Stauder, J. E. A.; Cornet, L. J. M.; Ponds, R. W. H. M.
According to the Extreme Male Brain theory persons with autism possess masculinised cognitive traits. In this study masculinisation of gender role behaviour is evaluated in 25 persons with an autism spectrum condition (ASC) and matched controls with gender role behaviour as part of a shortened version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality…
... it was recommended that those in the helping professions should take cognizance of those variables that have been found to influence risky sexual behaviours and decisions among couples. The result also recommends intervention strategy to help couples achieve a better reproductive health behaviour, relationship and ...
Chen, Li-Ming; Cheng, Ying-Yao
This study aimed to develop a new scale to examine primary and secondary school students' perceptions of the severity of cyberbullying behaviours, and to explore further whether differences exist in the means of gender, grade and participant role. A total of 707 primary and secondary school students (M = 14.7) in Taiwan participated in this study.…
Studies have shown that in Western societies, women live longer than men. Among other factors, this has been attributed to health behaviours; men engage in health-risking behaviours, while women perform health-promoting behaviours. These tendencies were argued to align with cultural notions of masculinity and femininity. There may be some evidence, however, that men and women engage in different types of health-promoting behaviours, and stress may play a role in these tendencies. This study attempts to examine the various types of health-promoting behaviours women engage in and compare them to the tendencies of men. Secondly, it examines the mediating role of stress in the relationships between gender and health-promoting behaviours. The sample was comprised of 402 young Israeli adults. Half were undergraduate university students majoring in social work. The remaining participants were sampled by 'snowball sampling'. Participants completed a questionnaire containing 63 closed-ended questions on various health issues. For the purpose of this study, gender, stress and health-promoting behaviours measures were used. Data were collected over three academic years by the teacher responsible for the course and were received by the author at the end of the data collection phase. The study was approved by the institution's internal review board. The results indicate that,-while women engage in 'type 2 behaviours'- refraining from smoking and drinking, eating breakfast regularly and sleeping 7-8 hours per night-men engage in 'type 1 behaviours'- physical exercise, refraining from snacking, and maintaining an appropriate body mass. We also found that, to some extent, women refrain from 'type 1 behaviours' because of their levels of general stress. Our study suggests that the social construction of masculinity and femininity which undermines individuals' health needs to be challenged and addressed. In particular, the enduring role of stress in women's health outcomes should be
Cole, H J; Zucker, K J; Bradley, S J
Using a sex-typed free-play task and the Draw-a-Person test, the gender-role behaviour of children attending a day-care centre whose staff adhered to a "non-sexist" child-rearing philosophy was compared to the gender-role behaviour of children attending a more traditional day-care center. Parental provision of sex-typed and neutral toys and approval of cross-sex role behaviour was also assessed. On both measures, the two groups of children showed culturally typical patterns of gender-role behaviour. The parents of the two groups of children were generally similar in terms of the kinds of toys they provided and in their attitudes toward the expression of cross-sex role behaviour. Potential explanations for the inability to demonstrate effects of the "non-sexist" child-rearing philosophy were discussed.
Ay, Pinar; Hayran, Osman; Topuzoglu, Ahmet; Hidiroglu, Seyhan; Coskun, Anahit; Save, Dilsad; Nalbant, Hacer; Ozdemir, Erhan; Eker, Levent
To explore the impact of gender roles in relation to health seeking behaviour during pregnancy and childbirth. The study was conducted in neighbourhoods with low antenatal care rates in three provinces of Turkey. The study population consisted of pregnant women who never got or discontinued antenatal care and their peers, families and community leaders. Sixteen focus group discussions and 125 in-depth interviews were conducted with a total of 239 participants. Pregnancy and childbirth are interwoven strongly with gender roles. Since the patriarchal system acknowledges women through the means of childbirth, women are expected to have many children. Hence women experience pregnancy as a burden and are not motivated to seek antenatal care. During pregnancy, only 'serious' conditions are considered as legitimate reasons for accessing care. However, the decision regarding whether a pregnant woman is seriously sick or not belongs to the responsibilities of elder women, which delays service use. Providing information regarding the value of antenatal care also to elder women is essential in increasing the demand to the services. Incorporating gender perspectives into daily health practice and maintaining access to high quality reproductive care services are vital in reducing the gender based barriers to care.
Feng, Xiaoqi; Wilson, Andrew
Reported differences in the severity of the social gradient in body mass index (BMI) by gender may be attributable to differences in behaviour. Self-reported height, weight, socioeconomic and behavioural data were obtained for a sample of 10,281 Australians aged ≥15years in 2009. Multilevel regressions were fitted with BMI as the outcome variable. Two-way interactions between gender and neighbourhood disadvantage were fitted, adjusted for confounders. Models were then adjusted for four behavioural factors ("chips, snacks and confectionary", "smoking, little fruit or veg", "time poor and less physically active" and "alcohol consumption"). Additional models were fitted on a subset with accurate perceptions of weight status (determined by World Health Organization criteria) to control for potential social desirability bias. Although higher BMI was observed for men in most disadvantaged compared with most affluent neighbourhoods (coefficient 0.87, 95% CI 0.35 to 1.40), this pattern was stronger among women (1.80, 95% CI 1.17 to 2.42). Adjusting for differences in behaviours attenuated, but did not fully explain the differences in social gradients observed for men (0.73, 95% CI 0.21 to 1.26) and women (1.73, 1.10 to 2.36). Differences in behaviour did not explain contrasting socioeconomic gradients in adult BMI by gender. Further research on differences in BMI, health and behaviour over time aligned with how heavy a person may perceive themselves to be is warranted. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Mulder, Roelie; Pouwelse, Mieneke; Lodewijkx, Hein; Bolman, Catherine
We examined victims' perceived responsibility and bystanders' anticipated risk of being victimized themselves when others associate them with the victim (stigma by association, SBA) as possible antecedents of bystanders' helping behaviour towards a victim of workplace mobbing, and explored the effects of gender. Guided by the attribution model of social conduct (Weiner, 2006), a 2 × 2 vignette experiment was conducted. Participants were Dutch regional government employees (N = 161). Path analyses generally supported the hypotheses, but showed different results for women and men. In the strong (Vs. weak) responsibility condition, women reported less sympathy and more anger and men only more anger, which resulted in lower helping intention. Additionally, for men the results showed an unexpected direct positive effect of responsibility on helping intention. Furthermore, in the strong SBA condition, women and men reported more fear and men, unexpectedly, more anger. Consequently, helping intention decreased. The findings on gender are discussed in the context of social role theory, gender and emotion. Our findings suggest that to prevent and tackle mobbing, organizations and professionals should be aware of the attributional and emotional processes and gender differences in bystanders' helping behaviour. © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.
Angelica-Nicoleta NECULĂESEI (ONEA)
Culture influences thinking, language and human behaviour. The social environment, in which individuals are born and live, shapes their attitudinal, emotional and behavioural reactions and the perceptions about what is happening around. The same applies in the case of assigned/assumed roles in society based on gender. Cultural dimensions that reflect differences in gender roles, but also elements related to the ethics of sexual difference were highlighted by many researchers. The presentation...
Zimmermann, Friederike; Sieverding, Monika
This study focused on young adults' alcohol consumption in social contexts. A dual-process model (including reasoned action and social reaction) was applied by combining the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and the prototype/willingness model. A key question was whether willingness and actor and abstainer prototype variables would augment the TPB by increasing explained variance. Participants completed questionnaires prior to spending an evening socializing over the weekend (Time 1). Behavioural data were obtained by telephone interviews a few days after the social drinking occasion (Time 2). N=300 people (mean age 25 years) took part in the study. The outcome measure of pure alcohol in grams was calculated based on participants' reports about their consumed drinks. Multigroup path analyses were conducted because of sex differences on behavioural and psychological variables. The TPB explained 35% of the variance in men's and 41% in women's alcohol consumption. Augmentation with prototype perception and willingness contributed significantly to the prediction of intention (DeltaR(2)=.07) and alcohol consumption for men (DeltaR(2)=.14). A significant interaction implied that willingness led to heavy drinking particularly among those men who made negative evaluations of the abstainer prototype. Women's alcohol consumption is explained by TPB variables via a more controlled reasoned-action path only, whereas additional processes (e.g., pursuing the actor image intentionally, rejecting the abstainer image more intuitively) are important for men. The moderating role of gender is discussed in light of traditional gender roles and recent trends in alcohol consumption.
Maria Paz eEspinosa
Full Text Available This study revisits different experimental data sets that explore social behavior in economic games and uncovers that many treatment effects may be gender-specific. In general, men and women do not differ in neutral baselines. However, we find that social framing tends to reinforce prosocial behavior in women but not men, whereas encouraging reflection decreases the prosociality of males but not females. The treatment effects are sometimes statistically different across genders and sometimes not but never go in the opposite direction. These findings suggest that (i the social behavior of both sexes is malleable but each gender responds to different aspects of the social context, and (ii gender differences observed in some studies might be the result of particular features of the experimental design. Our results contribute to the literature on prosocial behavior and may improve our understanding of the origins of human prosociality. We discuss the possible link between the observed differential treatment effects across genders and the differing male and female brain network connectivity, documented in recent neural studies.
Maguire, Lisa K.; Niens, Ulrike; McCann, Mark; Connolly, Paul
There has been an increasing focus on social and emotional development in educational programmes in early childhood as both variables are believed to influence behavioural outcomes in the classroom. However, relationships between social and emotional development and behaviour in early childhood have rarely been explored. This article sets out to investigate the conceptualisation of these variables and their interrelationships. Structural equation models were used to assess whether differences...
Hasnain, Syed Farid-ul; Johansson, Eva; Mogren, Ingrid; Krantz, Gunilla
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore perceptions and expectations of young males and females, in Karachi, Pakistan, regarding their life prospects and gender roles, with resulting implications for health behaviour. The main theme emerging was "Young adults' prospects in life are hampered by psychosocial and gender equality constraints". Gender inequality and the low status of women in society were described as major obstacles to the overall development. Persistent withholding of information to the younger generation on sexual and reproductive health issues was perceived to increase exposure to health risks, particularly sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The present study reveals new discourses on equality among young adults, pointing towards an increasing, sound interaction between the sexes and aspirations for more gender equal relationships. Such views and awareness among the younger generation constitutes a strong force towards change of traditional norms, including reproductive health behaviour, and calls for policy change.
Rich, Antonia; Mullan, Barbara A; Sainsbury, Kirby; Kuczmierczyk, Andrzej R
To examine how the prediction of condom-related cognitions, intentions, and behaviour amongst adolescents may differ according to gender and sexual experience within a theory of planned behaviour (TPB) framework. Adolescents (N = 306) completed questionnaires about sexual experience, condom use, TPB variables, perceived risk, and safe sex knowledge. Significant differences in TPB variables, perceived risk, and knowledge were found; males and sexually experienced participants were generally less positive about condom use. Twenty percent of the variance in attitudes was accounted for by four variables; specifically, female gender, no previous sexual experience, better safe sex knowledge, and greater risk perceptions were associated with more positive attitudes. The prediction of intentions separately amongst sexually experienced (R(2) = 0.468) and inexperienced (R(2) = 0.436) participants revealed that, for the former group, attitudes and subjective norms were the most important considerations. In contrast, among the inexperienced participants, attitudes and the gender-by-perceived risk interaction term represented significant influences. The results suggest that interventions designed to improve adolescents' intentions to use condoms and rates of actual condom use should consider differences in gender and sexual experience.
Angelica-Nicoleta NECULĂESEI (ONEA
Full Text Available Culture influences thinking, language and human behaviour. The social environment, in which individuals are born and live, shapes their attitudinal, emotional and behavioural reactions and the perceptions about what is happening around. The same applies in the case of assigned/assumed roles in society based on gender. Cultural dimensions that reflect differences in gender roles, but also elements related to the ethics of sexual difference were highlighted by many researchers. The presentation of these issues from the interdisciplinary perspective is the subject of this article. Briefly, the article refers to: importance of communication in transmission of roles of those two sexes, cultural dimensions that reflect role differences invarious cultures, discrimination issues and ethics of sexual difference.
The division of gender roles in the household and societal level gender (in)equality have been situated as one of the most powerful factors underlying fertility behaviour. Despite continued theoretical attention to this issue by demographers, empirical research integrating gender roles and equity in
Gender and Behaviour. ... Gender and Behaviour - Vol 5, No 2 (2007) ... Home Type, Age and Gender on The Antisocial Behaviour of Secondary School Students. ... Gender-Wise Comparison on Emotional Intelligence and Marital Satisfaction.
The aim of this chapter is to deepen the understanding of how mobile phone usage is related to gender in general and the negotiation of gender roles in particular. It will focus on how women in Kenya appropriate mobile phones and how the appropriation is influenced by prevailing gender norms...... but also in turn is influencing gender relations. Mobile phone use is strongly intertwined with everyday life and thus this chapter will approach mobile phone use, as practices or a site where gender roles are potentially negotiated, challenged but also reinforced. Geographically the study that constituted...... the basis for this chapter is set in Kenya, where family relations and gender roles is presently undergoing changes. The data was gathered in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya, an area, which is predominantly rural, but also home to the city Eldoret and its surrounding peri-urban areas. The situation for women...
Dalen, Hanne Marit; Halvorsen, Bente
This report discusses gender differences in the data collected in the OECD household survey on environmental behaviour. The survey asked a sample of 10 000 respondents from 10 countries (Norway, Sweden, Canada, France, Italy, the Netherlands, the Czech Republic, Mexico, Australia and Korea) concerning household behaviour with respect to five areas: recycling, energy and water saving, organic food consumption and transportation. This report identifies and describes gender differences in behaviour, in underlying preferences and in household characteristics in this data. We use regression analyses to identify and test for significant gender differences in preferences, and we use differences in means to test for gender differences in background variables and the total effect of gender on behaviour. In our estimations, where we test for significant gender differences in preferences, we find many significant differences with respect to several of the explanatory variables affecting behaviour. However, there was no clear pattern for most of these gender differences. The only systematic gender difference we found in the estimations was that the belief that they can actually contribute to a better environment seems to be a more important motivator for environmental friendly behaviour for men than it is for women. There are also many significant differences between the genders in the distribution of key background variables, in particular with respect to income, car ownership, participation in the workforce, education and choice of residence. However, these gender differences in preferences and background variables only result in pronounced gender differences in behaviour to a small degree. The exception is transportation, where gender differences are large and significant. Men have a higher probability of owning a car or a motorcycle than women. And given that the respondent owns a car, men drive significantly more than women. For the rest of the behaviour measured in this
HIV knowledge, risk perception and risk behaviour among male ex-offenders in ... among Nigerian young adults: the role of gender, parental family structure ... Influence of type of school on self perception of mathematical ability and achievement ... Gender-related differences in attitudinal disposition of university workers to ...
Full Text Available The division of gender roles in the household and societal level gender (inequality have been situated as one of the most powerful factors underlying fertility behaviour. Despite continued theoretical attention to this issue by demographers, empirical research integrating gender roles and equity in relation to fertility remains surprisingly sparse. This paper first provides a brief review of previous research that has examined gender roles and fertility followed by a comparison of six prominent gender equality indices: Gender-related Development Index (GDI, Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM, Gender Gap Index (GGI, Gender Equality Index (GEI, the European Union Gender Equality Index (EU-GEI and the Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI. The paper then tests how five of these indices impact fertility intentions and behaviour using a series of multilevel (random-coefficient logistic regression models, applying the European Social Survey (2004/5. The GDI, with its emphasis on human development, adjusted for gender, has the strongest and significant effect on fertility intentions. The EU-GEI, which focuses on the universal caregiver model, uncovers that more equity significantly lowers fertility intentions, but only for women. The remaining indicators show no significant impact. The paper concludes with a reflection and suggestions for future research.
Campbell, Anne; Shirley, Louisa; Candy, Julia
Gender schema theory proposes that children's acquisition of gender labels and gender stereotypes informs gender-congruent behaviour. Most previous studies have been cross-sectional and do not address the temporal relationship between knowledge and behaviour. We report the results of a longitudinal study of gender knowledge and sex-typed behaviour…
Examining Gender Differences in Intuitive Decision Making in the Workplace: And ... Does Gender Preference Affect Contraceptive Use Behavior In Northern Pakistan? ... The Career Woman and Reproductive Health Behaviour in Nigeria.
Stereotype Endorsement And Mathematics-Related Behaviour Among Female Secondary ... Gender Differences In Mathematics Performance: Some Fresh Insights · EMAIL ... Educational Inequalities And Women's Disempowerment In Nigeria.
The links between gender roles, gender-based violence and HIV/AIDS risk are complex and culturally specific. In this qualitative study we investigated how women and men in two black communities in the Western Cape, South Africa, constructed their gender identities and roles, how they understood gender-based violence ...
Muñoz-Silva, A; Sánchez-García, M; Nunes, C; Martins, A
There is much evidence that demonstrates that programs and interventions based on the theoretical models of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) have been effective in the prevention of the sexual transmission of HIV. The objective of this work is to compare the effectiveness of both models in the prediction of condom use, distinguishing two components inside the variable Perceived Behavioural Control of the TPB model: self-efficacy and control. The perspective of gender differences is also added. The study was carried out in a sample of 601 Portuguese and Spanish university students. The results show that the females have a higher average in all the TPB variables than males, except in the frequency of condom use: females request the use of condoms less frequently than males. On the other hand, for both females and males the TPB model predicts better condom-use intention than the TRA. However there are no differences between the two models in relation to the prediction of condom-use behaviour. For prediction of intention, the most outstanding variable among females is attitude, while among males they are subjective norm and self-efficacy. Finally, we analyze the implications of these data from a theoretical and practical point of view.
Bugler, Myfanwy; McGeown, Sarah P.; St Clair-Thompson, Helen
The present study investigated gender differences in adolescents' academic motivation and classroom behaviour and gender differences in the extent to which motivation was associated with, and predicted, classroom behaviour. Seven hundred and fifty students (384 boys and 366 girls) aged 11--16 (M age?=?14.0, 1.59 SD) completed a questionnaire…
Gazioglu, A. Esra Ismen
The subject of this study is gender and gender roles affecting mate preferences. The sample of the study consists of 300 undergraduates and master students. To identify students' gender roles the Sex Role Evaluation Inventory (Bem, 1974) is used. The Question List (Bacanli 2001; Buss et. al., 1990) is applied to the sample group to determine the…
Susana A. Eisenchlas
Full Text Available One consequence of the advent of cyber communication is that increasing numbers of people go online to ask for, obtain, and presumably act upon advice dispensed by unknown peers. Just as advice seekers may not have access to information about the identities, ideologies, and other personal characteristics of advice givers, advice givers are equally ignorant about their interlocutors except for the bits of demographic information that the latter may offer freely. In the present study, that information concerns sex. As the sex of the advice seeker may be the only, or the predominant, contextual variable at hand, it is expected that that identifier will guide advice givers in formulating their advice. The aim of this project is to investigate whether and how the sex of advice givers and receivers affects the type of advice, through the empirical analysis of a corpus of web-based Spanish language forums on personal relationship difficulties. The data revealed that, in the absence of individuating information beyond that implicit in the advice request, internalized gender expectations along the lines of agency and communality are the sources from which advice givers draw to guide their counsel. This is despite the trend in discursive practices used in formulating advice, suggesting greater language convergence across sexes.
The study investigated gender differences in decisions on student disciplinary behaviours by selected Kenyan secondary school disciplinary panels which may be due to composition of disciplinary panels, perceptions of students presenting with disciplinary behaviours and behaviour expectations of students on the basis of ...
Fernández, Juan; Quiroga, M Angeles; del Olmo, Isabel; Aróztegui, Javier; Martín, Arantxa
This study was designed to develop a computerized test to assess gender roles. This test is presented as a decision-making task to mask its purpose. Each item displays a picture representing an activity and a brief sentence that describes it. Participants have to choose the most suitable sex to perform each activity: man or woman. The test (Gender Roles Test, GRT-36) consists of 36 items/activities. The program registers both the choices made and their response times (RTs). Responses are considered as stereotyped when the chosen sex fits stereotyped roles and non-stereotyped when the chosen sex does not fit stereotyped roles. Individual means (RTs) were computed for stereotyped and non-stereotyped responses, differentiating between domestic and work spheres. A "D" score, reflecting the strength of association between activities and sex, was calculated for each sphere and sex. The study incorporated 78 participants (69% women and 31% men) ranging from 19 to 59 years old. The results show that: (a) reading speed does not explain the variability in the RTs; (b) RTs show good internal consistency; (c) RTs are shorter for stereotyped than for neutral stimuli; (d) RTs are shorter for stereotyped than for non-stereotyped responses. Intended goals are supported by obtained results. Scores provided by the task facilitate both group and individual detailed analysis of gender role, differentiating the gender role assigned to men from that assigned to women, at the domestic and work spheres. Obtained data fall within the scope of the genderology and their implications are discussed.
Judge, Timothy A; Livingston, Beth A
This study investigated the relationships among gender, gender role orientation (i.e., attitudes toward the gendered separation of roles at work and at home), and earnings. A multilevel model was conceptualized in which gender role orientation and earnings were within-individual variables that fluctuate over time (although predictors of between-individual differences in gender role orientation were also considered). Results indicated that whereas traditional gender role orientation was positively related to earnings, gender significantly predicted the slope of this relationship: Traditional gender role orientation was strongly positively associated with earnings for men; it was slightly negatively associated with earnings for women. Occupational segregation partly explained these gender differences. Overall, the results suggest that although gender role attitudes are becoming less traditional for men and for women, traditional gender role orientation continues to exacerbate the gender wage gap.
Klonsky, E. David; Jane, J. Serrita; Turkheimer, Eric; Oltmanns, Thomas F.
Many researchers have hypothesized relationships between personality disorders and gender role (i.e., masculinity and femininity). However, research has not addressed if people who are masculine or feminine more often meet the criteria for personality disorders. The present study examined whether college students (N = 665, 60% women) higher in masculinity or femininity more often exhibited features of the 10 DSM-IV personality disorders. Feminine men exhibited more features of all the personality disorders except antisocial. Dependent traits were associated with higher femininity and lower masculinity. Antisocial traits were associated with masculinity. Both men and women who typically behaved consistent with their gender had more narcissistic and histrionic features, whereas participants who typically behaved unlike their gender had more features of the Cluster A personality disorders. PMID:12489312
Klonsky, E. David; Jane, J. Serrita; Turkheimer, Eric; Oltmanns, Thomas F.
Many researchers have hypothesized relationships between personality disorders and gender role (i.e., masculinity and femininity). However, research has not addressed if people who are masculine or feminine more often meet the criteria for personality disorders. The present study examined whether college students (N = 665, 60% women) higher in masculinity or femininity more often exhibited features of the 10 DSM-IV personality disorders. Feminine men exhibited more features of all the persona...
Vos, H.M.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Berkmortel, H. van den; Heuvel, L.G.A.M. van den; Bor, H.H.J.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.
Background: In planning a prevention programme, it is important to know to what extent gender, risk behaviour and GP consultation need to be taken into account. Objective: To determine whether gender plays a role in the relation between risk behaviour and use of GP services. Methods: The data used
Vos, H.M.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; van den Berkmortel, H.; van den Heuvel, L.G.A.M.; Bor, H.H.J.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.
Backgroun: In planning a prevention programme, it is important to know to what extent gender, risk behaviour and GP consultation need to be taken into account. Objective. To determine whether gender plays a role in the relation between risk behaviour and use of GP services. Methods: The data used in
The Intersection of HIV and AIDS Risk Behaviours and Gender Based Violence among ... The study used a qualitative exploratory design underpinned by these methods: ... using semi- structured interview guides with open ended questions.
Gender and Behaviour. ... and Mental Health of Employees in Workplace Settings in Gauteng Province, ... Epileptic Patient may be pardoned…but for AIDS you should know”: HIV/AIDS, Stigma, Discrimination and Biographical Disruption ...
Whalen, Shannon; Maurer-Starks, Suanne
The examination of gender roles and stereotypes and their subsequent impact on sexual behavior is a concept for discussion in many sex education courses in college and sex education units in high school. This analysis often leads to a discussion of the impact of nature vs. nurture on gender roles. The gender roles scavenger hunt is an interactive…
Judge, Timothy A.; Livingston, Beth A.
This study investigated the relationships among gender, gender role orientation (i.e., attitudes toward the gendered separation of roles at work and at home), and earnings. A multilevel model was conceptualized in which gender role orientation and earnings were within-individual variables that fluctuate over time (although predictors of…
Breitfeld, Jana; Tönjes, Anke; Gast, Marie-Therese; Schleinitz, Dorit; Blüher, Matthias; Stumvoll, Michael; Kovacs, Peter; Böttcher, Yvonne
The adipokine vaspin (visceral adipose tissue derived serine protease inhibitor, serpinA12) follows a meal-related diurnal variation in humans and intracerebroventricular vaspin administration leads to acutely reduced food intake in db/db mice. We therefore hypothesized that vaspin may play a role in human eating behaviour. We measured serum vaspin concentrations in 548 subjects from a self-contained population of Sorbs (Germany) who underwent detailed metabolic testing including eating behaviour assessments using the three-factor eating questionnaire. In addition, genetic variation within vaspin was assessed by genotyping 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in all study subjects. Serum vaspin concentrations correlated positively with restraint, disinhibition and hunger (all P0.05). Independent of observed correlations, genetic variants in vaspin were associated with serum vaspin levels but showed no significant association with any of the eating behaviour phenotypes after accounting for multiple testing (P≥0.05 after adjusting for age, gender and BMI). Our data suggest that serum vaspin concentrations might modulate human eating behaviour, which does not seem to be affected by common genetic variation in vaspin.
Full Text Available Gender roles defined as the patterns of behavior which are approved by society and culture. In other words gender role is the way men and women doing to recognition as feminine and masculine and culture, and society accepted and encourage those behaviors as appropriate behavior for men and women. Present study aimed to study gender role attitude using Islamic gender role attitude scale. A sample of 400 male and female students at public universities including Allameh-Tabataba'i University, Tehran University and the University of Kurdistan was drawn. Respondents were selected using random sampling method and data were collected with questionnaire. Results revealed that there were no traditional gender role attitude among students and all the respondents have professional and liberal attitude toward gender roles. There were significant gender differences between male and female in gender role attitude so that female students have more liberal attitude. In terms of ethnicity there were gender differences in Fars and Lur attitude, so that male have professional and female have liberal attitude. Among Kurdish respondents, male and female have liberal attitude while among Turkish, both male and female have traditional-professional attitude.
Section 3 is a description of the study area and methodology. ... The theory of planned behaviour (TPB), an extension of the. Theory of ... the targeted behaviour, and about the power of each such factor in a given situation. According to Palat et ...
Fitzpatrick, Kathleen Kara; Euton, Stephanie J; Jones, Jamie N; Schmidt, Norman B
There has been interest in the relationship between homosexuality, gender role and suicide risk. Though homosexuals are more likely to identify as cross-gender, research has not simultaneously examined sexual orientation and gender role in assessing suicide risk. In the current study, the unique and interactive effects of sexual orientation and gender role were assessed in regard to suicidal ideation, related psychopathology and measures of coping. 77 participants were recruited from an undergraduate psychology subject pool (n=47) or from gay, lesbian and transgender student organizations (n=30) and assessed on measures of gender role, homosexuality, and psychopathology. Consistent with expectations, cross-gender role (i.e., personality traits associated with the opposite sex) is a unique predictor of suicidal symptoms. Moreover, gender role accounted for more of the overall variance in suicidal symptoms, positive problem orientation, peer acceptance and support, than sexual orientation. After accounting for gender role, sexual orientation contributed little to the variance in suicidal symptoms, associated pathology and problem-solving deficits. There was no support for gender role by sexual orientation interaction effects. The cross-sectional nature of the data limits statements regarding causality. Cross-gendered individuals, regardless of sexual orientation, appear to have higher risk for suicidal symptoms. Researchers and clinicians should assess gender role in evaluations of youth samples.
Key words: Gender roles, gender relations, novelist, Globalization. Introduction ... It is pertinent to note that although the word feminism has its roots in the Latin word femina ..... determination to live (25). .... A Glossary of Literary Terms. 8th ed.
Dec 6, 2010 ... English · Français ... Might tax policies be used to promote gender equity and transform existing gendered roles in society? ... These implicit biases operate through the structure of work-related deductions and allowances ... Country case studies are included in “Taxation and Gender Equity: A Comparative ...
Longitudinal Study identified that each child's behavioural style depends on nine .... often) reliant upon the parent and teacher in order to determine how true each item .... Caspi, Moffitt & Silva, 1996; Newman, Caspi, Moffitt & Silva, 1997).
Women are fecund for a shorter period of their lives than men. This paper investigates how differential fecundity interacts with marriage, labor and financial markets to affect gender roles. The main findings of the paper are: (i) Differential fecundity does not have any market invariant gender effect. (ii) Gender roles depend on competition for mates in the marriage market and the way in which ex-post differences in earnings affect that competition. (iii) Gender differences in the labor mark...
Tufte, Birgitte; Chan, Kara; Cappello, Gianna
Purpose – The present study aims to examine girls' perception of gender roles and gender identities in Hong Kong. Design/methodology/approach – A total of 16 girls aged 10 to 12 were asked to take pictures from the media that could illustrate “what girls or women should or should not be; and what...... girls or women should or should not do”. Qualitative interviews were conducted. Findings – Analysis of interviews and images captured found that tween girls' perceived gender roles for females were based on a mixture of traditional and contemporary role models. Girls in Hong Kong demonstrated...
Susánszky, Anna; Susánszky, Eva; Kopp, Mária
The aim of this study was to establish the characteristics of stress associated with male gender role and its relationship to health and to risk behaviours among Hungarian men. The present analysis is based on data of the Hungarostudy 2006 survey. Forty-one percent of the participants were men. Eighty nine percent of the male respondents completed the Eisler-Skidmore Masculine Gender Role Stress Scale; data of 1764 persons were analyzed. Anxiety about sexual performance, breadwinner role, and appearance (i.e. tradition factor) causes a much greater burden of stress than anxiety about changing gender relationships (i.e. modernization factor). With the increase of age, stress caused by traditional role expectations significantly decreases; tensions caused by women's dominance and by situations which demand emotional response and empathy are the highest among middle aged men. Traditional gender role stress is more prevalent among pensioners than among economically active men; stress caused by the modernization of masculine gender role particularly afflicts unemployed men. Married men are to the least extent troubled by female dominance and difficulties in expressing emotions. Of the two dimensions analyzed here (tradition and modernization) only the values on the tradition factor were related to health status, psychological wellbeing, and frequency of smoking. Modernization of gender roles represents only a small--if any--stressor in the life of Hungarian men; on the other hand, unsuccessful adaptation to traditional role expectations highly increases the burden of stress and is closely related to smoking.
Kolbe, Richard H.; Langefeld, Carl D.
Examines gender role orientations of characters in prime time television advertisements through the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) completed by 426 college students (43.2% females). Results confirm the appropriateness of the scale for self- and person-perception ratings. Uses of the BSRI in gender role research are discussed. (SLD)
Full Text Available Guilt is a moral emotion that is often looked upon as a negative trait. However, studies show that some individuals are more predisposed to think, feel and act in a more ethical manner because of a lower threshold to experience guilt. Some theories of helping behaviour emphasize the evolutionary mechanisms, while other theories stress the importance of social variables. This study investigated whether guilt proneness as a dispositional trait can be associated with prosocial behaviour. Five hundred sixty-nine participants reported in an online survey their own levels of guilt proneness, frequency of prosocial behaviour, and related cognitions such as empathy. This study is among the first to demonstrate how guilt proneness combined with empathy can explain additional variance in prosocial behaviour. The findings also indicate gender differences in the precursors of prosocial behaviour, suggesting women are more influenced by the effects of guilt proneness on prosocial behaviour than men.
Torstveit, Linda; Sütterlin, Stefan; Lugo, Ricardo Gregorio
Guilt is a moral emotion that is often looked upon as a negative trait. However, studies show that some individuals are more predisposed to think, feel and act in a more ethical manner because of a lower threshold to experience guilt. Some theories of helping behaviour emphasize the evolutionary mechanisms, while other theories stress the importance of social variables. This study investigated whether guilt proneness as a dispositional trait can be associated with prosocial behaviour. Five hundred sixty-nine participants reported in an online survey their own levels of guilt proneness, frequency of prosocial behaviour, and related cognitions such as empathy. This study is among the first to demonstrate how guilt proneness combined with empathy can explain additional variance in prosocial behaviour. The findings also indicate gender differences in the precursors of prosocial behaviour, suggesting women are more influenced by the effects of guilt proneness on prosocial behaviour than men. PMID:27298635
Despite this possibility, there are surprisingly few definitive studies that examine the effects of socioeconomic status on HIV risk and prevention behaviours among youth in South Africa. Using household survey data collected in 2001, this study investigates how socioeconomic disadvantage has influenced the sexual ...
Updegraff, Kimberly A; McHale, Susan M; Zeiders, Katharine H; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Perez-Brena, Norma J; Wheeler, Lorey A; Rodríguez De Jesús, Sue A
Gender development has long term implications for education and career endeavors and family formation behaviors, but we know very little about the role of sociocultural factors in developmental and individual differences. In this study, we investigated one domain of gender development, gender role attitudes, in Mexican-American adolescents (N = 246; 51 % female), using four phases of longitudinal data across 8 years. Data were collected when adolescents averaged 12.51 years (SD = 0.58), 14.64 years (SD = 0.59), 17.72 years (SD = 0.57), and 19.60 years of age (SD = 0.66). Mothers' and fathers' gender role attitudes also were assessed in Phases 1, 3, and 4. Findings revealed that gender attitude development varied as a function of the interaction between adolescents' nativity and gender. Among Mexico-born adolescents, females exhibited significant declines in traditional attitudes from early to late adolescence, but males' attitudes were stable over time. U.S.-born females and males, in contrast, did not differ in their gender attitude trajectories. Examining the links between mothers', fathers', and adolescents' gender role attitudes revealed within-person associations between mothers' and adolescents' gender role attitudes: on occasions when mothers reported more traditional attitudes relative to their own cross-time average, adolescents also reported more traditional attitudes than usual. In addition, fathers' more traditional gender role attitudes were associated with daughters', but not sons', more traditional gender role attitudes at the between-person level. The discussion focuses on the interpretation of Mexican-American adolescents' gender role attitude development from a cultural ecological perspective.
Updegraff, Kimberly A.; McHale, Susan M.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Perez-Brena, Norma J.; Wheeler, Lorey A.; Rodríguez De Jesús, Sue A.
Gender development has long term implications for education and career endeavors and family formation behaviors, but we know very little about the role of sociocultural factors in developmental and individual differences. In this study, we investigated one domain of gender development, gender role attitudes, in Mexican American adolescents (N = 246; 51% female), using four phases of longitudinal data across eight years. Data were collected when adolescents averaged 12.51 years (SD = 0.58), 14.64 years (SD = 0.59), 17.72 years (SD = 0.57), and 19.60 years of age (SD = 0.66). Mothers’ and fathers’ gender role attitudes also were assessed in Phases 1, 3, and 4. Findings revealed that gender attitude development varied as a function of the interaction between adolescents’ nativity and gender. Among Mexico-born adolescents, females exhibited significant declines in traditional attitudes from early to late adolescence, but males’ attitudes were stable over time. U.S.-born females and males, in contrast, did not differ in their gender attitude trajectories. Examining the links between mothers’, fathers’, and adolescents’ gender role attitudes revealed within-person associations between mothers’ and adolescents’ gender role attitudes: on occasions when mothers reported more traditional attitudes relative to their own cross-time average, adolescents also reported more traditional attitudes than usual. In addition, fathers’ more traditional gender role attitudes were associated with daughters’, but not sons’, more traditional gender role attitudes at the between-person level. The discussion focuses on the interpretation of Mexican American adolescents’ gender role attitude development from a cultural ecological perspective. PMID:24777649
Influence Of Gender And Learned Helplessness On Some Mathematics-Related Cognitive Behaviour Of Lesotho Senior Secondary School Students · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. HJ Nenty, NE Ogwu. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gab.v7i1.45033 ...
Kinsella-Shaw, Mary; And Others
The increasing numbers of married women working make the study of dual career mothers an important topic for the psychology of women. Such research is vital to helping women integrate careers with family life. A study was conducted to examine the extent to which gender role, number of hours worked per week, and number and age of children relate to…
Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen; Keoghan, Margaret; Platt, Stephen
Suicide and other suicidal behaviours are markedly (though differently) patterned by gender. The increase in young male suicide rates in many countries has heightened interest in whether suicidal behaviours and ideation (thoughts) are related to masculinity. Relatively little research has explored the relationship between gender role attitudes and orientation and suicidal behaviours and ideation. Most research in this area has been conducted with young people. We investigated whether gender role orientation (masculinity and femininity scores) and gender role attitudes were related to the reporting of serious suicidal thoughts in three generations (early adulthood, and early and late middle age) in a community sample. Subjects (653 men and women aged around 23 years, 754 aged around 43 years, 722 aged around 63 years) completed home interviews with nurses as part of an ongoing longitudinal community-based study of social factors and health. These included measures of suicidal ideation (thoughts), attitudes to traditional gender roles, and a validated measure of gender role orientation (masculinity and femininity scores). The prevalence of serious suicidal thoughts was higher in early adulthood (10% men, 15% women) than in early (4% men, 8% women) and late (6% men, 5% women) middle age. In early adulthood only sex was significantly related to suicidal thoughts, with women at higher risk (adjusted OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.01-3.00). In early middle age masculinity scores were negatively related to suicidal thoughts (adjusted OR for each unit increase in score 0.65: 95% CI 0.46-0.93), and more traditional views on gender roles were positively associated with suicidal thoughts (adjusted OR 1.48: 95% CI 1.07-2.04). In late middle age trends were in the same direction as in early middle age, but were not statistically significant. Femininity scores were unrelated to serious suicidal thoughts at any age. The high rates of suicidal thoughts amongst men and women in early adulthood
Full Text Available Does gender matter in the context of immigration? What significance does it gain through time? Does transition from one gender role to another result in redistribution of family roles? These are the main questions which this paper addresses through scientific discourse and empiric research. In particular the paper deals with the question whether the transition from one gender role to another in the course of immigration triggers the liberalization of gender roles in the families of East-European immigrants (from Ukraine, Russia, Kazakhstan, and Armenia in Germany. This is investigated through semi-structured biographical interviews with female immigrants to Germany conducted by the author in 2012-2014. The findings illustrate a specific shift of gender roles in the context of migration. On the one hand, willingly or through circumstances, immigrant women are more likely to be involved in the decision-making process, to adapt to a breadwinner role, and to undertake the communication functions with official institutions (often due to better language proficiency. On the other hand, men are more likely to be more engaged in the caregiver roles for offspring, to maintain native language in communication with children (from mother tongue to ‘father tongue’, and to fulfill housekeeping duties. These patterns are rather untypical for post-soviet gender roles, with their increasing tendency to the renaissance of traditional gender roles. The question of whether a shift in gender roles related to migration from one country to another leads towards the greater liberalization of gender roles still remains debatable. But migration experience reinforces the transformation of gender roles which initially are not only distinct but also unequal. Thus, migration can accelerate restructuring of the gender relationship. In turn, a new social order imposes – on immigrants – a demand for greater flexibility of gender roles in the family and for diversity in
Choi, Namok; Herdman, Kevin; Fuqua, Dale R; Newman, Jody L
This exploratory study was designed to examine the relationship between gender role dimensions derived from the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) and the 4 dimensions of gender role conflict represented on the Gender Role Conflict Scale (GRCS) using a sample (N = 400) composed of exclusively gay men. Results from regression of 3 BSRI scores (femininity, social masculinity, personal masculinity) on the 4 subscale scores of the GRCS indicated that gender role conflict was most strongly and positively associated with the negative aspect of masculinity (social masculinity), accounting for about 11% of variability in social masculinity scores. In particular, the success-power-competition dimension of the GRCS was the major predictor of social masculinity in gay men. Gender role conflict was also strongly but negatively associated with femininity, accounting for approximately 10% of the variance in femininity scores among the men in the sample. Implications and recommendations for further studies are discussed.
The role of self-esteem and gender in pen scores and risk-taking behaviour of learners in a South African school. ... RTB to some extent but not on the moderation effects of self-esteem (SE) and gender on RTB ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Analysis of the Factors Influencing the Technical Efficiency of Women Rubber Tappers in the Rubber belt of Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT ... Young Adults Perception of Appropriateness of some Domestic/Home-Related Activities: Implications for Gender Role Acquisition · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL ...
Becomes Her: The Changing Roles of Women’s Role in Terror." Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, Winter/Spring 2010: 91-98. ———. Dying to Kill...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION . REPORT NUMBER Joint Forces Staff College Joint Advanced Warflghting School 7800 Hampton Blvd...STAFF COLLEGE JOINT ADVANCED WARFIGHTING SCHOOL Nurturer, Victim, Seductress: Gendered Roles in
Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated gender-related effects on road safety attitudesin 2,681 young drivers (1,458 males, 54.4%; aged 18-22 who filled out several scales assessing attitudes towards road safety issues, driving behaviour in specific hypothetical situations, accident risk perception, and concerns about such a risk. We focused only on young drivers to better understand the role of gender in road safety attitudes in a period of life in which risky behaviours are widespread for males and females. Indeed, there is still no agreement as to the nature of these gender differences. According to some authors, the effects of gender on being involved in a crash due to driving skills are either non-existent or largely explained by differences in alcohol consumption. In our study, we found gender differences in road safety attitudes (i.e., negative attitude toward traffic rules and risky driving; negative attitude towards drugs and alcohol and tolerance toward speeding and in driver behaviour (i.e., errors in inattentive driving and driving violations. This result is consistent in all drivers coming from nine different European countries. Our analyses yielded an important finding concerning risk perception. The results indicate that the level of risk perception during driving is the same for males and females. However, these two groups differ in the level of concern about this risk, with males being less concerned about the risk of a road accident. This suggests that the main difference between these two groups is not strictly related to judgment of the perceived risk probability but rather to the level of concern experienced about the consequences of the risk. This difference between risk perception and worry could explain differences in the frequency of car accidents in the two groups. The present findings may provide new insights for the development of gender-based prevention programs.
This paper examines gender roles in Chika Unigwe's The Phoenix (2007). In examining these gender roles, the paper focuses on the roles of both female and male genders in the novel in order to tease out issues that border on the marriage institution and gender complementarity in a multicultural setting. As we have ...
Piegza, Magdalena; Leksowska, Aleksandra; Pudlo, Robert; Badura-Brzoza, Karina; Matysiakiewicz, Jerzy; Gierlotka, Zbigniew; Gorczyca, Piotr W
Nowadays, it is becoming increasingly difficult to clearly classify the issues associated with the phenomenon of gender dysphoria due to the fact that one identifies oneself in the context of increasingly fluid categories of gender identity-- an intrinsic sense of being a woman or a man. The authors present a woman whose internal problems connected with her sexuality and incomplete identification with the role attributed to her gender originate from her family history. Long-lasting, traumatic experiences of incestuous abuse and violence on the part of close relatives disturbed her development in many areas of personality and functioning. The aim of the study was to verify the hypothesis of the existence of gender identity disorder accompanied by depressive disorders. In addition to the medical history, the study of patient's problems included the following diagnostic tools: the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the Rorschach Inkblot Test in a CSR Exner system (TPA). The study revealed that as for sexual identification, the patient unambiguously identifies herself as a woman. Her behaviour to become like a man does not deny her sex, or even involve a temporary need of belonging to the opposite sex. It should be interpreted in the broader context of her traumatic experiences, not just sexual, but also concerning different aspects of a female gender role.
Karniol, Rachel; Gabay, Rivi; Ochion, Yael; Harari, Yael
Assessed the relative contribution of gender and gender role orientation to empathy and its development in 119 Israeli 8th and 11th graders. When the contribution of masculinity/femininity was covaried, empathy was found unrelated to gender. Findings are discussed in terms of socialization of emotions and gender role orientation. (SLD)
Palapattu, Anuradha G.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Ginsburg, Golda S.
The present study evaluated gender role theory as an explanation for the observed gender differences in anxiety symptoms among adolescents. Specifically, the relation between gender, gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity), self-esteem, and anxiety symptoms was examined in a community sample of 114 African Americans aged 14 to…
Kleinberg, I; Scior, K
The impact of staff and service user gender on responses of staff in intellectual disability (ID) services is poorly understood. The present study set out to assess the role of gender in influencing staff emotions, attributions and behavioural intentions in response to aggression displayed by adults with ID. A new scale measuring staff behavioural intentions was developed. A two × two (staff gender × service user gender) between subjects design was used to compare the responses of day and residential support staff to physical aggression by a hypothetical service user. In response to a vignette depicting a service user with ID assaulting a member of staff, 160 respondents completed measures of affective responses, causal attributions and behavioural intentions while imagining themselves as the target of the service user's assault. Female participants reported feeling more fear/anxiety, more depression/anger and less confident/relaxed than male participants. The longer staff had worked with people with ID, the more likely they were to favour safety-focused behaviours. More confident female participants were less likely to favour safety-focused behaviours, but confidence had no effect on male participants' endorsement of these behaviours. Increased confidence in both was associated with lower agreement of safety-focused behaviours in relation to the female vignette, regardless of participant gender. The more control women believed the service user had over their behaviour, the more likely they were to choose safety-focused behaviours. Punitive behaviours were favoured more in response to the male rather than the female service user. Punitive behaviours were also favoured more by more junior staff and by participants who expected feeling more depressed/angry in response to the vignettes. Both staff and service user gender influenced staff responses to aggression, yet the latter played a smaller role than expected. The role of gender in staff-service user
Full Text Available Activities that determine the quality of life are related to environmental factors, economic factors, social and personal factors that largely determine the relationships among people and, especially, relations between genders. Particularly important for the quality of life is work, development and work results. Career is now perceived as a development of our own competencies, understanding of the meaning of work through the integration of psychological, sociological, educational, physical and economic factors, which together form the individual's career in life. Women's career developments are often different from men's, due to the phenomenon of the glass ceiling, which represents an invisible barrier to the advancement of women, and which often influences their behaviour. Harmonization of gender roles in business and private life of women is imperative to improve the quality of life all citizens.
Full Text Available Danielle M Wesolowicz, Jaylyn F Clark, Jeff Boissoneault, Michael E Robinson Department of Clinical Health Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Introduction: Gender-related stereotypes of pain may account for some assessment and treatment disparities among patients. Among health care providers, demographic factors including gender and profession may influence the use of gender cues in pain management decision-making. The Gender Role Expectations of Pain Questionnaire was developed to assess gender-related stereotypic attributions of pain regarding sensitivity, endurance, and willingness to report pain, and has not yet been used in a sample of health care providers. The purpose of this study was to examine the presence of gender role expectation of pain among health care providers. It was hypothesized that health care providers of both genders would endorse gender stereotypic views of pain and physicians would be more likely than dentists to endorse these views. Methods: One-hundred and sixty-nine providers (89 dentists, 80 physicians; 40% women were recruited as part of a larger study examining providers’ use of demographic cues in making pain management decisions. Participants completed the Gender Role Expectations of Pain Questionnaire to assess the participant’s views of gender differences in pain sensitivity, pain endurance, and willingness to report pain. Results: Results of repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that health care providers of both genders endorsed stereotypic views of pain regarding willingness to report pain (F(1,165=34.241, P<0.001; d=0.479. Furthermore, female dentists rated men as having less endurance than women (F(1,165=4.654, P=0.032; d=0.333. Conclusion: These findings affirm the presence of some gender-related stereotypic views among health care providers and suggest the presence of a view among health care providers that men are underreporting their pain in comparison to women
Paul Halpern, Hillary; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen
The current study utilized longitudinal, self-report data from a sample of 109 dual-earner, working-class couples and their 6-year-old children living in the northeastern United States. Research questions addressed the roles of parents' gender ideology and gendered behaviors in predicting children's development of gender-role attitudes. It was hypothesized that parents' behavior would be more influential than their ideology in the development of their children's attitudes about gender roles. Parents responded to questionnaires assessing their global beliefs about women's and men's "rightful" roles in society, work preferences for mothers, division of household and childcare tasks, division of paid work hours, and job traditionality. These data were collected at multiple time points across the first year of parenthood, and during a 6-year follow-up. At the final time point, children completed the Sex Roles Learning Inventory (SERLI), an interactive measure that assesses gender-role attitudes. Overall, mothers' and fathers' behaviors were better predictors of children's gender-role attitudes than parents' ideology. In addition, mothers and fathers played unique roles in their sons' and daughters' acquisition of knowledge about gender stereotypes. Findings from the current study fill gaps in the literature on children's gender development in the family context-particularly by examining the understudied role of fathers in children's acquisition of knowledge regarding gender stereotypes and through its longitudinal exploration of the relationship between parents' gender ideologies, parents' gendered behaviors, and children's gender-role attitudes.
Zhao, Na; Zhang, Jianxin
Previous findings on gender differences in the behaviors of individuals, including trusting behaviors, are inconsistent. A criticism is that these studies neglect contextual factors. The present study aims to examine how the target's gender, as a primary context factor, influences the trusting behavior of individuals in one survey and two experimental situations. Results indicate that people tend to trust strangers of the opposite gender more than those of the same gender in mixed-gender situations. Furthermore, females trust females much more than males trust males. The results help people understand that when talking about gender differences in interpersonal situations, the gender identity of target persons should be considered. These findings are somewhat in conflict with those of previous studies conducted in Western cultures, and suggest that culture should also be explored in future studies on gender differences in interpersonal relationships. © 2016 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Shafer, Kevin; Pace, Garrett T
Prior research has focused on the relationship between parenthood and psychological well-being, with mixed results. Some studies have also addressed potential gender differences in this relationship, again yielding varied findings. One reason may be methodological choices pursued in these studies, including the lack of focus on combined parental roles (for example, biological parent and stepparent). The authors used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 (N = 6,276) and multinomial treatment models to address how combined roles influence depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers. Further, they explored potential gender differences. Their results indicated that having multiple parental roles is negatively associated with psychological well-being for both men and women, whereas childlessness is more negative for women, and specific parental role combinations affect mothers and fathers differently. Within the context of changing family structure in the United States, these results have important implications for social workers and other mental health professionals-particularly with regard to screening for depression among parents, who are less likely to seek mental health counseling than childless adults.
Endendijk, Joyce J.; Groeneveld, Marleen G.; van der Pol, Lotte D.; van Berkel, Sheila R.; Hallers-Haalboom, Elizabeth T.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Mesman, Judi
This longitudinal study examines the association between child gender and child aggression via parents' physical control, moderated by parents' gender-role stereotypes in a sample of 299 two-parent families with a 3-year-old child in the Netherlands. Fathers with strong stereotypical gender-role
Parrott, Dominic J.
This study examined sexual prejudice and masculine gender role stress as mediators of the relations between male gender norms and anger and aggression toward gay men. Participants were 150 self-identified heterosexual men who completed measures of adherence to male gender role norms, sexual prejudice, masculine gender role stress, and state anger. Participants then viewed a video depicting intimate relationship behavior between two gay men, reported state anger a second time, and competed in a laboratory aggression task against either a heterosexual or a gay male. Results indicated that adherence to the antifemininity norm exerted an indirect effect, primarily through sexual prejudice, on increases in anger. Adherence to the status and antifemininity norms exerted indirect effects, also through sexual prejudice, on physical aggression toward the gay, but not the heterosexual, male. Findings provide the first multivariate evidence for determinants of aggression toward gay men motivated by gender role enforcement. PMID:19558440
Huschek, D.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Liefbroer, A.C.
This study explores and compares gender-role behavior of second-generation Turks in six European countries. On the individual level, we study the role of gender ideology and consequences of (transnational) partner choice on four aspects of gender-role behavior; childcare, routine household tasks,
Huschek, D.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Liefbroer, A.C.
This study explores and compares gender-role behavior of second-generation Turks in six European countries. On the individual level, we study the role of gender ideology and consequences of (transnational) partner choice on four aspects of gender-role behavior; childcare, routine household tasks,
Odimegwu, Clifford; Somefun, Oluwaseyi Dolapo
While studies in demography and public health have acknowledged the role of ethnic differences, the influence of ethnicity on youth sexual behaviour in Nigeria has received little or no attention. It is important to know how cultural norms and gender roles, which vary by ethnicity, may promote or prevent risky behaviour. Such information could provide insights into previously undetected sexual behaviour in multi-ethnic situations. The Nigeria Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS) for 2003, 2008 and 2013 were pooled to examine the relationship between ethnicity and youth sexual reproductive health, proxied by age at sexual debut, multiple sexual partners (MSP) and condom use at last sexual activity, among the 6304 females and 1549 males who reported being sexually active in the four weeks preceding the survey. Multivariate analysis using a Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to determine the risk factors for early sexual activity among young people (15-24). Logistic regression was used to predict condom use at last sexual activity and MSP. The median age at first sexual activity was 16 for females and 17 for males. 43% of male youths used condoms in their last sexual activity, compared to only 16% among females and a higher number of males (81%) had multiple sexual partners compared to females (35%). For females, elevated risks of first sex was higher among Hausa/Fulanis aged 15-19 and elevated risk of first sex was higher among Yoruba males. This study provides further evidence that in order to promote protective sexual behaviours among youth in Nigeria, social, cultural and gender-specific tactics should be put in place for the prevention of HIV and other STIs.
While feminist scholarship generally looks at Mill’s ambiguities as confusions or flaws, I suggest that Mill’s ambivalence has to be taken at face value by feminist theory.Many feminists – and particularly liberal feminists- feel that human beings cannot develop their true potential until they would live in a society where men and women have complete equality. One solution to this problem is to abolish gender roles, or to value social and legal norms because they promote gender neutrality. Be...
Sieverding, M; Kendel, F
Aspects of gender and gender roles are important factors influencing the interactions between physicians and their patients. On the one hand, gender roles have an impact on the behavior of the patients, such as in health care utilization or use of preventive examinations. On the other hand, gender issues influence doctors' actions with respect to communication, diagnosis, and treatment. Here, a gender bias may lead to misdiagnosis and inadequate treatment. In this paper certain pertinent aspects of gender roles in the doctor-patient relationship are discussed and illustrated by empirical findings.
Endendijk, Joyce J; Groeneveld, Marleen G; van der Pol, Lotte D; van Berkel, Sheila R; Hallers-Haalboom, Elizabeth T; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Mesman, Judi
This longitudinal study examines the association between child gender and child aggression via parents' physical control, moderated by parents' gender-role stereotypes in a sample of 299 two-parent families with a 3-year-old child in the Netherlands. Fathers with strong stereotypical gender-role attitudes and mothers were observed to use more physical control strategies with boys than with girls, whereas fathers with strong counterstereotypical attitudes toward gender roles used more physical control with girls than with boys. Moreover, when fathers had strong attitudes toward gender roles (stereotypical or counterstereotypical), their differential treatment of boys and girls completely accounted for the gender differences in children's aggressive behavior a year later. Mothers' gender-differentiated parenting practices were unrelated to gender differences in child aggression. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Simon, R W
This paper examines gender differences in the consequences of combining spouse, parent, and worker roles for mental health. I suggest that work and family roles have different meanings for males and females, and that differences in the meaning of these roles may be partially responsible for why the mental health advantages of holding multiple roles are fewer for women than for men. Based on qualitative analyses of follow-up, in-depth interviews with 40 employed married parents who participated in a community panel study of mental health, I find that sex differences in the perceived relationship between work and family roles may help account for sex differences in distress by contributing to male-female differences in both the extent and nature of work-parent conflicts, attributions of responsibility for marital problems, feelings of guilt, and self-evaluations as parents and spouses. By identifying gender differences in the meaning of roles among individuals who have the same multiple role configuration, and suggesting how these differences can help explain sex differences in well-being; this research may expand existing theories about the mental health consequences of multiple role involvements.
de Lemus, Soledad; Spears, Russell; Bukowski, Marcin; Moya, Miguel; Lupianez, Juan
We examined the influence of exposure to traditional gender roles on the activation of gender stereotypes in Spanish women. An associative procedure was used to expose participants to stereotypical vs. counterstereotypical gender roles, and a word categorization task with stereotypically feminine
Washburn-Ormachea, Jill M.; Hillman, Stephen B.; Sawilowsky, Shlomo S.
Gender and gender-role orientation differences were explored on adolescents' coping with peer stressors. Eighth-grade and ninth-grade public junior high school students (N = 285) completed the COPE, reporting the strategies they recently used to deal with a stressful peer-related situation. Measures of gender-role orientation (Bem Sex-Role…
Katsurada, Emiko; Sugihara, Yoko
Investigated the relationship between Japanese college students' gender role identity and attitudes toward marriage, exploring the effects of gender-segregated school backgrounds on gender role identity and attitudes toward marriage. Women without any coeducational school background had relatively strong masculinity and desired to marry at older…
Piedad SAUQUILLO MATEO
Full Text Available Education for equality requires the involvement of each and every one of the agencies involved in this process. In this work we wanted to know if the most played video games by children and adolescents transmit content that contribute to their education for equality or not. We have analysed the content of the ten most played games by children and adolescents, according to the values and disvalues transmited, focusing our attention on the model representation of women and gender roles. Lastly, we have tried to establish some conclusions and teach guidelines, leaving open the possibility of developing future research along these lines.
Black, Katherine A; McCloskey, Kathy A
The effects of participant gender and victim resistance on date rape perceptions have been inconsistent. Participant gender role attitudes may contribute to these inconsistencies. We found women with traditional gender role attitudes were least likely to agree that the perpetrator was guilty of rape. Participants were less convinced of the perpetrator's guilt when the victim resisted verbally than when she resisted verbally and physically, and participants with traditional gender role attitudes were less convinced of the negative impact on the victim when she resisted verbally than when she resisted verbally and physically. Perhaps previous inconsistencies resulted from varying proportions of men and women with traditional versus liberal gender role attitudes in the samples.
Mattila, Aino K; Fagerholm, Riitta; Santtila, Pekka; Miettinen, Päivi J; Taskinen, Seppo
Gender identity and gender role orientation were assessed in 24 female assigned patients with disorders of sex development. A total of 16 patients were prenatally exposed to androgens, of whom 15 had congenital adrenal hyperplasia and 1 was virilized due to maternal tumor. Eight patients had 46,XY karyotype, of whom 5 had partial and 3 had complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. Gender identity was measured by the 27-item Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults with 167 female medical students as controls, and gender role was assessed by the femininity and masculinity subscales of the 30-item Bem Sex Role Inventory with 104 female and 64 male medical students as controls. No patient reached the cutoff for gender identity disorder on the Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults. However, patients with 46,XY karyotype demonstrated a somewhat more conflicted gender identity, although the overall differences were relatively small. As to gender role orientation, patients with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome had high scores on the femininity and masculinity scales of the Bem Sex Role Inventory, which made them the most androgynous group. Our findings, although clinically not clear cut, suggest that patients with disorders of sex development are a heterogeneous group regarding gender identity and gender role outcomes, and that this issue should be discussed with the family when treatment plans are made. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This study examined the role of each member of the family in food production, investigated the type of farming activities the farm families are engaged in, gender specific roles, level of participation of the female gender, gender stereotypes and suggested the use of the information for policy advocacy and strengthening of ...
Endendijk, Joyce Johanna
Gender is one of the most important organizers of social life, from the cradle to the grave. In the family context gender shapes biological, social, and cognitive processes at both the parent and child level. The general aim of the studies presented in this dissertation is to provide more insight into the role of child gender, parent gender, and sibling gender composition in the socio-emotional development of children. In Chapter 2 the extent to which mothers and fathers use differential cont...
Syeda Bushra Zaidi
This qualitative study of Pakistani-Urdu wedding songs allows a closer look at the gender situation, and towards the understanding of the process of construction and perpetuation of gender-based stereotypes. However, the major concern of this study is to understand the portrayal of each gender along with the question that does such portrayal underlines the traditional gender roles and gender inequality. Taking a discourse analysis perspective, this study analyzes textu...
Previous research suggests that stepparenting can be stressful, although the mechanisms that contribute to the experience of parenting stress in stepfamilies are less clear. This study examines gender, marital quality, and views about gendered family roles as correlates of parenting stress among 310 stepmothers, stepfathers, and biological mothers and fathers. Findings suggest that stepparents, and especially stepmothers, experience higher levels of parenting stress than biological parents. Findings also suggest that less traditional views about gendered family roles and higher dyadic adjustment are associated with lower parenting stress for stepparents, particularly in combination. Stepparents reporting both of these protective factors were indistinguishable in terms of parenting stress from biological parents. These findings indicate potential pathways to mitigate the stress associated with stepparenting. © 2014 FPI, Inc.
Full Text Available Consumerism, human existence, and the current business environment in which companies exist, are characterized by extreme complexity and dynamism, as a result of the simultaneous action of a large number of various factors, different in orientation and intensity. At a time when natural resources are consumed faster than they can be renewed, when the gap between rich and poor deepens, when the issue of sustainable development and socially responsible business practices are becoming a priority, the phenomena of ethical consumption and ethical consumer behaviour play a more prominent role in marketing theory and practice research. It is evident that consumers in both - developed and developing economies, are including the ethical evaluation of companies and their products and services on the market, in the process of forming their own opinions, preferences, and purchase decision. The modern consumer is sophisticated, knowledgeable and well informed, and as such is ready to decisively influence the companies to apply ethical practice. In order to fulfil these ethical demands of the market, marketing theory and practice pays great attention to the research of factors that influence the ethical behaviour of consumers. This paper tries to find an answer to the question - is there a significant difference between the ethical behavior of women and men as consumers.
Dodson, Thomas A.; Borders, L. DiAnne
Men established in traditional (mechanical engineering, n = 100) and nontraditional (elementary school counseling, n = 100) careers were compared on their career compromise choices (sex type vs. prestige), adherence to masculinity ideology, gender role conflict, and job satisfaction. The engineers tended to choose sex type over prestige; the…
This paper presented a view regarding to the concept of performativity in gender roles. This concept was supported with Judith Butler’s ideas and the embodiment of binary oppositions described in gender norms and gender roles. The normative structure of gender was determined through naturalization of norms and reproduction of these norms by society. This approval of heterosexuality in society was described with a feminist approach
The effectiveness of local business service centres in disseminating ... Adapting gender budgeting support framework in Nigeria: Policy issues and options · EMAIL ... Moral reasoning in the early years: Age and gender patterns amongst young ...
AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... and gender to focus on performance management and continuous professional ... Motivation, gender-typing, learned helplessness and performance in 2015 ...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Unlike other East Asian nations where preference for sons over daughters still prevails, gender preference for children in Japan has progressively shifted from son preference to a noticeable daughter preference over the past few decades. This emergence of daughter preference is surprising given that gender relations are more traditional in Japan than in other advanced countries. OBJECTIVE I focus on the extent to which individuals' gender preferences are shaped by their gender role attitudes and evaluate whether daughter preference is a reflection of convergence or a persistent divergence in gender roles in Japan. METHODS I use data from the Single Persons subset of the 11th Japanese National Fertility Survey conducted by the National Institute of Population and Social Security Research in 1997. Using multinomial logistic regression, I estimate the relationship between Japanese singles' gender role attitudes and their type of gender preference for children. RESULTS Findings suggest that the effect of gender role attitudes on one's child gender preference differs for men and women. Overall, while daughter preference is associated with nontraditional gender role attitudes for men, daughter preference is associated with traditional attitudes for women. CONCLUSIONS Traditionalism is still driving gender preference, though in a different way for men and women. Emerging daughter preference may not simply be a reflection of improvements in women's status, but in fact it is likely that persistent divergence in gender roles remain in Japan.
Bekker, M.H.J.; Boselie, A.H.M.
The present study was, first, aimed at examining the relationship between eating disorders, feminine gender role stress and other types of stress. In addition, we investigated whether eating disordered women compared to non-clinical controls use depressogenic coping more often. We hypothesized that
Using the Falaye Adolescent' Sexual Behaviour Inventory (FASBI), adolescents' sexual behaviour was assessed using the proximate determinants of attitude towards pubertal changes and reproductive biology, adolescent source of sex information, adolescent sexual activities (intercourse and contraception) and attitude ...
Syeda Bushra Zaidi
Full Text Available This qualitative study of Pakistani-Urdu wedding songs allows a closer look at the gender situation, and towards the understanding of the process of construction and perpetuation of gender-based stereotypes. However, the major concern of this study is to understand the portrayal of each gender along with the question that does such portrayal underlines the traditional gender roles and gender inequality. Taking a discourse analysis perspective, this study analyzes textual data from the lyrics of the seventeen wedding songs. The song selection was based on purposive sampling technique. The data were collected through transcription and recording of the audios of the songs. As a result of thematic analysis thirteen themes emerged, ten portraying the female gender and four portraying the male gender. These themes reveal important findings that support and reinforce the gender-based stereotypes and also reflect gender hierarchy, normative heterosexual relationships, kinship norms and gender subversions.
Szymanowicz, Agata; Furnham, Adrian
This study examined participant gender and gender role differences in estimates of multiple intelligences for self, partner, and various hypothetical, stereotypical, and counter-stereotypical target persons. A general population sample of 261 British participants completed one of four questionnaires that required them to estimate their own and others' multiple intelligences and personality traits. Males estimated their general IQ slightly, but mathematic IQ significantly higher than females, who rated their social and emotional intelligence higher than males. Masculine individuals awarded themselves somewhat higher verbal and practical IQ scores than did female participants. Both participant gender and gender role differences in IQ estimates were found, with gender effects stronger in cognitive and gender role than in "personal" ability estimates. There was a significant effect of gender role on hypothetical persons' intelligence evaluations, with masculine targets receiving significantly higher intelligence estimates compared to feminine targets. More intelligent hypothetical figures were judged as more masculine and less feminine than less intelligent ones.
Paul Halpern, Hillary; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen
The current study utilized longitudinal, self-report data from a sample of 109 dual-earner, working-class couples and their 6-year-old children living in the northeastern United States. Research questions addressed the roles of parents’ gender ideology and gendered behaviors in predicting children’s development of gender-role attitudes. It was hypothesized that parents' behavior would be more influential than their ideology in the development of their children's attitudes about gender roles. Parents responded to questionnaires assessing their global beliefs about women's and men's "rightful" roles in society, work preferences for mothers, division of household and childcare tasks, division of paid work hours, and job traditionality. These data were collected at multiple time points across the first year of parenthood, and during a 6-year follow-up. At the final time point, children completed the Sex Roles Learning Inventory (SERLI), an interactive measure that assesses gender-role attitudes. Overall, mothers’ and fathers’ behaviors were better predictors of children’s gender-role attitudes than parents’ ideology. In addition, mothers and fathers played unique roles in their sons’ and daughters’ acquisition of knowledge about gender stereotypes. Findings from the current study fill gaps in the literature on children’s gender development in the family context—particularly by examining the understudied role of fathers in children’s acquisition of knowledge regarding gender stereotypes and through its longitudinal exploration of the relationship between parents’ gender ideologies, parents’ gendered behaviors, and children’s gender-role attitudes. PMID:27445431
The first hospital to offer no-scalpel vasectomy services in La Paz, Bolivia, introduced its program in 1996. However, over the course of 2 years, only 1 vasectomy was performed. Vasectomy services in La Paz are underutilized due to inadequate counseling, outreach, and use of educational materials. While the national health and population policy mandates the provision of comprehensive reproductive health care for both men and women, Bolivian men rarely seek health care services of any kind because most services are designed mainly for women and children. The only services offered to men are urology related, which focus upon screening for STDs, and workplace-related services, such as for factory workers and miners. Nongovernmental organizations (NGO) are exploring how to increase men's involvement in health care and family planning services. Men need to be made aware of gender issues related to reproductive and sexual health. The Centro de Investigacion Social Tecnologia Apropriada y Capacitacion (CISTAC), a Bolivian NGO which focuses upon research and training in health and social issues, plans to use research, training, and information dissemination to broaden the male role and identity in Bolivia, which will also affect men's access to and receipt of health care services. Toward that end, CISTAC and AVSC co-sponsored a workshop to teach health care program managers about the relationship between gender issues and men's involvement in reproductive health care.
Hoyt, Michael A
The utility of emotional approach coping (EAC), or expressing and processing emotions, has been equivocal for men. Gender role conflict, or the negative cognitive, emotional and behavioural consequences associated with male gender role socialisation, likely shape coping responses and may negatively affect the efficacy of men's emotion-directed coping efforts and adjustment to cancer. Perceptions of receptiveness of one's interpersonal environment may be particularly important to the effectiveness of EAC. This study examined the relationships among EAC, gender role conflict, and distress in a group of 183 men with cancer. Structural equation modelling revealed that higher gender role conflict was associated with lower emotional expression, which in turn was associated with greater distress. Gender role conflict was not related to emotional processing. Higher gender role conflict also was associated directly with more distress. In subsequent analyses, social constraints and age were examined as possible moderators of EAC. Emotional expression was related to more psychological distress for those in highly constrained environments; and emotional processing was associated with more distress with younger age. Emotional expression may be particularly affected by social influences related to gender and social receptivity. More research is needed to better distinguish constructive and unconstructive emotional processing.
Hines, Melissa; Pasterski, Vickie; Spencer, Debra; Neufeld, Sharon; Patalay, Praveetha; Hindmarsh, Peter C; Hughes, Ieuan A; Acerini, Carlo L
Individual variability in human gender-related behaviour is influenced by many factors, including androgen exposure prenatally, as well as self-socialization and socialization by others postnatally. Many studies have looked at these types of influences in isolation, but little is known about how they work together. Here, we report that girls exposed to high concentrations of androgens prenatally, because they have the genetic condition congenital adrenal hyperplasia, show changes in processes related to self-socialization of gender-related behaviour. Specifically, they are less responsive than other girls to information that particular objects are for girls and they show reduced imitation of female models choosing particular objects. These findings suggest that prenatal androgen exposure may influence subsequent gender-related behaviours, including object (toy) choices, in part by changing processes involved in the self-socialization of gendered behaviour, rather than only by inducing permanent changes in the brain during early development. In addition, the findings suggest that some of the behavioural effects of prenatal androgen exposure might be subject to alteration by postnatal socialization processes. The findings also suggest a previously unknown influence of early androgen exposure on later processes involved in self-socialization of gender-related behaviour, and thus expand understanding of the developmental systems regulating human gender development. © 2016 The Author(s).
Breidahl, Karen Nielsen; Larsen, Christian Albrekt
of this article is to study to what extent and at what pace immigrants in general adapt to the attitudes towards women’s paid work that prevail in the host countries. A cross-national research strategy is applied using the European Social Survey rounds 2 (2004), 4 (2008) and 5 (2010), allowing us to compare......It is a predominant assumption in contemporary political and academic debates that gender roles and attitudes supporting women’s paid work among immigrants are deep-rooted and stable over time. However, the actual work–family orientations among immigrants are rarely studied. The purpose...... and analyse attitudes towards women’s paid work among 13,535 foreign-born individuals resident in 30 European countries. The results indicate that immigrants’ attitudes towards women’s paid work are highly structured by the institutional and cultural context of the host country. Both male and female...
Kelly, William E.; McGee, Catherine M.
The present study investigated the relationship between gender roles and night-sky watching in a sample of college students (N=161). The Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) and the Noctcaelador Inventory (NI) were used to investigate the differences between gender role groups for night-sky watching. The results supported the hypothesis that androgynous…
To examine the influence of gender and gender role on anger experiences in the workplace, 257 adult students completed narratives describing their anger-provoking issues and anger expression. Analyses revealed that gender did not influence the types of issues cited or workers' anger expressions. (Contains 39 references and an appendix.) (GCP)
Moses, Ikupa; Admiraal, Wilfried F.; Berry, Amanda K.
Low commitment to teaching amongst teachers is a problem facing the teaching profession in many countries. Gender might be an important factor in explaining what kinds of prospective teachers are attracted to teaching. This empirical study examined the relationship between student-teachers' gender, gender roles and commitment to teaching within…
Behera, S K
Gender role biases in Indian television have served to reinforce and even enhance the degradation of women in the broader society. A content analysis of 20 news programs, 20 fictionalized serials, and 100 commercials conducted over a 3-week period in 1988 indicated that women are portrayed as victims, caretakers, and sex objects while men are presented as masters, doers, and intellectuals. Of the 400 hours of news programs studied, men newsmakers accounted for 71% of the content while women were featured in only 10% of the segments. Even then, women's portrayal in the news tended to center on their roles as beneficiaries of welfare schemes, victims of accidents, or as the wives of male dignitaries. Fictionalized dramas reinforced the sex role stereotypes of men as decisive, assertive, dominant, and career- oriented, and of women as emotionally dependent, eager to please, sentimental, and primarily concerned with family relationships. Female characters in these series were most often housewives, secretaries, teachers, or nurses. Women were featured more often (56% of content) than men in Indian commercials, yet were shown performing stereotyped female activities such as shopping, preparing meals, and dressing to obtain the sexual approval of men. This sex role stereotyping in the media is seriously impeding the struggles of women in India to achieve economic and political autonomy. To promote more positive role modeling and change women's self-image, Indian television must move immediately to portray women achieving self-realization through their careers and social participation and to depict cooperation between men and women in performing household chores.
Full Text Available Gender, identity and sexuality have to be more closely integrated into the broader discussion of literature and language, which can be achieved only through wider application of literary texts in the teaching process. Teaching literature to students of English serves not only the purpose of building an understanding of the human experience, but also tackles the issues of femininity and masculinity and helps sensitize the students to the gender differences and the codes of patriarchal society which result in male dominance. Poems by Emily Dickinson, Sylvia Plath and Anne Sexton have proved as valuable texts in teaching gender, as will be discussed in the paper, which focuses on Plath‘s „Lady Lazarus” and the strategies the educator can select in order to achieve the desired objective.
Teaching is a professional job that requires expertise. The characteristics of the professionals can affect the quality of the profession. One of these characteristics is gender. In this study, the gender-related role of teaching profession in Turkey is examined. The analysis in a historical perspective of gender distributions of students who have…
The study examined the impact of gender differences on couples' reproductive ... puts forth the goal of promoting gender equality in all spheres of life, including family ad .... income, rural, semi-urban and urban spouses indicate that husbands make the decision. .... Source: National Population Commission 1991. Table 2:.
Breastfeeding and emotions of infants of working mothers in Adekunle Ajasin University, ... Gender, religiosity and self-esteem as predictors of sexual attitudes of students ... Gender factors affecting female labour input in the Nigerian University ... Correlation between parenting styles and sexual attitudes of young people in ...
OECD Publishing, 2015
Over the past century, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries have made significant progress in narrowing or closing long-standing gender gaps in many areas of education and employment, including educational attainment, pay and labour market participation. But new gender gaps in education are opening. Young men…
Does Gender and Age at Sexual Initiation affect Modern Contraceptive Use among Teenagers and Young adults in Nigeria? EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT ... Gender Performativity and Addiction within the Family: Focus on the Hookah · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...
Matthes, Jörg; Prieler, Michael; Adam, Karoline
Although there are numerous studies on gender-role portrayals in television advertising, comparative designs are clearly lacking. With content analytical data from a total of 13 Asian, American, and European countries, we study the stereotypical depiction of men and women in television advertisements. Our sample consists of 1755 ads collected in May 2014. Analyzing the gender of the primary character and voiceover, as well as the age, associated product categories, home- or work setting, and the working role of the primary character, we concluded that gender stereotypes in TV advertising can be found around the world. A multilevel model further showed that gender stereotypes were independent of a country's gender indices, including Hofstede's Masculinity Index, GLOBE's Gender Egalitarianism Index, the Gender-related Development Index, the Gender Inequality Index, and the Global Gender Gap Index. These findings suggest that gender stereotyping in television advertising does not depend on the gender equality prevalent in a country. The role of a specific culture in shaping gender stereotypes in television advertising is thus smaller than commonly thought.
Zaikman, Yuliana; Marks, Michael J; Young, Tara M; Zeiber, Jacqueline A
The sexual double standard (SDS) suggests that women are evaluated negatively and men positively for engaging in similar sexual behaviors. According to social role theory, the SDS exists due to gender role structures. Consequently, perceived violations of women's sexual behavior are associated with the SDS. In addition to gender role violations of sexual behavior, two additional violations of gender roles exist: heterosexual sexual orientation norms and gender role characteristics. The current study aims to investigate whether the SDS persists for sexual orientation-violating and gender role characteristic-violating targets, and to examine which of the three gender role violations influence evaluations of others' sexual behavior. A U.S. sample of 483 participants evaluated target individuals who were either female or male, heterosexual/gay man or lesbian, feminine or masculine, and had 1 or 12 sexual partners. Results indicate that SDS persists for gender role-violating targets but is exhibited differently for targets violating heterosexual sexual orientation norms and gender role characteristics.
Full Text Available Purpose: This study examines the relationship between personality traits and creative behaviour, in an entrepreneurial environment. Moreover, an attempt was made to define the effect of gender on creative behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: Even though there are more women than men in Europe, female entrepreneurs represent only a third of the EU’s self-employed. Additional factors, such as reconciling business and family, make entrepreneurship a less attractive option for them than for men. In order to achieve the objectives of this study research was conducted with the use of a structured questionnaire, during the months of February and March of 2017. The final sample size consists of 180 small and medium enterprises, from the region of North Greece. The instrument for content and construct validity was examined. Then, the hypotheses were examined using ANOVA, Correlation and Regression analysis. Findings: The results showed that "Agreeableness", "Openness to Experience", "Conscientiousness", and "Extraversion" are positively related with "creative behaviour" of entrepreneurs. However, there is no strong evidence to predict the level of creativity by the personality traits. On the other hand, "Neuroticism" is negatively correlated with creativity, but this relation is not significant. The results also indicate a statistically significant but not strong relation among the traits "Agreeableness", "Openness to Experience" and the performance of the enterprise. Research limitations/implications: There are some limitations in the study that can be addressed in the future; primarily, the study used subjective measures of firm performance instead of objective measures. Moreover, the sample size was small. A number of policy implications arise from this study. There needs to be a stronger recognition that the stereotypical role of women as sole careers is preventing future growth in female entrepreneurship. If the objective of future policy is to
Thompson, Franklin T.; Austin, William P.
This study utilized a data set of categorical responses measuring the gender role views of students (N = 701) from a prestigious, Midwestern, all-male, Catholic high school. Incongruence between student self-perceptions and the realities of gender role miseducation and the embracement of sexist ideology were readily apparent. Findings suggest that…
Barak, Azy; And Others
Male (N=120) and female (N=120) clients were counseled by male or female counselor classified as masculine, feminine, or androgynous in sex-role orientation. Clients' career choice traditionality was measured during counseling, following counseling, and with respect to clients' career six months later. Counselor gender and gender-role orientation…
Felicia Cornelia MACARIE; Octavian MOLDOVAN
The present paper explores the degree in which universities could/should serve as role models for communities from the perspective of gender integration. Although the theoretical/ moral answer would be affirmative (universities should be in such a position that would allow local communities to regard them as role models of gender integration), the primary empirical analysis leads to another conclusion. A brief theoretical review (that connects gender discrimination, sustainable development, u...
Wester, Stephen R.
O'Neil (2008) defines male gender role conflict (GRC) as a psychological state in which the socialized male gender role has negative consequences for the person or others. Building on this, many now realize that the mechanisms through which these negative consequences occur, rather than being global, are instead contextual. That is, different men…
Work-life balance among academics: do gender and personality traits really matter? ... Teacher mental health promotion in creating quality teaching environments ... preparation and storage methods of indigenous foods among elderly women ...
Poverty, Migration and the Incidence of HIV/AIDS among Rural Women in Lesotho: A ... Entrepreneurial Career Ambitions of Female Psychology Students: Demystifying Gender Stereotypes · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...
Gender and Human Security: Reflection on the Vulnerability of women to ... in Italian Major Symphony Orchestra: Analysis of Women Careers on Podium ... of Women in Pakistani Magazines: Do Magazines Stereotype Women as Model?
Woerner, Jacqueline; Abbey, Antonia
The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of positive and negative affect following casual sex. Specifically, the primary goal was to investigate how traditional gender-role beliefs, peer approval of casual sex, perceptions of others, sexual assertiveness, and sexual pleasure influence affective experiences. Second, we aimed to determine the extent to which these associations were comparable for men and women. Although we expected mean differences on many of these constructs (e.g., men perceiving more peer approval), we expected the relationships between these constructs to be comparable for women and men. Participants ages 18 to 35 (N = 585) were recruited from a large university and Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) and described their most recent casual sex experience in a self-report questionnaire. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicated that gender-role beliefs were significantly associated with less sexual assertiveness and more negative perceptions of others; for women they were also associated with less peer approval of casual sex. For women and men, sexual assertiveness predicted sexual pleasure; and sexual pleasure was associated with affect. To decrease the gender discrepancy in positive affect and sexual pleasure, it is important to develop a comprehensive understanding of the interrelationships among norms, casual sex experiences, and affect.
Jevin D West
Full Text Available Gender disparities appear to be decreasing in academia according to a number of metrics, such as grant funding, hiring, acceptance at scholarly journals, and productivity, and it might be tempting to think that gender inequity will soon be a problem of the past. However, a large-scale analysis based on over eight million papers across the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities reveals a number of understated and persistent ways in which gender inequities remain. For instance, even where raw publication counts seem to be equal between genders, close inspection reveals that, in certain fields, men predominate in the prestigious first and last author positions. Moreover, women are significantly underrepresented as authors of single-authored papers. Academics should be aware of the subtle ways that gender disparities can occur in scholarly authorship.
West, Jevin D; Jacquet, Jennifer; King, Molly M; Correll, Shelley J; Bergstrom, Carl T
Gender disparities appear to be decreasing in academia according to a number of metrics, such as grant funding, hiring, acceptance at scholarly journals, and productivity, and it might be tempting to think that gender inequity will soon be a problem of the past. However, a large-scale analysis based on over eight million papers across the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities reveals a number of understated and persistent ways in which gender inequities remain. For instance, even where raw publication counts seem to be equal between genders, close inspection reveals that, in certain fields, men predominate in the prestigious first and last author positions. Moreover, women are significantly underrepresented as authors of single-authored papers. Academics should be aware of the subtle ways that gender disparities can occur in scholarly authorship.
Cook, Jennifer R; Rostosky, Sharon S; Riggle, Ellen D B
Novels provide role models for young adult lesbians and thus may influence their identity development. This study focused on 16 lesbian protagonists identified in 11 young adult novels that received 2011 Lambda Literary Award nominations. Content analyses revealed six themes. Three themes defied traditional gender stereotypes: Asserting Oneself, Pursuing Intimacy with Another Woman, and Breaking Free of Constraints to Authentic Self-Expression. Three themes reinforced gender stereotypes: Negative Emotional Experiences Associated with Lesbian Identity, Traditional Masculine Gender Expression, and Traditional Gender Role-Based Sexual Scripts. Each theme is discussed in light of its possible contribution to lesbian identity development.
Sullman, M J M; Paxion, J; Stephens, A N
The present study investigated the validity of the 25-item Driving Anger Expression Inventory (DAX) as well as the role of sex and gender-roles in relation to the expression of driving anger in a sample of 378 French drivers (males=38%, M=32.9years old). Confirmatory Factor Analysis supported the four-factor structure of the 25-item DAX (Adaptive/Constructive Expression; Use of the Vehicle to Express Anger; Verbal Aggressive Expression and Personal Physical Aggressive Expression) and two of the three aggressive factors were found to have significant positive relationships with driving anger, while adaptive/constructive expression was negatively related to driving anger. Use of the vehicle to express anger was not significantly related to crash involvement, but was significantly related to all other crash-related conditions (traffic tickets, loss of concentration, loss of control of the vehicle, near crash). The presence of feminine traits, but not sex, was predictive of adaptive/constructive behaviours, while masculine traits predicted more frequent verbal aggressive expression, use of the vehicle to express anger, personal physical aggressive expression and total aggressive expression. This finding may account for the inconsistent relationship found between driving anger and sex in previous research. This research also found that the 25-item DAX is a valid tool to measure the expression of driving anger and that the endorsement of masculine traits are related to more aggressive forms of driving anger expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stieger, Stefan; Burger, Christoph; Schiller, Franziska R; Schulze, Esther K; Voracek, Martin
Individuals prefer their name letters over nonname letters, which is known as the name-letter effect (NLE). This research aimed to examine a possible NLE for gender-role orientation (GRO) by rating letters for their gender-typicality in an initial preference task (Gender-IPT). Indeed, a clear NLE appeared: Men rated their initials as more male-typical, whereas women rated them as more female-typical. The Gender-IPT showed good convergent validity with other direct and indirect (Gender Implicit Association Test) measures of GRO as well as predictive validity with sensation seeking and gender-typical everyday life behaviors. The Gender-IPT seems to be a useful and practical indirect measure to assess GRO in a short, convenient, and computer-independent way, complementing other indirect measures of GRO.
José Luis Ruizalba Robledo
Full Text Available Purpose: To disentangle the ways in which social norms shape the entrepreneurial intention of university students and to analyse the moderating effect of gender that may arise.Design/methodology/approach: We use the entrepreneurial intention model based on Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB literature and moderated by students’ gender affecting this intention. We tested some hypotheses using data from undergraduate business students in Spain and their entrepreneurial intentions.Findings: Our results suggest that perceived behavioural control and attitudes affect the entrepreneurial intentions of university students towards entrepreneurship while subjective norms don’t. Furthermore, our findings reveal that the moderating effect of gender has a positive influence effect for women on the relationship between those subjective norms and the perceived behavioural control. However, as to some research done so far, the moderating role of gender does not seem to have a particular effect on predicting entrepreneurial intentions when moderating TPB dimensions.Practical implications: Given the socio-economic benefits attributed to entrepreneurship results allow the design of more effective education initiatives and policy makers.Originality/value: This research provides support to the application of the TPB allowing for a better understanding of gender differences in entrepreneurial intention.
López-Sáez, Mercedes; Morales, J Francisco; Lisbona, Ana
The aim of this study is twofold: to determine whether (and how) gender stereotypes have changed over time through a comparison of two different sets of data collected in 1993 (N=1255) and 2001 (N=1255) from a representative sample of the Spanish population, and to examine the relation between gender traits and roles and its stability over time. In addition, special attention is paid to the psychometric properties of the measures of gender traits and roles used in the study. The content of gender stereotypes was found to remain stable over the target period of time, confirming the classical typology (a higher assignment of expressive-communal traits to women and of instrumental-agentic traits to men). The structure of the gender-role questionnaire allows us to distinguish between family-role and work-role stereotyping. Gender-role stereotyping shows a marked decline between 1993 and 2001, a result that contrasts with the stability of trait-role stereotyping. The fact that a very low correlation is observed at the two time points between these two components of gender stereotyping strongly suggests their independence.
Sánchez-López, María del Pilar; Cuellar-Flores, Isabel; Dresch, Virginia
The present research focused on a sample of Spanish undergraduate women and men to evaluate whether gender was related to substance use and chronic illness. This research examined the associations of conformity to masculine norms for men and conformity to feminine norms for women with substance use in chronic illnesses. Spanish male (n = 226) and female (n = 234) college undergraduates completed measures of chronic diseases, alcohol and tobacco consumption, and conformity to gender norms. Multivariable regression analyses demonstrated that being female was related to lower alcohol and cigarette consumption but a greater rate of chronic illnesses. Although masculinity did not explain the rate of chronic illnesses, specific feminine and masculine gender norms were related to alcohol and tobacco use and prevalence of chronic diseases. The present study provides insights for further cross-cultural psychological studies on the mediating effect of self-reported conformity to gender norms (rather than only sex) on health. Limitations and implications are discussed.
Lucke, J C
The associations between gender role orientation and high-risk sex behaviors were explored in a study of 400 sexually active women 16-24 years of age (mean, 20.4 years) recruited from two metropolitan family planning clinics in Queensland, Australia. Three dimensions of gender role orientation were examined: gender role personality traits, gender role attitudes, and gender role dating behavior. It was hypothesized that women with more nontraditional or "masculine" characteristics are more likely than those with traditional or "feminine" characteristics to engage in unsafe sexual behaviors. Only partial support was found for this hypothesis. Although a number of univariate relationships emerged, very few associations between sexual behavior and gender roles remained significant in the multivariate analysis. Logistic regression analysis indicated that women with two or more sexual partners in the year preceding the study were significantly more likely than those with 0-1 sex partners to have masculine personality traits and to be more liberal in their attitudes toward women in society. Nonuse of condoms with the most recent sexual partner was not significantly associated with the gender role variables; however, women who reported masculine dating behaviors were more likely to have used a condom with their most recent nonsteady sexual partner. Similarly, substance use before or during last sexual intercourse was associated with masculine traits when the partner was nonsteady but was not related to gender role orientation when the partner was steady. The association of "masculine" personality traits with multiple partners and substance use indicates that caution should be exercised in assuming that masculine gender role characteristics are beneficial for women in sexual situations.
To study the problems of gender equality is of great importance for the global business. Gender is a cultural construct, within which our different cultures attach different values, roles and responsibilities to women and men. However, in addition to culture, the gender issues are in close relation with the global business. From this viewpoint, experience of the West is considerable and of great importance. It can be said that the problems of women’s rights and a whole number of barriers, whi...
Pérez i Quintana, Anna; Hormiga Pérez, Esther
Numerous studies have addressed the phenomenon of entrepreneurship from a gender perspective. In many of them, the gender perspective consists of analyzing the differences shown in the behavior of entrepreneurs based on their biological sex. This approach has several limitations in interpreting the phenomenon and, moreover, developing supportive policies. This paper addresses entrepreneurship from the perspective of the role orientation associated with gender. Based on a questionnaire to 780 ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background While suicide is the second leading cause of death among young people in most industrial countries, non-fatal suicidal behaviour is also a very important public health concern among adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in prevalence and emotional and behavioural correlates of suicidal behaviour in a representative school-based sample of adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional design was used to assess suicidal behaviour and various areas of emotional and behavioural problems by using a self-report booklet including the Youth Self-Report. One hundred sixteen schools in a region of Southern Germany agreed to participate. A representative sample of 5,512 ninth-grade students was studied. Mean age was 14.8 years (SD 0.73; 49.8% were female. Results Serious suicidal thoughts were reported by 19.8% of the female students and 10.8% of the females had ever attempted suicide. In the male group, 9.3% had a history of suicidal thoughts and 4.9% had previously attempted suicide. Internalizing emotional and behavioural problems were shown to be higher in the female group (difference of the group means 4.41 while externalizing emotional and behavioural problems slightly predominated in male students (difference of the group means -0.65. However, the total rate of emotional and behavioural problems was significantly higher in the adolescent female group (difference of the group means 4.98. Using logistic regression models with suicidal thoughts or attempted suicide as dependent variables, the pseudo-R2 of gender alone was only 2.7% or 2.3%, while it was 30% or 23.2% for emotional and behavioural problems measured by the YSR syndrome scales. By adding gender to the emotional and behavioural problems only an additional 0.3% of information could be explained. Conclusions The findings suggest that gender differences in non-fatal suicidal behaviour among adolescents can to a large extent be explained by the
Bender, Andrea; Beller, Sieghard; Klauer, Karl Christoph
The question of whether language affects thought is long-standing, with grammatical gender being one of the most contended instances. Empirical evidence focuses on the gender congruency effect, according to which referents of masculine nouns are conceptualized more strongly as male and those of feminine nouns more strongly as female. While some recent studies suggest that this effect is driven by conceptual connotations rather than grammatical properties, research remains theoretically inconclusive because of the confounding of grammatical gender and conceptual connotations in gendered (masculine or feminine) nouns. Taking advantage of the fact that German also includes a neuter gender, the current study attempted to disentangle the relative contributions of grammatical properties and connotations to the emergence of the gender congruency effect. In three pairs of experiments, neuter and gendered nouns were compared in an Extrinsic Affective Simon Task based on gender associations, controlled for a possible role of gender-indicating articles. A congruency effect emerged equally strongly for neuter and gendered nouns, but disappeared when including connotations as covariate, thereby effectively excluding grammatical gender as the (only) driving force for this effect. Based on a critical discussion of these findings, we propose a possible mechanism for the emergence of the effect that also has the potential to accommodate conflicting patterns of findings from previous research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Adina Magda lena IORGA
Full Text Available Socialization is an interactive communication process that requires individual development and social influences, thus highlighting personal reception and interpretation of social messages, as well as the intensity and content dynamic of these social influences. In this context, family socialization represents the main model of the of gender interactions, of defining gender identity composition and gender expectations. Gender socialization within the family setting is very important because it internalizes the gender rules and ideologies, assimilating gender content from the two significant figures: Mom and Dad. This content is a fundamental cornerstone for building gender identity. The research aims to identify the views of students from the Veterinary Medicine University of Bucharest regarding the role of family socialization in the construction of gender identity. The research results confirm a trend of perception for most students towards the innovative socializing model, based on equality in the distribution of tasks within the family. However, there are differences between the genders in terms of perception and comprehension of the role of women and men. Thus, it appears that some of the students believe that the woman carries most of the household domestic tasks, while some students assigned the traditional role of financial support for the entire family to the men.
Kaveh Alavi, MD
Conclusion: Iranian FM‐GID individuals were less feminine than normal men. However, MF‐GID individuals were similar to normal women or more feminine. Cultural considerations remain to be investigated. Alavi K, Eftekhar M and Jalali Nadoushan AH. Comparison of masculine and feminine gender roles in Iranian patients with gender identity disorder. Sex Med 2015;3:261–268.
Teo Sir Hiang
Full Text Available Road safety is a substantial issue worldwide. Speeding contributed to one-third of all the fatal crashes reported from year 2002 to 2011 with young drivers reported to have the highest fatality and injury rates. This paper studied on the speeding driving behavior of 10 teenagers and 10 adults, from both genders. The aim was to investigate the relationship between age and gender with speeding driving behavior. The drivers were required to drive within an enclosed compound by using a test car. Results showed young and male drivers averagely travelled at higher velocity before entering the roundabout and at the same time accelerate to higher velocity upon exiting the roundabout compared to old and female drivers.
Yang, Xueyan; Wang, Xinhong; Zhang, Lin; Weidman, John C.
In the current study, the relationship between gender role conflict, professional role confidence, and intentional persistence was examined using data from a survey of male and female Chinese engineering students. Intentional persistence was significantly associated with gender role conflict and professional role confidence; however, the pattern…
Background. Intimate partner violence (IPV) among adolescents is common worldwide, but our understanding of perpetration, gender differences and the role of social-ecological factors remains limited. Objectives. To explore the prevalence of physical and sexual IPV perpetration and victimisation by gender, and ...
Van de Kleut, Geraldine
This article presents a case study of an exploration of gender roles in a second-grade classroom. The author discusses some of the discursive identities in which she and her students are positioned, and then uses the picture book William's Doll to introduce a discussion of discursive gender identities with her students. She then asks students to…
Knoppers, A.E.; McDonald, M.P.
In this paper we critically review how research on girls or women and sport has developed over the last 35 years. We use a post-positivist lens to explore the content of the papers published in Sex Roles in the area of women, gender and sport and examine the shifts in how gender and sport have been
The article examines the evolution of gender policies in the field of vocational education in Turkey since the beginning of the 20th century up to the present. Schools for girls started to emerge in Turkey at the beginning of the republican era. Their aim was to teach students about gender roles consistent with the trend of modernization and…
Zeyneloglu, Simge; Terzioglu, Fusun
This research was conducted for the purpose of developing a scaling tool to determine university students' attitudes towards gender roles. University students' attitudes should first be determined in order to change this traditional view to gender and to achieve a more egalitarian view. The research sample was comprised of one university's…
Booth, Alison L.; Nolen, Patrick J.
Women and men may differ in their propensity to choose a risky outcome because of innate preferences or because pressure to conform to gender-stereotypes encourages girls and boys to modify their innate preferences. Single-sex environments are likely to modify students' risk-taking preferences in economically important ways. To test this, we designed a controlled experiment in which subjects were given an opportunity to choose a risky outcome - a real-stakes gamble with a higher expected mone...
Liwander, Anna; Pederson, Ann; Boyle, Ellexis
The world's first evidence-based sedentary behaviour guidelines were released in Canada in 2011. Based on evidence that time spent in sedentary pursuits poses important health risks, the guidelines recommend limits on the time that children and youth are sedentary throughout the day. Although the guidelines reflect differences in age, they do not include recommendations for adults, nor engage with other important determinants of health such as sex and gender, despite research suggesting that girls and boys, women and men, engage in different sedentary behaviours. For example, it has been suggested that girls spend considerable time in communication-based sedentary behaviours such as talking on the phone, texting and instant messaging, while boys are more likely to watch television and videos, or play computer games. There is also evidence suggesting that the health outcomes associated with sedentary behaviour differ for females and males, and there are gendered social and economic barriers that may influence sedentary behaviour. It is therefore time to consider sex and gender in research and policy on sedentary behaviour in order to effectively reduce time spent sedentary and to improve the health of women and men in Canada.
Latent profile analysis was used to identify different categories of students having different "profiles" using self-reported classroom behaviour. Four categories of students with unique classroom behaviour profiles were identified among secondary school students in Oslo, Norway (n = 1570). Analyses examined how classroom behaviour…
Gender, Entrepreneurship, and Inclusive Growth: The Role of Institutions in Promoting Small and Medium Enterprises in Mauritius and Botswana ... More specifically, the research team will explore the linkages between ... Project Leader.
Social change and traditional gender roles in Lagos State, Nigeria. ... twenty seven respondents consisted of 135 Females (59.5%) and 92 Males (40.5%) participated in the survey. The study adopted descriptive method of research design.
Political Role of Tribes : Analysis of Tribalism, Islamism and Gender in Iraq, Jordan ... When countries such as Jordan and Yemen adopted political pluralism, the ... Sign up now for IDRC news and views sent directly to your inbox each month.
Czlonkowski, A; Kostowski, W; Markowska, L; Markiewicz, L; Wiśniewska, I
Lesions of the dorsal and medial raphe nuclei that caused a marked decrease of the 5-HT level in the forebrain induced in groupped rats intraspecies aggressiveness but failed to increase mouse-killing behaviour. In rats isolated for 3 weeks lesions of the raphe nuclei did not change behaviour of "killers" and natural "non-killers". The role of 5-HT in mechanism of the aggressive behaviour is discussed.
This thesis was written as part of GAP (Gaming for Peace) project, which aims to identify the soft skills needed in multicultural EU missions and based on identified training needs to create an online role playing game where these skills can be trained. The thesis researched the role of gender in crisis management. Thesis project was executed during Spring 2017. The main objective of this thesis was to find out how gender matters for better or worse in crisis management. In addition, the ...
Lietaert, Sofie; Roorda, Debora; Laevers, Ferre; Verschueren, Karine; De Fraine, Bieke
The gender gap in education in favour of girls is a widely known phenomenon. Boys generally have higher dropout rates, obtain lower grades, and show lower engagement. Insight into factors related to these academic outcomes could help to address the gender gap. This study investigated, for Dutch language classes, (1) how boys and girls differ in behavioural engagement, (2) which teacher support dimensions (autonomy support, structure, involvement) may explain gender differences in engagement (mediation hypothesis), and (3) whether and which of these teacher support dimensions matter more for boys' as opposed to girls' engagement (moderation or differential effects hypothesis). A total of 385 Grade 7 students and their 15 language teachers participated in this study. Teacher support was assessed through student reports. Student engagement was measured using student, teacher, and observer reports. By means of structural equation modelling, the mediating role of the teacher support dimensions for gender differences in behavioural engagement was tested. The potential differential role of the teacher support dimensions for boys' and girls' engagement was investigated through multigroup analysis. Boys were less engaged than girls and reported lower support from their teacher. Autonomy support and involvement partially mediated the relationship between gender and behavioural engagement. Autonomy support was demonstrated to be a protective factor for boys' engagement but not for girls'. Structure and involvement contributed equally to engagement for both sexes. Although involvement and autonomy support partly explained the gender gap in engagement (mediation hypothesis), more support was found for differential effects of autonomy support on boys' versus girls' engagement (differential effects hypothesis). © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Caroli, Eve; Weber-Baghdiguian, Lexane
The role of social norms in accounting for the different attitudes of men and women with respect to health is still an open issue. In this research, we investigate the role of social norms associated with specific gender environments in the workplace in accounting for differences in health-reporting behaviours across men and women. Using the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey, we build a database containing 30,124 observations. We first replicate the standard result that women report worse health than men, whatever the health outcome we consider. We then proxy social norms by the gender structure of the workplace environment and study how the latter affects self-reported health for men and women separately. Our findings indicate that individuals in workplaces where women are a majority tend to report worse health than individuals employed in male-dominated work environments, be they men or women. These results are robust to controlling for a large array of working condition indicators, which allows us to rule out that the poorer health status reported by individuals working in female-dominated environments could be due to worse job quality. This evidence suggests that social norms associated with specific gender environments play an important role in explaining differences in health-reporting behaviours across gender, at least in the workplace. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
As the head of a department that is striving to achieve bronze status under the Athena SWAN (Scientific Women's Academic Network) programme, I have become extremely sensitive to gender stereotyping, and I am afraid that the "Alice and Bob" image on the cover of your March issue on quantum frontiers set off some alarm bells.
Attanapola, Chamila T
Since the economic liberalization in 1977, a large number of Sri Lankan women have entered the labour market and engaged in income-generating activities. Some women choose to travel abroad as domestic workers, while others choose to work in export-processing industries. This process has a profound impact on gender and gender roles in Sri Lanka. Young rural women have changed their traditional women's roles to become independent daughters, efficient factory workers and partially modernized women. Even though changing gender roles are identified as a positive impact of industrial work, the new social, cultural, and legal environments of industrial work have negative impacts on these women's lives. This paper explores health impacts of changing gender roles and practices of young rural women, focusing on the experiences of female workers in export-processing industries. Further, it contributes to the literature on gender and health, and on qualitative approaches within health geographic studies. A model is formulated to suggest a conceptual framework for studying women's health. The model describes the determinant factors of individual health status based on the question of who (personal attributes) does what (type of work) where (place), when and how (behaviours). These are also determinant factors of gender and gender roles of a society. The three types of health problems (reproductive, productive and mental health) of a woman, in this case a female industrial worker, are determined by her gender roles and practices associated with these roles.
Pitel, L.; Geckova, A. Madarasova; van Dijk, J. P.; Reijneveld, S. A.
Objectives: Male teenagers used to smoke more than females, but this male: female ratio has reversed in several European countries over recent decades. The aim of this study was to assess whether a similar shift in gender differences in smoking and other health-related behaviours has occurred in
Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Kargiotidis, Apostolos
This study examined the role of teachers' personal characteristics and mental health status on their frequency ratings of student problem behaviour. A sample of 121 primary school teachers were asked to rate the frequency of a student's behavioural problems, and to self-report their personality traits, psychopathology symptoms and burnout.…
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between gender and the temperamental characteristics of children between the ages of five and six, as well as to assess their behavioural problems. The sample included 128 children selected by simple random sampling from 5-6 year old children, receiving preschool education in the city centre of Izmir province in Turkey. Of the children, 65 were girls (50.8% and 63 (49.2% were boys. The data collection instruments were the Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales and the Short Temperament Scale for Children, respectively. The results of this study reveal that there is no significiant difference between gender and the child temperament subscales of approach/withdrawal; persistence and rhythmicity; and a child's behavioural problems, respectively. However, the gender of the children was found to be significantly related to the reactivity sub-dimension of their temperament (p < 0.05. Moreover, a significant correlation was observed between the temperament subscale of reactivity and externalising problems subscale of behavioural problems (p < 0.05. On the other hand, a negative correlation was observed between the persistence temperament dimension and the behavioural problem dimension of self-centredness (p < 0.05. In the opinion of the researcher, it is important to know the children's personality features, monitor their behaviour, and take respective measures when necessary. These research results contributed positively to this end.
Reniers, Renate L E P; Murphy, Laura; Lin, Ashleigh; Bartolomé, Sandra Para; Wood, Stephen J
This study investigated the influence of personality characteristics and gender on adolescents' perception of risk and their risk-taking behaviour. Male and female participants (157 females: 116 males, aged 13-20) completed self-report measures on risk perception, risk-taking and personality. Male participants perceived behaviours as less risky, reportedly took more risks, were less sensitive to negative outcomes and less socially anxious than female participants. Path analysis identified a model in which age, behavioural inhibition and impulsiveness directly influenced risk perception, while age, social anxiety, impulsiveness, sensitivity to reward, behavioural inhibition and risk perception itself were directly or indirectly associated with risk-taking behaviour. Age and behavioural inhibition had direct relationships with social anxiety, and reward sensitivity was associated with impulsiveness. The model was representative for the whole sample and male and female groups separately. The observed relationship between age and social anxiety and the influence this may have on risk-taking behaviour could be key for reducing adolescent risk-taking behaviour. Even though adolescents may understand the riskiness of their behaviour and estimate their vulnerability to risk at a similar level to adults, factors such as anxiety regarding social situations, sensitivity to reward and impulsiveness may exert their influence and make these individuals prone to taking risks. If these associations are proven causal, these factors are, and will continue to be, important targets in prevention and intervention efforts.
Reniers, Renate L. E. P.; Murphy, Laura; Lin, Ashleigh; Bartolomé, Sandra Para; Wood, Stephen J.
This study investigated the influence of personality characteristics and gender on adolescents’ perception of risk and their risk-taking behaviour. Male and female participants (157 females: 116 males, aged 13–20) completed self-report measures on risk perception, risk-taking and personality. Male participants perceived behaviours as less risky, reportedly took more risks, were less sensitive to negative outcomes and less socially anxious than female participants. Path analysis identified a model in which age, behavioural inhibition and impulsiveness directly influenced risk perception, while age, social anxiety, impulsiveness, sensitivity to reward, behavioural inhibition and risk perception itself were directly or indirectly associated with risk-taking behaviour. Age and behavioural inhibition had direct relationships with social anxiety, and reward sensitivity was associated with impulsiveness. The model was representative for the whole sample and male and female groups separately. The observed relationship between age and social anxiety and the influence this may have on risk-taking behaviour could be key for reducing adolescent risk-taking behaviour. Even though adolescents may understand the riskiness of their behaviour and estimate their vulnerability to risk at a similar level to adults, factors such as anxiety regarding social situations, sensitivity to reward and impulsiveness may exert their influence and make these individuals prone to taking risks. If these associations are proven causal, these factors are, and will continue to be, important targets in prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:27100081
Mazzei, Alessandra; Ravazzani, Silvia
consistent meaning during the interaction with customers. It reviews the literature about behavioural branding and its antecedents, mediating variables and consequences in order to develop a holistic model of the inside-out brand building process, rooted in the theoretical perspectives of proactive...... behaviours, hierarchy of effects and planned behaviour. The paper concludes with a reflection on the role of internal branding in eliciting and managing employee brand consistent behaviours, and with avenues for future empirical research aimed to verify the model, its constructs and related measures....
Ensor, Rosie; Hart, Martha; Jacobs, Lorna; Hughes, Claire
Disruptive behaviour disorders are much more common in boys than girls (Office of National Statistics, 1999); in contrast, gender differences in normative problem behaviours are poorly understood. To address this issue, 228 6-year-olds (134 boys, 94 girls) were each observed playing a board game with a same-gender friend. Ratings of aggression, disruption, arousal and negativity were used to index problem behaviours. Multiple-groups confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that the latent factor had the same metric for boys and girls, but a mean that was approximately half a standard deviation higher for boys than girls. In addition, the association between the latent factor and teachers' ratings of total difficulties was significantly stronger for boys than girls.
information technology. Consequently, the topic of the present contribution is not a definition of the concept or a proper taxonomy. Instead, a review is given of two professional contexts for which the concept of error is important. Three cases of analysis of human-system interaction are reviewed: (1...... be cognitive control of behaviour in complex environments....
information technology. Consequently, the topic of the present contribution is not a definition of the concept or a proper taxonomy. Instead, a review is given of two professional contexts for which the concept of error is important. Three cases of analysis of human-system interaction are reviewed: (1...... of study should be cognitive control of behaviour in complex environments....
Eryilmaz, Ali; Atak, Hasan
This study aims, firstly, to examine whether gender plays a decisive role in starting romantic intimacy during the emerging adulthood period; secondly, to compare emerging adults who are assigned different gender roles, in terms of starting romantic intimacy; and thirdly, to analyze the level at which self-esteem and gender roles predict the…
Paterna, Consuelo; Martínez, Carmen
Men's discourse about the paternal role is changing significantly. Despite the fact that men still perceive themselves as being responsible for the family's economical protection and the children's discipline, they face increasing demands for more involvement in childcare. From this perspective, this work analyzes the traditional view of gender roles and the perception of inequality in a sample of 95 employed fathers, as well as the various levels of satisfaction with other life roles and their relevance as a function of some gender and sociodemographic variables. The results show that men do not maintain a very traditional gender ideology with regard to role distribution and they still consider the paternal role and feelings as the most important thing in their lives. However, the couple relationship gives them the most satisfaction. Level of traditionalism and age were the two significant predicting variables of perception of inequality of men and women.
My aim here is to present a broad-brush overview of some of the most important roles that information has been found to play as a tool for promoting environmentally responsible consumer behaviour. Because this workshop is organized by a network of economists, I will start with the importance...... of information for getting the full potential out of economic instruments. However, my main emphasis will be on the importance of information for creating and facilitating consumers' willing participation in solving environmental problems that are in some way related to their behaviour as consumers. Information...... may be even more important for furthering other important types of behaviour, such as voter behaviour or activist behaviour, but I won't discuss the specific issues about promoting these types of behaviour today....
Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Coome, Lindsay A.; Monks, D. Ashley; VanderLaan, Doug P.
Developmental theories of the biological basis of sexual orientation suggest that sexually differentiated psychological and behavioural traits should be linked with sexual orientation. Subgroups of gay men delineated by anal sex roles differ according to at least one such trait: gender expression. The present study assessed the hypothesis that handedness, a biologically determined sexually differentiated trait, corresponds to differences in subgroups of gay men based on anal sex role. Furthermore, it assessed whether handedness mediates the association between gender nonconformity and male sexual orientation. Straight and gay men (N = 333) completed the Edinburgh Inventory of Handedness and the Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity Scale. Gay men also completed measures of anal sex role preference. As in previous studies, gay men showed greater non-right-handedness and gender nonconformity than straight men. Also, among gay men, bottoms/versatiles (i.e., gay men who take a receptive anal sex role, or who take on both a receptive and insertive anal sex role) were more gender-nonconforming than tops (i.e., gay men who take an insertive anal sex role). In support of the hypothesis, bottoms/versatiles were more non-right-handed than tops and handedness mediated the male sexual orientation and anal sex role differences in Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity. Together, these findings suggest that developmental processes linked to handedness underpin variation among men in sexual orientation and gender nonconformity as well as variation among subgroups of gay men that are delineated by anal sex roles. PMID:28234947
Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Coome, Lindsay A; Monks, D Ashley; VanderLaan, Doug P
Developmental theories of the biological basis of sexual orientation suggest that sexually differentiated psychological and behavioural traits should be linked with sexual orientation. Subgroups of gay men delineated by anal sex roles differ according to at least one such trait: gender expression. The present study assessed the hypothesis that handedness, a biologically determined sexually differentiated trait, corresponds to differences in subgroups of gay men based on anal sex role. Furthermore, it assessed whether handedness mediates the association between gender nonconformity and male sexual orientation. Straight and gay men (N = 333) completed the Edinburgh Inventory of Handedness and the Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity Scale. Gay men also completed measures of anal sex role preference. As in previous studies, gay men showed greater non-right-handedness and gender nonconformity than straight men. Also, among gay men, bottoms/versatiles (i.e., gay men who take a receptive anal sex role, or who take on both a receptive and insertive anal sex role) were more gender-nonconforming than tops (i.e., gay men who take an insertive anal sex role). In support of the hypothesis, bottoms/versatiles were more non-right-handed than tops and handedness mediated the male sexual orientation and anal sex role differences in Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity. Together, these findings suggest that developmental processes linked to handedness underpin variation among men in sexual orientation and gender nonconformity as well as variation among subgroups of gay men that are delineated by anal sex roles.
Full Text Available Developmental theories of the biological basis of sexual orientation suggest that sexually differentiated psychological and behavioural traits should be linked with sexual orientation. Subgroups of gay men delineated by anal sex roles differ according to at least one such trait: gender expression. The present study assessed the hypothesis that handedness, a biologically determined sexually differentiated trait, corresponds to differences in subgroups of gay men based on anal sex role. Furthermore, it assessed whether handedness mediates the association between gender nonconformity and male sexual orientation. Straight and gay men (N = 333 completed the Edinburgh Inventory of Handedness and the Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity Scale. Gay men also completed measures of anal sex role preference. As in previous studies, gay men showed greater non-right-handedness and gender nonconformity than straight men. Also, among gay men, bottoms/versatiles (i.e., gay men who take a receptive anal sex role, or who take on both a receptive and insertive anal sex role were more gender-nonconforming than tops (i.e., gay men who take an insertive anal sex role. In support of the hypothesis, bottoms/versatiles were more non-right-handed than tops and handedness mediated the male sexual orientation and anal sex role differences in Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity. Together, these findings suggest that developmental processes linked to handedness underpin variation among men in sexual orientation and gender nonconformity as well as variation among subgroups of gay men that are delineated by anal sex roles.
Cherney, Isabelle D.; Dempsey, Jessica
Developmental intergroup theory would predict that children develop fewer or weaker stereotypes about toys that have less distinguishable gender attributes than those that are clearly associated with a gender. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of neutral and ambiguous toys in 31 three- to five-year-old children's play behaviour…
In this study, it has been aimed to examine athletes' body perception and gender role. 120 male athletes and 120 non-athletic male university students participated in the study voluntarily. In the study, as the data collecting means, The Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire-MBSRQ was used in order to determine males' body perception levels, BEM Sex Role Inventory-BSRI was used to determine gender roles and Personal Information Form developed by the researcher was used to ascertain personal features of the subjects. When the athletes' body perception levels are examined, the features of physical competence orientation, health orientation, appearance evaluation, fitness evaluation, health evaluation and body areas satisfaction have been found to be higher than non-athletes' (p orientation (p > 0.05). When gender roles are examined, athletes have been found to have higher values than non-athletes' in terms of masculinity, femininity and social desirability (p gender role, it is also thought that athletes care about health, appearance and physical competence and are glad of body parts because of their muscled body structure developing due to the exercises and have flexible personality to show feminine and masculine features that the environment needs in terms of gender role.
Full Text Available To study the problems of gender equality is of great importance for the global business. Gender is a cultural construct, within which our different cultures attach different values, roles and responsibilities to women and men. However, in addition to culture, the gender issues are in close relation with the global business. From this viewpoint, experience of the West is considerable and of great importance. It can be said that the problems of women’s rights and a whole number of barriers, which impede to reach the gender equality have long been a great problem for the leading countries of Europe and America. But one problem remains – the so-called „Glass Ceiling” – the barriers, which impede carrier advance of the female representatives. In the background of such diversity it is interesting to familiarize with the apprehension of gender equality in Georgia.
Brose, Sara J; Conry-Murray, Clare; Turiel, Elliot
In an examination of how adolescents reason about several factors related to division of childcare labor, 38 adolescents, including 20 girls (M age = 16.36 years, SD = .50) and 18 boys (M age = 16.59 years, SD = .62) were interviewed about conflicts between a mother and a father over which parent should stay home with the child, the authority of the father, and similar issues in a traditional culture. The relative income of each parent was varied. Participants considered the needs of the child most when reasoning about infants, and the right to work most frequently when reasoning about preschoolers (p gender equity and adolescents' future goals were discussed.
Cotter, David; Hermsen, Joan M; Vanneman, Reeve
After becoming consistently more egalitarian for more than two decades, gender role attitudes in the General Social Survey have changed little since the mid-1990s. This plateau mirrors other gender trends, suggesting a fundamental alteration in the momentum toward gender equality. While cohort replacement can explain about half of the increasing egalitarianism between 1974 and 1994, the changes since the mid-1990s are not well accounted for by cohort differences. Nor is the post-1994 stagnation explained by structural or broad ideological changes in American society. The recent lack of change in gender attitudes is more likely the consequence of the rise of a new cultural frame, an "egalitarian essentialism" that blends aspects of feminist equality and traditional motherhood roles.
There is very little literature that depicts the parental role of Black professional fathers positively or that samples Black participants from the upper economic strata. The purpose of this study is to gain insight into how Black professional fathers experience or perceive gender role conflict and identify clinical implications. Grounded in…
Steinmetz, J.; Bosak, J.; Sczesny, S.; Eagly, A. H.
Social role theory postulates that gender stereotypes are restrained for men and women observed in the same social role. Cultural differences in the valuation of communal attributes might moderate this effect. To examine this possibility, 288 participants (144 German, 144 Japanese) estimated the
Objective of this study is to examine the correlation the quality of paternity, gender roles and communication skills of fathers. The scores in the scale of supporting developmental tasks were used in order to determine the quality of paternity. The other data collection tools were the BEM sex role inventory and the communication skills inventory.…
The role of gender, socioeconomic factors and the school. A J Mason-Jones,1,2 ... Further qualitative exploration of the role of reciprocal violence ... some of the questions were of a sensitive nature, appropriate services were made available to ...
Dedobbeleer, Nicole; Béland, François; Contandriopoulos, André-Pierre; Adrian, Manuella
This paper examines the relative effect of both individual and societal factors that impinge directly on smoking behaviour of women and men. The societal factors are cigarettes price, tobacco control legislation, newspaper coverage of tobacco issues, overall economic factors, and social milieu characteristics. Three Canadian provinces are studied, from 1978 to 1995. A repeated cross-section design is used. Data are derived from national surveys and official documents. Results show that smoking occurs in social contexts within which the price of cigarettes appears to have a significant negative impact on the prevalence of smoking and the quantity of cigarettes smoked by men, but no effect on either the prevalence of smoking or the amount smoked by women. More comprehensive and restrictive no-smoking legislation and legislation on youth access to tobacco influence negatively the prevalence of smoking both for men and women. However, these laws do not have the same effects on the number of cigarettes smoked by women and men. Newspaper articles on the other hand, negatively influence smoking prevalence for women and men. As differences are observed in the responsiveness of men and women to tobacco control policies, policymakers and practitioners need to keep in mind that tobacco control policies have to be tailored to the broader context of the lives of women and men. Future work needs also to be done to clarify the interrelationships between social influences on smoking such as price, laws and media, and the relationships between these and intrapersonal and interpersonal factors, as well as other social and cultural factors.
Kadek Ayu Erika
Full Text Available Introduction: Bullying is a social problem which is part of aggressive violent behaviour done continuously and have negative impact to victims and its subject and happened at school. This study aimed to know the description of knowledge and adolescents behavior about bullying based on their age, gang, and family. Methods: This study used analytic descriptive design with number of sample was 246 adolescents from grade 1, 2, 3 of senior high school which used stratified random sampling. Instruments of this study were knowledge questioner, and modified of The Bullying Prevalence Questionnaire in guttman and likert scale. Data analysis used cross tabulation. Result: Data show that adolescents have a good knowledge (93.9% and less (6.1%. Bullying subjects were 93.9% and victims 94.7%. Forms of verbal bullying indicated the subjects (93.1% and victims (92.3%. Bullying subjects majority occurred in males (94.1% and women become victims (96.3%. Numbers of bullying subjects do not have a gang (94.5%, while those with gang as victims (95.2%. There were five adolescents who live in stepfamilies become subjects and victims of bullying. Conclusion: The majority of adolescents have good knowledge about bullying, bullying form the vast majority were verbal bullying with subjects and victims of bullying who occurs in all classes. The majority of bullying subjects do not have a gang, and as the majority of victims have a gang. Almost all adolescents with different family types become subjects and victims of bullying. Therefore, an intensive educational effort and spiritual needs to be done to change the behavior of adolescents to be adolescents with well character.
Matthes, J?rg; Prieler, Michael; Adam, Karoline
Although there are numerous studies on gender-role portrayals in television advertising, comparative designs are clearly lacking. With content analytical data from a total of 13 Asian, American, and European countries, we study the stereotypical depiction of men and women in television advertisements. Our sample consists of 1755 ads collected in May 2014. Analyzing the gender of the primary character and voiceover, as well as the age, associated product categories, home- or work setting, and ...
Ajay Kumar Bakhla; Prakriti Sinha; Rajiv Sharan; Yashi Binay; Vijay Verma; Suprakash Chaudhury
Background: The prevalence of anxiety is high in school going children; however pattern of parenting and gender of the child are important factors for the development of anxiety. Gender role and parenting patterns are important construct that vary across different sociocultural setting hence are important to be studied in Indian context. Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study all students of both sexes studying in class VIII, were assessed using the Spence anxiety scale (children v...
Alavi, Kaveh; Eftekhar, Mehrdad; Jalali Nadoushan, Amir Hossein
Gender identity disorders (GID) are heterogeneous disorders that may be influenced by culture and social norms. The aim of this study was to determine masculine and feminine gender roles in a group of Iranian patients with GID and compare these roles with two control groups. Twelve male-to-female (MF) and 27 female-to-male (FM) individuals with GID referred to Tehran Psychiatric Institute in Tehran, I. R. Iran were evaluated by self-report inventories and were compared with two groups of healthy controls (81 men and 89 women). Diagnoses were established based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) criteria. Data analysis was done using analysis of variance and chi-squared test. Masculine and feminine gender roles were assessed by two questionnaires: (i) Gender-Masculine (GM) and Gender-Feminine (GF) scales derived from the Minnesota Multiphasic Inventory-2 (MMPI-2); (ii) Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI). In the scales of masculinity, MF-GID individuals scored as male controls, but lower than female controls. FM-GID individuals scored similar to female controls and higher than male controls. In femininity scales, MF-GID individuals and control women seemed similar, and both scored higher than the other groups. FM-GID persons were considered less feminine than both controls in the GF scale of MMPI-2, but not in the BSRI. In both scales, FM-GID persons had higher scores than control women and MF-GID individuals. Iranian FM-GID individuals were less feminine than normal men. However, MF-GID individuals were similar to normal women or more feminine. Cultural considerations remain to be investigated. Alavi K, Eftekhar M and Jalali Nadoushan AH. Comparison of masculine and feminine gender roles in Iranian patients with gender identity disorder. Sex Med 2015;3:261-268.
Mariwah, Simon; Hampshire, Kate; Kasim, Adetayo
To establish levels of handwashing after defecation among students at the University of Cape Coast in Ghana, and to test hypotheses that gender and washroom environment affect handwashing behaviour. Data on students' handwashing behaviour after defecation were collected by structured observations in washrooms. Eight hundred and six observations were made (360 female students and 446 males) in 56 washrooms over 496 observation periods. Observers recorded gender, duration of handwashing, use of soap, and physical characteristics of the washroom (cleanliness, availability of soap, tap flow and presence of handwashing posters). Fewer than half the students observed washed their hands or bathed after defecation. Of these, only two-thirds washed both hands and a minority (20%) used soap; only 16 students (all men) washed their hands for the recommended 15 s or longer. Female students were more likely to wash their hands at all, and were more likely to wash both hands, than males. Cleanliness of the washroom was strongly associated with improved handwashing behaviour for both women and men, as was tap flow quality for female students. Handwashing behaviour is generally poor among UCC students, mirroring results from North American Universities. The findings underline the plasticity of handwashing behaviour among this population, and highlight the need for ensuring that the physical environment in washrooms on university campuses is conducive to handwashing. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Felicia Cornelia MACARIE
Full Text Available The present paper explores the degree in which universities could/should serve as role models for communities from the perspective of gender integration. Although the theoretical/ moral answer would be affirmative (universities should be in such a position that would allow local communities to regard them as role models of gender integration, the primary empirical analysis leads to another conclusion. A brief theoretical review (that connects gender discrimination, sustainable development, universities and local communities is followed by an empirical analysis that compares the management structures of 12 Romanian Universities of Advanced Research and Education (the best Romanian universities according to a national ranking with those of four local communities where they are located (as geographic proximity would lead to a better diffusion of best practices. Contrary to initial expectations, even in higher education institutions, women are underrepresented both in executive and legislative positions. Since universities are subject to the same major patterns of gender discrimination (such as role theory, glass ceiling and glass elevator as private and public organizations, they lose the moral high ground that theory would suggest. However, medicine and pharmacy universities that can be connected with the traditional roles attributed to women provide better gender integration, but glass escalator phenomena remain present even in these limited fields.
Lim, Jung-won; Paek, Min-so; Shon, En-jung
Individuals with cancer and their partners often experience communication difficulties. However, questions still remain regarding the influence of gender and role in cancer survivor-partner communication within couples. The current study intended to examine the communication patterns in breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer survivor-partner couples during cancer survivorship and whether gender and role differences in couples communication exist. The dominant-less dominant method of sequential mixed design was used. Ten couples who were recruited from the University Hospital registry in Cleveland, Ohio, participated in both mail surveys and individual interviews. Family and cancer-related communication was assessed in the quantitative phase. Both male survivors and partners demonstrated better family communication scores compared with their female counterparts, whereas there were no gender differences in the cancer-related communication scores. In the qualitative phase, 3 major themes were identified: (1) selective sharing of cancer-related issues, (2) initiation of cancer-related communication, and (3) emotional reaction in communication. The patterns associated with these themes differed between the male survivor-female partner and female survivor-male partner couples. This study provides new knowledge about family and cancer-related communication. Our findings highlight the importance of understanding different perspectives in the quality of communication by gender and role. Exploring couples' communication patterns by gender and role stimulates the research and the development of effective consumer-centered communication interventions. The findings provide assessment tools to inform dyadic communication patterns for clinical and scientific purposes.
Folch, Cinta; Casabona, Jordi; Espelt, Albert; Majó, Xavier; Meroño, Mercè; Gonzalez, Victoria; Brugal, Maria Teresa
To describe gender differences in injection and sexual risks behaviours, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C (HCV) prevalence among injecting drug users (IDU) in Catalonia, Spain. Cross-sectional studies in 2008-2009 (n=748) and 2010-2011 (n=597) in the network of harm reduction centres. Face to face interviews were conducted and oral fluid samples were collected to estimate HIV/HCV prevalence. Female were more likely than male IDU to have had a steady sexual partner (68.2% versus 44.9%), to have had an IDU steady sexual partner (46.6% versus 15.1%) and to have exchanged sex for money or drugs in the last 6 months (25.5% versus 2.3%). There were no gender differences in injecting risk behaviours. HIV prevalence was 38.7% (91/235) in women and 31.5% (347/1103) in men (p=0.031). HIV prevalence among female IDU who reported having exchange sex for money or drugs was 53.3% (32/60). The prevalence of HCV was 67.4% (159/236) and 73.6% (810/1101) in female and male IDU, respectively (p=0.053). After adjustment by immigrant status, age and years of injection, differences among HIV/HCV prevalence by gender were not significant. This study demonstrated differences in sexual risk behaviours between male and female IDU, but failed to find gender differences in injecting risk behaviours. Apart from that, the higher prevalence of HIV among women than among men, together with a lower prevalence of HCV, provides evidence that sexual transmission of HIV is important among female IDU. Additional studies are needed to analyze in-depth these specific risk factors for women in order to develop appropriate prevention and health education programs. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Madden, Margaret E.; And Others
One hundred adults ages 18 to 42 completed measures of jealousy and dependency in romantic relationships and of sex role traditionalism. Traditionalism and jealousy were correlated, as predicted, but dependency and jealousy were not. For men, but not for women, traditionalism and jealousy were positively correlated. Dependency and traditionalism…
Full Text Available Recent years have seen a growing interest in the problem of aggressive driving. In the presentstudy two demographic variables (gender and age, two non-psychological driving-experiencerelated variables (annual mileage and legal driving experience in years and aggressiveness asa personality trait (including behavioural and affective components as psychological variableof individual differences were examined as potential predictors of aggressive driving. The aimof the study was to find out the best predictors of aggressive driving behaviour. The study wasbased on an online survey, and 228 vehicle drivers in Latvia participated in it. The questionnaireincluded eight-item Aggressive Driving Scale (Bone & Mowen, 2006, short Latvian versionof the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ; Buss & Perry, 1992, and questions gainingdemographic and driving experience information. Gender, age and annual mileage predictedaggressive driving: being male, young and with higher annual driving exposure were associatedwith higher scores on aggressive driving. Dispositional aggressiveness due to anger componentwas a significant predictor of aggressive diving score. Physical aggression and hostility wereunrelated to aggressive driving. Altogether, the predictors explained a total of 28% of thevariance in aggressive driving behaviour. Findings show that dispositional aggressiveness,especially the anger component, as well as male gender, young age and higher annual mileagehas a predictive validity in relation to aggressive driving. There is a need to extend the scope ofpotential dispositional predictors pertinent to driving aggression.
Narrowing the gaps in health outcomes, including those between men and women, has been a pronounced goal on the agenda of the Finnish health authorities since the mid-1980s. But still there is a huge gap in favour of women when it comes to life expectancy at birth. People's health information behaviour, that is how people seek, obtain, evaluate, categorize and use relevant health-related information to perform desired health behaviours, is a critical prerequisite to appropriate and consistent performances of these behaviours. With respect to gender, it has been noted that men often are unwilling and lack the motivation to engage with health-related information. The purpose of this study was to investigate how gender affects health information behaviour in the Finnish population aged 18-65 years. The survey data were collected via a questionnaire which was posted to a representative cross section consisting of 1500 Finnish citizens. The statistical analysis consists of ANOVA F-tests and Fisher's exact tests. The results show that women were more interested in and reported much more active seeking of health-related information, paid more attention to potential worldwide pandemics and were much more attentive as to how the goods they purchase in everyday life affect their health than men did. Women also reported receiving far more informal health-related information from close family members, other kin and friends/workmates than men did. Thus, to succeed in public health promotion and interventions the measures taken should be much more sensitive to the gender gap in health information behaviour. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Khalil, Radwa; Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Moftah, Marie Z.; Karim, Ahmed A.
A gender role is a set of societal norms dictating what types of behaviors are considered desirable or appropriate for a person based on their sex. However, socially constructed gender roles can lead to equal rights between genders but also to severe disadvantages and discrimination with a remarkable variety between different countries. Based on social indicators and gender statistics, “women in the Arab region are on average more disadvantaged economically, politically, and socially than wom...
This study mainstreams gender at household level by showing how the gendered roles and relations between women and men influence access, allocation and use of resources in a rural community, Makhosini, in Swaziland. Implications of the identified gender roles and relationships for water management in Swaziland are highlighted. The working hypotheses of this study are (i) that gender-neutral development initiatives will benefit equally women and men at household level; and (ii) in Swaziland the trend toward irrigated agriculture for food security will have unequal impacts on men and women as access, allocation and use of key resources is highly gendered, privileging men as the value of the resource increases. In this study, a questionnaire was administered to sampled male and female heads of household as well as women under male heads. The heads were asked to indicate the roles they play and key decisions they make in resource use as heads of households. The women under male heads were also asked to indicate their roles and key decision responsibilities. The key resources considered were land and crops produced. Comparative analysis on roles and decisions made as well as access and use of resources and production was done by gender and between the women groups. The results show marked gender differences within households and across resources. Men were overwhelmingly involved in productive roles, giving low priority to reproductive roles. In contrast, priority of women’s roles were reproductive in nature. The key findings are that there were no significant differences in the roles of men and women as heads of households. Women as heads of households assume the same roles as those of men heads suggesting relative gender-neutrality. Also all women played “double-day” roles. However, the data reveals that men dominate decisions on crops to be grown, inputs to be used, disposal of the products and use of income obtained. Only a small percentage of women claimed
Lipowski, Mariusz; Lipowska, Małgorzata; Jochimek, Magdalena; Krokosz, Daniel
We hypothesised that resiliency may protect adolescents against risky behaviours, and that both the practicing of sports, and gender are moderating variables in relationships between resiliency and risky behaviours. The study included 18-year-old pupils from a selection of secondary schools (n = 556). A total of 188 individuals practiced competitive sports and the remaining 368 participants were non-athletes. The participants were examined with the Resiliency Assessment Scale for Children and Adolescents (SPP-18) and with a survey containing questions and statements related to high-risk "experiments with adulthood". Adolescent athletes showed higher levels of resiliency than their peers. The power of the "Determination and Persistence in Action" effect on "Alcohol" scale differed significantly between male athletes and male non-athletes. Only in the athletes groups were higher scores on this scale reflected by lower values on the "Drugs" scale. Moreover, it is possible to observe differences in undertaking risky behaviour between male and female athletes. The analysis of risky sexual behaviour suggests that sport is a risk factor for men, and a protective factor for women. These data suggest that consistent prophylactic and psycho-educative activities, with a special attention to differences between genders, should be provided to all the adolescents, irrespective of their sport performance levels.
This : study : examines : the : travel : behaviour : and : attitudes : of : recently : resettled : refugees : in : Chittenden : County, : Vermont, : with : particular : attention : to : distinctions : based : on : gender : and : age. : It : is : base...
Micro, Small and Medium Business activities have a very important role in promoting the economy because this sector has been tested to have resistance to the economic crisis. Micro, Small and Medium Business has wide employment opportunities that can improve people's welfare. But the facts above are not as easy as Micro, Small and Medium Also has some problems, where small businesses Often face natural exa interest of ions with various Difficulties, such as capital constra...
Full Text Available The Indonesian government has made a strong commitment to eliminate gender discrimination. To achieve greater gender equality and equity, President Abdurrahman Wahid issued the Presidential Instruction Number 9 Year 2000 to promote gender mainstreaming with the objective of achieving gender equality and equity in all sectors of life. This paper investigates gender perspec-tives of the students in three Islamic Primary schools: one state school and two private schools in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The data were gathered by using a number of techniques: group interviews, student drawings, listing famous people and selecting favorite person from their lists of famous people. Three main points emerged from the study: 1 the majority of students had gender-neutral views on sports/games, employment and a range of other social activities; 2 persistent gender stereotyping of some roles by students; and 3 the students from the three schools had divergent views on gender roles and gender identities.
Ercan, Oya; Kutlug, Seyhan; Uysal, Omer; Alikasifoglu, Mujgan; Inceoglu, Derya
Gender identity and gender role are expected to be consistent with gender assignment for optimal DSD management outcome. To our knowledge, our study is the first to attempt evaluation of gender related outcomes in Turkish DSD patients. After receiving institutional ethical board approval and subject (or parent) informed consent, subjects with DSD raised as girls (22 patients 46 XX DSD, 11 patients 46 XY DSD) answered 566 questions of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) questionnaire including 60-item Masculinity-Femininity (MF) subscale which was the focus in this study. Controls (n: 50) were females similar to the probands in age, level of education, relationship status, and having a job or not also answered all questions. The answers were evaluated by a trained psychologist (Derya Inceoglu) on MMPI. For statistical purposes, seven findings were obtained from the data related to the MF subscale from the patients and controls. Of these seven findings (S1-S7), two were associated with masculinity (S3-S4) and another two were associated with femininity (S5-S6). In DSD patients, the percentages of masculinity findings were significantly higher when compared to controls (p gender change to male; only these two patients had the finding stating that sexual impulses could come to existence as actions (S7). In conclusion efforts to identify modifiable factors with negative impact and thus modifying them, and professional guidance may be important in minimizing the encountered gender related problems in DSD patients.
Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Coome, Lindsay A.; Monks, D. Ashley; VanderLaan, Doug P.
Developmental theories of the biological basis of sexual orientation suggest that sexually differentiated psychological and behavioural traits should be linked with sexual orientation. Subgroups of gay men delineated by anal sex roles differ according to at least one such trait: gender expression. The present study assessed the hypothesis that handedness, a biologically determined sexually differentiated trait, corresponds to differences in subgroups of gay men based on anal sex role. Further...
Melton, Heather C.; Sillito, Carrie Lefeve
The role of gender in intimate partner abuse (IPA) perpetration and victimization has been debated for the last several decades. Two perspectives have emerged regarding this debate. Researchers from the family violence perspective argue that men and women are violent at near equal rates and call for a reframing of the issue from one of woman…
Li, Cindy Ellen; DiGiuseppe, Raymond; Froh, Jeffrey
This study investigated the roles of coping and masculinity in higher rates of depressive symptoms among adolescent girls, as compared to boys. A model was designed and tested through path analysis, which involved the variables of sex, gender, problem-focused coping, rumination, and distraction. The Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale and the Bem…
Pace, Barbara G.; Townsend, Jane S.
Examines patterns of talk and the nature of talk in two different classrooms discussing Shakespeare's "Hamlet." Finds that the images of Hamlet and Gertrude were strikingly different: in the college class, the characters were confined to stereotypical gender roles; while in the high-school class, such stereotypes were refuted. (SR)
Heinze, Justin E.; Heinze, Kathryn L.; Davis, Matthew M.; Butchart, Amy T.; Singer, Dianne C.; Clark, Sarah J.
Pay-to-play fees in public schools place more support for sport participation in the hands of parents; this may disproportionately affect the ability of girls to garner the benefits of sports. Using an online survey of a national sample of parents (N = 814), we examined the relationship between parents' gender role beliefs, parents' beliefs about…
Verhoeven, Ludo; van Leeuwe, Jan
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of gender and linguistic diversity in the growth of Dutch word decoding skills throughout elementary school for a representative sample of children living in the Netherlands. Following a longitudinal design, the children's decoding abilities for (1) regular CVC words, (2) complex…
Premised on the recognition that psychological wellbeing is a vital component of optimal productivity, and the need for agricultural extension to enhance farmers' welfare, the study was motivated by a dearth of research on the construction and determinants of psychological wellbeing and gender roles in farm-families.
Cutler, Scott V.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between gender and depression as a function of sex roles. Four hundred twenty subjects were recruited from two introductory psychology courses at Utah State University. Subjects completed the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). A difference was found in the rate of depression between females and males that exceeds the generally accepted 2:1 ratio. There was a female to male ratio of approximately 4...
García-Vega, Elena; Rico, Rosana; Fernández, Paula
Previous studies usually refer to a greater repertoire of sexual behav-iors and a higher level of erotophilia in men than in women. The main goal of this work is to relate sex, gender roles and sexual attitudes to sexual behavior. 411 un-dergraduate students (218 women and 193 men) at theof University of Oviedo (Spain) completed the following instruments: the Bem Sex Roles Inventory to operationalize the variable gender, the Sexual Inventory which reflects sexual behaviors, and the Sexual Opinion Survey about sexual attitudes. 27% of the sample was typified as an-drogynous. There are were no differences in attitudes, either by sex (p= .50) or by gen-der (p= .77). Sexual behaviors depended on the degree of erotophilia (p= .000). the results suggest that, although regarding sex, the fact that women’s erotophilic attitudes have increased their erotophilic attitudes, although they refer to more conventional sexual behaviors than mens’s attitudes. With regard to gender, a tendency towards androgyny is observed, androgynous women and men report positive attitudes towards sexuality. Gender could act as a mediator of sexual behavior through the attitudinal component.
Kritcharoen, Sureeporn; Suwan, Kobkaew; Jirojwong, Sansnee
To describe patients' and their partners' perceptions of gender roles, gender power relationships, and sexuality before diagnosis of and after treatment for cervical cancer. Descriptive. Southern Thailand. 97 women with cervical cancer who received cancer treatment, including radiotherapy, and their partners. Structured interview methods were used to gather information relating to gender roles, gender power relationships, and sexuality. Gender roles, gender power relationships, and sexuality. Fifty-two percent of the women (n = 50) were diagnosed with stage II cervical cancer. The percentage of women who undertook various activities specific to gender roles before their diagnoses was higher than the percentage who undertook the same activities after treatment. An increased percentage of partners undertook the women's gender-role-specific activities after the women received cancer treatment compared with the percentage who did so before diagnosis. Little change in gender power relationships was reported. A high percentage of the couples reported changes in various aspects of their sexuality after cancer treatment compared with before diagnosis. Gender roles, gender power relationships, and sexuality changed for women with cervical cancer and their partners after the women completed cancer treatment. Open discussions among women with cervical cancer, their partners, and oncology nurses are necessary to identify culturally sensitive and appropriate solutions.
Feminism is a fast growing phenomenon in recent years. This paper started with the historical conflict of marriage and feminism, then researched the connection between anime and gender-role. Since Japanese anime was imported to China in 1980s, it has influenced the generation born in 1980s and 1990s in many aspects of their growth. These well-educated people perceived the Japanese culture and values through anime. This study connected gender stereotypes and marriage, and how Chinese well-educ...
Srivastava, Anugamini Priya; Dhar, Rajib Lochan
Purpose: This study aims to develop the scale for perception of training comprehensiveness and attempts to examine the influence of perception of training comprehensiveness on role behaviour: teachers' efficacy as a mediator and job autonomy as a moderator. Design/methodology/approach: Through the steps for a generation, refinement, purification…
Benjamin O Olley
Full Text Available Background. Although there is growing literature on the psy- chological responses to and the psychopathology associated with HIV/AIDS, few investigations have focused on the role of gender. This study compared psychiatric morbidity, coping responses, and disability in male and female outpatients recently diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. Method. One hundred and forty-nine patients (44 male, 105 female with HIV/AIDS (mean ± standard deviation (SD months since diagnosis 5.8 ± 4.1 attending an infectious dis- eases clinic at Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, were evaluat- ed. Subjects were assessed using the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI, the Carver Brief COPE, and the Sheehan Disability Scale. In addition, negative life events and risk behaviours were evaluated. Results. Fifty-six per cent of patients were diagnosed with a psy- chiatric disorder, most commonly major depression (34.9%, dysthymic disorder (21.5%, post-traumatic stress disorder (14.8%, and alcohol dependence (10.1%. There were no significant gender differences in the prevalence of mood disor- ders in the sample. Men, however, were more likely than women to meet diagnostic criteria for alcohol abuse or depen- dence, and to engage in certain risky sexual behaviours. Women were more likely to suffer from post-traumatic stress dis- order, and to use coping strategies of planning and religion to deal with the illness. There were no significant gender differ- ences in disability. Conclusion. Psychiatric disorders are common in recently diag- nosed HIV/AIDS patients in South Africa. Clinicians should be aware of the high prevalence of mood disorders in both men and women, and of gender-different responses such as increased alcohol and substance use and more risky sexual behaviour in men.
Hibbard, J H; Pope, C R
The study investigates illness orientation as a factor which may account for sex differences in the utilization of medical care. First, sex differences in the way symptoms are perceived, evaluated and acted upon (illness orientation) are analyzed. Then gender role factors which may account for sex differences in illness orientation are examined. Finally, the degree to which gender role factors and illness orientation account for sex differences in medical care utilization are assessed. The study population includes 1648 adults between the ages of 18 and 59. Medical record data covering 7 years of outpatient services are linked with survey data on the respondents. The findings show that while females are more likely to perceive symptoms than males, there is no apparent sex difference in a tendency to adopt the sick role when ill. In addition, results indicate that gender role factors such as level and type of role responsibility and concern with health are related to female though not male symptom reports. Illness orientation variables are related to rates of medical utilization for both sexes. However, it is primarily the perception of symptoms and an interest and concern with health which contributes to sex differences in utilization rates. When examining respondents who report either a very low or very high number of symptoms, sex differences in utilization rates fall below statistical significance.
Full Text Available Women have a life-expectancy advantage over men, but a marked disadvantage with regards to morbidity. This is known as the female-male health-survival paradox in disciplines such as medicine, medical sociology and epidemiology. Individual differences in physical and mental health are further notably explained by the degree of stress individuals endure, with women being more affected by stressors than men. Here, we briefly examine the literature on women’s disadvantage in health and stress. Beyond biological considerations, we follow with socio-cognitive explanations of gender differences in health and stress. We show that gender roles and traits (masculinity in particular explain part of the gender differences in stress, notably cognitive appraisal and coping. Stress in turn degrades health. Implications are discussed. In conclusion, traditional socialization is advantageous for men in terms of health.
van der Vleuten, Maaike; Jaspers, Eva; Maas, Ineke; van der Lippe, Tanja
This study aims to explain why boys and girls in secondary education choose different educational tracks. We argue that adolescents internalise gender expectations as to what is “appropriate” male and female behaviour in their gender ideology. Gender ideology can affect educational choices by
van der Vleuten, Maaike; Jaspers, Eva; Maas, Ineke; van der Lippe, Tanja
This study aims to explain why boys and girls in secondary education choose different educational tracks. We argue that adolescents internalise gender expectations as to what is "appropriate" male and female behaviour in their gender ideology. Gender ideology can affect educational choices by influencing (1) how adolescents evaluate…
McLaughlin, Katrina; Muldoon, Orla T; Moutray, Marianne
The current worldwide nursing shortage and high attrition of nursing students remain a challenge for the nursing profession. The aim of this paper was to investigate how key psychological attributes and constructions differentiate between completers and non-completers of nursing education. A questionnaire including measures of gender role identity and perceived gender appropriateness of careers was administered to 384 students early in the first year of the course. At the end of the programme attrition rates were obtained. The findings indicate that males were more likely to leave the course than females. Furthermore, those who completed the course tended to view nursing as more appropriate for women, in contrast to the non-completers who had less gender typed views. The female-dominated nature of nursing, prevalent stereotypes and gender bias inherent in nursing education seem to make this an uncomfortable place for males and those with less gendered typed views. Whilst it is acknowledged that attrition is undoubtedly a complex issue with many contributing factors, the nursing profession need to take steps to address this bias to ensure their profession is open equally to both female and male recruits. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Becker, Michael; McElvany, Nele
Researchers often report and discuss gender differences. However, recent research has drawn attention to interaction effects between gender and other social categories. This study analysed the development of disparities in students' reading-related self-concept, intrinsic motivation, and behaviour, as they relate to differences in gender and socio-economic family background. Drawing on expectancy-value theory, we regarded reading-related self-concept, motivation, and behaviour as key to explaining the growing differences between boys and girls in adolescence. Specifically, we focused on the interaction between gender and socio-economic background in children, which has been discussed in the context of moderating gender differences but not in the context of reading-related attitudes and behaviour. The investigation is based on a longitudinal sample of N = 717 German students between third and sixth grades. We used questionnaire data from both students and parents. To compare students' development across time, we applied multigroup latent growth curve models. We found evidence of increasing gender differences, which were also moderated by the socio-economic status (SES) of parents: a gender gap either already existed (intrinsic motivation and reading behaviour) or intensified (reading self-concept and reading behaviour) between third and sixth grades. The interaction of gender and SES seemed particularly important for reading self-concept, with the gender gap growing less substantially for higher-SES children. Moreover, this pattern persisted for reading self-concept, even when controlling for achievement differences. The results provide evidence that gender, social background, and the interaction of the two are relevant for development in the domain of reading, even in young children. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Fallon, Melissa A.; Jome, LaRae M.
Gender-role conflict theory has suggested that women athletes will experience role conflict because they are attempting to enact both feminine and masculine gender roles, yet research findings have shown mixed support for this notion. The purpose of this study was to explore how women rugby players negotiate gender-role expectations and conflict…
Moreira Trillo, Vanesa; Mirón Redondo, Lourdes
Analysis of the relevance of the variables sex and gender to explain delinquency is a topic of growing interest in Criminology. This study tests a model of juvenile delinquency that integrates gender identity, the association with deviant peers, and a lack of attachment to conventional contexts. We used a sample of 970 adolescents of both sexes, representative of the urban population, between 12 and 18 years, attending public schools in Galicia (Spain). The results of path analysis confirm that: a) weak attachment to conventional contexts, and belonging to a deviant groups are precedents for deviation of adolescents of both sexes; b) these contexts also contribute to the development of gender identity; and c) gender identity affects the likelihood of deviation: femininity tends to reduce this behavior, and masculinity (in particular, negatively valued masculinity) contributes to increase it. These findings support the adequacy of including gender identity in the explanatory models of delinquency. They also suggest the need to reconsider the role of conventional settings in the socialization of masculinity and, therefore, in the genesis of adolescent delinquency of both sexes.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A reversed gender pattern has been observed in the suicide rate in China compared to elsewhere. Like suicidal behaviour, non-suicidal self-injurious (NSSI behaviour is a health-risk behaviour. We examined whether a reversed gender pattern existed in the prevalence of NSSI. Methods Online literature databases were searched for English and Chinese articles on NSSI behaviours among the Chinese. A meta-analysis with a random-effects model and a subgroup analysis were used to estimate the odds ratios of gender differences in NSSI prevalence among Chinese adolescents including college students, middle school students, and clinical samples, as well as rural, urban, and Hong Kong middle school students. Results There was a male bias in NSSI prevalence among college students (OR = 1.56, 95% CI = [1.30, 1.87], p 0.1. The NSSI prevalence among middle school students had a female bias in the rural (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = [0.47, 0.72], p 0.1 among middle school students. Conclusions Our analysis indicated the existence of specific gender and age patterns in NSSI prevalence among Chinese adolescents. The sample type, age, and the areas that have different gender norms and culture could partly explain this pattern.
Yang, Xueyan; Feldman, Marcus W
A reversed gender pattern has been observed in the suicide rate in China compared to elsewhere. Like suicidal behaviour, non-suicidal self-injurious (NSSI) behaviour is a health-risk behaviour. We examined whether a reversed gender pattern existed in the prevalence of NSSI. Online literature databases were searched for English and Chinese articles on NSSI behaviours among the Chinese. A meta-analysis with a random-effects model and a subgroup analysis were used to estimate the odds ratios of gender differences in NSSI prevalence among Chinese adolescents including college students, middle school students, and clinical samples, as well as rural, urban, and Hong Kong middle school students. There was a male bias in NSSI prevalence among college students (OR = 1.56, 95% CI = [1.30, 1.87], p gender difference among clinical samples (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = [0.41, 1.89], p > 0.1). The NSSI prevalence among middle school students had a female bias in the rural (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = [0.47, 0.72], p gender difference in NSSI prevalence in the Hong Kong areas being greater than in rural areas. No gender difference in NSSI prevalence was found in urban areas (OR = 1.01, 95% CI = [0.84, 1.22], p > 0.1) among middle school students. Our analysis indicated the existence of specific gender and age patterns in NSSI prevalence among Chinese adolescents. The sample type, age, and the areas that have different gender norms and culture could partly explain this pattern.
Anderson, Katherine Noel
The study of gender in feminism should not only concentrate on female gender roles and queer transgressions of established gender roles, but should also include an in-depth discussion on male gender roles as they exist in society. This paper focuses on the metrosexual and the retrosexual trends which have recently affected the male gender role in society. The emergence of the metrosexual in the 1990s through 2005 was a profound change in the traditional male gender role which allowed men to ...
Renata Dana Niţu-Antonie
Full Text Available The study aims to identify the role played by personality characteristics on entrepreneurial intentions and resultant behaviours, in the case of university students with economic education. The analysis was performed on a group of undergraduate and master degree students of the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration from the West University of Timişoara. For the investigated population, empirical results indicate that: (i personality characteristics are antecedents of behavioural characteristics depending on situational constraints that allow their expression; (ii behavioural characteristics emerge as significant predictors of entrepreneurial intention; (iii entrepreneurial intention is a primary forecaster of real entrepreneurial activity; (iv the increase of educational level and study programs’ specificity, to which the investigated population belongs, guarantee for entrepreneurial awareness raising and instruction of aspirant entrepreneurs.
Full Text Available Gender identity and gender role are expected to be consistent with gender assignment for optimal DSD management outcome. To our knowledge, our study is the first to attempt evaluation of gender related outcomes in Turkish DSD patients.After receiving institutional ethical board approval and subject (or parent informed consent, subjects with DSD raised as girls (22 patients 46 XX DSD,11 patients 46XY DSD answered 566 questions of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI questionnaire including 60- item Masculinity-Femininity (MF subscale which was the focus in this study. Controls (n:50 were females similar to the probands in age, level of education, relationship status and having a job or not also answered all questions. The answers were evaluated by a trained psychologist(D.I. on MMPI .For statistical purposes, 7 findings were obtained from the data related to the MF subscale from the patients and controls. Of these 7 findings (S1-S7, two were associated with masculinity (S3-S4 and another two were associated with femininity (S5-S6In DSD patients, the percentages of masculinity findings were significantly higher when compared to controls (p< 0.001 and p< 0.001 for S3 and S4 respectively. In controls, the percentages of femininity findings were significantly higher when compared to DSD females (p< 0.001 and p< 0.001 for S5 and S6 respectively.There was no significant difference between 46XX DSD patients and 46XY DSD patients with respect to the percentage of any of the 7 findings. Two patients requested gender change to male;only these two patients had the finding stating that sexual impulses could come to existence as actions(S7.In conclusion efforts to identify modifiable factors with negative impact and thus modifying them, and professional guidance may be important in minimizing the encountered gender related problems in DSD patients
Hull, Laura; Mandy, William; Petrides, K V
Studies assessing sex/gender differences in autism spectrum conditions often fail to include typically developing control groups. It is, therefore, unclear whether observed sex/gender differences reflect those found in the general population or are particular to autism spectrum conditions. A systematic search identified articles comparing behavioural and cognitive characteristics in males and females with and without an autism spectrum condition diagnosis. A total of 13 studies were included in meta-analyses of sex/gender differences in core autism spectrum condition symptoms (social/communication impairments and restricted/repetitive behaviours and interests) and intelligence quotient. A total of 20 studies were included in a qualitative review of sex/gender differences in additional autism spectrum condition symptoms. For core traits and intelligence quotient, sex/gender differences were comparable in autism spectrum conditions and typical samples. Some additional autism spectrum condition symptoms displayed different patterns of sex/gender differences in autism spectrum conditions and typically developing groups, including measures of executive function, empathising and systemising traits, internalising and externalising problems and play behaviours. Individuals with autism spectrum conditions display typical sex/gender differences in core autism spectrum condition traits, suggesting that diagnostic criteria based on these symptoms should take into account typical sex/gender differences. However, awareness of associated autism spectrum condition symptoms should include the possibility of different male and female phenotypes, to ensure those who do not fit the 'typical' autism spectrum condition presentation are not missed.
Abstract This paper examines the effect of gender roles on earnings differentials between Han Chinese and Uyghurs in Urumchi, China, using data from a survey (N = 1,600) conducted in Urumchi in 2005. It finds sizable earnings differentials between Han Chinese and Uyghurs. However, the differences in income between Uyghur men and Han men fade away controlling for socioeconomic variables. No similar patterns are found among women. Earnings differentials between Uyghur women and Han w...
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test effects of age, gender, and sire line on dairy cattle behaviour. We have analyzed results of ethological tests for 40 Holstein breed animals (23 males and 17 females, offsprings of three sires. Maintenance behaviour were observed at the age of 90, 130 and 170 days. Behaviour in the maze was conducted at the age of 119 days, an open-field test was applied at the age of 124, 168, and 355 days. The social behaviour was determined by feeding on 155th day of the age. The times and the number of periods in all activities of maintenance behaviour were changing significantly (P<0.001 according to the age. The total time of lying, lying with ruminating, ruminating, feeding was increasing from the age of 90 days to the age of 170 days, on the other hand the time of standing was decreasing. The times of total lying, lying with ruminating, total ruminating, feeding were increased, and time of standing was decreased from the age of 90 days to the age of 170 days. Calves spent more time lying on the left side than on the right side. The number of ruminating periods was increasing according to the age. Eating periods were decreasing from the age of 90 to 170 days. The most of lying periods were recorded at the age of 130 days. The differences between sex were found in total time of lying, lying on the right side (P<0.05, and the males rest longer and had more periods of lying than females. We have found differences in times of feeding (P<0.001, total lying, standing (P<0.01, and lying on the left side (P<0.05 according to sire by comparing behaviour of the calves. Sire genotypes were significantly manifested in period number of total lying (P<0.001, lying on the right side, feeding (P<0.01, and standing (P<0.05. Males stood in the first part of maze longer than females (P<0.001, also length of total standing was longer by bulls (P<0.01. Heifers took shorter time to leave the maze than bulls (P<0.05. Sire lineages significantly
Swartout, Kevin M; Parrott, Dominic J; Cohn, Amy M; Hagman, Brett T; Gallagher, Kathryn E
Data gathered from 6 independent samples (n = 1,729) that assessed men's masculine gender role stress in college and community males were aggregated used to determine the reliability and validity of an abbreviated version of the Masculine Gender Role Stress (MGRS) Scale. The 15 items with the highest item-to-total scale correlations were used to create an abbreviated MGRS Scale. Psychometric properties of each of the 15 items were examined with item response theory (IRT) analysis, using the discrimination and threshold parameters. IRT results showed that the abbreviated scale may hold promise at capturing the same amount of information as the full 40-item scale. Relative to the 40-item scale, the total score of the abbreviated MGRS Scale demonstrated comparable convergent validity using the measurement domains of masculine identity, hypermasculinity, trait anger, anger expression, and alcohol involvement. An abbreviated MGRS Scale may be recommended for use in clinical practice and research settings to reduce cost, time, and patient/participant burden. Additionally, IRT analyses identified items with higher discrimination and threshold parameters that may be used to screen for problematic gender role stress in men who may be seen in routine clinical or medical practice. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Azmoude, Elham; Firoozi, Mahbobe; Sadeghi Sahebzad, Elahe; Asgharipour, Neghar
Evidence indicates that sexual assertiveness is one of the important factors affecting sexual satisfaction. According to some studies, traditional gender norms conflict with women's capability in expressing sexual desires. This study examined the relationship between gender roles and sexual assertiveness in married women in Mashhad, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 120 women who referred to Mashhad health centers through convenient sampling in 2014-15. Data were collected using Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) and Hulbert index of sexual assertiveness. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16 by Pearson and Spearman's correlation tests and linear Regression Analysis. The mean scores of sexual assertiveness was 54.93±13.20. According to the findings, there was non-significant correlation between Femininity and masculinity score with sexual assertiveness (P=0.069 and P=0.080 respectively). Linear regression analysis indicated that among the predictor variables, only Sexual function satisfaction was identified as the sexual assertiveness summary predictor variables (P=0.001). Based on the results, sexual assertiveness in married women does not comply with gender role, but it is related to Sexual function satisfaction. So, counseling psychologists need to consider this variable when designing intervention programs for modifying sexual assertiveness and find other variables that affect sexual assertiveness.
Stoyanova, Milena; Hope, Debra A
Despite the well-documented gender effect in anxiety, less is known about contributing factors to women's greater risk for anxiety and fears. The present study examined the relationship between gender, gender role orientation (i.e., expressivity/instrumentality) and fear of harmless insects (tarantula), using a multimodal approach of self-report measures, a Behavioral Approach Test (BAT), and physiological reactivity. Participants (144 college students; 67 women, 77 men) completed a questionnaire packet and then were instructed to approach a tarantula. We were unable to replicate Pierce and Kirkpatrick's (1992) findings that men underreport anxiety. Consistent with the literature, women in the study experienced greater anxiety and avoidance compared to men. However, men and women did not differ on physiological reactivity during the first 2 min of the BAT. The concordance across avoidance, anxiety and heart rate reactivity differed by gender, suggesting that men and women have different experiences when faced with a fearful object. Furthermore, instrumentality (masculinity) was negatively related to anticipatory anxiety for women but not for men. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of gender roles on fathers’ work styles and housework participation. According to a 2004 ILO survey, Japan leads the world in hours worked per employee. Men in their 30'S work longer hours than other generations while women's work force participation rate has been increasing. As a\\\\r\\\\\\result, men are expected to be not only breadwinners but also caregivers. The Japanese government is trying to support the transition of father's roles, thu...
The literature shows that there are important differences between women and men in the underlying mechanisms of transmission of HIV infection and AIDS, as well as in the social and economic consequences of HIV/AIDS. These stem from sexual behaviour and socially constructed 'gender' differences between women and men in roles and responsibilities. Despite the fact that numerous gender-related sociocultural factors influence HIV/AIDS protective behaviours, little gender specificity is included in HIV prevention among the elderly. In order to close this gap, this study explored gender-related perceptions of risk of HIV infection among elderly men and women of Ga-Rankuwa in Gauteng Province, South Africa. This qualitative study used purposive sampling to conduct three focus group interviews with 22 women and 10 men who were above 60 years of age. Findings revealed that both genders blame each other for the spreading of HIV/AIDS. Male participants displayed the tendency to have multiple partners, whereas females accepted that males are promiscuous. Mixed perceptions about disclosure of HIV status were found. Condom use was a challenge, as men did not know how to introduce it with their wives, and some female participants indicated that men are resistant to using condoms. The elderly men also believed that women will have sex in exchange for money. It is concluded that there is a need for substantial behaviour change among both elderly males and females, which should address gender power relations. More in-depth and extensive research in this area is recommended.
Cyril R Pernet
Full Text Available Both voice gender and speech perception rely on neuronal populations located in the peri-sylvian areas. However, whilst functional imaging studies suggest a left versus right hemisphere and anterior versus posterior dissociation between voice and speech categorization, psycholinguistic studies on talker variability suggest that these two processes (voice and speech categorization share common mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the categorical perception of voice gender (male vs. female and phonemes (/pa/ vs. /ta/ using the same stimulus continua generated by morphing. This allowed the investigation of behavioural differences while controlling acoustic characteristics, since the same stimuli were used in both tasks. Despite a higher acoustic dissimilarity between items during the phoneme categorization task (a male and female voice producing the same phonemes than the gender task (the same person producing 2 phonemes, results showed that speech information is being processed much faster than voice information. In addition, f0 or timbre equalization did not affect RT, which disagrees with the classical psycholinguistic models in which voice information is stripped away or normalized to access phonetic content. Also, despite similar response (percentages and perceptual (d’ curves, a reverse correlation analysis on acoustic features revealed, as expected, that the formant frequencies of the consonant distinguished stimuli in the phoneme task, but that only the vowel formant frequencies distinguish stimuli in the gender task. The 2nd set of results thus also disagrees with models postulating that the same acoustic information is used for voice and speech. Altogether these results suggest that voice gender categorization and phoneme categorization are dissociated at an early stage on the basis of different enhanced acoustic features that are diagnostic to the task at hand.
Bakhla, Ajay Kumar; Sinha, Prakriti; Sharan, Rajiv; Binay, Yashi; Verma, Vijay; Chaudhury, Suprakash
The prevalence of anxiety is high in school going children; however pattern of parenting and gender of the child are important factors for the development of anxiety. Gender role and parenting patterns are important construct that vary across different sociocultural setting hence are important to be studied in Indian context. In a cross sectional study all students of both sexes studying in class VIII, were assessed using the Spence anxiety scale (children version). The sample consisted of 146 (55% male and 45% female) with a mean age of 12.71 years. A total of 16 (11%) students scored above cutoff for high anxiety, the mean scores across gender shows that female students scored significantly higher in total and all sub types of anxiety. Most of the students perceived their parents 'Democratic' and other two authoritarian and permissive type of parenting were almost equal. There was significantly higher anxiety among the students who perceived their parents as authoritarian. The prevalence of high anxiety was 11% in class VIII students. High anxiety in students was significantly associated with female gender and authoritarian parenting pattern as perceived by the children.
Ajay Kumar Bakhla
Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of anxiety is high in school going children; however pattern of parenting and gender of the child are important factors for the development of anxiety. Gender role and parenting patterns are important construct that vary across different sociocultural setting hence are important to be studied in Indian context. Materials and Methods: In a cross sectional study all students of both sexes studying in class VIII, were assessed using the Spence anxiety scale (children version. Results: The sample consisted of 146 (55% male and 45% female with a mean age of 12.71 years. A total of 16 (11% students scored above cutoff for high anxiety, the mean scores across gender shows that female students scored significantly higher in total and all sub types of anxiety. Most of the students perceived their parents ′Democratic′ and other two authoritarian and permissive type of parenting were almost equal. There was significantly higher anxiety among the students who perceived their parents as authoritarian. Conclusions: The prevalence of high anxiety was 11% in class VIII students. High anxiety in students was significantly associated with female gender and authoritarian parenting pattern as perceived by the children.
Bradley, E H; White, W; Anderson, E; Mattocks, K; Pistell, A
Several studies have demonstrated that workforce roles and salaries differ substantially between men and women in administrative positions within the health care industry. Recent studies of graduates with masters of business administration (MBA) and masters of health administration (MHA) degrees have indicated that women tend to experience lower salaries, given like responsibilities. However, the impact of gender on salary has been less studied among masters of public health (MPH) graduates in the health care field. Our objective was to assess the impact of gender on salary among MPH degree graduates. Using a cross-sectional survey of all graduates from the MPH program at Yale University between 1991-1997 (n = 201, response rate = 51%), we ascertained graduates' reported salary in the first job post-graduation and reported salary in their current position. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the unadjusted and adjusted associations between gender and salary. Salaries in both the first job post-graduation and in the current job differed significantly by gender, with women earning less than men (p-values salary gap widened as the years since graduation increased, although the sample size did not allow comprehensive testing of this trend.
van Well, S; Kolk, AM; Arrindell, WA
The objective was to examine the usefulness of Dutch versions of the Masculine Gender Role Stress (MGRS; Eisler & Skidmore, 1987) Scale and the Feminine Gender Role Stress (Gillespie & Eisler, 1992) Scale in The Netherlands. Undergraduate students (N = 2,239) completed both gender role stress
The process of being a woman starts with biological gender but it is shaped by learning the social gender roles. Besides social gender role; age, education, marriage, and motherhood supply social roles and attributions and they have an impact on women identification and their interpersonal relationships. The aim of the study is to investigate…
Unger, Jo Ann; Norton, G. Ron; De Luca, Rayleen V.
This study explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and gender role attitudes. Female university students rated themselves and their parents on gender role attitudes and history of childhood sexual abuse. Traditional participant gender role attitude and social isolation were associated with reporting being sexually abused as a…
PUTRA, ABEDNEGO ANGGA JURIAN
Keywords: gender discrimination, women in military, feminism, G.I. Jane movie. Gender discrimination threats the equality of women's role. One of the causes of gender discrimination is patriarchal system in society. A movie entitled G.I. Jane reveals some causes and manifestations of gender discrimination in military.This research applies Feminism approach to analyze a movie entitled G.I. Jane. This study also applies the concept of gender role, women in military, and film studies.The result ...
Patra, Shraboni; Singh, Rakesh Kumar
The increasing prevalence of HIV in Uganda during the last decade (7.5% in 2004-05 to 8.3% in 2011 among women and 5.0% in 2004-05 to 6.1% among men in 2011 of 15 to 49 years) clearly shows that women are disproportionately affected by HIV epidemic. Hence, we assessed the prevalence of HIV and focused on differences in risky sexual behaviour and knowledge of HIV among Ugandan youth. Uganda AIDS Indicator Survey 2011 data was used. The total samples of men and women (15 to 24 years), interviewed and tested for HIV, were 3450 and 4504 respectively. The analysis of risky sexual behaviour was based on 1941 men and 3127 women who had ever had sex and were tested for HIV. Pearson's Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. Findings showed that young women were almost two times more vulnerable than young men in acquiring HIV (OR=1.762, Pgap in risky sexual behaviour and new transmission of HIV in Uganda. Significance for public healthThe present study represents the evidence of a recent increase in HIV infection in Uganda from the latest round of AIDs indicator survey. This manuscript describes how young women (15-24 years-old) are disproportionately HIV-infected compared to young men in Uganda. They are more vulnerable to HIV than young men. Moreover, it is also observed that young women are at greater risk of acquiring HIV because of their risky sexual behaviour and inappropriate knowledge of HIV transmission. Some educational programmes, growing gender equity in HIV/AIDS activities and services, dropping violence and coercion, addressing male norms and behaviours, improving women's legal protection, and rising women's access to income and productive resources can be very effective in minimising the vulnerability of young women to HIV/AIDS.
Gage, Anastasia J; Thomas, Nicholas J
The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of women's labor force participation to the risk of intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization in the past 12 months, using data for 20,635 currently married women aged 15-49 years from the 2013 nationally representative Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Multilevel logistic regression models of sexual and physical IPV, with interactions between women's work and social norms regarding traditional gender roles, were developed. Approximately 23% of women aged 15-49 years reported IPV victimization in the past 12 months. Results revealed that non-cash work relative to unemployment was positively associated with both forms of IPV victimization, after controlling for other factors. Women's engagement in cash work was positively correlated with sexual IPV. The positive association between cash work and physical IPV victimization was significantly larger for women who resided in localities with greater male approval of wife beating. In localities where husband-dominated decision making was more common, a spousal education gap that favored husbands was more positively associated with sexual IPV. The findings call for integrated IPV prevention and economic empowerment programs that consider gender norms and gender-role beliefs and are adapted to the locality setting, in order to promote social environments in which women can reap the full benefits of their economic empowerment.
Zaborowicz, Katarzyna; Czarnocińska, Jolanta; Galiński, Grzegorz; Kaźmierczak, Paulina; Górska, Karolina; Durczewski, Paweł
Nutrition is a factor influencing physical and mental fitness. In this study we examine the lifestyle of university students and its impact on nutritional errors. To evaluate the dietary behaviours of students taking into account gender and nutritional knowledge. Using a QEB questionnaire, we were able to evaluate dietary behaviours and nutritional knowledge of respondents. Our analysis was conducted on data obtained from 456 students. We found that nutritional knowledge for women was 34.7% satisfactory and 34.7% good. In contrast, nutritional knowledge for men varied, amounting to 40.2% satisfactory and 25.1% good. The number of meals and their regular consumption did not depend on gender or the nutritional knowledge of students, however, significant differences were recorded for the types of snacks they eat. A greater number of women than men snacked on sweets and biscuits, nuts and seeds, while in the case of salty snacks an opposite trend was observed. A higher level of nutritional knowledge correlated with the number of students snacking on fruit and vegetables instead of salty snacks. Moreover, it was observed that health-promoting behaviours such as not adding sugar to beverages and not adding salt to dishes were more common with women and individuals with a higher level of nutritional knowledge. Women more frequently snack on sweets, biscuits, nuts and seeds. More men snack on salty snacks, add sugar to beverages and add salt to dishes. Individuals with insufficient nutritional knowledge more frequently snack on salty snacks rather than fruit. Students with insufficient nutritional knowledge more often commit nutritional errors.
Khalil, Radwa; Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Moftah, Marie Z.; Karim, Ahmed A.
A gender role is a set of societal norms dictating what types of behaviors are considered desirable or appropriate for a person based on their sex. However, socially constructed gender roles can lead to equal rights between genders but also to severe disadvantages and discrimination with a remarkable variety between different countries. Based on social indicators and gender statistics, “women in the Arab region are on average more disadvantaged economically, politically, and socially than women in other regions.” According to Banduras’ social learning theory, we argue that profound knowledge of the historical contributions of Ancient Egyptian female pioneers in science, arts, and even in ruling Egypt as Pharaohs can improve today’s gender role in Egypt and Middle Eastern countries. Therefore, this article provides an elaborate review of the gender role of women in Ancient Egypt, outlining their prominence, influence, and admiration in ancient societies, and discusses the possible psychological impact of this knowledge on today’s gender role. We suggest that future empirical research should investigate how enhancing the knowledge of women from Ancient Egypt can improve today’s gender role in Egypt and the Middle East. Bandura’s social learning theory is outlined as a possible framework for future research. PMID:28105022
Khalil, Radwa; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Moftah, Marie Z; Karim, Ahmed A
A gender role is a set of societal norms dictating what types of behaviors are considered desirable or appropriate for a person based on their sex. However, socially constructed gender roles can lead to equal rights between genders but also to severe disadvantages and discrimination with a remarkable variety between different countries. Based on social indicators and gender statistics, "women in the Arab region are on average more disadvantaged economically, politically, and socially than women in other regions." According to Banduras' social learning theory, we argue that profound knowledge of the historical contributions of Ancient Egyptian female pioneers in science, arts, and even in ruling Egypt as Pharaohs can improve today's gender role in Egypt and Middle Eastern countries. Therefore, this article provides an elaborate review of the gender role of women in Ancient Egypt, outlining their prominence, influence, and admiration in ancient societies, and discusses the possible psychological impact of this knowledge on today's gender role. We suggest that future empirical research should investigate how enhancing the knowledge of women from Ancient Egypt can improve today's gender role in Egypt and the Middle East. Bandura's social learning theory is outlined as a possible framework for future research.
Bar, Michael; Kim, Seik; Leukhina, Oksana
Mulligan and Rubinstein (2008) (MR) argued that changing selection of working females on unobservable characteristics, from negative in the 1970s to positive in the 1990s, accounted for nearly the entire closing of the gender wage gap. We argue that their female wage equation estimates are inconsistent. Correcting this error substantially weakens the role of the rising selection bias (39 % versus 78 %) and strengthens the contribution of declining discrimination (42 % versus 7 %). Our findings resonate better with related literature. We also explain why our finding of positive selection in the 1970s provides additional support for MR's main hypothesis that an exogenous rise in the market value of unobservable characteristics contributed to the closing of the gender gap.
Full Text Available Background: Adolescents are an important age-group for preventing disease and supporting health yet little is known about their health-seeking behaviours. Objective: We describe socio-demographic characteristics and health-seeking behaviours of adolescents in Soweto, South Africa, in order to broaden our understanding of their health needs. Design: The Botsha Bophelo Adolescent Health Study was an interviewer-administered cross-sectional survey of 830 adolescents (14–19 years conducted in Soweto from 2010 to 2012. Health-seeking behaviours were defined as accessing medical services and/or being hospitalised in the 6 months prior to the survey. Chi-square analysis tested for associations between gender, other socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, and health-seeking behaviours. Results: Of 830 adolescents, 57% were female, 50% were aged 17–19 years, 85% were enrolled in school, and 78% reported experiencing medium or high food insecurity. Males were more likely than females to report sexual debut (64% vs. 49%; p<0.0001 and illicit drug use (11% vs. 3%; p<0.0001. Approximately 27% (n=224 and 8% (n=65 reported seeking healthcare or being hospitalised respectively in the previous 6 months, with no significant differences by gender. Services were most commonly sought at medical clinics (75%, predominantly because of flu-like symptoms (32%, followed by concerns about HIV (10%. Compared to females, males were more likely to seek healthcare for condom breakage (8% vs. 2%; p=0.02. Relative to males, a significantly higher proportion of females desired general healthcare services (85% vs. 78%; p=0.0091, counselling (82% vs. 70%; p<0.0001, and reproductive health services (64% vs. 56%; p=0.02. Conclusions: A quarter of male and female adolescents accessed health services in the 6 months prior to the interview. Adolescents reported a gap between the availability and the need for general, reproductive, and counselling services. Integrated
Obesity related eating behaviour patterns in Swedish preschool children and association with age, gender, relative weight and parental weight--factorial validation of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire.
Svensson, Viktoria; Lundborg, Linda; Cao, Yingting; Nowicka, Paulina; Marcus, Claude; Sobko, Tanja
The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) is a multi-dimensional, parent-reported questionnaire measuring children's eating behaviours related to obesity risk, i.e. 'enjoyment of food', 'food responsiveness', 'slowness in eating' and 'satiety responsiveness'. It has not previously been validated in a Swedish population, neither on children under the age of 2 years. In the present study we examined the factor structure and the reliability of the Swedish version of the CEBQ, for use in an obesity intervention programme targeting preschool children 1-6 years. Further, the associations between eating behaviours and children's age, gender and relative weight (BMI SDS) and parental weight were investigated. Parents to 174 children aged 1-6 years (50% girls, mean age 3.8 years), recruited from five kindergartens in Stockholm, completed the Swedish version of the CEBQ. Data on children's weight and height, parental weight, height and educational level was collected. Children's relative weight was calculated for a subpopulation (mean BMI SDS -0.4, n = 47). Factorial validation (Principal Component Analysis) on all CEBQ items was performed. Differences in eating behaviours by age, gender and parental weight were examined. Correlations between eating behaviours and the child's BMI SDS were analysed controlling for age, gender, parental weight and education in linear regression analyses. The factor analysis revealed a seven factor solution with good psychometric properties, similar to the original structure. The behaviour scales 'overeating'/'food responsiveness', 'enjoyment of food' and 'emotional undereating' decreased with age and 'food fussiness' increased with age. Eating behaviours did not differ between girls and boys. The children's relative weight was not related to any of the eating behaviours when controlling for age, gender, parental weight and education, and only associated with parental weight status. Our results support the use of the CEBQ as a
Obesity related eating behaviour patterns in Swedish preschool children and association with age, gender, relative weight and parental weight - factorial validation of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ is a multi-dimensional, parent-reported questionnaire measuring children's eating behaviours related to obesity risk, i.e. 'enjoyment of food', 'food responsiveness', 'slowness in eating' and 'satiety responsiveness'. It has not previously been validated in a Swedish population, neither on children under the age of 2 years. In the present study we examined the factor structure and the reliability of the Swedish version of the CEBQ, for use in an obesity intervention programme targeting preschool children 1-6 years. Further, the associations between eating behaviours and children's age, gender and relative weight (BMI SDS and parental weight were investigated. Methods Parents to 174 children aged 1-6 years (50% girls, mean age 3.8 years, recruited from five kindergartens in Stockholm, completed the Swedish version of the CEBQ. Data on children's weight and height, parental weight, height and educational level was collected. Children's relative weight was calculated for a subpopulation (mean BMI SDS -0.4, n = 47. Factorial validation (Principal Component Analysis on all CEBQ items was performed. Differences in eating behaviours by age, gender and parental weight were examined. Correlations between eating behaviours and the child's BMI SDS were analysed controlling for age, gender, parental weight and education in linear regression analyses. Results The factor analysis revealed a seven factor solution with good psychometric properties, similar to the original structure. The behaviour scales 'overeating'/'food responsiveness', 'enjoyment of food' and 'emotional undereating' decreased with age and 'food fussiness' increased with age. Eating behaviours did not differ between girls and boys. The children's relative weight was not related to any of the eating behaviours when controlling for age, gender, parental weight and education, and only associated with parental weight status
The need to support people to change diet-related behaviour is widely advocated and how to do this effectively in practice is an expanding area of research. Important factors to consider are how healthcare practitioners communicate with their patients and how that communication may affect diet-related behaviour change and subsequent outcomes. The aim of the present paper is to discuss communication skills for behaviour change (CSBC), focusing predominantly on registered dietitians who are required to communicate effectively and have an important role in supporting patients to change diet-related behaviour. The views of dietitians in relation to CSBC have been investigated and respondents have consistently reported that they perceive these skills to be of vital importance in practice. Patient views have reiterated the importance of good CSBC in one-to-one consultations. However, pre-qualification training of dietitians is thought to deliver practitioners who are competent at a minimum level. The need for ongoing continuous professional development (CPD) in relation to CSBC has been recognised but currently most CPD focuses on updating knowledge rather than improving these essential skills. Measuring CSBC in a consistent and objective manner is difficult and an assessment tool, DIET-COMMS, has been developed and validated for this purpose. DIET-COMMS can be used to support CSBC development, but concerns about logistical challenges and acceptability of implementing this in practice have been raised. Although a suitable assessment tool now exists there is a need to develop ways to facilitate assessment of CSBC in practice.
Watson, Penelope; Rubie-Davies, Christine Margaret; Hattie, John Allan
Choirs have been stereotypically gendered feminine in many national contexts. When gender-role conformity has been expected in such settings, male choral participation and performance has often been rendered gender incongruent and consequently threatening. Gender stereotype threat was explored as a factor which might instigate a potentially…
Barton, B K; Ulrich, T; Lyday, B
Thousands of American children under the age of 10 years are injured annually as pedestrians. Despite the scope of this public health problem, knowledge about behavioural control and developmental factors involved in the aetiology of child pedestrian safety is limited. The present study examined the roles of gender, age and two aspects of cognitive development (visual search and efficiency of processing) in children's safe pedestrian route selection. Measures of cognitive functioning (visual search and efficiency) and selections of risky pedestrian routes were collected from 65 children aged 5-9 years. Boys, younger children and those with less developed cognitive functioning selected riskier pedestrian routes. Cognitive functioning also subsumed age as a predictor of risky route selections. Our findings suggest developmental differences, specifically less developed cognitive functioning, play important roles in children's pedestrian decision making. Directions for future examination are discussed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Lopez, Vera; Corona, Rosalie; Halfond, Raquel
This study examined the main and interaction effects of gender, traditional gender role orientation, and media-influenced sociocultural values and ideals about appearance in a sample of 96 Latino adolescents controlling for age, country of origin, and BMI. Girls and less traditionally oriented youth reported significantly more disordered eating and appearance concerns than did boys and more traditionally oriented youth. Gender moderated the relationship between traditional gender role orientation and disordered eating and appearance concerns. Contrary to our hypothesis, media-influenced sociocultural values and ideals about appearance did not significantly predict disordered eating and appearance concerns. However, the interaction between gender and sociocultural values and ideals about appearance was significant. Our findings highlight the importance of continued research on gender, media, and cultural influences as they relate to disordered eating and appearance concerns among Latino youth. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Attitudes toward gender roles result from a social construction process that has implications for the accepted gender role models for men and women. This study aims at the adaptation and factorial validation of a measurement scale for attitudes toward gender roles. The sample consisted of 746 college students and young professionals. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed to check the scale's structure. A two-factor structure was found for the Attitudes toward Gender Roles Scale: the first factor reflects a traditional division of gender roles, and the second factor reflects an egalitarian division of gender roles. A preliminary study using the scale was conducted on 101 families with adult children (each family included a father, a mother, and an adult child with a university degree. The results revealed the importance of the scale in assessing the attitudes of different generations toward gender roles.
Handrio Adhi Pradana
Full Text Available The objective of this research is to find out the effect of role ambiguity, role conflict, role overload, and work-family conflict on emotional satisfaction, the effect of emotional satisfaction on service quality, and gender moderation on the effect of emotional satisfaction on service quality. This research was conducted in Dr. Moewardi General Hospital. The research design used in was survey research. The population of this research was all nurses of Dr. Moewardi General Hospital. The sample consisted of 106 nurses taken using purposive sampling technique. The independent variables were role ambiguity, role conflict, role overload, work-family conflict, and emotional satisfaction. The dependent variables were service quality and emotional satisfaction, while gender was a moderating variable. Methods of analyzing data used in this research were multiple regression, simple regression, and subgroup analysis before which the instrument tests were conducted including validity and reliability tests. A multiple regression examined the effect of role ambiguity, role conflict, role overload, and work-family conflict on emotional satisfaction. Simple regression examined the effect of emotional satisfaction on service quality and subgroup analysis examined the moderation of gender on the effect of emotional satisfaction on the service quality. The result of this research showed that: (1 Role ambiguity, role overload, and work-family conflict affected the emotional satisfaction significantly and negatively while the role conflict did not affect significantly the emotional satisfaction, (2 The emotional satisfaction affected positively the service quality, (3 Gender did not moderate significantly the effect of emotional satisfaction on service quality.
Full Text Available Background. The increasing prevalence of HIV in Uganda during the last decade (7.5% in 2004-05 to 8.3% in 2011 among women and 5.0% in 2004-05 to 6.1% among men in 2011 of 15 to 49 years clearly shows that women are disproportionately affected by HIV epidemic. Hence, we assessed the prevalence of HIV and focused on differences in risky sexual behaviour and knowledge of HIV among Ugandan youth. Design and Methods. Uganda AIDS Indicator Survey 2011 data was used. The total samples of men and women (15 to 24 years, interviewed and tested for HIV, were 3450 and 4504 respectively. The analysis of risky sexual behaviour was based on 1941 men and 3127 women who had ever had sex and were tested for HIV. Pearson’s Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. Results. Findings showed that young women were almost two times more vulnerable than young men in acquiring HIV (OR=1.762, P<0.001. Women who had first sex under age 15 (7.3%, had more than 2 sexual partners (9.2% and did not use condom during last sex (6.4% were more HIV-positive. Higher risk was found among women (6.3% than men (2.2%. Significantly (P<0.01 less percentage (81.3% of women as compared to men (83.8% perceived that the probability of HIV transmission may be reduced by correct and consistent use of the condom during sex. Conclusions. Hence, there is an urgent need for effective strategies and programmes to raise awareness on sexual health and risky behaviour, particularly targeting the youth, which will reduce the gender gap in risky sexual behaviour and new transmission of HIV in Uganda.
Hull, L.; Mandy, W.; Petrides, K.
Studies assessing sex/gender differences in autism spectrum conditions often fail to include typically developing control groups. It is, therefore, unclear whether observed sex/gender differences reflect those found in the general population or are particular to autism spectrum conditions. A systematic search identified articles comparing behavioural and cognitive characteristics in males and females with and without an autism spectrum condition diagnosis. A total of 13 studies were included ...
Oljača Milan V.
Full Text Available This paper examines the role of personality traits and gender in violent interaction among middle school children (11-15 age range. The aim of the research presented here was to determine the contribution of personality traits and gender to various aspects of violent interaction, i.e. predisposition towards and exposure to peer violence. The sample consisted of 344 students from 5th to 8th grade, the majority of whom were girls (60.8%. The instruments used in the research were a questionnaire designed to assess violent behavior in primary school children (PRONA and the Big Five Plus Two inventory (the BF + 2 for children, designed to assess seven basic personality traits in primary school children. The results of a multivariate analysis of covariance suggest that boys tend to perpetrate and be exposed to violent behaviour more than girls, and also that certain personality traits contribute to the manifestation of these constructs. Exposure to violence is determined by low Extraversion, as well as higher levels of Neuroticism and Negative Valence. The traits that contribute most significantly to the tendency towards abusive behaviour are high levels of Aggression and Negative Valence as well as lower levels of Positive Valence. The most effective means of abuse prevention among middle school children is the setting up of prevention programs along with the detection of specific vulnerable groups of students, and the adjustment of these programs to students' personological traits.
Doyle, Carol M; Rees, Amy M; Titus, Tana L
The current study sought to add to the literature that has demonstrated a link between sexism and sexual prejudice. The study evaluated whether a community sample with an age range of 19-64 (n = 122), including 32% sexual minority participants, believe that dating, sex, and marriage with same-sex partners are perceived to be gender role violations. Results varied by participant sexual/gender identity (LGBTQ or heterosexual) and political ideology. Liberal LGBTQ persons do not see same-sex relationships as gender role violations; LGBTQ non-liberals and heterosexual liberals rated same-sex relationships as mild violations; and non-liberal heterosexuals perceive same-sex relationships as "moderate" violations. Our results suggest both positive movement in attitudes toward same-sex relationships, including same-sex marriage, and broader recognition that gender identity, gender role expression, and sexual orientation are separate and distinct components of one's overall sexual identity.
Harbaugh, Evan; Lindsey, Eric W
Individual differences in attitudes toward homosexuality have been linked to numerous personality and demographic variables. This study investigated the influence that gender role identity, involvement in gender-typed activities, and religiosity plays in this relationship. The sample included 194 undergraduate students from a Northeastern university. Analyses revealed that both males and females who held a more masculine gender role identity and individual commitment to religion scored higher on measures of homophobia and heteronormativity, whereas there was no association between spiritual meaning in life and attitudes toward homosexuality. Among males, but not females, more masculine gender identity and less spiritual meaning in life was associated with greater homophobia. The importance of the findings for research on the origins of attitudes toward individuals with a homosexual orientation are discussed, as well as the potential directions for future research on connections between gender role identity, religious affiliation, and attitudes toward gays and lesbians.
T. Ramayah; Mastura Jaafar
This study examines the impact of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use on the extent of personal computer (PC) usage among a group of undergraduates at the School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia. It also looks at the moderating role of gender in the above said relationship. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire. A total of 244 students responded to the survey. Results showed that perceived ease of use (β = 0.309, p < 0.01) was positively re...
Gender roles are the apportioning of certain roles to a particular sex by society. This is quite different from gender disparity which promotes the ideology that one sex is better than the other. They are gender ideologies which can be deconstructed. In some primal cultures however, they were imbued with religious undertones ...
This survey study aims to determine the gender role perceptions of high school students regarding several professions. 724 female (56.9%) and 548 male (43.1%) formed the sample of a total of 1272 high school students. The "Gender Role Perceptions regarding Various Professions Questionnaire" was used to determine the gender role…
Folami, Florence F.
Gender discrimination remains problem in the world as a whole and unfortunately, nursing profession is not immune to this problem. Gender discrimination is rejection or restriction made on the basis of socially constructed gender roles which prevents a person from relishing full human rights. Role strain has been defined as when an individual is…
Zuo, Xiayun; Lou, Chaohua; Gao, Ersheng; Cheng, Yan; Niu, Hongfeng; Zabin, Laurie S
Gender is an important factor in understanding premarital sexual attitudes and behaviors. Many studies indicate that males are more likely to initiate sexual intercourse and have more permissive perceptions about sex than females. Yet few studies have explored possible reasons for these gender differences. With samples of unmarried adolescents in three Asian cities influenced by Confucian cultures, this article investigates the relationship between underlying gender norms and these differences in adolescents' premarital sexual permissiveness (PSP). In a collaborative survey conducted in 2006-2007 in urban and rural areas of Hanoi, Shanghai, and Taipei, 16,554 unmarried participants aged 15-24 years were recruited in the three-City Asian Study of Adolescents and Youth, with 6,204, 6,023, and 4,327 respondents from each city, respectively. All the adolescents were administered face-to-face interviews, coupled with computer-assisted self-interview for sensitive questions. Scales on gender-role attitudes and on PSP for both male and female respondents were developed and applied to our analysis of the data. Multilinear regression was used to analyze the relationship between gender-role attitudes and sexual permissiveness. Male respondents in each city held more permissive attitudes toward premarital sex than did females, with both boys and girls expressing greater permissiveness to male premarital sexual behaviors. Boys also expressed more traditional attitudes to gender roles (condoning greater inequality) than did girls in each city. Adolescents' gender-role attitudes and permissiveness to premarital sex varied considerably across the three cities, with the Vietnamese the most traditional, the Taiwanese the least traditional, and the adolescents in Shanghai in the middle. A negative association between traditional gender roles and PSP was only found among girls in Shanghai and Taipei. In Shanghai, female respondents who held more traditional gender-role attitudes were
Xiayun, Zuo; Chaohua, Lou; Ersheng, Gao; Yan, Cheng; Hongfeng, Niu; Zabin, Laurie S.
Purpose Gender is an important factor in understanding premarital sexual attitudes and behaviors. Many studies indicate that males are more likely to initiate sexual intercourse and have more permissive perceptions about sex than females. Yet few studies have explored possible reasons for these gender differences. With samples of unmarried adolescents in three Asian cities influenced by Confucian cultures, this paper investigates the relationship between underlying gender norms and these differences in adolescents’ premarital sexual permissiveness. Methods 16,554 unmarried participants aged 15–24 were recruited in the Three-City Asian Study of Adolescents and Youth, a collaborative survey conducted in 2006–2007 in urban and rural areas of Hanoi, Shanghai and Taipei, with 6204, 6023 and 4327 from each city respectively. All of the adolescents were administered face-to-face interviews, coupled with Computer Assisted Self Interview (CASI) for sensitive questions. Scales on gender-role attitudes and on premarital sexual permissiveness for both male and female respondents were developed and applied to our analysis of the data. Multi-linear regression was used to analyze the relationship between gender-role attitudes and sexual permissiveness. Results Male respondents in each city held more permissive attitudes towards premarital sex than did females with both boys and girls expressing greater permissiveness to male premarital sexual behaviors. Boys also expressed more traditional attitudes to gender roles (condoning greater inequality) than did girls in each city. Adolescents’ gender-role attitudes and permissiveness to premarital sex varied considerably across the three cities, with the Vietnamese the most traditional, the Taiwanese the least traditional, and the adolescents in Shanghai in the middle. A negative association between traditional gender roles and premarital sexual permissiveness was only found among girls in Shanghai and Taipei. In Shanghai
Delvecchio, Giuseppe; Mandolini, Gian Mario; Perlini, Cinzia; Barillari, Marco; Marinelli, Veronica; Ruggeri, Mirella; Altamura, A Carlo; Bellani, Marcella; Brambilla, Paolo
Hyperactivity of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis (HPAA) has been consistently reported in mood disorders. However, only few studies investigated the Pituitary gland (PG) in Bipolar Disorder (BD) and the results are so far contrasting. Therefore, the aim of this study is to explore the integrity of the PG as well as the role of gender and the impact of clinical measurements on this structure in a sample of BD patients compared to healthy controls (HC). 34 BD patients and 41 HC underwent a 1.5 T MRI scan. PG volumes were manually traced for all subjects. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed by means of the Brief Psychiatry Rating Scale, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Bech Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale. We found decreased PG volumes in BD patients compared to HC (F = 24.9, p < 0.001). Interestingly, after dividing the sample by gender, a significant PG volume decrease was detected only in female BD patients compared to female HC (F = 9.1, p < 0.001), but not in male BD compared to male HC (F = -0.12, p = 0.074). No significant correlations were observed between PG volumes and clinical variables. Our findings suggest that BD patients have decreased PG volumes, probably due to the long-term hyperactivity of the HPAA and to the consequent strengthening of the negative feedback control towards the PG volume itself. This alteration was particularly evident in females, suggesting a role of gender in affecting PG volumes in BD. Finally, the absence of significant correlations between PG volumes and clinical variables further supports that PG disruption is a trait feature of BD, being independent of symptoms severity and duration of treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lee, Mi-Sun; Park, Chang G; Hughes, Tonda L; Jun, Sang-Eun; Whang, Kum; Kim, Nahyun
To examine the roles of two modifiable factors-health-promoting behaviours and perceived stress-in predicting aneurysmal rupture. Unruptured intracranial aneurysm detection produces significant stress and anxiety in patients because of the risk of rupture. Compared to nonmodifiable risk factors for rupture such as age, gender and aneurysm size/location, less attention has been given to modifiable risk factors. Two modifiable factors, health-promoting behaviours and perceived stress, have hardly been examined as potential predictors of rupture. This study used a cross-sectional design. We assessed 155 patients with intracranial aneurysms-that is, subarachnoid haemorrhage (n = 77) or unruptured intracranial aneurysm (n = 78)-to examine (i) baseline characteristics (patient and aneurysmal factors), (ii) health-related factors (lifestyle habits and health-promoting behaviour) and (iii) perceived stress levels (psychological stress and physical stress). Patient records provided medical histories and aneurysmal factors; other data were collected using a structured questionnaire addressing lifestyle habits, the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II to measure health-promoting behaviour and the Perceived Stress Questionnaire to measure perceived-psychological stress and perceived-physical stress levels. Bivariate analysis indicated that aneurysm rupture risk was associated with female gender, aneurysm size/location, defecation frequency, hyperlipidaemia, sedentary time, low Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II mean scores and high perceived-psychological stress scores. After adjusting for known risk factors, the mean Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II and perceived-psychological stress scores remained robust predictors of rupture. Furthermore, known risk factors combined with these scores had greater predictive power than known risk factors alone. Health-promoting behaviour and psychological stress are promising modifiable factors for reducing risk of aneurysmal
Callens, Nina; Van Kuyk, Maaike; van Kuppenveld, Jet H; Drop, Stenvert L S; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Dessens, Arianne B
The magnitude of sex differences in human brain and behavior and the respective contributions of biology versus socialization remain a topic of ongoing study in science. The preponderance of evidence attests to the notion that sexual differentiation processes are at least partially hormonally mediated, with high levels of prenatal androgens facilitating male-typed and inhibiting female-typed behaviors. In individuals with Disorders/Differences of Sex Development (DSD), hormonal profiles or sensitivities have been altered due to genetic influences, presumably affecting gender(ed) activity interests as well as gender identity development in a minority of the affected population. While continued postnatal androgen exposure in a number of DSD syndromes has been associated with higher rates of gender dysphoria and gender change, the role of a number of mediating and moderating factors, such as initial gender assignment, syndrome severity and clinical management remains largely unclear. Limited investigations of the associations between these identified influences and gendered development outcomes impede optimization of clinical care. Participants with DSD (n=123), recruited in the context of a Dutch multi-center follow-up audit, were divided in subgroups reflecting prenatal androgen exposure, genital appearance at birth and gender of rearing. Recalled childhood play and playmate preferences, gender identity and sexual orientation were measured with questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Data were compared to those of control male (n=46) and female participants (n=79). The findings support that (a) prenatal androgen exposure has large effects on (gendered) activity interests, but to a much lesser extent on sexual orientation and that (b) initial gender of rearing remains a better predictor of gender identity contentedness than prenatal androgen exposure, beyond syndrome severity and medical treatment influences. Nonetheless, 3.3% of individuals with DSD in our
van Well, S.; Kolk, A.M.; Klugkist, I.G.
The authors tested the hypothesis that a match between the gender relevance of a stressor and one’s sex or gender role identification would elicit higher cardiovascular responses. Healthy female and male undergraduates (n = 108) were exposed to two stressors: the Cold Pressor Test (CPT) and the
Allafi, Ahmad; Al-Haifi, Ahmad R; Al-Fayez, Mohammad A; Al-Athari, Buthaina I; Al-Ajmi, Fahhad A; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Ahmed, Faruk
The present study was designed to assess physical activity, sedentary behaviours and dietary habits among adolescents in Kuwait and to compare the differences between genders. A cross-sectional study was conducted among secondary-school children who participated in the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS), a multi-centre collaborative project. Secondary schools in Kuwait. Adolescents (463 boys and 443 girls), aged 14-19 years. Nearly half (44·6 %) of the boys and three-quarters (76·0 %) of the girls did not meet the recommended daily physical activity levels (≥2520 MET-min/week, moderate to vigorous intensity). Nearly all (96·3 % of boys and 96·7 % of girls) adolescents reported spending >2 h/d on screen time, with girls found to spend more time per day watching television (P = 0·02) and using a computer (P physical activity, spend more time on sedentary activities and have unhealthy dietary practices. The findings emphasize an urgent need for implementing an appropriate intervention for promoting physical activity, healthy eating and reducing sedentary behaviours among these children.
Wester, Stephen R.; Vogel, David L.; Wei, Meifen; McLain, Rodney
Little research exists exploring the intersection of male gender role conflict (GRC), racial identity, and psychological distress. Accordingly, using a sample of 130 self-identified African American male participants, this study explored which aspects of racial identity mediated the relationship between GRC and psychological distress. Results…
Kranendonk, G.; Hopster, H.; Fillerup, M.; Ekkel, E.D.; Mulder, E.J.H.; Taveme, M.A.M.
Several behavioural effects of prenatal stress are reported in literature, and these seem to depend, among other factors, on the gender studied and the period of gestation in which prenatal stress is applied. In the present study, oral administration of hydrocortisone-acetate (HCA) to 41 pregnant
Cutler, Scott V.
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of attributional style, sex roles, and sex-role self-discrepancy in the relationship between gender and depression. Epidemiological studies report a higher incidence of depression among women then men (approximately 2:1). Among the various theories suggested to explain this gender difference, sex roles, attributional style, and self-discrepancy have been conceived as possible explanations. The relationship between gender and depression ma...
Sornom, Pascal; Felten, Vincent; Medoc, Vincent; Sroda, Sophie; Rousselle, Philippe; Beisel, Jean-Nicolas
The importance of potentially interacting factors in organisms responses to a stress are often ignored or underestimated in ecotoxicology. In laboratory experiments we investigated how gender, temperature and age influence the behaviour and the physiology of the freshwater amphipod Gammarus roeseli under salinity stress. Our results revealed a significant higher sensitivity of females in survival, ventilation and ionoregulation whereas no inter-age differences were reported. Water temperature also exerted a significant effect in survival and ventilation of G. roeseli. Some of those factors appeared to interact significantly. This study provides evidence that gender can affect organisms responses to a stressor and consequently has to be considered while assessing a stress impact. We discussed the potential relationships between biological and behavioural responses. - Influence of gender, age and temperature in a gammarid responses to a stress.
Lim, E X; Sim, A Y; Forde, C G; Cheon, B K
Stress is linked to increased preferences and consumption of palatable energy dense foods, particularly among females. Despite the role of stress on potentially obesogenic eating habits, its effect on pre-meal planning, such as the selection of portion sizes, remain unknown. Here, we investigated the relationship between perceived stress, gender, and intended portion sizes for diverse foods. Across two studies, increased perceived stress predicted larger (higher energy) intended portion sizes across a variety of food items among females, but not males. Additionally, for females, increased perceived stress was associated with lowered expectations of the satiety of foods presented, suggesting a potential mechanism by which stress may influence decisions about portion size. These findings reveal that the potentially obesogenic effects of stress on food judgments and behaviours (particularly among females) are not only expressed within meals, but also during more deliberate stages of planning that precedes meals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Eriksson, Kimmo; Lindholm, Torun
It is well established that an emphasis on gender differences may have a negative effect on women's math performance in USA, Germany and the Netherlands. It has further been found that an individual's identification with the stereotyped group may moderate effects of negative stereotypes. The present study investigated how gender-based expectancies affected the math performance of women and men in Sweden, a nation with a smaller gender gap than in other countries, and a strong cultural emphasis on gender equality. Participants, 112 female and 74 male undergraduate math students from Swedish universities, completed a difficult math test in which their gender was either linked to their test performance or not. Men performed better than women when gender was made relevant among participants who did not see their gender as an important aspect of their identity, while participants high in gender identification were unaffected by gender identity relevance. Moreover, the gender relevance manipulation affected men's performance more than women's. The results deviate from findings on US samples, indicating that the role of group identification as a moderator of stereotype-based expectancy effects is complex, and that factors in the cultural context may interact with individual differences in identification to determine the impact of negative stereotypes.
Zucchetti, G.; Ortega, E.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Rabaglietti, E.
This study examined the direct association between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms (i.e. inattention and hyperactivity symptoms) and children’s experience of best friend conflicts, and the mediating role of aggression, emotional and behavioural instability, exploring
partners. Interventions promoting sexual health must effectively address negative masculine attitudes and roles that perpetuate unhealthy sexual behaviours and gender relations within marriage. It is also important to promote marital fidelity and better communication within union and to encourage women to take charge of their health jointly with their partners.
Wallenius, Todd J.
Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics (STEM) education programs are currently being introduced and expanded across "developing" nations. STEM programs often conflict with hegemonic gender norms, for example by targeting girls and women in male dominated societies. However, given the cultural complexity of STEM for girls, implementing educators are rarely asked their point of view on programs from abroad. This study explored the perceptions of educators in Nepal who participated in the Girls Get STEM Skills (GGSS) program, a program funded through the U.S. Department of State for 2015/2016. The 8-month program reached 254 girls across three government schools and included the donation of 30 laptops. In August, 2016, the researcher conducted one-on-one interviews and focus groups with 18 participants at GGSS school sites in Pokhara, Nepal. Qualitative data was gathered on educators' perceptions of teacher roles, Nepal as a developing nation, gender imbalance in STEM, and the GGSS curriculum. The study argues that educators viewed educational topics through the lens of bikas, the Nepali word for development. This suggests that the principal impact of STEM programs--as part of larger development initiatives--may be the creation and reinforcement of new social meanings rather than the tangible impacts of the projects themselves.
Full Text Available This study examines the impact of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use on the extent of personal computer (PC usage among a group of undergraduates at the School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia. It also looks at the moderating role of gender in the above said relationship. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire. A total of 244 students responded to the survey. Results showed that perceived ease of use (β = 0.309, p < 0.01 was positively related to PC usage. A surprising finding of this study was that perceived usefulness was not a significant predictor of PC usage whereas perceived ease of use was. This can be explained in the context of mandated use where the usefulness is no longer an issue and ease of use becomes the primary concern. Gender was not a moderator in the above said relationship but was a significant independent predictor of usage. Males exhibited higher usage of the PC compared to the female students.
F. Javier Rondan-Cataluña
Full Text Available One of the fundamental and most commonly used communication tools by the generation Y or Millennials are online social networks. The first objective of this study is to model the effects that exercise social participation, community integration and trust in community satisfaction, as an antecedent of routinization. Besides, we propose as a second objective checking if gender roles proposed to underlie the different behaviors that develop social network users. An empirical study was carried out on a sample of 1,448 undergraduate students that are SNS users from Generation Y. First, we applied a structural equation modeling approach to test the proposed model. Second, we followed a methodology using a scale of masculinity and femininity to categorize the sample obtaining three groups: feminine, masculine, and androgynous.
Irina R. KANCHEVA
Full Text Available Purchase and consumption behavioral patterns of various family formations in different social and cultural contexts have been subject to intensive investigation over the recent years. Residential real estate as a product category represents one of the most complex household purchases incorporating a wide diversity of attributes to be considered in order to match family members’ needs within available resources. The purpose of this paper is to add some insights into spousal perceptions of gender role specialization throughout a residential real estate purchase family decision-making process. The distribution of influence between husbands and wives across three decision-making stages, three sub-decisions and twelve housing attribute choices and the relative importance of twelve residential real estate characteristics are examined using a convenience sample of both spouses in 127 Bulgarian heterosexual married and cohabiting couples.
Despite the importance of employment for shaping mental health over the life course, little is known about how the mental health benefits of employment change as individuals age through their prime employment and child-rearing years. This study examines the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 Cohort ( N = 8,931), following respondents from their late 20s to mid-50s. Results suggest that among women, the aging of children is especially salient for shaping the mental health consequences of employment. Young children diminish the protective effect of mothers' full- and part-time employment, but the salubrious effects of paid work increase as children get older. The benefit of employment for men's mental health also changes over time, but it is the aging of men themselves rather than their children that alters the magnitude of full-time employment's protective effect. Findings suggest the contribution of employment to life course mental health remains tethered to traditional gender roles.
Sánchez, Francisco J; Westefeld, John S; Liu, William Ming; Vilain, Eric
Professional psychologists who work with gay men have noted that traditional masculine ideals play a prominent role in the gay community whereby some endorse these traditional ideals and stigmatize effeminate behavior by other gay men. One hypothesis is that this behavior reflects negative feelings about being gay. This article examined this hypothesis by reporting the results of an online survey of 622 self-identified gay men. Participants completed the Gender Role Conflict Scale, Lesbian and Gay Identity Scale, the Social Desirability Scale, and questions related to the importance of masculinity. Results showed that most participants valued the public appearance of masculinity; and they ideally wished to be more masculine than they felt they were (Cohen's d = 0.42). A multiple regression analysis showed that the degree to which they valued masculinity and were concerned with violating masculine ideals was positively related with negative feelings about being gay (Cohen's f(2) = .67). These findings highlight the importance of exploring the role that masculine ideals play in gay client's lives given that negative feelings about oneself can adversely affect psychological well-being.
Sánchez, Francisco J.; Westefeld, John S.; Liu, William Ming; Vilain, Eric
Professional psychologists who work with gay men have noted that traditional masculine ideals play a prominent role in the gay community whereby some endorse these traditional ideals and stigmatize effeminate behavior by other gay men. One hypothesis is that this behavior reflects negative feelings about being gay. This article examined this hypothesis by reporting the results of an online survey of 622 self-identified gay men. Participants completed the Gender Role Conflict Scale, Lesbian and Gay Identity Scale, the Social Desirability Scale, and questions related to the importance of masculinity. Results showed that most participants valued the public appearance of masculinity; and they ideally wished to be more masculine than they felt they were (Cohen’s d = 0.42). A multiple regression analysis showed that the degree to which they valued masculinity and were concerned with violating masculine ideals was positively related with negative feelings about being gay (Cohen’s f2 = .67). These findings highlight the importance of exploring the role that masculine ideals play in gay client’s lives given that negative feelings about oneself can adversely affect psychological well-being. PMID:20428323
Wiklund, H; Aden, A S; Högberg, U; Wikman, M; Dahlgren, L
Giving birth in a foreign country implies going through a life event with little or no access to your own traditions and social support. The aim of this study was to study the childbirth experiences of Somali women and men in Sweden. Qualitative. Nine women and seven men were interviewed. Data collection was characterised by an openness to new ideas during the interview and the interviews were analysed according to the grounded theory technique. The meeting of Somalis with Swedish antenatal and delivery care was a multicultural event. It revealed social, medical, cultural and gender factors advocating space in the arena of childbirth. The Somalis constituted a homogeneous group with regard to their cultural belonging and motives for exile. The subjects were heterogeneous in that they represented a great variety in social and demographic background as well as in experiences, feelings and modes of expression. One striking finding was the Somali man's dramatic entrance into childbirth, which seemed to have a strong impact on the Somali woman's well-being during delivery. The study showed difficulties in getting used to the Swedish model of parenthood and in finding new role divisions in the couple relationship. Some of the subjects had experienced a strengthening of their marriage and an increased understanding of each other. Others commented that various aspects of traditional womanhood and manhood were lost as a result of the unfamiliar gender structures in Sweden. The Somalis' experiences of childbirth in Sweden can be understood by using the theoretical concept of gender, rather than culture. Our own and other studies show that women and men may have different frames of reference in childbirth, where the women mainly focus on biological circumstances and the men on the social and cultural aspects of birth. The Somali couple were found to be vulnerably positioned, with the professionals having the important role of supporting and empowering Somali parents.
Kuipers, G.; van der Laan, E.; Arfini, E.A.G.
This article presents a comparative content analysis of gender representation in fashion magazines in Italy and the Netherlands. Updating Goffman’s classic study of Gender Advertisements, we study the intersections of gender, professional role, country and time in media representation. Thus, we
This study examined reasoning about gender roles in a traditional society in Benin, West Africa. Ninety-seven male and female adolescents and adults evaluated conflicts between a husband and a wife over gender norms to determine whether gender norms, are judged to be moral or conventional. Although most attributed decision-making power to the…
Hogue, Mary; Dubois, Cathy L. Z.; Fox-Cardamone, Lee
Because pay expectations play a role in the persistent gender pay gap, we surveyed 435 undergraduate students to examine the impacts of gender, job intentions, and self-views on the pay expectations of pre-career women and men. Our findings showed a gender gap in which women expected to be paid less than men expected to be paid at the beginning…
Adina Magda lena IORGA
Socialization is an interactive communication process that requires individual development and social influences, thus highlighting personal reception and interpretation of social messages, as well as the intensity and content dynamic of these social influences. In this context, family socialization represents the main model of the of gender interactions, of defining gender identity composition and gender expectations. Gender socialization within the family setting is very important because i...
Micali, N.; De Stavola, B.; Ploubidis, G.; Simonoff, E.; Treasure, J.; Field, A. E.
Background Eating disorder behaviours begin in adolescence. Few longitudinal studies have investigated childhood risk and protective factors. Aims To investigate the prevalence of eating disorder behaviours and cognitions and associated childhood psychological, physical and parental risk factors among a cohort of 14-year-old children. Method Data were collected from 6140 boys and girls aged 14 years. Gender-stratified models were used to estimate prospective associations between childhood body dissatisfaction, body mass index (BMI), self-esteem, maternal eating disorder and family economic disadvantage on adolescent eating disorder behaviours and cognitions. Results Childhood body dissatisfaction strongly predicted eating disorder cognitions in girls, but only in interaction with BMI in boys. Higher self-esteem had a protective effect, particularly in boys. Maternal eating disorder predicted body dissatisfaction and weight/shape concern in adolescent girls and dieting in boys. Conclusions Risk factors for eating disorder behaviours and cognitions vary according to gender. Prevention strategies should be gender-specific and target modifiable predictors in childhood and early adolescence. PMID:26206865
Gender-sensitive counselling is an enlightened process that emphasises increased awareness of the social order of gender. ... This paper therefore highlights the needed gender sensitive skills for counsellors to contribute their quota to national development by reducing and gradually eradicating sexism in Nigeria.
Bierema, Laura L.
In an action research project, eight women explored their development of gender consciousness, finding that a hidden curriculum taught subordination to the patriarchal system. Connected learning fostered gender consciousness and led to connected action. Action included teaching others about gender issues, making the invisible visible, and adopting…
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to explore the effects of attitudes towards violence on different forms of violence behaviour among secondary school students. The moderator roles of gender and aggressiveness in relationships between attitude and violence were also tested. The Bullying Attitudinal Scale, the Peer Violence and Victimisation Questionnaire (PVVQ, and the Aggressiveness questionnaire AVDH were administered on the sample of 643 second- to fourth-grade secondary school students from urban area (61.7% boysgrade. The results have shown that among boys more positive attitudes towards violence had significant effect on direct violence forms - physical and verbal, but that it depended on aggressiveness whether violence would be manifested as physical. Namely, the boys with more positive attitudes towards violence, who, at the same time, scored higher on aggressiveness, were more prone to physical violence. Unlike them, the boys with more positive attitudes towards violence but with lower aggressiveness were less prone to physical aggression. In the case of verbal violence, it has been shown that boys with more positive attitudes towards violence were more prone to verbal violence, regardless of aggressiveness. Aggressiveness had a unique contribution to the prediction of verbal violence and only a significant effect in the prediction of relational violence. The importance of changing the attitudes towards violence in the context of violence prevention is discussed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON179006 i br. ON179037: Nasilje u savremenom društvu: dispozicioni i kontekstualni činioci
Hanson, Jessica D; McMahon, Tracey R; Griese, Emily R; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete
To examine the impact of gender norms on American Indian (AI) adolescents' sexual health behavior. The project collected qualitative data at a reservation site and an urban site through 24 focus groups and 20 key informant interviews. The reasons that AI youth choose to abstain or engage in sexual intercourse and utilize contraception vary based on gender ideologies defined by the adolescent's environment. These include social expectations from family and peers, defined roles within relationships, and gender empowerment gaps. Gender ideology plays a large role in decisions about contraception and sexual activity for AI adolescents, and it is vital to include redefinitions of gender norms within AI teen pregnancy prevention program.
Brunner, Franziska; Fliegner, Maike; Krupp, Kerstin; Rall, Katharina; Brucker, Sara; Richter-Appelt, Hertha
The perception of gender development of individuals with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) as unambiguously female has recently been challenged in both qualitative data and case reports of male gender identity. The aim of the mixed-method study presented was to examine the self-perception of CAIS individuals regarding different aspects of gender and to identify commonalities and differences in comparison with subfertile and infertile XX-chromosomal women with diagnoses of Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The study sample comprised 11 participants with CAIS, 49 with MRKHS, and 55 with PCOS. Gender identity was assessed by means of a multidimensional instrument, which showed significant differences between the CAIS group and the XX-chromosomal women. Other-than-female gender roles and neither-female-nor-male sexes/genders were reported only by individuals with CAIS. The percentage with a not exclusively androphile sexual orientation was unexceptionally high in the CAIS group compared to the prevalence in "normative" women and the clinical groups. The findings support the assumption made by Meyer-Bahlburg ( 2010 ) that gender outcome in people with CAIS is more variable than generally stated. Parents and professionals should thus be open to courses of gender development other than typically female in individuals with CAIS.
Flouri, Eirini; Panourgia, Constantina
The aim of this study was to test for gender differences in how negative cognitive errors (overgeneralizing, catastrophizing, selective abstraction, and personalizing) mediate the association between adverse life events and adolescents' emotional and behavioural problems (measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). The sample consisted of 202 boys and 227 girls (aged 11-15 years) from three state secondary schools in disadvantaged areas in one county in the South East of England. Control variables were age, ethnicity, special educational needs, exclusion history, family structure, family socio-economic disadvantage, and verbal cognitive ability. Adverse life events were measured with Tiet et al.'s (1998) Adverse Life Events Scale. For both genders, we assumed a pathway from adverse life events to emotional and behavioural problems via cognitive errors. We found no gender differences in life adversity, cognitive errors, total difficulties, peer problems, or hyperactivity. In both boys and girls, even after adjustment for controls, cognitive errors were related to total difficulties and emotional symptoms, and life adversity was related to total difficulties and conduct problems. The life adversity/conduct problems association was not explained by negative cognitive errors in either gender. However, we found gender differences in how adversity and cognitive errors produced hyperactivity and internalizing problems. In particular, life adversity was not related, after adjustment for controls, to hyperactivity in girls and to peer problems and emotional symptoms in boys. Cognitive errors fully mediated the effect of life adversity on hyperactivity in boys and on peer and emotional problems in girls.
Gottert, Ann; Barrington, Clare; Pettifor, Audrey; McNaughton-Reyes, Heath Luz; Maman, Suzanne; MacPhail, Catherine; Kahn, Kathleen; Selin, Amanda; Twine, Rhian; Lippman, Sheri A
Gender norms and gender role conflict/stress may influence HIV risk behaviors among men; however scales measuring these constructs need further development and evaluation in African settings. We conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to evaluate the Gender Equitable Men's Scale (GEMS) and the Gender Role Conflict/Stress (GRC/S) scale among 581 men in rural northeast South Africa. The final 17-item GEMS was unidimensional, with adequate model fit and reliability (alpha = 0.79). Factor loadings were low (0.2-0.3) for items related to violence and sexual relationships. The final 24-item GRC/S scale was multidimensional with four factors: Success, power, competition; Subordination to women; Restrictive emotionality; and Sexual prowess. The scale had adequate model fit and good reliability (alpha = 0.83). While GEMS is a good measure of inequitable gender norms, new or revised scale items may need to be explored in the South African context. Adding the GRC/S scale to capture men's strain related to gender roles could provide important insights into men's risk behaviors.
Oshio, Takashi; Umeda, Maki
Childhood abuse has far-reaching effects, not only for survivors of maltreatment but also for subsequent generations. However, the mechanism of such intergenerational linkages has not been fully explored. This study investigated this linkage with special reference to its gender-specific features. A dataset of parents and their children, obtained from a cross-sectional survey in the Tokyo metropolitan area of Japan, was used. The study sample consisted of 1750 children aged between 2 and 18 years (865 daughters and 885 sons) and their parents (1003 mothers and fathers). Regression models were estimated to assess the associations among 1) both parents' childhood physical abuse and neglect (childhood abuse), 2) parents' psychological distress, as measured by the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6), and 3) children's problem behaviour, as measured by the clinical scales of the Child Behavior Checklist. Daughters' problem behaviour was more closely associated with mothers' than fathers' childhood abuse, whereas sons' problem behaviour was more closely associated with their fathers' experience. The impact of mothers' childhood abuse on daughters' problem behaviour was mediated at a rate of around 40 % by both parents' psychological distress. The proportion of the effect mediated by parents' psychological distress was less than 20 % for the impact of fathers' childhood abuse on sons' problem behaviour. The intergenerational impact of parental childhood abuse on children's problem behaviour is gender specific, i.e. largely characterized by the same gender linkages. Further studies that explore the mechanisms involved in the intergenerational impact of childhood abuse are needed.
Taskinen, Seppo; Suominen, Janne S; Mattila, Aino K
We evaluated whether genital deformity has an impact on gender identity and sex role in patients operated on for bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex. A total of 62 adolescents and adults operated on for bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex were mailed questionnaires evaluating gender identity (Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults) and sex role (Bem Sex Role Inventory). Of the patients 33 responded and the results were compared with 99 gender matched controls. On the gender identity questionnaire female patients had median scores similar to those of their gender matched controls (4.93 vs 4.89, p = 0.412) but in males the score was lower compared to controls (4.87 vs 4.96, p = 0.023), indicating somewhat more conflicted gender identity. However, no patient had gender dysphoria. Female sex role index was higher in female patients vs controls (5.9 vs 5.3, p = 0.003) but was comparable between male patients and controls (5.2 vs 5.0, p = 0.459). Masculine sex role indices were comparable between female patients and controls as well as between male patients and controls. Of 32 patients 17 were considered to have androgynous sex role, as were 24 of 97 controls (p = 0.004). The exact diagnosis (bladder exstrophy or epispadias) or dissatisfaction with appearance of the genitals had no impact on gender identity or on sex role indices. Male patients had lower gender identity scores compared to controls and female sex role was enhanced among female patients. Androgynous sex role was more common in patients vs controls. Gender dysphoria was not noted in any patient. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The effective management of the work-life interface is an issue increasingly recognised as of strategic importance to organisations and of significance to employees (Forsyth & Polzer-Dedruyne, 2007; Nord et al., 2002; Russell & Bowman, 2000. A pan-European investigation (Brannen et al., 2002 concluded that young Irish people characterize the two domains of work and family as operating in conflict with each other. Given the high rate of workforce participation in the Irish labour market, and the corporate imperative of effective retention strategies (Messersmith, 2007; Cappelli, 2000, understanding how this perspective may influence behavioural intentions with respect to managing the work-family interface will be a valuable insight for organizations. Although gender and social background have long been identified as having a significant impact on the development of a number of work-related attitudes (Barling & Kelloway, 1999, neither dimension has been investigated with respect to their impact on attitudes towards managing the work-family interface. This study aims to establish the relationship between a number of demographic factors and such attitudes. Identifying behavioural intentions among students now ready to enter the labour market, will facilitate the development of more appropriate and robust organizational policies and procedures in relation to managing the work-family interface. Attitudes towards managing the work-family interface were measured using the Career Family Attitudes Measure (Sanders et al., 1998. The results of this study confirm that gender continues to have a strong role in the development of attitudes towards managing the work-family interface. The results also suggest that a number of social background factors, in particular school experience, parental education and parental occupation are strong factors in the development of these attitudes.
Harold, Victoria L.; Corcoran, Tim
The description and management of difficult behaviour in schools has interested educational practitioners and researchers worldwide, including in the UK. Concerns have been raised about the use and implications of more dominant discourses, namely those of behaviourism and zero tolerance, for understanding student behaviour. This article presents…
Camerlink, I.; Turner, S.P.
Affiliative behaviour may have an essential role in many behavioural processes. Gently nosing between group members occurs in almost all social behavioural processes of pigs (Sus scrofa), but the reasons for its performance are unclear. We examined whether nosing between pigs was related to
DiDonato, Matthew D; Berenbaum, Sheri A
Considerable work has shown the benefits for psychological health of being gender typed (i.e., perceiving oneself in ways that are consistent with one's sex). Nevertheless, little is known about the reasons for the link. In two studies of young adults (total N = 673), we studied (1) the ways in which gender typing is predicted from gender-related interests and personal qualities, and (2) links between gender typing and adjustment (self-esteem and negative emotionality). In the first study, gender typicality was positively predicted by a variety of gender-related characteristics and by communal traits, a female-typed characteristic; gender typicality was also positively associated with adjustment. To clarify the role of communality in predicting gender typicality and its link with adjustment, we conducted a follow-up study examining both gender typicality and "university typicality." Gender typicality was again predicted by gender-related characteristics and communality, and associated with adjustment. Further, university typicality was also predicted by communality and associated with adjustment. Mediation analyses showed that feelings of communality were partly responsible for the links between gender/university typicality and adjustment. Thus, the psychological benefits suggested to accrue from gender typicality may not be specific to gender, but rather may reflect the benefits of normativity in general. These findings were discussed in relation to the broader literature on the relation between identity and adjustment.
Deutsch, Arielle R; Steinley, Douglas; Slutske, Wendy S
Although socializing effects of friends' drinking on adolescent drinking behavior have been firmly established in previous literature, study results on the importance of gender, as well as the specific role that gender may play in peer socialization, are very mixed. Given the increasing importance of gender in friendships (particularly opposite-sex friendships) during adolescence, it is necessary to better understand the nuanced roles that gender can play in peer socialization effects on alcohol use. In addition, previous studies focusing on the interplay between individual gender and friends' gender have been largely dyadic; less is known about potential gendered effects of broader social networks. The current study sought to further investigate potential effects of gender on friends' influence on adolescent drinking behavior with particular emphasis on the number of same-sex and opposite-sex friends within one's friendship network, as well as closeness to these friends. Using Waves I and II of the saturated sample of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), adolescent friendship networks were used to calculate the mean drinking behaviors of adolescent friends. Multi-level models estimated the effects of individual drinking behaviors, friend drinking behaviors, and school-level drinking behaviors on adolescent drinking 1 year later, as well as moderating effects of gender composition of friendship groups and male and female friend closeness on the relationship between friends' drinking behaviors and adolescent drinking behavior. Results documented that gender composition of friendship groups did not influence the effect of friends' drinking on individual drinking 1 year later. However, closeness to friends did influence this relationship. As closeness to male friends decreased, the influence of their drinking behavior increased, for both boys and girls. A similar effect was found for female friends, but only for boys. Female friend
Karen Kow Yip Cheng
Full Text Available This study is a qualitative study of Malaysian children aged between four and six years engaged in a story-telling task. The question posed in this piece of research then: Is the role played by gender in SLA? If it does play a role, what then is the nature of this role? The path taken by this study is to analyze discourse in story-telling.
Cheng, Karen Kow Yip
This study is a qualitative study of Malaysian children aged between four and six years engaged in a story-telling task. The question posed in this piece of research then: Is the role played by gender in SLA? If it does play a role, what then is the nature of this role? The path taken by this study is to analyze discourse in story-telling.
Juan Ramón Carbó García
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the role playing games evolution from the Gender perspective. The authors analyze the evolution of the role playing games and the progressive incorporation of women to this form of games.El artículo analiza la evolución de los juegos de rol desde la perspectiva de los estudios de género. Los autores analizan la evolución de los juegos de rol y la incorporación progresiva de las mujeres a esta forma de ocio.
Trommsdorff, Gisela; Iwawaki, Saburo
Investigated differences in perceptions of socialization and gender roles in 175 Japanese and 120 German university students. Japanese students reported more parental acceptance and control than German students. Japanese students had more traditional gender-role orientations than German students. (RJC)
Smith, Kalynda; Craig-Henderson, Kellina
The present study investigated the effect of cognitive distraction on the endorsement of gender role stereotypes in one sample of African American female participants. Participants' awareness and endorsement of gender role stereotypes for male and females was assessed. Following random assignment to distraction or no distraction conditions, they…
Shafer, Emily Fitzgibbons; Malhotra, Neil
We examine whether sex of child affects parents' beliefs about traditional gender roles. Using an improved methodological approach that explicitly analyzes the natural experiment via differences in differences, we find that having a daughter (vs. having a son) causes men to reduce their support for traditional gender roles, but a female child has…
The purpose of this study is to investigate how gender roles of women teachers affect their practices in the classrooms. Participants in the study were 75 female teachers working in elementary schools in Adana, Turkey. Findings indicated that gender roles of women teachers have important effects on their educational practices. Women teachers…
Conner, Laura D. Carsten; Danielson, Jennifer
Gender-matched role models are often proposed as a mechanism to increase identification with science among girls, with the ultimate aim of broadening participation in science. While there is a great deal of evidence suggesting that role models can be effective, there is mixed support in the literature for the importance of gender matching. We used…
Lafkas, Sara McPhee
More American families now have shifting family forms and gender role practices, but some religious faiths still subscribe to traditional family and gender roles. Following these ideals in modern society can challenge adherents. This qualitative study examined one such faith, considering the perceptions of Mormon (i.e., Latter-day Saint) women…
Perrone, Kristin M.; Wright, Stephen L.; Jackson, Z. Vance
In this article, we examine traditional and nontraditional gender roles and work-family interface for men and women. Recent empirical literature is reviewed and implications for career counselors are discussed. We discuss changing gender roles in career, marriage, and parenting and provide strategies for helping clients to cope with work-family…
Luna, K.C.; Haar, van der Gemma; Hilhorst, Dorothea
This article examines how the Maoist conflict in Nepal affected women ex-combatants and non-combatants, looking at shifts in gender roles during and after the conflict particularly from the standpoint of current livelihood challenges. We argue changing gender roles largely depends upon everyday
Sexton, Christine S.; Perlman, Daniel S.
Investigated influence of resource exchanges and gender role on marital power. Compared dual-career (N=50) and single-career (N=50) couples. Found two couple types did not differ in perceived power nor in self-reported strategies for influencing spouses. Found gender role orientation did not affect marital power. (Author/CM)
This review addresses three questions regarding the relationships among gender, emotion regulation, and psychopathology: (a) are there gender differences in emotion regulation strategies, (b) are emotion regulation strategies similarly related to psychopathology in men and women, and (c) do gender differences in emotion regulation strategies account for gender differences in psychopathology? Women report using most emotion regulation strategies more than men do, and emotion regulation strategies are similarly related to psychopathology in women and men. More rumination in women compared to men partially accounts for greater depression and anxiety in women compared to men, while a greater tendency to use alcohol to cope partially accounts for more alcohol misuse in men compared to women. The literature on emotion regulation is likely missing vital information on how men regulate their emotions. I discuss lessons learned and questions raised about the relationships between gender differences in emotion regulation and gender differences in psychopathology.
Chaiet, Scott R; Yoshikawa, Noriko; Sturm, Angela; Flanary, Valerie; Ishman, Stacey; Streed, Carl G
Currently, there are limited resources and training available for otolaryngologists and otolaryngology practice personnel to provide gender-affirming care for transgender or gender nonconforming patients. This unique patient population may present to our offices for gender-specific care or with complaints of the ear, nose, and throat unrelated to gender identity. Our current practice has unintentional but direct consequences on our patients care, as transgender patients often report negative experiences in the healthcare setting related to their gender identity. The absence of resources and training is also seen in other specialties. Physicians who create an environment where patients of all gender identities feel welcome can better meet their patients' health care needs. In addition, otolaryngologists can play a role in easing the gender dysphoria experienced by transgender patients. We suggest educational content should be created for and made available to otolaryngologists and office staff to provide gender-affirming care.
Endendijk, Joyce Johanna
Gender is one of the most important organizers of social life, from the cradle to the grave. In the family context gender shapes biological, social, and cognitive processes at both the parent and child level. The general aim of the studies presented in this dissertation is to provide more insight
Houle, Janie; Mishara, Brian L; Chagnon, François
Men die by suicide three to four times more often than women in Western countries. The adverse impact of the traditional male gender role as well as men's reluctance to seek help are possible explanations of this gender gap, but these hypotheses have not been well documented empirically. This study compares two groups of men who experienced comparable severely stressful life events during the preceding 12 months: 40 men admitted to hospital emergency following suicide attempts, and 40 men with no history of suicide attempts. Structured interviews were conducted to measure adherence to the traditional male gender role, help seeking behaviour, social support, suicide acceptability and mental health. ANOVAS indicated that attempters are more likely to adhere to the traditional masculine gender role and regression analysis revealed that this relationship persists even when the presence of mental disorders is statistically controlled. Sequential regression analysis support the mediation model and show that the effects of the traditional male gender role on suicidal behavior are mediated through protective and risk factors for suicide, namely mental state, help seeking and social support. The traditional male gender role appears to increase the risk of suicidal behavior in men by undermining their mental state and by inhibiting the protective factors of help seeking and social support. This study underscores the importance of encouraging men to seek help.
Choo, Esther K; Benz, Madeline; Rybarczyk, Megan; Broderick, Kerry; Linden, Judith; Boudreaux, Edwin D; Ranney, Megan L
The relationship between gender, violence, and substance use in the emergency department (ED) is complex. This article examines the role of gender in the intersection of substance use and three types of violence: peer violence, intimate partner violence, and firearm violence. Current approaches to treatment of substance abuse and violence are similar across both genders; however, as patterns of violence and substance abuse differ by gender, interventions may be more effective if they are designed with a specific gender focus. © 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.
Full Text Available This study tests five hypotheses concerning trends in gender differences in accidents mortality and accident-related behavior, using data for the US, UK, France, Italy, and Japan, 1950-98. As predicted by the Convergence Hypothesis, gender differences have decreased for amount of driving, motor vehicle accidents mortality, and occupational accidents mortality. However, for many types of accidents mortality, gender differences were stable or increased; these trends often resulted from the differential impact on male and female mortality of general societal trends such as increased illicit drug use or improved health care. Similarly, trends in gender differences in accident-related behavior have shown substantial variation and appear to have been influenced by multiple factors, including gender differences in rates of adoption of different types of innovations.
Leech, Tamara G J
This study examines the association between gender role attitudes and risky sexual behavior among young women. Previous studies have posed seemingly contradictory arguments: that either traditional attitudes or egalitarian attitudes are associated with riskier behavior. Data are based on the children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, representing 520 sexually active 18-19-year-old women. Propensity radius matching was used to assess differences in rates of multiple sexual partners and sex outside of a committed relationship. Relative to moderate gender role attitudes, both egalitarian gender role attitudes and traditional gender role attitudes are associated with higher rates of risky sexual behavior. Both women with egalitarian role attitudes and those with traditional role attitudes have about a 10% higher prevalence of risky behavior compared to women with more moderate gender role attitudes. Existing, seemingly contradictory contentions about the relationship between gender role attitudes and risky sexual behavior may be more coherent than they seem. By shifting focus from risk to protection, the results suggest that moderate gender role attitudes are protective against risky sexual behavior. Future studies should investigate the causal mechanisms and intervention implications of this protective relationship. Copyright 2010 Society for Adolescent Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Heard, Courtney Christian Charisse
The purpose of this study was to assess the sex-role egalitarian attitudes and gender role socialization experiences of African American men and women. A sequential mixed-methods design was employed to research this phenomenon. The Sex-Role Egalitarianism Scale-Short Form BB (SRES-BB) was utilized to assess sex-role egalitarian attitudes (King…
van Putten, A.E.
This PhD study is framed against the backdrop of a persistent gendered labour pattern in the Netherlands. Given that the majority of Dutch women work less than three days per week whereas most men work full-time, the gender gap in work-hours in the Netherlands is larger than anywhere else in the
van Putten, A.
This thesis is framed against the backdrop of a persistent gendered labour pattern in the Netherlands. Given that the majority of Dutch women work less than three days per week whereas most men work full-time, the gender gap in work-hours in the Netherlands is larger than anywhere else in the
Zosuls, Kristina M.; Miller, Cindy Faith; Ruble, Diane N.; Martin, Carol Lynn; Fabes, Richard A.
The late 1960s through the 1970s marked an important turning point in the field of gender research, including theory and research in gender development. The establishment of Sex Roles in 1975 as a forum for this research represented an important milestone in the field. In this article, we celebrate the 35th anniversary of Sex Roles and, in particular, its contributions to the field of research on children’s and adolescents’ gender development. We examine the trends in research on gender devel...
Wilson, Marc Stewart; Liu, James H
The aim of this research was to investigate the claim that gender differences in levels of social dominance orientation (SDO; Pratto, Sidanius, Stallworth, & Malle, 1994), a personality variable measuring a general predisposition towards anti-egalitarianism, are essentially invariant (Sidanius & Pratto, 1999). Previous findings have indicated that (regardless of covariate) males display higher levels of SDO than females. Two studies were conducted to test the expectation (derived from social identity theory) that the gender-SDO relationship would be moderated by strength of gender group identification. Both samples (150 non-students and 163 students) completed the full SDO(6) measure, and measures of gender group identification. Consistent with predictions, strength of gender identification was found to moderate the gender-SDO relationship, such that increasing group identification was associated with increasing SDO scores for males, and decreasing SDO for females. This result raises questions concerning the theoretical basis of social dominance theory, and whether gender group membership should be accorded a different status from other 'arbitrary-set' group memberships.
Full Text Available This study examined change in adolescents’ traditional gender role attitudes and dating violence acceptance following completion of a relationship education program. Using data from a larger study evaluating the effects of relationship education for adolescents, beliefs and attitudes were assessed among a diverse sample of 627 youth. Gender differences in changes from pre- to post-test were also examined. Results of repeated measures MANCOVAs revealed a time X gender interaction effect for change in traditional gender role attitudes following relationship education. A significant decrease in traditional gender role attitudes was found for both boys and girls following relationship education, with a steeper decline in traditional gender role attitudes for boys than girls over time. Although there were no significant changes in dating violence acceptance, change in traditional gender role attitudes was correlated with change in dating violence acceptance, such that moving toward more egalitarian attitudes was associated with a decrease in acceptance of dating aggression/violence. Overall, results suggest that adolescents’ attitudes about gender roles and dating violence are open to change when provided relationship education, and changes in these beliefs are linked. Findings from this study have implications for promoting healthy relationships among youth.
Kubicka, Ludek; Csémy, Ladislav
Evaluation of the hypothesis that women's non-traditional gender role orientation contributes to drinking patterns typical for men. A two-wave prospective study with data collected in 1992 and 1997. The data reflect Czech women's changing gender role orientation and their drinking patterns during a historical period of post-totalitarian societal transformation. A representative cohort of 497 Prague women aged 30-59 years in 1997. Face-to-face interview data on drinking patterns and individually collected original questionnaire on gender role orientation. An analysis of the principal components of the gender role orientation questionnaire has led to four components, designated as egalitarianism, liberalism, feminism and hedonism. Constructed role orientation scales had Cronbachs's alpha reliabilities ranging from 0.57 to 0.74. With possible confounders controlled (thanks mainly to the prospective design), non-traditional gender role orientation components assessed in 1992 predicted the usual quantities of alcohol women have consumed per occasion in 1997, as well as three hazardous drinking patterns (occasional use of > or = 96 g alcohol, usual use of > or = 48 g and daily intake of > or = 40 g). Specifically, women's usual quantity per occasion and occasional use of > or = 96 g were predicted by egalitarianism and hedonism, and hedonism predicted usual use of > or = 48 g as well as average daily intake of > or = 40 g ethanol. Women's gender role orientation can be associated with their drinking patterns with non-traditional gender role identification being associated with greater likelihood of hazardous drinking.
Finkenauer, C.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Baumeister, R.F.
Cross-sectional data from 1359 boys and girls aged 10-14 years investigated whether parenting behaviours are directly or indirectly (through building self-control) associated with emotional (depression, stress, low self-esteem) and behavioural (delinquency, aggression) problems among adolescents.
Dietz, Tracy L.
Examines the portrayal of women and the use of violent themes in 33 popular video games. The analysis reveals that traditional gender roles and violence are central to many games. There were no female characters in 41% of games with characters, and women were portrayed as sex objects in 28% of these games. (SLD)
Bejerot, Susanne; Eriksson, Jonna M
The 'extreme male brain theory of autism' describes an extreme male pattern of cognitive traits defined as strong systemising abilities paired with empathising weaknesses in autism spectrum disorder. However, beyond these cognitive traits, clinical observations have suggested an ambiguous gender-typed pattern regarding several sexually dimorphic traits. The aim of the present study was to investigate if patterns of non-cognitive sexually dimorphic traits differed between the autism spectrum disorder and control groups. Fifty adults with autism spectrum disorder and intelligence within the normal range, and 53 neurotypical controls responded to questions on gender role, self-perceived gender typicality and gender identity, as well as sexuality. Measures used were a Swedish modification of the Bem Sex Role Inventory and questions on sexuality and gender designed for the purpose of this study. Our results showed that one common gender role emerged in the autism spectrum disorder group. Masculinity (e.g. assertiveness, leadership and competitiveness) was weaker in the autism spectrum disorder group than in the controls, across men and women. Self-perceived gender typicality did not differ between the groups but tomboyism and bisexuality were overrepresented amongst women with autism spectrum disorder. Lower libido was reported amongst both male and female participants with autism spectrum disorder compared with controls. We conclude that the extreme male patterns of cognitive functions in the autistic brain do not seem to extend to gender role and sexuality. A gender-atypical pattern for these types of characteristics is suggested in autism spectrum disorder.
Full Text Available The 'extreme male brain theory of autism' describes an extreme male pattern of cognitive traits defined as strong systemising abilities paired with empathising weaknesses in autism spectrum disorder. However, beyond these cognitive traits, clinical observations have suggested an ambiguous gender-typed pattern regarding several sexually dimorphic traits. The aim of the present study was to investigate if patterns of non-cognitive sexually dimorphic traits differed between the autism spectrum disorder and control groups. Fifty adults with autism spectrum disorder and intelligence within the normal range, and 53 neurotypical controls responded to questions on gender role, self-perceived gender typicality and gender identity, as well as sexuality. Measures used were a Swedish modification of the Bem Sex Role Inventory and questions on sexuality and gender designed for the purpose of this study. Our results showed that one common gender role emerged in the autism spectrum disorder group. Masculinity (e.g. assertiveness, leadership and competitiveness was weaker in the autism spectrum disorder group than in the controls, across men and women. Self-perceived gender typicality did not differ between the groups but tomboyism and bisexuality were overrepresented amongst women with autism spectrum disorder. Lower libido was reported amongst both male and female participants with autism spectrum disorder compared with controls. We conclude that the extreme male patterns of cognitive functions in the autistic brain do not seem to extend to gender role and sexuality. A gender-atypical pattern for these types of characteristics is suggested in autism spectrum disorder.
Chávez-Ayala, Rubén; Rivera-Rivera, Leonor; Leyva-López, Ahideé; Sánchez-Estrada, Marcela; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo
To quantify the association between gender role orientation and tobacco and alcohol use among young people of the State of Morelos. Study conducted in 2004-2005, students aged 14 to 24 years (n = 1 730). Sociodemographic variables (area of residence, socioeconomic status), family (parental education and violence), psycho-sociological (gender role, self-esteem, depression, alcohol consumption, tobacco, locus of control, sexual abuse). Logistic regression analysis. Factors associated with use of tobacco: In women, being androgynous undesirable, masculine role, attempted sexual abuse and urban areas. For men, depression and submission. Factors associated with alcohol use: In women, masculine gender role; and in men to be older than 20 years, living in semi-urban and urban area, and internal locus. The machismo is one of the gender role orientations with greater association with the use of tobacco primarily in girls in Mexico, and the masculine or instrumental role with alcohol.
Cox, Stephanie J; Mezulis, Amy H; Hyde, Janet S
Extensive research has linked a greater female tendency to ruminate about depressed feelings or mood to the gender difference in depression. However, the developmental origins of the gender difference in depressive rumination are not well understood. We hypothesized that girls and women may be more likely to ruminate because rumination represents a gender-stereotyped coping style that is associated with a more feminine gender role identity, maternal encouragement of emotion expression, and passive coping responses to stress. This study examined whether child self-reported gender role identity and observed maternal responses to child stress mediated the emergent gender difference in depressive rumination in adolescence. Maternal gender role attitudes were further hypothesized to moderate the relationship between child sex and mediating variables. Rumination and gender role identity were assessed in 316 youths and their mothers in a longitudinal study from age 11 to age 15; in addition, 153 mother-child dyads participated in an observational task at age 11 from which maternal responses to a child stressor were coded. Results indicated that greater feminine gender role identity among children and encouragement of emotion expression by mothers at age 11 significantly mediated the association between child sex and the development of depressive rumination at age 15, even after controlling for rumination at age 11. Maternal gender role attitudes significantly moderated the relationship between child sex and maternal encouragement of emotion expression, such that mothers who endorsed more traditional gender role attitudes themselves were particularly likely to encourage emotion expression in their daughters.
Kessels, Ursula; Steinmayr, Ricarda
This study seeks to understand boys' lower academic success by analysing the relationship between sex, gender role self-concept, help seeking attitudes, and school performance in a sample of 182 German 11th grade students (83 girls, 99 boys), age 16. Grades at two points in time, intelligence test data, help-seeking attitudes, gender role…
Plenty, Stephanie; Östberg, Viveca; Modin, Bitte
This study examined how psychosocial conditions at school are associated with prosocial behaviour, a key indicator of positive mental health. Participants were 3,652 Swedish Grade 9 students from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. Structural equation modelling demonstrated that students who experience more manageable school…
Skoog, Therese; Stattin, Hakan; Ruiselova, Zdena; Ozdemir, Metin
We tested the peer-socialization/contextual-amplification explanation for the link between early female puberty and problem behaviour. We propose that in cultures with high tolerance for adolescent heterosexual involvement, early puberty should be linked with problem behaviour--not in other cultures. We compared girls in two cultures (Slovakia and…
Nur Syakiran Akmal Ismail
Full Text Available The participation of women in all spheres of life has been accelerated by strategies such as gender mainstreaming. Gender mainstreaming, which was launched in 1995 at the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, is a global strategy used to promote gender equality. It refers to the process of assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action, including legislation, policies or programs, in all areas and at all levels. Hence, Malaysia has agreed to comply with GM procedure when the population of women in this country achieves 49 percent. Malaysian’s Gender Gap Index (MGGI was used to evaluate the achievement of gender equality. It was developed by the Organization C that responsibility to women and community development in Malaysia with the assistance of United Nations Development Programme (UNDP in 2004. Four dimensions are used as parameters to evaluate MGGI. They are (i women empowerment in politics, (ii activities in economics, (iii health and (iv education. This paper discusses the roles of gender focal point (GFP as a case study in two selected public sector organizations in implementation of Gender Mainstreaming in Malaysia. This study uses interview and content analysis. The results of this study show that the GFPs appointed have performed their roles based on the tasks listed by the Organization C. However the tasks were carried out based on the needs and interests of the respective GFPs organizations only. Similar to other countries, the implementation of GM in the ministries also faces similar problems such as vague understanding of GM, and lack of commitment from the institutions’ leadership.
Hofstede, G.J.; Dignum, F.; Prada, R.; Student, J.; Vanhée, L.
This paper describes an agent-based model to investigate the origins of gender differences in social status. The agents’ basic behaviour is modelled according to Kemper’s sociological status-power theory. Differences in the socializing forces of the surrounding society are modelled using Hofstede’s
Gundogdu, Oguz; Isik, Ozden; Ozcep, Ferhat; Goksu, Goksel
In Turkey, the discussions in the modern sense about disaster management begun after the 1992 Erzincan and the 1995 Dinar earthquakes, faulting in terms of features and effects. These earthquakes are "Urban Earthquakes'' with effects and faulting charectristics, and have led to radical changes in terms of disaster and disaster management. Disaster Management, to become a science in the world, but with the 1999 Izmit and Duzce earthquakes in Turkey has begun to take seriously on the agenda. Firstly, such as Civil Defense and Red Crescent organizations, by transforming its own, have entered into a new organizing effort. By these earthquakes, NGO's have contributed the search-rescue efforts in the field and to the process of normalization of life. Because "the authority and responsibilities" of NGO's could not be determined, and could not be in planning and scenario studies, we faced the problems. Thus, to the citizens of our country-specific "voluntary" has not benefited enough from the property. The most important development in disaster management in 2009, the Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (AFAD) has been the establishment. However, in terms of coordination and accreditation to the target point has been reached yet. Another important issue in disaster management (need to be addressed along with disaster actors) is the role of women in disasters. After the Golcuk Earthquake, successful field works of women and women's victimization has attracted attention in two different directions. Gender-sensitive policies should be noted by the all disaster actors due to the importance of the mitigation, and these policies should take place in laws, regulations and planning.
Verniers, Catherine; Vala, Jorge
The issue of gender equality in employment has given rise to numerous policies in advanced industrial countries, all aimed at tackling gender discrimination regarding recruitment, salary and promotion. Yet gender inequalities in the workplace persist. The purpose of this research is to document the psychosocial process involved in the persistence of gender discrimination against working women. Drawing on the literature on the justification of discrimination, we hypothesized that the myths according to which women's work threatens children and family life mediates the relationship between sexism and opposition to a mother's career. We tested this hypothesis using the Family and Changing Gender Roles module of the International Social Survey Programme. The dataset contained data collected in 1994 and 2012 from 51632 respondents from 18 countries. Structural equation modellings confirmed the hypothesised mediation. Overall, the findings shed light on how motherhood myths justify the gender structure in countries promoting gender equality.
The issue of gender equality in employment has given rise to numerous policies in advanced industrial countries, all aimed at tackling gender discrimination regarding recruitment, salary and promotion. Yet gender inequalities in the workplace persist. The purpose of this research is to document the psychosocial process involved in the persistence of gender discrimination against working women. Drawing on the literature on the justification of discrimination, we hypothesized that the myths according to which women’s work threatens children and family life mediates the relationship between sexism and opposition to a mother’s career. We tested this hypothesis using the Family and Changing Gender Roles module of the International Social Survey Programme. The dataset contained data collected in 1994 and 2012 from 51632 respondents from 18 countries. Structural equation modellings confirmed the hypothesised mediation. Overall, the findings shed light on how motherhood myths justify the gender structure in countries promoting gender equality. PMID:29315326
Zosuls, Kristina M; Miller, Cindy Faith; Ruble, Diane N; Martin, Carol Lynn; Fabes, Richard A
The late 1960s through the 1970s marked an important turning point in the field of gender research, including theory and research in gender development. The establishment of Sex Roles in 1975 as a forum for this research represented an important milestone in the field. In this article, we celebrate the 35th anniversary of Sex Roles and, in particular, its contributions to the field of research on children's and adolescents' gender development. We examine the trends in research on gender development published in Sex Roles since its inception and use this analysis as a vehicle for exploring how the field has grown and evolved over the past few decades. We begin with a brief review of the history of this field of research since 1975. Then, we present a descriptive assessment of articles published on gender development in Sex Roles over time, and link this assessment to general trends that have occurred in the study of gender development over the past 35 years. We conclude with a discussion of future directions for the field of gender development. In particular, we highlight areas in which the journal could play a role in promoting more diversity in topics, methods, and ages employed in gender development research.
Miller, Cindy Faith; Ruble, Diane N.; Martin, Carol Lynn; Fabes, Richard A.
The late 1960s through the 1970s marked an important turning point in the field of gender research, including theory and research in gender development. The establishment of Sex Roles in 1975 as a forum for this research represented an important milestone in the field. In this article, we celebrate the 35th anniversary of Sex Roles and, in particular, its contributions to the field of research on children’s and adolescents’ gender development. We examine the trends in research on gender development published in Sex Roles since its inception and use this analysis as a vehicle for exploring how the field has grown and evolved over the past few decades. We begin with a brief review of the history of this field of research since 1975. Then, we present a descriptive assessment of articles published on gender development in Sex Roles over time, and link this assessment to general trends that have occurred in the study of gender development over the past 35 years. We conclude with a discussion of future directions for the field of gender development. In particular, we highlight areas in which the journal could play a role in promoting more diversity in topics, methods, and ages employed in gender development research. PMID:21747580
livestock fell heavily on women and female children. Women ... Brain (1975), on the position of women in the Rural Settlement Schemes and others did not ... the extension system of the need to be gender sensitive in the development and.
Hazarika, Gautam; Jha, Chandan Kumar; Sarangi, Sudipta
We posit that historical resource scarcities played a role in the emergence of gender norms inimical to women that persist to this day. This thesis is supported by our finding that nations’ historical resource endowments, as measured by the historical availability of arable land, are statistically significantly negatively related to their present levels of gender inequality, as gauged by the United Nations Development Programme’s Gender Inequality Index.
Kachel, Sven; Steffens, Melanie C.; Niedlich, Claudia
Gender stereotype theory suggests that men are generally perceived as more masculine than women, whereas women are generally perceived as more feminine than men. Several scales have been developed to measure fundamental aspects of gender stereotypes (e.g., agency and communion, competence and warmth, or instrumentality and expressivity). Although omitted in later version, Bem's original Sex Role Inventory included the items ?masculine? and ?feminine? in addition to more specific gender-stereo...
Wijk, Sofi Ohlsson; Brandén, Maria; Duvander, Ann-Zofie
Abstract: Marriage is commonly perceived as a more committed form of union than cohabitation. Individualization perspectives suggest that this makes couples refrain from marriage, while gender perspectives propose that gender equality within couples may increase the willingness to commit to a partner through marriage. We address these differing standpoints by studying the role of commitment and gender equality for marriage formation among cohabiting men and women born in Swe...
Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Knoops, Miranda
This study examined the relation between gender role orientation and fear and anxiety in a sample of nonclinic-referred children (N = 209) ages 10 to 13 years. Children and their parents completed questionnaires assessing children's gender role orientation, toy and activity preferences, and fear and anxiety. Results generally indicated that femininity and a preference for girls' toys and activities were positively associated with fear and anxiety, whereas masculinity and a preference for boys' toys and activities were negatively related to these emotions. Furthermore, gender role orientation accounted for more of the variance in fear and anxiety scores than the child's sex.
Hoyt, Crystal L; Burnette, Jeni L
This research extends our understanding of gender bias in leader evaluations by merging role congruity and implicit theory perspectives. We tested and found support for the prediction that the link between people's attitudes regarding women in authority and their subsequent gender-biased leader evaluations is significantly stronger for entity theorists (those who believe attributes are fixed) relative to incremental theorists (those who believe attributes are malleable). In Study 1, 147 participants evaluated male and female gubernatorial candidates. Results supported predictions, demonstrating that traditional attitudes toward women in authority significantly predicted a pro-male gender bias in leader evaluations (and progressive attitudes predicted a pro-female gender bias) with an especially strong effect for those with more entity-oriented, relative to incrementally oriented person theories. Study 2 (119 participants) replicated these findings and demonstrated the mediating role of these attitudes in linking gender stereotypes and leader role expectations to biased evaluations.
Sekulic, Damir; Tahiraj, Enver; Zvan, Milan; Zenic, Natasa; Uljevic, Ognjen; Lesnik, Blaz
Team sports are rarely studied with regard to doping behaviour and doping-related factors regardless of their global popularity. This study aimed to investigate doping factors and covariates of potential doping behaviour in high-level team-sport athletes. The subjects were 457 high-performing, national- and international-level athletes (21.9 ± 3.4 years of age; 179 females) involved in volleyball (n = 77), soccer (n = 163), basketball (n = 114) and handball (n = 103). Previously validated self-administered questionnaires aimed at evidencing sport factors, doping-related factors, knowledge on sport nutrition and doping, and attitudes to performance enhancement were used. The results indicated a higher doping likelihood in male athletes, with a significant gender difference for basketball and handball. In males, a higher doping likelihood is found for athletes who had achieved better results at junior-age level, those who regularly consume dietary supplements, and who perceive their sport as being contaminated by doping. A higher sport achievement at senior-age level is protective against potential doping behaviour in males. In females, a higher likelihood of doping is evidenced in those athletes involved in binge drinking, while a lower tendency for doping is evidenced in female athletes who possess better knowledge on sport nutrition. Knowledge about doping is very low and thus education about doping is urgently needed. An improvement of knowledge on sport nutrition might be a potentially effective method for reducing the tendency for doping in females. Future studies should consider other approaches and theories, such as theory of planned behaviour and/or social-cognitive theory, in studying the problem of doping behaviour in team-sports. Key points The doping knowledge among Kosovar team-sport athletes is very low and systematic anti-doping education is urgently needed. The highest risk of doping behaviour in males is found for those athletes who had been
Alabas, O A; Tashani, O A; Tabasam, G; Johnson, M I
Gender role refers to the culturally and socially constructed meanings that describe how women and men should behave in certain situations according to feminine and masculine roles learned throughout life. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the relationship between gender role and experimental pain responses in healthy human participants. We searched computerized databases for studies published between January 1950 and May 2011 that had measured gender role in healthy human adults and pain response to noxious stimuli. Studies were entered into a meta-analysis if they calculated a correlation coefficient (r) for gender role and experimental pain. Searches yielded 4465 'hits' and 13 studies were eligible for review. Sample sizes were 67-235 participants and the proportion of female participants was 45-67%. Eight types of gender role instrument were used. Meta-analysis of six studies (406 men and 539 women) found a significant positive correlation between masculine and feminine personality traits and pain threshold and tolerance, with a small effect size (r = 0.17, p = 0.01). Meta-analysis of four studies (263 men and 297 women) found a significant negative correlation between gender stereotypes specific to pain and pain threshold and tolerance, with a moderate effect size (r = -0.41, p Gender stereotypes specific to pain scales showed stronger associations with sex differences in pain sensitivity response than masculine and feminine personality trait scales. © 2012 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.
Abraham, Jessy; Barker, Katrina
Although substantial gender differences in motivation, engagement and enrolment behaviour are frequently reported in the international physics education literature, the majority of studies focus on students who intend to choose physics for their future study. The present multi-occasional study examines the gender difference in motivation, engagement and enrolment behaviour among senior secondary students from New South Wales schools who have already chosen to study physics. It examines whether the differences reflect differences of degree in these dimensions, or differences of kind for these students. Fine-grained analyses at module-specific level of the senior secondary physics curriculum indicated that the differences do not represent differences of kind. That is, girls' and boys' perceptions of the key facets of motivation, sustained engagement and choice intentions in relation to physics seemed to be qualitatively the same. However, there were differences in the degree to which boys and girls are motivated, although the pattern was inconsistent across the four modules of the senior secondary physics curriculum. Girls' motivation, engagement and sustained enrolment plans in relation to physics were found equal to or higher than boys' at various time points through the course. These findings highlight the need to change the existing gender-biased stereotype that students perceive physics as a male domain and that subjective motivation, engagement and enrolment plans will always report higher measures for males. The results have implications for intervention strategies aimed at sustaining student motivation in physics. The potential implications of the findings for practitioners and researchers are discussed.
Diekman, Amanda B.; Schneider, Monica C.
Men and women tend to espouse different political attitudes, as widely noted by both journalists and social scientists. A deeper understanding of why and when gender gaps exist is necessary because at least some gender differences in the political realm are both pervasive and impactful. In this article, we apply a social role theory framework to…
Wester, Stephen R.; McDonough, Tracy A.; White, Maureen; Vogel, David L.; Taylor, Lareena
Ignoring gender socialization while counseling transgender clients neglects a significant aspect of the transgender experience. To address this, the authors review the literature on gender role conflict (GRC) theory as it pertains to the transgender experience of biological males whose authentic self is female. They explore the main types of…
Two studies examined the extent to which matching on gender determines the impact of career role models on the self. Because women face negative stereotypes regarding their competence in the workplace, they may derive particular benefit from the example of an outstanding woman who illustrates the possibility of overcoming gender barriers to…
Servos, Jennifer E.; Dewar, Brandy A.; Bosacki, Sandra L.; Coplan, Robert J.
This article investigates early childhood educators' perceptions of children's gender-role play and the impact their cultural background plays in their gender identity and play behaviors. Through qualitative in-depth interviews, early childhood educators in Canada (n = 40) were asked questions relating to their experiences with children from…
Bergman, Manfred Max; Scott, Jacqueline
Youth Surveys of the British Household Panel Study were used to examine the well being of adolescents. Well being is conceptualized as a multi-dimensional construct and models of gender and age differences were developed and tested. Confirmatory factor analysis found clear gender differences in self esteem, unhappiness, and worries. Many…
Lusher, Lester; Yasenov, Vasil
Sleep studies suggest that girls go to sleep earlier, are more active in the morning, and cope with sleep deprivation better than boys. We provide the first causal evidence on how gender differences in sleep cycles can help explain the gender performance gap. We exploit over 240,000 assignment-level grades from a quasi-experiment with a community of middle and high schools where students' schedules alternated between morning and afternoon start times each month. Relative to girls, we find tha...
Psylla, Ioanna; Sapiezynski, Piotr; Mones, Enys
in isolation. Here we use a dataset of high resolution data collected using mobile phones, as well as detailed questionnaires, to study gender differences in a large cohort. We consider mobility behavior and individual personality traits among a group of more than 800 university students. We also investigate...... interactions among them expressed via person-to-person contacts, interactions on online social networks, and telecommunication. Thus, we are able to study the differences between male and female behavior captured through a multitude of channels for a single cohort. We find that while the two genders...... are similar in a number of aspects, there are robust deviations that include multiple facets of social interactions, suggesting the existence of inherent behavioral differences. Finally, we quantify how aspects of an individual's characteristics and social behavior reveals their gender by posing...
Opekitan, Afe Taiwo; Ogunsemi, Olawale; Osalusi, Bamidele; Adeleye, Olufunke; Ale, Ayotunde
Our study focused on the perception of victims of rape and the relationship with the perception of social roles for gender among college students in southwest Nigeria using a 5-item gender social scale and a perception of victims of rape questionnaire. The study was done among 312 college students in Southwest Nigeria and explored the perception of victims of rape and gender social roles. The aim was to determine the relationship between perception of rape victims and view of gender social roles. We used a perception of rape victims questionnaire and a validated 5-item gender social roles scale to assess the views of participants. The findings revealed that females had better perception of victims of rape than males. Females also had more positive views of females' social roles involving gender. However, there was poor perception on work-related social roles and the traditional concept of headship in the varied situations described on the 5-item gender social scale. Old stereotypes of typically blaming victims of rape were not common beliefs among college students. There were no significant correlations between perception of victims of rape and perception of gender social roles among college students. Seemingly, the perception of victims of rape does not have a significant relationship with the concept of gender social roles.
Abstract Beliefs about which behaviors and responsibilities should typical be assumed by women and men are central in shaping gender relations and gender equality in society. The belief that women should be responsible for domestic work, while men should provide economically for the family gives rise to an uneven opportunity structure, situating women in a disadvantaged position compared to men. In order to achieve gender equality traditional gender role attitudes need to liberalize. This the...
Nguyen, Anh B.; Clark, Trenette T.; Belgrave, Faye Z.
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of demographic variables and the interplay between gender roles and acculturation on breast and cervical cancer screening outcomes among Vietnamese American women. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 100 Vietnamese women from the Richmond, VA, metropolitan area. Women were recruited to participate in a larger cancer screening intervention. All participants completed measures on demographic variables, gender roles, acculturation, and cancer screening variables. Findings indicated that traditional masculine gender roles were associated with increased self-efficacy for breast and cervical cancer screening. Higher levels of acculturation were associated with higher probability of having had a Papanicolaou test. In addition, acculturation moderated the relationship between traditional female gender roles and cancer screening variables. For highly acculturated women, higher levels of feminine gender roles predicted higher probability of having had a previous clinical breast exam and higher levels of self-efficacy for cervical cancer screening, while the opposite was true for lower acculturated women. The findings of this study indicate the important roles that sociodemographic variables, gender roles, and acculturation play in affecting health attitudes and behaviors among Vietnamese women. These findings also help to identify a potentially high-risk subgroup and existing gaps that need to be targeted by preventive interventions. PMID:24491129
Nguyen, Anh B; Clark, Trenette T; Belgrave, Faye Z
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of demographic variables and the interplay between gender roles and acculturation on breast and cervical cancer screening outcomes among Vietnamese American women. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 100 Vietnamese women from the Richmond, VA, metropolitan area. Women were recruited to participate in a larger cancer screening intervention. All participants completed measures on demographic variables, gender roles, acculturation, and cancer screening variables. Findings indicated that traditional masculine gender roles were associated with increased self-efficacy for breast and cervical cancer screening. Higher levels of acculturation were associated with higher probability of having had a Papanicolaou test. In addition, acculturation moderated the relationship between traditional female gender roles and cancer screening variables. For highly acculturated women, higher levels of feminine gender roles predicted higher probability of having had a previous clinical breast exam and higher levels of self-efficacy for cervical cancer screening, while the opposite was true for lower acculturated women. The findings of this study indicate the important roles that sociodemographic variables, gender roles, and acculturation play in affecting health attitudes and behaviors among Vietnamese women. These findings also help to identify a potentially high-risk subgroup and existing gaps that need to be targeted by preventive interventions.
Hines, Melissa; Golombok, Susan; Rust, John; Johnston, Katie J; Golding, Jean
Levels of testosterone (T) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured in blood samples from pregnant women and related to gender role behavior in 342 male and 337 female offspring at the age of 3.5 years. Gender role behavior was assessed using the Pre-School Activities Inventory, a standardized measure on which a parent indicates the child's involvement with sex-typical toys, games, and activities. Levels of T, but not SHBG, related linearly to gender role behavior in preschool girls. Neither hormone related to gender role behavior in boys. Other factors, including the presence of older brothers or sisters in the home, parental adherence to traditional sex roles, the presence of a male partner in the home, and maternal education, did not relate to gender role behavior in this sample and did not account for the relation observed between T and behavior. Although other, unmeasured factors may explain the relation, the results suggest that normal variability in T levels prenatally may contribute to the development of individual differences in the gender role behavior of preschool girls.
Sung, Ji Yean; Han, Sang Won; Chung, Kyong-Mee; Lee, Hyeyoung; Cho, Sang Hee
The purpose of the study was (1) to investigate gender role behaviors of boys with hypospadias compared with groups of unaffected boys and girls using parental reports and direct observations; and (2) to directly observe effects of socialization (mothers' presence) on children's gender role behaviors. Ages of 19 children with hypospadias ranged from 3 to 7 years, and each of them were matched to controls of unaffected boys and girls by age. All the children participated with their mothers. Children's gender role behaviors and their mothers' behaviors were evaluated using an observation coding system. Mothers also completed questionnaires regarding their children's gender role behaviors. Results indicated no atypical gender role behavior for the boys with hypospadias and no direct effects of socialization on their gender role behaviors. However, differences were found in negative communicative behaviors between boys with hypospadias and unaffected boys, suggesting a possible role of socialization. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Psylla, Ioanna; Sapiezynski, Piotr; Mones, Enys
interactions among them expressed via person-to-person contacts, interactions on online social networks, and telecommunication. Thus, we are able to study the differences between male and female behavior captured through a multitude of channels for a single cohort. We find that while the two genders...... are similar in a number of aspects, there are robust deviations that include multiple facets of social interactions, suggesting the existence of inherent behavioral differences. Finally, we quantify how aspects of an individual's characteristics and social behavior reveals their gender by posing...
Falomir-Pichastor, Juan Manuel; Martínez, Carmen; Paterna, Consuelo
Two hundred and twenty-six heterosexual participants (115 women and 111 men) were asked to indicate their attitude toward gender-roles, their perceived similarities with gay men, and their attitude toward gay men (i.e., sexual prejudice). As expected, male participants showed more sexual prejudice than female participants, and perceived dissimilarities were related to a greater sexual prejudice. Support for gender-roles was related to sexual prejudice for male participants, but not for female participants. More interestingly, the three-way interaction suggested that perceived similarities moderated the link between gender-roles and sexual prejudice among heterosexual men, but not among heterosexual women. Attitude in favor of traditional gender-roles was related to sexual prejudice for male participants who perceived gay men as different, but not for those who perceived gay men as similar. These findings are discussed in terms of the defensive function of men's attitude toward homosexuality as a result of threat to masculinity.
Htun, Tin Tin; Yamamoto, Mariko
The present study examines whether high leadership-oriented females have more gender role conflict than low leadership-oriented females. It also addresses what coping strategies high leadership-oriented females use to cop ...
de Meer, G.; Crone, M.R.; Reijneveld, S.A.
Background: Emotional and behavioural problems are a risk factor for the initiation of smoking. In this study, we aimed to assess this relationship beyond clinical cut-off values of problem behaviour. Methods: Cross-sectional national survey among 9-13 year old children with data on smoking and
Perry, Christina J; Zbukvic, Isabel; Kim, Jee Hyun; Lawrence, Andrew J
Environmental stimuli are powerful mediators of craving and relapse in substance-abuse disorders. This review examined how animal models have been used to investigate the cognitive mechanisms through which cues are able to affect drug-seeking behaviour. We address how animal models can describe the way drug-associated cues come to facilitate the development and persistence of drug taking, as well as how these cues are critical to the tendency to relapse that characterizes substance-abuse disorders. Drug-associated cues acquire properties of conditioned reinforcement, incentive motivation and discriminative control, which allow them to influence drug-seeking behaviour. Using these models, researchers have been able to investigate the pharmacology subserving the behavioural impact of environmental stimuli, some of which we highlight. Subsequently, we examine whether the impact of drug-associated stimuli can be attenuated via a process of extinction, and how this question is addressed in the laboratory. We discuss how preclinical research has been translated into behavioural therapies targeting substance abuse, as well as highlight potential developments to therapies that might produce more enduring changes in behaviour. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Animal Models in Psychiatry Research. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-20 PMID:24749941
Practical relevance: Despite its importance, emotional health is a subject that is sadly neglected in the context of companion animals. Understanding emotions is at the heart of veterinary behavioural medicine and is key to preventing, managing and treating reported behavioural problems in domestic cats. Clinical challenges: On a daily basis, veterinary practices are presented with the physical health impact of emotional health and with emotionally motivated behaviours that are undesirable to owners and/or detrimental to the cat. Emotional health is of equal importance to physical health and lies at the very core of veterinary medicine. Clinically, the emotional motivation for a behaviour must be identified before an assessment is made of whether the motivation is contextually appropriate and whether the cat's response is justified and normal, or abnormal in the circumstances. Evidence base: The majority of referenced evidence for our understanding of emotional motivations in mammals has come from the human field, but recently there has been increasing interest in the emotional health of non-human animals and a resulting growth in research. This review draws on the published literature and the author's personal experience to explore how emotions can influence feline behaviours. Global importance: Understanding the importance of emotional health is a major factor in ensuring positive welfare for cats, wherever they are kept as companion animals. It impacts on their physical health and their quality of life, and also on the relationship between cat and owner.
Full Text Available Nursing has traditionally been regarded as a female profession. However, in recent years there has been an increase of men. Despite this change, patriarchy still has a profound influence on how general population, patients and even nursing students perceive this occupation. Taking this background into account, the present research aims to analyze gender stereotype and gender role assignment to male and female nurses. A quasi-experimental study was conducted on 121 participants from three groups: patients, non-patients and nursing students. Gender stereotypes and gender roles assignment were analyzing using two factors: level of social domination orientation, and the group membership. Results showed that the gender stereotypes assignment to male and female nurses displayed some similarities; therefore a less stereotypical perception was observed comparing with other recent research. Moreover, participants low in social dominance orientation indicated a preference to traditional gender roles. Considering the group we found a traditional assignment of gender stereotypes over female and male nurses, even among nursing students. In sum, despite the dynamism of the nurses' social perception, still remains a gender bias that needs to be avoided.
Adem Peker; Yüksel Eroğlu; Nihan Çitemel
The purpose of this study is to investigate the mediating role of gender in relationship between submissive behavior and cyber bullying/cyber victimization. The sample included 193 female and 137 male. Data were obtained using Submissive Behavior Scale and Revized Cyberbullying Inventory and analyzed by SPSS 11.5. Hierarchical regression was used to explore the mediating role of gender in relationship between submissive behavior and cyber bullying/cyber victimization. According to result...
Trommsdorff, Gisela; Iwawaki, Saburo
The present study investigates differences in students' perceptions of socialisation and gender roles in Japan and the Federal Republic of Germany. N = 64 male and 111 female Japanese and N = 61 male and 59 female German students completed paper-and-pencil tests, Group comparisons showed significant differences with respect to perceptions of socialisation and gender-role orientation, Japanese adolescents reported more parental acceptance and control than German adolescents, Japanese mothers w...
Two studies examined emotional intimacy in European Canadian and Chinese Canadian dating relationships. Cultural differences in gender-role ideology and individualism–collectivism were hypothesized to differentially contribute to selfdisclosure and responsiveness, and in turn, intimacy. Study 1 revealed that Chinese Canadians’ lower intimacy relative to European Canadians was mediated by their greater gender-role traditionalism but not by their individualism or collectivism. Study 2 furthe...
Nguyen, Anh B.; Clark, Trenette T.; Belgrave, Faye Z.
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of demographic variables and the interplay between gender roles and acculturation on breast and cervical cancer screening outcomes among Vietnamese American women. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 100 Vietnamese women from the Richmond, VA, metropolitan area. Women were recruited to participate in a larger cancer screening intervention. All participants completed measures on demographic variables, gender roles, acculturation, and canc...
Reyes, H. Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A.; Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Reidy, Dennis E.; Hall, Jeffrey E.
Commonly used dating violence prevention programs assume that promotion of more egalitarian gender role attitudes will prevent dating violence perpetration. Empirical research examining this assumption, however, is limited and inconsistent. The current study examined the longitudinal association between gender role attitudes and physical dating violence perpetration among adolescent boys (n=577; 14% Black, 5% other race/ethnicity) and examined whether injunctive (i.e., acceptance of dating vi...
Chen, Zhixia; Fiske, Susan T.; Lee, Tiane L.
Glick-Fiske's (1996) Ambivalent Sexism Inventory(ASI) and a new Gender-Role Ideology in Marriage (GRIM) inventory examine ambivalent sexism toward women, predicting power-related, gender-role beliefs about mate selection and marriage norms. Mainland Chinese, 552, and 252 U.S. undergraduates participated. Results indicated that Chinese and men most endorsed hostile sexism; Chinese women more than U.S. women accepted benevolent sexism. Both Chinese genders prefer home-oriented mates (women especially seeking a provider and upholding him; men especially endorsing male-success/female-housework, male dominance, and possibly violence). Both U.S. genders prefer considerate mates (men especially seeking an attractive one). Despite gender and culture differences in means, ASI-GRIM correlations replicate across those subgroups: Benevolence predicts initial mate selection; hostility predicts subsequent marriage norms. PMID:24058258
Nattrass, Nicoli; Maughan-Brown, Brendan; Seekings, Jeremy; Whiteside, Alan
This article contributes methodologically and substantively to the debate over the importance of poverty, sexual behaviour and circumcision in relation to HIV infection, using panel data on young black men and women in Cape Town, South Africa. Methodological challenges included problems of endogeneity and blunt indicator variables, especially for the measurement of sexual behaviour. Noting these difficulties, we found that the importance of socioeconomic and sexual-behavioural factors differed between men and women. While we found a clear association between the number of years of sexual activity and HIV status among both men and women, we found that past participation in a concurrent sexual partnership increased the odds of HIV infection for men but not women. Women, but not men, who made the transition from school to tertiary education (our key indicator of socioeconomic status) were less likely to be HIV-positive than those who made the transition from school to unemployment. Both poverty and sexual behaviour matter to individuals' HIV risk, but in gendered ways.
Vigliocco, G.; Vinson, D.P.; Indefrey, P.; Levelt, W.J.M.; Hellwig, F.
Semantic substitution errors (e.g., saying "arm" when "leg" is intended) are among the most common types of errors occurring during spontaneous speech. It has been shown that grammatical gender of German target nouns is preserved in the errors ( E. Marx, 1999). In 3 experiments, the authors explored
Vigliocco, Gabriella; Vinson, David P.; Indefrey, Peter; Levelt, Willem J. M.; Hellwig, Frauke
Semantic substitution errors (e.g., saying "arm" when "leg" is intended) are among the most common types of errors occurring during spontaneous speech. It has been shown that grammatical gender of German target nouns is preserved in the errors (E. Mane, 1999). In 3 experiments, the authors explored different accounts of the grammatical gender…
Workers in Nigeria are faced with many stress factors such as work-related, domestic, after job, age or retirement problem to cope with or managed. In view of this, the present study examined the effects of gender, social support and personality (Type A and Type B) on work stress adaptation. Using random and accidental ...
Meeuwesen, L.; Bensing, J.; Brink-Muinen, A. van den
The aim of this study has been to obtain more insight into the health condition of fatigued patients, their expectations when visiting the general practitioner (GP), the way they communicate, and possible gender differences. Data consisted of 579 patient questionnaires and 440 video-observations of
Stein, T. P.; Wade, C. E.
Compared with men, women appear to have a decreased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) response to stress. The two manifestations where the sexual dimorphism has been the most pronounced involve the response of the SNS to fluid shifts and fuel metabolism during exercise. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether a similar sexual dimorphism was found in the response to spaceflight. To do so, we compared catecholamine excretion by male and female astronauts from two similar shuttle missions, Spacelab Life Sciences 1 (SLS1, 1991) and 2 (SLS2, 1993) for evidence of sexual dimorphism. To evaluate the variability of the catecholamine response in men, we compared catecholamine excretion from the two SLS missions against the 1996 Life and Microgravity Sciences Mission (LMS) and the 1973 Skylab missions. RESULTS: No gender- or mission-dependent changes were found with epinephrine. Separating out the SLS1/2 data by gender shows that norepinephrine excretion was essentially unchanged with spaceflight in women (98 +/- 10%; n = 3) and substantially decreased with the men (41 +/- 9%; n = 4, P gender-specific effects. We conclude that norepinephrine excretion during spaceflight is both mission and gender dependent. Men show the greater response, with at least three factors being involved, a response to microgravity, energy balance, and the ratio of carbohydrate to fat in the diet.
Asghari, Arezou; Abdul.Kadir, Rusnani bte; Elias, Habibah bte; Baba, Maznah bte
This study is aimed at examining the moderating effect of gender on the relationship between personality traits and state anxiety. The participants were 375 Iranian high school students (193 males and 182 females). The instruments used were the NEO-FFI-3 Inventory and State Anxiety Inventory. Results of the structural model showed that from the…
Hartung, Paul J.; Rogers, James R.
Work and family form a core relationship in people's lives and many individuals struggle to balance these responsibilities. To explore this balance, some of the issues surrounding attitudes toward gender equality and work-family commitment as related to medical students, are examined in this report. The research focused on patterns of commitment…
The prevalence, age of onset, and clinical symptoms of many neuropsychiatric diseases substantially differ between males and females. Factors influencing the relationships between brain development and function and sex or gender may help us understand the differences between males and females in terms of risk or resilience factors in brain diseases.
The prevalence, age of onset, and clinical symptoms of many neuropsychiatric diseases substantially differ between males and females. Factors influencing the relationships between brain development and function and sex or gender may help us understand the differences between males and females in terms of risk or resilience factors in brain diseases.
Baker, Elizabeth H.; Sanchez, Laura A.; Nock, Steven L.; Wright, James D.
This study contributes to research on the deinstitutionalization of marriage and changing gender ideologies by focusing on a unique group of marriage innovators. With quantitative and qualitative data from the Marriage Matters project (1997-2004), this study used a symbolic interactionist perspective to compare covenant- and standard-married…
Ekinci Nurullah Emir
Full Text Available This paper aimed to investigate transformational leadership behaviors of high school students according to their leisure preference and gender. Randomly chosen 391 high school students from Kutahya voluntarily took part in the study. In the study Transformational Leadership Scale was used as data gathering tool and after evaluation of dispersion of the data Two-way Analysis of Variance was used as a hypothesis test. As a result, this study showed that transformational leadership behavior differs according to gender and also both leisure preference and gender have an effect on transformational leadership behavior of high school students.
Dawoud, Husameddin M.; Al-Samarraie, Hosam; Zaqout, Fahed
This study examined the role of flow experience in intellectual activity with an emphasis on the relationship between flow experience and creative behaviour in design using CAD. The study used confluence and psychometric approaches because of their unique abilities to depict a clear image of creative behaviour. A cross-sectional study…
Chen, Long Hwa; Chen, Hsin-Fan
This paper uses the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition and accounts for potential identification bias in order to shed light on the role of computer use as well as English ability on the gender wage differential in Taiwan. The results show that both computer use and English proficiency benefit female w...... wage earners and contribute to an equalization of the gender wage gap.......This paper uses the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition and accounts for potential identification bias in order to shed light on the role of computer use as well as English ability on the gender wage differential in Taiwan. The results show that both computer use and English proficiency benefit female...
Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Coome, Lindsay A; Monks, D Ashley; VanderLaan, Doug P
Androphilia is associated with an elevated number of older brothers among natal males. This association, termed the fraternal birth order effect, has been observed among gay men who exhibit marked gender nonconformity. Gender nonconformity has been linked to gay men's preferred anal sex role. The present study investigated whether these two lines of research intersect by addressing whether the fraternal birth order effect was associated with both gender nonconformity and a receptive anal sex role (243 gay men, 91 heterosexual men). Consistent with previous research, we identified the fraternal birth order effect in our sample of gay men. Also, gay men were significantly more gender-nonconforming on adulthood and recalled childhood measures compared to heterosexual men. When gay men were compared based on anal sex role (i.e., top, versatile, bottom), all groups showed significantly greater recalled childhood and adult male gender nonconformity than heterosexual men, but bottoms were most nonconforming. Only gay men with a bottom anal sex role showed evidence of a fraternal birth order effect. A sororal birth order effect was found in our sample of gay men, driven by versatiles. No significant associations were found between fraternal birth order and gender nonconformity measures. These results suggest that the fraternal birth order effect may apply to a subset of gay men who have a bottom anal sex role preference and that this subgroup is more gender-nonconforming. However, there were no significant associations between fraternal birth order and gender nonconformity at the individual level. As such, based on the present study, whether processes underpinning the fraternal birth order effect influence gender nonconformity is equivocal.
Sandbakk, Oyvind; Ettema, Gertjan; Leirdal, Stig; Holmberg, Hans-Christer
Gender differences in performance by elite endurance athletes, including runners, track cyclists and speed skaters, have been shown to be approximately 12%. The present study was designed to examine gender differences in physiological responses and kinematics associated with sprint cross-country skiing. Eight male and eight female elite sprint cross-country skiers, matched for performance, carried out a submaximal test, a test of maximal aerobic capacity (VO(2max)) and a shorter test of maximal treadmill speed (V (max)) during treadmill roller skiing utilizing the G3 skating technique. The men attained 17% higher speeds during both the VO(2max) and the V (max) tests (P differences that were reduced to 9% upon normalization for fat-free body mass. Furthermore, the men exhibited 14 and 7% higher VO(2max) relative to total and fat-free body mass, respectively (P gender groups. At the same absolute speed, men employed 11% longer cycles at lower rates, and at peak speed, 21% longer cycle lengths (P gender differences in performance and VO(2max) than those reported for comparable endurance sports. These differences reflect primarily the higher VO(2max) and lower percentage of body fat in men, since no gender differences in the ability to convert metabolic rate into work rate and speed were observed. With regards to kinematics, the gender difference in performance was explained by cycle length, not by cycle rate.
Weinraub, Marsha; And Others
The onset and development of preschoolers' awareness of sex role stereotypes, gender labeling, gender identity, and sex-typed toy preference were explored in 26-, 31-, and 36-month-old children. Family characteristics that affect early sex role development also were investigated. (Author/RH)
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the relations between roles in violent interactions and personality traits (congruent to dimensions of Big Seven lexical model, number of friends, and gender. The study was conducted on a sample of 1095 elementary school students from Serbia (51.4% female, aged 11-14. The results revealed that membership in the victims group corresponds to smaller number of friends, low Extraversion, high Neuroticism and Conscientiousness and male gender, while higher Aggressiveness, Negative and Positive Valence, lower Neuroticism, and male gender increase the odds of membership in the bullies group. The role of bully-victims corresponds to smaller number of friends, higher Negative Valence and Neuroticism, and male gender. The results point to differences between roles in violent interaction with regard to patterns of personality traits and social behavior. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON179006: Psychological foundations of mental health: hereditary and environmental factors
Popova, Lucy; Linz, Daniel G.
The aim of this paper is to provide context for the quantitative content analyses of gender roles that are to be included in both parts of this special issue. First, a timeline of historical uses of the content analysis methodology is presented. Second, research objectives that frequently drive content analysis of gender roles are described; these include: to support feminist claims, to compare media with real life, to predict effects on audiences, and to detect effects of media producers on content. Third, previous content analyses published in Sex Roles and other gender-focused journals are reviewed and categorized in terms of medium, genre, time span, gender, and nationality. Finally, contributions of each of the articles in this special issue are outlined. PMID:20694031
Adriana Gil Juárez
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify the links between the exposure to, and use of, TICs in both public and private life. I shall explain how, in spite of my own easy access to TICs, barriers of gender or migration have meant that this is not a universal experience - whether in the public or private domain. For some, TICs are habitually under-used and an object of some ignorance; for others, they are both a means and indeed an object of investigation. I shall examine the effects not only of gender and class, but also the production of knowledge about (and access to TICs, as for example in moral panics over videogames and mobile phones. I shall concentrate on TICs in everyday life, and in the construction of the identity of TICs' users.
Curran, Tara M.; Prottas, David J.
The study used data provided by 349 professional staff employees from 17 different US higher education institutions to assess aspects of their working conditions that could influence their own work engagement and the work-related behaviours of their colleagues. Relationships among three role stressors (role ambiguity, role conflict and role…
Nurses in Taiwan are seen as "angels in white." This image conveys that nurses are caring, kind, patient, and full of love. Another popular image of nurses is that of a candle, which implies that nurses bring light to others by sacrificing their "self." These images also reflect accurately the traditional role of women in the Chinese patriarchal society. Hence, gender and culture effects on nurses' perceptions of their work role cannot be ignored. The purpose of this article was to explore nurses' perceptions of their work role on the basis of the perspectives of Chinese gender role and culture. This study was conducted using a Web-based online forum for 4 weeks. Twenty nurses completed discussions of questions in four topic areas. Thematic analysis was used to analyze data. Three themes were identified: (a) gendered work, (b) low social status, and (c) tensions among nurses. Findings indicate that certain stereotypes regarding gender roles in Taiwanese society constrained the professional growth of nurses and nursing. The social status of nurses was found to be relatively low, and nurses were at a relatively high risk of developing powerless behaviors. Nursing leaders and administrators should understand the impact of gender and Chinese culture on nursing and pay attention to the situation of nurses to provide more gender-sensitive and positive work environments for nurses.
Cech, Erin; Rubineau, Brian; Seron, Caroll; Silbey, Susan S.
Social psychological research on gendered persistence in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) professions is dominated by two explanations: women leave because they perceive their family plans to be at odds with demands of STEM careers, and women leave due to low self-assessment of their skills in STEM’s intellectual tasks, net of their performance. This study uses original panel data to examine behavioral and intentional persistence among students who enter an engineering...
Yüksel, Özge; Dağ, İhsan
The aim of this study were to investigate the mediator role of coping strategies and gender roles attitudes on the relationship between women's marital adjustment and psychological symptoms. 248 married women participated in the study. Participants completed Marital Adjustment Scale, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, Brief Symptom Inventory, Gender Role Attitudes Scale and Demographic Information Form. Regression analyses revealed that Submissive (Sobel z= -2.47, prole on the relationship between marital relationship score and psychological symptom level. Also, having Egalitarian Gender Role Attitude effects the psychological symptoms in relation with the marital relationship, but it is seen that this effect is not higher enough to play a mediator role (Sobel z =-1.21, p>.05). Regression analysis showed that there is a statistically significant correlation between women's marital adjustment and their psychological symptoms, indicating that the marital adjustment decreases as the psychological symptoms increases. It is also found out that submissive and helpless coping approach have mediator roles in this relationship. Also, contrary to expectations, having egalitarian gender role attitude effects the psychological symptoms in relation with the marital relationship, but this effect does not seem to play a mediator role. It is thought that the effects of marriage and couple therapy approaches considering coupless problem solving and coping styles should be examined in further studies.
Wheeler, Lorey A.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Schaefer, David R.
This study examined the role of sibling and friend characteristics in Mexican-American youth’s gender-typed characteristics (i.e., attitudes, interests, and leisure activities) in early versus middle adolescence using a sibling design. Mexican-American 7th graders (M = 12.51 years; SD = .58) and their older siblings (M = 15.48 years; SD = 1.57) from 246 families participated in home interviews and a series of seven nightly phone calls. Results revealed that younger/early adolescent siblings reported more traditional gender role attitudes than their older/middle adolescent siblings and older brothers were more traditional in their attitudes than older sisters. When comparing siblings’ gender-typed interests and leisure activities, boys reported more masculine orientations than girls and girls reported more feminine orientations than boys. Older brothers’ gender-typed characteristics were associated with the amount of time spent with and gender characteristics of their friendship group, but for younger brothers, sibling characteristics were associated with their gender-typed characteristics. In contrast, both sibling and friendship characteristics were significantly associated with older and younger sisters’ gender-typed characteristics. The discussion addressed the different correlates of older and younger sisters’ and brothers’ gender-typed characteristics. PMID:25539774
Perez-Brena, Norma J; Wheeler, Lorey A; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Schaefer, David R
This study examined the role of sibling and friend characteristics in Mexican-American youth's gender-typed characteristics (i.e., attitudes, interests, and leisure activities) in early versus middle adolescence using a sibling design. Mexican-American 7th graders (M = 12.51 years; SD = .58) and their older siblings (M = 15.48 years; SD = 1.57) from 246 families participated in home interviews and a series of seven nightly phone calls. Results revealed that younger/early adolescent siblings reported more traditional gender role attitudes than their older/middle adolescent siblings and older brothers were more traditional in their attitudes than older sisters. When comparing siblings' gender-typed interests and leisure activities, boys reported more masculine orientations than girls and girls reported more feminine orientations than boys. Older brothers' gender-typed characteristics were associated with the amount of time spent with and gender characteristics of their friendship group, but for younger brothers, sibling characteristics were associated with their gender-typed characteristics. In contrast, both sibling and friendship characteristics were significantly associated with older and younger sisters' gender-typed characteristics. The discussion addressed the different correlates of older and younger sisters' and brothers' gender-typed characteristics.
Lampis, J; Cataudella, S; Busonera, A; De Simone, S; Tommasi, M
The differential prevalence of eating disorders in males and females can be explained by the impact of gender-role orientations. Inside the Italian socio-cultural context, gender socialization can be influenced by stereotypical gender beliefs, and this may contribute to the psychological distress of individuals who identify with discrepant gender roles from their biological sex. Our study explored, within the Italian context, the potential moderating effect of masculinity and femininity on the relationships between gender and attitudes about body and eating. Nine hundred and twenty Italian male and female adolescents (M = 427, F = 493; age 14-21 years) completed the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2) and the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI). A moderating effect of gender role on the relationship between gender and bulimia, and drive of thinness emerged. Girls with higher levels of masculinity scored higher on bulimia than did their counterparts with lower levels, and boys with higher levels of femininity scored higher on bulimia and on drive for thinness than did their counterparts with lower levels. Data did not reveal a moderating effect of gender role on the relationship between gender and body satisfaction. Our data suggest that adolescents who endorsed a gender role that is socially considered discrepant from their biological sex (girls with higher levels of masculinity and boys with higher levels of femininity) are more likely to show higher level of bulimia and drive of thinness. This suggests the need for prevention and treatment programmes for eating disorders that take into account individuals' gender-role orientation and the influence that culturally dominant gender beliefs can exert on it.
Kim, Chankon; Laroche, Michel; Tomiuk, Marc A
The authors investigated the impact of ethnic change experienced by Chinese Canadian couples on gender-role attitude, household task-role expectations and performance. The authors presented acculturation and Chinese ethnic identification as the two discriminant facets of ethnic change. Results indicated a nonsignificant role of acculturation in bringing about modifications of the gender-role attitudes of husbands and of their household task-role expectations. In contrast, the acculturation of Chinese Canadian wives proved to be a significant factor in promoting more modern (less traditional) gender-role attitudes, which in turn led to role expectations that they should contribute less to the performance of the tasks that traditionally fall in the female domain whereas their husbands should contribute more. Subsequent results also revealed that the acculturation of wives was directly linked to the role expectation that they should assume a greater share of responsibility in taking care of the traditionally husband-responsible tasks whereas their husbands should contribute a smaller share. Moreover, Chinese ethnic identification emerged as a significant determinant of husbands' gender-role attitudes and influenced their role expectation that husbands should contribute more to the performance of the tasks that traditionally fall in the male domain whereas their wives should contribute less.
Shnabel, Nurit; Bar-Anan, Yoav; Kende, Anna; Bareket, Orly; Lazar, Yael
Based on theorizing that helping relations may serve as a subtle mechanism to reinforce intergroup inequality, the present research (N = 1,315) examined the relation between benevolent sexism (i.e., a chivalrous yet subtly oppressive view of women) and helping. In cross-gender interactions, the endorsement of (Studies 1, 3, and 4) or exposure to (Study 2) benevolent sexism predicted (a) men's preference to provide women with dependency-oriented help (i.e., direct assistance) rather than tools for autonomous coping, and (b) women's preference to seek dependency-oriented help rather than tools for autonomous coping. Benevolent sexism did not predict men's and women's engagement in dependency-oriented helping relations in same-gender interactions. Studies 1 and 2 examined behavioral intentions in response to a series of hypothetical scenarios; Studies 3 and 4 examined actual behavior in tests of mathematical and logical ability, and pointed to assumed partner's expectations as a potential mediator. The converging evidence supports the hypothesis that benevolent sexism encourages engagement in cross-gender helping relations that perpetuate traditional gender roles. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Lam, Chun Bun; Stanik, Christine; McHale, Susan M
This research examined the longitudinal trajectories and family correlates of gender role attitudes in African American youth in a sample of 166 sibling pairs residing with their mothers and fathers. Multilevel modelling revealed that (1) girls and boys exhibited significant declines in gender attitude traditionality from ages 9 to 15 that levelled off through age 18, (2) mothers' (but not fathers') gender role attitude traditionality was positively related to youth's attitude traditionality, and (3) within-person variation in mothers' (but not fathers') racial discrimination experiences was negatively related to within-person variation in youth's gender role attitude traditionality. The utility of applying a cultural ecological framework within an ethnic homogenous, accelerated longitudinal design to understand African American family processes, in conjunction with the intersectionality between race and gender, is the focus of the discussion. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Gender role attitude traditionality declined for girls, but not for boys, in European and Mexican American families. Little is known about the roles of African American parents in shaping their children's gender development. What does this study add? For African American girls and boys, gender role attitude traditionality declined from ages 9 to 15 and then levelled off through age 18. At the between-person level, African American mothers', but not fathers', attitude traditionality was positively linked to that of their children. At the within-person level, African American mothers', but not fathers', experiences of racial discrimination were negatively linked to their children's attitude traditionality. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Drawing on survey data, this paper explores the association between early adolescents' gender-role identity and sense of peer group acceptance, and how this association may vary as a function of the gender context of the school. Two indicators of gender-role identity were included in the analysis: in one measure the items reflect features of…
Full Text Available Online narrative (fiction-based role-playing games and massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs provide a ludic structure in which role players enact the gender and sexuality of their avatars. To investigate how role players perceive and perform their avatars' gender and sexuality in online games, I invited role players from MMORPGs and narrative RPGs to participate in an online survey. This study examines how the online game environment mediates players' self-expression and their acceptance of minority identities. Qualitative analysis of the data collected suggests that players who demonstrate empathy with and examination of their avatars' genders and sexualities, and who experience a sense of belonging within the game structure, are able to form positive interpersonal relationships that allow them to accept others' expressed identities.
Full Text Available The present eye-tracking study investigates the effect of gender typicality on the resolution of anaphoric personal pronouns in English. Participants read descriptions of a person performing a typically male, typically female or gender-neutral occupational activity. The description was followed by an anaphoric reference (he or she which revealed the referent's gender. The first experiment presented roles which were highly typical for men (e.g., blacksmith or for women (e.g., beautician, the second experiment presented role descriptions with a moderate degree of gender typicality (e.g., psychologist, lawyer. Results revealed a gender mismatch effect in early and late measures in the first experiment and in an early measure in the second experiment. Moreover, eye-movement data for highly typical roles correlated with explicit typicality ratings. The results are discussed from a cross-linguistic perspective, comparing natural gender languages and grammatical gender languages. An interpretation of the cognitive representation of typicality beliefs is proposed.
Damir Sekulic, Enver Tahiraj, Milan Zvan, Natasa Zenic, Ognjen Uljevic, Blaz Lesnik
Full Text Available Team sports are rarely studied with regard to doping behaviour and doping-related factors regardless of their global popularity. This study aimed to investigate doping factors and covariates of potential doping behaviour in high-level team-sport athletes. The subjects were 457 high-performing, national- and international-level athletes (21.9 ± 3.4 years of age; 179 females involved in volleyball (n = 77, soccer (n = 163, basketball (n = 114 and handball (n = 103. Previously validated self-administered questionnaires aimed at evidencing sport factors, doping-related factors, knowledge on sport nutrition and doping, and attitudes to performance enhancement were used. The results indicated a higher doping likelihood in male athletes, with a significant gender difference for basketball and handball. In males, a higher doping likelihood is found for athletes who had achieved better results at junior-age level, those who regularly consume dietary supplements, and who perceive their sport as being contaminated by doping. A higher sport achievement at senior-age level is protective against potential doping behaviour in males. In females, a higher likelihood of doping is evidenced in those athletes involved in binge drinking, while a lower tendency for doping is evidenced in female athletes who possess better knowledge on sport nutrition. Knowledge about doping is very low and thus education about doping is urgently needed. An improvement of knowledge on sport nutrition might be a potentially effective method for reducing the tendency for doping in females. Future studies should consider other approaches and theories, such as theory of planned behaviour and/or social-cognitive theory, in studying the problem of doping behaviour in team-sports.
Hamilton, Kyra; Kothe, Emily J; Mullan, Barbara; Spinks, Teagan
Examine the roles of action and coping planning on the intention-behaviour relationship for mothers' decisions for their young children's dietary behaviours. Prospective design with two waves of data collection, one week apart. Mothers (N = 197, M age = 34.39, SD = 5.65) of children aged 2-3 years completed a main questionnaire assessing planning constructs and intentions, and a one-week follow-up of the target behaviours - 'healthy eating' and 'discretionary choices'. Intention was the strongest predictor of behaviour for both dietary behaviours. For healthy eating, intention moderated the indirect relationship between intention-behaviour via planning; coping planning was less important when intention was strong. Further, intention was not a direct predictor of behaviour when intention was relatively low. Action planning was not a direct predictor of either behaviour after accounting for intention and coping planning; action planning on behaviour was mediated by coping planning (only for healthy eating). Intention was not a direct predictor of coping planning; intention on coping planning was mediated by action planning. Neither type of planning predicted discretionary choices. Current findings contribute novel information on the mechanisms underpinning the effect of action and coping planning on the intention-behaviour relationship.
Full Text Available Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD represents one of the most frequently psychiatric sequelae to earthquake exposure. Increasing evidence suggests the onset of maladaptive behaviors among veterans and adolescents with PTSD, with specific gender differences emerging in the latter. Aims of the present study were to investigate the relationships between maladaptive behaviours and PTSD in earthquake survivors, besides the gender differences in the type and prevalence of maladaptive behaviours and their association with PTSD. Methods: 900 residents of the town of L’Aquila who experienced the earthquake of April 6th 2009 (Richter Magnitude 6.3 were assessed by means of the Trauma and Loss Spectrum Self Report (TALS-SR.Results: Significantly higher maladaptive behaviour prevalence rates were found among subjects with PTSD. A statistically significant association was found between male gender and the presence of at least one maladaptive behaviour among PTSD survivors. In the latter, significant correlations emerged between maladaptive coping and symptoms of re-experiencing, avoidance and numbing and arousal in women, while only between maladaptive coping and avoidance and numbing in men. Conclusions: Our results show high rates of maladaptive behaviours among earthquake survivors with PTSD suggesting a greater severity among men. Interestingly, post-traumatic stress symptomatology appears to be a better correlate of these behaviours among women than among men, suggesting the need for further studies based on a gender approach.
Bejerot, Susanne; Eriksson, Jonna M.
The ‘extreme male brain theory of autism’ describes an extreme male pattern of cognitive traits defined as strong systemising abilities paired with empathising weaknesses in autism spectrum disorder. However, beyond these cognitive traits, clinical observations have suggested an ambiguous gender-typed pattern regarding several sexually dimorphic traits. The aim of the present study was to investigate if patterns of non-cognitive sexually dimorphic traits differed between the autism spectrum disorder and control groups. Fifty adults with autism spectrum disorder and intelligence within the normal range, and 53 neurotypical controls responded to questions on gender role, self-perceived gender typicality and gender identity, as well as sexuality. Measures used were a Swedish modification of the Bem Sex Role Inventory and questions on sexuality and gender designed for the purpose of this study. Our results showed that one common gender role emerged in the autism spectrum disorder group. Masculinity (e.g. assertiveness, leadership and competitiveness) was weaker in the autism spectrum disorder group than in the controls, across men and women. Self-perceived gender typicality did not differ between the groups but tomboyism and bisexuality were overrepresented amongst women with autism spectrum disorder. Lower libido was reported amongst both male and female participants with autism spectrum disorder compared with controls. We conclude that the extreme male patterns of cognitive functions in the autistic brain do not seem to extend to gender role and sexuality. A gender-atypical pattern for these types of characteristics is suggested in autism spectrum disorder. PMID:24498228
Sweeting, Helen; Bhaskar, Abita; Benzeval, Michaela; Popham, Frank; Hunt, Kate
Given evidence that gender role attitudes (GRAs) and actual gender roles impact on well-being, we examine associations between GRAs, three roles (marital status, household chore division, couple employment) and psychological distress in working-age men and women. We investigate time-trends reflecting broader social and economic changes, by focusing on three age groups at two dates. We used British Household Panel Survey data from 20- to 64-year-olds in heterosexual couple households in 1991 (N = 5,302) and 2007 (N = 6,621). We examined: levels of traditional GRAs according to gender, age, date, household and employment roles; associations which GRAs and roles had with psychological distress (measured via the GHQ-12); whether psychological distress increased when GRAs conflicted with actual roles; and whether any of these associations differed according to gender, age or date. Gender traditionalism was lower among women, younger people, those participating in 2007 and in 'less traditional' relationships and households. Psychological distress was higher among those with more traditional GRAs and, particularly among men, for those not employed, and there was some evidence of different patterns of association according to age-group. There was limited evidence, among women only, of increased psychological distress when GRAs and actual roles conflicted and/or reductions when GRAs and roles agreed, particularly in respect of household chores and paid employment. Although some aspects of gender roles and attitudes (traditionalism and paid employment) are associated with well-being, others (marital status and household chores), and attitude-role consistency, may have little impact on the well-being of contemporary UK adults.
Full Text Available The issues related to the role of the family in the process of creating relationships with ill and disabled people are discussed in the article. All individuals posses concepts of the disabled that form their attitudes towards such people. The image of a disabled person is responsible for one’s attitude towards the handicapped. The family should create an environment where children observe and learn positive patterns of behaviour towards people with disabilities which, in turn, form the basis upon which children’s attitudes are shaped. The process of perception of other people is dependent on many factors – one of them is the family. The author draws attention to the issue of gender in disability. The term “disabled person” turns out to be gender neutral. Women with disabilities consider themselves to be treated as a “third sex”. The discrimination of disabled women results from a lack of sensitivity to the sex of the disabled. This points out the need to change the attitudes towards people with disabilities in early childhood as well as the necessity to pay more attention to the gender of disabled children. Sex becomes a matter which is forgotten, perhaps even becoming irrelevant. Women and their function are pushed into the background, which results in the gender-related stereotyping of their social roles, a more difficult way of career advancement (the so-called “glass ceiling effect”, lower wages for women working in the same positions as men, and the low participation of women in public life.
Mladenovic, B; Donev, D; Spasovski, M
(Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). The aim of the study was to assess the gender influence on the main determinants of sexual behaviour of senior high-school students in Skopje, R. Macedonia (prevalence and age of onset of sexual activity, duration of the relationship before and the contraceptive method used during the first sexual intercourse, and number of lifetime sexual partners). After ensuring privacy and confidentiality, a cross-sectional study was carried out in Skopje by enrolling 310 high-school students (49.7% males, 49% females, 1.3% unknown) from 5 randomly selected high-schools, from the 4th grade, using a 32-item paper-and-pencil self administered questionnaire. The prevalence of sexual activity was higher among boys than girls (when reaching grade 4 of the study 62.7% of the boys and 26.7% of the girls are sexually active) (p boys and 17 years for girls; concerning the duration of the relationship before the first sexual intercourse 33% of the boys and 2.5% of the girls had experienced one-night stand relationship (p boys and 5% of the girls (p boys and 15.5% of the girls did not start with sexual activity because they did not have a chance (p boys and 79.1% of the girls felt unprepared (p Boys and girls are vulnerable at different times in their development and hence need to be reached with different public health interventions for improving their sexual and reproductive health, adapted to local cultural and gender norms. Key words: Macedonia, high-school students, sexual behaviour, gender.
Völter, Christoph; Strobach, Tilo; Aichert, Désirée S.; Wöstmann, Nicola; Costa, Anna; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Schubert, Torsten; Ettinger, Ulrich
Objective In the present study the relationship between behavioural adjustment following cognitive conflict and schizotypy was investigated using a Stroop colour naming paradigm. Previous research has found deficits with behavioural adjustment in schizophrenia patients. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that individual differences in schizotypy, a personality trait reflecting the subclinical expression of the schizophrenia phenotype, would be associated with behavioural adjustment. Additionally, we investigated whether such a relationship would be explained by individual differences in neuroticism, a non-specific measure of negative trait emotionality known to be correlated with schizotypy. Methods 106 healthy volunteers (mean age: 25.1, 60% females) took part. Post-conflict adjustment was measured in a computer-based version of the Stroop paradigm. Schizotypy was assessed using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) and Neuroticism using the NEO-FFI. Results We found a negative correlation between schizotypy and post-conflict adjustment (r = −.30, p<.01); this relationship remained significant when controlling for effects of neuroticism. Regression analysis revealed that particularly the subscale No Close Friends drove the effect. Conclusion Previous findings of deficits in cognitive control in schizophrenia patients were extended to the subclinical personality expression of the schizophrenia phenotype and found to be specific to schizotypal traits over and above the effects of negative emotionality. PMID:22363416
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In the present study the relationship between behavioural adjustment following cognitive conflict and schizotypy was investigated using a Stroop colour naming paradigm. Previous research has found deficits with behavioural adjustment in schizophrenia patients. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that individual differences in schizotypy, a personality trait reflecting the subclinical expression of the schizophrenia phenotype, would be associated with behavioural adjustment. Additionally, we investigated whether such a relationship would be explained by individual differences in neuroticism, a non-specific measure of negative trait emotionality known to be correlated with schizotypy. METHODS: 106 healthy volunteers (mean age: 25.1, 60% females took part. Post-conflict adjustment was measured in a computer-based version of the Stroop paradigm. Schizotypy was assessed using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ and Neuroticism using the NEO-FFI. RESULTS: We found a negative correlation between schizotypy and post-conflict adjustment (r = -.30, p<.01; this relationship remained significant when controlling for effects of neuroticism. Regression analysis revealed that particularly the subscale No Close Friends drove the effect. CONCLUSION: Previous findings of deficits in cognitive control in schizophrenia patients were extended to the subclinical personality expression of the schizophrenia phenotype and found to be specific to schizotypal traits over and above the effects of negative emotionality.
Nourah A. Al-Yousef
Previous studies of OPEC have suggested ways of explaining the behaviour of OPEC as a group. The specific role of Saudi Arabia in the market and within OPEC has received attention from some authors. This study analyses the role of Saudi Arabia in these models and tries to find how much they explain the role of Saudi Arabia in the period from 1973 to the present. Models of OPEC behaviour are divided into four sets. The first set of models does not address the role of Saudi Arabia; they include...
Bonsang, Eric; Skirbekk, Vegard; Staudinger, Ursula M
Some studies have found that women outperform men in episodic memory after midlife. But is this finding universal, and what are the reasons? Gender differences in cognition are the result of biopsychosocial interactions throughout the life course. Social-cognitive theory of gender development posits that gender roles may play an important mediating role in these interactions. We analyzed country differences in the gender differential in cognition after midlife using data from individuals age 50 and above ( N = 226,661) from 27 countries. As expected, older women performed relatively better in countries characterized by more equal gender-role attitudes. This result was robust to cohort differences as well as reverse causality. The effect was partially mediated by education and labor-force participation. Cognition in later life thus cannot be fully understood without reference to the opportunity structures that sociocultural environments do (or do not) provide. Global population aging raises the importance of understanding that gender roles affect old-age cognition and productivity.
Perrotte, Jessica K; Baumann, Michael R; Knight, Cory F
Latina/o college students have been shown to engage in more high risk drinking behavior than students from other ethnic minority groups, and are more likely to experience certain negative alcohol related consequences as a result of drinking. Previous research links stress to drinking among college students and indicates drinking occurs within a gendered context. Although this suggests an effect of gender role socialization, studies exploring these relationships among Latina/os are lacking. To explore potential relationships of stress, gender role prescriptions of the heritage culture, and drinking among Latina/o college students. Specifically, to explore potential interactions between stress and multiple dimensions of machismo and marianismo as related to alcohol use. Latina/o undergraduates (N = 248) completed a questionnaire. Self-reported stress, quantity of alcohol consumption, and frequency of binge drinking were recorded for all participants. Gender role prescriptions were assessed via endorsement of two dimensions of machismo (men) or two dimensions of marianismo (women). Stress was positively related to general quantity for women. Each dimension of machismo was distinctly related to binge drinking for men. Significant interactions emerged between both machismo and marianismo and stress as related to both alcohol use outcomes. For women, the moderating pattern between marianismo and stress varied according to type of alcohol use. Conclusions/Importance: Gender role beliefs influence the relationship between stress and alcohol use among Latina/o college students. Future research should account for the intersection of gender and culture when considering the stress-alcohol relationship.
Tomasetto, Carlo; Alparone, Francesca Romana; Cadinu, Mara
Previous research on stereotype threat in children suggests that making gender identity salient disrupts girls' math performance at as early as 5 to 7 years of age. The present study (n = 124) tested the hypothesis that parents' endorsement of gender stereotypes about math moderates girls' susceptibility to stereotype threat. Results confirmed that stereotype threat impaired girls' performance on math tasks among students from kindergarten through 2nd grade. Moreover, mothers' but not fathers' endorsement of gender stereotypes about math moderated girls' vulnerability to stereotype threat: performance of girls whose mothers strongly rejected the gender stereotype about math did not decrease under stereotype threat. These findings are important because they point to the role of mothers' beliefs in the development of girls' vulnerability to the negative effects of gender stereotypes about math. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved
Ott-Holland, Catherine J; Huang, Jason L; Ryan, Ann Marie; Elizondo, Fabian; Wadlington, Patrick L
In some cultures, individuals are free to pursue careers that match their personalities. In others, familial and societal expectations regarding career paths may restrict the links between individual personality and interests. Gender role expectations also may vary across cultures and may be associated with gender differences in interests. Past meta-analytic research has shown some career interests are related to personality traits (Barrick, Mount, & Gupta, 2003; Larson, Rottinghaus, & Borgen, 2002), but the cross-cultural variation of these relationships has not been sufficiently explored. Interest and personality data were obtained from an archival data set of 391,485 individuals from 20 countries. Results indicated that in cultures with high in-group collectivism, connections between personality traits and occupational interests may be less pronounced. Cultural gender egalitarianism moderated the level of gender differences in interests, unexpectedly demonstrating that gender differences may be wider in egalitarian cultures. Implications for career guidance in multicultural settings are discussed.
Adriana Gil Juárez
The aim of this study is to identify the links between the exposure to, and use of, TICs in both public and private life. I shall explain how, in spite of my own easy access to TICs, barriers of gender or migration have meant that this is not a universal experience - whether in the public or private domain. For some, TICs are habitually under-used and an object of some ignorance; for others, they are both a means and indeed an object of investigation. I shall examine the effects not only of g...
Rhudy, Jamie L; Williams, Amy E
Research suggests that the influence of gender on the processing and experience of pain is a result of several mechanisms. One mediating variable is emotion, which may modulate pain through an interaction of valence (pleasant-unpleasant) and arousal (calm-excited). This review examines whether gender differences in the experience and processing of emotion contribute to differences in the modulation and perception of pain. An English-language search of MEDLINE and PsycINFO was conducted from 1887 to May 2005. Additional literature was obtained from reference lists of articles retained in the initial search. Emotion appears to influence pain through a valence-by-arousal interaction. Specifically, negatively valenced emotions with low to moderate arousal (eg, anxiety) enhance pain, whereas negatively valenced emotions with high arousal (eg, fear) reduce pain. In contrast, positively valenced emotions always reduce pain, as long as minimal arousal is achieved. Some evidence suggests that women are more sensitive than men to threat-related stimuli and thus experience more negative affect than men. This would generally lead to enhanced pain perception in women. It is also possible that women are more likely than men to experience negative affect with high arousal (intense fear) and thus pain inhibition. However, the relatively lower base rate of intense negative emotions is not likely to contribute much to gender differences in pain. Evidence also suggests that men may be more sensitive to positive events, particularly sexual/erotic stimuli, which may lead to more positive emotion-induced pain reduction in men, relative to women. This review suggests that gender differences in the experience of pain may arise from differences in the experience and processing of emotion that, in turn, differentially alter pain processing. Specifically, the system associated with negative affect may be more attuned to threatening stimuli in women, and the system associated with positive
Paolo eCanal; Paolo eCanal; Alan eGarnham; Jane eOakhill
We recorded Event-Related Potentials to investigate differences in the use of gender information during the processing of reflexive pronouns. Pronouns either matched the gender provided by role nouns (such as king or engineer) or did not. We compared two types of gender information, definitional information, which is semantic in nature (a mother is female), or stereotypical (a nurse is likely to be female). When they followed definitional role-nouns, gender-mismatching pronouns elicited a P60...
Full Text Available In this study, especially focused on the concept of psychological-based gender identity and researched if there is a differentiation characteristic of consumers’ sex and gender identity roles (masculinity, femininity, androgynous and neutral on consumers’ attitude toward advertisements of accomodation establishments.According to the results,there is a general accordance between biological sex and gender identity roles of individuals and alsothe results of the previous studies were made in different areas in the same subject was supported with determination ofit is possible to participants have gender identity roles different from their biological sex to some extent.Otherwise; determination of theadvertisements ofaccomodationestablishments, contain feminine messages, are more preferred by people who have feminine and androgynous identity than the others; and advertisements ofaccomodationestablishments, contain masculinemessages, are preferred by all gender identity roles are ones of the results
Grounded in the research on the important role of social structures in forming gender inequalities, this study examines the effect of occupational attributes on the gender earnings gap over four decades. Using the IPUMS-USA from 1970 to 2010, the paper shows that occupational attributes cannot be reduced to the aggregate attributes of their individual incumbents. Rather, the effect of occupations on the gender earnings gap goes far beyond both the distributive role of occupational segregation and the effect of individual wage-related characteristics. Furthermore, occupations not only explain a significant portion of net gender pay gaps, but have also contributed to the narrowing of the gaps over the past several decades, as occupational attributes that favor women's pay have become more dominant over time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Eddleston, Kimberly A; Veiga, John F; Powell, Gary N
Using survey data from 400 managers, the authors examined whether gender self-schema would explain sex differences in preferences for status-based and socioemotional career satisfiers. Female gender self-schema, represented by femininity and family role salience, completely mediated the relationship between managers' sex and preferences for socioemotional career satisfiers. However, male gender self-schema, represented by masculinity and career role salience, did not mediate the relationship between managers' sex and preferences for status-based career satisfiers. As expected, male managers regarded status-based career satisfiers as more important and socioemotional career satisfiers as less important than female managers did. The proposed conceptualization of male and female gender self-schemas, which was supported by the data, enhances understanding of adult self-schema and work-related attitudes and behavior.
Straiton, Melanie L; Roen, Katrina; Hjelmeland, Heidi
This study investigates whether positive and negative conventional gender roles relate to suicidal ideation and self-harming in different ways among young adults. Participants completed an online survey about previous self-harm, recent suicidal ideation, and positive and negative aspects of conventional masculinity and femininity. Logistic regression analyses showed that negative femininity positively predicted self-harm and recent suicidal ideation status. Positive femininity was unrelated. Positive masculinity was negatively related to suicidal ideation and self-harming while negative masculinity was negatively related to self-harming only. The findings suggest that it is not the conventional feminine gender role per se that is associated with suicidality but specific negatively evaluated aspects. Conceptualizing gender as a multivariate construct may be useful in the gender socialization theory of suicidal behavior.
Franke, G R; Crown, D F; Spake, D F
This study presents a meta-analysis of research on gender differences in perceptions of ethical decision making. Data from more than 20,000 respondents in 66 samples show that women are more likely than men to perceive specific hypothetical business practices as unethical. As suggested by social role theory (A. H. Eagly, 1987), the gender difference observed in precareer (student) samples declines as the work experience of samples increases. Social role theory also accounts for greater gender differences in nonmonetary issues than in monetary issues. T. M. Jones's (1991) issue-contingent model of moral intensity helps explain why gender differences vary across types of behavior. Contrary to expectations, differences are not influenced by the sex of the actor or the target of the behavior and do not depend on whether the behavior involves personal relationships or action vs. inaction.
Evans, Clifford D.; Diekman, Amanda B.
Despite widespread changes in occupational opportunities, men and women continue to show divergent preferences for careers. This research invoked a motivational framework to explain sex-differentiated career interest. From a role congruity perspective (Diekman & Eagly, 2008), the internalization of gender roles leads people to endorse…
Gyllensten, Kristina; Palmer, Stephen
Objective: The aim of this review was to evaluate research relating to the role of gender in the level of workplace stress. A further aim was to review literature relating to stressors of particular relevance to working women. These stressors included, multiple roles, lack of career progress and discrimination and stereotyping. Design: Systematic…
Scandura, Terri A.; Ragins, Belle Rose
Responses from 608 certified public accountants who had mentors showed that biological sex was not related to mentoring, but gender role orientation was. Those with androgynous sex role orientation reported more mentoring functions than did those with masculine or feminine orientations. (SK)
Kuntari, I.S.R.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.; Ginting, H.
This study examined gender differences among profiles based on life role importance on work-family conflict. The sample consisted of 404 Indonesia working couples with children. We found four profiles based on their work and family role importance that is a Family, Work, Dual and a Low profile. More
van Bergen, D.D.; Smit, J.H.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Saharso, S.
Patterns of suicidal behavior vary among cultures and along gender. Young Hindustani immigrant women attempt suicide four times more often than young Dutch women. This article explores multi-disciplinary explanations for suicidal behavior in this group. The interconnection of Durkheimian concepts of
Evidence suggests that women show symptoms of trauma-related symptoms more often than men. Gender discrimination is also associated with the severity of symptoms in women. This study explored the relations among cumulative trauma, gender discrimination and mental health in women with a mediating role of self-esteem and emotion regulation. Two types of gender discrimination were taken into account: discrimination by parents and in the social context. Cumulative trauma over the lifetime was assessed, as well as three types of symptoms: internalising, externalising, psychoticism. A total of 277 females from Poland participated in the study. It was hypothesised that gender discrimination and cumulative trauma would be positively related to symptoms and that lowered self-esteem mediates these relations. Hypotheses received partial confirmation, as both gender discrimination and cumulative trauma have been shown to be related to three types of symptoms. Self-esteem was a partial mediator between gender discrimination in the social context and symptoms. It was also demonstrated that emotion suppression is a partial mediator between cumulative trauma and symptoms. It has been demonstrated that socio-cultural factors, such as gender discrimination, play an important role in psychiatric symptoms development.
Rebekah J. Maupin
Quantitative data from a study of gender differentiation among accounting students are analyzed to discover if male and female accounting students have different attitudes, orientations, and expectations for career and family. Although some changes toward a more gender-equal population are found, the study results also indicate several potential conflicts which accounting students will have to face as they attempt to combine work and family roles. Both male and female accounting students have...
Aranda Lopez, Maria; Castillo Mayén, María del Rosario; Montes Berges, Beatriz
Nursing has traditionally been regarded as a female profession. However, in recent years there has been an increase of men. Despite this change, patriarchy still has a profound influence on how general population, patients and even nursing students perceive this occupation. Taking this background into account, the present research aims to analyze gender stereotype and gender role assignment to male and female nurses. A quasi-experimental study was conducted on 121 participants from three grou...
Gbadamosi, Gbolahan; Bello, M.
This study investigates attitude towards corruption and the role of gender, religion, education and age using a Nigerian survey data. It also seeks to establish how attitudes towards corruption relates to some other reported ethical measures such as Islamic work ethics, money ethic and corruption perception. Over 3800 questionnaires were administered with 1833 or about 48% response rate. Results revealed no significant gender differences in corruption but women reported being more religious. ...
Radović Selena; Radulović Mladen
Starting from the theories that prolong mayor influence of media as the agency of socialization and criticism of gender representation in the media, in this work we observed whether the image of women in Disney’s animated films has changed during the time, and if so, in which way the change happened. Basic dimensions of gender roles of the heroines that have been placed in one of the most influential franchises named Disney’s Princesses are described in the...
Toomey, Russell B.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Jahromi, Laudan B.
Using longitudinal data collected at four time points from 191 dyads of Mexican-origin adolescent first-time mothers and their mother figures, we examined changes in and socialization of traditional gender role attitudes across the transition to parenthood using latent growth curve modeling (LGC) modeling and actor-partner interdependence modeling (APIM). Person-centered analyses indicated that adolescent mothers’, regardless of nativity status, and their foreign-born mother figures’ gender role attitudes became more egalitarian across adolescents’ transition to parenthood, spanning form the 3rd trimester of pregnancy to 36 months postpartum. Further, variable-centered analyses suggested that adolescents’ and their mother figures’ gender role attitudes during adolescents’ third trimester of pregnancy equally contributed to subsequent increases in one another’s gender role attitudes at 10 months postpartum. Importantly, this reciprocal socialization process was not moderated by adolescent mothers’ nor by their mother’ figures’ nativity status. Findings suggest that it is important to understand the cultural and intergenerational family processes that contribute to the development of gender role attitudes during the transition to parenthood for adolescent mothers and their mother figures in Mexican-origin families. PMID:25615441
Toomey, Russell B; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Jahromi, Laudan B
Using longitudinal data collected at four time points from 191 dyads of Mexican-origin adolescent first-time mothers and their mother figures, we examined changes in and socialization of traditional gender role attitudes across the transition to parenthood using latent growth curve modeling and actor-partner interdependence modeling. Longitudinal growth models indicated that, regardless of nativity status, adolescent mothers' and their foreign-born mother figures' gender role attitudes became more egalitarian across adolescents' transition to parenthood, spanning from the 3rd trimester of pregnancy to 36 months postpartum. Furthermore, actor-partner interdependence modeling suggested that adolescents' and their mother figures' gender role attitudes during adolescents' third trimester of pregnancy equally contributed to subsequent increases in one another's gender role attitudes at 10 months postpartum. Importantly, this reciprocal socialization process was not moderated by adolescent mothers' nor by their mother figures' nativity status. Findings suggest that it is important to understand the cultural and intergenerational family processes that contribute to the development of gender role attitudes during the transition to parenthood for adolescent mothers and their mother figures in Mexican-origin families. © 2015 Family Process Institute.
Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A; Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Reidy, Dennis E; Hall, Jeffrey E
Commonly used dating violence prevention programs assume that promotion of more egalitarian gender role attitudes will prevent dating violence perpetration. Empirical research examining this assumption, however, is limited and inconsistent. The current study examined the longitudinal association between gender role attitudes and physical dating violence perpetration among adolescent boys (n = 577; 14 % Black, 5 % other race/ethnicity) and examined whether injunctive (i.e., acceptance of dating violence) and descriptive (i.e., beliefs about dating violence prevalence) normative beliefs moderated the association. As expected, the findings suggest that traditional gender role attitudes at T1 were associated with increased risk for dating violence perpetration 18 months later (T2) among boys who reported high, but not low, acceptance of dating violence (injunctive normative beliefs) at T1. Descriptive norms did not moderate the effect of gender role attitudes on dating violence perpetration. The results suggest that injunctive norms and gender role attitudes work synergistically to increase risk for dating violence perpetration among boys; as such, simultaneously targeting both of these constructs may be an effective prevention approach.
Studies of "green" consumer behaviour have often reported differences in male and female environmental concern and participation. This paper looks into the nature of such differences within the family. Husband-wife differences with regard to family participation in a number of environmentally...... that the processes whereby environmentally oriented consumer practices are adopted and transmitted among family members receive closer research attention....
equality and fair treatment in all ramifications irrespective of their sex and offence committed were ... Though this assumption would imply that as women's economic ... that it has not been more widely studied in order to ascertain what causes the ... involvement of women in criminal behaviour was on the increase especially.
Millington George WM
Full Text Available Abstract The precursor protein, proopiomelanocortin (POMC, produces many biologically active peptides via a series of enzymatic steps in a tissue-specific manner, yielding the melanocyte-stimulating hormones (MSHs, corticotrophin (ACTH and β-endorphin. The MSHs and ACTH bind to the extracellular G-protein coupled melanocortin receptors (MCRs of which there are five subtypes. The MC3R and MC4R show widespread expression in the central nervous system (CNS, whilst there is low level expression of MC1R and MC5R. In the CNS, cell bodies for POMC are mainly located in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and the nucleus tractus solitarius of the brainstem. Both of these areas have well defined functions relating to appetite and food intake. Mouse knockouts (ko for pomc, mc4r and mc3r all show an obese phenotype, as do humans expressing mutations of POMC and MC4R. Recently, human subjects with specific mutations in β-MSH have been found to be obese too, as have mice with engineered β-endorphin deficiency. The CNS POMC system has other functions, including regulation of sexual behaviour, lactation, the reproductive cycle and possibly central cardiovascular control. However, this review will focus on feeding behaviour and link it in with the neuroanatomy of the POMC neurones in the hypothalamus and brainstem.
Mugweni, Esther; Pearson, Stephen; Omar, Mayeh
Little is known on how forced sex contributes to the sexual transmission of HIV in marriage. This paper describes traditional gender norms surrounding forced sex in Zimbabwean marriage. Data were collected from 4 focus group discussions and 36 in-depth interviews with married women and men in Harare. Results indicate that hegemonic masculinity characterised by a perceived entitlement to sex, male dominance and being a provider contributed to forced sex in marriage. A femininity characterised by a tolerance of marital rape, the desire to please the husband and submission contributed to women experiencing forced sex. An alternative femininity characterised by sexual pleasure-seeking contributed to women forcing their spouses to have sex. Future HIV interventions must go beyond narrowly advocating for safer sex within marriage and instead address practices that increase risk as well as promote positive marital relationship needs such as mutual respect, love and friendship.
Lee, Yeonjung; Tang, Fengyan
This study examined the relationship of caregiving roles to labor force participation using the nationally representative data from the Health and Retirement Study. The sample was composed of men and women aged 50 to 61 years (N = 5,119). Caregiving roles included caregiving for spouse, parents, and grandchildren; a summary of three caregiving roles was used to indicate multiple caregiving roles. Bivariate analysis using chi-square and t tests and binary logistic regression models were applied. Results show that women caregivers for parents and/or grandchildren were less likely to be in the labor force than non-caregivers and that caregiving responsibility was not related to labor force participation for the sample of men. Findings have implication for supporting family caregivers, especially women, to balance work and caregiving commitments. © The Author(s) 2013.
Suicide Psychiatric diagnoses. Antisocial Personality Disorder is diagnosed three times more often in men than women (American Psychiatric Association...Finally, using a two-year prospective design, researchers determined that a diagnosis of borderline 15 personality disorder resulted in...which refers to “a psychological state in which socialized gender roles have negative consequences for the person or others” (p. 362, O’Neil, 2008) and
Meijnders, A.L.; Midden, C.J.H.; Wilke, H.A.M.
What role does emotion play in the provision of public information about· the risks of environmental pollution? This is a question that is asked in the research project on the 'Role of emotion in public information on environmental risks and pro-environmental behaviour'. This article describes the
Leach, Liana S; Christensen, Helen; Mackinnon, Andrew J; Windsor, Timothy D; Butterworth, Peter
There is robust epidemiological and clinical evidence that a greater number of women than men experience depression and anxiety. This study investigated a number of socio-demographic, health and lifestyle, psychological and social factors as possible mediators for the gender difference in depression and anxiety in three cohorts (20-24, 40-44, 60-64). Responses were from a representative, community based survey (n = 7,485) conducted in Canberra and Queanbeyan (NSW), in Australia. Depression and anxiety were measured using the self-report Goldberg Anxiety and Depression Scales. The analyses initially identified gender differences in the potential mediators, followed by univariate and multivariate mediation models. The results indicated several shared mediators for depression and anxiety across the three age groups including: childhood adversity, mastery, behavioural inhibition, ruminative style, neuroticism, physical health, physical activity, and perceived interpersonal and employment problems. There was a decrease in the number of social mediators as age increased. The multivariate models accounted for gender differences in both conditions for all age groups, except for anxiety in the 20-24 years old. This suggests further important unmeasured mediators for this age group. These findings add to the literature surrounding gender differences in depression and anxiety, and provide a basis for future research exploring variation in these gender disparities over the adult lifespan.
Strebel, A; Crawford, M; Shefer, T; Cloete, A; Henda, N; Kaufman, M; Simbayi, L; Magome, K; Kalichman, S
The links between gender roles, gender-based violence and HIV/AIDS risk are complex and culturally specific. In this qualitative study we investigated how women and men in two black communities in the Western Cape, South Africa, constructed their gender identities and roles, how they understood gender-based violence, and what they believed about the links between gender relations and HIV risk. First we conducted 16 key informant interviews with members of relevant stakeholder organisations. Then we held eight focus group discussions with community members in single-sex groups. Key findings included the perception that although traditional gender roles were still very much in evidence, shifts in power between men and women were occurring. Also, gender-based violence was regarded as a major problem throughout communities, and was seen to be fuelled by unemployment, poverty and alcohol abuse. HIV/AIDS was regarded as particularly a problem of African communities, with strong themes of stigma, discrimination, and especially 'othering' evident. Developing effective HIV/AIDS interventions in these communities will require tackling the overlapping as well as divergent constructions of gender, gender violence and HIV which emerged in the study.
Horne, Rebecca M; Johnson, Matthew D
Drawing from the intimacy process model and data from 5,042 individuals who remained partnered across Waves 1 and 2 of the German Panel Analysis of Intimate Relationships and Family Dynamics (pairfam), this study examined the contributions of traditional gender role attitudes and relationship efficacy in predicting levels of self-disclosure within an intimate relationship. Independent samples t-tests demonstrated females scored higher than males on self-disclosure and relationship efficacy measures but lower on traditional gender role attitudes. An ordinary least squares regression analysis revealed relationship efficacy was a stronger predictor of self-disclosure compared to traditional gender role attitudes, which were not associated with self-disclosure. The findings suggest attitudes with an interpersonal motivational system may be especially important for setting the intimacy process into motion within an intimate union.
Malebranche, David J; Gvetadze, Roman; Millett, Gregorio A; Sutton, Madeline Y
Gender role conflict may influence condom use among black MSM. We examined relationships between the Gender Role Conflict Scale (GRCS), social/demographic variables and condom use among 456 black MSM. Higher total GRCS scores did not predict unprotected insertive anal intercourse (UIAI) or unprotected receptive anal intercourse (URAI) with men, but were associated with unprotected vaginal or anal intercourse (UVI/UAI) with women among bisexually active participants (n = 69). Higher perceived HIV risk reduced the likelihood of both UIAI and URAI with men. Internet recruitment venues, sexual discrimination experiences, higher numbers of sex partners and UVI/UAI with women all increased the likelihood of UIAI with men, while education (college/technical school or college degree) was associated with URAI with men. Future sexual health interventions for black MSM should emphasize broader social/demographic and alternative gender role variables with male sexual partners, while traditional GRCS variables may prove useful among those with female sexual partners.
Loginov, S I; Malkov, M N; Nikolayev, A Yu
Objective of the study was to establish gender-specific characteristics of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior in elderly people living in Yugra North. 295 residents of Surgut (102 men aged 62,9±5,3 years, 35%; 193 women aged 61,9±3,8 years, 65%) were subject to a IPAQ-RU questionnaire. The study revealed the gender-specific differences in body length and mass, body mass and body fat indices. It was detected that more energy is spent on the housework and physical activity in the country (moderate-intensity physical activity for women and high-intensity one for men). The study data showed no statistically significant gender-specific differences in general physical activity. Sedentary behavior is more popular among men rather than women (2543 vs 2441 min/week). 47% of low-active men and 56% of women reported the sitting times of 6-9 hours per day, 42% - 9-12 hours per day. Actions need to be taken to increase physical activity which is low at the moment and decrease sedentary behavior which is currently on the high level.
Mejia, Raul; Kaplan, Celia P; Alderete, Ethel; Gregorich, Steven E; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J
Evaluate effect of gender role attitudes on tobacco and alcohol use among Argentinean girls. Cross-sectional survey of 10th grade students attending 27 randomly selected schools in Jujuy, Argentina. Questions about tobacco and alcohol use were adapted from global youth surveys. Five items with 5-point response options of agreement-disagreement assessed attitude towards egalitarian (higher score) gender roles. 2133 girls, aged 13-18 years, 71% Indigenous, 22% mixed Indigenous/European, and 7% European responded. Of these, 60% had ever smoked, 32% were current smokers, 58% ever drinkers, 27% drank in previous month, and 13% had ≥5 drinks on one occasion. Mean response to the gender role scale was 3.49 (95% Confidence Intervals = 3.41-3.57) out of 5 tending toward egalitarian attitudes. Logistic regression models using the gender role scale score as the main predictor and adjusting for demographic and social confounders showed that egalitarian gender role was associated with ever smoking (Odds Ratio = 1.25; 95% Confidence Intervals 1.09-1.44), ever drinking (Odds Ratio = 1.24; 95% Confidence Intervals 1.10-1.40), drinking in prior month (Odds Ratio = 1.21; 95% Confidence Intervals 1.07-1.37) and ≥5 drinks on one occasion (Odds Ratio = 1.15; 95% Confidence Intervals 1.00-1.33), but was not significant for current smoking. Girls in Jujuy who reported more egalitarian gender role attitudes had higher odds of smoking or drinking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Waelde, Lynn C.; And Others
Examines whether relationships of self-reported depression and suicidality to gender roles or gender are moderated by stressful life events. Results with 290 female and 247 male undergraduates support the androgyny model of adjustment and a self-schema model of depression. (SLD)
Read, Sanna; Grundy, Emily
As shared family context may be an important influence on mental health, and gender differences in mental health, in later life we investigated how gender, family-related variables and gender roles were associated with mental health in older married couples. Using data on a sample of 2,511 married couples born between 1923 and 1953 (drawn from the British Household Panel Survey) we analysed differences in the mental health of husbands and wives by fertility history, length of marriage, presence of co-resident children, reported social support, hours of household work, attitudes to gender roles and health of husband and wife. Mental health in 2001 was measured using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Multilevel modelling was used to assess effects in husbands and wives and variations between husbands and wives. Results showed that although the mental health of married couples was correlated, wives had poorer mental health than their husbands. The gender difference was smaller in couples who lived with a child aged 16 or more (and had no younger co-resident children) and in couples in which both spouses had experienced early parenthood. The influence of individual and family characteristics on mental health also differed between husbands and wives. For husbands, early fatherhood and co-residence with a child or children aged 16 or more increased the odds of poor mental health. For wives, having had a child when aged 35 or more appeared protective while having traditional gender role attitudes increased the odds of poorer mental health. The role of family characteristics in the shared marital context has complex associations with mental health, some of which seem gender specific. Although wives express more mental distress, husbands in general show poorer mental health related to family characteristics.
Vafaei, Afshin; Ahmed, Tamer; Freire, Aline do N Falcão; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Guerra, Ricardo O
To assess the associations between gender roles and depression in older men and women and whether gender roles are independent risk factors for depression. International cross-sectional study of adults between 65 and 74 years old (n = 1,967). Depression was defined by a score of 16 or over in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). A validated 12-item Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) was used to classify participants in gender roles (Masculine, Feminine, Androgynous, and Undifferentiated) using research site medians of femininity and masculinity as cut-off points. Poisson regressions were fitted to estimate the prevalence ratios (PR) of depression for each gender role compared to the masculine role, adjusting for sex, sufficiency of income, education, marital status, self-rated health, and chronic conditions. Among men, 31.2% were androgynous, 26% were masculine, 14.4% were feminine, and 28.4% were undifferentiated; among women, the corresponding percentages were 32.7%, 14.9%, 27%, and 25.4%. Both in men and in women, depressive symptoms (CES-D≥16) were more prevalent in those endorsing the undifferentiated type, compared to masculine, feminine or androgynous groups. However, after adjusting for potential confounders, compared to the masculine group only those endorsing the androgynous role were 28% less likely to suffer from depression: PR of 0.72 (95% CI: 0.55-0.93). In fully adjusted models, prevalence rates of depression were not different from masculine participants in the two other gender groups of feminine and undifferentiated. Androgynous roles were associated with lower rates of depression in older adults, independently of being a man or a woman.
Full Text Available To assess the associations between gender roles and depression in older men and women and whether gender roles are independent risk factors for depression.International cross-sectional study of adults between 65 and 74 years old (n = 1,967. Depression was defined by a score of 16 or over in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. A validated 12-item Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI was used to classify participants in gender roles (Masculine, Feminine, Androgynous, and Undifferentiated using research site medians of femininity and masculinity as cut-off points. Poisson regressions were fitted to estimate the prevalence ratios (PR of depression for each gender role compared to the masculine role, adjusting for sex, sufficiency of income, education, marital status, self-rated health, and chronic conditions.Among men, 31.2% were androgynous, 26% were masculine, 14.4% were feminine, and 28.4% were undifferentiated; among women, the corresponding percentages were 32.7%, 14.9%, 27%, and 25.4%. Both in men and in women, depressive symptoms (CES-D≥16 were more prevalent in those endorsing the undifferentiated type, compared to masculine, feminine or androgynous groups. However, after adjusting for potential confounders, compared to the masculine group only those endorsing the androgynous role were 28% less likely to suffer from depression: PR of 0.72 (95% CI: 0.55-0.93. In fully adjusted models, prevalence rates of depression were not different from masculine participants in the two other gender groups of feminine and undifferentiated.Androgynous roles were associated with lower rates of depression in older adults, independently of being a man or a woman.
Jürgensen, Martina; Hiort, Olaf; Holterhus, Paul-Martin; Thyen, Ute
Children exhibit gender-typical preferences in play, toys, activities and interests, and playmates. Several studies suggest that high concentrations of pre- and postnatal androgens contribute to male-typical behavior development, whereas female-typical behavior develops in the absence of high androgens levels. This study aims to explore the consequences of hypoandrogenization on gender-typical behavior in children who have an XY karyotype and disorder of sex development (DSD). Participants included 33 children (ages 2-12 years) with an XY karyotype and DSD; 21 reared as girls and 12 reared as boys. Children's preferred activities and interests and playmate preferences were assessed with parent report questionnaires, a structured free-play task, and choice of a toy to keep as a gift. Participant's responses were compared to those of children recruited in a pre-school and elementary school survey (N=166). In this study, the degree of hypoandrogenization as indicated by genital stage and diagnosis showed a significant relationship to nearly all of the gender-related behaviors assessed, supporting the hypothesis that masculinization of gender role behavior is a function of prenatal androgen exposure. Despite the fact that children with partial androgen effects reared as girls showed increased "boyish" behaviors, they did not show increased signs of gender identity confusion or instability on a group level. We conclude that androgen exposure plays a decisive role in the development of gender-typical behavior in children with XY karyotype and DSD conditions.
Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien
Researchers and practitioners have been pursuing how to enhance counselors' multicultural counseling competencies (MCC). With a sample of 460 counselors, the author examined whether multicultural training changed the relationship between (a) racial/ethnic identity and MCC and (b) gender-role attitudes and MCC. The author found significant…
Mahalik, James R.; Aldarondo, Etiony; Gilbert-Gokhale, Steven; Shore, Erika
The authors hypothesized that masculine gender role stress would mediate the relationship between insecure attachment and controlling behaviors in a sample of men who batter. To examine this hypothesis, 143 men who were court mandated to attend a batterers' intervention program in a northeastern state completed measures including the Controlling…
Shen, April Chiung-Tao; Chiu, Marcus Yu-Lung; Gao, Jianxiu
In Chinese societies, violence among adolescent dating partners remains a largely ignored and invisible phenomenon. The goal of this study is to examine the relationships among gender-role beliefs, attitudes justifying dating violence, and the experiences of dating-violence perpetration and victimization among Chinese adolescents. This study has used self-reporting measures to collect data from a probability sample of 976 adolescents (mean age = 15.9) in three Chinese societies: Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Shanghai. Research results reveal a high prevalence of dating violence (including physical violence, sexual violence, and controlling behavior) among Chinese adolescents with dating experience: the perpetration rate is 27.3% and the victimization rate is 39%. Study results demonstrate that adolescents who endorse traditional gender-role beliefs tend to view dating violence as acceptable behavior. Boys' endorsement of traditional gender roles, boys' attitudes justifying boy-on-girl violence, and boys' attitudes against girl-on-boy violence predict boys' actual sexual-violence behavior. Moreover, boys' attitudes justifying boy-on-girl dating violence is the strongest predictor of boys' perpetration of physical and sexual dating violence. This study also shows that boys' hostility is a significant predictor of boys' controlling behavior. Programs for preventing dating violence should include components designed to challenge traditional gender-role beliefs and attitudes justifying dating violence.
Shen, April Chiung-Tao; Chiu, Marcus Yu-Lung; Gao, Jianxiu
In Chinese societies, violence among adolescent dating partners remains a largely ignored and invisible phenomenon. The goal of this study is to examine the relationships among gender-role beliefs, attitudes justifying dating violence, and the experiences of dating-violence perpetration and victimization among Chinese adolescents. This study has…
Chen, I-Jun; Zhang, Hailun; Wei, Bingsi; Guo, Zeyao
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the gender-role types and child-rearing gender-role attitude of the single-parents, as well as their children's gender role traits and family socio-economic status, on social adjustment. We recruited 458 pairs of single parents and their children aged 8-18 by purposive sampling. The research tools included the Family Socio-economic Status Questionnaire, Sex Role Scales, Parental Child-rearing Gender-role Attitude Scale and Social Adjustment Scale. The results indicated: (a) single mothers' and their daughters' feminine traits were both higher than their masculine traits, and sons' masculine traits were higher than their feminine traits; the majority gender-role type of single parents and their children was androgyny; significant differences were found between children's gender-role types depending on different raiser, the proportion of girls' masculine traits raised by single fathers was significantly higher than those who were raised by single mothers; (b) family socio-economic status and single parents' gender-role types positively influenced parental child-rearing gender-role attitude, which in turn, influenced the children's gender traits, and further affected children's social adjustment. © 2018 International Union of Psychological Science.
Walton, A; Flouri, Eirini
The objective of this study was to test if emotion regulation mediates the association between mothers' parenting and adolescents' externalizing behaviour problems (conduct problems and hyperactivity). The parenting dimensions were warmth, psychological control and behavioural control (measured with knowledge, monitoring and discipline). Adjustment was made for contextual risk (measured with the number of proximal adverse life events experienced), gender, age and English as an additional language. Data were from a UK community sample of adolescents aged 11-18 from a comprehensive school in a disadvantaged area. At the multivariate level, none of the parenting variables predicted hyperactivity, which was associated only with difficulties in emotion regulation, contextual risk and English as a first language. The parenting variables predicting conduct problems at the multivariate level were warmth and knowledge. Knowledge did not predict emotion regulation. However, warmth predicted emotion regulation, which was negatively associated with conduct problems. Contextual risk was a significant predictor of both difficulties in emotion regulation and externalizing behaviour problems. Its effect on conduct problems was independent of parenting and was not via its association with difficulties in emotion regulation. The findings add to the evidence for the importance of maternal warmth and contextual risk for both regulated emotion and regulated behaviour. The small maternal control effects on both emotion regulation and externalizing behaviour could suggest the importance of paternal control for adolescent outcomes.
The hypotheses generated for the study were tested at .05 alpha levels using Pearson product Moment Correlation, Chi-Square, Multivariate Analysis and t test statistical methods. The findings of the study revealed that men and women involvement in wage employment has significantly influenced work-family role conflict.
Long, Vonda O.
While current research is beginning to suggest that it is masculinity that correlates with mental health, results are inconclusive and studies have primarily focused on limited measures of mental health. This study incorporated multiple measures of self-concept in an analysis of the relationship between sex-role orientation and mental health of…
Huyge, Ellen; Van Maele, Dimitri; Van Houtte, Mieke
How much students feel at home in school predicts academic outcomes. In view of the gender achievement gap, it is worth examining the gendered pattern of this school belonging. Studies on school belonging, however, have barely acknowledged possible obstructive effects of traditional gender role attitudes of individual students and student…
Full Text Available This study concentrates on the potential effects of glass ceiling and queen bee syndrome in establishing high quality exchange (leader member exchange with subordinates. The study analyses if gender plays a significant role in determining exchange with subordinates. Data was collected from white-collar employees at Turkish business context by using Liden Maslyn (1998 multi-dimension Leader Member Exchange assessment tool. The findings of the study exhibit that in Turkish business context leader's gender is insignificant at determining exchange with white-collar subordinates for dimensions such as affection, contribution, loyalty and professional respect. The study also concludes gender of the subordinates is insignificant at determining the exchange with leaders of both genders
Anderson, Neil; Lievens, Filip; van Dam, Karen; Born, Marise
This study examined gender differences in a large-scale assessment center for officer entry in the British Army. Subgroup differences were investigated for a sample of 1,857 candidates: 1,594 men and 263 women. A construct-driven approach was chosen (a) by examining gender differences at the construct level, (b) by formulating a priori hypotheses about which constructs would be susceptible to gender effects, and (c) by using both effect size statistics and latent mean analyses to investigate gender differences in assessment center ratings. Results showed that female candidates were rated notably higher on constructs reflecting an interpersonally oriented leadership style (i.e., oral communication and interaction) and on drive and determination. These results are discussed in light of role congruity theory and of the advantages of using latent mean analyses.
Lin, Yi-Ching; Billingham, Robert E
The relationship between perceived parenting styles and gender role identity was examined in college students. 230 undergraduate students (48 men, 182 women; 18-23 years old) responded to the Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ) and the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI). The hypothesis was that parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive for both fathers and mothers) would be significantly associated with gender role identity (undifferentiated, feminine, masculine, and androgynous) of college students, specifically whether authoritative parenting styles associated with androgyny. To account for differences in sex on gender role identity or parenting styles, sex was included as a factor. The pattern of the difference in identity groups was similar for males and females. There were significant differences in parenting styles between gender role groups. Maternal and paternal authoritativeness correlated with participants' femininity, and for both parents, the relationship was observed to be stronger in males than females; paternal authoritativeness was significantly associated with androgyny. Future research based on these results should investigate how the findings relate to children's psychological well-being and behavioral outcomes.
Haurum, Helle; Beckmann, Suzanne C.
Customers and firms interact at many different touch-points that enable customer engagement behaviour. By adopting a customer-centric approach we investigated through 20 in-depth interviews what drives service customers’ CEB manifestations in touch-points, which the firm either manages, monitors......, or manoeuvres between. The key findings are that (a) CEBs are driven by different forms of goal-role integration across touch-points, (b) customers’ goal-directedness determines the touch-points where CEBs are manifested, (c) customers’ role-playing behaviours determine the nature of CEBs, and (d) customers......’ role-playing behaviours can change across touch-points, contingent upon goal-directedness. Hence, this study provides rich insights into customer-firm encounters at touch-points, which subsequently define and shape the relation over time....
Kachel, Sven; Steffens, Melanie C.; Niedlich, Claudia
Gender stereotype theory suggests that men are generally perceived as more masculine than women, whereas women are generally perceived as more feminine than men. Several scales have been developed to measure fundamental aspects of gender stereotypes (e.g., agency and communion, competence and warmth, or instrumentality and expressivity). Although omitted in later version, Bem's original Sex Role Inventory included the items “masculine” and “feminine” in addition to more specific gender-stereotypical attributes. We argue that it is useful to be able to measure these two core concepts in a reliable, valid, and parsimonious way. We introduce a new and brief scale, the Traditional Masculinity-Femininity (TMF) scale, designed to assess central facets of self-ascribed masculinity-femininity. Studies 1–2 used known-groups approaches (participants differing in gender and sexual orientation) to validate the scale and provide evidence of its convergent validity. As expected the TMF reliably measured a one-dimensional masculinity-femininity construct. Moreover, the TMF correlated moderately with other gender-related measures. Demonstrating incremental validity, the TMF predicted gender and sexual orientation in a superior way than established adjective-based measures. Furthermore, the TMF was connected to criterion characteristics, such as judgments as straight by laypersons for the whole sample, voice pitch characteristics for the female subsample, and contact to gay men for the male subsample, and outperformed other gender-related scales. Taken together, as long as gender differences continue to exist, we suggest that the TMF provides a valuable methodological addition for research into gender stereotypes. PMID:27458394
Kachel, Sven; Steffens, Melanie C; Niedlich, Claudia
Gender stereotype theory suggests that men are generally perceived as more masculine than women, whereas women are generally perceived as more feminine than men. Several scales have been developed to measure fundamental aspects of gender stereotypes (e.g., agency and communion, competence and warmth, or instrumentality and expressivity). Although omitted in later version, Bem's original Sex Role Inventory included the items "masculine" and "feminine" in addition to more specific gender-stereotypical attributes. We argue that it is useful to be able to measure these two core concepts in a reliable, valid, and parsimonious way. We introduce a new and brief scale, the Traditional Masculinity-Femininity (TMF) scale, designed to assess central facets of self-ascribed masculinity-femininity. Studies 1-2 used known-groups approaches (participants differing in gender and sexual orientation) to validate the scale and provide evidence of its convergent validity. As expected the TMF reliably measured a one-dimensional masculinity-femininity construct. Moreover, the TMF correlated moderately with other gender-related measures. Demonstrating incremental validity, the TMF predicted gender and sexual orientation in a superior way than established adjective-based measures. Furthermore, the TMF was connected to criterion characteristics, such as judgments as straight by laypersons for the whole sample, voice pitch characteristics for the female subsample, and contact to gay men for the male subsample, and outperformed other gender-related scales. Taken together, as long as gender differences continue to exist, we suggest that the TMF provides a valuable methodological addition for research into gender stereotypes.
Schmidt, Sarah J.; Douglas, Stephanie; Gosnell, Natalie M.; Muirhead, Philip S.; Booth, Rachel S.; Davenport, James R. A.; Mace, Gregory N.
We examine the gender balance of the 18th and 19th meetings of the Cambridge Workshop on Cool Stellar Systems and the Sun (CS18 and CS19). The percent of female attendees at both meetings (31% at CS18 and 37% at CS19) was higher than the percent of women in the American Astronomical Society (25%) and the International Astronomical Union (18%). The representation of women in Cool Stars as SOC members, invited speakers, and contributed speakers was similar to or exceeded the percent of women attending the meetings. We requested that conference attendees assist in a project to collect data on the gender of astronomers asking questions after talks. Using this data, we found that men were over-represented (and women were under-represented) in the question sessions after each talk. Men asked 79% of the questions at CS18 and 75% of the questions at CS19, but were 69% and 63% of the attendees respectively. Contrary to findings from previous conferences, we did not find that the gender balance of questions was strongly affected by the session chair gender, the speaker gender, or the length of the question period. We also found that female and male speakers were asked a comparable number of questions after each talk. The contrast of these results from previous incarnations of the gender questions survey indicate that more data would be useful in understanding the factors that contribute to the gender balance of question askers. We include a preliminary set of recommendations based on this and other work on related topics, but also advocate for additional research on the demographics of conference participants. Additional data on the intersection of gender with race, seniority, sexual orientation, ability and other marginalized identities is necessary to fully address the role of gender in asking questions at conferences.
Krentel, Alison; Wellings, Kaye
The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis has set 2020 as a target to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF) as a public health problem through mass drug administration (MDA) to all eligible people living in endemic areas. To obtain a better understanding of compliance with LF treatment, a qualitative study using 43 in-depth interviews was carried out in Alor District, Indonesia to explore factors that motivate uptake of LF treatment, including the social and behavioural differences between compliant and non-compliant individuals. In this paper, we report on the findings specific to the role of family and gender relations and how they affect compliance. The sample comprised 21 men and 22 women; 24 complied with treatment while 19 did not. Gender relations emerged as a key theme in access, uptake and compliance with MDA. The view that the husband, as head of household, had the power, control, and in some cases the responsibility to influence whether his wife took the medication was common among both men and women. Gender also affected priorities for health care provision in the household as well as overall decision making regarding health in the household. Four models of responsibility for health decision making emerged: (i) responsibility resting primarily with the husband; (ii) responsibility resting primarily with the wife; (iii) responsibility shared equally by both husband and wife; and (iv) responsibility autonomously assumed by each individual for his or her own self, regardless of the course of action of the other spouse. (i) Gender relations and social hierarchy influence compliance with LF treatment because they inherently affect decisions taken within the household regarding health; (ii) health care interventions need to take account of the complexity of gender roles; (iii) the fact that women's power tends to be implicit and not overtly recognised in the household or the community has important implications for health care interventions; (iv
The aim of this study was to investigate whether sedentary job role and gender are reflected by sedentary risk factors within a university campus. Following institutional ethical approval, 80 U.K. university campus employees were recruited, and 34 of them (age 47.8 ± 11.9 years, height 169 ± 1.0 cm, body mass 72.0 ± 14.1 kg) were measured for their systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), blood glucose (Glu), total serum blood cholesterol (Cho), dominant (DHG) and nondominant handgrip strength (NHG), body fat percentage (Fat%), trunk flexibility (Flex), peak cardiorespiratory capacity (V.O2max), and answered a physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ). The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA with job role and gender as independent factors, and each measured risk as a dependent factor. Gender had significant effects (pworkplace.
Bailey, Jacqueline M; Wye, Paula M; Wiggers, John H; Bartlem, Kate M; Bowman, Jennifer A
People with a mental illness experience greater chronic disease morbidity and mortality compared to those without mental illness. Family carers have the potential to promote the health behaviours of those they care for however factors which may influence the extent to which they do so have not been reported. An exploratory study was conducted to investigate carers': 1) promotion of fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, quitting smoking, and reducing alcohol consumption; 2) perceptions of their role and ability to promote such behaviours; 3) and the association between carer perceptions and the promotion of such behaviours. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with mental health carers ( N = 144, 37.6% response rate) in New South Wales, Australia in 2013. Associations between current promotion of health behaviours and carer perceptions were explored through multivariate regression analysis in 2016. A majority of respondents promoted fruit and vegetable consumption (63.8%), physical activity (60.3%), quitting smoking (56.3%), and reducing alcohol consumption (56.2%) to the person they cared for. A perception that it was 'very important' to have a positive influence on these behaviours was positively related with promotion of each of the four behaviours, with those holding such a view being more likely to promote such behaviours, than those who did not (odds ratio: 9.47-24.13, p mental illness.
Full Text Available Gender discrimination adversely affected women in all areas of social life, especially in the fields of education, work, marriage and family life. Feminism has emerged to draw attention to the these impacts of gender discrimination and to reduce it's negative consequences. Social transformation is necessary to ensure gender justice. One of the important steps for achieving this transformation is to educate the youth and increase their awareness. This study was conducted with the aim to determine Dumlupinar University, School of Health students' opinions on feminism and gender roles. The population of this study consists of 1293 students. Sample is comprised of 846 students who accepted to enrolled in the study. Data have been collected with using a questionnaire and assessed with percentiles, Kruskal-Walls and Mann-Whitney U-Tests. 43.3% of students defined feminism as “a style of thought that advocates women are more superior than men” and 31.9% of them as “a style of thought that advocates the equity of social opportunity”. It was identified that male students have more traditional opinions on gender roles related to work, social, marriage and family life. This study has revealed that male students have more conventional opinions in the fields of in working and married life, while the male and female students have egalatirian opinions in the propositions about social life and family life. Besides, the results of the study have revealed that opinions of students on gender roles related to work, social, marriage and family life exhibit statistically significant differences among the departments for all of the statements given. It was observed that midwifery students have more egalitarian views. Also, it was determined that upper class students have more egalitarian opinions. As a result of our study, it has been seen that university students still have a traditional perspective on social gender roles. According to the results of the
Arora, Prerna G.; Metz, Kristina; Carlson, Cindy I.
This study examined (a) the roles of perceived and personal stigma on attitudes toward professional psychological help seeking and (b) the effects of these constructs across gender in South Asians. Personal stigma and being male was negatively associated with attitudes toward professional psychological help seeking; no difference in the…
Smits, J.; Mulder, C.H.; Hooimeijer, P.
Long-distance migration of couples requires joint decision-making within the household. The uneven power balance between men and women and traditional gender roles have given rise to the concepts of 'tied stayer' (usually the male partner) and 'tied mover' (usually the female). Since these concepts