WorldWideScience

Sample records for gender matched healthy

  1. Gait impairment in cervical spondylotic myelopathy: comparison with age- and gender-matched healthy controls.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Malone, Ailish

    2012-12-01

    Gait impairment is a primary symptom of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM); however, little is known about specific kinetic and kinematic gait parameters. The objectives of the study were: (1) to compare gait patterns of people with untreated CSM to those of age- and gender-matched healthy controls; (2) to examine the effect of gait speed on kinematic and kinetic parameters.

  2. Sexual dysfunction is more than twice as frequent in Danish female predialysis patients compared to age- and gender-matched healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, Lotte; Eidemak, Inge; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare sexual dysfunction in Danish female predialysis patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 4-5 with age-matched healthy women in Denmark. METHODS: Twenty-seven adult female predialysis patients (CKD stage 4-5 ~ creatinine clearance ≤ 30 ml/min) without.......1, respectively, p = 0.180). CONCLUSION: Sexual dysfunction was found to be more than two times as frequent in Danish female predialysis patients with CKD stage 4-5 compared to age- and gender-matched healthy controls, and this result emphasizes the need for attention towards sexual function in the treatment...... diagnosed depression and 54 randomly assigned healthy female controls completed the questionnaires Female Sexual Function Index, Female Sexual Distress Scale, and the Major Depression Inventory. RESULTS: Predialysis patients reported lower Female Sexual Function Index scores compared to the controls (14...

  3. Effects of sex, gender role identification, and gender relevance of two types of stressors on cardiovascular and subjective responses: Sex and gender match and mismatch effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Well, S.; Kolk, A.M.; Klugkist, I.G.

    2008-01-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that a match between the gender relevance of a stressor and one’s sex or gender role identification would elicit higher cardiovascular responses. Healthy female and male undergraduates (n = 108) were exposed to two stressors: the Cold Pressor Test (CPT) and the

  4. The Comparison of Risky Decision Making in Opium Abuser and Healthy Matched Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nejati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Risky decision making is one of the most basic mechanisms of impulsive and addictive behaviors. The purpose of present study was the comparison of risky decision making in opium abuser and healthy matched individuals. Method: In present cross sectional study, 50 opium abusers compared to 50 healthy who were matched on age and gender. Balloon Analogue Risk Taking Task was used for evaluation of risk taking in participant of both groups. Results: The results showed that opium abusers have had higher scores on number of plumbing balloon and exploded balloon in BART task than normal individuals. Conclusion: Opium abusers have higher risk taking than normal individuals.

  5. Gender differences in game responses during badminton match play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; de la Aleja Tellez, Jose G; Moya-Ramon, Manuel; Cabello-Manrique, David; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate possible gender differences in match play activity pattern [rally duration, rest time between rallies, effective playing time, and strokes performed during a rally] and exercise intensity (heart rate [HR], blood lactate [La], and subjective ratings of perceived exertion [RPE]) during 9 simulated badminton matches in male (n = 8) and female (n = 8) elite junior (16.0 ± 1.4 years) players. Results showed significant differences (all p 0.05; ES = -0.33 to 0.08) were observed between female or male players in average HR (174 ± 7 vs. 170 ± 9 b·min(-1)), %HRmax (89.2 ± 4.0% vs. 85.9 ± 4.3%), La (2.5 ± 1.3 vs. 3.2 ± 1.8 mmol·L(-1)), and RPE values (14.2 ± 1.9 vs. 14.6 ± 1.8) during match play, although male players spent more time (moderate effect sizes) at intensities between 81 and 90% HRmax (35.3 ± 17.9 vs. 25.3 ± 13.6; p < 0.05; ES = 0.64) in the second game. There seemed to be a trend toward an increased playing intensity (i.e., higher HR, La, and RPE) from the first to the second game, highlighting the higher exercise intensity experienced during the last part of the match. The clear between-gender differences in activity patterns induced only slightly different physiological responses.

  6. Quality of life in Arab Muslim cancer survivors following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: comparison with matched healthy group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaloul, Fawwaz; Brockopp, Dorothy Y; Andrykowski, Michael A; Hall, Lynne A; Al Nusairat, Taghreed S

    2015-07-01

    The aims of this study were to determine if quality of life (QOL) among Arab Muslim hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) survivors differs from that of a healthy matched comparison group and to examine the relationships of demographic and medical variables and perceived social support with post-HSCT QOL. HSCT survivors (n = 63) were recruited from the King Hussein Cancer Center outpatient clinic. A matched (age, gender, education), healthy comparison group (n = 63) was recruited through public advertisements. Participants completed the EORTC-30 QOL scale and the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey. Differences were found between the Arab Muslim HSCT survivor and healthy comparison groups for physical functioning (p Western HSCT survivors in the social and emotional QOL domains. Given growing numbers of Arab and Muslim cancer survivors in the USA and other Western countries, future research is warranted.

  7. Scientist Role Models in the Classroom: How Important Is Gender Matching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Laura D. Carsten; Danielson, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Gender-matched role models are often proposed as a mechanism to increase identification with science among girls, with the ultimate aim of broadening participation in science. While there is a great deal of evidence suggesting that role models can be effective, there is mixed support in the literature for the importance of gender matching. We used…

  8. Gender differences associated with orienting attentional networks in healthy subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Gang; HU Pan-pan; FAN Jin; WANG Kai

    2013-01-01

    Background Selective attention is considered one of the main components of cognitive functioning.A number of studies have demonstrated gender differences in cognition.This study aimed to investigate the gender differences in selective attention in healthy subjects.Methods The present experiment examined the gender differences associated with the efficiency of three attentional networks:alerting,orienting,and executive control attention in 73 healthy subjects (38 males).All participants performed a modified version of the Attention Network Test (ANT).Results Females had higher orienting scores than males (t=2.172,P <0.05).Specifically,females were faster at covert orienting of attention to a spatially cued location.There were no gender differences between males and females in alerting (t=0.813,P >0.05) and executive control (t=0.945,P >0.05) attention networks.Conclusions There was a significant gender difference between males and females associated with the orienting network.Enhanced orienting attention in females may function to motivate females to direct their attention to a spatially cued location.

  9. Manager impartiality? Worker-firm matching and the gender wage gap

    OpenAIRE

    Hensvik, Lena

    2011-01-01

    Using a rich matched employer-employee data set from Sweden, the author examines whether female managers in a firm narrow the gender pay gap. The studyÌs main contribution is its ability to account for unobserved heterogeneity among both workers and firms that is potentially correlated with manager gender. The results show a substantial negative association between the representation of female managers and the establishmentÌs gender wage gap. Estimates that account for sorting on unobserved w...

  10. Gender differences in muscular protection of the knee in torsion in size-matched athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtys, Edward M; Huston, Laura J; Schock, Harold J; Boylan, James P; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2003-05-01

    Female athletes who participate in sports involving jumping and cutting maneuvers are up to eight times more likely to sustain a rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament than are men participating in the same sports. We tested the hypothesis that healthy young women are able to volitionally increase the apparent torsional stiffness of the knee, by maximally activating the knee muscles, significantly less than are size-matched men participating in the same type of sport. Twenty-four NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association) Division-I athletes (twelve men and twelve women) competing in sports associated with a high risk of injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (basketball, volleyball, and soccer) were compared with twenty-eight collegiate endurance athletes (fourteen men and fourteen women) participating in sports associated with a low risk of such injuries (bicycling, crew, and running). Male and female pairs were matched for age, height, weight, body mass index, shoe size, and activity level. Testing was performed with a weighted pendulum that applied a medially directed 80-N impulse force to the lateral aspect of the right forefoot. The resulting internal rotation of the leg was measured optically, to the nearest 0.25 degrees, at 30 degrees and 60 degrees of knee flexion, both with and without maximal activation of the knee muscles. Maximal rotations of the leg were greater in women than in men in both the passive and the active muscle state (16% and 27% greater [p = 0.01 and p = 0.02], respectively). Moreover, female athletes exhibited a significantly (18%) smaller volitional increase in apparent torsional stiffness of the knee under internal rotation loading than did the matched male athletes (p = 0.014); this was particularly the case for those who participated in sports involving jumping and pivoting maneuvers (42% difference between genders, p = 0.001). The collegiate female athletes involved in high-risk sports exhibited less muscular protection

  11. Decomposition of the Gender Wage Gap Using Matching: An Application for Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Dragana Djurdjevic; Sergiy Radyakin

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the gender wage differentials for Switzerland. Using micro data from the Swiss Labour Force Survey, we apply a matching method to decompose the wage gap in Switzerland. Compared to the traditional Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition, this nonparametric technique does not require any estimation of wage equations and accounts for wage differences that can be due to differences in the support. Our estimation results show that the problem of gender differences in the suppor...

  12. The gender pay gap in Europe: an international comparison with matched employer-employee data

    OpenAIRE

    Simón Pérez, Hipólito J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the origin of the gender wage gap and of its cross-country heterogeneity using unique harmonized international matched employer-employee microdata for nine representative European countries. Evidence obtained uncovers that female segregation into low-paying workplaces is by and large an outstanding origin of both the gender pay gap in every European economy and of international differences in its magnitude. Empirical results also suggest that, in contrast with the findings...

  13. Comparison of Emotion Recognition and Mind Reading Abilities in Opium Abusers and Healthy Matched Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nejati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study is to compare the emotion recognition and mind reading in opium abusers and healthy individuals. Method: In this causative-comparative study, with a non probability sampling method, 30 opium abusers compared with 30 healthy individuals that were matched in sex and education. Neurocognitive tests of reading mind from eyes and emotion recognition from face were used for evaluation. Independent T-Test was used for analysis. Findings: The results showed that opium abusers had significantly lower abilities in mind reading than healthy matched individuals. Also opium abusers had significantly lower performance in recognition of emotional experience of happy, sad and angry faces. Conclusion: Based on weak performance of mind reading and emotion recognition in addicts, it is advised that social cognition evaluation considered in drug abusers evaluation. Future interventional study could propose social cognition rehabilitation programs for addicts.

  14. Multidimensional analysis of food-allergic children and adolescents' self-concept: A comparison with a healthy matched sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polloni, Laura; Baldi, Ileana; Lazzarotto, Francesca; Bonaguro, Roberta; Toniolo, Alice; Gregori, Dario; Muraro, Antonella

    2015-06-01

    The study investigated self-concept in food-allergic youths and matched healthy controls. Global and domain-specific self-concepts were assessed in 154 participants (9-19 years) using the Multidimensional Self-Concept Scale. Statistical analysis assessed differences between the two samples and effects of asthma, dermatitis, age, and gender among patients. Significant differences were found for Total Scale score and for Competence and Physical scores. Patients showed clinically problematic self-concepts in Global, Competence, and Family domains. Age was found to be associated with the Total score. Health professionals should consider food-allergic patients' personality development. Further studies could examine disease-specific consequences and interventions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Impact of age and gender interaction on circulating endothelial progenitor cells in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Alexandra; Ayoubi, Fida; Deveaux, Christel; Charbit, Beny; Delmau, Catherine; Christin-Maitre, Sophie; Jaillon, Patrice; Uzan, Georges; Simon, Tabassome

    2010-02-01

    To assess the level of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEPC) in cycling women compared with men and menopausal women. Controlled clinical study. Healthy, nonsmoking volunteers. Twelve women, aged 18-40 years, with regular menstrual cycles, 12 menopausal women, and two groups of 12 age-matched men were recruited. Women did not receive any hormone therapy. Collection of 20 mL of peripheral blood. The number of CEPC, defined as (Lin-/7AAD-/CD34+/CD133+/KDR+) cells per 10(6) mononuclear cells (MNC), was measured by flow cytometry. The number of CEPC was significantly higher in cycling women than in age-matched men and menopausal women (26.5 per 10(6) MNC vs. 10.5 per 10(6) MNC vs. 10 per 10(6) MNC, respectively). The number of CEPC was similar in menopausal women, age-matched, and young men. The number of CEPC is influenced by an age-gender interaction. This phenomenon may explain in part the better vascular repair and relative cardiovascular protection in younger women as compared with age-matched men. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Impulsivity, gender, and the platelet serotonin transporter in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Marazziti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Donatella Marazziti, Stefano Baroni, Irene Masala, Francesca Golia, Giorgio Consoli, Gabriele Massimetti, Michela Picchetti, Mario Catena Dell’Osso, Gino Giannaccini, Laura Betti, Antonio Lucacchini, Antonio CiapparelliDipartimento di Psichiatria, Neurobiologia, Farmacologia e Biotecnologie, University of Pisa, Pisa, ItalyAbstract: The present study explored the possible relationships between impulsivity, gender, and a peripheral serotonergic marker, the platelet serotonin (5-HT transporter (SERT, in a group of 32 healthy subjects. The impulsivity was measured by means of the Barratt Impulsivity Scale, version 11 (BIS-11, a widely used self-report questionnaire, and the platelet SERT was evaluated by means of the specific binding of 3H-paroxetine (3H-Par to platelet membranes, according to standardized protocols. The results showed that women had a higher BIS-11 total score than men, and also higher scores of two factors of the same scale: the motor impulsivity and the cognitive complexity. The analysis of the correlations revealed that the density of the SERT proteins, as measured by the maximum binding capacity (Bmax of 3H-Par, was significantly and positively related to the cognitive complexity factor, but only in men. Men showed also a significant and negative correlation with the dissociation constant, Kd, of (3H-Par binding, and the motor impulsivity factor. These findings suggest that women are generally more impulsive than men, but that the 5-HT system is more involved in the impulsivity of men than in that of women.Keywords: impulsivity, gender, serotonin transporter, Barratt Impulsivity Scale, platelets, 3H-paroxetine

  17. Gender differences of heart rate variability in healthy volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, S.; Majeed, S.M.I.; Khan, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify the basic values of heart rate variability in Pakistani population and to verify our hypothesis that there are gender differences in cardiovascular autonomic modulation. Methods: The descriptive cross sectional study based on convenience probability sampling was conducted at Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology/National Institute of Heart Diseases (AFIC/NIHD) Pakistan. The duration of the study was from December 2009 to July 2010. It involved 24-hour holter monitoring of 45 healthy individuals using holter electrocardiography (ECG) recorder. Heart rate variability was analysed in time (SDNN, SDANN, SDNNi, rMSSD, pNN50) and frequency domains (power, VLF, LF, and HF). Results: The time domain indices; SDNN (male=140 +- 36 ms vs. females=122 +- 33 ms; p =0.09), SDANN (male=123 +- 34 ms vs. females=111+- 34 ms; P= 0.23), SDNNi (male=64 +-19 ms vs. females=52 +- 14 ms; P= 0.03), and pNN50 (male=14 +- 10 ms vs. females=12 +- 7 ms; P= 0.43) were decreased in female volunteers when compared with males. Comparison of frequency domain indices; Total power (male=4041 +- 3150 ms/sup 2/ vs. females=2750 +- 1439 ms/sup 2/; P= 0.07), VLF (male=291 2675 ms/sup 2/ vs. females=1843 +- 928 ms/sup 2/; P= 0.06), LF (male=788 +- 397 ms/sup 2/ vs. females=556 +- 346 ms/sup 2/; P= 0.04) and HF (male=318 +- 251 ms/sup 2/ vs. females=31 277 ms/sup 2/; P= 0.94) amongst males and females showed attenuated heart rate variability in females. Of all the observed values, SDNNi and LF were found significantly (p <0.05) decreased in women. Conclusion: In healthy population, heart rate variability is low in women than men. It reflects sympathetic dominance in women in our population. (author)

  18. Cardiovascular function is better in veteran football players than age-matched untrained elderly healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Andersen, Lars Juel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether lifelong football training may improve cardiovascular function, physical fitness, and body composition. Our subjects were 17 male veteran football players (VPG; 68.1 ± 2.1 years) and 26 healthy age-matched untrained men who served as a control group (CG......, RHI was 21% higher (P training is associated with better LV systolic function, physical fitness......, microvascular function, and a healthier body composition. Overall, VPG have better cardiovascular function compared with CG, which may reduce their cardiovascular morbidity and mortality....

  19. Meals described as healthy or unhealthy match public health education in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna-Camacho, Antonio; Booth, David A

    2015-04-01

    Dietary guidelines for the general public aim to lower the incidence of nutrition-related diseases by influencing habitual food choices. Yet little is known about how well the guidelines are matched by the actual practices that people regard as healthy or unhealthy. In the present study, British residents were asked in a cognitive interview to write a description of an occasion when either they ate in an unhealthy way or the eating was healthy. The reported foods and drinks, as well as sort of occasion, location, people present and time of day, were categorised by verbal and semantic similarities. The number of mentions of terms in each category was then contrasted between groups in exact probability tests. Perceived unhealthy and healthy eating occasions differed reliably in the sorts of foods and the contexts reported. There was also full agreement with the national guidelines on eating plenty of fruit and vegetables, eating small amounts of foods and drinks high in fat and/or sugar, drinking plenty of water, and cutting down on alcohol. There was a tendency to regard choices of bread, rice, potatoes, pasta and other starchy foods as healthy. Reported healthy and unhealthy eating did not differ in incidences of meat, fish, eggs, beans and other non-dairy sources of protein or of dairy foods and milk. These results indicate that operationally clear recommendations by health professionals are well understood in this culture but members of the public do not make clear distinctions in the case of foods that can be included in moderate amounts in a healthy diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of body composition between professional sportswomen and apparently healthy age- and sex-matched controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman K Marwaha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In view of the relationship between physical activity and nutrition on body composition, we assessed lean and fat mass and BMC (total and regional in professional Indian sportswomen and compared it with apparently healthy age- and sex-matched females. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 104 sportswomen and an equal number of age-matched normal healthy females (controls. They were evaluated for anthropometry and body composition (fat, lean mass, and bone mineral content (BMC by DXA. Results: Mean age (19.1 ± 1.3 vs. 19.4 ± 1.5 years and body mass index (21.34 ± 3.02 vs. 21.26 ± 4.05 kg/m 2 were comparable in both groups. Sportswomen had higher intake of energy, macronutrients, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. Total lean mass (33.67 ± 3.49 vs. 31.14 ± 3.52 kg, P < 0.0001, appendicular skeletal muscle index (5.84 ± 0.57 vs. 5.46 ± 0.63 kg/m 2 ; P < 0.0001 and BMC (2.27 ± 0.32 vs. 2.13 ± 0.34 kg, P < 0.002 was significantly higher and percentage fat mass was significantly lower (33.1 ± 7.5 vs. 37.0 ± 8.3; P < 0.0001 among sportswomen when compared to controls. Conclusions: Indian sportswomen have a higher total and regional lean mass, BMC, and lower percentage fat mass when compared with healthy females. Physical activity, energy, protein and calcium intake were positively associated with lean mass and BMC.

  1. Functional health status of adults with tetralogy of Fallot: matched comparison with healthy siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Rachel; Veldtman, Gruschen; Hickey, Edward J; Bradley, Timothy; Gengsakul, Aungkana; Webb, Gary D; Williams, William G; McCrindle, Brian W

    2012-07-01

    Survival prospects for adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) are now excellent. Attention should therefore shift to assessing and improving functional health status and quality of life. We aimed to assess late functional health status of adults surviving TOF repair by matched comparison to their healthy siblings. All 1,693 TOF repairs performed at our institution between 1946 and 1990 were reviewed. A matched comparison was undertaken whereby presumed survivors and their healthy sibling were contacted and asked to complete the Ontario Health Survey 1990 and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire. Both questionnaires were completed by 224 adult survivors and their sibling closest in age. Adults with repaired TOF had lower scores for self-perceived general health status (p health as good or excellent (p health (p = 0.001) than their siblings. However, patients reported similar satisfaction with their lives, similar levels of social participation and support, and were as likely to be in long-term partnerships. Worse physical and mental health scores were associated with older age at surgery and at time of questionnaire completion and recent requirement for noncardiac medication. Although reporting lower functional health status then their siblings, quality of life and life satisfaction for adults who underwent surgery for TOF during childhood is comparable to that of their siblings without heart defects. Follow-up of younger adults is required to understand current health outcomes attributable to improvements in the management of TOF. Copyright © 2012 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reducing the motor response in haptic parallel matching eliminates the typically observed gender difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mier, Hanneke I

    2016-01-01

    When making two bars haptically parallel to each other, large deviations have been observed, most likely caused by the bias of a hand-centered egocentric reference frame. A consistent finding is that women show significantly larger deviations than men when performing this task. It has been suggested that this difference might be due to the fact that women are more egocentrically oriented than men or are less efficient in overcoming the egocentric bias of the hand. If this is indeed the case, reducing the bias of the egocentric reference frame should eliminate the above-mentioned gender difference. This was investigated in the current study. Sixty participants (30 men, 30 women) were instructed to haptically match (task HP) the orientation of a test bar with the dominant hand to the orientation of a reference bar that was perceived with the non-dominant hand. In a haptic visual task (task HV), in which only the reference bar and exploring hand were out of view, no motor response was required, but participants had to "match" the perceived orientation by verbally naming the parallel orientation that was read out on a test protractor. Both females and males performed better in the HV task than in the HP task. Significant gender effects were only found in the haptic parallelity task (HP), corroborating the idea that women perform at the same level as men when the egocentric bias of the hand is reduced.

  3. Gender Diversity in Anesthesiology Programs: The Role of Current Residents and Department Leadership in the 2014 Match Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranner, Paul W; Mussehl, Denise A; Hess, Aaron S

    2016-01-01

    Nearly half of graduates of American medical colleges are women, yet the percentage of women entering accredited anesthesiology programs remains less than 40%. There are obviously many factors that influence the choice of a residency training program, from geography to reputation to the atmosphere, composition and camaraderie of the department. We examined whether a greater number of current female residents, a female Chair, or a female Program Director were associated with a program matching a greater number of female candidates in the 2014 NRMP Match. An electronic questionnaire was sent to all 132 ACGME-accredited anesthesiology programs immediately following the 2014 Match seeking information on the gender mix of their current residents, the gender of the Chair and Program Director, and the gender composition of their newly-matched candidates. The percentage of current female residents was significantly associated with the percentage of incoming female residents (p = 0.013). There was no association between the percentage of new female residents obtained in the Match and the presence of a female Chair or Program Director. The results of the 2013 NRMP anesthesiology match indicate that programs with a higher proportion of female residents were able to sustain that diversity and successfully match a higher percentage of female candidates. No correlation was seen with Chair and Program Director gender, suggesting further work is needed to define the influence of female role models on female applicants' choice of anesthesiology residency programs.

  4. Female fibromyalgia patients: lower resting metabolic rates than matched healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, John C; Yellin, Jackie; Honeyman-Lowe, Gina

    2006-07-01

    Many features of fibromyalgia and hypothyroidism are virtually the same, and thyroid hormone treatment trials have reduced or eliminated fibromyalgia symptoms. These findings led the authors to test the hypothesis that fibromyalgia patients are hypometabolic compared to matched controls. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured by indirect calorimetry and body composition by bioelectrical impedance for 15 fibromyalgia patients and 15 healthy matched controls. Measured resting metabolic rate (mRMR) was compared to percentages of predicted RMR (pRMR) by fat-free weight (FFW) (Sterling-Passmore: SP) and by sex, age, height, and weight (Harris-Benedict: HB). Patients had a lower mRMR (4,306.31+/-1077.66 kJ vs 5,411.59+/-695.95 kJ, p=0.0028) and lower percentages of pRMRs (SP: -28.42+/-15.82% vs -6.83+/-12.55%, pBMI) best accounted for variability in controls' RMRs, age and fat weight (FW) did for patients. In the patient group, TSH level accounted for 28% of the variance in pain distribution, and free T3 (FT3) accounted for 30% of the variance in pressure-pain threshold. Patients had lower mRMR and percentages of pRMRs. The lower RMRs were not due to calorie restriction or low FFW. Patients' normal FFW argues against low physical activity as the mechanism. TSH, FT4, and FT3 levels did not correlate with RMRs in either group. This does not rule out inadequate thyroid hormone regulation because studies show these laboratory values do not reliably predict RMR.

  5. A multicentre matched case control study of risk factors for Preeclampsia in healthy women in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qadri Zeeshan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preeclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality world-wide. The risk for developing preeclampsia varies depending on the underlying mechanism. Because the disorder is heterogeneous, the pathogenesis can differ in women with various risk factors. Understanding these mechanisms of disease responsible for preeclampsia as well as risk assessment is still a major challenge. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with preeclampsia, in healthy women in maternity hospitals of Karachi and Rawalpindi. Methods We conducted a hospital based matched case-control study to assess the factors associated with preeclampsia in Karachi and Rawalpindi, from January 2006 to December 2007. 131 hospital-reported cases of PE and 262 controls without history of preeclampsia were enrolled within 3 days of delivery. Cases and controls were matched on the hospital, day of delivery and parity. Potential risk factors for preeclampsia were ascertained during in-person postpartum interviews using a structured questionnaire and by medical record abstraction. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate matched odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs. Results In multivariate analysis, women having a family history of hypertension (adjusted OR 2.06, 95% CI; 1.27-3.35, gestational diabetes (adjusted OR 6.57, 95% CI; 1.94 -22.25, pre-gestational diabetes (adjusted OR 7.36, 95% CI; 1.37-33.66 and mental stress during pregnancy (adjusted OR 1.32; 95% CI; 1.19-1.46, for each 5 unit increase in Perceived stress scale score were at increased risk of preeclampsia. However, high body mass index, maternal age, urinary tract infection, use of condoms prior to index pregnancy and sociodemographic factors were not associated with higher risk of having preeclampsia. Conclusions Development of preeclampsia was associated with gestational diabetes, pregestational diabetes, family

  6. Mental State Decoding in Adolescent Boys with Major Depressive Disorder versus Sex-Matched Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellick, William; Sharp, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Several adult depression studies have investigated mental state decoding, the basis for theory of mind, using the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test. Findings have been mixed, but a comprehensive study found a greater severity of depression to be associated with poorer mental state decoding. Importantly, there has yet to be a similar study of adolescent depression. Converging evidence suggests that atypical mental state decoding may have particularly profound effects for psychosocial functioning among depressed adolescent boys. Adolescent boys with major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 33) and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs, n = 84) completed structured clinical interviews, self-report measures of psychopathology and the Child Eyes Test (CET). The MDD group performed significantly better than HCs on the CET overall (p = 0.002), underscored by greater accuracy for negatively valenced items (p = 0.003). Group differences on items depicting positive (p = 0.129) and neutral mental states (p = 0.081) were nonsignificant. Enhanced mental state decoding among depressed adolescent boys may play a role in the maintenance of and vulnerability to adolescent depression. Findings and implications are discussed. Limitations of this study include a reliance on self-report data for HC boys, as well as a lack of 'pure' depression among the boys with MDD. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Prosody Perception and Production in Children with Hearing Loss and Age- and Gender-Matched Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalathottukaren, Rose Thomas; Purdy, Suzanne C; Ballard, Elaine

    2017-04-01

    Auditory development in children with hearing loss, including the perception of prosody, depends on having adequate input from cochlear implants and/or hearing aids. Lack of adequate auditory stimulation can lead to delayed speech and language development. Nevertheless, prosody perception and production in people with hearing loss have received less attention than other aspects of language. The perception of auditory information conveyed through prosody using variations in the pitch, amplitude, and duration of speech is not usually evaluated clinically. This study (1) compared prosody perception and production abilities in children with hearing loss and children with normal hearing; and (2) investigated the effect of age, hearing level, and musicality on prosody perception. Participants were 16 children with hearing loss and 16 typically developing controls matched for age and gender. Fifteen of the children with hearing loss were tested while using amplification (n = 9 hearing aids, n = 6 cochlear implants). Six receptive subtests of the Profiling Elements of Prosody in Speech-Communication (PEPS-C), the Child Paralanguage subtest of Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy 2 (DANVA 2), and Contour and Interval subtests of the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA) were used. Audio recordings of the children's reading samples were rated using a perceptual prosody rating scale by nine experienced listeners who were blinded to the children's hearing status. Thirty two children, 16 with hearing loss (mean age = 8.71 yr) and 16 age- and gender-matched typically developing children with normal hearing (mean age = 8.87 yr). Assessments were completed in one session lasting 1-2 hours in a quiet room. Test items were presented using a laptop computer through loudspeaker at a comfortable listening level. For children with hearing loss using hearing instruments, all tests were completed with hearing devices set at their everyday listening setting. All PEPS

  8. Safe and healthy integration into semiskilled jobs: does gender matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laberge, Marie; Vézina, Nicole; Saint-Charles, Johanne

    2012-01-01

    Women report fewer injuries than men when they are young, but report a higher proportion of professional diseases later in life (35 years +). Understanding early work conditions that lead to postponed health outcomes is necessary if we are to prevent women's injury as well as men's. Introduction to work and safe integration programs are often put forward to prevent injuries among youth. This paper aims to illustrate some differences in the job introduction / integration process for men and women and to discuss some gender-based Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) implications. Data come from two waves of interviews with 31 students enrolled in vocational training for a semiskilled trade. Results demonstrated differences between men and women: trades chosen, OHS complaints, supervising patterns, integration to work, etc. Women often choose customer service jobs, have less formal supervision and are often left to themselves when learning to do their job. Men declared more accidents while women reported more musculoskeletal symptoms. Findings from this research suggest young women's OHS issues should not be trivialized and that specific youth prevention programs for sectors where women are more present, such as customer service, should be developed.

  9. A gender-based approach to developing a healthy lifestyle and healthy weight intervention for diverse Utah women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Sara E; Digre, Kathleen B; Ralls, Brenda; Mukundente, Valentine; Davis, France A; Rickard, Sylvia; Tavake-Pasi, Fahina; Napia, Eru Ed; Aiono, Heather; Chirpich, Meghan; Stark, Louisa A; Sunada, Grant; Keen, Kassy; Johnston, Leanne; Frost, Caren J; Varner, Michael W; Alder, Stephen C

    2015-08-01

    Utah women from some cultural minority groups have higher overweight/obesity rates than the overall population. We utilized a gender-based mixed methods approach to learn about the underlying social, cultural and gender issues that contribute to the increased obesity risk among these women and to inform intervention development. A literature review and analysis of Utah's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data informed the development of a focus group guide. Focus groups were conducted with five groups of women: African immigrants from Burundi and Rwanda, African Americans, American Indians/Alaskan Natives, Hispanics/Latinas, and Pacific Islanders. Six common themes emerged: (1) health is multidimensional and interventions must address health in this manner; (2) limited resources and time influence health behaviors; (3) norms about healthy weight vary, with certain communities showing more preference to heavier women; (4) women and men have important but different influences on healthy lifestyle practices within households; (5) women have an influential role on the health of families; and (6) opportunities exist within each group to improve health. Seeking insights from these five groups of women helped to identify common and distinct cultural and gender themes related to obesity, which can be used to help elucidate core obesity determinants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Participation in Heart-Healthy Behaviors: A Secondary Analysis of the American Heart Association Go Red Heart Match Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslanian-Engoren, Cynthia; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; De Jong, Marla J; Berra, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    The American Heart Association created Go Red Heart Match, a free and secure online program that enables women to connect with each other to fight heart disease either personally or as a caregiver for someone with heart disease. Through these connections, participants have an opportunity to develop a personal, private, and supportive relationship with other women; share common experiences; and motivate and encourage each other to follow a heart-healthy lifestyle. The aims of this study were to describe the demographic characteristics of the Go Red Heart Match responders and to determine whether participation in the program prompted participants to engage in heart-healthy behaviors. A secondary analysis of data collected as part of a needs assessment survey from the American Heart Association Go Red Heart Match was conducted. A total of 117 (35%) of the 334 invited women completed the survey. Most responders were female, married, and college educated. A total of 105 (90%) responders were diagnosed with a type of heart disease or stroke and 77 (73%) responders had undergone treatment. As a result of participating in the program, 75% of the responders reported the following improvements in heart-healthy behaviors: eating a more heart-healthy diet (54%), exercising more frequently (53%), losing weight (47%), and quitting smoking (10%). Responders who had a diagnosis of heart attack (n = 48) were more likely (P = .003) to quit smoking than were those with other diagnoses (n = 69). Notably, 48% of responders reported encouraging someone else in their life to speak to their doctor about their risk for heart disease. Most women who participated in Heart Match reported engaging in new heart-healthy behaviors. The findings support expanding the existing program in a more diverse population as a potentially important way to reach women and encourage cardiovascular disease risk reduction for those with heart disease and stroke.

  11. Healthy by Design: Using a Gender Focus to Influence Complete Streets Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keippel, April Ennis; Henderson, Melissa A; Golbeck, Amanda L; Gallup, TommiLee; Duin, Diane K; Hayes, Stephen; Alexander, Stephanie; Ciemins, Elizabeth L

    2017-10-17

    Public health leaders in Yellowstone County, Montana, formed an alliance to address community-wide issues. One such issue is Complete Streets, with its vision of safe streets for all. This case study focuses on development and adoption of a Complete Streets policy. It examines how a community coalition, Healthy By Design, infused a gender focus into the policymaking process. An incremental and nonlinear policymaking process was aided by a focus on gender and health equity. The focus on a large constituency helped to frame advocacy in terms of a broad population's needs, not just special interests. The city council unanimously adopted a Complete Streets resolution, informed by a gender lens. Healthy By Design further used gender information to successfully mobilize the community in response to threats of repeal of the policy, and then influenced the adoption of a revised policy. Policies developed with a focus on equity, including gender equity, may have broader impact on the community. Such policies may pave the way for future policies that seek to transform gender norms toward building a healthier community for all residents. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Gender effects of the COMT Val 158 Met genotype on verbal fluency in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeiro-De-Souza, Marcio Gerhardt; Bio, Danielle Soares; David, Denise Petresco; Missio, Giovani; Lima, Bruno; Fernandes, Fernando; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Moreno, Ricardo Alberto

    2013-09-01

    Cognitive performance in healthy individuals is associated with gender differences in specific tests; a female advantage has been demonstrated in language tests, whereas a male advantage has been demonstrated in spatial relation examinations. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) mediates important cognitive domains and is influenced by dopamine (DA) activity. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs4680 in the catechol‑O‑methyltransferase (COMT) gene results in an amino acid substitution from valine (Val) to methionine (Met). The Met allele has been demonstrated to decrease COMT enzyme activity and improve PFC cognitive function. COMT regulates DA activity in the PFC and exhibits gender effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the gender‑specific effects of the COMT genotype on cognition in healthy young adults. Seventy‑six healthy subjects were genotyped for COMT rs4680 and submitted to an extensive range of neuropsychological tests assessing aspects of PFC function. The COMT Met allele influenced the performance of executive function. The results revealed gender effects of the COMT rs4680 Met allele on verbal fluency, with positive effects in males and negative effects in females. This suggested that DA activity affects cognitive function in different ways, according to gender.

  13. Body-image, quality of life and psychological distress: a comparison between kidney transplant patients and a matching healthy sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagil, Yaron; Geller, Shulamit; Levy, Sigal; Sidi, Yael; Aharoni, Shiri

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess the uniqueness of the condition of kidney transplant recipients in comparison to a sample of matching healthy peers in relation to body-image dissatisfaction and identification, quality of life and psychological distress. Participants were 45 kidney transplant recipients who were under follow-up care at a Transplant Unit of a major Medical Center, and a sample of 45 matching healthy peers. Measures were taken using self-report questionnaires [Body-Image Ideals Questionnaire (BIIQ), Body Identification Questionnaire (BIQ), Brief Symptoms Inventory (BSI), and the SF-12]. The major findings were the following: (i) kidney transplant recipients reported lower levels of quality of life and higher levels of PsD when compared to their healthy peers; (ii) no difference in body-image dissatisfaction was found between the two studied groups; (iii) significant correlations between body-image dissatisfaction quality of life and PsD were found only in the kidney transplant recipients. The kidney transplantation condition has a moderating effect in the association between body-image dissatisfaction PsD but not in the association between body-image dissatisfaction and quality of life; (iv) kidney transplant recipients experienced higher levels of body identification than did their healthy peers. Taken together, these findings highlight the unique condition of kidney transplant recipients, as well as the function that body-image plays within the self.

  14. Social support and psychological well-being in gender dysphoria: a comparison of patients with matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Amanda; Bouman, Walter P; Arcelus, Jon; Meyer, Caroline

    2014-12-01

    There is a paucity of research in the area of social support and psychological well-being among people with gender dysphoria. The present study aimed to investigate levels of social support among individuals with gender dysphoria compared with a matched control group. It also aimed to examine the relationship between social support and psychological well-being. Participants were 103 individuals diagnosed with gender dysphoria (according to ICD-10 criteria) attending a national gender identity clinic and an age- and gender-matched nonclinical control group recruited via social networking websites. All participants completed measures of social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, MSPSS), psychopathology (Symptom Checklist 90 Revised, SCL), quality of life (Short Form 36 version 2, SF), and life satisfaction (Personal Wellbeing Index, PWI). Trans women reported significantly lower MSPSS total and MSPSS family scores compared with control women, although these differences in levels of social support were no longer significant when SCL depression was controlled for. No significant differences were found between trans men and any other group. MSPSS scores did not significantly predict SCL subscales but did predict both SF subscales and PWI total scores. Trans women perceived themselves to be lacking social support. Given that social support is beneficial to quality of life and life satisfaction in those with gender dysphoria, this is of great concern. Though these findings have been derived from correlational results, extended research may highlight the value of clinicians helping trans women to seek out and maintain social support. Additionally, efforts could be made to educate and challenge attitudes of nontrans people towards those with gender dysphoria. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  15. The public-private sector gender wage differential: evidence from matched employee-workplace data

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterji, Monojit; Mumford, Karen; Smith, Peter N.

    2007-01-01

    Using new linked employee-workplace data for Britain in 2004, we find that the nature of the public private pay gap differs between genders and that of the gender pay gap differs between sectors. The analysis shows that little none of the gender earnings gap in both the public and private sector can be explained by differences in observable characteristics. Decomposition analysis further reveals that the contribution of differences in workplace characteristics to the public private earnings g...

  16. Voxel-based analysis of whole-brain effects of age and gender on dopamine transporter SPECT imaging in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eusebio, Alexandre; Azulay, Jean-Philippe; Ceccaldi, Mathieu; Girard, Nadine; Mundler, Olivier; Guedj, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have shown age- and gender-related differences in striatal dopamine transporter (DaT) binding. These studies were based on a striatal region on interest approach that may have underestimated these effects and could not evaluate extrastriatal regions. Our aim was to determine the effects at the voxel level of age and gender on whole-brain DaT distribution using [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT in healthy subjects. We performed a whole-brain [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT voxel-based analysis using SPM8 and a standardized normalization template (p < 0.05, corrected using the false discovery rate method) in 51 healthy subjects aged from 21 to 79 years. We found an age-related DaT binding decrease in the striatum, anterior cingulate/medial frontal cortices and insulo-opercular cortices. Also DaT binding ratios were higher in women than men in the striatum and opercular cortices. This study showed both striatal and extrastriatal age-related and gender-related differences in DaT binding in healthy subjects using a whole-brain voxel-based non-a priori approach. These differences highlight the need for careful age and gender matching in DaT analyses of neuropsychiatric disorders. (orig.)

  17. Voxel-based analysis of whole-brain effects of age and gender on dopamine transporter SPECT imaging in healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eusebio, Alexandre; Azulay, Jean-Philippe [APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service de Neurologie et Pathologie du Mouvement, Marseille (France); CNRS, Aix-Marseille Univ, Institut de Neurosciences de la Timone, Marseille (France); Ceccaldi, Mathieu [APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service de Neurologie et de Neuropsychologie, Marseille (France); Aix-Marseille Univ, UMR Inserm 1106, Institut de Neurosciences des Systemes, Marseille (France); Girard, Nadine [APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service de Neuroradiologie diagnostique et interventionnelle, Marseille (France); Mundler, Olivier [APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille (France); Aix-Marseille Univ, CERIMED, Marseille (France); Guedj, Eric [CNRS, Aix-Marseille Univ, Institut de Neurosciences de la Timone, Marseille (France); APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille (France); Aix-Marseille Univ, CERIMED, Marseille (France)

    2012-11-15

    Several studies have shown age- and gender-related differences in striatal dopamine transporter (DaT) binding. These studies were based on a striatal region on interest approach that may have underestimated these effects and could not evaluate extrastriatal regions. Our aim was to determine the effects at the voxel level of age and gender on whole-brain DaT distribution using [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT in healthy subjects. We performed a whole-brain [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT voxel-based analysis using SPM8 and a standardized normalization template (p < 0.05, corrected using the false discovery rate method) in 51 healthy subjects aged from 21 to 79 years. We found an age-related DaT binding decrease in the striatum, anterior cingulate/medial frontal cortices and insulo-opercular cortices. Also DaT binding ratios were higher in women than men in the striatum and opercular cortices. This study showed both striatal and extrastriatal age-related and gender-related differences in DaT binding in healthy subjects using a whole-brain voxel-based non-a priori approach. These differences highlight the need for careful age and gender matching in DaT analyses of neuropsychiatric disorders. (orig.)

  18. Gender Role Orientation with Health Literacy and Self-Efficacy for Healthy Eating among Japanese Workers in Early Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Chizuru; Ishikawa, Hirono; Okada, Masafumi; Kato, Mio; Okuhara, Tsuyoshi; Kiuchi, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Gender role, independent of biological sex, affects health. However, research on healthy eating that considers the importance of gender norms is scarce. People who are androgynous and have high masculinity and femininity are reported to have better health practices than other people. The present study aimed to examine the differences in health literacy (HL) and self-efficacy for healthy eating by gender role in Japanese men and women. Participants were 629 men and women aged 25-34 years, recruited via a Japanese Internet research company database. Participants were categorized into four gender role groups using the Japanese Gender Role Index. HL and self-efficacy for healthy eating were assessed using the healthy eating literacy (HEL) scale and the healthy eating and weight self-efficacy (HEWSE) scale. Analysis of variance with Bonferroni-adjusted post hoc tests and hierarchical multiple regression were used to test the research hypotheses. We found that the Androgynous group had significantly higher HEL and HEWSE scores than the Feminine and Undifferentiated groups. The Masculine group scored significantly higher on both measures than the Undifferentiated group. Being Androgynous (HEL: β = 0.34, p gender role orientation and individual HL and self-efficacy for healthy eating. These findings may be relevant for promoting healthy eating from the perspective of gender norms.

  19. Healthy Eating Habits among the Population of Serbia: Gender and Age Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Jovi?i?, Ana ?.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of the study is to examine healthy eating habits of the population of Serbia through three dimensions: knowledge, problems, and feelings as well as to determine whether there are any differences between genders and among different age-groups. The research instrument was an Eating Habits Questionnaire (EHQ) which consisted of 35 items. There were 382 respondents involved in the study. The reliability and factor structure of the questionnaire were verified by using factor a...

  20. Quantitative sensory testing and pain-evoked cytokine reactivity: comparison of patients with sickle cell disease to healthy matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Claudia M; Carroll, C Patrick; Kiley, Kasey; Han, Dingfen; Haywood, Carlton; Lanzkron, Sophie; Swedberg, Lauren; Edwards, Robert R; Page, Gayle G; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A

    2016-04-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is an inherited blood disorder associated with significant morbidity, which includes severe episodic pain, and, often, chronic pain. Compared to healthy individuals, patients with SCD report enhanced sensitivity to thermal detection and pain thresholds and have altered inflammatory profiles, yet no studies to date have examined biomarker reactivity after laboratory-induced pain. We sought to examine this relationship in patients with SCD compared to healthy control participants. We completed quantitative sensory testing in 83 patients with SCD and sequential blood sampling in 27 of them, whom we matched (sex, age, race, body mass index, and education) to 27 healthy controls. Surprisingly, few quantitative sensory testing differences emerged between groups. Heat pain tolerance, pressure pain threshold at the trapezius, thumb, and quadriceps, and thermal temporal summation at 45°C differed between groups in the expected direction, whereas conditioned pain modulation and pain ratings to hot water hand immersion were counterintuitive, possibly because of tailoring the water temperature to a perceptual level; patients with SCD received milder temperatures. In the matched subsample, group differences and group-by-time interactions were observed in biomarkers including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1ß, interleukin-4, and neuropeptide Y. These findings highlight the utility of laboratory pain testing methods for understanding individual differences in inflammatory cytokines. Our findings suggest amplified pain-evoked proinflammatory cytokine reactivity among patients with SCD relative to carefully matched controls. Future research is warranted to evaluate the impact of enhanced pain-related cytokine response and whether it is predictive of clinical characteristics and the frequency/severity of pain crises in patients with SCD.

  1. Gender- and Age-Specific REE and REE/FFM Distributions in Healthy Chinese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Basic data on the resting energy expenditure (REE of healthy populations are currently rare, especially for developing countries. The aims of the present study were to describe gender- and age-specific REE distributions and to evaluate the relationships among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. This cross-sectional survey included 540 subjects (343 women and 197 men, 20–79 years old. REE was measured by indirect calorimetry and expressed as kcal/day/kg total body weight. The data were presented as the means and percentiles for REE and the REE to fat-free mass (FFM ratio; differences were described by gender and age. Partial correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlations between REE, tertiles of REE/FFM, and glycolipid metabolism and eating behaviors. In this study, we confirmed a decline in REE with age in women (p = 0.000 and men (p = 0.000, and we found that men have a higher REE (p = 0.000 and lower REE/FFM (p = 0.021 than women. Furthermore, we observed no associations among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. In conclusion, the results presented here may be useful to clinicians and nutritionists for comparing healthy and ill subjects and identifying changes in REE that are related to aging, malnutrition, and chronic diseases.

  2. Gender- and Age-Specific REE and REE/FFM Distributions in Healthy Chinese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu; Yang, Xue; Na, Li-Xin; Li, Ying; Sun, Chang-Hao

    2016-09-01

    Basic data on the resting energy expenditure (REE) of healthy populations are currently rare, especially for developing countries. The aims of the present study were to describe gender- and age-specific REE distributions and to evaluate the relationships among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. This cross-sectional survey included 540 subjects (343 women and 197 men, 20-79 years old). REE was measured by indirect calorimetry and expressed as kcal/day/kg total body weight. The data were presented as the means and percentiles for REE and the REE to fat-free mass (FFM) ratio; differences were described by gender and age. Partial correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlations between REE, tertiles of REE/FFM, and glycolipid metabolism and eating behaviors. In this study, we confirmed a decline in REE with age in women (p = 0.000) and men (p = 0.000), and we found that men have a higher REE (p = 0.000) and lower REE/FFM (p = 0.021) than women. Furthermore, we observed no associations among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. In conclusion, the results presented here may be useful to clinicians and nutritionists for comparing healthy and ill subjects and identifying changes in REE that are related to aging, malnutrition, and chronic diseases.

  3. 5-HTTLPR, anxiety and gender interaction moderates right amygdala volume in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerasa, Antonio; Quattrone, Aldo; Piras, Fabrizio; Mangone, Graziella; Magariello, Angela; Fagioli, Sabrina; Girardi, Paolo; Muglia, Maria; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2014-10-01

    Genetic variants within the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) impact the neurobiology and risk for anxiety-related behaviours. There are also gender differences in the prevalence of anxiety-related behaviours. Although numerous studies have investigated the influence of 5-HTTLPR genotype on the neural systems involved in emotional regulation, none have investigated how these effects are modulated by gender and anxiety. We investigated this issue using two complementary region of interest-based structural neuroimaging approaches (voxel-based morphometry and Freesurfer) in 138 healthy individuals categorized into 'no anxiety' and 'subclinical anxiety' groups based on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A). Preliminarily, using anxiety as a continuous variable, we found a significant interaction effect of genotype by gender on anxiety. Females homozygous for the Short allele showed the highest HAM-A scores and males the lowest. In addition, a three-way significant interaction among genotype, gender and anxiety category was found for the right amygdala volume. Post hoc tests revealed that homozygous females carrying the Short variant with a subclinical anxiety condition had larger volume. The reported interaction effects demonstrate that gender strongly modulates the relationship between 5-HTTLPR genotype and subclinical expression of anxiety acting on amygdala, one region of the emotional neural network specifically involved in the anxiety-like behaviours. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Effects of gender-matching and racial self-labeling on paranoia in African-American men with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Arthur L

    2006-04-01

    The present study examined the effects of gender-matching and racial self-labeling on the paranoid symptoms of African-American men with severe mental illness. It was hypothesized that gender matching would: 1) reduce self-reports of both interpersonal and cultural paranoia in these male participants with severe mental illness, and 2) the gender effect would be strongest among those patients who racially self-label as African-American. One-hundred-twenty-four African-American male psychiatric patients were interviewed by a male or female black psychologist. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted with the Fenigstein Paranoia Scale (FPS) and Cultural Mistrust Inventory (CMI) as dependent variables, and the male gender-matched group (0=no, 1=yes) and racial self-labeling as the independent variables controlling for age; education; never married (0=no, 1=yes); diagnosis of schizophrenia (0=no, 1=yes); need for approval; self-esteem; and the scales of Distrust, Perceived Hostility of Others, and False Beliefs and Perceptions from the Psychiatric Epidemiology Research Interview. There was a significant main effect for male gender-matching on the FPS. Participants in the male gender-matched group scored lower than the other group on the FPS. For the CMI, there was a significant interaction of male gender match by racial self-labeling effect. Participants who were male gender-matched and self-labeled as African-American reported the highest scores on the CMI. The findings provide partial support for the hypotheses. Both gender-matching and racial identity together may be important considerations for black males needing mental health services.

  5. Motor excitability measurements: the influence of gender, body mass index, age and temperature in healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, I; Diaz, A; Pinto, S; de Carvalho, M

    2014-04-01

    The technique of threshold tracking to test axonal excitability gives information about nodal and internodal ion channel function. We aimed to investigate variability of the motor excitability measurements in healthy controls, taking into account age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and small changes in skin temperature. We examined the left median nerve of 47 healthy controls using the automated threshold-tacking program, QTRAC. Statistical multiple regression analysis was applied to test relationship between nerve excitability measurements and subject variables. Comparisons between genders did not find any significant difference (P>0.2 for all comparisons). Multiple regression analysis showed that motor amplitude decreases with age and temperature, stimulus-response slope decreases with age and BMI, and that accommodation half-time decrease with age and temperature. The changes related to demographic features on TRONDE protocol parameters are small and less important than in conventional nerve conduction studies. Nonetheless, our results underscore the relevance of careful temperature control, and indicate that interpretation of stimulus-response slope and accommodation half-time should take into account age and BMI. In contrast, gender is not of major relevance to axonal threshold findings in motor nerves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Healthy time use in the encore years: do work, resources, relations, and gender matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Sarah M; Moen, Phyllis

    2015-03-01

    Social engagement is theorized to promote health, with ages 55 to 75-what some call "encore" adulthood-potentially being a time for ongoing engagement or social isolation. We use the American Time Use Survey (N = 11,952) and a life course perspective to examine associations between paid work, resources, relations, and healthy time use for men and women in the first (55-64) and second (65-74) halves of the encore years. Work limits sufficient sleep (full-time working men) and television watching (all workers) but also time spent in physical activity (full-time workers). College-educated and healthy encore adults-across age and gender divides-are more likely to exercise and watch less television. Marriage and caregiving encourage socializing and limit television watching, despite differential effects on physical activity and sleep. These findings fit well with a gendered life course perspective suggesting socially patterned (by work, resources, relationships, gender, age) health behaviors. © American Sociological Association 2015.

  7. Healthy Time Use in the Encore Years: Do Work, Resources, Relations, and Gender Matter?*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Sarah M.; Moen, Phyllis

    2015-01-01

    Social engagement is theorized to promote health, with ages 55 to 75 – what some call “encore” adulthood – potentially a time for ongoing engagement or social isolation. We use the American Time Use Survey (N=11,952) and a life course perspective to examine associations between paid work, resources, relations, and healthy time use for men and women in the first (55–64) and second (65–74) halves of the encore years. Work limits sufficient sleep (full-time working men) and television watching (all workers) but also time spent in physical activity (full-time workers). College-educated and healthy encore adults – across age and gender divides – are more likely to exercise and watch less television. Marriage and caregiving encourage socializing and limit television watching, despite differential effects on physical activity and sleep. These findings fit well with a gendered life course perspective suggesting socially patterned (by work, resources, relationships, gender, age) health behaviors. PMID:25722126

  8. Gender Difference of Gastric Emptying in Healthy Volunteers and Patients with Functional Dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hideki; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Matsuzaki, Juntaro; Taniguchi, Kanami; Shimizu, Toshiyuki; Yamane, Tsuyoshi; Masaoka, Tatsuhiro; Kanai, Takanori

    2017-01-01

    Delayed gastric emptying is one of the reasons why functional dyspepsia (FD) occurs. The 13C-acetate breath test is widely used to evaluate gastric emptying. Nevertheless, the standard value of 13C-acetate breath test has not taken into account the gender difference of gastric emptying among healthy individuals. The main aim of this study was to readjust the standard value of 13C-acetate breath test in the light of gender differences. In addition, we clarified the prevalence and clinical characteristics of delayed gastric emptying in patients with FD using the modified standard values of 13C-acetate breath test. Fifty-two healthy individuals and 126 patients with patients with FD were enrolled. Gastric emptying was evaluated by the 13C-acetate breath test. The cut-off points of Tmax for the diagnosis of delayed gastric emptying were determined on the basis of results from healthy individuals making a distinction of genders. Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms, dyspeptic symptoms, scores of anxiety and depression, age, body mass index (BMI), smoking and alcohol consumption were compared between the delayed gastric emptying group and the non-delayed gastric emptying group. Since gastric emptying was delayed in healthy women compared with that in healthy men (Tmax, 53.6 ± 19.3 vs. 42.7 ± 16.9 min, p = 0.04), we set the cut-off points of Tmax at 60 min in men and at 75 min in women. In patients with FD, the prevalence of delayed gastric emptying was not different between men and women with the modified standard values of 13C-acetate breath test. (31.0 vs. 27.4%, p = 0.68). BMI was lower in the delayed gastric emptying group than in the non-delayed group among the male patients. Reflux symptoms were more severe in delayed gastric emptying group than in the non-delayed group among the female patients. The standard values of 13C-acetate breath test should be modified bearing the gender difference in mind. It provides us more appropriate information to understand the

  9. Progressive gender differences of structural brain networks in healthy adults: a longitudinal, diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Sun

    Full Text Available Sexual dimorphism in the brain maturation during childhood and adolescence has been repeatedly documented, which may underlie the differences in behaviors and cognitive performance. However, our understanding of how gender modulates the development of structural connectome in healthy adults is still not entirely clear. Here we utilized graph theoretical analysis of longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging data over a five-year period to investigate the progressive gender differences of brain network topology. The brain networks of both genders showed prominent economical "small-world" architecture (high local clustering and short paths between nodes. Additional analysis revealed a more economical "small-world" architecture in females as well as a greater global efficiency in males regardless of scan time point. At the regional level, both increased and decreased efficiency were found across the cerebral cortex for both males and females, indicating a compensation mechanism of cortical network reorganization over time. Furthermore, we found that weighted clustering coefficient exhibited significant gender-time interactions, implying different development trends between males and females. Moreover, several specific brain regions (e.g., insula, superior temporal gyrus, cuneus, putamen, and parahippocampal gyrus exhibited different development trajectories between males and females. Our findings further prove the presence of sexual dimorphism in brain structures that may underlie gender differences in behavioral and cognitive functioning. The sex-specific progress trajectories in brain connectome revealed in this work provide an important foundation to delineate the gender related pathophysiological mechanisms in various neuropsychiatric disorders, which may potentially guide the development of sex-specific treatments for these devastating brain disorders.

  10. Progressive gender differences of structural brain networks in healthy adults: a longitudinal, diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Lee, Renick; Chen, Yu; Collinson, Simon; Thakor, Nitish; Bezerianos, Anastasios; Sim, Kang

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in the brain maturation during childhood and adolescence has been repeatedly documented, which may underlie the differences in behaviors and cognitive performance. However, our understanding of how gender modulates the development of structural connectome in healthy adults is still not entirely clear. Here we utilized graph theoretical analysis of longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging data over a five-year period to investigate the progressive gender differences of brain network topology. The brain networks of both genders showed prominent economical "small-world" architecture (high local clustering and short paths between nodes). Additional analysis revealed a more economical "small-world" architecture in females as well as a greater global efficiency in males regardless of scan time point. At the regional level, both increased and decreased efficiency were found across the cerebral cortex for both males and females, indicating a compensation mechanism of cortical network reorganization over time. Furthermore, we found that weighted clustering coefficient exhibited significant gender-time interactions, implying different development trends between males and females. Moreover, several specific brain regions (e.g., insula, superior temporal gyrus, cuneus, putamen, and parahippocampal gyrus) exhibited different development trajectories between males and females. Our findings further prove the presence of sexual dimorphism in brain structures that may underlie gender differences in behavioral and cognitive functioning. The sex-specific progress trajectories in brain connectome revealed in this work provide an important foundation to delineate the gender related pathophysiological mechanisms in various neuropsychiatric disorders, which may potentially guide the development of sex-specific treatments for these devastating brain disorders.

  11. Healthy eating habits among the population of Serbia: gender and age differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovičić, Ana Đ

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine healthy eating habits of the population of Serbia through three dimensions: knowledge, problems, and feelings as well as to determine whether there are any differences between genders and among different age-groups. The research instrument was an Eating Habits Questionnaire (EHQ) which consisted of 35 items. There were 382 respondents involved in the study. The reliability and factor structure of the questionnaire were verified by using factor analysis. The results of MANOVA showed that there is a significant difference in the habits concerning healthy eating between men and women [F (3,378)=4.26, p=0.006; Wilks' Lambda=0.97]. When the results for the dependent variables (knowledge, problems, and feelings) were considered separately, it was determined that there is no significant difference between men and women, which confirms the results of the t-test. The effect of age on the three dimensions of healthy eating habits was examined within three age-groups, by using ANOVA. The results showed that knowledge about healthy eating increases with age [F (2,379)=6.14, p=0.002] as well as positive feelings which occur as a result of healthy eating [F (2,379)=3.66, p=0.027]. Unlike ANOVA, MANOVA showed difference among the age-groups only when it came to the 'knowledge' variable. This study is important as it shows the current state of awareness on healthy eating habits in the researched populace and may be the basis for further research in this field in Serbia.

  12. Gender differences in health habits and in motivation for a healthy lifestyle among Swedish university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bothmer, Margareta I K; Fridlund, Bengt

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate gender differences in students' health habits and motivation for a healthy lifestyle. The sample of students comprised a probability systematic stratified sample from each department at a small university in the south-west of Sweden (n = 479). A questionnaire created for this study was used for data collection. Self-rated health was measured by number of health complaints, where good health was defined as having less than three health complaints during the last month. A healthy lifestyle index was computed on habits related to smoking, alcohol consumption, food habits, physical activity and stress. Female students had healthier habits related to alcohol consumption and nutrition but were more stressed. Male students showed a high level of overweight and obesity and were less interested in nutrition advice and health enhancing activities. The gender differences are discussed in relation to the impact of stress on female students' health, and the risk for male students in having unhealthy nutritional habits in combination with being physically inactive and drinking too much alcohol.

  13. Water ingestion decreases cardiac workload time-dependent in healthy adults with no effect of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnard, Cathriona Rosemary; Grasser, Erik Konrad

    2017-08-11

    Ingestion of water entails a variety of cardiovascular responses. However, the precise effect remains elusive. We aimed to determine in healthy adults the effect of water on cardiac workload and to investigate potential gender differences. We pooled data from two controlled studies where blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were continuously recorded before and after the ingestion of 355 mL of tap water. Additionally, we calculated double product by multiplying systolic BP with HR and evaluated spectral parameters referring to vagal tone. All parameters were investigated for potential differences based on gender. In response to water, HR, systolic BP, and double product decreased significantly during the first 30 min. However, these effects were attenuated for HR and double product and even abolished for systolic BP over the subsequent 30 min. Over the entire post-drink period (60 min), decreases in HR and double product (all P fashion, cardiac workload and that these responses appear not to be influenced by gender.

  14. Gender differences in serum CK-MB mass levels in healthy Braziliansubjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.C. Strunz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The creatine kinase-isoenzyme MB (CK-MB mass assay is one of the laboratory tests used for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction. It is recommended, however, that reference limits should take gender and race into account. In the present study, we analyzed the plasma CK-MB mass and troponin levels of 244 healthy volunteers without a personal history of coronary artery disease and with no chronic diseases, muscular trauma or hypothyroidism, and not taking statins. The tests were performed with commercial kits, CK-MB mass turbo kit and Troponin I turbo kit, using the Immulite 1000 analyzer from Siemens Healthcare Diagnostic. The values were separated according to gender and showed significant differences by the Mann-Whitney test. Mean (± SD CK-MB mass values were 2.55 ± 1.09 for women (N = 121; age = 41.20 ± 10.13 years and 3.49 ± 1.41 ng/mL for men (N = 123; age = 38.16 ± 11.12 years. Gender-specific reference values at the 99th percentile level, according to the Medicalc statistical software, were 5.40 ng/mL for women and 7.13 ng/mL for men. The influence of race was not considered because of the high miscegenation of the Brazilian population. The CK-MB values obtained were higher than the 5.10 mg/mL proposed by the manufacturer of the laboratory kit. Therefore, decision limits should be related to population and gender in order to improve the specificity of this diagnostic tool, avoiding misclassification of patients

  15. Mothers of boys with gender identity disorder: a comparison of matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marantz, S; Coates, S

    1991-03-01

    This pilot study compared mothers of boys with gender identity disorder (GID) with mothers of normal boys to determine whether differences in psychopathology and child-rearing attitudes and practices could be identified. Results of the Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines and the Beck Depression Inventory revealed that mothers of boys with GID had more symptoms of depression and more often met the criteria for Borderline Personality Disorder than the controls. Fifty-three percent of the mothers of boys with GID compared with only 6% of controls met the diagnosis for Borderline Personality Disorder on the Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines or had symptoms of depression on the Beck Depression Inventory. Results of the Summers and Walsh Symbiosis Scale suggested that mothers of probands had child-rearing attitudes and practices that encouraged symbiosis and discouraged the development of autonomy.

  16. Greater Glycaemic Response to an Oral Glucose Load in Healthy, Lean, Active and Young Chinese Adults Compared to Matched Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Simper

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There are ethnic differences recorded in glycaemic response and rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM between Chinese and Caucasian populations. Whether these differences are evident in matched healthy, lean, active, young adults is unclear. This study compares the postprandial glycaemic response of a group of Chinese participants (n = 49 with a group of similar Caucasians, (n = 48 aged 23.8 (±4.35 years, body mass index (BMI 22.7 (±2.6 kg/m2, healthy (free from non-communicable disease, and lean (body fat % 23.28% (±5.04. Participants undertook an oral glucose tolerance test to identify any significant differences in postprandial blood glucose response. Body fat percentage, body mass, age, physical activity, baseline glucose and HbA1c did not significantly differ between groups. Data from food frequency questionnaires indicated that the Chinese participants consumed less starchy foods, candy and “other” sweets and sugary drinks, and more rice than the Caucasians (all p ≤ 0.001, but not a greater overall intake of carbohydrates or any other macronutrient (all p > 0.05. The two groups’ postprandial blood glucose responses and 2-h incremental area under the curve values (iAUC—156.67 (74.12 mmol/L 120 min for Caucasians versus 214.03 (77.49 mmol/L 120 min for Chinese—indicate significant differences (p = 0.003 and p < 0.001 respectively between groups. Findings suggest that the difference between the two groups’ iAUC values do not relate to obvious lifestyle factors. The Chinese group were eating the least sugary and starchy food but had the highest iAUC. It is argued that the Chinese group in this investigation have the most favourable BMI, body fat percentage, and body mass, yet “poorest” glycaemic response.

  17. Energy-related parameters and their association with age, gender, and morphometric measurements in healthy donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, F J; Estepa, J C; Gonzalez-De Cara, C A; Aguilera-Aguilera, R; Toribio, R E; Perez-Ecija, A

    2015-05-01

    Donkeys are commonly afflicted by endocrine and metabolic disturbances but few studies have investigated endocrine variables involved in energy regulation and their association with morphometric indices, age or gender in this species. Hemostatic and clinical differences have been demonstrated between horses and donkeys, so to consider both species as metabolically and endocrinologically similar could lead to misdiagnosis. In this study, plasma concentrations of glucose, triglycerides and endocrine factors involved in energy homeostasis (insulin, glucagon, leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin and insulin-like growth factor [IGF]-1) were measured and their association with morphometric variables (body condition score, neck scoring and body mass index), gender and age was determined in 62 healthy donkeys. In addition, a neck scoring system specific for donkeys was developed. Insulin, glucagon, leptin and IGF-1 concentrations were found to be similar between donkeys and other species, but adiponectin and active ghrelin were lower in donkeys than horses. Donkeys with larger neck scores and body mass indices had higher triglyceride, leptin and IGF-1 concentrations. A sexual dimorphism was observed on all morphometric measurements and plasma glucose concentrations independent of adiposity. Younger animals had lower morphometric measurements and triglyceride and leptin concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Naming and Categorization in Healthy Participants: Crowded Domains and Blurred Effects of Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Martínez, Francisco Javier; Moratilla-Pérez, Iván

    2016-09-20

    The study of category-specific effects has produced compelling insights into the structure, organization and functioning of cognitive processes. According to some accounts, the greater intra-category structural similarity for living things (LT) contributes to faster access to superordinate pictorial information, making LT easier to classify than structurally dissimilar items (i.e., nonliving things: NLT). Conversely, LT would be harder to name than NLT, as they must compete with within-domain structurally similar items in order to be properly discriminated. Additionally, it has been reported that men perform better with NLT than women, whereas women surpass men with LT but the reasons for this remain unclear. In the current study, we explored both the visual crowding hypothesis and the effects of gender by testing the performance of 40 healthy participants in classification and naming tasks. Analyses revealed that LT were classified significantly faster than NLT (η p 2 = .11), but named significantly slower (η p 2 = .25). Interestingly, the same results persisted after removing atypical categories that are known to distort the interpretation of data from the analyses. Moreover, we did not find the expected effects of gender. Men were more accurate than women naming NLT (η p 2 = .13), and women did not surpass men in any task.

  19. Plasma and serum lipidomics of healthy white adults shows characteristic profiles by subjects' gender and age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Ishikawa

    Full Text Available Blood is a commonly used biofluid for biomarker discovery. Although blood lipid metabolites are considered to be potential biomarker candidates, their fundamental properties are not well characterized. We aimed to (1 investigate the matrix type (serum vs. plasma that may be preferable for lipid biomarker exploration, (2 elucidate age- and gender-associated differences in lipid metabolite levels, and (3 examine the stability of lipid metabolites in matrix samples subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we performed lipidomic analyses for fasting plasma and serum samples for four groups (15 subjects/group of young and elderly (25-34 and 55-64 years old, respectively males and females and for an additional aliquot of samples from young males, which were subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Lysophosphatidylcholine and diacylglycerol levels were higher in serum than in plasma samples, suggesting that the clotting process influences serum lipid metabolite levels. Gender-associated differences highlighted that the levels of many sphingomyelin species were significantly higher in females than in males, irrespective of age and matrix (plasma and serum. Age-associated differences were more prominent in females than in males, and in both matrices, levels of many triacylglycerols were significantly higher in elderly females than in young females. Plasma and serum levels of most lipid metabolites were reduced by freeze-thawing. Our results indicate that plasma is an optimal matrix for exploring lipid biomarkers because it represents the original properties of an individual's blood sample. In addition, the levels of some blood lipid species of healthy adults showed gender- and age-associated differences; thus, this should be considered during biomarker exploration and its application in diagnostics. Our fundamental findings on sample selection and handling procedures for measuring blood lipid metabolites

  20. Workforce gender, company size and corporate financial support are predictors of availability of healthy meals in Danish worksite canteens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Andersen, Jens Strodl

    2009-01-01

    . Design: A self-administered questionnaire was randomly mailed to 1967 worksite canteen managers. Besides information and characteristics about the canteen and the worksite. the canteen managers specified the Menus available Two different health groups (Healthy and Less Healthy) were defined in three...... Danish worksite canteen managers replied, resulting in a response rate of 29% Results Only 12% of the canteens applied to the Healthy group combining all the three meal categories in particular, worksites with more than 75% female employees served healthy menus on a. frequent basis The size...... of the worksite was positively correlated with more healthy meal options Furthermore, the present study suggest.,, I positive relationship between corporate financial support and the availability of healthy meal options Conclusions Among the selected variables Studied, workforce gender, company size and corporate...

  1. Workforce gender, company size and corporate financial support are predictors of availability of healthy meals in Danish worksite canteens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Andersen, Jens Strodl; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2009-11-01

    Environmental strategies at worksites may help consumers change dietary behaviour towards a more healthy diet. The present study aimed to evaluate the availability of healthy meal options at Danish worksite canteens and to identify predictors of worksite canteens providing healthy meals. A self-administered questionnaire was randomly mailed to 1967 worksite canteen managers. Besides information and characteristics about the canteen and the worksite, the canteen managers specified the menus available. Two different health groups (Healthy and Less Healthy) were defined in three different meal categories (Sandwiches, Hot meals and Salads) as well as a combined category (Combined) combining all the three meal categories. The characteristics of the worksites were compared with regard to the different health groups. Randomly selected Danish worksite canteens. 553 Danish worksite canteen managers replied, resulting in a response rate of 29 %. Only 12 % of the canteens applied to the Healthy group combining all the three meal categories. In particular, worksites with more than 75 % female employees served healthy menus on a frequent basis. The size of the worksite was positively correlated with more healthy meal options. Furthermore, the present study suggests a positive relationship between corporate financial support and the availability of healthy meal options. Among the selected variables studied, workforce gender, company size and corporate financial support were significant predictors of the availability of healthy meal options in worksite canteens. More research is needed on the role that variance in organisation environment plays for the potential of worksite intervention, to make a difference in terms of healthy eating.

  2. Responses of sympathetic nervous system to cold exposure in vibration syndrome subjects and age-matched healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, M

    1990-01-01

    Plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine in vibration syndrome subjects and age-matched healthy controls were measured for the purpose of estimating the responsibility of the sympathetic nervous system to cold exposure. In preliminary experiment, it was confirmed that cold air exposure of the whole body was more suitable than one-hand immersion in cold water. In the main experiment, 195 subjects were examined. Sixty-five subjects had vibration syndrome with vibration-induced white finger (VWF + group) and 65 subjects had vibration syndrome without VWF (VWF- group) and 65 controls had no symptoms (control group). In the three groups, plasma norepinephrine levels increased during cold air exposure of whole body at 7 degrees +/- 1.5 degrees C. Blood pressure increased and skin temperature decreased during cold exposure. Percent increase of norepinephrine in the VWF+ group was the highest while that in VWF- group followed and that in the control group was the lowest. This whole-body response of the sympathetic nervous system to cold conditions reflected the VWF which are characteristic symptoms of vibration syndrome. Excluding the effects of shivering and a cold feeling under cold conditions, it was confirmed that the sympathetic nervous system in vibration syndrome is activated more than in the controls. These results suggest that vibration exposure to hand and arm affects the sympathetic nervous system.

  3. Association between Yogurt Consumption and Intestinal Microbiota in Healthy Young Adults Differs by Host Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Suzuki

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Human intestinal microbiota are influenced by various factors viz. diet, environment, age, gender, geographical, and socioeconomic situation, etc. among which diet has the most profound impact. However, studies investigating this impact have mostly included subjects from diverse geographic/socioeconomic backgrounds and hence the precise effects of dietary factors on gut microbiota composition remain largely confounded. Herein, with an aim to evaluate the association between dietary habits, specifically yogurt consumption, and the gut microbiota in healthy young adults sharing similar age, lifestyle routine, geographical setting, etc., we conducted a cross-sectional study wherein 293 collegiate freshmen answered a questionnaire about their frequency of yogurt consumption over the last 2 months and provided stool specimens for microbiota analysis. Fecal microbiota were analyzed by highly sensitive reverse-transcription-quantitative-PCR assays targeting bacterial 16S rRNA molecules. Fecal organic acids were measured by HPLC. Overall, the gut microbiota were predominated (97.1 ± 8.6% by Clostridium coccoides group, Clostridium leptum subgroup, Bacteroides fragilis group, Bifidobacterium and Atopobium cluster. Interestingly, after adjusting the data for yogurt consumption, females were found to have higher total bacterial (P = 0.013 and Bifidobacterium (P = 0.046 count and fecal pH (P = 0.007 and lower fecal concentration of total organic acids (P = 0.030, succinic acid (P = 0.007 and formic acid (P = 0.046 as compared to males. Altogether, yogurt consumption showed positive linear association with Lactobacillus and Lactobacillus gasseri subgroup in both male and female subjects; however, several gender-specific disparities were also detected in this yogurt-microbiota association. Yogurt consumption demonstrated a negative association with L. sakei subgroup, Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus in males but shared a positive association with L

  4. In vivo kinematics of healthy male knees during squat and golf swing using image-matching techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Koji; Hamai, Satoshi; Okazaki, Ken; Ikebe, Satoru; Shimoto, Takeshi; Hara, Daisuke; Mizu-uchi, Hideki; Higaki, Hidehiko; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2016-03-01

    Participation in specific activities requires complex ranges of knee movements and activity-dependent kinematics. The purpose of this study was to investigate dynamic knee kinematics during squat and golf swing using image-matching techniques. Five healthy males performed squats and golf swings under periodic X-ray images at 10 frames per second. We analyzed the in vivo three-dimensional kinematic parameters of subjects' knees, namely the tibiofemoral flexion angle, anteroposterior (AP) translation, and internal-external rotation, using serial X-ray images and computed tomography-derived, digitally reconstructed radiographs. During squat from 0° to 140° of flexion, the femur moved about 25 mm posteriorly and rotated 19° externally relative to the tibia. Screw-home movement near extension, bicondylar rollback between 20° and 120° of flexion, and medial pivot motion at further flexion were observed. During golf swing, the leading and trailing knees (the left and right knees respectively in the right-handed golfer) showed approximately five millimeters and four millimeters of AP translation with 18° and 26° of axial rotation, respectively. A central pivot motion from set-up to top of the backswing, lateral pivot motion from top to ball impact, and medial pivot motion from impact to the end of follow-through were observed. The medial pivot motion was not always recognized during both activities, but a large range of axial rotation with bilateral condylar AP translations occurs during golf swing. This finding has important implications regarding the amount of acceptable AP translation and axial rotation at low flexion in replaced knees. IV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Gender differences in interpersonal problems of alcohol-dependent patients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sandra E; Degen, Bigna; Petitjean, Sylvie; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Walter, Marc

    2009-12-01

    Alcohol dependence is a heavy burden on patients, their families, and society. Epidemiological studies indicate that alcohol dependence will affect many individuals at some time in their lives, with men affected more frequently than women. Since alcohol-dependent patients often exhibit a lack of social skills and suffer from interpersonal problems, the aim of this study is to elucidate whether men and women experience the same interpersonal problems. Eighty-five alcohol-dependent patients (48 men; 37 women) after detoxification and 62 healthy controls (35 men; 27 women) were recruited. Interpersonal problems were measured with the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-64). Additionally, alcohol-dependent patients were interviewed with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and were subtyped according to Lesch's Alcohol Typology (LAT). There were no significant gender differences in the AUDIT and LAT between alcohol-dependent men and women. Interpersonal problems of alcohol-dependent men differed significantly in one out of eight dimensions from controls; alcohol-dependent men perceive themselves as colder than male controls. Alcohol-dependent women differed in four out of eight interpersonal dimensions from female controls. Alcohol-dependent women rated themselves as significantly more vindictive, more introverted, more overly accommodating and more intrusive than female controls. Results suggest that alcohol-dependent men and women suffer from different interpersonal problems and furthermore alcohol-dependent women perceive more interpersonal problems, whereas the severity of alcohol dependence did not differ between the groups. Our findings indicate that alcohol-dependent women may profit more from a gender-specific treatment approach aimed at improving treatment outcome than alcohol-dependent men.

  6. Gender Differences in Interpersonal Problems of Alcohol-Dependent Patients and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Walter

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dependence is a heavy burden on patients, their families, and society. Epidemiological studies indicate that alcohol dependence will affect many individuals at some time in their lives, with men affected more frequently than women. Since alcohol-dependent patients often exhibit a lack of social skills and suffer from interpersonal problems, the aim of this study is to elucidate whether men and women experience the same interpersonal problems. Eighty-five alcohol-dependent patients (48 men; 37 women after detoxification and 62 healthy controls (35 men; 27 women were recruited. Interpersonal problems were measured with the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-64. Additionally, alcohol-dependent patients were interviewed with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT and were subtyped according to Lesch’s Alcohol Typology (LAT. There were no significant gender differences in the AUDIT and LAT between alcohol-dependent men and women. Interpersonal problems of alcohol-dependent men differed significantly in one out of eight dimensions from controls; alcohol-dependent men perceive themselves as colder than male controls. Alcohol-dependent women differed in four out of eight interpersonal dimensions from female controls. Alcohol-dependent women rated themselves as significantly more vindictive, more introverted, more overly accommodating and more intrusive than female controls. Results suggest that alcohol-dependent men and women suffer from different interpersonal problems and furthermore alcohol-dependent women perceive more interpersonal problems, whereas the severity of alcohol dependence did not differ between the groups. Our findings indicate that alcohol-dependent women may profit more from a gender-specific treatment approach aimed at improving treatment outcome than alcohol-dependent men.

  7. Influence of gender, age and motives underlying food choice on perceived healthiness and willingness to try functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, Gastón; Gámbaro, Adriana

    2007-07-01

    The aims of the present study were to study the effect of different carriers and enrichments on the perceived healthiness and willingness to try functional foods; and to evaluate the effect of age, gender and motives underlying food choice. Participants had to evaluate different functional food concepts and had to answer a food choice questionnaire. Results showed that carrier products had the largest effect on consumers' perception of healthiness and willingness to try of the evaluated functional foods concepts. The highest positive relative utilities were achieved when the enrichment was a functional ingredient inherent in the product. Furthermore, gender, age and motives underlying food choice affected the preference patterns for the evaluated functional foods concepts, but it depended on the carrier and enrichment considered, suggesting that functional foods might not be accepted by all the consumers and that they could be tailored for certain groups.

  8. Cortical 11C-PIB Uptake is Associated with Age, APOE Genotype, and Gender in "Healthy Aging"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheinin, Noora M; Wikman, Kristina; Jula, Antti

    2014-01-01

    with the amyloid tracer 11C-PIB, in 64 cognitively healthy subjects (54-89 years). In addition to PET, magnetic resonance imaging, neuropsychological testing, and APOE genotyping was performed. The results were assessed with a statistical general linear model as well as with Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM......). Results: The effects of age (p gender (p = 0.001) on composite cortical 11C-PIB uptake were all significant. The effect of educational level was non-significant (p = 0.37). No significant interactions were found between any of the factors. Cortical 11C....... In this sample of cognitively healthy elderly individuals, men exhibited higher 11C-PIB uptake than women. Possible gender differences in Aβ accumulation have not been addressed in detail in previous studies, and deeper evaluation in the future is warranted....

  9. The retinal nerve fibre layer thickness in glaucomatous hydrophthalmic eyes assessed by scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation in comparison with age-matched healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hložánek, Martin; Ošmera, Jakub; Ležatková, Pavlína; Sedláčková, Petra; Filouš, Aleš

    2012-12-01

    To compare the thickness of the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) in hydrophthalmic glaucomatous eyes in children with age-matched healthy controls using scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation (GDxVCC). Twenty hydrophthalmic eyes of 20 patients with the mean age of 10.64 ± 3.02 years being treated for congenital or infantile glaucoma were included in the analysis. Evaluation of RNFL thickness measured by GDxVCC in standard Temporal-Superior-Nasal-Inferior-Temporal (TSNIT) parameters was performed. The results were compared to TSNIT values of an age-matched control group of 120 healthy children published recently as referential values. The correlation between horizontal corneal diameter and RNFL thickness in hydrophthalmic eyes was also investigated. The mean ± SD values in TSNIT Average, Superior Average, Inferior Average and TSNIT SD in hydrophthalmic eyes were 52.3 ± 11.4, 59.7 ± 17.1, 62.0 ± 15.6 and 20.0 ± 7.8 μm, respectively. All these values were significantly lower compared to referential TSNIT parameters of age-matched healthy eyes (p = 0.021, p = 0.001, p = 0.003 and p = 0.018, respectively). A substantial number of hydrophthalmic eyes laid below the level of 5% probability of normality in respective TSNIT parameters: 30% of the eyes in TSNIT average, 50% of the eyes in superior average, 30% of the eyes in inferior average and 45% of the eyes in TSNIT SD. No significant correlation between enlarged corneal diameter and RNFL thickness was found. The mean values of all standard TSNIT parameters assessed using GDxVCC in hydrophthalmic glaucomatous eyes in children were significantly lower in comparison with referential values of healthy age-matched children. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2011 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  10. Labor force participation and secondary education of gender inequality index (GII) associated with healthy life expectancy (HLE) at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong In; Kim, Gukbin

    2014-11-18

    What is the factor that affects healthy life expectancy? Healthy life expectancy (HLE) at birth may be influenced by components of the gender inequality index (GII). Notably, this claim is not tested on the between components of the GII, such as population at least secondary education (PLSE) with ages 25 and older, labor force participation rate (LFPR) with ages 15 and older, and the HLE in the world's countries. Thus, this study estimates the associations between the PLSE, LFPR of components of the GII and the HLE. The data for the analysis of HLE in 148 countries were obtained from the World Health Organization. Information regarding the GII indicators for this study was obtained from the United Nations database. Associations between these factors and HLE were assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients and regression models. Although significant negative correlations were found between HLE and the LFPR, positive correlations were found between HLE and PLSE. Finally, the HLE predictors were used to form a model of the components of the GII, with higher PLSE as secondary education and lower LFPR as labor force (R(2) = 0.552, P <0.001). Gender inequality of the attainment secondary education and labor force participation seems to have an important latent effect on healthy life expectancy at birth. Therefore, in populations with high HLE, the gender inequalities in HLE are smaller because of a combination of a larger secondary education advantage and a smaller labor force disadvantage in male-females.

  11. Sleep disordered breathing, insomnia, and health related quality of life -- a comparison between age and gender matched elderly with heart failure or without cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Peter; Arestedt, Kristoffer; Alehagen, Urban; Svanborg, Eva; Dahlström, Ulf; Broström, Anders

    2010-06-01

    The aims of this study are (I) to compare the prevalence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and insomnia between elderly with heart failure (HF) and age and gender matched elderly without cardiovascular disease (CVD), and (II) to examine the association between HF, SDB and insomnia, as well as their impact on health related quality of life (Hr-QoL). Three hundred and thirty-one elderly (71-87 years) community-living individuals underwent sleep recordings and echocardiography. Questionnaires assessed insomnia and Hr-QoL. Comparisons were made between age and gender matched individuals with HF (n=36) and without CVD (n=36). The HF group had higher mean apnoea-hypopnoea index (17.6 vs. 6.3, pinsomnia or EDS. SDB, DMS and EDS are more common in elderly with HF. SDB is not an obvious cause for sleep complaints or poor Hr-QoL in elderly. Copyright (c) 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Country and Gender-Specific Achievement of Healthy Nutrition and Physical Activity Guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Ansari, Walid; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    Research on healthy behaviour such as physical activity and healthy nutrition and their combination is lacking among university students in Arab countries. The current survey assessed healthy nutrition, and moderate/vigorous physical activity (PA) of 6266 students in Egypt, Libya, and Palestine. We...... computed a nutrition guideline achievement index using WHO recommendation, as well as the achievement of PA recommendations using guidelines for adults of the American Heart Association guidelines. Latent class regression analysis identified homogenous groups of male and female students, based......), and "Low Healthy Behaviour" (70.6% of females, 63.4% of males). We did not observe a latent class that exhibited combined healthy behaviours (physically active and healthy eaters), and there were no major differences between countries. We observed a very low rate of healthy nutrition (≈10% of students...

  13. Effect of age and gender on dopamine transporter imaging with [123I]FP-CIT SPET in healthy volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavalaye, J.; Booij, J.; Reneman, L.; Habraken, J.B.A.; Royen, E.A. van

    2000-01-01

    Dopamine transporter imaging is a valuable tool to investigate the integrity of the dopaminergic neurons. To date, several reports have shown an age-associated decline in dopamine transporters in healthy volunteers. Although animal studies suggest an effect of gender on dopamine transporter density, this gender effect has not yet been confirmed in human studies. To study the influence of age and gender on dopamine transporter imaging in healthy volunteers, we performed single-photon emission tomography imaging with [ 123 I]FP-CIT to quantify dopamine transporters. Forty-five healthy volunteers (23 males and 22 females) were included, ranging in age from 18 to 83 years. SPET imaging was performed 3 h after injection of ±110 MBq [ 123 I]FP-CIT. An operator-independent volume of interest analysis was used for quantification of [ 123 I]FP-CIT binding in the striatum. The ratio of specific striatal to non-specific [ 123 I]FP-CIT binding was found to decrease significantly with age. Moreover, we found a high variance in [ 123 I]FP-CIT binding in young adults. Finally, females were found to have significantly higher [ 123 I]FP-CIT binding ratios than males. This effect of gender on [ 123 I]FP-CIT binding ratios was not related to age. The results of this study are consistent with findings from previous studies, which showed that dopamine transporter density declines with age. The intriguing finding of a higher dopamine transporter density in females than in males is in line with findings from animal studies. (orig.)

  14. Gender differences in healthy aging and Alzheimer's Dementia: A 18 F-FDG-PET study of brain and cognitive reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpetti, Maura; Ballarini, Tommaso; Presotto, Luca; Garibotto, Valentina; Tettamanti, Marco; Perani, Daniela

    2017-08-01

    Cognitive reserve (CR) and brain reserve (BR) are protective factors against age-associated cognitive decline and neurodegenerative disorders. Very limited evidence exists about gender effects on brain aging and on the effect of CR on brain modulation in healthy aging and Alzheimer's Dementia (AD). We investigated gender differences in brain metabolic activity and resting-state network connectivity, as measured by 18 F-FDG-PET, in healthy aging and AD, also considering the effects of education and occupation. The clinical and imaging data were retrieved from large datasets of healthy elderly subjects (HE) (225) and AD patients (282). In HE, males showed more extended age-related reduction of brain metabolism than females in frontal medial cortex. We also found differences in brain modulation as metabolic increases induced by education and occupation, namely in posterior associative cortices in HE males and in the anterior limbic-affective and executive networks in HE females. In AD patients, the correlations between education and occupation levels and brain hypometabolism showed gender differences, namely a posterior temporo-parietal association in males and a frontal and limbic association in females, indicating the involvement of different networks. Finally, the metabolic connectivity in both HE and AD aligned with these results, suggesting greater efficiency in the posterior default mode network for males, and in the anterior frontal executive network for females. The basis of these brain gender differences in both aging and AD, obtained exploring cerebral metabolism, metabolic connectivity and the effects of education and occupation, is likely at the intersection between biological and sociodemographic factors. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4212-4227, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Gender Differences in Cerebral Regional Homogeneity of Adult Healthy Volunteers: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunsheng Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We sought to use the regional homogeneity (ReHo approach as an index in the resting-state functional MRI to investigate the gender differences of spontaneous brain activity within cerebral cortex and resting-state networks (RSNs in young adult healthy volunteers. Methods. One hundred and twelve healthy volunteers (56 males, 56 females participated in the resting-state fMRI scan. The ReHo mappings in the cerebral cortex and twelve RSNs of the male and female groups were compared. Results. We found statistically significant gender differences in the primary visual network (PVN (P<0.004, with Bonferroni correction and left attention network (LAtN, default mode network (DMN, sensorimotor network (SMN, executive network (EN, and dorsal medial prefrontal network (DMPFC as well (P<0.05, uncorrected. The male group showed higher ReHo in the left precuneus, while the female group showed higher ReHo in the right middle cingulate gyrus, fusiform gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, precentral gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, and postcentral gyrus. Conclusions. Our results suggested that men and women had regional specific differences during the resting-state. The findings may improve our understanding of the gender differences in behavior and cognition from the perspective of resting-state brain function.

  16. Gender-based differences in stride and limb dimensions between healthy red-wing tinamou (Rhynchotus rufescens) Temminck, 1815

    OpenAIRE

    QUEIROZ, Sandra Aidar de; COOPER, Ross Gordon

    2014-01-01

    The red-wing tinamou (Rhynchotus rufescens) is economically important as food. The current study investigated the limb and trunk characteristics in age-matched [year-of-hatch (yoh) 2004 and 2005], gender segregated birds, and determined differences in stride between cocks and hens. The locomotion trial was completed in a corridor of 0.6 × 2.36 m dimension. The girth was significantly higher in cocks than in hens, while body weight was slightly higher in hens. Cocks had a greater height than h...

  17. Gender-based differences in stride and limb dimensions between healthy red-wing tinamou (Rhynchotus rufescens) Temminck, 1815

    OpenAIRE

    de Queiroz, Sandra Aidar [UNESP; Cooper, Ross Gordon

    2011-01-01

    The red-wing tinamou (Rhynchotus rufescens) is economically important as food. The current study investigated the limb and trunk characteristics in age-matched [year-of-hatch (yoh) 2004 and 2005], gender segregated birds, and determined differences in stride between cocks and hens. The locomotion trial was completed in a corridor of 0.6 x 2.36 m dimension. The girth was significantly higher in cocks than in hens, while body weight was slightly higher in hens. Cocks had a greater height than h...

  18. The Effects of Age, Gender, and Hand on Force Control Capabilities of Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Baekhee; Lee, Mina; Yoh, Myeung Sook; You, Heecheon; Park, Hyunji; Jung, Kihyo; Lee, Byung Hwa; Na, Duk L; Kim, Geon Ha

    2015-12-01

    The present study examined the effects of age (20s to 70s), gender (male and female), and hand (dominant and nondominant) on force control capabilities (FCCs) in four force control phases (initiation, development, maintenance, and termination). Normative data of FCCs by force control phase are needed for various populations in age and gender to identify a type of motor performance reduction and its severity. FCCs of 360 participants (30 for each combination of age group and gender) were measured using a finger dynamometer and quantified in terms of initiation time (IT), development time (DT), maintenance error (ME), and termination time (TT). Although gradual increases (1%~28%) by age were shown in IT, DT, and TT, a dramatic increase in ME was observed among participants in their 50s (26%), 60s (68%), and 70s (160%) compared to those in their 20s~40s. The most distinctive interaction effect of age and gender was found in ME out of the four FCC measures. Lastly, hand and its related interactions were not found significant. Normative FCC data were established for four age groups (20s~40s, 50s, 60s, and 70s) and gender. The normative FCC data can be used for evaluating an individual's motor performance, screening patients with brain disorders, and designing input devices triggered and/or operated by the finger. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  19. The human plasma-metabolome: Reference values in 800 French healthy volunteers; impact of cholesterol, gender and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabado, Séverine; Al-Salameh, Abdallah; Croixmarie, Vincent; Masson, Perrine; Corruble, Emmanuelle; Fève, Bruno; Colle, Romain; Ripoll, Laurent; Walther, Bernard; Boursier-Neyret, Claire; Werner, Erwan; Becquemont, Laurent; Chanson, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomic approaches are increasingly used to identify new disease biomarkers, yet normal values of many plasma metabolites remain poorly defined. The aim of this study was to define the "normal" metabolome in healthy volunteers. We included 800 French volunteers aged between 18 and 86, equally distributed according to sex, free of any medication and considered healthy on the basis of their medical history, clinical examination and standard laboratory tests. We quantified 185 plasma metabolites, including amino acids, biogenic amines, acylcarnitines, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins and hexose, using tandem mass spectrometry with the Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ p180 kit. Principal components analysis was applied to identify the main factors responsible for metabolome variability and orthogonal projection to latent structures analysis was employed to confirm the observed patterns and identify pattern-related metabolites. We established a plasma metabolite reference dataset for 144/185 metabolites. Total blood cholesterol, gender and age were identified as the principal factors explaining metabolome variability. High total blood cholesterol levels were associated with higher plasma sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines concentrations. Compared to women, men had higher concentrations of creatinine, branched-chain amino acids and lysophosphatidylcholines, and lower concentrations of sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines. Elderly healthy subjects had higher sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines plasma levels than young subjects. We established reference human metabolome values in a large and well-defined population of French healthy volunteers. This study provides an essential baseline for defining the "normal" metabolome and its main sources of variation.

  20. Gender differences in pain and secondary hyperalgesia after heat/capsaicin sensitization in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus Thorsten; Petersen, Karin Lottrup

    2006-01-01

    differences in development of secondary hyperalgesia. Cutaneous hyperalgesia was induced with the heat/capsaicin sensitization model. Outcome measures were areas of secondary hyperalgesia to brush and von Frey hair stimulation after heat and capsaicin sensitization, rating of pain during heat....../capsaicin sensitization, and heat pain detection thresholds. There was a trend toward smaller areas of secondary hyperalgesia in women. After adjusting for estimated gender differences in forearm surface area, areas to brush but not von Frey hair stimulation after capsaicin sensitization were larger in women. Peak pain......, but not total pain, during prolonged noxious thermal stimulation was higher in women. There was no gender difference in pain ratings during capsaicin sensitization or in heat pain detection thresholds. The results provided only limited support to the hypothesis that gender differences in clinical pain syndromes...

  1. Effect of age and gender on lipid profile in healthy rural population of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are contradicting information on the influence of age and gender on blood lipid profile, some researchers believe the levels of total cholesterol and other components of lipid profile increase with age, others have proved significant negative correlation between total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and ...

  2. Gender Differences in Views about Cognitive Health and Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors among Rural Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bei; Goins, R. Turner; Laditka, James N.; Ignatenko, Valerie; Goedereis, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Research suggests that men and women often differ in knowledge and beliefs about causes and treatments of a variety of diseases. This study examines gender differences in views about cognitive health and behaviors that have been associated with its maintenance, focusing on older adults living in rural areas. Design and Methods: We…

  3. Effect of gender, age, diet and smoking status on chronomics of circulating plasma lipid components in healthy Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranjana; Sharma, Sumita; Singh, Rajesh K; Mahdi, Abbas A; Singh, Raj K; Lee Gierke, Cathy; Cornelissen, Germaine

    2016-08-01

    Circulating lipid components were studied under near-normal tropical conditions (around Lucknow) in 162 healthy volunteers - mostly medical students, staff members and members of their families (103 males and 59 females; 7 to 75y), subdivided into 4 age groups: A (7-20y; N=42), B (21-40y; N=60), C (41-60y; N=35) and D (61-75y; N=25). Blood samples were collected from each subject every 6h for 24h (4 samples). Plasma was separated and total cholesterol, high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, phospholipids and total lipids were measured spectrophotometrically. Data from each subject were analyzed by cosinor. We examined by multiple-analysis of variance how the MESOR (Midline Estimating Statistic Of Rhythm, a rhythm-adjusted mean) and the circadian amplitude of these variables is affected by gender, age, diet (vegetarian vs. omnivore), and smoking status. In addition to effects of gender and age, diet and smoking were found to affect the MESOR of circulating plasma lipid components in healthy Indians residing in northern India. Age also affected the circadian amplitude of these variables. These results indicate the possibility of using non-pharmacological interventions to improve a patient's metabolic profile before prescribing medication under near normal tropical conditions. They also add information that may help refine cut-off values in the light of factors shown here to affect blood lipids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Registration of FA and T1-weighted MRI data of healthy human brain based on template matching and normalized cross-correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinsky, Milos; Peter, Roman; Hodneland, Erlend; Lundervold, Astri J; Lundervold, Arvid; Jan, Jiri

    2013-08-01

    In this work, we propose a new approach for three-dimensional registration of MR fractional anisotropy images with T1-weighted anatomy images of human brain. From the clinical point of view, this accurate coregistration allows precise detection of nerve fibers that is essential in neuroscience. A template matching algorithm combined with normalized cross-correlation was used for this registration task. To show the suitability of the proposed method, it was compared with the normalized mutual information-based B-spline registration provided by the Elastix software library, considered a reference method. We also propose a general framework for the evaluation of robustness and reliability of both registration methods. Both registration methods were tested by four evaluation criteria on a dataset consisting of 74 healthy subjects. The template matching algorithm has shown more reliable results than the reference method in registration of the MR fractional anisotropy and T1 anatomy image data. Significant differences were observed in the regions splenium of corpus callosum and genu of corpus callosum, considered very important areas of brain connectivity. We demonstrate that, in this registration task, the currently used mutual information-based parametric registration can be replaced by more accurate local template matching utilizing the normalized cross-correlation similarity measure.

  5. The influence of age, gender and education on the performance of healthy individuals on a battery for assessing limb apraxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Mantovani-Nagaoka

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Apraxia is defined as a disorder of learned skilled movements, in the absence of elementary motor or sensory deficits and general cognitive impairment, such as inattention to commands, object-recognition deficits or poor oral comprehension. Limb apraxia has long been a challenge for clinical assessment and understanding and covers a wide spectrum of disorders, all involving motor cognition and the inability to perform previously learned actions. Demographic variables such as gender, age, and education can influence the performance of individuals on different neuropsychological tests. Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the performance of healthy subjects on a limb apraxia battery and to determine the influence of gender, age, and education on the praxis skills assessed. Methods: Forty-four subjects underwent a limb apraxia battery, which was composed of numerous subtests for assessing both the semantic aspects of gestural production as well as motor performance itself. The tasks encompassed lexical-semantic aspects related to gestural production and motor activity in response to verbal commands and imitation. Results: We observed no gender effects on any of the subtests. Only the subtest involving visual recognition of transitive gestures showed a correlation between performance and age. However, we observed that education level influenced subject performance for all sub tests involving motor actions, and for most of these, moderate correlations were observed between education level and performance of the praxis tasks. Conclusion: We conclude that the education level of participants can have an important influence on the outcome of limb apraxia tests.

  6. {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain perfusion SPET: variability, asymmetry and effects of age and gender in healthy adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Laere, K.; Versijpt, J.; Goethals, I.; Dierckx, R. [Div. of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent University Hospital (Belgium); Audenaert, K. [Dept. of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Koole, M. [Medical Signal and Image Processing Department (MEDISIP), Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Achten, E. [Division of Neuroradiology, Radiology Department, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)

    2001-07-01

    Reliable and high-resolution reference data for regional cerebral blood flow measured with single-photon emission tomography (SPET) are necessary for optimal clinical and research use. Therefore, a large dataset of normal technetium-99m labelled ethylene cysteine dimer (ECD) perfusion SPET in carefully screened healthy volunteers with an age range spanning six decades was created, with correction for non-uniform attenuation and scatter and based on an anatomically standardised analysis. Eighty-nine healthy volunteers, stratified for gender (46 females, 43 males; age 20-81 years), were included. Twelve volunteers underwent repeated {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPET after 2.5{+-}2.3 weeks. An automated whole-brain volume of interest analysis with MANOVA as well as voxelwise analysis using SPM99 was conducted. Average intersubject variability was 4.8% while intrasubject reproducibility was 3.0%. An age-related decline in tracer uptake was found in the anterior cingulate gyrus, bilateral basal ganglia, left prefrontal, left lateral frontal and left superior temporal and insular cortex (all P=0.001-0.02). There was an overall increase in right/left asymmetry with age, which was most pronounced in the frontal and temporal neocortex. The most significant correlations between AI and age decade were found in the prefrontal (R=0.35, P=0.001) and superior temporal neocortex (R=0.43, P<0.001). Women had significantly higher uptake in the right parietal cortex (P<0.001), while men showed higher uptake in the cerebellum and the left anterior temporal and orbitofrontal cortex (all P<0.01). This normative dataset allows age- and gender-specific patient and group assessment of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD perfusion SPET under a wide variety of clinical circumstances in relation to normal variations and highlights the importance of both age- and gender-specific normal datasets for optimal analysis sensitivity. (orig.)

  7. [Motor skills and safety of patients with bi- or trimalleolar ankle injury : Comparison with healthy, active, age-matched control subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudovici-Krug, Dana; Benkenstein, Monique; Derlien, Steffen; Best, Norman

    2018-06-01

    Do patients with bi- or trimalleolar ankle injury show differences in motor skills and safety in comparison with healthy, active, age-matched control subjects? Prospective controlled cross-sectional study. Inclusion of 17 patients with bi- or trimalleolar ankle injury (mean 1.5 years postsurgery) and 23 healthy, active subjects of comparable age (fitness studio). Measurement instruments: motor test procedures and questionnaires. Comparison of patients and control subjects by routine daily motor function: patients  0.05), fear of falling: patients > controls (p = 0.003) and physical activity: patients motor deficits in activities of daily life between the patients and controls, only tendencies; however, the patients showed definite limitations with an increased fear of falling and a reduced physical activity compared with the healthy control group. The resulting differences should be positively influenced by appropriate enhancement of training or participation in sports courses. The aim is to achieve a similar quality of life by a perception of safety and trust in one's own motor skills.

  8. Gender differences in the associations between cortisol and insulin in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, RP; Lamberts, SWJ; deJong, FH; Pols, HAP; Grobbee, DE

    To investigate the role of cortisol in the etiology of insulin resistance in men and women, we examined 218 healthy non-hospitalized elderly, selected from the Rotterdam Study. Free cortisol was assessed by the ratio of fasting serum cortisol over corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), and insulin

  9. Constituting the healthy employee? : Governing gendered subjects in workplace health promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Björklund, Erika

    2008-01-01

    With a post-structural approach and an analytical focus on processes of governmentality and biopower, this study is concerned with how discourses of health are contextualized in educational practice and interaction between educators and participants in workplace health promotion (WHP) interventions. Of concern are issues of the discursive production, regulation and representation of power, knowledge and subjects as gendered beings in workplace health promotion interventions. The methods for g...

  10. Trait anxiety affects decision-making differently in healthy men and women: towards gender-specific endophenotypes of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Visser, L; van der Knaap, L J; van de Loo, A J A E; van der Weerd, C M M; Ohl, F; van den Bos, R

    2010-05-01

    Excessive levels of trait anxiety are a risk factor for psychiatric conditions, including anxiety disorders and substance abuse. High trait anxiety has been associated with altered cognitive functioning, in particular with an attentional bias towards aversive stimuli. Decision-making is a crucial aspect of cognitive functioning that relies on the correct processing and control of emotional stimuli. Interestingly, anxiety and decision-making share underlying neural substrates, involving cortico-limbic pathways, including the amygdala, striatum and medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between trait anxiety, measured by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and complex decision-making, measured by the Iowa Gambling Task, in healthy male and female volunteers. The main focus of this study was the inclusion of gender as a discriminative factor. Indeed, we found distinct gender-specific effects of trait anxiety: in men, both low and high anxiety groups showed impaired decision-making compared to medium anxiety individuals, whereas in women only high anxiety individuals performed poorly. Furthermore, anxiety affected decision-making in men early in the task, i.e. the exploration phase, as opposed to an effect on performance in women during the second part of the test, i.e. the exploitation phase. These findings were related to different profiles of trait anxiety in men and women, and were independent of performance in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and cortisol levels. Our data show gender-specific effects of trait anxiety on emotional decision-making. We suggest gender-specific endophenotypes of anxiety to exist, that differentially affect cognitive functioning. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Video game addiction in emerging adulthood: Cross-sectional evidence of pathology in video game addicts as compared to matched healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Laura; Coyne, Sarah M

    2018-01-01

    The Internet Gaming Disorder Scale (IGDS) is a widely used measure of video game addiction, a pathology affecting a small percentage of all people who play video games. Emerging adult males are significantly more likely to be video game addicts. Few researchers have examined how people who qualify as video game addicts based on the IGDS compared to matched controls based on age, gender, race, and marital status. The current study compared IGDS video game addicts to matched non-addicts in terms of their mental, physical, social-emotional health using self-report, survey methods. Addicts had poorer mental health and cognitive functioning including poorer impulse control and ADHD symptoms compared to controls. Additionally, addicts displayed increased emotional difficulties including increased depression and anxiety, felt more socially isolated, and were more likely to display internet pornography pathological use symptoms. Female video game addicts were at unique risk for negative outcomes. The sample for this study was undergraduate college students and self-report measures were used. Participants who met the IGDS criteria for video game addiction displayed poorer emotional, physical, mental, and social health, adding to the growing evidence that video game addictions are a valid phenomenon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Does Segmentation Really Work? Effectiveness of Matched Graphic Health Warnings on Cigarette Packaging by Race, Gender and Chronic Disease Conditions on Cognitive Outcomes among Vulnerable Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Hana; Tan, Andy; Kawachi, Ichiro; Minsky, Sara; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2018-06-18

    We examined the differential impact of exposure to smoking-related graphic health warnings (GHWs) on risk perceptions and intentions to quit among different audience segments characterized by gender, race/ethnic group, and presence of chronic disease condition. Specifically, we sought to test whether GHWs that portray specific groups (in terms of gender, race, and chronic disease conditions) are associated with differences in risk perception and intention to quit among smokers who match the portrayed group. We used data from Project CLEAR, which oversampled lower SES groups as well as race/ethnic minority groups living in the Greater Boston area (n = 565). We fitted multiple linear regression models to examine the impact of exposure to different GHWs on risk perceptions and quit intentions. After controlling for age, gender, education and household income, we found that women who viewed GHWs portraying females reported increased risk perception as compared to women who viewed GHWs portraying men. However, no other interactions were found between the groups depicted in GHWs and audience characteristics. The findings suggest that audience segmentation of GHWs may have limited impact on risk perceptions and intention to quit smoking among adult smokers.

  13. Heart rate autonomic regulation system at rest and during paced breathing among patients with CRPS as compared to age-matched healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartur, Gadi; Vatine, Jean-Jacques; Raphaely-Beer, Noa; Peleg, Sara; Katz-Leurer, Michal

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the autonomic nerve heart rate regulation system at rest and its immediate response to paced breathing among patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) as compared with age-matched healthy controls. Quasiexperimental. Outpatient clinic. Ten patients with CRPS and 10 age- and sex-matched controls. Participants underwent Holter ECG (NorthEast Monitoring, Inc., Maynard, MA, USA) recording during rest and biofeedback-paced breathing session. Heart rate variability (HRV), time, and frequency measures were assessed. HRV and time domain values were significantly lower at rest among patients with CRPS as compared with controls. A significant association was noted between pain rank and HRV frequency measures at rest and during paced breathing; although both groups reduced breathing rate significantly during paced breathing, HRV time domain parameters increased only among the control group. The increased heart rate and decreased HRV at rest in patients with CRPS suggest a general autonomic imbalance. The inability of the patients to increase HRV time domain values during paced breathing may suggest that these patients have sustained stress response with minimal changeability in response to slow-paced breathing stimuli. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Age- and gender-dependent values of skeletal muscle mass in healthy children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, Colin E.; Barr, Ronald D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Skeletal muscle mass (SMM) can be extracted from whole-body scans obtained by X-ray-based dual-photon absorptiometry (DXA). There is a need to establish expected age-dependent values for children and adolescents. Methods Appendicular lean tissue mass (ALM) was extracted from whole-body DXA scans in 140 healthy children and adolescents (68 females and 72 males). Whole-body SMM was calculated from ALM using equations developed by Kim et al. (Am J Clin Nutr 84:1014–1020, 2006). Age-de...

  15. 99mTc-ECD brain perfusion SPET: variability, asymmetry and effects of age and gender in healthy adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Laere, K.; Versijpt, J.; Goethals, I.; Dierckx, R.; Audenaert, K.; Koole, M.; Achten, E.

    2001-01-01

    Reliable and high-resolution reference data for regional cerebral blood flow measured with single-photon emission tomography (SPET) are necessary for optimal clinical and research use. Therefore, a large dataset of normal technetium-99m labelled ethylene cysteine dimer (ECD) perfusion SPET in carefully screened healthy volunteers with an age range spanning six decades was created, with correction for non-uniform attenuation and scatter and based on an anatomically standardised analysis. Eighty-nine healthy volunteers, stratified for gender (46 females, 43 males; age 20-81 years), were included. Twelve volunteers underwent repeated 99m Tc-ECD SPET after 2.5±2.3 weeks. An automated whole-brain volume of interest analysis with MANOVA as well as voxelwise analysis using SPM99 was conducted. Average intersubject variability was 4.8% while intrasubject reproducibility was 3.0%. An age-related decline in tracer uptake was found in the anterior cingulate gyrus, bilateral basal ganglia, left prefrontal, left lateral frontal and left superior temporal and insular cortex (all P=0.001-0.02). There was an overall increase in right/left asymmetry with age, which was most pronounced in the frontal and temporal neocortex. The most significant correlations between AI and age decade were found in the prefrontal (R=0.35, P=0.001) and superior temporal neocortex (R=0.43, P 99m Tc-ECD perfusion SPET under a wide variety of clinical circumstances in relation to normal variations and highlights the importance of both age- and gender-specific normal datasets for optimal analysis sensitivity. (orig.)

  16. Effects of two-months balanced diet in metabolically healthy obesity: lipid correlations with gender and BMI-related differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Klersy, Chaterine; Perna, Simone; Faliva, Milena Anna; Montorfano, Gigliola; Roderi, Paola; Colombo, Irma; Corsetto, Paola Antonia; Fioravanti, Marisa; Solerte, Sebastiano Bruno; Rizzo, Angela Maria

    2015-10-29

    Nowadays no researches has been performed on fatty acid profile (FA) and desaturase activity in metabolically healthy obesity (MHO). The aim of this study was to assessed gender and BMI-related difference in FA, estimated desaturase activities and the efficacy on metabolic changes produced by 2-months well-balance diet in MHO subjects. In 103 MHO subjects (30/73 M/F; age:42.2 ± 9.5) FA, estimated desaturase activity, body composition (by DXA), Body Mass Index (BMI), lipid profile, adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, grelin, glucagon-like peptide-1), insulin resistence (by Homestasis metabolic assessment), C-reactive proteine, Atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) and Body Shape Index (ABSI) have been assessed. Gender and BMI related difference have been evaluated and the efficacy produced by 2-months well-balance diet has been considered. At baseline, obese subjects, compared to overweight, show a significantly higher oleic (p insulin resistance (p = 0.006), leptin (p = 0.006), adiponectin (p <0.001), grelin (p = 0.030), CRP (p = 0.004), BMI (p <0.001) and android fat mass (p <0.001). The balanced diet intervention was effective in improving metabolic indices.

  17. Gender Difference in Body Fat for Healthy Chinese Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bin; Wu, Qiulian; Gong, Jian; Xiao, Zeyu; Tang, Yongjin; Shang, Jingjie; Cheng, Yong; Xu, Hao

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to establish gender-related differences and the percentile curves for total body fat mass percentage (Total FM%), trunk/appendicular fat mass ratio (TrAppFMR), and fat mass ratio as % fat trunk/% fat lower limb (TrLLFMR) in Chinese children and adolescents using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Children (n = 1541; 764 girls) and adolescents aged 5 to 19 years were recruited from southern China. Total FM% and regional FM were measured by DXA. TrAppFMR values were calculated as trunk FM divided by appendicular FM, and TrLLFMR values were calculated as the ratio between the percentage of trunk FM and the percentage of lower limb FM. Total FM% peaks for boys were at approximately age 11 years and continued to increase for girls throughout adolescence. Median Total FM% at the age of 19 years was 15.53% and 28.06% for boys and girls, respectively. Median TrAppFMR and TrLLFMR increases were 61% and 81% from 5 to 19 years of age in boys compared with those in girls, 31% and 54%. The curves for median TrAppFMR and TrLLFMR in girls were relatively flat, with TrAppFMR and TrLLFMR remaining near 1.0 after 16 years of age, whereas in boys, median TrAppFMR and TrLLFMR increased with age until approximately 19 years. Gender differences in the patterns of proportion and distribution of body fat were found. We present sex-specific percentile curves for Total FM%-age, TrAppFMR-age, and TrLLFMR-age relationships in this population.

  18. Influence of gender and physical exercise on balance of healthy young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarina Francescato Torres

    Full Text Available Objective To verify the effects of gender and physical activity on postural sway. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted to analyze upright balance of young men and women between the ages of 20-30, both active and sedentary. Study participants were 60 individuals, who were divided into: active women (n = 15, sedentary women (n = 15, active men (n = 15 and sedentary men (n = 15. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ short form, was used to evaluate each participant’s level of physical activity. According to the questionnaire, active individuals are those who carry out moderate activity, with an energy expenditure between 3.5 and 6 METs (1 MET: 3.5 ml/kg/min, or vigorous activity, with an energy expenditure above 6 METs, at least three days a week for 20 minutes. To assess control of postural sway, we measured the amplitude and velocity of anteroposterior (AP and mediolateral (ML sway in standing position, with their eyes open and closed, with and without foam, on a force platform. Results Comparison between genders revealed that, when compared to sedentary women, sedentary men displayed poorer performance in velocity and amplitude of AP postural control sway with their eyes closed, with and without foam. There were no differences in the amplitude and velocity of ML sway, both with open and closed eyes among groups (p < 0.05. There were no differences when comparing physically active men and women either. Conclusion Sedentary men seem to rely more on vision for maintaining postural control in quiet standing situations with respect to women.

  19. Dependency of magnetocardiographically determined fetal cardiac time intervals on gestational age, gender and postnatal biometrics in healthy pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geue Daniel

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Magnetocardiography enables the precise determination of fetal cardiac time intervals (CTI as early as the second trimester of pregnancy. It has been shown that fetal CTI change in course of gestation. The aim of this work was to investigate the dependency of fetal CTI on gestational age, gender and postnatal biometric data in a substantial sample of subjects during normal pregnancy. Methods A total of 230 fetal magnetocardiograms were obtained in 47 healthy fetuses between the 15th and 42nd week of gestation. In each recording, after subtraction of the maternal cardiac artifact and the identification of fetal beats, fetal PQRST courses were signal averaged. On the basis of therein detected wave onsets and ends, the following CTI were determined: P wave, PR interval, PQ interval, QRS complex, ST segment, T wave, QT and QTc interval. Using regression analysis, the dependency of the CTI were examined with respect to gestational age, gender and postnatal biometric data. Results Atrioventricular conduction and ventricular depolarization times could be determined dependably whereas the T wave was often difficult to detect. Linear and nonlinear regression analysis established strong dependency on age for the P wave and QRS complex (r2 = 0.67, p r2 = 0.66, p r2 = 0.21, p r2 = 0.13, p st week onward (p Conclusion We conclude that 1 from approximately the 18th week to term, fetal CTI which quantify depolarization times can be reliably determined using magnetocardiography, 2 the P wave and QRS complex duration show a high dependency on age which to a large part reflects fetal growth and 3 fetal gender plays a role in QRS complex duration in the third trimester. Fetal development is thus in part reflected in the CTI and may be useful in the identification of intrauterine growth retardation.

  20. Age-related effects and gender differences in Japanese healthy controls for [123I] FP-CIT SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Hideo; Arimura Shinichi; Nakanishi, Atsushi; Shimo, Yasushi; Motoi, Yumiko; Ishiguro, Koichi; Murakami, Koji; Hattori, Nobutaka; Aoki, Shigeki

    2017-01-01

    Dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging with [ 123 I]FP-CIT (DaTSCAN) is a widely used diagnostic tool for Parkinsonism and dementia. Since it was approved by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare in 2013, there have been no articles focusing on a Japanese normal population. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of aging and gender on DAT availability in Japanese people. SPECT imaging of 30 healthy Japanese controls (17 males, 13 females; range 50-86 years, mean 70 years) was performed SPECT images were reconstructed using a three-dimensional order subset expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithm with correction of the point spread function and scatter correction, without attenuation correction. The specific binding ratio (SBR) was calculated by DAT view software. Statistical analyses were performed using linear regression analysis, analysis of variance, and multiple comparison analysis. A strong correlation between the SBR and age was observed. The correlation coefficient in males and females were -0.566 and -0.502, respectively. The analysis of variance revealed that aging led to a decline of the SBR, and a significant difference (p = 0.005) was observed among generations. Gender also affected the SBR, and there was a significant difference between males and females (p = 0.036). The SBR in females was higher than in males. Consequently, the multiple comparison revealed a significant difference between 50s and 70s (p = 0.015) and 50s and 80s (p = 0.006). This is the first [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT study on subjects with normal dopamine function in Asian countries. This study provides a database of [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT in Japanese healthy controls. Higher DAT availability was found in women than in men. An average age-related decline in DAT availability of 8.9% was found in both genders. The data collected in this study would be helpful for Japanese physicians to make a differential diagnosis in Parkinsonian syndrome. The registration identification

  1. Effects of gender, age, and body mass index on fat contents and apparent diffusion coefficients in healthy parotid glands: an MRI evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Hing-Chiu; Juan, Chun-Jung; Hsu, Hsian-He; Chiu, Hui-Chu; Cheng, Cheng-Chieh; Chiu, Su-Chin; Liu, Yi-Jui; Chung, Hsiao-Wen

    2014-01-01

    To establish standard apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and the fat content as a function of age, gender and body mass index (BMI) in healthy parotid glands, and to address the influences of fat suppression on ADC measurements. A total of 100 healthy adults (gender and age evenly distributed) were prospectively recruited, with parotid fat content measured from gradient-echo images with fat-water separated using iterative decomposition with echo asymmetry and least squares (IDEAL). The ADCs were estimated using both fat-saturated and non-fat-saturated diffusion-weighted imaging via a periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) technique. Parotid fat content was larger in men than in women by about 10 percentage points (P < 0.005), and positively associated with BMI and age for both genders (mostly with P < 0.001). ADCs estimated with non-fat-saturated PROPELLER were significantly lower in men than in women (P < 0.005), but showed no gender difference if measured using fat-saturated PROPELLER (P = 0.840). The negative association between parotid ADC and age/BMI/fat (P < 0.001) showed greater regression slopes in non-fat-saturated PROPELLER than in fat-saturated data. Parotid fat content in healthy adults correlates positively with both age and BMI; the correlation with age is gender-dependent. Parotid ADC measurements are strongly influenced by fat saturation. (orig.)

  2. Effects of gender, age, and body mass index on fat contents and apparent diffusion coefficients in healthy parotid glands: an MRI evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hing-Chiu [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Duke University Medical Center, Brain Imaging and Analysis Center, Durham, NC (United States); GE Healthcare, Applied Science Laboratory, Taipei (China); Juan, Chun-Jung; Hsu, Hsian-He [National Defense Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); Tri-Service General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); Chiu, Hui-Chu [Tatung University, Graduate Institute of Design Science, Taipei (China); Cheng, Cheng-Chieh; Chiu, Su-Chin [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Liu, Yi-Jui [Feng Chia University, Department of Automatic Control Engineering, Taichung (China); Chung, Hsiao-Wen [National Taiwan University, Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, Taipei (China); Tri-Service General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Taipei (China); National Taiwan University, MD.624, Department of Electrical Engineering, Taipei (China)

    2014-09-15

    To establish standard apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and the fat content as a function of age, gender and body mass index (BMI) in healthy parotid glands, and to address the influences of fat suppression on ADC measurements. A total of 100 healthy adults (gender and age evenly distributed) were prospectively recruited, with parotid fat content measured from gradient-echo images with fat-water separated using iterative decomposition with echo asymmetry and least squares (IDEAL). The ADCs were estimated using both fat-saturated and non-fat-saturated diffusion-weighted imaging via a periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) technique. Parotid fat content was larger in men than in women by about 10 percentage points (P < 0.005), and positively associated with BMI and age for both genders (mostly with P < 0.001). ADCs estimated with non-fat-saturated PROPELLER were significantly lower in men than in women (P < 0.005), but showed no gender difference if measured using fat-saturated PROPELLER (P = 0.840). The negative association between parotid ADC and age/BMI/fat (P < 0.001) showed greater regression slopes in non-fat-saturated PROPELLER than in fat-saturated data. Parotid fat content in healthy adults correlates positively with both age and BMI; the correlation with age is gender-dependent. Parotid ADC measurements are strongly influenced by fat saturation. (orig.)

  3. Young adults perinatally infected with HIV perform more poorly on measures of executive functioning and motor speed than ethnically matched healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willen, Elizabeth J; Cuadra, Anai; Arheart, Kristopher L; Post, M J D; Govind, Varan

    2017-03-01

    Perinatal HIV is associated with significant neurocognitive morbidities, but few studies have examined cognitive impact of early HIV infection on patients surviving to adulthood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate neurocognitive outcomes among a cohort of perinatally infected young adults. Individuals between the ages of 18 and 24 with perinatal infection were recruited for this cross-sectional study along with similarly aged healthy controls. Participants completed an MRI and brief neuropsychological assessment battery. Multivariate analysis of covariance controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and education was completed to detect differences between the HIV+ and control groups. Multivariable linear regression was performed to assess HIV-associated factors potentially impacting neuropsychological findings among the HIV+ group. Twenty-nine HIV+ young adults and 13 healthy controls were included in the study. After adjusting for age and sociodemographic variables, the HIV+ group scored lower on attention/working memory (Digit Span (p = .008) and Letter-Number Sequencing (p = .038)), set-shifting (DKEFS Trail Making Test Condition 4 (p = .026) and motor speed (DKEFS Trail Making Test Condition 5 (p = .003)). For the HIV+ group, nadir CD4 was associated with better Letter-Number Sequencing score (p = .029) and use of highly active antiretroviral therapy was associated with better performance on Category Fluency (p = .040). After controlling for sociodemographic variables, executive dysfunction persists among young adults with perinatal HIV infection in comparison to controls. Future studies to further elucidate the impact of executive dysfunction on independent living and functional outcomes are indicated.

  4. Investigation of sleep disturbance in chronic low back pain: an age- and gender-matched case-control study over a 7-night period.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    van de Water, Alexander T M

    2011-12-01

    Sleep disturbance is frequently reported by people with chronic low back pain (>12 weeks; CLBP), but few studies have comprehensively investigated sleep in this population. This study investigated differences in subjectively and objectively measured sleep patterns of people with CLBP, and compared this to age- and gender matched controls. Thirty-two consenting participants (n = 16 with CLBP, n = 16 matched controls), aged 24-65 years (43.8% male) underwent an interview regarding sleep influencing variables, completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Insomnia Severity Index, Pittsburgh Sleep Diary, SF36-v2, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Oswestry Disability Index, Numerical Pain Rating Scales, and underwent seven consecutive nights of actigraphic measurement in the home environment. Compared to controls, people with CLBP had, on self-report measures, significantly poorer sleep quality [Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (range 0-21) mean (SD) 10.9 (4.2)], clinical insomnia [Insomnia Severity Index mean (range 0-28) 13.7 (7.6)], lower sleep efficiency, longer sleep onset latency, more time awake after sleep onset, and more awakenings during sleep (p < 0.05). However, no significant differences between groups were found on objective actigraphy (p > 0.05). The findings provide some evidence to support self-reported sleep assessment as an outcome measure in CLBP research, while further research is needed to determine the validity of objective sleep measurement in this population.

  5. Age- and gender-dependent values of skeletal muscle mass in healthy children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Colin E; Barr, Ronald D

    2012-03-01

    Skeletal muscle mass (SMM) can be extracted from whole-body scans obtained by X-ray-based dual-photon absorptiometry (DXA). There is a need to establish expected age-dependent values for children and adolescents. Appendicular lean tissue mass (ALM) was extracted from whole-body DXA scans in 140 healthy children and adolescents (68 females and 72 males). Whole-body SMM was calculated from ALM using equations developed by Kim et al. (Am J Clin Nutr 84:1014-1020, 2006). Age-dependent patterns of increase in SMM were derived by fitting SMM values to equations that consisted of the sum of two logistic expressions, one accounting for SMM changes during growth and the other for SMM changes during puberty. Normal ranges were defined so that 95% of the SMM values were included. The reproducibility of SMM measurements was obtained from whole-body DXA scans repeated on three occasions in each of a separate group of 32 normal children with repositioning between scans. Normal ranges are presented as equations describing the age-dependent pattern of increase in SMM as well as population standard deviations that increased steadily with age. For 15 children below age 10, SMM reproducibility (95% CI) was 149 g (119-199 g) while for 17 children and adolescents over age 10, reproducibility was 170 g (138-223 g). DXA-based measurements of SMM in children and adolescents are reproducible and can be expressed in terms of age-dependent Z scores.

  6. The relationship of age, gender, and IQ with the brainstem and thalamus in healthy children and adolescents: a magnetic resonance imaging volumetric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yuhuan; Chen, Yian Ann; De Bellis, Michael D

    2012-03-01

    In healthy children, there is a paucity of information on the growth of the brainstem and thalamus measured anatomically magnetic resonance imaging. The relations of age, gender, and age by gender with brainstem and thalamus volumes were analyzed from magnetic resonance brain images of 122 healthy children and adolescents (62 males, 60 females; ages 4 to 17). Results showed that age is a significant predictor of brainstem and thalamus volumes. The volume of the brainstem increases with age, while thalamus volume declines with age. The volume of the right thalamus is significantly larger than that of the left in both genders, with greater rightward asymmetry and greater thalamus to grey matter ratio in females. Males have larger brainstems, but these differences are not significant when covarying for cerebral volume. Larger thalami were associated with higher Verbal IQ. These normative pediatric data are of value to researchers who study these regions in neurodevelopmental disorders.

  7. Assessment of cellular materials generated by co-cultured ‘inflamed’ and healthy periodontal ligament stem cells from patient-matched groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Hao-Ning [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Department of Periodontology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Department of Stomatology, The First Affiliated Hospital of the Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100048 (China); Xia, Yu [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Department of Periodontology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Department of Stomatology, The 309th Hospital of Chinese People' s Liberation Army, Beijing 100091 (China); Xu, Jie; Tian, Bei-Min; Zhang, Xi-Yu [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Department of Periodontology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Chen, Fa-Ming, E-mail: cfmsunhh@fmmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Department of Periodontology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China)

    2016-08-01

    Recently, stem cells derived from the'inflamed’ periodontal ligament (PDL) tissue of periodontally diseased teeth (I-PDLSCs) have been increasingly suggested as a more readily accessible source of cells for regenerative therapies than those derived from healthy PDL tissue (H-PDLSCs). However, substantial evidence indicates that I-PDLSCs exhibit impaired functionalities compared with H-PDLSCs. In this study, patient-matched I-PDLSCs and H-PDLSCs were co-cultured at various ratios. Cellular materials derived from these cultures were investigated regarding their osteogenic potential in vitro and capacity to form new bone following in vivo transplantation. While patient-matched I-PDLSCs and H-PDLSCs could co-exist in co-culture systems, the proportion of I-PDLSCs tended to increase during in vitro incubation. Compared with H-PDLSC monoculture, the presence of I-PDLSCs in the co-cultures appeared to enhance the overall cell proliferation. Although not completely rescued, the osteogenic and regenerative potentials of the cellular materials generated by co-cultured I-PDLSCs and H-PDLSCs were significantly improved compared with those derived from I-PDLSC monocultures. Notably, cells in co-cultures containing either 50% I-PDLSCs plus 50% H-PDLSCs or 25% I-PDLSCs plus 75% H-PDLSCs expressed osteogenesis-related proteins and genes at levels similar to those expressed in H-PDLSC monocultures (P>0.05). Irrespective of the percentage of I-PDLSCs, robust cellular materials were obtained from co-cultures with 50% or more H-PDLSCs, which exhibited equivalent potential to form new bone in vivo compared with sheets generated by H-PDLSC monocultures. These data suggest that the co-culture of I-PDLSCs with patient-matched H-PDLSCs is a practical and effective method for increasing the overall osteogenic and regenerative potentials of resultant cellular materials. - Highlights: • Co-culturing H-PDLSCs with I-PDLSCs led to rapid cell expansion. • H-PDLSCs and I-PDLSCs co

  8. Assessment of cellular materials generated by co-cultured ‘inflamed’ and healthy periodontal ligament stem cells from patient-matched groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Hao-Ning; Xia, Yu; Xu, Jie; Tian, Bei-Min; Zhang, Xi-Yu; Chen, Fa-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Recently, stem cells derived from the'inflamed’ periodontal ligament (PDL) tissue of periodontally diseased teeth (I-PDLSCs) have been increasingly suggested as a more readily accessible source of cells for regenerative therapies than those derived from healthy PDL tissue (H-PDLSCs). However, substantial evidence indicates that I-PDLSCs exhibit impaired functionalities compared with H-PDLSCs. In this study, patient-matched I-PDLSCs and H-PDLSCs were co-cultured at various ratios. Cellular materials derived from these cultures were investigated regarding their osteogenic potential in vitro and capacity to form new bone following in vivo transplantation. While patient-matched I-PDLSCs and H-PDLSCs could co-exist in co-culture systems, the proportion of I-PDLSCs tended to increase during in vitro incubation. Compared with H-PDLSC monoculture, the presence of I-PDLSCs in the co-cultures appeared to enhance the overall cell proliferation. Although not completely rescued, the osteogenic and regenerative potentials of the cellular materials generated by co-cultured I-PDLSCs and H-PDLSCs were significantly improved compared with those derived from I-PDLSC monocultures. Notably, cells in co-cultures containing either 50% I-PDLSCs plus 50% H-PDLSCs or 25% I-PDLSCs plus 75% H-PDLSCs expressed osteogenesis-related proteins and genes at levels similar to those expressed in H-PDLSC monocultures (P>0.05). Irrespective of the percentage of I-PDLSCs, robust cellular materials were obtained from co-cultures with 50% or more H-PDLSCs, which exhibited equivalent potential to form new bone in vivo compared with sheets generated by H-PDLSC monocultures. These data suggest that the co-culture of I-PDLSCs with patient-matched H-PDLSCs is a practical and effective method for increasing the overall osteogenic and regenerative potentials of resultant cellular materials. - Highlights: • Co-culturing H-PDLSCs with I-PDLSCs led to rapid cell expansion. • H-PDLSCs and I-PDLSCs co

  9. Country and Gender-Specific Achievement of Healthy Nutrition and Physical Activity Guidelines: Latent Class Analysis of 6266 University Students in Egypt, Libya, and Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid El Ansari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Research on healthy behaviour such as physical activity and healthy nutrition and their combination is lacking among university students in Arab countries. The current survey assessed healthy nutrition, and moderate/vigorous physical activity (PA of 6266 students in Egypt, Libya, and Palestine. We computed a nutrition guideline achievement index using WHO recommendation, as well as the achievement of PA recommendations using guidelines for adults of the American Heart Association guidelines. Latent class regression analysis identified homogenous groups of male and female students, based on their achievements of both guidelines. We examined associations between group membership and achievement of guidelines. A three-class solution model best fitted the data, generating three student Groups: “Healthy Eaters” (7.7% of females, 10.8% of males, “Physically Active” (21.7% of females, 25.8% of males, and “Low Healthy Behaviour” (70.6% of females, 63.4% of males. We did not observe a latent class that exhibited combined healthy behaviours (physically active and healthy eaters, and there were no major differences between countries. We observed a very low rate of healthy nutrition (≈10% of students achieved greater than four of the eight nutrition guidelines, with little gender differences across the countries. About 18–47% of students achieved the PA guidelines, depending on country and gender, more often among males. Few females achieved the PA guidelines, particularly in Libya and Palestine. Culturally adapted multi-behavioural interventions need to encourage healthy lifestyles, nutrition and PA behaviours. National policies need to promote active living while addressing cultural, geographic, and other barriers to young adults’ engagement in PA.

  10. The comparison of perceived health-related quality of life between Australian children with severe specific language impairment to age and gender-matched peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicola, Kristy; Watter, Pauline

    2018-02-14

    Children with specific language impairment often present with multiple comorbidities, which may adversely affect both participation in play and academic performance, potentially impacting a child's health-related quality of life. This study 1) explored the suitability of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ Version 4.0 Generic Core Scales (PedsQL™) for use with a typically developing Australian control group, and 2) compared the health-related quality of life between a control group and Australian children with severe specific language impairment. Health-related quality of life data collected as part of a broader study of 43 children with severe specific language impairment (males = 35, age range 5-16, mean age = 8.79+/- 2.92) enrolled at a special school were used to explore previously unreported findings. Typically developing gender and age matched (+/- 3 months) peers were recruited from local schools. The PedsQL™ child self-report and proxy-report were individually or interviewer-administered to the control group as required, and then compared to the group with specific language impairment. The PedsQL™ was reliable and feasible for use with the control group (N = 43, males = 35, age range = 5-16 years, mean age = 8.74+/- 2.94 years). Control group performance was as expected as per the manual. Parents of the control group scored their children significantly higher than did the children themselves on all scales except the emotional functioning scale. Both the control group children and their parents scored themselves significantly higher on all scales, compared to children with severe specific language impairment and their parents. The PedsQL™ was suitable for use with the control group. Further, the recruitment of a control group provided additional clarity on the extent a severe specific language impairment impacts on an Australian child's perceived health-related quality of life, compared to the manual cut

  11. Influence of gender, BMI, and ethnicity on serum ALT levels of healthy students of a medical school

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilal, M.; Tariq, A.; Khan, S.; Quratulain, A.; Tariq, A.; Shahid, M.F.; Khan, M.W.; Naveed, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) is an enzyme found in Liver and indicates injury to Hepatocytes. It is influenced by various factors. The objectives of this study were to identify the correlates of ALT activity among healthy medical students of Army Medical College, National University of Sciences and Technology, aged 18-22 years. This was to establish the mean ALT levels of the students and compare them with those in various parts of the world and observe various correlations that exist and factors that may influence ALT levels. Methods: This population included 143 volunteer students (93 men and 50 women) selected on the basis of negative answers to a detailed medical questionnaire including past medical history, drug and alcohol consumption, on the absence of clinical signs of liver disease, on the negativity of serological testing for Hepatitis B and C virus. Results: The mean ALT level of the entire population was 28.7 IU/L. A major sex-difference in ALT value was observed, the mean ALT value being higher in men than in women (32.1+- 21.7 vs. 22.6 +- 9.7 IU/L, p<0.004). According to WHO criteria for Asians, normal BMI was taken from 18.5-23.0 Kg/m/sup 2/. There was a positive significant correlation between serum ALT level and BMI (p<0.002). ALT level strongly correlates with body mass index and gender. There was no significant variation in ALT levels among Punjabis and Sindhis, Balochis, Pathans, and Kashmiris. Conclusion: We suggest the need of taking into account these parameters in a clinical interpretation of ALT level. (author)

  12. and gender on match perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Harrington

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio exploratorio examina las preferencias de los consumidores hacia la relación existente entre tres tipos de categorías de cerveza (cerveza dorada (lager, cerveza inglesa (ale y cerveza de malta (stout con una pizza no-picante y picante. Los objetivos del estudio son determinar el nivel de ajuste entre el estilo de pizza con cada tipo de cervezas analizadas, y explorar las diferencias por género, así como, sí una pizza picante tiene o no impacto en la elección y preferencia del consumidor de cerveza. Las implicaciones de esta investigación se aplican a las capacidades de los restaurantes a la hora de establecer un stock de cerveza y tipo de pizza, y como ello influye en la creación de experiencias, bebida versus comida, por parte del turista gastronómico.

  13. Clinical implications of gait analysis in the rehabilitation of adult patients with "Prader-Willi" Syndrome: a cross-sectional comparative study ("Prader-Willi" Syndrome vs matched obese patients and healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baccalaro Gabriele

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Being severely overweight is a distinctive clinical feature of Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS. PWS is a complex multisystem disorder, representing the most common form of genetic obesity. The aim of this study was the analysis of the gait pattern of adult subjects with PWS by using three-Dimensional Gait Analysis. The results were compared with those obtained in a group of obese patients and in a group of healthy subjects. Methods Cross-sectional, comparative study: 19 patients with PWS (11 males and 8 females, age: 18–40 years, BMI: 29.3–50.3 kg/m2; 14 obese matched patients (5 males and 9 females, age: 18–40 years, BMI: 34.3–45.2 kg/m2; 20 healthy subjects (10 males and 10 females, age: 21–41 years, BMI: 19.3–25.4 kg/m2. Kinematic and kinetic parameters during walking were assessed by an optoelectronic system and two force platforms. Results PWS adult patients walked slower, had a shorter stride length, a lower cadence and a longer stance phase compared with both matched obese, and healthy subjects. Obese matched patients showed spatio-temporal parameters significantly different from healthy subjects. Furthermore, Range Of Motion (ROM at knee and ankle, and plantaflexor activity of PWS patients were significantly different between obese and healthy subjects. Obese subjects revealed kinematic and kinetic data similar to healthy subjects. Conclusion PWS subjects had a gait pattern significantly different from obese patients. Despite that, both groups had a similar BMI. We suggest that PWS gait abnormalities may be related to abnormalities in the development of motor skills in childhood, due to precocious obesity. A tailored rehabilitation program in early childhood of PWS patients could prevent gait pattern changes.

  14. Matching theory

    CERN Document Server

    Plummer, MD

    1986-01-01

    This study of matching theory deals with bipartite matching, network flows, and presents fundamental results for the non-bipartite case. It goes on to study elementary bipartite graphs and elementary graphs in general. Further discussed are 2-matchings, general matching problems as linear programs, the Edmonds Matching Algorithm (and other algorithmic approaches), f-factors and vertex packing.

  15. Extrastriatal binding of [123I]FP-CIT in the thalamus and pons: gender and age dependencies assessed in a European multicentre database of healthy controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Walter; Unterrainer, Marcus; Xiong, Guoming; Bartenstein, Peter; Diemling, Markus; Varrone, Andrea; Dickson, John C.; Tossici-Bolt, Livia; Sera, Terez; Asenbaum, Susanne; Booij, Jan; Kapucu, Ozlem L.; Kluge, Andreas; Ziebell, Morten; Darcourt, Jacques; Nobili, Flavio; Pagani, Marco; Hesse, Swen; Borght, Thierry Vander; Laere, Koen van; Tatsch, Klaus; La Fougere, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Apart from binding to the dopamine transporter (DAT), [ 123 I]FP-CIT shows moderate affinity for the serotonin transporter (SERT), allowing imaging of both monoamine transporters in a single imaging session in different brain areas. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate extrastriatal binding (predominantly due to SERT) and its age and gender dependencies in a large cohort of healthy controls. SPECT data from 103 healthy controls with well-defined criteria of normality acquired at 13 different imaging centres were analysed for extrastriatal binding using volumes of interest analysis for the thalamus and the pons. Data were examined for gender and age effects as well as for potential influence of striatal DAT radiotracer binding. Thalamic binding was significantly higher than pons binding. Partial correlations showed an influence of putaminal DAT binding on measured binding in the thalamus but not on the pons. Data showed high interindividual variation in extrastriatal binding. Significant gender effects with 31 % higher binding in women than in men were observed in the thalamus, but not in the pons. An age dependency with a decline per decade (±standard error) of 8.2 ± 1.3 % for the thalamus and 6.8 ± 2.9 % for the pons was shown. The potential to evaluate extrastriatal predominant SERT binding in addition to the striatal DAT in a single imaging session was shown using a large database of [ 123 I]FP-CIT scans in healthy controls. For both the thalamus and the pons, an age-related decline in radiotracer binding was observed. Gender effects were demonstrated for binding in the thalamus only. As a potential clinical application, the data could be used as a reference to estimate SERT occupancy in addition to nigrostriatal integrity when using [ 123 I]FP-CIT for DAT imaging in patients treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. (orig.)

  16. Extrastriatal binding of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT in the thalamus and pons: gender and age dependencies assessed in a European multicentre database of healthy controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Walter; Unterrainer, Marcus; Xiong, Guoming; Bartenstein, Peter [University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Diemling, Markus [Hermes Medical Solutions, Stockholm (Sweden); Varrone, Andrea [Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Stockholm (Sweden); Dickson, John C. [UCLH NHS Foundation Trust and University College, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Tossici-Bolt, Livia [University Hospitals Southampton NHS Trust, Department of Medical Physics, Southampton (United Kingdom); Sera, Terez [University of Szeged, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Euromedic Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Asenbaum, Susanne [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Neurology, Vienna (Austria); Booij, Jan [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kapucu, Ozlem L. [Gazi University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Kluge, Andreas [ABX-CRO, Dresden (Germany); Ziebell, Morten [Rigshospitalet and University of Copenhagen, Neurobiology Research Unit, Copenhagen (Denmark); Darcourt, Jacques [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Nuclear Medicine Department, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa, Clinical Neurology Unit, Department of Neuroscience (DINOGMI), Genoa (Italy); Pagani, Marco [CNR, Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, Rome (Italy); Karolinska Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Hesse, Swen [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Leipzig University Medical Centre, Molecular Neuroimaging IFB Adiposity Diseases, Leipzig (Germany); Borght, Thierry Vander [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Nuclear Medicine Division, CHU Dinant Godinne, Yvoir (Belgium); Laere, Koen van [University Hospital and K.U. Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Tatsch, Klaus [Staedtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Karlsruhe (Germany); La Fougere, Christian [University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); University of Tuebingen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Apart from binding to the dopamine transporter (DAT), [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT shows moderate affinity for the serotonin transporter (SERT), allowing imaging of both monoamine transporters in a single imaging session in different brain areas. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate extrastriatal binding (predominantly due to SERT) and its age and gender dependencies in a large cohort of healthy controls. SPECT data from 103 healthy controls with well-defined criteria of normality acquired at 13 different imaging centres were analysed for extrastriatal binding using volumes of interest analysis for the thalamus and the pons. Data were examined for gender and age effects as well as for potential influence of striatal DAT radiotracer binding. Thalamic binding was significantly higher than pons binding. Partial correlations showed an influence of putaminal DAT binding on measured binding in the thalamus but not on the pons. Data showed high interindividual variation in extrastriatal binding. Significant gender effects with 31 % higher binding in women than in men were observed in the thalamus, but not in the pons. An age dependency with a decline per decade (±standard error) of 8.2 ± 1.3 % for the thalamus and 6.8 ± 2.9 % for the pons was shown. The potential to evaluate extrastriatal predominant SERT binding in addition to the striatal DAT in a single imaging session was shown using a large database of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT scans in healthy controls. For both the thalamus and the pons, an age-related decline in radiotracer binding was observed. Gender effects were demonstrated for binding in the thalamus only. As a potential clinical application, the data could be used as a reference to estimate SERT occupancy in addition to nigrostriatal integrity when using [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT for DAT imaging in patients treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. (orig.)

  17. Apparent diffusion coefficient measurements of bilateral kidneys at 3 T MRI: Effects of age, gender, and laterality in healthy adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suo, S.-T.; Cao, M.-Q.; Ding, Y.-Z.; Yao, Q.-Y.; Wu, G.-Y.; Xu, J.-R.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of age and gender on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements of bilateral kidneys at 3 T MRI, and compare the ADC values of left and right kidneys. Materials and methods: In all, 137 healthy participants (mean age 42.8 ± 14.7 years; age range 16–75 years) comprising 68 male and 69 female participants were enrolled. Three Tesla echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of bilateral kidneys was performed and ADC values were measured in the cortex, medulla, and whole parenchyma. Pearson correlation analysis and linear regression were performed to determine the associations between the ADC values in each region and age. Effects of age and gender on ADC values were analysed using two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA). The paired-samples t-test was established to compare the ADC values between left and right kidneys. Results: ADC values were significantly higher in the young group (≤50 years) than in the old group (>50 years), and correlated inversely with the age in all regions. Male participants had higher ADC values than female participants in all regions except left medulla. Two-factor ANOVA of age × gender showed no significant interactions between the variables age and gender were found. No significant differences in ADC values between left and right kidneys were observed. Conclusion: Renal ADC values are age- and gender-dependent, and show no significant difference between left and right kidneys. Age- and gender-related effects should be taken into consideration in future renal DWI studies when using normal ADC values from health controls. - Highlights: • Renal apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values decrease with ageing. • Men tend to have higher renal ADC values than women. • Bilateral kidneys seem to have no significantly different ADC values

  18. Evaluation of the Trail Making Test and interval timing as measures of cognition in healthy adults: comparisons by age, education, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płotek, Włodzimierz; Łyskawa, Wojciech; Kluzik, Anna; Grześkowiak, Małgorzata; Podlewski, Roland; Żaba, Zbigniew; Drobnik, Leon

    2014-02-03

    Human cognitive functioning can be assessed using different methods of testing. Age, level of education, and gender may influence the results of cognitive tests. The well-known Trail Making Test (TMT), which is often used to measure the frontal lobe function, and the experimental test of Interval Timing (IT) were compared. The methods used in IT included reproduction of auditory and visual stimuli, with the subsequent production of the time intervals of 1-, 2-, 5-, and 7-seconds durations with no pattern. Subjects included 64 healthy adult volunteers aged 18-63 (33 women, 31 men). Comparisons were made based on age, education, and gender. TMT was performed quickly and was influenced by age, education, and gender. All reproduced visual and produced intervals were shortened and the reproduction of auditory stimuli was more complex. Age, education, and gender have more pronounced impact on the cognitive test than on the interval timing test. The reproduction of the short auditory stimuli was more accurate in comparison to other modalities used in the IT test. The interval timing, when compared to the TMT, offers an interesting possibility of testing. Further studies are necessary to confirm the initial observation.

  19. Normative values for volume and fat content of the hip abductor muscles and their dependence on side, age and gender in a healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Magda; Berger, Nicole; Manoliu, Andrei; Fischer, Michael A; Nanz, Daniel; Andreisek, Gustav; Ulbrich, Erika J

    2016-04-01

    To determine normative values for volume and fat content of the gluteus medius (GMed) and minimus (GMin) muscle in healthy volunteers and to evaluate their dependence on age, gender and leg dominance. The IRB approval was obtained for this study. 80 healthy volunteers (females, 40; males, 40; age range 20-62 years), divided into four age groups, were included. Fat- and water-signal-separated MR images of the pelvis were acquired on a 3.0 T MR with a 3-point mDIXON sequence. Normalized volume and fat-signal fraction (FSF) of the GMed (ViGMed, FSFGMed) and GMin (ViGMin, FSFGMin) muscles were determined. The overall mean volumes (normalized) and FSF ± SD: ViGMed 105.13 ± 16.30 cm(3); ViGMin 30.24 ± 5.15 cm(3); FSFGMed 8.13 ± 1.70 % and FSFGMin 9.89 ± 2.72 %. Comparing different age subgroups within each gender no significant differences were found concerning the volumes and FSFs (except FSFGMin in male subgroup aged 20-29 versus 50-62 years, P = 0.014). Comparing FSFs differences between the two genders, only in 20-29 years subgroup, FSFGMed (P =0.003) and FSFGMin (P =0.002) were greater in female. Volume differences between the two legs were not significant (P > 0.077); FSFGMed and FSFGMin (P =0.005 for both) were significantly lower in the dominant leg in female but not in male group (P = 0.454 for FSFGMed and P = 0.643 for FSFMin). No age dependency was evident for volume normative data for GMed and GMin and normative data for FSF values showed no age- or gender dependency.

  20. Effect of gender and lean body mass on kidney size in healthy 10-year-old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, I. M.; Mølgaard, C.; Main, K. M.

    2001-01-01

    predictor of kidney volume was lean body mass, overruling height, weight, and surface area. When total kidney volume was related to lean body mass as a ratio, the gender difference in kidney size was no longer significant. A strong negative correlation was found between fat body mass and kidney volume...

  1. Gender and the double burden of economic and social disadvantages on healthy eating: cross-sectional study of older adults in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Annalijn I; Forouhi, Nita G; Surtees, Paul; Wareham, Nicholas J; Monsivais, Pablo

    2015-07-22

    Multiple economic factors and social relationships determine dietary behaviours, but the inter-relations between determinants is unknown. Whether women and men differ in the vulnerability to, and impact of, combined disadvantages is also unclear. We examined associations between diverse combinations of economic resources and social relationships, and healthy eating in British older women and men. Our sample comprised 9,580 over-50s (47 % of over-50 respondents) in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort study. We examined six economic factors (education, social class, home-ownership, money for needs, frequency of insufficient money for food/clothing, paying bills) and three social relationships (marital status, living arrangement and friend contact), independently and in combination, in relation to fruit variety and vegetable variety. We analysed gender-specific associations using multivariable linear regression with interaction terms. Lower social class, lower education, and difficulty paying bills were associated with lower fruit and vegetable variety in both genders, independent of social relationships. All social relationships were independently associated with fruit variety in men and with vegetable variety in both genders. Substantially lower variety was found for all combinations of low economic resources and lack of social relationship than for either measure alone, with men faring worse in the majority of combined disadvantages. For example, the difference in vegetable variety for men reporting low social class and non-married was much greater (β -4.1, [-4.8, -3.4]), than the independent association of low social class (β -1.5, [-1.8,-1.2]), or non-married (β -1.8, [-2.3,-1.3]). Variety was also lower among men with high economic resources but non-married or lone-living. A double burden of low economic resources and lack of social relationships suggested they are unique joint determinants, particularly in older men, and that public health efforts to improve healthy

  2. Gender and psychosocial factors associated with healthy lifestyle in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrão, Ana Luísa; Almeida, Maria da Conceição; Matos, Sheila Maria Alvim; Chor, Dora; Aquino, Estela M L

    2017-08-28

    It has been estimated that over 50% of the premature deaths occurring in Western countries can be attributed to causes rooted in lifestyle. In turn, leading a healthy lifestyle has also been associated with a wide range of psychosocial factors. Today, it is known that these differ among men and women. The present article aimed to identify, from a gender-based perspective, the psychosocial factors associated with healthy lifestyles in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort, the largest study concerning adult health conducted in Latin America to date. This cross-sectional study was conducted using ELSA-Brasil baseline data, collected between 2008 and 2010. Six Brazilian public higher education and research institutions. The ELSA-Brasil cohort consists of approximately 15 000 employees (8218 women and 6887 men), both currently working and retired. The lifestyle indicator was constructed by summing the scores attributed to four different behaviours. The women of the ELSA-Brasil cohort have healthier lifestyles than men. In women, strong associations were found between a healthy lifestyle and age 60 years or older, Asian race and university level of education or higher. In men, being 60 years or older, of Asian or Caucasian race, having a high-school equivalent level of education or higher, being retired, having a housekeeper, having a good or very good self-perception of health and being satisfied with body image were the psychosocial factors associated with leading a healthy lifestyle. The factors that influenced healthy lifestyles were found to differ among men and women, a fact that must be addressed when developing programmes designed to promote health. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Traditional and cyberbullying victimization as correlates of psychosocial distress and barriers to a healthy lifestyle among severely obese adolescents – a matched case–control study on prevalence and results from a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Obese youth are at increased risk for peer victimization, which may heighten their risk of psychosocial problems and physical activity avoidance, and lower the effectiveness of professional and lifestyle weight-loss initiatives. Little is known about obese adolescents’ risk for victimization from cyber-bullying and how this relates to psychosocial functioning and healthy lifestyle barriers. The purpose of the study was to assess traditional and cyber-victimization among adolescents with severe obesity and its relation to psychosocial distress and barriers to healthy lifestyles. Methods A sample of 102 obese adolescents (mean age = 15.32 ±1.71) in residential treatment was matched with 102 normal-weight youngsters from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study (mean age = 15.30 ±1.73). Results Adolescents with obesity were significantly more often cyber-victimized than normal-weight peers. Obese youth victimized by traditional bullying experienced lower quality of life, lower motivation for physical activity and higher avoidance and emotional coping towards healthy lifestyles than those non-victimized. Obese cyber-victims experienced significantly higher suicidal ideation. Conclusions Traditional and cyber-victimization may hinder treatment effectiveness and healthy lifestyle change in adolescents with obesity. Health professionals should pro-actively address peer victimization and psychosocial functioning during multidisciplinary obesity treatment. Schools could contribute to a better physical and psychosocial health of obese youth by implementing multi-behavioral health-promotion programs. PMID:24593118

  4. Traditional and cyberbullying victimization as correlates of psychosocial distress and barriers to a healthy lifestyle among severely obese adolescents--a matched case-control study on prevalence and results from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSmet, Ann; Deforche, Benedicte; Hublet, Anne; Tanghe, Ann; Stremersch, Evi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2014-03-05

    Obese youth are at increased risk for peer victimization, which may heighten their risk of psychosocial problems and physical activity avoidance, and lower the effectiveness of professional and lifestyle weight-loss initiatives. Little is known about obese adolescents' risk for victimization from cyber-bullying and how this relates to psychosocial functioning and healthy lifestyle barriers. The purpose of the study was to assess traditional and cyber-victimization among adolescents with severe obesity and its relation to psychosocial distress and barriers to healthy lifestyles. A sample of 102 obese adolescents (mean age=15.32±1.71) in residential treatment was matched with 102 normal-weight youngsters from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study (mean age=15.30±1.73). Adolescents with obesity were significantly more often cyber-victimized than normal-weight peers. Obese youth victimized by traditional bullying experienced lower quality of life, lower motivation for physical activity and higher avoidance and emotional coping towards healthy lifestyles than those non-victimized. Obese cyber-victims experienced significantly higher suicidal ideation. Traditional and cyber-victimization may hinder treatment effectiveness and healthy lifestyle change in adolescents with obesity. Health professionals should pro-actively address peer victimization and psychosocial functioning during multidisciplinary obesity treatment. Schools could contribute to a better physical and psychosocial health of obese youth by implementing multi-behavioral health-promotion programs.

  5. Regional gastrointestinal transit and pH studied in 215 healthy volunteers using the wireless motility capsule: influence of age, gender, study country and testing protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y T; Mohammed, S D; Farmer, A D; Wang, D; Zarate, N; Hobson, A R; Hellström, P M; Semler, J R; Kuo, B; Rao, S S; Hasler, W L; Camilleri, M; Scott, S M

    2015-09-01

    The wireless motility capsule (WMC) offers the ability to investigate luminal gastrointestinal (GI) physiology in a minimally invasive manner. To investigate the effect of testing protocol, gender, age and study country on regional GI transit times and associated pH values using the WMC. Regional GI transit times and pH values were determined in 215 healthy volunteers from USA and Sweden studied using the WMC over a 6.5-year period. The effects of test protocol, gender, age and study country were examined. For GI transit times, testing protocol was associated with differences in gastric emptying time (GET; shorter with protocol 2 (motility capsule ingested immediately after meal) vs. protocol 1 (motility capsule immediately before): median difference: 52 min, P = 0.0063) and colonic transit time (CTT; longer with protocol 2: median 140 min, P = 0.0189), but had no overall effect on whole gut transit time. Females had longer GET (by median 17 min, P = 0.0307), and also longer CTT by (104 min, P = 0.0285) and whole gut transit time by (263 min, P = 0.0077). Increasing age was associated with shorter small bowel transit time (P = 0.002), and study country also influenced small bowel and CTTs. Whole gut and CTTs showed clustering of data at values separated by 24 h, suggesting that describing these measures as continuous variables is invalid. Testing protocol, gender and study country also significantly influenced pH values. Regional GI transit times and pH values, delineated using the wireless motility capsule (WMC), vary based on testing protocol, gender, age and country. Standardisation of testing is crucial for cross-referencing in clinical practice and future research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Gender Differences in the Motivational Processing of Facial Beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Boaz; Ariely, Dan; Mazar, Nina; Chi, Won; Lukas, Scott; Elman, Igor

    2008-01-01

    Gender may be involved in the motivational processing of facial beauty. This study applied a behavioral probe, known to activate brain motivational regions, to healthy heterosexual subjects. Matched samples of men and women were administered two tasks: (a) key pressing to change the viewing time of average or beautiful female or male facial…

  7. The Dynamic Gait Index in healthy older adults: the role of stair climbing, fear of falling and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Talia; Inbar-Borovsky, Noit; Brozgol, Marina; Giladi, Nir; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M

    2009-02-01

    The Dynamic Gait Index (DGI) was developed as a clinical tool to assess gait, balance and fall risk. Because the DGI evaluates not only usual steady-state walking, but also walking during more challenging tasks, it may be an especially sensitive test. The present investigation evaluated the DGI and its association with falls, fear of falling, depression, anxiety and other measures of balance and mobility in 278 healthy elderly individuals. Measures included the DGI, the Berg Balance Test (BBT), the Timed Up and Go (TUAG), the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor part, the Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale and the number of annual falls. The DGI was moderately correlated with the BBT (r=0.53; pfall history were different. These findings suggest that the DGI, although susceptible to ceiling effects, appears to be an appropriate tool for assessing function in healthy older adults.

  8. Gender differences in the association between cohabitation with parents and stress among married adults: A propensity score-matched analysis from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Hwan; Mak, Kwok-Kei

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the gender-specific associations between cohabitation with parents and stress using an econometric approach. A total of 13,565 (41.7% men and 58.3% women) Korean adults aged 20-59 years from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008 to 2011 were pooled. They reported their gender, age, marital status, education level, employment status, income, home ownership, and cohabitation status with their parents. The association of living with parents and stress, as well as the gender difference in the association, was investigated using propensity score matching and the average treatment effect on the treated. Adults with higher education and income, not owning a house, or living in larger cities were less likely to live with parents. Stress was associated with having children and participating in the labor market for both married men and women. Moreover, living with parents was a protective factor for stress among husbands, but a risk factor for wives in Korea. Gender differences existed in the association between cohabitation with parents and stress. Greater stress was related to cohabiting with parents and working for married women.

  9. Gender differences in brain regional homogeneity of healthy subjects after normal sleep and after sleep deprivation: a resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xi-Jian; Gong, Hong-Han; Wang, Yi-Xiang; Zhou, Fu-Qing; Min, You-Jiang; Zhao, Feng; Wang, Si-Yong; Liu, Bi-Xia; Xiao, Xiang-Zuo

    2012-06-01

    To explore the gender differences of brain regional homogeneity (ReHo) in healthy subjects during the resting-state, after normal sleep, and after sleep deprivation (SD) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and the ReHo method. Sixteen healthy subjects (eight males and eight females) each underwent the resting-state fMRI exams twice, i.e., once after normal sleep and again after 24h's SD. According to the gender and sleep, 16 subjects were all measured twice and divided into four groups: the male control group (MC), female control group (FC), male SD group (MSD), and female SD group (FSD). The ReHo method was used to calculate and analyze the data, SPM5 software was used to perform a two-sample T-test and a two-pair T-test with a P value right paracentral lobule (BA3/6), but in no obviously lower regions. Compared with the FC, the FSD showed significantly higher ReHo in bilateral parietal lobes (BA2/3), bilateral vision-related regions of occipital lobes (BA17/18/19), right frontal lobe (BA4/6), and lower ReHo in the right frontal lobe. Compared with the FC, the MC showed significantly higher ReHo in the left occipital lobe (BA18/19), and left temporal lobe (BA21), left frontal lobe, and lower ReHo in the right insula and in the left parietal lobe. Compared with the FSD, the MSD showed significantly higher ReHo in the left cerebellum posterior lobe (uvula/declive of vermis), left parietal lobe, and bilateral frontal lobes, and lower ReHo in the right occipital lobe (BA17) and right frontal lobe (BA4). The differences of brain activity in the resting state can be widely found not only between the control and SD group in a same gender group, but also between the male group and female group. Thus, we should take the gender differences into consideration in future fMRI studies, especially the treatment of brain-related diseases (e.g., depression). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Age and gender differences in mechanically induced intraoral temporal summation and conditioned pain modulation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Junad; Korczeniewska, Olga; Benoliel, Rafael; Kalladka, Mythili; Eliav, Eli; Nasri-Heir, Cibelle

    2018-04-13

    The aim of this study was to investigate intraoral temporal summation (TS) and conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and compare the outcome with TS and CPM induced in the forearm. In addition, we aimed to study the effect of age and gender on intraoral and forearm TS and CPM. Mechanical stimulation was induced with # 5.46 von Frey filament applying 26 grams of force. A single stimulus, followed by a train of 30 successive stimuli, was applied intraorally and to the dominant forearm. CPM was assessed with the TS test as the painful stimulus and with immersion of the nondominant hand in a hot water bath as the conditioning stimulus. Gender was significantly associated with TS but not with CPM measures. Females had significantly lower mean TS measured in the face and in the dominant forearm compared with males. Age was significantly associated with CPM, but not with TS measures. In both sites examined, older patients had significantly lower mean CPM compared with younger patients. Mechanical TM elicited in the oral cavity can be used as test stimulus for CPM testing. Intraoral modulation, both TS and CPM, has an extent similar to that of the standard cutaneous extremity. TS was lower in females, and CPM was reduced with age. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sensorimotor control of tracking movements at various speeds for stroke patients as well as age-matched and young healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Ao

    Full Text Available There are aging- and stroke-induced changes on sensorimotor control in daily activities, but their mechanisms have not been well investigated. This study explored speed-, aging-, and stroke-induced changes on sensorimotor control. Eleven stroke patients (affected sides and unaffected sides and 20 control subjects (10 young and 10 age-matched individuals were enrolled to perform elbow tracking tasks using sinusoidal trajectories, which included 6 target speeds (15.7, 31.4, 47.1, 62.8, 78.5, and 94.2 deg/s. The actual elbow angle was recorded and displayed on a screen as visual feedback, and three indicators, the root mean square error (RMSE, normalized integrated jerk (NIJ and integral of the power spectrum density of normalized speed (IPNS, were used to investigate the strategy of sensorimotor control. Both NIJ and IPNS had significant differences among the four groups (P<0.01, and the values were ranked in the following order: young controls < age-matched controls

  12. Reproducibility, and age, body-weight and gender dependency of candidate skeletal muscle MRI outcome measures in healthy volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrow, Jasper M.; Reilly, Mary M.; Hanna, Michael G.; Sinclair, Christopher D.J.; Yousry, Tarek A.; Thornton, John S.; Fischmann, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can potentially meet the pressing need for objective, sensitive, reproducible outcome measures in neuromuscular disease trials. We tested, in healthy volunteers, the consistency, reliability and sensitivity to normal inter-subject variation of MRI methods targeted to lower limb muscle pathology to inform the design of practical but comprehensive MRI outcome measure protocols for use in imminent patient studies. Forty-seven healthy volunteers, age 21-81 years, were subject at 3T to three-point Dixon fat-fraction measurement, T 1 -relaxometry, T 2 -relaxometry and magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) imaging at mid-thigh and mid-calf level bilaterally. Fifteen subjects underwent repeat imaging at 2 weeks. Mean between-muscle fat fraction and T 2 differences were small, but significant (p 2 correlated positively, and MTR negatively with subject age in both the thigh and calf, with similar significant correlations with weight at thigh level only (p < 0.001 to p < 0.05). Scan-rescan and inter-observer intra-class correlation coefficients ranged between 0.62-0.84 and 0.79-0.99 respectively. Quantitative lower-limb muscle MRI using readily implementable methods was sensitive enough to demonstrate inter-muscle differences (small in health), and correlations with subject age and weight. In combination with high reliability, this strongly supports the suitability of these methods to provide longitudinal outcome measures in neuromuscular disease treatment trials. (orig.)

  13. Work-Life Balance Practices and the Gender Gap in Job Satisfaction in the UK: Evidence from Matched Employer-Employee Data

    OpenAIRE

    Asadullah, Niaz; Fernández, Rosa M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the role of work-life balance practices (WLB) in explaining the “paradox of the contented female worker”. After establishing that females report higher levels of job satisfaction than men in the UK, we test whether firm characteristics such as WLB and gender segregation boost the satisfaction of women proportionately more than that of men, thereby explaining why the former are reportedly happier. The results prove that WLB practices increase the likelihood of reporting hig...

  14. Sensorimotor Control of Tracking Movements at Various Speeds for Stroke Patients as Well as Age-Matched and Young Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Di; Song, Rong; Tong, Kai-yu

    2015-01-01

    There are aging- and stroke-induced changes on sensorimotor control in daily activities, but their mechanisms have not been well investigated. This study explored speed-, aging-, and stroke-induced changes on sensorimotor control. Eleven stroke patients (affected sides and unaffected sides) and 20 control subjects (10 young and 10 age-matched individuals) were enrolled to perform elbow tracking tasks using sinusoidal trajectories, which included 6 target speeds (15.7, 31.4, 47.1, 62.8, 78.5, and 94.2 deg/s). The actual elbow angle was recorded and displayed on a screen as visual feedback, and three indicators, the root mean square error (RMSE), normalized integrated jerk (NIJ) and integral of the power spectrum density of normalized speed (IPNS), were used to investigate the strategy of sensorimotor control. Both NIJ and IPNS had significant differences among the four groups (Pcontrols controls control. The RMSE increased with the increase in the target speed and the NIJ and IPNS initially declined and then remained steady for all four groups, which indicated a shift from feedback to feedforward control as the target speed increased. The feedback-feedforward trade-off induced by stroke, aging and speed might be explained by a change in the transmission delay and neuromotor noise. The findings in this study improve our understanding of the mechanism underlying the sensorimotor control and neurological changes caused by stroke and aging. PMID:26030289

  15. Endoscopic detection rate of sessile serrated lesions in Lynch syndrome patients is comparable with an age- and gender-matched control population: case-control study with expert pathology review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vleugels, Jasper L A; Sahin, Husna; Hazewinkel, Yark; Koens, Lianne; van den Berg, Jose G; van Leerdam, Monique E; Dekker, Evelien

    2018-05-01

    Carcinogenesis in Lynch syndrome involves fast progression of adenomas to colorectal cancer (CRC) because of microsatellite instability. The role of sessile serrated lesions (SSLs) and the serrated neoplasia pathway in these patients is unknown. The aim of this matched case-control study was to compare endoscopic detection rates and distribution of SSLs in Lynch syndrome patients with a matched control population. We collected data of Lynch syndrome patients with a proven germline mutation who underwent colonoscopy between January 2011 and April 2016 in 2 tertiary referral hospitals. Control subjects undergoing elective colonoscopy from 2011 and onward for symptoms or surveillance were selected from a prospectively collected database. Patients were matched 1:1 for age, gender, and index versus surveillance colonoscopy. An expert pathology review of serrated polyps was performed. The primary outcomes included the detection rates and distribution of SSLs. We identified 321 patients with Lynch syndrome who underwent at least 1 colonoscopy. Of these, 223 Lynch syndrome patients (mean age, 49.3; 59% women; index colonoscopy, 56%) were matched to 223 control subjects. SSLs were detected in 7.6% (95% confidence interval, 4.8-11.9) of colonoscopies performed in Lynch syndrome patients and in 6.7% (95% confidence interval, 4.1-10.8) of control subjects (P = .86). None of the detected SSLs in Lynch syndrome patients contained dysplasia. The detection rate of SSLs in Lynch syndrome patients undergoing colonoscopy is comparable with a matched population. These findings suggest that the role of the serrated neoplasia pathway in CRC development in Lynch syndrome seems to be comparable with that in the general population. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Premature infants display increased noxious-evoked neuronal activity in the brain compared to healthy age-matched term-born infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Rebeccah; Fabrizi, Lorenzo; Worley, Alan; Meek, Judith; Boyd, Stewart; Fitzgerald, Maria

    2010-08-15

    This study demonstrates that infants who are born prematurely and who have experienced at least 40days of intensive or special care have increased brain neuronal responses to noxious stimuli compared to healthy newborns at the same postmenstrual age. We have measured evoked potentials generated by noxious clinically-essential heel lances in infants born at term (8 infants; born 37-40weeks) and in infants born prematurely (7 infants; born 24-32weeks) who had reached the same postmenstrual age (mean age at time of heel lance 39.2+/-1.2weeks). These noxious-evoked potentials are clearly distinguishable from shorter latency potentials evoked by non-noxious tactile sensory stimulation. While the shorter latency touch potentials are not dependent on the age of the infant at birth, the noxious-evoked potentials are significantly larger in prematurely-born infants. This enhancement is not associated with specific brain lesions but reflects a functional change in pain processing in the brain that is likely to underlie previously reported changes in pain sensitivity in older ex-preterm children. Our ability to quantify and measure experience-dependent changes in infant cortical pain processing will allow us to develop a more rational approach to pain management in neonatal intensive care. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Reproducibility, and age, body-weight and gender dependency of candidate skeletal muscle MRI outcome measures in healthy volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, Jasper M.; Reilly, Mary M.; Hanna, Michael G. [UCL Institute of Neurology, Medical Research Council Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases, Department of Molecular Neuroscience, London (United Kingdom); Sinclair, Christopher D.J.; Yousry, Tarek A.; Thornton, John S. [UCL Institute of Neurology, Medical Research Council Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases, Department of Molecular Neuroscience, London (United Kingdom); UCL Institute of Neurology, Neuroradiological Academic Unit, Department of Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, London (United Kingdom); Fischmann, Arne [University of Basel Hospital, Department of Radiology, Division of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Basel (Switzerland)

    2014-07-15

    Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can potentially meet the pressing need for objective, sensitive, reproducible outcome measures in neuromuscular disease trials. We tested, in healthy volunteers, the consistency, reliability and sensitivity to normal inter-subject variation of MRI methods targeted to lower limb muscle pathology to inform the design of practical but comprehensive MRI outcome measure protocols for use in imminent patient studies. Forty-seven healthy volunteers, age 21-81 years, were subject at 3T to three-point Dixon fat-fraction measurement, T{sub 1}-relaxometry, T{sub 2}-relaxometry and magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) imaging at mid-thigh and mid-calf level bilaterally. Fifteen subjects underwent repeat imaging at 2 weeks. Mean between-muscle fat fraction and T{sub 2} differences were small, but significant (p < 0.001). Fat fraction and T{sub 2} correlated positively, and MTR negatively with subject age in both the thigh and calf, with similar significant correlations with weight at thigh level only (p < 0.001 to p < 0.05). Scan-rescan and inter-observer intra-class correlation coefficients ranged between 0.62-0.84 and 0.79-0.99 respectively. Quantitative lower-limb muscle MRI using readily implementable methods was sensitive enough to demonstrate inter-muscle differences (small in health), and correlations with subject age and weight. In combination with high reliability, this strongly supports the suitability of these methods to provide longitudinal outcome measures in neuromuscular disease treatment trials. (orig.)

  18. Evaluating the effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate, ingested individually or in combination, and a taste-matched placebo on high-intensity cycling capacity in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Matthew F; Wilson, Susie; Hill, Cameron; Price, Mike J; Duncan, Mike; Tallis, Jason

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the effects of ingesting sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) or caffeine individually or in combination on high-intensity cycling capacity. In a counterbalanced, crossover design, 13 healthy, noncycling trained males (age: 21 ± 3 years, height: 178 ± 6 cm, body mass: 76 ± 12 kg, peak power output (Wpeak): 230 ± 34 W, peak oxygen uptake: 46 ± 8 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed a graded incremental exercise test, 2 familiarisation trials, and 4 experimental trials. Trials consisted of cycling to volitional exhaustion at 100% Wpeak (TLIM) 60 min after ingesting a solution containing either (i) 0.3 g·kg(-1) body mass sodium bicarbonate (BIC), (ii) 5 mg·kg(-1) body mass caffeine plus 0.1 g·kg(-1) body mass sodium chloride (CAF), (iii) 0.3 g·kg(-1) body mass sodium bicarbonate plus 5 mg·kg(-1) body mass caffeine (BIC-CAF), or (iv) 0.1 g·kg(-1) body mass sodium chloride (PLA). Experimental solutions were administered double-blind. Pre-exercise, at the end of exercise, and 5-min postexercise blood pH, base excess, and bicarbonate ion concentration ([HCO3(-)]) were significantly elevated for BIC and BIC-CAF compared with CAF and PLA. TLIM (median; interquartile range) was significantly greater for CAF (399; 350-415 s; P = 0.039; r = 0.6) and BIC-CAF (367; 333-402 s; P = 0.028; r = 0.6) compared with BIC (313: 284-448 s) although not compared with PLA (358; 290-433 s; P = 0.249, r = 0.3 and P = 0.099 and r = 0.5, respectively). There were no differences between PLA and BIC (P = 0.196; r = 0.4) or between CAF and BIC-CAF (P = 0.753; r = 0.1). Relatively large inter- and intra-individual variation was observed when comparing treatments and therefore an individual approach to supplementation appears warranted.

  19. A comparison of cognitive functions in non-hypoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients and age-matched healthy volunteers using mini-mental state examination questionnaire and event-related potential, P300 analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Parkash Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess sub-clinical cognitive dysfunctions in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients having no hypoxemia vs. age-matched healthy volunteers using (i an electrophysiological test: Auditory event related potential, P300 test and (ii a questionnaire tool: Mini-mental state examination (MMSE questionnaire. Materials and Methods: Eighty male subjects were included: 40 stable COPD patients (smoking history >20 pack years and 40 healthy volunteers (HVs. Age, duration of illness, smoking pack years, and spirometric indices were assessed. MMSE scores were evaluated in these groups. Latency of P300 wave and amplitude of P300 wave were studied in both groups to detect P300 abnormalities in COPD group. Correlations of P300 abnormalities with patient characteristic parameters and MMSE scores were assessed. In addition, individual COPD patients having significant cognitive dysfunctions beyond cut-off value of 99 th percentile of HVs were analyzed. Results: We observed significantly prolonged P300 latency ( P 0.05 for all. Conclusions: Our study explores cognitive dysfunctions in stable COPD patients with no hypoxemia. This study highlights the relative importance of using MMSE and P300. Cognitive dysfunctions were detected both by MMSE and P300; however, MMSE abnormalities were more frequent compared to P300 abnormalities (27/40 vs. 10/40 in COPD patients.

  20. Influence of age, BMI, gender and lumbar level on T1ρ magnetic resonance imaging of lumbar discs in healthy asymptomatic adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guebitz, Raphael [Asklepios Hospital Altona, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiology and Neuroradiology; Lange, Tobias; Gosheger, Georg [University Hospital Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Orthopaedics and Tumor Orthopaedics; Heindel, Walter; Allkemper, Thomas [University Hospital Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Clinical Radiology; Stehling, Christoph [Sankt-Barbara Hospital Ham-Heessen, Hamm (Germany). Clinic for Radiology and Neuroradiology; Gerss, Joachim [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Biostatistics and Clinical Research; Kanthak, Christian [Fraunhofer MEVIS, Bremen (Germany). Inst. for Medical Image Computing; Schulte, Tobias L. [Bochum Univ. St. Josef Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Orthopaedics and Trauma Surgery

    2018-02-15

    To assess the T1ρ range of lumbar intervertebral discs in healthy asymptomatic individuals at 1.5 T and to investigate the influence of age, body mass index (BMI), gender, and lumbar level on T1ρ relaxation. In a prospective study, a total of 81 volunteers aged 20 - 80 years were included in this study and divided into three age groups (A: 20 - 39y; B: 40 - 59y; C: 60 - 80y). All of the volunteers underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 1.5 T with acquisition of sagittal T1ρ images. The calculated T1ρ relaxation times were correlated with age, BMI, gender, and lumbar level relative to the total disc, the annulus fibrosus, and the nucleus pulposus. Age had a significant influence on T1ρ relaxation times at all lumbar levels, with increasing age being associated with reduced relaxation times. There was also a significant difference between age groups A vs. C and B vs. C (P = 0.0008 and P = 0.0149, respectively). No significant differences in T1ρ relaxation time were observed between men and women (P > 0.05). BMI showed a significant negative correlation with T1ρ relaxation times (P < 0.0001). Analysis of the lumbar level revealed a significant decrease in relaxation times from L1/2 to L5 / S1 (P = 0.0013). Increasing age correlated significantly with advanced lumbar disc degeneration in asymptomatic individuals, particularly in those aged 60 or older. Increasing BMI correlated significantly with increasing degeneration. The lower discs showed more degeneration than the upper ones.

  1. Influence of age, BMI, gender and lumbar level on T1ρ magnetic resonance imaging of lumbar discs in healthy asymptomatic adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guebitz, Raphael; Lange, Tobias; Gosheger, Georg; Heindel, Walter; Allkemper, Thomas; Stehling, Christoph; Gerss, Joachim; Kanthak, Christian; Schulte, Tobias L.

    2018-01-01

    To assess the T1ρ range of lumbar intervertebral discs in healthy asymptomatic individuals at 1.5 T and to investigate the influence of age, body mass index (BMI), gender, and lumbar level on T1ρ relaxation. In a prospective study, a total of 81 volunteers aged 20 - 80 years were included in this study and divided into three age groups (A: 20 - 39y; B: 40 - 59y; C: 60 - 80y). All of the volunteers underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 1.5 T with acquisition of sagittal T1ρ images. The calculated T1ρ relaxation times were correlated with age, BMI, gender, and lumbar level relative to the total disc, the annulus fibrosus, and the nucleus pulposus. Age had a significant influence on T1ρ relaxation times at all lumbar levels, with increasing age being associated with reduced relaxation times. There was also a significant difference between age groups A vs. C and B vs. C (P = 0.0008 and P = 0.0149, respectively). No significant differences in T1ρ relaxation time were observed between men and women (P > 0.05). BMI showed a significant negative correlation with T1ρ relaxation times (P < 0.0001). Analysis of the lumbar level revealed a significant decrease in relaxation times from L1/2 to L5 / S1 (P = 0.0013). Increasing age correlated significantly with advanced lumbar disc degeneration in asymptomatic individuals, particularly in those aged 60 or older. Increasing BMI correlated significantly with increasing degeneration. The lower discs showed more degeneration than the upper ones.

  2. Matching Organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to know FAQ Living donation What is living donation? Organs Types Being a living donor First steps Being ... brochures What Every Patient Needs to Know Living Donation Multiple Listing Visit UNOS Store Learn more How organs are matched How to become a living donor ...

  3. Disparities -- Healthy People 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health based on their racial or ethnic group; religion; socioeconomic status; gender; age; mental health; cognitive, sensory, ... Contact Us Site Map Accessibility Privacy Policy Disclaimers Freedom of Information Act Healthy People 2010 Archive Nondiscrimination ...

  4. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children is found to be related to the occurrence of ADHD in siblings and the male gender, but not to birth order, when compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Zahra; Bajoghli, Hafez; Mohamadi, Mohammad Reza; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the extent to which the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood is associated with birth order and gender, and the prevalence of ADHD and mental retardation (MR) in siblings, as compared to healthy controls. Methods. Data from 200 children diagnosed with ADHD (mean age: 11.13 years; 10.5% females) were compared to data from 200 healthy controls (mean age: 11.0 years; 27.5% females). The data were related to symptoms of ADHD, birth order, gender, family size, and the occurrence of ADHD and MR in siblings. Compared to controls, the occurrence of ADHD was found to be related to the male gender and to the occurrence of ADHD-related symptoms in siblings (odds ratio: 13.50). Birth order and MR were not associated with the occurrence of ADHD and ADHD-related symptoms. ADHD- related symptoms increased if a further sibling also suffered from ADHD. Conclusions. Among a sample of Iranian children suffering from ADHD, the ADHD and ADHD-related symptoms in childhood were found to be related to the male gender and to the occurrence of ADHD in siblings. Moreover, birth order was found to be unrelated. The fact that symptoms of ADHD-related symptoms increased if a further sibling was suffering from ADHD, and decreased if a further sibling was suffering from MR, is intriguing and needs further explanation.

  5. Pediatric cleft palate patients show a 3- to 5-fold increase in cumulative radiation exposure from dental radiology compared with an age- and gender-matched population: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Reinhilde; Pauwels, Ruben; Scarfe, William C; De Cock, Carl; Dula, Karl; Willems, Guy; Verdonck, An; Politis, Constantinus

    2018-05-01

    The objective of the study was to compare estimates of pediatric cumulative exposure and lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of radiation-induced cancer from dental radiology between cleft palate (CP) subjects and age- and gender-matched controls (non-CP), with and without orthodontic treatment. The radiation exposure frequency of CP subjects and non-CP controls with and without orthodontic treatment was compared for two-dimensional radiography (intra-oral, panoramic and cephalometric radiography), computed tomography (CT), and cone-beam CT (CBCT) using cumulative radiation dose as an estimate. From this dose estimate, the age- and gender-dependent risk for radiation-induced stochastic effects was calculated for each patient group. CP patients received more radiographic examinations than non-CP controls, with the exception of intra-oral radiographs. The cumulative dose to CP patients was considerably higher (1963 μSv at the age of 20 years) than non-CP patients with (597 μSv) and without (383 μSv) orthodontic treatment, primarily due to the higher frequency of CT scanning. Accordingly, CP patients had a three to five times higher LAR than non-CP patients. This study suggests a significantly higher lifetime radiation exposure to CP patients than non-CP controls from dental radiographic procedures. Diagnostic benefits from the use of CT and CBCT in children must be justified and appropriate dose optimization strategies implemented. The present study indicates the need for proper justification and optimization of pediatric exposures in dentistry, with a special focus on high-risk groups.

  6. Hockey Fans in Training (Hockey FIT) pilot study protocol: a gender-sensitized weight loss and healthy lifestyle program for overweight and obese male hockey fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Dawn P; Blunt, Wendy; De Cruz, Ashleigh; Riggin, Brendan; Hunt, Kate; Zou, Guangyong; Sibbald, Shannon; Danylchuk, Karen; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Gray, Cindy M; Wyke, Sally; Bunn, Christopher; Petrella, Robert J

    2016-10-19

    optimization. Hockey FIT is a gender-sensitive program designed to engage overweight/obese male hockey fans to improve physical activity and healthy eating choices, thereby leading to weight loss and other positive changes in health outcomes. We expect this study to provide evidence for a full-scale confirmatory pRCT. NCT02396524 (Clinicaltrials.gov). Date of registration: Feb 26, 2015.

  7. Comprehensive haematological indices reference intervals for a healthy Omani population: First comprehensive study in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) and Middle Eastern countries based on age, gender and ABO blood group comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Avinash Daniel; Al-Busaidi, Raiya; Al-Lawati, Rabab H.; Morsi, Magdi

    2018-01-01

    Background Reference intervals for venous blood parameters differs with age, gender, geographic region, and ethnic groups. Hence local laboratory reference intervals are important to improve the diagnostic accuracy of health assessments and diseases. However, there have been no comprehensive published reference intervals established in Oman, the Gulf Cooperation Council or Middle Eastern countries. Hence, the aim of this study was to establish reference intervals for full blood count in healthy Omani adults. Methods Venous blood specimens were collected from 2202 healthy individuals aged 18 to 69 years from January 2012 to April 2017, and analysed by Sysmex XS-1000i and Cell-Dyn Sapphire automated haematology analysers. Results were statistically analysed and compared by gender, age, and ABO blood group. The lower and upper reference limits of the haematology reference intervals were established at the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles respectively. Results Reference intervals were calculated for 17 haematology parameters which included red blood cell, white blood cell, and platelet parameters. Red blood cell (RBC), haemoglobin (HGB), haematocrit (HCT), platelet and platelet haematocrit counts of the healthy donors were significantly different between males and females at all ages (p values of RBC, HGB and HCT than females. Other complete blood count parameters showed no significant differences between genders, age groups, instruments, or blood groups. Our study showed a lower haemoglobin limit for the normal reference interval in males and females than the currently used in Oman. Conclusions Data from this study established specific reference intervals which could be considered for general use in Oman. The differences in haematology reference intervals highlights the necessity to establish reference intervals for venous blood parameters among the healthy population in each country or at least in each region. PMID:29621271

  8. Comprehensive haematological indices reference intervals for a healthy Omani population: First comprehensive study in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) and Middle Eastern countries based on age, gender and ABO blood group comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mawali, Adhra; Pinto, Avinash Daniel; Al-Busaidi, Raiya; Al-Lawati, Rabab H; Morsi, Magdi

    2018-01-01

    Reference intervals for venous blood parameters differs with age, gender, geographic region, and ethnic groups. Hence local laboratory reference intervals are important to improve the diagnostic accuracy of health assessments and diseases. However, there have been no comprehensive published reference intervals established in Oman, the Gulf Cooperation Council or Middle Eastern countries. Hence, the aim of this study was to establish reference intervals for full blood count in healthy Omani adults. Venous blood specimens were collected from 2202 healthy individuals aged 18 to 69 years from January 2012 to April 2017, and analysed by Sysmex XS-1000i and Cell-Dyn Sapphire automated haematology analysers. Results were statistically analysed and compared by gender, age, and ABO blood group. The lower and upper reference limits of the haematology reference intervals were established at the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles respectively. Reference intervals were calculated for 17 haematology parameters which included red blood cell, white blood cell, and platelet parameters. Red blood cell (RBC), haemoglobin (HGB), haematocrit (HCT), platelet and platelet haematocrit counts of the healthy donors were significantly different between males and females at all ages (p < 0.05), with males having higher mean values of RBC, HGB and HCT than females. Other complete blood count parameters showed no significant differences between genders, age groups, instruments, or blood groups. Our study showed a lower haemoglobin limit for the normal reference interval in males and females than the currently used in Oman. Data from this study established specific reference intervals which could be considered for general use in Oman. The differences in haematology reference intervals highlights the necessity to establish reference intervals for venous blood parameters among the healthy population in each country or at least in each region.

  9. From gender identity disorder to gender identity creativity: true gender self child therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrensaft, Diane

    2012-01-01

    True gender self child therapy is based on the premise of gender as a web that weaves together nature, nurture, and culture and allows for a myriad of healthy gender outcomes. This article presents concepts of true gender self, false gender self, and gender creativity as they operationalize in clinical work with children who need therapeutic supports to establish an authentic gender self while developing strategies for negotiating an environment resistant to that self. Categories of gender nonconforming children are outlined and excerpts of a treatment of a young transgender child are presented to illustrate true gender self child therapy.

  10. Reduced mRNA expression of PTGDS in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of rapid-cycling bipolar disorder patients compared with healthy control subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Peijs, Lone; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2015-01-01

    was measured in 37 rapid-cycling bipolar disorder patients and 40 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects using reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Repeated measurements of PTGDS and AKR1C3 mRNA expression were obtained in various affective states during 6-12 months...... and compared with repeated measurements in healthy control subjects. RESULTS: Adjusted for age and gender, PTGDS mRNA expression was down-regulated in rapid-cycling bipolar disorder patients in a euthymic, depressive, and manic/hypomanic state compared with healthy control subjects. No difference in PTGDS m...

  11. [A questionnaire study of the relationship between gender and chronic pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuber, N; Thiele, A; Eberhardt, B

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between gender role orientation and the prevalence of chronic pain. The individual gender role orientation in a sample of 45 chronic pain patients (ICD 10 diagnosis, F 45.4) was compared to gender role orientation in a matched, pain-free control group. Gender role orientation was assessed by questionnaires on the self-attribution of stereotypic gender traits (GEPAQ) and on the extent of agreement with traditional feminine and masculine role norms (MRNS, FRNS). Group differences were compared by multivariate analysis. In accordance with the hypothesis, results confirmed that pain patients showed stronger feminine and weaker masculine role orientations than healthy controls. Pain patients additionally ascribed to themselves more 'feminine' (e.g. worried, nervous) and less 'masculine' (e.g. aggressive, cynical) traits. Sociopsychological variables of gender role orientation were related to chronic pain in the groups observed. An integrated model consisting of psychodynamic, sociological, and sociopsychological factors is proposed.

  12. Main effect and interactions of brain regions and gender in the calculation of volumetric asymmetry indices in healthy human brains: ANCOVA analyses of in vivo 3T MRI data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto; Rios, Camilo; Suarez-May, Marcela A; Favila, Rafel; Aguilar-Castañeda, Erika

    2013-12-01

    Macroanatomical right-left hemispheric differences in the brain are termed asymmetries, although there is no clear information on the global influence of gender and brain-regions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the main effects and interactions of these variables on the measurement of volumetric asymmetry indices (VAIs). Forty-seven healthy young-adult volunteers (23 males, 24 females) agreed to undergo brain magnetic resonance imaging in a 3T scanner. Image post processing using voxel-based volumetry allowed the calculation of 54 VAIs from the frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital lobes, limbic system, basal ganglia, and cerebellum for each cerebral hemisphere. Multivariate ANCOVA analysis calculated the main effects and interactions on VAIs of gender and brain regions controlling the effect of age. The only significant finding was the main effect of brain regions (F (6, 9373.605) 44.369, P gender and brain regions (F (6, 50.517) .239, P = .964). Volumetric asymmetries are present across all brain regions, with larger values found in the limbic system and parietal lobe. The absence of a significant influence of gender and age in the evaluation of the numerous measurements generated by multivariate analyses in this study should not discourage researchers to report and interpret similar results, as this topic still deserves further assessment. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. European multicentre database of healthy controls for [123I]FP-CIT SPECT (ENC-DAT): age-related effects, gender differences and evaluation of different methods of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varrone, Andrea; Dickson, John C.; Tossici-Bolt, Livia; Sera, Terez; Asenbaum, Susanne; Booij, Jan; Kapucu, Ozlem L.; Kluge, Andreas; Knudsen, Gitte M.; Koulibaly, Pierre Malick; Nobili, Flavio; Pagani, Marco; Sabri, Osama; Borght, Thierry vander; Laere, Koen van; Tatsch, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging with [ 123 I]FP-CIT (DaTSCAN) is an established diagnostic tool in parkinsonism and dementia. Although qualitative assessment criteria are available, DAT quantification is important for research and for completion of a diagnostic evaluation. One critical aspect of quantification is the availability of normative data, considering possible age and gender effects on DAT availability. The aim of the European Normal Control Database of DaTSCAN (ENC-DAT) study was to generate a large database of [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT scans in healthy controls. SPECT data from 139 healthy controls (74 men, 65 women; age range 20 - 83 years, mean 53 years) acquired in 13 different centres were included. Images were reconstructed using the ordered-subset expectation-maximization algorithm without correction (NOACSC), with attenuation correction (AC), and with both attenuation and scatter correction using the triple-energy window method (ACSC). Region-of-interest analysis was performed using the BRASS software (caudate and putamen), and the Southampton method (striatum). The outcome measure was the specific binding ratio (SBR). A significant effect of age on SBR was found for all data. Gender had a significant effect on SBR in the caudate and putamen for the NOACSC and AC data, and only in the left caudate for the ACSC data (BRASS method). Significant effects of age and gender on striatal SBR were observed for all data analysed with the Southampton method. Overall, there was a significant age-related decline in SBR of between 4 % and 6.7 % per decade. This study provides a large database of [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT scans in healthy controls across a wide age range and with balanced gender representation. Higher DAT availability was found in women than in men. An average age-related decline in DAT availability of 5.5 % per decade was found for both genders, in agreement with previous reports. The data collected in this study may serve as a reference database for

  14. European multicentre database of healthy controls for [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT (ENC-DAT): age-related effects, gender differences and evaluation of different methods of analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varrone, Andrea [Karolinska University Hospital, R5:02, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Stockholm (Sweden); Dickson, John C. [UCLH NHS Foundation Trust and University College, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Tossici-Bolt, Livia [University Hospitals Southampton NHS Trust, Department of Medical Physics, Southampton (United Kingdom); Sera, Terez [University of Szeged, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Euromedic Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Asenbaum, Susanne [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Booij, Jan [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kapucu, Ozlem L. [Gazi University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Kluge, Andreas [ABX-CRO, Dresden (Germany); Knudsen, Gitte M. [Rigshospitalet and University of Copenhagen, Neurobiology Research Unit, Copenhagen (Denmark); Koulibaly, Pierre Malick [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Nuclear Medicine Department, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa, Clinical Neurophysiology Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology and Genetics, Genoa (Italy); Pagani, Marco [Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome (Italy); Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Sabri, Osama [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Borght, Thierry vander [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Nuclear Medicine Division, Mont-Godinne Medical Center, Yvoir (Belgium); Laere, Koen van [University Hospital and K.U. Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Tatsch, Klaus [Municipal Hospital of Karlsruhe Inc, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    Dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging with [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT (DaTSCAN) is an established diagnostic tool in parkinsonism and dementia. Although qualitative assessment criteria are available, DAT quantification is important for research and for completion of a diagnostic evaluation. One critical aspect of quantification is the availability of normative data, considering possible age and gender effects on DAT availability. The aim of the European Normal Control Database of DaTSCAN (ENC-DAT) study was to generate a large database of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT scans in healthy controls. SPECT data from 139 healthy controls (74 men, 65 women; age range 20 - 83 years, mean 53 years) acquired in 13 different centres were included. Images were reconstructed using the ordered-subset expectation-maximization algorithm without correction (NOACSC), with attenuation correction (AC), and with both attenuation and scatter correction using the triple-energy window method (ACSC). Region-of-interest analysis was performed using the BRASS software (caudate and putamen), and the Southampton method (striatum). The outcome measure was the specific binding ratio (SBR). A significant effect of age on SBR was found for all data. Gender had a significant effect on SBR in the caudate and putamen for the NOACSC and AC data, and only in the left caudate for the ACSC data (BRASS method). Significant effects of age and gender on striatal SBR were observed for all data analysed with the Southampton method. Overall, there was a significant age-related decline in SBR of between 4 % and 6.7 % per decade. This study provides a large database of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT scans in healthy controls across a wide age range and with balanced gender representation. Higher DAT availability was found in women than in men. An average age-related decline in DAT availability of 5.5 % per decade was found for both genders, in agreement with previous reports. The data collected in this study may serve as a reference

  15. Gender differences in scientific performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Jacobsen, Rasmus Højbjerg; Wallin, Johan A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare PhD students' performance with respect to gender using a number of matching methods. The data consists of fine-grained information about PhD-students at the Institute of Clinical Research at the University of Southern Denmark. Men and women are matched...... of gender differences in productivity and citation impact....

  16. Gender matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torm, Nina; Bjerge, Benedikte; Trifkovic, Neda

    such training may be in closing the gender wage gap. We use a matched employer–employee panel dataset to assess why firms train and whether formal training affects wage outcomes in Vietnamese SMEs. Training is generally found to be firm-sponsored and specific in nature. We find that training is associated......, firm-sponsored on-the-job training helps close the gender wage gap.......In many developing countries the skill base is a cause of concern with respect to international competition. Firm-provided training is generally seen as an important tool for bridging the skills gap between labour force and private sector demand. Yet little is known about how successful...

  17. Pigmented striae of the anterior lens capsule and age-associated pigment dispersion of variable degree in a group of older African-Americans: an age, race, and gender matched study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D K; Winters, J E; Castells, D D; Clark, C A; Teitelbaum, B A

    2001-01-01

    To investigate pigmented striae of the anterior lens capsule in African-Americans, a potential indicator of significant anterior segment pigment dispersion. A group of 40 African-American subjects who exhibited pigmented lens striae (PLS) were identified from a non-referred, primary eye care population in Chicago, IL, USA. These subjects were then compared to an age, race, and gender matched control group relative to refractive error and the presence or absence of diabetes and hypertension. The PLS subjects (mean age = 65.4 +/- 8.8 years, range = 50-87 years) consisted of 36 females and 4 males. PLS were bilateral in 36 (85%) of the 40 subjects. Among the eyes with PLS, 21 (55%) of 38 right eyes and 22 (61%) of 36 left eyes also had significant corneal endothelial pigment dusting, commonly in the shape of a Krukenberg's spindle. Ten (25%) of the PLS subjects had either glaucoma or ocular hypertension (7 bilateral, 3 unilateral). The presence of trabecular meshwork pigment varied from minimal to heavy. The mean +/- SD (range) refractive error of the PLS right eyes was +1.61 +/- 1.43D (-1.50 to +5.00D) and +1.77 +/- 1.37D (-1.00 to +5.00D) for the left eyes. Based on these data, the PLS right eyes were +1.63D (Student's t, p = 0.0001; 95% CI = +0.82 to +2.44D) more hyperopic on average than the control right eyes, and the PLS left eyes were +1.77D (p = 0.0001; 95% CI = +0.92 to +2.63D) more hyperopic on average than the control left eyes. Trend analysis showed a gradually increasing likelihood of PLS with increasing magnitude of hyperopia in both eyes (Mantel-Haenszel chi-square, p = 0.001). Among PLS subjects, 24 (60%) of 40 were hypertensive and 9 (23%) of 40 were diabetic. However, these proportions were not significantly different (two-tailed Fisher's exact test; hypertension: p = 0.30; diabetes: p = 0.70) from the randomly selected controls. Among our African-American group, which consisted predominately of females >50 years of age, the likelihood of PLS

  18. Healthy Places for Healthy People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the Healthy Places for Healthy People technical assistance program that helps communities create walkable, healthy, economically vibrant places by engaging with local health care facility partners

  19. Anhedonic depression, history of depression, and anxiety as gender-specific risk factors of myocardial infarction in healthy men and women: The HUNT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Langvik

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This prospective study examines gender-specific psychological risk factors of myocardial infarction. Out of 41,248 participants free of coronary heart disease at baseline, 822 cases of myocardial infarction were identified in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study or the mortality register. The participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Cholesterol, blood pressure, and waist–hip ratio were measured by medical staff. Smoking, diabetes, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and history of depressive episode were self-reported. Anhedonic depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-D ≥8 was a significant predictor of myocardial infarction in women but not in men. Gender difference in risk estimate based on Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-D was significant ( p  < .01. History of depressive episode was a significant predictor of myocardial infarction in men. Symptoms of anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-A ≥8 reduced the risk of having a myocardial infarction.

  20. Psychological gender of men with systolic heart failure: a neglected strategy to cope with the disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowska, Agata; Rydlewska, Agnieszka; Krakowiak, Bartosz; Kuczyłska, Alicja; Sorokowski, Piotr; Danel, Dariusz; Pawłowski, Bogusław; Banasiak, Waldemar; Ponikowski, Piotr; Jankowska, Ewa A

    2014-05-01

    Diminished exercise capacity is a fundamental symptom of heart failure (HF), which is particularly disadvantageous for men for whom exercise capacity contributes significantly to their gender identity, self-esteem, and quality of life. In this study, we aimed to examine whether psychological gender would be different in men with systolic HF as compared with their healthy peers. The authors examined 48 men with systolic HF (age = 64 ± 10 years; body mass index = 28.3 ± 3.4 kg/m(2); NYHA I/II/III [%] = 25/65/10; left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] = 32.1 ± 7.8%) and 15 age-matched healthy men. Based on the results of the Polish version of the Bem Sex Role Inventory, the examined men were divided into four types of psychological gender: "masculine" (M), "feminine" (F), "unspecified" (U), and "androgynous" (A). None of the men with HF presented M type of psychological gender, whereas this type was found in 27% of the healthy men (p = .0002). The prevalence of both A (38% vs. 47%) and F (10% vs. 20%, both p > .05) types of psychological gender was similar between men with HF versus without HF. More men with HF fulfilled the criteria of the U type of psychological gender as compared with healthy peers (51% vs. 7%, p = .002). Men with HF and the F type of psychological gender were treated with spironolactone more frequently than those classified with the U and A types (both p masculine" and the overrepresentation of "psychologically unspecified" gender types in the HF group suggests that psychological gender may be affected among men with HF.

  1. How does the impact of a community trial on cardio-metabolic risk factors differ in terms of gender and living area? Findings from the Isfahan healthy heart program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizal Sarrafzadegan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the impact of gender and living area on cardiovascular risk factors in the context of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention program. Design: Data from independent sample surveys before (2000--2001 and after (2007 a community trial, entitled the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP were used to compare differences in the intervention area (IA and reference area (RA by gender and living area. Setting: The interventions targeted the population living in Isfahan and Najaf-Abad counties as IA and Arak as RA. Participants: Overall, 12 514 individuals who were more than 19 years of age were studied at baseline, and 9570 were studied in postintervention phase. Interventions: Multiple activities were conducted in connection with each of the four main strategies of healthy nutrition, increasing physical activity, tobacco control, and coping with stress. Main Outcomes: Comparing serum lipids levels, blood pressure, blood glucose and obesity indices changes between IA and RA based on sex and living areas during the study. Results: In IA, while the prevalence of hypertension declined in urban and rural females (P < 0.05. In IA, the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia decreased in both females and males of urban and rural areas except for hypercholesterolemia in rural males (P < 0.01. In RA, the significant changes include both decrease in the hypercholesterolemia among rural males (P < 0.001 and hypertriglyceridemia in urban females (P < 0.01, while hypertriglyceridemia was significantly increased in rural females (P < 0.01. Conclusions: This comprehensive community trial was effective in controlling many risk factors in both sexes in urban and rural areas. These findings also reflect the transitional status of rural population in adopting urban lifestyle behaviors.

  2. Eating Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... There is much we can do to promote healthy eating habits. Together we can prevent or delay onset of diabetes, obesity and other chronic conditions and diseases. Benefits Helps maintain a healthy weight A healthy weight reduces risk of chronic ...

  3. Correlation of six-minute walking performance with quality of life is domain- and gender-specific in healthy older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Jorge Serra

    Full Text Available We analyzed the relationship between performance on the 6-min walk test (6MWT and health-related quality of life (HRQoL in older subjects. Our secondary aim was to determine the distance to be completed on the 6MWT for the subject to achieve a score of 50 on the Short Form (36 Health Survey (SF-36. Associations were tested using linear correlation and multivariate linear regression. Participants were 130 healthy older individuals. The predictive performance of the 6MWT based on an SF-36 score of 50 was assessed using a receiver operating characteristic curve and its area under curve (AUC. Associations were observed between physical functioning, role-emotional, social functioning, vitality, general health score, and 6MWT performance in women, after adjusting for confounding variables (coefficients: 0.57, 0.38, 0.40, and 0.46, respectively; p < 0.05. No association was found for men. The distance for the 6MWT to predict an SF-36 score of 50 was 481 m for men in the physical functioning (AUC: 0.79 and role-physical (AUC: 0.84 domains, and 420 m for women in role-emotional (AUC: 0.75, role-physical (AUC: 0.80, and general health (AUC: 0.80 domains. Our results indicate that superior 6MWT performance may be associated with better HRQoL in several domains in only healthy older women. No association between 6MWT performance and role-emotional, mental health, or vitality domains was found. We suggest that a score of 50 is represented by a 6MWT distance of 481 m for men and 420 m for women, at least in the role-physical domain.

  4. 'Coz football is what we all have': masculinities, practice, performance and effervescence in a gender-sensitised weight-loss and healthy living programme for men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Christopher; Wyke, Sally; Gray, Cindy M; Maclean, Alice; Hunt, Kate

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we use a social practice approach to explore men's experience of Football Fans in Training (FFIT), a group-based weight management programme for men that harnesses men's symbolic attachment to professional football clubs to engage them in lifestyle change. FFIT is delivered by community coaches in clubs' stadia and is gender-sensitised in relation to context, content and style of delivery. Using a 'toolkit' of concepts from the work of Bourdieu, Goffman and Durkheim we analysed data from 13 focus group discussions with participants, and fieldwork notes from programme observations to investigate the appeal and success of FFIT, and how it worked to support change. Our analysis builds on our work on the importance of shared symbolic commitment to the football club and being with 'men like me' to understand how the interaction context facilitated 'effervescent' experiences. These experiences encouraged men to make changes to their diet and physical activity, talk about them, practice performing them and implement them in their lives. Thus a social practice approach illuminated the social processes through which lifestyle change was achieved, and we argue that it can deepen and enrich both intervention design and evaluation. © 2016 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation for SHIL.

  5. Stinging Insect Matching Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Kids ▸ Stinging Insect Matching Game Share | Stinging Insect Matching Game Stinging insects can ruin summer fun for those who are ... the difference between the different kinds of stinging insects in order to keep your summer safe and ...

  6. Endoscopic detection rate of sessile serrated lesions in Lynch syndrome patients is comparable to an age- and gender-matched control population: case-control study with expert pathology review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugels, Jasper L. A.; Sahin, Husna; Hazewinkel, Yark; Koens, Lianne; van den Berg, Jose G.; van Leerdam, Monique E.; Dekker, Evelien

    2017-01-01

    Carcinogenesis in Lynch syndrome involves fast progression of adenomas to colorectal cancer (CRC) due to microsatellite instability. The role of sessile serrated lesions (SSLs) and the serrated neoplasia pathway in these patients is unknown. The aim of this matched case-control study was to compare

  7. Circulating irisin in healthy, young individuals: day-night rhythm, effects of food intake and exercise, and associations with gender, physical activity, diet, and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasilakis, Athanasios D; Polyzos, Stergios A; Saridakis, Zacharias G; Kynigopoulos, Georgios; Skouvaklidou, Elpida C; Molyvas, Dimitrios; Vasiloglou, Maria F; Apostolou, Aggeliki; Karagiozoglou-Lampoudi, Thomai; Siopi, Aikaterina; Mougios, Vassilis; Chatzistavridis, Panagiotis; Panagiotou, Grigorios; Filippaios, Andreas; Delaroudis, Sideris; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2014-09-01

    The myokine irisin may increase energy expenditure and affect metabolism. The objective of the study was to elucidate predictors of irisin and study whether circulating irisin may have day-night rhythm in humans. This was an observational, cross-sectional study with an additional 24-hour prospective observational arm (day-night rhythm substudy) and two prospective interventional arms (mixed meal substudy and exercise substudy). The study was conducted at the Hellenic Military School of Medicine (Thessaloniki, Greece). One hundred twenty-two healthy, young individuals were subjected to anthropometric and body composition measurements, and their eating and exercise behavior profiles were assessed with validated questionnaires. Subgroups were subjected to day-night rhythm, standardized meal ingestion, and 30-minute aerobic exercise studies. Circulating irisin levels were measured. Ιrisin levels were lower in males than females (P = .02) after adjustment for lean body mass, which was its major determinant. Irisin levels followed a day-night rhythm (P day-night rhythm, is correlated with lean body mass, and increases acutely after exercise.

  8. Regional differences between 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO SPET in perfusion changes with age and gender in healthy adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Kentaro; Nakagawa, Manabu; Goto, Ryoi; Kinomura, Shigeo; Sato, Tachio; Sato, Kazunori; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    A number of studies using single-photon emission tomography (SPET) have shown perfusion changes with age in several cortical and subcortical areas, which might distort the results of perfusion imaging studies of neuropsychiatric disorders. Technetium-99m labelled ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) and hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) are both used as markers of cerebral perfusion, but have different pharmacokinetics and retention patterns. The aim of this study was to determine whether age and gender effects on perfusion SPET differ depending on whether 99m Tc-HMPAO or 99m Tc-ECD is used. Forty-five subjects (20 male and 25 female, mean age 52.8±6.6 years) were assigned to 99m Tc-HMPAO SPET (HMPAO group), and 39 subjects (24 male and 15 female, mean age 52.6±6.7 years) to 99m Tc-ECD SPET (ECD group). SPET images were obtained about 10 min after intravenous injection of approximately 800 MBq 99m Tc-HMPAO or 99m Tc-ECD using the same SPET scanner. Three-dimensional volumetric magnetic resonance imaging was performed to as7sess morphological changes in the grey matter. All image processing and statistical analyses were performed using SPM99 software. An area in the right anterior frontal lobe showed an increase in perfusion with age only in the HMPAO group, whereas areas in the bilateral retrosplenial cortex showed decreases in perfusion with age only in the ECD group; neither group showed corresponding changes in the grey matter. The present study shows that different effects of age on perfusion are observed depending on whether 99m Tc-HMPAO and 99m Tc-ECD is used. This suggests that the results of perfusion SPET are differently confounded depending on the tracer used, and that perfusion SPET with these tracers has limitations when used in research on subtle perfusion changes. (orig.)

  9. Regional differences between {sup 99m}Tc-ECD and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPET in perfusion changes with age and gender in healthy adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Kentaro; Nakagawa, Manabu; Goto, Ryoi; Kinomura, Shigeo; Sato, Tachio; Sato, Kazunori; Fukuda, Hiroshi [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, 4-1 Seiryomachi Aoba-ku, 980-8575, Sendai (Japan)

    2003-11-01

    A number of studies using single-photon emission tomography (SPET) have shown perfusion changes with age in several cortical and subcortical areas, which might distort the results of perfusion imaging studies of neuropsychiatric disorders. Technetium-99m labelled ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) and hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) are both used as markers of cerebral perfusion, but have different pharmacokinetics and retention patterns. The aim of this study was to determine whether age and gender effects on perfusion SPET differ depending on whether {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO or {sup 99m}Tc-ECD is used. Forty-five subjects (20 male and 25 female, mean age 52.8{+-}6.6 years) were assigned to {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPET (HMPAO group), and 39 subjects (24 male and 15 female, mean age 52.6{+-}6.7 years) to {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPET (ECD group). SPET images were obtained about 10 min after intravenous injection of approximately 800 MBq {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO or {sup 99m}Tc-ECD using the same SPET scanner. Three-dimensional volumetric magnetic resonance imaging was performed to as7sess morphological changes in the grey matter. All image processing and statistical analyses were performed using SPM99 software. An area in the right anterior frontal lobe showed an increase in perfusion with age only in the HMPAO group, whereas areas in the bilateral retrosplenial cortex showed decreases in perfusion with age only in the ECD group; neither group showed corresponding changes in the grey matter. The present study shows that different effects of age on perfusion are observed depending on whether {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO and {sup 99m}Tc-ECD is used. This suggests that the results of perfusion SPET are differently confounded depending on the tracer used, and that perfusion SPET with these tracers has limitations when used in research on subtle perfusion changes. (orig.)

  10. 123I-5-I-R91150, a new single-photon emission tomography ligand for 5-HT2A receptors: influence of age and gender in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeken, C.; D'haenen, H.; Flamen, P.; Bossuyt, A.; Mertens, J.; Terriere, D.; Chavatte, K.; Boumon, R.

    1998-01-01

    5-HT 2A receptors have been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders and in the therapeutic effect of the so-called atypical antipsychotics. Recently, a new radioiodinated ligand with high affinity and selectivity for serotonin 5-HT 2A receptors, 123 iodinated 4-amino-N-1-[3-(4-fluorophenoxy)propyl-4-methyl-4-piperidinyl] 5-iodo-2-methoxybenzamide ( 123 I-5-I-R91150), has been developed and has been shown to be suitable for single-photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging. In this study the influence of age and gender on the ligand binding was investigated in normal volunteers. One hundred and fifty MBq of 123 I-5-I-R91150 was administered to 26 normal volunteers (13 females and 13 males) with an age range of 23-60 years. SPET imaging was performed with a triple-headed gamma camera. For semi-quantitative analysis, ratios of ligand binding in different regions of interest to the binding in the cerebellum were calculated. Mean ratios of 1.7 were obtained. No gender difference was demonstrated. 5-HT 2A binding was shown to decline with age. Over an age range of 40 years a reduction in ligand binding of 42%±7% was found. These results are in agreement with in vitro and positron emission tomography findings of a decline in 5-HT 2A receptor binding with age. The findings confirm the suitability of 123 I-5-I-R91150 for SPET imaging of 5-HT 2A receptors, and highlight the necessity for age-matched controls in clinical studies. (orig.)

  11. Best matching theory & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Moghaddam, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Mismatch or best match? This book demonstrates that best matching of individual entities to each other is essential to ensure smooth conduct and successful competitiveness in any distributed system, natural and artificial. Interactions must be optimized through best matching in planning and scheduling, enterprise network design, transportation and construction planning, recruitment, problem solving, selective assembly, team formation, sensor network design, and more. Fundamentals of best matching in distributed and collaborative systems are explained by providing: § Methodical analysis of various multidimensional best matching processes § Comprehensive taxonomy, comparing different best matching problems and processes § Systematic identification of systems’ hierarchy, nature of interactions, and distribution of decision-making and control functions § Practical formulation of solutions based on a library of best matching algorithms and protocols, ready for direct applications and apps development. Design...

  12. Matching Students to Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Trifunovic

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the problem of matching students to schools by using different matching mechanisms. This market is specific since public schools are free and the price mechanism cannot be used to determine the optimal allocation of children in schools. Therefore, it is necessary to use different matching algorithms that mimic the market mechanism and enable us to determine the core of the cooperative game. In this paper, we will determine that it is possible to apply cooperative game theory in matching problems. This review paper is based on illustrative examples aiming to compare matching algorithms in terms of the incentive compatibility, stability and efficiency of the matching. In this paper we will present some specific problems that may occur in matching, such as improving the quality of schools, favoring minority students, the limited length of the list of preferences and generating strict priorities from weak priorities.

  13. A gender-sensitised weight loss and healthy living programme for overweight and obese men delivered by Scottish Premier League football clubs (FFIT): a pragmatic randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kate; Wyke, Sally; Gray, Cindy M; Anderson, Annie S; Brady, Adrian; Bunn, Christopher; Donnan, Peter T; Fenwick, Elisabeth; Grieve, Eleanor; Leishman, Jim; Miller, Euan; Mutrie, Nanette; Rauchhaus, Petra; White, Alan; Treweek, Shaun

    2014-04-05

    The prevalence of male obesity is increasing but few men take part in weight loss programmes. We assessed the effect of a weight loss and healthy living programme on weight loss in football (soccer) fans. We did a two-group, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial of 747 male football fans aged 35-65 years with a body-mass index (BMI) of 28 kg/m(2) or higher from 13 Scottish professional football clubs. Participants were randomly assigned with SAS (version 9·2, block size 2-9) in a 1:1 ratio, stratified by club, to a weight loss programme delivered by community coaching staff in 12 sessions held every week. The intervention group started a weight loss programme within 3 weeks, and the comparison group were put on a 12 month waiting list. All participants received a weight management booklet. Primary outcome was mean difference in weight loss between groups at 12 months, expressed as absolute weight and a percentage of their baseline weight. Primary outcome assessment was masked. Analyses were based on intention to treat. The trial is registered with Current Controlled Trials, number ISRCTN32677491. 374 men were allocated to the intervention group and 374 to the comparison group. 333 (89%) of the intervention group and 355 (95%) of the comparison group completed 12 month assessments. At 12 months the mean difference in weight loss between groups, adjusted for baseline weight and club, was 4·94 kg (95% CI 3·95-5·94) and percentage weight loss, similarly adjusted, was 4·36% (3·64-5·08), both in favour of the intervention (pScottish Government and The UK Football Pools funded delivery of the programme through a grant to the Scottish Premier League Trust. The National Institute for Health Research Public Health Research Programme funded the assessment (09/3010/06). Copyright © 2014 Hunt et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY-NC-ND. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A gender-sensitised weight loss and healthy living programme for overweight and obese men delivered by Scottish Premier League football clubs (FFIT): a pragmatic randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kate; Wyke, Sally; Gray, Cindy M; Anderson, Annie S; Brady, Adrian; Bunn, Christopher; Donnan, Peter T; Fenwick, Elisabeth; Grieve, Eleanor; Leishman, Jim; Miller, Euan; Mutrie, Nanette; Rauchhaus, Petra; White, Alan; Treweek, Shaun

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The prevalence of male obesity is increasing but few men take part in weight loss programmes. We assessed the effect of a weight loss and healthy living programme on weight loss in football (soccer) fans. Methods We did a two-group, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial of 747 male football fans aged 35–65 years with a body-mass index (BMI) of 28 kg/m2 or higher from 13 Scottish professional football clubs. Participants were randomly assigned with SAS (version 9·2, block size 2–9) in a 1:1 ratio, stratified by club, to a weight loss programme delivered by community coaching staff in 12 sessions held every week. The intervention group started a weight loss programme within 3 weeks, and the comparison group were put on a 12 month waiting list. All participants received a weight management booklet. Primary outcome was mean difference in weight loss between groups at 12 months, expressed as absolute weight and a percentage of their baseline weight. Primary outcome assessment was masked. Analyses were based on intention to treat. The trial is registered with Current Controlled Trials, number ISRCTN32677491. Findings 374 men were allocated to the intervention group and 374 to the comparison group. 333 (89%) of the intervention group and 355 (95%) of the comparison group completed 12 month assessments. At 12 months the mean difference in weight loss between groups, adjusted for baseline weight and club, was 4·94 kg (95% CI 3·95–5·94) and percentage weight loss, similarly adjusted, was 4·36% (3·64–5·08), both in favour of the intervention (p<0·0001). Eight serious adverse events were reported, five in the intervention group (lost consciousness due to drugs for pre-existing angina, gallbladder removal, hospital admission with suspected heart attack, ruptured gut, and ruptured Achilles tendon) and three in the comparison group (transient ischaemic attack, and two deaths). Of these, two adverse events were reported as related to

  15. Regional cerebral blood flow as assessed by principal component analysis and 99mTc-HMPAO SPET in healthy subjects at rest: normal distribution and effect of age and gender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagani, M.; Salmaso, D.; Jonsson, C.; Hatherly, R.; Larsson, S.A.; Jacobsson, H.; Waegner, A.

    2002-01-01

    The increasing implementation of standardisation techniques in brain research and clinical diagnosis has highlighted the importance of reliable baseline data from normal control subjects for inter-subject analysis. In this context, knowledge of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) distribution in normal ageing is a factor of the utmost importance. In the present study, rCBF was investigated in 50 healthy volunteers (25 men, 25 women), aged 31-78 years, who were examined at rest by means of single-photon emission tomography (SPET) using technetium-99m d,l-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO). After normalising the CBF data, 27 left and 27 right volumes of interest (VOIs) were selected and automatically outlined by standardisation software (computerised brain atlas). The heavy load of flow data thus obtained was reduced in number and grouped in factors by means of principal component analysis (PCA). PCA extracted 12 components explaining 81% of the variance and including the vast majority of cortical and subcortical regions. Analysis of variance and regression analyses were performed for rCBF, age and gender before PCA was applied and subsequently for each single extracted factor. There was a significantly higher CBF on the right side than on the left side (P<0.001). In the overall analysis, a significant decrease was found in CBF (P=0.05) with increasing age, and this decrease was particularly evident in the left hemisphere (P=0.006). When gender was specifically analysed, CBF was found to decrease significantly with increasing age in females (P=0.037) but not in males. Furthermore, a significant decrease in rCBF with increasing age was found in the brain vertex (P=0.05), left frontotemporal cortex (P=0.012) and temporocingulate cortex (P=0.003). By contrast, relative rCBF in central structures increased with age (P=0.001). The ability of standardisation software and PCA to identify functionally connected brain regions might contribute to a better

  16. Regional cerebral blood flow as assessed by principal component analysis and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPET in healthy subjects at rest: normal distribution and effect of age and gender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagani, M. [Inst. of Neurobiology and Molecular Medicine, CNR, Rome (Italy); Dept. of Hospital Physics, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Salmaso, D. [Inst. of Psychology, CNR, Rome (Italy); Jonsson, C.; Hatherly, R.; Larsson, S.A. [Dept. of Hospital Physics, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Jacobsson, H. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Waegner, A. [Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-01-01

    The increasing implementation of standardisation techniques in brain research and clinical diagnosis has highlighted the importance of reliable baseline data from normal control subjects for inter-subject analysis. In this context, knowledge of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) distribution in normal ageing is a factor of the utmost importance. In the present study, rCBF was investigated in 50 healthy volunteers (25 men, 25 women), aged 31-78 years, who were examined at rest by means of single-photon emission tomography (SPET) using technetium-99m d,l-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO). After normalising the CBF data, 27 left and 27 right volumes of interest (VOIs) were selected and automatically outlined by standardisation software (computerised brain atlas). The heavy load of flow data thus obtained was reduced in number and grouped in factors by means of principal component analysis (PCA). PCA extracted 12 components explaining 81% of the variance and including the vast majority of cortical and subcortical regions. Analysis of variance and regression analyses were performed for rCBF, age and gender before PCA was applied and subsequently for each single extracted factor. There was a significantly higher CBF on the right side than on the left side (P<0.001). In the overall analysis, a significant decrease was found in CBF (P=0.05) with increasing age, and this decrease was particularly evident in the left hemisphere (P=0.006). When gender was specifically analysed, CBF was found to decrease significantly with increasing age in females (P=0.037) but not in males. Furthermore, a significant decrease in rCBF with increasing age was found in the brain vertex (P=0.05), left frontotemporal cortex (P=0.012) and temporocingulate cortex (P=0.003). By contrast, relative rCBF in central structures increased with age (P=0.001). The ability of standardisation software and PCA to identify functionally connected brain regions might contribute to a better

  17. Healthy Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Menu Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games ... Lessons Topics Expand Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games ...

  18. Optimal Packed String Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben-Kiki, Oren; Bille, Philip; Breslauer, Dany

    2011-01-01

    In the packed string matching problem, each machine word accommodates – characters, thus an n-character text occupies n/– memory words. We extend the Crochemore-Perrin constantspace O(n)-time string matching algorithm to run in optimal O(n/–) time and even in real-time, achieving a factor – speed...

  19. Ontology Matching Across Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    matching include GMO [1], Anchor-Prompt [2], and Similarity Flooding [3]. GMO is an iterative structural matcher, which uses RDF bipartite graphs to...AFRL under contract# FA8750-09-C-0058. References [1] Hu, W., Jian, N., Qu, Y., Wang, Y., “ GMO : a graph matching for ontologies”, in: Proceedings of

  20. Comparison of resilience in adolescent survivors of brain tumors and healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Mi; Chen, Yueh-Chih; Wong, Tai-Tong

    2014-01-01

    Resilience is essential for the psychological adjustment of adolescents experiencing difficulty. Comparing differences in resilience between adolescent survivors of brain tumors and healthy adolescents may help identify factors related to resilience in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to clarify how illness impacts the normative development of adolescent survivors of brain tumors by comparing them to healthy adolescents in terms of resilience and how it is affected by various health problems. This cross-sectional, case-control study used convenience sampling to recruit 13- to 18-year-old adolescent survivors of brain tumors and healthy adolescents matched by school level, gender, and living area. Data were collected by structured questionnaires. The sample included 60 adolescent survivors and 120 healthy adolescents. Participants in both groups were predominantly male adolescents (63.3%) and junior high school students (55%). The 2 groups did not differ significantly in resilience, but survivors without emotional problems had a higher mean resilience score than did healthy adolescents and survivors with emotional problems (F = 8.65, P adolescent survivors of brain tumors and healthy adolescents. In addition, the impact of emotional problems on resilience was more severe in brain tumor survivors than in healthy adolescents. Our results suggest that pediatric oncology nurses design interdisciplinary school-based interventions to reduce the impact of emotional problems on resilience in both healthy adolescents and those who survived brain tumors.

  1. Gender differences in the motivational processing of facial beauty☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Boaz; Ariely, Dan; Mazar, Nina; Chi, Won; Lukas, Scott; Elman, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Gender may be involved in the motivational processing of facial beauty. This study applied a behavioral probe, known to activate brain motivational regions, to healthy heterosexual subjects. Matched samples of men and women were administered two tasks: (a) key pressing to change the viewing time of average or beautiful female or male facial images, and (b) rating the attractiveness of these images. Men expended more effort (via the key-press task) to extend the viewing time of the beautiful female faces. Women displayed similarly increased effort for beautiful male and female images, but the magnitude of this effort was substantially lower than that of men for beautiful females. Heterosexual facial attractiveness ratings were comparable in both groups. These findings demonstrate heterosexual specificity of facial motivational targets for men, but not for women. Moreover, heightened drive for the pursuit of heterosexual beauty in the face of regular valuational assessments, displayed by men, suggests a gender-specific incentive sensitization phenomenon. PMID:24282336

  2. Regional Grey Matter Structure Differences between Transsexuals and Healthy Controls—A Voxel Based Morphometry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Lajos; Kozák, Lajos R.; Simon, Viktória; Czobor, Pál; Unoka, Zsolt; Szabó, Ádám; Csukly, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID) refers to transsexual individuals who feel that their assigned biological gender is incongruent with their gender identity and this cannot be explained by any physical intersex condition. There is growing scientific interest in the last decades in studying the neuroanatomy and brain functions of transsexual individuals to better understand both the neuroanatomical features of transsexualism and the background of gender identity. So far, results are inconclusive but in general, transsexualism has been associated with a distinct neuroanatomical pattern. Studies mainly focused on male to female (MTF) transsexuals and there is scarcity of data acquired on female to male (FTM) transsexuals. Thus, our aim was to analyze structural MRI data with voxel based morphometry (VBM) obtained from both FTM and MTF transsexuals (n = 17) and compare them to the data of 18 age matched healthy control subjects (both males and females). We found differences in the regional grey matter (GM) structure of transsexual compared with control subjects, independent from their biological gender, in the cerebellum, the left angular gyrus and in the left inferior parietal lobule. Additionally, our findings showed that in several brain areas, regarding their GM volume, transsexual subjects did not differ significantly from controls sharing their gender identity but were different from those sharing their biological gender (areas in the left and right precentral gyri, the left postcentral gyrus, the left posterior cingulate, precuneus and calcarinus, the right cuneus, the right fusiform, lingual, middle and inferior occipital, and inferior temporal gyri). These results support the notion that structural brain differences exist between transsexual and healthy control subjects and that majority of these structural differences are dependent on the biological gender. PMID:24391851

  3. Regional grey matter structure differences between transsexuals and healthy controls--a voxel based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Lajos; Kozák, Lajos R; Simon, Viktória; Czobor, Pál; Unoka, Zsolt; Szabó, Ádám; Csukly, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID) refers to transsexual individuals who feel that their assigned biological gender is incongruent with their gender identity and this cannot be explained by any physical intersex condition. There is growing scientific interest in the last decades in studying the neuroanatomy and brain functions of transsexual individuals to better understand both the neuroanatomical features of transsexualism and the background of gender identity. So far, results are inconclusive but in general, transsexualism has been associated with a distinct neuroanatomical pattern. Studies mainly focused on male to female (MTF) transsexuals and there is scarcity of data acquired on female to male (FTM) transsexuals. Thus, our aim was to analyze structural MRI data with voxel based morphometry (VBM) obtained from both FTM and MTF transsexuals (n = 17) and compare them to the data of 18 age matched healthy control subjects (both males and females). We found differences in the regional grey matter (GM) structure of transsexual compared with control subjects, independent from their biological gender, in the cerebellum, the left angular gyrus and in the left inferior parietal lobule. Additionally, our findings showed that in several brain areas, regarding their GM volume, transsexual subjects did not differ significantly from controls sharing their gender identity but were different from those sharing their biological gender (areas in the left and right precentral gyri, the left postcentral gyrus, the left posterior cingulate, precuneus and calcarinus, the right cuneus, the right fusiform, lingual, middle and inferior occipital, and inferior temporal gyri). These results support the notion that structural brain differences exist between transsexual and healthy control subjects and that majority of these structural differences are dependent on the biological gender.

  4. Regional grey matter structure differences between transsexuals and healthy controls--a voxel based morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajos Simon

    Full Text Available Gender identity disorder (GID refers to transsexual individuals who feel that their assigned biological gender is incongruent with their gender identity and this cannot be explained by any physical intersex condition. There is growing scientific interest in the last decades in studying the neuroanatomy and brain functions of transsexual individuals to better understand both the neuroanatomical features of transsexualism and the background of gender identity. So far, results are inconclusive but in general, transsexualism has been associated with a distinct neuroanatomical pattern. Studies mainly focused on male to female (MTF transsexuals and there is scarcity of data acquired on female to male (FTM transsexuals. Thus, our aim was to analyze structural MRI data with voxel based morphometry (VBM obtained from both FTM and MTF transsexuals (n = 17 and compare them to the data of 18 age matched healthy control subjects (both males and females. We found differences in the regional grey matter (GM structure of transsexual compared with control subjects, independent from their biological gender, in the cerebellum, the left angular gyrus and in the left inferior parietal lobule. Additionally, our findings showed that in several brain areas, regarding their GM volume, transsexual subjects did not differ significantly from controls sharing their gender identity but were different from those sharing their biological gender (areas in the left and right precentral gyri, the left postcentral gyrus, the left posterior cingulate, precuneus and calcarinus, the right cuneus, the right fusiform, lingual, middle and inferior occipital, and inferior temporal gyri. These results support the notion that structural brain differences exist between transsexual and healthy control subjects and that majority of these structural differences are dependent on the biological gender.

  5. Pediatric MATCH Infographic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infographic explaining NCI-COG Pediatric MATCH, a cancer treatment clinical trial for children and adolescents, from 1 to 21 years of age, that is testing the use of precision medicine for pediatric cancers.

  6. Data Matching Imputation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The DMIS dataset is a flat file record of the matching of several data set collections. Primarily it consists of VTRs, dealer records, Observer data in conjunction...

  7. Gender Differences in Sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merlino, Luca Paolo; Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    and causing the most productive female workers to seek better jobs in more female-friendly firms in which they can pursue small career advancements. Nonetheless, gender differences in promotion persist and are found to be similar in all firms when we focus on large career advancements. These results provide......In this paper, we investigate the sorting of workers in firms to understand gender gaps in labor market outcomes. Using Danish employer-employee matched data, we fiend strong evidence of glass ceilings in certain firms, especially after motherhood, preventing women from climbing the career ladder...

  8. Magnetic safety matches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindén, J.; Lindberg, M.; Greggas, A.; Jylhävuori, N.; Norrgrann, H.; Lill, J. O.

    2017-07-01

    In addition to the main ingredients; sulfur, potassium chlorate and carbon, ordinary safety matches contain various dyes, glues etc, giving the head of the match an even texture and appealing color. Among the common reddish-brown matches there are several types, which after ignition can be attracted by a strong magnet. Before ignition the match head is generally not attracted by the magnet. An elemental analysis based on proton-induced x-ray emission was performed to single out iron as the element responsible for the observed magnetism. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy was used for identifying the various types of iron-compounds, present before and after ignition, responsible for the macroscopic magnetism: Fe2O3 before and Fe3O4 after. The reaction was verified by mixing the main chemicals in the match-head with Fe2O3 in glue and mounting the mixture on a match stick. The ash residue after igniting the mixture was magnetic.

  9. Body Weight and Matching with a Physically Attractive Romantic Partner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmalt, Julie H.; Cawley, John; Joyner, Kara; Sobal, Jeffery

    2008-01-01

    Matching and attribute trade are two perspectives used to explain mate selection. We investigated patterns of matching and trade, focusing on obesity, using Add Health Romantic Pair data (N = 1,405 couples). Obese individuals, relative to healthy weight individuals, were less likely to have physically attractive partners, with this disadvantage…

  10. Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such diets limit your nutritional intake, can be unhealthy, and tend to fail in the long run. The key to achieving and maintaining a healthy weight isn't about short-term dietary changes. It's about a lifestyle that includes healthy eating, regular physical activity, and ...

  11. Latent palmprint matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anil K; Feng, Jianjiang

    2009-06-01

    The evidential value of palmprints in forensic applications is clear as about 30 percent of the latents recovered from crime scenes are from palms. While biometric systems for palmprint-based personal authentication in access control type of applications have been developed, they mostly deal with low-resolution (about 100 ppi) palmprints and only perform full-to-full palmprint matching. We propose a latent-to-full palmprint matching system that is needed in forensic applications. Our system deals with palmprints captured at 500 ppi (the current standard in forensic applications) or higher resolution and uses minutiae as features to be compatible with the methodology used by latent experts. Latent palmprint matching is a challenging problem because latent prints lifted at crime scenes are of poor image quality, cover only a small area of the palm, and have a complex background. Other difficulties include a large number of minutiae in full prints (about 10 times as many as fingerprints), and the presence of many creases in latents and full prints. A robust algorithm to reliably estimate the local ridge direction and frequency in palmprints is developed. This facilitates the extraction of ridge and minutiae features even in poor quality palmprints. A fixed-length minutia descriptor, MinutiaCode, is utilized to capture distinctive information around each minutia and an alignment-based minutiae matching algorithm is used to match two palmprints. Two sets of partial palmprints (150 live-scan partial palmprints and 100 latent palmprints) are matched to a background database of 10,200 full palmprints to test the proposed system. Despite the inherent difficulty of latent-to-full palmprint matching, rank-1 recognition rates of 78.7 and 69 percent, respectively, were achieved in searching live-scan partial palmprints and latent palmprints against the background database.

  12. Gender differences in gait kinematics in runners with iliotibial band syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinyomark, A; Osis, S; Hettinga, B A; Leigh, R; Ferber, R

    2015-12-01

    Atypical running gait biomechanics are considered a primary factor in the etiology of iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS). However, a general consensus on the underpinning kinematic differences between runners with and without ITBS is yet to be reached. This lack of consensus may be due in part to three issues: gender differences in gait mechanics, the preselection of discrete biomechanical variables, and/or relatively small sample sizes. Therefore, this study was designed to address two purposes: (a) examining differences in gait kinematics for male and female runners experiencing ITBS at the time of testing and (b) assessing differences in gait kinematics between healthy gender- and age-matched runners as compared with their ITBS counterparts using waveform analysis. Ninety-six runners participated in this study: 48 ITBS and 48 healthy runners. The results show that female ITBS runners exhibited significantly greater hip external rotation compared with male ITBS and female healthy runners. On the contrary, male ITBS runners exhibited significantly greater ankle internal rotation compared with healthy males. These results suggest that care should be taken to account for gender when investigating the biomechanical etiology of ITBS. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Approaches for Stereo Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takouhi Ozanian

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the last decade's development of the computational stereopsis for recovering three-dimensional information. The main components of the stereo analysis are exposed: image acquisition and camera modeling, feature selection, feature matching and disparity interpretation. A brief survey is given of the well known feature selection approaches and the estimation parameters for this selection are mentioned. The difficulties in identifying correspondent locations in the two images are explained. Methods as to how effectively to constrain the search for correct solution of the correspondence problem are discussed, as are strategies for the whole matching process. Reasons for the occurrence of matching errors are considered. Some recently proposed approaches, employing new ideas in the modeling of stereo matching in terms of energy minimization, are described. Acknowledging the importance of computation time for real-time applications, special attention is paid to parallelism as a way to achieve the required level of performance. The development of trinocular stereo analysis as an alternative to the conventional binocular one, is described. Finally a classification based on the test images for verification of the stereo matching algorithms, is supplied.

  14. Contact Heat Evoked Potentials (CHEPs) in Patients with Mild-Moderate Alzheimer's Disease and Matched Control-A Pilot Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Madsen, Caspar Skau; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Clinical studies have found that patients with Alzheimer's disease report pain of less intensity and with a lower affective response, which has been thought to be due to altered pain processing. The authors wished to examine the cerebral processing of non-painful and painful stimuli...... threshold and heat pain threshold. Somatosensory evoked potentials, amplitude, and latency were within normal range and similar for the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that the processing of non-painful and painful stimuli is preserved in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease....... using somatosensory evoked potentials and contact heat evoked potentials in patients with Alzheimer's disease and in healthy elderly controls. DESIGN: Case-control study SETTING AND SUBJECTS: Twenty outpatients with mild-moderate Alzheimer's disease and in 17 age- and gender-matched healthy controls...

  15. Healthy Places

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Every person has a stake in environmental public health. As the environment deteriorates, so does the physical and mental health of the people within it. Healthy places are those designed and built to improve the quality of life for all people who live, work, worship, learn, and play within their borders -- where every person is free to make choices amid a variety of healthy, available, accessible, and affordable options. The CDC recognizes significant health issues and places that are vital in developing the Healthy Places program and provides examples in this report.

  16. Respiratory and cardiovascular responses to walking down a traffic-polluted road compared with walking in a traffic-free area in participants aged 60 years and older with chronic lung or heart disease and age-matched healthy controls: a randomised, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharay, Rudy; Gong, Jicheng; Barratt, Benjamin; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Ernst, Sabine; Kelly, Frank J; Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Collins, Peter; Cullinan, Paul; Chung, Kian Fan

    2018-01-27

    Long-term exposure to pollution can lead to an increase in the rate of decline of lung function, especially in older individuals and in those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), whereas shorter-term exposure at higher pollution levels has been implicated in causing excess deaths from ischaemic heart disease and exacerbations of COPD. We aimed to assess the effects on respiratory and cardiovascular responses of walking down a busy street with high levels of pollution compared with walking in a traffic-free area with lower pollution levels in older adults. In this randomised, crossover study, we recruited men and women aged 60 years and older with angiographically proven stable ischaemic heart disease or stage 2 Global initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) COPD who had been clinically stable for 6 months, and age-matched healthy volunteers. Individuals with ischaemic heart disease or COPD were recruited from existing databases or outpatient respiratory and cardiology clinics at the Royal Brompton & Harefield NHS Foundation Trust and age-matched healthy volunteers using advertising and existing databases. All participants had abstained from smoking for at least 12 months and medications were taken as recommended by participants' doctors during the study. Participants were randomly assigned by drawing numbered disks at random from a bag to do a 2 h walk either along a commercial street in London (Oxford Street) or in an urban park (Hyde Park). Baseline measurements of participants were taken before the walk in the hospital laboratory. During each walk session, black carbon, particulate matter (PM) concentrations, ultrafine particles, and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) concentrations were measured. Between October, 2012, and June, 2014, we screened 135 participants, of whom 40 healthy volunteers, 40 individuals with COPD, and 39 with ischaemic heart disease were recruited. Concentrations of black carbon, NO 2 , PM 10 , PM 2.5 , and ultrafine particles

  17. Healthy Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Facts School Meals Smart Snacks Celebrations & Rewards Food and Beverage Marketing Water Access Healthy Eating Learning Opportunities Staff ... Services Acute & Emergency Care Care Coordination Chronic Disease Management Family Engagement Chronic ... Allergies Oral Health Local School Wellness Policy Whole ...

  18. Competition, Takeovers, and Gender Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Fredrik Heyman; Helena Svaleryd; Jonas Vlachos

    2013-01-01

    Theories of taste-based discrimination predict that competitive pressures will drive discriminatory behaviour out of the market. Using detailed matched employer-employee data, we analyze how firm takeovers and product market competition are related to the gender composition of the firm’s workforce and the gender wage gap. Using a difference-in-difference framework and dealing with several endogeneity concerns, we find that the share of female employees increases as a result of an ownership ch...

  19. Dewey Concentration Match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Library Media Activities Monthly, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Giving students a chance to associate numbers with subjects can be useful in speeding their location of desired print or nonprint materials and helping students feel independent when browsing. A matching game for helping students learn the Dewey numbers is presented. Instructions for the library media specialist or teacher, instructions for…

  20. Matched-Filter Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Tabatabaei

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional infrared thermography techniques, including pulsed and lock-in thermography, have shown great potential for non-destructive evaluation of broad spectrum of materials, spanning from metals to polymers to biological tissues. However, performance of these techniques is often limited due to the diffuse nature of thermal wave fields, resulting in an inherent compromise between inspection depth and depth resolution. Recently, matched-filter thermography has been introduced as a means for overcoming this classic limitation to enable depth-resolved subsurface thermal imaging and improving axial/depth resolution. This paper reviews the basic principles and experimental results of matched-filter thermography: first, mathematical and signal processing concepts related to matched-fileting and pulse compression are discussed. Next, theoretical modeling of thermal-wave responses to matched-filter thermography using two categories of pulse compression techniques (linear frequency modulation and binary phase coding are reviewed. Key experimental results from literature demonstrating the maintenance of axial resolution while inspecting deep into opaque and turbid media are also presented and discussed. Finally, the concept of thermal coherence tomography for deconvolution of thermal responses of axially superposed sources and creation of depth-selective images in a diffusion-wave field is reviewed.

  1. Bayesian grid matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartelius, Karsten; Carstensen, Jens Michael

    2003-01-01

    A method for locating distorted grid structures in images is presented. The method is based on the theories of template matching and Bayesian image restoration. The grid is modeled as a deformable template. Prior knowledge of the grid is described through a Markov random field (MRF) model which r...

  2. Polytypic pattern matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuring, J.T.

    1995-01-01

    The pattern matching problem can be informally specified as follows: given a pattern and a text, find all occurrences of the pattern in the text. The pattern and the text may both be lists, or they may both be trees, or they may both be multi-dimensional arrays, etc. This paper describes a general

  3. Is Matching Innate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C. R.; King, Adam Philip; Gottlieb, Daniel; Balci, Fuat; Papachristos, Efstathios B.; Szalecki, Matthew; Carbone, Kimberly S.

    2007-01-01

    Experimentally naive mice matched the proportions of their temporal investments (visit durations) in two feeding hoppers to the proportions of the food income (pellets per unit session time) derived from them in three experiments that varied the coupling between the behavioral investment and food income, from no coupling to strict coupling.…

  4. Matching Supernovae to Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-12-01

    developed a new automated algorithm for matching supernovae to their host galaxies. Their work builds on currently existing algorithms and makes use of information about the nearby galaxies, accounts for the uncertainty of the match, and even includes a machine learning component to improve the matching accuracy.Gupta and collaborators test their matching algorithm on catalogs of galaxies and simulated supernova events to quantify how well the algorithm is able to accurately recover the true hosts.Successful MatchingThe matching algorithms accuracy (purity) as a function of the true supernova-host separation, the supernova redshift, the true hosts brightness, and the true hosts size. [Gupta et al. 2016]The authors find that when the basic algorithm is run on catalog data, it matches supernovae to their hosts with 91% accuracy. Including the machine learning component, which is run after the initial matching algorithm, improves the accuracy of the matching to 97%.The encouraging results of this work which was intended as a proof of concept suggest that methods similar to this could prove very practical for tackling future survey data. And the method explored here has use beyond matching just supernovae to their host galaxies: it could also be applied to other extragalactic transients, such as gamma-ray bursts, tidal disruption events, or electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational-wave detections.CitationRavi R. Gupta et al 2016 AJ 152 154. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/6/154

  5. Gender reassignment surgery: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaggi, Gennaro; Bellringer, James

    2011-05-01

    Gender reassignment (which includes psychotherapy, hormonal therapy and surgery) has been demonstrated as the most effective treatment for patients affected by gender dysphoria (or gender identity disorder), in which patients do not recognize their gender (sexual identity) as matching their genetic and sexual characteristics. Gender reassignment surgery is a series of complex surgical procedures (genital and nongenital) performed for the treatment of gender dysphoria. Genital procedures performed for gender dysphoria, such as vaginoplasty, clitorolabioplasty, penectomy and orchidectomy in male-to-female transsexuals, and penile and scrotal reconstruction in female-to-male transsexuals, are the core procedures in gender reassignment surgery. Nongenital procedures, such as breast enlargement, mastectomy, facial feminization surgery, voice surgery, and other masculinization and feminization procedures complete the surgical treatment available. The World Professional Association for Transgender Health currently publishes and reviews guidelines and standards of care for patients affected by gender dysphoria, such as eligibility criteria for surgery. This article presents an overview of the genital and nongenital procedures available for both male-to-female and female-to-male gender reassignment.

  6. [Propensity score matching in SPSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fuqiang; DU, Chunlin; Sun, Menghui; Ning, Bing; Luo, Ying; An, Shengli

    2015-11-01

    To realize propensity score matching in PS Matching module of SPSS and interpret the analysis results. The R software and plug-in that could link with the corresponding versions of SPSS and propensity score matching package were installed. A PS matching module was added in the SPSS interface, and its use was demonstrated with test data. Score estimation and nearest neighbor matching was achieved with the PS matching module, and the results of qualitative and quantitative statistical description and evaluation were presented in the form of a graph matching. Propensity score matching can be accomplished conveniently using SPSS software.

  7. Gender and Natural Resource Management: Livelihoods, Mobility ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-05-31

    May 31, 2012 ... Melissa Leach, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, UK. ... resource management that want to include a gender perspective. ... New initiative will match climate knowledge to developing country needs.

  8. Disillusioning Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Britt-Marie

    2018-04-01

    Illusions are not errors but erroneous beliefs motivated by wishful ideas and fantasies. To disillusion gender is to challenge the traditional Freudian construction that splits masculinity and femininity into agency versus passivity, the first with power, the second without. Disillusioning femininity as impotent frees up potency and power as generativity. Disillusioning masculinity as phallic and omnipotent opens the masculine subject to permeability and vulnerability. Illusions regarding the transgender include the idea that there are only two gender categories and the idea that gender identity is generated solely from an internal sense of self. The wish "to be seen as" or "to pass as" one gender or the other shows that social structures exceed the individual. At least for now, the disillusionment of gender with which we are left marks a tension between the internal sense of gender identity and the social structures of gender.

  9. Adaptive Discrete Hypergraph Matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Junchi; Li, Changsheng; Li, Yin; Cao, Guitao

    2018-02-01

    This paper addresses the problem of hypergraph matching using higher-order affinity information. We propose a solver that iteratively updates the solution in the discrete domain by linear assignment approximation. The proposed method is guaranteed to converge to a stationary discrete solution and avoids the annealing procedure and ad-hoc post binarization step that are required in several previous methods. Specifically, we start with a simple iterative discrete gradient assignment solver. This solver can be trapped in an -circle sequence under moderate conditions, where is the order of the graph matching problem. We then devise an adaptive relaxation mechanism to jump out this degenerating case and show that the resulting new path will converge to a fixed solution in the discrete domain. The proposed method is tested on both synthetic and real-world benchmarks. The experimental results corroborate the efficacy of our method.

  10. Electromagnetic wave matching device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Yosuke; Mitsunaka, Yoshika; Hayashi, Ken-ichi; Ito, Yasuyuki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a matching device capable of increasing an efficiency of combining beams of electromagnetic waves outputted from an output window of a gyrotron which is expected for plasma heating of a thermonuclear reactor and an electromagnetic wave transmission system as high as possible. Namely, an electromagnetic wave matching device reflects beams of electromagnetic waves incident from an inlet by a plurality of phase correction mirrors and combines them to an external transmission system through an exit. In this case, the phase correction mirrors change the phase of the beams of electromagnetic waves incident to the phase correction mirrors by a predetermined amount corresponding to the position of the reflection mirrors. Then, the beams of electromagnetic waves outputted, for example, from a gyrotron can properly be shaped as desired for the intensity and the phase. As a result, combination efficiency with the transmission system can be increased. (I.S.)

  11. Healthy Places

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Every person has a stake in environmental public health. As the environment deteriorates, so does the physical and mental health of the people within it. Healthy places are those designed and built to improve the quality of life for all people who live, work, worship, learn, and play within their borders -- where every person is free to make choices amid a variety of healthy, available, accessible, and affordable options. The CDC recognizes significant health issues and places that are vital in developing the Healthy Places program and provides examples in this report.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  12. Pattern recognition and functional neuroimaging help to discriminate healthy adolescents at risk for mood disorders from low risk adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourão-Miranda, Janaina; Oliveira, Leticia; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Marquand, Andre; Brammer, Michael; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Phillips, Mary L

    2012-01-01

    There are no known biological measures that accurately predict future development of psychiatric disorders in individual at-risk adolescents. We investigated whether machine learning and fMRI could help to: 1. differentiate healthy adolescents genetically at-risk for bipolar disorder and other Axis I psychiatric disorders from healthy adolescents at low risk of developing these disorders; 2. identify those healthy genetically at-risk adolescents who were most likely to develop future Axis I disorders. 16 healthy offspring genetically at risk for bipolar disorder and other Axis I disorders by virtue of having a parent with bipolar disorder and 16 healthy, age- and gender-matched low-risk offspring of healthy parents with no history of psychiatric disorders (12-17 year-olds) performed two emotional face gender-labeling tasks (happy/neutral; fearful/neutral) during fMRI. We used Gaussian Process Classifiers (GPC), a machine learning approach that assigns a predictive probability of group membership to an individual person, to differentiate groups and to identify those at-risk adolescents most likely to develop future Axis I disorders. Using GPC, activity to neutral faces presented during the happy experiment accurately and significantly differentiated groups, achieving 75% accuracy (sensitivity = 75%, specificity = 75%). Furthermore, predictive probabilities were significantly higher for those at-risk adolescents who subsequently developed an Axis I disorder than for those at-risk adolescents remaining healthy at follow-up. We show that a combination of two promising techniques, machine learning and neuroimaging, not only discriminates healthy low-risk from healthy adolescents genetically at-risk for Axis I disorders, but may ultimately help to predict which at-risk adolescents subsequently develop these disorders.

  13. The Influence of Matching Populations on Kinematic and Kinetic Variables in Runners with Iliotibial Band Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Stefan; Maiwald, Christian; Krauss, Inga; Axmann, Detlef; Horstmann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess how participant matching influences biomechanical variables when comparing healthy runners and runners with iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS). We examined 52 healthy runners (CO) and 18 with ITBS, using three-dimensional kinematics and pressure distribution. The study population was matched in three ways and…

  14. Healthy living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... living URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002393.htm Healthy living To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Good health habits can allow you to avoid illness and improve your quality of life. The following steps will help you ...

  15. Gendered education in a gendered world: looking beyond cosmetic solutions to the gender gap in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnes, Astrid T.; Løken, Marianne

    2014-06-01

    Young people in countries considered to be at the forefront of gender equity still tend to choose very traditional science subjects and careers. This is particularly the case in science, technology, engineering and mathematics subjects (STEM), which are largely male dominated. This article uses feminist critiques of science and science education to explore the underlying gendered assumptions of a research project aiming to contribute to improving recruitment, retention and gender equity patterns in STEM educations and careers. Much research has been carried out to understand this gender gap phenomenon as well as to suggest measures to reduce its occurrence. A significant portion of this research has focused on detecting the typical "female" and "male" interest in science and has consequently suggested that adjustments be made to science education to cater for these interests. This article argues that adjusting science subjects to match perceived typical girls' and boys' interests risks being ineffective, as it contributes to the imposition of stereotyped gender identity formation thereby also imposing the gender differences that these adjustments were intended to overcome. This article also argues that different ways of addressing gender issues in science education themselves reflects different notions of gender and science. Thus in order to reduce gender inequities in science these implicit notions of gender and science have to be made explicit. The article begins with an overview of the current situation regarding gender equity in some so- called gender equal countries. We then present three perspectives from feminist critiques of science on how gender can be seen to impact on science and science education. Thereafter we analyze recommendations from a contemporary research project to explore which of these perspectives is most prevalent.

  16. Auditory verbal hallucinations and cognitive functioning in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daalman, Kirstin; van Zandvoort, Martine; Bootsman, Florian; Boks, Marco; Kahn, René; Sommer, Iris

    2011-11-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are a characteristic symptom in schizophrenia, and also occur in the general, non-clinical population. In schizophrenia patients, several specific cognitive deficits, such as in speech processing, working memory, source memory, attention, inhibition, episodic memory and self-monitoring have been associated with auditory verbal hallucinations. Such associations are interesting, as they may identify specific cognitive traits that constitute a predisposition for AVH. However, it is difficult to disentangle a specific relation with AVH in patients with schizophrenia, as so many other factors can affect the performance on cognitive tests. Examining the cognitive profile of healthy individuals experiencing AVH may reveal a more direct association between AVH and aberrant cognitive functioning in a specific domain. For the current study, performance in executive functioning, memory (both short- and long-term), processing speed, spatial ability, lexical access, abstract reasoning, language and intelligence performance was compared between 101 healthy individuals with AVH and 101 healthy controls, matched for gender, age, handedness and education. Although performance of both groups was within the normal range, not clinically impaired, significant differences between the groups were found in the verbal domain as well as in executive functioning. Performance on all other cognitive domains was similar in both groups. The predisposition to experience AVH is associated with lower performance in executive functioning and aberrant language performance. This association might be related to difficulties in the inhibition of irrelevant verbal information. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Gendered globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milwertz, Cecilia Nathansen; Cai, Yiping

    2017-01-01

    Both the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and Nordic countries (Sweden, Iceland, Denmark, Norway and Finland) view gender equality as a social justice issue and are politically committed towards achieving gender equality nationally and internationally. Since China has taken a proactive position...... on globalization and global governance, gender equality is possibly an area that China may wish to explore in collaboration with the Nordic countries....

  18. Small-worldness and gender differences of large scale brain metabolic covariance networks in young adults: a FDG PET study of 400 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuxiao; Xu, Qiang; Shen, Junkang; Li, Kai; Zhu, Hong; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Lu, Guangming

    2015-02-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the small-worldness of the human brain, and have revealed a sexual dimorphism in brain network properties. However, little is known about the gender effects on the topological organization of the brain metabolic covariance networks. To investigate the small-worldness and the gender differences in the topological architectures of human brain metabolic networks. FDG-PET data of 400 healthy right-handed subjects (200 women and 200 age-matched men) were involved in the present study. Metabolic networks of each gender were constructed by calculating the covariance of regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMglc) across subjects on the basis of AAL parcellation. Gender differences of network and nodal properties were investigated by using the graph theoretical approaches. Moreover, the gender-related difference of rCMglc in each brain region was tested for investigating the relationships between the hub regions and the brain regions showing significant gender-related differences in rCMglc. We found prominent small-world properties in the domain of metabolic networks in each gender. No significant gender difference in the global characteristics was found. Gender differences of nodal characteristic were observed in a few brain regions. We also found bilateral and lateralized distributions of network hubs in the females and males. Furthermore, we first reported that some hubs of a gender located in the brain regions showing weaker rCMglc in this gender than the other gender. The present study demonstrated that small-worldness was existed in metabolic networks, and revealed gender differences of organizational patterns in metabolic network. These results maybe provided insights into the understanding of the metabolic substrates underlying individual differences in cognition and behaviors. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  19. Matching with transfer matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Alvarez, R.; Velasco, V.R.; Garcia-Moliner, F.; Rodriguez-Coppola, H.

    1987-10-01

    An ABC configuration - which corresponds to various systems of physical interest, such as a barrier or a quantum well - is studied by combining a surface Green function matching analysis of the entire system with a description of the intermediate (B) region in terms of a transfer matrix in the sense of Mora et al. (1985). This hybrid approach proves very useful when it is very difficult to construct the corresponding Green function G B . An application is made to the calculation of quantised subband levels in a parabolic quantum well. Further possibilities of extension of this approach are pointed out. (author). 27 refs, 1 tab

  20. Coaxial pulse matching transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledenev, V.V.; Khimenko, L.T.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a coaxial pulse matching transformer with comparatively simple design, increased mechanical strength, and low stray inductance. The transformer design makes it easy to change the turns ratio. The circuit of the device and an expression for the current multiplication factor are presented; experiments confirm the efficiency of the transformer. Apparatus with a coaxial transformer for producing high-power pulsed magnetic fields is designed (current pulses of 1-10 MA into a load and a natural frequency of 100 kHz)

  1. Plasma focus matching conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, H.M.; Masoud, M.M.; Elkhalafawy, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    A snow-plough and slug models have been used to obtain the optimum matching conditions of the plasma in the focus. The dimensions of the plasma focus device are, inner electrode radius = 2 cm, outer electrode radius = 5.5 cm, and its length = 8 cm. It was found that the maximum magnetic energy of 12.26 kJ has to be delivered to plasma focus whose density is 10 19 /cm 3 at focusing time of 2.55 μs and with total external inductance of 24.2 n H. The same method is used to evaluate the optimum matching conditions for the previous coaxial discharge system which had inner electrode radius = 1.6 cm, outer electrode radius = 3.3 cm and its length = 31.5 cm. These conditions are charging voltage = 12 kV, capacity of the condenser bank = 430 μf, plasma focus density = 10 19 /cm 3 focusing time = 8 μs and total external inductance = 60.32 n H.3 fig., 2 tab

  2. Optimal background matching camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalis, Constantine; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E; Gibson, David P; Cuthill, Innes C

    2017-07-12

    Background matching is the most familiar and widespread camouflage strategy: avoiding detection by having a similar colour and pattern to the background. Optimizing background matching is straightforward in a homogeneous environment, or when the habitat has very distinct sub-types and there is divergent selection leading to polymorphism. However, most backgrounds have continuous variation in colour and texture, so what is the best solution? Not all samples of the background are likely to be equally inconspicuous, and laboratory experiments on birds and humans support this view. Theory suggests that the most probable background sample (in the statistical sense), at the size of the prey, would, on average, be the most cryptic. We present an analysis, based on realistic assumptions about low-level vision, that estimates the distribution of background colours and visual textures, and predicts the best camouflage. We present data from a field experiment that tests and supports our predictions, using artificial moth-like targets under bird predation. Additionally, we present analogous data for humans, under tightly controlled viewing conditions, searching for targets on a computer screen. These data show that, in the absence of predator learning, the best single camouflage pattern for heterogeneous backgrounds is the most probable sample. © 2017 The Authors.

  3. Delusions of Gender - Gender Benders

    OpenAIRE

    Uhlig, Louise; Zampetis, Marios Stylianos; Lochte, Frans; Ahmed, Samira M.; Karlsen, Luna Maria Stjerneby

    2014-01-01

    “Taking Cordelia Fine’s Delusions of Gender as it point of departure, together with popular gender theories by Simon Baron-Cohen and Louann Brizendine, we raise the following question: how strong is the foundation of biological determinism and how can we decide?” In this project the point of departure is taken in Cordelia Fine’s book Delusions of Gender. Fine brings forth several published scientific studies on gender differences, and she systematically debunks them one by one. This research ...

  4. Gender Diversities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen; Siim, Birte

    2014-01-01

    by non-citizen/citizen and redistribution/recognition divisions. Employing intersectionality as the methodological approach to gender diversities, the article shows how gender and ethnicity are articulated in the policy-making process which led to the adoption of EY 201, the activities undertaken during...

  5. Gender Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Erving

    A heavily illustrated discussion of the ways in which men and women are portrayed in advertisements is presented. The three essays which precede the 56 pages of illustrations discuss gender expressions, characteristics of public and private pictures, and gender commercials. The author notes that advertisements do not depict how men and women…

  6. Serotonin transporter binding with [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT SPECT in major depressive disorder versus controls: effect of season and gender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhe, Henricus G. [University of Amsterdam, Program for Mood Disorders, Department of Psychiatry, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Academic Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry, P.O. Box 22660, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Booij, Jan [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Reitsma, Johannes B. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schene, Aart H. [University of Amsterdam, Program for Mood Disorders, Department of Psychiatry, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-05-15

    The serotonin system is undoubtedly involved in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). More specifically the serotonin transporter (SERT) serves as a major target for antidepressant drugs. There are conflicting results about SERT availability in depressed patients versus healthy controls. We aimed to measure SERT availability and study the effects of age, gender and season of scanning in MDD patients in comparison to healthy controls. We included 49 depressed outpatients (mean{+-}SD 42.3 {+-} 8.3 years) with a Hamilton depression rating scale score above 18, who were drug-naive or drug-free for {>=}4 weeks, and 49 healthy controls matched for age ({+-}2 years) and sex. Subjects were scanned with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using [{sup 123}I]{beta}-CIT. SERT availability was expressed as specific to nonspecific binding ratios (BP{sub ND}) in the midbrain and diencephalon with cerebellar binding as a reference. In crude comparisons between patients and controls, we found no significant differences in midbrain or diencephalon SERT availability. In subgroup analyses, depressed males had numerically lower midbrain SERT availability than controls, whereas among women SERT availability was not different (significant diagnosis x gender interaction; p = 0.048). In the diencephalon we found a comparable diagnosis x gender interaction (p = 0.002) and an additional smoking x gender (p = 0.036) interaction. In the midbrain the season of scanning showed a significant main effect (p = 0.018) with higher SERT availability in winter. Differences in SERT availability in the midbrain and diencephalon in MDD patients compared with healthy subjects are affected by gender. The season of scanning is a covariate in the midbrain. The diagnosis x gender and gender x smoking interactions in SERT availability should be considered in future studies of the pathogenesis of MDD. (orig.)

  7. Serotonin transporter binding with [123I]β-CIT SPECT in major depressive disorder versus controls: effect of season and gender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhe, Henricus G.; Booij, Jan; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Schene, Aart H.

    2009-01-01

    The serotonin system is undoubtedly involved in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). More specifically the serotonin transporter (SERT) serves as a major target for antidepressant drugs. There are conflicting results about SERT availability in depressed patients versus healthy controls. We aimed to measure SERT availability and study the effects of age, gender and season of scanning in MDD patients in comparison to healthy controls. We included 49 depressed outpatients (mean±SD 42.3 ± 8.3 years) with a Hamilton depression rating scale score above 18, who were drug-naive or drug-free for ≥4 weeks, and 49 healthy controls matched for age (±2 years) and sex. Subjects were scanned with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using [ 123 I]β-CIT. SERT availability was expressed as specific to nonspecific binding ratios (BP ND ) in the midbrain and diencephalon with cerebellar binding as a reference. In crude comparisons between patients and controls, we found no significant differences in midbrain or diencephalon SERT availability. In subgroup analyses, depressed males had numerically lower midbrain SERT availability than controls, whereas among women SERT availability was not different (significant diagnosis x gender interaction; p = 0.048). In the diencephalon we found a comparable diagnosis x gender interaction (p = 0.002) and an additional smoking x gender (p = 0.036) interaction. In the midbrain the season of scanning showed a significant main effect (p = 0.018) with higher SERT availability in winter. Differences in SERT availability in the midbrain and diencephalon in MDD patients compared with healthy subjects are affected by gender. The season of scanning is a covariate in the midbrain. The diagnosis x gender and gender x smoking interactions in SERT availability should be considered in future studies of the pathogenesis of MDD. (orig.)

  8. Job Searchers, Job Matches and the Elasticity of Matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, L.; van Ours, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper stresses the importance of a specification of the matching function in which the measure of job matches corresponds to the measure of job searchers. In many empirical studies on the matching function this requirement has not been fulfilled because it is difficult to find information about

  9. Gender Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellemers, Naomi

    2018-01-04

    There are many differences between men and women. To some extent, these are captured in the stereotypical images of these groups. Stereotypes about the way men and women think and behave are widely shared, suggesting a kernel of truth. However, stereotypical expectations not only reflect existing differences, but also impact the way men and women define themselves and are treated by others. This article reviews evidence on the nature and content of gender stereotypes and considers how these relate to gender differences in important life outcomes. Empirical studies show that gender stereotypes affect the way people attend to, interpret, and remember information about themselves and others. Considering the cognitive and motivational functions of gender stereotypes helps us understand their impact on implicit beliefs and communications about men and women. Knowledge of the literature on this subject can benefit the fair judgment of individuals in situations where gender stereotypes are likely to play a role.

  10. Stereotyping gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger

    2011-01-01

    , there is still some way to go before genuine gender equality and emancipation may become reality, in spite of Denmark’s image as egalitarian society. To try to explain this paradox, the paper explores gender perceptions by analysing how men and women talk about gender in focus group discussions and how the two...... gender categories evaluate themselves and the Other in their quest for social identities. Analysis of the focus group data indicates that, more often than not, the interviewees resort to stereotyping in their construction of identities. Using the Appraisal framework (Martin and White 2005) for analysing...... stereotypical categorizations made by the interviewees, the article argues that employees in the bank tend to reproduce and perpetuate a patriarchal management system in spite of various forces pulling in a new post-patriarchal direction where gender is just one of many identities....

  11. Gender equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiva, M

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on gender equity. Gender equity is difficult to achieve when there is no economic, social, or political equity. The Gender Development Index evidenced this. There were a lot of instances where women are psychologically traumatized, whether it is through domestic rape, purchased sexual services in the red light area, and seduction or violation of neighbors, relatives, daughter or child. The economic changes linked with globalization and media's influence have worsened women's position. The policy for empowerment of women is an attempt toward ensuring equity. Furthermore, many women and women's organizations are trying to address these inequities; wherein they fight for strong acceptance of women's rights, social, economic, and political rights, as well as equities between gender and within gender.

  12. Gender remix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick

    2002-01-01

    of a subjective identity. Based on interviews with children of immigrants from patriarchal societies living in Norway, one of the countries in the world where gender equality has reached furthest, the article reveals the tension they experience between the ways gender issues are dealt with in their families......Values and practices regarding sex and gender are among the most fundamental constituents of a society?s symbolic system as well as of an individual?s self. Gendered ways of behavior are symbolic markers of ethnicity, both in a process of labeling from the outside and in the construction...... and in the surrounding society. Their gender constructions cannot be understood only in light of cultural influence, as if on a scale running from conformity to parents? culture to conformity to Norwegian culture. There is something really new in the making ­ new combinations and new creations ­ reflecting...

  13. Gender remix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick

    2002-01-01

    Values and practices regarding sex and gender are among the most fundamental constituents of a society?s symbolic system as well as of an individual?s self. Gendered ways of behavior are symbolic markers of ethnicity, both in a process of labeling from the outside and in the construction...... of a subjective identity. Based on interviews with children of immigrants from patriarchal societies living in Norway, one of the countries in the world where gender equality has reached furthest, the article reveals the tension they experience between the ways gender issues are dealt with in their families...... and in the surrounding society. Their gender constructions cannot be understood only in light of cultural influence, as if on a scale running from conformity to parents? culture to conformity to Norwegian culture. There is something really new in the making ­ new combinations and new creations ­ reflecting...

  14. Kinetics of matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, T A; Gallistel, C R

    1994-01-01

    Rats responded on concurrent variable interval schedules of brain stimulation reward in 2-trial sessions. Between trials, there was a 16-fold reversal in the relative rate of reward. In successive, narrow time windows, the authors compared the ratio of the times spent on the 2 levers to the ratio of the rewards received. Time-allocation ratios tracked wide, random fluctuations in the reward ratio. The adjustment to the midsession reversal in relative rate of reward was largely completed within 1 interreward interval on the leaner schedule. Both results were unaffected by a 16-fold change in the combined rates of reward. The large, rapid, scale-invariant shifts in time-allocation ratios that underlie matching behavior imply that the subjective relative rate of reward can be determined by a very few of the most recent interreward intervals and that this estimate can directly determine the ratio of the expected stay durations.

  15. Electromagnetic wave matching device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Yosuke; Mitsunaka, Yoshika; Hayashi, Ken-ichi; Ito, Yasuyuki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides an electromagnetic wave matching capable of reducing a cost for the transmission system in a system of using electromagnetic waves for plasma heating of a thermonuclear reactor. Namely, incident electromagnetic waves are reflected by using a plurality of phase correction mirrors. The reflected electromagnetic waves are connected to an external transmission system through an exit. The phase correction mirrors have such a shape to receive a plurality of beam-like electromagnetic waves and output electromagnetic waves by the number different from the number of the received electromagnetic wave beams having a predetermined distribution. Further, at least two of the phase correction mirrors have such a shape to change the phase of the electromagnetic waves beams incident to the reflection surface of the phase correction mirrors by a predetermined amount corresponding to the position of the reflection surface. Then, the cost for transmission system can greatly be reduced. (I.S.)

  16. Gender differences in functional connectivities between insular subdivisions and selective pain-related brain structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yu-Jie; Zhang, Xin; Yang, Yang; Nan, Hai-Yan; Yu, Ying; Sun, Qian; Yan, Lin-Feng; Hu, Bo; Zhang, Jin; Qiu, Zi-Yu; Gao, Yi; Cui, Guang-Bin; Chen, Bi-Liang; Wang, Wen

    2018-03-14

    The incidence of pain disorders in women is higher than in men, making gender differences in pain a research focus. The human insular cortex is an important brain hub structure for pain processing and is divided into several subdivisions, serving different functions in pain perception. Here we aimed to examine the gender differences of the functional connectivities (FCs) between the twelve insular subdivisions and selected pain-related brain structures in healthy adults. Twenty-six healthy males and 11 age-matched healthy females were recruited in this cross-sectional study. FCs between the 12 insular subdivisions (as 12 regions of interest (ROIs)) and the whole brain (ROI-whole brain level) or 64 selected pain-related brain regions (64 ROIs, ROI-ROI level) were measured between the males and females. Significant gender differences in the FCs of the insular subdivisions were revealed: (1) The FCs between the dorsal dysgranular insula (dId) and other brain regions were significantly increased in males using two different techniques (ROI-whole brain and ROI-ROI analyses); (2) Based on the ROI-whole brain analysis, the FC increases in 4 FC-pairs were observed in males, including the left dId - the right median cingulate and paracingulate/ right posterior cingulate gyrus/ right precuneus, the left dId - the right median cingulate and paracingulate, the left dId - the left angular as well as the left dId - the left middle frontal gyrus; (3) According to the ROI-ROI analysis, increased FC between the left dId and the right rostral anterior cingulate cortex was investigated in males. In summary, the gender differences in the FCs of the insular subdivisions with pain-related brain regions were revealed in the current study, offering neuroimaging evidence for gender differences in pain processing. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02820974 . Registered 28 June 2016.

  17. Quantity precommitment and price matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    We revisit the question of whether price matching is anti-competitive in a capacity constrained duopoly setting. We show that the effect of price matching depends on capacity. Specifically, price matching has no effect when capacity is relatively low, but it benefits the firms when capacity...... is relatively high. Interestingly, when capacity is in an intermediate range, price matching benefits only the small firm but does not affect the large firm in any way. Therefore, one has to consider capacity seriously when evaluating if price matching is anti-competitive. If the firms choose their capacities...... simultaneously before pricing decisions, then the effect of price matching is either pro-competitive or ambiguous. We show that if the cost of capacity is high, then price matching can only (weakly) decrease the market price. On the other hand, if the cost of capacity is low, then the effect of price matching...

  18. Gender and single nucleotide polymorphisms in MTHFR, BHMT, SPTLC1, CRBP2R, and SCARB1 are significant predictors of plasma homocysteine normalized by RBC folate in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using linear regression models, we studied the main and two-way interaction effects of the predictor variables gender, age, BMI, and 64 folate/vitamin B-12/homocysteine/lipid/cholesterol-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on log-transformed plasma homocysteine normalized by red blood cell...

  19. Spatial competition with intermediated matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Raalte, C.L.J.P.; Webers, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper analyzes the spatial competition in commission fees between two match makers. These match makers serve as middlemen between buyers and sellers who are located uniformly on a circle. The profits of the match makers are determined by their respective market sizes. A limited willingness to

  20. Impact of Short- and Long-term Tai Chi Mind-Body Exercise Training on Cognitive Function in Healthy Adults: Results From a Hybrid Observational Study and Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jacquelyn N; Manor, Brad; Hausdorff, Jeffrey; Novak, Vera; Lipsitz, Lewis; Gow, Brian; Macklin, Eric A; Peng, Chung-Kang; Wayne, Peter M

    2015-07-01

    Cognitive decline amongst older adults is a significant public health concern. There is growing interest in behavioral interventions, including exercise, for improving cognition. Studies to date suggest tai chi (TC) may be a safe and potentially effective exercise for preserving cognitive function with aging; however, its short-term and potential long-term impact on physically active, healthy adults is unclear. To compare differences in cognitive function among long-term TC expert practitioners and age-matched and gender-matched TC-naïve adults and to determine the effects of short-term TC training on measures of cognitive function in healthy, nonsedentary adults. A hybrid design including an observational comparison and a 2-arm randomized clinical trial (RCT). Healthy, nonsedentary, TC-naive adults (50 y-79 y) and age-matched and gender-matched long-term TC experts. A cross-sectional comparison of cognitive function in healthy TC-naïve (n=60) and TC expert (24.5 y ÷ 12 y experience; n=27) adults: TC-naïve adults then completed a 6-month, 2-arm, wait-list randomized clinical trial of TC training. Six measures of cognitive function were assessed for both cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons. TC experts exhibited trends towards better scores on all cognitive measures, significantly so for category fluency (P=.01), as well as a composite z score summarizing all 6 cognitive assessments (P=.03). In contrast, random assignment to 6 months of TC training in TC-naïve adults did not significantly improve any measures of cognitive function. In healthy nonsedentary adults, long-term TC training may help preserve cognitive function; however, the effect of short-term TC training in healthy adults remains unclear. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01340365.

  1. The urology residency matching program in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichman, J M; Anderson, K D; Dorough, M M; Stein, C R; Optenberg, S A; Thompson, I M

    2000-06-01

    We evaluate behaviors and attitudes among resident applicants and program directors related to the American Urological Association (AUA) residency matching program and recommend changes to improve the match. Written questionnaires were mailed to 519 resident applicants and 112 program directors after the 1999 American Urological Association match. Subjects were asked about their observations, behaviors and opinions towards the match. Questionnaires were returned by 230 resident applicants and 94 program directors (44% and 83% response rates, respectively.) Of the resident applicants 75% spent $1,001 to $5,000 for interviewing. Of the program directors 47% recalled that applicants asked how programs would rank the applicant and 61% of applicants recalled that program directors asked applicants how they would rank programs. Dishonesty was acknowledged by 31% of program directors and 44% of resident applicants. Of program directors 82% thought applicants "lied", while 67% of applicants thought that programs "lied" (quotations indicate questionnaire language). Participants characterized their own dishonesty as "just playing the game" or they "did not feel badly." Of program directors 81% and of applicants 61% were "skeptical" or "did not believe" when informed they were a "high" or "number 1" selection. Being asked about marital status was recalled by 91% of male and 100% of female (p = 0. 02), if they had children by 53% of male and 67% of female, (p = 0. 03), and intent to have children by 25% of male and 62% of female (p match code rules frequently. Program directors and resident applicants are skeptical of each other. Patterns of faculty behavior differ based on applicant gender. Interviews are costly for applicants. We recommend that 1) programs adopt policies to enhance fairness, 2) applications be filed electronically, 3) programs assist resident applicants with interview accommodation to reduce financial burden and 4) a post-interview code of limited or

  2. Organizations must match assets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carley, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    The unprofitable state of the Canadian oil industry, the adverse economic environment, the difficulty of finding capital, and the diminishing resources of conventional lighter crude oil make it necessary for Canadian oil companies to match their organizations and their financing to their assets. This is illustrated according to the experience of Saskoil, a Saskatchewan oil and gas company. An increasing production of oil and natural gas, and an increasing amount of new oil production as heavy oil, led to organizational changes such as the purchase of an asphalt plant to provide the company with downstream experience, establishing a working group to explore and develop heavy oil resources, and forming a company to manage non-core assets. The latter company, Pasqua Resources, manages assets such as small properties and ownership interests in order to increase the operating efficiency of Saskoil. Pasqua provides Saskoil with a corporate and organizational vehicle to accommodate partnerships and joint venture capital invested in property purchase opportunities, and to manage any of Saskoil's divestiture activities

  3. Gender dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Sean R; Russell, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Gender dysphoria is the distress or discomfort that may occur when a person's biological sex and gender identity do not align. The true prevalence of gender dysphoria is unknown in Australia because of varying definitions, different cultural norms and paucity of data. Individuals who identify as transgender are vulnerable, and have higher rates of discrimination, depression and suicidality, compared with the general population. The aim of this article is to familiarise general practitioners (GPs) with the principles of transgender care so they may provide a safe and supportive environment for patients presenting with concerns. It is important to have a basic understanding of how to conduct an initial consultation of gender dysphoria even if it is an uncommon presentation in general practice. Management should be individualised and may involve a combination of social work, education, counselling, hormone therapy and surgery.

  4. DOE Matching Grant Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoukalas, L.

    2002-01-01

    Funding used to support a portion of the Nuclear Engineering Educational Activities. Upgrade of teaching labs, student support to attend professional conferences, salary support for graduate students. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has funded Purdue University School of Nuclear Engineering during the period of five academic years covered in this report starting in the academic year 1996-97 and ending in the academic year 2000-2001. The total amount of funding for the grant received from DOE is $416K. In the 1990's, Nuclear Engineering Education in the US experienced a significant slow down. Student enrollment, research support, number of degrees at all levels (BS, MS, and PhD), number of accredited programs, University Research and Training Reactors, all went through a decline to alarmingly low levels. Several departments closed down, while some were amalgamated with other academic units (Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, etc). The School of Nuclear Engineering at Purdue University faced a major challenge when in the mid 90's our total undergraduate enrollment for the Sophomore, Junior and Senior Years dropped in the low 30's. The DOE Matching Grant program greatly strengthened Purdue's commitment to the Nuclear Engineering discipline and has helped to dramatically improve our undergraduate and graduate enrollment, attract new faculty and raise the School of Nuclear Engineering status within the University and in the National scene (our undergraduate enrollment has actually tripled and stands at an all time high of over 90 students; total enrollment currently exceeds 110 students). In this final technical report we outline and summarize how the grant was expended at Purdue University

  5. Movement Discordance between Healthy and Non-Healthy US Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M Swartz

    Full Text Available Physical activity is known to significantly impact cardiometabolic health. Accelerometer data, as a measure of physical activity, can be used to objectively identify a disparity in movement (movement discordance between healthy and unhealthy adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the Movement Discordance between healthy and unhealthy adults in a large US population sample.Demographic, health and accelerometer data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Study (NHANES 2003-2004 and 2005-2006 cohorts were used for this study. Participants were classified as either having a "normal" or "abnormal" value for each cardiometabolic health parameter examined, based on published criteria. Linear regression analyses were performed to determine significance of each abnormal health parameter (risk factor in its unique effect on the accelerometer counts, controlling for age and gender. Average accelerometer counts per minute (cpm by gender and age categories were estimated separately for the groups of normal and abnormal cardiometabolic risk.Average cpm for those with healthy levels of each individual cardiometabolic health parameter range from 296 cpm (for C reactive protein to 337 cpm (for waist circumference, while average cpm for those with abnormal levels of each individual cardiometabolic health parameter range from 216 cpm (for insulin to 291 cpm (for LDL-cholesterol. After controlling for age and gender, waist circumference, HbA1c, Insulin, Homocysteine, and HDL-Cholesterol were the cardiometabolic health parameters that showed significant, unique and independent effects on cpm. Overall, individuals who have abnormal values for all significant cardiometabolic health parameters ("unhealthy" averaged 267 cpm (SE = 15 cpm, while the healthy sample of this study averaged 428 cpm (SE = 10 cpm. The difference in cpm between the unhealthy and healthy groups is similar between males and females. Further, for both males and females, the

  6. Gender discrimination and social identity: experimental evidence from urban Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Delavande, Adeline; Zafar, Basit

    2013-01-01

    Gender discrimination in South Asia is a well-documented fact. However, gender is only one of an individual's many identities. This paper investigates how gender discrimination depends on the social identities of interacting parties. We use an experimental approach to identify gender discrimination by randomly matching 2,836 male and female students pursuing bachelor's-equivalent degrees in three different types of institutions - Madrassas (religious seminaries), Islamic universities, and lib...

  7. Matching theory for wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Zhu; Saad, Walid

    2017-01-01

    This book provides the fundamental knowledge of the classical matching theory problems. It builds up the bridge between the matching theory and the 5G wireless communication resource allocation problems. The potentials and challenges of implementing the semi-distributive matching theory framework into the wireless resource allocations are analyzed both theoretically and through implementation examples. Academics, researchers, engineers, and so on, who are interested in efficient distributive wireless resource allocation solutions, will find this book to be an exceptional resource. .

  8. Probability matching and strategy availability

    OpenAIRE

    J. Koehler, Derek; Koehler, Derek J.; James, Greta

    2010-01-01

    Findings from two experiments indicate that probability matching in sequential choice arises from an asymmetry in strategy availability: The matching strategy comes readily to mind, whereas a superior alternative strategy, maximizing, does not. First, compared with the minority who spontaneously engage in maximizing, the majority of participants endorse maximizing as superior to matching in a direct comparison when both strategies are described. Second, when the maximizing strategy is brought...

  9. An Incentive Theory of Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Alessio J. G.; Merkl, Christian; Snower, Dennis J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the labour market matching process by distinguishing its two component stages: the contact stage, in which job searchers make contact with employers and the selection stage, in which they decide whether to match. We construct a theoretical model explaining two-sided selection through microeconomic incentives. Firms face adjustment costs in responding to heterogeneous variations in the characteristics of workers and jobs. Matches and separations are described through firms'...

  10. Healthy food trends -- flaxseeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... seeds; Healthy food trends - linseeds; Healthy snacks - flaxseeds; Healthy diet - flaxseeds; Wellness - flaxseeds ... of nutrition and dietetics: dietary fatty acids for healthy adults. J Acad Nutr Diet . 2014;114(1):136-153. PMID: 24342605 www. ...

  11. Healthy Cooking Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Healthy-cooking techniques capture the flavor and nutrients of food without extra fat or salt. By Mayo Clinic Staff Healthy cooking doesn't mean that ...

  12. Is it what you do or where you work that matters most? Gender composition and the gender wage gap revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Arai, Mahmood; Nekby, Lena; Skogman Thoursie, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of gender segregation on wages using matched employer-employee private-sector data from Sweden. The questions that we are interested in examining are two-fold. Has the effect of gender segregation on the gender wage gap been overestimated and what matters more for gender wage differentials, occupation or establishment segregation? Our results show that a too detailed aggregation of occupations and/or establishments leads to an overestimation ...

  13. Gender differences in work-home interplay and symptom perception among Swedish white-collar employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntsson, L; Lundberg, U; Krantz, G

    2006-12-01

    To analyse gender differences in paid and unpaid workload and symptoms in matched groups of Swedish white-collar workers with children. Paid and unpaid workload and perceived stress from paid work, conflict between demands and control over household work were measured by a total workload (TWL) questionnaire. Some symptoms were rated with regard to frequency and severity as a measure of health. Cross-sectional analyses were performed. Matched groups of male (n = 440) and female (n = 529) well-educated white-collar workers in full-time employment, aged 32-58 years and living with children in the home. Women in higher positions in Sweden are healthier than the average population of women, but report more symptoms than men in the same position as well as more stress from paid work, more conflict between demands and a greater TWL. However, women also reported more control over household duties and TWL was not associated with more symptoms. The men were mainly focused on their paid work role and perhaps even more so than men in the general population as they were fairly resistant to feelings of conflicting demands. Even among matched groups of full-time employed, well-educated men and women, traditional gender differences in division of responsibilities and time allocation were found. Even though the women were healthy at this stage, they might risk future ill health, owing to high workload, stress and feelings of conflicting demands.

  14. Lower Self-Reported Quality of Life in HIV-Infected Patients on cART and With Low Comorbidity Compared With Healthy Controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karin K; Eiersted, Morten R; Gaardbo, Julie C

    2015-01-01

    replication and with low comorbidity, compared with healthy controls. We furthermore aimed to identify factors associated with QoL. DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 52 HIV-infected patients and 23 healthy controls matched on age, gender, education, and comorbidity. HIV-infected patients...... and healthy controls had previously been examined regarding cognitive, physical, metabolic, and immunological parameters. QoL was investigated using the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey (MOS-HIV). Linear multiple regression models were created to find factors associated with mental health summary......BACKGROUND: Self-reported quality of life (QoL) has previously been found to be impaired in patients living with HIV and associated with viral replication, degree of immunodeficiency, and comorbidity. We aimed at investigating QoL in a group of HIV-infected patients with suppressed viral...

  15. Anatomically standardised {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain perfusion SPET allows accurate differentiation between healthy volunteers, multiple system atrophy and idiopathic Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosman, Tommy [Division of Nuclear Medicine, P7, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Laere, Koen [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leuven University Hospital, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Santens, Patrick [Department of Neurology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)

    2003-01-01

    The clinical differentiation between typical idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) and atypical parkinsonian disorders such as multiple system atrophy (MSA) is complicated by the presence of signs and symptoms common to both forms. The goal of this study was to re-evaluate the contribution of brain perfusion single-photon emission tomography (SPET) with anatomical standardisation and automated analysis in the differentiation of IPD and MSA. This was achieved by discriminant analysis in comparison with a large set of age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers. Technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer SPET was performed on 140 subjects: 81 IPD patients (age 62.6{+-}10.2 years; disease duration 11.0{+-}6.4 years; 50 males/31 females), 15 MSA patients (61.5{+-}9.2 years; disease duration 3.0{+-}2.2 years; 9 males/6 females) and 44 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers (age 59.2{+-}11.9 years; 27 males/17 females). Patients were matched for severity (Hoehn and Yahr stage). Automated predefined volume of interest (VOI) analysis was carried out after anatomical standardisation. Stepwise discriminant analysis with cross-validation using the leave-one-out method was used to determine the subgroup of variables giving the highest accuracy for this differential diagnosis. Between MSA and IPD, the only regions with highly significant differences in uptake after Bonferroni correction were the putamen VOIs. Comparing MSA versus normals and IPD, with putamen VOI values as discriminating variables, cross-validated performance showed correct classification of MSA patients with a sensitivity of 73.3%, a specificity of 84% and an accuracy of 83.6%. Additional input from the right caudate head and the left prefrontal and left mesial temporal cortex allowed 100% discrimination even after cross-validation. Discrimination between the IPD group alone and healthy volunteers was accurate in 94% of the cases after cross-validation, with a sensitivity of 91.4% and a specificity of 100

  16. Anatomically standardised 99mTc-ECD brain perfusion SPET allows accurate differentiation between healthy volunteers, multiple system atrophy and idiopathic Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosman, Tommy; Van Laere, Koen; Santens, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    The clinical differentiation between typical idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) and atypical parkinsonian disorders such as multiple system atrophy (MSA) is complicated by the presence of signs and symptoms common to both forms. The goal of this study was to re-evaluate the contribution of brain perfusion single-photon emission tomography (SPET) with anatomical standardisation and automated analysis in the differentiation of IPD and MSA. This was achieved by discriminant analysis in comparison with a large set of age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers. Technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer SPET was performed on 140 subjects: 81 IPD patients (age 62.6±10.2 years; disease duration 11.0±6.4 years; 50 males/31 females), 15 MSA patients (61.5±9.2 years; disease duration 3.0±2.2 years; 9 males/6 females) and 44 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers (age 59.2±11.9 years; 27 males/17 females). Patients were matched for severity (Hoehn and Yahr stage). Automated predefined volume of interest (VOI) analysis was carried out after anatomical standardisation. Stepwise discriminant analysis with cross-validation using the leave-one-out method was used to determine the subgroup of variables giving the highest accuracy for this differential diagnosis. Between MSA and IPD, the only regions with highly significant differences in uptake after Bonferroni correction were the putamen VOIs. Comparing MSA versus normals and IPD, with putamen VOI values as discriminating variables, cross-validated performance showed correct classification of MSA patients with a sensitivity of 73.3%, a specificity of 84% and an accuracy of 83.6%. Additional input from the right caudate head and the left prefrontal and left mesial temporal cortex allowed 100% discrimination even after cross-validation. Discrimination between the IPD group alone and healthy volunteers was accurate in 94% of the cases after cross-validation, with a sensitivity of 91.4% and a specificity of 100%. The three

  17. DOE Matching Grant Program; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr Marvin Adams

    2002-01-01

    OAK 270 - The DOE Matching Grant Program provided$50,000.00 to the Dept of N.E. at TAMU, matching a gift of$50,000.00 from TXU Electric. The$100,000.00 total was spent on scholarships, departmental labs, and computing network

  18. Matching score based face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, B.J.; Beumer, G.M.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2006-01-01

    Accurate face registration is of vital importance to the performance of a face recognition algorithm. We propose a new method: matching score based face registration, which searches for optimal alignment by maximizing the matching score output of a classifier as a function of the different

  19. Platform pricing in matching markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goos, M.; van Cayseele, P.; Willekens, B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a simple model of monopoly platform pricing accounting for two pertinent features of matching markets. 1) The trading process is characterized by search and matching frictions implying limits to positive cross-side network effects and the presence of own-side congestion.

  20. Statistical methods for history matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kent

    Denne afhandling beskriver statistiske metoder til history matching af olieproduktion. History matching er en vigtig del af driften af et oliefelt og er ofte forbundet med problemer relateret til kompleksiteten af reservoiret og selve størrelsen af reservoirsimuleringsmodellen. Begrebet history m...

  1. Role model and prototype matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkegaard, Eva; Ulriksen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    ’ meetings with the role models affected their thoughts concerning STEM students and attending university. The regular self-to-prototype matching process was shown in real-life role-models meetings to be extended to a more complex three-way matching process between students’ self-perceptions, prototype...

  2. Pattern recognition and string matching

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Xiuzhen

    2002-01-01

    The research and development of pattern recognition have proven to be of importance in science, technology, and human activity. Many useful concepts and tools from different disciplines have been employed in pattern recognition. Among them is string matching, which receives much theoretical and practical attention. String matching is also an important topic in combinatorial optimization. This book is devoted to recent advances in pattern recognition and string matching. It consists of twenty eight chapters written by different authors, addressing a broad range of topics such as those from classifica­ tion, matching, mining, feature selection, and applications. Each chapter is self-contained, and presents either novel methodological approaches or applications of existing theories and techniques. The aim, intent, and motivation for publishing this book is to pro­ vide a reference tool for the increasing number of readers who depend upon pattern recognition or string matching in some way. This includes student...

  3. Efficient line matching with homography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; Dai, Yuxing; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel approach to line matching based on homography. The basic idea is to use cheaply obtainable matched points to boost the similarity between two images. Two types of homography method, which are estimated by direct linear transformation, transform images and extract their similar parts, laying a foundation for the use of optical flow tracking. The merit of the similarity is that rapid matching can be achieved by regionalizing line segments and local searching. For multiple homography estimation that can perform better than one global homography, we introduced the rank-one modification method of singular value decomposition to reduce the computation cost. The proposed approach results in point-to-point matches, which can be utilized with state-of-the-art point-match-based structures from motion (SfM) frameworks seamlessly. The outstanding performance and feasible robustness of our approach are demonstrated in this paper.

  4. Gender & performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röttger, K.; Buchheim, E.; Groot, M.; Jonker, E.; Müller-Schirmer, A.; de Vos, M.; Walhout, E.; van der Zande, H.

    2012-01-01

    This Yearbook for Women’s History (Jaarboek voor Vrouwengeschiedenis) examines the theme of gender and performance. It is supervised by guest editor Kati Röttger, professor in Theatre Studies at the University of Amsterdam. The term performance - a temporary and active presentation, expression, or

  5. Interpreting Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Nicholson

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author deconstructs dominant understandings of two concepts central to feminist analysis itself: gender and woman. Much of post-1960s feminist scholarship has relied on the distinction between “sex” and gender. Although this distinction has served many useful purposes (particularly that of allowing feminists to challenge biological determinism, it has also enabled feminists to preserve a type of dualistic thinking about women's identity. It has allowed feminists to think of differences among women as separable from that which women share. The author argues that this polar framework has enabled feminists to stress the deep differences between women's and men's culture-generated experiences. But, because the polar framework of contemporary society is neither completely stable or hegemonic nor links perfectly male and female experiences with male and female identified bodies, employing it as an unquestioned element of one's analysis also leads to problems. This framework falls to capture the gender deviance of many of us, reinforces cultural stereotypes of the meaning of female and male experience, and acts politically to suppress modes of being that challenge gender dualisms.

  6. Gender Equity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ranjeetha

    gender balance in Sc. 2) What the academ ... awareness for this not just also the parents, the also the parents, the work. ... Simple things to implement (in submitted to the ... Girl's Guide to Life in rams of the ... challenges in their area. Stories of ...

  7. The match-to-match variation of match-running in elite female soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewin, Joshua; Meylan, César; Varley, Matthew C; Cronin, John

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the match-to-match variation of match-running in elite female soccer players utilising GPS, using full-match and rolling period analyses. Longitudinal study. Elite female soccer players (n=45) from the same national team were observed during 55 international fixtures across 5 years (2012-2016). Data was analysed using a custom built MS Excel spreadsheet as full-matches and using a rolling 5-min analysis period, for all players who played 90-min matches (files=172). Variation was examined using co-efficient of variation and 90% confidence limits, calculated following log transformation. Total distance per minute exhibited the smallest variation when both the full-match and peak 5-min running periods were examined (CV=6.8-7.2%). Sprint-efforts were the most variable during a full-match (CV=53%), whilst high-speed running per minute exhibited the greatest variation in the post-peak 5-min period (CV=143%). Peak running periods were observed as slightly more variable than full-match analyses, with the post-peak period very-highly variable. Variability of accelerations (CV=17%) and Player Load (CV=14%) was lower than that of high-speed actions. Positional differences were also present, with centre backs exhibiting the greatest variation in high-speed movements (CV=41-65%). Practitioners and researchers should account for within player variability when examining match performances. Identification of peak running periods should be used to assist worst case scenarios. Whilst micro-sensor technology should be further examined as to its viable use within match-analyses. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Gender differences of brain glucose metabolic networks revealed by FDG-PET: evidence from a large cohort of 400 young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuxiao; Xu, Qiang; Li, Kai; Zhu, Hong; Qi, Rongfeng; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Lu, Guangming

    2013-01-01

    Gender differences of the human brain are an important issue in neuroscience research. In recent years, an increasing amount of evidence has been gathered from noninvasive neuroimaging studies supporting a sexual dimorphism of the human brain. However, there is a lack of imaging studies on gender differences of brain metabolic networks based on a large population sample. FDG PET data of 400 right-handed, healthy subjects, including 200 females (age: 25:45 years, mean age ± SD: 40.9 ± 3.9 years) and 200 age-matched males were obtained and analyzed in the present study. We first investigated the regional differences of brain glucose metabolism between genders using a voxel-based two-sample t-test analysis. Subsequently, we investigated the gender differences of the metabolic networks. Sixteen metabolic covariance networks using seed-based correlation were analyzed. Seven regions showing significant regional metabolic differences between genders, and nine regions conventionally used in the resting-state network studies were selected as regions-of-interest. Permutation tests were used for comparing within- and between-network connectivity between genders. Compared with the males, females showed higher metabolism in the posterior part and lower metabolism in the anterior part of the brain. Moreover, there were widely distributed patterns of the metabolic networks in the human brain. In addition, significant gender differences within and between brain glucose metabolic networks were revealed in the present study. This study provides solid data that reveal gender differences in regional brain glucose metabolism and brain glucose metabolic networks. These observations might contribute to the better understanding of the gender differences in human brain functions, and suggest that gender should be included as a covariate when designing experiments and explaining results of brain glucose metabolic networks in the control and experimental individuals or patients.

  9. SOSIALISASI BUDAYA ADIL GENDER OLEH ORGANISASI GENDER

    OpenAIRE

    Sumiarti, Sumiarti; Munfarida, Elya

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: equality and gender justice is a global issue. Along with the awareness of human rights, human beings begin to question and criticize the cultures already established that they perceive as unfair behavior constructor (bias) gender. From this point, then there are many organizations that provoke equality and gender justice. In this paper, the organization is called gender organizations. Gender organizations is a noble mission, to speak out gender equality and justice, but in practice...

  10. Matching by Monotonic Tone Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Gyorgy

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, a novel dissimilarity measure called Matching by Monotonic Tone Mapping (MMTM) is proposed. The MMTM technique allows matching under non-linear monotonic tone mappings and can be computed efficiently when the tone mappings are approximated by piecewise constant or piecewise linear functions. The proposed method is evaluated in various template matching scenarios involving simulated and real images, and compared to other measures developed to be invariant to monotonic intensity transformations. The results show that the MMTM technique is a highly competitive alternative of conventional measures in problems where possible tone mappings are close to monotonic.

  11. MATCHING IN INFORMAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeckhout, Jan; Munshi, Kaivan

    2010-09-01

    This paper analyzes an informal financial institution that brings heterogeneous agents together in groups. We analyze decentralized matching into these groups, and the equilibrium composition of participants that consequently arises. We find that participants sort remarkably well across the competing groups, and that they re-sort immediately following an unexpected exogenous regulatory change. These findings suggest that the competitive matching model might have applicability and bite in other settings where matching is an important equilibrium phenomenon. (JEL: O12, O17, G20, D40).

  12. Healthy Family 2009: Assuring Healthy Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Assuring Healthy Aging Past Issues / Winter 2009 ... for steady, modest loss. Seek emotional support from family and friends. Expect setbacks; forgive yourself. Make physical ...

  13. Gendered Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Bo

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the gendered nature of urban politics in Cape Town by focusing on a group of female, township politicians. Employing the Deleuzian concept of `wild connectivity', it argues that these politically entrepreneurial women were able to negotiate a highly volatile urban landscape...... by drawing on and operationalizing violent, male networks — from struggle activists' networks, to vigilante groups and gangs, to the police. The fact that they were women helped them to tap into and exploit these networks. At the same time, they were restricted by their sex, as their ability to navigate...... space also drew on quite traditional notions of female respectability. Furthermore, the article argues, the form of wild connectivity to an extent was a function of the political transition, which destabilized formal structures of gendered authority. It remains a question whether this form...

  14. Differentiation of involved and uninvolved psoriatic skin from healthy skin using noninvasive visual, colorimeter and evaporimeter methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershing, L K; Bakhtian, S; Wright, E D; Rallis, T M

    1995-08-01

    Uninvolved skin of psoriasis may not be entirely normal. The object was to characterize healthy, uninvolved psoriatic skin and lesional skin by biophysical methods. Involved and uninvolved psoriatic and age-gender matched healthy skin was measured objectively with a colorimeter and evaporimeter and subjectively with visual assessment in 14 subjects. Visual assessment of erythema (E), scaling (S) and induration (I) as well as the target lesion score at the involved psoriatic skin sites were significantly elevated (puninvolved psoriatic skin >healthy skin (pcolorimeter L* and a* scale values at uninvolved psoriatic skin sites were lower and higher (pcolorimeter description (L*× b*)/a* significantly differentiated healthy skin from both involved and uninvolved psoriatic skin. These collective data highlight that even visually appearing uninvolved psoriatic skin is compromised compared with healthy skin. These objective, noninvasive but differential capabilities of the colorimeter and evaporimeter will aid in the mechanistic quantification of new psoriatic drug therapies and in conjuction with biochemical studies, add to understanding of the multifactorial pathogenesis of psoriasis.

  15. Pendidikan Gender Berbasis Sastra

    OpenAIRE

    Trianton, Teguh

    2015-01-01

    Recently, gender mainstreaming became most actual issue. One of its domains is on education. Practically, gender offered as important aspect on educational curriculum. From this point, emerge gender education discourse, namely an internalization process of gender equality issues through formal education. There are three important points on gender mainstreaming issue; first, gender education, two, gender issue on literary works, and three gender educations based on literary works.

  16. Gender Differences in Pay

    OpenAIRE

    Francine D. Blau; Lawrence M. Kahn

    2000-01-01

    We consider the gender pay gap in the United States. Both gender-specific factors, including gender differences in qualifications and discrimination, and overall wage structure, the rewards for skills and employment in particular sectors, importantly influence the gender pay gap. Declining gender differentials in the U.S., and the more rapid closing of the gender pay gap in the U.S. than elsewhere, appear to be primarily due to gender-specific factors. However, the relatively large gender pay...

  17. Toward Practical Secure Stable Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riazi M. Sadegh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Stable Matching (SM algorithm has been deployed in many real-world scenarios including the National Residency Matching Program (NRMP and financial applications such as matching of suppliers and consumers in capital markets. Since these applications typically involve highly sensitive information such as the underlying preference lists, their current implementations rely on trusted third parties. This paper introduces the first provably secure and scalable implementation of SM based on Yao’s garbled circuit protocol and Oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our scheme can securely compute a stable match for 8k pairs four orders of magnitude faster than the previously best known method. We achieve this by introducing a compact and efficient sub-linear size circuit. We even further decrease the computation cost by three orders of magnitude by proposing a novel technique to avoid unnecessary iterations in the SM algorithm. We evaluate our implementation for several problem sizes and plan to publish it as open-source.

  18. Probability matching and strategy availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Derek J; James, Greta

    2010-09-01

    Findings from two experiments indicate that probability matching in sequential choice arises from an asymmetry in strategy availability: The matching strategy comes readily to mind, whereas a superior alternative strategy, maximizing, does not. First, compared with the minority who spontaneously engage in maximizing, the majority of participants endorse maximizing as superior to matching in a direct comparison when both strategies are described. Second, when the maximizing strategy is brought to their attention, more participants subsequently engage in maximizing. Third, matchers are more likely than maximizers to base decisions in other tasks on their initial intuitions, suggesting that they are more inclined to use a choice strategy that comes to mind quickly. These results indicate that a substantial subset of probability matchers are victims of "underthinking" rather than "overthinking": They fail to engage in sufficient deliberation to generate a superior alternative to the matching strategy that comes so readily to mind.

  19. Computing solutions for matching games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biró, Péter; Kern, Walter; Paulusma, Daniël

    2012-01-01

    A matching game is a cooperative game (N, v) defined on a graph G = (N, E) with an edge weighting w : E → R+. The player set is N and the value of a coalition S ⊆ N is defined as the maximum weight of a matching in the subgraph induced by S. First we present an O(nm+n2 log n) algorithm that tests if

  20. Probability Matching, Fast and Slow

    OpenAIRE

    Koehler, Derek J.; James, Greta

    2014-01-01

    A prominent point of contention among researchers regarding the interpretation of probability-matching behavior is whether it represents a cognitively sophisticated, adaptive response to the inherent uncertainty of the tasks or settings in which it is observed, or whether instead it represents a fundamental shortcoming in the heuristics that support and guide human decision making. Put crudely, researchers disagree on whether probability matching is "smart" or "dumb." Here, we consider eviden...

  1. Matching games with partial information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureti, Paolo; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2003-06-01

    We analyze different ways of pairing agents in a bipartite matching problem, with regard to its scaling properties and to the distribution of individual “satisfactions”. Then we explore the role of partial information and bounded rationality in a generalized Marriage Problem, comparing the benefits obtained by self-searching and by a matchmaker. Finally we propose a modified matching game intended to mimic the way consumers’ information makes firms to enhance the quality of their products in a competitive market.

  2. Dental treatment and caries prevention preceding treatment under general anaesthesia in healthy children and adolescents: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindefjord, M; Persson, J; Jansson, L; Tsilingaridis, G

    2018-04-01

    This was to examine healthy children and adolescents treated under general anaesthesia (GA) and a matched control group not receiving GA to compare treatment and preventive care received prior to GA treatment. This retrospective cohort study included 71 healthy subjects and 213 age- and gender-matched control subjects. The treatment group had been consecutively referred from the Public Dental Health Service (PDS) in Stockholm to the Department of Paediatric Dentistry, Eastman Institute, Stockholm during 2006-2007. Data was extracted from the patient records at the PDS, including variables such as number of dental visits, treatment/prophylaxis prior to GA, number of missed and cancelled appointments, and number of decayed teeth. On average, the treatment group had significantly more decayed teeth (p general dentists to paediatric specialists had no behaviour management treatment and nearly half, no preventive treatment, despite receiving significantly more operative treatment compared with matched controls. General dentists should target high caries-risk patients for additional behaviour management and preventive care to reduce the need for treatment under GA.

  3. What is healthy work for women and men? - A case-control study of gender- and sector-specific effects of psycho-social working conditions on long-term sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidwall, Ulrik; Marklund, Staffan

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relevance of the demand-control model and social support in predicting long-term sickness absence (LTSA). Identifying gender- and sector- (private vs. public) specific patterns was in focus. The study uses a cross-sectional design with a case and a control group. The cases are a sample of 2 327 long-term sick listed (>60 days) and the controls are a Swedish population-based sample of 2 063. Data on sickness absence were retrieved from the Swedish national social insurance registers. Data on health, working and living conditions were gathered through a self-administered questionnaire. The results show that employed women have a notably higher risk for LTSA than employed men. High-strain jobs increase the odds for LTSA among both women and men. Active jobs were also associated with LTSA among women. The study confirms the demand-control model (job strain hypothesis) and social support and their associations with LTSA. However, the job strain hypothesis is more evident in the private sector. Active jobs with high psychological demands and high decision latitude seem to be problematic for many women, especially in the private sector. Thus, the active learning hypothesis receives no support for women in the Swedish working population in general.

  4. Healthy Sleep Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sleep Apnea Testing CPAP Healthy Sleep Habits Healthy Sleep Habits Your behaviors during the day, and especially ... team at an AASM accredited sleep center . Quick Sleep Tips Follow these tips to establish healthy sleep ...

  5. Healthy Pets and People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevent the spread of germs between pets and people. Keep pets and their supplies out of the kitchen, and ... a local wildlife rehabilitation facility. More Information Healthy Pets Healthy People Clean Hands Save Lives! Stay Healthy at Animal ...

  6. Thalassemia: Healthy Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thalassemia” More What can a person living with thalassemia do to stay healthy? A healthy lifestyle is ... disorder”, as well as making healthy choices. Managing Thalassemia Thalassemia is a treatable disorder that can be ...

  7. Healthy food trends - kale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy food trends - borecole; Healthy snacks - kale; Weight loss - kale; Healthy diet - kale; Wellness - kale ... Kale is full of vitamins and minerals, including: Vitamin A Vitamin C Vitamin K If you take ...

  8. Gender compatibility, math-gender stereotypes, and self-concepts in math and physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Ravinder; Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita; Poondej, Chanut

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] Positive self-assessment of ability in the quantitative domains is considered critical for student participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics field studies. The present study investigated associations of gender compatibility (gender typicality and contentedness) and math-gender stereotypes with self-concepts in math and physics. Statistical analysis of survey data was based on a sample of 170 male and female high school science students matched on propensity scores based on age and past GPA scores in math. Results of MANCOVA analyses indicated that the combination of high personal gender compatibility with low endorsement of math-gender stereotypes was associated with low gender differentials in math and physics self-concepts whereas the combination of high personal gender compatibility with high endorsement of math-gender stereotypes was associated with high gender differentials in math and physics self-concepts. These results contribute to the recent theoretical and empirical work on antecedents to the math and physics identities critical to achieving gender equity in STEM fields.

  9. Gender Minority Social Stress in Adolescence: Disparities in Adolescent Bullying and Substance Use by Gender Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L.; Greytak, Emily A.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Ybarra, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Bullying and substance use represent serious public health issues facing adolescents in the U.S. Few large-sample national studies have examined differences in these indicators by gender identity. The Teen Health and Technology Study (N=5,542) sampled adolescents 13–18 years-old online. Weighted multivariable logistic regression models investigated disparities in substance use and tested a gender minority social stress hypothesis, comparing gender minority youth (i.e., who are transgender/gender nonconforming and have a gender different from their sex assigned at birth) and cisgender (i.e., whose gender identity or expression matches one’s sex assigned at birth). Overall, 11.5% of youth self-identified as gender minority. Gender minority youth had increased odds of past-12 month alcohol use, marijuana use, and non-marijuana illicit drug use. Gender minority youth disproportionately experienced bullying and harassment in the past 12 months, and this victimization was associated with increased odds of all substance use indicators. Bullying mediated the elevated odds of substance use for gender minority youth compared to cisgender adolescents. Findings support the use of gender minority stress perspectives in designing early interventions aimed at addressing the negative health sequelae of bullying and harassment. PMID:24742006

  10. Gender minority social stress in adolescence: disparities in adolescent bullying and substance use by gender identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L; Greytak, Emily A; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Ybarra, Michele L

    2015-01-01

    Bullying and substance use represent serious public health issues facing adolescents in the United States. Few large-sample national studies have examined differences in these indicators by gender identity. The Teen Health and Technology Study (N = 5,542) sampled adolescents ages 13 to 18 years old online. Weighted multivariable logistic regression models investigated disparities in substance use and tested a gender minority social stress hypothesis, comparing gender minority youth (i.e., who are transgender/gender nonconforming and have a gender different from their sex assigned at birth) and cisgender (i.e., whose gender identity or expression matches theirs assigned at birth). Overall, 11.5% of youth self-identified as gender minority. Gender minority youth had increased odds of past-12-month alcohol use, marijuana use, and nonmarijuana illicit drug use. Gender minority youth disproportionately experienced bullying and harassment in the past 12 months, and this victimization was associated with increased odds of all substance use indicators. Bullying mediated the elevated odds of substance use for gender minority youth compared to cisgender adolescents. Findings support the use of gender minority stress perspectives in designing early interventions aimed at addressing the negative health sequelae of bullying and harassment.

  11. 76 FR 5235 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended; Computer Matching Program (SSA Internal Match)-Match Number 1014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ...; Computer Matching Program (SSA Internal Match)--Match Number 1014 AGENCY: Social Security Administration... regarding protections for such persons. The Privacy Act, as amended, regulates the use of computer matching....C. 552a, as amended, and the provisions of the Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act of 1988...

  12. [Laughter: gender differences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Ripoll, R; Ubal-López, R

    2011-01-01

    Laughter is associated to many physiological and psychological benefits. Although women laugh more than men do, the daily frequency of laughter does not seem to differ. Laughter in all its forms and manifestations is an indicator of family vitality and healthy couples. Laughter is very attractive at the interpersonal level, especially for women. Men use humor much more and laughter when it comes to discussing sensitive health issues. In women, laughter would be more associated with greater social support in relationships and as a tool to cope with stress. Inviting laughter in the doctor's office may be very useful when directing certain messages on therapeutic management. Taking into account possible gender differences in the use of humor and laughter may help to improve the relationship with the patient and optimize the clinical application of laughter in health care and education setting. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. Matching faces with emotional expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng eChen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available There is some evidence that faces with a happy expression are recognized better than faces with other expressions. However, little is known about whether this happy face advantage also applies to perceptual face matching, and whether similar differences exist among other expressions. Using a sequential matching paradigm, we systematically compared the effects of seven basic facial expressions on identity recognition. Identity matching was quickest when a pair of faces had an identical happy/sad/neutral expression, poorer when they had a fearful/surprise/angry expression, and poorest when they had a disgust expression. Faces with a happy/sad/fear/surprise expression were matched faster than those with an anger/disgust expression when the second face in a pair had a neutral expression. These results demonstrate that effects of facial expression on identity recognition are not limited to happy faces when a learned face is immediately tested. The results suggest different influences of expression in perceptual matching and long-term recognition memory.

  14. The Kent Face Matching Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fysh, Matthew C; Bindemann, Markus

    2018-05-01

    This study presents the Kent Face Matching Test (KFMT), which comprises 200 same-identity and 20 different-identity pairs of unfamiliar faces. Each face pair consists of a photograph from a student ID card and a high-quality portrait that was taken at least three months later. The test is designed to complement existing resources for face-matching research, by providing a more ecologically valid stimulus set that captures the natural variability that can arise in a person's appearance over time. Two experiments are presented to demonstrate that the KFMT provides a challenging measure of face matching but correlates with established tests. Experiment 1 compares a short version of this test with the optimized Glasgow Face Matching Test (GFMT). In Experiment 2, a longer version of the KFMT, with infrequent identity mismatches, is correlated with performance on the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) and the Cambridge Face Perception Test (CFPT). The KFMT is freely available for use in face-matching research. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Lectin Complement Pathway Proteins in Healthy Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troldborg, Anne; Hansen, Annette Gudmann; Hansen, Søren W K

    2017-01-01

    , it is pivotal to know the normal. Our aim was to describe the concentrations of the eleven known proteins of the lectin pathway in serum and plasma and to uncover possible gender differences, age and diurnal variations, which must be taken into account for investigations in different cohorts. We examined...... morning to the middle of night. There were gender differences for most proteins, whereas age did not seem to influence concentration. The present study underlines the necessity of considering which material to use, correct matching and a trial design that takes the nature of the protein into account...

  16. Sex and Credit : Is There A Gender Bias In Lending?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Behr, P.; Madestam, A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We exploit the quasi-random assignment of borrowers to loan officers using data from a large Albanian lender to show that own-gender preferences affect both credit supply and demand. Borrowers matched to officers of the opposite gender are less likely to return for a second loan. The

  17. Sex and Credit : Is there a Gender Bias in Lending?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Behr, P.; Madestam, A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We exploit the quasi-random assignment of borrowers to loan officers using data from a large Albanian lender to show that own-gender preferences affect both credit supply and demand. Borrowers matched to officers of the opposite gender are less likely to return for a second loan. The

  18. The Influence of Sex Information on Gender Word Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Alba; Palma, Alfonso; Paolieri, Daniela

    2018-06-01

    Three different tasks (word repetition, lexical decision, and gender decision) were designed to explore the impact of the sex clues (sex of the speaker, sex of the addressee) and the type of gender (semantic, arbitrary) on the processing of isolated Spanish gendered words. The findings showed that the grammatical gender feature was accessed when no mandatory attentional focus was required. In addition, the results indicated that the participants organize information according to their own sex role, which provides more salience to the words that match in grammatical gender with their own sex role representation, even when the gender assignment is arbitrary. Finally, the sex of the speaker biased the lexical access and the grammatical gender selection, serving as a semantic prime when the two dimensions have a congruent relationship. Furthermore, the masculine form serves as the generic gender representing both male and female figures.

  19. Categorizing with gender: does implicit grammatical gender affect semantic processing in 24-month-old toddlers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobb, Susan C; Mani, Nivedita

    2013-06-01

    The current study investigated the interaction of implicit grammatical gender and semantic category knowledge during object identification. German-learning toddlers (24-month-olds) were presented with picture pairs and heard a noun (without a preceding article) labeling one of the pictures. Labels for target and distracter images either matched or mismatched in grammatical gender and either matched or mismatched in semantic category. When target and distracter overlapped in both semantic and gender information, target recognition was impaired compared with when target and distracter overlapped on only one dimension. Results suggest that by 24 months of age, German-learning toddlers are already forming not only semantic but also grammatical gender categories and that these sources of information are activated, and interact, during object identification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Gender differences and job stress management techniques of library ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at ascertaining gender and work related stress among library ... library staff indicated non-conducive work environment as the cause of job stress. ... flexible work hours and developing healthy life styles as management tips.

  1. A Phase Matching, Adiabatic Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemery, Francois [Hamburg U.; Flöttmann, Klaus [DESY; Kärtner, Franz [CFEL, Hamburg; Piot, Philippe [Northern Illinois U.

    2017-05-01

    Tabletop accelerators are a thing of the future. Reducing their size will require scaling down electromagnetic wavelengths; however, without correspondingly high field gradients, particles will be more susceptible to phase-slippage – especially at low energy. We investigate how an adiabatically-tapered dielectric-lined waveguide could maintain phase-matching between the accelerating mode and electron bunch. We benchmark our simple model with CST and implement it into ASTRA; finally we provide a first glimpse into the beam dynamics in a phase-matching accelerator.

  2. Mix-and-match holography

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Yifan

    2017-11-22

    Computational caustics and light steering displays offer a wide range of interesting applications, ranging from art works and architectural installations to energy efficient HDR projection. In this work we expand on this concept by encoding several target images into pairs of front and rear phase-distorting surfaces. Different target holograms can be decoded by mixing and matching different front and rear surfaces under specific geometric alignments. Our approach, which we call mix-and-match holography, is made possible by moving from a refractive caustic image formation process to a diffractive, holographic one. This provides the extra bandwidth that is required to multiplex several images into pairing surfaces.

  3. N400 elicited by incongruent ending words of Chinese idioms in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing-shi; Tang, Yun-xiang; Xiao, Ze-ping; Wang, Ji-jun; Zhang, Ming-dao; Zhang, Zai-fu; Hu, Zhen-yu; Lou, Fei-ying; Chen, Chong; Zhang, Tian-hong

    2010-03-20

    Prior research about N400 has been mainly based on English stimuli, while the cognitive processing of Chinese characters is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the semantic processing of Chinese idioms. Event related potentials (ERP) component N400 was elicited by 38 pairs of matching (congruent) and mismatching (incongruent) ended Chinese idioms: ending words with same phoneme but different shape and meaning (sPdSdM), with similar shape but different phoneme and meaning (sSdPdM), with same meaning but different phoneme and shape (sMdPdS), and words with different phoneme, shape and meaning (dPdSdM) and recorded by Guangzhou Runjie WJ-1 ERP instruments. In 62 right-handed healthy adults (age 19 - 50 years), N400 amplitudes and latencies were compared between matching and mismatching conditions at Fz, Cz and Pz. N400 showed a midline distribution and could be elicited in electrodes Fz, Cz and Pz. The mean values of N400 latencies and amplitudes were obtained for matching and mismatching ending words in healthy adults. Significant differences were found in N400 latencies and amplitudes in matching and mismatching ending-words idioms in healthy adults (P idioms, N400 latencies were prolonged and the amplitudes were increased in mismatching ones. N400s elicited by different types of stimuli showed different latencies and amplitudes, and longest N400 latency and largest N400 amplitude were elicited by ending-words with dPdSdM. No gender difference was found of N400 latency and amplitude in this study (P > 0.05). Compared with English stimuli, Chinese ideographic words could provide more flexible stimuli for N400 research in that the words have 3-dimension changes - phoneme, shape and meaning. Features of N400 elicited by matching and mismatching ending words in Chinese idioms are mainly determined by the meaning of the word. Some issues of N400 elicited by Chinese characters deserve further research.

  4. Have a Healthy Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... important that you: Don’t smoke or drink alcohol. Eat healthy foods and get enough folic acid. Stay active. Take ... Learn more: Pregnant? Don’t Smoke! Quit Smoking Alcohol Use in Pregnancy Next ... 7 of 11 sections Take Action: Eat Healthy and Stay Active Eat healthy foods. Making healthy food choices during pregnancy can help ...

  5. Impact of age, gender and diabetes on serum lipid levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adnan, M.; Shabbir, I.; Ali, Z.; Ali, S.F.; Rahat, T.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives:To see the effects of age, gender and diabetes on serum lipid levels. Study type, settings and duration:Cross sectional analytical study conducted at PMRC Research Centre, Fatima Jinnah Medical College,Lahore from Jun-Dec 2011. Materials and Methods: One hundred type 2 diabetes mellitus and equal numbers of gender matched healthy controls were randomly selected for the study. After an overnight fasting, blood specimens were drawn for lipid profile where total cholesterol,high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were measured by standard enzymatic endpoint methods and LDL-cholesterol by Friedweld's formula. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS-15. Results Odd ratios of age for total cholesterol (OR 1.198); high density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.144); and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.576) revealed that subjects aged 45 years or more had greater risk of having deranged lipid levels. Female gender had higher high density lipoprotein cholesterol (p 0.000); and triglycerides (p 0.001). Odd ratios of men for total cholesterol (OR 0.775); high density lipoprotein cholesterol(OR 0.183); and low density lipoprotein Cholesterol (OR 0.683) illustrated that men were significantly less prone to dyslipidemia than women. Odd ratio of diabetes for high density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.802) suggested that diabetics had 1.8 times more risk of having low high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions: Diabetic females over 45 years of age have significantly high chances of having disturbed or high lipid profile. Policy message:All persons in general and diabetics in particular over the age of 45 years should be screened for dyslipidemia and informed using behavior change communication to prevent disease complications. (author)

  6. Impact of age, gender and diabetes on serum lipid levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adnan, M.; Shabbir, I.; Ali, Z.; Ali, S. F.; Rahat, T. [Fatima Jinnah Medical College, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2013-01-15

    Objectives:To see the effects of age, gender and diabetes on serum lipid levels. Study type, settings and duration:Cross sectional analytical study conducted at PMRC Research Centre, Fatima Jinnah Medical College,Lahore from Jun-Dec 2011. Materials and Methods: One hundred type 2 diabetes mellitus and equal numbers of gender matched healthy controls were randomly selected for the study. After an overnight fasting, blood specimens were drawn for lipid profile where total cholesterol,high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides were measured by standard enzymatic endpoint methods and LDL-cholesterol by Friedweld's formula. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS-15. Results Odd ratios of age for total cholesterol (OR 1.198); high density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.144); and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.576) revealed that subjects aged 45 years or more had greater risk of having deranged lipid levels. Female gender had higher high density lipoprotein cholesterol (p 0.000); and triglycerides (p 0.001). Odd ratios of men for total cholesterol (OR 0.775); high density lipoprotein cholesterol(OR 0.183); and low density lipoprotein Cholesterol (OR 0.683) illustrated that men were significantly less prone to dyslipidemia than women. Odd ratio of diabetes for high density lipoprotein cholesterol (OR 1.802) suggested that diabetics had 1.8 times more risk of having low high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions: Diabetic females over 45 years of age have significantly high chances of having disturbed or high lipid profile. Policy message:All persons in general and diabetics in particular over the age of 45 years should be screened for dyslipidemia and informed using behavior change communication to prevent disease complications. (author)

  7. IQ Score of Children with Persistent or Perennial Allergic Rhinitis: A Comparison with Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Javad; Abbaskhanian, Ali; Jalili, Masumeh; Yazdani Charati, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of allergies is different around the world. Allergic rhinitis is a common chronic disease in children. Intelligence quotient (IQ) is an indicator of efficacy and many factors including chronic diseases may affect it. This study compares the IQs of children diagnosed with persistent or perennial allergic rhinitis with healthy children. This was a comparative study that was conducted from June 2011-May 2013 in an academic referral clinic. In this study, 90 patients aged 6- to 14-yearsold who were diagnosed with persistent or perennial allergic rhinitis and were compared to 90 age and gender match healthy patients from their respective families. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children was used to divide and calculate overall IQ, verbal IQ, and practical IQ. The t-test and chi square were used to analyze quantitative variables and qualitative variables, respectively. In this study, out of total 180 children, 90 (50%) in the case group and 90 children (50%), the control group participated for IQ comparison. One hundred (57%) were male and 80 (43%) were female. The overall IQ for allergic rhinitis patients and healthy patients was 109.2 and 107.5, respectively. This difference was not considered significant. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between the IQ scores of males and females. Although allergic rhinitis is a chronic disease and effects quality of life, there were no identifiable negative effects on IQ.

  8. Vitamin D status in psychotic disorder patients and healthy controls--The influence of ethnic background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerhus, Mari; Berg, Akiah Ottesen; Dahl, Sandra Rinne; Holvik, Kristin; Gardsjord, Erlend Strand; Weibell, Melissa Authen; Bjella, Thomas Doug; Andreassen, Ole A; Melle, Ingrid

    2015-12-15

    Vitamin D deficiency is common among patients with psychotic disorders and could be due to unknown disease mechanisms or contingent factors. However most studies are performed in chronic patients and have often failed to address the influence of ethnicity on vitamin D levels in clinical samples. We investigated serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (S-25 OH D) in first episode patients compared to patients with multi episodes and healthy controls; with a specific focus on differences between visible ethnic minorities and participants from the majority population. A total of 284 participants were included in this cross-sectional study. First episode patients with a DSM-IV psychotic disorder were matched on age, gender and ethnicity to participants from a multi episode patient sample (1:1) and healthy controls (1:2). We did not find any differences between either patient groups or the healthy controls, but participants from visible ethnic minorities had significantly lower S-25 OH D than participants from the majority population. This implies that S-25 OH D should be routinely measured in persons from visible ethnic minorities since low levels are associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Canonical Skeletons for Shape Matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eede, M. van; Macrini, D.; Telea, A.; Sminchisescu, C.; Dickinson, S.

    2006-01-01

    Skeletal representations of 2-D shape, including shock graphs, have become increasingly popular for shape matching and object recognition. However, it is well known that skeletal structure can be unstable under minor boundary deformation, part articulation, and minor shape deformation (due to, for

  10. Matching Games with Additive Externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Michalak, Tomasz; Rahwan, Talal

    2012-01-01

    Two-sided matchings are an important theoretical tool used to model markets and social interactions. In many real life problems the utility of an agent is influenced not only by their own choices, but also by the choices that other agents make. Such an influence is called an externality. Whereas ...

  11. Monetary Exchange with Multilateral Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julien, Benoît; Kennes, John; King, Ian

    the results with Kiyotaki and Wright (1993), Trejos and Wright (1995), and Lagos and Wright (2005) respectively. We find that the multilateral matching setting generates very simple and intuitive equilibrium allocations that are similar to those in the other papers, but which have important differences...

  12. Towards optimal packed string matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben-Kiki, Oren; Bille, Philip; Breslauer, Dany

    2014-01-01

    -size string-matching instruction wssm is available in contemporary commodity processors. The other word-size maximum-suffix instruction wslm is only required during the pattern pre-processing. Benchmarks show that our solution can be efficiently implemented, unlike some prior theoretical packed string...

  13. An Implementation of Bigraph Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenstrup, Arne John; Damgaard, Troels Christoffer; Birkedal, Lars

    We describe a provably sound and complete matching algorithm for bigraphical reactive systems. The algorithm has been implemented in our BPL Tool, a first implementation of bigraphical reactive systems. We describe the tool and present a concrete example of how it can be used to simulate a model...

  14. Soluble serum Klotho levels in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lise Mariager; Pedersen, Susanne Møller; Brasen, Claus Lohman

    2013-01-01

    Klotho concentrations were determined in 120 healthy adults aged 19-66years. Blood samples were collected, and stored sera were assayed for Klotho according to age and gender. In addition several other clinical and laboratory characteristics were determined in the cohort and compared to the levels...... genders. Concentrations of serum Klotho were independently associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and body weight using TRF whereas serum Klotho concentrations were associated with age using the ELISA. CONCLUSION: Comparison of two different immunoassays for serum Klotho indicate...

  15. Níveis iônicos e enzimáticos de cutias (Dasyprocta sp. hígidas, criadas em cativeiro, influência do sexo e da idade Ion and enzymatic levels of healthy agouti (Dasyprocta sp. raised in captivit. Influence of gender and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E.A. Ribeiro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se o perfil do ionograma e enzimas hepáticas de cutias (Dasyprocta sp. saudáveis, criadas em cativeiro, como também se avaliou a influência de sexo, idade e interação sexo-idade. Foi adotado um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 2 x 4 (dois sexos e quatro faixas etárias, com três repetições, totalizando 24 cutias. Foram determinados os valores para o cálcio (Ca, fósforo (P, cloretos (Cl, aspartato aminotransferase (AST, alanina aminotransferase (ALT, fosfatase alcalina (FA e gama-glutamiltransferase (GGT. Os valores médios obtidos foram: Ca= 7,62+2,59mg/dl; P= 3,91+1,41mg/dl; Cl= 58,63+16,45mg/dl; AST= 119,54+79,35UI/ml; ALT= 28,08+15,53UI/ml; FA= 26,95+14,01UI/ml e GGT= 25,34+19,44UI/ml. O valor de P foi maior nas fêmeas e da FA nos machos. Os níveis de FA diminuíram com o aumento da idade.This research studied the profile of the ionogram and hepatic enzymes of healthy agoutis (Dasyprocta sp. raised in captivity as well as evaluated the influence of gender, age and interaction gender-age. It was used a completely randomized design, in a factorial arrangement of 2 x 4 (two genders and four age groups, with three repetitions, totaling 24 agoutis. The values were determined for calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, chlorides (Cl, aspartate aminotransaminase (AST, alanine aminotransaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT. The mean values were: Ca= 7.62±2.59mg/dl; P= 3.91±1.41mg/dl; Cl= 58.63±16,45mg/dl; AST= 119.54±79.35UI/ml; ALT= 28.08±15.53UI/ml; ALP= 26.95±14.01UI/ml, and GGT= 25.34±19.44UI/ml. The value of P was larger in females and ALP in males. As the age increased, levels of ALP decreased.

  16. Myocardium tracking via matching distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ayed, Ismail; Li, Shuo; Ross, Ian; Islam, Ali

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate automatic myocardium tracking in cardiac Magnetic Resonance (MR) sequences using global distribution matching via level-set curve evolution. Rather than relying on the pixelwise information as in existing approaches, distribution matching compares intensity distributions, and consequently, is well-suited to the myocardium tracking problem. Starting from a manual segmentation of the first frame, two curves are evolved in order to recover the endocardium (inner myocardium boundary) and the epicardium (outer myocardium boundary) in all the frames. For each curve, the evolution equation is sought following the maximization of a functional containing two terms: (1) a distribution matching term measuring the similarity between the non-parametric intensity distributions sampled from inside and outside the curve to the model distributions of the corresponding regions estimated from the previous frame; (2) a gradient term for smoothing the curve and biasing it toward high gradient of intensity. The Bhattacharyya coefficient is used as a similarity measure between distributions. The functional maximization is obtained by the Euler-Lagrange ascent equation of curve evolution, and efficiently implemented via level-set. The performance of the proposed distribution matching was quantitatively evaluated by comparisons with independent manual segmentations approved by an experienced cardiologist. The method was applied to ten 2D mid-cavity MR sequences corresponding to ten different subjects. Although neither shape prior knowledge nor curve coupling were used, quantitative evaluation demonstrated that the results were consistent with manual segmentations. The proposed method compares well with existing methods. The algorithm also yields a satisfying reproducibility. Distribution matching leads to a myocardium tracking which is more flexible and applicable than existing methods because the algorithm uses only the current data, i.e., does not

  17. Dietary pattern analysis: a comparison between matched vegetarian and omnivorous subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarys, Peter; Deriemaeker, Peter; Huybrechts, Inge; Hebbelinck, Marcel; Mullie, Patrick

    2013-06-13

    Dietary pattern analysis, based on the concept that foods eaten together are as important as a reductive methodology characterized by a single food or nutrient analysis, has emerged as an alternative approach to study the relation between nutrition and disease. The aim of the present study was to compare nutritional intake and the results of dietary pattern analysis in properly matched vegetarian and omnivorous subjects. Vegetarians (n = 69) were recruited via purposeful sampling and matched non-vegetarians (n = 69) with same age, gender, health and lifestyle characteristics were searched for via convenience sampling. Two dietary pattern analysis methods, the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) and the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) were calculated and analysed in function of the nutrient intake. Mean total energy intake was comparable between vegetarians and omnivorous subjects (p > 0.05). Macronutrient analysis revealed significant differences between the mean values for vegetarians and omnivorous subjects (absolute and relative protein and total fat intake were significantly lower in vegetarians, while carbohydrate and fibre intakes were significantly higher in vegetarians than in omnivorous subjects). The HEI and MDS were significantly higher for the vegetarians (HEI = 53.8.1 ± 11.2; MDS = 4.3 ± 1.3) compared to the omnivorous subjects (HEI = 46.4 ± 15.3; MDS = 3.8 ± 1.4). Our results indicate a more nutrient dense pattern, closer to the current dietary recommendations for the vegetarians compared to the omnivorous subjects. Both indexing systems were able to discriminate between the vegetarians and the non-vegetarians with higher scores for the vegetarian subjects.

  18. Age, gender, and percentage of circulating osteoprogenitor (COP) cells: The COP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardene, Piumali; Al Saedi, Ahmed; Singh, Lakshman; Bermeo, Sandra; Vogrin, Sara; Phu, Steven; Suriyaarachchi, Pushpa; Pignolo, Robert J; Duque, Gustavo

    2017-10-01

    Circulating osteoprogenitor (COP) cells are blood-borne cells which express a variety of osteoblastic markers and are able to form bone nodules in vivo. Whereas a high percentage of COP cells (%COP) is associated with vascular calcification, low %COP has been associated with disability and frailty. However, the reference range of %COP in age- and gender-matching populations, and the age-related changes in %COP remain unknown. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in 144 healthy volunteers in Western Sydney (20-90year-old, 10 male and 10 female subjects per decade). %COP was quantified by flow cytometry. A high inter-and intra-rater reliability was found. In average, in this healthy population average of %COP was 0.42. There was no significant difference in %COP among the age groups. Similarly, no significant difference was found in %COP with gender, weight, height or BMI. In addition, we identified a normal reference range of %COP of 0.1-3.8%. In conclusion, in addition to the identification of steady levels of COP cells with age, we also identified a normal reference range of %COP, which could be used in future studies looking at musculoskeletal diseases in older populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of T wave alternans in patients with cardiomyopathy and healthy controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hira, A.; Khan, M. A.; Hayat, A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To compare T wave alternans in patients with cardiomyopathy and healthy controls. Study Design: Cross-sectional comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Cardiac Electrophysiology, Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology Rawalpindi, from Feb 2016 to Aug 2016. Material and Methods: Sixty patients with cardiomyopathy (any type) along with sixty healthy controls of matched age and gender were recruited through non-probability purposive sampling. Patients with diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular accident, heart failure, bundle branch block, systemic arterial hypertension and ongoing antiarrhythmic therapy were excluded from the study. DMS 300-4L Holters were used to obtain ambulatory ECG recordings. Cardio Scan premier 12 lux software was used for analysis of T wave alternans. Results: Total one twenty subjects were enrolled in the study. Cardiomyopathic patients with positive T wave alternans were 13 (21.7 percent) out of 60, while only 4 (6.7 percent) out of 60 healthy controls demonstrated positive T wave alternans. There was significant variation in frequency of patients with positive T wave alternans as compared to healthy controls with p-value of 0.02. In cases the mean value of T wave alternans was 55.10 µv ± 33.58 while 39.45 µv ± 13.53 in controls. The difference in mean value of T wave alternans between cases and controls was significant with p-value of 0.001. Conclusion: The frequency of patients with cardiomyopathy having positive T wave alternans was significantly higher as compared to the healthy controls. (author)

  20. Gender differences and a school-based obesity prevention program in Argentina: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch Herscovici, Cecile; Kovalskys, Irina; De Gregorio, María José

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the impact of a school-based obesity prevention program that seeks to change food intake among students at schools in Rosario, Argentina. This was a prospective study involving 405 children 9-11 years of age at six schools in the poor areas of Rosario, Argentina, in May-October 2008. After matching for socioeconomic status, schools were selected by simple randomization; participants were assessed at baseline (T1) and again 6 months later, after completion of the intervention (T2). The program focused on increasing the children's knowledge of healthy nutrition and exercise through four workshops; educating the parents/caregivers; and offering healthy options at the school snack bar. The main outcome measures were the children's intake of healthy and unhealthy foods (assessed with a weekly food frequency questionnaire) and their body mass index (BMI). Of the 387 children assessed at T1, 369 were reassessed at T2 (205 intervention; 164 control). Girls at the schools where the intervention occurred increased their intake of three of the five healthy food items promoted by the program (fruits, vegetables, low-sugar cereals). Statistical significance was reached for skim milk (P = 0.03) and for pure orange juice (P = 0.05). Boys of both the intervention and control groups failed to improve their intake of healthy foods, but those of the intervention arm significantly reduced their intake of hamburgers and hot dogs (P = 0.001). Girls were more amenable to improving their dietary intake. Overall, the program was more likely to increase consumption of healthy food than to decrease intake of unhealthy foods. Gender differences should be taken into account when designing preventive interventions.

  1. Gender differences and a school-based obesity prevention program in Argentina: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile Rausch Herscovici

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of a school-based obesity prevention program that seeks to change food intake among students at schools in Rosario, Argentina. METHODS: This was a prospective study involving 405 children 9-11 years of age at six schools in the poor areas of Rosario, Argentina, in May-October 2008. After matching for socioeconomic status, schools were selected by simple randomization; participants were assessed at baseline (T1 and again 6 months later, after completion of the intervention (T2. The program focused on increasing the children's knowledge of healthy nutrition and exercise through four workshops; educating the parents/caregivers; and offering healthy options at the school snack bar. The main outcome measures were the children's intake of healthy and unhealthy foods (assessed with a weekly food frequency questionnaire and their body mass index (BMI. RESULTS: Of the 387 children assessed at T1, 369 were reassessed at T2 (205 intervention; 164 control. Girls at the schools where the intervention occurred increased their intake of three of the five healthy food items promoted by the program (fruits, vegetables, low-sugar cereals. Statistical significance was reached for skim milk (P = 0.03 and for pure orange juice (P = 0.05. Boys of both the intervention and control groups failed to improve their intake of healthy foods, but those of the intervention arm significantly reduced their intake of hamburgers and hot dogs (P = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Girls were more amenable to improving their dietary intake. Overall, the program was more likely to increase consumption of healthy food than to decrease intake of unhealthy foods. Gender differences should be taken into account when designing preventive interventions.

  2. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging in the substantia nigra of healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groeger, Adriane; Godau, Jana; Berg, Daniela; Chadzynski, Grzegorz; Klose, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the substantia nigra in patients with Parkinson's disease three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging with high spatial resolution at 3 Tesla was performed. Regional variations of spectroscopic data between the rostral and caudal regions of the substantia nigra as well as the midbrain tegmentum areas were evaluated in healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease. Nine patients with Parkinson's disease and eight age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included in this study. Data were acquired by using three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging measurements. The ratios between rostral and caudal voxels of the substantia nigra as well as the midbrain tegmentum areas were calculated for the main-metabolites N-acetyl aspartate, creatine, choline, and myo-inositol. Additionally, the metabolite/creatine ratios were calculated. In all subjects spectra of acceptable quality could be obtained with a nominal voxel size of 0.252 ml. The calculated rostral-to-caudal ratios of the metabolites as well as of the metabolite/creatine ratios showed with exception of choline/creatine ratio significant differences between healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease. The findings from this study indicate that regional variations in N-acetyl aspartate/creatine ratios in the regions of the substantia nigra may differentiate patients with Parkinson's disease and healthy controls. (orig.)

  3. Differentiation chronic post traumatic stress disorder patients from healthy subjects using objective and subjective sleep-related parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasian, Masoud; Jamalabadi, Hamidreza; Abedini, Mina; Ghadami, Mohammad R; Sepehry, Amir A; Knight, David C; Khazaie, Habibolah

    2017-05-22

    Sleep disturbance is common in chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, prior work has demonstrated that there are inconsistencies between subjective and objective assessments of sleep disturbance in PTSD. Therefore, we investigated whether subjective or objective sleep assessment has greater clinical utility to differentiate PTSD patients from healthy subjects. Further, we evaluated whether the combination of subjective and objective methods improves the accuracy of classification into patient versus healthy groups, which has important diagnostic implications. We recruited 32 chronic war-induced PTSD patients and 32 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects to participate in this study. Subjective (i.e. from three self-reported sleep questionnaires) and objective sleep-related data (i.e. from actigraphy scores) were collected from each participant. Subjective, objective, and combined (subjective and objective) sleep data were then analyzed using support vector machine classification. The classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for subjective variables were 89.2%, 89.3%, and 89%, respectively. The classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for objective variables were 65%, 62.3%, and 67.8%, respectively. The classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for the aggregate variables (combination of subjective and objective variables) were 91.6%, 93.0%, and 90.3%, respectively. Our findings indicate that classification accuracy using subjective measurements is superior to objective measurements and the combination of both assessments appears to improve the classification accuracy for differentiating PTSD patients from healthy individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Gender (inequality among employees in elder care: implications for health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwér Sofia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Gendered practices of working life create gender inequalities through horizontal and vertical gender segregation in work, which may lead to inequalities in health between women and men. Gender equality could therefore be a key element of health equity in working life. Our aim was to analyze what gender (inequality means for the employees at a woman-dominated workplace and discuss possible implications for health experiences. Methods All caregiving staff at two workplaces in elder care within a municipality in the north of Sweden were invited to participate in the study. Forty-five employees participated, 38 women and 7 men. Seven focus group discussions were performed and led by a moderator. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the focus groups. Results We identified two themes. "Advocating gender equality in principle" showed how gender (inequality was seen as a structural issue not connected to the individual health experiences. "Justifying inequality with individualism" showed how the caregivers focused on personalities and interests as a justification of gender inequalities in work division. The justification of gender inequality resulted in a gendered work division which may be related to health inequalities between women and men. Gender inequalities in work division were primarily understood in terms of personality and interests and not in terms of gender. Conclusion The health experience of the participants was affected by gender (inequality in terms of a gendered work division. However, the participants did not see the gendered work division as a gender equality issue. Gender perspectives are needed to improve the health of the employees at the workplaces through shifting from individual to structural solutions. A healthy-setting approach considering gender relations is needed to achieve gender equality and fairness in health status between women and men.

  5. Facial Emotion Recognition in Schizophrenia: The Impact of Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Erol, Alm?la; Putgul, Gulperi; Kosger, Ferdi; Ersoy, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    Objective Previous studies reported gender differences for facial emotion recognition in healthy people, with women performing better than men. Few studies that examined gender differences for facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia brought out inconsistent findings. The aim of this study is to investigate gender differences for facial emotion identification and discrimination abilities in patients with schizophrenia. Methods 35 female and 35 male patients with schizophrenia, along with 3...

  6. 78 FR 73195 - Privacy Act of 1974: CMS Computer Matching Program Match No. 2013-01; HHS Computer Matching...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... 1974: CMS Computer Matching Program Match No. 2013-01; HHS Computer Matching Program Match No. 1312 AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS... Privacy Act of 1974 (5 U.S.C. 552a), as amended, this notice announces the renewal of a CMP that CMS plans...

  7. [May physicians amputate a healthy limb?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denys, Damiaan

    2014-01-01

    A recent article in the Dutch Journal of Medicine describes two cases of patients with body integrity identity disorder (BIID), a disorder in which patients might resort to self-amputation in order to create the body they wish for. The authors wonder if medical professionals should provide elective amputations in BIID patients in order to prevent them from harm and death. The amputation of a healthy limb in BIID in a medical context is currently under discussion. Doctors struggle to proceed to elective amputation of a healthy body part in BIID. An analogy with gender dysphoria or euthanasia might shed a different light on this dilemma.

  8. Gender Awareness Raising & EFL

    OpenAIRE

    長坂, 達彦; ナガサカ, タツヒコ; Tatsuhiko, Nagasaka

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this short paper is to provide an example of classroom application of the concept of gender roles within the broader framework of Gender Awareness. More generally, it attempts to introduce growing interest in Gender Awareness within the context of changing perspective on Language Learning. What is understood by "gender roles" or "gender domain" will be examined. Explicit and traditional concept of gender roles will be briefly discussed with the relationship between explicit and imp...

  9. Gender issues in translation

    OpenAIRE

    ERGASHEVA G.I.

    2015-01-01

    The following research is done regarding gender in translation dealing specifically with the issue of the translators’ gender identity and its effect on their translations, as well as on how gender itself is translated and produced. We will try to clarify what gender is, how gender manifests itself in the system of language, and what problems translators encounter when translating or producing gender-related materials

  10. Hydrogeological challenges through gender approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Maria Rosaria; Saltari, Davide; Di Giacomo, Tullia Valeria

    2017-04-01

    Women and Men play a different role in the society, tied from the differences (physical, biological, somatic, etc…) typical of each one. In the last decades, more gender approach has been introduced in a number of fields including the hydrogeological risk. Experiences, needs and potential of each one, women and men, covers both the risk reduction before the occurrence of extreme events (vulnerability assessment and prediction of the expected risk), then in the next emergency and intervention in follow-up actions to the overcoming of the event for the return to everyday life. The response of the extreme hydrological events are also subordinated from gender participation and it is closely related from other aspects, as natural disasters (flood events), gender inequalities and urban floodings. These aspects are also scheduled by the different approaches: a woman focuses different primary and social aspects than a man. How women can help organizations offering new 'policies' and government is the main aspect to be considered and how a gender approach can mitigate disasters to hydrological risk. It depends on some factors: gender inequalities (gender perception and sensibility), importance of natural disasters and urban floodings. Gender inequalities can match both in the natural disasters and urban floodings in a relevant way. ICT solutions can also give a helpful framework to accelerate and focus the quicker condition to get the better approach and solution. Gender has a particular significant, explanatory variable in disaster research. Many studies, show how women have higher mortality and morbidity rates than men during natural disasters, especially in lower income countries. In the aftermath disasters, at the same time, specific responsibilities on women are imposed from the gendered division of labour. Furthermore gender differences are sometimes attributed to traditional women's roles, discrimination, lower physical strength, nutritional deficiencies, etc. as

  11. Impact of gender and genetics on emotion processing in Parkinson's disease - A multimodal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Heller

    Full Text Available Background: Parkinson's disease (PD has been suggested to affect males and females differently. Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common and disabling in PD. However, previous studies focusing on emotion recognition in PD have neglected the confounder of gender and lack evidence on the underlying endocrinal and genetic mechanisms. Moreover, while there are many imaging studies on emotion processing in PD, gender-related analyses of neural data are scarce. We therefore aimed at exploring the interplay of the named factors on emotion recognition and processing in PD. Methods: 51 non-demented PD patients (26 male and 44 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC; 25 male were examined clinically and neuropsychologically including an emotion recognition task (Ekman 60faces test. A subsample of 25 patients and 31 HC underwent task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI comprised of videos of emotional facial expressions. To examine the impact of hormones and genetics on emotion processing, blood samples were taken for endocrinal (testosterone, estradiol, progesterone and genetic testing (5-HTTLPR, Val158Met COMT polymorphisms. Results: No group or gender differences emerged regarding cognitive abilities. Male but not female PD patients exhibited confined impairments in recognizing the emotion anger accompanied by diminished neural response to facial expressions (e.g. in the putamen and insula. Endocrinologically, fear recognition was positively correlated with estrogen levels in female patients, while on the genetic level we found an effect of Val158Met COMT genotype on the recognition of fear in PD patients. Conclusions: Our study provides evidence that impaired emotion processing in PD specifically affects male patients, and that hormones and genetics contribute to emotion recognition performance. Further research on the underlying neural, endocrinological and genetic mechanisms of specific symptoms in PD is of clinical relevance, as it

  12. Gender Responsive Livestock Research

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Livestock researchers and development practitioners need to ... Qualitative approaches that integrate gender analysis frameworks and tools; Gender .... and social attitudes, which means multiple methods ... Combining quantitative tools that.

  13. The Multiplicity of Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skewes, Lea

    2015-01-01

    people could quickly sum up the full pallet of meanings that comes with these gender categories. What does it mean to be a man or a woman? Is your sex/gender best captured by your biology (genitalia, hormones and chromosomes), your gender identity (the gender you perceive yourself to be) or your gender...... expression (how you chose to express your gender in clothes, jewelry, gestures, tone of voice)? Many people go through life never making those nuanced gender distinctions. However, where you situated yourself on the different gendered spectrums can have a significant effect on your life and well-being....

  14. Divorce Costs and Marital Dissolution in a One-to-One Matching Framework With Nontransferable Utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Saglam

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we use a two-period one-to-one matching model with incomplete information to examine the effect of changes in divorce costs on marital dissolution. Each individual who has a nontransferable expected utility about the quality of each potential marriage decides whether to marry or to remain single at the beginning of the first period. Individuals married in the first period learn the qualities of their marriages at the beginning of the second period and then decide whether to stay married or to unilaterally divorce. We show that, for any society, there exist matching environments where the probability of the marital dissolution does not reduce divorce costs under gender-optimal matching rules. In such environments, an allocation effect of divorce costs with an ambiguous sign outweighs an incentive effect that is always negative. We also show that these results may also arise under stable matching rules that are not gender optimal.

  15. Matching of equivalent field regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen; Rengarajan, S.B.

    2005-01-01

    In aperture problems, integral equations for equivalent currents are often found by enforcing matching of equivalent fields. The enforcement is made in the aperture surface region adjoining the two volumes on each side of the aperture. In the case of an aperture in a planar perfectly conducting...... screen, having the same homogeneous medium on both sides and an impressed current on one aide, an alternative procedure is relevant. We make use of the fact that in the aperture the tangential component of the magnetic field due to the induced currents in the screen is zero. The use of such a procedure...... shows that equivalent currents can be found by a consideration of only one of the two volumes into which the aperture plane divides the space. Furthermore, from a consideration of an automatic matching at the aperture, additional information about tangential as well as normal field components...

  16. University Reactor Matching Grants Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John Valentine; Farzad Rahnema; Said Abdel-Khalik

    2003-01-01

    During the 2002 Fiscal year, funds from the DOE matching grant program, along with matching funds from the industrial sponsors, have been used to support research in the area of thermal-hydraulics. Both experimental and numerical research projects have been performed. Experimental research focused on two areas: (1) Identification of the root cause mechanism for axial offset anomaly in pressurized water reactors under prototypical reactor conditions, and (2) Fluid dynamic aspects of thin liquid film protection schemes for inertial fusion reactor chambers. Numerical research focused on two areas: (1) Multi-fluid modeling of both two-phase and two-component flows for steam conditioning and mist cooling applications, and (2) Modeling of bounded Rayleigh-Taylor instability with interfacial mass transfer and fluid injection through a porous wall simulating the ''wetted wall'' protection scheme in inertial fusion reactor chambers. Details of activities in these areas are given

  17. Mix-and-match holography

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Yifan; Dun, Xiong; Sun, Qilin; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    target images into pairs of front and rear phase-distorting surfaces. Different target holograms can be decoded by mixing and matching different front and rear surfaces under specific geometric alignments. Our approach, which we call mixWe derive a detailed image formation model for the setting of holographic projection displays, as well as a multiplexing method based on a combination of phase retrieval methods and complex matrix factorization. We demonstrate several application scenarios in both simulation and physical prototypes.

  18. Impedance-matched Marx generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Stygar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We have conceived a new class of prime-power sources for pulsed-power accelerators: impedance-matched Marx generators (IMGs. The fundamental building block of an IMG is a brick, which consists of two capacitors connected electrically in series with a single switch. An IMG comprises a single stage or several stages distributed axially and connected in series. Each stage is powered by a single brick or several bricks distributed azimuthally within the stage and connected in parallel. The stages of a multistage IMG drive an impedance-matched coaxial transmission line with a conical center conductor. When the stages are triggered sequentially to launch a coherent traveling wave along the coaxial line, the IMG achieves electromagnetic-power amplification by triggered emission of radiation. Hence a multistage IMG is a pulsed-power analogue of a laser. To illustrate the IMG approach to prime power, we have developed conceptual designs of two ten-stage IMGs with LC time constants on the order of 100 ns. One design includes 20 bricks per stage, and delivers a peak electrical power of 1.05 TW to a matched-impedance 1.22-Ω load. The design generates 113 kV per stage and has a maximum energy efficiency of 89%. The other design includes a single brick per stage, delivers 68 GW to a matched-impedance 19-Ω load, generates 113 kV per stage, and has a maximum energy efficiency of 90%. For a given electrical-power-output time history, an IMG is less expensive and slightly more efficient than a linear transformer driver, since an IMG does not use ferromagnetic cores.

  19. Impedance-matched Marx generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stygar, W. A.; LeChien, K. R.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Savage, M. E.; Stoltzfus, B. S.; Austin, K. N.; Breden, E. W.; Cuneo, M. E.; Hutsel, B. T.; Lewis, S. A.; McKee, G. R.; Moore, J. K.; Mulville, T. D.; Muron, D. J.; Reisman, D. B.; Sceiford, M. E.; Wisher, M. L.

    2017-04-01

    We have conceived a new class of prime-power sources for pulsed-power accelerators: impedance-matched Marx generators (IMGs). The fundamental building block of an IMG is a brick, which consists of two capacitors connected electrically in series with a single switch. An IMG comprises a single stage or several stages distributed axially and connected in series. Each stage is powered by a single brick or several bricks distributed azimuthally within the stage and connected in parallel. The stages of a multistage IMG drive an impedance-matched coaxial transmission line with a conical center conductor. When the stages are triggered sequentially to launch a coherent traveling wave along the coaxial line, the IMG achieves electromagnetic-power amplification by triggered emission of radiation. Hence a multistage IMG is a pulsed-power analogue of a laser. To illustrate the IMG approach to prime power, we have developed conceptual designs of two ten-stage IMGs with L C time constants on the order of 100 ns. One design includes 20 bricks per stage, and delivers a peak electrical power of 1.05 TW to a matched-impedance 1.22 -Ω load. The design generates 113 kV per stage and has a maximum energy efficiency of 89%. The other design includes a single brick per stage, delivers 68 GW to a matched-impedance 19 -Ω load, generates 113 kV per stage, and has a maximum energy efficiency of 90%. For a given electrical-power-output time history, an IMG is less expensive and slightly more efficient than a linear transformer driver, since an IMG does not use ferromagnetic cores.

  20. Transit Matching for International Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilligan, K.; Whitaker, M.; Oakberg, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 the U.S. Department of Energy / National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Non-proliferation and International Security (NIS) supported a study of the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) processes and procedures for ensuring that shipments of nuclear material correspond to (match) their receipts (i.e., transit matching). Under Comprehensive Safeguards Agreements, Member States are obliged to declare such information within certain time frames. Nuclear weapons states voluntarily declare such information under INFCIRC/207. This study was funded by the NIS Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) Concepts and Approaches program. Oak Ridge National Laboratory led the research, which included collaboration with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the U.S. Nuclear Material Management and Safeguards System (NMMSS), and the IAEA Section for Declared Information Analysis within the Department of Safeguards. The project studied the current transit matching methodologies, identified current challenges (e.g., level of effort and timeliness), and suggested improvements. This paper presents the recommendations that resulted from the study and discussions with IAEA staff. In particular, it includes a recommendation to collaboratively develop a set of best reporting practices for nuclear weapons states under INFCIRC/207. (author)

  1. Gender differences in adolescents’ lifestyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Hernando

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes gender differences observed in different aspects of adolescent lifestyles, such as physical activities and sports, involvement in extracurricular activities, use of ICT’s, time spent with friends and time spent studying, substance use, and sleep-related routines. Bearing this in mind, we analyzed differences by year and gender in a sample of 2400 adolescents, 55.5 percent girls and 44.5 percent of boys, aged between 12 and 17 (mean age =14.73 and SD = 1.24 in 20 schools from Andalusia. The results from correlation analysis, ANOVA, and Tukey test confirm significant correlations between most variables making up lifestyle, most of them positive except those related to substance use (most correlations were negative. We also found significant gender differences in lifestyles: 10 out of the 15 variables analyzed have significant gender differences. A significant negative correlation with age was found in a number of variables making up healthy lifestyles, such as the practice of sport and physical activity, participation in extracurricular activities and sleep.

  2. Healthy Watersheds Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for restoring areas with degraded water quality, as well as protecting healthy waters from emerging problems before expensive damages occur. ... exclusively on restoring impaired waters, EPA created the Healthy ... more emphasis to proactively protecting high quality waters, following the ...

  3. Tips for Healthy Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevent voice problems and maintain a healthy voice: Drink water (stay well hydrated): Keeping your body well hydrated by drinking plenty of water each day (6-8 glasses) is essential to maintaining a healthy voice. The ...

  4. Human paraoxonase and HDL-cholesterol in pakistan patients with acute myocardial infarction and normal healthy adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, I.P.; Khan, A.H.; Mehboobali, N.

    2007-01-01

    Human serum paraoxonase is a high density lipoprotein (HDL)-bound enzyme exhibiting antiatherogenic properties. The aim of this study was to investigate any relationship between serum paraoxonase activity and serum levels of HDL-cholesterol in Pakistani patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) compared to normal healthy subjects and to examine possible association between serum paraoxonase activity and AMI in Pakistani population. In a case-control study, serum paraoxonase activity and serum levels of HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were monitored in 164 Pakistani patients with AMI and 106 normal healthy adults matched for gender, BMI and age within 10 years. Mean serum concentration of HDL-cholesterol and mean serum paraoxonase activity in AMI patients were not significantly different from the corresponding values in normal healthy subjects. Mean serum paraoxonase activity value was significantly lower in normal healthy subjects with low HDL-cholesterol (serum levels < 40mg/dl) compared to the value in those with normal levels of HDL-cholesterol (P=0.04). In AMI patients, paraoxonase activity was lower in subjects with low HDL-cholesterol compared to those with normal levels of HDL-cholesterol, however, the decrease was not statistically significant. Correlation analyses of the data revealed a moderate association of paraoxonase activity with HDL-cholesterol (Pearson's r= 0.225, P<0.01 for AMI patients and r=0.281, P<0.01 for normal healthy controls). Seventy three percent of normal healthy subjects and 65% of AMI patients in this study had low HDL-cholesterol. Low serum paraoxonase activity and high prevalence of low HDL-cholesterol in Pakistani population could be contributing to the high rates of coronary heart disease in this population. (author)

  5. Matchings with Externalities and Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Michalak, Tomasz; Rahwan, Talal

    2013-01-01

    Two-sided matchings are an important theoretical tool used to model markets and social interactions. In many real-life problems the utility of an agent is influenced not only by their own choices, but also by the choices that other agents make. Such an influence is called an externality. Whereas ...... where agents take different attitudes when reasoning about the actions of others. In particular, we study optimistic, neutral and pessimistic attitudes and provide both computational hardness results and polynomial-time algorithms for computing stable outcomes....

  6. ADOLESCENTS’ HEALTHY EATING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne

    understanding of adolescent healthy eating. Based on this, the thesis presents three research questions which are investigated in three research papers. The research questions are: 1. Which roles do parents and adolescents have in healthy eating socialisation? 2. How does the social influence from parents...... and family members’ roles regarding healthy eating socialisation is underexposed, the study aimed at exploring adolescents’ and parents’ awareness of and involvement in healthy eating and investigated how they related it to their roles in the healthy eating socialisation taking place within the family...... or a cooperative one helping parents. Parents initiated dialogues with family members about healthy eating and felt responsible as role models often fulfilling the adolescents’ demands and acknowledging their help. The findings confirm that parents still have the upper hand, when it comes to healthy eating...

  7. The effect of sociodemographic (mis)match between interviewers and respondents on unit and item nonresponse in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercruyssen, Anina; Wuyts, Celine; Loosveldt, Geert

    2017-09-01

    Interviewer characteristics affect nonresponse and measurement errors in face-to-face surveys. Some studies have shown that mismatched sociodemographic characteristics - for example gender - affect people's behavior when interacting with an interviewer at the door and during the survey interview, resulting in more nonresponse. We investigate the effect of sociodemographic (mis)matching on nonresponse in two successive rounds of the European Social Survey in Belgium. As such, we replicate the analyses of the effect of (mis)matching gender and age on unit nonresponse on the one hand, and of gender, age and education level (mis)matching on item nonresponse on the other hand. Recurring effects of sociodemographic (mis)match are found for both unit and item nonresponse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Gender differences in work–home interplay and symptom perception among Swedish white‐collar employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntsson, L; Lundberg, U; Krantz, G

    2006-01-01

    Objective To analyse gender differences in paid and unpaid workload and symptoms in matched groups of Swedish white‐collar workers with children. Design and setting Paid and unpaid workload and perceived stress from paid work, conflict between demands and control over household work were measured by a total workload (TWL) questionnaire. Some symptoms were rated with regard to frequency and severity as a measure of health. Cross‐sectional analyses were performed. Participants Matched groups of male (n = 440) and female (n = 529) well‐educated white‐collar workers in full‐time employment, aged 32–58 years and living with children in the home. Results Women in higher positions in Sweden are healthier than the average population of women, but report more symptoms than men in the same position as well as more stress from paid work, more conflict between demands and a greater TWL. However, women also reported more control over household duties and TWL was not associated with more symptoms. The men were mainly focused on their paid work role and perhaps even more so than men in the general population as they were fairly resistant to feelings of conflicting demands. Conclusion Even among matched groups of full‐time employed, well‐educated men and women, traditional gender differences in division of responsibilities and time allocation were found. Even though the women were healthy at this stage, they might risk future ill health, owing to high workload, stress and feelings of conflicting demands. PMID:17108304

  9. TRANSCENDENTAL ASPECTS OF GENDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr V. Khmel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the basic principles of gender philosophy applying methodological tools of communicative pragmatics; to demonstrate how gender construct can provide gender humanism formation as one of the ideals of democratic society; to specify gender glossary terms such as “gender democracy”, “gender equality” and “gender justice”. Methodology. In order to investigate a theoretical framework in feminist philosophy, methodological tools of communicative pragmatics and discursive ethics that were elaborated by modern German philosophers J. Habermas, K.-O. Apel for analyzing ethical gender principles and their legitimation ways have been used in this research. Scientific novelty. Based on methodological differences in concepts of J. Habermas and K.-O. Apel, two opposite approaches to gender concept analysis – rational and pragmatic (Habermas and transcendental conceptual (K.-O. Apel have been found out. The article helps to specify the framework of categories and concepts. According to the legitimation way of gender ethical theory it was discovered that such notions as “gender democracy”, “gender equality” and “gender justice” do not have the same meanings. According to the analysis of communicative action program and consensus, the “gender equality” concept by Habermas is an artificial social construct that is methodologically grounded in cognitivism and diminishes the possibilities of gender values legitimation. According to K.-O. Apel, the concept of “gender justice” is based on transcendental moral and ethical sense of opposite genders unity and does not discharge unequal distribution of responsibilities and any invasion as well as represents certain extent of their difference. Conclusions. Fast growing gender changes in the society face ageold drawbacks of moral and spiritual principles of communities, taking into account social and cultural, national and gender identity. Thorough understanding of

  10. Gender identity and sexual orientation in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Rita; Stokes, Mark A

    2017-09-01

    Clinical impressions indicate that there is an overrepresentation of gender-dysphoria within the autism spectrum disorder. However, little is presently known about the demographics of gender-identity issues in autism spectrum disorder. Based upon what little is known, we hypothesized that there would be an increased prevalence of gender-dysphoria among those with autism spectrum disorder compared to a typically developing population. We surveyed gender-dysphoria with the Gender-Identity/Gender-Dysphoria Questionnaire among 90 males and 219 females with autism spectrum disorder and compared these rates to those of 103 males and 158 females without autism spectrum disorder. When compared to typically developing individuals, autistic individuals reported a higher number of gender-dysphoric traits. Rates of gender-dysphoria in the group with autism spectrum disorder were significantly higher than reported in the wider population. Mediation analysis found that the relationship between autistic traits and sexual orientation was mediated by gender-dysphoric traits. Results suggest that autism spectrum disorder presents a unique experience to the formation and consolidation of gender identity, and for some autistic individuals, their sexual orientation relates to their gender experience. It is important that clinicians working with autism spectrum disorder are aware of the gender-diversity in this population so that the necessary support for healthy socio-sexual functioning and mental well-being is provided.

  11. Validity indices of the Rorschach test and Personality Assessment Inventory: a comparison in pathological and healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santo F. Di Nuovo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The debate about the validity of the Rorschach test, compared with psychometric inventories, is particularly relevant in the forensic evaluation. The aim of the study is to present an overview on the control indices proposed in Rorschach (e.g. R,  F%, Lambda Index and in a personality inventory (Personality Assessment Inventory: e.g., openness, desirability, inconsistency, infrequency, negative and positive impression, malingering and defensiveness, treatment rejection and to cross-correlate these indices. The sample consisted of 50 adult inpatients with diagnosis of severe depression or psychosis, and a control group of healthy subjects, matched by gender, age and educational level. The results show that the analytic style, as opposed to the global one, is related to greater openness to psychological assessment, less social desirability and defensive tendency. The Rorschach Lambda index demonstrates good validity in detecting tendency to defensiveness, social desirability and dissimulation, both in normal and pathological protocols.

  12. Comparison of total and compartmental gastric emptying and antral motility between healthy men and women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennink, R.; Van den Maegdenbergh, V.; Roo, M. de; Mortelmans, L. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, UZ KU Leuven (Belgium); Peeters, M.; Geypens, B.; Rutgeerts, P. [Department of Gastroenterology, UZ KU Leuven (Belgium)

    1998-09-01

    There is increasing evidence of gender-related differences in gastric emptying. The purpose of this study was first, to confirm the difference in gastric emptying for both solid and liquid test meals between healthy men and women, and secondly, to investigate the origin of this difference by studying regional gastric emptying and antral motility. A standard gastric emptying test with additional compartmental (proximal and distal) evaluation and dynamic imaging of the antrum was performed in 20 healthy women studied during the first 10 days of the menstrual cycle, and in 31 healthy age-matched men. In concordance with previous reports, women had a longer half-emptying time for solids as compared to men (86.2{+-}5.1 vs 52.2{+-}2.9 min, P<0.05). In our observations this seemed to be related to a significantly prolonged lag phase and a significant decrease in terminal slope. Dynamical antral scintigraphy did not show a significant difference. The distribution of the test meal within the stomach (proximal vs distal) showed more early proximal retention in women as compared to men. The terminal slope of the distal somach was significantly lower in women. We did not observe a significant difference in gastric emptying of the liquid test meal between men and women. Gastric emptying of solids is significantly slower in healthy women as compared to men. These findings emphasise the importance of using different normal values for clinical and research purposes in gastric emptying scintigraphy in men and women. The difference could not be explained by antral motility alone. Increased proximal retention and a lower terminal emptying rate in women are observations to be further investigated. (orig.) With 5 figs., 2 tabs., 36 refs.

  13. Dilemmas in the Danish approach to gender equality : gender equality without gender quota

    OpenAIRE

    ROLANDSEN AGUSTÍN, Lise; SIIM, Birte

    2015-01-01

    The paper addresses the dilemmas, contradictions and paradoxes in the Danish approach to gender quotas and gender equality and discusses the intersections of citizenship, democracy and gender justice. Gender research understands gender quota as a means to achieve equal rights, gender equality and gender parity. Gender theory has conceptualized gender parity as one step towards achieving gender justice in all arenas of social, political and economic life. The Danish cases illustrate that conte...

  14. An Examination of Gender Diversity in the 21st Century Royal Danish Armed Forces - Can the US Experience Contribute to the Future Danish Armed Forces?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kanstrup, Henrik

    2001-01-01

    .... Gender integration in the Danish military has not been able to match the level found in society - where Denmark ranks in the top echelon of nations with regard to balancing gender opportunities...

  15. Reducing the likelihood of long tennis matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Tristan; Alan, Brown; Pollard, Graham

    2006-01-01

    Long matches can cause problems for tournaments. For example, the starting times of subsequent matches can be substantially delayed causing inconvenience to players, spectators, officials and television scheduling. They can even be seen as unfair in the tournament setting when the winner of a very long match, who may have negative aftereffects from such a match, plays the winner of an average or shorter length match in the next round. Long matches can also lead to injuries to the participating players. One factor that can lead to long matches is the use of the advantage set as the fifth set, as in the Australian Open, the French Open and Wimbledon. Another factor is long rallies and a greater than average number of points per game. This tends to occur more frequently on the slower surfaces such as at the French Open. The mathematical method of generating functions is used to show that the likelihood of long matches can be substantially reduced by using the tiebreak game in the fifth set, or more effectively by using a new type of game, the 50-40 game, throughout the match. Key PointsThe cumulant generating function has nice properties for calculating the parameters of distributions in a tennis matchA final tiebreaker set reduces the length of matches as currently being used in the US OpenA new 50-40 game reduces the length of matches whilst maintaining comparable probabilities for the better player to win the match.

  16. Robust matching for voice recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Alan; Bahler, L.; Porter, J.; Blais, P.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes an automated method of comparing a voice sample of an unknown individual with samples from known speakers in order to establish or verify the individual's identity. The method is based on a statistical pattern matching approach that employs a simple training procedure, requires no human intervention (transcription, work or phonetic marketing, etc.), and makes no assumptions regarding the expected form of the statistical distributions of the observations. The content of the speech material (vocabulary, grammar, etc.) is not assumed to be constrained in any way. An algorithm is described which incorporates frame pruning and channel equalization processes designed to achieve robust performance with reasonable computational resources. An experimental implementation demonstrating the feasibility of the concept is described.

  17. Ontology Matching with Semantic Verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Mary, Yves R; Shironoshita, E Patrick; Kabuka, Mansur R

    2009-09-01

    ASMOV (Automated Semantic Matching of Ontologies with Verification) is a novel algorithm that uses lexical and structural characteristics of two ontologies to iteratively calculate a similarity measure between them, derives an alignment, and then verifies it to ensure that it does not contain semantic inconsistencies. In this paper, we describe the ASMOV algorithm, and then present experimental results that measure its accuracy using the OAEI 2008 tests, and that evaluate its use with two different thesauri: WordNet, and the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). These results show the increased accuracy obtained by combining lexical, structural and extensional matchers with semantic verification, and demonstrate the advantage of using a domain-specific thesaurus for the alignment of specialized ontologies.

  18. Gender Stereotyping in Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hussain

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender stereotyping and gender role development is one of the debatable concerns to sociologists especially those who are interested in sociology of gender. This study attempts to investigate the role of family inculcating gender stereotyping in Pakhtun culture and its impact on gender role development conducted in public-sector universities of Malakand Division, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. The data were collected through in-depth interview method using interview guide as a tool of data collection. A sample size of 24 respondents consisting male and female students and teachers (8 samples from each university through purposive sampling technique was selected from three universities in the region, that is, University of Malakand, University of Swat, and Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University Sharingal (main campus. The collected information has been analyzed qualitatively where primary information has been linked with secondary data for further elaboration and attainment of grounded facts. The study reveals that gender stereotyping and gender role formation are sociocultural and relational constructs, which are developed and inculcated in the institutional network, social interaction, and social relationships especially in family. The study indicated that in family sphere, gender stereotyping and gender role formation are the outcome of gender socialization, differential familial environment, and parents’ differential role with children. The study recommends that gender-balanced familial environment, adopting the strategy of gender mainstreaming and positive role of media, can overcome gender stereotyping and reduce its impacts on gender and social role formation.

  19. [Healthy Cities projects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Takehito

    2002-05-01

    This is a review article on "Healthy Cities". The Healthy Cities programme has been developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) to tackle urban health and environmental issues in a broad way. It is a kind of comprehensive policy package to carry out individual projects and activities effectively and efficiently. Its key aspects include healthy public policy, vision sharing, high political commitment, establishment of structural organization, strategic health planning, intersectoral collaboration, community participation, setting approach, development of supportive environment for health, formation of city health profile, national and international networking, participatory research, periodic monitoring and evaluation, and mechanisms for sustainability of projects. The present paper covered the Healthy Cities concept and approaches, rapid urbanization in the world, developments of WHO Healthy Cities, Healthy Cities developments in the Western Pacific Region, the health promotion viewpoint, and roles of research.

  20. Are there healthy obese?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griera Borrás, José Luis; Contreras Gilbert, José

    2014-01-01

    It is currently postulated that not all obese individuals have to be considered as pathological subjects. From 10% to 20% of obese people studied do not show the metabolic changes common in obese patients. The term "healthy obese" has been coined to refer to these patients and differentiate them from the larger and more common group of pathological obese subjects. However, the definition of "healthy obese" is not clear. Use of "healthy obese" as a synonym for obese without metabolic complications is risky. Clinical markers such as insulin resistance are used to identify this pathology. It is not clear that healthy obese subjects have lower morbidity and mortality than pathologically obese patients. According to some authors, healthy obese would represent an early stage in evolution towards pathological obesity. There is no agreement as to the need to treat healthy obese subjects. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Using crosswell data to enhance history matching

    KAUST Repository

    Ravanelli, Fabio M.; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    of the reality. This problem is mitigated by conditioning the model with data through data assimilation, a process known in the oil industry as history matching. Several recent advances are being used to improve history matching reliability, notably the use

  2. Myocardial sestamibi single-photon emission tomography: variations in reference values with gender, age and rest versus stress?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toft, J.; Hesse, B.; Raboel, A.; Carstensen, S.; Ali, S.

    1997-01-01

    Reference data files support the evaluation of myocardial perfusion single-photon emission tomography (SPET). The aim of this study was to create a large reference data base for technetium-99m sestamibi SPET, age and gender matched to the general patient population. One hundred and twenty-eight healthy volunteers (76 males and 52 females) with a likelihood of coronary artery disease of less than 5% underwent rest and maximal exercise 99m Tc-sestamibi SPET with a 2-day protocol and 180 elliptical rotation. The normalized activity values of 99m Tc-sestamibi in the inferior wall differed significantly between men and women. Age variations were found for men in the anterior wall. Normalized activity values in all four walls were strikingly similar during rest and stress. Our results suggest that the use of reference files in 99m Tc-sestamibi SPET requires a gender- and, for males, possibly an age-matched reference population. Different reference files at rest and during stress might not be necessary. (orig.). With 3 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Comparison of color discrimination in chronic heavy smokers and healthy subjects [version 3; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Monteiro de Paiva Fernandes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cigarette smoke is probably the most significant source of exposure to toxic chemicals for humans, involving health-damaging components, such as nicotine, hydrogen cyanide and formaldehyde. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of chronic heavy smoking on color discrimination (CD. Methods: All subjects were free of any neuropsychiatric disorder, identifiable ocular disease and had normal acuity. No abnormalities were detected in the fundoscopic examination and in the optical coherence tomography exam. We assessed color vision for healthy heavy smokers (n = 15; age range, 20-45 years, deprived smokers (n = 15, age range 20-45 years and healthy non-smokers (n = 15; age range, 20-45 years, using the psychophysical forced-choice method. All groups were matched for gender and education level. In this test, the volunteers had to choose the pseudoisochromatic stimulus containing a test frequency at four directions (e.g., up, down, right and left in the subtest of Cambridge Colour Test (CCT: Trivector. Results: Performance on CCT differed between groups, and the observed pattern was that smokers had lower discrimination compared to non-smokers. In addition, deprived smokers presented lower discrimination to smokers and non-smokers. Contrary to expectation, the largest differences were observed for medium and long wavelengths. Conclusions: These results suggests that cigarette smoking, chronic exposure to its compounds, and withdrawal from nicotine affect color discrimination. This highlights the importance of understanding the diverse effects of nicotine on attentional bias.

  4. The response of social anxiety disorder patients to threat scenarios differs from that of healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C.V. Mesquita

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the response of social anxiety disorder (SAD patients to threat scenarios. First-choice responses to 12 scenarios describing conspecific threatening situations and mean scores of defensive direction and defensive intensity dimensions were compared between 87 SAD patients free of medication and 87 matched healthy controls (HC. A significant gender difference in the first-choice responses was identified for seven scenarios among HCs but only for two scenarios among SAD patients. A significantly higher proportion of SAD patients chose "freezing" in response to "Bush" and "Noise" scenarios, whereas the most frequent response by HCs to these scenarios was "check out". SAD males chose "run away" and "yell" more often than healthy men in response to the scenarios "Park" and "Elevator", respectively. There was a positive correlation between the severity of symptoms and both defensive direction and defensive intensity dimensions. Factorial analysis confirmed the gradient of defensive reactions derived from animal studies. SAD patients chose more urgent defensive responses to threat scenarios, seeming to perceive them as more dangerous than HCs and tending to move away from the source of threat. This is consistent with the hypothesis that the physiopathology of anxiety disorders involves brain structures responsible for defensive behaviors.

  5. Gender differences in symptoms of hypothyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Knudsen, Nils

    2015-01-01

    of questionnaires. The gender-specific distribution of 13 hypothyroidism-associated symptoms and a simple combined score (0-13) was explored in conditional uni- and multivariate models taking into account a broad spectrum of possible confounders. Diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) were calculated as measures......OBJECTIVES: We examined the gender-specific symptom prevalences in hypothyroidism and in healthy controls and explored the extent to which symptoms indicative of thyroid status may be different in women and men. DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients newly diagnosed with overt autoimmune hypothyroidism (n...

  6. Supplies should match growing demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmusen, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    The natural gas industry is currently enjoying healthy growth prospects. Not only is the demand for natural gas steadily growing; the outlook for increasing gas reserves is promising as well. The success of natural gas in the marketplace reflects, on one hand, continuous attention paid to public and customer requirements and, on the other hand, the ability of the gas industry to direct technological developments toward the increasing public demand for gas at competitive market prices supplied in a reliable, safe and environmentally friendly manner. In the past, the gas industry has been involved in the development of technologies for everything from gas production to the end user and from borehole to burner tip, and the author believes that the industry must continue or even increase its emphasis on technology in the future in order to capture new market opportunities. He explains this by looking at the supply side, the demand side and the structural side of the business

  7. A multiscale approach to mutual information matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluim, J.P.W.; Maintz, J.B.A.; Viergever, M.A.; Hanson, K.M.

    1998-01-01

    Methods based on mutual information have shown promising results for matching of multimodal brain images. This paper discusses a multiscale approach to mutual information matching, aiming for an acceleration of the matching process while considering the accuracy and robustness of the method. Scaling

  8. Connections between the matching and chromatic polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Farrell

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The main results established are (i a connection between the matching and chromatic polynomials and (ii a formula for the matching polynomial of a general complement of a subgraph of a graph. Some deductions on matching and chromatic equivalence and uniqueness are made.

  9. Database crime to crime match rate calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckleton, John; Bright, Jo-Anne; Walsh, Simon J

    2009-06-01

    Guidance exists on how to count matches between samples in a crime sample database but we are unable to locate a definition of how to estimate a match rate. We propose a method that does not proceed from the match counting definition but which has a strong logic.

  10. Patients suffering from restless legs syndrome have low internal locus of control and poor psychological functioning compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Beck, Johannes; Hatzinger, Martin; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2013-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disturbing sensorimotor disorder negatively influencing both sleep and psychological functioning. The aim of the present study was to assess RLS patients with respect to locus of control, sleep-related personality traits, quality of life, and sleep as compared to healthy controls. Thirty-eight patients (18 females and 20 males; mean age: 56.06 years) diagnosed with RLS and an age- and gender-matched control group (n = 42) were recruited. Participants completed a series of questionnaires related to locus of control, personality traits, quality of life, and sleep. Compared to healthy controls, RLS patients had a lower internal locus of control, unfavourable sleep-related personality traits such as low self-confidence and higher mental arousal, poorer quality of life, and more depressive symptoms. Sleep was also affected. Multiple regression analyses showed that a low internal and a high external locus of control were predicted by RLS. The pattern of results suggests that RLS is associated with a low locus of control, negative personality traits, and poor quality of life as compared to healthy controls. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. The energy cost of playing active video games in children with obesity and children of a healthy weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, C; Roche, E F; Hussey, J

    2014-08-01

    Increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary behaviour form a large part of the treatment of paediatric obesity. However, many children today spend prolonged periods of time playing sedentary video games. Active video games (AVGs) represent a novel and child friendly form of physical activity. To measure the energy cost of playing two AVGs in children with obesity and healthy age- and gender-matched children. The energy cost of gaming and heart rates achieved during gaming conditions were compared between groups. AVG play can result in light-to-moderate intensity physical activity (2.7-5.4 metabolic equivalents). When corrected for fat-free mass those with obesity expended significantly less energy than healthy weight peers playing Nintendo Wii Fit Free Jogging (P = 0.017). No significant difference was seen between groups in the energy cost of playing Boxing. Certain AVGs, particularly those that require lower limb movement, could be used to increase total energy expenditure, replace more sedentary activities, or achieve moderate intensity physical activity among children with obesity. There seems to be some differences in how children with obesity and children of a healthy weight play AVGs. This could result in those with obesity expending less energy than their lean peers during AVG play. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  12. Gender Identity and Gender Confusion in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to be influenced by their identification with the males and females in their lives, the sense of being a girl or a boy (i.e. gender identity) cannot be changed. Gender Stereotypes Over time, society has recognized that stereotypes of ...

  13. Gender, Discourse, and "Gender and Discourse."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Hayley

    1997-01-01

    A critic of Deborah Tannen's book "Gender and Discourse" responds to comments made about her critique, arguing that the book's analysis of the relationship of gender and discourse tends to seek, and perhaps force, explanations only in those terms. Another linguist's analysis of similar phenomena is found to be more rigorous. (MSE)

  14. Geographic Trends in the Plastic Surgery Match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Jason; Lin, Ines C; Serletti, Joseph M; Chang, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The integrated plastic surgery match is among the most competitive residency matches in recent years. Although previous studies have correlated applicant characteristics with successful match outcomes, none have comprehensively investigated the role of geography in the match. This study elucidates regional biases in the match. Plastic surgery residents who matched during 2011-2015 were eligible for study inclusion. Names of residents were obtained from official residency program websites and cross-referenced with data obtained from the Student Doctor Network. For each resident, region of residency program and medical school were compared. From 67 programs, 622 residents were identified. Most graduated from US medical schools (97.9%). A total of 94 residents matched at a home institution (15.1%). Half of the residents matched in the same region as their medical school (48.9%). Programs in the South matched the greatest number of residents from the same region (60.8%), whereas West programs matched the least (30.8%, p < 0.001). No regional differences existed regarding residents matching at their home institution (p = 0.268). More women matched at West programs (43.1%) versus East programs (30.6%, p < 0.05). A significant number of residents matched at their home institution. Roughly, half matched at a program in the same region as their medical school. Whether this regional phenomenon stems from applicant or program factors remains unknown. Yet, given the limited number of interviews and the high costs of interviewing, applicants and programs can use these data to help optimize the match process. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Image matching navigation based on fuzzy information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田玉龙; 吴伟仁; 田金文; 柳健

    2003-01-01

    In conventional image matching methods, the image matching process is mostly based on image statistic information. One aspect neglected by all these methods is that there is much fuzzy information contained in these images. A new fuzzy matching algorithm based on fuzzy similarity for navigation is presented in this paper. Because the fuzzy theory is of the ability of making good description of the fuzzy information contained in images, the image matching method based on fuzzy similarity would look forward to producing good performance results. Experimental results using matching algorithm based on fuzzy information also demonstrate its reliability and practicability.

  16. Leadership Effectiveness and Gender

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gedney, Christine

    1999-01-01

    This research paper on the subject of Leadership Effectiveness and Gender attempts to conduct a focused amount of research to answer the question about the correlation between gender and leadership effectiveness...

  17. Active and Healthy Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Stephen; Kovarik, Jessica; Leidy, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Active and Healthy School Program (AHS) can be used to alter the culture and environment of a school to help children make healthier choices. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of AHS to increase physical activity while decreasing total screen time, increase healthy food choices, and improve knowledge about physical…

  18. Healthy human gut phageome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manrique, Pilar; Bolduc, Benjamin; Walk, Seth T.; Oost, van der John; Vos, de Willem M.; Young, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    The role of bacteriophages in influencing the structure and function of the healthy human gut microbiome is unknown. With few exceptions, previous studies have found a high level of heterogeneity in bacteriophages from healthy individuals. To better estimate and identify the shared phageome of

  19. Making Healthy Choices Easier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldborg Hansen, Pelle; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Lund Skov, Katrine

    2016-01-01

    . However, integration and testing of the nudge approach as part of more comprehensive public health strategies aimed at making healthy choices easier is being threatened by inadequate understandings of its scientific character, relationship with regulation and its ethical implications. This article reviews...... working with or incorporating the nudge approach into programs or policies aimed at making healthy choices easier...

  20. A personalized healthy workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Justin

    2017-01-01

    In February 2017, seven partners signed a contract to collaborate on a project called the Healthy Workplace. Measuremen, Menzis, Health2Work, ENGIE, Planon, and Hanzehogeschool Groningen are dedicated to make the regular workplace a healthy workplace. Health is of primary importance for both the

  1. Characterization of a novel panel of plasma microRNAs that discriminates between Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jia-Yi; Liang, Hong-Wei; Pan, Xin-Ling; Li, Di; Jiao, Na; Liu, Yan-Hong; Fu, Jin; He, Xiao-Yu; Sun, Gao-Xiang; Zhang, Chun-Lei; Zhao, Chi-Hao; Li, Dong-Hai; Dai, En-Yu; Zen, Ke; Zhang, Feng-Min; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Chen, Xi; Ling, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Cavities are important in clinical diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although microRNAs (miRNAs) play a vital role in the regulation of inflammation, the relation between plasma miRNA and pulmonary tuberculosis with cavity remains unknown. In this study, plasma samples were derived from 89 cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis (CP-TB) patients, 89 non-cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis (NCP-TB) patients and 95 healthy controls. Groups were matched for age and gender. In the screening phase, Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology was employed to analyze miRNA profiles in plasma samples pooled from CP-TB patients, NCP-TB patients and healthy controls. During the training and verification phases, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) was conducted to verify the differential expression of selected miRNAs among groups. Illumina high-throughput sequencing identified 29 differentially expressed plasma miRNAs in TB patients when compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, qRT-PCR analysis validated miR-769-5p, miR-320a and miR-22-3p as miRNAs that were differently present between TB patients and healthy controls. ROC curve analysis revealed that the potential of these 3 miRNAs to distinguish TB patients from healthy controls was high, with the area under the ROC curve (AUC) ranged from 0.692 to 0.970. Moreover, miR-320a levels were decreased in drug-resistant TB patients than pan-susceptible TB patients (AUC = 0.882). In conclusion, we identified miR-769-5p, miR-320a and miR-22-3p as potential blood-based biomarkers for TB. In addition, miR-320a may represent a biomarker for drug-resistant TB.

  2. Gender Inequality and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Busse, Matthias; Spielmann, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The paper empirically explores the international linkages between gender inequality and trade flows of a sample of 92 developed and developing countries. The focus is on comparative advantage in labour-intensive manufactured goods. The results indicate that gender wage inequality is positively associated with comparative advantage in labour-intensive goods, that is, countries with a larger gender wage gap have higher exports of these goods. Also, gender inequality in labour force activity rat...

  3. Workshop I: Gender Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Eden; Kurup, Anitha; Meza-Montes, Lilia; Shastri, Prajval; Ghose, Shohini

    2015-12-01

    Participants in the Gender Studies workshop of the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics discussed the gender question in science practice from a policy perspective, informed by investigations from the social science disciplines. The workshop's three sessions—"Equity and Education: Examining Gender Stigma in Science," "A Comparative Study of Women Scientists and Engineers: Experiences in India and the US," and "Toward Gender Equity Through Policy: Characterizing the Social Impact of Interventions—are summarized, and the resulting recommendations presented.

  4. The semiotics of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buren, J

    1992-01-01

    The semiotics of gender are investigated in this article for the purpose of exploring the way that deep unconscious motives in relationship to cultural biases give rise to gender concepts. Theories of semiotic processes, including Jacques Lacan's concept of the psychoanalytic signifier, are explained briefly and applied to the signs of gender. The article concludes that gender concepts develop out of biology, unconscious feelings, and social patterning, and are not given, natural, and irrevocable.

  5. Delusions of Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Overgaard, Anne Cecilie; Nielsen, Simone Barnekow; Joensen, Saskia van Dam; Arabi, Sara Albu

    2015-01-01

    This project strives to examine how gender is established in children. Throughout the project, we have taken into consideration what roles society and biological determinism play in the establishment of gender. Furthermore, the project examines how gender performativity and societal influence can help us get a better picture of the gender establishment. The paper is written as a philosophical discussion with a point of departure in experimental psychologist Cordelia Fine’s book ‘Delusions of ...

  6. The Gender Pay Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Manning

    2006-01-01

    Empirical research on gender pay gaps has traditionally focused on the role of gender-specific factors, particularly gender differences in qualifications and differences in the treatment of otherwise equally qualified male and female workers (i.e., labor market discrimination). This paper explores the determinants of the gender pay gap and argues for the importance of an additional factor, wage structure, the array of prices set for labor market skills and the rewards received for employment ...

  7. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging in the substantia nigra of healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groeger, Adriane; Godau, Jana; Berg, Daniela [University of Tuebingen, Department of Neurodegeneration, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research and German Center for Neurodegenerative Disease (DZNE), Tuebingen (Germany); Chadzynski, Grzegorz; Klose, Uwe [University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    To investigate the substantia nigra in patients with Parkinson's disease three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging with high spatial resolution at 3 Tesla was performed. Regional variations of spectroscopic data between the rostral and caudal regions of the substantia nigra as well as the midbrain tegmentum areas were evaluated in healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease. Nine patients with Parkinson's disease and eight age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included in this study. Data were acquired by using three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging measurements. The ratios between rostral and caudal voxels of the substantia nigra as well as the midbrain tegmentum areas were calculated for the main-metabolites N-acetyl aspartate, creatine, choline, and myo-inositol. Additionally, the metabolite/creatine ratios were calculated. In all subjects spectra of acceptable quality could be obtained with a nominal voxel size of 0.252 ml. The calculated rostral-to-caudal ratios of the metabolites as well as of the metabolite/creatine ratios showed with exception of choline/creatine ratio significant differences between healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease. The findings from this study indicate that regional variations in N-acetyl aspartate/creatine ratios in the regions of the substantia nigra may differentiate patients with Parkinson's disease and healthy controls. (orig.)

  8. Best Practices for NPT Transit Matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilligan, Kimberly V.; Whitaker, J. Michael; Oakberg, John A.; Snow, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Transit matching is the process for relating or matching reports of shipments and receipts submitted to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Transit matching is a component used by the IAEA in drawing safeguards conclusions and performing investigative analysis. Transit matching is part of IAEA safeguards activities and the State evaluation process, and it is included in the annual Safeguards Implementation Report (SIR). Annually, the IAEA currently receives reports of ~900,000 nuclear material transactions, of which ~500,000 are for domestic and foreign transfers. Of these the IAEA software can automatically match (i.e., machine match) about 95% of the domestic transfers and 25% of the foreign transfers. Given the increasing demands upon IAEA resources, it is highly desirable for the machine-matching process to match as many transfers as possible. Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have conducted an investigation funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration through the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative to identify opportunities to strengthen IAEA transit matching. Successful matching, and more specifically machine matching, is contingent on quality data from the reporting States. In February 2016, ORNL hosted representatives from three States, the IAEA, and Euratom to share results from past studies and to discuss the processes, policies, and procedures associated with State reporting for transit matching. Drawing on each entity's experience and knowledge, ORNL developed a best practices document to be shared with the international safeguards community to strengthen transit matching. This paper shares the recommendations that resulted from this strategic meeting and the next steps being taken to strengthen transit matching.

  9. Probabilistic seismic history matching using binary images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davolio, Alessandra; Schiozer, Denis Jose

    2018-02-01

    Currently, the goal of history-matching procedures is not only to provide a model matching any observed data but also to generate multiple matched models to properly handle uncertainties. One such approach is a probabilistic history-matching methodology based on the discrete Latin Hypercube sampling algorithm, proposed in previous works, which was particularly efficient for matching well data (production rates and pressure). 4D seismic (4DS) data have been increasingly included into history-matching procedures. A key issue in seismic history matching (SHM) is to transfer data into a common domain: impedance, amplitude or pressure, and saturation. In any case, seismic inversions and/or modeling are required, which can be time consuming. An alternative to avoid these procedures is using binary images in SHM as they allow the shape, rather than the physical values, of observed anomalies to be matched. This work presents the incorporation of binary images in SHM within the aforementioned probabilistic history matching. The application was performed with real data from a segment of the Norne benchmark case that presents strong 4D anomalies, including softening signals due to pressure build up. The binary images are used to match the pressurized zones observed in time-lapse data. Three history matchings were conducted using: only well data, well and 4DS data, and only 4DS. The methodology is very flexible and successfully utilized the addition of binary images for seismic objective functions. Results proved the good convergence of the method in few iterations for all three cases. The matched models of the first two cases provided the best results, with similar well matching quality. The second case provided models presenting pore pressure changes according to the expected dynamic behavior (pressurized zones) observed on 4DS data. The use of binary images in SHM is relatively new with few examples in the literature. This work enriches this discussion by presenting a new

  10. Best Practices for NPT Transit Matching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilligan, Kimberly V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Whitaker, J. Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Oakberg, John A. [Tetra Tech, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Snow, Catherine [Sno Consulting, LLC, Sandy, UT (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Transit matching is the process for relating or matching reports of shipments and receipts submitted to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Transit matching is a component used by the IAEA in drawing safeguards conclusions and performing investigative analysis. Transit matching is part of IAEA safeguards activities and the State evaluation process, and it is included in the annual Safeguards Implementation Report (SIR). Annually, the IAEA currently receives reports of ~900,000 nuclear material transactions, of which ~500,000 are for domestic and foreign transfers. Of these the IAEA software can automatically match (i.e., machine match) about 95% of the domestic transfers and 25% of the foreign transfers. Given the increasing demands upon IAEA resources, it is highly desirable for the machine-matching process to match as many transfers as possible. Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have conducted an investigation funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration through the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative to identify opportunities to strengthen IAEA transit matching. Successful matching, and more specifically machine matching, is contingent on quality data from the reporting States. In February 2016, ORNL hosted representatives from three States, the IAEA, and Euratom to share results from past studies and to discuss the processes, policies, and procedures associated with State reporting for transit matching. Drawing on each entity's experience and knowledge, ORNL developed a best practices document to be shared with the international safeguards community to strengthen transit matching. This paper shares the recommendations that resulted from this strategic meeting and the next steps being taken to strengthen transit matching.

  11. Nationalism, Gender and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Stoltz, Pauline

    Feminist scholars have pointed out that constructions of gender and gender equality are embedded in national narratives and politics of belonging (Yuval-Davis 2011; Siim & Mokre 2013). This paper aims to explore gendered approaches to nationalism and to discuss how nationalism in Scandinavia is a...

  12. Peculiarities of Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Garduno, Sylvia Aide Figueroa; Kovacova, Nikola; Arjona, Ruben Campos

    2017-01-01

    This project challenges the essentialist notions of gender in fantasy genre. The trilogy of Miss Peregrine’s Peculiar Children will shed light on the shifting patterns of gender performativity in fantasy. To drive our analysis, we will resort to Judith Butler’s theory of gender performativity, Joseph Campbell’s monomyth and William Indick’s study of fantasy and myth.

  13. Gender and Adolescent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, David G.; Pauletti, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes and critiques recent trends in research and theory on the role of gender in adolescent development. First, gender differences in key areas of adolescent functioning are reviewed. Second, research on 3 constructs that are especially relevant to the investigation of within-gender individual differences in gender…

  14. Gender and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Barbara J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive, encyclopedic review explores gender and its impact on American higher education across historical and cultural contexts. Challenging recent claims that gender inequities in U.S. higher education no longer exist, the contributors--leading experts in the field--reveal the many ways in which gender is embedded in the educational…

  15. New workplace practices and the gender wage gap

    OpenAIRE

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Tor, Eriksson

    2005-01-01

    We explore the effect of introducing new workplace practices on the gender gap using a unique 1999 survey on work and compensation practices of Danish private sector firms merged to a large matched employer-employee database. Self-managed teams, project organisation and job rotation schemes are the most widely implemented work practices. Wage gains from adopting new workplace practices accrue mainly to hourly paid males and salaried females but do not generate large changes in the gender gap ...

  16. Gender Wage Gap and Segregation in Late Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Stepan Jurajda

    2001-01-01

    Transition countries hoping to join the European Union are in the process of introducing western-type anti-discrimination policies aimed at reducing the gender wage gap. The efficacy of these policies depends on the relative size of those elements of the gap they target; therefore, it is important to quantify these parts. In this Paper, large matched employer-employee data sets from the Czech Republic and Slovakia are used to provide such detailed gender wage gap decomposition. The results, b...

  17. Gender Wage Gaps across Skills and Trade Openness

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Yahmed , Sarra

    2012-01-01

    Several empirical studies have shown that the effect of openness on the gender wage gap depends on the skill requirement of the workplace. This paper offers a theoretical explanation to understand that finding. We integrate a statistical discrimination framework with the labour assignment approach to give general conditions under which the matching between firms and workers gives rise to a wider gender wage gap at the upper tail of the distribution, in accordance with empirical evidence. We f...

  18. Gender differences in pay in African manufacturing firms

    OpenAIRE

    Nordman, Christophe; Wolff, F.C.

    2009-01-01

    Using matched employer-employee data collected in seven African countries, we present comparative evidence on the magnitude of the gender wage gap in African manufacturing sectors. Using OLS regressions, differences in male and female earnings are found both in Mauritius and Morocco, while the gender wage gap turns out to be insignificant in Benin, Kenya, Madagascar, Senegal and Uganda. Results from quantile regressions indicate that the wage gap remains not constant across the wage distribut...

  19. Women match men when learning a spatial skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Ian; Yu, Jingjie Jessica; Feng, Jing; Marshman, Jeff

    2009-07-01

    Meta-analytic studies have concluded that although training improves spatial cognition in both sexes, the male advantage generally persists. However, because some studies run counter to this pattern, a closer examination of the anomaly is warranted. The authors investigated the acquisition of a basic skill (spatial selective attention) using a matched-pair two-wave longitudinal design. Participants were screened with the use of an attentional visual field task, with the objective of selecting and matching 10 male-female pairs, over a wide range (30% to 57% correct). Subsequently, 20 participants 17-23 years of age (selected from 43 screened) were trained for 10 hr (distributed over several sessions) by playing a first-person shooter video game. This genre is known to be highly effective in enhancing spatial skills. All 20 participants improved, with matched members of the male-female pairs achieving very similar gains, independent of starting level. This is consistent with the hypothesis that the learning trajectory of women is not inferior to that of men when acquiring a basic spatial skill. Training methods that develop basic spatial skills may be essential to achieve gender parity in both basic and complex spatial tasks.

  20. Women and gender: Lessons learned from SANREM

    OpenAIRE

    Flora, Cornelia B.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation considers economic security, social inclusion, and a healthy ecosystem to stem from seven forms of capital. These forms of capital are crucial for adapting to climate change. This PowerPoint discusses the gendered aspects of natural, cultural, human, social, political, financial, and built capital as they relate to climate change. Enhancing all seven form of women’s capital is critical for climate change mitigation and adaptation.

  1. Gender Orders Unbound?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    During the last thirty years, the modernisation of gender relations has been dynamic and comprehensive, shaped by the conflicting forces of globalisation as well as women's movements around the world. As the patterns of segregation and discrimination of the classical industrial gender order erode......, new complexities and contentions in gender relations emerge at various sites such as politics, work and families. The main aim of the book is to trace formal as well as informal gender contracts as they emerge in everyday life and also in new norms and regulations set by state and enterprises. Core...... issues are the chances and the barriers for equality and new forms of gender reciprocity and solidarity....

  2. in_focus - Healthy Lives for Vulnerable Women and Children ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    24 oct. 2017 ... Tremendous challenges remain to ensure that the most vulnerable populations, including women, children, and adolescents, are able to enjoy the healthy lives and well-being promised in the Sustainable Development Goals. Much of their poor health is caused by poverty, gender, lack of education, and ...

  3. Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors of Nursing and Classroom Teaching Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melahat Akgun Kostak

    2014-06-01

    CONCLUSIONS: In this study, students\\ gender, health status, level of success, taking courses related to health promotion, smoking and their participation in sports activities influenced the behavior of healthy lifestyle. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(3.000: 189-196

  4. College Students' Motivation to Achieve and Maintain a Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furia, Andrea C.; Lee, Rebecca E.; Strother, Myra L.; Huang, Terry T-K.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To develop and refine a scale of motivational factors related to healthy weight achievement and maintenance and to examine differences by gender and weight status. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 300 university students aged 18-24 years. Results: Factor analysis yielded 6 factors--Intrinsic (Cronbach's alpha = 0.73): affective…

  5. Immunogenicity and safety of the inactivated hepatitis A vaccine in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis on methotrexate treatment: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maritsi, Despoina N; Coffin, Susan E; Argyri, Ioanna; Vartzelis, George; Spyridis, Nick; Tsolia, Maria N

    2017-01-01

    To describe the immunogenicity and side effects of immunisation against hepatitis A virus (HAV) in JIA patients on methotrexate treatment, who have not been previously exposed to HAV. Case-control study performed in JIA patients and healthy controls matched on age and gender. The subjects received two doses of inactivated anti-HAV vaccine (720 mIU/ml) intramuscularly at 0 and 6 months. Seroconversion, seroprotection rates and anti-HAV-IgG titres were measured at 1, 7 and 18 months. Children were monitored for adverse events. 83 JIA patients and 76 controls were enrolled in the study. At one month, seroprotection rates were lower in children with, as compared to those without JIA (48.2% vs. 65%; p=0.05). At 7 and 18 months, rates of seroprotection rose significantly and were similar in both groups. The titre of anti-HAV-IgG was lower in children with JIA than healthy children at all time points (pVaccines were well tolerated. Two doses of inactivated HAV vaccine were well tolerated and immunogenic in most immunosuppressed children with JIA; however, a single dose of HAV vaccine was insufficient to induce seroprotection in half of the patients. Further studies are required to analyse the long-term immunity against HAV in this population and optimal HAV immunisation regimen.

  6. Gender determination in populus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLetchie, D.N. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Tuskan, G.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Gender, the expression of maleness or femaleness, in dioecious plants has been associated with changes in morphology, physiology, ecological position, and commercial importance of several species, including members of the Salicaceae family. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain the expression of gender in Salicaceae, including sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian genes, quantitative genes, environment, and genotype-by-environment interactions. Published reports would favor a genetic basis for gender. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers associated with gender in a segregating family of hybrid poplars. Bulked segregant analysis and chi-squared analysis were used to test for the occurrence of sex chromosomes, individual loci, and chromosome ratios (i.e., ploidy levels) as the mechanisms for gender determination. Examination of 2488 PCR based RAPD markers from 1219 primers revealed nine polymorphic bands between male and female bulked samples. However, linkage analysis indicated that none of these markers were significantly associated with gender. Chisquared results for difference in male-to-female ratios between diploid and triploid genotypes also revealed no significant differences. These findings suggest gender is not controlled via sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian loci or ratios of autosome to gender-determining loci. It is possible that gender is determined genetically by regions of the genome not sampled by the tested markers or by a complex of loci operating in an additive threshold manner or in an epistatic manner. It is also possible that gender is determined environmentally at an early zygote stage, canalizing gender expression.

  7. Gender Stereotype Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A.; Weber, Susanna; Simoes, Elisabeth; Sokolov, Alexander N.

    2014-01-01

    Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior. PMID:25517903

  8. Gender stereotype susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A; Weber, Susanna; Simoes, Elisabeth; Sokolov, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior.

  9. Screening for autoantibodies in patients with primary fibromyalgia syndrome and a matched control group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Høyer-Madsen, M; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    1990-01-01

    Primary fibromyalgia syndrome (PFS) is a non-articular rheumatic condition characterized by chronic muscular pain. We have performed screening for autoantibodies in 20 women with PFS and in 19 age-matched healthy women. Fifty-five percent of the PFS patients had anti-smooth muscle antibodies and 40...

  10. Fractional Order Element Based Impedance Matching

    KAUST Repository

    Radwan, Ahmed Gomaa

    2014-06-24

    Disclosed are various embodiments of methods and systems related to fractional order element based impedance matching. In one embodiment, a method includes aligning a traditional Smith chart (|.alpha.|=1) with a fractional order Smith chart (|.alpha.|.noteq.1). A load impedance is located on the traditional Smith chart and projected onto the fractional order Smith chart. A fractional order matching element is determined by transitioning along a matching circle of the fractional order Smith chart based at least in part upon characteristic line impedance. In another embodiment, a system includes a fractional order impedance matching application executed in a computing device. The fractional order impedance matching application includes logic that obtains a first set of Smith chart coordinates at a first order, determines a second set of Smith chart coordinates at a second order, and determines a fractional order matching element from the second set of Smith chart coordinates.

  11. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, C.M.; van Steensel, F.J.A.; Bögels, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to

  12. Gender Culture and Gender Gap in Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Pamela Campa; Alessandra Casarico; Paola Profeta

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes to what extent gender culture affects gender gap in employment. Drawing on Italian data, we measure culture by building two indices: one based on individuals' attitudes, as done in the existing literature; one based on firms' attitudes. Firms' beliefs, which express their set of ideas, values and norms, though generally neglected, are as important as individuals' attitudes to explain female labor market outcomes. Using an instrumental variable analysis, we show that our ...

  13. Fast and compact regular expression matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Farach-Colton, Martin

    2008-01-01

    We study 4 problems in string matching, namely, regular expression matching, approximate regular expression matching, string edit distance, and subsequence indexing, on a standard word RAM model of computation that allows logarithmic-sized words to be manipulated in constant time. We show how...... to improve the space and/or remove a dependency on the alphabet size for each problem using either an improved tabulation technique of an existing algorithm or by combining known algorithms in a new way....

  14. Matching fields and lattice points of simplices

    OpenAIRE

    Loho, Georg; Smith, Ben

    2018-01-01

    We show that the Chow covectors of a linkage matching field define a bijection of lattice points and we demonstrate how one can recover the linkage matching field from this bijection. This resolves two open questions from Sturmfels & Zelevinsky (1993) on linkage matching fields. For this, we give an explicit construction that associates a bipartite incidence graph of an ordered partition of a common set to all lattice points in a dilated simplex. Given a triangulation of a product of two simp...

  15. Online Job Search and Matching Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin Mang

    2012-01-01

    The Internet has fundamentally changed the way workers and firms are matched on the job market. Compared to newspapers and other traditional employment resources, online job boards presumably lead to better matches by providing a wider choice of job advertisements and more sophisticated methods for finding suitable vacancies. This study investigates the association of online job search and matching quality using individual-level data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). My results sho...

  16. Jaundice in Healthy Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Jaundice in Healthy Newborns KidsHealth / For Parents / Jaundice in ... within a few days of birth. Types of Jaundice The most common types of jaundice are: Physiological ( ...

  17. Healthy Living after Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Cooking for Health Food for Thought: Heart-healthy Diet is Also Good For Your Brain Physical Activity Get Moving and Boost Your Brain Power Understanding Risky Conditions Converging Risk Factors for Stroke ...

  18. Healthy Skin Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin. If you’re helping out in the kitchen, make sure you use hot pads or wear ... in humans, plants, and animals, while others are essential for a healthy life. Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) ( ...

  19. Healthy Lifestyle: Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... maintain a healthy weight. Try brisk walking, jogging, biking, swimming or water aerobics. If you're a ... as dancing and gardening, also can improve your health. Whatever you choose, take time to warm up ...

  20. Healthy Ride Trip Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A dataset that shows trips taken using the Healthy Ride system by quarter. The dataset includes bike number, membership type, trip start and end timestamp, and...

  1. Healthy Conflict Management

    OpenAIRE

    Brower, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    Without healthy conflict management skills, conflict can often escalate or intensify over time. This fact sheet gives tips on utilizing key negotiation skills to help individuals effectively address and cope with conflict and potentially build stronger relationships with others.

  2. Anomalous dispersion enhanced Cerenkov phase-matching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalczyk, T.C.; Singer, K.D. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Physics; Cahill, P.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The authors report on a scheme for phase-matching second harmonic generation in polymer waveguides based on the use of anomalous dispersion to optimize Cerenkov phase matching. They have used the theoretical results of Hashizume et al. and Onda and Ito to design an optimum structure for phase-matched conversion. They have found that the use of anomalous dispersion in the design results in a 100-fold enhancement in the calculated conversion efficiency. This technique also overcomes the limitation of anomalous dispersion phase-matching which results from absorption at the second harmonic. Experiments are in progress to demonstrate these results.

  3. The Gastroenterology Fellowship Match: A Decade Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Robert J; Triadafilopoulos, George; Limsui, David

    2017-06-01

    Following a period of uncertainty and disorganization, the gastroenterology (GI) national leadership decided to reinstitute the fellowship match (the Match) under the auspices of the National Residency Matching Program (NRMP) in 2006. Although it has now been a decade since the rebirth of the Match, there have been limited data published regarding progress made. In this piece, we discuss reasons for the original collapse of the GI Match, including most notably a perceived oversupply of GI physicians and a poor job market. We discuss the negative impacts the absence of the Match had on programs and on applicants, as well as the impetus to reorganize the Match under the NRMP. We then utilize data published annually by the NRMP to demonstrate that in the decade since its rebirth, the GI Match has been remarkably successful in terms of attracting the participation of applicants and programs. We show that previous misguided concerns of an oversupply of GI physicians were not realized, and that GI fellowship positions remain highly competitive for internal medicine applicants. Finally, we discuss possible implications of recent changes in the healthcare landscape on the GI Match.

  4. Healthy lifestyle in teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Pirzadeh, Asiyeh; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Kamran, Aziz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The role of individual healthy behaviors like physical activity, nutrition and stress management on reduction of rate of disease mortality and morbidity is well known. The aim of this study is to determine healthy life style in teachers employed in district No.4 in Isfahan, Iran, in 2010. Materials and Methods: The participants of this cross-sectional study were 96 teachers in district No. 4, selected via random sampling method. The data collection was performed using a question...

  5. Differential effects of gender on entropy perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satcharoen, Kleddao

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine differences in perception of entropy (color intensity) between male and female computer users. The objectives include identifying gender-based differences in entropy intention and exploring the potential effects of these differences (if any) on user interface design. The research is an effort to contribute to an emerging field of interest in gender as it relates to science, engineering and technology (SET), particularly user interface design. Currently, there is limited evidence on the role of gender in user interface design and in use of technology generally, with most efforts at gender-differentiated or customized design based on stereotypes and assumptions about female use of technology or the assumption of a default position based on male preferences. Image entropy was selected as a potential characteristic where gender could be a factor in perception because of known differences in color perception acuity between male and female individuals, even where there is no known color perception abnormality (which is more common with males). Although the literature review suggested that training could offset differences in color perception and identification, tests in untrained subject groups routinely show that females are more able to identify, match, and differentiate colors, and that there is a stronger emotional and psychosocial association of color for females. Since image entropy is associated with information content and image salience, the ability to identify areas of high entropy could make a difference in user perception and technological capabilities.

  6. Inverse Effects of Oxytocin on Attributing Mental Activity to Others in Depressed and Healthy Subjects: A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pincus

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxytocin is a stress-attenuating and pro-social neuropeptide. To date, no study has looked at the effects of oxytocin in modulating brain activity in depressed individuals nor attempted to correlate this activity with attribution of mental activity in others. Method: We enrolled 10 unmedicated depressed adults and 10 matched healthy controls in a crossover, double blind placebo controlled fmri 40 i.u. intra-nasal oxytocin study (20 i.u. per nostril. Each subject performed Reading the Mind in the Eyes task (RMET before and after inhalation of oxytocin or placebo control for a total of 80 scans. Results: Before oxytocin administration, RMET engaged medial and lateral prefrontal cortex, amygdala, insula and associative areas. Depressed subjects showed increased anterior ventral activation for the RMET minus gender identification contrast whereas matched controls showed increased dorsal and frontal activity. Compared to placebo, oxytocin in depressed subjects showed increased activity in the superior middle frontal gyrus and insula, while controls exhibited more activity in ventral regions. Oxytocin also led to inverse effects in reaction times on attribution task between groups, with controls getting faster and depressed individuals slower to respond. Conclusion: Depression is associated with increased paralimbic activity during emotional mental attribution of others, appearing to be distinctly modulated by oxytocin when compared to healthy controls. Further studies are needed to explore long-term exposure to pro-social neuropeptides on mood in depressed populations and assess their clinical relevance.

  7. Beyond gender stereotypes in language comprehension: self sex-role descriptions affect the brain's potentials associated with agreement processing

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo eCanal; Paolo eCanal; Alan eGarnham; Jane eOakhill

    2015-01-01

    We recorded Event-Related Potentials to investigate differences in the use of gender information during the processing of reflexive pronouns. Pronouns either matched the gender provided by role nouns (such as king or engineer) or did not. We compared two types of gender information, definitional information, which is semantic in nature (a mother is female), or stereotypical (a nurse is likely to be female). When they followed definitional role-nouns, gender-mismatching pronouns elicited a P60...

  8. Gender roles revised?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to deepen the understanding of how mobile phone usage is related to gender in general and the negotiation of gender roles in particular. It will focus on how women in Kenya appropriate mobile phones and how the appropriation is influenced by prevailing gender norms...... but also in turn is influencing gender relations. Mobile phone use is strongly intertwined with everyday life and thus this chapter will approach mobile phone use, as practices or a site where gender roles are potentially negotiated, challenged but also reinforced. Geographically the study that constituted...... the basis for this chapter is set in Kenya, where family relations and gender roles is presently undergoing changes. The data was gathered in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya, an area, which is predominantly rural, but also home to the city Eldoret and its surrounding peri-urban areas. The situation for women...

  9. Gender similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research.

  10. On Tree-Constrained Matchings and Generalizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Canzar (Stefan); K. Elbassioni; G.W. Klau (Gunnar); J. Mestre

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractWe consider the following \\textsc{Tree-Constrained Bipartite Matching} problem: Given two rooted trees $T_1=(V_1,E_1)$, $T_2=(V_2,E_2)$ and a weight function $w: V_1\\times V_2 \\mapsto \\mathbb{R}_+$, find a maximum weight matching $\\mathcal{M}$ between nodes of the two trees, such that

  11. Matching of Tore Supra ICRH antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladurelle, L.; Beaumont, B.; Kuus, H.; Lombard, G.

    1994-01-01

    An automatic matching method is described for Tore Supra ICRH antennas based on impedance variations seen at their feed points. Error signals derived from directional voltage and phase measurements in the feeder allow to control the matching capacitors values for optimal power transmission. (author) 5 refs.; 9 figs

  12. DOE/Industry Matching Grant Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, John C.

    2003-01-01

    For the academic year 2001-2002, the Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences received $50,000 of industrial contributions, matched by a DOE grant of $35,000. We used the combined DOE/Industry Matching Grant of $85,000 toward (a) undergraduate merit scholarships and research support, (b) graduate student support, and (c) partial support of a research scientist

  13. Object-based connectedness facilitates matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, A.R.; Lier, R.J. van

    2003-01-01

    In two matching tasks, participants had to match two images of object pairs. Image-based (113) connectedness refers to connectedness between the objects in an image. Object-based (OB) connectedness refers to connectedness between the interpreted objects. In Experiment 1, a monocular depth cue

  14. On solution concepts for matching games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biro, Peter; Kern, Walter; Paulusma, Daniël; Kratochvil, J.; Li, A.; Fiala, J.; Kolman, P.

    A matching game is a cooperative game $(N,v)$ defined on a graph $G = (N,E)$ with an edge weighting $\\omega : E \\to {\\Bbb R}_+$ . The player set is $N$ and the value of a coalition $S \\subseteq  N$ is defined as the maximum weight of a matching in the subgraph induced by $S$. First we present an

  15. Equilibrium and matching under price controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herings, P.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    The paper considers a one-to-one matching with contracts model in the presence of price controls. This set-up contains two important streams in the matching literature, those with and those without monetary transfers, as special cases and allows for intermediate cases with some restrictions on the

  16. Competence Matching Tool - Explanations and Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herder, Eelco; Kärger, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    Herder, E., Kärger, P. (2009) Competence Matching Tool - Explanations and Implementation. The document contains the technical specification of the competence matching tool. The tool can be found at http://tencompetence.cvs.sourceforge.net/viewvc/tencompetence/wp7/CompetenceMatcher/ and the location

  17. Matching Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis' Spots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dos Anjos, António; AL-Tam, Faroq; Shahbazkia, Hamid Reza

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for matching Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2-DE) gels' spots, involving the use of image registration. The number of false positive matches produced by the proposed approach is small, when compared to academic and commercial state-of-the-art approaches. This ar...

  18. Local Stereo Matching Using Adaptive Local Segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damjanovic, S.; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    We propose a new dense local stereo matching framework for gray-level images based on an adaptive local segmentation using a dynamic threshold. We define a new validity domain of the fronto-parallel assumption based on the local intensity variations in the 4-neighborhood of the matching pixel. The

  19. Dynamic Matchings in Convex Bipartite Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Georgiadis, Loukas; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt

    2007-01-01

    We consider the problem of maintaining a maximum matching in a convex bipartite graph G = (V,E) under a set of update operations which includes insertions and deletions of vertices and edges. It is not hard to show that it is impossible to maintain an explicit representation of a maximum matching...

  20. Memory and phonological awareness in children with Benign Rolandic Epilepsy compared to a matched control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northcott, Ellen; Connolly, Anne M; Berroya, Anna; McIntyre, Jenny; Christie, Jane; Taylor, Alan; Bleasel, Andrew F; Lawson, John A; Bye, Ann M E

    2007-06-01

    In a previous study we demonstrated children with Benign Rolandic Epilepsy have normal intelligence and language ability. However, difficulties in verbal and visual memory and aspects of phonological awareness were found compared to normative data. To address the methodological limitations related to the use of normative data, we compared the same cohort of children with Benign Rolandic Epilepsy to a matched control group. Controls (n=40) matched on age and gender to the Benign Rolandic Epilepsy cohort underwent neuropsychological assessment. The life functioning of the control group was assessed using a modified version of the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (QOLCE). The study confirmed the previous findings of memory and phonological awareness difficulties. In addition, the children with Benign Rolandic Epilepsy had significantly lower IQ scores than the matched control group. Paired sample t-tests showed that on 8 of 11 QOLCE scales, children with Benign Rolandic Epilepsy were rated by parents as having poorer life functioning compared to matched controls, including lower parental ratings on the subscales of memory and language. Benign Rolandic Epilepsy has an excellent seizure prognosis, but this study further emphasizes potential cognitive difficulties. Using an age and gender matched control group, the previous findings of memory and phonological awareness difficulties were validated. These problems in cognition were also identified by parents of children with Benign Rolandic Epilepsy as problematic and impacting upon the child's quality of life.

  1. The Extreme Male Brain Theory and Gender Role Behaviour in Persons with an Autism Spectrum Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauder, J. E. A.; Cornet, L. J. M.; Ponds, R. W. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    According to the Extreme Male Brain theory persons with autism possess masculinised cognitive traits. In this study masculinisation of gender role behaviour is evaluated in 25 persons with an autism spectrum condition (ASC) and matched controls with gender role behaviour as part of a shortened version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality…

  2. Implementing Feminist Theory in Engineering: Obstacles within the Gender Studies Tradition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udén, Maria K.

    2017-01-01

    Scholars have noted that there is hesitation to utilise findings from gender studies in engineering education. Issues within gender studies may be part of the matching problem. Debates concerning two concepts for new engineering paradigms are investigated: "care" and "heterogeneity." Their appeals and the respective…

  3. "Someone like Me Can Be Successful": Do College Students Need Same-Gender Role Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Penelope

    2006-01-01

    Two studies examined the extent to which matching on gender determines the impact of career role models on the self. Because women face negative stereotypes regarding their competence in the workplace, they may derive particular benefit from the example of an outstanding woman who illustrates the possibility of overcoming gender barriers to…

  4. Do Birth Order, Family Size and Gender Affect Arithmetic Achievement in Elementary School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desoete, Annemie

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: For decades birth order and gender differences have attracted research attention. Method: Birth order, family size and gender, and the relationship with arithmetic achievement is studied among 1152 elementary school children (540 girls, 612 boys) in Flanders. Children were matched on socioeconomic status of the parents and…

  5. Technical performance and match-to-match variation in elite football teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyou; Gómez, Miguel-Angel; Gonçalves, Bruno; Sampaio, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that match-to-match variation adds important information to performance descriptors in team sports, as it helps measure how players fine-tune their tactical behaviours and technical actions to the extreme dynamical environments. The current study aims to identify the differences in technical performance of players from strong and weak teams and to explore match-to-match variation of players' technical match performance. Performance data of all the 380 matches of season 2012-2013 in the Spanish First Division Professional Football League were analysed. Twenty-one performance-related match actions and events were chosen as variables in the analyses. Players' technical performance profiles were established by unifying count values of each action or event of each player per match into the same scale. Means of these count values of players from Top3 and Bottom3 teams were compared and plotted into radar charts. Coefficient of variation of each match action or event within a player was calculated to represent his match-to-match variation of technical performance. Differences in the variation of technical performances of players across different match contexts (team and opposition strength, match outcome and match location) were compared. All the comparisons were achieved by the magnitude-based inferences. Results showed that technical performances differed between players of strong and weak teams from different perspectives across different field positions. Furthermore, the variation of the players' technical performance is affected by the match context, with effects from team and opposition strength greater than effects from match location and match outcome.

  6. Gender Inequality since 1820

    OpenAIRE

    Carmichael, Sarah; Dilli, Selin; Rijpma, Auke

    2014-01-01

    Historically, gender inequalities in health status, socio-economic standing and political rights have been large. This chapter documents gender differences in life expectancy and birth rates (to cover health status); in average years of schooling, labour force participation, inheritance rights and marriage age (to cover socioeconomic status); and in parliamentary seats and suffrage (to cover political rights). A composite indicator shows strong progress in reducing gender inequality in the pa...

  7. Pemberian Stereotype Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Saguni, Fatimah

    2014-01-01

    Gender stereotypes are broad categories which reflect the impressions and beliefs about appropriate behavior for women and men. Stereotypical masculine or feminine in the students could produce significant consequences. Gender experts stated that the existence of gender differences in mathematics and natural science are caused by the experience possessed by boys and girls. According to the cognitive view of the interaction between children in the social environment is key to the development o...

  8. Gender, Poverty and Demography

    OpenAIRE

    Buvinic, Mayra; Gupta, Monica Da; Casabonne, Ursula

    2009-01-01

    Much has been written on gender inequality and how it affects fertility and mortality outcomes as well as economic outcomes. What is not well understood is the role of gender inequality, embedded in the behavior of the family, the market, and society, in mediating the impact of demographic processes on economic outcomes. This article reviews the empirical evidence on the possible economic impacts of gender inequalities that work by exacerbating demographic stresses associated with different d...

  9. Gender and Economic Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Harcourt, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    The following article draws on the discussion of the iuéd Colloquium on Gender and Economic Globalization. The Colloquium aimed to draw out the impact of economic globalization on gender relations, with a particular focus on poor women in developing countries. Globalization – for or against women? In order to look at the impact of economic globalization on gender relations, and more particularly on poor women’s lives, we are confronted with a complex set of interlinked dynamics. Inequitable g...

  10. Gender in crop agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Food and Agriculture Organization; The World Bank; IFAD

    2008-01-01

    Metadata only record This is a module in the "Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook" published by the World Bank, UN Food and Agriculture Organization, and International Fund for Agricultural Development. This module examines the role of gender in crop agriculture as an essential component of development and poverty reduction. Gender is an integral aspect of crop agriculture because women's roles in crop production and household subsistence, as well as their knowledge of complex production syst...

  11. Gender a management

    OpenAIRE

    Dragounová, Kateřina

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on gender issues in management. The emphasis is puting on role of gender in management, on differences in harmonization of the working and family life for men and women and with respekt to difficult situations in career building for women, especially in matters of competence for the performance of this office. The thesis further focuses on the issues of equal opportunities for men and women to build their own career, gender inequalities and problems in relationships of fam...

  12. Transcending Frozen Gender Stereotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Troels Bo Haarh; Svanborg, Mikkel; Kühn, Lena; Lomholm Chemnitz, Marie; Barba, Clara; Howard Kitchen, Nikolaj

    2013-01-01

    This project is centered around examining the root of gender stereotyping and discrimination. It entails an account for the heteronormative matrix as an inhibiting norm that was coined by Judith Butler. This ground-giving model will be explored and then applied to Simon Baron-Cohen who participates in the project as a representation of the heteronormative matrix. Cordelia Fine allows us to understand how the matrix influences our way of thinking and performing gender. Gender neutrality is the...

  13. Gender equality and meritocracy

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Stina

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines how gender equality measures and discourses are reconciled with notions of merit in academia. Gender equality is often defined as equal rights for women and men and has become a widely accepted political goal and vision. Meritocratic principles build on the assumption that everyone, regardless of gender, class, race and sexuality, has the same opportunities to advance provided they are sufficiently hardworking and intelligent. Meritocratic principles thus build on the ass...

  14. Reclaiming Gender and Power in Sexual Violence Prevention in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth

    2018-03-01

    The Mentors in Violence Prevention (MVP) model seeks to address the root causes of gender violence using a bystander approach and leadership training to challenge structures of patriarchy. Emerging research on adolescent relationship abuse and sexual violence points to key modifiable targets-transforming gender norms, addressing homophobia, integrating with comprehensive sexuality education, and acknowledging the needs of youth already exposed to violence. A social justice-based bystander approach such as the MVP model should be part of a multi-level approach to sexual violence prevention that addresses gender and power, encourages healthy sexuality conversations, and provides safety and support for survivors.

  15. Stereo Matching Based On Election Campaign Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Qing Hua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stereo matching is one of the significant problems in the study of the computer vision. By getting the distance information through pixels, it is possible to reproduce a three-dimensional stereo. In this paper, the edges are the primitives for matching, the grey values of the edges and the magnitude and direction of the edge gradient were figured out as the properties of the edge feature points, according to the constraints for stereo matching, the energy function was built for finding the route minimizing by election campaign optimization algorithm during the process of stereo matching was applied to this problem the energy function. Experiment results show that this algorithm is more stable and it can get the matching result with better accuracy.

  16. Fiber cavities with integrated mode matching optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Gurpreet Kaur; Takahashi, Hiroki; Podoliak, Nina; Horak, Peter; Keller, Matthias

    2017-07-17

    In fiber based Fabry-Pérot Cavities (FFPCs), limited spatial mode matching between the cavity mode and input/output modes has been the main hindrance for many applications. We have demonstrated a versatile mode matching method for FFPCs. Our novel design employs an assembly of a graded-index and large core multimode fiber directly spliced to a single mode fiber. This all-fiber assembly transforms the propagating mode of the single mode fiber to match with the mode of a FFPC. As a result, we have measured a mode matching of 90% for a cavity length of ~400 μm. This is a significant improvement compared to conventional FFPCs coupled with just a single mode fiber, especially at long cavity lengths. Adjusting the parameters of the assembly, the fundamental cavity mode can be matched with the mode of almost any single mode fiber, making this approach highly versatile and integrable.

  17. Semantic Data Matching: Principles and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Russell; Doan, Thao; Schweiger, Tom

    Automated and real-time management of customer relationships requires robust and intelligent data matching across widespread and diverse data sources. Simple string matching algorithms, such as dynamic programming, can handle typographical errors in the data, but are less able to match records that require contextual and experiential knowledge. Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) (Berry et al. ; Deerwester et al. is a machine intelligence technique that can match data based upon higher order structure, and is able to handle difficult problems, such as words that have different meanings but the same spelling, are synonymous, or have multiple meanings. Essentially, the technique matches records based upon context, or mathematically quantifying when terms occur in the same record.

  18. Gender Considerations in Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, Renee; Friedman, Susan Hatters; Hall, Ryan

    2016-12-01

    The role of gender in violence is poorly understood. Research has shown that gender has an important and, at times, distinct role in the prediction of violence. However, this gender disparity diminishes in the setting of mental illness. The risk assessment of violence in women is largely based on research in violent men. There are distinct characteristics in female violence compared with male violence. Attention to these characteristics may lead to the development of gender-dependent tools that can be used to evaluate violence risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Healthy human gut phageome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Pilar; Bolduc, Benjamin; Walk, Seth T; van der Oost, John; de Vos, Willem M; Young, Mark J

    2016-09-13

    The role of bacteriophages in influencing the structure and function of the healthy human gut microbiome is unknown. With few exceptions, previous studies have found a high level of heterogeneity in bacteriophages from healthy individuals. To better estimate and identify the shared phageome of humans, we analyzed a deep DNA sequence dataset of active bacteriophages and available metagenomic datasets of the gut bacteriophage community from healthy individuals. We found 23 shared bacteriophages in more than one-half of 64 healthy individuals from around the world. These shared bacteriophages were found in a significantly smaller percentage of individuals with gastrointestinal/irritable bowel disease. A network analysis identified 44 bacteriophage groups of which 9 (20%) were shared in more than one-half of all 64 individuals. These results provide strong evidence of a healthy gut phageome (HGP) in humans. The bacteriophage community in the human gut is a mixture of three classes: a set of core bacteriophages shared among more than one-half of all people, a common set of bacteriophages found in 20-50% of individuals, and a set of bacteriophages that are either rarely shared or unique to a person. We propose that the core and common bacteriophage communities are globally distributed and comprise the HGP, which plays an important role in maintaining gut microbiome structure/function and thereby contributes significantly to human health.

  20. Sex and Credit : Is There a Gender Bias in Microfinance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Behr, P.; Madestam, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of group identity in the credit market. Exploiting the quasirandom assignment of first-time borrowers to loan officers of a large Albanian lender, we test for own-gender bias in the loan officer-borrower match. We find that borrowers pay on average 29 basis points

  1. Visual speaker gender affects vowel identification in Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Charlotte; Tøndering, John

    2013-01-01

    The experiment examined the effect of visual speaker gender on the vowel perception of 20 native Danish-speaking subjects. Auditory stimuli consisting of a continuum between /muːlə/ ‘muzzle’ and /moːlə/ ‘pier’ generated using TANDEM-STRAIGHT matched with video clips of a female and a male speaker...

  2. From Gender Bias to Gender Awareness in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, Petra; Benschop, Yvonne W. M.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; Lagro-Janssen, Toine L. M.

    2009-01-01

    Gender is an essential determinant of health and illness. Gender awareness in doctors contributes to equity and equality in health and aims towards better health for men and women. Nevertheless, gender has largely been ignored in medicine. First, it is stated that medicine was "gender blind" by not considering gender whenever relevant. Secondly,…

  3. Secondhand smoke exposure and other correlates of susceptibility to smoking: a propensity score matching approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, Russell K; Nelson, Ashlyn A; Macy, Jonathan T; Seo, Dong-Chul; Kolbe, Lloyd J

    2015-09-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is responsible for numerous diseases of the lungs and other bodily systems among children. In addition to the adverse health effects of SHS exposure, studies show that children exposed to SHS are more likely to smoke in adolescence. Susceptibility to smoking is a measure used to identify adolescent never-smokers who are at risk for smoking. Limited research has been conducted on the influence of SHS on susceptibility to smoking. The purpose of this study was to determine a robust measure of the strength of correlation between SHS exposure and susceptibility to smoking among never-smoking U.S. adolescents. This study used data from the 2009 National Youth Tobacco Survey to identify predictors of susceptibility to smoking in the full (pre-match) sample of adolescents and a smaller (post-match) sample created by propensity score matching. Results showed a significant association between SHS exposure and susceptibility to smoking among never-smoking adolescents in the pre-match (OR=1.47) and post-match (OR=1.52) samples. The odds ratio increase after matching suggests that the strength of the relationship was underestimated in the pre-match sample. Other significant correlates of susceptibility to smoking identified include: gender, race/ethnicity, personal income, smoke-free home rules, number of smoking friends, perception of SHS harm, perceived benefits of smoking, and exposure to pro-tobacco media messages. The use of propensity score matching procedures reduced bias in the post-match sample, and provided a more robust estimate of the influence of SHS exposure on susceptibility to smoking, compared to the pre-match sample estimates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Depression, comorbid anxiety disorders, and heart rate variability in physically healthy, unmedicated patients: implications for cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Andrew H; Quintana, Daniel S; Felmingham, Kim L; Matthews, Slade; Jelinek, Herbert F

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that heart rate variability (HRV) is reduced in major depressive disorder (MDD), although there is debate about whether this effect is caused by medication or the disorder per se. MDD is associated with a two to fourfold increase in the risk of cardiac mortality, and HRV is a robust predictor of cardiac mortality; determining a direct link between HRV and not only MDD, but common comorbid anxiety disorders, will point to psychiatric indicators for cardiovascular risk reduction. To determine in physically healthy, unmedicated patients whether (1) HRV is reduced in MDD relative to controls, and (2) HRV reductions are driven by MDD alone, comorbid generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, characterized by anxious anticipation), or comorbid panic and posttraumatic stress disorders (PD/PTSD, characterized by anxious arousal). A case-control study in 2006 and 2007 on 73 MDD patients, including 24 without anxiety comorbidity, 24 with GAD, and 14 with PD/PTSD. Seventy-three MDD and 94 healthy age- and sex-matched control participants were recruited from the general community. Participants had no history of drug addiction, alcoholism, brain injury, loss of consciousness, stroke, neurological disorder, or serious medical conditions. There were no significant differences between the four groups in age, gender, BMI, or alcohol use. HRV was calculated from electrocardiography under a standardized short-term resting state condition. HRV was reduced in MDD relative to controls, an effect associated with a medium effect size. MDD participants with comorbid generalized anxiety disorder displayed the greatest reductions in HRV relative to controls, an effect associated with a large effect size. Unmedicated, physically healthy MDD patients with and without comorbid anxiety had reduced HRV. Those with comorbid GAD showed the greatest reductions. Implications for cardiovascular risk reduction strategies in otherwise healthy patients with psychiatric illness are discussed.

  5. The Interaction Between Schema Matching and Record Matching in Data Integration

    KAUST Repository

    Gu, Binbin; Li, Zhixu; Zhang, Xiangliang; Liu, An; Liu, Guanfeng; Zheng, Kai; Zhao, Lei; Zhou, Xiaofang

    2016-01-01

    Schema Matching (SM) and Record Matching (RM) are two necessary steps in integrating multiple relational tables of different schemas, where SM unifies the schemas and RM detects records referring to the same real-world entity. The two processes have

  6. Distortion analysis on binary representation of minutiae based fingerprint matching for match-on-card

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mlambo, CS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The fingerprint matching on the smart card has long been developed and recognized faster method than fingerprint matching on a computer or large capacity systems. There has been much research and activities concerned with improving the accuracy...

  7. Listening and Learning from Gender-Nonconforming Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrensaft, Diane

    2014-01-01

    The twenty-first century brings to our clinical doorsteps increasing numbers of children exploring and questioning their gender identities and expressions. This paper begins with a reassessment of the psychoanalytic thinking about gender and then outlines a clinical and developmental model of gender adapted from D. W. Winnicott's concepts of true self, false self, and individual creativity. The underlying premise is that gender nonconformity, when the core psychological issue, is not a sign of pathology but rather a reflection of healthy variations on gender possibilities. Working from that premise, composite clinical material from the author's practice as a psychoanalytic gender specialist is presented of a gender-nonconforming child transitioning from female to male, to demonstrate the psychoanalytic tools applied, including listening, mirroring, play, and interpretation, with the goal of facilitating a child's authentic gender self. Emphasis is placed on learning from the patient, working collaboratively with the family and social environments, and remaining suspended in a state of ambiguity and not-knowing as the child explores and solidifies a True Gender Self.

  8. Poorer cognitive performance in perinatally HIV-infected children versus healthy socioeconomically matched controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, Sophie; ter Stege, Jacqueline A.; Geurtsen, Gert J.; Scherpbier, Henriette J.; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Reiss, Peter; Schmand, Ben; Pajkrt, Dasja

    2015-01-01

    Despite the declining incidence of severe neurological complications such as HIV encephalopathy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in children is still associated with a range of cognitive problems. Although most HIV-infected children in industrialized countries are immigrants with a

  9. Poorer cognitive performance in perinatally HIV-infected children versus healthy socioeconomically matched controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, S.; ter Stege, J.A.; Geurtsen, G.J.; Scherpbier, H.J.; Kuijpers, T.W.; Reiss, P.; Schmand, B.; Pajkrt, D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the declining incidence of severe neurological complications such as HIV encephalopathy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in children is still associated with a range of cognitive problems. Although most HIV-infected children in industrialized countries are immigrants

  10. Healthy Buildings '88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, B.; Lindvall, T.; Maansson, L.G.

    1988-06-01

    The Healthy Buildings '88 Conference focuses on the technical solutions and functional requirements contributing to Healthy Buildings for people to live and work in. The main object of the Conference is to give architects, consultants, real-estate owners and manufacturers of building materials recommendations on choice of materials and choice of systems and on how to combine materials and systems. The program includes overview lectures, plenary symposia with invited speakers, workshops, poster presentations and an exhibition of scientific, educational and technical material. One part of the conference is devoted to the problem of radon in residential buildings

  11. Neuter is not common in Dutch: eye movements reveal asymmetrical gender processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loerts, Hanneke; Wieling, Martijn; Schmid, Monika S

    2013-12-01

    Native speakers of languages with transparent gender systems can use gender cues to anticipate upcoming words. To examine whether this also holds true for a non-transparent two-way gender system, i.e. Dutch, eye movements were monitored as participants followed spoken instructions to click on one of four displayed items on a screen (e.g., Klik op [Formula: see text] rode appel [Formula: see text], 'Click on the[Formula: see text] red apple[Formula: see text]'). The items contained the target, a colour- and/or gender-matching competitor, and two unrelated distractors. A mixed-effects regression analysis revealed that the presence of a colour-matching and/or gender-matching competitor significantly slowed the process of finding the target. The gender effect, however, was only observed for common nouns, reflecting the fact that neuter gender-marking cannot disambiguate as all Dutch nouns become neuter when used as diminutives. The gender effect for common nouns occurred before noun onset, suggesting that gender information is, at least partially, activated automatically before encountering the noun.

  12. Does gender activism aggravate the superiority of one gender over ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Does gender activism aggravate the superiority of one gender over the other? ... findings reveal that firstly, failure to value and embrace diversity by males, perpetuate gender discrimination. ... Keywords: Context, Culture, Structures, Systems ...

  13. Gender Inequality since 1820

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmichael, Sarah; Dilli, Selin; Rijpma, Auke

    2014-01-01

    Historically, gender inequalities in health status, socio-economic standing and political rights have been large. This chapter documents gender differences in life expectancy and birth rates (to cover health status); in average years of schooling, labour force participation, inheritance rights and

  14. Intersectionality, Diversity and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen; Siim, Birte

    2016-01-01

    In the discourses of Danish politicians on ethno-national diversity and integration, the notion of diversity is gendered, especially the articulation of the ‘working woman’ and her labor market participation. Equality, diversity and gender are, thus, intertwined in political, discursive construct...

  15. Gender Inequality at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jerry A., Ed.

    These 14 papers address many dimensions of gender inequality at work. The empirical studies include examinations of original surveys, secondary analyses of large data sets, and historical reports assaying the significance of personal, family, and structural factors with regard to gender in the workplace. An introduction (Jacobs) sketches how sex…

  16. Gender, Toys and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Becky

    2010-01-01

    In spite of continuing patterning of curriculum subject preference and choice by gender, there has been little recent attention to the argument developed in the 1970s that children play with different toys according to their gender, and that these provide girls and boys with (different) curriculum-related skills. The article describes a…

  17. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIA POPESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study of female entrepreneurship traditionally has been inspired by gender equality issues. Female entrepreneurs were assumed to experience gender-related discrimination and to experience more difficulties when starting up and running a business than their male counterparts. Today research and policy have been more and more fuelled by the idea that female entrepreneurs are important for economic progress. Even when issues such as barriers and obstacles to female entrepreneurs are raised in the gender and entrepreneurship debate, this is usually done from the perspective that female entrepreneurs are an untapped resource and have potential to contribute to a country’s economic performance. Indeed, although gender equality is one of the arguments underlying the support for female entrepreneurs within the European Union, the argument that female entrepreneurs (have the potential tocontribute to economic performance continues to play a role here. The global growth of female entrepreneurship in the last decades has been accompanied by an increase in the number of studies on female entrepreneurship. Unlike most existing studies, which focus primarily upon female entrepreneurship in Western European countries, the present thesis investigates gender differences in entrepreneurship in the Eastern European countries. Different aspects of entrepreneurship are studied including the individual, the organization and the environment. A systematic distinction is made between direct and indirect gender effects on entrepreneurship to be able to disentangle ‘pure’ gender effects from effects of factors that are correlated with gender.

  18. Gender diversity in teams

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazala Azmat

    2014-01-01

    Women’s representation on corporate boards, political committees, and other teams is increasing, in part because of legal mandates. Data on team dynamics and gender differences in preferences (risk-taking behavior, taste for competition, prosocial behavior) show how gender composition influences group decision-making and subsequent performance through channels such as investment decisions, internal management, corporate governance, and social responsibility.

  19. MR angiography with a matched filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Castro, J.B.; Riederer, S.J.; Lee, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    The technique of matched filtering was applied to a series of cine MR images. The filter was devised to yield a subtraction angiographic image in which direct current components present in the cine series are removed and the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the vascular structures is optimized. The S/N of a matched filter was compared with that of a simple subtraction, in which an image with high flow is subtracted from one with low flow. Experimentally, a range of results from minimal improvement to significant (60%) improvement in S/N was seen in the comparisons of matched filtered subtraction with simple subtraction

  20. State of otolaryngology match: has competition increased since the "early" match?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Muffly, Cristina; Sheeder, Jeanelle; Abaza, Mona

    2015-05-01

    To examine fluctuations in supply and demand of otolaryngology residency positions after the shift from an "early match" coordinated by the San Francisco match to a "conventional" matching process through the National Residency Matching Program (NRMP). To determine whether competition among otolaryngology residency positions have changed during this time frame. Database analysis. Matching statistics from 1998 to 2013 were obtained for all first-year residency positions through the NRMP. Matching statistics from 1998 to 2005 were obtained for otolaryngology residency positions through the San Francisco match. Univariate analysis was performed, with a P value less than .05 determined as significant. The number of otolaryngology positions and applicants remained proportional to the overall number of positions and applicants in the NRMP match. Otolaryngology applicants per position and the matching rate of all applicants did not change between the 2 time periods studied. The overall match rate of US seniors applying to otolaryngology did not change, while the match rate of non-US seniors decreased significantly following initiation of the conventional match. There was no significant change in United States Medical Licensing Exam step 1 scores or percentage of unfilled otolaryngology residency positions between the 2 time periods. When comparing the early versus conventional otolaryngology match time periods, the only major change was the decreased percentage of matching among non-US senior applicants. Despite a significant shift in match timing after 2006, the supply, demand, and competitiveness of otolaryngology residency positions have not changed significantly. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  1. From neural signatures of emotional modulation to social cognition: individual differences in healthy volunteers and psychiatric participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado, Jaume; Baez, Sandra; Huepe, David; Lopez, Vladimir; Ortega, Rodrigo; Sigman, Mariano; Mikulan, Ezequiel; Lischinsky, Alicia; Torrente, Fernando; Cetkovich, Marcelo; Torralva, Teresa; Bekinschtein, Tristan; Manes, Facundo

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that early emotional signals provide relevant information for social cognition tasks. The goal of this study was to test the association between (a) cortical markers of face emotional processing and (b) social-cognitive measures, and also to build a model which can predict this association (a and b) in healthy volunteers as well as in different groups of psychiatric patients. Thus, we investigated the early cortical processing of emotional stimuli (N170, using a face and word valence task) and their relationship with the social-cognitive profiles (SCPs, indexed by measures of theory of mind, fluid intelligence, speed processing and executive functions). Group comparisons and individual differences were assessed among schizophrenia (SCZ) patients and their relatives, individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), individuals with euthymic bipolar disorder (BD) and healthy participants (educational level, handedness, age and gender matched). Our results provide evidence of emotional N170 impairments in the affected groups (SCZ and relatives, ADHD and BD) as well as subtle group differences. Importantly, cortical processing of emotional stimuli predicted the SCP, as evidenced by a structural equation model analysis. This is the first study to report an association model of brain markers of emotional processing and SCP. PMID:23685775

  2. From neural signatures of emotional modulation to social cognition: individual differences in healthy volunteers and psychiatric participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Agustín; Aguado, Jaume; Baez, Sandra; Huepe, David; Lopez, Vladimir; Ortega, Rodrigo; Sigman, Mariano; Mikulan, Ezequiel; Lischinsky, Alicia; Torrente, Fernando; Cetkovich, Marcelo; Torralva, Teresa; Bekinschtein, Tristan; Manes, Facundo

    2014-07-01

    It is commonly assumed that early emotional signals provide relevant information for social cognition tasks. The goal of this study was to test the association between (a) cortical markers of face emotional processing and (b) social-cognitive measures, and also to build a model which can predict this association (a and b) in healthy volunteers as well as in different groups of psychiatric patients. Thus, we investigated the early cortical processing of emotional stimuli (N170, using a face and word valence task) and their relationship with the social-cognitive profiles (SCPs, indexed by measures of theory of mind, fluid intelligence, speed processing and executive functions). Group comparisons and individual differences were assessed among schizophrenia (SCZ) patients and their relatives, individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), individuals with euthymic bipolar disorder (BD) and healthy participants (educational level, handedness, age and gender matched). Our results provide evidence of emotional N170 impairments in the affected groups (SCZ and relatives, ADHD and BD) as well as subtle group differences. Importantly, cortical processing of emotional stimuli predicted the SCP, as evidenced by a structural equation model analysis. This is the first study to report an association model of brain markers of emotional processing and SCP. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Gendering transnational party politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantola, Johanna; Rolandsen-Agustín, Lise

    2016-01-01

    research traditions, we build toward an analytical framework to study gender and transnational party politics. Our empirical analysis focuses on two policy issues, the economic crisis and the sexual and reproductive health and rights, analyzing European Parliament reports, debates and voting on the issues...... from 2009 to 2014. By focusing on gender equality constructions and the way in which consensus and contestation are built around them within and between party groups, we argue that shared constructions about gender equality are issue specific and change over time. Consensus breaks down along the left......In this article, we analyze transnational party politics in the European Union from a gender perspective. This is a subject that has been neglected both by mainstream European studies on party politics and by gender scholars who work on political parties. Drawing on the insights of these two...

  4. From gender bias to gender awareness in medical education

    OpenAIRE

    Verdonk, P.; Benschop, Y.W.M.; Haes, H. de; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2009-01-01

    Gender is an essential determinant of health and illness. Gender awareness in doctors contributes to equity and equality in health and aims towards better health for men and women. Nevertheless, gender has largely been ignored in medicine. First, it is stated that medicine was ‘gender blind’ by not considering gender whenever relevant. Secondly, medicine is said to be ‘male biased’ because the largest body of knowledge on health and illness is about men and their health. Thirdly, gender role ...

  5. Healthy lifestyle in teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirzadeh, Asiyeh; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Kamran, Aziz

    2012-01-01

    The role of individual healthy behaviors like physical activity, nutrition and stress management on reduction of rate of disease mortality and morbidity is well known. The aim of this study is to determine healthy life style in teachers employed in district No.4 in Isfahan, Iran, in 2010. The participants of this cross-sectional study were 96 teachers in district No. 4, selected via random sampling method. The data collection was performed using a questionnaire including demographic healthy lifestyle questions. Analysis of the data was performed through Software SPSS version 18. The mean age of the subjects was 40.26 ± 6.05 years and, BMI mean was 25.08 ± 3.20. 96.8% of them were married and 3.1% also were single. 1% of the teachers had a weak lifestyle, 13.5%had moderate, 85.4% had a good lifestyle. In terms of nutrition, 2% of the teachers had a weak lifestyle, 23% moderate, 74% good. 76% in terms of physical activity, 29.2% smoking and 21.9% stress had a weak lifestyle. According to the results, planning for teachers in school for receiving information about healthy lifestyle is important.

  6. Healthy Eating for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and beverages, such as some yogurts and juices. Foods and Beverages to Limit To keep weight in check at ... helps with weight control, muscle strength and stress management. Reviewed April 2018 Tags Food Health Nutrition Wellness Dietary Guidelines and MyPlate Healthy ...

  7. Many Healthy Returns

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    International travel is usually very safe but there are things you should do to stay safe and healthy. Experts show you how to avoid problems when visiting developing nations. This includes being cautious about the food you eat and the water you drink, and to be aware of vehicles and road conditions to prevent problems.

  8. Eating Healthy for Two

    Science.gov (United States)

    You are what you eat—and so is your baby. In addition to being smokefree, eating well during pregnancy is one of the best and most important things you can do for yourself and your baby. But healthy “eating for two” is more than just eating more.

  9. Evaluating metabolites in patients with major depressive disorder who received mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and healthy controls using short echo MRSI at 7 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Jakary, Angela; Gillung, Erin; Eisendrath, Stuart; Nelson, Sarah J; Mukherjee, Pratik; Luks, Tracy

    2016-06-01

    Our aim was to evaluate differences in metabolite levels between unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and healthy controls, to assess changes in metabolites in patients after they completed an 8-week course of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), and to exam the correlation between metabolites and depression severity. Sixteen patients with MDD and ten age- and gender-matched healthy controls were studied using 3D short echo-time (20 ms) magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) at 7 Tesla. Relative metabolite ratios were estimated in five regions of interest corresponding to insula, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), caudate, putamen, and thalamus. In all cases, MBCT reduced severity of depression. The ratio of total choline-containing compounds/total creatine (tCr) in the right caudate was significantly increased compared to that in healthy controls, while ratios of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA)/tCr in the left ACC, myo-inositol/tCr in the right insula, and glutathione/tCr in the left putamen were significantly decreased. At baseline, the severity of depression was negatively correlated with my-inositol/tCr in the left insula and putamen. The improvement in depression severity was significantly associated with changes in NAA/tCr in the left ACC. This study has successfully evaluated regional differences in metabolites for patients with MDD who received MBCT treatment and in controls using 7 Tesla MRSI.

  10. Because Gender Matters : Strengthening Social and Gender ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Addressing inequality and environmental insecurity in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) will require enhanced capacity to conduct social and gender analysis in environment and natural resource management (ENRM) research. This project aims to build capacity in and demonstrate the value added to ...

  11. Perception of urge-to-cough and dyspnea in healthy smokers with decreased cough reflex sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Kanezaki, Masashi; Ebihara, Satoru; Nikkuni, Etsuhiro; Gui, Peijun; Suda, Chihiro; Ebihara, Takae; Yamasaki, Miyako; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2010-01-01

    Background Although cigarette smoking has been implicated as an important risk factor for the development of respiratory symptoms, the perceptional aspects of two symptoms in smokers have not been fully elucidated. Therefore, we simultaneously evaluated the cough reflex sensitivity, the cognition of urge-to-cough and perception of dyspnea in both healthy smokers and non-smokers. Methods Fourteen male healthy never-smokers and 14 age-matched male healthy current-smokers were recruited via publ...

  12. Regurgitation in healthy and non healthy infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavallo Luciano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Uncomplicate regurgitation in otherwise healthy infants is not a disease. It consists of milk flow from mouth during or after feeding. Common causes include overfeeding, air swallowed during feeding, crying or coughing; physical exam is normal and weight gain is adequate. History and physical exam are diagnostic, and conservative therapy is recommended. Pathologic gastroesophageal reflux or gastroesophageal reflux disease refers to infants with regurgitation and vomiting associated with poor weight gain, respiratory symptoms, esophagitis. Reflux episodes occur most often during transient relaxations of the lower esophageal sphincter unaccompanied by swallowing, which permit gastric content to flow into the esophagus. A minor proportion of reflux episodes occurs when the lower esophageal sphincter fails to increase pressure during a sudden increase in intraabdominal pressure or when lower esophageal sphincter resting pressure is chronically reduced. Alterations in several protective mechanisms allow physiologic reflux to become gastroesophageal reflux disease; diagnostic approach is both clinical and instrumental: radiological series are useful to exclude anatomic abnormalities; pH-testing evaluates the quantity, frequency and duration of the acid reflux episodes; endoscopy and biopsy are performed in the case of esophagitis. Therapy with H2 receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors are suggested.

  13. Gender (in)equality among employees in elder care: implications for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwér, Sofia; Aléx, Lena; Hammarström, Anne

    2012-01-04

    Gendered practices of working life create gender inequalities through horizontal and vertical gender segregation in work, which may lead to inequalities in health between women and men. Gender equality could therefore be a key element of health equity in working life. Our aim was to analyze what gender (in)equality means for the employees at a woman-dominated workplace and discuss possible implications for health experiences. All caregiving staff at two workplaces in elder care within a municipality in the north of Sweden were invited to participate in the study. Forty-five employees participated, 38 women and 7 men. Seven focus group discussions were performed and led by a moderator. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the focus groups. We identified two themes. "Advocating gender equality in principle" showed how gender (in)equality was seen as a structural issue not connected to the individual health experiences. "Justifying inequality with individualism" showed how the caregivers focused on personalities and interests as a justification of gender inequalities in work division. The justification of gender inequality resulted in a gendered work division which may be related to health inequalities between women and men. Gender inequalities in work division were primarily understood in terms of personality and interests and not in terms of gender. The health experience of the participants was affected by gender (in)equality in terms of a gendered work division. However, the participants did not see the gendered work division as a gender equality issue. Gender perspectives are needed to improve the health of the employees at the workplaces through shifting from individual to structural solutions. A healthy-setting approach considering gender relations is needed to achieve gender equality and fairness in health status between women and men.

  14. Tear dynamics in healthy and dry eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerretani, Colin F; Radke, C J

    2014-06-01

    Dry-eye disease, an increasingly prevalent ocular-surface disorder, significantly alters tear physiology. Understanding the basic physics of tear dynamics in healthy and dry eyes benefits both diagnosis and treatment of dry eye. We present a physiological-based model to describe tear dynamics during blinking. Tears are compartmentalized over the ocular surface; the blink cycle is divided into three repeating phases. Conservation laws quantify the tear volume and tear osmolarity of each compartment during each blink phase. Lacrimal-supply and tear-evaporation rates are varied to reveal the dependence of tear dynamics on dry-eye conditions, specifically tear osmolarity, tear volume, tear-turnover rate (TTR), and osmotic water flow. Predicted periodic-steady tear-meniscus osmolarity is 309 and 321 mOsM in normal and dry eyes, respectively. Tear osmolarity, volume, and TTR all match available clinical measurements. Osmotic water flow through the cornea and conjunctiva contribute 10 and 50% to the total tear supply in healthy and dry-eye conditions, respectively. TTR in aqueous-deficient dry eye (ADDE) is only half that in evaporative dry eye (EDE). The compartmental periodic-steady tear-dynamics model accurately predicts tear behavior in normal and dry eyes. Inclusion of osmotic water flow is crucial to match measured tear osmolarity. Tear-dynamics predictions corroborate the use of TTR as a clinical discriminator between ADDE and EDE. The proposed model is readily extended to predict the dynamics of aqueous solutes such as drugs or fluorescent tags.

  15. Shape-matching soft mechanical metamaterials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirzaali Mazandarani, M.; Janbaz, S.; Strano, M.; Vergani, L.; Zadpoor, A.A.

    2018-01-01

    Architectured materials with rationally designed geometries could be used to create mechanical metamaterials with unprecedented or rare properties and functionalities. Here, we introduce "shape-matching" metamaterials where the geometry of cellular structures comprising auxetic and conventional

  16. The Effectiveness of Advertising Matching Purchase Motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Loef (Joost); G. Antonides (Gerrit); W.F. van Raaij (Fred)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractSeveral authors have proposed frameworks to help advertisers predict and plan advertising effectiveness. Rossiter and Percy's advertising grid (1997) recommends that the ad appeal should match the purchase motivation or attitude base. They suggest that for utilitarian brands

  17. Personalized Medicine: Matching Treatments to Your Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Subscribe December 2013 Print this issue Personalized Medicine Matching Treatments to Your Genes Send us your ... for disease, and the ways you respond to medicines are also unique. Medicines that work well for ...

  18. Mobile Application for Pesticide Label Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    The label matching application will give inspectors the ability to instantly compare pesticide product labels against state and federal label databases via their cell phone, tablet or other mobile device.

  19. Study of matching between HIRFL and CSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Jingyu; Li Haohu; Yuan Youjin

    2001-01-01

    'HIRFL-CSR Cooler Storage Ring' makes use of existing HIRFL as its pre-accelerator. In order to take the full capability of HIRFL, the authors have studied in detailed the matching modes between HIRFL and CSR. It is proposed to use two matching modes; direct matching between SFC (HIRFL injector cyclotron) and CSRm (CSR main ring); three-cascade matching of SFC, SSC (HIRFL main cyclotron) and CSRm. With these combinations, better beam transmission efficiency, better beam utilization efficiency of HIRFL-CSR accelerator complex and better operation efficiency of HIRFL can be obtained. In the first case, SSC can be used simultaneously in other purposes, either to accelerate medium energy heavy ions or to accelerate protons combined with another small cyclotron

  20. Matching modes between HIRFL and CSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, J.Y.; Li, H.H.; Yuan, Y.J.

    2001-01-01

    National key scientific project 'HIRFL-CSR Cooler Storage Ring' makes use of existing HIRFL as its pre-accelerator. In order to take the full capability of HIRFL, we have studied in detailed the matching modes between HIRFL and CSR. It is proposed to use two matching modes: direct matching between SFC (HIRFL injector cyclotron) and CSRm (CSR main ring), three-cascade matching of SFC, SSC (HIRFL main cyclotron) and CSRm. With these combinations, better beam transmission efficiency, better beam utilization efficiency of HIRFL-CSR accelerator complex and better operation efficiency of HIRFL can be obtained. In the first case, SSC can be used simultaneously in other purposes, either to accelerate medium energy heavy ions or to accelerate protons combined with another small cyclotron