Founder Personality Affects New Venture Performance: The Mediating Role of Team Conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Ad; Song, Michael; Song, Lisa Z.

    2013-01-01

    This empirical study of 323 new ventures examines how task and relationship conflict in the founding top management team mediates the effect of lead founder personality on new venture performance. The results reveal that (1) openness and agreeableness increase task conflict, whereas conscientiousnes

  7. Expatriate adjustment: the role of justice and conflict in intimate relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, van Kim J.P.M; Giebels, Ellen; Zee, van der Karen I.; Duijn, van Marijtje A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Framing expatriation as family relocation, this research examines the influence of perceived justice and conflict on the psychological adjustment of 103 expatriate couples. Based on the actor–partner interdependence model, the proposed model simultaneously addresses effects of justice and conflict o

  8. Mapping implicit theories of interpersonal conflict: The roles of dissatisfaction and disagreement

    OpenAIRE

    Peeters, Guido

    1993-01-01

    A method and data are presented on the mapping of subjective implicit theories underlying individual perceptions of interpersonal conflict. Building on a previously established "relational information processing paradigm" an experimental questionnaire was developed requiring subjects to rate how conflictive they considered hypothetical situations in which two individuals showed varying patterns of (dis)satisfactions. Data obtained form economy freshmen revealed three major implicit theori...

  9. Expatriate adjustment : The role of justice and conflict in intimate relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, K.J.P.M. van; Giebels, E.; van Duijn, M.A.J.; Van Oudenhoven-van der Zee, K.I.

    2011-01-01

    Framing expatriation as family relocation, this research examines the influence of perceived justice and conflict on the psychological adjustment of 103 expatriate couples. Based on the actor-partner interdependence model, the proposed model simultaneously addresses effects of justice and conflict o

  10. Does Students' Machismo Fit in School? Clarifying the Implications of Traditional Gender Role Ideology for School Belonging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyge, Ellen; Van Maele, Dimitri; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    How much students feel at home in school predicts academic outcomes. In view of the gender achievement gap, it is worth examining the gendered pattern of this school belonging. Studies on school belonging, however, have barely acknowledged possible obstructive effects of traditional gender role attitudes of individual students and student…

  11. Does Students' Machismo Fit in School? Clarifying the Implications of Traditional Gender Role Ideology for School Belonging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyge, Ellen; Van Maele, Dimitri; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    How much students feel at home in school predicts academic outcomes. In view of the gender achievement gap, it is worth examining the gendered pattern of this school belonging. Studies on school belonging, however, have barely acknowledged possible obstructive effects of traditional gender role attitudes of individual students and student…

  12. Influence of gender role attitudes on smoking and drinking among girls from Jujuy, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Raul; Kaplan, Celia P; Alderete, Ethel; Gregorich, Steven E; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2013-09-01

    Evaluate effect of gender role attitudes on tobacco and alcohol use among Argentinean girls. Cross-sectional survey of 10th grade students attending 27 randomly selected schools in Jujuy, Argentina. Questions about tobacco and alcohol use were adapted from global youth surveys. Five items with 5-point response options of agreement-disagreement assessed attitude towards egalitarian (higher score) gender roles. 2133 girls, aged 13-18 years, 71% Indigenous, 22% mixed Indigenous/European, and 7% European responded. Of these, 60% had ever smoked, 32% were current smokers, 58% ever drinkers, 27% drank in previous month, and 13% had ≥5 drinks on one occasion. Mean response to the gender role scale was 3.49 (95% Confidence Intervals = 3.41-3.57) out of 5 tending toward egalitarian attitudes. Logistic regression models using the gender role scale score as the main predictor and adjusting for demographic and social confounders showed that egalitarian gender role was associated with ever smoking (Odds Ratio = 1.25; 95% Confidence Intervals 1.09-1.44), ever drinking (Odds Ratio = 1.24; 95% Confidence Intervals 1.10-1.40), drinking in prior month (Odds Ratio = 1.21; 95% Confidence Intervals 1.07-1.37) and ≥5 drinks on one occasion (Odds Ratio = 1.15; 95% Confidence Intervals 1.00-1.33), but was not significant for current smoking. Girls in Jujuy who reported more egalitarian gender role attitudes had higher odds of smoking or drinking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Social change and traditional gender roles in Lagos State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... roles due to multiple factors such as new family structures, education, media, and several others. ... In policy terms at least, women are no longer seen as being solely ... there is need for more women empowerment programmes and projects, ...

  14. More caregiving, less working: caregiving roles and gender difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeonjung; Tang, Fengyan

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the relationship of caregiving roles to labor force participation using the nationally representative data from the Health and Retirement Study. The sample was composed of men and women aged 50 to 61 years (N = 5,119). Caregiving roles included caregiving for spouse, parents, and grandchildren; a summary of three caregiving roles was used to indicate multiple caregiving roles. Bivariate analysis using chi-square and t tests and binary logistic regression models were applied. Results show that women caregivers for parents and/or grandchildren were less likely to be in the labor force than non-caregivers and that caregiving responsibility was not related to labor force participation for the sample of men. Findings have implication for supporting family caregivers, especially women, to balance work and caregiving commitments. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. Social support and cardiovascular responding to laboratory stress: Moderating effects of gender role identification, sex and type of support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Well, S.; Kolk, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine moderating effects of gender role identification, sex, and type of support on the buffering role of social support on cardiovascular responses. We hypothesized that (a) gender role identification, more than sex, would moderate the effect of social

  16. The occupational roles of television fiction characters in Spain : distinguishing traits in gender representation

    OpenAIRE

    García Múñoz, Núria

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the main findings of a study on the portrayal of occupational roles in fiction series broadcast by the general nationwide channels during the 2009/2010 season in Spain. Fiction is one of the most highly appreciated genres amongst audiences, thus the study of fiction characters allows us to identify the models and roles portrayed and transmitted by television. The gender related variable shows that the representation of male and female occupational roles in television fic...

  17. The occupational roles of television fiction characters in Spain : distinguishing traits in gender representation

    OpenAIRE

    García Múñoz, Núria

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the main findings of a study on the portrayal of occupational roles in fiction series broadcast by the general nationwide channels during the 2009/2010 season in Spain. Fiction is one of the most highly appreciated genres amongst audiences, thus the study of fiction characters allows us to identify the models and roles portrayed and transmitted by television. The gender related variable shows that the representation of male and female occupational roles in television fic...

  18. A construct-driven investigation of gender differences in a leadership-role assessment center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Neil; Lievens, Filip; van Dam, Karen; Born, Marise

    2006-05-01

    This study examined gender differences in a large-scale assessment center for officer entry in the British Army. Subgroup differences were investigated for a sample of 1,857 candidates: 1,594 men and 263 women. A construct-driven approach was chosen (a) by examining gender differences at the construct level, (b) by formulating a priori hypotheses about which constructs would be susceptible to gender effects, and (c) by using both effect size statistics and latent mean analyses to investigate gender differences in assessment center ratings. Results showed that female candidates were rated notably higher on constructs reflecting an interpersonally oriented leadership style (i.e., oral communication and interaction) and on drive and determination. These results are discussed in light of role congruity theory and of the advantages of using latent mean analyses.

  19. The role of general and occupational stress in the relationship between workaholism and work-family/family-work conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauk, Mateusz; Chodkiewicz, Jan

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the role of general and occupational stress in the relationship between workaholism (recognized in two ways: as addiction and as behavioral tendency) and the intensity of work-family and family-work conflict. The study included 178 working people. The survey was conducted at three stages - half a year before a holiday, right after the holiday and half a year after the holiday. The Excessive Work Involvement Scale (SZAP) by Golińska for the measurement of workaholism recognized as addiction; The Scale of Workaholism as Behavioral Tendencies (SWBT) by Mudrack and Naughton as adapted by Dudek et al for the measurement of workaholism as behavioral tendency; the Perceived Stress Scale by Cohen et al., as adapted by Juczyński for the measurement of general stress; the Scale of Occupational Stress by Stanton in the adaptation of Dudek and Hauk for measurement of occupational stress; the Scale of Work-Family Conflict WFC/FWC by Netemeyer et al. with the Polish adaptation of A.M. Zalewska. Workaholism was measured once - before a holiday, the explained and intervening variables (the level of conflicts and stress, respectively) were measured at three stages. To test the mediating role of general and occupational stress, hierarchical regression analysis as well as the method of bootstrapping were applied. Our results indicate that general stress is an important mediator of the relationship between workaholism recognized as an addiction and work-family conflicts. Occupational stress turned out to be the only mediator in the relationship between workaholism (recognized as an addiction) and the work-family conflict, noted exclusively in the first stage of the study. Both general and occupational stress were not significant mediators in the relationship between workaholism recognized as a behavioral tendency and the conflicts described.

  20. Depression, Sex and Gender Roles in Older Adult Populations: The International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafaei, Afshin; Ahmed, Tamer; Freire, Aline do N Falcão; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Guerra, Ricardo O

    2016-01-01

    To assess the associations between gender roles and depression in older men and women and whether gender roles are independent risk factors for depression. International cross-sectional study of adults between 65 and 74 years old (n = 1,967). Depression was defined by a score of 16 or over in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). A validated 12-item Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) was used to classify participants in gender roles (Masculine, Feminine, Androgynous, and Undifferentiated) using research site medians of femininity and masculinity as cut-off points. Poisson regressions were fitted to estimate the prevalence ratios (PR) of depression for each gender role compared to the masculine role, adjusting for sex, sufficiency of income, education, marital status, self-rated health, and chronic conditions. Among men, 31.2% were androgynous, 26% were masculine, 14.4% were feminine, and 28.4% were undifferentiated; among women, the corresponding percentages were 32.7%, 14.9%, 27%, and 25.4%. Both in men and in women, depressive symptoms (CES-D≥16) were more prevalent in those endorsing the undifferentiated type, compared to masculine, feminine or androgynous groups. However, after adjusting for potential confounders, compared to the masculine group only those endorsing the androgynous role were 28% less likely to suffer from depression: PR of 0.72 (95% CI: 0.55-0.93). In fully adjusted models, prevalence rates of depression were not different from masculine participants in the two other gender groups of feminine and undifferentiated. Androgynous roles were associated with lower rates of depression in older adults, independently of being a man or a woman.