WorldWideScience

Sample records for gender mainstreaming european

  1. [Gender mainstreaming and nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiu-Hung

    2011-12-01

    Gender mainstreaming is one of the most important strategies in promoting global gender equality. The Taiwan government launched policies on gender mainstreaming and gender impact assessment in 2007 in response to strong public and academic advocacy work. With rising awareness of gender issues, nursing professionals in Taiwan should keep pace with global trends and become actively involved in advancing gender-mainstreaming policies. This article shows that nursing professionals should prepare themselves by cultivating gender competence, understanding gender-related regulations, recognizing the importance of gender impact assessment implementation, integrating gender issues into nursing education, conducting gender-related research and participating in decision-making processes that promote gender mainstreaming. Nursing professionals should enhance their knowledge and understanding of gender mainstreaming-related issues and get involved in the gender-related decision-making process in order to enhance gender awareness and women's health and further the professional development of nurses.

  2. Gender mainstreaming european transport research and policies. Building the knowledge base and mapping good practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roemer Christensen, H.; Poulsen, H.; Hjorth Oldrup, H.; Malthesen, T.; Hvidt Breengaard, M.; Holmen, M.

    2007-07-01

    This report documents that there are clear and persistent gender differences in travel patterns. Men consistently travel further than women, men are more likely to travel by car and women by public transport, and women's trips tend to be more local. Explanations to these differences are linked to unequal gendered relations in the household and labour market and urban structures as well as gender socialisation. This means that men and women make different uses of a shared system of transport. Transport is an overwhelmingly male-dominated sector. At the EU level, political committees in the transport sector as well as transport research and advisory boards have a marked gender imbalance with less than 15% female membership in most boards and none with equal representation. This also goes for transport-related committees at national levels. Yet with one notable exception: Sweden has a 50-50 balance in the National Transport Committee. Current gender mainstreaming initiatives in the transport sector relate to a wide range of issues: They relate to planning and policy, safety issues, gendering of technology as well as employment. The report substantiates that the implementation of equality programmes, and not their formulation makes up the biggest challenge. One programme does not solve all problems, but opens up new avenues for initiatives and intervention. Gender is a central stratifying factor in transport use at all levels. In order to provide a more complete picture of gender differences, and in order to qualify EU goals of combating multi-level inequalities, there is a need to link gender with the broader axes of inequalities, namely ethnicity, sexuality, age and handicap in future studies of transport and mobility. (au)

  3. Standortdebatte: (Gender Mainstreaming und Herrschaftskritik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Sänger

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Die Autorinnen des Bandes Feminismus, Gender, Geschlecht der schweizerischen Zeitschrift Widerspruch diskutieren die Chancen und Risiken von Gender-Mainstreaming-Strategien im Horizont des neoliberalen Gesellschaftsumbaus und fragen im Diskussionsteil nach den Erkenntnispotenzialen und herrschaftskritischen Perspektiven der feministischen Theorie bzw. poststrukturalistischer und konstruktivistischer Ansätze.

  4. Mainstreaming Gender Analysis Into Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiebinger, Londa

    This essay considers the question, Has feminism changed science? After three decades of active research, what new insights, questions, and priorities have feminists - men or women - brought to the sciences? The author provides examples of change from three areas: women's health research, primatology, and archaeology. The essay concludes with a discussion of mainstreaming gender analysis into science.

  5. Escaping the mythical beast: Gender mainstreaming reconceptualised

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerdewijk, A.H.J.M. van; Davids, T.

    2014-01-01

    Since the early 2000s, disappointment has grown about the realization of the transformative potential that was ascribed to gender mainstreaming at its launch at the Beijing conference in 1995. The critiques on gender mainstreaming tend to represent gender mainstreaming as a 'mythical beast', and as

  6. Equal Opportunities between Men and Women and Gender Mainstreaming under the European Employment Strategy (EES and the Open Method of Coordination (OMC – A New Policy Approach to Combat Gender Discrimination?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate Braams

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyse the development of the concepts of equal opportunities between men and women and gender mainstreaming with regard to a new policy approach taken outside the traditional community method and to raise the question to what extent these policy instruments can be considered as a 'new tool' to combat gender discrimination. The European Employment Strategy (EES and the Open Method of Coordination (OMC are two examples of an instrument outside the community method, which tries to increase the recognition of the gender dimension of the labour market and to improve the initiatives taken in the interrelated field of social inclusion of women by the use of 'soft' policy instruments and voluntarist procedures. The paper illustrates the development of the concept of equal opportunities between men and women and gender mainstreaming under the EES and the OMC; more precisely, the paper seeks to demonstrate that the concepts of equal opportunities between men and women and gender mainstreaming cannot be addressed by reference to harmonisation instruments exclusively, but need, due to the diverse approach towards gender equality on a national level, a decentralised approach as it is offered by the coordination instrument, which should be understood as a complementary tool of integration.

  7. Mainstreaming Gender into Schools in the Taiwan Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Ching, Wang

    2014-01-01

    Gender mainstreaming and gender equity education are specific practices for creating a gender-equitable society. Gender mainstreaming tools can be used to help educational institutions engage in more thorough consideration when implementing gender equity education. This article addresses gender mainstreaming, gender equity education, and the…

  8. Mainstreaming Gender into Schools in the Taiwan Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Ching, Wang

    2014-01-01

    Gender mainstreaming and gender equity education are specific practices for creating a gender-equitable society. Gender mainstreaming tools can be used to help educational institutions engage in more thorough consideration when implementing gender equity education. This article addresses gender mainstreaming, gender equity education, and the…

  9. Ein erweiterter Blickwinkel auf Gender Mainstreaming A Broader Perspective on Gender Mainstreaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesine Fuchs

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Der vorliegende Band füllt eine Lücke zwischen der wissenschaftlichen Fundamentalkritik an Gender Mainstreaming und optimistischen Anleitungen zur Umsetzung von Gender-Mainstreaming-Strategien, indem er Kontroversen, Ansätze theoriegeleiteter Begleitforschung und erste Ergebnisse versammelt. Die Autorinnen konzentrieren sich insbesondere auf die politischen, auch mikropolitischen, Bedingungen zur Umsetzung. Das Buch ist empfehlenswert für alle, die Gender Mainstreaming umsetzen wollen und dazu Politik treiben müssen.This volume fills an important gap in the current literature on Gender Mainstreaming, where fundamental critics and optimistic “How-to-manuals” prevail. It gathers conceptual controversies, theory-grounded approaches to research and first research results. The authors focus in particular on political conditions, including micro-politics, for successful implementation. The book is recommended for all who want to implement Gender Mainstreaming and therefore have to act politically.

  10. Opinions and Strategies in Mainstreaming Gender Studies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Indexed African Journals Online: www.ajol.info. An International ... education and strategies for successful mainstreaming of gender education. Cross River ... 189 signatories (Platform action, 1996:1) articulates gender mainstreaming in.

  11. Standortdebatte: (Gender Mainstreaming und Herrschaftskritik A Debate of Placement: (Gender Mainstreaming and Criticism of Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Sänger

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Die Autorinnen des Bandes Feminismus, Gender, Geschlecht der schweizerischen Zeitschrift Widerspruch diskutieren die Chancen und Risiken von Gender-Mainstreaming-Strategien im Horizont des neoliberalen Gesellschaftsumbaus und fragen im Diskussionsteil nach den Erkenntnispotenzialen und herrschaftskritischen Perspektiven der feministischen Theorie bzw. poststrukturalistischer und konstruktivistischer Ansätze.The authors of the volume Feminismus, Gender, Geschlecht of the Swiss journal Widerspruch discuss the prospects and risks of gender-mainstreaming strategies in the context of neoliberal social restructuring. In the discussion section, they consider the potential and critical perspectives of feminist theory, i.e. poststructuralist and constructivist methods.

  12. Time for gender mainstreaming in editorial policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidari Shirin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The HIV epidemic has been continuously growing among women, and in some parts of the world, HIV-infected women outnumber men. Women's greater vulnerability to HIV, both biologically and socially, influences their health risk and health outcome. This disparity between sexes has been established for other diseases, for example, autoimmune diseases, malignancies and cardiovascular diseases. Differences in drug effects and treatment outcomes have also been demonstrated. Despite proven sex and gender differences, women continue to be underrepresented in clinical trials, and the absence of gender analyses in published literature is striking. There is a growing advocacy for consideration of women in research, in particular in the HIV field, and gender mainstreaming of policies is increasingly called for. However, these efforts have not translated into improved reporting of sex-disaggregated data and provision of gender analysis in published literature; science editors, as well as publishers, lag behind in this effort. Instructions for authors issued by journals contain many guidelines for good standards of reporting, and a policy on sex-disaggregated data and gender analysis should not be amiss here. It is time for editors and publishers to demonstrate leadership in changing the paradigm in the world of scientific publication. We encourage authors, peer reviewers and fellow editors to lend their support by taking necessary measures to substantially improve reporting of gender analysis. Editors' associations could play an essential role in facilitating a transition to improved standard editorial policies.

  13. Time for gender mainstreaming in editorial policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Shirin; Eckert, Mirjam J; Kippax, Susan; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool; Sow, Papa Salif; Wainberg, Mark A

    2011-03-08

    The HIV epidemic has been continuously growing among women, and in some parts of the world, HIV-infected women outnumber men. Women's greater vulnerability to HIV, both biologically and socially, influences their health risk and health outcome. This disparity between sexes has been established for other diseases, for example, autoimmune diseases, malignancies and cardiovascular diseases. Differences in drug effects and treatment outcomes have also been demonstrated. Despite proven sex and gender differences, women continue to be underrepresented in clinical trials, and the absence of gender analyses in published literature is striking. There is a growing advocacy for consideration of women in research, in particular in the HIV field, and gender mainstreaming of policies is increasingly called for. However, these efforts have not translated into improved reporting of sex-disaggregated data and provision of gender analysis in published literature; science editors, as well as publishers, lag behind in this effort.Instructions for authors issued by journals contain many guidelines for good standards of reporting, and a policy on sex-disaggregated data and gender analysis should not be amiss here. It is time for editors and publishers to demonstrate leadership in changing the paradigm in the world of scientific publication. We encourage authors, peer reviewers and fellow editors to lend their support by taking necessary measures to substantially improve reporting of gender analysis. Editors' associations could play an essential role in facilitating a transition to improved standard editorial policies.

  14. Reflections on Mainstreaming Gender Equality in Adult Basic Education Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Agneta

    2006-01-01

    This article is about mainstreaming gender equality in adult basic learning and education (ABLE). Gender equality is defined as equal rights of both women and men to influence, participate in and benefit from a programme. It is argued that specific gender analyses of emerging patterns of gender relations is helpful in formulating gender equality…

  15. MAINSTREAMING GENDER EQUALITY IN EUROPE. A CRITICAL FRAME ANALYSIS APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Verloo, Mieke

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes implementation problems in gender mainstreaming as accentuated by a multi-level setting and assumes that one of the major factors affecting implementation problems is a discursive one. Against this backdrop a methodological approach is presented to study such divergences in policy frames on gender equality. Based upon recent literature, the article first outlines the necessity for a comparative methodology to analyze (gender equality) policy frames, and identifies some m...

  16. Gender mainstreaming and rural development policy; the trivialisation of rural gender issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bock, B.B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers gender mainstreaming of the EU Rural Development Programme. The EU promotes the gender mainstreaming of rural development policies because retaining women in rural areas is seen as crucial to the long-term viability of rural areas. A review of literature and scan of policy docum

  17. It's Time to Mainstream Research on Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferree, Myra Marx

    2005-01-01

    The importance of gender-related issues in present-day sociological studies is discussed. Topics analyzed include the evolution of sociology and sociological research brought about by the feminist movement and the study of gender relations as an integral part of sociology.

  18. Feminist change revisited: Gender mainstreaming as slow revolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davids, T.; Driel, F.T.M. van; Parren, F.B.

    2014-01-01

    Within the growing body of literature on gender mainstreaming, intense and vivid discussions on an assumed loss of transformative potential and a feminist, revolutionary promise of change exist. Our analysis uses a paradigm shift in thinking on power and social relations, for analysing conceptualisa

  19. Mainstreaming gender equality in Europe: A critical frame analysis approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloo, M.M.T.

    2005-01-01

    This article analyzes implementation problems in gender mainstreaming as accentuated by a multi-level setting and assumes that one of the major factors affecting implementation problems is a discursive one. Against this backdrop a methodological approach is presented to study such divergences in

  20. Mainstreaming gender, democratizing the State?: National machineries

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Shirin M

    2003-01-01

    Democratization has become an important concept in the last ten years. With the end of the Cold War, the spread of globalization, and the extension of economic regulatory regimes, democratization has come to be seen as important to securing long-term political stability. Much has been written about democratization and gender in works on human rights, citizenship, women's movements and challenges to authoritarian regimes. This book, published in association with the United Nations, builds on t...

  1. UNIVERSITY COMMISSION FOR GENDER EQUALITY (CUIG. EXPERIENCE MAINSTREAMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Flores-Hernández

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender mainstreaming suggests institutional reorganization and/or “mainstreaming” of gender at the university. Betting on institutionalization as part of a government policy that requires institutional commitment and the responsibility of all university powers by the advancement of equality between women and men. For certain approaches in the feminist movement, it represents the handling of a struggle in the very long term tension that cannot be bounded exclusively to the enunciation of instances nominal or degraded resource allocation without achieving larger structural changes and prone to genuine equality (Palomar, 2009; Pérez, 2010; Alonso, 2010. Therefore, in this paper seeks to explain the extent to which the proposal or mainstreaming should not own the feminist struggle. The reflection is located in the plane of the Autonomous University of Tlaxcala (UATX, for it challenges facing the institutionalization of gender are presented, based on the following questions: Does the University have a need to mainstream a gender perspective? And, if so, what elements allow this initiative? And, what elements constrain it?

  2. Making a gender difference : case studies of gender mainstreaming in medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonk, P.; Benschop, Y.W.M.; Haes, J.C.J.M. de; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Curricula are accommodated to the interests of new groups after pressure from social movements outside institutions. A Dutch national project to integrate gender-gender mainstreaming (GM)-in all medical curricula started in 2002 and finished in 2005. GM is a long-term strategy which aims

  3. Making a gender difference : case studies of gender mainstreaming in medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonk, P.; Benschop, Y.W.M.; Haes, J.C.J.M. de; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Curricula are accommodated to the interests of new groups after pressure from social movements outside institutions. A Dutch national project to integrate gender-gender mainstreaming (GM)-in all medical curricula started in 2002 and finished in 2005. GM is a long-term strategy which aims

  4. Making a gender difference: Case studies of gender mainstreaming in medical - www-publicatie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonk, P.; Benschop, Y.W.M.; Haes, J.C.J.M. de; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Curricula are accommodated to the interests of new groups after pressure from social movements outside institutions. A Dutch national project to integrate gender–gender mainstreaming (GM)–in all medical curricula started in 2002 and finished in 2005. GM is a long-term strategy which aims

  5. Gender mainstreaming y agua. El Programa Nacional Hídrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Vázquez-García

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde la Conferencia sobre la Mujer realizada en 1995 en Beijing, el gender mainstreaming (GM se ha convertido en la principal herramienta de los gobiernos para promover la equidad de género. El presente artículo revisa los logros del GM en la política ambiental mexicana mediante el análisis de tres programas operados por la Semarnat: el Programa Equidad de Género, Medio Ambiente y Sustentabilidad (2002-2006, el Programa Hacia la Igualdad de Género y la Sustentabilidad Ambiental (2007-2012 y el Programa Nacional Hídrico (2007-2012. A partir de este análisis se hacen propuestas para incorporar la perspectiva de equidad de género en el diseño e implementación de políticas de gestión del agua en el país.

  6. Gender mainstreaming in the Danish international development agency (Danida) - a panacea for development?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Diana Højlund

    institutional barriers can be identified over time indicating that very little learning actually takes place. The solutions proposed seem to be more of the same – new gender equality strategies / frameworks and the development of new tools for gender mainstreaming; a somewhat ‘technical’ stance on gender......In 1995 with the Beijing Platform for Action (BFA), gender mainstreaming was adopted as the main strategy guiding development work – also for Danida (Danish Development Assistance). However, after more than twenty years, few results of gender mainstreaming can be identified. Combining theoretical...... strategic framework or changes at the formal level, the underlying informal institutional barriers in Danida are not being addressed – the organisational culture is characterised by a widespread gender (mainstreaming) fatigue and negative personal attitudes towards gender issues (by some), and the same...

  7. Beijing fifteen years on: the persistence of barriers to gender mainstreaming in health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, fifteen years after the Beijing declaration on women's rights, the UN Commission on the Status of Women met to review progress in gender mainstreaming. Reports on gender equality by member states revealed differences in the degree of change achieved in this period, while highlighting common barriers to gender mainstreaming. The same barriers have long been identified by academics and activists, but prove remarkably resistant to strategies to address gender inequalities. This paper reviews approaches to gender mainstreaming in the context of health policy, and suggests that a model of the obstacles to gender mainstreaming, which identifies barriers as essentially pragmatic, conceptual, or political in origin, might enable a more explicit discussion of the factors underlying this resistance and the ways in which they might be challenged.

  8. Emancipation or Neo-Colonisation? Global Gender Mainstreaming Policies, Swedish Gender Equality Politics and Local Negotiations about Putting Gender into Education Reforms in the Lao People's Democratic Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silfver, Ann-Louise

    2010-01-01

    This article reflects on gender mainstreaming policies post Beijing and their impact on development cooperation and relations between the Global North and Global South. The analysis is based on an examination of gender equality politics in Sweden, their connection with an interpretation of gender mainstreaming and the application of this approach…

  9. Emancipation or Neo-Colonisation? Global Gender Mainstreaming Policies, Swedish Gender Equality Politics and Local Negotiations about Putting Gender into Education Reforms in the Lao People's Democratic Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silfver, Ann-Louise

    2010-01-01

    This article reflects on gender mainstreaming policies post Beijing and their impact on development cooperation and relations between the Global North and Global South. The analysis is based on an examination of gender equality politics in Sweden, their connection with an interpretation of gender mainstreaming and the application of this approach…

  10. Care, Europeanization and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freudendal-Pedersen, Malene

    This book adresses the recent underexamined developments concerning care in Europe, including the negotiations about care at the top EU level to that of individual workers. Through a comparative and interdisciplinary approach, this collection examines and further develops current theoretical...... and political debares about complexities of care and the impact of multilevel changes in Europe. It provides a foundation for understanding the major restructuring of care that is taking place at the European level as related to the global phenonomena of care markets....

  11. Care, Europeanization and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book adresses the recent underexamined developments concerning care in Europe, including the negotiations about care at the top EU level to that of individual workers. Through a comparative and interdisciplinary approach, this collection examines and further develops current theoretical and ...... and political debares about complexities of care and the impact of multilevel changes in Europe. It provides a foundation for understanding the major restructuring of care that is taking place at the European level as related to the global phenonomena of care markets....

  12. Report from the 2012 European Gender Summit

    CERN Document Server

    European Gender Summit, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Report from the 2012 European Gender Summit to the European Parliament and the Council, the European Commission, the Council of Europe, EU Member and Associate States, Science Institutions. Developing Systematic Implementation Strategy to Advance EU Policy on Gender Equality in Science, as part of HORIZON 2020, European Research Area and Innovation Union.

  13. 'Beyond the grim resisters' : towards more effective gender mainstreaming through stakeholder participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, P.

    2002-01-01

    Gender experts who formulate planning frameworks and strategies for mainstreaming gender issues in organisational policies and programmes usually characterise non-expert policy makers and planners as either active resisters or passive implementers rather than as capable change agents. Because of

  14. [Reflection on the Health and Gender Mainstreaming of Indigenous Women in Taiwan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiao-Ching; Shih, Cian-Huei; Wang, Jie-Ying; Hou, Jia-Sian; Lee, Ru-Ping

    2016-06-01

    Gender and race issues have caused rapid cultural and societal changes to affect the healthcare of indigenous women, which involves complicated, cultural meanings. The present paper begins by outlining the gender perspective and then elaborates on the present gender mainstreaming and status of indigenous women's healthcare in Taiwan. Furthermore, this paper identifies the current difficulties experienced by Taiwanese indigenous women, including those related to the lack of adequate healthcare data and gender analyses on indigenous women and the lack of regular research on healthcare strategies for indigenous women. Therefore, the present paper proposes to establish health policy references that are gender and race sensitive. The health policy not only addresses racial and gender concerns regarding healthcare information but also focuses on the analysis of indigenous healthcare information. Indigenous women's health concerns are discussed here within the framework of healthcare policy through the perspective of gender mainstreaming. Additionally, we will analyze and evaluate the effects of gender in order to establish inspection and management processes that integrate the concept of gender into policy development and implementation, thus promoting relevant health policies. During the processes of planning, implementing, and evaluating healthcare policies, women should unite to contribute toward indigenous women's health policies and gender mainstreaming.

  15. Frames in contestation: gendering domestic violence policies in five central and eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizsan, Andrea; Popa, Raluca Maria

    2014-07-01

    The article looks at the translation of international norms on domestic violence to the national level in five Central and Eastern European countries. It argues that translation brings a concept of domestic violence, which stretches gender equality ideas underpinning international norms so as to be easier to endorse by mainstream policy actors, and results in policies framed in degendered individual rights terms. The potential for keeping gender equality in focus is then guaranteed by gendering policy processes through empowerment of gender equality actors at all stages. Absence of ownership of the policy by gender equality actors risks co-optation by frames contesting gender equality. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. e-EPS News: Consultation on European Research, Innovation & Gender

    CERN Multimedia

    e-EPS

    2011-01-01

    e-EPS News is a monthly addition to the CERN Bulletin line-up, showcasing an article by the e-EPS – the European Physical Society newsletter – as part of a new collaboration between the two publications.   EPS members have been invited to take part in a Public Consultation on the Future of Gender and Innovation in Europe. The consultation, which is intended to complement the EC Green Paper ‘From Challenges to Opportunities: Towards a Common Strategic Framework for EU Research and Innovation Funding’, will be published and discussed during the first European Gender Summit in Brussels on 8-9 November this year. It is hoped that the consultation – which is being coordinated by genSET and the organisers of the European Gender Summit – will create a better understanding of how Europe might benefit from a more effective mainstreaming of the gender dimension in research, innovation and scientific systems. Responses from the co...

  17. Lost in the mainstream? Gender in Dutch political science education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Bonjour; L. Mügge; C. Roggeband

    2016-01-01

    What have been the losses and the gains of the shift from women’s studies to gender studies for political science in The Netherlands? What are present-day opportunities and how should we move forward? Our systematic analysis of the Bachelor programmes offered by four Dutch political science departme

  18. Mainstreaming gender in the police: the Maharashtra experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, S

    1998-11-01

    This study reviewed the history of sex segregation in the police forces of Maharashtra state, India, and policy interventions since 1994 to reverse the trends; it also describes the process of improving gender equity in the policy department as part of a gender aim to control violence against women. Police jobs are allocated based on gender. Passage of the 1975 Sex Discrimination Act was not implemented fully within police departments. In fact, the Police Force actively worked to keep itself outside the purview of the Act. Supervisors maintained the attitude that women were unsuitable for police work. Women were suspected of lacking in career commitments and were limited to only a small number within the force. These attitudes restricted women's entry, deployment, and promotions. The Government of Maharashtra has been pressured by district level women's groups to secure women's rights and to change the social environment that supports violence against women. The efforts uncovered violence unreported due to social pressure. It was thought that women's greater presence in policy departments would encourage women to report domestic crimes. The policemen disliked the interference of women. Since women were recruited for specific duties, the result was low self-esteem, frustration due to lack of promotions, sexual harassment, ostracism, and reduced job expectations. In 1993, officers received gender-sensitizing training. The training at the Institute of Development Studies at the University of Sussex focused on rules, practices, access to resources, and formal and informal inclusions and exclusions.

  19. Energy consumption by gender in some European countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raety, R.; Carlsson-Kanyama, A. [Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-01-15

    Household total energy use has been estimated in numerous studies in recent decades and differences have mainly been explained by levels of income/expenditure. Studies of gender consumption patterns show that men eat more meat than women and drive longer distances, potentially leading to higher total energy use by men. In this study we calculated the total energy use for male and female consumption patterns in four European countries (Germany, Norway, Greece and Sweden) by studying single households. Significant differences in total energy use were found in two countries, Greece and Sweden. The largest differences found between men and women were for travel and eating out, alcohol and tobacco, where men used much more energy than women. We suggest that these findings are policy relevant for the EU, which aims to mainstream gender issues into all activities and to lower its total energy use. (author)

  20. Gender Mainstream Image of Elementary School Teachers in Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    In the study at hand, the image of an elementary school teacher in public shall be analyzed in detail: his/her reputation, characteristics, and trust in him/her. Especially the image of elementary school teachers shall be considered. This investigation deals with the question "Why men mainly teach at secondary schools". A reason for this could the bad image and the appreciation towards elementary school teachers in society. To counter these tendencies, measures have been taken, like Boy's Days, to make the elementary school more attractive for men, too With the help of polarity profiles and distance scales, the images of male and female elementary school teachers are compared. The results show that the image of elementary school teachers is overall positively rated, but men working at elementary schools are imputed to show alternative behavior and female characteristics. Further research and implication for acting are necessary to find out what relationships exist between the image and the choice of profession of elementary school teachers to take effective mainstream measures.

  1. Gender mainstreaming in Spain: ¨The case of “Lidera Project” in Madrid Autonomous Community¨

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón Pin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Women continue to be under-represented in senior positions. In this paper we present a ¨best practice´ in the role of the public agents as gender mainstream key actors. Gender mainstreaming as a strategy is meant to actively counteract this gender bias, and to use the normal mandate of policy makers to promote more equitable relations between women and men. The rationale for pursuing gender mainstreaming via the Structural Funds is as much about promoting economic efficiency as it is about promoting equity. In this paper we analize an specific case launched by the Government of the Region of Madrid, three years ago, the “Lidera project”. To assess the overall effectiveness of the gender mainstreaming effort through the Lidera project, we analyze the impact in the individual level trough five constructs. We can conclude at individual level that LIDERA EFFECT exists and it has a positive and differential impact.

  2. Gender mainstreaming in Spain: ¨The case of “Lidera Project” in Madrid Autonomous Community¨

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón Pin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Women continue to be under-represented in senior positions. In this paper we present a ¨best practice´ in the role of the public agents as gender mainstream key actors. Gender mainstreaming as a strategy is meant to actively counteract this gender bias, and to use the normal mandate of policy makers to promote more equitable relations between women and men. The rationale for pursuing gender mainstreaming via the Structural Funds is as much about promoting economic efficiency as it is about promoting equity. In this paper we analize an specific case launched by the Government of the Region of Madrid, three years ago, the “Lidera project”. To assess the overall effectiveness of the gender mainstreaming effort through the Lidera project, we analyze the impact in the individual level trough five constructs. We can conclude at individual level that LIDERA EFFECT exists and it has a positive and differential impact.

  3. Framing Gender Intersections in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombardo, Emanuela; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the extent to which the emergence of an antidiscrimination policy in the European Union (EU) implies a shift in EU gender equality policies towards an intersectional approach. The frame analysis of EU gender equality policy documents shows that intersectional dimensions...

  4. Framing Gender Intersections in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombardo, Emanuela; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the extent to which the emergence of an antidiscrimination policy in the European Union (EU) implies a shift in EU gender equality policies towards an intersectional approach. The frame analysis of EU gender equality policy documents shows that intersectional dimensions...

  5. MAINSTREAMING GENDER IN PURSUIT OF MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS IN WATER RESOURCE GOVERNANCE IN BUHERA, ZIMBABWE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ephraim Chifamba

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Women have the primary role for the management of household water supply, sanitation and health. Water is necessary for drinking, but also for food production and preparation, personal hygiene, care of the sick, cleaning, washing and waste disposal. Because of their dependence on water resources, women have accumulated considerable knowledge about water resources, including location, quality and storage methods. However, efforts geared towards improving the management of the finite water resources and extending access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation, have often overlooked the central role that women play in water management. The study used both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies. The research noted that despite increased gender awareness and the availability of much more information on women's and men's roles in water management, gender is not yet mainstreamed into this sector. The study revealed that prospects for effective gender mainstreaming in water resource management will hinge on how the main agenda can address the transformation of gender relations and treat water as a human right so as to realize the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs in Buhera. A gender equity approach within the water sector, should strive for a more balanced division between women and men in access to information, sharing of contribution, the degree of decision making, access to resources and benefits and the control over water resources. Addressing women's concerns and mainstreaming gender in water governance through a livelihood approach is critical because this generates an understanding of people's livelihood strategies and their decision making mechanisms and processes. Significant support and capacity development are required to enhance the participation in decision making processes for the success of water management initiatives.

  6. Gender and Diversity in European Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyger, Tabitta

    2013-01-01

    The chapter contains the representation of findings from the Eurosphere project related to gender and diversity in the European media. The point of departure is the question of how articulations of diversity in the media draw on and contribute to country-specific discourses and whether...

  7. The Gender Gap in European Business Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roseberry, Lynn; Remke, Robyn; Klæsson, Johan

    "The Gender Gap in European Business Schools: A Leadership Perspective" is a research project initiated and funded by EFMD, EQUAL, and the business schools represented on the project’s Steering Committee with following motivations for the study: Numerous studies by policy makers and academics have...

  8. 'Should you turn this into a complete gender matter?' Gender mainstreaming in medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Verdonk; Y. Benschop; H. de Haes; L. Mans; T. Lagro-Janssen

    2009-01-01

    The incorporation of a gender perspective in medical education aims toward better health, gender equity, and a better health care for both men and women. In this article, participants' responses to a Dutch gender awareness-raising project in medical education are discussed. Eighteen semi-structured

  9. "Should You Turn This into a Complete Gender Matter?" Gender Mainstreaming in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, Petra; Benschop, Yvonne; de Haes, Hanneke; Mans, Linda; Lagro-Janssen, Toine

    2009-01-01

    The incorporation of a gender perspective in medical education aims toward better health, gender equity, and a better health care for both men and women. In this article, participants' responses to a Dutch gender awareness-raising project in medical education are discussed. Eighteen semi-structured interviews were held with education directors and…

  10. The Gender Gap in European Business Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roseberry, Lynn; Remke, Robyn; Klæsson, Johan

    "The Gender Gap in European Business Schools: A Leadership Perspective" is a research project initiated and funded by EFMD, EQUAL, and the business schools represented on the project’s Steering Committee with following motivations for the study: Numerous studies by policy makers and academics have...... documented the existence of a faculty gender gap in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), which starts at the bottom of the academic hierarchy at the Ph.D. level and grows wider at each succeeding stage in the academic career path. As of 2013, women still represented less than 30% of grade A academic staff...

  11. WMO's activities in gender mainstreaming in geosciences, with a special focus on integrated flood management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaenkova, Elena; Caponi, Claudio; Alexieva, Assia; Poissonnier, Maud; Tripathi, Ramesh

    2017-04-01

    Statistics show that women represent a minority in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). They are significantly underrepresented in governance, management and international negotiations. They further comprise only a third of the global workforce at National Meteorological and Hydrological Services and only one out of five senior managers is a woman. This paper presents historical trends and statistics on the participation of women and men in all structures and activities of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). It explores the root causes of women's underrepresentation in the meteorological, hydrological and climatological profession as well as analyzes its adverse effects in terms of the scarcity of role models for young female professionals and the lack of gender considerations in the provision of weather, hydrological and climate services. The paper presents WMO's approach to addressing these issues through the adoption of a WMO Gender Equality Policy, a comprehensive Gender Action Plan, targeted leadership training, a series of awareness raising campaigns, and specific recommendations on how to make weather, hydrological and climate services more gender-sensitive. As a specific example, the Associated Programme on Flood Management (APFM) of WMO and the Global Water Partnership (GWP) is in the process of developing a training manual for gender mainstreaming in integrated flood management. This generic, instructive, at the same time informative training manual and facilitator's guide will strive to fill gaps in practical knowledge, decision-making and further provide assistance in gender sensitive approaches for both local policy makers and communities affected by floods. The format and contents of the manual are particularly focused on every phase of the flood management cycle, incorporating gender based needs, strategies and actions/approaches. The facilitator or training instructor is encouraged to adapt the materials with local case

  12. Effectiveness of Ministry of Internal Affairs Regulation Number 15 Year 2008 about Mainstreaming Gender on Basic Education Level in the East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, Trisakti; Widodo, Wahyu

    2016-01-01

    General purpose of this research are: assessing the implementation of Permendagri no. 15 year 2008 about Gender Mainstreaming on Basic Education Levels in the East Java Province, analyze the problem of the implementation of Permendagri no. 15 year 2008 about Gender Mainstreaming on Basic Education Levels in the East Java Province and analyze the…

  13. Gender mainstreaming Európában: a koncepcionális keretek kritikai elemzése

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloo, M.M.T.

    2006-01-01

    This article analyses implementation problems in gender mainstreaming as accentuated by a multi-level setting and assumes that one of the major factors affecting implementation problems is a discursive one. Against this backdrop a methodological approach is presented to study such discursive

  14. Malwine Seemann: Geschlechtergerechtigkeit in der Schule. Eine Studie zum Gender Mainstreaming in Schweden. Bielefeld: transcript Verlag 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Schneider

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender Mainstreaming-Prozesse in Bildungsorganisationen sind geeignet, Wissen darüber zu liefern, wie Gender in Organisationen eingeschrieben ist – in Strukturen, Abläufe und Routinen, in Haltungen und Werte. Darüber gibt die Studie von Seemann jedoch nur zum Teil Auskunft: Der breiten Material-Fülle (Textdokumente und über 40 Expert/-innen-Interviews fehlt an relevanten Stellen die Tiefe: Wie ist für die jeweilige Schule Geschlechtergerechtigkeit definiert? Was ist das Ziel, woran ist die Zielerreichung zu erkennen? Wie werden Konflikte und Widerstände gemanagt? Welche strukturellen Veränderungen können realisiert werden? Ausgeblendet bleibt in Seemanns Untersuchung auch das Doing Gender – das (ReProduzieren von Geschlecherdifferenzen – auf der Ebene von Fachunterricht, Fachkulturen und Didaktik.The processes of gender mainstreaming in educational organizations are appropriate for communicating knowledge about how organizations are inscribed by gender – in their structures, schedule of events and routines, habits, and values. However, Seemann’s study only discloses partial information. At key points, the broad expanse of material (written documents and over 40 expert interviews often lacks depth: How is school gender equity defined for each individual? What is the goal, how can the achievement of that goal be properly identified? How are conflict and dissent managed? Which structural changes can be put into place? Missing in Seemann’s study is also the aspect of doing gender – the (reproduction of gender differences – at the level of subject instruction, subject cultures, and didactics.

  15. Mainstreaming Gender Into Conflict And Peace Building Through Women Led Madras’s In Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zil-e-Huma

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Armed conflict has many significant effects on gender relations. Women and girls have special vulnerabilities to many forms of violence. Women bear many consequences of wars and suffer violations of human rights in situations of armed conflict including terrorism, rape, disappearance, ethnic cleansing, family separation, displacement, and social and psychological traumas. Peace building is generally defined as initiatives that are designed to prevent the eruption or return of armed conflict. As argued in this initiative, and as increasingly recognized in scholarship and diplomacy, religion can be used or mobilized to promote either conflict or peace building. There are strong connections among women and peace building processes. United Nations Security Council unanimously passed Resolution 1325 (SCR, 1325, recognized that armed conflict affects women in different ways and women plays an important role in conflict prevention, conflict resolution, and peace building processes. Mostly, women’s engagement in religious peacemaking is often invisible because, in many contemporary conflict zones and faith traditions, men tend to dominate formal religious leadership. Historical tendencies of male domination in security matters - and violent conflict specifically – accentuate women’s invisibility. And it is evident that women are crucial in conflict situations, because women’s perspectives, needs and unique leverage are often ignored by policy makers and scholars in the design of traditional religious peacemaking initiatives. This suggests new ways of understanding peace processes and making them more effective. This paper focuses on mainstreaming a gender approach to peace building, emphasizing the interests and needs of women and girls in post-conflict situations. The paper presents a bottom-up approach to religious peace building, exploring how institutes led by women, home based madrassas, can play a crucial role in rebuilding peace in

  16. Discourses and Processes of Gendering in the European Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2011-01-01

    . We discuss how both the national and organizational contexts matter for the answers we obtain regarding attitudes to gender, diversity and European integration.Thirdly, the chapter contains conclusions relating to the transnational dimension and discussions about gender, equality and diversity across......This chapter includes conclusions of the EUROSPHERE project pertaining to questions of gendered discourses about national and European belonging and about ethnic minorities.Secondly, it discusses the importance of context for impacting upon discourses and processes of gendering within the data set...

  17. Mainstreaming culture in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M

    2012-11-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural personality assessment, the author discusses the inadequacies of sole reliance on either the etic or the emic approach and points out the advantages of a combined emic-etic approach in bridging global and local human experiences in psychological science and practice. With the blurring of the boundaries between North American-European psychologies and psychology in the rest of the world, there is a need to mainstream culture in psychology's epistemological paradigm. Borrowing from the concept of gender mainstreaming that embraces both similarities and differences in promoting equal opportunities, the author discusses the parallel needs of acknowledging universals and specifics when mainstreaming culture in psychology. She calls for building a culturally informed universal knowledge base that should be incorporated in the psychology curriculum and textbooks.

  18. Luxury and Gender in European Towns, 1700-1914

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of gendered identities and the transmission of ideas across local, national and transnational boundaries. This book draws on research undertaken within a pan-European network of historians from twelve countries whose interests lie in examining the ways that the European urban experience was gendered over time...... and across borders. This book will mirror some of the concerns of the network and will focus on the operation of gender in three distinct, but interrelated, areas of urban study: the economic, the political and the spatial. The three central themes speak directly to newer ideas of exploring the dynamics...... of culture – both as definition and as practice. Importantly, ‘political culture’ does not mean politics as it is usually defined, but refers to power and influence. Thus, how power was legitimated and understood was important in creating a space for women and for gendered political culture, which...

  19. Plataforma de Ação de Pequim, avanços e entraves ao gender mainstreaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Mara Miranda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo discute a integração das políticas de gênero no Estado,ou gender mainstreaming, como uma inovação da gestão pública, resultado de uma intensa mobilização dos movimentos feministas e da Organização das Nações Unidas (ONU em diversos países do mundo. Objetiva-se compreender a construção do conceito de gender mainstreaming, bem como contextualizar o papel das conferências internacionais da mulher promovidas pela ONU, com ênfase na Plataforma de Ação de Pequim, que promoveu uma mudança paradigmática na forma de se pensarem as questões de gênero nas políticas dos governos. A partir da análise das resoluções das conferências, buscou-se problematizar a construção do conceito de gender mainstreaming. O artigo aponta que a distância entre o discurso e a prática da integração das políticas de gênero no Estado impede que se avance na criação dos Organismos de Políticas para as Mulheres e na elaboração e implementação das políticas de igualdade. Também destacam-se os desafios atuais para que a busca da igualdade entre os gêneros seja uma prática do Estado em ação capaz de mudar o status das mulheres nas mais diversas sociedades. São apresentadas algumas considerações sobre o campo de disputa de poder que tem promovido avanços e entraves para a incorporação das questões de gênero nas políticas.

  20. Interrelations between Gender, Diversity, and European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene; Mokre, Monika

    respondents’ conception of diversity, we focus particularly on how they articulate their notions of gender equality in connection with diversity. This is done both because the Eurosphere data contains comprehensive information about respondents’ conceptions of both, but also because gender serves......The empirical question we want to address in this paper is two-fold. First, while we as social scientists may consider diversity a complex phenomenon, where multiple identifications are likely to co-exist and overlap, how do opinion makers within Europe conceive of and speak about diversity......? Specifically, we assess to what extent they show awareness of the possibilities for multiple co-existing identifications. Secondly, building from the basis of conceptions of diversity, what are the future prospects for complex diversity in a Europe becoming increasingly integrated? As a part of assessing...

  1. Interrelations between Gender, Diversity, and European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene; Mokre, Monika

    respondents’ conception of diversity, we focus particularly on how they articulate their notions of gender equality in connection with diversity. This is done both because the Eurosphere data contains comprehensive information about respondents’ conceptions of both, but also because gender serves......The empirical question we want to address in this paper is two-fold. First, while we as social scientists may consider diversity a complex phenomenon, where multiple identifications are likely to co-exist and overlap, how do opinion makers within Europe conceive of and speak about diversity......? Specifically, we assess to what extent they show awareness of the possibilities for multiple co-existing identifications. Secondly, building from the basis of conceptions of diversity, what are the future prospects for complex diversity in a Europe becoming increasingly integrated? As a part of assessing...

  2. Where Are the Women? An Analysis of Gender Mainstreaming in Introductory Political Science Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, Amy L.

    2017-01-01

    Textbook content is a powerful indicator of what is and is not considered important in a given discipline. Textbooks shape both curriculum and students' thinking about a subject. The extant literature indicates that gender is not well represented in American government textbooks, thus signaling to students that women and gender are not part of the…

  3. WHY GENDER MAINSTREAMING IS NOT ENOUGH? A CRITIQUE TO SYLVIA WALBY’S THE FUTURE OF FEMINISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Crușmac

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper represents a detailed analysis of the proposals made by Sylvia Walby in “The Future of Feminism”. The structure of the article follows two main directions, according to Walby’s discourse, respectively feminism outside the state and feminism inside the state/transnational institutions. The first direction will focus on feminist theories and will canvass their present forms and also the postfeminist trends. The second direction will examine feminist projects which have entered into the transnational and state policies – gender mainstreaming, affirmative action, equality of treatment, reconfiguration of the human rights. Another important section will be dedicated to inequalities within the family and how can gender policies correct them and why Walby omits this aspect from her analysis. The nature of gender inequalities shall be presented both from the point of view of distributive theories as well as the standpoint of the theory of oppression as a source of inequality, according to its formulation made by Iris Marion Young

  4. The European Gender Equality Index: Conceptual and Analytical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bericat, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a composite indicator designed to measure and compare existing structural gender equality in the countries of the European Union. The construction of an index is always a complex task which requires making a great many important conceptual, analytical and empirical decisions. This complexity explains the wide variety of…

  5. Aufklärung des Europäischen Forschungsraums durch Geschlechterwissen? Enlightenment of the European Research Area through Gender Knowledge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Kahlert

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Zentrales Verdienst der vorliegenden empirischen Studie ist es, anschaulich das Netzwerk von Wissenschaftlerinnen, Politikerinnen sowie Mitarbeiterinnen und Mitarbeitern der nationalen und insbesondere der europäischen Forschungsverwaltung zu beschreiben, das ermöglichte, Gender Mainstreaming im Sechsten Forschungsrahmenprogramm der EU zu implementieren. Außerdem wird die Verknüpfung aus formellen und informellen Politikstrukturen und Genderexpertise beschrieben.The central merit of the empirical study at hand is the achievement of clearly describing the network of scholars, politicians, as well as staff of the national and especially the European research administration that made possible the implementation of Gender Mainstreaming in the sixth research framework of the EU. Additionally, the study describes the conjunction between formal and informal political structures and gender expertise.

  6. Gender inequality indices for the European partnership countries comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E I Kharchenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Overcoming gender inequality is a serious challenge for many countries all over the world. Different reforms aiming at reduction of gender inequality are often a necessary condition for joining international alliances and associations. The article presents an example of comparative analysis of gender statuses in European partnership countries: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova, Ukraine and Russian Federation (1 on the one hand, and Iceland - on the other hand due to the latter leading position in the Global Gender Gap ranking. This ranking as well as the results of the comparative analysis can be useful for lecturers in the courses on gender inequality, international comparative studies and others. The author provides a definition of the concept “gender inequality”, an overview of existing methodological approaches to the international gender inequality measurement and interpretation. Based on the Global Gender Gap Index (GGGI author describes men and women positions in the countries mentioned above in such socially important fields as politics, economy, education, and life expectancy; provides her own explanations of the current situation and perspectives for its development. The study shows that for all the countries under consideration the most problematic are (1 political sphere in the terms of women’s empowerment and (2 the sphere of healthcare from the point of quality and duration of men’s lives. The most unproblematic field from the comparative gender analysis point of view is educational sphere. According to the results of the comparative analysis, the most egalitarian country seems to be Moldova, while the least egalitarian - Azerbaijan. This article is based on the data of the International project ReSET «European visions and divisions: comparative studies in improving of teaching sociology” (supported by OSI HESP in 2010-2012.

  7. Gender equality observations and actions by the European Research Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydin, Claudia Alves de Jesus; Farina Busto, Luis; Penny, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Women have historically been underrepresented in science. Much positive progress in attracting women to research careers has been achieved in recent years; however, the most influential and high profile positions in most countries are still predominantly occupied by men. The European Research Council (ERC), Europe's premiere funding agency for frontier research, views gender equality as an important challenge. The ERC monitors closely gender figures on every call and has taken actions to tackle gender imbalances and potential unconscious biases. The ERC talk is focused on efforts made to understand and ensure equal treatment of all candidates, with particular focus on gender balance and with specific attention to geosciences. Data and statistics collected from ERC's internationally recognised funding schemes are presented.

  8. ORGANIZATIONAL DIAGNOSIS WITH GENDER MAINSTREAMING IN THE INSTITUTO TECNOLÓGICO DE LOS MOCHIS, PERIOD 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Guadalupe Naranjo-Cantabrana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Technological Institute of Los Mochis does the organizational assessment gendered 2013, in order to meet the employment situation of women and men who work there respect to position, gauges for horizontal segregation (occupational segregation and vertical segregation level, average wage difference between men and women. The diagnostic is a qualitative analysis through which staff perceptions regarding discrimination, quality of organizational life and equal opportunities and gender equality is known. This also includes a quantitative analysis, which allows to know the level indicators or horizontal occupational segregation level of vertical segregation, average pay gap between men and women, degree and type of sexual harassment present in the institution.

  9. Negotiating Gender and Diversity in an Emerging European Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2013-01-01

    The European Parliament (EP) as an institution can be understood as having the potential for becoming ‘a strong public’ which is undergoing a process of building a wider general public: ‘The EP can be conceived of as an incipient transnational public sphere’ (Liebert 2007: 268). This makes the EP...... (Ferree et al. 2002) by looking both at the gender composition of the EP and the framing of debates about women´s representation within the EP and its Committee on Women’s Rights and Gender Equality (FEMM) during the period 2000-2011....

  10. Sandra Smykalla: Die Bildung der Differenz. Weiterbildung und Beratung im Kontext von Gender Mainstreaming. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Rosa Ideler

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Die 2010 erschienene Dissertation von Sandra Smykalla gewährt detaillierte Einblicke in die Arbeit von Gendertrainer/-innen im Kontext der Implementierung von Gender Mainstreaming. Zentrale Erkenntnis dieser qualitativen Interviewstudie ist, dass Gendertrainer/-innen neben einer Genderkompetenz über eine Ambivalenzkompetenz verfügen müssen, wollen sie nicht Gefahr laufen, Geschlechterungleichheiten und -stereotypen zu revitalisieren. Überzeugend ist Smykallas Forderung nach der (Re-Politisierung des Feldes genderorientierter Weiterbildung, wofür ihr Rückgriff auf intersektional orientierte Methodiken einen ersten Ansatzpunkt darstellt.Sandra Smykalla’s dissertation, published in 2010, offers detailed insights into the work of gender trainers in the context of the implementation of gender mainstreaming. The main finding of this qualitative interview study is that gender trainers need to have both gender competence and ambivalence competence if they do not want to risk revitalizing gender inequalities and gender stereotypes. Smykalla’s demand for the (re- politicization of the field of gender-oriented training is convincing and her recourse to intersectionally oriented methodologies illustrates a first starting point.

  11. 农业外资项目中的社会性别主流化%On Gender Mainstreaming in Foreign Investment Projects in Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏平

    2015-01-01

    The gender mainstreaming is a result of the development of international women's movement, as the mainstream of the international society and national government policy, the gender idea has also become an important content that cannot be lack in the foreign investment projects. The foreign investment projects have become a way of spreading the idea. In re-gard of foreign investment projects in agriculture, the gender mainstreaming is mainly practiced and reflected by project planning and design, project training, project monitoring and evaluation. It has played a positive role for the development of gender equality in the rural areas in China, especially for emancipation of women's ideas in some remote, closed and back-ward areas. Based on an elaboration of the starting point and characteristics of the gender mainstreaming in the foreign in-vestment projects in agriculture, in combination with the actual experiences in the project implementation, an analysis is made on the gender mainstreaming and the management of the foreign investment projects in agriculture, and some key methods and measures which should be followed for implementation of gender mainstreaming in the projects.%社会性别主流化是国际妇女运动发展的一个成果,性别观点作为国际社会和各国政府政策的主流,也成为了外资项目中不能或缺的一项重要内容,外资项目成为传播这一观点的途径之一.在农业外资项目方面,社会性别主流化主要通过项目计划和设计、项目培训、项目监测评估等过程得到实践和体现,为我国农村社会性别平等发展,特别是对一些偏远封闭落后地区的妇女思想解放,起到了积极的促进作用.笔者通过阐述农业外资项目中社会性别主流化的出发点和特性,结合项目实施的实际经验,分析了社会性别主流化与农业外资项目管理,提出了项目中开展社会性别主流化需要遵循的一些主要方法和措施.

  12. Mainstreaming domestic and gender-based violence into sociology and the criminology of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walby, Sylvia; Towers, Jude; Francis, Brian

    2014-12-01

    Sociological and criminological views of domestic and gender-based violence generally either dismiss it as not worthy of consideration, or focus on specific groups of offenders and victims (male youth gangs, partner violence victims). In this paper, we take a holistic approach to violence, extending the definition from that commonly in use to encompass domestic violence and sexual violence. We operationalize that definition by using data from the latest sweep of the Crime Survey for England and Wales. By so doing, we identify that violence is currently under-measured and ubiquitous; that it is gendered, and that other forms of violence (family violence, acquaintance violence against women) are equally of concern. We argue that violence studies are an important form of activity for sociologists.

  13. Hildegard Macha, Stephanie Handschuh-Heiß, Marion Magg-Schwarzbäcker, Susanne Gruber: Gleichstellung und Diversity an der Hochschule. Implementierung und Analyse des Gender Mainstreaming-Prozesses. Opladen u.a.: Budrich UniPress 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Schumacher

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Bei dem Evaluationsbericht von Hildegard Macha und Kolleginnen handelt es sich um eine detaillierte organisationssoziologische Analyse und Reflexion der Einführung von Gender Mainstreaming an der Universität Augsburg. Während im ersten Teil des Buches vor allem die grundlegenden theoretischen Prämissen und deren Entwicklung vorgestellt werden, werden im zweiten Teil die konkreten Einzelmaßnahmen bewertet. Die Evaluation des zwischen 2003 und 2006 durchgeführten Best-Practice-Projekts gibt praxisorientierte Anregungen zur Implementierung von Gender Mainstreaming, wobei die theoretische Rahmung v. a. durch den Rückgriff auf systemtheoretische Begrifflichkeiten geboten wird. Der Fokus liegt dabei schwerpunktmäßig auf dem Aspekt des Gender Mainstreaming und weniger auf einer differenzierten Sicht auf das Thema Diversity.This evaluation report by Hildegard Macha and her colleagues is a detailed organization sociological analysis of and reflection on the introduction of gender mainstreaming at the University of Augsburg. While the first part of the book mainly presents the basic theoretical premises and their development, the second part evaluates the actual individual measures. The evaluation of the best practice project, conducted between 2003 and 2006, gives practical suggestions for the implementation of gender mainstreaming, while the theoretical framing is offered mainly through the recourse on system theoretical terminology. In doing so, the focus is predominantly on the aspect of gender mainstreaming instead of a differentiated view on the topic of diversity.

  14. Intersectionality and gender mainstreaming in international health: using a feminist participatory action research process to analyse voices and debates from the global south and north.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolhurst, Rachel; Leach, Beryl; Price, Janet; Robinson, Jude; Ettore, Elizabeth; Scott-Samuel, Alex; Kilonzo, Nduku; Sabuni, Louis P; Robertson, Steve; Kapilashrami, Anuj; Bristow, Katie; Lang, Raymond; Romao, Francelina; Theobald, Sally

    2012-06-01

    Critiques of gender mainstreaming (GM) as the officially agreed strategy to promote gender equity in health internationally have reached a critical mass. There has been a notable lack of dialogue between gender advocates in the global north and south, from policy and practice, governments and non-governmental organisations (NGOs). This paper contributes to the debate on the shape of future action for gender equity in health, by uniquely bringing together the voices of disparate actors, first heard in a series of four seminars held during 2008 and 2009, involving almost 200 participants from 15 different country contexts. The series used (Feminist) Participatory Action Research (FPAR) methodology to create a productive dialogue on the developing theory around GM and the at times disconnected empirical experience of policy and practice. We analyse the debates and experiences shared at the seminar series using concrete, context specific examples from research, advocacy, policy and programme development perspectives, as presented by participants from southern and northern settings, including Kenya, Mozambique, India, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Canada and Australia. Focussing on key discussions around sexualities and (dis)ability and their interactions with gender, we explore issues around intersectionality across the five key themes for research and action identified by participants: (1) Addressing the disconnect between gender mainstreaming praxis and contemporary feminist theory; (2) Developing appropriate analysis methodologies; (3) Developing a coherent theory of change; (4) Seeking resolution to the dilemmas and uncertainties around the 'place' of men and boys in GM as a feminist project; and (5) Developing a politics of intersectionality. We conclude that there needs to be a coherent and inclusive strategic direction to improve policy and practice for promoting gender equity in health which requires the full and equal participation of practitioners and

  15. Transversalização da perspectiva de gênero ou instrumentalização das mulheres? Gender mainstreaming or instrumentalization of women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie France Labrecque

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é baseado numa pesquisa desenvolvida no sul do México¹ na qual tratou-se de observar de que maneira uma recomendação formulada no plano internacional, como a transversalização do gênero, transforma-se em contextos nacional e local. Foi, de fato, a perspectiva de transversalização do gênero que norteou de maneira evidente a instauração do programa mexicano de igualdade de gênero e, por consequente, a criação dos institutos de igualdade de gênero. Sabe-se que esta abordagem vem se impondo desde a Declaração e o conjunto de ações da Conferência de Beijing, em 1995, quando foi declarado que, a partir de então, seria preciso levar em conta as consequências de toda decisão no âmbito do desenvolvimento dos homens e das mulheres respectivamente.This question is discussed on the basis of first hand data collected in Mexico between 2004 and 2007. The research aimed at examining how gender equity policies elaborated at the international level using an approach known as "gender mainstreaming" are transformed within national and local contexts. In a first step, the context of the emergence of the gender mainstreaming approach is reconstituted, and in a second step we try to clarify how and under what circumstances, in a country like Mexico, women can be instrumentalized within this approach, as for example, when gender mainstreaming is applied without any critical vision as it is so under neoliberalism. The main example rests on the case of microcredit for maya women in the state of Yucatan.

  16. Gendering transnational party politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantola, Johanna; Rolandsen-Agustín, Lise

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we analyze transnational party politics in the European Union from a gender perspective. This is a subject that has been neglected both by mainstream European studies on party politics and by gender scholars who work on political parties. Drawing on the insights of these two...... research traditions, we build toward an analytical framework to study gender and transnational party politics. Our empirical analysis focuses on two policy issues, the economic crisis and the sexual and reproductive health and rights, analyzing European Parliament reports, debates and voting on the issues...... right axis and, at the same time, internal divisions within party groups affect policy output....

  17. Synchronicity of social change and the construct of gender roles: Traditionalism and modernity as contents of mainstream model of female gender roles in women's magazines during the last quarter of 20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarić Isidora N.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The main intention of the research is to retrospectively decode changes in mainstream construct of female gender roles within the period of ''developed self-management socialism'' (1970s, period of structural crisis of socialism (1980s and post-socialist period of Serbian/Yugoslav society. The mainstream construct of female gender roles will be reconstruct from Serbian women's magazine 'Bazar''. Through the basic presumptions of theoretical framework the research will try to conceptualize theoretical approach which will correspond with co called 'new communicative research model' which will be capable to incorporate contemporary changes within the process of communication among the emitter and recipients in order to better understand the content of the message.

  18. How to Advance Gender Mainstreaming in Environmental Projects%如何在环境保护类项目中推进性别主流化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱华; 潘寻

    2015-01-01

    环境保护与人类发展是当今国际社会共同面临的重大议题. 人们越来越关注环境退化对女性生存与发展的消极影响,同时也意识到女性参与环境保护对可持续发展以及女性自身发展的重要意义. 充分探讨了环境问题与性别问题之间的深层次联系,研究了国际社会性别主流化政策的制定及应用现状,并就如何在环境保护类项目中推进性别主流化提出了具体建议. 鉴于环境问题与性别问题的本质联系,只有将性别主流化充分纳入环境保护项目的各个环节,才能在协调人与自然的关系进程中消除性别歧视,推进人与人之间的平等,进而实现人类社会与环境保护的协调发展.%Environmental protection and human development have been being two major common issues faced by the international community. People have paid increasing attention to the negative impact of environmental degradation on women's survival and development, and have realized the great significance of women' s participation in environmental protection to sustainable development and women ' s own development. This study discusses the profound relationship between gender and environmental issue, studies the formulation of policy on the gender mainstreaming in the international community as well as the status of applying the policy, and makes specific suggestions on how to advance gender mainstreaming in environmental projects. In view of the essential relation between gender and environmental issue, only gender mainstreaming is fully integrated into the full course of environmental projects, then it is feasible to eliminate gender discrimination during coordinating the relationship between man and nature, advance human equality, and accomplish the coordinated development of the human society and environmental protection.

  19. Social Gender Mainstreaming Conception of Practice in Institutions and Colleges%社会性别主流化在普通高校的实践构想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖; 赵红

    2015-01-01

    文章基于教育统计数据分析了目前国内普通高校男女教师的结构状况,并针对女性教师发展的瓶颈进行了分析,进而提出在普通高校发展社会性别主流化的实践构想。从教师教育、组织机构设置和政策实践等三个方面展开论述,“社会性别主流化”作为全世界推进性别平等和可持续发展的基本经验和基本共识,在高校内部的实践必将有利于帮助女性教师的发展,推动性别平等和共同进步。%Based on the latest statistical data of education ,the paper analyzed the current situation of do‐mestic colleges and universities structure of male and female teachers ,and analyzed the bottleneck in the development of female teachers .The paper attempted to put forward the conception of practice in the de‐velopment of the universities of the Social Gender Mainstreaming which would be launched from three as‐pects of teacher education ,organization setting and policy practice .The Social Gender Mainstreaming as the basic experience and consensus of gender equality would promote the sustainable development of the whole world and the practice in colleges and universities would be conducive to the development of female teachers ,promote gender equality and common progress .

  20. Sexual behavior of gender-dysphoric individuals before gender-confirming interventions: a European multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerwenka, Susanne; Nieder, Timo O; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy; De Cuypere, Griet; Haraldsen, Ira R Hebold; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

    2014-01-01

    A transsexual course of development that starts before puberty (early onset) or during or after puberty, respectively (late onset), may lead to diverse challenges in coping with sexual activity. The authors explored the sexual behavior of 380 adult male-to-female and female-to-male individuals diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR criteria who had not yet undergone gender-confirming interventions. Data originated from the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence Initiative, conducted in Belgium, Germany, The Netherlands, and Norway. Information on outcome variables was collected using self-administered questionnaires at first clinical presentation. Compared with late-onset male-to-females, early-onset individuals tended to show sexual attraction toward males more frequently (50.5%), involve genitals less frequently in partner-related sexual activity, and consider penile sensations and orgasm as more negative. Early-onset female-to-males predominantly reported sexual attraction toward females (84.0%), whereas those with a late-onset more frequently showed other sexual attractions (41.7%). The study (a) shows that early- and late-onset male-to-females differ considerably with regard to coping strategies involving their body during sexual relations and (b) reveals initial insights into developmental pathways of late-onset female-to-males.

  1. Mainstreaming in the Philippines programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S

    1998-07-01

    In the Philippines, where the Oxfam team has worked on gender issues since 1990, the group recently conducted an in-house workshop to identify achievements and areas for improvement in gender mainstreaming. Gender activities began with a needs assessment of the fisheries in 1990 and have included gender-sensitivity training for Oxfam partner groups, support of women's issues, and gender research into such areas as disaster management. Successes include the appointment of women to key positions in the community, which was a direct result of advocacy work. Major challenges include 1) determining the best models to develop sectoral networking and advocacy on gender and 2) overcoming gender-resistance in some partners. The team concluded that it is still learning how to mainstream gender issues and is still searching for a framework to integrate gender into other approaches to planning, monitoring, and evaluation. In the future, Oxfam will 1) undertake small-scale and simple gender reviews with selected partners and then pilot gender-mainstreaming contracts with them, 2) build gender-learning teams within sectoral programs, 3) continue supporting networking and capability-building in feminist organizations, and 4) focus on gender at the next partners' meeting.

  2. Adolescent problem behaviour: The gender gap in European perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, P.E.; Dijk, I.K. van; Stoof, R.; Notten, N.J.W.R.

    2015-01-01

    This study scrutinizes gender differences in adolescent problem behaviour and its potential determinants, simultaneously taking into account the individual and contextual level, including personality, family and country characteristics. Using the 2010 EU Kids Online Survey, we estimate multilevel mo

  3. Campaigning against Europe? The role of euroskeptic fringe and mainstream parties in the 2009 European Parliament election

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adam, S.; Maier, M.; de Vreese, C.H.; Schuck, A.R.T.; Stetka, V.; Jalali, C.; Seeber, G.U.H.; Negrine, R.; Raycheva, L.; Berganza, R.; Róka, J.; Dobek-Ostrowska, B.; Nord, L.; Balzer, M.; Baumli, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we analyze political parties' campaign communication during the 2009 European Parliamentary election in 11 countries (Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, The Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the UK). We study which types of issues Euroskeptic fringe

  4. Friederike Heinzel, Rabea Henze, Sabine Klomfaß: Eine Schule für Mädchen und Jungen. Frankfurt am Main: Gewerkschaft Erziehung und Wissenschaft 2007 — Claudia A. Höhn: „Theater“ um Gender. Marburg: Tectum Wissenschaftsverlag 2008 — Angelika Paseka: Gender Mainstreaming und Lehrer/innenbildung. Innsbruck: StudienVerlag 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malwine Seemann

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Den drei Publikationen ist das Anliegen einer geschlechtergerechten Schule gemeinsam. Friederike Heinzel et al. nähern sich mit Praxishilfen für den Unterricht der Frage, wie eine geschlechtergerechte Bildung realisiert werden kann. Claudia Höhn nimmt die Rolle der Schulsozialarbeit bei der Arbeit mit Gender in der Schule in den Blick. Angelika Paseka beleuchtet Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der Umsetzung der politischen Strategie Gender Mainstreaming für den Schulbereich am Beispiel der Evaluation eines Pilotprojektes an österreichischen Akademien der Lehrer/-innenbildung. Insgesamt wird deutlich, dass die Möglichkeiten, die das Konzept Gender Mainstreaming zur Verwirklichung einer geschlechtergerechten Schule bietet, noch nicht genügend wahrgenommen werden.The three publications share an interest in gender-equitable schools. Friederike Heinzel and others use praxis aids for instruction in order to approach the question as to how gender-equitable education can be realized. Claudia Höhn examines the role of school-based social work in the approach to gender in schools. Angelika Paseka illuminates possibilities and limits for the application of the political strategy of “gender mainstreaming” for schools using the example of the evaluation of pilot projects in Austrian academies for teacher training. Overall it becomes clear that the possibilities offered by the concept of gender mainstreaming in the realization of gender-equitable schools have yet to be adequately administered.

  5. 社会性别主流化进程中的公共政策困境与对策研究%Study of the Dilemma and Countermeasures of Public Policies During the Course of Gender Mainstreaming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张再生; 强馨元

    2015-01-01

    社会性别主流化是促进社会性别平等的全球战略,是促进男女两性和谐发展的国际趋势。为此,中国政府采取了大量的措施加以推动和落实。当前社会性别主流化进程中,尚面临着公共政策的性别盲视,公共政策系统中缺乏社会性别平等评估体系,主流化超载、挑战和疲惫带来压力,社会性别平等意识不强,国际间政策互动不足等当前公共政策所面临的一系列困境。为此,提出了必须建立并完善公共政策性别评估体系,积极推动妇联组织变革,扩大财政资源投入,注重社会力量对社会性别平等的正向宣传作用,加强国际间社会性别问题的横向交流机制等推动社会性别主流化的政策建议。%Gender mainstreaming is a global strategy to promote gender equality , and it is an international trend to improve the development of the harmony between men and women .Therefore, the Chinese Government has taken many measures to push forward and implement it .However, during the current process of gender mainstreaming , there are still a series of di-lemmas public policies facing , such as the ignorance of gender , the lack of the assessment system of gender equality , the pressure from mainstreaming overload , competitions and exhaustion , the weak awareness of equal gender and insufficient interactions of policies etc .Therefore, this paper claims that to promote the gender mainstreaming , it is necessary to estab-lish and prefect the gender assessment system of public policies , to push forward the reformation of women ’ s organizations , to expand the investment of financial resources .In addition , this paper also emphasizes the influence of social forces on gender equality and the importance of horizontal communication mechanism of gender issues .

  6. Waltraud Ernst (Hg.: Geschlecht und Innovation. Gender-Mainstreaming im Techno-Wissenschaftsbetrieb. Berlin u.a.: LIT Verlag 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quirin J. Bauer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Die Technowissenschaften haben Frauen als potentielle Arbeitskräfte noch immer nicht adäquat erkannt – trotz Fachkräftemangel. In dem von Waltraud Ernst herausgegebenen Sammelband werden die Bemühungen und Strategien für die Herstellung von Chancengleichheit erörtert, mit dem Ziel einer Überwindung von Geschlechterhierarchien in den grundsätzlich innovationsbesetzten Berufsfeldern der Technik- und Naturwissenschaften. Der Band enthält überaus interessante, teilweise einzigartige Einblicke, wie die Zusammenhänge von Technik und Geschlecht in den unterschiedlichen Forschungsbereichen entworfen und diskutiert werden und wie die Verwirklichung von Gleichberechtigung als soziale Innovation angestrebt wird.The technosciences are still missing an adequate recognition of women as potential workforce – despite a shortage of skilled workers. This anthology, edited by Waltraud Ernst, discusses the efforts and strategies that are used to create equal opportunities, aiming at overcoming gender hierarchies in the fundamentally innovative professional fields of techno- and natural sciences. This volume contains highly interesting, in parts even unique insights into how the connections between technology and gender are constructed and discussed in various research areas and how the realization of equal opportunities is aspired as social innovation.

  7. Facing the Gender Gap in Aging: Italian Women’s Pension in the European Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Letizia Zanier

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the phenomenon of increasing gender inequalities that happen at old age regarding women’s pension. Moving from recent life-course theories and studies, this study analyzes the reasons behind gender-biased pension levels and how their cumulative effects result in (continuous significant gender gaps. The article presents a European overview of pension gender gap, focusing on family and work-life issues in Italy. This is one of the first critical reviews of the small but growing literature and national data concerning the effect of gender inequalities related to pension gaps in Italy. In the past, research on the balance of welfare provision between State, family, and market has ignored gender, while more recent studies have barely explored how gender roles, changing over time, interact with the shifts in pension policies. Considering the effects of work-life balance policies since the 2000 Lisbon agenda process and its development, the study especially focuses on the Italian case within the European context. The article examines how the choices in work-life balance policies vary between different national contexts and welfare regimes, by highlighting the Italian case. In this country, welfare and social policy regimes remain very unbalanced, showing a lack of awareness of family and women’s needs, as in many Southern countries, and Italy is not able to give appropriate answers to these problems and to the question of the growing gender gap. This article finally shows the poignancy of structural and cultural reasons for gender differentiated pension levels in Italy, within the European context, according to patterns of employment, marital, and maternal status between earlier and later generations of women.

  8. Gender Equality and Cultural Diversity from a Comparative Nordic and European Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    2005-01-01

    The paper looks at the relation between gender equality and cultural equality from a comparative persepctive focising on tensions and conflicts from a comporative Nordic and European perspective. It starts with a brief overview of key elements in integration strategies and philosophies in selected...

  9. Sexual and gender-based violence in the European asylum and reception sector: a perpetuum mobile?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keygnaert, I.; Dias, S.F.; Degomme, O.; Devillé, W.; Kennedy, P.; Kováts, A.; De Meyer, S.; Vettenburg, N.; Roelens, K.; Temmerman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants are at risk of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and subsequent ill-health in Europe; yet, European minimum reception standards do not address SGBV. Hence, this paper explores the nature of SGBV occurring in this sector and discuss

  10. Sexual and gender-based violence in the European asylum and reception sector: a perpetuum mobile?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keygnaert, I.; Dias, S.F.; Degomme, O.; Devillé, W.; Kennedy, P.; Kovats, A.; Meyer, S. de; Vettenburg, N.; Roelens, K.; Temmerman, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants are at risk of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and subsequent ill-health in Europe; yet, European minimum reception standards do not address SGBV. Hence, this paper explores the nature of SGBV occurring in this sector and discuss

  11. Gender Pay Differences in the European Union: Do Higher Wages Make Up For Discrimination?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J.F. Canton (Erik); I. Verheul (Ingrid)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper explores the role of social interactions at the work floor for understanding gender pay differences in the EU. Using data from the Fourth European Working Conditions Survey, we find that sex similarity of subordinate and supervisor decreases the pay disadvantage for women in

  12. Gender and Diversity in the European Public Spheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    and diversity of particular groups within and between particular national contexts at the other hand. It focuses at the tensions between the universal principles of equality and the principles of recognition ethnic diversity. Finally it looks at proposals to redesign the concept of citizenship beyond the nation....... It first gives an overview of different feminist approaches to diversity and intersectionality. It explores the arguments for and against creating a democratic European Public Sphere and discusses the tensions between universal principles of equality at the one hand and concerns for inequalities...

  13. Gender im Mainstream der Wissenschaft? Gender in the Scientific Mainstream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenja Matusall

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Das Thema ‚Wissenschaft und Geschlecht‘ wird derzeit viel diskutiert. Der vorliegende Sammelband stellt hierzu Forschungsvorhaben, Frauenförderungsprojekte sowie Konzepte aus Qualitätsmanagement und Universitätsverwaltung vor, um einen facettenreichen Einblick in dieses wachende Forschungs- und Politikgebiet zu geben.The theme ’science and gender’ is currently very topical. The collected volume at hand introduces research plans, projects for the promotion of women, and concepts from quality management and university administration in relation to this theme, in order to provide multifaceted insight into this growing area for research and politics.

  14. The European Construction Social Partners: Gender Equality in Theory and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Elsebet Frydendal

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the social partners' role in a gender quality agenda in construction at skilled operative level. It draws on a survey of the European construction social partners that investigated the presence of women in skilled trades and the policies, collective agreements and practices...... that play a role in women's integration. The responses indicate that the construction industry still displays inertia and conservatism, and that the social partners coroborate rather than counter this. They express a "discourse" of gender equality, but this does not automatically lead to equal opportunity...

  15. Conflicts and Negotiations about framings of gender equality and diversity by political actors within the European public sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    2014-01-01

    that the European Union (EU) approach to gender equality has strengthened the transnational space of mobilization and given actors new possibilities to negotiate about multiple inequalities and direct their claims at different levels. This has at the same time led to a diversification of women’s claims...... and conflicts about the meanings and framings of gender equality and diversity within the EPS. This is illustrated by case studies of the framing of gender equality and ethno-national diversity by political actors in the European Women’s Lobby and the European Parliament. The article proposes...

  16. Rezension zu: F. Heinzel et al.: Eine Schule für Mädchen und Jungen. Frankfurt am Main: GEW 2007 — C. A. Höhn: „Theater“ um Gender. Marburg: Tectum Wissenschaftsverlag 2008 — A. Paseka: Gender Mainstreaming und Lehrer/innenbildung. Innsbruck: StudienVerlag 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malwine Seemann

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Den drei Publikationen ist das Anliegen einer geschlechtergerechten Schule gemeinsam. Friederike Heinzel et al. nähern sich mit Praxishilfen für den Unterricht der Frage, wie eine geschlechtergerechte Bildung realisiert werden kann. Claudia Höhn nimmt die Rolle der Schulsozialarbeit bei der Arbeit mit Gender in der Schule in den Blick. Angelika Paseka beleuchtet Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der Umsetzung der politischen Strategie Gender Mainstreaming für den Schulbereich am Beispiel der Evaluation eines Pilotprojektes an österreichischen Akademien der Lehrer/-innenbildung. Insgesamt wird deutlich, dass die Möglichkeiten, die das Konzept Gender Mainstreaming zur Verwirklichung einer geschlechtergerechten Schule bietet, noch nicht genügend wahrgenommen werden.

  17. Gender im Mainstream der Wissenschaft?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenja Matusall

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Das Thema ‚Wissenschaft und Geschlecht‘ wird derzeit viel diskutiert. Der vorliegende Sammelband stellt hierzu Forschungsvorhaben, Frauenförderungsprojekte sowie Konzepte aus Qualitätsmanagement und Universitätsverwaltung vor, um einen facettenreichen Einblick in dieses wachende Forschungs- und Politikgebiet zu geben.

  18. QUING WHY paper: Framing gender intersections in the European Union: what implications for the quality of intersectionality in policies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen; Lombardo, Emanuela

    This paper explores the extent to which the emergence of an anti-discrimination policy in the European Union (EU) implies a shift in EU gender equality policies towards an intersectional approach. The frame analysis of EU gender equality policy documents shows that intersectional dimensions are i...

  19. Gender Role Attitudes among Higher Education Students in a Borderland Central-Eastern European Region Called "Partium"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fényes, Hajnalka

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the attitudes towards gender roles among higher education students in a borderland Central-Eastern European region. We used the database of "The Impact of Tertiary Education on Regional Development" project (N = 602, 2010). We intend to determine what kind of attitudes towards gender roles the students identify…

  20. Explaining the gender gap in radical right voting: A cross-national investigation in 12 Western European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immerzeel, Tim; Coffe, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    It is common wisdom in radical right research that men are over-represented among the radical right electorate. We explore whether a radical right gender gap exists across 12 Western European countries and examine how this gap may be explained. Using the European Values Study (2010), we find a

  1. Explaining the gender gap in radical right voting: A cross-national investigation in 12 Western European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immerzeel, Tim; Coffe, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    It is common wisdom in radical right research that men are over-represented among the radical right electorate. We explore whether a radical right gender gap exists across 12 Western European countries and examine how this gap may be explained. Using the European Values Study (2010), we find a radic

  2. Explaining the gender gap in radical right voting: A cross-national investigation in 12 Western European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immerzeel, Tim; Coffe, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    It is common wisdom in radical right research that men are over-represented among the radical right electorate. We explore whether a radical right gender gap exists across 12 Western European countries and examine how this gap may be explained. Using the European Values Study (2010), we find a radic

  3. Mainstreaming Pesantren and Madrasah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jajat Burhanudin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available PPIM UIN Syarif Hidayatullah, Jakarta, assisted by PUSKADIA-BUMA UIN Sunan Kalijaga, Yogyakarta has conducted a three year project (2004-2007 of mainstreaming pesantrens and madrasahs in Indonesia. The project initiative and execution were the result of cooperation between UIN Jakarta and the Royal Danish Embassy The project was intended to introduce contemporary, democratic civic values (democracy, civil society, religious pluralism, human rights, and gender equality into pesantrens and madrasahs and to their leaders, and to initiate participatory and accountable management within these schools. The program was designed to eventually create an atmosphere in which the worldviews of Islamic educational institutions could change and adapt to the diversity and complexity of the modern world.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v14i3.553

  4. The European Construction Social Partners: Gender Equality in Theory and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Elsebet Frydendal

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the social partners' role in a gender quality agenda in construction at skilled operative level. It draws on a survey of the European construction social partners that investigated the presence of women in skilled trades and the policies, collective agreements and practices...... that play a role in women's integration. The responses indicate that the construction industry still displays inertia and conservatism, and that the social partners coroborate rather than counter this. They express a "discourse" of gender equality, but this does not automatically lead to equal opportunity...... policies or programmes. The social partners have a platform to make inroads and to change the industry from within, but need further encouragement to put this on their agenda....

  5. Gender Differences in Self-Reported Health in the Ukrainian Working-age Population: Evidence from the European Social Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazhak, Iryna

    Gender is a one of the most important social determinants of health inequality. Ukrainian life expectancy gender gap is almost ten years in favor of women. Data from the 2 - 6 rounds (N=5158) of a European Social Survey are used to show gender differences in self-reported health (IBM SPSS 22......). It was assumed that women reported poorer health status compared with men despite of longevity. Women estimate their health significantly lower than men do (OR 1.83; 95% CI 1.65, 2.04). For both genders, age and feeling about household’s income nowadays were associated with increased odds for poor self...

  6. Gender Equality in Education: GTZ and indigenous communities in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Cortina

    2010-01-01

    Regina Cortina explores new forms of collaboration between European donor countries and countries in Latin America in support of education. Placed in the larger context of the European Union Development Aid policy, the focus is the Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) impact on projects in Latin America, which illustrate how to mainstream gender equality into education. For a closer understanding of this success, she examines the Basic Education Programme in Peru (PROEDUCA).

  7. GENDER GAP DIMENSIONS ON THE LABOUR MARKET IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chisagiu Livia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While the importance of investments in economic assets for ensuring economic and social progress was acknowledged for a long time, sustainable development draws attention on the environmental and human dimension which constitute to equal extent key-dimensions for ensuring economic growth and social development. Up to date, the human capital part represented by women was under-used and their work less valorised, their potential contribution to economic and social progress being practically marginalised. Women’s constraints in prioritising family life have influenced their career development inducing a certain lack of professional mobility, the resort to “part-time” work and even career disruptions. Career disruption limits access to on the job qualification and leads to human capital depreciation generating precarious results in wage, and career-advancement terms and in facilitating the return to job. Resorting to “part-time” work, in general, plays a positive role in the life of individuals from the perspective of rendering compatible professional commitments assumed with family life, the great shortcoming being that such jobs providing also for a high standard are less frequent. As a consequence, employees will suffer an adverse impact in terms of remuneration, occupational segregation (due to the concentration of these jobs in certain fields of employment such as services, trade, and office work, career advancement and even job insecurity. This reality frequently fed the stereotypes regarding gender which generated the “gender gap” currently existing between genders on the labour market with multiple dimensions: differences between genders regarding quantitative employment and unemployment indicators; occupational segregation with impact on the quality of employment, and as cumulative dimension of the effects of several factors the “gender pay gap” or the “wage differential”. All these have constituted a topic arising

  8. Pemikiran Politik Perempuan Nahdlatul Ulama (NU dalam Perspektif Feminisme: Penelusuran Pemikiran Mainstream dan Non-Mainstream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Dwi Eriyanti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the appropriate perspective to describe non-mainstream feminist political thought of NU women. The authors found that political thought of NU women were categorized into the mainstream and non-mainstream thinking. Thought mainstream covers many of the issues associated with formal politics of women, gender equality, as well as sexuality. Mainstream thinkers give prescriptions on such issue through formal state politics and in public areas. While the women's non-mainstream political thought, although identifying the source and impact of the oppression of women is equal to mainstream thinking, they leave notes and analysis of different approaches. This study attempts to framing NU diverse political thought throught the four schools of feminism, the liberal feminism, marxist feminism, socialist feminism and radical feminism. This study found that the ideas of radical feminism turned out to give space to the explanation of political thought NU women's non-mainstream, where they tend to emerge from the lower classes, and not formally organized.

  9. The Reflection of Mainstream Views and Common Methods to Eliminate Gender Discrimination%对消除性别歧视主流观点和常用方法的反思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虎业勤; 沈继睿

    2012-01-01

    Currently, The mainstream views and common methods to eliminate gender discrimination are with eco- nomic worship and consider that economic ability can represent the degree of equality which reveals some negative im- pacts in dissemination when pursuing equality of politics, economics and culture that manifast in political discrimina- tion, job discrimination and consumerism. Analyzing the origin of gender discrimination, this paper points out that gender discrimination is wealth discrimination in nature, like elassism. On the basis of enssense of discrimination, this paper puts forward more reasonable solution to eliminate gender discrimination from the perspective of system, guidance, advcoaey and social technology.%目前消除性别歧视主流观点和常用方法处在经济崇拜价值观之下,认为经济能力代表平等程度,这在传播和使用时显露出一些负面的影响,在追求政治、经济和文化上平等时,客观上造成参政歧视、职业歧视、消费主义。通过分析性别歧视的起源,指出性别歧视的实质是财富歧视,与阶级歧视同质。在歧视实质基础上,从制度、引导、宣传、社会技术等角度提出更合理的消除性别歧视的方法。

  10. The Role of Mainstreaming Gender in Integrated Water Resources Management%性别主流化在集成水资源管理中的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭玲霞; 苏英; 王德耀; 董莉丽

    2013-01-01

    集成水资源管理是促进管理地区水、土及相关资源协调发展和管理的过程,在该过程中,不仅强调当地居民的经济和社会福利最大化,而且要确保当地社会的公平和可持续性.广泛的公众参与和性别平等是集成水资源管理的基本原则,也是其公平、可持续性的体现.在集成水资源管理中,考虑性别问题,有利于女性在水资源管理中的充分参与,发挥妇女在水资源利用管理及环境保护中的重要作用,促进水资源管理可持续发展.此外,应用性别分析方法,能够使自然资源利用的分析更加精确.文章在介绍集成水资源管理概念和原则的基础上,结合社会性别分析理论,阐述了性别视角和分析方法在水资源管理可持续发展中的重要意义,并提出了在集成水资源管理中性别主流化的途径.%Integrated Water Resources Management is a process which promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources, in order to maximize the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems. Widely public participation and gender equality are the main aspects of the fairness and sustainability of integrated water resource management, which is aimed at broadening women's access to water, enhancing women's participation in water management and promoting gender equality in the water resources management. A gender perspective in IWRM is necessary for increasing project effectiveness; ensuring women's involvement can support environmental sustainability, and making the social and economic analysis completely by understanding of gender differences and inequalities. Without specific attention to gender issues and initiatives, projects can reinforce inequalities between women and men and even increase imbalances. In addition, participatory methods used to introduce gender equality issues. What's more, partner

  11. Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Kit

    1996-01-01

    This publication focuses on the theme "Gender." Articles include: (1) "Sex! Violence! Death! Art Education for Boys" (Riita Vira; Finland); (2) "Pedagogy for a Gender Sensitive Art Practice" (Rita Irwin; Canada); (3) "Women's Conscientiousness of Gender in Art and Art Education in Brazil" (Ana Mae Barbosa; Brazil); (4) "Gender Issues in United…

  12. Gender Achievement and Social, Political and Economic Equality: A European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireson, Gren

    2017-01-01

    Differences in gender equality based on social, political and economic factors is cited, by some writers, as a contributory factor in the differentially greater achievement of boys in STEM subjects through the concept of gender stratification. Gender differences, especially in mathematics, have been linked directly to gender parity in wider…

  13. COST network genderSTE: Networking Gender Equality in Research and Innovation in Europe and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Sánchez de Madariaga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gender is one of five priorities of the European Research Area, as stated in the Communication adopted in July 2012 entitled A Reinforced European Research Area Partnership for Excellence and Growth (EC 2012c. Following this Communication, the EC has fully integrated gender dimensions in its proposal for a regulation on the new research framework program Horizon 2020¸ which includes in article 15 a provision for gender mainstreaming (EC 2011b. One final upcoming policy instrument announced by the EC is the Recommendation on Gender, Science and Innovation that will address member states and be adopted in the next months. Against this European policy background , the international COST network genderSTE (Gender, Science, Technology and Environment aims at enhancing a better integration of gender dimensions in science and technology at three main levels: i promoting women’s careers in science and technology through structural change of institutions (as recommended by EC by disseminating existing research and practice; ii promoting a better integration of gender in the content of science, research and technology, by dissemination existing research on the topic, ie the UE-US Gendered Innovations Project; iii identifying gender dimensions relevant to environment-related Horizon2020 Grand Challenges and other urban EC initiatives.  

  14. Investigating the desperate housewives: Using gender-role attitudes to explain women's employment decision in twenty-three European countries

    OpenAIRE

    de Henau, Jerome

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of a set of gender-role attitudes on the labour market situation of women with and without young children. These attitudes are used as a proxy for stated preferences. Our study covers 23 European countries, using an original up-to-date micro data-set, the European Social Survey (round 2004), completed with regional and national information on the institutional and socio-economic context. In particular, we investigate whether the effect of the presence of young c...

  15. More on the origin of the Indo-European feminine gender : a reply to Ledo-Lemos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Shields

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This brief paper has two related purposes. First, it represents a response to Ledo-Lemos' criticisms (2003 of the theory of the origin of the Indo-European feminine gender presented in Shields (1995 and elsewhere - a theory based on the established typological principle that demonstratives (in this case, a demonstrative in *a are key in the emergence of gender systems because of their dual role as anaphora and attributive modifiers. Second, this paper includes critical commentary about Ledo-Lemos' own hypothesis regarding the origin of this Indo-European grammatical category, grounded in the specialization of "relational adjectives." Objections to the latter involve his reliance on unmotivated analogical reanalysis and paradigmatic specialization.

  16. Gender and teacher training in Early Childhood Education studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Romero Díaz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a research study funded by the European Union that aims to improve early childhood teacher training in gender-related topics. Spain has made considerable headway with the inclusion of gender mainstreaming in the political agenda. However, as we point out in this paper, this issue is still not a priority in vocational training for early childhood education. A series of qualitative interviews and a quantitative questionnaire revealed a lack of training, materials and sensitivity, all needed for the introduction of gender and sexual diversity issues.

  17. Introduction: gender in European political science education - taking stock and future directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mügge, L.; Evans, E.; Engeli, I.

    2016-01-01

    Major changes have occurred in the teaching of gender since the shift from women’s studies to gender studies. In some institutions gender studies became a separate and interdisciplinary track within social sciences and humanities, while in others it either lacked integration or disappeared

  18. The Myth of Unadaptable Gender Roles: Attitudes towards Women’s Paid Work among Immigrants across 30 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breidahl, Karen Nielsen; Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    2016-01-01

    It is a predominant assumption in contemporary political and academic debates that gender roles and attitudes supporting women’s paid work among immigrants are deep-rooted and stable over time. However, the actual work–family orientations among immigrants are rarely studied. The purpose...... of this article is to study to what extent and at what pace immigrants in general adapt to the attitudes towards women’s paid work that prevail in the host countries. A cross-national research strategy is applied using the European Social Survey rounds 2 (2004), 4 (2008) and 5 (2010), allowing us to compare...... and analyse attitudes towards women’s paid work among 13,535 foreign-born individuals resident in 30 European countries. The results indicate that immigrants’ attitudes towards women’s paid work are highly structured by the institutional and cultural context of the host country. Both male and female...

  19. The effect of warming and enhanced ultraviolet radiation on gender-specific emissions of volatile organic compounds from European aspen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maja, Mengistu M., E-mail: mengistu.maja@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O.Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Kasurinen, Anne; Holopainen, Toini [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O.Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 111, 80101 Joensuu (Finland); Holopainen, Jarmo K. [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O.Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2016-03-15

    Different environmental stress factors often occur together but their combined effects on plant secondary metabolism are seldom considered. We studied the effect of enhanced ultraviolet (UV-B) (31% increase) radiation and temperature (ambient + 2 °C) singly and in combination on gender-specific emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from 2-year-old clones of European aspen (Populus tremula L.). Plants grew in 36 experimental plots (6 replicates for Control, UV-A, UV-B, T, UV-A + T and UV-B + T treatments), in an experimental field. VOCs emitted from shoots were sampled from two (1 male and 1 female) randomly selected saplings (total of 72 saplings), per plot on two sampling occasions (June and July) in 2014. There was a significant UV-B × temperature interaction effect on emission rates of different VOCs. Isoprene emission rate was increased due to warming, but warming also modified VOC responses to both UV-A and UV-B radiation. Thus, UV-A increased isoprene emissions without warming, whereas UV-B increased emissions only in combination with warming. Warming-modified UV-A and UV-B responses were also seen in monoterpenes (MTs), sesquiterpenes (SQTs) and green leaf volatiles (GLVs). MTs showed also a UV × gender interaction effect as females had higher emission rates under UV-A and UV-B than males. UV × gender and T × gender interactions caused significant differences in VOC blend as there was more variation (more GLVs and trans-β-caryophyllene) in VOCs from female saplings compared to male saplings. VOCs from the rhizosphere were also collected from each plot in two exposure seasons, but no significant treatment effects were observed. Our results suggest that simultaneous warming and elevated-UV-radiation increase the emission of VOCs from aspen. Thus the contribution of combined environmental factors on VOC emissions may have a greater impact to the photochemical reactions in the atmosphere compared to the impact of individual factors acting alone

  20. Mainstreaming sustainable coffee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    2013-01-01

    This overview article examines the various dimensions of sustainable coffee as well as the actors involved and their perceptions of how to advance the market from niche to mainstream. The issues at hand are very complex, with different types of coffee producers, manufacturing/roasting companies and

  1. Into the Mainstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Maura King

    2009-01-01

    It's official: Online social networking is mainstream. Once the domain of teenagers and techno-geeks, sites like Facebook, LinkedIn, MySpace, and Twitter are rapidly gaining popularity with the multi-aged masses. Last year, in fact, Facebook reported its fastest growing demographic was those 25 years and older. There's no question that this new…

  2. Integrating Gender into the Political Science Core Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassese, Erin C.; Bos, Angela L.; Duncan, Lauren E.

    2012-01-01

    The New Research on Gender in Political Psychology Conference brought together new and experienced teachers with interests in gender politics. The conference session "Teaching Gender throughout the Curriculum" generated a great deal of discussion concerning the pedagogical practice of gender mainstreaming. Gender mainstreaming--the integration of…

  3. Orientalism, Gender, and the Jews. Literary and Artistic Transformations of European National Discourses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunotte, U.G.S.I.; Ludewig, A-D; Stähler, A.

    2014-01-01

    Aims and Scope Originating in the collaboration of the international Research Network "Gender in Antisemitism, Orientalism and Occidentalism" (RENGOO), this collection of essays proposes to intervene in current debates about historical constructions of Jewish identity in relation to colonialism and

  4. Orientalism, Gender, and the Jews. Literary and Artistic Transformations of European National Discourses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunotte, U.G.S.I.; Ludewig, A-D; Stähler, A.

    2014-01-01

    Aims and Scope Originating in the collaboration of the international Research Network "Gender in Antisemitism, Orientalism and Occidentalism" (RENGOO), this collection of essays proposes to intervene in current debates about historical constructions of Jewish identity in relation to colonialism and

  5. Gender Role Attitudes among Higher Education Students in a Borderland Central-Eastern European Region called ‘Partium’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajnalka Fényes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine the attitudes towards gender roles among higher education students in a borderland Central-Eastern European region. We used the database of ‘The Impact of Tertiary Education on Regional Development’ project (N=602, 2010. We intend to determine what kind of attitudes towards gender roles the students identify themselves with, what affects these attitudes (gender, faculty type, social background of students, locality type, religiosity, and finally what kind of educational policy implications could be relevant concerning our findings. We have used cluster analysis and a logistic regression model, and formulated several hypotheses that were controlled by these methods. Our results show that there are a large number of students who belong to the more traditional attitude cluster in this region, but women more frequently identify themselves with modern gender roles than men do. The faculty-type effect has only been partly detected. We have found that with ‘male-dominated’ majors, both women and men identify themselves with more traditional attitudes and that with ‘female-dominated’ majors all students have more modern attitudes. The effect of social background is contradictory. Those whose parents had larger numbers of books had increased modern attitudes, but the factor ‘regular financial problems in the family’ also increased it. Our next result is that students who live in villages are not more traditional than others, because they live in cities during their studies. Our final result is that churchly religious students think more traditionally regarding gender roles than others do, but those who are religious in their own way do not.

  6. Social Policies and Families in Stress: Gender and Educational Differences in Work-Family Conflict from a European Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notten, Natascha; Grunow, Daniela; Verbakel, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    In modern welfare states, family policies may resolve the tension between employment and care-focused demands. However these policies sometimes have adverse consequences for distinct social groups. This study examined gender and educational differences in working parents' perceived work-family conflict and used a comparative approach to test whether family policies, in particular support for child care and leave from paid work, are capable of reducing work-family conflict as well as the gender and educational gaps in work-family conflict. We use data from the European Social Survey 2010 for 20 countries and 5296 respondents (parents), extended with information on national policies for maternity and parental leave and child care support from the OECD Family Database. Employing multilevel analysis, we find that mothers and the higher educated report most work-family conflict. Policies supporting child care reduce the level of experienced work-family conflict; family leave policy appears to have no alleviating impact on working parents' work-family conflict. Our findings indicate that family policies appear to be unable to reduce the gender gap in conflict perception and even widen the educational gap in work-family conflict.

  7. Female "birds of passage" a decade later: gender and immigration in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofman, E

    1999-01-01

    "First, this article critically assesses the dominant accounts of the sequence of labor migration and family reunification and argues that it is time to reclaim the heterogeneity of women's past migratory experiences in our understanding of European patterns of post-war immigration. Second, it examines family migration, covering diverse forms of family reunification and formation which, although the dominant form of legal immigration into Europe since the 1970s, has received relatively little attention. Third, it explores the implications of the diversification of contemporary female migration in the European Union and argues for the necessity of taking account of the reality of changing patterns of employment, households and social structures to advance our understanding of European immigration."

  8. European adolescent substance use : the roles of family structure, function and gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McArdle, P.; Wiegersma, Auke; Gilvarry, Eilish; Kolte, Birgitta; McCarthy, Steven; Fitzgerald, Michael; Brinkley, Aoife; Blom, Maria; Stoeckel, Ingo; Pierolini, Anna; Michels, Ingo; Johnson, Rob; Quensel, Stephan

    Objectives The aim or this study was, first, to explore family structure and measures of family functioning in relation to adolescent substance use and seeondly. to establish if these relationships differed according to gender or according to the city of origin of the sample. Design, setting,

  9. European adolescent substance use : the roles of family structure, function and gender

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McArdle, P.; Wiegersma, Auke; Gilvarry, Eilish; Kolte, Birgitta; McCarthy, Steven; Fitzgerald, Michael; Brinkley, Aoife; Blom, Maria; Stoeckel, Ingo; Pierolini, Anna; Michels, Ingo; Johnson, Rob; Quensel, Stephan

    2002-01-01

    Objectives The aim or this study was, first, to explore family structure and measures of family functioning in relation to adolescent substance use and seeondly. to establish if these relationships differed according to gender or according to the city of origin of the sample. Design, setting, partic

  10. Cultural and Gender Convergence in Adolescent Drunkenness Evidence From 23 European and North American Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntsche, E.N.; Kuntsche, S.; Knibbe, R.A.; Simons-Morton, B.; Farhat, T.; Hublet, A.; Bendtsen, P.; Godeau, E.; Demetrovics, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate time-trend changes in the frequency of drunkenness among European and North American adolescents. Design: Cross-sectional surveys in the 1997/1998 and 2005/2006 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study (HBSC). Setting: High schools in 23 countries. Participants: A sam

  11. Teaching with Gender. European Women’s Studies inInternational and Interdisciplinary Classrooms. A book series by ATHENA : Teaching Gender, Diversity and Urban Space

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    How can educators (teachers, professors, trainers) address issues of gender, women, gender roles, feminism and gender equality? The ATHENA thematic network brings together specialists in women’s and gender studies, feminist research, women’s rights, gender equality and diversity. In the book series ‘Teaching with Gender’ the partners in this network have collected articles on a wide range of teaching practices in the field of gender. The books in this series address challenges and possibiliti...

  12. Teaching with Gender. European Women’s Studiesin International and Interdisciplinary Classrooms.A book series by ATHENA : Teaching Gender in Social Work

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    How can educators (teachers, professors, trainers) address issues of gender, women, gender roles, feminism and gender equality? The ATHENA thematic network brings together specialists in women’s and gender studies, feminist research, women’s rights, gender equality and diversity. In the book series ‘ Teaching with Gender’ the partners in this network have collected articles on a wide range of teaching practices in the field of gender. The books in this series address challenges and possibilit...

  13. Gender and Cultural Differences in the Association Between Family Roles, Social Stratification and Alcohol Use: A European Cross-cultural Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomfield, Kim; Kuntsche, Sandra; Gmel, Gerhard;

    2006-01-01

    Aims: First, this paper investigates (i) gender differences in associations of social stratification, family roles, and heavy drinking, and (ii) country differences in these associations. Second, it seeks to explain country differences in the associations of social stratification and family roles...... with alcohol consumption by societal level variables. Methods: Survey data of 25 to 49-years-old from eight European countries were used. Logistic regressions were used to analyse gender differences in the association between family roles (marriage, having children), social stratification (education......, employment), and heavy drinking (>20 g/day for women; 30 g/day for men). Gender differences were tested by means of interactions between gender and social stratification/family roles. Structural measures of work desirability, social welfare, and gender equity were used to explain differences in associations...

  14. Gender and Cultural Differences in the Association Between Family Roles, Social Stratification and Alcohol Use: A European Cross-cultural Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloomfield, Kim; Kuntsche, Sandra; Gmel, Gerhard

    2006-01-01

    , employment), and heavy drinking (>20 g/day for women; 30 g/day for men). Gender differences were tested by means of interactions between gender and social stratification/family roles. Structural measures of work desirability, social welfare, and gender equity were used to explain differences in associations......Aims: First, this paper investigates (i) gender differences in associations of social stratification, family roles, and heavy drinking, and (ii) country differences in these associations. Second, it seeks to explain country differences in the associations of social stratification and family roles...... with alcohol consumption by societal level variables. Methods: Survey data of 25 to 49-years-old from eight European countries were used. Logistic regressions were used to analyse gender differences in the association between family roles (marriage, having children), social stratification (education...

  15. Feminism, Budgeting and Gender Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, S. N.; Ghadai, Sanjaya Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The Fourth Conference on Women at Beijing (1995) underlined the importance of gender mainstreaming; spurring India to provide for separate Gender Budgeting in 2005-06. The Constitution tries to make fine balance between right to equality and positive discrimination for promoting gender justice in India. Yet high levels of Gender Inequality Index…

  16. Nightlife Violence: A Gender-Specific View on Risk Factors for Violence in Nightlife Settings--A Cross-Sectional Study in Nine European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Susanne; Bellis, Mark A.; Anderson, Zara; Hughes, Karen; Calafat, Amador; Juan, Montse; Kokkevi, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Within nightlife settings, youth violence places large burdens on both nightlife users and wider society. Internationally, research has identified risk factors for nightlife violence. However, few empirical studies have assessed differences in risk factors between genders. Here, a pan-European cross-sectional survey of 1,341 nightlife users aged…

  17. Nightlife Violence: A Gender-Specific View on Risk Factors for Violence in Nightlife Settings--A Cross-Sectional Study in Nine European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Susanne; Bellis, Mark A.; Anderson, Zara; Hughes, Karen; Calafat, Amador; Juan, Montse; Kokkevi, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Within nightlife settings, youth violence places large burdens on both nightlife users and wider society. Internationally, research has identified risk factors for nightlife violence. However, few empirical studies have assessed differences in risk factors between genders. Here, a pan-European cross-sectional survey of 1,341 nightlife users aged…

  18. Onlinespieler abseits des Mainstreams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Baumgartlinger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available MMO(RPGs „Massively Multiplayer Online (Role-Playing Games“ nehmen einen Sonderstatus unter den Onlinespielen ein, welcher durch den wachsenden wirtschaftlichen Erfolg, insbesondere durch den „breakthrough hit“ (Duchenaut et al. 2006: 407 World of Warcraft (WoW, auch an Bedeutung für die Medien- und Kommunikationswissenschaft gewinnt (vgl. Inderst 2009: 15; vgl. Seifert/Jöckel 2008: 297. Der Primus des Genres, WoW, repräsentiert gemeinsam mit einigen nahezu identen Titeln insgesamt 85 Prozent der gespielten MMOGs (vgl. Williams et al. 2008: 999. Daher befasst sich auch die Mehrheit der vorliegenden Studien mit eben diesen Spielen. Neue Formen von MMO(Gs können jedoch zu ebenso neuartigen Spielerfahrungen führen und damit unterschiedliche Nutzungsmotive befriedigen (vgl. Seifert/Jöckel 2008: 309 und folglich zu einem gänzlich anderen Spielerleben führen. Während im Mainstream die kooperativen Spielerbeziehungen überwiegen, dominiert in Darkfall Online der soziale Wettbewerb. Der von Williams et al. 2008 verwendete Fragebogen diente als Rohling für die Kreation eines für die speziellen Anforderungen adaptierten Erhebungstools zur Erforschung der Spielertypologie und der Motive der Darkfall-Online-SpielerInnen. Die in der Onlinebefragung (N = 506 gesammelten Daten belegen, dass sich sowohl die Spielerdemographie, als auch die Motive der Spieler von den Mainstream MMOs unterscheiden. Zudem konnten realweltliche Eigenschaften der Spieler als signifikante Einflussfaktoren für die Spielzuwendung identifiziert werden.

  19. GENDER EQUALITY POLICIES DURING THE POST-COMMUNIST ROMANIAN SOCIETY - TRANSFORMATION OR CONSERVATION OF GENDER PATRIARCHAL REGIME?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA HURUBEAN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyze family policies, labor market and social protection policies in the light of their correlated effects on the dynamics of gender relations, to identify such new tools for understanding national realities in European countries and to propose appropriate directions for intervention by programs and policies. The current research on public policies considers that the analysis of family policies, of labor market or social security policies, from the perspective of gender (inequality, offers relevant indicators with regard to the welfare regimes and quality of democracy or to the democratic deficit in the post-communist Romanian society, placed in the actual European context. This paper attempts to identify the mechanisms through which the state and its public policies reproduce and enhance traditional/conservative cultural models on gender roles and asymmetric social relations between men and women, also they reproduce the restrictive force of classic dichotomies between public-private life or productive-reproductive work. Despite the stated principle of gender equality, public policies maintain hierarchies and gender disparities in Romanian society, as in other European countries. This approach research shows that the complex interaction between cultural models of gender roles in the family/society and public policies is relevant to contextualized analysis of public policies and gender equality policies. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the influence of cultural patterns (on family gender roles, labour organization etc. on public policy (family policies, labor market policies, gender equality policies in order to advance a set of questions: how do family and gender ideology influence the content of public policy and the conservation of gender regime in post-communist Romanian society? How can gender equality increase through public policies and to what extent is gender mainstreaming approach an appropriate solution in

  20. Impact of age and gender on the prevalence and prognostic importance of the metabolic syndrome and its components in Europeans. The MORGAM Prospective Cohort Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vishram, Julie K; Borglykke, Anders; Andreasen, Anne H

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of age and gender on the prevalence and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in Europeans presenting with the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). METHODS: Using 36 cohorts from the MORGAM-Project with baseline between 1982-1997, 69094 men and women aged 19-78 years...... of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the revised National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII), increased across age groups for both genders (P... 1.31/1.25 to 1.55/1.83; MetS*age, P>0.05). CONCLUSION: In Europeans, both age and gender influenced the prevalence of MetS and its prognostic significance. The present results emphasise the importance of being critical of MetS in its current form as a marker of CVD especially in women, and advocate...

  1. The effect of warming and enhanced ultraviolet radiation on gender-specific emissions of volatile organic compounds from European aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maja, Mengistu M; Kasurinen, Anne; Holopainen, Toini; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2016-03-15

    Different environmental stress factors often occur together but their combined effects on plant secondary metabolism are seldom considered. We studied the effect of enhanced ultraviolet (UV-B) (31% increase) radiation and temperature (ambient +2 °C) singly and in combination on gender-specific emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from 2-year-old clones of European aspen (Populus tremula L.). Plants grew in 36 experimental plots (6 replicates for Control, UV-A, UV-B, T, UV-A+T and UV-B+T treatments), in an experimental field. VOCs emitted from shoots were sampled from two (1 male and 1 female) randomly selected saplings (total of 72 saplings), per plot on two sampling occasions (June and July) in 2014. There was a significant UV-B×temperature interaction effect on emission rates of different VOCs. Isoprene emission rate was increased due to warming, but warming also modified VOC responses to both UV-A and UV-B radiation. Thus, UV-A increased isoprene emissions without warming, whereas UV-B increased emissions only in combination with warming. Warming-modified UV-A and UV-B responses were also seen in monoterpenes (MTs), sesquiterpenes (SQTs) and green leaf volatiles (GLVs). MTs showed also a UV × gender interaction effect as females had higher emission rates under UV-A and UV-B than males. UV × gender and T × gender interactions caused significant differences in VOC blend as there was more variation (more GLVs and trans-β-caryophyllene) in VOCs from female saplings compared to male saplings. VOCs from the rhizosphere were also collected from each plot in two exposure seasons, but no significant treatment effects were observed. Our results suggest that simultaneous warming and elevated-UV-radiation increase the emission of VOCs from aspen. Thus the contribution of combined environmental factors on VOC emissions may have a greater impact to the photochemical reactions in the atmosphere compared to the impact of individual factors acting alone.

  2. Mainstreaming: Our Current Knowledge Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Percy, Ed.

    The nine author contributed chapters are intended to provide a basic introduction to the rationale and processes of mainstreaming handicapped children. The first paper, "The Whys and Hows of Mainstreaming" by T. Tice, provides a philosophical examination of the basic principles of P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, and…

  3. Bitcoin's Potential for Going Mainstream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasiyanto, Safari

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the possibility of bringing Bitcoin into the mainstream. In so doing, it elaborates the potential and obstacles of the Bitcoin system and what it would take for it to go mainstream. A cross-cutting discussion provides a helicopter view and encompasses the technical, economic, soci

  4. Bitcoin's Potential for Going Mainstream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasiyanto, Safari

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the possibility of bringing Bitcoin into the mainstream. In so doing, it elaborates the potential and obstacles of the Bitcoin system and what it would take for it to go mainstream. A cross-cutting discussion provides a helicopter view and encompasses the technical, economic,

  5. Salud laboral y género: Apuntes para la incorporación de la perspectiva de género en el ámbito de la prevención de riesgos laborales Occupational health and gender: Notes to incorporate the gender mainstreaming in the occupational risks prevention field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Fernanda González Gómez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En el ámbito nacional e internacional existe un amplio marco normativo y programático que vincula las acciones de entidades públicas y privadas con la igualdad de oportunidades para mujeres y hombres; sin embargo, las condiciones en que se desenvuelven unas y otros siguen siendo extremadamente diferentes y desiguales. En el contexto de la salud laboral, como en otros, se añade a esto la incapacidad de las instituciones para conocer la situación real de las y los trabajadores y por tanto, la imposibilidad de emprender acciones que promuevan adecuadamente la salud de hombres y mujeres en dicho medio. La incorporación de la perspectiva de género en el actuar de los servicios de prevención contribuye a detectar y corregir los sesgos de género en las actividades preventivas y de vigilancia de la salud. El presente documento pretende apuntar algunas acciones específicas que sirvan de herramientas prácticas para la incorporación de la perspectiva de género en las actividades que se realizan desde los servicios de Salud Laboral.At national and international level, there is a wide legal frame enlacing public and private entities´ actions with the equal opportunities for men and women; nevertheless, the conditions in which they work are extremely different. In the occupational health context, like in others, the entities´ incapacity to know the real situation of men and women and the impossibility, as a result, to develop actions to improve accurately men and women´s health, are summed to the actual inequity. The gender mainstreaming in the occupational risks prevention world contribute to detect and correct the gender slant in the preventive activities and in the health surveillance. This paper aims to provide some simple tools to facilitate the incorporation of gender perspective in the activities developed by the Occupational Health Services.

  6. Perceived discrimination and health by gender, social class, and country of birth in a Southern European country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Carme; Muntaner, Carles; Gil-González, Diana; Artazcoz, Lucia; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Rohlfs, Izabella; Pérez, Katherine; García-Calvente, Mar; Villegas, Rodrigo; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES.: This study aimed to examine the association between perceived discrimination and five health outcomes in Spain as well as to analyze whether these relationships are modified by sex, country of birth, or social class. METHODS.: We used a cross-sectional design. Data were collected as part of the 2006 Spanish Health Interview Survey. The present analysis was restricted to the population aged 16-64 years (n=23,760). Five dependent variables on health obtained through the questionnaire were examined. Perceived discrimination was the main independent variable. We obtained the prevalence of perceived discrimination. Logistic regression models were fitted. RESULTS.: Perceived discrimination was higher among populations originating from low income countries and among women and showed positive and consistent associations with all poor health outcomes among men and with 3 poor health outcomes among women. Poor mental health showed the largest difference between people who felt and those who did not feel discriminated (prevalence for these 2 groups among men was 42.0% and 13.3%, and among women, was 44.7% and 22.8%). The patterns found were modified by gender, country of birth, and social class. CONCLUSION.: This study has found a consistent relationship of discrimination with five health indicators in Spain, a high-income Southern European country. Public policies are needed that aim to reduce discrimination. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Health-related quality of life among Swedish children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: parent-child discrepancies, gender differences and comparison with a European cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Veronica; Eriksson, Catharina

    2017-04-12

    This study investigates gender differences in self-reports and between parent and child reports in Health-related Quality of Life (HRQOL), measured with disease-specific and generic instruments for chronic disease. Comparison of HRQOL results in this Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) sample to a European cohort of children with JIA and one of children with other health conditions are also made. Fifty-three children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), aged 8-18 years, and their parents completed the condition-specific DISABKIDS for JIA, and the DISABKIDS generic instrument for chronic conditions (DCGM-37) in a cross-sectional study. European reference data were used for comparison of child and parental reports. Child self-reports in DCGM-37 and DISABKIDS for JIA showed no gender differences. Parental and child reports of the child's HRQOL differed only in DCGM-37; this was among girls who scored their independence (p = 0.03), physical limitation (p = 0.01), social exclusion (p = 0.03), emotions (p children with JIA reported more physical limitation compared to samples of European children with JIA (p = 0.01), European children with chronic conditions (p children reported more problem with understanding compared to the European JIA sample (p = 0.03). Swedish parents perceived their children's independence significantly lower than did the European parents of JIA children (p children with chronic conditions (p = 0.03). The Swedish parents also perceived their children to have significantly lower social inclusion (p children with chronic conditions. Parent-child differences in assessment of quality of life depend on the HRQOL instrument used, especially among girls. In comparison to European cohorts, our sample of children with JIA experienced more physical limitations and less understanding.

  8. Closing the gender leadership gap: a multi-centre cross-country comparison of women in management and leadership in academic health centres in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Ellen; Ovseiko, Pavel V; Kurmeyer, Christine; Gutiérrez-Lobos, Karin; Steinböck, Sandra; von Knorring, Mia; Buchan, Alastair M; Brommels, Mats

    2017-01-06

    Women's participation in medicine and the need for gender equality in healthcare are increasingly recognised, yet little attention is paid to leadership and management positions in large publicly funded academic health centres. This study illustrates such a need, taking the case of four large European centres: Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin (Germany), Karolinska Institutet (Sweden), Medizinische Universität Wien (Austria), and Oxford Academic Health Science Centre (United Kingdom). The percentage of female medical students and doctors in all four countries is now well within the 40-60% gender balance zone. Women are less well represented among specialists and remain significantly under-represented among senior doctors and full professors. All four centres have made progress in closing the gender leadership gap on boards and other top-level decision-making bodies, but a gender leadership gap remains relevant. The level of achieved gender balance varies significantly between the centres and largely mirrors country-specific welfare state models, with more equal gender relations in Sweden than in the other countries. Notably, there are also similar trends across countries and centres: gender inequality is stronger within academic enterprises than within hospital enterprises and stronger in middle management than at the top level. These novel findings reveal fissures in the 'glass ceiling' effects at top-level management, while the barriers for women shift to middle-level management and remain strong in academic positions. The uneven shifts in the leadership gap are highly relevant and have policy implications. Setting gender balance objectives exclusively for top-level decision-making bodies may not effectively promote a wider goal of gender equality. Academic health centres should pay greater attention to gender equality as an issue of organisational performance and good leadership at all levels of management, with particular attention to academic enterprises

  9. Disability among older people in a southern European city in 2006: trends in gender and socioeconomic inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelt, Albert; Font-Ribera, Laia; Rodriguez-Sanz, Maica; Artazcoz, Lucía; Ferrando, Josep; Plaza, Aina; Borrell, Carme

    2010-05-01

    We wished to describe disability prevalence in people aged >or=65 years in Barcelona in 2006, its trends since 1992, and disability inequalities by gender and socioeconomic position (SEP). This was a cross-sectional design, including data from the 1992, 2000, and 2006 Barcelona Health Interview Surveys (noninstitutionalized population >or=65 years old). Disability was defined as having difficulty carrying out at least one of seven activities of daily living (ADL). The number of ADLs carried out with difficulty was considered a measure of disability severity. Independent variables were age and educational level as a measure of SEP. Prevalence and prevalence ratio (PR) of disability stratified by sex were obtained through log-binomial regression models or using zero-inflated Poisson regression models. The prevalence of disability increased between 1992 and 2006 among women but not men because of the higher increase in older age among women. Disability prevalence was 30% in men and 53% in women in 2006. Disability inequalities by SEP were present in all the ADL analyzed and in all 3 years, remaining stable throughout the period. Overall, the PR of disability in lower SEP compared with higher SEP was 1.61 (95% CI 1.32-1.98) in men and 1.53 (95% CI 1.33-1.76) in women. Disability prevalence is increasing among older women at the turn of the century in this southern European city, and socioeconomic inequalities in disability persist. Although women have longer life expectancy, their disability prevalence in older age is much higher than that of men.

  10. What Are Reasons for the Large Gender Differences in the Lethality of Suicidal Acts? An Epidemiological Analysis in Four European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergl, Roland; Koburger, Nicole; Heinrichs, Katherina; Székely, András; Tóth, Mónika Ditta; Coyne, James; Quintão, Sónia; Arensman, Ella; Coffey, Claire; Maxwell, Margaret; Värnik, Airi; van Audenhove, Chantal; McDaid, David; Sarchiapone, Marco; Schmidtke, Armin; Genz, Axel; Gusmão, Ricardo; Hegerl, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    In Europe, men have lower rates of attempted suicide compared to women and at the same time a higher rate of completed suicides, indicating major gender differences in lethality of suicidal behaviour. The aim of this study was to analyse the extent to which these gender differences in lethality can be explained by factors such as choice of more lethal methods or lethality differences within the same suicide method or age. In addition, we explored gender differences in the intentionality of suicide attempts. Methods. Design: Epidemiological study using a combination of self-report and official data. Setting: Mental health care services in four European countries: Germany, Hungary, Ireland, and Portugal. Data basis: Completed suicides derived from official statistics for each country (767 acts, 74.4% male) and assessed suicide attempts excluding habitual intentional self-harm (8,175 acts, 43.2% male). Main Outcome Measures and Data Analysis. We collected data on suicidal acts in eight regions of four European countries participating in the EU-funded "OSPI-Europe"-project (www.ospi-europe.com). We calculated method-specific lethality using the number of completed suicides per method * 100 / (number of completed suicides per method + number of attempted suicides per method). We tested gender differences in the distribution of suicidal acts for significance by using the χ2-test for two-by-two tables. We assessed the effect sizes with phi coefficients (φ). We identified predictors of lethality with a binary logistic regression analysis. Poisson regression analysis examined the contribution of choice of methods and method-specific lethality to gender differences in the lethality of suicidal acts. Suicidal acts (fatal and non-fatal) were 3.4 times more lethal in men than in women (lethality 13.91% (regarding 4106 suicidal acts) versus 4.05% (regarding 4836 suicidal acts)), the difference being significant for the methods hanging, jumping, moving objects, sharp objects

  11. E-WIN Project 2016: Evaluating the Current Gender Situation in Neurosurgery Across Europe-An Interactive, Multiple-Level Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steklacova, Anna; Bradac, Ondrej; de Lacy, Patricia; Benes, Vladimir

    2017-08-01

    The proportion of women among neurosurgeons appears to be growing worldwide with time. Official data concerning the current situation across Europe have not yet been published. Thus, there are still concerns about gender inequality. The European Women in Neurosurgery Project 2016 was designed to recognize the current situation across Europe. The office holders of the national neurosurgical societies of 39 countries forming the European Association of Neurosurgical Societies were contacted to provide data stating the proportion of women in neurosurgery. Obtained data were supplied with the results of an online survey. The response rate of national office holders was 90%. The number of reported neurosurgeons was 12,985, and overall proportion of women represented was 12%. Two hundred thirty-seven responses to online questionnaire were taken into account. The overall proportion of female respondents was 30%. There was no intergender variability in responses regarding amount of working time per week, exposure to surgeries, or administrative work. Male respondents reported dedicating significantly more time to scientific work and feeling more confident dictating own career direction. Female respondents reported being less often married, having fewer children, a stronger perception of gender significance level, and a higher appreciation of personal qualities. Neurosurgery is a challenging field of medicine. The results of our survey did not imply an overall feeling of gender inequality among European respondents, although women believe that the gender issue to be more important than men do and that they have to sacrifice more of their personal lives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Care, Europeanization and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrberg, Torben Bech

    This book adresses the recent underexamined developments concerning care in Europe, including the negotiations about care at the top EU level to that of individual workers. Through a comparative and interdisciplinary approach, this collection examines and further develops current theoretical and ...

  13. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...

  14. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...

  15. The Influence of European Law Concerning Gender Discrimination in Romanian Labor Market: Some Aspects of Women’s Migration in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela GOUDENHOOFT

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Discrimination in employment is one of the problems that have not lost its actuality and discrimination of women, as a species of this principle is a problem that has interesting aspects in Romania. This paper proposes a series of conceptual approach, an attempt to define discrimination against women in employment, a content analysis, including issues of harassment and discrimination. An important part involves the attempt to highlight the sources of discrimination, as well as underlining the paradox that this category of people is not a minority. We want to underline the equality principle reflected by international law, European law, and Romanian legislation and several problems related to gender specificity on the labor market. We have analyzed the international legal framework, the European one (with the multitude of EU directives and the Romanian legislation on this area and I drew a number of conclusions on a few misconceptions of Romanian collective mind, regarded as sources of discrimination.

  16. Nightlife violence: a gender-specific view on risk factors for violence in nightlife settings: a cross-sectional study in nine European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Susanne; Bellis, Mark A; Anderson, Zara; Hughes, Karen; Calafat, Amador; Juan, Montse; Kokkevi, Anna

    2010-06-01

    Within nightlife settings, youth violence places large burdens on both nightlife users and wider society. Internationally, research has identified risk factors for nightlife violence. However, few empirical studies have assessed differences in risk factors between genders. Here, a pan-European cross-sectional survey of 1,341 nightlife users aged 16 to 35 assessed a variety of risk-taking traits, including violence, sexual, alcohol, and drug-related current and historic behaviors. Results show that the likelihood of having been involved in a physical fight in nightlife increases with younger age, drunkenness, and increasing preference for tolerant venues for both genders. The odds of involvement in a fight for females who were drunk five or more times in the past 4 weeks were almost five times higher than those who were never drunk (odds ratio for males 1.99). Use of cocaine more than doubled the risk of involvement in violence among males. However, no association was found for females. For heterosexual men, the odds for violence almost doubled compared with bisexual or homosexual men, whereas for women heterosexuality was a protective factor. The effects of structural risk factors (e.g., bar and club characteristics) for nightlife violence differed by gender. To develop effective violence prevention measures in nightlife, considerations need to be made regarding the demographic composition of patrons in addition to wider structural elements within the nighttime environment.

  17. Gender, Land and Water in the Poverty Reduction Strategy and Country Assistance Strategy for Sri Lanka

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molen, van der I.

    2006-01-01

    Ten years after the adoption of the Beijing Declaration, gender mainstreaming is still high on the donor agenda. Nonetheless, a number of evaluation reports clearly indicate that operationalisation of gender mainstreaming strategies remains a challenging task. The integration of gender concerns at t

  18. What Are Reasons for the Large Gender Differences in the Lethality of Suicidal Acts? An Epidemiological Analysis in Four European Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Mergl

    Full Text Available In Europe, men have lower rates of attempted suicide compared to women and at the same time a higher rate of completed suicides, indicating major gender differences in lethality of suicidal behaviour. The aim of this study was to analyse the extent to which these gender differences in lethality can be explained by factors such as choice of more lethal methods or lethality differences within the same suicide method or age. In addition, we explored gender differences in the intentionality of suicide attempts.Methods. Design: Epidemiological study using a combination of self-report and official data. Setting: Mental health care services in four European countries: Germany, Hungary, Ireland, and Portugal. Data basis: Completed suicides derived from official statistics for each country (767 acts, 74.4% male and assessed suicide attempts excluding habitual intentional self-harm (8,175 acts, 43.2% male. Main Outcome Measures and Data Analysis. We collected data on suicidal acts in eight regions of four European countries participating in the EU-funded "OSPI-Europe"-project (www.ospi-europe.com. We calculated method-specific lethality using the number of completed suicides per method * 100 / (number of completed suicides per method + number of attempted suicides per method. We tested gender differences in the distribution of suicidal acts for significance by using the χ2-test for two-by-two tables. We assessed the effect sizes with phi coefficients (φ. We identified predictors of lethality with a binary logistic regression analysis. Poisson regression analysis examined the contribution of choice of methods and method-specific lethality to gender differences in the lethality of suicidal acts.Suicidal acts (fatal and non-fatal were 3.4 times more lethal in men than in women (lethality 13.91% (regarding 4106 suicidal acts versus 4.05% (regarding 4836 suicidal acts, the difference being significant for the methods hanging, jumping, moving objects, sharp

  19. Social policies and families in stress: Gender and educational differences in work-family conflict from a European perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, N.J.W.R.; Grunow, D.; Verbakel, C.M.C.

    2017-01-01

    In modern welfare states, family policies may resolve the tension between employment and care-focused demands. However these policies sometimes have adverse consequences for distinct social groups. This study examined gender and educational differences in working parents' perceived work-family

  20. Do gender-dyads have different communication patterns? A comparative study in Western-European general practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink-Muinen, A. van den; Dulmen, S. van; Messerli-Rohrbach, V.; Bensing, J.

    2002-01-01

    From the viewpoint of quality of care, doctor–patient communication has become more and more important. Gender is an important factor in communication. Besides, cultural norms and values are likely to influence doctor–patient communication as well. This study examined (1)whether or not communication

  1. Do gender-dyads have different communication patterns?: a comparative study in Western-European general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink-Muinen, A. van den; Dulmen, S. van; Messerli-Rohrbach, V.; Bensing, J.

    2002-01-01

    From the viewpoint of quality of care, doctor-patient communication has become more and more important. Gender is an important factor in communication. Besides, cultural norms and values are likely to influence doctor-patient communication as well. This study examined (1) whether or not communicatio

  2. Managing diversity and European policy: Towards a typology for sport pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinold, Maria; Diketmüller, Rosa; Grix, Jonathan; Phillpots, Lesley

    2013-01-01

    This article adds to the growing body of knowledge in sport pedagogy and focuses specifically upon the intersection of gender and disability. Its purpose is twofold, to create a typology for examining good practice in sport pedagogy that is reflective and inclusive and raises awareness of the diverse needs of all participants in physical activity 'regardless' of gender and ability for all children. We acknowledge that access to physical activity, education and sport are complex and multifaceted, however, the main purpose of this paper is to raise awareness of 'diversity' by focusing specifically upon the role of gender and ability. Through an examination of gender and disability policies in official European Union (EU) policy documents and commercial examples of policy-in-practice we propose a typology for diversity and diversity management. A close look at EU level is instructive because national policies of the member countries vary a lot with respect to diversity issues but should be in accordance in the main areas. Such a reading enables the building of a typology of recommendations for how such policy can be rendered in sport pedagogy practice. We suggest six significant, but related principles that include (1) mainstreaming; (2) teaching and coaching sensitive to difference; (3) empowerment; (4) inclusion; (5) adaptation; and (6) inner differentiation. This holistic typology seeks to 'mainstream' issues of gender and disability policy by providing a set of principles that can be applied to a range of teaching and coaching settings.

  3. Gender, cohort and geographical differences in 10-year mortality in elderly people living in 12 European towns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amorim Cruz, J.A.; Haveman-Nies, A.; Schlettwein-Gsell, D.; Henauw, de S.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 1988/89, 2586 randomly selected elderly of both sexes born between 1913 and 1918 and living in 19 centres of 12 European countries participated in the SENECA Study on Nutrition and the Elderly in Europe. Differences in nutritional and health status as well in lifestyle factors, namely

  4. Parents' Reports of Lexical and Grammatical Aspects of Toddlers' Language in European Portuguese: Developmental Trends, Age and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carla; Cadime, Irene; Ribeiro, Iolanda; Santos, Sandra; Santos, Ana Lúcia; Viana, Fernanda Leopoldina

    2017-01-01

    The results from a large-scale study on toddlers' language acquisition in European Portuguese are presented. Toddlers' lexical and grammatical competencies were assessed using the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory: Words and Sentences. The results, based on 3012 reports completed by parents, indicate an increase in the lexical…

  5. Gender, cohort and geographical differences in 10-year mortality in elderly people living in 12 European towns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amorim Cruz, J.A.; Haveman-Nies, A.; Schlettwein-Gsell, D.; Henauw, de S.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 1988/89, 2586 randomly selected elderly of both sexes born between 1913 and 1918 and living in 19 centres of 12 European countries participated in the SENECA Study on Nutrition and the Elderly in Europe. Differences in nutritional and health status as well in lifestyle factors, namely

  6. Taking steps: mainstreaming national adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huq, Saleemul; Ayers, Jessica

    2008-11-15

    Climate change poses a massive threat to development. The poorest populations of poor countries – the Least Developed Countries, Small Island Developing States, and the nations of Africa – face the concentrated challenge of tackling the worst of the impacts with the least capacity to do so. Clearly, adaptation to climate impacts must be seamlessly integrated into any development planning and policy. This fourstep plan for mainstreaming climate change aims to fulfil that need. A 'learning by doing' approach, it focuses first on national capacity to ensure that development in all sectors and at all levels is effectively climate-proofed.

  7. Gender Diversities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen; Siim, Birte

    2014-01-01

    The article analyses the European Year for Combating Poverty and Social Exclusion (2010) (EY 2010) with the aim of identifying the nature of gender diversities in EU policies. We argue that the EU handles issues related to gender and diversity in particular ways; this approach is characterized...... by non-citizen/citizen and redistribution/recognition divisions. Employing intersectionality as the methodological approach to gender diversities, the article shows how gender and ethnicity are articulated in the policy-making process which led to the adoption of EY 201, the activities undertaken during...... the EY 2010, and the evaluation of EY 2010. The case study is suitable for developing a dynamic multi-level model for analysing gendered diversities at the transnationmal level: It illustrates how the EU policy frame interacts with particular national contexts in promoting or hundering the advancement...

  8. Mainstream Teacher Candidates' Perspectives on ESL Writing: The Effects of Writer Identity and Rater Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Sook; Veitch, Hillary

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which the ethnic identity of a writer and the background (gender and area of teaching) of a rater can influence mainstream teacher candidates' evaluation of English as a second language (ESL) writing, using a matched-guise method. A one-page essay was elicited from an ESL learner enrolled in an intensive English…

  9. South Texas Mexican American Use of Traditional Folk and Mainstream Alternative Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Leslie N.

    2009-01-01

    A telephone survey was conducted with a large sample of Mexican Americans from border (n = 1,001) and nonborder (n = 1,030) regions in Texas. Patterns of traditional folk and mainstream complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use were analyzed with two binary logistic regressions, using gender, self-rated health, confidence in medical…

  10. Toxic Chemicals in Cigarette Mainstream Smoke - Hazard and Hoopla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodgman A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available These are curious times. The Canadian government has passed legislation that requires cigarette manufacturers to routinely test and publish the amounts of 44 toxic substances in cigarette mainstream smoke (MSS. Following in the footsteps of their northern neighbor, various US legislators and regulators are considering modifications to their cigarette testing and reporting programs that will also list toxicants in MSS. Across the Atlantic Ocean, the European Commission has passed a directive that may also follow the North American lead for public disclosure of MSS toxic chemicals for each brand of cigarette sold in the marketplace. United Kingdom authorities have also expressed their intention to follow this mandate.

  11. Renewable energy. From marginal to mainstream. Policy Brief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veum, K.C.; Uslu, A.; De Coninck, H.C. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    This policy brief aims to instigate a debate on the broader enabling conditions required to move renewable energy from marginal shares in the European energy system to a mainstream role. It does so by posing seven key questions related to public movement, the political-industrial complex, resources and sustainability, grids and markets, finance, legal procedures and overall policy. These questions require short- to medium-term attention to keep a long-term renewable energy system within the realm of possibilities. This policy brief also provides ECN's initial reflections on how these key questions could be addressed, and indicates which relevant expertise it can bring to the table.

  12. [Gender differences in parameters of lipid metabolism and of level of antioxidants in groups of juveniles--the Evenks and the europeans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Comparative estimation of the mean parameters of lipid metabolism and of level of antioxidants was performed in youths and girls of the indigenous (the Evenks) and newly arrived population of the north of the Irkutsk oblast and of the Oblast Center (the Europeans). Gender differences were revealed in the level of ChlHDLP in juveniles of the arrived population, in the glutathione status and content of fat-soluble vitamins in juveniles Evens and the arrived and in concentration of retinol in the Oblast Center juveniles. Adaptive changes in the AOD system were found in the Evenk girls (the higher concentrations of α-to- copherol, GSH, the GSH/GSSG index, and a decrease of GSSG relatively to the Evenk boys and the girls of the arrived populations, as well as an increase of the ca-tocopherol level relatively to the Europeans of the Oblast Center) and in boys of the arrived population (the higher GSH content and the GSH/GSSG index relatively to the Evenk boys).

  13. Synthetic biology: from mainstream to counterculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleator, Roy D

    2016-09-01

    Existing at the interface of science and engineering, synthetic biology represents a new and emerging field of mainstream biology. However, there also exists a counterculture of Do-It-Yourself biologists, citizen scientists, who have made significant inroads, particularly in the design and development of new tools and techniques. Herein, I review the development and convergence of synthetic biology's mainstream and countercultures.

  14. Mainstreaming: The Role of Industrial Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steczak, Cheryl; Shackelford, Ray L.

    This guide is intended to help industrial education teachers and administrators to "mainstream" handicapped students into regular industrial education classes. The booklet introduces the concept of mainstreaming, relates it to industrial education, and defines various handicapping conditions, such as physical handicaps, visual and hearing…

  15. Experiences in mainstreaming alternative energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabraal, A.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses efforts by the Asia Alternative Energy Unit (ASTAE) of the World Bank in supporting alternative energy source projects in Asia. Energy growth rates have been as high as 18% per year, with power capacity doubling each decade in the 1960`s, 70`s and 80`s. Much of this has come from fossil fuel projects coupled with major hydroelectric projects. One consequence is developing air pollution loads originating in Asia. ASTAE has been supporting pilot programs in applying alternative energy sources. The goal has been to mainstream renewable energy sources in World Bank operations, by working with managers from different countries to: include renewable energy in country assistance strategies and sectorial development plans; provide assistance to renewable energy initiatives; expand initiatives to new countries, sectors and technologies.

  16. Face-ism and Objectification in Mainstream and LGBT Magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, Nathan N

    2016-01-01

    In visual media, men are often shown with more facial prominence than women, a manifestation of sexism that has been labeled face-ism. The present research extended the study of facial prominence and gender representation in media to include magazines aimed at lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) audiences for the first time, and also examined whether overall gender differences in facial prominence can still be found in mainstream magazines. Face-ism emerged in Newsweek, but not in Time, The Advocate, or Out. Although there were no overall differences in facial prominence between mainstream and LGBT magazines, there were differences in the facial prominence of men and women among the four magazines included in the present study. These results suggest that face-ism is still a problem, but that it may be restricted to certain magazines. Furthermore, future research may benefit from considering individual magazine titles rather than broader categories of magazines, given that the present study found few similarities between different magazines in the same media category--indeed, Out and Time were more similar to each other than they were to the other magazine in their respective categories.

  17. Face-ism and Objectification in Mainstream and LGBT Magazines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, Nathan N.

    2016-01-01

    In visual media, men are often shown with more facial prominence than women, a manifestation of sexism that has been labeled face-ism. The present research extended the study of facial prominence and gender representation in media to include magazines aimed at lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) audiences for the first time, and also examined whether overall gender differences in facial prominence can still be found in mainstream magazines. Face-ism emerged in Newsweek, but not in Time, The Advocate, or Out. Although there were no overall differences in facial prominence between mainstream and LGBT magazines, there were differences in the facial prominence of men and women among the four magazines included in the present study. These results suggest that face-ism is still a problem, but that it may be restricted to certain magazines. Furthermore, future research may benefit from considering individual magazine titles rather than broader categories of magazines, given that the present study found few similarities between different magazines in the same media category—indeed, Out and Time were more similar to each other than they were to the other magazine in their respective categories. PMID:27074012

  18. Teaching with Gender. European Women’s Studies inInternational and Interdisciplinary Classrooms. A book series by ATHENA : Teaching Subjectivity.Travelling Selves for Feminist Pedagogy

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    How can educators (teachers, professors, trainers) address issues of gender, women, gender roles, feminism and gender equality? The ATHENA thematic network brings together specialists in women’s and gender studies, feminist research, women’s rights, gender equality and diversity. In the book series ‘ Teaching with Gender’ the partners in this network have collected articles on a wide range of teaching practices in the field of gender. The books in this series address challenges and possibilit...

  19. Gender, Labour and Precarity in the South East European Periphery: the Case of Textile Workers in Štip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bonfiglioli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the living and working conditions of textile workers in the city of Štip (Macedonia. The textile industry was highly developed during socialist times, but underwent a process of decline after the Yugoslav break-up. While it still represents a relevant economic sector for post-socialist Macedonia, the textile industry is highly dependent on outsourced orders from Western Europe. Local workers’ living and labour conditions, therefore, are affected by the global ‘race to the bottom’ for production costs that is typical of the garment industry. On the basis of a series of interviews conducted in Skopje and Štip with workers and factory owners, the article argues that contemporary working conditions in the Macedonian textile industry are characterised by poor labour rights, gender discrimination and widespread precarity. In contrast to the current circumstances, working and living conditions during socialist times are positively remembered by workers, who claim that their social status and living standards have deteriorated in the course of the last twenty years. This narrative of precarity is also partially shared by local entrepreneurs, who emphasise the global and local obstacles that hinder the development of the textile industry in Macedonia.

  20. Leptin, vitamin D, and cardiorespiratory fitness as risk factors for insulin resistance in European adolescents: gender differences in the HELENA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Pavón, David; Sesé, María A; Valtueña, Jara; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; González-Gross, Marcela; Gottrand, Frederic; Kafatos, Anthony; Manios, Yannis; Widhalm, Kurt; de Henauw, Stefaan; Polito, Angela; Pérez-López, Faustino R; Moreno, Luis A

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the relevance of a set of risk factors for insulin resistance in adolescents from Europe and to consider their possible gender-specific associations. The Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study (HELENA-CSS) was conducted in 1053 European adolescents (mean age, 14.9 years) in a school setting in 9 countries. Three anthropometric markers of body fat and a dietary index were calculated. Total energy intake was estimated from a questionnaire. C-reactive protein, leptin, and vitamin D were assessed, and physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and muscular strength were measured. Center, socioeconomic status, pubertal status, and season were used as potential confounders. The main outcome was the homeostasis model assessment used as a marker of insulin resistance. Correlations, analyses of covariance, and logistic regression models were used. In males, leptin was the only risk factor for insulin resistance after adjusting for confounders including markers of body fat (odds ratios (ORs) from 1.49 to 1.60). In females, leptin, vitamin D, and fitness were the remaining independent risk factors for insulin resistance after adjustments (OR 2.11; 95% confidential interval (CI) 1.29-3.45; OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.31-0.80; and OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.33-0.87, respectively). Our observations suggest a gender dimorphism in the identification of risk factors for high insulin resistance. Preventive strategies should focus on improving modifiable factors such as cardiorespiratory fitness and on ensuring vitamin D sufficiency. Randomized controlled trials focusing on these strategies are necessary to test their efficacy.

  1. Educational psychology and the effectiveness of inclusive education/mainstreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Geoff

    2007-03-01

    Inclusive education/mainstreaming is a key policy objective for the education of children and young people with special educational needs (SEN) and disabilities. This paper reviews the literature on the effectiveness of inclusive education/mainstreaming. The focus is on evidence for effects in terms of child outcomes with examination also of evidence on processes that support effectiveness. The review covers a range of SEN and children from pre-school to the end of compulsory education. Following an historical review of evidence on inclusive education/mainstreaming, the core of the paper is a detailed examination of all the papers published in eight journals from the field of special education published 2001-2005 (N=1373): Journal of Special Education, Exceptional Children, Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, Journal of Learning Disabilities, Remedial and Special Education, British Journal of Special Education, European Journal of Special Needs Education, and the International Journal of Inclusive Education. The derived categories were: comparative studies of outcomes: other outcome studies; non-comparative qualitative studies including non-experimental case studies; teacher practice and development; teacher attitudes; and the use of teaching assistants. Only 14 papers (1.0%) were identified as comparative outcome studies of children with some form of SEN. Measures used varied but included social as well as educational outcomes. Other papers included qualitative studies of inclusive practice, some of which used a non-comparative case study design while others were based on respondent's judgements, or explored process factors including teacher attitudes and the use of teaching assistants. Inclusive education/mainstreaming has been promoted on two bases: the rights of children to be included in mainstream education and the proposition that inclusive education is more effective. This review focuses on the latter issue. The evidence from this review does not

  2. Gender and international crisis response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eklund, Lisa; Tellier, Siri

    2012-01-01

    For more than a decade the humanitarian community has been mandated to mainstream gender in its response to crises. One element of this mandate is a repeated call for sex-disaggregated data to help guide the response. This study examines available analyses, assessments and academic literature to ...

  3. Art in the Mainstream: Ideology and Hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Edmund Burke

    1983-01-01

    Adapted from the presidential address to the National Art Education Association in the Spring of 1983, this article discusses the professional identity of art teachers and why art belongs "in the mainstream" of education. (RM)

  4. Mainstreaming from a School for the Deaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Conway, Sister

    1979-01-01

    Twenty-four students who had been in a school for the deaf (in grades 5-12), but were now mainstreamed, were interviewed to ascertain their academic and communication skills, and their psycho-social adjustment. (PHR)

  5. Mainstreaming disability in education beyond 2015

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    2015-02-14

    Feb 14, 2015 ... The argument forwarded suggests hephapreneurship as one way of mainstreaming disability. ..... and also employs other women as a measure of contributing ..... programme, which was funded by the University of. Pretoria.

  6. Model Sinergitas Pengarusutamaan Gender dalam Mewujudkan Keadilan dan Kesetaraan Pendidikan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursini Tawakkal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to: (1 to analyze the causes of the gender gap in education, (2 to analyze the extent to which respondents’ knowledge about gender and gender responsive education, (3 to build model gender mainstreaming to achieve gender justice and equality in education. The data used are primary and secondary data which were analyzed descriptively. Locations of the study are the village Pabiringa and Biringkassi in Jeneponto and Tompobalang in Gowa, South Sulawesi Province The result showed that: (1 the causes the gender gap in education is a factor of participation, access, control, and culture, (2 understanding the respondents about gender and gender-minded education is still low, (3 the model was developed to achieve gender justice and equality in education is a model institutional strengthening of gender mainstreaming based-synergy between teachers, Parents, and the Department of Education

  7. Ageing under unequal circumstances: a cross-sectional analysis of the gender and socioeconomic patterning of functional limitations among the Southern European elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Alarcón, Manuel; Perelman, Julian

    2017-10-03

    In a context of population ageing, it is a priority for planning and prevention to understand the socioeconomic (SE) patterning of functional limitations and its consequences on healthcare needs. This paper aims at measuring the gender and SE inequalities in functional limitations and their age of onset among the Southern European elderly; then, we evaluate how functional status is linked to formal and informal care use. We used Portuguese, Italian and Spanish data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) of 2011 (n = 9233). We constructed a summary functional limitation score as the sum of two variables: i) Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and ii) Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL). We modelled the functional limitation as a function of age, gender, education, subjective poverty, employment and marital status using multinomial logit models. We then estimated how functional limitation affected informal and formal care demand using negative binomial and logistic models. Women were 2.3 percentage points (pp) more likely to experience severe functional limitation than men, and overcame a 10% probability threshold of suffering from severe limitation around 5 years earlier. Subjective poverty was associated with a 3.1 pp. higher probability of severe functional limitation. Having a university degree reduced the probability of severe functional limitation by 3.5 pp. as compared to none educational level. Discrepancies were wider for the oldest old: women aged 65-79 years old were 3.3 pp. more likely to suffer severe limitations, the excess risk increasing to 15.5 pp. among those older than 80. Similarly, educational inequalities in functional limitation were wider at older ages. Being severely limited was related with a 32.1 pp. higher probability of receiving any informal care, as compared to those moderately limited. Finally, those severely limited had on average 3.2 hospitalization days and 4.6 doctor consultations more

  8. COUNTRY-LEVEL SOCIOECONOMIC INDICATORS ASSOCIATED WITH SURVIVAL PROBABILITY OF BECOMING A CENTENARIAN AMONG OLDER EUROPEAN ADULTS: GENDER INEQUALITY, MALE LABOUR FORCE PARTICIPATION AND PROPORTIONS OF WOMEN IN PARLIAMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong In; Kim, Gukbin

    2017-03-01

    This study confirms an association between survival probability of becoming a centenarian (SPBC) for those aged 65 to 69 and country-level socioeconomic indicators in Europe: the gender inequality index (GII), male labour force participation (MLP) rates and proportions of seats held by women in national parliaments (PWP). The analysis was based on SPBC data from 34 countries obtained from the United Nations (UN). Country-level socioeconomic indicator data were obtained from the UN and World Bank databases. The associations between socioeconomic indicators and SPBC were assessed using correlation coefficients and multivariate regression models. The findings show significant correlations between the SPBC for women and men aged 65 to 69 and country-level socioeconomic indicators: GII (r=-0.674, p=0.001), MLP (r=0.514, p=0.002) and PWP (r=0.498, p=0.003). The SPBC predictors for women and men were lower GIIs and higher MLP and PWP (R 2=0.508, p=0.001). Country-level socioeconomic indicators appear to have an important effect on the probability of becoming a centenarian in European adults aged 65 to 69. Country-level gender equality policies in European counties may decrease the risk of unhealthy old age and increase longevity in elders through greater national gender equality; disparities in GII and other country-level socioeconomic indicators impact longevity probability. National longevity strategies should target country-level gender inequality.

  9. Gender Matters to Whom: Keeping the Politics in Gender and Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Harcourt (Wendy)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWendy Harcourt looks candidly at mainstreaming gender in development and in social movements. She explores the difficulties of bringing gender into development policy and social movements spaces, two areas where she has been actively engaged over the last two decades. The talk will be a

  10. Hardly that kind of girl? : on female representations in mainstream pop music videos

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Kai Arne

    2011-01-01

    Music video is a particularly powerful medium for showcasing pop artists, offering up a site where images and sounds come together to shape alluring representations. This thesis explores a selection of mainstream pop videos from a poststructuralist perspective, linking the representations of selected female artists to notions of gendered identity, sexuality, and ethnicity. As technological advancements open up new representational opportunities, current trends seem to showcase the female pop ...

  11. Sarcopenia: European consensus on definition and diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso J.; Baeyens, Jean Pierre; Bauer, Jürgen M.; Boirie, Yves; Cederholm, Tommy; Landi, Francesco; Martin, Finbarr C.; Michel, Jean-Pierre; Rolland, Yves; Schneider, Stéphane M.; Topinková, Eva; Vandewoude, Maurits; Zamboni, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    The European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) developed a practical clinical definition and consensus diagnostic criteria for age-related sarcopenia. EWGSOP included representatives from four participant organisations, i.e. the European Geriatric Medicine Society, the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics—European Region and the International Association of Nutrition and Aging. These organisations endorsed the findings in the final document. The group met and addressed the following questions, using the medical literature to build evidence-based answers: (i) What is sarcopenia? (ii) What parameters define sarcopenia? (iii) What variables reflect these parameters, and what measurement tools and cut-off points can be used? (iv) How does sarcopenia relate to cachexia, frailty and sarcopenic obesity? For the diagnosis of sarcopenia, EWGSOP recommends using the presence of both low muscle mass + low muscle function (strength or performance). EWGSOP variously applies these characteristics to further define conceptual stages as ‘presarcopenia’, ‘sarcopenia’ and ‘severe sarcopenia’. EWGSOP reviewed a wide range of tools that can be used to measure the specific variables of muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance. Our paper summarises currently available data defining sarcopenia cut-off points by age and gender; suggests an algorithm for sarcopenia case finding in older individuals based on measurements of gait speed, grip strength and muscle mass; and presents a list of suggested primary and secondary outcome domains for research. Once an operational definition of sarcopenia is adopted and included in the mainstream of comprehensive geriatric assessment, the next steps are to define the natural course of sarcopenia and to develop and define effective treatment. PMID:20392703

  12. Gender manual: A practical guide for development policy makers and practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Derbyshire, H.

    2002-01-01

    Metadata only record This manual provides background information, tools, and guidelines for organizations seeking to incorporate gender mainstreaming in their work. The first section explains the history, major concepts, and policy related to gender issues. The second section summarizes what gender mainstreaming is and how to delegate related responsibilities within an organization. The third section provides tools and guidelines, and the final section contains information about the GEM we...

  13. The effect of gender on eye colour variation in European populations and an evaluation of the IrisPlex prediction model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietroni, Carlotta; Andersen, Jeppe D.; Johansen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    , we investigate the role of gender as a factor that contributes to eye colour variation and suggest that the gender effect on eye colour is population specific. A total of 230 Italian individuals were typed for the six IrisPlex SNPs (rs12913832, rs1800407, rs12896399, rs1393350, rs16891982 and rs......In two recent studies of Spanish individuals [1,2], gender was suggested as a factor that contributes to human eye colour variation. However, gender did not improve the predictive accuracy on blue, intermediate and brown eye colours when gender was included in the IrisPlex model [3]. In this study...... eye colour independently of ancestry. Furthermore, we found gender to be significantly associated with quantitative eye colour measurements in the Italian population sample. We found that the association was statistically significant only among Italian individuals typed as heterozygote GA for HERC2 rs...

  14. The effect of gender on eye colour variation in European populations and an evaluation of the IrisPlex prediction model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietroni, Carlotta; Andersen, Jeppe D.; Johansen, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    , we investigate the role of gender as a factor that contributes to eye colour variation and suggest that the gender effect on eye colour is population specific. A total of 230 Italian individuals were typed for the six IrisPlex SNPs (rs12913832, rs1800407, rs12896399, rs1393350, rs16891982 and rs......In two recent studies of Spanish individuals [1,2], gender was suggested as a factor that contributes to human eye colour variation. However, gender did not improve the predictive accuracy on blue, intermediate and brown eye colours when gender was included in the IrisPlex model [3]. In this study...... eye colour independently of ancestry. Furthermore, we found gender to be significantly associated with quantitative eye colour measurements in the Italian population sample. We found that the association was statistically significant only among Italian individuals typed as heterozygote GA for HERC2 rs...

  15. Are ethnic and gender specific equations needed to derive fat free mass from bioelectrical impedance in children of South asian, black african-Caribbean and white European origin? Results of the assessment of body composition in children study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M Nightingale

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA is a potentially valuable method for assessing lean mass and body fat levels in children from different ethnic groups. We examined the need for ethnic- and gender-specific equations for estimating fat free mass (FFM from BIA in children from different ethnic groups and examined their effects on the assessment of ethnic differences in body fat. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of children aged 8-10 years in London Primary schools including 325 South Asians, 250 black African-Caribbeans and 289 white Europeans with measurements of height, weight and arm-leg impedance (Z; Bodystat 1500. Total body water was estimated from deuterium dilution and converted to FFM. Multilevel models were used to derive three types of equation {A: FFM = linear combination(height+weight+Z; B: FFM = linear combination(height(2/Z; C: FFM = linear combination(height(2/Z+weight}. RESULTS: Ethnicity and gender were important predictors of FFM and improved model fit in all equations. The models of best fit were ethnicity and gender specific versions of equation A, followed by equation C; these provided accurate assessments of ethnic differences in FFM and FM. In contrast, the use of generic equations led to underestimation of both the negative South Asian-white European FFM difference and the positive black African-Caribbean-white European FFM difference (by 0.53 kg and by 0.73 kg respectively for equation A. The use of generic equations underestimated the positive South Asian-white European difference in fat mass (FM and overestimated the positive black African-Caribbean-white European difference in FM (by 4.7% and 10.1% respectively for equation A. Consistent results were observed when the equations were applied to a large external data set. CONCLUSIONS: Ethnic- and gender-specific equations for predicting FFM from BIA provide better estimates of ethnic differences in FFM and FM in children, while generic equations

  16. Mainstreaming Disability in Education beyond 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefotho, Maximus Monaheng

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an exemplary case study of an Independent Business Owner (IBO) from multiple case studies on narratives of differently abled persons. The aim of this article is to illustrate mainstreaming disability through an exemplary case of the IBO. The article is informed by the imperatives of critical theory to understand mainstreaming…

  17. Prosocial Behaviors in a Mainstreamed Preschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmon, Alyce Akers; Dembo, Myron H.

    A study was conducted to determine the frequency of three types of prosocial interactions--empathy, helping, and altruism--which nonhandicapped preschool children could exhibit toward their handicapped peers. Subjects were 32 nonhandicapped 4- to 5-year-olds and 13 developmentally disabled 3- to 5-year-olds attending a mainstreamed preschool…

  18. Second Language Writing in the Mainstream Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lyn

    The case study of a Bulgarian immigrant child's literacy education in English as a Second Language (ESL) is presented. Focus is on the boy's literacy development within the context of a mainstream kindergarten/first grade classroom in Australia. The report details the teacher's observations in the classroom and particularly in the child's writing…

  19. "From Worthy Margin to Lively Mainstream"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The seventies and eighties saw the adult education movement renew and reexamine its commitment to opening up learning opportunities to "disadvantaged" groups. The National Institute of Adult Continuing Education (NIACE) was now part of the mainstream of public policy making in lifelong learning and had a significant role in delivering…

  20. Intersectionality, Diversity and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen; Siim, Birte

    2016-01-01

    In the discourses of Danish politicians on ethno-national diversity and integration, the notion of diversity is gendered, especially the articulation of the ‘working woman’ and her labor market participation. Equality, diversity and gender are, thus, intertwined in political, discursive...... constructions of national and European identities/belongings. On this basis the article claims that diversity represents a dual challenge to be conceptualized within and beyond the nation state. The article explores the formation of national and transnational identities based on analyses of political actors......’ debates about gender and diversity within the national and transnational European Polity....

  1. What Are Reasons for the Large Gender Differences in the Lethality of Suicidal Acts? An Epidemiological Analysis in Four European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mergl, Roland; Koburger, Nicole; Heinrichs, Katherina; Szekely, Andras; Toth, Monika Ditta; Coyne, James; Quintao, Sonia; Arensman, Ella; Coffey, Claire; Maxwell, Margaret; Vaernik, Airi; van Audenhove, Chantal; McDaid, David; Sarchiapone, Marco; Schmidtke, Armin; Genz, Axel; Gusmao, Ricardo; Hegerl, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Background In Europe, men have lower rates of attempted suicide compared to women and at the same time a higher rate of completed suicides, indicating major gender differences in lethality of suicidal behaviour. The aim of this study was to analyse the extent to which these gender differences in let

  2. What Are Reasons for the Large Gender Differences in the Lethality of Suicidal Acts? An Epidemiological Analysis in Four European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mergl, Roland; Koburger, Nicole; Heinrichs, Katherina; Szekely, Andras; Toth, Monika Ditta; Coyne, James; Quintao, Sonia; Arensman, Ella; Coffey, Claire; Maxwell, Margaret; Vaernik, Airi; van Audenhove, Chantal; McDaid, David; Sarchiapone, Marco; Schmidtke, Armin; Genz, Axel; Gusmao, Ricardo; Hegerl, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Background In Europe, men have lower rates of attempted suicide compared to women and at the same time a higher rate of completed suicides, indicating major gender differences in lethality of suicidal behaviour. The aim of this study was to analyse the extent to which these gender differences in let

  3. What Are Reasons for the Large Gender Differences in the Lethality of Suicidal Acts? An Epidemiological Analysis in Four European Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mergl, Roland; Koburger, Nicole; Heinrichs, Katherina; Szekely, Andras; Toth, Monika Ditta; Coyne, James; Quintao, Sonia; Arensman, Ella; Coffey, Claire; Maxwell, Margaret; Vaernik, Airi; van Audenhove, Chantal; McDaid, David; Sarchiapone, Marco; Schmidtke, Armin; Genz, Axel; Gusmao, Ricardo; Hegerl, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Background In Europe, men have lower rates of attempted suicide compared to women and at the same time a higher rate of completed suicides, indicating major gender differences in lethality of suicidal behaviour. The aim of this study was to analyse the extent to which these gender differences in

  4. Incorporating gender, equity, and human rights into the action planning process: moving from rhetoric to action

    OpenAIRE

    Sridharan, Sanjeev; Maplazi, Joanna; Richardson, Emma; Shirodkar, Apurva; Nakaima, April

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mainstreaming of gender, equity, and human rights (GER) is an important focus of the World Health Organization (WHO) and other UN organizations. This paper explores the role of action plans in mainstreaming GER. This paper is informed by a theory-driven evaluation lens. Design: A theory of change framework explored the following seven dimensions of how action plans can implement mainstreaming of GER: awareness of the foundations of GER; understanding of context; planning to impact...

  5. European communication monitor 2014: excellence in strategic communication-key issues, leadership, gender and mobile media: results of a survey in 42 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zerfass, A.; Tench, R.; Verčič, D.; Verhoeven, P.; Moreno, A.

    2014-01-01

    The European Communication Moniotr is an internationla research initiative conducted by the European Public Relations Education and Research Association (EUPRERA), an autonomous organisation, in partnership with the EACD and the Communication Director magazine. The study is conducted with the aim to

  6. European communication monitor 2014: excellence in strategic communication-key issues, leadership, gender and mobile media: results of a survey in 42 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zerfass, A.; Tench, R.; Verčič, D.; Verhoeven, P.; Moreno, A.

    2014-01-01

    The European Communication Moniotr is an internationla research initiative conducted by the European Public Relations Education and Research Association (EUPRERA), an autonomous organisation, in partnership with the EACD and the Communication Director magazine. The study is conducted with the aim to

  7. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIA POPESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study of female entrepreneurship traditionally has been inspired by gender equality issues. Female entrepreneurs were assumed to experience gender-related discrimination and to experience more difficulties when starting up and running a business than their male counterparts. Today research and policy have been more and more fuelled by the idea that female entrepreneurs are important for economic progress. Even when issues such as barriers and obstacles to female entrepreneurs are raised in the gender and entrepreneurship debate, this is usually done from the perspective that female entrepreneurs are an untapped resource and have potential to contribute to a country’s economic performance. Indeed, although gender equality is one of the arguments underlying the support for female entrepreneurs within the European Union, the argument that female entrepreneurs (have the potential tocontribute to economic performance continues to play a role here. The global growth of female entrepreneurship in the last decades has been accompanied by an increase in the number of studies on female entrepreneurship. Unlike most existing studies, which focus primarily upon female entrepreneurship in Western European countries, the present thesis investigates gender differences in entrepreneurship in the Eastern European countries. Different aspects of entrepreneurship are studied including the individual, the organization and the environment. A systematic distinction is made between direct and indirect gender effects on entrepreneurship to be able to disentangle ‘pure’ gender effects from effects of factors that are correlated with gender.

  8. The effect of gender on eye colour variation in European populations and an evaluation of the IrisPlex prediction model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietroni, Carlotta; Andersen, Jeppe D.; Johansen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In two recent studies of Spanish individuals [1,2], gender was suggested as a factor that contributes to human eye colour variation. However, gender did not improve the predictive accuracy on blue, intermediate and brown eye colours when gender was included in the IrisPlex model [3]. In this stud...... and their corresponding predictive values using the IrisPlex prediction model [4]. The results suggested that maximum three (rs12913832, rs1800407, rs16891982) of the six IrisPlex SNPs are useful in practical forensic genetic casework....

  9. Beyond econophysics (not to mention mainstream economics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegati, Mauro

    2016-12-01

    Econophysics has produced innovative and empirically relevant results in at least four areas of research: financial markets, growth and distribution of firms and countries, the distribution of income and wealth, and contagion, robustness and resilience of networks. All these results are inexplicable by the actual mainstream economic model. Yet econophysics requires not only a new economy, but also a "new" physics, which is based on non-ergodicity, on social dynamics whose elementary constituents are heterogeneous interacting social agents linked by networks.

  10. Gender mainstraming in the Bangladesh Rural Electrification Board

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy; Ekram, Lailun Nahar; Halim, Sadeka; Mhatab, Nazmunnessa

    2004-01-01

    A Gender Equity Strategy and Action Plan has been integrated into the Bangladesh Rural Electrification Board’s Master Plan. Implementation of this plan will be the first gender mainstreaming exercise in the energy sector in Bangladesh, and possibly in the world.

  11. Gender mainstraming in the Bangladesh Rural Electrification Board

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy S.; Ekram, Lailun Nahar; Halim, Sadeka; Mhatab, Nazmunnessa

    2004-01-01

    A Gender Equity Strategy and Action Plan has been integrated into the Bangladesh Rural Electrification Board’s Master Plan. Implementation of this plan will be the first gender mainstreaming exercise in the energy sector in Bangladesh, and possibly in the world.

  12. The Anti-Gender Movement in Europe and the Educational Process in Public Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Kuhar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mass protests across Europe against marriage equality, reproductive rights, gender mainstreaming and sexual education have centralised in the past few years around so-called “gender theory”. This theory is explained as a new threat to the “traditional family” and “natural masculinity and femininity”, as it allegedly aims at cultural revolution: a post-binary gender world. Many of these debates (and concrete actions are targeted at schools and the educational process. It is believed that “gender theory” is already being taught in schools, which will have detrimental consequences for pupils. Agents of the anti-gender movement claim that children are being sexualised and brainwashed by “gender theory”. Taking this debate as the starting point, we first examine the roots of the term “gender theory” and point to its nature as an “empty signifier”. We then analyse the types of anti-gender actions across Europe that interfere with the educational process in public schools. Finally, we consider the role of parents and their right to intervene (or not in the educational process. On the basis of the existing rulings of the European Court of Human Rights, we argue that the provision that parents are entitled to educate their children in accordance with their religious and moral beliefs does not mean that teachers in schools should avoid issues that might “morally distress” pupils or their parents, as long as schools avoid indoctrination, and providing the topics (like any other topics are conveyed in an objective, critical and pluralistic manner.

  13. From Gender as an Exogenous or Impact Variable to Gender as an Endogenous Force in the New Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: In the old mainstream macroeconomics, gender is often completely absent, either as a variable, or as driving certain institutions, or as underlying the gender division of labour between the paid and unpaid economy, whereas the unpaid economy is often completely ignored in

  14. Case Study Report about Gender Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Stine Thidemann; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this national case study report is to take a closer look at the use of Gender Impact Assessments in Denmark in order to describe the Danish implementation of this specific Gender Mainstreaming method. By way of analyzing two selected cases (two law proposals put forward by The Danish...... Ministry of Employment and the Danish Ministry of Transport, respectively) the aim is to assess the transformative potential of GIA as it is performed in Denmark....

  15. Decarbonising cities mainstreaming low carbon urban development

    CERN Document Server

    Rauland, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    This book sets out some positive directions to move forward including government policy and regulatory options, an innovative GRID (Greening, Regenerative, Improvement Districts) scheme that can assist with funding and management, and the first steps towards an innovative carbon credit scheme for the built environment. Decarbonising cities is a global agenda with huge significance for the future of urban civilisation. Global demonstrations have shown that technology and design issues are largely solved. However, the mainstreaming of low carbon urban development, particularly at the precinct

  16. sensor for mainstream capnography based on TDLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, A.; Strzoda, R.; Schrobenhauser, R.; Weigel, R.

    2014-09-01

    The setup and signal processing for a mainstream capnography sensor is presented in this paper. The probe exhibits an optical path length of 2.5 cm and is equipped with a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser at 2 μm. The sensor does not need any calibration, since the CO2 absorption line as well as the laser background is measured using direct tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. Unavoidable optical fringes are reduced with a self-developed fringe rejection method. The sensor achieves a concentration resolution 30 Hz.

  17. [Mental health mainstreaming: promotion and recovery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chueh; Hsieh, Chia-Jung

    2014-02-01

    Mental health is a human right and fundamental to good personal health. Developing, planning, and implementing mental health programs is a key part of health policies worldwide. This paper uses the perspective of "mental health mainstreaming" to define mental health and explore its relationship with mental illness and psychiatric disease. Further, we apply this perspective to Taiwan's three-tiered community mental illness prevention strategy as a reference for mental health promotion and rehabilitation programs in hopes that all healthcare providers help facilitate holistic community health.

  18. Analysis of Gender Equality Competence Present in Cultural Positions

    OpenAIRE

    Concepción Mimbrero Mallado; Joilson Pereira da Silva; Leonor María Cantera Espinosa

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Articulating the gender dimension in organizations is not easy because their members have to be trained to adopt positions that facilitate the implementation of solutions that help to combat inequalities. The aim of this article was to identify the gender equality competence present in the three types of cultural positions Castells proposed in members of a City CouncilinSevilla-Spain, who wanted to implement gender mainstreaming. The participants were 27 people (16 women and 11 men)...

  19. Vrouwen, een minderheid? Literatuuronderzoek naar genderverschillen in neurofysiologisch onderzoek en verslag van een mainstreaming project van het biologie -onderwijs aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol-Meijer Margriet M. Th. van der, [No Value; Butter, Maureen E.

    2003-01-01

    Dit rapport doet verslag van een gender mainstreaming project in het medisch biologisch onderwijs aan het Opleidingsinstituut Biologie van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen. Aanleiding tot dit project vragen van WECF (Women in Europe for a Common Future) over genderverschillen met betrekking tot

  20. Extrastriatal binding of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT in the thalamus and pons: gender and age dependencies assessed in a European multicentre database of healthy controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Walter; Unterrainer, Marcus; Xiong, Guoming; Bartenstein, Peter [University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Diemling, Markus [Hermes Medical Solutions, Stockholm (Sweden); Varrone, Andrea [Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Stockholm (Sweden); Dickson, John C. [UCLH NHS Foundation Trust and University College, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Tossici-Bolt, Livia [University Hospitals Southampton NHS Trust, Department of Medical Physics, Southampton (United Kingdom); Sera, Terez [University of Szeged, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Euromedic Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Asenbaum, Susanne [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Neurology, Vienna (Austria); Booij, Jan [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kapucu, Ozlem L. [Gazi University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Kluge, Andreas [ABX-CRO, Dresden (Germany); Ziebell, Morten [Rigshospitalet and University of Copenhagen, Neurobiology Research Unit, Copenhagen (Denmark); Darcourt, Jacques [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Nuclear Medicine Department, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa, Clinical Neurology Unit, Department of Neuroscience (DINOGMI), Genoa (Italy); Pagani, Marco [CNR, Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, Rome (Italy); Karolinska Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Hesse, Swen [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Leipzig University Medical Centre, Molecular Neuroimaging IFB Adiposity Diseases, Leipzig (Germany); Borght, Thierry Vander [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Nuclear Medicine Division, CHU Dinant Godinne, Yvoir (Belgium); Laere, Koen van [University Hospital and K.U. Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Tatsch, Klaus [Staedtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Karlsruhe (Germany); La Fougere, Christian [University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); University of Tuebingen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Apart from binding to the dopamine transporter (DAT), [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT shows moderate affinity for the serotonin transporter (SERT), allowing imaging of both monoamine transporters in a single imaging session in different brain areas. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate extrastriatal binding (predominantly due to SERT) and its age and gender dependencies in a large cohort of healthy controls. SPECT data from 103 healthy controls with well-defined criteria of normality acquired at 13 different imaging centres were analysed for extrastriatal binding using volumes of interest analysis for the thalamus and the pons. Data were examined for gender and age effects as well as for potential influence of striatal DAT radiotracer binding. Thalamic binding was significantly higher than pons binding. Partial correlations showed an influence of putaminal DAT binding on measured binding in the thalamus but not on the pons. Data showed high interindividual variation in extrastriatal binding. Significant gender effects with 31 % higher binding in women than in men were observed in the thalamus, but not in the pons. An age dependency with a decline per decade (±standard error) of 8.2 ± 1.3 % for the thalamus and 6.8 ± 2.9 % for the pons was shown. The potential to evaluate extrastriatal predominant SERT binding in addition to the striatal DAT in a single imaging session was shown using a large database of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT scans in healthy controls. For both the thalamus and the pons, an age-related decline in radiotracer binding was observed. Gender effects were demonstrated for binding in the thalamus only. As a potential clinical application, the data could be used as a reference to estimate SERT occupancy in addition to nigrostriatal integrity when using [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT for DAT imaging in patients treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. (orig.)

  1. COST network genderSTE: Networking Gender Equality in Research and Innovation in Europe and beyond

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Inés Sánchez de Madariaga

    2013-01-01

    Gender is one of five priorities of the European Research Area, as stated in the Communication adopted in July 2012 entitled A Reinforced European Research Area Partnership for Excellence and Growth (EC 2012c...

  2. European multicentre database of healthy controls for [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT (ENC-DAT): age-related effects, gender differences and evaluation of different methods of analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varrone, Andrea [Karolinska University Hospital, R5:02, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Stockholm (Sweden); Dickson, John C. [UCLH NHS Foundation Trust and University College, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Tossici-Bolt, Livia [University Hospitals Southampton NHS Trust, Department of Medical Physics, Southampton (United Kingdom); Sera, Terez [University of Szeged, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Euromedic Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Asenbaum, Susanne [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Booij, Jan [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kapucu, Ozlem L. [Gazi University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Kluge, Andreas [ABX-CRO, Dresden (Germany); Knudsen, Gitte M. [Rigshospitalet and University of Copenhagen, Neurobiology Research Unit, Copenhagen (Denmark); Koulibaly, Pierre Malick [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Nuclear Medicine Department, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa, Clinical Neurophysiology Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology and Genetics, Genoa (Italy); Pagani, Marco [Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome (Italy); Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Sabri, Osama [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Borght, Thierry vander [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Nuclear Medicine Division, Mont-Godinne Medical Center, Yvoir (Belgium); Laere, Koen van [University Hospital and K.U. Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); Tatsch, Klaus [Municipal Hospital of Karlsruhe Inc, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    Dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging with [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT (DaTSCAN) is an established diagnostic tool in parkinsonism and dementia. Although qualitative assessment criteria are available, DAT quantification is important for research and for completion of a diagnostic evaluation. One critical aspect of quantification is the availability of normative data, considering possible age and gender effects on DAT availability. The aim of the European Normal Control Database of DaTSCAN (ENC-DAT) study was to generate a large database of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT scans in healthy controls. SPECT data from 139 healthy controls (74 men, 65 women; age range 20 - 83 years, mean 53 years) acquired in 13 different centres were included. Images were reconstructed using the ordered-subset expectation-maximization algorithm without correction (NOACSC), with attenuation correction (AC), and with both attenuation and scatter correction using the triple-energy window method (ACSC). Region-of-interest analysis was performed using the BRASS software (caudate and putamen), and the Southampton method (striatum). The outcome measure was the specific binding ratio (SBR). A significant effect of age on SBR was found for all data. Gender had a significant effect on SBR in the caudate and putamen for the NOACSC and AC data, and only in the left caudate for the ACSC data (BRASS method). Significant effects of age and gender on striatal SBR were observed for all data analysed with the Southampton method. Overall, there was a significant age-related decline in SBR of between 4 % and 6.7 % per decade. This study provides a large database of [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT scans in healthy controls across a wide age range and with balanced gender representation. Higher DAT availability was found in women than in men. An average age-related decline in DAT availability of 5.5 % per decade was found for both genders, in agreement with previous reports. The data collected in this study may serve as a reference

  3. Children with Communication Difficulties in Mainstream Science Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellington, Wendy; Wellington, Jerry

    2002-01-01

    Speculates on the number of pupils with speech and language impairments that are present in mainstream classes and therefore the extent to which such difficulties will pose a challenge to science teachers in mainstream schools. Highlights and discusses the main barriers and challenges that language, communication, and interaction difficulties…

  4. A High School Behavior Disorder Program Focused on Mainstreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennock, Therese M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The Oak Park and River Forest High School (Oak Park, Illinois) Behavior Disordered Program Continuum has attempted mainstreaming of behavior-disordered students in a systematic, gradual manner. This paper describes the program, defines the role of support personnel and the unique role of the mainstream facilitator, and presents mainstreaming…

  5. Cultural Genocide through Mainstream Media: A Brief Critical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olague, Rubén; Ekiaka Nzai, Valentin

    2014-01-01

    While the U.S. mainstream media continues to exercise its right of way in the American landscape, the predominant culture faces a population and popularity decrease. Diversity is slowly finding a perennial nest for growth, although minorities are still being shelled by mainstream media that consciously and unconsciously make the attack a priority…

  6. Classroom performance of children with cochlear implants in mainstream education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, G.W.J.A.; Oever-Goltstein, M.H. van den; Langereis, M.C.; Chute, P.M.; Mylanus, E.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We compared classroom performance of children with a cochlear implant (CI) with that of their normal-hearing peers in mainstream education. METHODS: Thirty-two CI children in mainstream education, congenitally or prelingually deaf, participated in this study, as did 37 hearing classmates

  7. Low-energy buildings on mainstream market terms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Elle, Morten; Hoffmann, Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    This paper looks into the challenge of actually implementing energy efficient technologies and concepts in mainstream new build. The aim of the paper is to point out some of the provisos of promoting low-energy buildings on mainstream market terms, emphasising the need to understand forces working...

  8. Augmented Reality Implementation Methods in Mainstream Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Prochazka, David

    2011-01-01

    Augmented reality has became an useful tool in many areas from space exploration to military applications. Although used theoretical principles are well known for almost a decade, the augmented reality is almost exclusively used in high budget solutions with a special hardware. However, in last few years we could see rising popularity of many projects focused on deployment of the augmented reality on different mobile devices. Our article is aimed on developers who consider development of an augmented reality application for the mainstream market. Such developers will be forced to keep the application price, therefore also the development price, at reasonable level. Usage of existing image processing software library could bring a significant cut-down of the development costs. In the theoretical part of the article is presented an overview of the augmented reality application structure. Further, an approach for selection appropriate library as well as the review of the existing software libraries focused in th...

  9. The race for mainstream gastrointestinal endoscopy: frontrunners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltenreich, H; Van Den Bogaerde, J; Sorrentino, D

    2012-08-01

    In recent years, gastrointestinal endoscopy has evolved and branched out from a primary naked-eye diagnostic technique to a multitude of sophisticated investigative and therapeutic procedures. While many of the new endoscopic techniques are currently too complex or expensive to make it to mainstream clinical practice, others are already bringing major progress to the management of digestive diseases. In this review we will discuss a selected group of the emerging techniques and technologies used to increase the diagnostic yield in the colon and small intestine, including Third Eye® Retroscopes®, colon capsule endoscopy, spiral enteroscopy and confocal laser endomicroscopy. We will also discuss over-the-scope clip devices, a relatively simple and inexpensive tool potentially capable of noninvasive closing intestinal perforations and allowing the removal of infiltrating tumors.

  10. Gender Equality, Patriarchal Cultural Norms, and Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence: Comparison of Male University Students in Asian and European Cultural Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Reiko; Otis, Melanie D

    2016-07-03

    This study examined the relationship between patriarchal cultural norms and violence perpetration by male partners using a subsample of university students in Asia (n = 784) and Europe (n = 575) from the International Dating Violence Study (IDVS) data set. Bivariate analyses indicated Asian students scored significantly higher than Europeans on dominance, hostility to women, jealousy, negative attribution, and violence approval as well as perpetration of severe physical assault in dating relationships. Logistic regression models demonstrated that dominance and violence approval were significant predictors of severe physical and psychological aggression against dating partners. Implications for culturally relevant programming for intimate partner violence prevention are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Mainstreaming the social sciences in conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Nathan J; Roth, Robin; Klain, Sarah C; Chan, Kai M A; Clark, Douglas A; Cullman, Georgina; Epstein, Graham; Nelson, Michael Paul; Stedman, Richard; Teel, Tara L; Thomas, Rebecca E W; Wyborn, Carina; Curran, Deborah; Greenberg, Alison; Sandlos, John; Veríssimo, Diogo

    2017-02-01

    Despite broad recognition of the value of social sciences and increasingly vocal calls for better engagement with the human element of conservation, the conservation social sciences remain misunderstood and underutilized in practice. The conservation social sciences can provide unique and important contributions to society's understanding of the relationships between humans and nature and to improving conservation practice and outcomes. There are 4 barriers-ideological, institutional, knowledge, and capacity-to meaningful integration of the social sciences into conservation. We provide practical guidance on overcoming these barriers to mainstream the social sciences in conservation science, practice, and policy. Broadly, we recommend fostering knowledge on the scope and contributions of the social sciences to conservation, including social scientists from the inception of interdisciplinary research projects, incorporating social science research and insights during all stages of conservation planning and implementation, building social science capacity at all scales in conservation organizations and agencies, and promoting engagement with the social sciences in and through global conservation policy-influencing organizations. Conservation social scientists, too, need to be willing to engage with natural science knowledge and to communicate insights and recommendations clearly. We urge the conservation community to move beyond superficial engagement with the conservation social sciences. A more inclusive and integrative conservation science-one that includes the natural and social sciences-will enable more ecologically effective and socially just conservation. Better collaboration among social scientists, natural scientists, practitioners, and policy makers will facilitate a renewed and more robust conservation. Mainstreaming the conservation social sciences will facilitate the uptake of the full range of insights and contributions from these fields into

  12. Analysis of Gender Equality Competence Present in Cultural Positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción Mimbrero Mallado

    Full Text Available Abstract: Articulating the gender dimension in organizations is not easy because their members have to be trained to adopt positions that facilitate the implementation of solutions that help to combat inequalities. The aim of this article was to identify the gender equality competence present in the three types of cultural positions Castells proposed in members of a City CouncilinSevilla-Spain, who wanted to implement gender mainstreaming. The participants were 27 people (16 women and 11 men. The methodused was discourse analysis. The obtained results show that, while all competences were present in the projectposition,in the resistance position, there was none. In the legitimizers, we observed inconsistency in the discourse presented. This arouses considerations on the importance of knowing the gender equality competences in order to implement gender mainstreaming in organizations.

  13. [Reflections on fostering a gender friendly environment in nursing education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Chun; Wang, Hsiu-Hung

    2011-04-01

    Gender mainstreaming is a worldwide issue. The United Nations and World Health Organization have emphasized the importance of incorporating gender perspectives and gender equity into government policy decisions. In traditional nursing education, females and female nurses play increasingly important, albeit still silent, roles in traditionally patriarchal working places. Increasing attention is now paid to gender issues, and nursing has become an important field in which to discuss and address gender issues. Nurses should take into consideration patient privacy and prevalent cultural mores when working to accomplish gender equality as well as encourage mutual participation in an open-minded and equitable environment. This article describes how gender bias and insensitivity may result from nursing education and learning processes. In addition, this article reflects on how to leverage self-awareness, gender sensitivity, education strategies and role modeling to create a gender-friendly environment in nursing education.

  14. Gender Inequality and Growth in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klasen, S; Minasyan, A

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we will briefly review the existing literature on the growth impacts of gender gaps and assess its relevance for the European situation. We will show that gender gaps in education in Europe are unlikely to play an important role for economic performance, but that gender gaps in

  15. Teaching with Gender. European Women’s Studies inInternational and Interdisciplinary Classrooms. A book series by ATHENA: : Teaching with the Third Wave. New Feminists’ Explorations of Teaching andInstitutional Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    How to deal with gender, women, gender roles, feminism and gender equality in teaching practices? The ATHENA thematic network brings together specialists in women’s and gender studies, feminist research, women’s rights, gender equality and diversity. In the book series ‘Teaching with Gender’ the partners in this network have collected articles on a wide range of teaching practices in the field of gender. The books in this series address challenges and possibilities of teaching about women and...

  16. [A gender perspective on medicalized childbirth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Su-Chen

    2015-02-01

    Gender mainstreaming is a worldwide issue. The United Nations and the World Health Organization have emphasized the importance of incorporating gender perspectives and gender equity into government policy decisions. Different cultures have different attitudes toward the management of childbirth and these attitudes influence the feelings and needs of women and their partners. These needs must be better understood and satisfied. The widely held technocratic values of obstetricians influence the birthing experience of women significantly. This article uses a gender perspective to describe the medicalization of childbirth, the pharmacological pain-relief oppression of women, the prevalence of blaming women for decisions to conduct Caesarean sections, and the exclusion of men from involvement in the childbirth process. This article may be used as reference to enhance gender equality childbirth care for women.

  17. Taking PDT into mainstream clinical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bown, Stephen G.

    2009-06-01

    Many individuals in the field are frustrated by the slow progress getting PDT established in mainstream clinical practice. The five key reasons are: 1. Lack of adequate evidence of safety and efficacy and optimization of dosimetry. These are fundamental. The number of randomized controlled studies is still small. For some cancer applications, it is difficult to get patients to agree to be randomised, so different approaches must be taken. Anecdotal results are not acceptable to sceptics and regulators. 2. The regulatory processes. The rules get more complex every day, but there is no choice, they must be met. The full bureaucratic strength of the pharmaceutical industry is needed to address these issues. 3. Conservatism of the medical profession. Established physicians are reluctant to change practice, especially if it means referring patients to different specialists. 4. Lack of education. It is amazing how few physicians have even heard of PDT and many that have, are sceptical. The profile of PDT to both the medical profession and the general public needs to be raised dramatically. Patient demand works wonders! 5. Money. Major investment is required to run clinical trials. Pharmaceutical companies may see PDT as a threat (eg reduced market for chemotherapy agents). Licensed photosensitisers are expensive. Why not reduce the price initially, to get the technique established and stimulate demand? PDT has the potential for enormous cost savings for health service providers. With appropriate motivation and resources these problems can be addressed. Possible routes forward will be suggested.

  18. Bringing holism into mainstream biomedical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassed, Craig S

    2004-04-01

    Introducing holism and complementary medicine into mainstream medical education provides many scientific, philosophical, and personal challenges. The growth of new knowledge always necessitates venturing into areas, which are, by definition, unknown, hence arise potential clashes of ideology, knowledge, evidence, interpretation, language, and personality. This paper outlines some of the experience and progress made at Monash University Victoria, Australia, in teaching this material in undergraduate medical education. The Monash medical course has always been known for its commitment to an integrated curriculum, a holistic perspective, and the personal development of its students. Some of the points of integration in the core curriculum already achieved include health enhancement and mindfulness-based stress management programs right from first year, lectures and forums on complementary medicine, integration of this material into weekly case-based teaching, and health promotion and mind-body medicine. For very interested students, electives provide an opportunity to explore subjects in more depth. Experience has taught us that it is as important to learn how to deliver the message as it is to refine its content. This presents challenges that are as much personal as they are intellectual. Areas of particular importance are the academic environment, language, diplomacy, style, relevance, and evidence. In this process, building relationships, collegiality, patience, objectivity, impartiality, and humor are helpful.

  19. Mainstreaming fair trade: the role of retailers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Rossing, G.; Hendriksen, A.; Voerman, K.

    2014-01-01

    In just two decades, fair trade has evolved from a niche market supplying products for a small group of dedicated consumers to a well-established market in several European countries, including the Netherlands. This transition has led to important changes in the dynamics in the fair-trade supply cha

  20. CERN helps Grid cmputing into the mainstream

    CERN Multimedia

    Moran, Nuala

    2006-01-01

    CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, has launched the seocnd phase of Openlab, its partnership with IT companies for the development of advanced computing facilities. The industrial partners in this phase, Hewlett Packard, Intel and Oracle, will help build on the experience from the last three years when Openlab worked on cluster and Grid computing (1 page)

  1. Porting a Mental Expert System to a Mainstream Programming Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Jao, Chiang S.; Hier, Daniel B.; Dollear, Winifred; Fu, Wenying

    2001-01-01

    Expert systems are increasingly being applied to problems in medical diagnosis and treatment. Initial medical expert systems were programmed in specialized “expert system” shell programming environments. As the power of mainstream programming languages has increased, it has become possible to implement medical expert systems within these mainstream languages. We originally implemented an expert system to record and score the mental status examination utilizing a specialized expert system prog...

  2. Mainstreaming: We May Be Lost But We're Making Excellent Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembinski, Raymond J.

    1977-01-01

    "Mainstreaming" refers to attempts to educate handicapped pupils within settings which are as close to normal as possible. This article defines mainstreaming, describes some roles for regular education in mainstreaming, discusses the context in which mainstreaming evolved, and offers some recommendations and cautions to consider in coping with the…

  3. The Europeanisation of gender equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2007-01-01

    The paper examines the extent to which member states control the impact of European Union (EU) policies. It does so through an historical study of what is considered to be the ‘least likely case’ – the Europeanization of Danish gender equality. The analytical findings identify various and diverse...... effects of European integration over time on national policy, politics and law. Historically, the EU has had a major role in furthering and putting into effect equality rights – even in the ‘least likely’ case of Denmark. From a theoretical perspective, the paper argues that the study of Europeanization...

  4. The Europeanisation of gender equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2007-01-01

    The paper examines the extent to which member states control the impact of European Union (EU) policies. It does so through an historical study of what is considered to be the ‘least likely case’ – the Europeanization of Danish gender equality. The analytical findings identify various and diverse...... effects of European integration over time on national policy, politics and law. Historically, the EU has had a major role in furthering and putting into effect equality rights – even in the ‘least likely’ case of Denmark. From a theoretical perspective, the paper argues that the study of Europeanization...

  5. The Anti-Gender Movement in Europe and the Educational Process in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhar, Roman; Zobec, Aleš

    2017-01-01

    Mass protests across Europe against marriage equality, reproductive rights, gender mainstreaming and sexual education have centralised in the past few years around so-called "gender theory." This theory is explained as a new threat to the "traditional family" and "natural masculinity and femininity," as it allegedly…

  6. Music therapy with children and adolescents in mainstream schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carr, Catherine; Wigram, Tony

    2008-01-01

    This article identifies existing research and clinical activity utilising music therapy with mainstream children, and a potential need for music therapy with this client group.  A systematic review was undertaken of music therapy literature relating to work with children in mainstream schools.  S...... intervention. The review demonstrates that further research is required if music therapy is to be considered an effective intervention to address the needs of mainstream schoolchildren.......This article identifies existing research and clinical activity utilising music therapy with mainstream children, and a potential need for music therapy with this client group.  A systematic review was undertaken of music therapy literature relating to work with children in mainstream schools...... to be addressed by the UK government. However further research, service-planning and reorganisation is required.  There is evidence that music therapy is being used with children in mainstream schools both at home and abroad, and both research and clinical reports suggest that music therapy is an effective...

  7. Gender issues on occupational safety and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, Eugenio; Vona, Rosa; Monterosso, Davide; Giammarioli, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    The increasing proportion of women in the workforce raises a range of gender-related questions about the different effects of work-related risks on men and women. Few studies have characterized gender differences across occupations and industries, although at this time, the gender sensitive approach is starting to acquire relevance in the field of human preventive medicine. The European Agency for Safety and Health at Work has encouraged a policy of gender equality in all European member states. Italy has adopted European provisions with new specific legislation that integrates the previous laws and introduces the gender differences into the workplace. Despite the fact that gender equal legislation opportunities have been enacted in Italy, their application is delayed by some difficulties. This review examines some of these critical aspects.

  8. Problem Aplikasi Paham Gender dalam Keluarga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Anwar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Western world Gender accused as family destroyer movement. This Feminists ideology encourages the women to leave the family, in fact looking at the family as an institution of oppression against women. However in Indonesia, Gender serve family empowerment program that Gender Perspective Family Education. Gender Perspective Family Education is a government program that is based on Presidential Instruction Number. 9 of 2000 on gender mainstreaming. As awareness effort of understanding the rights and obligations of male roles and women. The program is integrated through life skills education for justice and gender equality in the family. Yet the program adopted from foreign concept turned out to have some confusion. First, the using of word gender plagiarized from some Western leaders was necessary to attempt to equalize men and women in all fields. Second, the gender equality as a goal of Gender Perspective Family Education is contrary to the reality of human life, biologically and religion. Third, the concept of natural and unnatural taught by this program seeks to abolish the nature of women as mothers. Fourth, the program negates religious element in the learning process, whereas the families in Indonesia can not be separated from religious element. Thus it was very clear that Gender Perspective Family Education is not a step empowering the families but the step endanger the family.

  9. International Journal of Language, Literature and Gender Studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    International Journal of Language, Literature and Gender .... framework. A gender ... key positions in judiciary, and executive and legislative functions of the state (European .... For the first time, the country was given a common, single-tier.

  10. ABC of women workers' rights and gender equality

    CERN Document Server

    International Labour Office. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    This concise and easy to read guidebook assists the layperson in understanding the legal frameworks and socio-economic developments surrounding gender equality in the world of work. Completely updated and revised, this guide incorporates important information relevant to women workers such as women in development, gender mainstreaming, the glass ceiling and much more. Each entry in the guide provides a clear, succinct definition and directs the reader to relevant laws, ILO conventions, and other topics for further research.

  11. Where are the Women and What is a Gender Issue?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyger, Tabitta

    2011-01-01

    of the gender action plan, namely the questions “where are the women?” and “gendering as a process”. The analysis of the media data indicates that discussions about gender and gender policy do not seem to be one of the priority issues on the European public agenda, which could be one of the pre...

  12. The European Romani Women's Movement: The struggle for human rights

    OpenAIRE

    Rita Izsák

    2009-01-01

    Rita Izsák discusses the International Romani Women's Network (IRWN), the first registered international umbrella organization representing Romani women of all European Romani groups. She examines how IRWN is promoting women's rights, and the connection between mainstream feminist movements and the Romani movement. Development (2009) 52, 200–207. doi:10.1057/dev.2009.9

  13. A Requiem for the European Coal and Steel Community (1952-2002)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, Nico; Hospers, Gert-Jan

    2002-01-01

    In July 2002 the Treaty on the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) expired. The ECSC is now being dissolved, its assets are transferred into special research funds, and European coal and steel policy is integrated into mainstream EU industrial policy. The ECSC's main task was to integrate the p

  14. Sleep problems in primary school children: comparison between mainstream and special school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quine, L

    2001-05-01

    This paper reports on a study of the prevalence and social correlates of dyssomnias, features associated with obstructive sleep apnoea, and parasomnias in primary school children aged 4-12. Head teachers of schools selected randomly from lists of local primary and special schools were contacted by telephone and asked to distribute a questionnaire package to the parents of all pupils aged 4-12 years. In all, 890 parents of children from mainstream schools and 300 from special schools were approached. The response rates were 64.7% and 60%, respectively. The results showed that significantly higher proportions of children in special schools than in mainstream schools presented four of the five dyssomnias investigated and all of the features associated with obstructive sleep apnoea. In contrast, only two of the seven parasomnias were presented by higher proportions of the children in special schools. Age and gender differences for the two groups of children are presented. Finally, multiple correlations were computed between a range of child, family, and environmental characteristics and the three problems most frequently reported: frequency of settling problems; sleeping in the parents' bed; and night waking. The findings are discussed with reference to other studies of children's sleep problems, and the implications for treatment are considered.

  15. Do LGBT aging trainings effectuate positive change in mainstream elder service providers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Kristen E; Krinsky, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to provide empirical evidence regarding whether attitudes, beliefs, and intentions of elder-service providers can be positively affected as a result of attending cultural competency training on the unique challenges of sexual and gender minorities. Stigmatization throughout the lifespan may have a causal influence on barriers to care, social isolation, and concomitant health disparities. Data were collected for this study at 4 Massachusetts training events to pilot a cultural competency workshop on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) aging for mainstream elder service providers. This quasi-experimental study included the analysis of pre- and posttest surveys completed by the service-provider attendees (N = 76). The analytic strategy included descriptive statistics, paired t tests, chi-square analyses, and repeated measures analyses of variance. Findings revealed statistically significant improvement in numerous aspects of providers' knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions subsequent to the training sessions. These included (p = .000) awareness of LGBT resources, policy disparities, spousal benefits for same-sex couples, and the intention to challenge homophobic remarks. This study concludes that mainstream elder-service provider training on LGBT aging issues results in positive change. Recommendations include long-term follow up of participants, the inception of agency-level surveys to appraise institutional culture change, and increased curriculum on transgender older adults.

  16. INCORRIGIBLE WHILE INCARCERATED: CRITICALLY ANALYZING MAINSTREAM CANADIAN NEWS DEPICTIONS OF ASHLEY SMITH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessi Ring

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ashley Smith, who is typically presented in the media as mentally ill, was nineteen years old when she died from self-strangulation in an Ontario women’s prison on October 19th, 2007. In this paper, I explore how Ashley Smith’s actions and death were portrayed in four mainstream Canadian newspapers (Globe and Mail, Telegraph-Journal, Toronto Star and National Post. My aims in this paper are to critically analyze depictions of mental illness presented by these news articles and connect these portrayals to labeling theories. Two variables—the timing of the news coverage and newspaper political affiliation—emerged as being influential in how newspapers depicted Ashley Smith as mentally ill, through their use of generic and/or negative terminology and vulnerability stereotypes. I also discuss ‘alternative’ stories of Ashley Smith and examine their potential to challenge typical conceptualizations of mental illness, gender and carceral environments.

  17. FCJ-163 Olympic Trolls: Mainstream Memes and Digital Discord?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tama Leaver

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available While the mainstream press have often used the accusation of trolling to cover almost any form of online abuse, the term itself has a long and changing history. In scholarly work, trolling has morphed from a description of newsgroup and discussion board commentators who appeared genuine but were actually just provocateurs, through to contemporary analyses which focus on the anonymity, memes and abusive comments most clearly represented by users of the iconic online image board 4chan, and, at times, the related Anonymous political movement. To explore more mainstream examples of what might appear to be trolling at first glance, this paper analyses the Channel Nine Fail (Ch9Fail Facebook group which formed in protest against the quality of the publicly broadcast Olympic Games coverage in Australia in 2012. While utilising many tools of trolling, such as the use of memes, deliberately provocative humour and language, targeting celebrities, and attempting to provoke media attention, this paper argues that the Ch9Fail group actually demonstrates the increasingly mainstream nature of many online communication strategies once associated with trolls. The mainstreaming of certain activities which have typified trolling highlight these techniques as part of a more banal everyday digital discourse; despite mainstream media presenting trolls are extremist provocateurs, many who partake in trolling techniques are simply ordinary citizens expressing themselves online.

  18. Sediment exchange between groin fields and main-stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jie; Zhong, Deyu; Wu, Teng; Wu, Lingli

    2017-10-01

    Sediment exchange between groin fields and the main-stream influences the transport and distribution of polluted sediment that represents a hazard for rivers and neighboring floodplains. Despite its practical significance, little research has been done on the sediment exchange process itself, and existing studies used to estimate the sediment exchange by morphological change. The sediment exchange process, however, differs from morphological variation and includes two behaviors: the entrance of main-stream sediment into groin fields and the movement of groin field sediment out of groin fields. Therefore, this study aims at examining this exchange process and exploring the mechanisms of different exchange phenomena. Experiments were conducted in a mobile-bed laboratory flume by using a novel experimental method that successfully separates the movement of groin fields sediment from that of main-stream sediment. In addition to traditional measurements, such as measurements of morphological changes, surface flow velocities, and bed-form propagation, the deposition of main-stream sediment in groin fields is measured in detail. The results demonstrate that morphological change cannot reflect the sediment exchange process. The deposition of main-stream sediment in groin fields is determined by the dynamics of sediment movement, in which bedload- and suspended-sediment-dominated processes exhibit different deposition patterns. The movement of groin field sediment out of groin fields is determined mainly by local scouring around groins.

  19. Perempuan dan Ketidakadilan: Review atas Beberapa Isu Gender Menyangkut Dunia Kerja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Rasyidah

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This article endeavours to offer a review of the literature on gender issues pertaining to the world of employment. It starts with a consideration of gender mainstreaming in the world and how Indonesia adopts this gender mainstreaming program in government policies. It continues by reviewing gender issues pertaining to their relations to development. By looking at the concept and the ideology of work distribution along sexual lines we may learn of the ways injustice in the organization of the structure and the culture of work is created. Through the review of a number of works we may conclude that patriarchal ideology has stigmatized woman and the strong divide in gender roles has resulted in a gender biased system of the organization of work.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v16i1.493

  20. Understanding consumer-generated advertising for mainstream fashion goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios; Chrysochou, Polymeros

    , and if those perceptions influence general consumer attitudes towards the ad, attitudes towards the brand, as well as consumers’ purchase intention. An online 2x2 between-subjects experiment was constructed in which participants were exposed to an actual CGA or an actual company-created ad for a mainstream......This paper provides empirical evidence about the existence of the source effect in the context of consumer-generated advertising (CGA) for mainstream fashion goods. In particular, it investigates consumer perceptions towards the creator and the message in a CGA as opposed to a company-created ad...

  1. Promoting Gender Equality in the Context of Nigerian Cultural and Religious Expression: Beyond Increasing Female Access to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Para-Mallam, Funmi J.

    2010-01-01

    National education policies in Nigeria aim at addressing female disprivilege by improving girl-child enrolment in schools in line with Millennium Development Goal targets. In addition, the National Gender Policy and its Strategic Implementation Framework stress the importance of mainstreaming gender perspectives within the education sector by…

  2. Editorial: Boxed In or Coming Out? On the Treatment of Science, Technology, and Gender in Educational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henwood, Flis; Miller, Katrina

    2001-01-01

    This theme issue examines the treatment of science, technology, and gender in educational research, presenting perspectives from mainland Europe, the United States, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. Articles focus on mainstreaming gender equality in science, interrogating the masculinist and heteronormative nature of elementary school science,…

  3. A Masculine Perspective of Gendered Topics in the Research Literature on Males and Females with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nathan J.; Parmenter, Trevor R.; Stancliffe, Roger J.; Shuttleworth, Russell P.; Parker, Desrae

    2010-01-01

    Background: A focus on male social pathologies may have evolved within parts of the intellectual disability research literature. This article explores this notion and makes some connections between mainstream gender theory about hegemonic masculinity and the current gendered discourse in intellectual disability research. Method: We conducted a…

  4. Gender, Diversity and the European Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that feminist criticism of Habermasian theory leads to new ways of approaching empirical analyses of public sphere deliberation, and gives some concrete indications of which methodological consequences such a critique may lead to.......This paper argues that feminist criticism of Habermasian theory leads to new ways of approaching empirical analyses of public sphere deliberation, and gives some concrete indications of which methodological consequences such a critique may lead to....

  5. Gender, nation and religion in European pilgrimage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, W.H.M.; Notermans, C.D.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the forces of secularization in Europe, old pilgrimage routes are attracting huge numbers of people and given new meanings in the process. In pilgrimage, religious or spiritual meanings are interwoven with social, cultural and politico-strategic concerns. This book explores three such

  6. Gender, Diversity and the European Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that feminist criticism of Habermasian theory leads to new ways of approaching empirical analyses of public sphere deliberation, and gives some concrete indications of which methodological consequences such a critique may lead to.......This paper argues that feminist criticism of Habermasian theory leads to new ways of approaching empirical analyses of public sphere deliberation, and gives some concrete indications of which methodological consequences such a critique may lead to....

  7. Gender, nation and religion in European pilgrimage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, W.H.M.; Notermans, C.D.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the forces of secularization in Europe, old pilgrimage routes are attracting huge numbers of people and given new meanings in the process. In pilgrimage, religious or spiritual meanings are interwoven with social, cultural and politico-strategic concerns. This book explores three such conce

  8. Gendered perspectives on integration discourses and measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kofman, Eleonore; Saharso, Sawitri; Vacchelli, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on gendered discourses in integration policy and the problems immigrants pose in the reproduction of inequalities in a number of European countries. There has been little consideration of how gender categories operate in relation to broader political discourses around the constr

  9. Multicultural Challenges - new gender equality dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    In my research have been interested in exploring tensions between diversity and gender equality from a theoretical and comparative approach, looking at the Nordic welfare, citizenship and gender regimes from a cross-national European perspective. In this key-note presentation I draw on results an...

  10. Communicating Sustainable Shoes to Mainstream Consumers: The Impact of Advertisement Design on Buying Intention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.C.; Gattol, V.; Van der Helm, R.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, marketing of sustainable products addresses green buyers, thus missing out on the mainstream consumers and volume necessary to cover the potentially higher cost of more sustainable materials. However, how to effectively communicate more sustainable products to mainstream consumers and

  11. Communicating Sustainable Shoes to Mainstream Consumers: The Impact of Advertisement Design on Buying Intention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.C.; Gattol, V.; Van der Helm, R.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, marketing of sustainable products addresses green buyers, thus missing out on the mainstream consumers and volume necessary to cover the potentially higher cost of more sustainable materials. However, how to effectively communicate more sustainable products to mainstream consumers and

  12. Assessing English-Language Learners in Mainstream Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenski, Susan Davis; Ehlers-Zavala, Fabiola; Daniel, Mayra C.; Sun-Irminger, Xiaoqin

    2006-01-01

    Increasingly, mainstream U.S. classrooms include children who are English-language learners (ELLs). As a result, teachers need to become more aware of ways to assess the literacy progress of their ELL students. The first type of assessment that teachers need to make is to determine ELLs' literacy backgrounds. Teachers can use predictability logs…

  13. Inclusion of Children with Disabilities in Mainstream Child Development Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Maurice A.; Battin, Susan M.; Shaw, Olivia A.; Luckasson, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether children with disabilities are excluded from mainstream child development research. Fifteen per cent of 533 articles from "Child Development" and "Developmental Psychology" (1996-2010) were randomly selected. The exclusion rate was 89.9% when no mention of participants with disabilities was…

  14. Diagnoses and visit length in complementary and mainstream medicine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiligers, P.J.M.; Groot, J. de; Koster, D.; Dulmen, S. van

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The demand for complementary medicine (CM) is growing worldwide and so is the supply. So far, there is not much insight in the activities in Dutch CM practices nor in how these activities differ from mainstream general practice. Comparisons on diagnoses and visit length can offer an

  15. Challenges of mainstreaming: Ayurvedic practice in Delhi Government health institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmistha Mallick

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to understand the project of mainstreaming in India's health care system that has started with an aim to bring marginalized and alternative systems of medicine in mainstream. The project has gained much attention with the establishment of Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy (AYUSH in the year 2003, which is now a ministry. It has ushered some positive results in terms of growth of AYUSH hospitals and dispensaries. However, it has also raised challenges around the theory and practice of mainstreaming. With an emphasis on Ayurvedic practice in Delhi Government Health Institutions, this article has tried to analyze some of those challenges and intricacies. Drawing on Weber's theory of bureaucratization and Giddens's theory of structuration, the paper asks what happens to an alternative medical system when it becomes part of the bureaucratic set-up. Along with the questions of structures, it also tries to combine the question of the agency of both patients and doctors considered to be the cornerstone of the Ayurvedic medical system. Although our study recognizes some of the successes of the mainstreaming project, it also underlines the challenges and problems it faces by analyzing three points of view (institutions, doctors, and patients.

  16. Education for Older People: Another View of Mainstreaming. Fastback 181.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, June Sark

    There is a strong case to be made for mainstreaming older people into regular classes and schools rather than segregating them in special, separate groups on the basis of age. Many older Americans are in need of elementary-secondary level training in order to become functionally literate. Similarly, the continually changing nature of work has…

  17. Mainstream Encounters the Dilemma Posed by Non-main Stream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Ping

    2009-01-01

    @@ In 2009,the global shipping and shipbuilding markets are loitering around in the"coldest winter".Though they display better than we image after"big adjustment"of stagnate,no obvious resuscitation has been seen,and the mainstream position of shipbuilders,shipowners and ship type in fOrmer days is also changing.

  18. Teacher Assistant Support and Deployment in Mainstream Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Models of support for students with disability and learning difficulties in mainstream classes in Australia rely extensively on teacher assistants (TAs). Current models, however, inadvertently perpetuate low expectations because providing TA support can be one of the most restrictive supports offered in a school [Giangreco, M. F. 2010a.…

  19. Service Learning as Experiential Education's Bridge to Mainstream Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berv, Jason

    1998-01-01

    Experiential learning generally, and service learning specifically, can teach citizenship skills necessary to a democracy, unify the curriculum, better serve at-risk students, and accommodate different learning styles. Gives arguments and criteria for integrating service learning into mainstream education and examples of programs utilizing service…

  20. Art in the Mainstream: A Statement of Value and Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Edmund Burke

    1982-01-01

    Presents and discusses the reasoning behind the National Art Education Association's position statement, "Art in the Mainstream." The statement is intended to clarify the wider value of art education. Art education is essential in developing positive attitudes toward work, in enhancing literacy, and in increasing understanding of human values. (AM)

  1. Introduction to the Special Issue: Misfits, Mavericks and Mainstreams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Candace; Velikova, Silviya Svejenova; Strandgaard, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    , mainstreams and amphibians in various creative domains, from artistic perfumery to choreography, engage with innovation and address tensions. These processes of innovation point to future research that explores and exploits the role of materiality in meaning making, the role of capitals in translation...

  2. Out of the Mainstream. Water Rights, Politics and Identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, R.A.; Getches, D.; Guevara-Gil, A.

    2010-01-01

    Water is not only a source of life and culture. It is also a source of power, conflicting interests and identity battles. Rights to materially access, culturally organize and politically control water resources are poorly understood by mainstream scientific approaches and hardly addressed by current

  3. Challenges of mainstreaming: Ayurvedic practice in Delhi Government health institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Sharmistha

    2016-03-01

    This paper is an attempt to understand the project of mainstreaming in India's health care system that has started with an aim to bring marginalized and alternative systems of medicine in mainstream. The project has gained much attention with the establishment of Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy (AYUSH) in the year 2003, which is now a ministry. It has ushered some positive results in terms of growth of AYUSH hospitals and dispensaries. However, it has also raised challenges around the theory and practice of mainstreaming. With an emphasis on Ayurvedic practice in Delhi Government Health Institutions, this article has tried to analyze some of those challenges and intricacies. Drawing on Weber's theory of bureaucratization and Giddens's theory of structuration, the paper asks what happens to an alternative medical system when it becomes part of the bureaucratic set-up. Along with the questions of structures, it also tries to combine the question of the agency of both patients and doctors considered to be the cornerstone of the Ayurvedic medical system. Although our study recognizes some of the successes of the mainstreaming project, it also underlines the challenges and problems it faces by analyzing three points of view (institutions, doctors, and patients).

  4. Picking up the Threads. Languaging in a Swedish Mainstream Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puskás, Tünde

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the strategies monolingual teachers use to scaffold meaning and encourage and enhance verbal communication with emergent bilingual children in a Swedish mainstream preschool. The study is based on ethnographic fieldwork in a preschool group in which seven of twelve children spoke Swedish as their second, additional language.…

  5. Affective Meaning among Hispanic and Mainstream Navy Recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    more of a Pollyana effect ( Matlin & Stang,1979) than Mainstream respondents. At the same time, we must keep in mind that the 50 concepts were largely...Olmedo, E. L., &Goldman, Re D, semantic differential technique: A comparison of Chicano,~ school students. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psycho"’ Matlin , M

  6. Room Management in Mainstreamed/Integrated Classrooms. Item 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gary

    1988-01-01

    (The paper reports on implications of classroom research for class management techniques especially in classes in which handicapped students are mainstreamed. Findings demonstrating a conflict between giving attention to individual children and keeping general engagement high are identified. Recommended room management (RM) procedures are reported…

  7. What Can We Learn from Mainstream Education Textbook Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Nigel

    2017-01-01

    Although there is an ever-growing volume of research focused on TESOL textbooks (or coursebooks, as they are sometimes known), I argue that the TESOL research community should pay more attention to textbook research in mainstream education, that is, to the work of those scholars who focus on L1 rather than L2 education, given that there is a rich,…

  8. Inclusion of Children with Disabilities in Mainstream Child Development Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Maurice A.; Battin, Susan M.; Shaw, Olivia A.; Luckasson, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether children with disabilities are excluded from mainstream child development research. Fifteen per cent of 533 articles from "Child Development" and "Developmental Psychology" (1996-2010) were randomly selected. The exclusion rate was 89.9% when no mention of participants with disabilities was…

  9. The Invisibility of SLA Theory in Mainstream Creole Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Rex A.

    2010-01-01

    This review article argues that contemporary mainstream second language acquisition research has extremely little, if any, impact on current scholarship in creole linguistics. After a promise of an active synergy between the two subfields 30 years ago, genuine engagement slowed to a virtual stop by the mid-1980s as both fields continued to develop…

  10. Developing a Language Support Model for Mainstream Primary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Elspeth; Ellis, Sue; Boyle, James; Turnbull, Mary; Kerr, Jane

    2010-01-01

    In the UK, speech and language therapists (SLTs) work with teachers to support children with language impairment (LI) in mainstream schools. Consultancy approaches are often used, where SLTs advise educational staff who then deliver language-learning activities. However, some research suggests that schools may not always sustain activities as…

  11. Out of the Mainstream. Water Rights, Politics and Identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, R.A.; Getches, D.; Guevara-Gil, A.

    2010-01-01

    Water is not only a source of life and culture. It is also a source of power, conflicting interests and identity battles. Rights to materially access, culturally organize and politically control water resources are poorly understood by mainstream scientific approaches and hardly addressed by current

  12. Multiple inequalities, intersectionality and the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verloo, M.M.T.

    2006-01-01

    The European Union (EU), a pioneer in gender equality policies, is moving from predominantly attending to gender inequality, towards policies that address multiple inequalities. This article argues that there are tendencies at EU level to assume an unquestioned similarity of inequalities, to fail to

  13. Gendered Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milwertz, Cecilia Nathansen; Cai, Yiping

    2017-01-01

    Both the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and Nordic countries (Sweden, Iceland, Denmark, Norway and Finland) view gender equality as a social justice issue and are politically committed towards achieving gender equality nationally and internationally. Since China has taken a proactive position o...... on globalization and global governance, gender equality is possibly an area that China may wish to explore in collaboration with the Nordic countries....

  14. Gender Equality, Intersectionality and Diversity in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    Analyzing the developments which have characterized EU gender equality policies and women's transnational activism since the introduction of multiple discrimination policies in the 1990s, this book identifies two interrelated challenges: diversity of women's interests, and degendering of policies....... Drawing on discursive policy analysis, it addresses the interaction between policies, institutions and civil society actors in relation to gender equality, diversity and intersectionality at the European level. Rolandsen Agustín successfully integrates the concepts of diversity and gender equality...

  15. Gender inequality and job quality in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Mühlau, Peter

    2011-01-01

    PUBLISHED In this paper, I examine whether and to which degree the quality of work and employment differs between men and women and how these gender differences are shaped by societal beliefs about `gender equality.? Using data from the 2004 wave of the European Social Survey, I compare the jobs of men and women across a variety of measures of perceived job quality in 26 countries. Key findings are that job quality is gendered: Jobs of men are typically characterized by hig...

  16. Intersectionality in European Union policymaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombardo, Emanuela; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2016-01-01

    is particularly apt to deal with equality and diversity in policymaking. By analysing a selection of European Union policy documents on gender-based violence in the period 2000–2014, we attend to the question of what intersectionality can bring to policymaking in terms of strengthening inclusiveness and address...

  17. Political Intersectionality and Democratic Politics in the European Public Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    2015-01-01

    intersections of gender and ethnic diversity in political life at the national and transnational levels across Europe. In this context, political intersectionality refers to the framing of gender and ethnic diversity by major political actors as well as by activities of women’s and anti-racist organisations...... Public Sphere (EPS). It is inspired by results and reflections from the European Gender Project (EGP) , where intersectionality was used as an approach for analysing negotiations between gender and ethno-national diversity in selected European countries and in relation to the European Public Sphere...

  18. Teaching & Learning Guide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rittenhofer, Iris; Gatrell, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    gender mainstreaming is, first and foremost, a policy - or a strategy, how inequality should be articulated, and whether gender mainstreaming should be defined as focusing primarily on ‘women’ or on ‘gender’. Gender mainstreaming has to move away from stable definitions of ‘male’ and ‘female’. More......Gender mainstreaming addresses the unequal treatment of employed women. Why does it have a limited impact on European organizations? This review synthesizes and analyzes theoretical and policy literatures on gender mainstreaming within the European Union between 1998 and 2011. The paper suggests...... situated approaches to gender would support the successful implementation of gender in organizations....

  19. What’s wrong with American Principles of Economics – According to Mainstream Economists?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Poul Thøis

    Heterodox economists have ’always’ criticized mainstream economic textbooks, but what about criticisms forwarded by mainstream economists? A limited but rather overlooked and lively mainstream debate is identified. The criticisms aired in this debate almost seem to be forgotten although most...

  20. Gender issues in reproductive health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinma, Echendu D; Adinma, Brian-D J I

    2011-01-01

    Gender, for its impact on virtually every contemporary life issue, can rightly be regarded as a foremost component of reproductive health. Reproductive health basically emphasises on people and their rights to sexuality, reproduction, and family planning, and the information to actualize these right, which has been inextricably linked to development at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo, Egypt, in 1994. Women's sexual and reproductive rights became recognised as universal human right, violations of which occur in some reproductive health areas including gender concerns. Gender inequality and inequity encompass gender based violence as well as gender discrimination which cuts across the life cycle of the woman; attitudes, religious and cultural practices of various nations; and issues related to employment, economy, politics, and development. The redress of gender inequality is a collective responsibility of nations and supranational agencies. Nations should adopt a framework hinged on three pedestals--legal, institutional and policy, employing the three recommended approaches of equal treatment, positive action, and gender mainstreaming.

  1. Visual representation of gender in flood coverage of Pakistani print media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarqa S. Ali

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies gender representation in the visual coverage of the 2010 floods in Pakistan. The data were collected from flood visuals published in the most circulated mainstream English newspapers in Pakistan, Dawn and The News. This study analyses how gender has been framed in the flood visuals. It is argued that visual representation of gender reinforces the gender stereotypes and cultural norms of Pakistani society. The gender-oriented flood coverage in both newspapers frequently seemed to take a reductionist approach while confining the representation of women to gender, and gender-specific roles. Though the gender-sensitive coverage displayed has been typical, showing women as helpless victims of flood, it has aroused sentiments of sympathy among readers and donors, inspiring them to give immediate moral and material help to the affected people. This agenda set by media might be to exploit the politics of sympathy but it has the effect of endorsing gender stereotypes.

  2. Gender Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, Erving

    A heavily illustrated discussion of the ways in which men and women are portrayed in advertisements is presented. The three essays which precede the 56 pages of illustrations discuss gender expressions, characteristics of public and private pictures, and gender commercials. The author notes that advertisements do not depict how men and women…

  3. Gender Discourse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAN Fan-min

    2016-01-01

    Gender discourse was paid much attention in recent years. The primary objective of this fundamental research is to perceive the distinction between direct and indirect in gender discourse. The method used in this study is known as contrastive and analysis which illustrates men and women's differences.

  4. On Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James Q.

    1993-01-01

    Explores differences between males and females and their manifestation in biology and culture. Cultures differ, not in whether they cope with the socialization of males to invest in child rearing, but in how they deal with this problem. Issues of gender and power and gender and child rearing are discussed. (SLD)

  5. Pregnant politicians and sexy fathers? The politics of gender equality representations in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Mügge

    2013-01-01

    Gender equality has become a core element within the national identity and self representation of ‘progressive’ European nation states, distinguishing them from what is deemed non-European. Gender equality has become the hallmark of what ‘Europe’ stands for. But gender equality is far from one dimen

  6. Pregnant politicians and sexy fathers? The politics of gender equality representations in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mügge, L.

    2013-01-01

    Gender equality has become a core element within the national identity and self representation of ‘progressive’ European nation states, distinguishing them from what is deemed non-European. Gender equality has become the hallmark of what ‘Europe’ stands for. But gender equality is far from one

  7. Diagnoses and visit length in complementary and mainstream medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Groot Judith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The demand for complementary medicine (CM is growing worldwide and so is the supply. So far, there is not much insight in the activities in Dutch CM practices nor in how these activities differ from mainstream general practice. Comparisons on diagnoses and visit length can offer an impression of how Dutch CM practices operate. Methods Three groups of regularly trained physicians specialized in CM participated in this study: 16 homeopathic physicians, 13 physician acupuncturists and 11 naturopathy physicians. Every CM physician was asked to include a maximum of 75 new patients within a period of six months. For each patient an inclusion registration form had to be completed and the activities during a maximum of five repeat visits were subsequently registered. Registrations included patient characteristics, diagnoses and visit length. These data could be compared with similar data from general practitioners (GPs participating in the second Dutch national study in general practice (DNSGP-2. Differences between CM practices and between CM and mainstream GP data were tested using multilevel regression analysis. Results The CM physicians registered activities in a total of 5919 visits in 1839 patients. In all types of CM practices general problems (as coded in the ICPC were diagnosed more often than in mainstream general practice, especially fatigue, allergic reactions and infections. Psychological problems and problems with the nervous system were also diagnosed more frequently. In addition, each type of CM physician encountered specific health problems: in acupuncture problems with the musculoskeletal system prevailed, in homeopathy skin problems and in naturopathy gastrointestinal problems. Comparisons in visit length revealed that CM physicians spent at least twice as much time with patients compared to mainstream GPs. Conclusions CM physicians differed from mainstream GPs in diagnoses, partly related to general and partly to

  8. Gender and family stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing trend of partnership disruption among families with children in recent decades has been accompanied by substantial changes in traditional gender roles in industrialized countries. Yet, relatively little is known about the effects of changing gender relations on family stability in the European context. In this paper, we study such gender influences at the familial and societal level in Sweden and Hungary between the mid-1960s and the early 1990s. We focus on the disruption of the first parental union (i.e. the union in which a couple's first child was born. Our analysis is based on data extracted from the Swedish and Hungarian Fertility and Family Surveys of 1992/93. We use the method of hazard regression. The results suggest (i that the establishment of the dual-earner family model influences family stability only if it is accompanied by some changes in traditional gender relations within the family, and (ii that women's and men's labor-market behavior have different effects in spite of the relatively long history of women's (also mothers' labor-force participation in both Sweden and Hungary.

  9. Gender-role behavior of second-generation Turks: the role of partner choice, gender ideology and societal context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huschek, D.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Liefbroer, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores and compares gender-role behavior of second-generation Turks in six European countries. On the individual level, we study the role of gender ideology and consequences of (transnational) partner choice on four aspects of gender-role behavior; childcare, routine household tasks, fi

  10. A Common Cause? Anti-racist and gender equality activists in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    The paper contributes to answering some interrelated questions from the Eurosphere project, namely What is the role of gender groups in the European public sphere? How do they cooperate and negotiate with ethnic minority groups? What is the role of gender-related concerns in the European public...... sphere? And how do they relate to ethno-national concerns? Two transnational European organizations, namely European Network Against Racism [ENAR] and European Women´s Lobby [EWL], are investigated to map these organizations’ notions of diversity, and analyze whether concerns with gender and race...... are cross-cutting or exist in parallel isolation within the European public sphere....

  11. Selective Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoch Jovanovic, Tamara; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2014-01-01

    political contexts at the European level. We further show how the “translation” of international norms to a domestic context has worked to reinforce the original institutional setup, dating back to the mid-1950s. The translation of European-level minority policy developed in the 1990s and 2000s works most...

  12. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the Europea

  13. European structuralism

    OpenAIRE

    Willems, Klaas

    2014-01-01

    European structuralism is a paradigm for the study of language developed by prominent European linguists during the inter-war period and the first decades after World War II that radically rejected the prevailing atomism of 19th century (particularly neo-grammarian) linguistics and language psychology.

  14. Sex, drugs and gender roles: mapping the use of sex and gender based analysis in pharmaceutical policy research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Steven G

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sex and gender sensitive inquiry is critical in pharmaceutical policy due to the sector's historical connection with women's health issues and due to the confluence of biological, social, political, and economic factors that shape the development, promotion, use, and effects of medicinal treatments. A growing number of research bodies internationally have issued laws, guidance or encouragement to support conducting sex and gender based analysis (SGBA in all health related research. Methods In order to investigate the degree to which attempts to mainstream SGBA have translated into actual research practices in the field of pharmaceutical policy, we employed methods of literature scoping and mapping. A random sample of English-language pharmaceutical policy research articles published in 2008 and indexed in MEDLINE was analysed according to: 1 use of sex and gender related language, 2 application of sex and gender related concepts, and 3 level of SGBA employed. Results Two thirds of the articles (67% in our sample made no mention of sex or gender. Similarly, 69% did not contain any sex or gender related content whatsoever. Of those that did contain some sex or gender content, the majority focused on sex. Only 2 of the 85 pharmaceutical policy articles reviewed for this study were primarily focused on sex or gender issues; both of these were review articles. Eighty-one percent of the articles in our study contained no SGBA, functioning instead at a sex-blind or gender-neutral level, even though the majority of these (86% were focused on topics with sex or gender aspects. Conclusions Despite pharmaceutical policy's long entwinement with issues of sex and gender, and the emergence of international guidelines for the inclusion of SGBA in health research, the community of pharmaceutical policy researchers has not internalized, or "mainstreamed," the practice. Increased application of SGBA is, in most cases, not only appropriate for

  15. Sex, drugs and gender roles: mapping the use of sex and gender based analysis in pharmaceutical policy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greyson, Devon L; Becu, Annelies Re; Morgan, Steven G

    2010-11-19

    Sex and gender sensitive inquiry is critical in pharmaceutical policy due to the sector's historical connection with women's health issues and due to the confluence of biological, social, political, and economic factors that shape the development, promotion, use, and effects of medicinal treatments. A growing number of research bodies internationally have issued laws, guidance or encouragement to support conducting sex and gender based analysis (SGBA) in all health related research. In order to investigate the degree to which attempts to mainstream SGBA have translated into actual research practices in the field of pharmaceutical policy, we employed methods of literature scoping and mapping. A random sample of English-language pharmaceutical policy research articles published in 2008 and indexed in MEDLINE was analysed according to: 1) use of sex and gender related language, 2) application of sex and gender related concepts, and 3) level of SGBA employed. Two thirds of the articles (67%) in our sample made no mention of sex or gender. Similarly, 69% did not contain any sex or gender related content whatsoever. Of those that did contain some sex or gender content, the majority focused on sex. Only 2 of the 85 pharmaceutical policy articles reviewed for this study were primarily focused on sex or gender issues; both of these were review articles. Eighty-one percent of the articles in our study contained no SGBA, functioning instead at a sex-blind or gender-neutral level, even though the majority of these (86%) were focused on topics with sex or gender aspects. Despite pharmaceutical policy's long entwinement with issues of sex and gender, and the emergence of international guidelines for the inclusion of SGBA in health research, the community of pharmaceutical policy researchers has not internalized, or "mainstreamed," the practice. Increased application of SGBA is, in most cases, not only appropriate for the topics under investigation, but well within the reach of

  16. Gender remix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick

    2002-01-01

    of a subjective identity. Based on interviews with children of immigrants from patriarchal societies living in Norway, one of the countries in the world where gender equality has reached furthest, the article reveals the tension they experience between the ways gender issues are dealt with in their families...... and in the surrounding society. Their gender constructions cannot be understood only in light of cultural influence, as if on a scale running from conformity to parents? culture to conformity to Norwegian culture. There is something really new in the making ­ new combinations and new creations ­ reflecting...

  17. A comprehensive typology for mainstreaming urban green infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert; Zanders, Julie; Lieberknecht, Katherine; Fassman-Beck, Elizabeth

    2014-11-01

    During a National Science Foundation (US) funded "International Greening of Cities Workshop" in Auckland, New Zealand, participants agreed an effective urban green infrastructure (GI) typology should identify cities' present stage of GI development and map next steps to mainstream GI as a component of urban infrastructure. Our review reveals current GI typologies do not systematically identify such opportunities. We address this knowledge gap by developing a new typology incorporating political, economic, and ecological forces shaping GI implementation. Applying this information allows symmetrical, place-based exploration of the social and ecological elements driving a city's GI systems. We use this information to distinguish current levels of GI development and clarify intervention opportunities to advance GI into the mainstream of metropolitan infrastructure. We employ three case studies (San Antonio, Texas; Auckland, New Zealand; and New York, New York) to test and refine our typology.

  18. Look both ways: mainstreaming biodiversity and poverty reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, Steve; Roe, Dilys; Smith, Jessica

    2010-10-15

    The world's failure to meet its 2010 target to significantly reduce the rate of biodiversity loss demonstrates that conservation efforts have so far been insufficient. They are too often undermined by seemingly more pressing economic and poverty goals — despite the frequent correlation of high biodiversity with high incidence of poverty. But it shouldn't be a competition. Biodiversity and poverty reduction are intrinsically linked and demand an integrated approach. The Convention on Biological Diversity has long emphasised the need for integrating, or 'mainstreaming', biodiversity into national and local development and poverty reduction strategies, most recently in its new Strategic Plan. Lessons learnt from wider experience of environmental mainstreaming can help parties to the Convention achieve this target in practice — they point to a six-step plan for the task.

  19. Supply Chain Management and Sustainability: Procrastinating Integration in Mainstream Research

    OpenAIRE

    Marisa P. de Brito; Erwin A. van der Laan

    2010-01-01

    textabstractResearch has pointed out opportunities and research agendas to integrate sustainability issues with supply chain and operations management. However, we find that it is still not mainstream practice to systematically take a sustainability approach in tackling supply chain and operations management issues. In this paper, we make use of behavioral theory to explain the current lack of integration. We conclude through abductive reasoning that the reasons for procrastinating integratio...

  20. From employee representation to problem-solving - Mainstreaming OHS management

    OpenAIRE

    Refslund, Bjarke; Hasle, Peter; Seim, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    The role of occupational health and safety representatives is changing. A study in 60 Danish enterprises indicates that representation, and especially negotiation on behalf of colleagues, has diminished. The work environment is mainstreamed in many enterprises and is rarely an area of conflict. The role of OHS representatives has accordingly changed to focus on solving specific problems in the workplace as an integrated part of daily operations. Both management and colleagues consider the OHS...

  1. Developing bilingual learning strategies in mainstream and community contexts

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This study set out to enhance theoretical understanding of bilingual learning and devise ways in which it can be built into classroom practice, through action research with children, mainstream teachers and bilingual assistants participating in the Primary National Strategy Pilot for EAL (English as an Additional Language) in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. Teachers from the children’s Bengali after-school classes were involved via partnership with Tower Hamlets Community Languages Servi...

  2. Meta-Kucha: the margin or the mainstream?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Randall

    2014-03-01

    The inexorable push in integrated care is to move collaboration between biomedical and psychosocial clinicians into the mainstream of health care. This effort requires expanding small models to scale, convening statewide transformation initiatives, and leaving the comfortable confines of safety net clinics to prove integration in the for-profit systems that dominate American health care. CFHA's (Collaborative Family Health care Association's) Pecha Kucha Plenary assembled compelling narratives from the fringes of our health care system. The competing calls from the mainstream and from the margins force tension into our dialogue. However, for our model to be widely embraced, we need blueprints that fit most patients in most clinics. What we learned from the Pecha Kucha narratives is that people at the margins find ways of asserting their voices and achieving their needs. Sometimes it is through their own resilience and disruptiveness; other times it is through an advocate from the mainstream who shares their stories in such a compelling way that they bypass our well-crafted models and spark our souls.

  3. Stereotyping gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger

    2011-01-01

    This paper takes its starting point in the problem faced by a specific Danish bank that women are grossly underrepresented in management positions, in spite of the great measure of initiatives taken over more than a century to ensure equal opportunities in Denmark. Danish women got the vote in 1915......, there is still some way to go before genuine gender equality and emancipation may become reality, in spite of Denmark’s image as egalitarian society. To try to explain this paradox, the paper explores gender perceptions by analysing how men and women talk about gender in focus group discussions and how the two...... gender categories evaluate themselves and the Other in their quest for social identities. Analysis of the focus group data indicates that, more often than not, the interviewees resort to stereotyping in their construction of identities. Using the Appraisal framework (Martin and White 2005) for analysing...

  4. Gender dysphoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... concept Gender dysphoria is not the same as homosexuality. Identity conflicts need to continue over time to ... to be the opposite sex. Treatment Individual and family therapy is recommended for children to create a ...

  5. Recent trends in Gender Mainstreaming and Poverty Alleviation: The Kudumbashree Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nupur Tiwari

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Kudumbashree was officially launched in 1998 in the State of Kerala, India, with the objective of eradicating absolute poverty in 10 years through community action. It is a comprehensive women-based poverty eradication programme jointly initiated by Government of Kerala and National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD, scaled up from earlier UNICEF-assisted initiatives in Alappuzha Municipality and Malappuram district. The programme is implemented by community-based organizations (CBOs of poor women in co-operation with local governments (Panchayats. Kudumbashree focuses on empowerment of women through its CBOs and activities such as service coordination, encouraging thrift and internal lending, and start-up of micro enterprises. There are success stories of enterprises such as catering and canteen services at bus stands and offices in several places across the state. Handling of solid waste in municipalities is another emerging area of activity.

  6. Towards setting a research agenda around mainstreaming gender in the transport sector

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mashiri, M

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available . As Mahapa points out, transport programs have tended to “function in ways which priorities men’s needs and viewpoints over those of women”. As such, transport needs arising from women’s multiple roles are often not adequately addressed in transport research...

  7. Revisiting gender mainstreaming in international development.Goodbye to an illusionary strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Brouwers (Ria)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn contrast to the concrete problems women face worldwide, of discrimination in family and society, of violence and disrespect, of poverty and lack of rights, the policy of international development organisations to defeat these impediments has been abstract. Wrapped in the mystifying la

  8. Constructing a New Vision: Undoing Gender through Secondary Education in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy-Graham, Erin

    2009-11-01

    This article presents results from a qualitative study on how the Honduran secondary education programme, Sistema de Aprendizaje Tutorial (SAT), attempts to "undo gender" (Deutsch 2007: 122) by encouraging students to rethink gender relations in their everyday lives in a way that reflects their increased consciousness of gender equality. My findings suggest that SAT increased women's gender consciousness and this heightened their desire for change in the domestic sphere. In some instances, women were able to negotiate a new sharing of responsibilities with their spouses. There are several features of SAT that make it a transformative innovation in education: (1) gender is mainstreamed into the curriculum; (2) gender is linked with the larger concept of justice; (3) students engage in reflection, dialogue and debate; (4) teachers are given the opportunity to reflect critically on their understanding of gender in professional development sessions; and (5) it emphasises that undoing gender requires change among individuals and in social structures such as the family.

  9. Theorizing Gender in Contemporary Canadian Citizenship: Lessons Learned from the CBC's "Greatest Canadian" Contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubas, Kaela

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I have used the 2004 Greatest Canadian contest as an example of media's educational function. Contrary to mainstream discourse of gender-neutral citizenship, this contest reiterates a notion of Canadian citizenship as masculinized, classed, and raced. Gramsci's concepts of "hegemony," "ideology", and…

  10. Adult Education and Indigenous People: Addressing Gender in Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Nitya; Robinson-Pant, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Adult education programmes developed for or by indigenous communities rarely seem to have addressed gender inequalities. Yet, compared to mainstream adult educational interventions promoting instrumental approaches to "functional literacy", such programmes often appear highly politicised, starting from a standpoint of promoting indigenous peoples'…

  11. What Might MZ Twin Research Teach Us about Race, Gender & Class Issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlemaine, Christiane

    2002-01-01

    Deconstructs mainstream twin studies to show the relationship between twins research and race, gender, and class issues related to intelligence and IQ measures. The paper notes that genetic determinism drawn from twin studies based on the assumption that genetics predominates the environment in the transmission of human intelligence is…

  12. The Danish National Reform Programme 2005 and the gender aspect of the Danish Employment Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Ruth

    This assessment of the gender aspect of the Danish Employment Strategy in the National Reform Programme 2005 form along with assessments from the other European-member states the basis for the synthesis report The National Reform programme 2005 and the gender aspect of the European Employment...... Strategy prepared for the Equality Unit in the European Commission by Jill Rubery et al. It is part of the work of the EU expert group on Gender, Social Inclusion and Employment (EGGSIE)....

  13. European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  14. European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  15. Muslim Legal Norms and the Integration of European Muslims

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, Maleiha

    2009-01-01

    MUSMINE - Muslim Minorities in Europe This paper examines the potential for accommodating Muslim legal and ethical norms within European liberal democracies. It focuses on areas of personal life such as family norms and ethics. The main argument of the paper is that in some areas - such as divorce or contract law - there is potential for accommodating Muslim legal and ethical norms within mainstream political and legal institutions. The advantage of this strategy is that it can encourage M...

  16. Gender Equality From A Gender Budgeting Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nyevero Maruzani; Nogget Matope; Efiritha Chauraya

    2012-01-01

    Gender budgeting, which is also known as gender responsive budgeting , tracks how budgets respond to gender equality and women’s rights requirement. This entails investing in and making available mechanisms, guidelines and indicators that enable gender equality advocates to track progress, benefit incidence and show how supposedly gender neutral budgets impact on men and women. The aim of this discussion is to highlight the importance of gender budgeting in addressing gender disparities while...

  17. A Semiotic Analysis of the Gender Equality Paradigm. Case study: the Gender Pay Gap Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Manolache

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Within the new European space of identity, attitude and action challenges, syntagms such as “unity in diversity” or “equal pay for work of equal value” have become identitarian brands for social groups with a high-level of self-awareness. Having the social semiotics (Kress, van Leeuwen [1996] 2006 as theoretical background, we focused our analysis on the gender equality paradigm. The empirical data were provided by four visual texts of the Gender Pay Gap campaign, initiated by the European Commission in March 2009, in order to map the new European “puzzle-space” . The analysis showed the importance of compositional, representational and interactive meanings within the European discourse on equality of chances and gender.

  18. Sex and gender differences in clinical medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regitz-Zagrosek, Vera; Seeland, Ute

    2012-01-01

    Sex and gender differences in frequent diseases are more widespread than one may assume. In addition, they have significant yet frequently underestimated consequences on the daily practice of medicine, on outcomes and effects of therapies. Gender medicine is a novel medical discipline that takes into account the effects of sex and gender on the health of women and men. The major goal is to improve health and health care for both, for women as well as for men. We give in this chapter an overview on sex and gender differences in a number of clinical areas, in cardiovascular diseases, pulmonary diseases, gastroenterology and hepatology, in nephrology, autoimmune diseases, endocrinology, hematology, neurology. We discuss the preferential use of male animals in drug development, the underrepresentation of women in early and cardiovascular clinical trials, sex and gender differences in pharmacology, in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, in management and drug use. Most guidelines do not include even well-known sex and gender differences. European guidelines for the management of cardiovascular diseases in pregnancy have only recently been published. Personalized medicine cannot replace gender-based medicine. Large databases reveal that gender remains an independent risk factor after ethnicity, age, comorbidities, and scored risk factors have been taken into account. Some genetic variants carry a different risk in women and men. The sociocultural dimension of gender integrating lifestyle, environment, stress, and other variables cannot be replaced by a sum of biological parameters. Because of this prominent role of gender, clinical care algorithms must include gender-based assessment.

  19. Regarding gender relations: Gender identity or gender interaction styles?

    OpenAIRE

    Bazán Ramírez, Aldo

    1996-01-01

    This study discusses sorne assumptions from the social determinism in the construction of gender roles, gender-typed identities, and gender relarions inequities. Ir is proposed that gender sryles of interaction are relatively invariant forms or dispositions related ro specific contexts of social interaction. Iris not enough ro say that socialization factors such as the family, school, mass media, and rhe inirial social group relations generare a typed gender identity or gender seggregation, b...

  20. Gendered Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Bo

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the gendered nature of urban politics in Cape Town by focusing on a group of female, township politicians. Employing the Deleuzian concept of `wild connectivity', it argues that these politically entrepreneurial women were able to negotiate a highly volatile urban landscape...... space also drew on quite traditional notions of female respectability. Furthermore, the article argues, the form of wild connectivity to an extent was a function of the political transition, which destabilized formal structures of gendered authority. It remains a question whether this form...... of connectivity might endure, as Capetonian politics assumes a post-apartheid structure....

  1. Stereotyping gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger

    2011-01-01

    gender categories evaluate themselves and the Other in their quest for social identities. Analysis of the focus group data indicates that, more often than not, the interviewees resort to stereotyping in their construction of identities. Using the Appraisal framework (Martin and White 2005) for analysing...... stereotypical categorizations made by the interviewees, the article argues that employees in the bank tend to reproduce and perpetuate a patriarchal management system in spite of various forces pulling in a new post-patriarchal direction where gender is just one of many identities....

  2. Gender remix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick

    2002-01-01

    of a subjective identity. Based on interviews with children of immigrants from patriarchal societies living in Norway, one of the countries in the world where gender equality has reached furthest, the article reveals the tension they experience between the ways gender issues are dealt with in their families...... the particular social situation of the young people of immigrant origin. The feelings of obligations and debt toward the parents are strong, as well as the adherence to traditional family values. Still there is clearly a tendency that ideas about individual rights, such as women?s and children?s rights to decide...

  3. Chitosan removes toxic heavy metal ions from cigarette mainstream smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen; Xu, Ying; Wang, Dongfeng; Zhou, Shilu

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the removal of heavy metal ions from cigarette mainstream smoke using chitosan. Chitosan of various deacetylation degrees and molecular weights were manually added to cigarette filters in different dosages. The mainstream smoke particulate matter was collected by a Cambridge filter pad, digested by a microwave digestor, and then analyzed for contents of heavy metal ions, including As(III/V), Pb(II), Cd(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II), by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The results showed that chitosan had a removal effect on Pb(II), Cd(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II). Of these, the percent removal of Ni(II) was elevated with an increasing dosage of chitosan. Chitosan of a high deace tylation degree exhibited good binding performance toward Cd(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II), though with poor efficiency for Pb(II). Except As(III/V), all the tested metal ions showed similar tendencies in the growing contents with an increasing chitosan molecular weight. Nonetheless, the percent removal of Cr(III/VI) peaked with a chitosan molecular weight of 200 kDa, followed by a dramatic decrease with an increasing chitosan molecular weight. Generally, chitosan had different removal effects on four out of five tested metal ions, and the percent removal of Cd(II), Pb(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II) was approximately 55%, 45%, 50%, and 16%, respectively. In a word, chitosan used in cigarette filter can remove toxic heavy metal ions in the mainstream smoke, improve cigarette safety, and reduce the harm to smokers.

  4. Chitosan Removes Toxic Heavy Metal Ions from Cigarette Mainstream Smoke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Wen; XU Ying; WANG Dongfeng; ZHOU Shilu

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the removal of heavy metal ions from cigarette mainstream smoke using chitosan.Chitosan of various deacetylation degrees and molecular weights were manually added to cigarette filters in different dosages.The mainstream smoke particulate matter was collected by a Cambridge filter pad,digested by a microwave digestor,and then analyzed for contents of heavy metal ions,including As(Ⅲ/Ⅴ),Pb(Ⅱ),Cd(Ⅱ),Cr(Ⅲ/Ⅵ) and Ni(Ⅱ),by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS).The results showed that chitosan had a removal effect on Pb(Ⅱ),Cd(Ⅱ),Cr(Ⅲ/Ⅵ) and Ni(Ⅱ).Of these,the percent removal of Ni(Ⅱ) was elevated with an increasing dosage of chitosan.Chitosan of a high deace tylation degree exhibited good binding performance toward Cd(Ⅱ),Cr(Ⅲ/Ⅵ) and Ni(Ⅱ),though with poor efficiency for Pb(Ⅱ).Except As(Ⅲ/Ⅴ),all the tested metal ions showed similar tendencies in the growing contents with an increasing chitosan molecular weight.Nonetheless,the percent removal of Cr(Ⅲ/Ⅵ) peaked with a chitosan molecular weight of 200 kDa,followed by a dramatic decrease with an increasing chitosan molecular weight.Generally,chitosan had different removal effects on four out of five tested metal ions,and the percent removal of Cd(Ⅱ),Pb(Ⅱ),Cr(Ⅲ/Ⅵ) and Ni(Ⅱ) was approximately 55%,45%,50%,and 16%,respectively.In a word,chitosan used in cigarette filter can remove toxic heavy metal ions in the mainstream smoke,improve cigarette safety,and reduce the harm to smokers.

  5. Health conditions and role limitation in three European Regions: a public-health perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Barbaglia

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The contribution of health conditions to role limitation in the three European regions studied is high. Mental disorders are associated with the largest impact in most of the regions. There is a need for mainstreaming disability in the public health agenda to reduce the role limitation associated with health conditions. The cross-regional differences found require further investigation.

  6. Marginal people’s Struggle in Mainstream cult

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang yuan

    2016-01-01

    In the title story of David Wong Louie’s col ection Pangs of Love,Mrs.Pang,Chineseimmigrant,whofailstocommunicatewiththe English-speaking world even with her sons, acts as a marginal woman lost in the west mainstream culture while struggling to hold to her Chinese root. Her world and her sons’ world seem total y alien and strange to each other, they are unable to bridge their culture gap. Intercultural communication and understanding can never be conducted total y successful y and smoothly. Every culture is a living body, which absorbs similarity easily and rejects difference instinctively.

  7. From employee representation to problem-solving - Mainstreaming OHS management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Seim, Rikke; Refslund, Bjarke

    2016-01-01

    . The role of OHS representatives has accordingly changed to focus on solving specific problems in the workplace as an integrated part of daily operations. Both management and colleagues consider the OHS representatives as a resource that can be utilized to manage the work environment. The consequences......The role of occupational health and safety representatives is changing. A study in 60 Danish enterprises indicates that representation, and especially negotiation on behalf of colleagues, has diminished. The work environment is mainstreamed in many enterprises and is rarely an area of conflict...

  8. Supply Chain Management and Sustainability: Procrastinating Integration in Mainstream Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa P. de Brito

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Research has pointed out opportunities and research agendas to integrate sustainability issues with supply chain and operations management. However, we find that it is still not mainstream practice to systematically take a sustainability approach in tackling supply chain and operations management issues. In this paper, we make use of behavioral theory to explain the current lack of integration. We conclude through abductive reasoning that the reasons for procrastinating integration of sustainability in supply chain and operations management research are the conflicting nature of the task and the inherent context, which is the focus on operations rather than environmental or social issues.

  9. From employee representation to problem-solving: Mainstreaming OHS management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Seim, Rikke; Refslund, Bjarke

    2016-01-01

    The role of occupational health and safety representatives is changing. A study in 60 Danish enterprises indicates that representation, and especially negotiation on behalf of colleagues, has diminished. The work environment is mainstreamed in many enterprises and is rarely an area of conflict....... The role of OHS representatives has accordingly changed to focus on solving specific problems in the workplace as an integrated part of daily operations. Both management and colleagues consider the OHS representatives as a resource that can be utilized to manage the work environment. The consequences...

  10. From employee representation to problem-solving - Mainstreaming OHS management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Seim, Rikke; Refslund, Bjarke

    2016-01-01

    The role of occupational health and safety representatives is changing. A study in 60 Danish enterprises indicates that representation, and especially negotiation on behalf of colleagues, has diminished. The work environment is mainstreamed in many enterprises and is rarely an area of conflict....... The role of OHS representatives has accordingly changed to focus on solving specific problems in the workplace as an integrated part of daily operations. Both management and colleagues consider the OHS representatives as a resource that can be utilized to manage the work environment. The consequences...

  11. Reframing nationalism, citizenship and gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Stoltz, Pauline

    Abstract: The growth of nationalism and nativist parties and movements has raised political and scholarly debates about the future viability of European welfare states and democracies. These projects are sparkled by reactions to the global war on terror and the economic and financial crises...... pointed towards the growth of exclusive welfare nationalism fueled by global mobility and increased migration. Feminist scholars have started to analyse the articulation of welfare and citizenship in nationalist projects. The theoretical section revisits approaches to gender nationalism arguing...

  12. European visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, (on the right) visited the CMS assembly hall accompanied by Jim Virdee, Deputy Spokesman of CMS (on the left), and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN. The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, visited CERN on Tuesday 31 January. He was welcomed by the Director-General, Robert Aymar, who described the missions and current activities of CERN to him, in particular the realisation of the LHC with its three components: accelerator, detectors, storage and processing of data. The European Commissioner then visited the CMS assembly hall, then the hall for testing the LHC magnets and the ATLAS cavern. During this first visit since his appointment at the end of 2004, Janez Potočnik appeared very interested by the operation of CERN, an example of successful scientific co-operation on a European scale. The many projects (30 on average) that CERN and the European Commission carry out jointly for the benefit of res...

  13. A Common Cause? Anti-racist and gender equality activists in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    The paper contributes to answering some interrelated questions from the Eurosphere project, namely What is the role of gender groups in the European public sphere? How do they cooperate and negotiate with ethnic minority groups? What is the role of gender-related concerns in the European public...... sphere? And how do they relate to ethno-national concerns? Two transnational European organizations, namely European Network Against Racism [ENAR] and European Women´s Lobby [EWL], are investigated to map these organizations’ notions of diversity, and analyze whether concerns with gender and race...

  14. The Cultural Socialization Scale: Assessing family and peer socialization toward heritage and mainstream cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yijie; Benner, Aprile D; Kim, Su Yeong

    2015-12-01

    In a culturally diverse society, youth learn about multiple cultures from a variety of sources, yet the existing assessment of cultural socialization has been limited to parents' efforts to teach youth about their heritage culture. The current study adapted and extended an existing cultural socialization measure (Umaña-Taylor & Fine, 2004) to assess 4 types of socialization practices encountered specifically during adolescence: cultural socialization by families and peers toward both one's heritage culture and the mainstream culture. In a pilot study, we developed the Cultural Socialization Scale based on retrospective reports from 208 young adults, maximizing young adults' ability to reason and reflect their adolescent experiences with various socialization practices. In the primary study, we examined the psychometric properties of the scale using reports from 252 adolescents. Cultural socialization occurred from both socialization agents toward both cultures. Our Cultural Socialization Scale demonstrated stable factor structures and high reliabilities. We observed strong factorial invariance across the 4 subscales (6 items). Multiple indicators multiple causes models also demonstrated invariance for each subscale across adolescents' demographic characteristics (i.e., gender, race/ethnicity, nativity, socioeconomic status, language of assessment). The implications of the Cultural Socialization Scale are discussed.

  15. Luxury, Gender and the Urban Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonton, Deborah Leigh

    2015-01-01

    of gendered identities and the transmission of ideas across local, national and transnational boundaries. This book draws on research undertaken within a pan-European network of historians from twelve countries whose interests lie in examining the ways that the European urban experience was gendered over time...... and across borders. This book will mirror some of the concerns of the network and will focus on the operation of gender in three distinct, but interrelated, areas of urban study: the economic, the political and the spatial. The three central themes speak directly to newer ideas of exploring the dynamics...... of culture – both as definition and as practice. Importantly, ‘political culture’ does not mean politics as it is usually defined, but refers to power and influence. Thus, how power was legitimated and understood was important in creating a space for women and for gendered political culture, which...

  16. European Peacebuilding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    2015-01-01

    on the belief that conflicts between former belligerents can be transformed through association processes thought to bring peace to unstable regions. Examining whether this is actually the case, this contribution traces European peacebuilding from the early integration of post-World War Two economies in Western......This contribution argues that the peace that has emerged between and increasingly within European states is a historical achievement. A variety of different peace initiatives have brought Europe to where it is today, but a particularly significant player in this process has been and still...

  17. The health of women and girls: how can we address gender equality and gender equity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the health of women and girls, and the role of addressing gender inequalities experienced by women and girls. The health of both males and females is influenced by sex, or biological factors, and gender, or socially constructed influences, including gender differences in the distribution and impact of social determinants of health, access to health promoting resources, health behaviors and gender discourse, and the ways in which health systems are organized and financed, and how they deliver care. Various strategies to address the health of women and girls have been developed at intergovernmental, regional, and national level, and by international nongovernmental organizations. These include vertical programs which aim to target specific health risks and deliver services to meet women and girl's needs, and more cross-cutting approaches which aim at "gender" policy making. Much of this work has developed following the adoption of gender mainstreaming principles across different policy arenas and scales of policy making, and this article reviews some of these strategies and the evidence for their success, before concluding with a consideration of future directions in global policy. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. Nestle and breast vs. bottle feeding: mainstream and Marxist perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C E

    1984-01-01

    The breast vs. bottle feeding issue has sparked a controversial debate. Mainstream analysis of the problem shows that arguments made by the business community, as represented by the Nestle Corporation, do not withstand examination of the evidence. For example, it cannot be substantiated that women begin formula feeding because they have entered the labor force. Mainstream studies of cost effectiveness further indicate that bottle feeding is a drain on the incomes of impoverished Third World families and nations. Marxist analysis gives a very different perspective. Nestle represents 19th century capitalist development and the Industrial Revolution, and 20th century imperialism, neocolonialism and monopoly capitalism. Its motive has been capital accumulation and expansion. To increase surplus value appropriation, capitalism must devalue the household (subsistence) economy in which women enjoyed considerable status. Women also produce the most fundamental commodity for capitalism-laborers; therefore, the biological connection must be masked and controlled for the benefit of capital. Thus, as the capitalist mode of production has developed, women have been removed from important roles in production and reproduction. Coupled with the ascendancy of science, expertism and public health imperialism, breast feeding in any market economy becomes nearly impossible. As women internalize the values of capitalist ideology, they elevate "man-made" marketed commodities over subsistence goods such as breast milk.

  19. Transforming Europe: EU’s gender policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toma-Bianov, A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The essay is a rather descriptive one, focused upon EU’s gender policy, and especially upon the European Commission’s Strategy for equality between men and women (2010-2015. The goals of European Commission are rather optimistic and they focus on the economic challenges and growth. It will be interesting to have a future research on the implementation of the Strategy at the member states level, to see if the Commission’s goals would be achieved.

  20. Formation of gender parity democracy in Ukraine: status and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Prokopchuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2000, at the Millennium Summit at UN adopted the Millennium Development Goals , which cover global problems and are calculated for the period 2000­2015 years. Ukraine has signed the Millennium Development Goals and has taken over the political commitment to implement them. One of the goals of this international instrument provides for the promotion of gender equality and empowerment of women. Тhe global goals, objectives and indicators adapted to the peculiarities of Ukraine on the basis of national development. For the analysis of qualitative and quantitative measurements of changes in gender conditions in politics and public administration in Ukraine at present of the experts proposed one objectives and three indicators. Objective: To provide a gender ratio of at least 30 to 70% of either gender in representative bodies and high­level executive. Indicators: 1 Gender ratio among deputies of the Supreme soviet of Ukraine , women / men ( or vice versa , and 2 the gender ratio among members of local authorities , women / men ( or vice versa , and 3 the gender ratio among senior civil servants (1­2 categories , women / men ( or vice versa. In 2015, Ukraine should report at the United Nations on the implementation of the MDGs. In this paper, the author analyzed the state of gender equality in politics and governance in Ukrainian society. One of the main problems of the present stage of gender equality in politics and public administration in Ukraine the author notes : no systematic gender mainstreaming to implement personnel policies in the civil service at the central and local level; the lack of effective state control over observance of gender equality, not provided the institutional legal mechanisms for gender equality; and without the current regulatory framework on gender turns into an empty declaration; the lack of political will to implement the goals of gender equality. The author of the article provides recommendations on optimal

  1. Supporting a Regional Agricultural Sector with Geo & Mainstream ICT – the Case Study of Space4Agri Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kliment

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is a global issue nowadays. At the European level, it is a sector, in which we are investing many resources. In particular, the Agri-Food sector plays a central role in the policies of the European Commission and the Horizon 2020 research and innovation program, as well as being the main theme of Expo 2015 that will be held in Milan, Lombardy. In the Lombardy region, the farmers represent 2% of the entire population, cultivating about 80% of the agricultural land. Increasing needs to develop a common body of knowledge shared at the regional and national level so as to make it possible to effectively monitor cropping systems, water stress and impacts of climate changes affecting more frequently the territory, are becoming more and more urgent. In this context, the project Space4Agri (S4A intends to support the regional and local needs in terms of management of the agriculture sector, by designing and developing an information and knowledge based platform for managing geospatial and mainstream information by making it accessible over the Internet by standard communication technologies (Geo&Mainstream ICT. This platform has been designed to allow data workflows integrating i spatial data and observations, ii non-spatial information available from existing agronomic databases, iii data collected in the field by farmers, agronomists and volunteers using mobile applications, iv data collected by unmanned aerial sensors, and/or data produced by researchers as a result of applying scientific analysis on high quality remote sensing data. Foreseen results of the Space4Agri project and from other similar ongoing research activities may significantly spur the socio-economic development of Europe and create new growth opportunities for companies, public administrations, students and citizens.

  2. Measuring Gender Dysphoria: A Multicenter Examination and Comparison of the Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale and the Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Catharina; Cerwenka, Susanne; Nieder, Timo O; Briken, Peer; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; De Cuypere, Griet; Haraldsen, Ira R; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

    2016-04-01

    This study examined two instruments measuring gender dysphoria within the multicenter study of the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence (ENIGI). The Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale (UGDS) and the Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults (GIDYQ-AA) were examined for their definitions of gender dysphoria and their psychometric properties, and evaluated for their congruence in assessing the construct. The sample of 318 participants consisted of 178 male-to-females (MtF) and 140 female-to-males (FtM) who were recruited from the four ENIGI gender clinics. Both instruments were significantly correlated in the group of MtFs. For the FtM group, there was a trend in the same direction but smaller. Gender dysphoria was found to be defined differently in the two instruments, which led to slightly different findings regarding the subgroups. The UGDS detected a difference between the subgroups of early and late onset of gender identity disorder in the group of MtFs, whereas the GIDYQ-AA did not. For the FtM group, no significant effect of age of onset was found. Therefore, both instruments seem to capture not only similar but also different aspects of gender dysphoria. The UGDS focusses on bodily aspects, gender identity, and gender role, while the GIDYQ-AA addresses subjective, somatic, social, and sociolegal aspects. For future research, consistency in theory and definition of gender dysphoria is needed and should be in line with the DSM-5 diagnosis of gender dysphoria in adolescents and adults.

  3. European Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different debate

  4. Risky dialogues about gender and diversity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyses how 14 leading Danish opinion-makers speak about gender in conjunction with diversity in interviews conducted for the Eurosphere project about diversity and participation in the European Public Sphere...

  5. Gender matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torm, Nina; Bjerge, Benedikte; Trifkovic, Neda

    such training may be in closing the gender wage gap. We use a matched employer–employee panel dataset to assess why firms train and whether formal training affects wage outcomes in Vietnamese SMEs. Training is generally found to be firm-sponsored and specific in nature. We find that training is associated......, firm-sponsored on-the-job training helps close the gender wage gap.......In many developing countries the skill base is a cause of concern with respect to international competition. Firm-provided training is generally seen as an important tool for bridging the skills gap between labour force and private sector demand. Yet little is known about how successful...

  6. Risky dialogues about gender and diversity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyses how 14 leading Danish opinion-makers speak about gender in conjunction with diversity in interviews conducted for the Eurosphere project about diversity and participation in the European Public Sphere......The paper analyses how 14 leading Danish opinion-makers speak about gender in conjunction with diversity in interviews conducted for the Eurosphere project about diversity and participation in the European Public Sphere...

  7. Towards a Gendered Agro-Commodity Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primrose Nakazibwe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Commodity or value chains are the dominant means to channel agro-food products from cultivators to consumers. Direct open markets are either non-existent or insignificant . These chains are also the main mechanisms for integrating underprivileged groups into the world economy. Why do global value chains generate sorrow for many and joy for a few, and why are these outcomes heavily gender biased? To look for answers this article critically reviews the post-2000 and earlier gender literature by proponents and opponents of the mainstream value chain approach. The purpose is to provide a methodological contribution on the integration of gender into the commodity chain approach. Most studies have fo cused on the economic effects of chain dynamics on women in agricultural product and labor markets. Some have extended this reasoning with social and cultural effects. Despite these advances, analytical gaps still exist as most existing research has concentrated on the agricultural nodes of modern, high value chains and lacks a gendered conceptual foundation. Scarce attention has been given to traditional staple crops, non-agricultural nodes, and feed back effects of gender relations on the chain. Our results indicate that an appropriate GCC approach should also consider the gendered impacts of the interaction between the governance structure and the institutiona l embeddedness, as well as the consequences of intra-household division of resources and labor in all stages of the chain. These two conceptual complements will be needed to explain the opportunities and constraints to improve gender equity in traditional and modern agro-commodity chains.

  8. How to study the history of European law?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    This paper has a double purpose. On the one hand, it offers a new history, based on recently discovered primary sources, of the driving forces behind the so-called ‘constitutionalisation’ of European law taking place in 1963-64. On the other hand, it uses the lessons of this new history to reflect...... with direct effect and supremacy vis-à-vis national law, this coalition legitimised what had happened and contributed crucially to what would amount to a rather slow acceptance of the new ‘constitutional’ doctrines by national governments and courts. A key feature of these processes was the extent to which...... on how a general history of European law should be written and in particular how to avoid the pitfalls that characterises mainstream research on European law. In the first part it is argued that the ‘constitutionalisation’ of European law was promoted by a broad coalition beyond the Court of Justice...

  9. Connecting Children's Worlds: Creating a Multilingual Syncretic Curriculum through Partnership between Complementary and Mainstream Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenner, Charmian; Ruby, Mahera

    2013-01-01

    Children from minority-language backgrounds have multiple sites of learning: home, community, mainstream school, and in some cases complementary school where they study their mother tongue after school or at weekends. However, due to the institutional constraints of an education system based on monolingual principles, mainstream teachers are often…

  10. Attitudes of Pre-Service Mainstream Teachers in Singapore towards People with Disabilities and Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaver, Thana; Lim, Levan

    2014-01-01

    2004 has come to be seen by many in Singapore as a watershed year with the shift in the position of the government towards encouraging greater integration of students with disabilities in mainstream settings. This study investigated the attitudes of 1538 mainstream pre-service teachers towards disability and inclusive education during this period…

  11. Collaborative Working Practices in Inclusive Mainstream Deaf Education Settings: Teaching Assistant Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Jackie M.; Swanwick, Ruth A.; Pearson, Susan E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents findings from an empirical study that investigated the learning experiences of deaf students in mainstream secondary classrooms, from teaching assistants' (TA) perspectives. These findings indicate that effective collaboration between mainstream teachers and specialist teachers of the deaf (ToD) is required to ensure…

  12. Putting "Maori" in the Mainstream: Student Teachers' Reflections of a Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Steven S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on student teachers' experiences of an education program that was explicitly designed to be grounded in both Kaupapa Maori and mainstream pedagogy. This program started from the Kaupapa Maori view to be Maori as Maori. This was then supported by mainstream epistemology of New Zealand focused good teaching practice. A Kaupapa…

  13. Including Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Mainstream Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Around 80% of pupils with attention deficit disorders are educated in mainstream schools. The difficulties relating to inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity experienced by such pupils present mainstream educators with a unique set of challenges and opportunities. In this article, Neil Humphrey, Senior Lecturer in the Psychology of Education…

  14. Children's Relative Clause Markers in Two Non-Mainstream Dialects of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetting, Janna B.; Newkirk, Brandi L.

    2011-01-01

    We examined children's productions of mainstream and non-mainstream relative clause markers (e.g. "that", "who", "which", "what", "where", [image omitted]) in African American English (AAE) and Southern White English (SWE) as a function of three linguistic variables (syntactic role of the marker,…

  15. Success with ELLs: Assessing ELL Students in Mainstream Classes: A New Dilemma for the Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Nilufer

    2013-01-01

    This article suggests effective approaches to teaching English language learners in ways that can be of benefit to all students in mainstream middle and high school English classes. The five approaches described herein that mainstream ESL teachers can do to make assessments more accurate and reliable, as well as to address heterogeneity, are: (1)…

  16. From Mainstream Theatres to Synergy Theatre Project: Black Men's Participation in "Urban" Plays in Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Lynette

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares how urban-themed black British playwriting can be understood within mainstream and applied theatre contexts. The paper first examines the focus of the mainstream theatre's education packs for productions of Kwame Kwei-Armah's "Elmina's Kitchen" and Roy Williams's "Fallout" before exploring how black men's…

  17. The Attunement Principles: A Comparison of Nurture Group and Mainstream Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubeddu, Daniela; MacKay, Tommy

    2017-01-01

    Two key areas identified for research are differences in practice between nurture groups and mainstream classrooms, and nurturing approaches in rural and low-density populations. This study compared classroom practice in a nurture group serving a wide rural area with the four mainstream classes to which the five children in the group belonged. The…

  18. Success with ELLs: Assessing ELL Students in Mainstream Classes: A New Dilemma for the Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Nilufer

    2013-01-01

    This article suggests effective approaches to teaching English language learners in ways that can be of benefit to all students in mainstream middle and high school English classes. The five approaches described herein that mainstream ESL teachers can do to make assessments more accurate and reliable, as well as to address heterogeneity, are: (1)…

  19. "Why Single Me Out?" Peer Mentoring, Autism and Inclusion in Mainstream Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    The past decade has seen an increase in the number of students with autism attending mainstream educational provision. Improving outcomes for this group is a complex issue given the deficit of evidence-based practice. A new peer mentoring programme developed for students with autism in mainstream secondary schools was evaluated using a combination…

  20. Mainstream and Special School Attendance among a Dutch Cohort of Children with Down Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouwe, J.P. van; Gameren-Oosterom, H.B.M. van; Verkerk, P.H.; Dommelen, P. van; Fekkes, M.

    2014-01-01

    Object. To determine the level of mainstream education in a nationwide cohort of adolescents with Down Syndrome (DS), and to find characteristics related to mainstream or special school attendance. Method. Dutch children with DS born in 1992, 1993 or 1994, were assessed when 16–19 years old. Parents

  1. Do Mainstream Parties Adapt to the Welfare Chauvinism of Populist Parties?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Gijs; van Kersbergen, Kees

    2016-01-01

    and when mainstream parties ignore, attack or accommodate welfare chauvinism. Using key theories of party behaviour, we test whether mainstream parties (1) respond immediately to populist parties, (2) respond with a time lag, or (3) respond only when they lose elections or are in opposition. Our...

  2. Mainstream and Special School Attendance among a Dutch Cohort of Children with Down Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouwe, J.P. van; Gameren-Oosterom, H.B.M. van; Verkerk, P.H.; Dommelen, P. van; Fekkes, M.

    2014-01-01

    Object. To determine the level of mainstream education in a nationwide cohort of adolescents with Down Syndrome (DS), and to find characteristics related to mainstream or special school attendance. Method. Dutch children with DS born in 1992, 1993 or 1994, were assessed when 16–19 years old. Parents

  3. Guess Who's Coming to P. E.: Six Steps to More Effective Mainstreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizen, Darci Weakley; Linton, Nancy

    1983-01-01

    Physical educators can help mainstreamed handicapped children by (1) preparing classmates to understand and accept disabled children; (2) avoiding practices that unintentionally embarrass the mainstreamed child; (3) building self-esteem through success; and (4) using mastery teaching and peer tutoring. Modifications of rules and equipment are…

  4. What did the study of the Soviet economy contribute to mainstream economics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Ellman

    2009-01-01

    This paper is an overview of the contributions made by economic Sovietology to mainstream economics. The long debate about the universal applicability of mainstream economics is reconsidered in the light of Soviet experience. Information is provided on the contribution of the study of the Soviet eco

  5. Developing Mainstream Resource Provision for Pupils with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Staff Perceptions and Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Caroline; Hebron, Judith

    2016-01-01

    The majority of children and young people with autism spectrum disorder are educated in mainstream schools. The diverse needs of this group of pupils has led to a continuum of provision being promoted in the UK and other countries, and developed at a local level. This continuum includes mainstream schools with resource provision which can offer…

  6. Discourse analysis of gender equality and non-discrimination laws and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonijević Zorana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the contemporary research on gender and language, using the method of discourse analysis applied to the laws and policies, this article explains how certain linguistic practice, in the context of the administrative discourse, produces meaning that may or may not contribute to its better understanding and more efficient implementation. Through discourse analysis of gender equality and non-discrimination laws and strategies in Serbia, it has been shown how and with what consequences the socio-political and academic elites affect defining and promoting certain concepts (gender, sex, gender equality, discrimination in one social and historical moment. The paper is placed in the theoretical framework of three visions of gender equality: perspective of equal treatment, women‘s perspectives and gender perspective (Booth, Bennett 2002, that are corresponding to the three strategies for achieving gender equality: equal treatment, specific policy of gender equality and gender mainstreaming (Verloo, 2001. The discourse analysis of the Law on Gender Equality (2009, the National Strategy for the Improvement of the Position of Women and Advancement of Gender Equality (2009, the Law on Prohibition of Discrimination (2009 and the Strategy for Prevention and Protection against Discrimination (2013, has shown the context of use and meaning of terms gender and sex, as well as implications it has on their potential to change the existing paradigms and understanding of gender equality, and the implementation of policies in Serbia. Analysis of the use of terms sex and gender in the most important legal and strategic documents for achieving gender equality, showed that the choice of certain categories and terms is always a political choice. The authors show how these documents are written in the key of two gender perspectives and strategies: equal treatment and the specific policy of gender equality, while the third - introduction of a gender perspective

  7. Identifying the Gender Dimension in Research Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D.; Lalonde, B.St.L.; Tippett, C.; Archambault, E.; Callaert, J.; Mantouvalou, K.; Arora, L.

    2016-07-01

    Globally, there is an increasing interest in integrating the gender dimension in research content (GDRC). As a first step towards monitoring progress in this area, a new indicator measuring the proportion of a country’s scientific publications integrating a gender dimension in their subject matter was developed for the European Commission’s She Figures 2015 publication. This indicator is based on a keyword-based query covering both sex-related terms (biological characteristics of both women and men) and gender-related terms (social/cultural factors of both women and men). The final GDRC dataset consisted of some 212,600 distinct publications including a gender dimension in their research content. Findings suggest that integrating a gender dimension into research content is relatively rare. Unsurprisingly, it was less common for scientific articles in the fields of agricultural sciences, engineering and technology, and natural sciences to do so, and more common in the social sciences. (Author)

  8. Where are the Women and What is a Gender Issue?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyger, Tabitta

    2011-01-01

    This contribution to the work package 7, gender report, is an analysis of the media data gathered as a part of the EUROSPHERE project. The analysis is meant to provide an overview of some quantitative characteristics of the EUROSPHERE media data set, with a specific focus on the first two elements...... of the gender action plan, namely the questions “where are the women?” and “gendering as a process”. The analysis of the media data indicates that discussions about gender and gender policy do not seem to be one of the priority issues on the European public agenda, which could be one of the pre...

  9. Gender equality and equal opportunity mechanisms in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mršević Zorica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As a country of Southern European mentality Italy may be taken as the nearest-to-the-Balkans model of the gender equality mechanisms and necessity of their existence. Italy also might be taken as a model of domain and methods of functioning of the gender equality mechanisms as well as their connections with the EU development funds. Besides the Italian Ministry for Rights and Equal opportunities and the National Committee, the attention was paid to the whole range of local mechanisms and legal regulations dealing with advancement of women’s employment and counteracting discrimination on the labor market. In the text are analyzed through the five chapters the Italian mechanisms/institutions for gender equality as located within the European institutional environment but also within the context of Italian recent history of struggle against gender based discrimination. It was stressed that the essence of the accumulated European institutional wisdom is in diversity of the gender equality bodies rather then in their uniformity. Although the Italian mechanisms for gender equality are part of the European institutional environment their aim is to meet the internal needs for advancement of gender equality. Besides, the mechanisms also meet the demands of the international standards comprised in the documents issued by the UN and the EU. In European countries these mechanisms are frequently established and function in the domains of the labor and employment regulations, but also are located within the human rights portfolios while somewhere are connected with the minority rights and equal opportunity implementation.

  10. Gender Identity and Gender Confusion in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Gender Identity Development in Children Page Content Article Body ​What's the ... children, the match between biological sex and gender identity is not so ... gender development in children. See the related article, Gender Non- ...

  11. Black Twitter: A Response to Bias in Mainstream Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latoya A. Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to shed light on the ways people of color, in the United States, are using social media to challenge racial bias. As part of this investigation, this paper draws on Critical Race Theory, Feminist Theory, and Digital New Media studies to examine the extent to which social media, while seen as a place for ‘play’ can also operate as a digital homespace, a space used as a tool for black women and men to (reconstruct their bodies and identities, challenging the “controlling images” widespread in mainstream media and society at large. This paper employs the methods of content analysis and participant observation and find that these social media forums are not transformative by themselves but instead have little moments that make for resistance and a digital homespace.

  12. Civic engagement through mainstream online newspapers: Possibilities and shortcomings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilie Givskov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on a pilot study of online news making and commenting in Denmark, the article discusses the relationship between online political news making and democracy. Empirical insights on the dynamics of user engagement and debates on mainstream Danish online news platforms are used to delineate the contours of the online public sphere. It is argued that the new digital media should be discussed not only as a new forum for political participation but also in relation to traditional forms of representative democracy. The analysis comprises the technical features and apps that are designed by online news providers in Denmark to facilitate the constitution of new “voice publics”. How these voice publics are designed as an element of news making and news distribution and, as such, linked to the old “representative” and “attentive publics” of news consumption is investigated.

  13. Measuring the Influence of Mainstream Media on Twitter Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    transform data into useful knowledge. They then described the functions of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats ( SWOT ) analysis and the Five...Park, NC 27709-2211 mainstream media, data analysis , twitter REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S...20 Trending Topics………………………………………………………….26 Sentiment Analysis ………………………………………………………28 Opinion Clustering………………………………………………………31 Chapter

  14. Mainstreaming of emergency contraception pill in India: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Anvita; Khan, M E; Bhatnagar, Isha

    2015-01-01

    Emergency Contraception Pill (ECP) is an essential intervention to prevent unwanted pregnancies. However, its use has remained low due to various barriers including reservations among medical fraternity. This paper presents findings on barriers to ECP's easy access for potential users from (i) a cross-sectional survey of providers' attitudes, beliefs, and practices and interviews with key opinion leaders, (ii) three consultations organized by Population Council with policymakers and public health experts, and (iii) evidence from scientific literature. The major barriers to easy access of ECP include misconceptions and reservations of providers (disapproval of ECP provision by CHWs, opposition to its being an OTC product, and myths, misconceptions, and moral judgments about its users) including influential gynecologists. For mainstreaming ECP, the paper recommends educational campaign focusing on gynecologists and CHWs, relaxing restrictive policy on advertisement of ECP, involving press media and strengthening supply chain to ensure its regular supply to ASHA (CHW).

  15. Mainstreaming of emergency contraception pill in India: Challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anvita Dixit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emergency Contraception Pill (ECP is an essential intervention to prevent unwanted pregnancies. However, its use has remained low due to various barriers including reservations among medical fraternity. Materials and Methods: This paper presents findings on barriers to ECP′s easy access for potential users from (i a cross-sectional survey of providers′ attitudes, beliefs, and practices and interviews with key opinion leaders, (ii three consultations organized by Population Council with policymakers and public health experts, and (iii evidence from scientific literature. Results: The major barriers to easy access of ECP include misconceptions and reservations of providers (disapproval of ECP provision by CHWs, opposition to its being an OTC product, and myths, misconceptions, and moral judgments about its users including influential gynecologists. Conclusion: For mainstreaming ECP, the paper recommends educational campaign focusing on gynecologists and CHWs, relaxing restrictive policy on advertisement of ECP, involving press media and strengthening supply chain to ensure its regular supply to ASHA (CHW.

  16. The Transfer of Nicotine from Nicotine Salts to Mainstream Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perfetti TA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Transfer of nicotine to mainstream smoke was measured for Reference cigarettes made with the addition of 20 -40 mg of seven different nicotine salts, d- and l-nicotine and N’-formylnornicotine. Regression analysis of the nicotine yields from these cigarettes as a function of the nicotine content of the tobacco rods indicated an average nicotine transfer efficiency (17.5%, similar to that found for a separate series of cigarettes made with single-grade tobacco materials (16.2%. Analysis of the enantiomeric purity of the smoke nicotine from the cigarettes made with added nicotine salts and neat nicotine showed no evidence of conversion between l- and d-nicotine during the smoking process. The cigarette made with added N’-formylnornicotine showed no evidence of additional nicotine transfer attributable to reduction of this compound to nicotine. A third series of cigarettes were made with varying levels of d- and l-nicotine added to a tobacco blend and to reconstituted tobacco to further investigate transfer efficiency of the enantiomers. Regression analysis indicated no statistically significant difference between transfer efficiencies of d- and l-nicotine. These results suggest that nicotine salts and d- and l-nicotine transfer to smoke at the same efficiency. However, transfer efficiency of either compound was lower when applied to reconstituted tobacco (9.7% than when applied to the Reference tobacco blend (15.3%. The thermal stabilities of nicotine salts have little bearing on efficiency of transfer to smoke or on racemization between d- and l-nicotine. Formation of d-nicotine in mainstream smoke via reduction of N’-formylnornicotine does not appear to occur.

  17. Mainstreaming ecosystem-based adaptation: transformation toward sustainability in urban governance and planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Wamsler

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of ecosystem-based adaptation is advocated at international, national, and regional levels. The concept is thought to foster sustainability transitions and is receiving increasing interest from academic and governmental bodies alike. However, there is little theory regarding the pathways for its systematic implementation. It furthermore remains unclear to what degree the concept is already applied in urban planning practice, how it is integrated into existing planning structures and processes, and what drivers exist for further integration. Against this background, this study examines potential ways to sustainably mainstream ecosystem-based adaptation into urban planning. Eight municipalities in Southern Germany were investigated to analyze the processes of mainstreaming ecosystem-based adaptation into current planning practice. Although the mainstreaming entry points for ecosystem-based adaptation were identified to be appreciably different, the results of the study show how mainstreaming has generally led to patterns of change in: (1 on-the-ground measures, (2 organizational structures and assets, (3 formal and informal policies and instruments, (4 external cooperation and networking, and (5 the general working language. In all these areas, ecosystem-based adaptation to heat and flood risk is highly compartmentalized. Furthermore, although scholars have drawn attention to the risk of "mainstreaming overload," the results suggest that at the local level, the integration of ecosystem-based adaptation is strongly driven by departments' experience in mainstreaming other cross-cutting issues, namely environmental planning, climate change mitigation, and disaster risk management. Based on the findings, ways to leverage sustainability transitions via mainstreaming are discussed. It is concluded that systematic mainstreaming is a promising avenue for initiating and promoting local transitions and transformative adaptation. The study

  18. On stereotypes, media and redressing gendered social inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, J.

    2010-01-01

    ‘Combating gender stereotypes: The role of education and the media’ was one of the two central themes of a ministerial conference of the Council of Europe (24-25 May 2010, Baku, Azerbaijan). The conference aims to develop cross-European policy directed at gender equality. This talk suggests that any

  19. On stereotypes, media and redressing gendered social inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, J.

    2010-01-01

    ‘Combating gender stereotypes: The role of education and the media’ was one of the two central themes of a ministerial conference of the Council of Europe (24-25 May 2010, Baku, Azerbaijan). The conference aims to develop cross-European policy directed at gender equality. This talk suggests that any

  20. Predicting acceptance and popularity in early adolescence as a function of hearing status, gender, and educational setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, N.; Knoors, H.E.T.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined associations of communicative skills, social behavior, and personality with acceptance and popularity as a function of hearing status, gender, and educational setting. Participants were 87 deaf and 672 hearing early adolescents of 52 6th grade classrooms in mainstream and special

  1. Time to go beyond interstate federalism - or something different? The response of new pro-European think tanks to the EU integration crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Plehwe, Dieter; Krämer, Werner; Neujeffski, Moritz; Meland, Alexander; Guérot, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    The European financial and economic crisis has shaken traditional beliefs and confidence in a one-directional move towards an ever closer union. Discussions regarding "Grexit" and the public vote in favor of "Brexit" have signaled strong anti-EU sentiment far beyond previous instances of dissatisfaction expressed by popular votes in France and the Netherlands opposing the European constitution, for example. Mainstream European integration scholars have started to seriously address disintegrat...

  2. Gender and ethnic differences in colorectal cancer screening embarrassment and physician gender preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consedine, Nathan S; Reddig, Maike K; Ladwig, Inga; Broadbent, Elizabeth A

    2011-11-01

    To examine colorectal cancer (CRC) screening embarrassment among men and women from three ethnic groups and the associated physician gender preference by patient gender and ethnicity. Cross-sectional, purposive sampling. Urban community in Brooklyn, NY. A purpose-derived, convenience sample of 245 European American, African American, and immigrant Jamaican men and women (aged 45-70 years) living in Brooklyn, NY. Participants provided demographics and completed a comprehensive measure of CRC screening embarrassment. Participant gender and ethnicity, physician gender, and CRC screening embarrassment regarding feces or the rectum and unwanted physical intimacy. As predicted, men and women both reported reduced fecal and rectal embarrassment and intimacy concern regarding same-gender physicians. As expected, Jamaicans reported greater embarrassment regarding feces or the rectum compared to European Americans and African Americans; however, in contrast to expectations, women reported less embarrassment than men. Interactions indicated that rectal and fecal embarrassment was particularly high among Jamaican men. Men and women have a preference for same-gender physicians, and embarrassment regarding feces and the rectum shows the most consistent ethnic and gender variation. Discussing embarrassment and its causes, as well as providing an opportunity to choose a same-gender physician, may be promising strategies to reduce or manage embarrassment and increase CRC screening attendance.

  3. GENDER EQUALITY AS NECESSARY COMPONENT OF ECONOMIC GROWTH

    OpenAIRE

    Koval, L.

    2015-01-01

    The elimination of gender inequality in a society helps mitigate social tension and provide the sustainability of the national fi nancial system by using effi ciently the potential of women. Gender equality is in the focus of international organizations – including the OECD, UN, World Bank, IMF, UNESCO, ILO – and the European Union, whereas Russia’s current strategic documents contain no provisions addressing the issue of gender inequality.

  4. The European Union: a strategic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieve Fransen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union has developed policies and instruments that address – both directly and indirectly – sexual violence in conflict and beyond. Policy areas that are important in this respect include human rights, gender equality, development cooperation, humanitarian aid and conflict prevention.

  5. The linguistics of gender.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berkum, J.J.A.

    1996-01-01

    This chapter explores grammatical gender as a linguistic phenomenon. First, I define gender in terms of agreement, and look at the parts of speech that can take gender agreement. Because it relates to assumptions underlying much psycholinguistic gender research, I also examine the reasons why gender

  6. Gender differences in relation of students to sports activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchenko O.Y.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The problem of gender approach in the modern physical education in schools is considered. The experiment was conducted with students of 5-11 grades of secondary schools in the city of Poltava in the amount of 419 people. By the experiment, the students were involved in I-year students (35 girls and 16 boys. It is noted that for the normal socialization are important sex and gender roles. They are associated with the awareness itself as the representative of a particular sex with the norms of behavior, characteristic of members of this sex. Show the direction of consideration for the interests, motivations, values in the process of physical education. Found that to attract students to the sports activity requires consideration of the physiological and morphological and functional characteristics of the individual through the process of gender mainstreaming in the school system.

  7. GENDER MAIN STREAMING IN WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona FRONE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As we have stated in the previous year conference paper, the human right to water and sanitation entitles everyoneto water and sanitation services which are available, accessible, affordable, acceptable and safe. Developmentprograms for water and sanitation services, as many other socio-economic development programs have often beenassumed to be neutral in terms of gender. However, sometimes there can be failures in the implementation andharnessing of such projects because of errors arising from lack of adequate integration of gender equality. In thispaper are highlighted some aspects and issues of gender mainstreaming in water supply and sanitation developmentprojects, including conclusions from a case study conducted by an NGO in a commune of Romania and ownrecommendations.

  8. Incorporating gender, equity, and human rights into the action planning process: moving from rhetoric to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Sanjeev; Maplazi, Joanna; Shirodkar, Apurva; Richardson, Emma; Nakaima, April

    2016-01-01

    Mainstreaming of gender, equity, and human rights (GER) is an important focus of the World Health Organization (WHO) and other UN organizations. This paper explores the role of action plans in mainstreaming GER. This paper is informed by a theory-driven evaluation lens. A theory of change framework explored the following seven dimensions of how action plans can implement mainstreaming of GER: awareness of the foundations of GER; understanding of context; planning to impact GER; implementation for GER; monitoring, evaluation, and learning; planning for sustainability; agenda setting and buy-in. The seven dimensions were used to analyze the action plans. Reviewers also explored innovations within each of the action plans for the seven dimensions. GER mainstreaming is more prominent in the foundation, background, and planning components of the plan but becomes less so along the theory of change including implementation; monitoring and evaluation; sustainability; and agenda setting and buy-in. Our analysis demonstrates that much more can be done to incorporate GER considerations into the action planning process. Nine specific recommendations are identified for WHO and other organizations. A theory-driven approach as described in the paper is potentially helpful for developing clarity by which action plans can help with mainstreaming GER considerations.

  9. Incorporating gender, equity, and human rights into the action planning process: moving from rhetoric to action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Sanjeev; Maplazi, Joanna; Shirodkar, Apurva; Richardson, Emma; Nakaima, April

    2016-01-01

    Background Mainstreaming of gender, equity, and human rights (GER) is an important focus of the World Health Organization (WHO) and other UN organizations. This paper explores the role of action plans in mainstreaming GER. This paper is informed by a theory-driven evaluation lens. Design A theory of change framework explored the following seven dimensions of how action plans can implement mainstreaming of GER: awareness of the foundations of GER; understanding of context; planning to impact GER; implementation for GER; monitoring, evaluation, and learning; planning for sustainability; agenda setting and buy-in. The seven dimensions were used to analyze the action plans. Reviewers also explored innovations within each of the action plans for the seven dimensions. Results GER mainstreaming is more prominent in the foundation, background, and planning components of the plan but becomes less so along the theory of change including implementation; monitoring and evaluation; sustainability; and agenda setting and buy-in. Conclusions Our analysis demonstrates that much more can be done to incorporate GER considerations into the action planning process. Nine specific recommendations are identified for WHO and other organizations. A theory-driven approach as described in the paper is potentially helpful for developing clarity by which action plans can help with mainstreaming GER considerations. PMID:27606968

  10. Incorporating gender, equity, and human rights into the action planning process: moving from rhetoric to action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Sridharan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mainstreaming of gender, equity, and human rights (GER is an important focus of the World Health Organization (WHO and other UN organizations. This paper explores the role of action plans in mainstreaming GER. This paper is informed by a theory-driven evaluation lens. Design: A theory of change framework explored the following seven dimensions of how action plans can implement mainstreaming of GER: awareness of the foundations of GER; understanding of context; planning to impact GER; implementation for GER; monitoring, evaluation, and learning; planning for sustainability; agenda setting and buy-in. The seven dimensions were used to analyze the action plans. Reviewers also explored innovations within each of the action plans for the seven dimensions. Results: GER mainstreaming is more prominent in the foundation, background, and planning components of the plan but becomes less so along the theory of change including implementation; monitoring and evaluation; sustainability; and agenda setting and buy-in. Conclusions: Our analysis demonstrates that much more can be done to incorporate GER considerations into the action planning process. Nine specific recommendations are identified for WHO and other organizations. A theory-driven approach as described in the paper is potentially helpful for developing clarity by which action plans can help with mainstreaming GER considerations.

  11. Suicidality, Economic Shocks, and Egalitarian Gender Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David

    2016-02-01

    Durkheim conceived of suicide as a product of social integration and regulation. Although the sociology of suicide has focused on the role of disintegration, to our knowledge, the interaction between integration and regulation has yet to be empirically evaluated. In this article we test whether more egalitarian gender norms, an important form of macro-regulation, protects men and women against suicidality during economic shocks. Using cross-national data covering 20 European Union countries from the years 1991 to 2011, including the recent economic crises in Europe, we first assessed the relation between unemployment and suicide. Then we evaluated potential effect modification using three measures of gender equality, the gender ratio in labour force participation, the gender pay gap, and women's representation in parliament using multiple measures. We found no evidence of a significant, direct link between greater gender equality and suicide rates in either men or women. However, a greater degree of gender equality helped protect against suicidality associated with economic shocks. At relatively high levels of gender equality in Europe, such as those seen in Sweden and Austria, the relationship between rising unemployment rates and suicide in men disappeared altogether. Our findings suggest that more egalitarian forms of gender regulation may help buffer the suicidal consequences of economic shocks, especially in men.

  12. Gender in science: a periphery?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Weijden, I.; Reale, E.; Meijer, I.

    2016-07-01

    The academic world has been dominated by men for a long time. However, in recent decades, there have been strides towards gender balance within the pool of higher education graduates. Whilst women were once under-represented at doctoral level, they now made up 47 % of PhD graduates in the EU (European Commission 2015). Although female researchers are improving their position, the process especially in higher positions is rather slow. Is the weak position due to women having in average fewer ambitions in pursuing an academic career? Are career decisions characterized by gendered social closure, structurally disadvantaging women? Or are women weakly represented in high ranks because their male colleagues outperform them? Providing robust answers to the mentioned questions is not simple and even framing sound indicators useful to approximate the phenomenon is still a challenge for scholars dealing with science and technology policy. Therefore, in the context of the conference theme, the question is whether we still could consider gender as a periphery in science. And in particular, what aspects of gender differences in science are in particular affected? Career paths, mobility, performance, leadership and / or funding? These are the topics we want to discuss in a special session of 90 minutes at the STI2016 conference. (Author)

  13. Gender Awareness Raising & EFL

    OpenAIRE

    長坂, 達彦; ナガサカ, タツヒコ; Tatsuhiko, Nagasaka

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this short paper is to provide an example of classroom application of the concept of gender roles within the broader framework of Gender Awareness. More generally, it attempts to introduce growing interest in Gender Awareness within the context of changing perspective on Language Learning. What is understood by "gender roles" or "gender domain" will be examined. Explicit and traditional concept of gender roles will be briefly discussed with the relationship between explicit and imp...

  14. Gender Awareness Raising & EFL

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this short paper is to provide an example of classroom application of the concept of gender roles within the broader framework of Gender Awareness. More generally, it attempts to introduce growing interest in Gender Awareness within the context of changing perspective on Language Learning. What is understood by "gender roles" or "gender domain" will be examined. Explicit and traditional concept of gender roles will be briefly discussed with the relationship between explicit and imp...

  15. The Value of Mainstreaming Human Rights into Health Impact Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNaughton, Gillian; Forman, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) is increasingly being used to predict the health and social impacts of domestic and global laws, policies and programs. In a comprehensive review of HIA practice in 2012, the authors indicated that, given the diverse range of HIA practice, there is an immediate need to reconsider the governing values and standards for HIA implementation [1]. This article responds to this call for governing values and standards for HIA. It proposes that international human rights standards be integrated into HIA to provide a universal value system backed up by international and domestic laws and mechanisms of accountability. The idea of mainstreaming human rights into HIA is illustrated with the example of impact assessments that have been carried out to predict the potential effects of intellectual property rights in international trade agreements on the availability and affordability of medicines. The article concludes by recommending international human rights standards as a legal and ethical framework for HIA that will enhance the universal values of nondiscrimination, participation, transparency and accountability and bring legitimacy and coherence to HIA practice as well. PMID:25264683

  16. Mainstreaming Natural Capital into Decisions: Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnas Palaima

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to review current paradigms in ecosystem services valuation, existing gaps and current trends in addressing those gaps. Natural capital, often defined as the stock of natural ecosystems that yields a flow of valuable ecosystem goods or services into the future, is often undervalued or not valued at all by governments, business and society, which leads to environmental degradation and loss of biodiversity. One of the major reasons of such undervaluation is the lack of practical, realistic quantitative methods/models that would establish ecosystem services value and its change due to human development. A promising, recently developed ecosystem services modeling system is InVEST: “Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-Offs.” InVEST is a set of Geographic Information Systems (GIS models that predict the provision and value of ecosystem services and habitat provision given land use/land cover maps and related biophysical, economic, and institutional data for the study region. InVEST, if further developed and applied in a systematic way, could facilitate mainstreaming the natural capital into decisions at all levels and provide a strong foundation for local natural resources managers to improve and optimize their environmental management strategies.

  17. Mainstreaming Human Rights Education: What’s Radical About That?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Ann Blanchard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the most radical ways of teaching about universal human rights and international humanitarian law would be to teach about these fundamental internationally-recognized standards for humane interpersonal conduct to every child who enters school in the United States.  American illiteracy about human rights and humanitarian law standards contributes to the climate in which the United States preaches human rights to it's perceived opponents while refusing to apply universally recognized hr and ihl principles to itself. From the failure to incorporate into the American educational structure the cultural and linguistic rights of Indigenous peoples and ethnic, linguistic and religious minorities to the refusal to submit to the same standards of international humanitarian law which apply to all combatants, U.S. political and military leaders have been able to rely on the unfamiliarity of most Americans with the fundamental principles of human rights and international humanitarian law to insulate them from effective public scrutiny and meaningful challenge. This article describes efforts to mainstream human rights education at all levels of public education so it becomes a part of the educational experience of every child and, thus, part of the background of every adult. The risks of having HRE co-opted are dwarfed by the risks of having HRE sidelined.

  18. Mainstreaming conservation agriculture in Malawi: Knowledge gaps and institutional barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougill, Andrew J; Whitfield, Stephen; Stringer, Lindsay C; Vincent, Katharine; Wood, Benjamin T; Chinseu, Edna L; Steward, Peter; Mkwambisi, David D

    2017-06-15

    Conservation agriculture (CA) practices of reduced soil tillage, permanent organic soil coverage and intercropping/crop rotation, are being advocated globally, based on perceived benefits for crop yields, soil carbon storage, weed suppression, reduced soil erosion and improved soil water retention. However, some have questioned their efficacy due to uncertainty around the performance and trade-offs associated with CA practices, and their compatibility with the diverse livelihood strategies and varied agro-ecological conditions across African smallholder systems. This paper assesses the role of key institutions in Malawi in shaping pathways towards more sustainable land management based on CA by outlining their impact on national policy-making and the design and implementation of agricultural development projects. It draws on interviews at national, district and project levels and a multi-stakeholder workshop that mapped the institutional landscape of decision-making for agricultural land management practices. Findings identify knowledge gaps and institutional barriers that influence land management decision-making and constrain CA uptake. We use our findings to set out an integrated roadmap of research needs and policy options aimed at supporting CA as a route to enhanced sustainable land management in Malawi. Findings offer lessons that can inform design, planning and implementation of CA projects, and identify the multi-level institutional support structures required for mainstreaming sustainable land management in sub-Saharan Africa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Barriers to the Entry of Biofield Healing Into "Mainstream" Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufford, David J; Sprengel, Meredith; Ives, John A; Jonas, Wayne

    2015-11-01

    In this article, we describe barriers to the entry of biofield healing into mainstream contemporary science and clinical practice. We focus on obstacles that arise from the social nature of the scientific enterprise, an aspect of science highlighted by the influential work of Thomas Kuhn (1922-1996), one of the most important- and controversial-philosophers of science in the 20th century. Kuhn analyzed science and its revolutionary changes in terms of the dynamics within scientific communities. Kuhn's approach helps us understand unconventional medical theories and practices such as biofield healing. For many years, these were called "complementary and alternative medicine" (CAM). However, because most people use nonmainstream approaches in conjunction with conventional treatments, the National Institutes of Health and many practitioners now prefer "Complementary and Integrative Medicine" (CIM) where integrative implies "bringing conventional and complementary approaches together in a coordinated way."(1) Biofield healing fits the integrative model well, provides a novel approach to therapeutic intervention, and is developing in a manner that can integrate with current medical science in simple ways. Yet, it still remains outside the conventional framework because of its conceptual bases, which contrast sharply with conventional assumptions regarding the nature of reality.

  20. Microbiological components in mainstream and sidestream cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson Lennart

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has shown that tobacco smoke contains substances of microbiological origin such as ergosterol (a fungal membrane lipid and lipopolysaccharide (LPS (in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. The aim of the present study was to compare the amounts of ergosterol and LPS in the tobacco and mainstream (MS and sidestream (SS smoke of some popular US cigarettes. Methods We measured LPS 3-hydroxy fatty acids and fungal biomass biomarker ergosterol in the tobacco and smoke from cigarettes of 11 popular brands purchased in the US. University of Kentucky reference cigarettes were also included for comparison. Results The cigarette tobacco of the different brands contained 6.88-16.17 (mean 10.64 pmol LPS and 8.27-21.00 (mean 14.05 ng ergosterol/mg. There was a direct correlation between the amounts of ergosterol and LPS in cigarette tobacco and in MS smoke collected using continuous suction; the MS smoke contained 3.65-8.23% (ergosterol and 10.02-20.13% (LPS of the amounts in the tobacco. Corresponding percentages were 0.30-0.82% (ergosterol and 0.42-1.10% (LPS for SS smoke collected without any ongoing suction, and 2.18% and 2.56% for MS smoke collected from eight two-second puffs. Conclusions Tobacco smoke is a bioaerosol likely to contain a wide range of potentially harmful bacterial and fungal components.

  1. Van marginaal naar mainstream? Populisme in de Nederlandse geschiedenis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Vossen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available From Marginal to Mainstream?: Populism in Dutch HistoryIn this article populism is perceived as a thin ideology with specific core concepts (a homogeneous people, a treacherous elite and popular sovereignty that can flourish when specific conditions are met (political dissatisfaction, convergence of the established parties, increasingly opaque governance and new media. In the Netherlands one might discern three ‘populist moments’ – a period between 1916 and 1918, a period between 1963 and 1967 and a period which started in 2001/2002 and which seems not yet to be over. In electoral terms the first and second populist moments were rather weak. Both times the populist rhetoric was incorporated by (one of the established parties. In 2001/2002 the established parties again attempted to incorporate populism but with less result. The new populism of the twenty-first century proved to be much stronger and much more durable in terms of its electoral strength and its programmatic appeal.

  2. Van marginaal naar mainstream? Populisme in de Nederlandse geschiedenis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Vossen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available From Marginal to Mainstream?: Populism in Dutch HistoryIn this article populism is perceived as a thin ideology with specific core concepts (a homogeneous people, a treacherous elite and popular sovereignty that can flourish when specific conditions are met (political dissatisfaction, convergence of the established parties, increasingly opaque governance and new media. In the Netherlands one might discern three ‘populist moments’ – a period between 1916 and 1918, a period between 1963 and 1967 and a period which started in 2001/2002 and which seems not yet to be over. In electoral terms the first and second populist moments were rather weak. Both times the populist rhetoric was incorporated by (one of the established parties. In 2001/2002 the established parties again attempted to incorporate populism but with less result. The new populism of the twenty-first century proved to be much stronger and much more durable in terms of its electoral strength and its programmatic appeal.

  3. Mainstream body-character breach films and subjectivization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiri, Sandra; Kohen-Raz, Odeya

    2017-02-01

    The authors analyze a unique cinematic corpus - 'body-character breach films' (one character, initially played by a certain actor, occupies the body of another character) - demonstrating Lacan's notion of traversing the fantasy, both on the level of the films' diegesis and that of spectatorship. Breaching the alliance between actors and their characters perturbs the viewer's fantasy of wholeness enabled by this very alliance. Consequently, a change in subject/spectatorial position in relation to the lack in the Other is induced, enhanced through the visualization of various scenarios of unconscious fantasies (mostly incest). These are meant to unsettle the spectator into an awareness of how a conscious fantasy conceals another unconscious fundamental fantasy, thereby encouraging a change in spectatorial position (from 'perverse'/fetishistic to 'neurotic'). Conflating this change with Lacan's notion of traversing the fantasy, the authors contend that mainstream cinema has the capacity to induce a process of subjectivization (assuming responsibility for one's own desire). This process is contingent on four conditions: identification with the protagonist's fantasy to conceal the lack in the Other; dissolution of this fantasy, initiated by the body-character breach; rhetorical strategies (the coding of unconscious scenarios cinematically); and an ethical dimension (encouraging the subject/spectator to follow her/his desire). Copyright © 2016 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  4. Reframing Nationalism, Citizenship and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Stoltz, Pauline

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: The growth of nationalism and nativist parties and movements has raised political and scholarly debates about the future viability of European welfare states and democracies. These projects are sparkled by reactions to the global war on terror and the economic and financial crises...... have pointed towards the growth of exclusive welfare nationalism fueled by global mobility and increased migration. Feminist scholars have started to analyse the articulation of welfare and citizenship in nationalist projects. The theoretical section revisits approaches to gender nationalism arguing...

  5. Attitudes of elementary, middle and high school teachers toward mainstreaming: implications for job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, E; Lombardo, V

    1987-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to the job satisfaction experienced by human services personnel, including classroom teachers. This study examines teacher's response to postal questionnaires seeking information about job satisfaction and attitudes to the mainstreaming of children with special needs. Results suggest that teachers at secondary or high school level experience lower job satisfaction than those working in middle or elementary schools. Comparison between teachers with or without experiences of mainstreaming reveals further differences between these groups with regard to their attitude toward the value of special educator involvement in the classroom; the importance of special assessments; discipline; the role of mainstreaming in enhancing peer relationships; and appreciation of school administrators' awareness of the implications of mainstreaming.

  6. The influence of tobacco blend composition on carbon monoxide formation in mainstream cigarette smoke

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Djulančić, Nermina; Radojičić, Vesna; Srbinovska, Marija

    2013-01-01

    ...) in the gas phase of mainstream cigarette smoke. The results showed that the type of tobacco examined had a significant impact on the amount of carbon monoxide production in the gas phase of cigarette smoke...

  7. Comparison of General Chemistry Performances of Pre-nursing and Mainstream Chemistry Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Sybil K.; Bino, Janis

    1988-01-01

    Compares the abilities of pre-nursing and mainstream chemistry students in general chemistry courses. Finds no significant difference between the populations. Lists topics covered, representative test questions, and performance comparisons. (MVL)

  8. On certain similarities between mainstream psychology and the writings of B.F. Skinner

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goddard, Murray J

    2012-01-01

    Selected writings of B. F. Skinner are compared to 5 current topics in main-stream psychology, including the role of the unconscious, human language, the role of dispositions in psychology, human perceptions of conformity...

  9. Communicating Sustainable Shoes to Mainstream Consumers: The Impact of Advertisement Design on Buying Intention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mirjam Visser; Valentin Gattol; Rosan Vander Helm

    2015-01-01

      Traditionally, marketing of sustainable products addresses green buyers, thus missing out on the mainstream consumers and volume necessary to cover the potentially higher cost of more sustainable materials...

  10. Organizational values and the implications for mainstreaming climate adaptation in Dutch municipalities : Using Q methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uittenbroek, Caroline J.; Janssen-Jansen, Leonie B.; Spit, Tejo J M; Runhaar, Hens A C

    2014-01-01

    Mainstreaming climate adaptation requires the inclusion of climate adaptation in the policies of various policy domains such as water management and spatial planning. This paper investigates the organizational values present in several municipal policy departments in order to explore their

  11. Mainstream health professionals' stigmatising attitudes towards people with intellectual disabilities : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelleboer-gunnink, H.A.; Van Oorsouw, W.M.W.J.; Van Weeghel, J.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.

    Background Equal access to mainstream healthcare services for people with intellectual disabilities (ID) still requires attention. Although recent studies suggest that health professionals hold positive attitudes towards people with ID, stigmatising attitudes may influence their efforts to serve

  12. MODEL PEMBERDAYAAN PEREMPUAN DAN PENGARUSUTAMAAN GENDER MELALUI LAYANAN PENDIDIKAN MASYARAKAT PADA PUSAT KEGIATAN BELAJAR MASYARAKAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anan Sutisna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan model pemberdayaan perempuan dan pengarusutamaan gender melalui layanan pendidikan masyarakat pada Pusat Kegiatan Belajar Masyarakat di DKI Jakarta. Penelitian menggunakan metode survei, teknik pengumpulan data melalui penyebaran angket, dan teknik analisis data menggunakan statistik deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan hal-hal sebagai berikut. (1 Layanan program pendidikan masyarakat yang paling banyak diikuti oleh responden adalah pendidikan kesetaraan (61,4%, dan jenis kelamin responden dalam penelitian ini adalah perempuan (75,8%. (2 Pemberdayaan perempuan dan pengarusutamaan gender melalui pendidikan masyarakat (61,5%. (3 Model pemberdayaan perempuan dan pengarusutamaan gender melaui pendidikan masyarakat, dipandang strategis dengan pengintegrasian berbagai program yang direncanakan oleh pemerintah dengan program life skill sehingga akan menghasilkan sumberdaya manusia yang berakhalak mulia, cerdas, terampil dan mandiri. Kata Kunci: model pemberdayaan perempuan, layanan Pendidikan masyarakat A MODEL OF WOMAN EMPOWERMENT AND GENDER MAINSTREMING THROUGH COMMUNITY EDUCATIONAL SERVICE IN THE COMMUNITY LEARNING ACTIVITY CENTER Abstract: This study was aimed to describe a model of woman empowerment and gender mainstreaming through the community educational service in the community learning activity center in Greater Jakarta Special Capital Region. This study employed the survey method. The data were collected through questionnaires and were analyzed using the descriptive statistics. The findings showed the following: (1 the community educational program service mostly joined by the respondents was the equality education (61.4%, and most of the respondents were female (75.8%. (2 The woman empowerment and gender mainstreaming was carried out through the community education (61.5%. (3 The model of woman empowerment and gender mainstreaming through the community education is considered as

  13. Effects of gender equality institutionalization in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čičkarić Lilijana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the EU on the implementation of the policy of equal opportunities for women can be seen from harmonization of legislation and construction of institutions for protection of women’s rights, and through participation of women in decision-making processes. The first part of the article discusses the theoretical framework for research the effects of institutionalization of gender equality in the EU. In the second section the institutional and legal framework are represented as a part of the global strategy aimed at achieving gender equality. The problems dealt with in the third part of the article concerning the presence of women at different levels of decision-making in the European Union. The newest data base from gender research for European Commission and European Parliament is used for this research. Index of Gender Equality (EIGE shows that there are huge differences between Member States and that the EU is only halfway to achieving gender equality. Therefore, the integration of gender perspective in all fields and searching for measures to achieve higher level of gender equality are the focal points in EU gender politics. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179039

  14. Inclusion of Students with Disabilities in Mainstream Primary Education of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Asim, Das

    2011-01-01

    Over the years Bangladesh has shown a remarkable progress in primary education. Inclusion of students with disabilities in mainstream primary education is also increasing year by year. But in the context of quality teachinglearning for all, Bangladesh is still a far away from effective inclusive education. Inclusive education requires some additional arrangement within the mainstream system that is really a challenge. The present paper reports on the prevailing situation of education of stude...

  15. The influence of gender equality policies on gender inequalities in health in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palència, Laia; Malmusi, Davide; De Moortel, Deborah; Artazcoz, Lucía; Backhans, Mona; Vanroelen, Christophe; Borrell, Carme

    2014-09-01

    Few studies have addressed the effect of gender policies on women's health and gender inequalities in health. This study aims to analyse the relationship between the orientation of public gender equality policies and gender inequalities in health in European countries, and whether this relationship is mediated by gender equality at country level or by other individual social determinants of health. A multilevel cross-sectional study was performed using individual-level data extracted from the European Social Survey 2010. The study sample consisted of 23,782 men and 28,655 women from 26 European countries. The dependent variable was self-perceived health. Individual independent variables were gender, age, immigrant status, educational level, partner status and employment status. The main contextual independent variable was a modification of Korpi's typology of family policy models (Dual-earner, Traditional-Central, Traditional-Southern, Market-oriented and Contradictory). Other contextual variables were the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM), to measure country-level gender equality, and the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). For each country and country typology the prevalence of fair/poor health by gender was calculated and prevalence ratios (PR, women compared to men) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed. Multilevel robust Poisson regression models were fitted. Women had poorer self-perceived health than men in countries with traditional family policies (PR = 1.13, 95%CI: 1.07-1.21 in Traditional-Central and PR = 1.27, 95%CI: 1.19-1.35 in Traditional-Southern) and in Contradictory countries (PR = 1.08, 95%CI: 1.05-1.11). In multilevel models, only gender inequalities in Traditional-Southern countries were significantly higher than those in Dual-earner countries. Gender inequalities in self-perceived health were higher, women reporting worse self-perceived health than men, in countries with family policies that were less oriented to gender equality

  16. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of a non-mainstream venous route to restore an occluded hemodialysis fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyayama, Shiro; Yamashiro, Masashi; Ikuno, Masaya; Okumura, Kenichiro; Yoshida, Miki; Kato, Tamayo; Ushiogi, Yasuyuki

    2014-02-01

    To report the usefulness of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of a non-mainstream venous route in an occluded native hemodialysis fistula when a mainstream outflow vein could not be traversed. This cohort included seven patients with an occulted hemodialysis fistula with difficulty in traversing via a mainstream route. A non-mainstream vein near the occluded portion was traversed until it connected with a proximal large-sized vein and the route was dilated using a 4- or 5-mm balloon catheter. Metallic stent placement was performed, if necessary. Technical aspects and long-term patency was evaluated. PTA could be performed in all patients; however, stent placement was required in two because of residual stenosis and clotting. The clinical success rate of fistula restoration was 100 %. Fistula dysfunction recurred in six patients 17-668 days (mean ± standard deviation 229.3 ± 225.0) later. PTA was repeated in four patients, but not in two. The mean duration of the primary patency was 336.6 ± 417.2 days (range 17-1,190) and that of the secondary patency was 897.1 ± 801.4 days (range 17-2,230). PTA of a non-mainstream venous route is useful for restoring an occluded hemodialysis fistula when the mainstream outflow vein cannot be traversed.

  17. Is the Economic Crisis Challenging the Prevailing Gender Regime?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leschke, Janine; Jepsen, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of whether the current economic and financial crisis is challenging the prevailing gender-equality model in four European countries: Denmark, Germany, Slovakia, and the United Kingdom. After situating the countries in relation to the underlying gender regime...... and analysing the corresponding position of women and men in paid and unpaid work, the paper contains an in-depth discussion of the short- and medium-term policy responses to the crisis. Our analysis shows that independent of the prevailing gender regime, scant public attention has been directed to gender...

  18. Gender-Role Portrayals in Television Advertising Across the Globe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthes, Jörg; Prieler, Michael; Adam, Karoline

    Although there are numerous studies on gender-role portrayals in television advertising, comparative designs are clearly lacking. With content analytical data from a total of 13 Asian, American, and European countries, we study the stereotypical depiction of men and women in television advertisements. Our sample consists of 1755 ads collected in May 2014. Analyzing the gender of the primary character and voiceover, as well as the age, associated product categories, home- or work setting, and the working role of the primary character, we concluded that gender stereotypes in TV advertising can be found around the world. A multilevel model further showed that gender stereotypes were independent of a country's gender indices, including Hofstede's Masculinity Index, GLOBE's Gender Egalitarianism Index, the Gender-related Development Index, the Gender Inequality Index, and the Global Gender Gap Index. These findings suggest that gender stereotyping in television advertising does not depend on the gender equality prevalent in a country. The role of a specific culture in shaping gender stereotypes in television advertising is thus smaller than commonly thought.

  19. HIV/AIDS communication in four Nigerian mainstream newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okidu, Onjefu

    2014-01-01

    One consensus in discussions on HIV/AIDS communication in low and middle income countries (LMICs) is the need for communication models to focus on activity rather than cognitive indicators in order to achieve desired improvements in health behaviors and outcomes. Past failures of HIV/AIDS communication efforts in LMICs have been attributed to emphasis on cognitive indicators. This study analyses HIV/AIDS communication models in Nigerian newspapers. Data were obtained through analysis of manifest content of four Nigerian papers issued between 2002 and 2004. Frequency, prominence and space dedicated to HIV/AIDS-related topics were measured. Descriptive statistics were used to highlight the frequency and percentage of cognitive- and activity-oriented information on HIV/AIDS. A total of 464 HIV/AIDS-related articles were identified. Fifty-nine percent (274) of articles were activity-oriented. Over half of articles were news stories. No news story made front and back pages lead. There were only nine editorials on HIV/AIDS. This study shows that the activity model of HIV/AIDS communication dominates the four Nigerian mainstream newspapers studied. However, it is worth noting the limited number of editorials and feature articles, which have the capacity to stimulate debate and foster a social environment in which AIDS is addressed in a spirit of openness. For a country that has the third largest number of people living with HIV/AIDS globally, one would expect the mass media to deliberately play an instrumental and a more active role in the battle against the disease by engaging in in-depth contextual discourse on HIV/AIDS.

  20. Modernity with democracy?: Gender and governance in the people's planning campaign, Keralam

    OpenAIRE

    J. Devika

    2005-01-01

    This paper takes advantage of the possibility of a critical perspective afforded by the feminist perspective in analyzing the interactions between political and civil societies in the shaping of specific developmental interventions by the state, to examine the People's Planning Campaign (PPC) in Keralam. Implemented in the mid-90s, this was hailed as an important experiment in mainstreaming gender concerns in development. The objectives of this paper go beyond reporting on the degree of succe...

  1. Domestic soybean to compensate the European protein deficit: illusion or real market opportunity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Nicolas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to analyse the potential for EU-grown soybean to become a credible market alternative in order to reduce the European protein deficit. The analysis is conducted from the perspective of the European feed industry. The market analysis shows that the EU has very little control on its soybean supply. Moreover, the nature of the EU protein deficit calls for an increase of the availability of protein-rich ingredients. With a favourable outlook from the point of view of the demand, the most relevant growth model should be determined in order to improve the competiveness of soybean for EU arable crops farmers. The two main options are niche markets as a first step to reach mainstream supply or a more direct approach towards mainstream supply which would very probably require public support.

  2. TRANSCENDENTAL ASPECTS OF GENDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr V. Khmel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the basic principles of gender philosophy applying methodological tools of communicative pragmatics; to demonstrate how gender construct can provide gender humanism formation as one of the ideals of democratic society; to specify gender glossary terms such as “gender democracy”, “gender equality” and “gender justice”. Methodology. In order to investigate a theoretical framework in feminist philosophy, methodological tools of communicative pragmatics and discursive ethics that were elaborated by modern German philosophers J. Habermas, K.-O. Apel for analyzing ethical gender principles and their legitimation ways have been used in this research. Scientific novelty. Based on methodological differences in concepts of J. Habermas and K.-O. Apel, two opposite approaches to gender concept analysis – rational and pragmatic (Habermas and transcendental conceptual (K.-O. Apel have been found out. The article helps to specify the framework of categories and concepts. According to the legitimation way of gender ethical theory it was discovered that such notions as “gender democracy”, “gender equality” and “gender justice” do not have the same meanings. According to the analysis of communicative action program and consensus, the “gender equality” concept by Habermas is an artificial social construct that is methodologically grounded in cognitivism and diminishes the possibilities of gender values legitimation. According to K.-O. Apel, the concept of “gender justice” is based on transcendental moral and ethical sense of opposite genders unity and does not discharge unequal distribution of responsibilities and any invasion as well as represents certain extent of their difference. Conclusions. Fast growing gender changes in the society face ageold drawbacks of moral and spiritual principles of communities, taking into account social and cultural, national and gender identity. Thorough understanding of

  3. Determinants of inclusive education of 8-12 year-old children with cerebral palsy in 9 European regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentenac, Mariane; Ehlinger, Virginie; Michelsen, Susan Ishoy; Marcelli, Marco; Dickinson, Heather Olivia; Arnaud, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The principle of inclusive education has been increasingly recognised over recent decades and most countries officially support schooling of children with disabilities in mainstream settings. The SPARCLE study offers the opportunity to report on the schooling practices for children with cerebral palsy according to the nature and severity of their impairments and the schooling policy in European regions. The aim of this paper is to describe the type of schooling of children with cerebral palsy in various European regions after controlling for relevant individual factors. Children aged 8-12 years with cerebral palsy from 9 European regions and their families were interviewed. Our findings support the hypothesis that between-region variations in the type of schooling are still significant after adjustment for individual factors; and that motor function and intellectual ability have different effects on inclusion in mainstream school, depending on the region. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A critical look at the Gender Responsive Budgeting approach in the development discourse : A feminist contribution to postcolonial politics of development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carrasco Miro, G.

    2016-01-01

    Whether, and how, marginalised groups can locate their voices and achieve change within mainstream development organisations is one of the driving concerns of both political scientists interested in policy development and activists seeking social improvement. In development circles, the Gender Respo

  5. Report on the conference on 'Men, Women, and Medicine: A New View of the Biology of Sex/Gender Differences and Aging' held in Berlin, 24–26th February 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kampf Antje

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The first world wide symposium on the topic of gender-specific medicine provided the latest research on differences in sex and/or gender in medicine and medical care. The presentations ranged beyond the topic of reproduction to encompass the entire human organism. This report critically reviews three issues that emerged during the Conference: gender mainstreaming, the concept of sex/gender differences and the issue of men's health. It suggests that the interdisciplinary concept of gender-specific medicine has to be mirrored by the integration of social and cultural studies into medical research and practice.

  6. Reflecting on mainstreaming through environmental appraisal in times of financial crisis — From ‘greening’ to ‘pricing’?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazzola, Paola, E-mail: Paola.Gazzola@ncl.ac.uk

    2013-07-15

    The issue of mainstreaming has witnessed a revival over the last few years, not least because the latest financial crisis has triggered a renewed enthusiasm and a remarkable comeback amongst policy-making and environmental appraisal (EA) communities. Traditionally, environmental mainstreaming is linked to ideas of (environmental) integration and to the ‘greening’ of public policies. Yet, more recent mainstreaming efforts are building on the idea that the achievement of economic growth and of social well-being is not only dependent upon the protection of the environment, but on the fact that the environment should be valued as a source of goods and a provider of services, as well. In this context and despite the many shortcomings that EA has experienced as a mainstreaming tool over the last two decades, calls for EA to engage with ecosystem services and incorporate pricing valuations in its approach to mainstreaming are emerging, raising questions about the role and purpose of EA as an environmental mainstreaming tool. This paper aims to reflect on the role of EA as a mainstreaming tool, in terms of the extent to which it is mainstreaming the environment into policies for sustainable development and changing ‘the mainstream’ by breaking down the false dichotomy of environment and (economic) development. If mainstreaming through EA was to incorporate both greening and pricing logics, could EA be more effective in reframing the environment and development as correlated variables rather than competing variables? -- Highlights: ► Mainstreaming is witnessing a revival over the last few years and a comeback amongst environmental appraisal communities. ► Mainstreaming efforts through environmental appraisal have failed to challenge the deeply rooted belief in economic growth. ► Recent mainstreaming efforts are incorporated in “green deals” following ecological modernisation discourses. ► Environmental appraisal is urged to embrace ecosystem service

  7. Routledge history handbook of gender and the urban experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    -six chapters by key scholars in the field. It covers a wide range of topics from women and citizenship in medieval York to gender and tradition in nineteenth- and twentieth-century South African cities, reframing our understanding of the role of gender in constructing the spaces and places that form our urban......Challenging current perspectives of urbanisation, The Routledge History Handbook of Gender and the Urban Experience explores how our towns and cities have shaped and been shaped by cultural, spatial and gendered influences. This volume discusses gender in an urban context in European and colonial...... environment. Interdisciplinary and transnational in scope, this volume analyses the individual dynamics of each case study while also examining the complex relationships and exchanges between urban cultures. It is a valuable resource for all researchers and students interested in gender, urban history...

  8. Characterisation of mainstream and passive vapours emitted by selected electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiss, Otmar; Bianchi, Ivana; Barahona, Francisco; Barrero-Moreno, Josefa

    2015-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes have achieved growing popularity since their introduction onto the European market. They are promoted by manufacturers as healthier alternatives to tobacco cigarettes, however debate among scientists and public health experts about their possible impact on health and indoor air quality means further research into the product is required to ensure decisions of policymakers, health care providers and consumers are based on sound science. This study investigated and characterised the impact of 'vaping' (using electronic cigarettes) on indoor environments under controlled conditions using a 30m(3) emission chamber. The study determined the composition of e-cigarette mainstream vapour in terms of propylene glycol, glycerol, carbonyls and nicotine emissions using a smoking machine with adapted smoking parameters. Two different base recipes for refill liquids, with three different amounts of nicotine each, were tested using two models of e-cigarettes. Refill liquids were analysed on their content of propylene glycol, glycerol, nicotine and qualitatively on their principal flavourings. Possible health effects of e-cigarette use are not discussed in this work. Electronic cigarettes tested in this study proved to be sources for propylene glycol, glycerol, nicotine, carbonyls and aerosol particulates. The extent of exposure differs significantly for active and passive 'vapers' (users of electronic cigarettes). Extrapolating from the average amounts of propylene glycol and glycerol condensed on the smoking machine filter pad to the resulting lung-concentration, estimated lung concentrations of 160 and 220mgm(-3) for propylene glycol and glycerol were obtained, respectively. Vaping refill liquids with nicotine concentrations of 9mgmL(-1) led to vapour condensate nicotine amounts comparable to those of low-nicotine regular cigarettes (0.15-0.2mg). In chamber studies, peak concentrations of 2200μgm(-3) for propylene glycol, 136μgm(-3) for glycerol and 0.6

  9. Highlights from the CERN/ESO/NordForsk ''Gender in Physics Day''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primas, F.; Guinot, G.; Strandberg, L.

    2017-03-01

    In their role as observers on the EU Gender Equality Network in the European Research Area (GENERA) project, funded under the Horizon 2020 framework, CERN, ESO and NordForsk joined forces and organised a Gender in Physics Day at the CERN Globe of Science and Innovation. The one-day conference aimed to examine innovative activities promoting gender equality, and to discuss gender-oriented policies and best practice in the European Research Area (with special emphasis on intergovernmental organisations), as well as the importance of building solid networks. The event was very well attended and was declared a success. The main highlights of the meeting are reported.

  10. Fame Factory: Performing Gender and Sexuality in Talent Reality Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillevi Ganetz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses how gender and sexuality are performed in a highly feminised cultural symbolic context. The object of study is a reality show where the contestants compete in mainstream popular music. Fame Factory is a Swedish talent-hunt television series with many similarities to Pop Idol. The audience may follow the struggle of the young artists off stage in the ‘Fame School’ in addition to seeing and voting on their feats on stage. In the Fame School they learn to sing, perform and dance, but also to perform masculinity, femininity and sexuality, even if this is not explicit. Through an analysis of some key episodes of this reality show, the article discusses how gender and sexuality are produced and reproduced within this music television context. It is shown how the performances rest on highly traditional conceptions of these categories, but there are also certain transgressions, especially concerning sexuality, which undermine hegemonic structures.

  11. Equalization of Legal Status with Respect to Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Tarusina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the current trends in Russian legal doctrine and legislation on aligning the legal status of women and men, taking into account the legal positions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation and the European Court of Human Rights.It analyzes and critically reflects upon the gender aspects and content of those branches of Russian law in which such aspects are most clearly represented, either objectively or by tradition – techniques for gender neutralization of legal norms, the establishment of gender privileges and gender restrictions in legal status.Constitutional law: the basic premise of gender equality, preferential treatment for certain categories of citizens, gender limitations; problems of quotas for women’s representation in government, administration and other structures, provisions for women’s representation in party electoral lists, etc.Criminal Law: trends in the gender neutralization of crimes of a sexual nature while maintaining criminal responsibility for offenses against pregnant women, etc.; gender neutralization of preferential treatment in the punishment of persons with children.Family Law: Russia’s traditional view of marriage and parenthood; privileges for women in the divorce process, disputes about children, maintenance obligations; gender restrictions on adoption, assisted reproductive technologies; variants of gender neutralization of some family law norms.Labor law: the preservation of absolute protection of the rights and interests of pregnant women and mothers of young children; the trend for gender neutralization of the legal status of parents of young children; continued restrictions on women’s access to certain areas of work.Analysis of the legal positions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation and the European Court of Human Rights shows that on a number of gender equality aspects in Russian legislation and law enforcement practice, the views of these

  12. EUROPEAN AUSTERITY WITHOUT GROWTH? EUROPEAN GROWTH WITHOUT EUROPEAN DEMOCRACY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montani Guido

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The European project is facing a crisis. Citizens no longer understand what the EU is about. Young people and the new ruling class have forgotten the clear message of the European project launched just after the Second World War "No wars ever again among Europeans." The founding fathers of the European Union are mentioned in history textbooks, but today Europe is felt as an irritating bureaucracy. In Europe, peace and economic stability are considered as a natural state, a gift from above. Why keep a useless EU alive? The state of the European Union is swiftly degenerating. In almost all the member states, the anti-European forces are gaining ground. Populism is not a new ideology and is not necessarily European: let's recall Peronism. In today's Europe populism is the new manifestation of nationalism. In Italy the Lega Nord is in Berlusconi's eurosceptic government. In France, the National Front is endangering UMP's hegemony. In Belgium the rows between the Flemish and the Walloons threatens the state's unity. In the Netherlands, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Austria and Finland, populist forces are either in the government or strongly influencing the government. National-populism is different from the nationalism of the past. De Gaulle's nationalism was an ideology founded on the "grandeur" of France's history and on a certain idea of Europe, which was "l'Europe de patrie", a kind of European unity accepting French leadership in world politics. Today national-populism is a form of micro-nationalism: it opposes the European project but without having a serious alternative. This is why populism is dangerous. Its real goal is not only the breaking down of the European Union but also the disintegration of the old nation states into micro-ethnic states, as what happened in former Yugoslavia.

  13. A comparative study by electron paramagnetic resonance of free radical species in the mainstream and sidestream smoke of cigarettes with conventional acetate filters and 'bio-filters'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valavanidis, A; Haralambous, E

    2001-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is the most important extrinsic cause, after the diet, for increasing morbidity and mortality in humans. Unless current tobacco smoking patterns in industrialised and non-industrialised countries change, cigarettes will kill prematurely 10 million people a year by 2025. Greece is at the top of the list of European countries in cigarette consumption. In 1997, a Greek tobacco company introduced a new 'bio-filter' (BF) claiming that it reduces substantially the risks of smoking. In a recent publication [Deliconstantinos G, Villiotou V, Stavrides J. Scavenging effects of hemoglobin and related heme containing compounds on nitric oxide, reactive oxidants and carcinogenic volatile nitrosocompounds of cigarette smoke. A new method for protection against the dangerous cigarette constituents. Anticancer Res 1994; 14: 2717-2726] it was claimed that the new 'bio-filter' (activated carbon impregnated with dry hemoglobin) reduces certain toxic substances and oxidants (like NO, CO, NOx, H2O2, aldehydes, trace elements and nitroso-compounds) in the gas-phase of the mainstream smoke. We have investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) the mainstream and sidestream smoke of the BF cigarette, in comparison with three other cigarettes with similar tar and nicotine contents, that have conventional acetate filters. We found that BF cigarette smoke has similar tar radical species with the same intensity EPR signals to those of the other cigarettes. The ability of the aqueous cigarette tar extracts to produce hydroxyl radicals (HO*), which were spin trapped by DMPO, was very similar to, or even higher than, the other 3 brands. The gas-phase of the mainstream smoke of the BF cigarette showed a 30-35% reduction in the production of oxygen-centered radicals (spin trapped with PBN). In the case of the sidestream smoke, BF cigarettes produced substantially higher concentrations of gas-phase radicals, compared to the other brands. These results suggest that BF is

  14. A Critique of the Mainstream Management Control Theory and the Way Forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandana Rathnasiri Hewege

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article critiques the mainstream management control theory with a view to highlighting its gaps and to suggesting a direction for its future development. Management control theory has undergone lopsided development due to the dominance of accounting-based approaches to the study of management controls. Thus, management control theory has failed to explain complex issues that are interwoven with deep-rooted, sociocultural context within which these issues emanate. Although the influence of organizational theory, particularly systems theory, cybernetics, and contingency theory, resulted in a marginal outward shift of the boundaries of the mainstream management control theory, the main drawbacks of the theory remained unresolved. Alternative theoretical perspectives rooted in disciplines such as political economy, sociology, and anthropology can enrich the mainstream management control theory. Management control issues emanating from non-Western contexts would remain largely unexplained or poorly explained, unless alternative theoretical perspectives were used.

  15. Light and heavy element isotopic compositions of mainstream SiC grains.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amari, S.; Clayton, R. N.; Davis, A. M.; Lewis, R. S.; Pellin, M. J.

    1999-02-03

    Although a variety of types of pre-solar SiC grains have been classified by their C, N, and Si isotopic composition, the majority of such grains are so-called mainstream grains and are believed to have come from asymptotic giant branch stars [1]. We have previously reported the Mo isotopic compositions of presolar SiC grains whose C, N, and Si isotopic compositions were not known [2]. Since most presolar SiC grains fall in the mainstream group, we assumed that these grains were mainstream. The excellent match of the Mo isotopic data with expectations for nucleosynthesis in AGB stars was consistent with this identification. In order to better understand the distribution of isotopic compositions in presolar grains, we have begun to measure heavy element isotopic compositions of presolar SiC grains of known C, N and Si isotopic composition.

  16. Gender Difference in Proverbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Jia

    2013-01-01

      The language research about gender has been a heated topic in linguistics. Gender difference and sexism in language is a natural phenomenon during its use and development. It is the fact that language is discriminatory against women.

  17. Disparity between mainstream and sidestream end-tidal carbon dioxide values and arterial carbon dioxide levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekdemir, Murat; Cinar, Orhan; Yilmaz, Serkan; Yaka, Elif; Yuksel, Melih

    2013-07-01

    Measuring and monitoring end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2) is an important aspect of caring for critically ill patients. The 2 methods used for PETCO2 measurement are the mainstream and sidestream methods. To assess the agreement between PETCO2 measurements performed by mainstream and sidestream methods with the PaCO2 values. This was a prospective observational study. A total of 114 subjects were enrolled in the study. PETCO2 measurements using mainstream and sidestream methods were performed simultaneously with the arterial blood sampling in subjects who were observed in the emergency department and required arterial blood gas analysis. Agreement between the PETCO2 measurements and the PaCO2 values obtained from arterial blood gas analysis were evaluated using the Bland-Altman method. Sixty subjects (52.6%) were female, and the mean age was 60.9 years (95% CI 58.3-63.6). The mean PaCO2 was 35.16 mm Hg (95% CI 33.81-36.51), the mainstream PETCO2 was 22.11 (95% CI 21.05-23.18), and the sidestream PETCO2 was 25.48 (95% CI 24.22-26.75). Bland-Altman analysis showed an average difference between mainstream PETCO2 and PaCO2 values of 13 mm Hg (95% limits of agreement -0.6 to 25.5) and moderate correlation (r = 0.55, P < .001). The average difference between the sidestream PETCO2 and PaCO2 values was 9.7 mm Hg (95% limits of agreement -5.4 to 24.7) and poor correlation (r = 0.41, P < .001). PETCO2 values obtained by mainstream and sidestream methods were found to be significantly lower than the PaCO2 values. There was essentially no agreement between the measurements obtained by 2 different methods and the PaCO2 values.

  18. On the Need for New Economic Foundations: A Critique on Mainstream Macroeconomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hoffman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The body of macroeconomic theory known as the neoclassical-Keynesian synthesis, hereafter mainstream macroeconomics, has dominated the practice of economics since the middle of the twentieth century and is largely unchallenged in institutions that teach economics. Not only does mainstream macroeconomics underlie monetary and fiscal policies intended to promote economic growth, full employment, and price stability, but it also provides the lens through which economic activity is measured and performance is evaluated. Most importantly, it has spawned a generally accepted ideology or conventional wisdom that frames economic issues and ‘acceptable’ policy responses to them. Woe to the economist or politician who strays beyond the constraints imposed by the beliefs emanating from this body of theory. Mainstream economic theory has always had its critics, but the failure of mainstream economists to predict the collapse of 2008 and the failure of the policy responses to the crisis have stimulated a new round of criticism. This paper surveys a range of criticisms made by economists and non-economists alike and finds that grounds exist for the rejection of mainstream macroeconomic theory. It is mathematically incoherent and irrelevant insofar as the assumptions upon which it is based are not supportable; its concepts are abstract and not measurable, and not capable of addressing the real questions of sustainability, economic stability, power, justice, and equity that affect the human condition. The conclusions reached are: 1 mainstream economic theory took a profoundly wrong path in the mid-twentieth century 2 foundations for a new synthesis of economic thinking are needed capable of addressing the issues that emerged in the late 20th century and integrating findings from other sub-disciplines of economics and other sciences.

  19. Electrothermal Vaporization-QQQ-ICP-MS for Determination of Chromium in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke Particulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresquez, Mark R; Gonzalez-Jimenez, Nathalie; Gray, Naudia; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Watson, Clifford H; Pappas, R Steven

    2017-05-01

    Chromium is transported in mainstream tobacco smoke at very low concentrations. However, when chromium is deposited too deeply in the lungs for mucociliary clearance, or is in a particle that is too large to pass directly through tissues, it bioaccumulates in the lungs of smokers. It is important to determine the concentrations of chromium that are transported in mainstream smoke. Several reliable studies have resulted in reports of chromium concentrations in smoke particulate that were below limits of detection (LODs) for the instruments and methods employed. In this study, electrothermal vaporization-triple quad-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ETV-QQQ-ICP-MS) was chosen for determination of chromium concentrations in mainstream smoke because of the high sensitivity of ETV combined with QQQ-ICP-MS. The smoke from five reference, quality control, and commercial cigarettes was analyzed using ETV-QQQ-ICP-MS with isotope dilution for quantitative determination of chromium. The method LOD was sufficiently low that chromium concentrations in mainstream smoke could indeed be determined. The chromium concentrations in the smoke particulate were between 0.60 and 1.03 ng/cigarette. The range of chromium concentrations was at or below previously reported LODs. Determination of the oxidation state of the chromium transported in mainstream smoke would also be important, in consideration of the fact that both chromium(III) and chromium(VI) oxidation states cause inhalation toxicity, but chromium(VI) is also a carcinogen. It was possible to separate the oxidation states using ETV-QQQ-ICP-MS. However, determination of individual species at the levels found in mainstream smoke particulate matter was not possible with the present method. Published by Oxford University Press 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. Communicating fatigue in general practice and the role of gender

    OpenAIRE

    Meeuwesen, L.; BENSING, J; Brink-Muinen, A. van den

    2002-01-01

    From the viewpoint of quality of care, doctor-patient communication has become more and more important. Gender is an important factor in communication. Besides, cultural norms and values are likely to influence doctor-patient communication as well. This study examined (1) whether or not communication patterns of gender-dyads in general practice consultations differ across and between Western-European countries, and (2) if so, whether these differences continue to exist when controlling for pa...

  1. Gender Inequality and Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Busse, Matthias; Spielmann, Christian

    2005-01-01

    The paper empirically explores the international linkages between gender inequality and trade flows of a sample of 92 developed and developing countries. The focus is on comparative advantage in labour-intensive manufactured goods. The results indicate that gender wage inequality is positively associated with comparative advantage in labour-intensive goods, that is, countries with a larger gender wage gap have higher exports of these goods. Also, gender inequality in labour force activity rat...

  2. The semiotics of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buren, J

    1992-01-01

    The semiotics of gender are investigated in this article for the purpose of exploring the way that deep unconscious motives in relationship to cultural biases give rise to gender concepts. Theories of semiotic processes, including Jacques Lacan's concept of the psychoanalytic signifier, are explained briefly and applied to the signs of gender. The article concludes that gender concepts develop out of biology, unconscious feelings, and social patterning, and are not given, natural, and irrevocable.

  3. Workshop I: Gender Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Eden; Kurup, Anitha; Meza-Montes, Lilia; Shastri, Prajval; Ghose, Shohini

    2015-12-01

    Participants in the Gender Studies workshop of the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics discussed the gender question in science practice from a policy perspective, informed by investigations from the social science disciplines. The workshop's three sessions—"Equity and Education: Examining Gender Stigma in Science," "A Comparative Study of Women Scientists and Engineers: Experiences in India and the US," and "Toward Gender Equity Through Policy: Characterizing the Social Impact of Interventions—are summarized, and the resulting recommendations presented.

  4. Role development of nurses for technology-dependent children attending mainstream schools in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Fumie; Suzuki, Machiko

    2015-04-01

    To describe the role development of nurses caring for medical technology-dependent children attending Japanese mainstream schools. Semi-structured interviews with 21 nurses caring for technology-dependent children were conducted and analyzed using the modified grounded theory approach. Nurses developed roles centered on maintaining technology-dependent children's physical health to support children's learning with each other, through building relationships, learning how to interact with children, understanding the children and the school community, and realizing the meaning of supporting technology-dependent children. These findings support nurses to build relationships of mutual trust with teachers and children, and learn on the job in mainstream schools. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Education of the deaf in mainstream schools: exploring aspects related to communication in the inclusion process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar de Carvalho Cruz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the issue of communication with the deaf when included in mainstream education. The research investigated a model mainstream school in a city in the state of Paraná Brazil. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with hearing students. The research indicates that communication with deaf people is still characterized by impaired communication instead of effective communication. The research concluded that the adoption of Brazilian Sign Language as the first language of deaf people would be an important step to improve school education conditions for these people.

  6. Gender and Adolescent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, David G.; Pauletti, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes and critiques recent trends in research and theory on the role of gender in adolescent development. First, gender differences in key areas of adolescent functioning are reviewed. Second, research on 3 constructs that are especially relevant to the investigation of within-gender individual differences in gender…

  7. Gendered Representations of Fandom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gürsimsek, Ödül A

    2016-01-01

    discursive perspective that demonstrates that gender dynamics plays a role in interpreting the material related to fiction and the points of view of the other fan groups. The audience discourse that is shaped and negotiated by men and women who deliberate the so-called gendered interests in online mixed-gender...

  8. Gender, Identity and CMC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Simeon J.

    1997-01-01

    Some research and popularized accounts have claimed computer-mediated communication (CMC) based interactions are free of gender inequality though a growing body of research has documented gender differences in access and practice. This article examines both positions and cultural aspects of gender identities to make clear the centrality of gender…

  9. Gender: a battlefield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Guidi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the campaign against gender studies and LGBT rights conducted in France and Italy by the Catholic Church together with traditionalist movements and conservative politicians. They accuse that which they call the "gender theory" of corrupting the youth and undermining the traditional family as well as sexual customs and gender identities.

  10. Gender and Adolescent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, David G.; Pauletti, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes and critiques recent trends in research and theory on the role of gender in adolescent development. First, gender differences in key areas of adolescent functioning are reviewed. Second, research on 3 constructs that are especially relevant to the investigation of within-gender individual differences in gender…

  11. Gender: An Interdisciplinary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Wendy; Ridgeway, Cecilia L.

    2010-01-01

    This article is intended to identify research opportunities for gender scholars in all disciplines. The authors explain why a truly interdisciplinary approach is necessary to study gender and offer their current thinking about how to pursue this goal. They first provide a description of gender as it plays out at the individual, interpersonal, and…

  12. Gender blind? An analysis of global public-private partnerships for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Sarah; Buse, Kent; Kapilashrami, Anuj

    2017-05-12

    The Global Public Private Partnerships for Health (GPPPH) constitute an increasingly central part of the global health architecture and carry both financial and normative power. Gender is an important determinant of health status, influencing differences in exposure to health determinants, health behaviours, and the response of the health system. We identified 18 GPPPH - defined as global institutions with a formal governance mechanism which includes both public and private for-profit sector actors - and conducted a gender analysis of each. Gender was poorly mainstreamed through the institutional functioning of the partnerships. Half of these partnerships had no mention of gender in their overall institutional strategy and only three partnerships had a specific gender strategy. Fifteen governing bodies had more men than women - up to a ratio of 5:1. Very few partnerships reported sex-disaggregated data in their annual reports or coverage/impact results. The majority of partnerships focused their work on maternal and child health and infectious and communicable diseases - none addressed non-communicable diseases (NCDs) directly, despite the strong role that gender plays in determining risk for the major NCD burdens. We propose two areas of action in response to these findings. First, GPPPH need to become serious in how they "do" gender; it needs to be mainstreamed through the regular activities, deliverables and systems of accountability. Second, the entire global health community needs to pay greater attention to tackling the major burden of NCDs, including addressing the gendered nature of risk. Given the inherent conflicts of interest in tackling the determinants of many NCDs, it is debatable whether the emergent GPPPH model will be an appropriate one for addressing NCDs.

  13. Gendered Personality Disposition and Gender Role Attitudes among Israeli Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik, Liat

    1999-01-01

    Examines the relationship between gendered personality dispositions and two aspects of gender role attitudes (occupational sex typing and gender role stereotypes). Indicates that gendered personality disposition affects occupational sex typing, whereas gender has the strongest effect on stereotypes of gender roles in the family and society.…

  14. Women in European Culture and Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonton, Deborah Leigh

    A new and major collection of documents, Women in European Culture and Society: A Sourcebook includes a range of transnational sources which encompass the history of women in Europe from the beginning of the eighteenth century to the present day. Including documents from across Europe, from Franc...... language into English for the first time. Ideal for use on its own or as a companion volume to Women in European Culture and Society: Gender, Skill and Identity since 1700, this sourcebook is an invaluable and essential collection showing how women lived throughout Europe.......A new and major collection of documents, Women in European Culture and Society: A Sourcebook includes a range of transnational sources which encompass the history of women in Europe from the beginning of the eighteenth century to the present day. Including documents from across Europe, from France...

  15. Women in European Culture and Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonton, Deborah Leigh

    A new and major collection of documents, Women in European Culture and Society: A Sourcebook includes a range of transnational sources which encompass the history of women in Europe from the beginning of the eighteenth century to the present day. Including documents from across Europe, from Franc...... language into English for the first time. Ideal for use on its own or as a companion volume to Women in European Culture and Society: Gender, Skill and Identity since 1700, this sourcebook is an invaluable and essential collection showing how women lived throughout Europe.......A new and major collection of documents, Women in European Culture and Society: A Sourcebook includes a range of transnational sources which encompass the history of women in Europe from the beginning of the eighteenth century to the present day. Including documents from across Europe, from France...

  16. On European Religious Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽娟

    2016-01-01

    Since ancient time,literature has being a hot topic that scholars concern.Latin religious literature is the mainstream of medieval literature.This paper analyzes medieval literature from three aspects which are the religious cultural background,main characteristics and achievements.What’s more,the thesis summarizes its influence to literature afterwards,and provides suggestion to the contemporary literature in China.

  17. Gender and (UnSustainability—Can Communication Solve a Conflict of Norms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Franz-Balsen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In theory, and even more in the practice of sustainability communications, the gender dimension of sustainability has been neglected relative to other fields of the science. The aim of this paper is to show the relevance of gender as an analytical category for research and the importance of gender competence as an indispensable skill for professional sustainability communicators. Understanding how gender norms have contributed to inhibiting sustainable development is key to well-targeted means to communicate visions of sustainable ways of life. Traditional norms of masculinity are clearly in tension with the ethical, ecological and social implications of Sustainable Development, whereas the norms of femininity work against empowerment and participation of women. Current changes in gender relations and gender identities in the western world do not automatically solve this conflict of norms. Therefore, sustainability communication must and can contribute to shaping the social construction of gender towards new “sustainable” norms and ideals for the various gender identities in western societies. In order to achieve this, gender mainstreaming (GM needs to be implemented in the field of sustainability communication, from capacity building for communicators to project design and research. Gender and diversity competence is to become a professional requirement, assuring that traditional “doing gender” is avoided, cultural diversity respected and structural inequalities are made visible. Visions of sustainable societies should include changes in gender relations. The argument is based on sociological studies, gender theories, gender policies, and environmental and sustainability communication studies, empirically supported by biographical studies and media analyses over the last twenty years in Western Europe, mainly Germany.

  18. Gender Discrimination in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖敏慧

    2014-01-01

    Gender discrimination in language is usually defined as discrimination based on sex, especially discrimination against women. With the rise of women’s liberation movement in the 1960s and 1970s, and the improvement of women’s social status in recent years, gender discrimination in English attracts more and more attention. Based on previous studies, this thesis first dis⁃cusses the manifestations of gender discrimination in English vocabulary and address terms, then analyzes the factors of gender dis⁃crimination in English from social and cultural perspectives, finally puts forward some methods that are good for avoiding or elim⁃inating gender discrimination in English.

  19. Evaluating the Teaching and Learning Experience for the Child with Dyslexia in Special and Mainstream Settings in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhillips, Therese; Shevlin, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This study examines and evaluates special provision for pupils with dyslexia in three different settings: reading schools, reading units and mainstream support. The research focused on the teaching and learning context for pupils with dyslexia, the support teacher, the mainstream teacher and the experience of the student. The main participants…

  20. Inclusion and the Special Educational Needs (SEN) Resource Base in Mainstream Schools: Physical Factors to Maximise Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Keith; Hadjri, Karim

    2013-01-01

    As a society, we have a responsibility to provide an inclusive built environment. As part of the need to promote inclusion, there is now a growing trend to place pupils with special educational needs (SEN) into a mainstream school setting. This is often facilitated by providing a specialist SEN resource base located within the mainstream school.…

  1. Administrative Implications of Mainstreaming. NAESP School Leadership Digest Second Series, Number 7. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, Number 22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coursen, David

    "Mainstreaming" is defined as a program whereby handicapped children are placed in regular classrooms for all or part of the school day, with steps taken to see that their special needs are satisfied within this arrangement. Key court decisions are cited because the implications of mainstreaming for contemporary education can be properly…

  2. Highlights from e-EPS: Gender Manifesto / Energy Conference / ERASMUS Anniversary

    CERN Multimedia

    Hendrik Ferdinande and Ian Randall

    2012-01-01

    e-EPS News is a monthly addition to the CERN Bulletin line-up, showcasing articles from e-EPS – the European Physical Society newsletter – as part of a collaboration between the two publications.   Manifesto on the Gender Dimension in Research Interested parties are encouraged to sign the Manifesto for Integrated Action on the Gender Dimension in Research and Innovation. The manifesto discusses potential actions to enhance research and innovation by addressing gender equality issues. The manifesto follows on from the European Commission public consultation on the green paper “What actions should be taken at EU level to further strengthen the role of women in science and innovation?”, which received 300 responses, and the subsequent 2011 European Gender Summit, which was attended by over 400 stakeholders. To date, over 2,800 people have signed the manifesto. For more information, and to sign the manifesto, please visit the gender summit website. Seco...

  3. [Men caretakers of life: Training in gender-sensitive masculinities for the prevention of violence towards women in Medellin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza-Sosa, Gladys Rocío; Gaviria, Silvia L; Geldres-García, Denis A; Vargas-Romero, Rosamarina

    2015-01-01

    The training strategies targeted at men so as to reflect on the cultural patterns of patriarchy are an alternative in the promotion of human rights, the prevention of violence towards women and the mainstreaming of gender equality in public policies. With a socio-critical pedagogical approach, we conducted a Training Certification Program in gender equality and gender-sensitive masculinities, for a group of 76 male civil servants and civic leaders in the Colombian city of Medellin, for the purpose of questioning their gender socialization in the patriarchal model, directed towards the development and execution of social, educational or communications projects. The projects proposed by the participants criticize the andro-centric, sexist and discriminatory discourses regarding women that circulate in a manner predominant in their academic, workplace and family ambits, with a gender political commitment and respect for diversity.

  4. Gender determination in populus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLetchie, D.N. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Tuskan, G.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Gender, the expression of maleness or femaleness, in dioecious plants has been associated with changes in morphology, physiology, ecological position, and commercial importance of several species, including members of the Salicaceae family. Various mechanisms have been proposed to explain the expression of gender in Salicaceae, including sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian genes, quantitative genes, environment, and genotype-by-environment interactions. Published reports would favor a genetic basis for gender. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers associated with gender in a segregating family of hybrid poplars. Bulked segregant analysis and chi-squared analysis were used to test for the occurrence of sex chromosomes, individual loci, and chromosome ratios (i.e., ploidy levels) as the mechanisms for gender determination. Examination of 2488 PCR based RAPD markers from 1219 primers revealed nine polymorphic bands between male and female bulked samples. However, linkage analysis indicated that none of these markers were significantly associated with gender. Chisquared results for difference in male-to-female ratios between diploid and triploid genotypes also revealed no significant differences. These findings suggest gender is not controlled via sex chromosomes, simple Mendelian loci or ratios of autosome to gender-determining loci. It is possible that gender is determined genetically by regions of the genome not sampled by the tested markers or by a complex of loci operating in an additive threshold manner or in an epistatic manner. It is also possible that gender is determined environmentally at an early zygote stage, canalizing gender expression.

  5. Gender stereotype susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina A Pavlova

    Full Text Available Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior.

  6. Gender stereotype susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A; Weber, Susanna; Simoes, Elisabeth; Sokolov, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior.

  7. Gender Stereotype Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A.; Weber, Susanna; Simoes, Elisabeth; Sokolov, Alexander N.

    2014-01-01

    Gender affects performance on a variety of cognitive tasks, and this impact may stem from socio-cultural factors such as gender stereotyping. Here we systematically manipulated gender stereotype messages on a social cognition task on which no initial gender gap has been documented. The outcome reveals: (i) Stereotyping affects both females and males, with a more pronounced impact on females. Yet an explicit negative message for males elicits a striking paradoxical deterioration in performance of females. (ii) Irrespective of gender and directness of message, valence of stereotype message affects performance: negative messages have stronger influence than positive ones. (iii) Directness of stereotype message differentially impacts performance of females and males: females tend to be stronger affected by implicit than explicit negative messages, whereas in males this relationship is opposite. The data are discussed in the light of neural networks underlying gender stereotyping. The findings provide novel insights into the sources of gender related fluctuations in cognition and behavior. PMID:25517903

  8. Gender Orders Unbound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    During the last thirty years, the modernisation of gender relations has been dynamic and comprehensive, shaped by the conflicting forces of globalisation as well as women's movements around the world. As the patterns of segregation and discrimination of the classical industrial gender order erode...... issues are the chances and the barriers for equality and new forms of gender reciprocity and solidarity.......During the last thirty years, the modernisation of gender relations has been dynamic and comprehensive, shaped by the conflicting forces of globalisation as well as women's movements around the world. As the patterns of segregation and discrimination of the classical industrial gender order erode......, new complexities and contentions in gender relations emerge at various sites such as politics, work and families. The main aim of the book is to trace formal as well as informal gender contracts as they emerge in everyday life and also in new norms and regulations set by state and enterprises. Core...

  9. Gender in medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Malterud, Kirsti

    2009-01-01

    are regarded as normal to the extent that female values disappear or need to be blatantly highlighted in order to be recognized. We have applied this frame of reference to understand how the idea of gender neutrality has been established in medicine. The average medical practitioner, teacher, or researcher...... is a man. We suggest that notions of normality subtly construct gender in medicine in ways where men become normal, while women become deviant. Finally, we discuss strengths and pitfalls of three different strategies which have been used by gender researchers in health to challenge andronormativity......: demonstrating gender differences, revealing the consequences of gendered power inequalities, and deconstructing the meaning of gender. Conclusions: We conclude that gender still matters in medicine....

  10. Gender roles revised?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to deepen the understanding of how mobile phone usage is related to gender in general and the negotiation of gender roles in particular. It will focus on how women in Kenya appropriate mobile phones and how the appropriation is influenced by prevailing gender norms......’s mobile phone use in everyday life, to shed light on the relationship between gender, mobile phone and development in Kenya and to answer the following questions: How is mobile phones integrated in the everyday life of Kenyan women (rural, peri-urban and urban)? How can women’s different usages of mobile...... phones be understood in relation to, and inform us about changing gender relations in contemporary Kenya? The chapter demonstrates that on the one hand, distinctive gendered usage of mobile phones is present - practices that are direct consequences of prevailing gender roles. On the other hand...

  11. Gender-Kompetenz – Vermittlung im Kontext Schule: Von Widerständen, dem Wunsch nach fertigen Rezepten und von möglichen Lösungen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Nachtsheim

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Die Autorinnen beschreiben, wie eine Vermittlung von Gender-Kompetenz im Sinne des Gender Mainstreaming an Schulen erfolgen kann und mit welchen Vorbehalten und Widerständen sie es zu tun hat. Schulen als elementare Bildungseinrichtungen sind wichtige gesellschaftliche Institutionen wenn es um Gender Mainstreaming geht und darum, Entwicklungschancen jenseits von geschlechterstereotypen Zuschreibungen zu ermöglichen. Im Bereich Schule zeigen sich ganz aktuell verschiedene genderanalytische Ansatzpunkte: Jungen, die als ‚Verlierer des Bildungssystems’ bezeichnet werden, Mädchen, denen trotz der besseren Schulabschlüsse seltener berufliche Karrieren gelingen und die aus einem sehr kleinen Berufswahlspektrum wählen. Wie sind Jungen für Lesen und Mädchen für Physik zu begeistern? Welche Geschlechterrollenstereotype sind wirksam und wo kann Schule an Veränderungen mitwirken? Welche Kompetenzen benötigen Schulen, Schulleiter/-innen und Lehrer/-innen?

  12. Gender: an issue for science?

    CERN Multimedia

    Marina Giampietro

    2014-01-01

    Last week, CERN was invited to participate in the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) regional review meeting on how to accelerate gender equality in the European region. Representatives from CERN joined the conversation and proposed concrete examples of what needs to happen to enable more active participation by women in science and in decision-making positions.   In September 1995, around 10,000 participants, 30,000 activists, and government representatives from 189 countries all over the world met in Beijing for the Fourth World Conference on Women. The outcome was the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action. Almost 20 years later, this document is considered the most progressive declaration for the advancement of women’s rights. In March 2015, the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women will carry out a review and appraisal of the implementation of the declaration with a global summit at United Nations Headquarters, New York. In view of this meeting, ...

  13. From Great Men to Ordinary Citizens? The Biographical Approach to Narrating European Integration in Museums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Kaiserm

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The history of European integration is not easy to tell – in books or, for that matter, in museums. Most importantly, it appears to lack drama. This lack of drama creates a dilemma for museum practitioners who wish to tell stories about the contemporary history of Europe as shared history. In these circumstances, one prominent way of telling stories about European integration history in museums, and the focus of this article, is the biographical approach. Drawing upon research in all of the museums mentioned in this article and many more, and some 60 interviews with museum practitioners from across Europe, this article first discusses three biographical approaches to narrating European integration history in museums. It proceeds to draw out general conclusions about the prospects of mainstreaming European integration in history museums, and about the particular opportunities and pitfalls of the biographical approach and its different varieties.

  14. Gender constructions and negotiations in physical education: case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    With-Nielsen, Ninna; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2011-01-01

    In Denmark as in other European countries, many girls, and especially Muslim girls, seem to lose interest in physical activities and sport with increasing age. However, in a Danish context, little is known about the reasons why girls drop out of sport and which role physical education (PE) plays...... in this process. In this article we present results of a qualitative study on gendered discourses and doing gender in a PE class at a Danish high school. Drawing on constructivist and post-structuralist approaches to gender and ethnicity, we explore the different opportunities of girls in PE based on in...

  15. European Honors Council

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Marca Wolfensberger

    2016-01-01

    In M. Wolfensberger (Chair), Models of support. Break out session conducted at the Utrecht Honours Conference 2016: Honours Futures, June 2-3 Utrecht. The European Honors Council (EHC) is a new European network around the subject of talent development in European higher education.

  16. European Network Against Racism:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helene Pristed

    From the point of view of social movement theory, ENAR (European Network Against Racism) is a strange creature. Partly being an outcome of the European Year Against Racism celebrated in 1997, ENAR was created in 1998 explicitly as an interlocutor with the European Commission in terms of its...

  17. Mainstreaming Human Rights Education--A New NCSS Community Looks Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Rosemary Ann

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to bring human rights (HR) and international humanitarian law (IHL) into the mainstream of social studies education in the United States often encounter roadblocks and digressions that are difficult to understand from outside the arena of US public education. Educational standards, curricula and core practices in U.S. public schools…

  18. The Hopelessly Compromised: Independent Games as a Movement against Mainstream AAA Video Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    The last 10-15 years have seen the rise of a loosely defined independent games movement, often promoted as a more authentic type of video game than mainstream big budget video games (Juul 2014). For example, developer Dan Cook claims that “Indie games let me be a fan who is cheering on someone au...

  19. Exploring Teachers' Strategies for Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Mainstream Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Sally; Proulx, Meghann; Scott, Helen; Thomson, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    As the rates of diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) increase and more students with ASD are enrolled in mainstream schools, educators face many challenges in teaching and managing social and behavioural development while ensuring academic success for all students. This descriptive, qualitative study, embedded within an inclusive…

  20. Organizational values and the implications for mainstreaming climate adaptation in Dutch municipalities : Using Q methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uittenbroek, Caroline J.; Janssen-Jansen, Leonie B.; Spit, Tejo J M; Runhaar, Hens A C

    2014-01-01

    Mainstreaming climate adaptation requires the inclusion of climate adaptation in the policies of various policy domains such as water management and spatial planning. This paper investigates the organizational values present in several municipal policy departments in order to explore their willingne