WorldWideScience

Sample records for gender equity equality

  1. Gender Equality a case study of Sweden : Gender Equality Gender Equity and policies of combating inequality at workplace to make the society equal.

    OpenAIRE

    Sultan, Tipu

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyses Gender Equality, Gender Equity and policies of combating inequality at workplace to make the society equal as a case study of Sweden. The aim of paper is see the gender equality, gender equity, discrimination against women at workplace and to describe the policies combating inequality in the welfare state of Sweden. This work highlights the gender equality in terms of institutionalizing gender equality, gender equity, gender and pay gap, parental leave, gender and the pensi...

  2. Gender Roles, Gender (In)equality and Fertility: An Empirical Test of Five Gender Equity Indices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mills, M.

    2010-01-01

    The division of gender roles in the household and societal level gender (in)equality have been situated as one of the most powerful factors underlying fertility behaviour. Despite continued theoretical attention to this issue by demographers, empirical research integrating gender roles and equity in

  3. Gender Roles, Gender (In)equality and Fertility: An Empirical Test of Five Gender Equity Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Melinda Mills

    2010-01-01

    The division of gender roles in the household and societal level gender (in)equality have been situated as one of the most powerful factors underlying fertility behaviour. Despite continued theoretical attention to this issue by demographers, empirical research integrating gender roles and equity in relation to fertility remains surprisingly sparse. This paper first provides a brief review of previous research that has examined gender roles and fertility followed by a comparison of six promin...

  4. Gender Equality and Equity at the University of Dar es Salaam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the approaches and initiatives for gender equality and equity at the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM). It argues that these approaches and initiatives are a reflection and a follow-up of gender equality and equity initiatives and strategies undertaken at global, regional, and national levels. However ...

  5. Ethical reflections of gender equality and equity in adolescence medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzo, P; Caenazzo, L

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences, in both clinical and research environment, exist also in a particular category of patients, adolescents, who constitute a vulnerable group with respect to healthcare decisions. In clinical context, the main ethical issues that may be identified within gender medicine for adolescent patients are related to the information given to the patient and its parents, the adolescent's capacity of understanding considering his/her maturity, vulnerability and autonomy, the consent to medical treatment in relation to the different possible approaches to their different efficacy and possible side effects. Also, with regard to the research context, ethical issues may arise from the participation of female minors in clinical trials. Ethical concerns may also arise in the field of resource allocation in health policies, such as the equitable distribution and access to resources, considering the young age of the subjects involved. A bioethical reflection, which takes into account not only the differences biologically and epidemiologically relevant, but also the main determinants of health in adolescence, might find a role in structured education for diversity and gender equity. Given the magnitude of the problem, to encourage the pursuit of gender equity in health and, in some situations, also to promote the full recognition of the right to health of women are some of the most effective and direct ways to reduce inequalities and to ensure a rational and efficient use of available resources, including through a bioethical reflection on the topic. The Authors show the necessity to differentiate the various aspects of gender differences in adolescence medicine, providing arguments in support of the fact that interventions for health prevention and promotion should be modulated in relation to the gender of the recipients, emphasizing the most important aspects for each group of individuals. This approach could implement personalized medicine, even and especially

  6. The gender gap in sport performance: equity influences equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capranica, Laura; Piacentini, Maria Francesca; Halson, Shona; Myburgh, Kathryn H; Ogasawara, Etsuko; Millard-Stafford, Mindy

    2013-01-01

    Sport is recognized as playing a relevant societal role to promote education, health, intercultural dialogue, and the individual development, regardless of an individual's gender, race, age, ability, religion, political affiliation, sexual orientation, and socioeconomic background. Yet, it was not until the 2012 Summer Olympic Games in London that every country's delegation included a female competitor. The gender gap in sport, although closing, remains, due to biological differences affecting performance, but it is also influenced by reduced opportunity and sociopolitical factors that influence full female participation across a range of sports around the world. Until the cultural environment is equitable, scientific discussion related to physiological differences using methods that examine progression in male and female world-record performances is limited. This commentary is intended to provide a forum to discuss issues underlying gender differences in sport performance from a global perspective and acknowledge the influence of cultural and sociopolitical factors that continue to ultimately affect female performance.

  7. Gender equity and equality on Korean student scientists: A life history narrative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Changsoo

    Much research, including that by Koreans (e.g., Mo, 1999), agrees on two major points relating to the inequitable and unequal condition of women in the scientific community: (1) the fact that the under-representation of women in the scientific community has been taken for granted for years (e.g., Rathgeber, 1998), and (2) documenting women's lives has been largely excluded in women's studies (e.g., Sutton, 1998). The basis for the design of this study relates to the aforementioned observations. This study addresses two major research questions: how do social stereotypes exist in terms of gender equity and equality in the South Korean scientific and educational fields, and how do these stereotypes influence women and men's socializations, in terms of gender equity and equality, in the South Korean scientific and educational fields? To investigate the research questions, this qualitative study utilizes a life history narrative approach in examining various theoretical perspectives, such as critical theory, post-structuralism, and postmodernism. Through the participants' perceptions and experiences in the scientific community and in South Korean society, this study fords gendered stereotypes, practices, and socializations in school, family, and the scientific community. These findings demonstrate asymmetric gendered structures in South Korea. Moreover, with the comparison among male and female participants, this study shows how they perceive and experience differently in school, family, and the scientific community. This study attempts to understand the South Korean scientific community as represented by four student scientists through social structures. Education appears to function significantly as an hegemonic power in conveying legitimating ideologies. This process reproduces man-centered social structures, especially in the scientific community. This suggests that to emancipate women's under-representations in the scientific community, educational administrators

  8. The health of women and girls: how can we address gender equality and gender equity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the health of women and girls, and the role of addressing gender inequalities experienced by women and girls. The health of both males and females is influenced by sex, or biological factors, and gender, or socially constructed influences, including gender differences in the distribution and impact of social determinants of health, access to health promoting resources, health behaviors and gender discourse, and the ways in which health systems are organized and financed, and how they deliver care. Various strategies to address the health of women and girls have been developed at intergovernmental, regional, and national level, and by international nongovernmental organizations. These include vertical programs which aim to target specific health risks and deliver services to meet women and girl's needs, and more cross-cutting approaches which aim at "gender" policy making. Much of this work has developed following the adoption of gender mainstreaming principles across different policy arenas and scales of policy making, and this article reviews some of these strategies and the evidence for their success, before concluding with a consideration of future directions in global policy. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Gender equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-30

    Although women make up 77% of the healthcare workforce, gender inequality remains a problem in the NHS, and women continue to be under-represented at senior levels. For example, only 37% of the members of clinical commissioning group governing bodies are women.

  10. Beyond equity and equality: voices of fear about gender advocacy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The students had fears that gender is associated with feminism. They also claimed that there was too much emphasis on girls and women to the neglect of boys and men in gender courses. The main purpose of the study is to provide some insights into teaching gender in tertiary institutions in an African country. It also seeks ...

  11. Equality or Equity: Gender Awareness Issues in Secondary Schools in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halai, Anjum

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on gender awareness issues as a dimension of addressing the wider issue of the quality of education in Pakistan from the perspective of social justice. In Pakistan classrooms, boys and girls learn separately and therefore teachers and others tend to think that there are no gender issues once access is achieved and the learners…

  12. Beyond equity and equality: voices of fear about gender advocacy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moreover, internationalization of the women's movement brought together feminists and women researchers and activists from both north and south (the sisterhood) such that the roots of gender as a discipline are more or less found in feminism. Furthermore, the political context of gender studies, research and advocacy in ...

  13. The Equity-Equality Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2013-01-01

    -for-performance systems) perceived as fair and when are they not? When can differences in contribution (equity) overrule the social norm of equality? Which contingent reward structure should be applied for teamwork members, if any? Which structure to motivate employees to a continuous search for smarter working...... procedures and solutions? These are central concerns of motivation theory, where rational choice decisions are counterbalanced by endowment effectsor other fairness concerns. Management is placed in a dilemma between what is, e.g., an economically rational structure of incentives, on the one hand, and what...

  14. Gender equality and meritocracy

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Stina

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines how gender equality measures and discourses are reconciled with notions of merit in academia. Gender equality is often defined as equal rights for women and men and has become a widely accepted political goal and vision. Meritocratic principles build on the assumption that everyone, regardless of gender, class, race and sexuality, has the same opportunities to advance provided they are sufficiently hardworking and intelligent. Meritocratic principles thus build on the ass...

  15. Gender, equity, and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-02-01

    Although equity theory has served as a theoretical framework applying to most individuals in most situations, empirical research suggests that gender may affect the utility of equity theory in explaining organizational behaviors. Studies have indicat...

  16. The Equity-Equality Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2013-01-01

    This article investigatesthe factors that determine workplace actors’ appeal to social norms of fairness in some situations and what ‘fairness’ is perceived as consisting of. When is a pay level considered as relativity fair, and when is it not? When are contingent pay systems (i.e. pay-for-perfo......This article investigatesthe factors that determine workplace actors’ appeal to social norms of fairness in some situations and what ‘fairness’ is perceived as consisting of. When is a pay level considered as relativity fair, and when is it not? When are contingent pay systems (i.e. pay......-for-performance systems) perceived as fair and when are they not? When can differences in contribution (equity) overrule the social norm of equality? Which contingent reward structure should be applied for teamwork members, if any? Which structure to motivate employees to a continuous search for smarter working...... procedures and solutions? These are central concerns of motivation theory, where rational choice decisions are counterbalanced by endowment effectsor other fairness concerns. Management is placed in a dilemma between what is, e.g., an economically rational structure of incentives, on the one hand, and what...

  17. Measuring Gender Equality

    OpenAIRE

    Posadas, Josefina; Paci, Pierella; Sajaia, Zurab; Lokshin, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Gender equality is a core development objective in its own right and also smart development policy and business practice. No society can develop sustainably without giving men and women equal power to shape their own lives and contribute to their families, communities, and countries. And yet, critical gender gaps continue to exist in all countries and across multiple dimensions. The gender module of the World Bank’s ADePT software platform produces a comprehensive set of tables and graphs...

  18. PARTNERSHIPS FOR GENDER EQUITY IN NIGERIAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UDS-CAPTURED

    benefits. Higher education institutions, which experience the widest gender equity gaps in education programming have drawn grave attention and various responses being ... Owing to the importance of gender equality in sustainable development, more efforts are ... education in transforming individual lives and societies.

  19. Gender equity & human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vepa, Swarna S

    2007-10-01

    The welfare of both women and men constitutes the human welfare. At the turn of the century amidst the glory of unprecedented growth in national income, India is experiencing the spread of rural distress. It is mainly due to the collapse of agricultural economy. Structural adjustments and competition from large-scale enterprises result in loss of rural livelihoods. Poor delivery of public services and safety nets, deepen the distress. The adverse impact is more on women than on men. This review examines the adverse impact of the events in terms of endowments, livelihood opportunities and nutritional outcomes on women in detail with the help of chosen indicators at two time-periods roughly representing mid nineties and early 2000. The gender equality index computed and the major indicators of welfare show that the gender gap is increasing in many aspects. All the aspects of livelihoods, such as literacy, unemployment and wages now have larger gender gaps than before. Survival indicators such as juvenile sex ratio, infant mortality, child labour have deteriorated for women, compared to men, though there has been a narrowing of gender gaps in life expectancy and literacy. The overall gender gap has widened due to larger gaps in some indicators, which are not compensated by the smaller narrowing in other indicators both in the rural and urban context.

  20. Gender equality and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This editorial introduces an issue of INSTRAW News that commemorates the 50th anniversary of the UN's Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This introduction notes that the lead article in the journal expresses optimism about potential progress towards achieving gender equity and human rights because 1) industrialized countries are undergoing a "powershift" to an information society that will offer more and better jobs for women and give women greater access to the power of information, 2) women's earnings have increased worldwide, 3) more and more women are organizing on their own behalf, and 4) a public discourse is being created that promotes the mainstreaming of women's rights and their equality. In addition, several of the UN's international treaties promote gender equality and women's human rights. Foremost among these are 1) the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women; 2) the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, adopted by the 1993 World Conference on Human Rights; 3) the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women; and 4) the Platform for Action of the Fourth World Conference on women. Counteracting these positive steps is a trend towards defining identity and rights on the basis of community membership only, which ignores the fact that cultures, traditions, and religions are not gender neutral. Given the challenges ahead, the partnership model of society created by women when they have political power is more likely to result in sustainable solutions than the dominator model that men have forwarded for the past 6000 years.

  1. Taxes and gender equity

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Brenda Battisti

    questions through an analysis of personal income and consumption taxes in eight countries at different levels of ... Implicit gender biases are also found in consumption taxes, given that males and females have different expenditure patterns. ... and Social Protection in Developing Countries.” The project profile is available at.

  2. Taxation and Gender Equity

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Her research areas are macroeconomic issues in public finance, fiscal decentralization, gender budgeting, and human development. ...... Taxes are imposed on gasoline and diesel for transportation and industrial use to compensate for the reduction in tax revenue generated by the production and export of crude oil.

  3. Gender Roles, Gender (Inequality and Fertility: An Empirical Test of Five Gender Equity Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Mills

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The division of gender roles in the household and societal level gender (inequality have been situated as one of the most powerful factors underlying fertility behaviour. Despite continued theoretical attention to this issue by demographers, empirical research integrating gender roles and equity in relation to fertility remains surprisingly sparse. This paper first provides a brief review of previous research that has examined gender roles and fertility followed by a comparison of six prominent gender equality indices: Gender-related Development Index (GDI, Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM, Gender Gap Index (GGI, Gender Equality Index (GEI, the European Union Gender Equality Index (EU-GEI and the Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI. The paper then tests how five of these indices impact fertility intentions and behaviour using a series of multilevel (random-coefficient logistic regression models, applying the European Social Survey (2004/5. The GDI, with its emphasis on human development, adjusted for gender, has the strongest and significant effect on fertility intentions. The EU-GEI, which focuses on the universal caregiver model, uncovers that more equity significantly lowers fertility intentions, but only for women. The remaining indicators show no significant impact. The paper concludes with a reflection and suggestions for future research.

  4. The policy on gender equality in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    The briefing paper describes current Danish policies, practices and legislation within the area of gender equality. It addresses economic independence, reconciliation policies, participation in decision-making, gender-based violence and trafficking, gender stereotypes, and gender equality...

  5. District Power Equalization, Horizontal Equity and the Property Mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilley, John

    1980-01-01

    Argues that the traditional district power equalization (DPE) grant formula achieves horizontal equity, that the formula must be modified when the measure of fiscal capacity differs from the legal tax base, and that the inclusion of a tax exporting variable leads to the breakdown of horizontal equity. (Author/IRT)

  6. The Europeanisation of gender equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2007-01-01

    The paper examines the extent to which member states control the impact of European Union (EU) policies. It does so through an historical study of what is considered to be the ‘least likely case’ – the Europeanization of Danish gender equality. The analytical findings identify various and diverse...

  7. Cultural value orientation and gender equity: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiqi N.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, gender issues have grabbed substantial attention from social scientists, activists and academic fraternity. Right from family to workplace to society at large, attempts have been initiated to advocate equal rights for women in different spheres of life. Despite social activists and policy makers striving hard towards gender sensitization, gender discrimination still persists in various domains of life. Therefore, there is a strong need to identify the factors that potentially determine people’s attitude towards gender equity. With this very objective, the current study examines existing literature on gender discrimination and its association with Hofstede’s (1980 cultural values. Following the “Gender-Organization-System Approach”, the present study postulates that gender equality or inequality results from a complex interaction of individual, organizational and societal factors and that it cannot be explained in isolation from the broader socio-cultural milieu. Extensive review of literature indicates that cultural values are significant predictors of people’s attitude towards gender equity and that the extent to which people conform to existing gender roles determine how much people support the idea of gender equality. The study has significant practical implications since, by means of detecting such “causal factors”, more positive attitudinal changes can be brought about and gender egalitarian attitudes can be cultivated.

  8. Midwives, gender equality and feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Denis

    2016-03-01

    Gender inequality and the harmful effects of patriarchy are sustaining the wide spread oppression of women across the world and this is also having an impact on maternity services with unacceptable rates of maternal mortality, the continued under investment in the midwifery profession and the limiting of women's place of birth options. However alongside these effects, the current zeitgeist is affirming an alignment of feminism and gender equality such that both have a high profile in public discourse. This presents a once in a generation opportunity for midwives to self-declare as feminists and commit to righting the wrongs of this most pernicious form of discrimination.

  9. [Gender equality and women's health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca, Rosa Maria Godoy Serpa

    2005-12-01

    Two stories are told: one that took place in the Middle Ages in Florence, Italy, the other in the 90s in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Both refer to the principle of Justice, the ethical pillar of Equality. From them is developed a gender analysis of the women's health situation and how much it reflects the iniquities that result from the conditions of social inequality to which they are subjected. The conclusion is that the adoption of gender equality as an ethical concept associated with the principles of social justice and human rights means to look over the daily life of thousands of women, to be indignant with the suffering and to bring about transformation, without mixing the right for dignified and respectable assistance because they are being, before anything, citizens, with the need to be healthy and productive, for being generators and maintainers of the present and future work force, of whom society depends for generating social wealth.

  10. Gender equality in primary immunisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak S Khismatrao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Immunization, a well-known and effective method of preventing childhood illnesses is basic service under primary health care. Most surveys in India measure primary immunization coverage and quality, but no "Gender Equality." Aims: Assess "Gender Equality" in primary immunization with reference to coverage, quality, and place of immunization. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional survey in a primary health center, Pune, Maharashtra using World Health Organization 30-cluster sampling method with 14 beneficiaries (7 girls and 7 boys to be selected from each cluster. Instead of 420 children, data collected for 345 children, as requisite numbers of children were not available in low population villages and also children whose mothers were not present during survey were excluded. Materials and Methods: Vaccination data collected from either records and/or history by mother. Children born on or between 13-09-2009 and 13-09-2010, were included. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS 14.01 version with Chi-square as test of significance. Results: Of the study population, 171 (49.6% were females and 174 (50.4% males. A total of 64.1% children had immunization records with female proportion 69.0% and males 59.2%. Primary immunization coverage was 80.0%, with female proportion 82.5% and males 77.6%. One male child was completely unimmunized and remaining partially immunized, with unaware of schedule and illness of child being major reasons for partial immunization. There was no gender wise statistically significant difference observed in Primary Immunization with reference to coverage, quality, and place of immunization. Conclusions: Immunization coverage is nearing 85% benchmark with major contribution from Universal Immunization Program. Gender Equality observed in primary immunization. Preservation of immunization records by community and timely vaccinations are areas for improvement.

  11. Addressing Gender Equity in Nonfaculty Salaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toukoushian, Robert K.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses methodology of gender equity studies on noninstructional employees of colleges and universities, including variable selection in the multiple regression model and alternative approaches for measuring wage gaps. Analysis of staff data at one institution finds that experience and market differences account for 80 percent of gender pay…

  12. Gender Summit 2011: Equality Research and Innovation Through Equality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tenglerová, Hana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 2 (2011), s. 72-74 ISSN 1210-6658. [European Gender Summit 2011: Equality Research and Innovation Through Equality . Brusel, 07.11.2011-08.11.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK08007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : gender equality * science * policy Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  13. Gender Equity in Materials Science and Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angus Rockett

    2008-12-01

    At the request of the University Materials Council, a national workshop was convened to examine 'Gender Equity Issues in Materials Science and Engineering.' The workshop considered causes of the historic underrepresentation of women in materials science and engineering (MSE), with a goal of developing strategies to increase the gender diversity of the discipline in universities and national laboratories. Specific workshop objectives were to examine efforts to level the playing field, understand implicit biases, develop methods to minimize bias in all aspects of training and employment, and create the means to implement a broadly inclusive, family-friendly work environment in MSE departments. Held May 18-20, 2008, at the Conference Center at the University of Maryland, the workshop included heads and chairs of university MSE departments and representatives of the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the Department of Energy (DOE-BES), and the national laboratories. The following recommendations are made based on the outcomes of the discussions at the workshop. Many or all of these apply equally well to universities and national laboratories and should be considered in context of industrial environments as well. First, there should be a follow-up process by which the University Materials Council (UMC) reviews the status of women in the field of MSE on a periodic basis and determines what additional changes should be made to accelerate progress in gender equity. Second, all departments should strengthen documentation and enforcement of departmental procedures such that hiring, promotion, compensation, and tenure decisions are more transparent, that the reasons why a candidate was not selected or promoted are clear, and that faculty are less able to apply their biases to personnel decisions. Third, all departments should strengthen mentoring of junior faculty. Fourth, all departments must raise awareness of gender biases

  14. Rethinking Gender Equity, Democratic Governance and Millennium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examine the possibility of attaining the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) without gender equity in Nigeria as a society bearing in mind that most of the MDGs are women centered or put differently, they affects mostly the women than the men counterparts. The paper concluded that women are badly treated ...

  15. Gender Equality in Agricultural Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jayakumar

    2016-05-01

    “Increased women’s enrollment in agricultural courses” as one among the strategies when addressing gender issues in the education and training components of agricultural development projects. In this context the study was carried out to ascertain the representation of women and their academic achievement in agricultural education. The study revealed that almost equal representation was found for women in agricultural course and they were also provided better quality education in their schooling, in the form of English medium education and education in private schools. Recent trends for the past four years showed a higher percentage of enrollments of women in agricultural course than men. The growth rate was also higher for the female students. Women also showed a significantly higher percentage of academic achievement than men. These positive indicators provide sufficient signals for equality of women in agricultural course and have positive implications for development of the agricultural sector in future.

  16. Gender equality and equal opportunity mechanisms in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mršević Zorica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As a country of Southern European mentality Italy may be taken as the nearest-to-the-Balkans model of the gender equality mechanisms and necessity of their existence. Italy also might be taken as a model of domain and methods of functioning of the gender equality mechanisms as well as their connections with the EU development funds. Besides the Italian Ministry for Rights and Equal opportunities and the National Committee, the attention was paid to the whole range of local mechanisms and legal regulations dealing with advancement of women’s employment and counteracting discrimination on the labor market. In the text are analyzed through the five chapters the Italian mechanisms/institutions for gender equality as located within the European institutional environment but also within the context of Italian recent history of struggle against gender based discrimination. It was stressed that the essence of the accumulated European institutional wisdom is in diversity of the gender equality bodies rather then in their uniformity. Although the Italian mechanisms for gender equality are part of the European institutional environment their aim is to meet the internal needs for advancement of gender equality. Besides, the mechanisms also meet the demands of the international standards comprised in the documents issued by the UN and the EU. In European countries these mechanisms are frequently established and function in the domains of the labor and employment regulations, but also are located within the human rights portfolios while somewhere are connected with the minority rights and equal opportunity implementation.

  17. Gender (in)equality among employees in elder care: implications for health

    OpenAIRE

    Elwér Sofia; Aléx Lena; Hammarström Anne

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Gendered practices of working life create gender inequalities through horizontal and vertical gender segregation in work, which may lead to inequalities in health between women and men. Gender equality could therefore be a key element of health equity in working life. Our aim was to analyze what gender (in)equality means for the employees at a woman-dominated workplace and discuss possible implications for health experiences. Methods All caregiving staff at two workplace...

  18. Gender Equality in Science--Who Cares?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lewyn

    2002-04-01

    In this article, I address three questions: first, and most important, why scientists at all levels should care about gender equity in research; second, why there are so few women in science, from graduate school all the way to top-level research in academia and industry; and finally, what can be done to redress the imbalance. I argue that we should strive for gender equity because of a sense of justice, a desire to advance scientific knowledge, and a wish to improve the public image of science. I also make specific proposals that would make scientific research friendlier toward women, especially in graduate education.

  19. International Year of the Family 1994: Family and Gender Equity in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Verna

    1994-01-01

    Advances 14 general propositions on family and gender equity that seek to promote gender equality; an end to female genital mutilation; an awareness of sexually transmitted diseases; responsible parenthood and parent education; healthy gender relations; compulsory education for both sexes; and acceptance of unmarried or divorced adults, single…

  20. Gender Equality in Education, Employment and Entrepreneurship: Final Report to the MCM 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Gender equality is not just about economic empowerment. It is a moral imperative, it is about fairness and equity, and includes many political, social and cultural dimensions. Gender equality, however, is also a key factor in self-reported well-being and happiness across the world. In the aftermath of the Great Recession, there is now an urgent…

  1. Gender Equality, Intersectionality and Diversity in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    Analyzing the developments which have characterized EU gender equality policies and women's transnational activism since the introduction of multiple discrimination policies in the 1990s, this book identifies two interrelated challenges: diversity of women's interests, and degendering of policies....... Drawing on discursive policy analysis, it addresses the interaction between policies, institutions and civil society actors in relation to gender equality, diversity and intersectionality at the European level. Rolandsen Agustín successfully integrates the concepts of diversity and gender equality...

  2. TOWARDS GENDER EQUALITY: UKRAINE IN THE 21ST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana V. Danylova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This article attempts to examine the current state of addressing gender inequality in Ukraine. Methodology. The author has used methodology of historical inquiry, hermeneutical methodology and content analysis. Theoretical basis and results. Issues about gender imbalance are acute in Ukraine. Gender inequality in politics is a matter of serious concern. Insignificant part of women in political and decision-making processes is a serious challenge to democracy. Discrimination in the labor market should be noted. Obvious gender inequality in the labor market has led to feminization of poverty. Violence against women has become an acute problem, which can be resolved at the state level only. Although international and national legislation is based on the principle of equality, in practice women are not equal in social life and activities. There is a deep contradiction between the new needs in society and the lack of conditions for their satisfaction. This situation appears to be a challenge to modern Ukrainian society and state of Ukraine, thus, immediate appropriate actions are required. Scientific novelty. It is essential to bring Ukrainian legislation into conformity with the constitutional principles of equality and European standards; develop appropriate and effective anti-discrimination norms and sanctions for violating gender legislation; introduce special measures to ensure gender parity in decision-making, in all public offices; conduct special information campaigns; develop and institutionalize gender studies and gender education at all stages; get more public control over the implementation of international commitments and principles of equal rights and opportunities for women and men. Conclusion. Appropriate mechanisms for overcoming gender stereotypes will contribute to integration of equal rights’ principle and opportunities. Human resources policies require systematic approach to gender analysis and integration in order to

  3. TOWARDS GENDER EQUALITY: UKRAINE IN THE 21ST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana V. Danylova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This article attempts to examine the current state of addressing gender inequality in Ukraine. Methodology. The author has used methodology of historical inquiry, hermeneutical methodology and content analysis. Theoretical basis and results. Issues about gender imbalance are acute in Ukraine.  Gender inequality in politics is a matter of serious concern. Insignificant part of women in political and decision-making processes is a serious challenge to democracy. Discrimination in the labor market should be noted. Obvious gender inequality in the labor market has led to feminization of poverty. Violence against women has become an acute problem, which can be resolved at the state level only. Although international and national legislation is based on the principle of equality, in practice women are not equal in social life and activities. There is a deep contradiction between the new needs in society and the lack of conditions for their satisfaction. This situation appears to be a challenge to modern Ukrainian society and state of Ukraine, thus, immediate appropriate actions are required. Scientific novelty. It is essential to bring Ukrainian legislation into conformity with the constitutional principles of equality and European standards; develop appropriate and effective anti-discrimination norms and sanctions for violating gender legislation; introduce special measures to ensure gender parity in decision-making, in all public offices; conduct special information campaigns; develop and institutionalize gender studies and gender education at all stages; get more public control over the implementation of international commitments and principles of equal rights and opportunities for women and men. Conclusion. Appropriate mechanisms for overcoming gender stereotypes will contribute to integration of equal rights’ principle and opportunities.  Human resources policies require systematic approach to gender analysis and integration in order

  4. Gender Equality & Work: Are We There Yet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Hasanovic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gender is a social construct that outlines the roles, behaviors, activities and features that a particular society believes are appropriate for men and women. Gender equality is necessary in order to ensure a fair and productive labor market. Even though, Bosnia and Herzegovina has established legal framework including gender equality laws, women are still facing barriers to participation in the labor market. This research paper will indicate what are the main challenges behind the low participation of women in the labor market. It will provide information on gender differences; the main challenges, and also emphasize gender stereotypes which are contributing the gendered division in labor market.

  5. "We Understand Better Because We Have Been Mothers": Teaching, Maternalism, and Gender Equality in Bolivian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Julie A.; Miller, Amy Chasteen

    2014-01-01

    This article explores Bolivian schoolteachers' attitudes and practices surrounding gender in the context of a national educational reform law that mandated gender equity. Teacher interviews and primary school classroom observations indicate teachers' discourses and practices reflect a sometimes paradoxical blend of advocacy for gender equality and…

  6. Equity or equality? Moral judgments follow the money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeScioli, Peter; Massenkoff, Maxim; Shaw, Alex; Petersen, Michael Bang; Kurzban, Robert

    2014-12-22

    Previous research emphasizes people's dispositions as a source of differences in moral views. We investigate another source of moral disagreement, self-interest. In three experiments, participants played a simple economic game in which one player divides money with a partner according to the principle of equality (same payoffs) or the principle of equity (pay-offs proportional to effort expended). We find, first, that people's moral judgment of an allocation rule depends on their role in the game. People not only prefer the rule that most benefits them but also judge it to be more fair and moral. Second, we find that participants' views about equality and equity change in a matter of minutes as they learn where their interests lie. Finally, we find limits to self-interest: when the justification for equity is removed, participants no longer show strategic advocacy of the unequal division. We discuss implications for understanding moral debate and disagreement. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Economic growth and gender equality | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Does economic growth impact gender equality? And conversely, does gender equality impact economic growth? GrOW-supported projects seek to provide a deeper understanding of these relationships. The University of Göttingen leads a GrOW research consortium to understand the impact of structural change and growth ...

  8. Gender equity and women's empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    This article focuses on the improvements in women's status in China. The trend started as early as in the 1950s, when the Chinese Constitution declared that women should enjoy equal rights with men in political, economic, cultural, social and family life, and the legitimate rights of women and children are protected by law. This principle is also reflected in other laws and regulations such as Marriage Law and Law on Health of Mother and Infant. In addition, the Law on Protection of Rights and Interests of Women, which came into effect in 1992, marked a new stage of legislation on women's rights. Over the past few years, women have participated in political affairs, in which they accounted for 16.8% of the total number of representatives in the 15th Congress of the Chinese Communist Party, 21.8% in the ninth National People's Congress, and 15.5% in the ninth Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference. However, this does not mean that women have gained an equal right of participation with their male counterparts. Moreover, although the women's education level is rising constantly, it still compares unfavorably with men. Another indicator of enhanced women's status is the great number of women in the workforce, and in their increasing capacity to participate in household decision-making.

  9. The International Instruments on Gender Pay Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Cher Weixia

    2008-01-01

    Today in the world women are earning around 78% of what men are earning. Gender pay gap ironically is still one major feature of the modern labor market, despite the fact that the right to equal pay is one of the founding principles recognized by the 1945 ILO constitution amendment. Since 1919 the right to equal pay was discussed during the preparation for the ILO constitution, scholars have been constantly making efforts to explore the potential solutions to gender pay differentials...

  10. Masculinity ideology and gender equality: considering neosexism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Martínez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study are to investigate the relationship among traditional masculinity ideology, neosexism, and gender equality. Specifically we tested the effect of neosexism as a mediational variable. As expected, our results showed that men maintain more traditional masculinity ideology and more neosexist beliefs than women. Also masculinity ideology is negatively related to gender equality in men, but in women there is no relationship. The results of the mediation tests confirm that masculinity ideology is a good predictor of gender equality and it is mediated by neosexism, but only for men. The relevance of these findings with reference to neosexism as an obstacle to equality is discussed.

  11. Health and the elusive gender equality : Can the impact of gender equality on health be measured?

    OpenAIRE

    Sörlin, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Background: All over the world men and women show different health patterns, and therecan be many and various reasons for these differences. This thesis therefore evaluates theimpact of gender equality on health. To do this, we must be able to measure gender equality.In this thesis, we develop two new measurements of gender equality and evaluate the relationshipbetween gender equality and health. Methods: Two cross-sectional studies, one register-based and one survey study, are used tocompare...

  12. Social partners and gender equality in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Tilly, Pierre; Weber, Tina

    2014-01-01

    The growing participation of women in the labour market has prompted changes in the way European social partner organisations tackle gender issues. Their organisational and collective bargaining structures – historically dominated by men – have had to adapt to include gender equality issues. This report examines the extent to which gender equality is incorporated by the social partners in their organisations and in their policymaking at European and national level. It explores the differences...

  13. Promoting Gender Equity in Middle Level and Secondary School Sports Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Laurie; Summerfield, Liane M.

    1995-01-01

    Recent Title IX lawsuits have highlighted colleges' and universities' vulnerability to claims of gender discrimination in intercollegiate athletics. Middle and secondary schools are equally vulnerable. Gender equity encompasses accommodation of athletic interests, funding, equipment and supplies, scheduling, coaching opportunities, coach salaries…

  14. Scandinavian Approaches to Gender Equality in Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathias Wullum

    2017-01-01

    surrounding these activities, the article provides new insights into the respective strategies for governing and promoting the advancement of women researchers. In doing so, it exposes some interesting disparities among the cases and shows how Norwegian and Swedish gender equality activities revolve around......This study investigates how Denmark, Norway, and Sweden approach issues of gender equality in research differently. Based on a comparative document analysis of gender equality activities in six Scandinavian universities, together with an examination of the legislative and political frameworks...

  15. Land Governance, Gender Equality and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnborg, Helle Munk; Spichiger, Rachel; Broegaard, Rikke Brandt

    2016-01-01

    pursued in these reforms and examines the role played by donor cooperation. Despite significant progress in developing land legislation that upholds gender equality, implementation often does not follow suit, and women still face discrimination. Based on country case studies, the article identifies six......Most land governance reforms seek to enhance tenure security, encourage investments and thereby promote economic growth. Increasingly, land reforms attempt to secure women's and other vulnerable groups' access to land. This article reviews the extent to which gender equality in land tenure has been...... challenges, which should be addressed to achieve gender equality in land tenure....

  16. Perceptions of gender equality and attitudes toward equal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to explain consciousness of gender inequality in school sport and predict pro-equality attitudes among 1580 respondents (934 girls and 646 boys) from 45 Botswana secondary schools. Results of separate multiple regression models indicate that girls' sport participation is negatively correlated with ...

  17. Multicultural Challenges - new gender equality dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    In my research have been interested in exploring tensions between diversity and gender equality from a theoretical and comparative approach, looking at the Nordic welfare, citizenship and gender regimes from a cross-national European perspective. In this key-note presentation I draw on results an....... In the last section I argue that one solution to the new gender equality dilemma posed by increased diversity among women is a simultaneous re-framing of multiculturalism and gender equality.......In my research have been interested in exploring tensions between diversity and gender equality from a theoretical and comparative approach, looking at the Nordic welfare, citizenship and gender regimes from a cross-national European perspective. In this key-note presentation I draw on results...... and inspiration from a number of comparative research projects and networks. In the following I address three issues that have been central in academic debates: 1) The challenges from multiculturalism to gender equality, 2) gendering citizenship and migration and 3) Nordic feminist debates about diversity...

  18. Gender equality and violent behavior: how neighborhood gender equality influences the gender gap in violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Man-Kit; Simons, Ronald L; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Edmond, Mary Bond

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of 703 African American adolescents from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS) along with census data from the year 2000, we examine the association between neighborhood-level gender equality and violence. We find that boys' and girls' violent behavior is unevenly distributed across neighborhood contexts. In particular, gender differences in violent behavior are less pronounced in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods compared to those characterized by gender inequality. We also find that the gender gap narrows in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods because boys' rates of violence decrease whereas girls' rates remain relatively low across neighborhoods. This is in stark contrast to the pessimistic predictions of theorists who argue that the narrowing of the gender gap in equalitarian settings is the result of an increase in girls' violence. In addition, the relationship between neighborhood gender equality and violence is mediated by a specific articulation of masculinity characterized by toughness. Our results provide evidence for the use of gender-specific neighborhood prevention programs.

  19. Gender Equality and Violent Behavior: How Neighborhood Gender Equality Influences the Gender Gap in Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Man-Kit; Simons, Ronald L.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Edmond, Mary Bond

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of 703 African American adolescents from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS) along with census data from the year 2000, we examine the association between neighborhood-level gender equality and violence. We find that boys’ and girls’ violent behavior is unevenly distributed across neighborhood contexts. In particular, gender differences in violent behavior are less pronounced in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods compared to those characterized by gender inequality. We also find that the gender gap narrows in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods because boys’ rates of violence decrease whereas girls’ rates remain relatively low across neighborhoods. This is in stark contrast to the pessimistic predictions of theorists who argue that the narrowing of the gender gap in equalitarian settings is the result of an increase in girls’ violence. In addition, the relationship between neighborhood gender equality and violence is mediated by a specific articulation of masculinity characterized by toughness. Our results provide evidence for the use of gender-specific neighborhood prevention programs. PMID:24672996

  20. Gender equality mainstreaming: Implications for poverty reduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender equality mainstreaming: Implications for poverty reduction and sustainable development in Abia State of Nigeria. ... Empowerment of women when pursued beyond mere rhetoric and instrumentation, it will improve their wellbeing, self esteem, resource allocation, political voice and increased productivity generally.

  1. Girls' Education and Gender Equality. Factsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Global Partnership for Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This brief fact sheet presents benefits of investing in gender equality, how the Global Partnership for Education (GPE) supports inclusive and equitable quality education, as well as the results it has achieved.

  2. Justifications of Gender Equality in Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathias Wullum

    2014-01-01

    and Swedish universities juxtapose arguments of utility, innovation, justice, and anti-discrimination, the Danish universities primarily refer to aspects of competitiveness, utility, and innovation when justifying activities on gender equality. The article suggests that the lack of justice......-oriented perspectives in the Danish statements is an illustrative example of how neo-liberal managerial ideas about work-place productivity and creativity entail new and more instrumental approaches to gender equality issues in academia....

  3. The perceptions of students on gender equality | Nkosi | Gender and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study is about the perceptions of University of Venda students regarding gender equality. South Africa has made significant strides in relation to gender mainstreaming. In addition to the constitution, there are many policies that have been developed and adopted to ensure fair and equal treatment of women. However ...

  4. Gender Equality Policies and Higher Education Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Gender equality policies regulate the Swedish labour market, including higher education. This study analyses and discusses the career development of postgraduate students in the light of labour market influences. The principle of gender separation is used to understand these effects. Swedish register data encompassing information on 585…

  5. Gender Equality in Academia: A Critical Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Hilary P. M.; Browning, Lynette

    2015-01-01

    Gender equality in academia has been monitored in Australia for the past three decades so it is timely to reflect on what progress has been made, what works, and what challenges remain. When data were first published on the gender composition of staff in Australian universities in the mid-1980s women comprised 20 per cent of academic staff and…

  6. [Gender, equality, and health services access: an empirical approximation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Gómez, Elsa

    2002-01-01

    This piece describes the conceptual framework and the objectives that guided a research initiative in the Region of the Americas that was called "Gender, Equity, and Access to Health Services" and that was sponsored in 2001 by the Pan American Health Organization. The piece does not summarize the results of the six projects that were carried under the initiative, whose analyses have not all been completed. Instead, the piece discusses some of the foundations of the initiative and provides a general introduction to the country studies that were done. The six studies were done in Barbados/Jamaica, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. The primary objective of the initiative was to stimulate the use of existing quantitative information in the countries, with the goal of starting a process of systematically documenting two things: 1) the unfair, unnecessary, and avoidable inequalities between men and women in their access to health care and 2) the linkages between those inequalities and other socioeconomic factors. The concept of gender equity that guided this examination of health care was not the usual one calling for the equal distribution of resources. Rather, it was the notion that resources should be allocated differentially, according to the particular needs of men and of women, and that persons should pay for health services according to their economic ability rather than their risk level. The starting point for the initiative was the premise that gender inequities in utilizing and paying for health care result from gender differences in the macroeconomic and microeconomic distribution of resources. The piece concludes that achieving equity in health care access will require a better understanding of the gender needs and gender barriers that are linked to social structures and health systems.

  7. The Role Of Men for Gender Equality

    OpenAIRE

    Farré, Lídia

    2012-01-01

    Gender as an interdisciplinary concept refers to women and men, the relations between them, and the institutions that govern these relationships. However, most of the literature on gender focuses on women and girls and the factors that affect their socioeconomic outcomes. For a long time, a commitment to promoting gender equality in economic outcomes, as in other areas of social development and human rights, has emphasized women's empowerment. There is evidence that expanding woman's opportun...

  8. Taxation and Gender Equity : A Comparative Analysis of Direct and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    10 juin 2010 ... Taxation and Gender Equity : A Comparative Analysis of Direct and Indirect Taxes in Developing and Developed Countries. Couverture du livre Taxation and Gender Equity : A Comparative Analysis of Direct and Indirect Taxes. Directeur(s) : Caren Grown et Imraan Valodia. Maison(s) d'édition : Routledge ...

  9. Gender Equality, Citizenship and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This comparative volume examines the ways in which current controversies and political, legal, and social struggles for gender equality raise conceptual questions and challenge our thinking on political theories of equality, citizenship and human rights. Bringing together scholars and activists who...... reflect upon challenges to gender equality, citizenship, and human rights in their respective societies; it combines theoretical insights with empirically grounded studies. The volume contextualises feminist political theory in China and the Nordic countries and subsequently puts it into a global...... perspective. It tackles a complex set of tensions across a dense and shifting landscape and addresses issues including labour, health, democracy, homosexuality, migration and racism....

  10. Gender equality in university sportspeople's drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Hunter, Jackie; Kypri, Kypros; Ali, Ajmol

    2008-11-01

    In large population-based alcohol studies males are shown consistently to drink more, and more hazardously, than females. However, research from some countries suggests that gender differences in drinking are converging, with females drinking more than in the past. Large population-based research may miss gender-based changes in drinking behaviours that occur in sub-populations most at risk of hazardous drinking. We examine gender differences in a sub-population where hazardous drinking is common and endorsed, namely university sportspeople. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and a drinking motives measure were used to assess hazardous drinking behaviours and drinking motives in 631 university sportspeople (females = 331, 52%). There were no gender differences in AUDIT scores. However, drinking motives differed between genders, with coping motives being a significant predictor of hazardous drinking in females but not males. Hazardous drinking, including binge drinking (46.3%) and frequent binge drinking (35%), in New Zealand university sportspeople is high for both males and females. New Zealand university sportspeople are one population where gender differences in drinking are not apparent and run counter to European population based research and research in US sporting populations. Gender role equality in the university systems, and endorsement of drinking in sporting culture, may account for the lack of gender differences in this New Zealand sporting population. Future research on gender differences in drinking should examine sub-populations where gender role differentiation is low, and socio-cultural/structural factors supporting gender equality are high.

  11. [Gender equality activity in the Bioimaging Society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzaki, Etsuko

    2013-09-01

    Gender equality activity in the Bioimaging Society was initiated in 2005 when it joined the Japan Inter-Society Liaison Association Committee for Promoting Equal Participation of Men and Women in Science and Engineering (EPMEWSE). The Gender Equality Committee of the Bioimaging Society is acting on this issue by following the policy of the EPMEWSE, and has also been planning and conducting lectures at annual meetings of the society to gain the understanding, consents, and cooperation of the members of the society to become conscious of gender equality. Women's participation in the society has been promoted through the activities of the Gender Equality Committee, and the number of women officers in the society has since increased from two women out of 40 members in 2005 to five out of 44 in 2013. The activities of the Gender Equality Committee of the Japanese Association of Anatomists (JAA) have just started. There are more than 400 women belonging to the JAA. When these women members join together and collaborate, women's participation in the JAA will increase.

  12. GENDER EQUALITY AND THE GENDER GAP IN MATHEMATICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hung-Lin; Michalopoulos, Christos

    2018-03-01

    A gender gap has been found in mathematics (boys outperform girls) that has prevailed across countries for many decades. Whether this gap results from nature or nurture has been hotly debated. Using the evidence of PISA 2003 and the gender equality index of 2003, some researchers have argued that an improvement in gender equality reduces the gender gap in mathematics. This study used five waves of country-level PISA data and, controlling for country fixed effects, found no evidence to support this argument. Furthermore, individual data for PISA 2012 and the multilevel data model were used. The conclusion drawn also does not support the argument. In fact, the relationship between gender equality and the gender gap in mathematics vanished after PISA 2003.

  13. Troubling Gender Equality: Revisiting Gender Equality Work in the Famous Nordic Model Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edström, Charlotta; Brunila, Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    This article concerns gender equality work, that is, those educational and workplace activities that involve the promotion of gender equality. It is based on research conducted in Sweden and Finland, and focuses on the period during which the public sector has become more market-oriented and project-based all over the Nordic countries. The…

  14. Rethinking Peacekeeping, Gender Equality and Collective Security

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Security Council resolution 1325 was a landmark in collective security, making the link between women's security and international peace and security. This book argues it is time to rethink the way the women, peace and security framework has impacted on peacekeeping, gender equality and collective security, drawing lessons from past practices and re-framing gender perspectives. From the hyper visibility of sexual violence to strategies for 'counting the women', this book considers the limitat...

  15. An Argument for Gender Equality in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Olatunji, Cyril-Mary P

    2013-01-01

    In his article "An Argument for Gender Equality in Africa" Cyril-Mary P. Olatunji addresses the problematics of gender inequality in Black African society. Many scholars working on African Indigenous and non-Indigenous cultures have had something to say about the treatment of women and the topic of gender inequality in Africa. Some suggest(ed) that the roots of women's oppression are to be sought in customs and traditions and so despite of a legal system that guarantees women rights in Africa...

  16. Gender, International Law and Justice : Access to Gender Equality ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Gender, International Law and Justice : Access to Gender Equality. Countries that have ratified or acceded to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) are legally bound to put their provisions ...

  17. Caring Fathers and Gender (In)Equality?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maříková, Hana

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 162 (2008), s. 135-152 ISSN 1231-1413 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA700280504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : fathering * gender in/equality * hegemonic masculinity * shared parenting Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.118, year: 2008

  18. Achieving gender equality: development versus historical legacies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dilli, S.; Rijpma, A.; Carmichael, S. G.

    2014-01-01

    Economic development is often held to be beneficial for gender equality. However, there is good reason to believe that persistent institutions such as religion, legal traditions, and family practices, also matter. This article provides an empirical assessment of the relative importance of

  19. CULTURE, TRADITION, CUSTOM, LAW AND GENDER EQUALITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JMaluleke

    2005-10-18

    Oct 18, 2005 ... delivered at the Conference of the South African Chapter of the International Association of .... 15. Ukuthwala. 16 and other customary practices which have the impact of undermining the constitutional guarantee of gender equality. 17. However, the provisions .... 3.6 The Transkei Penal Code 9 of 1983.

  20. Domestic gender equality and childbearing in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Goldscheider

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sweden, which is among the most gender-equal societies in the world, combines 'modern' family patterns such as unmarried cohabitation, delayed parenthood, high maternal labor force participation, and high break-up rates - all usually linked with low birth rates - with relatively high fertility. Sweden also has a high level of shared parental responsibility for home and children. Objective: After decades of late 20th century research showing that increasing gender equality in the workplace was linked with lower fertility, might gender equality in the home increase fertility? Methods: Using data from the Swedish Young Adult Panel Study (YAPS, we use Cox regression to examine the effects on first, second, and third births of 1 holding attitudes about sharing equally in the care of the home and children, and 2 actual sharing in these domestic tasks. Results: Our analysis shows that, measuring attitudes before the transition to parenthood and actual practice four years later, it is inconsistency between sharing attitudes and the actual division of housework that reduces the likelihood of continued childbearing, especially on second births among women. Conclusions: As women are most likely to confront an inconsistent situation, with egalitarian ideals in a household without equal sharing, it is clear that having a partner who does not share housework is depressing Swedish fertility.

  1. TROUBLING GENDER EQUALITY: REVISITING GENDER EQUALITY WORK IN THE FAMOUS NORDIC MODEL COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotta Edström

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns gender equality work, that is, those educational and workplace activities that involve the promotion of gender equality. It is based on research conducted in Sweden and Finland, and focuses on the period during which the public sector has become more market-oriented and project-based all over the Nordic countries. The consequences of this development on gender equality work have not yet been thoroughly analysed. Our joint empirical analysis is based on discourse-analytic methodology and two previous empirical studies. By analysing interviews conducted with people involved in gender equality work, this article emphasises the effects of market-oriented and project-based gender equality work in education and working life in Sweden and in Finland. The findings highlight an alliance between projectisation and heteronormativity that acts to regulate how gender equality ought to be talked about in order for its issues to be heard. A persistently constructed ‘remedy’ to ‘the gender equality problem’ is that girls and women are positioned as ‘needing’ to change more than boys and men, by adopting more traditionally ‘masculine manners’ and choosing to work in more ‘masculine sectors’. The findings also show that the constitutive forces of these discourses provide little leeway for critical perspectives.

  2. GENDER EQUALITY AS A MODERN PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Storozhuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the work. Forming the axiological system of Western society, with the intentions to establish gender equality as a guarantee of a just society being taken into account, on the one hand, and preserving the traditional gender stereotypes inherent to patriarchal gender roles in a considerable part of the world, on the other hand, is actualizing the study of the factors that have contributed to realizing the problem of gender inequality and discrimination. Therefore, the purpose of our study is to highlight the factors that stipulated the awareness of gender equality in European social and cultural space, while leaving alive the traditional gender values in a number of other cultural environments. Methodology of the study is determined by interdisciplinary approach involving the use of general scientific methods such as analysis, synthesis, generalization, etc. The leading role belonged to the principle of the historical and logical unity. At the same time the study applies the basic principles of philosophical hermeneutics and the contextual analysis method. Originality lies in putting forward the new theoretical statements aimed to show that in the ancient and pre-modern society, gender inequality and discrimination did not exist, because at that time gender relations were considered either as a result of the biological characteristics of a human body, or were explained by worldview ideas about the origin and structural features of the world, prevailing in a specific historical dimension. Consequently, gender roles were taken for granted and were not subject to any doubt. Conclusions. Despite all the worldview shifts that had been taking place in the pre-modern era social outlook, nevertheless, as history has shown, they failed to generate sufficient philosophical foundations either for recognizing the equality of women, or changing their social, legal and political status. This led to accumulating the unconscious internal resistance to

  3. Reflections on Mainstreaming Gender Equality in Adult Basic Education Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Agneta

    2006-01-01

    This article is about mainstreaming gender equality in adult basic learning and education (ABLE). Gender equality is defined as equal rights of both women and men to influence, participate in and benefit from a programme. It is argued that specific gender analyses of emerging patterns of gender relations is helpful in formulating gender equality…

  4. Organizational climate with gender equity and burnout among university academics in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taka, Fumiaki; Nomura, Kyoko; Horie, Saki; Takemoto, Keisuke; Takeuchi, Masumi; Takenoshita, Shinichi; Murakami, Aya; Hiraike, Haruko; Okinaga, Hiroko; Smith, Derek R

    2016-12-07

    We investigated relationships between the perception of organizational climate with gender equity and psychological health among 94 women and 211 men in a Japanese private university in 2015 using the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (i.e., personal, work-related and student-related burnout). Perceptions of organizational climate with respect to gender equity were measured with two scales including organizational engagement with a gender equal society in the workplace (consisting of three domains of 'Women utilization', 'Organizational promotion of gender equal society' and 'Consultation service'); and a gender inequality in academia scale that had been previously developed. Multivariable linear models demonstrated significant statistical interactions between gender and perceptions of organizational climate; 'Women utilization' or lack of 'Inequality in academia' alleviated burnout only in women. In consequence of this gender difference, when 'Women utilization' was at a lower level, both personal (p=.038) and work-related (p=.010) burnout scores were higher in women, and the student-related burnout score was lower in women when they perceived less inequality in academia than in men (p=.030). As such, it is suggested organizational fairness for gender equity may be a useful tool to help mitigate psychological burnout among women in academia.

  5. Promoting Gender Equality at Work: Turning Vision into Reality for the Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date-Bah, Eugenia, Ed.

    This document contains papers in which 12 experienced gender specialists examine the various developments and elements affecting women's participation as equal players in the workplace and propose actions and policies promoting sex equity in the workplace. The following papers are included: "Preface" (Mary Chinery-Hesse); "Introduction " (Eugenia…

  6. Gender (in)equality among employees in elder care: implications for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwér, Sofia; Aléx, Lena; Hammarström, Anne

    2012-01-04

    Gendered practices of working life create gender inequalities through horizontal and vertical gender segregation in work, which may lead to inequalities in health between women and men. Gender equality could therefore be a key element of health equity in working life. Our aim was to analyze what gender (in)equality means for the employees at a woman-dominated workplace and discuss possible implications for health experiences. All caregiving staff at two workplaces in elder care within a municipality in the north of Sweden were invited to participate in the study. Forty-five employees participated, 38 women and 7 men. Seven focus group discussions were performed and led by a moderator. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the focus groups. We identified two themes. "Advocating gender equality in principle" showed how gender (in)equality was seen as a structural issue not connected to the individual health experiences. "Justifying inequality with individualism" showed how the caregivers focused on personalities and interests as a justification of gender inequalities in work division. The justification of gender inequality resulted in a gendered work division which may be related to health inequalities between women and men. Gender inequalities in work division were primarily understood in terms of personality and interests and not in terms of gender. The health experience of the participants was affected by gender (in)equality in terms of a gendered work division. However, the participants did not see the gendered work division as a gender equality issue. Gender perspectives are needed to improve the health of the employees at the workplaces through shifting from individual to structural solutions. A healthy-setting approach considering gender relations is needed to achieve gender equality and fairness in health status between women and men.

  7. Women and Gender Equality in Higher Education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam E. David

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available I look at the changes in higher education (HE and women’s lives over the last 50 years, drawing on my recent book Feminism, Gender & Universities: Politics, Passion & Pedagogies which is a life history of feminism entering academe. The Robbins Report (cmnd 2154 1963 on HE was published in the same year that I went to university. It inaugurated a process of change and educational expansion that was linked to other major social transformations, including feminism. Its effects have been widely felt such that women now participate in education and employment on unprecedented levels. Indeed, it has opened up opportunities for education and employment for women including individual and social mobility. From my study I show how it opened up opportunities for women from both middle class and working class backgrounds to be first-in-the-family to go to university. I will also argue that whilst there have been very welcome changes in education, and HE especially, such that there is a gender balance of undergraduate students in HE, this does not mean that gender equality has been achieved. Patriarchy or hegemonic masculinity in HE is still strongly felt and experienced despite women’s and feminist involvements in academe over the last 50 years. The question remains about how to transform universities to achieve genuine gender equality across all students and academics in HE.

  8. Gender Accessibility and Equality in Education: The Implication to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper appraises the gender differences in education accessibility and equality of Nigerians. It equally assessed some of the constraints to gender equality in education and concludes that gender imbalance in education accessibility and equality if not addressed will have an adverse effect to manpower development in ...

  9. Dilemmas in the Danish Approach to Gender Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen; Siim, Birte

    to a limited extent addresses the impact of these policies and their implications for lived practice. One issue concerns the paradox of the relatively high female representation in politics without the adoption of gender quotas. A second issue concerns the gap between gender equality policies. Denmark lacks......The paper addresses the dilemmas, contradictions and paradoxes in the Danish approach to gender quotas and gender equality and discusses the intersections of citizenship, democracy and gender justice. Gender research understands gender quota as a means to achieve equal rights, gender equality...... and gender parity. Gender theory has conceptualized gender parity as one step towards achieving gender justice in all arenas of social, political and economic life. The Danish cases illustrate that context matters and question gender quota as a universal strategy to achieve gender equality. The empirical...

  10. USAID Policy: Gender equality and female empowerment policy

    OpenAIRE

    United States Agency for International Development (USAID)

    2012-01-01

    Metadata only record This report is an update on USAID's progress towards gender equity and female empowerment since 1982. This policy strives towards positive development that is beneficial to men, women, and children. The goals are to reduce gender disparity in access to resources, reduce gender-based violence, and increase women's agency, leadership, and decision-making.

  11. Gender Blind, Gender-Lite: A Critique of Gender Equity Approaches in the South African Department of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieltiens, Veerle; Unterhalter, Elaine; Letsatsi, Setungoane; North, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Gender equity is one of the foundational principles of the national Department of Education, but there is not a shared understanding of its meaning. Based on interviews conducted in 2008 with officials in the Department of Education, we argue that there are two basic approaches to gender equity. The first, which we term "gender blind",…

  12. Gender Equity and Renewable Energies : Thematic Background Paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy S.; Oparaocha, Sheila; Roehr, Ulrike

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review existing evidence on the role of renewable energies in bringing gender equity. The paper first explores the evolution of thinking on gender and energy, in particular that practitioners no longer specifically focus on women and stoves (often referred to as

  13. [Concept of gender, mainstreaming gender and equal opportunities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesó Curto, M Pilar

    2010-05-01

    The concept of gender is related to the concepts of socially constructed masculinity and femininity Gender Studies that take into account this concept is useful for all disciplines of both health and social, arise in the eighteenth century and incorporated in Spain in the 80s of the twentieth century Agrarian societies with patriarchy changed the social status of women making them dependent. The industrial revolution brought wage employment for women that did not result in positive consequences for overall health or your mental health. The gender mainstreaming boost since 1985 trying to build a future strategy for the advancement of women, the term for the first time at the Third UN World Conference on Women--Nairobi, 1985--where the government's commitment to acquire implementation of the forward-looking strategies for the advancement of women, which include all the organizations under the UN. Will be in Beijing 1995--Fourth World Conference on Women United Nations--where it was found that equality for women was still limited and not fully protected against discrimination. Policies for gender equality since the United Nations, European Union and Spain have been happening since 1975. Spain has been important in the creation of the Women's Institute in 1983 and the four equal opportunity plans that have been happening since 1988 (1988-1990, 1993-1995, 1997-2000, 2003-2006).

  14. COP 23: Gender Equality and Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Struck-Garbe, Marion

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The World Climate Conference 2017 (COP 23 yielded the adoption of the first United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Gender Action Plan (GAP. This is a positive shift towards an integration of gender justice and human rights in the context of the UN Climate Action Plan. GAP necessitates importance granted to gender-equal climate policy and therefore, must be integrated into national climate action plans (programs. The first progress assessment will be conducted at COP 25 towards the end of 2019. However, while GAP recognizes women’s roles and importance with regard to climate change, it does not reach out beyond this. For instance, development policy measures that likewise play an important role have been excluded. In the Asia-Pacific the specific role of women as livelihood providers has received minimal attention and resultantly there has been little implementation of concrete measures. There are still many steps to be taken before deeper and more fundamental changes are reached.

  15. Gender equality in India hit by illiteracy, child marriages and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Gender equality is fundamental to accelerate sustainable development. It is necessary to conduct gender analyses to identify sex and gender-based differences in health risks. This study aimed to find the gender equality in terms of illiteracy, child marriages and spousal violence among women based on data ...

  16. Gender Equality in the Staff Composition of Higher Learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper analyses gender equality in the composition of Uganda Martyrs University (UMU) staff—as of the close of 2008. The analysis focuses on the University's policy and its implications for gender equality; the composition of the University's staff by gender; and explanation of the possible reasons underlying the gender ...

  17. Full-fledged gender inclusion in participatory budgeting in Villa El Salvador: participation, representation and political equality

    OpenAIRE

    Duquette, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the degree of gender inclusion in Empowered Participatory Governance (EPG) in Villa El Salvador, Peru. Research consisted of ethnographic investigation, field observation, and semi-structured interviews. The thesis analyzes gender inclusion around three concepts: participation, representation, and political equality. Limitations to full-fledged inclusion are unravelled, and discussed in relation to gender. In Villa El Salvador, norms of gender equity, embodied in quotas fo...

  18. Gender Equality in the Romanian Local Public Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Sorin Dan ŞANDOR; Felicia Cornelia MACARIE; Simona Claudia CREŢA

    2011-01-01

    Gender equality in public institutions is a sensitive topic considering the vast efforts of European countries to overcome the problems raised by gender inequality, gender segregation and gender discrimination in the labor market. In order to measure gender equality in public institutions and to identify the most important gender related organizational issues a questionnaire was built, tested in 2010 in one public institution, and then applied at national scale to public servants (both women ...

  19. Culture, Tradition, Custom, Law and Gender Equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Maluleke

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In August 2011 Advocate Joyce Maluleke, Director in the Gender Directorate of the South African Department of Justice and Constitutional Development addressed the Annual General Conference of the South African Chapter of the International Association of Women Judges held in Potchefstroom on the dangers of harmful traditional practices such as early and forced marriages, virginity testing, widow's rituals, levirate and sororate unions, female genital mutilation, breast sweeping/ironing, the primogeniture rule, practices such as 'cleansing' after male circumcision, and witch-hunting. Although she considers respect for tradition, culture and customs to be part of the South African identity, she argues that cultural practices should be rooted in respect for human rights, democracy and equality. We publish her paper here as an oratio.

  20. THEORETICAL DEBATES ON THE CONCEPT OF "GENDER EQUALITY"

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina RADOI

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the three types of gender equality and the political strategies adopted by the European Union. The paper presents the theoretical debates on the concept of gender equality and the efficiency of the strategies designed for each individual type of equality. The European Union preferred to substitute the use of the initially adopted strategies (equal opportunities and positive action), with the strategy of gender mainstreaming. However, this article brings arguments that all ...

  1. Bite Like a Flea and Keep Them Scratching: Steps to Gender Equity in America's Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Sara W.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses gender issues in U.S. schools, focusing on gender equity at the college level; harassment as a barrier to equity; gender equity at the K-12 level; and what can be done (e.g., interpreting state content standards through a feminist reform perspective, addressing the importance of classroom community and the tendency of many educators to…

  2. Curriculum implications for gender equity in human rights education /|cShan Simmonds.

    OpenAIRE

    Simmonds, Shan Robyn

    2013-01-01

    The Gender Equity Task Team’s (1997) report, Gender Equity in Education, recommends that further research be done to identify the practices perpetuating inequitable gender relations in classrooms and to provide guidelines for teachers and learners to understand the meaning of the gender issues presented in the curriculum (South Africa, 1997:14&16). This research study echoes some of the desires of The Gender Equity Task Team through an exploration that engages with the extent to which gender ...

  3. Diverting the flow : gender equity and water in South Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwarteveen, M.Z.; Ahmed, S.; Gautam, S.R.

    2012-01-01

    Across the South Asian region, water determines livelihoods and in some cases even survival. However, water also creates exclusions. Access to water, and its social organization, are intimately tied up with power relations. This book provides an overview of gender, equity and water issues relevant

  4. Trade, Gender and Equity in Latin America : Knowledge for Political ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ongoing trade reforms and economic restructuring in Latin America have implications for gender equity. Trade reforms often trigger or reinforce women's participation in paid labour markets. At the same time, governments often attempt to achieve macroeconomic stability by pulling back from public services, including ...

  5. Re-thinking instructional strategies for enhancing gender equity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Re-thinking instructional strategies for enhancing gender equity in learning primary science: let's try cooperative small group instructional mode. ... The study investigated the effect of cooperative small group instructional mode on the cognitive achievement of boys and girls in primary science. Eighty-two pupils (41 girls and ...

  6. An Empirical Study about China: Gender Equity in Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianjun; Staver, John R.

    A data base representing a random sample of more than 10,000 grade 9 students in an SISS (Second IEA Science Study) Extended Study (SES), a key project supported by the China State Commission of Education in the late 1980s, was employed in this study to investigate gender equity in student science achievement in China. This empirical data analysis…

  7. Gender Equity: Educational Problems and Possibilities for Female Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Cheryl G.; Schnorr, Donna L.

    Although most women are now working outside the home, gender equity in the labor force has not been achieved. Women are still concentrated in low-paying, traditionally female-dominated occupations (such as clerical and retail sales), while most jobs in the higher paying, more prestigious professions are held by men. Despite attempts to reduce…

  8. Tracking Gender Equity under Economic Reforms : Continuity and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Couverture du livre Tracking Gender Equity under Economic Reforms: Continuity and Change in South Asia. Author(s):. Swapna Mukhopadhyay et Ratna M. ... Six world-class research teams to investigate overcoming therapeutic resistance in high fatality cancers. The world-class research teams will direct their focus ...

  9. Gender Equity in Two-Year Athletic Departments: Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staurowsky, Ellen J.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the role that female athletes at the community college level played, it is interesting to note that there is little in the way of a comprehensive history of women's college sports at two-year institutions. To situate the current state of gender equity in athletic programs in two-year institutions in context, this article presents a brief…

  10. Climate Change Policies in Australia: Gender Equality, Power and Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas K. Wanner

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the link between gender equality and climate change policies in Australia. It critically analyses the extent to which gender mainstreaming and gender dimensions have been taken into account in the national policy processes for climate change in Australia. The paper argues that climate change adaptation and mitigation policies in Australia neglect gender dimensions. This endangers the advances made in gender equality and works against socially equitable...

  11. Gender Equality in the Romanian Local Public Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Dan ŞANDOR

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Gender equality in public institutions is a sensitive topic considering the vast efforts of European countries to overcome the problems raised by gender inequality, gender segregation and gender discrimination in the labor market. In order to measure gender equality in public institutions and to identify the most important gender related organizational issues a questionnaire was built, tested in 2010 in one public institution, and then applied at national scale to public servants (both women and men from local public institutions. The questionnaire focuses on gender stereotypes, sexual harassment, gender discrimination (in hiring, promotion, pay and benefits, evaluation, promotion and task distribution practices in institution and occupational mobility.

  12. Corporate Equality and Equity Prices: Doing Well While Doing Good?

    OpenAIRE

    Shihe Fu; Liwei Shan

    2009-01-01

    Two competing hypotheses, value enhancing and value discounting, state that implementing socially responsible corporate policies can have positive or negative effects on firm value. This paper tests how a specific type of social responsibility–corporate equality–affects firm value. Corporate equality is measured by the corporate equality index (CEI). This index quantifies how companies treat their gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender employees, consumers, and investors. Using a sample of C...

  13. Social work with families at social risk promoting gender equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pivoriene J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the research whose aim is to find out the attitudes of social workers toward gender equality. The qualitative research was carried out in 2014 in order to find out social workers' attitudes to gender equality in families and families at social risk, as well as obstacles and possibilities for implementation of gender equality in families at social risk. Eight social workers working with families at social risk were interviewed using semi-structured interview and content analysis for research data analysis. The research data reveals that gender equality in the family can be reached by mutual agreement, when the division of duties and responsibilities is in accordance with needs and abilities of family members. Good family relations are emphasized as a prerequisite for gender equality. Families at social risk with unbalanced social functioning and relationships are affected by stereotyped thinking about gender roles. As informants point out, this makes gender equality impossible in families at social risk. Social workers reveal that they do not directly relate the gender dimension with social work practice, and as a result it becomes problematic to promote gender equality in families at social risk. The main obstacles for implementation of gender equality are clients' resistance to change, too much responsibilities put on women-mother by social workers and other institutions that deal with social risk families, lack of information on gender equality and tools for promoting gender equality in the family. However, the informants provide solutions for promotion of gender equality in micro, mezzo and macro practice that correspond to the guidelines presented in the documents and strategies on gender equality at national and EU level.

  14. Community of Practice to Institutionalize Gender Equality | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Achieving equality between women and men ("gender equality") is an important principle of Canada's international cooperation program. Canadian organizations receiving CIDA funding must comply with CIDA's policy on gender equality, and many have adopted their own such policies. However, despite progress made ...

  15. Perceived Gender Equality in Managerial Positions in Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tominc Polona

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: This research aims to achieve two main objectives: to investigate differences between male and female managers regarding the perceived gender equality in organizations and to analyze the gender differences in relationships among the perceived gender equality, the perceived satisfaction with employment position and career, the perceived satisfaction with work, and the perceived work-family conflict.

  16. Swedish Schools and Gender Equality in the 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    In Sweden, as in many countries before Sweden, boys' academic achievements are getting considerable attention as the big gender issue. The Swedish gender equality policy that was put on the agenda in the 1970s is now associated with extreme discussions. This study aims to explore how gender equality was discussed in the 1970s, in connection with…

  17. Conceptualising Gender Equality in Research on Education Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikman, Sheila; Halai, Anjum; Rubagiza, Jolly

    2011-01-01

    This article sets out to re-conceptualise gender equality in education quality. Four approaches to conceptualising gender equitable education quality are identified in the literature: human capital theory with a focus on parity and sameness for all; a human rights and power perspective, within which gender equality is viewed as transforming unjust…

  18. Gender equity and tobacco control: bringing masculinity into focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Martha; Barraclough, Simon

    2010-03-01

    Gender is a key but often overlooked--determinant of tobacco use, especially in Asia, where sex-linked differences in prevalence rates are very large. In this article we draw upon existing data to consider the implications of these patterns for gender equity and propose approaches to redress inequity through gender-sensitive tobacco control activities. International evidence demonstrates that, in many societies, risk behaviours (including tobacco use) are practised substantially more by men and boys, and are also viewed as expressions of masculine identity. While gender equity focuses almost exclusively on the relative disadvantage of girls and women that exists in most societies, disproportionate male use of tobacco has profound negative consequences for men (as users) and for women (nonusers). Surprisingly, health promotion and tobacco control literature rarely focus on the role of gender in health risks among boys and men. However, tobacco industry marketing has masterfully incorporated gender norms, and also other important cultural values, to ensure its symbols are context-specific. By addressing gender-specific risks within the local cultural context--as countries are enjoined to do within the Framework Convention's Guiding Principles--it may be possible to accelerate the impact of mechanisms such as tobacco pricing, restrictions on marketing, smoking bans and provision of accurate information. It is essential that we construct a new research-to-policy framework for gender-sensitive tobacco control. Successful control of tobacco can only be strengthened by bringing males, and the concept of gender as social construction, back into our research and discussion on health and gender equity.

  19. Australia's Research Quality Framework and Gender Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austen, Siobhan

    2008-01-01

    This article presents quantitative evidence that shows that the introduction of a research assessment scheme similar to the proposed Research Quality Framework (RQF) is likely to exacerbate gender inequity in the Australian university sector. It contributes new measures of gender differences in the publications records of Australian academics. It…

  20. Sweden: Combining childbearing and gender equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Bernhardt

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Sweden is the forerunner of the Second Demographic Transition. Fertility trends have fluctuated greatly since the 1960s, and the 1990s showed both European-highest and lowest-ever-in-Sweden levels, while the cohort pattern has been relatively stable. Period fluctuations have been accompanied by a postponement of entering committed partnerships and parenthood as well as an increasing instability of family relationships. The awareness and the availability of effective contraceptives have been extensive since the mid-1970s, the year the liberal abortion law was introduced. Post-modern values are dominant in this highly secularized society, but ideal family size is among the highest in the European Union, and childlessness has remained at a relatively low level. Ethnic diversification has increased over time, with about one-fifth of the population having a 'foreign background' in the early 2000s. The level of female labor-force participation is the highest in Europe (although mothers of pre-schoolers often work part-time, and young women are just as highly educated as men. Family policies, based on the principle of equality across social groups and gender, seem to play an important role in keeping fertility relatively high. In combination with other factors, family policies also play a role in the fluctuations of fertility rates, as eligibility to parental-leave and benefits as well as the availability of public childcare are linked to parents' labor-force attachment.

  1. REVISITING GENDER EQUALITY WORK IN THE FAMOUS NORDIC MODEL COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Edström, Charlotta; Brunila, Kristiina

    2016-01-01

    This article concerns gender equality work, that is, those educational and workplace activities that involve the promotion of gender equality. It is based on research conducted in Sweden and Finland, and focuses on the period during which the public sector has become more market-oriented and project-based all over the Nordic countries. The consequences of this development on gender equality work have not yet been thoroughly analysed. Our joint empirical analysis is based on discourse-analytic...

  2. Road Map for Gender Equality in the FCC Study

    CERN Document Server

    Genevieve Guinot

    2015-01-01

    Plan towards defining well scoped deliverables on gender specific communication for discussion, mapping of country context and organisational practices and the establishment of a focused task-force on gender equality in participating institutes.

  3. Equal pay for work of equal value in terms of the Employment Equity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Equal pay is an area of employment law that is complex and not easily understood. This complexity is recognised by the International Labour Organisation (ILO), which notes that equal pay for work of equal value has proved to be difficult to understand, both with regard to what it entails and in its application. Amendments ...

  4. Gender Equity in Education: A Data Snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office for Civil Rights, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This data snapshot highlights several differences in educational opportunities between males and females from prekindergarten through higher education. The information herein, gathered from a variety of education data sources, shows that--despite the enormous progress made in ensuring equal educational opportunities since the passage of Title IX…

  5. Dilemmas in the Danish Approach to Gender Quotas and Gender Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    and gender justice in all arenas of society political and economic life. The belief in gender theory and research has been that gender quota would and should be a means to achieve equal rights and gender equality. Recently a new discourse and rhetoric of profitability of gender equality within a range......The paper addresses the dilemmas, contradictions and paradoxes in the Danish approach to gender quotas and gender equality. Gender theory has presented diverse arguments for gender quota: justice, resources and women’s interests. Gender quota can be understood as a means to achieve gender parity...... of institutions from business to higher education has become prominent in many arenas. One example is the Report on gender equality between men and women in the EU, which argues that gender quotas are not only beneficial for women’s rights but also for industry, for society, and for men...

  6. Stimulating Gender Equity Through Female Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Tanzania, like many other countries in Africa, has for a long time suffered from cultural-related gender inequality syndrome where females did not receive the same share of opportunity as males in many aspects of socioeconomic development, notably in education, politics, administration, science and technology.

  7. Gender Equity in the Classroom: An Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Jeanne; Hart, Betty L.

    1992-01-01

    Asserts that sexist communication (including gender doublespeak and sex role stereotyping) perpetuates social and educational injustices. Discusses classroom communication patterns, how to remove sexist language, and how to become aware of classroom prejudices. Offers techniques to help improve communication skills. (PRA)

  8. Improving Climate and Gender Equity in Physics Departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yennello, Sherry

    2010-02-01

    We need to open the door of science to women and minorities. We need to invite them in and encourage them to succeed. We need to teach them the secret handshake and transfer all the writing on the men's room walls and all-white country clubs into accessible places. We need to promote them to positions of national prominence. We need to do this out of respect to our mothers and the pioneering scientists who have come before us. We need to do this for our daughters and sons, so that our grandchildren may only know this discrimination as a piece of history. We need to do this now -- for the sake of our country, our science, our technical workforce, our economy and because it is the right thing to do. The Committee on the Status of Women in Physics (CSWP) has been helping physics departments improve their climate as a means to enhance gender equity. The CSWP site visit program has been giving departments valuable feedback on their climate for many years. In May 2007, a workshop on ``Gender Equity: Enhancing the Physics Enterprise in Universities and National Laboratories'' was held to address the issue of underrepresentation of women in physics by engaging the stake holders. This fall a new ``Conversation on Gender Equity'' has begun. Successful strategies for improving the climate and increasing the representation of women in physics will be presented. )

  9. Measuring Structural Gender Equality in Mexico: A State Level Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, Sonia M.

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of this article is to assess the level of gender equality across the 32 Mexican states. After reviewing conceptual and methodological issues related to previous measures of structural inequality I detail the logic and methodology involved in the construction of a composite and multidimensional measure of gender equality, at the…

  10. Scandinavian Approaches to Gender Equality in Academia: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Mathias Wullum

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates how Denmark, Norway, and Sweden approach issues of gender equality in research differently. Based on a comparative document analysis of gender equality activities in six Scandinavian universities, together with an examination of the legislative and political frameworks surrounding these activities, the article provides new…

  11. Perception of gender equality in new media

    OpenAIRE

    Küçükşen, Kübra

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction : Social gender is a concept that is used to describe the roles to be fulfilled, behavioral patterns and duties and responsibilities expected from males and females in socialization process according to the culture of the society where they live in different from biological gender. Media is a significant tool for determination and internalization of social gender roles. In parallel with social change and transformation, the change had in mass communication tools beco...

  12. Gender equity issues in astronomy: facts, fiction, and what the adaptive optics community can do to close the gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orgeville, Céline; Rigaut, François; Maddison, Sarah; Masciadri, Elena

    2014-07-01

    Gender equality in modern societies is a topic that never fails to raise passion and controversy, in spite of the large body of research material and studies currently available to inform the general public and scientists alike. This paper brings the gender equity and equality discussion on the Adaptive Optics community doorstep. Its aim is threefold: (1) Raising awareness about the gender gap in science and astronomy in general, and in Adaptive Optics in particular; (2) Providing a snapshot of real and/or perceived causes for the gender gap existing in science and engineering; and (3) Presenting a range of practical solutions which have been or are being implemented at various institutions in order to bridge this gap and increase female participation at all levels of the scientific enterprise. Actual data will be presented to support aim (1), including existing gender data in science, engineering and astronomy, as well as original data specific to the Adaptive Optics community to be gathered in time for presentation at this conference. (2) will explore the often complex causes converging to explain gender equity issues that are deeply rooted in our male-dominated culture, including: conscious and unconscious gender biases in perceptions and attitudes, worklife balance, n-body problem, fewer numbers of female leaders and role models, etc. Finally, (3) will offer examples of conscious and pro-active gender equity measures which are helping to bring the female to male ratio closer to its desirable 50/50 target in science and astronomy.

  13. Need for integration of gender equity in family planning services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Suneela; Singh, Ritesh

    2014-11-01

    The family planning programme of India has shown many significant changes since its inception five decades back. The programme has made the contraceptives easily accessible and affordable to the people. Devices with very low failure rate are provided free of cost to those who need it. Despite these significant improvements in service delivery related to family planning the programme cannot be said to achieve success at all levels. There are many issues with the family planning services available through the public health facilities in India. Failure to adopt the latest technology is one of these. But the most serious drawback of the programme is that it has never been able to bridge the gap between the two genders related to contraceptives. The programme gave emphasis to women-centric contraceptive and thus women were seen as their clients. The choice to adopt a contraceptive though is 'cafeteria approach' in family planning lexicon; it is the choice of the husband that is ultimately practiced. There is not enough dialogue between husband and wife and husband and health worker to discuss the use of one contraceptive over another. The male gender needs to be taken in confidence while promoting the family planning practice. The integration of gender equity is to be done carefully so as not to make dominant gender more powerful. Only when there is equity between genders while using family planning services the programme will achieve success.

  14. Place, (In)Equality and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Stine Thidemann; Nielsen, Helene Pristed; Bennike, Kathrine Bjerg

    This mapping presents a selected overview of existing research on gender, education and population flows in the Nordic peripheral areas. These areas are faced with a series of challenges that cannot be analyzed nor solved without taking a gender perspective into account. The challenges relate to...

  15. Place, (In)Equality and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Stine Thidemann; Nielsen, Helene Pristed; Bennike, Kathrine Bjerg

    This mapping presents a selected overview of existing research on gender, education and population flows in the Nordic peripheral areas. These areas are faced with a series of challenges that cannot be analyzed nor solved without taking a gender perspective into account. The challenges relate to,...

  16. Gender Equity: Womens Political Empowerment In South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Opportunity Act (1987) and the Gender Discrimination Prevention and Relief Act (1999), designed to bring equality between sexes .64 In Korea...Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) is “used in advocating for women’s equal political participation in Asia -Pacific...Male Superiority, and Korean Women in Politics: Changing Gender Relations in a “patriarchal Democracy.”“ Sex Roles 28, no. 1–2 (1993): 74. 48

  17. Promoting Gender Equality within Islamic Tradition via Contextualist Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Akbar

    2016-01-01

    The importance of advancing women's rights is closely intertwined with the development of civil society and the institutionalization of democracy in Middle Eastern countries. There is indeed an intimate relationship between the process of democratization and promoting gender equality, since democracy necessitates equality between men and women. In order to advance the issue of gender equality, what is required is a solid theoretical framework which has its roots in the reexamination of pre-mo...

  18. EU LAW AND GENDER-BALANCED BOARDS: MAKING EQUALITY EFFECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Vasiljević, Snježana; Sunko, Ana-Maria

    2017-01-01

    Summary: This paper reflects on the problem of gender balance in economic decision-making, considers its legislative roots, and offers potential guidance for its solution. The paper takes into account the origin of positive action and effective equality in the scope of EU legislation and CJEU case law and tackles the most troublesome issues regarding the new initiative of making equality in boards effective. It analyses gender equality in three approaches of positive action....

  19. Gender-Equal Organizations as a Prerequisite for Workplace Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Kristina; Abrahamsson, Lena

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore how gendering of the learning environment acts to shape the design and outcome of workplace learning. The primary intention is to reflect on the idea of gender-equal organizations as a prerequisite for workplace learning. Design/methodology/approach: A review of literature relating to gender and workplace…

  20. Covered by Equality: The Gender Subtext of Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benschop, Y.W.M.; Doorewaard, J.A.C.M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the results of an empirical study of the gender subtext in organizations. We examine the divergence of practice and impression of gender distinctions: gender inequality is still persistent in organizational practices while a dominant perception of equality occurs at the same

  1. Missing Links: Gender Equity in Science and Technology for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In this landmark book, the UN-commissioned Gender Working Group outlines its policy proposals for national science and technology programs. Its goal is to ensure that women and men have equal access to and benefit equally from science and technology. The proposals are supported by essays written by distinguished ...

  2. Perception of gender equity in the classroom among Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Education plays a major role in the preparation of young people for full participation in the society. Over the past few decades, gender equality in access to education has improved. However, there is still great inequality in the representation of the genders in certain educational fields and occupations. The study investigated ...

  3. Gender and Equity in e-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Coldwell

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Literature to date suggests contrary indicators of acceptance of the use of technology to support learning by females. With the increasing adoption of information technology to support teaching and learning, it is imperative that factors which may impede student learning are identified. The research reported here is of a large-scale survey of the perceptions of university students about eLearning and their use of the online learning environment. The aim of the survey was to gather data to inform about online learning practices at the University. The results were explored, amongst other factors, by gender. Findings include no significant differences between the female and male students with respect to being able to use the online learning environment confidently and effectively. In general the female students were more willing to participate in online discussions. However, there was no difference between the female and male students regarding their willingness to voice their opinions online. An unexpected result was the greater value placed by female students on using the online environment for communicating and collaborating with students of diverse background.

  4. Gender equity and fertility intentions in Italy and the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Letizia Tanturri

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Fertility levels have fallen drastically in most industrialized countries. Diverse theoretical and empirical frameworks have had difficulty in explaining these unprecedented low levels of fertility. More recently, however, attention has turned from classic explanations, such as women's increased labour market participation, to gender equity as the essential link to understand this phenomenon. The increase in women's labour market participation did not prompt an increase in men's domestic duties, which is often referred to women's 'dual burden' or 'second shift'. Institutions and policies within countries also facilitate or constrain the combination of women's employment with fertility. This paper provides an empirical test of gender equity theory by examining whether the unequal division of household labour leads to lower fertility intentions of women in different institutional contexts. Italy constitutes a case of high gender inequity, low female labour market participation and the lowest-low fertility. The Netherlands has moderate to low gender inequity, high part-time female labour market participation and comparatively higher fertility. Using data from the 2003 Italian Multipurpose Survey - Family and Social Actors and the 2004/5 Dutch sample from the European Social Survey, a series of logistic regression models test this theory. A central finding is that the unequal division of household labour only has a significant impact on women's fertility intentions when they already carry the load of high paid work hours or children, a finding that is particularly significant for working women in Italy.

  5. Towards gender equality in health in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samar, Sima; Aqil, Anwer; Vogel, Joanna; Wentzel, Lora; Haqmal, Sharifullah; Matsunaga, Etsuko; Vuolo, Elena; Abaszadeh, Nigina

    2014-01-01

    The Afghanistan gender inequality index shows that 70% loss in development is due to the limited participation of women in the workforce, low education and poor women's health outcomes. However, since the fall of the Taliban regime in 2002, gender inequalities in health have improved. This paper will review factors that led to these improvements. The review draws upon information from various sources, including formative and applied research, surveys and existing information systems. The review showed gender differentials in morbidity, mortality and accessing and utilising health services. Health professionals have expressed inadequate medical knowledge and interpersonal skills to address sensitive issues, such as domestic, physical and sexual violence. Discussing sexuality and its impact on health remains taboo both within and outside of the medical profession. Strict cultural norms restrict a woman's autonomy to seek health care, choose a marriage partner and have control over her body, indicating a need to increase awareness about how harmful social practices adversely affect health. The policy review showed that the Ministry of Public Health has made a commitment to reducing gender inequity in health and developed a two-pronged action plan to improve health providers' skills in handling gender-sensitive issues and mass media campaigns to change social norms.

  6. Moving beyond gender: processes that create relationship equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson-Martin, Carmen; Mahoney, Anne Rankin

    2005-04-01

    Equality is related to relationship success, yet few couples achieve it. In this qualitative study, we examine how couples with children in two time cohorts (1982 and 2001) moved toward equality. The analysis identifies three types of couples: Postgender, gender legacy, and traditional. Movement toward equality is facilitated by: (a) Stimulus for change, including awareness of gender, commitment to family and work, and situational pressures; and (b) patterns that promote change, including active negotiation, challenges to gender entitlement, development of new competencies, and mutual attention to relationship and family tasks. Implications for practice are discussed.

  7. Women and Gender Equality in Higher Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Miriam E.

    2015-01-01

    I look at the changes in higher education (HE) and women's lives over the last 50 years, drawing on my recent book "Feminism, Gender & Universities: Politics, Passion & Pedagogies" which is a life history of feminism entering academe. The Robbins Report (cmnd 2154 1963) on HE was published in the same year that I went to…

  8. Best Practices for Gender Equality in Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ranjeetha

    Institutional Transformations. 3. Institutional Transformations. 1. Promotion of Research and Teaching on Gender Issues. 2. Data Collection. 3. Funding. -. U S National .... Cultural Forum for a Digital Society. 29. Cultural Forum for a Digital Society. ▫ Conduct a survey on public awareness of and demand for sound. y p.

  9. Equal Pay for Work of Equal Value in Terms of the Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998: Lessons from the International Labour Organisation and the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamier Ebrahim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Equal pay is an area of employment law that is complex and not easily understood. This complexity is recognised by the International Labour Organisation (ILO, which notes that equal pay for work of equal value has proved to be difficult to understand, both with regard to what it entails and in its application. Amendments have been made to the Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998 (EEA to include a specific provision to regulate equal pay claims in the form of section 6(4-(5 of the EEA. The amendments were made in terms of the Employment Equity Amendment Act 47 of 2013, which came into effect on 1 August 2014 by presidential proclamation. Prior to section 6(4, the EEA did not contain a specific provision regulating equal pay claims. Claims could be brought in terms of section 6(1 of the EEA, which prohibits unfair discrimination on a number of grounds. The recent amendments to the EEA in the form of section 6(4-(5 (including the Employment Equity Regulations and the Code of Good Practice on Equal Pay for Work of Equal Value in respect of equal pay claims is a response to the ILO's criticism of South Africa's failure to include specific equal pay provisions in the EEA. Section 6(4 of the EEA provides for three causes of action in respect of equal pay. They are as follows: (a equal pay for the same work; (b equal pay for substantially the same work; and (c equal pay for work of equal value. The first two causes of action are not difficult to understand as opposed to the third cause of action, which is complex. The ILO has recognised the complexity of the third cause of action, "equal pay for work of equal value". In Mangena v Fila South Africa 2009 12 BLLR 1224 (LC, the Labour Court remarked in the context of an equal pay for work of equal value claim that it does not have expertise in job grading and in the allocation of value to particular occupations. This article will deal with the third cause of action only, "equal pay for work of equal value". The

  10. Patterns of gender equality at workplaces and psychological distress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Elwér

    Full Text Available Research in the field of occupational health often uses a risk factor approach which has been criticized by feminist researchers for not considering the combination of many different variables that are at play simultaneously. To overcome this shortcoming this study aims to identify patterns of gender equality at workplaces and to investigate how these patterns are associated with psychological distress. Questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 715 have been analysed and supplemented with register data about the participants' workplaces. The register data were used to create gender equality indicators of women/men ratios of number of employees, educational level, salary and parental leave. Cluster analysis was used to identify patterns of gender equality at the workplaces. Differences in psychological distress between the clusters were analysed by chi-square test and logistic regression analyses, adjusting for individual socio-demographics and previous psychological distress. The cluster analysis resulted in six distinctive clusters with different patterns of gender equality at the workplaces that were associated to psychological distress for women but not for men. For women the highest odds of psychological distress was found on traditionally gender unequal workplaces. The lowest overall occurrence of psychological distress as well as same occurrence for women and men was found on the most gender equal workplaces. The results from this study support the convergence hypothesis as gender equality at the workplace does not only relate to better mental health for women, but also more similar occurrence of mental ill-health between women and men. This study highlights the importance of utilizing a multidimensional view of gender equality to understand its association to health outcomes. Health policies need to consider gender equality at the workplace level as a social determinant of health that is of importance for reducing

  11. Patterns of gender equality at workplaces and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwér, Sofia; Harryson, Lisa; Bolin, Malin; Hammarström, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Research in the field of occupational health often uses a risk factor approach which has been criticized by feminist researchers for not considering the combination of many different variables that are at play simultaneously. To overcome this shortcoming this study aims to identify patterns of gender equality at workplaces and to investigate how these patterns are associated with psychological distress. Questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 715) have been analysed and supplemented with register data about the participants' workplaces. The register data were used to create gender equality indicators of women/men ratios of number of employees, educational level, salary and parental leave. Cluster analysis was used to identify patterns of gender equality at the workplaces. Differences in psychological distress between the clusters were analysed by chi-square test and logistic regression analyses, adjusting for individual socio-demographics and previous psychological distress. The cluster analysis resulted in six distinctive clusters with different patterns of gender equality at the workplaces that were associated to psychological distress for women but not for men. For women the highest odds of psychological distress was found on traditionally gender unequal workplaces. The lowest overall occurrence of psychological distress as well as same occurrence for women and men was found on the most gender equal workplaces. The results from this study support the convergence hypothesis as gender equality at the workplace does not only relate to better mental health for women, but also more similar occurrence of mental ill-health between women and men. This study highlights the importance of utilizing a multidimensional view of gender equality to understand its association to health outcomes. Health policies need to consider gender equality at the workplace level as a social determinant of health that is of importance for reducing differences in health

  12. Regulation vs. reality in Serbia: Gender equality, economy and state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić-Kuzmanović Tatjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available When the Law on Equality between Sexes (2009 and the National Strategy for Improving the Position of Women and Advancing Gender Equality (2009 were adopted, after a several years of obstruction of proceedings, in Serbia normative prerequisites for the implementation of the gender equality policy and for prevention and sanctioning of all kinds of gender based discrimination were created. In this paper, the author discusses the expected effect of the implementation of the Law on Equality between sexes. In addition, the key argument which restricts its implementation and potential positive effects is explained. The context of the dominate patriarchy and the prevailing human nondevelopment in Serbia does not stimulate neither women nor men, as development actors (manager, worker, trade union, state, to act in the direction to change gender regime and to take responsibility for development of the economy and society.

  13. THE ROLE OF GENDER EQUALITY IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatuna BERISHVILI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To study the problems of gender equality is of great importance for the global business. Gender is a cultural construct, within which our different cultures attach different values, roles and responsibilities to women and men. However, in addition to culture, the gender issues are in close relation with the global business. From this viewpoint, experience of the West is considerable and of great importance. It can be said that the problems of women’s rights and a whole number of barriers, which impede to reach the gender equality have long been a great problem for the leading countries of Europe and America. But one problem remains – the so-called „Glass Ceiling” – the barriers, which impede carrier advance of the female representatives. In the background of such diversity it is interesting to familiarize with the apprehension of gender equality in Georgia.

  14. A Sociological Framework to Address Gender Equity in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Mary Anne

    2017-04-01

    Lack of equity in the science workforce is a sociological problem; those wishing to seek its amelioration can benefit by viewing the issue with a sociological lens (and a sociologist). One useful framework that we have used to think strategically about how to lower barriers to equity is Barbara Risman's (2004): this framework views barriers to equity as individual, interpersonal ("interactional"), and institutional. Any given barrier may fit into one or more of these frames. Individual barriers include those intrinsic to an individual and may include: lack of access to vital networks and mentors, lack of preparation, etc. Such barriers can be addressed through mentoring programs and attention to building networks (e.g., through professional society memberships). Interpersonal or "interactional" barriers are those that arise from how we perceive and treat one another. Implicit bias underlies many of these barriers, including whether we perceive women as scientists, as competent, as dedicated (etc) as men. Such barriers can be reduced through implicit bias awareness. Institutional barriers arise from the structure and history of the academy itself, from its policies and procedures. Many such policies and procedures have a differential impact on men or women, generally without that intention. Policies that reduce equity barriers include family leave, childcare facilities, search committee training, clearly articulated practices for evaluation of applications and personnel reviews, equal starting pay and startup packages, equable canvassing for names to consider for nominations for honors and awards, to name a few. By viewing the issue through such a framework, the appropriate response can be generated for a more effective result.

  15. An Analysis of Citizenship and Democracy Education Text Book in the Context of Gender Equality and Determining Students' Perceptions on Gender Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalayci, Nurdan; Hayirsever, Fahriye

    2014-01-01

    Gender equality has been explained as both the equal treatment of women and men before the law and women's and men's equal usage of resources, opportunities, and services within the family and society. Today, although the conditions that support gender inequality have relatively decreased, gender discrimination still persists. Gender equality is…

  16. Equal pay legislation and the gender wage gap

    OpenAIRE

    Polachek, Solomon W.

    2014-01-01

    Despite equal pay legislation dating back 50 years, American women still earn 22% less than their male counterparts. In the UK, with its Equal Pay Act of 1970, and France, which legislated in 1972, the gap is 21% and 17% respectively, and in Australia it remains around 17%. Thus, the gender pay gap continues to be an important policy issue.

  17. Israel's Gender Equality Policy in Education: Revolution or Containment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, Devorah

    2000-01-01

    Examines Israel's policy of gender equality in education, discussing: social and economic forces that created the demand for equality; political processes for implementing the policy; and policy content. Data from interviews and document reviews indicate that the policy was devised to address concerns of high-tech industries and women,…

  18. Gender equality in rural development and agricultural extension in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender equality is seen both as a human rights (social justice) issue and as a precondition for and indicator of sustainable, people-centered development. Ethiopia is a signatory to various gender conventions and declarations. Much progress has been achieved in terms of establishing institutional arrangements. However ...

  19. THE ROLE OF GENDER EQUALITY IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Khatuna BERISHVILI

    2015-01-01

    To study the problems of gender equality is of great importance for the global business. Gender is a cultural construct, within which our different cultures attach different values, roles and responsibilities to women and men. However, in addition to culture, the gender issues are in close relation with the global business. From this viewpoint, experience of the West is considerable and of great importance. It can be said that the problems of women’s rights and a whole number of barriers, whi...

  20. Empowerment evaluation of a Swedish gender equity plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Gavriilidis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Empowerment is essential for gender equity and health. The city of Malmö, Sweden, has formulated a development plan for gender equity integration (GEIDP. A ‘Policy Empowerment Index’ (PEI was previously developed to assess the empowerment potential of policies. Objectives: To pilot-evaluate the GEIDP's potential for empowerment and to test the PEI for future policy evaluations. Design: The GEIDP was analyzed and scored according to electronically retrieved evidence on constituent opinion, participation, capacity development, evaluation–adaptation, and impact. Results: The plan's PEI score was 64% (CI: 48–78 and was classified as ‘enabling’, ranging between ‘enabling’ and ‘supportive’. The plan's strengths were: 1 constituent knowledge and concern; 2 peripheral implementation; 3 protection of vulnerable groups; and 4 evaluation/adaptation procedures. It scored average on: 1 policy agenda setting; 2 planning; 3 provisions for education; 4 network formation; 5 resource mobilization. The weakest point was regarding promotion of employment and entrepreneurship. Conclusions: The PEI evaluation highlighted the plan's potential of constituency empowerment and proposed how it could be augmented.

  1. Towards Achieving Gender Equality and Equity in the Provision of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study sought to establish the challenges that inhibit the full participation of the girl child in accessing education in selected secondary schools in Gwanda District of Matabeleland South Province. The descriptive survey design was chosen for this qualitative study with a sample chosen through purposive sampling ...

  2. "Kairos" and the Time of Gender Equity Policy in Australian Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Almost 20 years ago the Australian government released "Gender Equity: A Framework for Australian Schools" (1997). It was adopted by all states but almost immediately disappeared from sight after a conservative change of government. This was followed by the dismantling of gender equity units in each state, and a turn to boys' education…

  3. Gender Diversity in Planetary Volcanology: Encouraging Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, T. K.; Lopes, R. M.

    2004-12-01

    We have brought together a group of respected and well-known female planetary volcanologists to create a book designed to encourage young women to pursue scientific careers. The book, entitled "Volcanic Worlds: Exploring the Solar System's Volcanoes," published by Praxis, is written for undergraduates who may have no background in geology or planetary sciences. Each chapter covers a different Solar System body or volcanic process, and is authored by a woman who is an expert in her field. Subjects covered include: the relation of plate tectonics to volcanism on Earth; the study of Mars' volcanoes from space and using rovers; geysers on Neptune's moon Triton and on Earth; eruptions on Io; and studying submarine lava flows from a submarine. Each chapter is written in a comfortable, readily accessible tone, with authors presenting not only science, but also some of the unique challenges faced by women conducting volcanological research today-and how these are overcome. Although not intended to be a textbook, this work could easily form the basis of an undergraduate geology seminar, honors course, or as a valuable accessory to an introductory geology course. In addition, it could be used in courses that would be cross-listed between geology departments and sociology departments. We will present more information on the book, and suggestions of how it could be used in the classroom to enhance gender diversity in the Earth and Space Sciences.

  4. Education Policies for Gender Equity: Probing into State Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromquist, Nelly P.

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of non-discriminatory sex legislation provides theoretical and empirical grounds to examine responses by the state to gender equality. Tracing the trajectory of one such law in the U.S.--Title IX--over a period of 40 years, this study analyzes the extent to which the state: (1) acted as a unitary body, and (2) functioned to…

  5. Gender equality and family in European populist radical - right agendas:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Kriszan, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    frame gender equality and family issues in relation to issues of migration and mobility in their electoral campaigns for the EP and during the first months of MEPs. The analysis shows that gender and family issues have become instrumental for new forms of nationalisms. Gender and family issues are part......The chapter addresses the divergence and convergence of the framings of gender equality in nationalist and nativist discourses in the EP elections. It compares how representatives of populist radical right (PRR) parties in Denmark, the Netherlands, Italy and Spain, Croatia and Hungary, and Germany...... of the programs, campaigns and statements of the populist radical right, less prominently in the Nordic countries but quite centrally in the East, Central and Southern European countries as well as Germany. Meanwhile frames used by far right parties on gender and family contribute to exclusive forms...

  6. [Men, health and public policies: gender equality in question].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Marcia Thereza; Gomes, Romeu

    2012-10-01

    The scope of this article is to pose questions on the theme of Men, Health and Public Policies to render debate on the subject viable, based on theoretical and empirical references related to these issues. Initially, some historical landmarks on the theme are presented to provide guidelines for debate. An overview of the gender agenda in public policies is then presented to introduce the discussion about the inclusion of a gender perspective in healthcare policies. After this discussion, queries are raised about whether or not policies geared to men's health promote gender equality. In the closing remarks, the complexity involved in the development, implementation and evaluation of health policies aimed at gender equality is highlighted. The need for the Brazilian policy geared towards men's health to be implemented with other policies such that the gender matrix is transversal in the healthcare field is also stressed.

  7. Analysis of Gender Equality Competence Present in Cultural Positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción Mimbrero Mallado

    Full Text Available Abstract: Articulating the gender dimension in organizations is not easy because their members have to be trained to adopt positions that facilitate the implementation of solutions that help to combat inequalities. The aim of this article was to identify the gender equality competence present in the three types of cultural positions Castells proposed in members of a City CouncilinSevilla-Spain, who wanted to implement gender mainstreaming. The participants were 27 people (16 women and 11 men. The methodused was discourse analysis. The obtained results show that, while all competences were present in the projectposition,in the resistance position, there was none. In the legitimizers, we observed inconsistency in the discourse presented. This arouses considerations on the importance of knowing the gender equality competences in order to implement gender mainstreaming in organizations.

  8. The Policy on Gender Equality in Denmark - Update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    Upon request of the FEMM committee, this in-depth analysis updates a previous note published in October 2011 and describes Danish policies, practices and legislation within the area of women's rights and gender equality, covering the period from October 2011, when the Social Democrat-led government...... took office, to April 2015. During this period, the focus has been put on gender-based violence, leave policies, pay statistics, gender segregation in the labour market and in education, as well as sexual and reproductive health and rights. Earmarked leave for fathers and gender quota on company boards...

  9. Gender equality observations and actions by the European Research Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydin, Claudia Alves de Jesus; Farina Busto, Luis; Penny, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Women have historically been underrepresented in science. Much positive progress in attracting women to research careers has been achieved in recent years; however, the most influential and high profile positions in most countries are still predominantly occupied by men. The European Research Council (ERC), Europe's premiere funding agency for frontier research, views gender equality as an important challenge. The ERC monitors closely gender figures on every call and has taken actions to tackle gender imbalances and potential unconscious biases. The ERC talk is focused on efforts made to understand and ensure equal treatment of all candidates, with particular focus on gender balance and with specific attention to geosciences. Data and statistics collected from ERC's internationally recognised funding schemes are presented.

  10. All Are Equal, but Some Are More Equal than Others: Managerialism and Gender Equality in Higher Education in Comparative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teelken, Christine; Deem, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate what impact new regimes of management and governance, including new managerialism, have had on perceptions of gender equality at universities in three Western European countries. While in accordance with national laws and EU directives, contemporary current management approaches in universities…

  11. All are equal, but some are more equal than others: Managerialism and gender equality in higher education in comparative perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teelken, J.C.; Deem, R.

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate what impact new regimes of management and governance, including new managerialism, have had on perceptions of gender equality at universities in three Western European countries. While in accordance with national laws and EU directives, contemporary

  12. The Effect of Gender Equality on International Soccer Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredtmann, Julia; Crede, Carsten J.; Otten, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new estimation strategy that uses the variation in success between the male and the female national soccer team within a country to identify the causal impact of gender equality on women’s soccer performance. In particular, we analyze whether within-country variations...... force participation rates and life expectancies are able to explain the international soccer performance of female teams, but not that of male teams, suggesting that gender equality is an important driver of female sport success....

  13. ABC of women workers' rights and gender equality

    CERN Document Server

    International Labour Office. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    This concise and easy to read guidebook assists the layperson in understanding the legal frameworks and socio-economic developments surrounding gender equality in the world of work. Completely updated and revised, this guide incorporates important information relevant to women workers such as women in development, gender mainstreaming, the glass ceiling and much more. Each entry in the guide provides a clear, succinct definition and directs the reader to relevant laws, ILO conventions, and other topics for further research.

  14. Barbie Against Superman: Gender Stereotypes and Gender Equity in the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü AKSU

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In this age of mass media, we are surrounded with images that promote certain genderroles. These hidden forces shape us and our world view, often without us being aware thatthey are doing so. Gender stereotypes occur when generic attributes, opinions or roles havebeen applied toward either gender and the results are apparent everywhere in our society.From the point of view of education, it is important to use and/or to refuse genderstereotypes in the classroom.Since education is a significant social area where gender segregation and the reproductionof gender stereotypes are generated, there is, without doubt, much can be done in this areato prevent this phenomenon. As gender equity, is prevalent part of our society, teachersmust help their students identify where it exists in the classroom and school environment.

  15. Gender equality and climate Change: Why consider gender equality when taking action on climate change?

    OpenAIRE

    Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA)

    2008-01-01

    Metadata only record This document created by CIDA answers the question: why should we consider gender when talking about climate change. Recognizing men and women's different responsibilities, roles, and economic power is to understand gender specific vulnerabilities to climate change. Climate change impacts food security, water and other resources shortages, and health.

  16. 'Are we to become a gender university?' Facets of resistance to a gender equality project

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Stina; Ah-King, Malin; Hussénius, Anita

    2017-01-01

    Gender equality (GE) is something ‘we cannot not want’. Indeed, the pursuit of equal rights, responsibilities and opportunities for all women and men throughout a society freed from gendered oppression is widely visible in recent organizational GE initiatives. In practice, however, GE initiatives often fail in challenging gendered norms and at effecting deep-seated change. In fact, GE measures tend to encounter resistance, with a gap between saying and doing. Using a GE project at a Swedish u...

  17. Teachers Negotiating Discourses of Gender (In) Equality: The Case of Equal Opportunities Reform in Andalusia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubero, Mercedes; Santamaría, Andrés; Rebollo, Mª Ángeles; Cubero, Rosario; García, Rafael; Vega, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    This article is focused on the analysis of the narratives produced by a group of teachers, experts in coeducation, while they were discussing their everyday activities. They are responsible for the implementation of a Plan for Gender Equality in public secondary schools in Andalusia (Spain). This study is based on contributions about doing gender…

  18. Gender equality in poverty reduction strategies for sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aspect of gender equality is a vital element in the South African Constitution that now links the government's manifesto to the objectives of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), now form part of the global Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Under this imprint, South African local government is constantly ...

  19. Grants and awards: Gender equality and scaling digital innovation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    One area where there is a significant gap is in the funding of innovation projects focused on gender equality. ... They can help propagate existing innovations or potentially contribute to scaling innovations. ... Adaptation strategies for two Colombian cities were discussed at ADAPTO's second international workshop.

  20. Educational Gender-Equality and Women Empowerment as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined educational gender equality and women empowerment on National Transformation. The study adopted a correlational research design; three hundred (300) educated women were purposely selected in Oyo State. Two research instruments were used to pilot the study. The instrument are Educational ...

  1. Advancing Gender Equality in Education across GPE Countries. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banham, Louise; Ahern, Meg

    2016-01-01

    Gender equality in and through education is critical to the achievement of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, as many experts have observed, and investing in this area yields substantial public and private returns. It is a key driver of economic and social development and leads to gains in health, nutrition and many other areas. Support…

  2. ABC of women workers' rights and gender equality

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    This second-editioned publication presents important information relevant to women workers in entries on sexual harassment, women in development, the glass ceiling and many more. With an easy-to-follow, this book provides an essential tool raising awareness and legal literacy on gender equality issues.

  3. Achieving gender equality with civil registration and vital statistics ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-02-26

    Achieving gender equality with civil registration and vital statistics systems. A midwife and a nurse explain the process of birth registration to new mother in southern. A. Gichigi/Trócaire. Birth registration protects women and their children. Event date: February 26, 2018. Location: IDRC. 150 Kent Street, 8th floor. Ottawa, ON.

  4. The European Gender Equality Index: Conceptual and Analytical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bericat, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a composite indicator designed to measure and compare existing structural gender equality in the countries of the European Union. The construction of an index is always a complex task which requires making a great many important conceptual, analytical and empirical decisions. This complexity explains the wide variety of…

  5. Promotion of Gender Equality: A Millennium Development Goal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper reveals that irrespective of the Millennium Development goal of gender parity and women empowerment, statistics reveal that there still exist much of ... It is therefore our view that until equal numbers of girls and boys are in school, it will be impossible to build the knowledge necessary to eradicate poverty and ...

  6. New funding opportunity for gender equality and climate change ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    New funding opportunity for gender equality and climate change. 08 mars 2018. Women collecting clean drinking water. USAID. IDRC is pleased to ... Nouveau webinaire IWRA/CRDI sur les changements climatiques et la gestion adaptive de l'eau. L'Association internationale de ressources en eau (IWRA), en étroite ...

  7. The importance of institutional mechanisms for exercising gender equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajvančić Marijana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary democratic societies, equality between men and women is one of the fundamental human rights as well as the key moral and legal value. In order to be exercised, this right must be legally recognized and efficiently exercised in all aspects of human life: political, economic, social and cultural. Experience has shown that an effective exercise of gender equality calls for integrating the gender perspective into all public policies, at all levels and in all decision-making processes. The necessary prerequisite is a proper institutional and legal framework. The institutional framework in the field of gender equality includes institutions operating within the legislative and the executive branch, as well as those involved in the protection of gender equality. The jurisdiction of the institutional mechanism within the legislative branch is defined in general terms and it does not reflect the multi-sectoral nature of activities covered by this operative body. The Gender Equality Council and the Gender Equality Agency, which were operative until the year 2014, differed in their composition and membership selection method, and they had different positions in the structure of executive authorities; the content and scope of their jurisdiction was not clearly defined, nor were they vested with sufficient and relevant powers. For that reason, it is essential to establish a new structure of institutional mechanisms within the executive branch as soon as possible. In that course, it should be ascertained that these institutions have direct communication with the government, and their competences have to be regulated adequately and precisely. In order to ensure that the normative and other measures and activities produce good results, it is necessary to provide and sustain an inter-sectoral approach to gender equality and create systemic presumptions and adequate procedures which will provide for utmost coordination and cooperation of all

  8. POSSIBILITIES OF CONSTRUCTION OF GENDER EQUALITY IN THE FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaura Isabel Conte

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction of gender equality in the field, refers to a look at the history of rural women and how they put the story since, have long been heavily stereotyped, even more inferior when compared to the other. This study aims to show the possibilities of building gender equality, with through the contribution of feminism, from research conducted in the Movement of Rural Women. We made theoretical studies, documentary analysis and interviews with activists and leaders of the Movement. We believe that feminism is something quite recent in the case of meeting the guidelines of the peasant struggle, but has significantly contributed in the struggle for liberation of women. We also stress that the learning and the force exerted by collective motion, was and is crucial in the fight for greater equality between women and men in their class and patriarchal society.

  9. Gender Equality from a European Perspective: Myth and Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Patricia C; Bagni, Claudia

    2017-11-15

    In the past 50 years, significant progress in women's equality has been made worldwide. Western countries, particularly European countries, have implemented initiatives to attain a more gender-balanced workforce with the introduction of family friendly policies, by trying to narrow the gender pay gap and by promoting women's career progression. In academia, however, fewer women reach top leadership positions than those in the political arena. These findings suggest that academia needs to carefully evaluate why these new policies have not been very effective. In this NeuroView, we report on the progress made in higher education, the shortcomings, and how new initiatives hold great promise for improving gender equality in academia around the globe. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Equal Pay for Work of Equal Value in Terms of the Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998: Lessons from the International Labour Organisation and the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Shamier Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    Equal pay is an area of employment law that is complex and not easily understood. This complexity is recognised by the International Labour Organisation (ILO), which notes that equal pay for work of equal value has proved to be difficult to understand, both with regard to what it entails and in its application. Amendments have been made to the Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998 (EEA) to include a specific provision to regulate equal pay claims in the form of section 6(4)-(5) of the EEA. The ame...

  11. Participatory modeling to support gender equality : The importance of including stakeholders in interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenbergh, I.L.; van Engen, Marloes

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Interventions to support gender equality in organisations are often unsuccessful. Stakeholders disagree about the causes and problem definition of gender equality or pay lip service to the principle of gender equality, but fail to implement gender equality in practice. The purpose of this

  12. Participatory modeling to support gender equality: The importance of including stakeholders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenbergh, I.L.; Engen, M.L. van; Engen, M. van

    2015-01-01

    - Purpose – Interventions to support gender equality in organisations are often unsuccessful. Stakeholders disagree about the causes and problem definition of gender equality or pay lip service to the principle of gender equality, but fail to implement gender equality in practice. The purpose of

  13. Examining Faculty Awards for Gender Equity and Evolving Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbuhl, Stephanie; Bristol, Mirar N.; Ashfaq, Hera; Scott, Patricia; Tuton, Lucy Wolf; Cappola, Anne R.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Awards given to medical school faculty are one important mechanism for recognizing what is valued in academic medicine. There have been concerns expressed about the gender distribution of awards, and there is also a growing appreciation for the evolving accomplishments and talents that define academic excellence in the 21st century and that should be considered worthy of award recognition. OBJECTIVE Examine faculty awards at our institution for gender equity and evolving values. METHODS Recipient data were collected on awards from 1996 to 2007 inclusively at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine (SOM). Descriptions of each award also were collected. The female-to-male ratio of award recipients over the time span was reviewed for changes and trends. The title and text of each award announcement were reviewed to determine if the award represented a traditional or a newer concept of excellence in academic medicine. MAIN RESULTS There were 21 annual awards given to a total of 59 clinical award recipients, 60 research award recipients, and 154 teaching award recipients. Women received 28% of research awards, 29% of teaching awards and 10% of clinical awards. Gender distribution of total awards was similar to that of SOM full-time faculty except in the clinical awards category. Only one award reflected a shift in the culture of individual achievement to one of collaboration and team performance. CONCLUSION Examining both the recipients and content of awards is important to assure they reflect the current composition of diverse faculty and the evolving ideals of leadership and excellence in academic medicine. PMID:19727968

  14. Towards a fresh start in measuring gender equality: A contribution to the debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G. Dijkstra (Geske)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBoth the Gender-related Development Index (GDI) and the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) represent a ‘‘false start’’ in measuring gender equality. This is because they do not measure gender (in)equality as such, but an odd combination of absolute welfare levels and gender equality that

  15. Gender Equity in Advertising on the World-Wide Web: Can it be Found?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Kevin M.; Knupfer, Nancy Nelson

    Recent attention to gender equity in computer environments, as well as in print-based and televised advertising for technological products, suggests that gender bias in the computer environment continues. This study examined gender messages within World Wide Web advertisements, specifically the type and number of visual images used in Web banner…

  16. The New Public Management and gender equality policies in Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Castaño Collado

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gender equality policies at European universities have been introduced in the context of reforms of higher education aimed at the implementation of market logic in the management of higher education (New Public Management. Greater transparency and mechanisms of competitiveness could call into question the traditional systems of production and reproduction of male power in universities. This article analyzes the experience of some countries that have preceded Spain in the implementation of equality policies in parallel with policies of transparency and competitiveness. Our goal is to draw conclusions that are useful for public policy.

  17. Patterns of gender equality at workplaces and psychological distress

    OpenAIRE

    Elwér, Sofia; Harryson, Lisa; Bolin, Malin; Hammarström, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Research in the field of occupational health often uses a risk factor approach which has been criticized by feminist researchers for not considering the combination of many different variables that are at play simultaneously. To overcome this shortcoming this study aims to identify patterns of gender equality at workplaces and to investigate how these patterns are associated with psychological distress. Questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort (n=715) have been analysed and supplem...

  18. Recent Progress in Promoting Gender Equality for Japanese Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Setsuko; Nishitani-Gamo, Mikka

    2009-04-01

    The last three years have been an epoch-making period in promoting gender equality in the Japanese science community. Motivated by recommendations we made on the basis of a large-scale survey, the Japanese government started several projects in 2006 for supporting women scientists and attracting girls to science and technology. In spite of these efforts, we see only very slow increase in the number of women researchers in professional positions.

  19. Gender Equality in Education: GTZ and indigenous communities in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Cortina

    2010-01-01

    Regina Cortina explores new forms of collaboration between European donor countries and countries in Latin America in support of education. Placed in the larger context of the European Union Development Aid policy, the focus is the Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) impact on projects in Latin America, which illustrate how to mainstream gender equality into education. For a closer understanding of this success, she examines the Basic Education Programme in Peru (PROEDUCA).

  20. Islamic politics and women's quest for gender equality in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoodfar, Homa; Sadr, Shadi

    2010-01-01

    The unification of a strong and authoritarian state with religious laws and institutions after the 1979 revolution in Iran has resulted in the creation of a dualistic state structure in which non-elected and non-accountable state authorities and institutions-the majority of whom have not accepted either the primacy of democracy nor the premise of equality between men and women (or Muslims and non-Muslims)-are able to oversee the elected authorities and institutions. The central question posed by this paper is whether a religious state would be capable of democratising society and delivering gender equality. By analysing the regime's gender policies and political development, the paper suggests that, at least in the case of Iran and Shi'ism, the larger obstacle to gender (and minorities') equality has more to do with the undemocratic state-society relations that persist in Iran and less to do with the actual or potential compatibility (or lack thereof) of religious traditions or practices with democratic principles.

  1. UNIVERSITY COMMISSION FOR GENDER EQUALITY (CUIG. EXPERIENCE MAINSTREAMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Flores-Hernández

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender mainstreaming suggests institutional reorganization and/or “mainstreaming” of gender at the university. Betting on institutionalization as part of a government policy that requires institutional commitment and the responsibility of all university powers by the advancement of equality between women and men. For certain approaches in the feminist movement, it represents the handling of a struggle in the very long term tension that cannot be bounded exclusively to the enunciation of instances nominal or degraded resource allocation without achieving larger structural changes and prone to genuine equality (Palomar, 2009; Pérez, 2010; Alonso, 2010. Therefore, in this paper seeks to explain the extent to which the proposal or mainstreaming should not own the feminist struggle. The reflection is located in the plane of the Autonomous University of Tlaxcala (UATX, for it challenges facing the institutionalization of gender are presented, based on the following questions: Does the University have a need to mainstream a gender perspective? And, if so, what elements allow this initiative? And, what elements constrain it?

  2. Gender equality in couples and self-rated health - A survey study evaluating measurements of gender equality and its impact on health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sörlin Ann

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Men and women have different patterns of health. These differences between the sexes present a challenge to the field of public health. The question why women experience more health problems than men despite their longevity has been discussed extensively, with both social and biological theories being offered as plausible explanations. In this article, we focus on how gender equality in a partnership might be associated with the respondents' perceptions of health. Methods This study was a cross-sectional survey with 1400 respondents. We measured gender equality using two different measures: 1 a self-reported gender equality index, and 2 a self-perceived gender equality question. The aim of comparison of the self-reported gender equality index with the self-perceived gender equality question was to reveal possible disagreements between the normative discourse on gender equality and daily practice in couple relationships. We then evaluated the association with health, measured as self-rated health (SRH. With SRH dichotomized into 'good' and 'poor', logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with the outcome. For the comparison between the self-reported gender equality index and self-perceived gender equality, kappa statistics were used. Results Associations between gender equality and health found in this study vary with the type of gender equality measurement. Overall, we found little agreement between the self-reported gender equality index and self-perceived gender equality. Further, the patterns of agreement between self-perceived and self-reported gender equality were quite different for men and women: men perceived greater gender equality than they reported in the index, while women perceived less gender equality than they reported. The associations to health were depending on gender equality measurement used. Conclusions Men and women perceive and report gender equality differently. This means that it is

  3. Should governments in Europe be more aggressive in pushing for gender equality to raise fertility? The second "YES"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Sz. Oláh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on my contribution to a debate, organized by MPIDR, on the question displayed in the title above. I was asked to present arguments for the "yes"-response (together with Laurent Toulemon, and arguing against the "no"-side represented by Gerda Neyer and Dimiter Philipov. As pointed out in the paper, the most important theoretical reasoning relevant for this question is the gender equity theory. A number of studies provide sound empirical support to it, as discussed in the paper in details, and thereby also a rationale for a positive impact of increased gender equality on fertility. As the dual-earner family is here to stay, and given the well-known negative consequences of long-term very low fertility for a society, pushing for gender equality seems to be a reasonable strategy to be considered aiming for sustainable societal development.

  4. A Semiotic Analysis of the Gender Equality Paradigm. Case study: the Gender Pay Gap Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Manolache

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Within the new European space of identity, attitude and action challenges, syntagms such as “unity in diversity” or “equal pay for work of equal value” have become identitarian brands for social groups with a high-level of self-awareness. Having the social semiotics (Kress, van Leeuwen [1996] 2006 as theoretical background, we focused our analysis on the gender equality paradigm. The empirical data were provided by four visual texts of the Gender Pay Gap campaign, initiated by the European Commission in March 2009, in order to map the new European “puzzle-space” . The analysis showed the importance of compositional, representational and interactive meanings within the European discourse on equality of chances and gender.

  5. Baltic Consortium on Promoting Gender Equality in Marine Research Organisations (Baltic Gender)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kısakürek Ibsen, Başak; Braun, Sarah; Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina; Kutser, Tiit; Stadmark, Johanna; Vaitkevičienė, Viktorija; Waniek, Joanna; Werner, Iris; Matthes, Katja

    2017-04-01

    Marine Science and Technology has been traditionally a male-dominated research field, with a significant lack of women in leadership positions. However, the whole intellectual capacity of men and women alike are needed to create innovative solutions for the sustainable use of marine resources in the face of major global challenges for the development of the marine environment. The EU-funded project, Baltic Gender (GA No. 710363), responds to this need for creating policies and implementing measures at the institutional level with the aim of harvesting the full human capital for the needs of marine research. The main goal of Baltic Gender is to help reduce gender segregation and gender inequalities in Marine Science and Technology. To this end, eight partner institutions from five countries in the Baltic Sea region (Estonia, Finland, Germany, Lithuania and Sweden) came together for the exchange of institutional practices as well as for the transfer of knowledge from institutions/countries leading in gender equality to those following. Baltic Gender will sow the seeds for long-lasting institutional practices by initiating schemes and strategies that promote gender equality in the partner institutions. These include, for instance: the founding of grass-root networks that support the career advancement of women; creating strategies for better reconciliation of work and family life of women and men; the review and improvement of institutional policies and practices with regard to gender balance, fairness and transparency; development of a method protocol for incorporating gender analysis into research projects or programmes of Marine Science and Technology; initiating gender focused training and mentoring in or across all partner institutions. The project will support the implementation of Gender Equality Plans (GEPs), which consist of a set of actions an institution commits to in order to identify any existing gender bias and to implement strategies to advance gender

  6. Socio-Cultural and Ideological Preconditions of Gender Equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sviytlana Storozhuk

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the factors that have led to the contradiction between a legislated principle of gender equality and, broadcast from pre-modern by a number of social institutions a social differentiation by gender and discrimination generated by it, existing in modern outlook and socio-cultural life. The article shows that the concepts of natural equality of people and social consensus together with the process of secularization and desecration, developed during the modern period, transformed a social reality, but they usually do not apply to a person who is still viewed through the prism of axiological and ideological premodern paradigm. Thus, the concept of natural equality has extrapolated only to men who were considered carriers of social activity in premodern culture. It is emphasized that despite the radical changes of socio-cultural and political life of European society that occurred as a result of implementation of social modern program, a family, remaining a decentralized nucleus, was living by premodern values that gained social significance at a time when a woman acquired her social activity.

  7. Gender Equality Policy in Sweden: 1970s–2010s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Nyberg

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to give an overview of gender equality policy in Sweden from the 1970s until today. A number of political measures and whether these measures individually, as well as combined, have promoted gender equality and the dual-earner/dual-carer model are described and analyzed. The conclusion is that the right to part-time work, publicly financed child care, parental leave, and tax deductions for domestic services make it easier for mothers to reconcile work and family, but do not challenge the distribution of family responsibilities between women and men. However, the individual right for fathers to 2 months of parental leave does challenge the gender order, to a certain extent, and fathers today participate more in care and domestic work than earlier. The dual-earner/dual-carer family is closer at hand when women have a higher education and earnings and thereby greater bargaining power. Employed work is more conditional among women with a lower education level, i.e., they may be employed but under the constraint that they are still responsible for care and domestic work in the family. Another constraint in this group where many work part-time is the lack of available full-time positions in the labor market.

  8. Unfinished Business: Re-Positioning Gender on the Education Equity Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Judith; Tranter, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    The long-standing relationship between social disadvantage and poor educational outcomes continues to preoccupy educational policy-makers, with teachers at the front line of the ongoing struggle. Across the range of equity concerns, gender may be noted as either qualifying disadvantage or compounding it, but the meaning of gender as a simple…

  9. Reconstruction versus Transformation: Post-War Education and the Struggle for Gender Equity in Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclure, Richard; Denov, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    In post-war contexts, education is widely regarded as essential not only for civic reconciliation, but also as a key force for gender equity. In Sierra Leone, however, despite enhanced educational opportunities for girls, much of the emphasis on post-war educational reconstruction is unlikely to rectify gender inequities that remain entrenched…

  10. New and Persistent Gender Equality Challenges in Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathias Wullum

    This dissertation is about the cumulative disadvantages slowing down women academics’ advancement and keeping them from gaining the same organizational status as their male colleagues. It is also about understanding and explaining how gender relations are reconstituted in a rapidly changing...... academic context characterized by increasing demands for international competitiveness, innovation, flexibility and accountability. The thesis employs a case study approach, adopting a critical realist meta- theoretical framework and a pluralist methodology to investigate the new and persistent gender...... equality challenges at Aarhus University in Denmark. The overall research objective has been divided into four analytically distinct potential explanatory components, each drawing attention to a number of social mechanisms, which under certain circumstances, can be expected to be instrumental...

  11. Why do Arab States Lag the World in Gender Equality?

    OpenAIRE

    Norris, Pippa

    2009-01-01

    Why do Arab states lag behind the rest of the world in gender equality? Social structural, cultural, and institutional accounts offer alternative perspectives. This study critiques the ‘petroleum patriarchy’ thesis, presented in Michael Ross’s “Oil, Islam and Women†(2008), which claims that the structure of oil-rich economies directly limit the role of women in the paid workforce and thus also (indirectly) restrict women’s representation in parliament. In particular, Part I raises...

  12. "Gender (in)Equality Act" and large Spanish Corporations

    OpenAIRE

    José Ignacio Conde-Ruiz; Carmen Hoya

    2015-01-01

    This policy paper presents an analysis of the current situation of female representation on the boards of Directors of the 35 largest publicly listed Spanish companies. Whenever possible, it compares the situation in 2013 to that of 2007, the year in which the “Gender Equality Act” was passed. The law stated that in 2015 it would assess progress and decide whether or not to introduce more drastic measures or implement further actions if necessary. The paper finds there is still a long...

  13. Linkages between gender equity and intimate partner violence among urban Brazilian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Anu Manchikanti; Speizer, Ilene S; Moracco, Kathryn E

    2011-10-01

    Gender inequity is a risk factor for intimate partner violence (IPV), although there is little research on this relationship that focuses on youth or males. Using survey data collected from 240 male and 198 female youth aged 15-24 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, we explore the association between individual-level support for gender equity and IPV experiences in the past 6 months and describe responses to and motivations for IPV. Factor analysis was used to construct gender equity scales for males and females. Logistic and multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between gender equity and IPV. About half of female youth reported some form of recent IPV, including any victimization (32%), any perpetration (40%), and both victimization and perpetration (22%). A total of 18% of male youth reported recently perpetrating IPV. In logistic regression models, support for gender equity had a protective effect against any female IPV victimization and any male IPV perpetration and was not associated with female IPV perpetration. Female victims reported leaving the abusive partner, but later returning to him as the most frequent response to IPV. Male perpetrators said the most common response of their victims was to retaliate with violence. Jealousy was the most frequently reported motivation of females perpetrating IPV. Gender equity is an important predictor of IPV among youth. Examining the gendered context of IPV will be useful in the development of targeted interventions to promote gender equity and healthy relationships and to help reduce IPV among youth. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The power of the ideology of gender equality and the limitations of state bureaucracy : paradoxes in the institutionalization of gender equality policies in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Se-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    This research seeks to explain the paradoxes of policy efforts made by Ministry of Gender Equality and Family (MOGEF) in Korea. Korea established a Ministry to redress gender inequality and succeeded in passing numerous legislation guaranteeing formal equal rights for women, which won Korea a UN designation as an exemplary case. However, the paradox of the institutionalization of gender equality within a special unit for the promotion of women was that the more powerful the institution became...

  15. Gender and the Perceived Equity - Perceived Organizational Support Link in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hossameldin KHALIFA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at examining the relationships between perceived internal and external salary equities as independent variables, and perceived organizational support (POS as a dependent variable among Egyptian employees. Another objective was to investigate the moderation effect of gender on the aforementioned relationships. Data was obtained using a direct survey of 115 Egyptian employees drawn from a variety of industries. Findings suggest that both facets of perceived salary equity (internal and external have positive relationships with POS. Findings further suggest that the relationship between perceived internal salary equity and POS is stronger among males. Theoretical contributions, study limitations, as well as recommendations for future research are discussed.

  16. The compassionate sexist? How benevolent sexism promotes and undermines gender equality in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hideg, Ivona; Ferris, D Lance

    2016-11-01

    Although sexist attitudes are generally thought to undermine support for employment equity (EE) policies supporting women, we argue that the effects of benevolent sexism are more complex. Across 4 studies, we extend the ambivalent sexism literature by examining both the positive and the negative effects benevolent sexism has for the support of gender-based EE policies. On the positive side, we show that individuals who endorse benevolent sexist attitudes on trait measures of sexism (Study 1) and individuals primed with benevolent sexist attitudes (Study 2) are more likely to support an EE policy, and that this effect is mediated by feelings of compassion. On the negative side, we find that this support extends only to EE policies that promote the hiring of women in feminine, and not in masculine, positions (Study 3 and 4). Thus, while benevolent sexism may appear to promote gender equality, it subtly undermines it by contributing to occupational gender segregation and leading to inaction in promoting women in positions in which they are underrepresented (i.e., masculine positions). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Pregnant politicians and sexy fathers? The politics of gender equality representations in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mügge, L.

    2013-01-01

    Gender equality has become a core element within the national identity and self representation of ‘progressive’ European nation states, distinguishing them from what is deemed non-European. Gender equality has become the hallmark of what ‘Europe’ stands for. But gender equality is far from one

  18. The influence of gender equality policies on gender inequalities in health in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palència, Laia; Malmusi, Davide; De Moortel, Deborah; Artazcoz, Lucía; Backhans, Mona; Vanroelen, Christophe; Borrell, Carme

    2014-09-01

    Few studies have addressed the effect of gender policies on women's health and gender inequalities in health. This study aims to analyse the relationship between the orientation of public gender equality policies and gender inequalities in health in European countries, and whether this relationship is mediated by gender equality at country level or by other individual social determinants of health. A multilevel cross-sectional study was performed using individual-level data extracted from the European Social Survey 2010. The study sample consisted of 23,782 men and 28,655 women from 26 European countries. The dependent variable was self-perceived health. Individual independent variables were gender, age, immigrant status, educational level, partner status and employment status. The main contextual independent variable was a modification of Korpi's typology of family policy models (Dual-earner, Traditional-Central, Traditional-Southern, Market-oriented and Contradictory). Other contextual variables were the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM), to measure country-level gender equality, and the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). For each country and country typology the prevalence of fair/poor health by gender was calculated and prevalence ratios (PR, women compared to men) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed. Multilevel robust Poisson regression models were fitted. Women had poorer self-perceived health than men in countries with traditional family policies (PR = 1.13, 95%CI: 1.07-1.21 in Traditional-Central and PR = 1.27, 95%CI: 1.19-1.35 in Traditional-Southern) and in Contradictory countries (PR = 1.08, 95%CI: 1.05-1.11). In multilevel models, only gender inequalities in Traditional-Southern countries were significantly higher than those in Dual-earner countries. Gender inequalities in self-perceived health were higher, women reporting worse self-perceived health than men, in countries with family policies that were less oriented to gender equality

  19. Expansion and access to higher education: how is gender equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edineide Jezine

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is problematic the process of expansion of higher education in Brazil and the challenges of access and retention of students in vulnerable situations. In this objective set to analyze the gender equality concepts in higher education policies; and enrollment in public and private sectors as they are distributed, considering the gender variable. This is a qualitative study supported by quantitative data of expanding the number of courses and enrollment, considering the Census of Higher Education (2013 that the tip 10 courses with the highest number of female and male enrollment. Based on these data analysis seeks apprehension-der the dynamics at the Federal University of Paraíba (UFPB from the perspective of sexualization / gendering. By analyzing access to this type of education of men and women in UFPB, the data show that more women enter and complete higher education courses. However, when analyze distribution by courses, still remains femininity and masculinity certain professional careers. In this sense, the research results show that the process of expansion of higher education is not accompanied by professional motivations that courses historically constitute as male, the case of Engineering, and / or female courses, the case of pedagogy, keeping inequality processes between the sexes in professional careers.

  20. The Fragility of Gender Equality Policies in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Salazar Benítez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Within the last decade, Spain has become a model in legislative policies for gender equality at the international level. However, the economic crisis has led to a growth in inequality, which has revealed the weaknesses of the adopted instruments. Despite the large amount of legislation in this area, the social reality has not changed at all, even experiencing a setback over the past few years. This situation was exposed in our country by a report issued in 2015 by the UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW. This report showed the negative effects of the economic crisis and austerity policies on women, even in a context necessitating increased efforts towards women’s rights. Therefore, it is imperative that the concept of gender mainstreaming and the adoption of instruments of “hard law” be revisited. The goal should be to achieve gender justice based on three elements—distribution, identity, and representation—and a real parity democracy.

  1. Overcoming challenges to gender equality in the workplace leadership and innovation

    CERN Document Server

    Flynn, Patricia M; Kilgour, Maureen A

    2016-01-01

    Many businesses and organizations are increasingly aware of the case for promoting gender equality, both within and outside their organizational boundaries. Evidence suggests that gender equality in the workplace boosts performance, and legal frameworks in many countries mandate specific action on gender inequality in the workplace. However, despite organizational policies on promoting equality and equal opportunities, there remain challenges to be overcome in many businesses, including throughout their supply chains. The book provides research rationales as to why responsible organizations must address the issue of gender equality in the workplace. It also presents case studies, action research and examples of good practices, describing how businesses and organizations are working to promote gender equality in various contexts. The book is designed to support the rationale for gender equality in business and organizations, provide evidence of implementation of gender equality in the workplace, and how to dea...

  2. The Quality of Equity? Reframing Gender, Development and Education in the Post-2020 Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baily, Supriya; Holmarsdottir, Halla B.

    2015-01-01

    The year 2015 marks the twentieth anniversary of the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, with a goal to contribute to gender equality globally. As scholars continue in their quest to "take stock" of the ways in which gender and education work in tandem to achieve greater gender equality, we observe a revival in interest…

  3. Equality versus equity bases pay systems and their effects on rational altruism motivation in teams: wicked masked altruism

    OpenAIRE

    Javier García Bernal; Marisa Ramírez Alesón

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the design of optimal incentives in teams both with and without rational altruism. The main contribution of the paper is to study the influence of the incentive function on the altruism parameter chosen by team members. We find that optimal incentive is independent of the presence of rational altruism. Secondly, we compare the welfare loss of equal sharing rules versus second best optimal sharing rules (based on equity). Finally, we distinguish between two sources of ratio...

  4. Perceived Equity in the Gendered Division of Household Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Michael; Lewin-Epstein, Noah; Stier, Haya; Baumgartner, Miriam K.

    2008-01-01

    Despite huge imbalances in the division of housework between women and men, previous studies have found perceptions of equity on the part of women to be much more frequent than feelings of injustice. Taking a comparative perspective on the basis of International Social Survey Program (ISSP) 2002 data (N = 8,556), we find that, on the individual…

  5. Gender equality and gender differences: parenting, habitus, and embodiment (the 2008 Porter lecture).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Andrea

    2009-05-01

    Drawing on a four-year research project on Canadian primary caregiving fathers, as well two recent projects on the first year of parenting, this article highlights several theoretical and substantive issues in the study of gender equality and gender differences in parenting. First, I call for shifts from a focus on domestic tasks toward domestic and community-based responsibilities. Second, I argue that the political terrain underpinning the study of mothering and fathering calls for clarity on how researchers interpret the constant interplay between equality and differences. Third, while there has been some change over time, parental responsibilities remain gendered because they are deeply rooted in habitus and embodiment across specific spatial and temporal contexts.

  6. Impact of a workplace intervention on attitudes and practices related to gender equity in Bengaluru, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Suneeta; Gambhir, Shalini; Luecke, Ellen; Jagannathan, Latha

    2016-10-01

    We describe the evaluation of a participatory, garment factory-based intervention to promote gender equity. The intervention comprised four campaigns focused on gender and violence against women, alcoholism, sexual and reproductive health, and HIV/AIDS, which were implemented using information displays (standees and posters) and interactive methods (street play, one-to-one interactions, experience-sharing, and health camps). Each campaign lasted six days and the entire intervention was implemented over 10 months. We evaluated the intervention using a quasi-experimental design in which one factory served as the intervention site and a second as a delayed control. Two mobile-phone-based cross-sectional surveys were conducted at baseline and 12 months with separate systematic random samples of employees from each site. Data on socio-demographic characteristics and knowledge and attitudes related to gender equity, intimate partner violence (IPV) and alcohol use were assessed, and differences in these variables associated with the intervention were examined using difference-in-difference estimation. Analyses of data from 835 respondents revealed substantial, statistically significant improvements in attitudes related to gender equity, unacceptability of IPV, and awareness of IPV and alcohol-related support services. In conclusion, our study offers compelling evidence on the effectiveness of workplace-based interventions in advancing gender equity.

  7. Discourse analysis of gender equality and non-discrimination laws and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonijević Zorana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the contemporary research on gender and language, using the method of discourse analysis applied to the laws and policies, this article explains how certain linguistic practice, in the context of the administrative discourse, produces meaning that may or may not contribute to its better understanding and more efficient implementation. Through discourse analysis of gender equality and non-discrimination laws and strategies in Serbia, it has been shown how and with what consequences the socio-political and academic elites affect defining and promoting certain concepts (gender, sex, gender equality, discrimination in one social and historical moment. The paper is placed in the theoretical framework of three visions of gender equality: perspective of equal treatment, women‘s perspectives and gender perspective (Booth, Bennett 2002, that are corresponding to the three strategies for achieving gender equality: equal treatment, specific policy of gender equality and gender mainstreaming (Verloo, 2001. The discourse analysis of the Law on Gender Equality (2009, the National Strategy for the Improvement of the Position of Women and Advancement of Gender Equality (2009, the Law on Prohibition of Discrimination (2009 and the Strategy for Prevention and Protection against Discrimination (2013, has shown the context of use and meaning of terms gender and sex, as well as implications it has on their potential to change the existing paradigms and understanding of gender equality, and the implementation of policies in Serbia. Analysis of the use of terms sex and gender in the most important legal and strategic documents for achieving gender equality, showed that the choice of certain categories and terms is always a political choice. The authors show how these documents are written in the key of two gender perspectives and strategies: equal treatment and the specific policy of gender equality, while the third - introduction of a gender perspective

  8. Module 11: Gender Equality & Social Exclusion Issues in Rural Development

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, Michael

    2003-01-01

    1.1 Introduction 1.2 The Equality Argument 1.3 Equality and the Culture of Contentment 1.4 Rawls and the Theory of a Just Society 1.5 Equal Opportunities and the Equality Continuum 1.6 The Equality Context

  9. Gender Equity Issues in CTE and STEM Education: Economic and Social Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toglia, Thomas V.

    2013-01-01

    Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 has significant implications for gender equity in career and technical education (CTE) and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs--and the relatively low number of women and girls pursuing nontraditional careers has significant economic and social implications. From an…

  10. The Administration of Feminism in Education: Revisiting and Remembering Narratives of Gender Equity and Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Julie

    2017-01-01

    This article examines challenges in writing histories of feminist reforms in schooling and educational administration. The focus is gender equity reforms in Australian schools since the 1970s, looking at how those earlier interventions are now remembered, represented and forgotten, in policy memory and collective narratives. Such feminist…

  11. Gender Equity in College Athletics: How Far Have We Really Come in Twenty Years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Julie Dunn; Strope, John L.

    1996-01-01

    Title IX prohibits sex discrimination in educational institutions receiving any federal funds. Until 1988, college athletics were exempt from compliance. Examines the results of some recent court cases to see how the law was interpreted and concludes what schools should do to be proactive in the struggle for gender equity in collegiate sports. (72…

  12. California State U. Campuses Struggle to Comply with Gender-Equity Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selingo, Jeffrey

    1997-01-01

    Almost three years after the California State University System settled a sex-discrimination lawsuit by acceding to the strictest gender-equity standards in college sports, only 2 of the 19 institutions sponsoring athletic programs have met the agreement's terms. Some feel the agreement, based on proportionality of participation and funding for…

  13. Transformational change towards gender equality: An autobiographical reflection on resistance during participatory action research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenbergh, I.L.

    2018-01-01

    This article contributes to the academic debate about gender equality change by conceptualizing resistance to gender equality change as characteristic of a system where gendered organizations tend to move back to an equilibrium when confronted with change. It explores the role of change agents and

  14. Re-thinking gender (in)equality within the South African academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue of gender (in)equality in the South African society has featured prominently in the recent past. In this article the researchers attempt to determine the extent of gender (in)equality in the South African academic profession, by means of gender responses to five work-related aspects of the academic profession.

  15. Observations on gender equality in a UK Earth Sciences department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imber, Jonathan; Allen, Mark; Chamberlain, Katy; Foulger, Gillian; Gregory, Emma; Hoult, Jill; Macpherson, Colin; Winship, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    The progress of women to senior positions within UK higher education institutes has been slow. Women are worst represented in science, engineering and technology disciplines, where, in 2011, only 15% of professors were female. The national position is reflected in the Department of Earth Sciences at Durham University. The Department's gender profile shows steadily increasing proportions of females from undergraduate (ca. 38%) to postgraduate (ca. 42%) to postdoctoral (ca. 45%) levels, before dropping sharply with increasing seniority to 33% (n=1), 14% (n=1), 14% (n=1) and 13% (n=2), respectively, of lecturers, senior lecturers, readers and professors. The data suggest there is no shortage of talented female postgraduates and postdoctoral researchers; however, females are not applying, not being shortlisted, or not being appointed to academic roles in the expected proportions. Analysis of applications to academic positions in the Department during the period 2010-2015 suggests that "head hunting" senior academics, in some cases driven by external factors such as the UK Research Excellence Framework, resulted in a small proportion (between 0% and 11%) of female applicants. These results can be explained by the small number of senior female Earth Scientists nationally and, probably, internationally. Junior lectureship positions attracted between 24% and 33% female applicants, with the greatest proportion of females applying where the specialism within Earth Sciences was deliberately left open. In addition to these externally advertised posts, the Department has had some success converting independent research Fellowships, held by female colleagues, into permanent academic positions (n=2 between 2010 and 2015). Data for academic promotions show there is a significant negative correlation between year of appointment to first academic position within the Department (r=0.81, n=19, pgender equality issues, and greater awareness of conscious and unconscious biases against

  16. The Happiest Kids on Earth. Gender Equality and Adolescent Life Satisfaction in Europe and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looze, M E de; Huijts, T; Stevens, G W J M; Torsheim, T; Vollebergh, W A M

    2018-05-01

    Cross-national differences in adolescent life satisfaction in Europe and North America are consistent, but remain poorly understood. While previous studies have predominantly focused on the explanatory role of economic factors, such as national wealth and income equality, they revealed weak associations, at most. This study examines whether societal gender equality can explain the observed cross-national variability in adolescent life satisfaction. Based on the assumption that gender equality fosters a supportive social context, for example within families through a more equal involvement of fathers and mothers in child care tasks, adolescent life satisfaction was expected to be higher in more gender-equal countries. To test this hypothesis, national-level data of gender equality (i.e., women's share in political participation, decision making power, economic participation and command over resources) were linked to data from 175,470 adolescents aged 11-16 years old (M age  = 13.6, SD = 1.64, 52% girls) from 34 European and North American countries involved in the 2009/10 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. Results of linear multilevel regression analyses indicate that adolescents in countries with relatively high levels of gender equality report higher life satisfaction than their peers in countries with lower levels of gender equality. The association between gender equality and adolescent life satisfaction remained significant after controlling for national wealth and income equality. It was equally strong for boys and girls. Moreover, the association between gender equality and life satisfaction was explained by social support in the family, peer and school context. This analysis suggests that gender equality fosters social support among members of a society, which in turn contributes to adolescent life satisfaction. Thus, promoting gender equality is likely to benefit all members of a society; not just by giving equal rights to women

  17. UCI Computer Arts: Building Gender Equity while Meeting ISTE NETS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, Kimberly Bisbee

    Multimedia computer learning activities, when designed according to what is known about children's preferences, may help close the gender gap in attitudes about computer usage in schools. This paper includes: a brief overview of gender-gap research; a description of one response--the UCI (University of California Irvine) Computer Arts program,…

  18. Gender Equity and Empowerment in Nigeria: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the tremendous efforts by the Nigeria government over the past three decades to increase educational opportunities for males and females, gender challenges still lie ahead if the goal of Education for All is to be achieved. The paper, therefore, set to discuss the significant persistent gender gap in the educational ...

  19. Partnerships for Gender Equity in Nigerian Universities: The Case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growing salience of gender in African political and intellectual landscapes has had impacts in the education sector. Education, identified as one most important single factor, for closing the wide gender gap, has been targeted to it political and socio-economic benefits. Higher education institutions, which experience the ...

  20. Taxation and Gender Equity: A Comparative Analysis of Direct and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    10 juin 2010 ... This book makes a substantial contribution to this new awareness by emphasizing the important role that gender, like other social stratifications such as race ... This book presents original research on the gender dimensions of personal income taxes, value-added excise and fuel taxes in Argentina, Ghana, ...

  1. 302 Gender Equity and Empowerment in Nigeria: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... gender sensitive. Gender relationship is a vital practice that influences the lives of men and women in any society. It is so important that it affects the ... knowledgeable enough to become self- reliant, self-sufficient and develop the .... greater emphasis on collaboration, cooperation and other 'feminine'.

  2. Tracking Gender Equity under Economic Reforms: Continuity and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    By expanding the existing set of indicators to include gender-related stress, anxiety, and violence, this book introduces a new framework for gender research. The viability of this new approach is demonstrated through a coordinated set of household surveys, carried out in Export Processing Zones and Export Processing ...

  3. The challenges of achieving gender equity in a government ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, both managers and non-managers agree that transformational leadership should be considered in addressing gender issues. The study recommends open and better communication of policies that spell out criteria for advancement, support programmes as well as coaching and mentoring. Keywords: Gender ...

  4. Rotavirus - Global research density equalizing mapping and gender analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köster, Corinna; Klingelhöfer, Doris; Groneberg, David A; Schwarzer, Mario

    2016-01-02

    Rotaviruses are the leading reason for dehydration and severe diarrheal disease and in infants and young children worldwide. An increasing number of related publications cause a crucial challenge to determine the relevant scientific output. Therefore, scientometric analyses are helpful to evaluate quantity as well as quality of the worldwide research activities on Rotavirus. Up to now, no in-depth global scientometric analysis relating to Rotavirus publications has been carried out. This study used scientometric tools and the method of density equalizing mapping to visualize the differences of the worldwide research effort referring to Rotavirus. The aim of the study was to compare scientific output geographically and over time by using an in-depth data analysis and New quality and quantity indices in science (NewQIS) tools. Furthermore, a gender analysis was part of the data interpretation. We retrieved all Rotavirus-related articles, which were published on "Rotavirus" during the time period from 1900 to 2013, from the Web of Science by a defined search term. These items were analyzed regarding quantitative and qualitative aspects, and visualized with the help of bibliometric methods and the technique of density equalizing mapping to show the differences of the worldwide research efforts. This work aimed to extend the current NewQIS platform. The 5906 Rotavirus associated articles were published in 138 countries from 1900 to 2013. The USA authored 2037 articles that equaled 34.5% of all published items followed by Japan with 576 articles and the United Kingdom - as the most productive representative of the European countries - with 495 articles. Furthermore, the USA established the most cooperations with other countries and was found to be in the center of an international collaborative network. We performed a gender analysis of authors per country (threshold was set at a publishing output of more than 100 articles by more than 50 authors whose names could be

  5. Achieving Speaker Gender Equity at the American Society for Microbiology General Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Arturo

    2015-08-04

    In 2015, the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) General Meeting essentially achieved gender equity, with 48.5% of the oral presentations being given by women. The mechanisms associated with increased female participation were (i) making the Program Committee aware of gender statistics, (ii) increasing female representation among session convener teams, and (iii) direct instruction to try to avoid all-male sessions. The experience with the ASM General Meeting shows that it is possible to increase the participation of female speakers in a relatively short time and suggests concrete steps that may be taken to achieve this at other meetings. Public speaking is very important for academic advancement in science. Historically women have been underrepresented as speakers in many scientific meetings. This article describes concrete steps that were associated with achieving gender equity at a major meeting. Copyright © 2015 Casadevall.

  6. The Employment Equity Act, 1998 (and other myths about the pursuit of "equality", "equity" and "dignity" in post-apartheid South Africa (Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre M Louw

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The author critically examines the organising principle of the affirmative action provisions of the Employment Equity Act (or EEA, as well as the implications of the recent judgment by the Constitutional Court in its first case involving the application of affirmative action in the employment context (and in terms of the EEA – SAPS v Solidarity obo Barnard. While reiterating the need for restitutionary measures such as affirmative action in South Africa, the author concludes – probably quite controversially - that the EEA's treatment of affirmative action has nothing to do with the equality right in the Bill of Rights, and that the Act pursues a different (and omnipresent social engineering agenda by the state. The author calls for this realisation to prompt future affirmative action cases arising from the application of this Act to be removed from the scheme of (and potential defences available under the equality jurisprudence, and for the courts to critically interrogate the constitutionality of the EEA's affirmative action scheme within its own context. The author believes that Chapter III of the Act is unconstitutional in this sense, and he calls for the scrapping of its provisions. He also calls for a (more constitutionally-compliant exposition from the Constitutional Court of the parameters of legitimate affirmative action under the Bill of Rights, and adds his voice to the numerous calls for reconsideration of the "rationality test" expounded in Minister of Finance v van Heerden. More generally, the author considers the apparently all-pervasive application of the government ideology of the pursuit of demographic representivity in "transformation" of employment and other contexts (expressing grave doubts about its constitutionality along the way. This article forms Part 1 of this piece and the author considers the constitutional requirements for a legitimate affirmative action programme or measure. He then examines the affirmative

  7. The Employment Equity Act, 1998 (and other Myths about the Pursuit of "Equality", "Equity" and "Dignity" in Post-Apartheid South Africa (PART 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre M Louw

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The author critically examines the organising principle of the affirmative action provisions of the Employment Equity Act (or EEA, as well as the implications of the recent judgment by the Constitutional Court in its first case involving the application of affirmative action in the employment context (and in terms of the EEA – SAPS v Solidarity obo Barnard. While reiterating the need for restitutionary measures such as affirmative action in South Africa, the author concludes – probably quite controversially - that the EEA's treatment of affirmative action has nothing to do with the equality right in the Bill of Rights, and that the Act pursues a different (and omnipresent social engineering agenda by the state. The author calls for this realisation to prompt future affirmative action cases arising from the application of this Act to be removed from the scheme of (and potential defences available under the equality jurisprudence, and for the courts to critically interrogate the constitutionality of the EEA's affirmative action scheme within its own context. The author believes that Chapter III of the Act is unconstitutional in this sense, and he calls for the scrapping of its provisions. He also calls for a (more constitutionally-compliant exposition from the Constitutional Court of the parameters of legitimate affirmative action under the Bill of Rights, and adds his voice to the numerous calls for reconsideration of the "rationality test" expounded in Minister of Finance v van Heerden. More generally, the author considers the apparently all-pervasive application of the government ideology of the pursuit of demographic representivity in "transformation" of employment and other contexts (expressing grave doubts about its constitutionality along the way. In Part 1 of this piece (which precedes this article in this edition, the author considers the constitutional requirements for a legitimate affirmative action programme or measure. He then

  8. Access or Inclusion? Conceptualisation and Operationalisation of Gender Equality in Zimbabwean State Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauraya, Efiritha

    2014-01-01

    This article explores concerns about gender inequality in Zimbabwean state universities. The researcher's interest arose from the realisation of persistent gender inequalities despite initiatives to close gender gaps. Of particular concern is the conceptualization and operationalisation of gender equality in institutions. Focusing only on the…

  9. Gender Achievement and Social, Political and Economic Equality: A European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireson, Gren

    2017-01-01

    Differences in gender equality based on social, political and economic factors is cited, by some writers, as a contributory factor in the differentially greater achievement of boys in STEM subjects through the concept of gender stratification. Gender differences, especially in mathematics, have been linked directly to gender parity in wider…

  10. The Current Situation and Potential Responses to Movements against Gender Equality in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Hankivsky

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Gender equality in Ukraine is facing resistance. Although this backlash is not uniquely Ukrainian, it can have profound consequences for Ukraine’s efforts to integrate into the European Union. This paper reveals various aspects of a movement called “Stop Gender,” examining letter writing campaigns, political lobbying and an anti-gender equality blog. It assesses the key arguments of the movement, considers their impact on gender mainstreaming efforts, and investigates what action might be taken in the face of growing anti-gender equality sentiments across all levels of Ukrainian society.

  11. Discussing Gender Roles and Equality by Reading "Max: The Stubborn Little Wolf"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Gilberto P.; Leija, María G.

    2014-01-01

    In the beginning of this article, the authors share the story of Mr. Paredes, a fourth grade teacher in a bilingual classroom, who explains his approach in selecting particular pieces of children's literature that address gender roles and equity. His hope, he states, is that the students will be able to identify the stereotype and challenge…

  12. Tax, Social Policy and Gender : rethinking equality and efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    2018-01-01

    Gender inequality is profoundly unjust and in clear contradiction to the philosophy of the ‘fair go’. In spite of some action by recent governments, Australia has fallen behind in policy and outcomes, even as the G20 group of nations, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the International Monetary Fund are paying renewed attention to gender inequality. Tax, Social Policy and Gender presents new research on entrenched gender inequality in a comparative framework of hu...

  13. Looking twice at the gender equity index for public health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Sáez, José; Ruiz-Cantero, Maria Teresa; Guijarro-Garví, Marta; Carrasco-Portiño, Mercedes; Roca-Pérez, Victoria; Chilet-Rosell, Elisa; Álvarez-Dardet, Carlos

    2013-07-16

    It has been shown that gender equity has a positive impact on the everyday activities of people (decision making, income allocation, application and observance of norms/rules) which affect their health. Gender equity is also a crucial determinant of health inequalities at national level; thus, monitoring is important for surveillance of women's and men's health as well as for future health policy initiatives. The Gender Equity Index (GEI) was designed to show inequity solely towards women. Given that the value under scrutiny is equity, in this paper a modified version of the GEI is proposed, the MGEI, which highlights the inequities affecting both sexes. Rather than calculating gender gaps by means of a quotient of proportions, gaps in the MGEI are expressed in absolute terms (differences in proportions). The Spearman's rank coefficient, calculated from country rankings obtained according to both indexes, was used to evaluate the level of concordance between both classifications. To compare the degree of sensitivity and obtain the inequity by the two methods, the variation coefficient of the GEI and MGEI values was calculated. Country rankings according to GEI and MGEI values showed a high correlation (rank coef. = 0.95). The MGEI presented greater dispersion (43.8%) than the GEI (19.27%). Inequity towards men was identified in the education gap (rank coef. = 0.36) when using the MGEI. According to this method, many countries shared the same absolute value for education but with opposite signs, for example Azerbaijan (-0.022) and Belgium (0.022), reflecting inequity towards women and men, respectively. This also occurred in the empowerment gap with the technical and professional job component (Brunei:-0.120 vs. Australia, Canada Iceland and the U.S.A.: 0.120). The MGEI identifies and highlights the different areas of inequities between gender groups. It thus overcomes the shortcomings of the GEI related to the aim for which this latter was created, namely measuring

  14. Nigerian women embrace gender equality but dislike the social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At a particular level of analysis, the focus of gender activism is to reverse and change the status quo in which men in the society are deemed to be superior to women in certain issues and have more opportunities to do certain things, than women. Gender activists, gender scholars and most women around the world want this ...

  15. The Challenge of Recognizing Diversity from the Perspective of Gender Equality:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this article is to analyse the tension between diversity and gender equality, looking at problems and potentials for inclusion of minority women in the Danish citizenship model. It addresses the intersection of gender and ethnicity focusing on two main themes: One is the gender......-political challenge of combining the discourse and politics of gender equality with respect for diversity in cultural values, family forms and gender equality norms. This theme explores the extent to which the dominant understanding of gender equality in public and private life is a potential or barrier...... for recognising diversities among women, and it discusses how to empower minority women in their daily lives. The other is the democratic challenge of including the voices of minority women in politics and combine equal rights of ethnic minorities with respect for cultural diversity. This theme explores...

  16. Gendered Universities and the Wage Gap: Case Study of a Pay Equity Audit in an Australian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Jan; Hill, Beverley

    2013-01-01

    Studies worldwide have found that women's pay lags behind men's in academia. This article describes pay equity policies in Australia and overseas and the use of a pay equity audit as a strategic tool to reduce gender inequities at The University of Western Australia (UWA). As a research-intensive university, UWA resembles similar universities…

  17. Global architecture of gestational diabetes research: density-equalizing mapping studies and gender analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggmann, Dörthe; Richter, Theresa; Klingelhöfer, Doris; Gerber, Alexander; Bundschuh, Matthias; Jaque, Jenny; Groneberg, David A

    2016-04-04

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with substantial morbidity for mothers and their offspring. While clinical and basic research activities on this important disease grow constantly, there is no concise analysis of global architecture of GDM research. Hence, it was the objective of this study to assess the global scientific performance chronologically, geographically and in relation to existing research networks and gender distribution of publishing authors. On the basis of the New Quality and Quantity Indices in Science (NewQIS) platform, scientometric methods were combined with modern visualizing techniques such as density equalizing mapping, and the Web of Science database was used to assess GDM-related entries from 1900 to 2012. Twelve thousand five hundred four GDM-related publications were identified and analyzed. The USA (4295 publications) and the UK (1354 publications) dominated the field concerning research activity, overall citations and country-specific Hirsch-Index, which quantified the impact of a country's published research on the scientific community. Semi-qualitative indices such as country-specific citation rates ranked New Zealand and the UK at top positions. Annual collaborative publications increased steeply between the years 1990 and 2012 (71 to 1157 respectively). Subject category analysis pointed to a minor interest of public health issues in GDM research. Gender analysis in terms of publication authorship revealed a clear dominance of the male gender until 2005; then a trend towards gender equity started and the activity of female scientists grew visibly in many countries. The country-specific gender analysis revealed large differences, i.e. female scientists dominated the scientific output in the USA, whereas the majority of research was published by male authors in countries such as Japan. This study provides the first global sketch of GDM research architecture. While North-American and Western-European countries were

  18. Sickness absence in gender-equal companies A register study at organizational level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öhman Ann

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The differences in sickness absence between men and women in Sweden have attracted a great deal of interest nationally in the media and among policymakers over a long period. The fact that women have much higher levels of sickness absence has been explained in various ways. These explanations are contextual and one of the theories points to the lack of gender equality as an explanation. In this study, we evaluate the impact of gender equality on health at organizational level. Gender equality is measured by an index ranking companies at organizational level; health is measured as days on sickness benefit. Methods Gender equality was measured using the Organizational Gender Gap Index or OGGI, which is constructed on the basis of six variables accessible in Swedish official registers. Each variable corresponds to a key word illustrating the interim objectives of the "National Plan for Gender Equality", implemented by the Swedish Parliament in 2006. Health is measured by a variable, days on sickness benefit, also accessible in the same registers. Results We found significant associations between company gender equality and days on sickness benefit. In gender-equal companies, the risk for days on sickness benefit was 1.7 (95% CI 1.6-1.8 higher than in gender-unequal companies. The differences were greater for men than for women: OR 1.8 (95% CI 1.7-2.0 compared to OR 1.4 (95% CI 1.3-1.5. Conclusions Even though employees at gender-equal companies had more days on sickness benefit, the differences between men and women in this measure were smaller in gender-equal companies. Gender equality appears to alter health patterns, converging the differences between men and women.

  19. The woman as problem and solution : Analysis of a gender equality initiative within the Swedish Rescue Services

    OpenAIRE

    Grip, Lena; Engström, Lars-Gunnar; Krekula, Clary; Karlsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study how problem definitions of gender equality affect the possible outcomes of gender equality initiatives. The Swedish Municipal Rescue Services were chosen as the empirical example because they offer a workplace where women are greatly under-represented despite years of gender equality efforts. The article analyses how reasoning around gender equality shapes and constructs problem formulations around gender and equality. This article contributes to the debate...

  20. Gender Equity Employment in Polytechnics in South East Zone of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    policies towards ensuring that all citizens, without discrimination, secure adequate means of livelihood as well as ... equal work without discrimination on the basis of sex or any other ground whatsoever. Section 42 of this ..... within the workplace, discrimination against certain social groups such as women still occurs, with ...

  1. Taxation and Gender Equity: A Comparative Analysis of Direct and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-06-10

    Jun 10, 2010 ... This book presents original research on the gender dimensions of personal income taxes, value-added excise and fuel taxes in Argentina, Ghana, India, Mexico, Morocco, South Africa, Uganda, and the United Kingdom. It will be of interest to postgraduates and researchers studying public finance, ...

  2. Striving to Achieve Gender Equity in Education: A Zimbabwean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Immediately after attaining independence in 1980, Zimbabwe, like most developing countries, alluded to the eradication of all forms of inequalities in its society, including gender inequalities in education. Such imbalances were caused mainly by the patriarchal family system as well as the colonial policies. This paper is an ...

  3. Gender-Equity and Reproductive Behaviour in Lagos State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the impact of gender differences on couples' reproductive behaviour. The study was conducted in Ikeja, Ojo, Epe respectively representing urban, semi-urban and rural local government areas of Lagos State. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected. A multi-stage sampling procedure was ...

  4. New Technologies and Gender Equity: New Bottles with Old Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knupfer, Nancy Nelson

    Educational practice is influenced, in part, by the constant visualization of gender stereotypes throughout society in various forms, in both the old and new technologies. The imagery of computer technology as male turf has been carried into the World Wide Web through graphic advertisements. Male administrators make decisions about school practice…

  5. Opinions of Women in School Administration on Gender Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Amy R.

    2011-01-01

    Research points to a current and growing shortage of school leaders, yet qualified women are still under represented in school administration. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of female principals in the state of Missouri regarding gender bias. Data were collected using a 20 question survey sent electronically to all 980…

  6. Using decision trees for measuring gender equity in the timing of angiography in patients with acute coronary syndrome: a novel approach to equity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, Arlene S; Brown, Adalsteinn D; Levinton, Carey M

    2015-12-23

    Methods to measure or quantify equity in health care remain scarce, if not difficult to interpret. A novel method to measure health equity is presented, applied to gender health equity, and illustrated with an example of timing of angiography in patients following a hospital admission for an acute coronary syndrome. Linked administrative hospital discharge and survey data was used to identify a retrospective cohort of patients hospitalized with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) between 2002 and 2008 who also responded to the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), was analyzed using decision trees to determine whether gender impacted the delay to angiography following an ACS. Defining a delay to angiography as 1 day or more, resulted in a non-significant difference in an equity score of 0.14 for women and 0.12 for men, where 0 and 1 represents perfect equity and inequity respectively. Using 2 and 3 day delays as a secondary outcome resulted in women and men producing scores of 0.19 and 0.17 for a 2 day delay and 0.22 and 0.23 for a 3 day delay. A technique developed expressly for measuring equity suggests that men and women in Ontario receive equitable care in access to angiography with respect to timeliness following an ACS.

  7. A Scorecard on Gender Equality and Girls' Education in Asia, 1990-2000. Advocacy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterhalter, Elaine; Rajagopalan, Rajee; Challender, Chloe

    2005-01-01

    Background: Existing measures for access to and efficiency in the school system are very limited as measures of gender equality, even though there have been marked improvements in sex-disaggregated data. A methodology for developing a scorecard which measures gender equality in schooling and education partly based on Amartya Sen's capability…

  8. Pile sorting innovations: exploring gender norms, power and equity in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourey, Christine; Stephenson, Rob; Bartel, Doris; Rubardt, Marcie

    2012-01-01

    Understanding gender norms, power and equity is important for developing successful sexual and reproductive health interventions. However, little attention has been given to how to capture the gender ideals and imbalances that inform these relationships in low resource settings. Pile sorting exercises were conducted in four gender-segregated focus groups in Ethiopia and Kenya. Each group received cards illustrated with a man, woman and man and woman together and cards labelled with duties and decisions. Participants discussed and decided together whether men, women or both performed each duty and decision and assigned the cards accordingly. Participants then reflected on and physically manipulated the piles to challenge gender norms, investigate role flexibility and identify agents of social change. Data collected included photographs of the pile sorts and recordings of the discussions. Conducting pile sorting within focus group discussions enabled comparative analyses of gender norms, while enriching data by focusing discussions and encouraging consensus building. Innovative applications facilitated participants' abilities to engage abstract concepts, reflecting on issues of gender norms, power and equity.

  9. "State, Difference, and Diversity: Toward a Path of Expanded Democracy and Gender Equality"

    OpenAIRE

    Rania Antonopoulos; Francisco Cos-Montiel

    2007-01-01

    The centrality of the state in promoting gender equality is generally acknowledged, but a perplexing and complex issue confronts us: should the state treat men and women in identical ways, or should it legislate and enforce policies that are aware of gender differences? In other words, should the state be gender-blind or gender-sensitive? Gender, ethnic, religious, sexual orientation, ideological, economic, political, and cultural dimensions represent diversity among citizens. This paper argu...

  10. Gender equality as a means to improve maternal and child health in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kavita; Bloom, Shelah; Brodish, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In this article we examine whether measures of gender equality, household decision making, and attitudes toward gender-based violence are associated with maternal and child health outcomes in Africa. We pooled Demographic and Health Surveys data from eight African countries and used multilevel logistic regression on two maternal health outcomes (low body mass index and facility delivery) and two child health outcomes (immunization status and treatment for an acute respiratory infection). We found protective associations between the gender equality measures and the outcomes studied, indicating that gender equality is a potential strategy to improve maternal and child health in Africa.

  11. Gender equity in physical education: The use of language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar del Castillo Andrés

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed Spanish teachers' behavior and the transmission of gender stereotypes. We observed 48 physical education lessons given by four Spanish teachers (two men and two women. Descriptive codes, which were generated iteratively, were clustered, categorized, integrated, recoded, and re-categorized. They allowed us to identify four major themes related to the transmission of gender stereotypes of teachers: male generics, stereotyped expressions, nominative attention, and priority order. We used a coding sheet as well as audio and video recordings to register the categories. The Kruskal-Wallis test produced significance levels lower than .05, resulting in the rejection of the null hypothesis. Sexist behavior was found in the male generics, nominative attention, and priority order. However, we found no difference in stereotyped expressions.

  12. [Subjectivity of nursing college students' awareness of gender equality: an application of Q-methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeun, Eun Ja; Kwon, Hye Jin; Kim, Hyun Jeong

    2012-06-01

    This study was done to identify the awareness of gender equality among nursing college students, and to provide basic data for educational solutions and desirable directions. A Q-methodology which provides a method of analyzing the subjectivity of each item was used. 34 selected Q-statements from each of 20 women nursing college students were classified into a shape of normal distribution using 9-point scale. Subjectivity on the equality among genders was analyzed by the pc-QUANL program. Four types of awareness of gender equality in nursing college students were identified. The name for type I was 'pursuit of androgyny', for type II, 'difference-recognition', for type III, 'human-relationship emphasis', and for type IV, 'social-system emphasis'. The results of this study indicate that different approaches to educational programs on gender equality are recommended for nursing college students based on the four types of gender equality awareness.

  13. Unintended Consequences of Gender Equality Promotion in Swedish Multicultural Contraceptive Counseling: A Discourse Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arousell, Jonna; Carlbom, Aje; Johnsdotter, Sara; Larsson, Elin C; Essén, Birgitta

    2017-08-01

    In this article, we explore how reproductive health care providers in Sweden, a country often described as one of the most gender-equal countries in the world, incorporate gender equality ideals in multicultural contraceptive counseling. In the tension between gender equality promotion on one hand and respect for cultural diversity and individualized care on the other, we will demonstrate that values of gender equality were often given priority. This is not necessarily undesirable. Nevertheless, our proposal is that the gender equality ideology may inhibit providers' ability to think differently about issues at stake in contraceptive counseling, which may negatively influence women's possibilities to obtain adequate support. At the end of the article, we suggest how health care providers' reflexivity might be used as a working tool for increased awareness about the taken-for-granted cultural norms that exist in their clinical milieu.

  14. Promoting Gender Equity in STEM: Theory and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    This presentation will begin by briefly reviewing data on the current status of women in STEM disciplines: degrees earned, careers pursued, obstacles encountered. Next, it will draw on social science research to illuminate a variety of underlying causes for gender disparities in STEM. These, in turn, will be shown to suggest an array of concrete actions that individual scientists, group leaders, and institutions can take to improve gender diversity; a few that the speaker has found especially effective in her role as a college dean will be noted. While the primary focus of the talk will be on women in physics, some of the broader issues encountered by sexual and gender minorities in STEM will also be discussed. In the remainder of the presentation, two particular interventions in which the speaker has been involved for the past several years will be covered in more detail: one aimed at building career skills of women physicists in developing nations and the other aimed at improving the climate for LGBT physicists here in the United States. These illustrate the wide array of opportunities open to all of us for making our field more inclusive.

  15. SADC Gender and Development Protocol: An Evaluation of Equality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The greatest challenge of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) continues to be the need to build a life for its people free from poverty, diseases, human rights abuses, gender inequality and environmental degradation. Gender activists played a lead role in influencing the development and adoption, on the ...

  16. The Pursuit of Gender Equality: An Uphill Battle

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2017

    2017-01-01

    Gender inequalities persist in all areas of social and economic life and across countries. Young women in OECD countries generally obtain more years of schooling than young men, but women are less likely than men to engage in paid work. Gaps widen with age, as motherhood typically has marked negative effects on gender pay gaps and career…

  17. Using children's literature to promote gender equality in education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how educational use of Rwandan children's literature, mainly fairy tales, can challenge traditional gender roles in Rwandan education. Indeed, researchers in and authors of children's literature argue that the manner in which gender is represented in children's literature impacts ...

  18. The ABC of Gender Equality in Education: Aptitude, Behaviour, Confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Over the past century, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries have made significant progress in narrowing or closing long-standing gender gaps in many areas of education and employment, including educational attainment, pay and labour market participation. But new gender gaps in education are opening. Young men…

  19. Using children's literature to promote gender equality in education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    francis

    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate how educational use of Rwandan children's literature, mainly fairy tales, can challenge traditional gender roles in Rwandan education. Indeed, researchers in and authors of children's literature argue that the manner in which gender is represented in children's literature ...

  20. Is there a gender equity for women farmers? Reflections on public policy and social CONPES 161/2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Marin Hermann

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Domestic roles ( reproductive and productive Colombian rural women are different and are marked by the dynamics of their own territories , but also developed in the areas of public and private unevenly and unfairly compared to men rural sector. Considering the above, raises feminist economics "care economy" as an effort to validate and make visible the contribution of women to the economy. But this trend can go further, can contribute to the transformation of reproductive and productive roles, encouraging participation and democracy for women. Considering this, the equitable use of the time in the private ( family enters debate. Women no longer want and seek only equality in public but do not want to share your time at home on an unequal footing . Public policies are needed to contribute to these disparities disappear. To this extent it is possible to ask yourself the current Public Policy Of Gender Equity for Women ( SOCIAL CONPES 161/2013 , can guarantee the full enjoyment of the rights of Colombian women applying the principles of equality and non-discrimination? This reflection tries to do, from a gender perspective, an analytical reading of the impact of public policy on the transformation of the reality of the Colombian rural women.

  1. Committing to marriage? The role of marriage attitudes and gender equality among young cohabiters in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Wijk, Sofi Ohlsson; Brandén, Maria; Duvander, Ann-Zofie

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: Marriage is commonly perceived as a more committed form of union than cohabitation. Individualization perspectives suggest that this makes couples refrain from marriage, while gender perspectives propose that gender equality within couples may increase the willingness to commit to a partner through marriage. We address these differing standpoints by studying the role of commitment and gender equality for marriage formation among cohabiting men and women born in Swe...

  2. Developing an Equal Protection Standard for Gender Discrimination Cases--Where's the Rub?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Deborah E.

    1980-01-01

    The equal protection clause permits gender classification and discrimination and cannot support a broadening concept of sexual equality. An equal rights amendment is needed to remedy the situation. Available from Rutgers School of Law-Camden, 5th and Penn Streets, Camden, NJ 08102. (Author/IRT)

  3. Community understandings of and responses to gender equality and empowerment in Rakai, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullinax, Margo; Higgins, Jenny; Wagman, Jennifer; Nakyanjo, Neema; Kigozi, Godfrey; Serwadda, David; Wawer, Maria; Gray, Ronald; Nalugoda, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Women's rights and gender empowerment programmes are now part of the international agenda for improving global public health, the benefits of which are well documented. However, the public health community has, yet, to address how people define and understand gender equality and how they enact the process of empowerment in their lives. This study uses safe homes and respect for everyone (SHARE), an anti-violence intervention in rural Rakai, Uganda, as a case study to investigate perceptions of gender equality. Investigators analysed 12 focus groups of adult women and men to explore how macro-level concepts of gender equality are being processed on an interpersonal level and the effects on health outcomes. Respondents generally agreed that women lack basic rights. However, they also expressed widespread disagreement about the meanings of gender equality, and reported difficulties integrating the concepts of gender equality into their interpersonal relationships. Community members reported that equality, with the resulting shift in gender norms, could expose women to adverse consequences such as violence, infidelity and abandonment with increased sexual health risks, and potential adverse effects on education. Efforts to increase women's rights must occur in conjunction with community-based work on understandings of gender equality.

  4. Gender equity: women’s political empowerment in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, Sila

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited South Korea has undergone many drastic transformations from the time the state formally emerged in 1948 until now, becoming a thriving democracy and the world’s 12th-largest economy. Women in South Korea have enjoyed many aspects of this recovery and rise. According to the 2013 World Economic Forum’s Annual Gender Gap Index, South Korea’s women today have the highest literacy and healthy life expectancy rates in the world. Yet accordin...

  5. Bolivia : Challenges and Constraints to Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This note aims to provide information and analysis as a basis for a better understanding of the challenges and constraints of achieving gender equality in Bolivia, with a special focus on the intersectionality between gender and ethnicity. Combining and analyzing existing evidence and new data, it seeks to document gender-specific disparities in development outcomes, highlight opportunitie...

  6. On Norms and Agency : Conversations about Gender Equality with Women and Men in 20 Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Thumala, Angélica; Turk, Carolyn; Muñoz Boudet, Ana María; Petesch, Patti

    2013-01-01

    This report provides tremendous insight on gender norms an area that has been resistant to change, and that constrains achievement of gender equality across many diverse cultures. The report synthesizes data collected from more than 4,000 women and men in 97 communities across 20 countries. It is the largest dataset ever collected on the topic of gender and development, providing an unprec...

  7. New and Persistent Gender Equality Challenges in Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathias Wullum

    academic context characterized by increasing demands for international competitiveness, innovation, flexibility and accountability. The thesis employs a case study approach, adopting a critical realist meta- theoretical framework and a pluralist methodology to investigate the new and persistent gender......This dissertation is about the cumulative disadvantages slowing down women academics’ advancement and keeping them from gaining the same organizational status as their male colleagues. It is also about understanding and explaining how gender relations are reconstituted in a rapidly changing...

  8. Gender equality predicts leisure-time physical activity: Benefits for both sexes across 34 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shea M. Balish

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although countries’ gender equality is associated with important health outcomes, especially for females, it remains unclear whether gender equality is associated with leisure-time physical activity (LTPA. Data from 34 countries was acquired from the International Social Survey Program, the Pew Research Forum, the United Nations, and the World Bank. Separate analyses were conducted for 21,502 males and 26,652 females. Hierarchal nonlinear Bernoulli modeling was used to examine the association between gender equality and participation in LTPA. Both males and females residing in countries’ with higher gender equality were more likely (twice and three times more likely, respectively to report weekly LTPA than those residing in countries characterized by low gender equality. These effects persisted even when controlling for individual (i.e. age, education and country-level (i.e. population, gross domestic product covariates. However, significant variation in LTPA persisted at the country level, suggesting the need for further research. These findings provide novel evidence that both males and females benefit from gender equality. To explain these findings, we hypothesize that increased gender equality decreases the average number of offspring and, in turn, allows mothers more time for leisure, and to invest more resources in both male and female offspring, which may increase LTPA.

  9. Workplace violence and gender discrimination in Rwanda's health workforce: Increasing safety and gender equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    d'Arc Kanakuze Jeanne

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Workplace violence has been documented in all sectors, but female-dominated sectors such as health and social services are at particular risk. In 2007-2008, IntraHealth International assisted the Rwanda Ministries of Public Service and Labor and Health to study workplace violence in Rwanda's health sector. This article reexamines a set of study findings that directly relate to the influence of gender on workplace violence, synthesizes these findings with other research from Rwanda, and examines the subsequent impact of the study on Rwanda's policy environment. Methods Fifteen out of 30 districts were selected at random. Forty-four facilities at all levels were randomly selected in these districts. From these facilities, 297 health workers were selected at random, of whom 205 were women and 92 were men. Researchers used a utilization-focused approach and administered health worker survey, facility audits, key informant and health facility manager interviews and focus groups to collect data in 2007. After the study was disseminated in 2008, stakeholder recommendations were documented and three versions of the labor law were reviewed to assess study impact. Results Thirty-nine percent of health workers had experienced some form of workplace violence in year prior to the study. The study identified gender-related patterns of perpetration, victimization and reactions to violence. Negative stereotypes of women, discrimination based on pregnancy, maternity and family responsibilities and the 'glass ceiling' affected female health workers' experiences and career paths and contributed to a context of violence. Gender equality lowered the odds of health workers experiencing violence. Rwandan stakeholders used study results to formulate recommendations to address workplace violence gender discrimination through policy reform and programs. Conclusions Gender inequality influences workplace violence. Addressing gender discrimination and

  10. Workplace violence and gender discrimination in Rwanda's health workforce: Increasing safety and gender equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Constance J; de Vries, Daniel H; d'Arc Kanakuze, Jeanne; Ngendahimana, Gerard

    2011-07-19

    Workplace violence has been documented in all sectors, but female-dominated sectors such as health and social services are at particular risk. In 2007-2008, IntraHealth International assisted the Rwanda Ministries of Public Service and Labor and Health to study workplace violence in Rwanda's health sector. This article reexamines a set of study findings that directly relate to the influence of gender on workplace violence, synthesizes these findings with other research from Rwanda, and examines the subsequent impact of the study on Rwanda's policy environment. Fifteen out of 30 districts were selected at random. Forty-four facilities at all levels were randomly selected in these districts. From these facilities, 297 health workers were selected at random, of whom 205 were women and 92 were men. Researchers used a utilization-focused approach and administered health worker survey, facility audits, key informant and health facility manager interviews and focus groups to collect data in 2007. After the study was disseminated in 2008, stakeholder recommendations were documented and three versions of the labor law were reviewed to assess study impact. Thirty-nine percent of health workers had experienced some form of workplace violence in year prior to the study. The study identified gender-related patterns of perpetration, victimization and reactions to violence. Negative stereotypes of women, discrimination based on pregnancy, maternity and family responsibilities and the 'glass ceiling' affected female health workers' experiences and career paths and contributed to a context of violence. Gender equality lowered the odds of health workers experiencing violence. Rwandan stakeholders used study results to formulate recommendations to address workplace violence gender discrimination through policy reform and programs. Gender inequality influences workplace violence. Addressing gender discrimination and violence simultaneously should be a priority in workplace violence

  11. Gender Equity in Physics Practice: The Indian Context & the Social Impact of Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri, Prajval

    2015-04-01

    The gender gap in the physics profession that is seen world-wide has been attributed to multiple factors. The applicability of these factors is explored in the context of physics practice in India, using available empirical investigations and theoretical insights from gender studies. Indications are that girls are as interested in science as boys at the high-school level. In the profession, however, there is a significant gender gap. Data show that it is caused not only by the discriminatory familial responsibilities that women encounter in their personal lives, but also by gender-discriminatory attitudes in the scientific workplace. Although the Government of India, which is the major funder of scientific research and higher education, has acknowledged the gender disparity and initiated several measures to address it, these measures also come from a gendered perspective, and are therefore likely to be limited in their long-term effectiveness. Policy measures must address the gender discrimination in the workplace as well in order to achieve gender equity.

  12. Macro-level gender equality and depression in men and women in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, Sarah; Huijts, Tim; Bracke, Piet; Bambra, Clare

    2013-06-01

    A recurrent finding in international literature is a greater prevalence of depression in women than in men. While explanations for this gender gap have been studied extensively at the individual level, few researchers have studied macro-level determinants of depression in men and women. In the current study we aim to examine the micro-macro linkage of the relationship between gender equality and depression by gender in Europe, using data from the European Social Survey, 2006-2007 (N=39,891). Using a multilevel framework we find that a high degree of macro-level gender equality is related to lower levels of depression in both women and men. It is also related to a smaller gender difference in depression, but only for certain social subgroups and only for specific dimensions of gender equality. © 2013 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The effect of gender equality on happiness: Statistical modeling and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ge

    2017-02-01

    In this article, the researcher presents linear regression models that describe how five gender-equality indexes affect individuals' perceptions of well-being and happiness, controlling for their economic income and weighed by the population of the countries that contribute to the models. The logical premise of this study is that gender equality is not only favorable for women, but it is also conducive to fostering the greatest level of happiness for all people. The researcher believes that most findings confirmed this assumption and the opinion of John Stuart Mill regarding gender equality, while two exceptions are explained by social quality theory and the male breadwinner model.

  14. GENDER EQUALITY POLICIES DURING THE POST-COMMUNIST ROMANIAN SOCIETY - TRANSFORMATION OR CONSERVATION OF GENDER PATRIARCHAL REGIME?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALINA HURUBEAN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyze family policies, labor market and social protection policies in the light of their correlated effects on the dynamics of gender relations, to identify such new tools for understanding national realities in European countries and to propose appropriate directions for intervention by programs and policies. The current research on public policies considers that the analysis of family policies, of labor market or social security policies, from the perspective of gender (inequality, offers relevant indicators with regard to the welfare regimes and quality of democracy or to the democratic deficit in the post-communist Romanian society, placed in the actual European context. This paper attempts to identify the mechanisms through which the state and its public policies reproduce and enhance traditional/conservative cultural models on gender roles and asymmetric social relations between men and women, also they reproduce the restrictive force of classic dichotomies between public-private life or productive-reproductive work. Despite the stated principle of gender equality, public policies maintain hierarchies and gender disparities in Romanian society, as in other European countries. This approach research shows that the complex interaction between cultural models of gender roles in the family/society and public policies is relevant to contextualized analysis of public policies and gender equality policies. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the influence of cultural patterns (on family gender roles, labour organization etc. on public policy (family policies, labor market policies, gender equality policies in order to advance a set of questions: how do family and gender ideology influence the content of public policy and the conservation of gender regime in post-communist Romanian society? How can gender equality increase through public policies and to what extent is gender mainstreaming approach an appropriate solution in

  15. Equal Opportunities and Ethnic Inequality in European Labour Markets : Discrimination, Gender and Policies of Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The need to analyse labour market mechanisms in post-industrial Western societies is urgent. Despite laws and policy measures being developed at the European, national and local levels, job-seeking immigrants and ethnic minorities still suffer unequal access and ethnic discrimination. This volume endeavours to understand why. Four chapters dealing with discrimination, gender, equity policies and diversity management present a lively discussion of the current scientific debate. Besides providi...

  16. Cultivating Partnership Culture and Gender Equality: The 2016 Naval Academy Roundtable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Whitehead

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Emma Whitehead is an alumna of the Center for Partnership Studies Young Women's Leadership Program. In this article she reflects on her experience as a delegate to the 2016 United States Naval Academy Foreign Affairs Conference. The conference promoted the status of women and girls globally and Whitehead participated in a round table session on gender equity, sharing insights from the Center for Partnership Studies.

  17. Equality and Illusion: Gender and Tenure in Art History Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Elizabeth; Morrison, Emory; Sadrozinski, Renate; Nerad, Maresi; Cerny, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Using a national survey of 508 art history Ph.D.s including data on graduate school performance and careers 10-15 years post-Ph.D., this study investigates gender, family, and academic tenure in art history, the humanities field with the highest proportion of women. Alternative hypotheses derived from three perspectives--termed here "clockwork,"…

  18. Community Mobilisation, Gender Equality and Resource Mobilisation in Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Komal; Patel, Ila

    2006-01-01

    Despite an overall improvement in the educational situation of girls and women in India, there are considerable gender inequalities in education. In the last decade, the Government of India introduced the campaign approach to tackle the problem of widespread illiteracy among women and other socio-economically disadvantaged groups in collaboration…

  19. Call for concept notes for research on gender equality and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    7 août 2017 ... This call is open to teams of Myanmar-based researchers with expertise and experience in economics, public finance, gender, political science, and other related social sciences. The multi-disciplinary team is to be led by a local or international project leader within a consortium of local or international ...

  20. Information technology and gender equality: A contradiction in terminis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen Reinen, I.A.M.; Plomp, T.

    1997-01-01

    Using the data source of the Computers in Education (Comped) study, carried out under the auspices of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), the status of gender and computer use in education in a number of countries has been investigated. The findings in

  1. Measuring gender equality at home and in the marketplace | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-04-20

    Apr 20, 2011 ... Speaking at IDRC's head office in celebration of the 100th anniversary of International Women's Day, Dr Shahra Razavi argued that gender inequality is pervasive, and that the lines between the private and public spheres — home and work — are blurred. A senior research coordinator at the United ...

  2. New funding opportunity for gender equality and climate change ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-03-08

    Mar 8, 2018 ... Climate and disaster resilience: Research projects focusing on socially-equitable development planning that enhances the ability of people — regardless of gender, ethnicity, socio-economic status, age, or physical ability — to mitigate and adapt to climate-related hazards;; Energy security: Research ...

  3. Call for concept notes for research on gender equality and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-08-07

    Aug 7, 2017 ... Type. Grant. Eligibility. This call is open to teams of Myanmar-based researchers with expertise and experience in economics, public finance, gender, political science, and other related social sciences. The multi-disciplinary team is to be led by a local or international project leader within a consortium of ...

  4. Attitudes to Gender Equality Issues in British and German Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Rosalind M. O.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores a range of perceived similarities and differences between male and female academics in the context of contemporary European Union "gender mainstreaming" policy. It concentrates upon the higher education systems of Germany and the United Kingdom, and is based upon questionnaire responses. A large majority of…

  5. Cosmopolitanism, Global Social Justice and Gender Equality in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterhalter, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    This article attempts to locate approaches to understanding gender, education and notions of the international within debates on global social justice and cosmopolitanism. It looks at the work of three feminist scholars (Martha Nussbaum, Onora O'Neill and Iris Young) on this theme, draws out some ways in which they engage critiques of…

  6. Gender Equality in the Academy: The Pipeline Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Kristen Renwick; Chiu, William F.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the ongoing work by the Committee on the Status of Women in the Profession (CSWP), we offer an empirical analysis of the pipeline problem in academia. The image of a pipeline is a commonly advanced explanation for persistent discrimination that suggests that gender inequality will decline once there are sufficient numbers of qualified…

  7. Windows of (in) equality: Gender reflections in Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The field of Information Technology has historically been considered to be a white male-dominated profession within South Africa. However, the landscape has started to shift with more women entering the field. Our study aimed at exploring ways in which gender is represented and performed in the workplace. Following a ...

  8. Transparency in Academic Recruitment: A Problematic Tool for Gender Equality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, M.C.L. van den; Benschop, Y.W.M.; Jansen, W

    2010-01-01

    Gender research has made a call for more transparency and accountability in academic recruitment and selection in order to overcome the inequality practices that have led to an underrepresentation of women among full professors. This paper provides insight into the multiple ways in which the notions

  9. The reproduction of gender: housework and attitudes towards gender equality in the home among Swedish boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evertsson, Marie

    2006-09-01

    The housework Swedish girls and boys age 10 to 18 do, and their attitudes towards gender equality in the home are studied. One aim is to see whether the work children do is gendered and if so, whether they follow their parents', often gendered, pattern in housework. A second aim is to see whether children's attitudes are influenced by their parents' attitudes and practices. When it comes to issues like these, Sweden is of special interest because in 1995, Sweden was appointed the most gender equal country in the world by the United Nations. The data used were the Swedish Child Level of Living Survey 2000 (see http://www.sofi.su.se/LNU2000/english.htm), a data set that includes extensive first-hand information from both children and their parents. The results indicate that girls and boys in two-parent families are more prone to engage in gender atypical work the more their parent of the same sex engages in this kind of work. The fact that girls still do more housework than boys in all families independent of, among other things, the parental division of housework and the mother's educational level indicates that housework to some extent signifies gender also to children. However, no clear relation is found between the parents' division of work and the child's attitude towards gender equality in the home. Neither is there any clear relation between the parents' attitude towards gender equality in the home and the children's attitude to the same topic.

  10. Security Sector Reform and the Paradoxical Tension between Local Ownership and Gender Equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Gordon

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the tension or conflict that can exist between the principles of local ownership and gender equality that guide Security Sector Reform (SSR programmes when gender discrimination and patriarchal values characterise the local environment (and ‘locals’ do not value gender equality. In these situations, international actors may be reluctant to advocate gender equality, regarding it as imposing culturally alien values and potentially destabilising to the SSR process. It is argued, however, that the tension between local ownership and gender equality is deceptive and merely serves to protect the power of dominant groups and disempower the marginalised, often serving to disguise the power relations at play in post-conflict environments and avoid addressing the security needs of those who are often at most risk. The paper concludes that rather than a tension existing between the two principles, in fact, local ownership without gender equality is meaningless. Moreover, failing to promote gender equality undermines the extent to which SSR programmes result in security and justice sector institutions that are representative of and responsive to the needs of both men and women. It can also perpetuate structural inequalities and conflict dynamics and, ultimately, limit the success of SSR and broader peacebuilding processes.

  11. Opening the Gender Diversity Black Box: Causality of Perceived Gender Equity & Locus of Control and Mediation of Work Engagement in Employee Well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha R. Sharma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed at assessing the role of perceived gender equity and locus of control in employee well-being at the workplace and ascertaining if work engagement mediates between perceived gender equity, locus of control, and employee well-being (measured through optimism, general satisfaction with life and work, and executive burnout. Adopting a personal survey method data was collected from 373 managers (both males and females from the public and private sectors representing manufacturing and service industry in India. The study bridges the knowledge gap by operationalising the construct of perceived gender equity and studying its role in the work engagement and employee well-being. Conceptualization of the well-being in an unconventional way covering both the positive and the negative aspects extends the understanding of the emerging concept of well-being. It has practical implications for talent management and work engagement besides promoting gender equity at the workplace for employee well-being. It opens vistas for the gender based theory and cross cultural research on gender equity.

  12. Opening the gender diversity black box: causality of perceived gender equity and locus of control and mediation of work engagement in employee well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Radha R; Sharma, Neha P

    2015-01-01

    The study is aimed at assessing the role of perceived gender equity and locus of control in employee well-being at the workplace and ascertaining if work engagement mediates between perceived gender equity, locus of control, and employee well-being (measured through optimism, general satisfaction with life and work, and executive burnout). Adopting a personal survey method data was collected from 373 managers (both males and females) from the public and private sectors representing manufacturing and service industry in India. The study bridges the knowledge gap by operationalizing the construct of perceived gender equity and studying its role in the work engagement and employee well-being. Conceptualization of the well-being in an unconventional way covering both the positive and the negative aspects extends the understanding of the emerging concept of well-being. It has practical implications for talent management and work engagement besides promoting gender equity at the workplace for employee well-being. It opens vistas for the gender based theory and cross cultural research on gender equity.

  13. The contradictory impact of globalization and migration on gender equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    2009-01-01

    Globalization and migration have increased diversities and inequalities within and between nation-states and have created new problems regarding public policies intented to regulate political and socio-economic problems on national and global levels. Globalization and increased migration thus...... represent a thoeretical, normative and political challenge to understanding how gender and diversity at the national level are linked to processes of globalization. This article identifies some of the many issues involved in the Asia-Nordic 'local-global dialectic'....

  14. Importing Equality? The Impact of Globalization on Gender Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra E. Black; Elizabeth Brainerd

    2002-01-01

    While researchers have long held that discrimination cannot endure in an increasingly competitive environment, there has been little work testing this dynamic process. This paper tests the hypothesis (based on Becker 1957) that increased competition resulting from globalization in the 1980s forced employers to reduce costly discrimination against women. The empirical strategy exploits differences in market structure across industries to identify the impact of trade on the gender wage gap: bec...

  15. GENDER EQUALITY POLICIES: EDUCATION FOR A VIOLENCE-FREE SCHOOL

    OpenAIRE

    Emma Zapata-Martelo; María del Rosario Ayala-Carrillo

    2014-01-01

    Gender studies began in higher education as a critique to the traditional theoretical stances that had ignored or distorted the life of women and overlooked or had no knowledge of their contribution to the general knowledge. These studies are aimed at correcting the male centered view, transforming the hegemonious approach in order to change them into more inclusive educational proposals, representative of the human reality, based on epistemological theoretical, methodological, interdisciplin...

  16. GENDER EQUALITY POLICIES: EDUCATION FOR A VIOLENCE-FREE SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Zapata-Martelo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender studies began in higher education as a critique to the traditional theoretical stances that had ignored or distorted the life of women and overlooked or had no knowledge of their contribution to the general knowledge. These studies are aimed at correcting the male centered view, transforming the hegemonious approach in order to change them into more inclusive educational proposals, representative of the human reality, based on epistemological theoretical, methodological, interdisciplinary, and participative criticisms; this, besides transforming gender relations to build more equalitarian and non-violent societies. To this regard, although national and international policies have had an important role in the integration of the gender approach in higher education institutions (HEI, many of them remain simply as statements and good intentions. Women have achieved access to education, but representation in positions of power remains in the hands of men, the “crystal ceiling is still there, as are the hidden curriculum and discrimination, both at the individual and at the collective levels.

  17. GENDER EQUALITY IN EU-FUNDED PROGRAMS: GLOBAL AND REGIONAL ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina MANOLESCU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Gender equality is a key issue in EU policies explicitly targeted over 50 years. The reports for the entire period show that progress has been made in the situation for women through specific programs, but the results are always lower than expected. Thus, inequalities persist in several areas, and developments are the source of new challenges. The main objective of this article is to show how gender equality influences EU funded programs and what issues arise depending on the area in which it is applied. We intend to highlight the types of projects that have gender equality objectives and successful models, considering the context in which these projects were carried out and highlighting the determinants of their success. On the way to building a sustainable and inclusive Europe, gender equality encounter many obstacles, particularly in regions where the ideas of existence of disparities and imbalances are not accepted and documented.

  18. Gender equality or patriarchal dividend: Structural change in Turkish nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdman, Elizabeth; Badir, Aysel

    2008-06-01

    Turkey is attempting to join the European Union and is facing pressure to eliminate many forms of discrimination, including discrimination based on gender. In keeping with these aims, in early 2007 the Turkish government changed the law to permit Turkish men to become nurses. Given that Turkey is a highly patriarchal society and that occupational segregation by sex is a persistent feature, it is important to examine the potential outcome of the legislative changes. The aim of this paper is to explore the paradoxical potential for Turkish female nurses to experience increased discrimination in a system that is restructured by legislation to be non-discriminatory.

  19. Everyday (in)equality at home: complex constructions of gender in South African families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, Rebecca; Ratele, Kopano

    2016-01-01

    High rates of violence and HIV have been documented within the South African context. Constructions of masculinity and femininity that position men as dominant and highly sexually active and women as subordinate and acquiescent have been found to contribute towards gender inequality. This inequality is in turn related to negative health consequences, specifically violence against women, children, and other men, as well as sexual risk. Within this context it becomes important to explore how problematic constructions of gender are being (re)produced and how these constructions are being challenged. Families have been identified as key sites in which gender is both constructed and enacted on a daily basis and it is within this space that children are first exposed to notions of gender. This article draws from a study that was intended to expand on the limited understandings of the ways in which gender (in)equality is constructed and conveyed within the context of South African families on an everyday basis. Children and parents in 18 families from a range of different material and cultural backgrounds were interviewed about the meanings and practices of gender within their homes. Data were analysed using a Foucauldian discourse analysis. The data reveal how problematic constructions of masculinity and femininity are (re)produced but also challenged within a range of different families. Gender and gender (in)equality are therefore routinely accomplished in complex ways. These findings have important implications for promoting gender equality and therefore for disrupting violence and sexual risk as gendered health issues.

  20. Gender and Education for All: Progress and Problems in Achieving Gender Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisamya, Grace; DeJaeghere, Joan; Kendall, Nancy; Khan, Marufa Aziz

    2012-01-01

    The paper explores the effects of rapid increases in gender parity in primary schooling in Bangladesh and Malawi on gender inequities in schools and communities. Based on an analysis of comparative case studies of marginalized communities, we argue that educational initiatives focused on achieving gender parity provide limited evidence that girls'…

  1. Sex and Gender Equity in Research: rationale for the SAGER guidelines and recommended use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Shirin; Babor, Thomas F; De Castro, Paola; Tort, Sera; Curno, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    Sex and gender differences are often overlooked in research design, study implementation and scientific reporting, as well as in general science communication. This oversight limits the generalizability of research findings and their applicability to clinical practice, in particular for women but also for men. This article describes the rationale for an international set of guidelines to encourage a more systematic approach to the reporting of sex and gender in research across disciplines. A panel of 13 experts representing nine countries developed the guidelines through a series of teleconferences, conference presentations and a 2-day workshop. An internet survey of 716 journal editors, scientists and other members of the international publishing community was conducted as well as a literature search on sex and gender policies in scientific publishing. The Sex and Gender Equity in Research (SAGER) guidelines are a comprehensive procedure for reporting of sex and gender information in study design, data analyses, results and interpretation of findings. The SAGER guidelines are designed primarily to guide authors in preparing their manuscripts, but they are also useful for editors, as gatekeepers of science, to integrate assessment of sex and gender into all manuscripts as an integral part of the editorial process.

  2. [Sex and Gender Equity in Research: rationale for the SAGER guidelines and recommended use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Shirin; Babor, Thomas F; Castro, Paola De; Tort, Sera; Curno, Mirjam

    2017-01-01

    Sex and gender differences are often overlooked in research design, study implementation and scientific reporting, as well as in general science communication. This oversight limits the generalizability of research findings and their applicability to clinical practice, in particular for women but also for men. This article describes the rationale for an international set of guidelines to encourage a more systematic approach to the reporting of sex and gender in research across disciplines. A panel of 13 experts representing nine countries developed the guidelines through a series of teleconferences, conference presentations and a 2-day workshop. An internet survey of 716 journal editors, scientists and other members of the international publishing community was conducted as well as a literature search on sex and gender policies in scientific publishing. The Sex and Gender Equity in Research (SAGER) guidelines are a comprehensive procedure for reporting of sex and gender information in study design, data analyses, results and interpretation of findings. The SAGER guidelines are designed primarily to guide authors in preparing their manuscripts, but they are also useful for editors, as gatekeepers of science, to integrate assessment of sex and gender into all manuscripts as an integral part of the editorial process.

  3. Gender Equity in Transplantation: A Report from the Women in Transplantation Workshop of The Transplantation Society of Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Karen M; Clark, Carolyn J; MacDonald, Kelli; Paraskeva, Miranda A; Rogers, Natasha; Ryan, Jessica; Webster, Angela C; Wong, Germaine

    2017-10-01

    The exponential growth of young talented women choosing science and medicine as their professional career over the past decade is substantial. Currently, more than half of the Australian medical doctoral graduates and early career researchers are comprised of women, but less than 20% of all academic professorial staff are women. The loss of female talent in the hierarchical ladder of Australian academia is a considerable waste of government investment, productivity, and scientific innovation. Gender disparity in the professional workforce composition is even more striking within the field of transplantation. Women are grossly underrepresented in leadership roles, with currently no female heads of unit in any of the Australian and New Zealand transplanting centers. At the same time, there is also gender segregation with a greater concentration of women in lower-status academic position compared with their male counterparts. Given the extent and magnitude of the disparity, the Women in Transplantation Committee, a subcommittee of The Transplantation Society of Australia and New Zealand established a workshop comprising 8 female clinicians/scientists in transplantation. The key objectives were to (i) identify potential gender equity issues within the transplantation workforce; (ii) devise and implement potential strategies and interventions to address some of these challenges at a societal level; (iii) set realistic and achievable goals to enhance and facility gender equality, equity, and diversity in transplantation.

  4. Permeating the Social Justice Ideals of Equality and Equity within the Context of Early Years: Challenges for Leadership in Multi-Cultural and Mono-Cultural Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Malini; Sood, Krishan

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the ideology of social justice through links between equality and equity within Early Years and what remain the challenges for leadership. Questionnaires and interviews in English multi-cultural and mono-cultural schools with Early Years age phases were conducted. The findings showed that the ideology of social justice,…

  5. The European Construction Social Partners: Gender Equality in Theory and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Elsebet Frydendal

    2005-01-01

    that play a role in women's integration. The responses indicate that the construction industry still displays inertia and conservatism, and that the social partners coroborate rather than counter this. They express a "discourse" of gender equality, but this does not automatically lead to equal opportunity...

  6. Sustaining Advocacy and Action on Women's Participation and Gender Equality in Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medel-Anonuevo, Carolyn; Bernhardt, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the development of gender equality and women's participation in adult learning and education in the history of the International Conferences on Adult Education (CONFINTEA). Though the equality of rights was highlighted throughout the various conferences, the first Global Report on Adult Learning and Education…

  7. Women-friendly policy paradoxes?! Child Care policies and gender equality visions in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borchorst, Anette

    2006-01-01

    The chapter focuses on the political construction of the equality-difference dilemma in Scandinavian welfare policies. Different policy logics of childcare policies in Sweden, Norway and Denmark are addressed and the visions of gender equality underpinning them are analyzed....

  8. Gender Equality and Cultural Diversity from a Comparative Nordic and European Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    2005-01-01

    The paper looks at the relation between gender equality and cultural equality from a comparative persepctive focising on tensions and conflicts from a comporative Nordic and European perspective. It starts with a brief overview of key elements in integration strategies and philosophies in selected...

  9. Examining gender equity in health policies in a low- (Peru), middle- (Colombia), and high- (Canada) income country in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Donna E; Dorado, Linda M; Diaz-Granados, Natalia; Rondon, Marta; Saavedra, Javier; Posada-Villa, Jose; Torres, Yolanda

    2009-12-01

    Gender inequities in health prevail in most countries despite ongoing attempts to eliminate them. Assessment of gender-sensitive health policies can be used to identify country specific progress as well as gaps and issues that need to be addressed to meet health equity goals. This study selected and measured the existence of gender-sensitive health policies in a low- (Peru), middle- (Colombia), and high (Canada)-income country in the Americas. Investigators selected 10 of 20 gender-sensitive health policy indicators and found eight to be feasible to measure in all three countries, although the wording and scope varied. The results from this study inform policy makers and program planners who aim to develop, improve, implement, and monitor national gender-sensitive health policies. Future studies should assess the implementation of policy indicators within countries and assess their performance in increasing gender equity.

  10. Gender Equality in German Universities: Vernacularising the Battle for the Best Brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zippel, Kathrin; Ferree, Myra Marx; Zimmermann, Karin

    2016-01-01

    We examine how global pressures for competitiveness and gender equality have merged into a discourse of "inclusive excellence" in the twenty-first century and shaped three recent German higher education programmes. After placing these programmes in the larger discourse about gender inequalities, we focus on how they adapt current global…

  11. Feminist Attitudes and Support for Gender Equality: Opinion Change in Women and Men, 1974-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzendahl, Catherine I.; Myers, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines attitudes related to feminism and gender equality by evaluating the trends in, and determinants of, women and men's attitudes from 1974 to 1998. Past accounts suggest two clusters of explanations based on interests and exposure. Using these, we examine opinions on abortion, sexual behavior, public sphere gender roles, and…

  12. Shaping a Gender Equality Policy in Higher Education: Which Human Capabilities Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loots, Sonja; Walker, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    South African institutions still confront gendered inequalities, irrespective of transformative national policies, compounded by the absence of a national gender equality policy for higher education. We therefore explore the potential of the capabilities approach (CA) to inform policy formation and argue for the development of a policy for higher…

  13. Gender Equality Matters: Empowering Women through Literacy Programmes. UIL Policy Brief 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The third in UIL's current series of policy briefs, titled "Gender equality matters: Empowering women through literacy programmes," offers research-informed analysis and action-oriented recommendations for local and national governments, providers of literacy programmes and educators on how to reduce the gender gap in adult literacy.…

  14. When Traditional Ethnic Culture Encounters Gender Equality: The Dilemma of Multicultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shan-Hua

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the government of Taiwan has been actively promoting gender equality, the positive results of which are already apparent among the younger generation. This research examines the views of indigenous girls attending secondary school with respect to the gender divide in their traditional culture, whether or not they support the…

  15. Getting to Gender Equality in Energy Infrastructure : Lessons from Electricity Generation, Transmission, and Distribution Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Orlando, Maria Beatriz; Janik, Vanessa Lopes; Vaidya, Pranav; Angelou, Nicolina; Zumbyte, Ieva; Adams, Norma

    2018-01-01

    Getting to Gender Equality in Electricity Infrastructure: Lessons from Electricity Generation, Transmission, and Distribution Projects examines the social and gender footprint of large-scale electricity generation, transmission, and distribution projects to establish a foundation on which further research and replication of good practices can be built. The main impact pathways analyzed are...

  16. Straight Roads and Winding Tracks: Swedish Educational Policy from a Gender Equality Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgqvist-Saltzman, Inga

    1992-01-01

    Discusses Swedish educational reforms, policies, and research. Considers whether Sweden's gender-equality goal supports research that develops more gender-sensitive methodologies and concepts to upgrade women's knowledge, experiences, and values. Sweden's goal of giving men and women the same responsibilities for work, parenthood, and civil duties…

  17. STEEL BARRIER: LEGAL IMPLICATIONS FROM A GENDER EQUAL OPPORTUNITY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Bastida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, legal Acts, norms, and regulations have proliferated in order to ensure equal opportunities for women and men in multiple contexts, including public and private organizations. Nevertheless, there is sufficient evidence to suggest that, to date, real and legal equality do not match. The current context of the global economy suggests that there may now be a new barrier, related to the fact that women have been partially excluded from positions abroad which would facilitate the acquisition of professional and personal skills which are essential in the present century. This new inequality in access to senior management seems to be in contradiction with the different pressures and initiatives put in place to achieve equality of opportunities between women and men, protected in our national and international laws. In this paper, the main causes excluding women from international assignments, and consequently from senior management, are reviewed, highlighting the motivational and legal aftereffects that this trend may have. En las últimas décadas han proliferado diversas disposiciones legales y normativas con el objetivo de garantizar la igualdad de oportunidades entre mujeres y hombres en múltiples contextos, entre ellos el que atañe a las organizaciones públicas y privadas. Pese a ello, existe suficiente evidencia de que la igualdad real no se acerca, hasta la fecha, a la legal. El contexto actual de economía globalizada sugiere que puede aparecer una nueva barrera, al quedar la mujer excluida parcialmente de puestos en el extranjero que le facilitan la adquisición de capacidades profesionales y personales imprescindibles en el siglo actual. Esta nueva desigualdad en el acceso a puestos de alta dirección no parece responder a las distintas presiones e iniciativas por conseguir la igualdad de oportunidades entre hombres y mujeres, protegida en nuestro ordenamiento jurídico nacional e internacional. En este trabajo revisamos

  18. Gender Equality in Human Capital and Fertility in the European Regions in the Past

    OpenAIRE

    HIPPE RALPH; PERRIN FAUSTINE

    2017-01-01

    Gender inequality in human capital has been shown to be an important indicator of economic development but has remained unexplored in a historical European perspective. Using a new and large historical database on male and female literacy rates, we provide new evidence on the distribution of gender inequality in human capital in European regions in 1900 and 1960. We explore the distribution of fertility rates to account for the relationship between gender equality in education and the fertili...

  19. Gender Equity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ranjeetha

    Discipline WHY and HO. Discipline. WHY and HO points presentation is a ing numerical problems are solved! p will be necessary but ecific to sectors and ... Sciences tribution of fellowship. : Men Percentage. 1002 6.8%. 60. 23%. 60. 23%. 60 23%. 78. 7%. 78. 7%. 187. 3%. 187. 3%. 161. 1%. 161. 1%. 161. 1%. 161. 1%.

  20. From Gender Bias to Gender Awareness in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, Petra; Benschop, Yvonne W. M.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; Lagro-Janssen, Toine L. M.

    2009-01-01

    Gender is an essential determinant of health and illness. Gender awareness in doctors contributes to equity and equality in health and aims towards better health for men and women. Nevertheless, gender has largely been ignored in medicine. First, it is stated that medicine was "gender blind" by not considering gender whenever relevant. Secondly,…

  1. Gender, sexuality and the discursive representation of access and equity in health services literature: implications for LGBT communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacDonnell Judith A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article considers how health services access and equity documents represent the problem of access to health services and what the effects of that representation might be for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT communities. We conducted a critical discourse analysis on selected access and equity documents using a gender-based diversity framework as determined by two objectives: 1 to identify dominant and counter discourses in health services access and equity literature; and 2 to develop understanding of how particular discourses impact the inclusion, or not, of LGBT communities in health services access and equity frameworks.The analysis was conducted in response to public health and clinical research that has documented barriers to health services access for LGBT communities including institutionalized heterosexism, biphobia, and transphobia, invisibility and lack of health provider knowledge and comfort. The analysis was also conducted as the first step of exploring LGBT access issues in home care services for LGBT populations in Ontario, Canada. Methods A critical discourse analysis of selected health services access and equity documents, using a gender-based diversity framework, was conducted to offer insight into dominant and counter discourses underlying health services access and equity initiatives. Results A continuum of five discourses that characterize the health services access and equity literature were identified including two dominant discourses: 1 multicultural discourse, and 2 diversity discourse; and three counter discourses: 3 social determinants of health (SDOH discourse; 4 anti-oppression (AOP discourse; and 5 citizen/social rights discourse. Conclusions The analysis offers a continuum of dominant and counter discourses on health services access and equity as determined from a gender-based diversity perspective. The continuum of discourses offers a framework to identify and redress

  2. Gender, sexuality and the discursive representation of access and equity in health services literature: implications for LGBT communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Andrea E; Macdonnell, Judith A

    2011-09-29

    This article considers how health services access and equity documents represent the problem of access to health services and what the effects of that representation might be for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) communities. We conducted a critical discourse analysis on selected access and equity documents using a gender-based diversity framework as determined by two objectives: 1) to identify dominant and counter discourses in health services access and equity literature; and 2) to develop understanding of how particular discourses impact the inclusion, or not, of LGBT communities in health services access and equity frameworks.The analysis was conducted in response to public health and clinical research that has documented barriers to health services access for LGBT communities including institutionalized heterosexism, biphobia, and transphobia, invisibility and lack of health provider knowledge and comfort. The analysis was also conducted as the first step of exploring LGBT access issues in home care services for LGBT populations in Ontario, Canada. A critical discourse analysis of selected health services access and equity documents, using a gender-based diversity framework, was conducted to offer insight into dominant and counter discourses underlying health services access and equity initiatives. A continuum of five discourses that characterize the health services access and equity literature were identified including two dominant discourses: 1) multicultural discourse, and 2) diversity discourse; and three counter discourses: 3) social determinants of health (SDOH) discourse; 4) anti-oppression (AOP) discourse; and 5) citizen/social rights discourse. The analysis offers a continuum of dominant and counter discourses on health services access and equity as determined from a gender-based diversity perspective. The continuum of discourses offers a framework to identify and redress organizational assumptions about, and ideological commitments to

  3. Gender, sexuality and the discursive representation of access and equity in health services literature: implications for LGBT communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background This article considers how health services access and equity documents represent the problem of access to health services and what the effects of that representation might be for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) communities. We conducted a critical discourse analysis on selected access and equity documents using a gender-based diversity framework as determined by two objectives: 1) to identify dominant and counter discourses in health services access and equity literature; and 2) to develop understanding of how particular discourses impact the inclusion, or not, of LGBT communities in health services access and equity frameworks.The analysis was conducted in response to public health and clinical research that has documented barriers to health services access for LGBT communities including institutionalized heterosexism, biphobia, and transphobia, invisibility and lack of health provider knowledge and comfort. The analysis was also conducted as the first step of exploring LGBT access issues in home care services for LGBT populations in Ontario, Canada. Methods A critical discourse analysis of selected health services access and equity documents, using a gender-based diversity framework, was conducted to offer insight into dominant and counter discourses underlying health services access and equity initiatives. Results A continuum of five discourses that characterize the health services access and equity literature were identified including two dominant discourses: 1) multicultural discourse, and 2) diversity discourse; and three counter discourses: 3) social determinants of health (SDOH) discourse; 4) anti-oppression (AOP) discourse; and 5) citizen/social rights discourse. Conclusions The analysis offers a continuum of dominant and counter discourses on health services access and equity as determined from a gender-based diversity perspective. The continuum of discourses offers a framework to identify and redress organizational assumptions

  4. Post-accession compliance with EU gender equality legislation in post-communist new member states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Sedelmeier

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the transposition of EU legislation on gender equality at the workplace in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania and Slovenia, as well as the enforcement powers of their national equality institutions. It does not find significant differences between post- and pre-accession compliance. Overall compliance can be considered good in Hungary, Lithuania, and Slovenia, while it is considerably worse in the Czech Republic – both pre- and post-accession. As an explanation for these variations in legal transposition and enforcement bodies, the paper finds two equifinal paths towards correct transposition of EU gender equality legislation and strong enforcement bodies: either the absence of high adjustment costs, or the combination of strong social democratic governments and NGOs with special expertise in EU gender equality legislation.

  5. Cultural variations in the sexual marketplace: gender equality correlates with more sexual activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Roy F; Mendoza, Juan Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Sexual economics theory assumes that heterosexual communities can be analyzed as marketplaces in which men offer women resources such as love, respect, money, and commitment in exchange for sex. In response to economic, political, and other disadvantages, women collectively restrict their sexuality to maintain a low supply relative to male demand, thereby ensuring a high price. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that sexual norms and practices would be more restrictive in countries marked by gender inequality than in countries where the genders were more equal. An international online sex survey (N>317,000) yielded four measures of sexual activity, and 37 nations' means on all four measures were correlated with independent (World Economic Forum) ratings of gender equality. Consistent with predictions, relatively high gender equality was associated with more casual sex, more sex partners per capita, younger ages for first sex, and greater tolerance/approval of premarital sex.

  6. Empowered but Not Equal: Challenging the Traditional Gender Roles as Seen by University Students in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-bakr, Fawziah; Bruce, Elizabeth R.; Davidson, Petrina M.; Schlaffer, Edit; Kropiunigg, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    This study examines perspectives of Saudi university students regarding changing gender roles as affected by women's rights, education, employment, and activity in the public sphere. Results from a questionnaire distributed among 4,455 male and female students indicate students are confident and optimistic about improving gender equity, however…

  7. Parental share in public and domestic spheres: a population study on gender equality, death, and sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Månsdotter, Anna; Lindholm, Lars; Lundberg, Michael; Winkvist, Anna; Öhman, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Study objective Examine the relation between aspects of gender equality and population health based on the premise that sex differences in health are mainly caused by the gender system. Setting/participants All Swedish couples (98 240 people) who had their first child together in 1978. Design The exposure of gender equality is shown by the parents' division of income and occupational position (public sphere), and parental leave and temporary child care (domestic sphere). People were classified by these indicators during 1978–1980 into different categories; those on an equal footing with their partner and those who were traditionally or untraditionally unequal. Health is measured by the outcomes of death during 1981–2001 and sickness absence during 1986–2000. Data are obtained by linking individual information from various national sources. The statistical method used is multiple logistic regressions with odds ratios as estimates of relative risks. Main results From the public sphere is shown that traditionally unequal women have decreased health risks compared with equal women, while traditionally unequal men tend to have increased health risks compared with equal men. From the domestic sphere is indicated that both women and men run higher risks of death and sickness when being traditionally unequal compared with equal. Conclusions Understanding the relation between gender equality and health, which was found to depend on sex, life sphere, and inequality type, seems to require a combination of the hypotheses of convergence, stress and expansion. PMID:16790834

  8. Inquiry learning for gender equity using History of Science in Life and Earth Sciences’ learning environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present work is the selection and integration of objectives and methods of education for gender equity within the Life and Earth Sciences’ learning environments in the current portuguese frameworks of middle and high school. My proposal combines inquiry learning-teaching methods with the aim of promoting gender equity, mainly focusing in relevant 20th century women-scientists with a huge contribute to the History of Science. The hands-on and minds-on activities proposed for high scholl students of Life and Earth Sciences onstitute a learnig environment enriched in features of science by focusing on the work of two scientists: Lynn Margulis (1938-2011  and her endosymbiosis theory of the origin of life on Earth and Inge Leehman (1888-1993 responsible for a breakthrough regarding the internal structure of Earth, by caracterizing a discontinuity within the nucleus, contributing to the current geophysical model. For middle scholl students the learning environment includes Inge Leehman and Mary Tharp (1920-2006 and her first world map of the ocean floor. My strategy includes features of science, such as: theory-laden nature of scientific knowledge, models, values and socio-scientific issues, technology contributes to science and feminism.  In conclusion, I consider that this study may constitute an example to facilitate the implementation, by other teachers, of active inquiry strategies focused on features of science within a framework of social responsibility of science, as well as the basis for future research.

  9. El proceso hacia la integracion de la equidad por genero al curriculo.(The Process of the Integration of Gender Equity in the Curriculum.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Bermudez, Carmen D.

    "El Proyecto Colaborativo de Equidad por Genero en la Educacion," or the Collaborative Project for Gender Equity in Education, was undertaken in Puerto Rico between 1990 and 1992 to study how to facilitate the integration of gender equity themes in the curriculum through the direct action of participating teachers. A study examined the…

  10. Entrepreneurship and Gender Equality in Academia – a Complex Combination in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt-Inger Keisu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article takes as its starting point two current trends in academia – the promotion of academic entrepreneurship and innovation and the promotion of gender equality – and discusses how different gender equality perspectives are interwoven, or not, into academia’s transformation processes towards entrepreneurial universities. On the basis of an analysis of 26 interviews conducted with personnel at two Swedish universities, the article investigates how concepts of academic entrepreneurship and innovation on the one hand and gender equality on the other hand are constructed and filled with meaning as well as how they are entangled and what effects are produced by this way of thinking and acting. Our analysis reveals tensions between the two policy goals, together with tensions within each goal. An overall conclusion is that articulations and ways of speaking about the policy goal of academic entrepreneurship and innovation were to some extent interwoven with the policy goal of gender equality, especially in the broader perspectives on academic entrepreneurship. However, the articulations of strategies and practice of the two policy goals essentially ran parallel, and were not entangled with one another. This is because strategies or substantial initiatives for merging gender equality into the agenda of academic entrepreneurship and innovation were lacking.

  11. Cross-national variation in the size of sex differences in values: effects of gender equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Shalom H; Rubel-Lifschitz, Tammy

    2009-07-01

    How does gender equality relate to men's and women's value priorities? It is hypothesized that, for both sexes, the importance of benevolence, universalism, stimulation, hedonism, and self-direction values increases with greater gender equality, whereas the importance of power, achievement, security, and tradition values decreases. Of particular relevance to the present study, increased gender equality should also permit both sexes to pursue more freely the values they inherently care about more. Drawing on evolutionary and role theories, the authors postulate that women inherently value benevolence and universalism more than men do, whereas men inherently value power, achievement, and stimulation more than women do. Thus, as gender equality increases, sex differences in these values should increase, whereas sex differences in other values should not be affected by increases in gender equality. Studies of 25 representative national samples and of students from 68 countries confirmed the hypotheses except for tradition values. Implications for cross-cultural research on sex differences in values and traits are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. VIOLATIONS OF THE GENDER EQUALITY PRINCIPLES REVEALED IN CARMEN BIN LADIN’S INSIDE THE KIGDOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinawati Rinawati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed the theme of violations of the gender equality principles in Carmen‘s Bin Ladin‘s Inside the Kingdom. The best seller novel was based on the true story of the author‘s life in Saudi Arabia under the gender prohibitions of Wahhabi custom. The analytical perspective adopted in this study is shaped by the idea of Islamic feminism. The analysis resulted in the finding that gender problem revealed in the novel was due to the violations of the gender equality principles. The violations of the gender equality principles included the practice of honor killing, women‘s face covering, the construction of women‘s inferiority, the prohibition of entering mosque for women, segregation of sexes, divorced women‘s getting no child custody rights, no obligationof educating women, forced marriage, temporary marriage, female genital mutilation and improper polygamy practice. In conclusion, the women depicted in the novel are not truly treated according to the gender equality principles.

  13. Men’s attitudes on gender equality and their contraceptive use in Uttar Pradesh India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Men play crucial role in contraceptive decision-making, particularly in highly gender-stratified populations. Past research examined men’s attitudes toward fertility and contraception and the association with actual contraceptive practices. More research is needed on whether men’s attitudes on gender equality are associated with contraceptive behaviors; this is the objective of this study. Methods This study uses baseline data of the Measurement, Learning, and Evaluation (MLE) Project for the Urban Health Initiative in Uttar Pradesh, India. Data were collected from a representative sample of 6,431 currently married men in four cities of the state. Outcomes are current use of contraception and contraceptive method choice. Key independent variables are three gender measures: men’s attitudes toward gender equality, gender sensitive decision making, and restrictions on wife’s mobility. Multivariate analyses are used to identify the association between the gender measures and contraceptive use. Results Most men have high or moderate levels of gender sensitive decision-making, have low to moderate levels of restrictions on wife’s mobility, and have moderate to high levels of gender equitable attitudes in all four cities. Gender sensitive decision making and equitable attitudes show significant positive association and restrictions on wife’s mobility showed significant negative relationship with current contraceptive use. Conclusion The study demonstrates that contraceptive programs need to engage men and address gender equitable attitudes; this can be done through peer outreach (interpersonal communication) or via mass media. Engaging men to be more gender equal may have an influence beyond contraceptive use in contexts where men play a crucial role in household decision-making. PMID:24894376

  14. Men's attitudes on gender equality and their contraceptive use in Uttar Pradesh India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Anurag; Nanda, Priya; Speizer, Ilene S; Calhoun, Lisa M; Zimmerman, Allison; Bhardwaj, Rochak

    2014-06-04

    Men play crucial role in contraceptive decision-making, particularly in highly gender-stratified populations. Past research examined men's attitudes toward fertility and contraception and the association with actual contraceptive practices. More research is needed on whether men's attitudes on gender equality are associated with contraceptive behaviors; this is the objective of this study. This study uses baseline data of the Measurement, Learning, and Evaluation (MLE) Project for the Urban Health Initiative in Uttar Pradesh, India. Data were collected from a representative sample of 6,431 currently married men in four cities of the state. Outcomes are current use of contraception and contraceptive method choice. Key independent variables are three gender measures: men's attitudes toward gender equality, gender sensitive decision making, and restrictions on wife's mobility. Multivariate analyses are used to identify the association between the gender measures and contraceptive use. Most men have high or moderate levels of gender sensitive decision-making, have low to moderate levels of restrictions on wife's mobility, and have moderate to high levels of gender equitable attitudes in all four cities. Gender sensitive decision making and equitable attitudes show significant positive association and restrictions on wife's mobility showed significant negative relationship with current contraceptive use. The study demonstrates that contraceptive programs need to engage men and address gender equitable attitudes; this can be done through peer outreach (interpersonal communication) or via mass media. Engaging men to be more gender equal may have an influence beyond contraceptive use in contexts where men play a crucial role in household decision-making.

  15. Gender Differences in Subjective Well-Being: Comparing Societies with Respect to Gender Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesch-Romer, Clemens; Motel-Klingebiel, Andreas; Tomasik, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    These analyses explore the relationship between gender inequality and subjective well-being. The hypothesis was tested as to whether societal gender inequality is related to the size of gender differences in subjective well-being in various societies. Results come from comparative data sets (World Values Survey, involving 57 countries; OASIS…

  16. Electricity's effect on gender equality in rural Zanzibar, Tanzania : case study for Gender and Energy World Development Report Background Paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winther, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    This anthropological case study on the introduction of electricity in rural Zanzibar around 1990 discusses to what extent and how women became empowered in the process. What factors contributed to increased gender equality during the uptake of electricity and related appliances – and what were the

  17. Everyday (in)equality at home: complex constructions of gender in South African families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, Rebecca; Ratele, Kopano

    2016-01-01

    Background High rates of violence and HIV have been documented within the South African context. Constructions of masculinity and femininity that position men as dominant and highly sexually active and women as subordinate and acquiescent have been found to contribute towards gender inequality. This inequality is in turn related to negative health consequences, specifically violence against women, children, and other men, as well as sexual risk. Within this context it becomes important to explore how problematic constructions of gender are being (re)produced and how these constructions are being challenged. Families have been identified as key sites in which gender is both constructed and enacted on a daily basis and it is within this space that children are first exposed to notions of gender. Objective This article draws from a study that was intended to expand on the limited understandings of the ways in which gender (in)equality is constructed and conveyed within the context of South African families on an everyday basis. Design Children and parents in 18 families from a range of different material and cultural backgrounds were interviewed about the meanings and practices of gender within their homes. Data were analysed using a Foucauldian discourse analysis. Results The data reveal how problematic constructions of masculinity and femininity are (re)produced but also challenged within a range of different families. Gender and gender (in)equality are therefore routinely accomplished in complex ways. Conclusions These findings have important implications for promoting gender equality and therefore for disrupting violence and sexual risk as gendered health issues. PMID:27293123

  18. Deference or Interrogation? Contrasting Models for Reconciling Religion, Gender and Equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Dustin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since the late 1990s, the extension of the equality framework in the United Kingdom has been accompanied by the recognition of religion within that framework and new measures to address religious discrimination. This development has been contested, with many arguing that religion is substantively different to other discrimination grounds and that increased protection against religious discrimination may undermine equality for other marginalized groups – in particular, women and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT people. This paper considers these concerns from the perspective of minoritized women in the UK. It analyses two theoretical approaches to reconciling religious claims with gender equality – one based on privileging, the other based on challenging religious claims – before considering which, if either, reflects experiences in the UK in recent years and what this means for gender equality.

  19. COST network genderSTE: Networking Gender Equality in Research and Innovation in Europe and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Sánchez de Madariaga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gender is one of five priorities of the European Research Area, as stated in the Communication adopted in July 2012 entitled A Reinforced European Research Area Partnership for Excellence and Growth (EC 2012c. Following this Communication, the EC has fully integrated gender dimensions in its proposal for a regulation on the new research framework program Horizon 2020¸ which includes in article 15 a provision for gender mainstreaming (EC 2011b. One final upcoming policy instrument announced by the EC is the Recommendation on Gender, Science and Innovation that will address member states and be adopted in the next months. Against this European policy background , the international COST network genderSTE (Gender, Science, Technology and Environment aims at enhancing a better integration of gender dimensions in science and technology at three main levels: i promoting women’s careers in science and technology through structural change of institutions (as recommended by EC by disseminating existing research and practice; ii promoting a better integration of gender in the content of science, research and technology, by dissemination existing research on the topic, ie the UE-US Gendered Innovations Project; iii identifying gender dimensions relevant to environment-related Horizon2020 Grand Challenges and other urban EC initiatives.  

  20. The European Construction Social Partners: Gender Equality in Theory and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Elsebet Frydendal

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the social partners' role in a gender quality agenda in construction at skilled operative level. It draws on a survey of the European construction social partners that investigated the presence of women in skilled trades and the policies, collective agreements and practices...... that play a role in women's integration. The responses indicate that the construction industry still displays inertia and conservatism, and that the social partners coroborate rather than counter this. They express a "discourse" of gender equality, but this does not automatically lead to equal opportunity...

  1. Factors Affecting Gender Equity in the Choice of Science and Technology Careers among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osagie, Roseline O.; Alutu, Azuka N.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the factors affecting gender equity in science and technology among senior secondary school students. The study was carried out at the University of Benin Demonstration Secondary School in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. One hundred and fifty students of average age 15 years in their penultimate year were administered the…

  2. Discourse analysis of gender equality and non-discrimination laws and strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Antonijević Zorana; Beker Kosana

    2017-01-01

    Based on the contemporary research on gender and language, using the method of discourse analysis applied to the laws and policies, this article explains how certain linguistic practice, in the context of the administrative discourse, produces meaning that may or may not contribute to its better understanding and more efficient implementation. Through discourse analysis of gender equality and non-discrimination laws and strategies in Serbia, it has been sho...

  3. Gender Equality and Women Empowerment Gleaned in the Selected Speeches of Senator Miriam Defensor Santiago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa A. Valdez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gender inequality and the resulting discrimination of women are deeply rooted in history, culture and tradition. It is said to be detrimental to the mental health of women and persists as a debilitating stigma which lowers their dignity and sense of self-worth. Thus, this qualitative research was conducted to underscore the issue of gender equality and women empowerment as core topics in selected speeches of Senator Miriam Defensor Santiago. Findings of the analysis showed that the issue of gender gap in the Philippines was manifested and discussed forthrightly by the senator in her speeches in terms of educational attainment, health and survival, economic participation and opportunity, and political empowerment, all being effectively touched by the senator with the signature wit, eloquence, astuteness and passion she was widely known for; that gender equality and women empowerment were likewise gleaned in the selected speeches, all of which were delivered by Miriam Defensor Santiago with the motive of persuading her audience to espouse the same advocacy, and this she achieved through her unique and distinct style of utilizing the persuasive ability of literature; and, that the implications of the author's advocacy on gender equality and gender empowerment delegated the monumental task upon the shoulders of the Filipino youth, in ways that their thinking will be directly influenced by her advocacy and thus promote within them a sense of urgency to embrace and espouse the same advocacies in order for them to be able to contribute to nation building.

  4. Equity and spatial reasoning: reducing the mathematical achievement gap in gender and social disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrie, Tom; Jorgensen, Robyn

    2018-03-01

    Since the early 70s, there has been recognition that there are specific differences in achievement based on variables, such as gender and socio-economic background, in terms of mathematics performance. However, these differences are not unilateral but rather quite specific and relate strongly to spatial reasoning. This early work has paved the way for thinking critically about who achieves in mathematics and why. This project innovatively combines the strengths of the two Chief Investigators—Lowrie's work in spatial reasoning and Jorgensen's work in equity. The assumptions, the approach and theoretical framing used in the study unite quite disparate areas of mathematics education into a cogent research program that seeks to challenge some of the long-held views in the field of mathematics education.

  5. The Gendered Nature of Student Affairs: Issues of Gender Equity in Student Affairs Professional Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Evelyn LaVette

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the gendered nature of the student affairs profession by investigating how three student affairs professional associations, the National Association of Student Personnel Administrators (NASPA), ACPA: College Student Educators International, and the Association of College and University Housing Officers International (ACUHO-I)…

  6. Striving for Gender Equity in Academic Medicine Careers: A Call to Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Carol; Gordon, Lynn; Travis, Elizabeth; Chatterjee, Archana; Chaudron, Linda; Fivush, Barbara; Gulati, Martha; Jagsi, Reshma; Sharma, Poonam; Gillis, Marin; Ganetzky, Rebecca; Grover, Amelia; Lautenberger, Diana; Moses, Ashleigh

    2016-08-01

    Women represent approximately half of students entering medical schools and more than half of those entering PhD programs. When advancing through the academic and professional fields, however, women continually face barriers that men do not. In this Commentary, the authors offer ideas for coordinating the efforts of organizations, academic institutions, and leaders throughout the scientific and medical professions to reduce barriers that result in inequities and, instead, strive for gender parity. Specific areas of focus outlined by the authors include facilitating women's access to formal and informal professional networks, acknowledging and addressing the gender pay gap as well as the lack of research funding awarded to women in the field, and updating workplace policies that have not evolved to accommodate women's lifestyles. As academic institutions seek access to top talent and the means to develop those individuals capable of generating the change medicine and science needs, the authors urge leaders and change agents within academic medicine to address the systemic barriers to gender equity that impede us from achieving the mission to improve the health of all.

  7. Gender equity and socioeconomic inequality: a framework for the patterning of women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Nancy E

    2002-03-01

    This paper explores the interrelationship of gender equity and socioeconomic inequality and how they affect women's health at the macro- (country) and micro- (household and individual) levels. An integrated framework draws theoretical perspectives from both approaches and from public health. Determinants of women's health in the geopolitical environment include country-specific history and geography, policies and services, legal rights, organizations and institutions, and structures that shape gender and economic inequality. Culture, norms and sanctions at the country and community level, and sociodemographic characteristics at the individual level, influence women's productive and reproductive roles in the household and workplace. Social capital, roles, psychosocial stresses and resources. health services, and behaviors mediate social, economic and cultural effects on health outcomes. Inequality between and within households contributes to the patterning of women's health. Within the framework, relationships may vary depending upon women's lifestage and cohort experience. Examples of other relevant theoretical frameworks are discussed. The conclusion suggests strategies to improve data, influence policy, and extend research to better understand the effect of gender and socioeconomic inequality on women's health.

  8. Cross-national differences in the gender gap in subjective health in Europe: does country-level gender equality matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, Johanna; Härkönen, Juho

    2013-12-01

    Multiple studies have found that women report being in worse health despite living longer. Gender gaps vary cross-nationally, but relatively little is known about the causes of comparative differences. Existing literature is inconclusive as to whether gender gaps in health are smaller in more gender equal societies. We analyze gender gaps in self-rated health (SRH) and limiting longstanding illness (LLI) with five waves of European Social Survey data for 191,104 respondents from 28 countries. We use means, odds ratios, logistic regressions, and multilevel random slopes logistic regressions. Gender gaps in subjective health vary visibly across Europe. In many countries (especially in Eastern and Southern Europe), women report distinctly worse health, while in others (such as Estonia, Finland, and Great Britain) there are small or no differences. Logistic regressions ran separately for each country revealed that individual-level socioeconomic and demographic variables explain a majority of these gaps in some countries, but contribute little to their understanding in most countries. In yet other countries, men had worse health when these variables were controlled for. Cross-national variation in the gender gaps exists after accounting for individual-level factors. Against expectations, the remaining gaps are not systematically related to societal-level gender inequality in the multilevel analyses. Our findings stress persistent cross-national variability in gender gaps in health and call for further analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Disiplin Hukum Yang Mewujudkan Kesetaraan dan Keadilan Gender (Law Discipline to Manifest Gender Equality and Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tien Handayani Nafi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This 248-page book enable the readers to see the author’s intent to desribe the position of law and gender in law discipline, hence the public (especially the law students can understand that law and gender can be manifested through law disciplines.

  10. Basotho Teachers' Constructions of Gender: Implications on Gender Equality in the Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morojele, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives prominence to rural teachers' own accounts of gender in three co-educational primary schools in Lesotho. The paper employs the social constructionist paradigm as its theoretical framework. Drawing from ethnographic data (observations and informal discussions), it discusses factors that inform teachers' constructions of gender and…

  11. ANALYSIS OF POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF GENDER EQUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatuna BERISHVILI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Term “gender” means socially constructed roles of man and woman, which are ascribed to them according to gender marker. Thus, gender roles depend on concrete socio-economic, political and culturological context and experience influence of various factors according to race, ethnic origin, class, sexual orientation and age. Gender roles widely differ within each culture and cultures. Unlike the individual’s biological gender, the gender role can be changed. This concept implies the views, conditioned by culture, about the intellectual potentials of man and woman, their personal features and behavior. Gender, as a construct, is formed by the society, as a social model of man and woman, which determines their role and position in all the spheres of the public life. To measure gender, like other hard-to-measure events, is of importance, in order to compare the countries, to identify the problems and to try their correction. It may be said that it enables us to disclose focus of the problems and in case of existence of proper will to positively act on it. Gender is multi-component and hard to measure. Research of the gender equality problems is important for the global business. Gender is a cultural construct, within which our different cultures attach different values, roles and responsibilities to men and women. It should be mentioned that the problems of women’s rights along with other barriers impeding achievement of the gender equality, have long been significant for the leading countries of Europe and America. However, one problem still remains – barriers of the so-called “Glass Ceiling”, which impede carrier advance of the female representatives. At the same time, in the countries, being on the lower level, a woman is still considered to be a being of secondary importance, which has no right to work and, compared with a man, no equal conditions to be educated. To this are added the religious laws of Islamic countries, which

  12. The institutionalization of gender equality policies at the Spanish university. Advances and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inma Pastor Gosalbez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The path to eliminating gender gaps moves between advances and promises. Its pace is determined by the combination of policies, legislation and social changes. Despite the measures taken, gender inequality persists in scientific, technological and academic fields. Equality Plans, which must be implemented at Spanish universities since the adoption of the Organic Law 3/2007 of 22 March for the effective equality of women and men, constitute an important, but not sufficient, step to achieve equality in this area. A key factor can be the structures and networks for the implementation of equality policies (intra- and interuniversity ones, as well as those with other agencies and institutions, which are not sufficiently developed at present. This article describes the process of institutionalization of equality policies at Spanish universities and presents an analysis of the legislation applicable to university level. Furthermore, data about equality units and their characteristics are shown. The article concludes with a reflection upon the elements that can increase the impact of university equality structures as well as the remaining challenges.

  13. Managing policy issues in the promotion of gender equality in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper is to explore ways and means through which policies could be made more impactful in the promotion of gender equality in the education. The paper is both conceptual and empirical in nature. Document study and interviewing techniques were used to collect data from the three contraveners of ...

  14. Addressing Child Marriage and Adolescent Pregnancy as Barriers to Gender Parity and Equality in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psaki, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    A girl's success in school--and after leaving school--is determined in part by the characteristics of and factors in her household and community. Many policies and programmes are based on an assumption that early marriage and adolescent pregnancy hamper continued progress toward gender equality in education. While education and age at marriage and…

  15. Essentialism Regarding Human Nature in the Defence of Gender Equality in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holma, Katariina

    2007-01-01

    In this article I consider contemporary philosophical conceptions of human nature from the point of view of the ideal of gender equality. My main argument is that an essentialist account of human nature, unlike what I take to be its two main alternatives (the subjectivist account and the cultural account), is able coherently to justify the…

  16. Gender studies and Equal Opportunity: the Interdepartmental Observatory of the university of Salerno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Tortora

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper wants to retrace the path of the Gender Studies and Equal Opportunity Observatory, founded at University of Salerno (OGEPO in 2011, and the projects realised up to now through  scientifical and cultural initiatives with an inter-disciplinary approach.

  17. Sharing the caring : State, family and gender equality in parental leave policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widener, Anmarie J.

    2006-01-01

    Parental leave policies give parents a temporary leave from employment in order to care for a child. Secondary aims are to increase women’s attachment to the labour force as well as supporting gender equal roles in paid and unpaid work. This study researched parent satisfaction of parental leave

  18. Omani Girls' Conceptions of Gender Equality: Addressing Socially Constructed Sexist Attitudes through Educational Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Sadi, Fatma H.; Basit, Tehmina N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper is based on a quasi-experimental study which examines the effects of a school-based intervention on Omani girls' attitudes towards the notion of gender equality. A questionnaire was administered before and after the intervention to 241 girls (116 in the experimental group; 125 in the control group). A semi-structured interview was…

  19. Curriculum-Making in South Africa: Promoting Gender Equality and Empowering Women (?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Shan

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (2000-2015) are clearly embedded in South Africa's education policy documents. However, they are not adequately infused into the curriculum. This article focuses specifically on the third Millennium Development Goal (MDG) - promoting gender equality and empowering women - and the need to place this…

  20. The Role of an International Higher Education Partnership to Improve Gender Equality and Empower Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Sandra Louise Clements

    2014-01-01

    This is a research case study of an International Higher Education Partnership (IHEP) between Vanguard University of Southern California (VUSC) and the University of Duhok (UoD) in the Kurdistan Region of northern Iraq funded by the British Council DelPHE-Iraq project targeting Millennial Development Goal (MDG) #3 to promote gender equality and…

  1. Gender Equality and Childbirth in a Health Facility: Nigeria and MDG5

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined how addressing gender equality can lead to reductions in maternal mortality in Nigeria through an increased use of facility delivery. Because the majority of maternal complications cannot be predicted and often arise suddenly during labor, delivery and the immediate postpartum period, childbirth in a ...

  2. Gender Equality in Media Content and Operations: Articulating Academic Studies and Policy--A Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Mirta Edith

    2016-01-01

    In this article, Mirta Lourenço explains the prospects when higher education studies interface with UNESCO for policy change. The baseline is that education institutions' articulation with media organizations, media professionals, policy-makers, and civil society groups is essential to achieve gender equality in and through media.

  3. Gender (in)equality in internet pornography: a content analysis of popular pornographic internet videos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, M.J.E.; Peter, J.

    2015-01-01

    Although Internet pornography is widely consumed and researchers have started to investigate its effects, we still know little about its content. This has resulted in contrasting claims about whether Internet pornography depicts gender (in)equality and whether this depiction differs between amateur

  4. From gender bias to gender awareness in medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonk, Petra; Benschop, Yvonne W. M.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; Lagro-Janssen, Toine L. M.

    2009-01-01

    Gender is an essential determinant of health and illness. Gender awareness in doctors contributes to equity and equality in health and aims towards better health for men and women. Nevertheless, gender has largely been ignored in medicine. First, it is stated that medicine was 'gender blind' by not

  5. Macro-level gender equality and alcohol consumption: A multi-level analysis across U.S. States

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Sarah C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Higher levels of women’s alcohol consumption have long been attributed to increases in gender equality. However, only limited research examines the relationship between gender equality and alcohol consumption. This study examined associations between five measures of state-level gender equality and five alcohol consumption measures in the United States. Survey data regarding men’s and women’s alcohol consumption from the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were linked to state-lev...

  6. Gender equality and childbirth in a health facility: Nigeria and MDG5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kavita; Bloom, Shelah; Haney, Erica; Olorunsaiye, Comfort; Brodish, Paul

    2012-09-01

    This paper examined how addressing gender equality can lead to reductions in maternal mortality in Nigeria through an increased use of facility delivery. Because the majority of maternal complications cannot be predicted and often arise suddenly during labor, delivery and the immediate postpartum period, childbirth in a health facility is key to reducing maternal mortality. This paper used data from the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) to examine associations of gender measures on the utilization of facility delivery after controlling for socio-demographic factors. Four gender equality measures were studied: household decision-making, financial decision-making, attitudes towards wife beating, and attitudes regarding a wife's ability to refuse sex. Results found older, more educated, wealthier, urban, and working women were more likely to have a facility delivery than their counterparts. In addition ethnicity was a significant variable indicating the importance of cultural and regional diversity. Notably, after controlling for the socioeconomic variables, two of the gender equality variables were significant: household decision-making and attitudes regarding a wife's ability to refuse sex. In resource-poor settings such as Nigeria, women with more decision-making autonomy are likely better able to advocate for and access a health facility for childbirth. Thus programs and policies that focus on gender in addition to focusing on education and poverty have the potential to reduce maternal mortality even further.

  7. Thinking with birds: Mary Elizabeth Barber's advocacy for gender equality in ornithology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Hammel

    Full Text Available This article explores parts of the first South African woman ornithologist's life and work. It concerns itself with the micro-politics of Mary Elizabeth Barber's knowledge of birds from the 1860s to the mid-1880s. Her work provides insight into contemporary scientific practices, particularly the importance of cross-cultural collaboration. I foreground how she cultivated a feminist Darwinism in which birds served as corroborative evidence for female selection and how she negotiated gender equality in her ornithological work. She did so by constructing local birdlife as a space of gender equality. While male ornithologists naturalised and reinvigorated Victorian gender roles in their descriptions and depictions of birds, she debunked them and stressed the absence of gendered spheres in bird life. She emphasised the female and male birds' collaboration and gender equality that she missed in Victorian matrimony, an institution she harshly criticised. Reading her work against the background of her life story shows how her personal experiences as wife and mother as well as her observation of settler society informed her view on birds, and vice versa. Through birds she presented alternative relationships to matrimony. Her protection of insectivorous birds was at the same time an attempt to stress the need for a New Woman, an aspect that has hitherto been overlooked in studies of the transnational anti-plumage movement.

  8. Recent Activities of the Physical Society of Japan for the Promotion of Gender Equality (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Atsutaka; Yonenaga, Ichiro; Tajima, Setsuko; Hiyama, Emiko; Torikai, Eiko

    2009-04-01

    We present activities of the Gender Equality Promotion Committee of the Physical Society of Japan (JPS) untaken after the Second IUPAP Women in Physics Conference, Rio de Janiero, 2005. These include: (1) summer and spring classes for high school girls, (2) symposia on the promotion of gender equality at annual JPS meetings, (3) continuous cooperation with the Japan Inter-Society Liaison Association Committee for Promoting Equal Participation of Men and Women in Science and Engineering (EPMEWSE), (4) consultation for JPS members on the Restart Postdoctoral Fellowship (RPD) program conducted by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), (5) publication of a series of articles in the JPS membership journal, and (6) presentation at international meetings such as the Asia Pacific Physics Conference 10 (APPC10). We report that these activities were successful.

  9. Gender Equality in the Interface Organisations between Science, Technology and Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja Vehviläinen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the practices of gender equality in the sector of science, technology and innovation through a qualitative empirical study of five intermediary organisations such as science parks, including interviews with women experts, collected in the Finnish subproject of the Women in Innovation, Science and Technology (WIST project. It describes work practices of science parks as future oriented knowledge work and service work, which highlights networks and the recognition of potential future partners. Intermediary work between science, technology and innovations maintains the typical gender segregation and the segregation further intertwines with the networks and the practices of recognition. Practices of gender equality found in the study cover – in addition to the public care services and the organisation level actions – practices that pay special attention to networking and recognition

  10. Measuring Gender Equality: Discussions and Insights based on an Indicators System Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Alfama

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present a reflection on research conducted to define a strategic gender equality indicators system. The system was dedicated to monitoring, in a synthetic and comprehensive way, the evolution of this phenomena in the Basque Country. Firstly, on the basis of the relevant literature on the subject, we examine the problems behind the measuring of gender inequality. Secondly, the indicators system is described: its aims, its relation with the existing equality information and evaluation tools and the main features of its elaboration. Finally, we discuss in greater detail what challenges appeared and the theoretical, conceptual and methodological decisions made. We give special attention to showing how we intended to grasp, with indicators, a feminist, broad, political, transformative and context-oriented concept of gender (inequality.

  11. Improving models of democracy: the example of lagged effects of economic development, education, and gender equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaev, Mikhail

    2014-07-01

    The author examines how time delayed effects of economic development, education, and gender equality influence political democracy. Literature review shows inadequate understanding of lagged effects, which raises methodological and theoretical issues with the current quantitative studies of democracy. Using country-years as a unit of analysis, the author estimates a series of OLS PCSE models for each predictor with a systematic analysis of the distributions of the lagged effects. The second set of multiple OLS PCSE regressions are estimated including all three independent variables. The results show that economic development, education, and gender have three unique trajectories of the time-delayed effects: Economic development has long-term effects, education produces continuous effects regardless of the timing, and gender equality has the most prominent immediate and short term effects. The results call for the reassessment of model specifications and theoretical setups in the quantitative studies of democracy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of health sector gender equality and social inclusion strategy 2009 of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahara, G B; Dhital, S R

    2014-01-01

    The policy on gender equality and social inclusion (GESI) in health sector of Nepal is formulated in 2009 targeting toward poor, vulnerable, marginalized social and ethnic groups. Gender inequality and social discrimination are a social problem that affect on individual health finally. The main objective of this paper is to critically analysis and evaluates the Government's strategy on health sector gender equality and social inclusion in Nepal. We collected published and unpublished information assessing the public health, policy analysis and research needs from different sources. A different policy approaches for the analysis and evaluation of GESI strategies is applied in this paper. Universal education, community participation, individual, group and mass communication approaches, and social capital are the key aspects of effective implementation of policy at target levels.

  13. Equality and gender amongst young Basque people: A crossroads of continuities, conflicts and ruptures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Luz Esteban Galarza

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research we present in this article is to offer a general overview of the situation in the Basque Country concerning gender equality/inequality among young people. This paper is based on qualitative research conducted with young Basque people (15-30 years old. In the first part, a portrait of the young Basque population is presented with regard to formal equality and changes occurring in Spanish and Basque society over the last three decades, as well as a brief review of youth studies focusing on gender analysis. In the second part, the main results of this research are outlined, following three main lines of enquiry in relation to the maintenance or transformation of asymmetrical gender models: continuities, conflicts and ruptures.

  14. Gender (In)equality in Internet Pornography: A Content Analysis of Popular Pornographic Internet Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Marleen J E; Peter, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Although Internet pornography is widely consumed and researchers have started to investigate its effects, we still know little about its content. This has resulted in contrasting claims about whether Internet pornography depicts gender (in)equality and whether this depiction differs between amateur and professional pornography. We conducted a content analysis of three main dimensions of gender (in)equality (i.e., objectification, power, and violence) in 400 popular pornographic Internet videos from the most visited pornographic Web sites. Objectification was depicted more often for women through instrumentality, but men were more frequently objectified through dehumanization. Regarding power, men and women did not differ in social or professional status, but men were more often shown as dominant and women as submissive during sexual activities. Except for spanking and gagging, violence occurred rather infrequently. Nonconsensual sex was also relatively rare. Overall, amateur pornography contained more gender inequality at the expense of women than professional pornography did.

  15. Gender equality and smoking: a theory-driven approach to smoking gender differences in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Usama; Beltrán, Paula; Fernández, Esteve; Navas-Acien, Ana; Bolumar, Francisco; Franco, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    The intersection between gender and class can aid in understanding gender differences in smoking. To analyse how changes in gender inequality relate to differences in smoking prevalence by gender, education and birth cohort in Spain over the past five decades (1960-2010). The Gender Inequality Index (GII) was calculated in 5-year intervals from 1960 to 2010. GII ranges from 0 to 1 (1=highest inequality) and encompasses three dimensions: reproductive health, empowerment and labour market. Estimates of female and male smoking prevalence were reconstructed from representative National Health Surveys and stratified by birth cohort and level of education. We calculated female-to-male smoking ratios from 1960 to 2010 stratified by education and birth cohort. Gender inequality in Spain decreased from 0.65 to 0.09 over the past 50 years. This rapid decline was inversely correlated (r=-0.99) to a rising female-to-male smoking ratio. The youngest birth cohort of the study (born 1980-1990) and women with high education levels had similar smoking prevalences compared with men. Women with high levels of education were also the first to show a reduction in smoking prevalence, compared with less educated women. Gender inequality fell significantly in Spain over the past 50 years. This process was accompanied by converging trends in smoking prevalence for men and women. Smoking prevalence patterns varied greatly by birth cohort and education levels. Countries in earlier stages of the tobacco epidemic should consider gender-sensitive tobacco control measures and policies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Gender equality in India hit by illiteracy, child marriages and violence: a hurdle for sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmapurkar, Kishor Parashramji

    2017-01-01

    Gender equality is fundamental to accelerate sustainable development. It is necessary to conduct gender analyses to identify sex and gender-based differences in health risks. This study aimed to find the gender equality in terms of illiteracy, child marriages and spousal violence among women based on data from National Family Health Survey 2015-16 (NFHS-4). This was a descriptive analysis of secondary data of ever-married women onto reproductive age from 15 states and 3 UTs in India of the first phase of NFHS-4. Gender gap related to literacy and child marriage among urban and rural area was compared. In rural area all states except Meghalaya and Sikkim had the significantly higher percentage of women's illiteracy as compared to male. Bihar and Madhya Pradesh had higher illiterate women, 53.7% and 48.6% as compared to male, 24.7% and 21.5% respectively (P gender gap between illiteracy with women more affected in rural areas with higher prevalence of child marriages and poor utilization of maternal health services. Also, violence against women is showing an upward trend with declining sex-ratio at birth.

  17. SFB 754 - Enhancing Gender Equality within a large interdisciplinary project: the example of the SFB 754

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamm, Ruth; Schelten, Christiane K.

    2016-04-01

    This poster is linked to the oral presentation by Dr. Christiane K. Schelten. One requirement of a successful application for funding under the DFGs Collaborative Research Centres (SFBs) programme is to integrate a strategy to increase the number of female principal investigators and to support younger women scientists in pursuing their academic career. The DGF provides a lump sum of 30.000 € per year for measures to promote women scientists, to raise awareness for gender imbalances and to create a family friendly working environment. The SFB 754 'Climate - Biogeochemistry Interactions in the Tropical Ocean' based at Kiel University and the GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research developed an innovative strategy to develop and implement new measures for more gender equality within the SFB 754 by building on existing expertise and structures. Together with the Cluster of Excellence 'The Future Ocean' (funded within the German Excellence Initiative), the SFB 754 finances the position of a coordinator for gender measures based at Kiel University's Central Office for Gender Equality, Diversity & Family. Due to this close cooperation of SFB 754 coordination and the university's gender office a successful framework for the SFB 754 gender equality activities has been developed. Measures taken are both integrated into the overall activities of the university, and tailored to the needs of women scientists in marine sciences in general, in the SFB 754 in particular. One outcome of this successful cooperation is, for example, the via:mento_ocean programme, the marine science focused line of the university's mentoring programme via:mento for female postdocs. But the SFB 754 also offers internal workshops and plenary presentations to raise gender awareness within the whole SFB 754 community and trainings to its female doctoral students and postdocs such as a very successful 'assertiveness and self-defence training'.

  18. Can a Gender Equity and Family Planning Intervention for Men Change Their Gender Ideology? Results from the CHARM Intervention in Rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Paul J; Silverman, Jay; Ghule, Mohan; Ritter, Julie; Battala, Madhusudana; Velhal, Gajanan; Nair, Saritha; Dasgupta, Anindita; Donta, Balaiah; Saggurti, Niranjan; Raj, Anita

    2018-03-01

    We assess the effect of CHARM, a gender equity and family planning counseling intervention for husbands in rural India, on men's gender ideology. We used a two-armed cluster randomized control trial design and collected survey data from husbands (n=1081) at baseline, 9 months, and 18 months. We used a continuous measure of support for gender equity and a dichotomous measure of equitable attitudes toward women's role in household decision-making. To assess differences on these outcomes, we used generalized linear mixed models. After controlling for socio-demographic factors, men who received the CHARM intervention were significantly more likely than men in the control group to have equitable attitudes toward household decision-making at 9-months follow-up; there was a non-significant difference between the groups for the measure of support for gender equity. For household decision-making, differences were not sustained at 18-months follow-up. Given the role of husbands' gender ideology in women's contraceptive use, the CHARM intervention represents a promising approach for challenging root causes of women's unmet need for contraception. © 2018 The Population Council, Inc.

  19. Pathways of equality through education: impact of gender (in)equality and maternal education on exclusive breastfeeding among natives and migrants in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlinden, Karen; Van de Putte, Bart

    2017-04-01

    Even though breastfeeding is typically considered the preferred feeding method for infants worldwide, in Belgium, breastfeeding rates remain low across native and migrant groups while the underlying determinants are unclear. Furthermore, research examining contextual effects, especially regarding gender (in)equality and ideology, has not been conducted. We hypothesized that greater gender equality scores in the country of origin will result in higher breastfeeding chances. Because gender equality does not operate only at the contextual level but can be mediated through individual level resources, we hypothesized the following for maternal education: higher maternal education will be an important positive predictor for exclusive breastfeeding chances in Belgium, but its effects will differ over subsequent origin countries. Based on IKAROS data (GeÏntegreerd Kind Activiteiten en Regio Ondersteunings Systeem), we perform multilevel analyses on 27 936 newborns. Feeding method is indicated by exclusive breastfeeding 3 months after childbirth. We measure gender (in)equality using Global Gender Gap scores from the mother's origin country. Maternal education is a metric variable based on International Standard Classification of Education indicators. Results show that 3.6% of the variation in breastfeeding can be explained by differences between the migrant mother's country of origin. However, the effect of gender (in)equality appears to be non-significant. After adding maternal education, the effect for origin countries scoring low on gender equality turns significant. Maternal education on its own shows strong positive association with exclusive breastfeeding and, furthermore, has different effects for different origin countries. Possible explanations are discussed in-depth setting direction for further research regarding the different pathways gender (in)equality and maternal education affect breastfeeding. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons

  20. Gender equity and health: evaluating the impact of Millennium Development Goal Three on women's health in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Geordan D; Im, Dana D; Katzelnick, Leah; Franco, Oscar H

    2013-01-01

    Researchers evaluated the progress of Millennium Development Goal Three, which promotes gender equity and empowering women, by assessing the targets for education, employment, and government, and their relation to women's health in South Asia. Researchers obtained data from the United Nations, Inter-Parliamentary Union, International Labor Organization, World Bank, and World Health Organization. First, they performed a literature review including manuscripts that quantified a Millenium Development Goal Three outcome in South Asia and were published after 1991. They derived women's health outcomes from World Health Organization databases. Spearman's rank test was used to evaluate the relationship between change in gender parity and change in women's health outcomes. South Asia's average primary education Gender Parity Index (defined as the ratio of girls to boys enrolled in primary, secondary, and tertiary education and expressed as a value between 0 and 1.0) improved from 0.73 (SD 0.34) to 0.92 (SD 0.13) between 2000 and 2008. Secondary and tertiary education had a lower Gender Parity Index (average 2008 Gender Parity Index 0.87 (SD 0.21) and 0.59 (SD 0.23), respectively), but had also improved from 2000 (average Gender Parity Index = 0.77, SD 0.38) to 2008 (average Gender Parity Index = 0.52, SD 0.11). An average proportion of 22.1% (SD 12.58) of women participated in waged, non-agricultural employment and 16.6% (SD 10.3) in national parliaments. No clear association was found between change in gender equity and women's health in South Asia between 2000 and 2008. Some progress has been made toward gender equity in South Asia, although the results have been mixed and inequities persist, especially in employment and government. While gender equity does not appear to have been related to female health outcomes, both must be addressed simultaneously as priority development targets and remain prerequisites to achieving the overall Millennium Development Goals

  1. EQUAL TREATMENT AND NON DISCRIMINATION ON GENDER CRITERIUM IN ROMANIAN LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TOFAN Mihaela

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There have been important changes in Romanian legal framework in the past two decades. Concepts as liberty, equality and equity evolved from declarative level to effective values applied into reality. Romanian Constitution, adopted in 1991 and considerably reviewed in 2003, started the process of adapting the Romanian legal framework to the European law. Fundamental principles, such as liberty, equal treatment and equality between all individuals have been ruled and are in force, as they are included in the constitutional texts. In order to confer stronger guaranties for respecting these principles, there have been adopted laws, ordinances and regulations. Although the separation of the power is ruled on constitutional level, the Romanian govern has the power to adopt ordinances, when the parliament is not able to act. This power is not used properly, the process of ruling through ordinances being the prior method and not the exception, as it should be. So, the equal treatment and the non-discrimination principles are insured by ordinance, many of the aspects being criticized. The constant, systematic and concentrated promotion of the equal opportunity principle for men and women, as it is known today, represents a relatively new worry for the international community, even though legal aspects about equality between men and women have been evoked ever since 1948 in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. In the European Union, the preoccupation for the promotion of the equal opportunity and treatment for men and women was officially recognized as a necessity starting with the European Treaty from Maastricht (1993, and subsidiary through the adopted Directives for this purpose and not least through the jurisprudence of Luxembourg’s Court of Law. On institutional level, there have been founded some private and also public bodies to carry out the mission of protecting the equal treatment and non-discrimination principles. An important role is

  2. Gender Equality in Public Higher Education Institutions of Ethiopia: The Case of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egne, Robsan Margo

    2014-01-01

    Ensuring gender equality in higher education system is high on the agenda worldwide particularly in science disciplines. This study explores the problems and prospects of gender equality in public higher education institutions of Ethiopia, especially in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Descriptive survey and analytical research…

  3. Workplace violence and gender discrimination in Rwanda's health workforce: Increasing safety and gender equality

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, Constance J; de Vries, Daniel H; d'Arc Kanakuze, Jeanne; Ngendahimana, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Workplace violence has been documented in all sectors, but female-dominated sectors such as health and social services are at particular risk. In 2007-2008, IntraHealth International assisted the Rwanda Ministries of Public Service and Labor and Health to study workplace violence in Rwanda's health sector. This article reexamines a set of study findings that directly relate to the influence of gender on workplace violence, synthesizes these findings with other research fro...

  4. The Gender-Equality Paradox in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoet, Gijsbert; Geary, David C

    2018-04-01

    The underrepresentation of girls and women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields is a continual concern for social scientists and policymakers. Using an international database on adolescent achievement in science, mathematics, and reading ( N = 472,242), we showed that girls performed similarly to or better than boys in science in two of every three countries, and in nearly all countries, more girls appeared capable of college-level STEM study than had enrolled. Paradoxically, the sex differences in the magnitude of relative academic strengths and pursuit of STEM degrees rose with increases in national gender equality. The gap between boys' science achievement and girls' reading achievement relative to their mean academic performance was near universal. These sex differences in academic strengths and attitudes toward science correlated with the STEM graduation gap. A mediation analysis suggested that life-quality pressures in less gender-equal countries promote girls' and women's engagement with STEM subjects.

  5. Gender equity and sexual and reproductive health in Eastern and Southern Africa: a critical overview of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor E. MacPherson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gender inequalities are important social determinants of health. We set out to critically review the literature relating to gender equity and sexual and reproductive health (SRH in Eastern and Southern Africa with the aim of identifying priorities for action. Design: During November 2011, we identified studies relating to SRH and gender equity through a comprehensive literature search. Results: We found gender inequalities to be common across a range of health issues relating to SRH with women being particularly disadvantaged. Social and biological determinants combined to increase women's vulnerability to maternal mortality, HIV, and gender-based violence. Health systems significantly disadvantaged women in terms of access to care. Men fared worse in relation to HIV testing and care with social norms leading to men presenting later for treatment. Conclusions: Gender inequity in SRH requires multiple complementary approaches to address the structural drivers of unequal health outcomes. These could include interventions that alter the structural environment in which ill-health is created. Interventions are required both within and beyond the health system.

  6. Should governments in Europe be more aggressive in pushing for gender equality to raise fertility? The second "NO"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Neyer

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues against the suggestion that governments should push for gender equality more aggressively in order to raise fertility. The paper presents a threefold "no" to this proposal. It takes issue with the goal of raising fertility, arguing that the claims that fertility must be increased are based on myths. It rejects a more aggressive pursuit of gender equality for demographic purposes, maintaining that this method preserves inequality. It warns against using gender equality for fertility purposes, stating that this narrows the realm of gender equality. The paper is based on a debate held at the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research in Rostock, at which the author was asked to argue against the gender equality-fertility proposal. The other participants in the debate were Laurent Toulemon ("yes", Dimiter Philipov ("no", and Livia Oláh ("yes".

  7. Conflicts and Negotiations about framings of gender equality and diversity by political actors within the European public sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    2014-01-01

    that the European Union (EU) approach to gender equality has strengthened the transnational space of mobilization and given actors new possibilities to negotiate about multiple inequalities and direct their claims at different levels. This has at the same time led to a diversification of women’s claims......This article addresses conflicts and negotiations about gender equality and diversity within the European public sphere (EPS). It aims to explore the specific constraints and possibilities for realizing gender equality and justice from the transnational European context. Research illustrates...... and conflicts about the meanings and framings of gender equality and diversity within the EPS. This is illustrated by case studies of the framing of gender equality and ethno-national diversity by political actors in the European Women’s Lobby and the European Parliament. The article proposes...

  8. Land administration, gender equality and development cooperation: Lessons learned and challenges ahead

    OpenAIRE

    Spichiger, Rachel; Brandt Broegaard, Rikke; Pedersen, Rasmus Hundsbæk; Munk Ravnborg, Helle

    2013-01-01

    Most land reforms seek to enhance tenure security, encourage investments and thus promote economic growth. In addition, recent land reforms increasingly also attempt to secure women's and other vulnerable groups' access to land. This DIIS Report examines the role of development cooperation in land reforms and the extent to which donor organisations have addressed concerns related to gender equality. The report reviews the reforms in fifteen countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and A...

  9. Business ethics and gender equality: the basis for a new leadership model

    OpenAIRE

    Medina-Vicent, Maria

    2014-01-01

    STRATEGICA, International Academic Conference, Bucharest, October 2-3, 2014 Business Ethics remains necessary in a globalized world. Companies need to listen to their stakeholders and identify their needs. As social institutions, companies should display moral behavior because society expects good actions of them. As a result, they need to integrate social and environmental problems into their day-today work because that is their responsibility. Consequently, gender equality ha...

  10. European gender equality under and after State Socialism: legal treatment of prostitution in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The thesis looks at the legal responses to prostitution in Czechoslovakia and the Czech Republic under State Socialism and in Transition, and the understanding of gender equality therein. It argues that both, the legal regimes and the understandings of prostitution, varied between these periods. Under State Socialism, professional prostitutes were criminally liable under provisions on parasitism. In Transition, the ‘boom’ of prostitution after 1989 lead to the adoption of containment provi...

  11. Activities for the Promotion of Gender Equality in Japan—Physical Society of Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Akane; Tanida, Kiyoshi; Torikai, Eiko

    2005-10-01

    The Gender Equality Promotion Committee of the Physical Society of Japan (JPS) was established as a result of the First International IUPAP Conference on Women in Physics (Paris, 2002). It is a gender-balanced team of 12 full members and a group of net-commentators. The former chairperson of the committee, Masako Bando, was selected to be the president of JPS between September 2006 and August 2007. Based on the survey on the present status of the gender equality and the research environment of the JPS members in 2001, JPS advanced two recommendations to the governmental authorities, academic institutes, and organizations: for flexible childcare supports and for improved research granting systems for post-doctoral fellows and part-time researchers in August 2003. Now these activities have become nationwide with the establishment in October 2002 of the Japan Inter-Society Liaison Association Committee for Promoting Equal Participation of Men and Women in Science and Engineering (EPMEWSE). It has 44 member societies, including 19 observers, from various academic fields. An extended survey was carried out by EPMEWSE in November 2003; 20,000 respondents revealed diverse visions of scientists and engineers. These activities effectively help foster public understanding and awareness of the state of women in physics, especially among policy-making authorities. In 2005 the Cabinet is drawing up two Basic Plans for 2006-2010: the Science and Technology Basic Plan for the third term and the Basic Plan for the Gender-Equal Society for the second term. To attract girls into science and engineering, JPS is organizing the Girls Science Summer School to be held in August 2005 in collaboration with the National Women Education Center and EPMEWSE.

  12. Recent activities for the promotion of gender equality in the societies of physics in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, H.; Sasao, M.; Nemoto, K.; Tamechika, E.; Watanabe, M. O.

    2015-12-01

    Although the percentage of women members increases from 2% to 6% in the last 30 years, the ratio is still low in both the Physical Society of Japan and the Japan Society of Applied Physics. Recent activities for the promotion of gender equality in both societies, the development of the next generation of members, organizing international workshops and domestic symposiums, and so on, are introduced in this paper.

  13. Guide to Local Planning for Communities Affected by Migration, Based on Human Rights and Gender Equality

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilache, Ana; Bunyan, Diane; Tejada Guerrero, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    The Mainstreaming Migration into Local Development project (MiDL) was launched in 2015 by UNDP Moldova in collaboration with the State Chancellery of the Government of Moldova, with financial support from the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), aimed at complementing the human rights-based and gender equality perspectives of the Joint Integrated Local Development Programme (JILDP) with the integration of the migration component. With this, UNDP proposes an initiative aimed at ...

  14. Global rights, local realities: negotiating gender equality and sexual rights in the Caprivi Region, Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Felicity

    2007-01-01

    Gender inequalities are frequently cited as a major reason for high HIV-prevalence rates in southern Africa. While steps have been taken to promote and pass legislation that upholds equal rights for women, this paper examines the ways in which discourses of gender equality and ensuing sexual rights can have complex, contradictory and even adverse implications when they are mobilised, resisted and reinterpreted at local level. Drawing upon research undertaken in the Caprivi Region of Namibia, this paper examines this ways in which men and women respond to ideas about gender equality, and seeks to place these responses within the wider context of socioeconomic change and understandings of morality prevalent within the region. The tendency of many young women to seek out relationships with older men and the increasing costs of bride-wealth payments play a key role in reinforcing patriarchal attitudes and fuelling disrespect for women's rights both before and within marriage. In addition, a failure to adhere to customary norms, which uphold men's dominant role, continues to threaten the support networks and assets available to women. The consequences of this situation are examined with particular focus on implications for the future transmission of HIV.

  15. Gender Equality in Death? The Normative Dimension of Roman Catholic Ossuaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Katharina Höpflinger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Gender seems to be so important for social orientation that it does not end with death, but forms practices and ideas around death. In Roman Catholic regions across Europe we find charnel houses and ossuaries, where the bones of the deceased have been collected. The exposed mortal remains reminded the living of death and warned them to live a ‘good’ life. To explain the interrelation between such normative demands and the material representation of death, a gender-based perspective is useful: in their material representations, ossuaries offer gendered ideas of death. For example we find murals of masculine and feminine personifications of death as the Reaper. But ossuaries also posit the ungendered equality of all humans in death: girls, boys, women and men are nothing more than bones, arranged side by side. I argue that ossuaries can be understood as in-between spaces for gender concepts: they support a gendered social order, but they also blur gender differences.

  16. Women Physicists in the European Union : how Brussels is moving toward gender equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancheri, Giulia

    2008-04-01

    The policies of the European Union towards gender equality in science occupation will be discussed along three aspects: 1. Current statistics recently published by the EU will be illustrated with some comparison with similar US statistics. The latest recommendations of the Helsinki group will be presented, together with the conclusions of the Women in Science meetings organized by the EU. 2. The implementation of these recommendations will be illustrated by this speaker's experience both as independent expert for Physics Research Programs for the European Commission for the last 10 years, as well as from the point of view of having been European Coordinator of three Research Networks in Theoretical Physics from 1992 until 2006: the impact of this on young women students will be described. 3. National policies enforced through the Equal Opportunity Committees will be illustrated, with the specific case of the Affirmative Actions of Italian INFN Equal Opportunity Committe and their impact on hiring and promotion of women physicists.

  17. Report of Case Studies on Gender Equality as a Focus Point of National and Nativist Discourses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Krizsán, Andrea; Gruziel, Dominika

    citizen, i.e. based on gender and ethnicity, as well between citizens and non-citizens. During the last 20 years processes of globalization, European integration and immigration have increased inequalities within the nation state as well as inequalities between nationals for example between European...... Cosmopolitanism, Oxford: Oxford University Press.Fraser, N. (2013). Fortunes of Feminism: From State-Managed Capitalism to Neoliberal Crisis, London: VersoKymlicka, Will (1995). Multicultural Citizenship. A Liberal Theory of Minority Rights, Oxford, Oxford University Press.Lombardo, E., P. Meier & M. Verloo (eds.......) (2009). The Discursive Politics of Gender Equality, London: Routledge.Marshall, T.H. (1950). Citizenship and Social Class and other essays, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Siim, B. (2013). “Citizenship”, essay 30. In: K. Celis, V. Waylen (eds.). Handbook on Gender and Politics, Oxford: Oxford...

  18. Incorporating gender, equity, and human rights into the action planning process: moving from rhetoric to action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Sridharan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mainstreaming of gender, equity, and human rights (GER is an important focus of the World Health Organization (WHO and other UN organizations. This paper explores the role of action plans in mainstreaming GER. This paper is informed by a theory-driven evaluation lens. Design: A theory of change framework explored the following seven dimensions of how action plans can implement mainstreaming of GER: awareness of the foundations of GER; understanding of context; planning to impact GER; implementation for GER; monitoring, evaluation, and learning; planning for sustainability; agenda setting and buy-in. The seven dimensions were used to analyze the action plans. Reviewers also explored innovations within each of the action plans for the seven dimensions. Results: GER mainstreaming is more prominent in the foundation, background, and planning components of the plan but becomes less so along the theory of change including implementation; monitoring and evaluation; sustainability; and agenda setting and buy-in. Conclusions: Our analysis demonstrates that much more can be done to incorporate GER considerations into the action planning process. Nine specific recommendations are identified for WHO and other organizations. A theory-driven approach as described in the paper is potentially helpful for developing clarity by which action plans can help with mainstreaming GER considerations.

  19. Incorporating gender, equity, and human rights into the action planning process: moving from rhetoric to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Sanjeev; Maplazi, Joanna; Shirodkar, Apurva; Richardson, Emma; Nakaima, April

    2016-01-01

    Mainstreaming of gender, equity, and human rights (GER) is an important focus of the World Health Organization (WHO) and other UN organizations. This paper explores the role of action plans in mainstreaming GER. This paper is informed by a theory-driven evaluation lens. A theory of change framework explored the following seven dimensions of how action plans can implement mainstreaming of GER: awareness of the foundations of GER; understanding of context; planning to impact GER; implementation for GER; monitoring, evaluation, and learning; planning for sustainability; agenda setting and buy-in. The seven dimensions were used to analyze the action plans. Reviewers also explored innovations within each of the action plans for the seven dimensions. GER mainstreaming is more prominent in the foundation, background, and planning components of the plan but becomes less so along the theory of change including implementation; monitoring and evaluation; sustainability; and agenda setting and buy-in. Our analysis demonstrates that much more can be done to incorporate GER considerations into the action planning process. Nine specific recommendations are identified for WHO and other organizations. A theory-driven approach as described in the paper is potentially helpful for developing clarity by which action plans can help with mainstreaming GER considerations.

  20. Gender equity in STEM: The role of dual enrollment science courses in selecting a college major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persons, Christopher Andrew

    A disproportionately low number of women, despite rigorous high school preparation and evidenced interest in STEM through voluntary participation in additional coursework, declare a STEM-related college major. The result of this drop in participation in STEM-related college majors is a job market flooded with men and the support of an incorrect stereotype: STEM is for men. This research seeks to assess the effects, if any, that Dual Enrollment (DE) science courses have on students' self-identified intent to declare a STEM-related college major as well as the respective perceptions of both male and female students. Self-Determination Theory and Gender Equity Framework were used respectively as the theoretical frames. High school students from six schools in two district participated in an online survey and focus groups in this mixed methods study. The results of the research identified the role the DE course played in their choice of college major, possible interventions to correct the underrepresentation, and societal causes for the stereotype.

  1. Role of civil society, people's participation and gender equity in food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G W

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the views of an Australian demographer on the role of civil society, community participation, and gender equity in food security as a chief conference discussant. Professor Jones stated that sufficient food supplies did not assure equitable food accessibility. Food insecurity was greatest among poor and marginalized groups. Access to food was limited by limited purchasing power of populations, uneven income distribution, and inadequate storage and transportation systems. Food security was tied to the degree of political participation of a population in processes and plans that affected their lives. Cohesiveness of a society was related to the vulnerability of the poor during times of food scarcity. The greatest threats to socioeconomic development and to food security were from civil disorder or unrest. Governments are becoming aware of women's role in food production. This role in the past was obscured by data that were not aggregated by sex and that understated the importance of women's role. Women's invisible role in food production resulted in women's exclusion from cultural extension programs, credit schemes, and knowledge about improved technology. Women's participation in credit programs was linked with women's general level of empowerment and community participation. Research findings indicate that increases in women's status were associated with more even access to educational opportunities for women. Increased educational level was associated with improved family nutrition, higher economic productivity, and lower fertility, and consequently, better food security.

  2. Securing Gender Equality through a Nexus of Energy Policy Performance and Relative Political Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins-Ozuagiemhe, Andrea Christen

    This dissertation presents what is believed to be the first empirical study that measures the effect of increasing access to modern household energy sources upon advancing gender equality within developing countries. As a powerful and fundamental public infrastructural socio-economic building block, improved access to modern energy in developing countries delivers the necessary economic ingredient of time as a major component of household production and consumption and captures the interdependence between market and household economies. Thus, because it has been empirically proven that men and women differ in their utilization of household energy with women spending more time engaged in non-market household labor than men, improving access to modern household energy in developing countries, especially in rural areas, theoretically would disproportionately affect women's lives. Essentially, the element of "time" not only extends the day for women to use towards more economically and educationally productive activities, but also lessens the burden of domestic chores from women with technological advancements in more time-efficient household appliances and cleaner modern energy sources. This dissertation introduces gender differentiation in a model in the form of a gender relative status composite measure comparing socio-economic achievements in secondary education, life expectancy, and labor force participation rates by varying degree of demographic transition, thereby, measuring the effect of improved access to modern household energy upon overall gender equality. Fixed effects panel regressions employing a Driscoll-Kraay non-parametric covariance matrix, and estimated and interpreted adjusted predictions and marginal effects of the two-way interaction between a country's available access to residential electric power (kWh per capita) and the level of relative political performance against predicted values of gender relative status are employed. The models confirm

  3. Macro-level gender equality and alcohol consumption: a multi-level analysis across U.S. States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah C M

    2012-07-01

    Higher levels of women's alcohol consumption have long been attributed to increases in gender equality. However, only limited research examines the relationship between gender equality and alcohol consumption. This study examined associations between five measures of state-level gender equality and five alcohol consumption measures in the United States. Survey data regarding men's and women's alcohol consumption from the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were linked to state-level indicators of gender equality. Gender equality indicators included state-level women's socioeconomic status, gender equality in socioeconomic status, reproductive rights, policies relating to violence against women, and women's political participation. Alcohol consumption measures included past 30-day drinker status, drinking frequency, binge drinking, volume, and risky drinking. Other than drinker status, consumption is measured for drinkers only. Multi-level linear and logistic regression models adjusted for individual demographics as well as state-level income inequality, median income, and % Evangelical Protestant/Mormon. All gender equality indicators were positively associated with both women's and men's drinker status in models adjusting only for individual-level covariates; associations were not significant in models adjusting for other state-level characteristics. All other associations between gender equality and alcohol consumption were either negative or non-significant for both women and men in models adjusting for other state-level factors. Findings do not support the hypothesis that higher levels of gender equality are associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption by women or by men. In fact, most significant findings suggest that higher levels of equality are associated with less alcohol consumption overall. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. LET WOMEN OUT AND MEN IN. THE SWEDISH GENDER EQUALITY POLITICS ON LABOUR MARKET AND IN FAMILIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Szymoniak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze the Swedish gender equality politics and its influence on the gender equality on the Swedish labour market and within families in period between 1970s and 2000s. Problems such as wage differentials, occupational sex segregation and unequal distribution of paid and unpaid work between the sexes were faced from the beginning of the 20th century up to 1960s. In order to address those issues gender equality politics was launched in 1970s including enacting of the law on separate taxation and law on gender equality. Moreover, a special family politics was launched encouraging men and women to divide childcare and housework equally. On one hand Swedish gender equality politics contributed to the growth of women’s participation in labour market, to minimize wage differentials and it also made sex distribution between the occupations and at the leading positions in companies and institutions more equal. Moreover, this politics led to more equal distribution of unpaid work between men and women at home. On the other hand it must be pointed out that none of these problems has been completely solved. Women’s wages are still generally lower than men’s and women and men tend to work in different sectors. Women still take greater part of parental leave and tend to do the bigger part of unpaid work. Although a significant change in the level of gender equality has been made since 1960s, which can be considered a success of the Swedish gender equality politics, there is still much that needs to be done in order to achieve gender equality both on labour market and in families.

  5. THE USE OF DIGITAL CINEMA IN THE PROMOTION OF GENDER EQUALITY IN SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Carvalho Azevedo Mello

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to present the use of digital cinema to discuss diversity and gender inequality in society, based on debates among high school students. As a result of an extension project of the Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE, titled Cine debate: gender and race equality in school, the action consisted of films exhibition on gender among students of a known state public school called Professor Cândido Duarte. Two criteria were adopted for the selection of the cinematography: Brazilian short films that covered the project themes, such as gender differences (in their diverse thematic lines. After the broadcast of the films, the debate was encouraged among the students. Finally, it was requested the evaluation of these films from a questionnaire with open and closed questions (RICHARDSON, 1999 that asked about the cinematographic work and its relation with the daily life. In addition to that, it was requested some basic information, such as name, age, sex, color, religion and school series. The analysis of the questionnaires pointed out the relevance of the digital cinema as a communication tool that can be used to reflect on gender and work condition between men and women in society and family, increasing the learning and encouraging the debate.

  6. A Review Of The History Of Gender Equality In The United States Of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wedad Andrada Quffa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gender inequality is one of the important challenges in all modern societies, the United States of America being no exception, despite the progress and significant advances that have been made in the past century. There still is a significant gender gap in many areas - most notable being the pay gap, social norms and practices, education, political participation and social institutions. The present article aims to analyse the legal framework and social framework that has evolved in the United States of America in order to diminish or completely abolish gender inequality and discrimination. After the 1920 ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States of America, which empowered women with political rights, there was a proposed amendment to the Constitution to guarantee equal rights for women, first introduced in Congress in 1923, passed by both houses in 1972, but which failed ratification - only 35 out of the 38 states needed ratified the amendment before the deadline - 1979, which later was extended to 1982. The United States has since taken some steps in reducing the gender gap and stopping gender discrimination

  7. [The present status and attempts toward the achievement of gender equality in the JAA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senba, Emiko

    2013-09-01

    The proportion of female members in The Japanese Association of Anatomists (JAA) is 18% with the proportion of female members higher among the young generation (20-30 Y.O.; 34.8%, 30-40 Y.O.; 26.8%). However, the number of female members in the Board of Directors has been zero or one (0 or 6%) for many years. More than two female members are necessary on the Board to promote the diversity in the management of the JAA. The numbers of female members in other committees has shown gradual increase in recent years. A substantial increase in female faculty members including professors in each university and school will support the future development of the anatomical research field and the association. We have made the first great step by setting up the committee on promotion of gender equality in JAA in March, 2011. In the next year, JAA became a member of Japan Inter-Society Liaison Association Committee for Promoting Equal Participation of Men and Women in Science and Engineering (EPMEWSE). Our committee's activity includes holding workshops and seminars at the annual meetings to promote gender equality in the research field and to encourage mutual support and friendship, not only among women members but also among all members.

  8. Sex And Gender Equity in Research (SAGER): reporting guidelines as a framework of innovation for an equitable approach to gender medicine. Commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Castro, Paola; Heidari, Shirin; Babor, Thomas F

    2016-01-01

    Sex and gender are important determinants of health and influence research findings in a variety of ways, yet they are often overlooked and underreported. This oversight limits the generalizability of research findings and their applicability to clinical practice. The objective of this paper is to point out how journal editors can influence better reporting of sex and gender in research by establishing a methodological framework directly addressing authors of scientific publications, as well as referees, and indirectly affecting all the stakeholders in the research cycle, from funders to policy-makers and citizens. Such a framework is represented by the Sex And Gender Equity in Research (SAGER) guidelines, developed by the European Association of Science Editors (EASE) to encourage a more systematic approach to the reporting of sex and gender in research across disciplines. The paper includes the rationale and basic principles of the SAGER guidelines.

  9. EXPERIENCE VERSUS AUTHORITY: THE SEARCH FOR GENDER EQUALITY IN CHAUCER'S "THE WIFE OF BATH'S PROLOGUE AND TALE"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setefanus Suprayitno

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years much interest has been put on gender equality. There has been a changing perception of the attitudes which emerges and shapes women's role in society and relationships. Formerly, social ideas and customs dictated women to be subservient. But now the changing social structure gives women space to pursue gender equality. Geoffrey Chaucer (ca. 1343-1400 had addressed this issue in his work, "The Wife of Bath's Prologue and Tale." This paper discusses how Alisoun, the wife Bath, through her prologue and tale, shows the contradiction of the oppressive traditions and customs imposed on women and attempts to present the idea of gender equality.

  10. Evolutionary psychology is compatible with equity feminism, but not with gender feminism: a reply to Eagly and Wood (2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhle, Barry X

    2012-01-11

    I comment on Eagly and Wood's biosocial constructionist evolutionary theory (2011; DOI: 10.1007/s11199-011-9949-9). Although this gender feminist theory allows for evolved physical differences between men and women and evolved psychological similarities for men and women, it fails to consider evolutionary accounts of psychological sex differences. I hypothesize that gender feminists' reluctance to acknowledge that evolution has left different fingerprints on men's and women's bodies and brains stems from two common misunderstandings of evolutionary psychology: the myth of immutability and the naturalistic fallacy. I conclude that although evolutionary psychology is eminently compatible with equity feminism, evolutionary psychology and feminist psychology will conflict as long as the latter adheres to gender feminism and its unwillingness to acknowledge the evidence for evolved psychological sex differences.  Gender feminism's dualistic view of evolution hinders the search for and understanding of the proximate and ultimate causes of inequality. Feminist psychology needs to evolve by embracing equity feminism, which has no a priori stance on the origin or existence of differences between the sexes.

  11. Evolutionary Psychology is Compatible with Equity Feminism, but Not with Gender Feminism: A Reply to Eagly and Wood (2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry X. Kuhle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available I comment on Eagly and Wood's biosocial constructionist evolutionary theory (2011; DOI: 10.1007/s11199-011-9949-9. Although this gender feminist theory allows for evolved physical differences between men and women and evolved psychological similarities for men and women, it fails to consider evolutionary accounts of psychological sex differences. I hypothesize that gender feminists' reluctance to acknowledge that evolution has left different fingerprints on men's and women's bodies and brains stems from two common misunderstandings of evolutionary psychology: the myth of immutability and the naturalistic fallacy. I conclude that although evolutionary psychology is eminently compatible with equity feminism, evolutionary psychology and feminist psychology will conflict as long as the latter adheres to gender feminism and its unwillingness to acknowledge the evidence for evolved psychological sex differences. Gender feminism's dualistic view of evolution hinders the search for and understanding of the proximate and ultimate causes of inequality. Feminist psychology needs to evolve by embracing equity feminism, which has no a priori stance on the origin or existence of differences between the sexes.

  12. Constitutional guarantees gender equality and the reality of the 'glass ceiling' for women workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Bernardi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article makes an assessment of the distinction between the sexes and the preponderance of the male role in the labor market throughout history. It analyzes the existing legal framework before the promulgation of the Constitution of 1988 and after editing the adoption of measures coibitivas to gender discrimination, specifically on discrimination against women in the workplace. Seeking to understand the various forms of discrimination and analyzes equality to be achieved today. representative numbers of labor market behavior for women in IBGE statistics are presented. These data serve to corroborate the existence of the phenomenon of the "glass ceiling", ie the imaginary line that prevents the rise of women to senior positions, and economically hierarchical command positions. The conclusion, finally, the need to break these limits by adopting measures that restrict employers to keep promotions designed to gender criteria.

  13. Between universal feminism and particular nationalism: politics, religion and gender (in)equality in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin-Kaddari, Ruth; Yadgar, Yaacov

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that one of the many "idiosyncrasies" of the Israeli case, namely Israel's continuing, violent conflict with its Arab neighbours, is of highly influential relevance to the issue of gender relations. Viewed by many Israeli Jews as a struggle for the very existence of the Jewish state, the Arab-Israeli conflict has overshadowed most other civil and social issues, rendering them "secondary" to the primary concern of securing the safe existence of the state. This has pushed such pressing issues as gender equality and women's rights aside, thus allowing for the perpetuation of discriminatory, sometimes rather repressive treatment of women in Israel. The most blatant expression of this is the turning of the struggle for civil marriage and divorce into a non-issue. Following a short introduction of the relevant political context, we discuss women's positivist and legal status, then conclude with an analysis of the women's movement, highlighting the emergence of religious feminism.

  14. Religion, politics and gender equality in Turkey: implications of a democratic paradox?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arat, Yeşim

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the gendered implications of the intertwining of Islam and politics that took shape after the process of democratisation in Turkey had brought a political party with an Islamist background to power. This development revived the spectre of restrictive sex roles for women. The country is thus confronted with a democratic paradox: the expansion of religious freedoms accompanying potential and/or real threats to gender equality. The ban on the Islamic headscarf in universities has been the most visible terrain of public controversy on Islam. However, the paper argues that a more threatening development is the propagation of patriarchal religious values, sanctioning secondary roles for women through the public bureaucracy as well as through the educational system and civil society organisations.

  15. Property Rights, Inheritance by Wives and Gender Equality: Brazil and Hispanic America in Comparative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Diana Derre

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerable gains were made in Latin America over the course of the twentieth century in strengthening the property rights of married women. Insufficient attention, nonetheless, has been given to the inheritance rights of wives. Reviewing the legal norms for twelve countries, it is argued that widows are often in a disadvantaged position compared to the children of a couple. Inheritance norms were not designed to give widows the possibility for economic autonomy, such as through control of the family farm or business. Moreover, given the gender gap favoring women in the lengthening of life spans and the low coverage of social security (particularly in rural areas in most countries, they are particularly vulnerable when they are widowed. The women’s movement is urged to take on the issue of inheritance rights since strengthening these are necessary to achieve a redistribution of property and real gender equality.

  16. THE STRUGGLE OF GENDER EQUALITY IN FIVE NOVELS OF Nh. DINI

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    Siti Norma Nasution

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the problems of women , patriarchal culture and the fight for gender equality as exposed in Nh. Dini’s novels. There are still many women who are trapped in domestic sector and loose their rights to manage their own lives with their own way. There have been many women who are successful working in public sector, but the number are still very small compared to the number of men who are successful. This study tends to expose the problems of women to reach gender equality for women. This study is importantly conducted because Nh. Dini’s literary works reveal the problems of women related to patriarchal culture which hampers the progress of women. The present study is different with the previous one, because this study explores feminism ideology which is against patriarchal culture and tradition which is still adopted by people as portrayed in five novels of Nh. Dini. The theory of Dinamic Structuralism is used to explain the interconnection of all aspects and components of the novels to get the complete meaning. The theory of Sociology of Literature is used to relate the social problems in the novels to the realities in the real world. The theory of Feminism is used to understand the novels related to women problems, patriarchal culture and gender equality. Text analysis based on the problems of the study revealed that many women are still trapped in domestic sector, still dominated by patriarchal culture. They loose their fundamental rights to manage their own lives and to improve their lives quality to become qualified women. Consenquently the women are so dependent on other people. Analysis about the factors which caused the poverty and misery of women revealed that the main cause of the women problems in the novels is patriarchal culture. The women are not permitted to work in public sector to earn their own lives. Consenquently many women become poor for being jobless. The fight for gender equality that revealed in five

  17. The Making of Gender Equality in Tunisia and Implications for Development

    OpenAIRE

    Baliamoune, Mina

    2012-01-01

    In 1965, Tunisia's real GDP per capita was 645 Tunisian dinars (TD). Twenty years later, it rose to TD 1,285 (about double its level in 1965). In 2005, Tunisia increased its per capita real GDP to TD 2,480. While this may seem to be a substantial increase in income over four decades, it pales compared to Tunisia's achievements in other aspects of human development, particularly in education, health and gender equality. Indeed, Tunisia's achievements in these areas are remarkable. Baliamoune-L...

  18. Communicating Gender-Equality Progress, Reduces Social Identity Threats for Women Considering a Research Career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Una Tellhed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the majority of top-level researchers are men, how does this vertical gender-segregation affect students’ perceptions of a research career? In the current study, an experimental manipulation either reminded students of academia’s current dominance of men or of its improving gender-balance. The results showed that women primed with the dominance of men anticipated much higher social identity threats (e.g., fear of discrimination in a future research career as compared to a control group. In contrast, women primed with the improving gender-balance anticipated much lower threat. Further, the dominance of men prime increased men’s interest in the PhD program, as compared to controls. Women’s interest was unaffected by the prime, but their lower interest as compared to men’s across conditions was mediated by their lower research self-efficacy (i.e., competence beliefs. The results imply that communicating gender-equality progress may allow women to consider a career in research without the barrier of social identity threat.

  19. Working through resistance in engaging boys and men towards gender equality and progressive masculinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratele, Kopano

    2015-01-01

    Over the last two decades, a focus on challenging and transforming dominant forms of masculinity and engaging boys and men towards gender equality and healthy masculinities has permeated South African social and health sciences and the humanities. This focus on men and boys has also been evident in intervention and activist work. However, the turn to boys, men and masculinities has not gone without resistance, contestation and contradictions. A range of localised and global realities has frustrated much of the enthusiasm for rapid, sweeping and concrete changes regarding gender justice and the making of progressive masculinities. Among the discursive and material forces that oppose work that engages boys and men are those to do with income-related issues, race and racism, cultural traditions and gender itself. Because of this, it is contended that engagement with boys and men needs to consider not only gender but also economic inequality, poverty and unemployment, divisions created by race, and struggles around tradition. This paper discusses these forces that undermine and counteract work with boys and men and how we might work through resistance in engaging with men and boys.

  20. Process and impact evaluation of a community gender equality intervention with young men in Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudberg, Halima; Contractor, Sana; Das, Abhijit; Kemp, Christopher G; Nevin, Paul E; Phadiyal, Ashima; Lal, Jagdish; Rao, Deepa

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports on the results of a process and impact evaluation to assess the effects of a project aiming to engage men in changing gender stereotypes and improving health outcomes for women in villages in Rajasthan, India. We conducted seven focus group discussions with participants in the programme and six in-depth interviews with intervention group leaders. We also conducted 137 pre- and 70 post-intervention surveys to assess participant and community knowledge, attitudes and behaviours surrounding gender, violence and sexuality. We used thematic analysis to identify process and impact themes, and hierarchical mixed linear regression for the primary outcome analysis of survey responses. Post-intervention, significant changes in knowledge and attitudes regarding gender, sexuality and violence were made on the individual level by participants, as well as in the community. Moderate behavioural changes were seen in individuals and in the community. Study findings offer a strong model for prevention programmes working with young men to create a community effect in encouraging gender equality in social norms.

  1. Gender equality is a human right. Empowerment, women and human rights, past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, R L

    1998-01-01

    This analysis opens by noting that the fact that women's equality is a human right is gaining universal acceptance and by outlining some of the major events that have marked recognition of the concept of human rights and women's rights. The analysis then considers the history of how humans have subsisted on earth in hunter-gatherer societies, horticultural (hoe-based, shifting cultivation) societies, agrarian (plow, permanent cultivation) societies, industrial societies, and information and technological societies. Next, a theory of gender stratification is applied to each situation to show how gender stratification depends upon who has control of economic resources (not who does the most work or even who legally owns the resources). Thus, women and men enjoy equality and cooperation to survive in foraging societies, men dominate in horticultural and agrarian societies, and women begin to regain ground in industrial societies. The analysis also takes into account macro- and micro-level "discount" factors that affect the amount of leverage a woman can get from money earned. The next section of the analysis deals with present conditions and notes that women can achieve equal rights via economic empowerment in combination with macro-level changes. This section also explains how "sexism kills" and considers the economic factors affecting violence against women. The article goes on to quantify progress to date, with a focus on women's gains in education, health, work and income, and political equality as well as slower gains in ratification of pertinent international treaties. The article concludes with an optimistic view of the future as the information age allows women to gain more power.

  2. Progress without Equity: The Provision of High School Athletic Opportunity in the United States, by Gender 1993-94 through 2005-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Don; Veliz, Phil

    2011-01-01

    This first-of-its-kind report on gender and high school sports participation, "Progress Without Equity: The Provision of High School Athletic Opportunity in the United States, by Gender 1993-94 through 2005-06," flows from an analysis of high schools that is unprecedented in its national and historical scope. It uses merged data from the Civil…

  3. Is There a Nordic Way? A Swedish Perspective on Achievements and Problems with Gender Equality in Newsrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Edström

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decades several achievements have emerged in Nordic state societies concerning gender equality, particularly with regard to political representation, salaries, and shared parental leave.In most newsrooms one may find a near equal distribution of women and men working alongside one another. Additionally, in the larger newsrooms of Sweden, there is a gender balance at the manageriallevel. Yet in terms of news content, women remain a minority. By using qualitative and quantitative ...

  4. Power and Equality: the Relations of Gender between Agricutural Syndicalists – Chapecó, Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdete Boni

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The participation of the women in the direction of the unions, including Agricultural Workers, has increased in recent years. Until the 80’s, the agricultural syndical movement, specially male, did not accept women associates. Nowadays, women are occupying positions in the executive directory but it does not mean that the unions have changed its pratical discriminatory. This paper presents an analysis concernig gender and power, i.e., a relation between men and women leadership in the west of Santa Catarina State. In spite of improving their participation in the unions and to be established by CUT that 30% of the minimum quota should be women, there are not enough women in the directory positions. They are effectly ocuppying administrative positions or they do not participate equally since the union did not improve its discriminatory participation. It is a frequently war to combine class claims and the search of equality and power gender. Sometimes, they have to choose one claim.

  5. The unhappy marriage of religion and politics: problems and pitfalls for gender equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Shahra; Jenichen, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how religion as a political force shapes and deflects the struggle for gender equality in contexts marked by different histories of nation building and challenges of ethnic diversity, different state-society relations (from the more authoritarian to the more democratic), and different relations between state power and religion (especially in the domain of marriage, family and personal laws). It shows how 'private' issues, related to the family, sexuality and reproduction, have become sites of intense public contestation between conservative religious actors wishing to regulate them based on some transcendent moral principle, and feminist and other human rights advocates basing their claims on pluralist and time- and context-specific solutions. Not only are claims of 'divine truth' justifying discriminatory practices against women hard to challenge, but the struggle for gender equality is further complicated by the manner in which it is closely tied up with, and inseparable from, struggles for social and economic justice, ethnic/racial recognition, and national self-determination vis--vis imperial/global domination.

  6. Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment Operational Plan, 2013–2020: Moving the Agenda Forward in Asia and the Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2013-01-01

    The operational plan sets out the strategic directions and the guiding framework to advance the gender equality agenda and deliver better gender equality outcomes in Asia and the Pacific by 2020. Under the new gender operational plan, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) will intensify its efforts to ensure that gender equality remains at the front and center of its development agenda, and to accelerate progress in closing remaining gender gaps. The operational plan will serve as the road map for...

  7. Is There a Nordic Way? A Swedish Perspective on Achievements and Problems with Gender Equality in Newsrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Edström

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades several achievements have emerged in Nordic state societies concerning gender equality, particularly with regard to political representation, salaries, and shared parental leave.In most newsrooms one may find a near equal distribution of women and men working alongside one another. Additionally, in the larger newsrooms of Sweden, there is a gender balance at the manageriallevel. Yet in terms of news content, women remain a minority. By using qualitative and quantitative data from two projects, The Global Media Monitoring Project and The Global Status of Women in the News Media, this article assesses some of the challenges and best practice solutions for gender equality in Scandinavian newsrooms. The major gender discrepancies between newsrooms can often be explained by the level of gender awareness at the societal-level. Further, capable leadership, policies, and gender monitoring seem to benefit a gender balance in the news. National legislation on parental leave and discrimination, additionally, appear to play a key role in creating gender equality in the newsroom.

  8. A blow to gender equality. Supreme Court judgement on Manushi's case on women's land rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, V

    1999-01-01

    Many scholars take the view that personal laws of various communities are not subject to the constitution. Thus, the constitutional mandate of gender equality, which is to be found in articles 14 and 15 of the constitution, need not be taken into account by community-determined personal laws. The effect of such reasoning is that personal laws are given a free hand to discriminate against women. In the case of Madhu Kishwar against State of Bihar, the Apex Court decision caused a good deal of confusion on this aspect. A three-judge bench considered sections 7 and 8 of the Chotanagpur Tenancy Act, which is applicable to the Scheduled Tribes in Bihar and denies the right of succession to females in favor of males, as constitutional. This decision implies that general principles of equality as laid down in other succession laws cannot be applied to the laws of tribals. In addition, it reflects the general reluctance to let women be economically independent. However, it is proved that the decision is not in accordance with the constitution, making it clear that tribal women are entitled to equal succession rights, as are all women in India.

  9. The Fraternal Exercise of Gender Identities: The Transsexuality Beyond Freedom and Equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarindo Epaminondas de Sá Neto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Visibility and invisibility are very meaningful words to the community of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex - LGBTTI. Compose this “alphabet soup” that represents the sex-diverse community means transit, lifelong, between invisibility and visibility. For lesbians and gays be visible implies publicly assume their sexual orientation; for transsexuals, transvestites, transgender and intersex people, visibility is compulsory at some point in their lives, since, unlike sexual orientation, which can be concealed by a lie by omission or by “closet”, the identity of Gender is experienced by people “trans” as a stigma that can not be hidden, as with skin color, for black men and women. In this paper will seek to analyze the performance of identities “trans” on the premise that free traffic between genders can not be treated as an issue linked to human sexuality, namely sexual orientation of the subject, but from a gender perspective, which will lead us to understand this issue as a fact linked to identity and not to psychological disorders. Also we analyze the contribution that the principle of fraternity can give to the exercise of such identities, taking into account the fact that freedom and equality (members of the French revolutionary triad do not lend, isolated in both. With regard to methodology, we opted for the inductive approach method and procedure as the monographic method, using as a data collection technique the literature.

  10. Women in the Physical Sciences in Sweden: Do We Have True Gender Equality in a ``Gender-Neutral'' Country?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Stacey L.; Rachlew, Elisabeth; Wiesner, Karoline; Engblom, Pia Thorngren

    2005-10-01

    Sweden, together with the other Nordic countries, seems at first glance to offer an environment where women and men enjoy equal treatment at all levels of society. Governments proclaim policies invoking gender-neutral regulations and legal frameworks. Government-supported parental leave programs provide paid leave for both parents, the child-care system is well developed, women are represented at high levels in the government, and educational levels are high. Clearly, awareness of gender issues and openness in the classroom and workplace must be very high. Why, then, is the career pipeline for women in physics leaking so badly? Why are there so few women in high-level management positions in industry? How can salaries for women on all levels, not least within the public sector, be consistently lower than for their male counterparts? What factors are important and how can we influence the situation so that women receive their fair share of power and recognition for their achievements? We discuss some of these issues, and describe the present situation in Sweden.

  11. Complementing Gender Analysis Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anant

    2016-01-01

    The existing gender analysis frameworks start with a premise that men and women are equal and should be treated equally. These frameworks give emphasis on equal distribution of resources between men and women and believe that this will bring equality which is not always true. Despite equal distribution of resources, women tend to suffer and experience discrimination in many areas of their lives such as the power to control resources within social relationships, and the need for emotional security and reproductive rights within interpersonal relationships. These frameworks believe that patriarchy as an institution plays an important role in women's oppression, exploitation, and it is a barrier in their empowerment and rights. Thus, some think that by ensuring equal distribution of resources and empowering women economically, institutions like patriarchy can be challenged. These frameworks are based on proposed equality principle which puts men and women in competing roles. Thus, the real equality will never be achieved. Contrary to the existing gender analysis frameworks, the Complementing Gender Analysis framework proposed by the author provides a new approach toward gender analysis which not only recognizes the role of economic empowerment and equal distribution of resources but suggests to incorporate the concept and role of social capital, equity, and doing gender in gender analysis which is based on perceived equity principle, putting men and women in complementing roles that may lead to equality. In this article the author reviews the mainstream gender theories in development from the viewpoint of the complementary roles of gender. This alternative view is argued based on existing literature and an anecdote of observations made by the author. While criticizing the equality theory, the author offers equity theory in resolving the gender conflict by using the concept of social and psychological capital.

  12. Activities for the Promotion of Gender Equality in Japan—Japan Society of Applied Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodate, Kashiko; Tanaka, Kazuo

    2005-10-01

    Since 1946, the Japan Society of Applied Physics (JSAP) has strived to promote research and development in applied physics for benefits beyond national boundaries. Activities of JSAP involve multidisciplinary fields, from physics and engineering to life sciences. Of its 23,000 members, 48% are from industry, 29% from academia, and about 7% from semi-autonomous national research laboratories. Its large industrial membership is one of the distinctive features of JSAP. In preparation for the First IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics (Paris, 2002), JSAP members took the first step under the strong leadership of then-JSAP President Toshio Goto, setting up the Committee for the Promotion Equal Participation of Men and Women in Science and Technology. Equality rather than women's advancement is highlighted to further development in science and technology. Attention is also paid to balancing the number of researchers from different age groups and affiliations. The committee has 22 members: 12 female and 10 male; 7 from corporations, 12 from universities, and 3 from semi-autonomous national research institutes. Its main activities are to organize symposia and meetings, conduct surveys among JSAP members, and provide child-care facilities at meetings and conferences. In 2002 the Japan Physics Society and the Chemical Society of Japan jointly created the Japan Inter-Society Liaison Association for the Promotion of Equal Participation of Men and Women in Science and Engineering. Membership has grown to 44 societies (of which 19 are observers) ranging from mathematics, information, and life sciences to civil engineering. Joint activities across sectors and empower the whole. The Gender Equality Bureau in the Cabinet Office recently launched a large-scale project called "Challenge Campaign" to encourage girls to major in natural science and engineering, which JSAP is co-sponsoring.

  13. Markers of achievement for assessing and monitoring gender equity in translational research organisations: a rationale and study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovseiko, Pavel V; Edmunds, Laurel D; Pololi, Linda H; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Kiparoglou, Vasiliki; Henderson, Lorna R; Williamson, Catherine; Grant, Jonathan; Lord, Graham M; Channon, Keith M; Lechler, Robert I; Buchan, Alastair M

    2016-01-07

    Translational research organisations (TROs) are a core component of the UK's expanding research base. Equity of career opportunity is key to ensuring a diverse and internationally competitive workforce. The UK now requires TROs to demonstrate how they are supporting gender equity. Yet, the evidence base for documenting such efforts is sparse. This study is designed to inform the acceleration of women's advancement and leadership in two of the UK's leading TROs--the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centres (BRCs) in Oxford and London--through the development, application and dissemination of a conceptual framework and measurement tool. A cross-sectional retrospective evaluation. A conceptual framework with markers of achievement and corresponding candidate metrics has been specifically designed for this study based on an adapted balanced scorecard approach. It will be refined with an online stakeholder consultation and semistructured interviews to test the face validity and explore practices and mechanisms that influence gender equity in the given settings. Data will be collected via the relevant administrative databases. A comparison of two funding periods (2007-2012 and 2012-2017) will be carried out. The University of Oxford Clinical Trials and Research Governance Team and the Research and Development Governance Team of Guy's and St Thomas' National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust reviewed the study and deemed it exempt from full ethics review. The results of the study will be used to inform prospective planning and monitoring within the participating NIHR BRCs with a view to accelerating women's advancement and leadership. Both the results of the study and its methodology will be further disseminated to academics and practitioners through the networks of collaborating TROs, relevant conferences and articles in peer-reviewed journals. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  14. Markers of achievement for assessing and monitoring gender equity in translational research organisations: a rationale and study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Laurel D; Pololi, Linda H; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Kiparoglou, Vasiliki; Henderson, Lorna R; Williamson, Catherine; Grant, Jonathan; Lord, Graham M; Channon, Keith M; Lechler, Robert I; Buchan, Alastair M

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Translational research organisations (TROs) are a core component of the UK's expanding research base. Equity of career opportunity is key to ensuring a diverse and internationally competitive workforce. The UK now requires TROs to demonstrate how they are supporting gender equity. Yet, the evidence base for documenting such efforts is sparse. This study is designed to inform the acceleration of women's advancement and leadership in two of the UK's leading TROs—the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centres (BRCs) in Oxford and London—through the development, application and dissemination of a conceptual framework and measurement tool. Methods and analysis A cross-sectional retrospective evaluation. A conceptual framework with markers of achievement and corresponding candidate metrics has been specifically designed for this study based on an adapted balanced scorecard approach. It will be refined with an online stakeholder consultation and semistructured interviews to test the face validity and explore practices and mechanisms that influence gender equity in the given settings. Data will be collected via the relevant administrative databases. A comparison of two funding periods (2007–2012 and 2012–2017) will be carried out. Ethics and dissemination The University of Oxford Clinical Trials and Research Governance Team and the Research and Development Governance Team of Guy's and St Thomas’ National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust reviewed the study and deemed it exempt from full ethics review. The results of the study will be used to inform prospective planning and monitoring within the participating NIHR BRCs with a view to accelerating women's advancement and leadership. Both the results of the study and its methodology will be further disseminated to academics and practitioners through the networks of collaborating TROs, relevant conferences and articles in peer-reviewed journals. PMID:26743702

  15. Occupational segregation, gender essentialism and male primacy as major barriers to equity in HIV/AIDS caregiving: Findings from Lesotho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoae Lucia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender segregation of occupations, which typically assigns caring/nurturing jobs to women and technical/managerial jobs to men, has been recognized as a major source of inequality worldwide with implications for the development of robust health workforces. In sub-Saharan Africa, gender inequalities are particularly acute in HIV/AIDS caregiving (90% of which is provided in the home, where women and girls make up the informal (and mostly unpaid workforce. Men's and boy's entry into HIV/AIDS caregiving in greater numbers would both increase the equity and sustainability of national and community-level HIV/AIDS caregiving and mitigate health workforce shortages, but notions of gender essentialism and male primacy make this far from inevitable. In 2008 the Capacity Project partnered with the Lesotho Ministry of Health and Social Welfare in a study of the gender dynamics of HIV/AIDS caregiving in three districts of Lesotho to account for men's absence in HIV/AIDS caregiving and investigate ways in which they might be recruited into the community and home-based care (CHBC workforce. Methods The study used qualitative methods, including 25 key informant interviews with village chiefs, nurse clinicians, and hospital administrators and 31 focus group discussions with community health workers, community members, ex-miners, and HIV-positive men and women. Results Study participants uniformly perceived a need to increase the number of CHBC providers to deal with the heavy workload from increasing numbers of patients and insufficient new entries. HIV/AIDS caregiving is a gender-segregated job, at the core of which lie stereotypes and beliefs about the appropriate work of men and women. This results in an inequitable, unsustainable burden on women and girls. Strategies are analyzed for their potential effectiveness in increasing equity in caregiving. Conclusions HIV/AIDS and human resources stakeholders must address occupational segregation

  16. Transnationale Dialoge am Beispiel des Gender Equality Studies and Training Programmes in Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigríður Þorgeirsdóttir

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In diesem Beitrag wird ein universitäres Lehrexperiment vorgestellt, das auf einem transnationalen Dialog über Fragen der Geschlechter und Minderheiten in unterschiedlichen Kulturen basiert: In dem seit vier Jahren an der Universität Islands existierenden Trainigsprogramm Gender Equality Studies and Training werden Frauen und Männer aus Entwicklungsländern und Post-Konflikt-Gebieten, die auf dem Gebiet der Geschlechtergleichstellung arbeiten, zu einem fünfmonatigen Lehrgang zu Fragen der Geschlechtergerechtigkeit eingeladen und lernen zu einem kleinen Teil zusammen mit isländischen Studierenden. Im vorliegenden Beitrag werden die Erfahrungen und Herausforderungen eines transnationalen Lernprozesses reflektiert, in dem alle Beteiligten neue Perspektiven auf die eigene Lokalisation und die eigenen kulturellen Hintergründe von Geschlechterfragen gewinnen.

  17. Childhood obesity and parks and playgrounds: A review of issues of equality, gender and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Hammad Ali

    2011-04-01

    The childhood obesity has been a growing concern over the last decade all over the world. Built environmental characteristics such as parks and playgrounds serves as a reference point for physical activity in children. The equality issues related to ethnicity, Social Economic Status (SES), gender and social support have been related with both physical activity and presence and quality of parks and playgrounds. However, only limited studies have addressed these issues in children. The current paper is a general enumerative review that would discusses the above issues with respect to obesity in all age groups, giving particular emphasis to childhood obesity. The importance of this review is to further explore the importance and highlight the findings related to these issues, so that future original studies could be planned keeping these associations in mind.

  18. Childhood obesity and parks and playgrounds: A review of issues of equality, gender and social support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammad Ali Qazi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The childhood obesity has been a growing concern over the last decade all over the world. Built environmental characteristics such as parks and playgrounds serves as a reference point for physical activity in children. The equality issues related to ethnicity, Social Economic Status (SES, gender and social support have been related with both physical activity and presence and quality of parks and playgrounds. However, only limited studies have addressed these issues in children. The current paper is a general enumerative review that would discusses the above issues with respect to obesity in all age groups, giving particular emphasis to childhood obesity. The importance of this review is to further explore the importance and highlight the findings related to these issues, so that future original studies could be planned keeping these associations in mind.

  19. Brief report: parent-adolescent child concordance in social norms related to gender equity in marriage - findings from rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anita; Ghule, Mohan; Battala, Madhusudana; Dasgupta, Anindita; Ritter, Julie; Nair, Saritha; Saggurti, Niranjan; Silverman, Jay G; Balaiah, Donta

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to assess parent-adolescent child concordance on social norms related to gender equity in marriage in rural Maharashtra, India. Survey data on marital norms related to girl's marital age and choice, contraception, and marital violence (MV) were collected from unmarried adolescents (n = 113 girls, 116 boys) and their parents (n = 227 mothers, 203 fathers). Concordance was assessed using a Cohen's unweighted Kappa statistic, with analyses stratified by sex of parent and child. Analyses revealed fair (K = .25-.27) mother-daughter concordance on girls' right to choose when to marry, contraception use, and acceptability of MV. Father-son concordance was seen on girls' right to choose when (K = .22, slight) and who (K = .20, fair) to marry and MV acceptability (K = .53, moderate). No opposite sex parent-child concordance was revealed. Results indicate same but not opposite sex parent-child concordance on gender equity social norms related to marriage, suggesting same sex transfer of these norms. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Parent-Adolescent Child Concordance in Social Norms related to Gender Equity in Marriage- Findings from Rural India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anita; Ghule, Mohan; Battala, Madhusudana; Dasgupta, Anindita; Ritter, Julie; Nair, Saritha; Saggurti, Niranjan; Silverman, Jay; Balaiah, Donta

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to assess parent-adolescent child concordance on social norms related to gender equity in marriage in rural Maharashtra, India. Survey data on marital norms related to girl’s marital age and choice, contraception, and marital violence (MV) were collected from unmarried adolescents (n=113 girls, 116 boys) and their parents (n=227 mothers, 203 fathers). Concordance was assessed using a Cohen’s unweighted Kappa statistic, with analyses stratified by sex of parent and child. Analyses revealed fair (K=.25-.27) mother-daughter concordance on girls’ right to choose when to marry, contraception use, and acceptability of MV. Father-son concordance was seen on girls’ right to choose when (K=.22, slight) and who (K=.20, fair) to marry and MV acceptability (K=.53, moderate). No opposite sex parent-child concordance was revealed. Results indicate same but not opposite sex parent-child concordance on gender equity social norms related to marriage, suggesting same sex transfer of these norms. PMID:25173179

  1. Positive Action in EU Gender Equality Law: promoting more women in corporate decision making?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos Martín, N.E.

    2013-01-01

    Equality is a broad and complex concept with various meanings (equal treatment, equal opportunities, formal equality, and substantive or de facto equality). Although there are strong similarities in the definition of key concepts related to equality, the EU and other international organisation have

  2. Study about the relation of gender equity and human development in northeastern Mexico, 1995- 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Zamudio Sánchez

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of indexes taken from easily measurable variables, this paper takes a look at both the gains and setbacks of Mexican society in its fight for gender equality and its relation to human development. The object of this paper is to show the possible future tendencies in this context, insofar as opportunities arise for both men and women to both fully develop their capacities and to take advantage of the same within their surroundings. The case study focuses on the municipalities of the northeast region of Mexico, formed by the states of Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas, for the years 1995, 2000 and 2005. A reduction in the inequality gap in health, education and income is observed, although the condition of women is still far from being on a par with that of men, especially where resources for a dignified life are concerned. The most noticeable gap between men and women is related precisely to the limited access and control of resources that allow women to make their own decisions regarding their lives and consequently, their empowerment is marginal.

  3. Economic Efficiency or Gender Equality: Conceptualizing an Equitable “Social Framing” for Economic Evaluations to Support Gender Equality in Disaster Risk- and Environmental-Management Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheney Shreve

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is unlikely that cost–benefit approaches will be effective in identifying investments that support gender equality without a relevant “social framing”. Criteria for a “social framing” are lacking, yet cost–benefit approaches often guide investment decisions for disaster risk and environmental management. Mainstream approaches typically do a poor job identifying and characterizing costs and benefits, and often fail to address distributive concerns (i.e., how costs and benefits may be distributed throughout society, to whom, etc.. Gender-blind investments may project responsibility for equality “problems” onto one sex, potentially augmenting gender inequalities and disaster risk. This article examines evidence from the gender, disaster, and development literature to identify distributive concerns and criteria for an equitable “social framing” for economic evaluations. Primary distributive concerns identified regard assumptions of women’s homogeneity, agency, “active” participation, and the influence of customary practice and displacement on disaster vulnerability. The need for a “gender-responsive” “social framing” that considers the needs of men and women in relation to one another is evident. Second, cost–benefit studies focused on gender equality concerns are reviewed and the “social framing” is critiqued. Results show most studies are not “gender-responsive”. Women’s health concerns, often exacerbated by disasters, are sidelined by assumptions regarding distributive concerns and reductive outcome measures.

  4. From motherhood penalties to husband premia: the new challenge for gender equality and family policy, lessons from Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Trond; Penner, Andrew M; Høgsnes, Geir

    2014-03-01

    Given the key role that processes occurring in the family play in creating gender inequality, the family is a central focus of policies aimed at creating greater gender equality. We examine how family status affects the gender wage gap using longitudinal matched employer-employee data from Norway, 1979-96, a period with extensive expansion of family policies. The motherhood penalty dropped dramatically from 1979 to 1996. Among men the premia for marriage and fatherhood remained constant. In 1979, the gender wage gap was primarily due to the motherhood penalty, but by 1996 husband premia were more important than motherhood penalties.

  5. World-wide architecture of osteoporosis research: density-equalizing mapping studies and gender analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggmann, D; Mäule, L-S; Klingelhöfer, D; Schöffel, N; Gerber, A; Jaque, J M; Groneberg, D A

    2016-10-01

    While research activities on osteoporosis grow constantly, no concise description of the global research architecture exists. Hence, we aim to analyze and depict the world-wide scientific output on osteoporosis combining bibliometric tools, density-equalizing mapping projections and gender analysis. Using the NewQIS platform, we analyzed all osteoporosis-related publications authored from 1900 to 2012 and indexed by the Web of Science. Bibliometric details were analyzed related to quantitative and semi-qualitative aspects. The majority of 57 453 identified publications were original research articles. The USA and Western Europe dominated the field regarding cooperation activity, publication and citation performance. Asia, Africa and South America played a minimal role. Gender analysis revealed a dominance of male scientists in almost all countries except Brazil. Although the scientific performance on osteoporosis is increasing world-wide, a significant disparity in terms of research output was visible between developed and low-income countries. This finding is particularly concerning since epidemiologic evaluations of future osteoporosis prevalences predict enormous challenges for the health-care systems in low-resource countries. Hence, our study underscores the need to address these disparities by fostering future research endeavors in these nations with the aim to successfully prevent a growing global burden related to osteoporosis.

  6. Raising Questions About Capitalist Globalization and Universalizing Views on Women: A Transnational Feminist Critique of the World Development Report: Gender Equality and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Victoria L; Stevens, Patricia E; Mkandawire-Valhmu, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    Nursing in the United States has embraced global health primarily from a clinical perspective, with emphasis on care delivery to populations in underserved, resource-poor settings. Less attention has been devoted to developing expertise about social, economic, and political contexts that produce ill health around the world. The purpose of this article is to offer a transnational feminist critique of the World Development Report: Gender Equality and Development and to illuminate implications such reports may have in the lives of the world's most marginalized women and girls. We examine the political economy idealized in the report, raising questions about the capitalist framework underpinning its agenda. Second, we examine the assumptive language used in the report, suggesting that it discursively constructs a problematic representation of women in low-income countries. We contend that the report perpetuates a hegemonic discourse of patriarchy and inequality for women in the Global South through the use of an uncontested economic framework and universalist reasoning. We conclude the article with discussion about a transformative policy making that could be more inclusive of the wisdoms, values, and everyday experiences of women living in the Global South and about the vital role nurses can play in advancing gender equity through their active collaboration in policy critique and policy formulation.

  7. Gender Implications of UK Welfare Reform and Government Equality Duties: Evidence from Qualitative Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fran Bennett

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The UK coalition government is bound by equality duties to have regard to the impact of its policies on various groups, including women. This article investigates how far this legislative commitment is influencing debates about current welfare reforms, especially plans for ‘universal credit’ (a new means-tested benefit. The authors draw on findings from recent studies of within-household distribution from a gender perspective, including their own qualitative research. A major aim of this research was to facilitate more nuanced analysis of the effects of welfare reforms in terms of gender roles and relationships within the household. This article therefore examines how far findings from qualitative studies, in conjunction with the key principles they develop for assessing the gender impact of welfare reforms, can be used to examine ‘universal credit’; and to what extent these influenced the UK government’s proposals and analysis in the light of its commitment to equality duties. Los derechos de igualdad obligan al gobierno de coalición del Reino Unido a tener en cuenta el impacto de sus políticas sobre varios grupos, incluidas las mujeres. En este artículo se investiga hasta qué punto este compromiso legislativo está influyendo en los debates sobre las reformas de bienestar actuales, especialmente los planes de “crédito universal” (un nuevo beneficio de ingreso. Los autores se basan en los resultados de estudios recientes sobre la distribución dentro de los hogares desde una perspectiva de género, incluida su propia investigación cualitativa. Un objetivo principal de esta investigación era el de facilitar un análisis más matizado de los efectos de las reformas de bienestar en términos de roles y relaciones de género dentro del hogar. Por tanto, este artículo examina hasta qué punto los resultados de estudios cualitativos, en relación con los principios fundamentales que se desarrollan para evaluar el impacto de g

  8. Public-Private Partnerships in Education and the Pursuit of Gender Equality: A View from South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailaja Fennell

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of public-private partnerships (PPPs into the educational sphere has opened up the sector to a wide range of new private providers in India and Pakistan. The global literature has indicated that the growth in partnerships that provide targeted programmes for girls, in locations where parents prefer to enrol their daughters in these new private schools rather than state schools, will further reduce any existing gender gap. A specific focus on gender equality considerations within PPP programmes is necessary to analyse new evidence on gender equality. A review of national documents on education for India and Pakistan indicates that the concept of gender equality was not included in the original education policy documents, and gender concerns were introduced through a particular institutional history of engagement between international and national policy interventions.District and village data show that there was very little gendered difference in how parental generations studied viewed the educational pathways of their sons and daughters. The younger generation studied are not confident that they will be able to enter gainful employment, which raises policy concerns that the lack of employment for this younger generation could undo any reduction in the gender gap as increased poverty pushes girls out of school in the next two decades.

  9. Women in surgery: little change in gender equality in Japanese medical societies over the past 3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomizawa, Yasuko

    2013-10-01

    Japan lags behind other industrialized nations in terms of gender equality. To improve the work environment for surgeons, the opinions of female surgeons must be respected. The Committee on Women Surgeons of the Japan Surgical Society (JSS) conducted two surveys 3 years apart of the numbers of female councilors and directors in the member societies of the Japanese Association of Medical Sciences. In the nonsurgical medical societies, although there was an increase in the number of female councilors, only one female director was named over the past 3 years. On the other hand, there were no female directors in any of the 12 surgical societies in 2011. The JSS was founded in 1899. No female surgeon has ever been elected as director and there are currently no female councilors due to the new election system. The Gender Equality Bureau of the Cabinet Office should therefore provide greater support to improve gender equality in Japan.

  10. Framing Analysis of Islamic Marriage Sermon in Perspective of Gender Equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diyah Utami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of gender in the context of marriage sermon is closely related to the interpretation of religious doctrines concerning the relationship of men and women. This study aims to understand the perspective of gender equality on Islamic marriage sermon through framing analysis. This study used framing analysis to reveals the frame of a text by using framing devices that are directly related to the central idea of the text and reasoning. The devices are associated with the cohesion and coherence of the text that refer to a particular idea of marriage. Islamic sermons such as text still tend to show discriminatory for example, this can be felt in the reproduction of a sentences like this: such as sentence “the ideal family is where the husband and wife make a living for their household, especially by giving love and education to children”. The word “ideal” or “good” is a framing device. And the phrase, “if the wife works outside the home, the family will lose orientation”. The word “disoriented” indicates that family whose wife works outside of the house is a failed family. In this case, the wife is used as a scapegoat for the failure of a family as a wife who works outside.Pengetahuan tentang gender dalam konteks pernikahan khotbah berkaitan erat dengan penafsiran doktrin agama tentang hubungan pria dan wanita. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memahami perspektif kesetaraan gender dalam khotbah perkawinan Islam dalam analisis perspektif framing. Penelitian ini menggunakan analisis yang mengungkapkan bingkai teks dengan menggunakan perangkat framing yang langsung berhubungan dengan gagasan utama dari teks dan penalaran framing. Perangkat yang terkait dengan kohesi dan koherensi teks yang merujuk pada ide tertentu pernikahan khotbah Islam Teks masih cenderung menunjukkan tindakan diskriminatif, seperti kalimat “keluarga yang ideal adalah di mana suami dan istri mencari nafkah untuk keluarga mereka, terutama dengan memberikan

  11. Gender equality and education: Increasing the uptake of HIV testing among married women in Kenya, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kavita; Luseno, Winnie; Haney, Erica

    2013-01-01

    Gender equality and education are being promoted as strategies to combat the HIV epidemic in Africa, but few studies have looked at the role of gender equality and education in the uptake of a vital service - HIV testing. This study looks at the associations between education (a key input needed for gender equality) and key gender equality measures (financial decision making and attitudes toward violence) with ever tested for HIV and tested for HIV in the past year. The study focused on currently married women ages between15-24 and 25-34 in three countries - Kenya, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The data came from the Demographic and Health Surveys. Logistic regression was used to study the role of gender equality and education on the HIV testing outcomes after controlling for both social and biological factors. Results indicated that education had a consistent positive relationship with testing for both age groups, and the associations were always significant for young women aged 15-24 years (pwomen aged 25-34 in all the three countries, although the associations were only significant in Kenya (among women reporting ever being tested: OR 1.58, pwomen reporting being tested in the past year: OR 1.34, pwomen reporting ever being tested: OR 1.24, pwomen reporting being tested in the past year: OR 1.29, pwomen aged 25-34 in Zimbabwe only (among women reporting ever being tested: OR 1.66, peducation and the promotion of gender equality are important strategies for increasing uptake of a vital HIV service, and thus are important tools for protecting girls and young women against HIV.

  12. Using Queer Theory to Rethink Gender Equity in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaise, Mindy; Taylor, Affrica

    2012-01-01

    Queer theory is a new theory about gender. It is relevant to early childhood educators who wish to find new ways of understanding and challenging persistent gender stereotypes. The theory links gender stereotypes to the norms of heterosexuality. It is definitely "not" a theory about gay and lesbian identity. Queer theory is "queer" because it…

  13. The Quest for Gender Equity in America's Schools: From Preschool and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendixen-Noe, Mary K.; Hall, Lynne Degler

    1996-01-01

    Reviews research studies on gender inequity in schools, finding problems in teachers' practices, unequal access to entire curriculums as early as the preschool years, and gender inequities in participation in after-school activities. Calls for teachers, teacher educators, and administrators to make gender fairness a priority in the total education…

  14. Integrating Gender and Equity in Health Research and Policy in India

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In India, researchers and policymakers have only partially succeeded in incorporating gender concerns in health research, policy and programs. There is need for a more indepth and nuanced gender analysis on women's health. And, gaps still exist in the issues covered, such as the intersection of gender with caste and ...

  15. Gender Relations Among Indian Couples in the UK and India: Ideals of Equality and Realities of Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine Twamley

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores young heterosexual Indian Gujaratis' ideals and experiences of intimate relationships in the UK and India, focusing particularly on gender relations. Men and women in both contexts had similar aspirations of intimacy, but women were likely to be more in favour of egalitarian values. What this meant was interpreted differently in India and the UK. In neither setting, however, was gender equality fully realised in the lives of the participants due to both structural and norm...

  16. Good practice or positive action? Using Q methodology to identify competing views on improving gender equality in academic medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkinshaw, Paula; West, Robert M; Ward, Vicky

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The number of women entering medicine has increased significantly, yet women are still under-represented at senior levels in academic medicine. To support the gender equality action plan at one School of Medicine, this study sought to (1) identify the range of viewpoints held by staff on how to address gender inequality and (2) identify attitudinal barriers to change. Design Q methodology. 50 potential interventions representing good practice or positive action, and addressing cultural, organisational and individual barriers to gender equality, were ranked by participants according to their perception of priority. Setting The School of Medicine at the University of Leeds, UK. Participants Fifty-five staff members were purposively sampled to represent gender and academic pay grade. Results Principal components analysis identified six competing viewpoints on how to address gender inequality. Four viewpoints favoured positive action interventions: (1) support careers of women with childcare commitments, (2) support progression of women into leadership roles rather than focus on women with children, (3) support careers of all women rather than just those aiming for leadership, and (4) drive change via high-level financial and strategic initiatives. Two viewpoints favoured good practice with no specific focus on women by (5) recognising merit irrespective of gender and (6) improving existing career development practice. No viewpoint was strongly associated with gender, pay grade or role; however, latent class analysis identified that female staff were more likely than male to prioritise the setting of equality targets. Attitudinal barriers to the setting of targets and other positive action initiatives were identified, and it was clear that not all staff supported positive action approaches. Conclusions The findings and the approach have utility for those involved in gender equality work in other medical and academic institutions. However, the impact of such

  17. Good practice or positive action? Using Q methodology to identify competing views on improving gender equality in academic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Louise D; Burkinshaw, Paula; House, Allan O; West, Robert M; Ward, Vicky

    2017-08-22

    The number of women entering medicine has increased significantly, yet women are still under-represented at senior levels in academic medicine. To support the gender equality action plan at one School of Medicine, this study sought to (1) identify the range of viewpoints held by staff on how to address gender inequality and (2) identify attitudinal barriers to change. Q methodology. 50 potential interventions representing good practice or positive action, and addressing cultural, organisational and individual barriers to gender equality, were ranked by participants according to their perception of priority. The School of Medicine at the University of Leeds, UK. Fifty-five staff members were purposively sampled to represent gender and academic pay grade. Principal components analysis identified six competing viewpoints on how to address gender inequality. Four viewpoints favoured positive action interventions: (1) support careers of women with childcare commitments, (2) support progression of women into leadership roles rather than focus on women with children, (3) support careers of all women rather than just those aiming for leadership, and (4) drive change via high-level financial and strategic initiatives. Two viewpoints favoured good practice with no specific focus on women by (5) recognising merit irrespective of gender and (6) improving existing career development practice. No viewpoint was strongly associated with gender, pay grade or role; however, latent class analysis identified that female staff were more likely than male to prioritise the setting of equality targets. Attitudinal barriers to the setting of targets and other positive action initiatives were identified, and it was clear that not all staff supported positive action approaches. The findings and the approach have utility for those involved in gender equality work in other medical and academic institutions. However, the impact of such initiatives needs to be evaluated in the longer term.

  18. Islamic attitudes and the support for gender equality and democracy in seven Arab countries, and the role of anti-Western feelings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, N.

    2014-01-01

    In the societal and scientific discussions about the support for democracy and gender equality in the Arab Middle East, this study engages the triangular theory, which predicts that Islamic orientations influence gender equality attitudes and democracy negatively, and attitudes towards gender

  19. What Can Alcohol Researchers Learn from Research about the Relationship Between Macro-Level Gender Equality and Violence against Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: This systematic review focuses on research about macro-level gender equality and violence against women (VAW) and identifies conceptually and theoretically driven hypotheses as well as lessons relevant for alcohol research. Hypotheses include: amelioration—increased equality decreases VAW; backlash—increased equality increases VAW; and convergence—increased equality reduces the gender gap; and hypotheses that distinguish between relative and absolute status, with relative status comparing men's and women's status and absolute status measuring women's status without regard to men. Methods: Systematic review of studies published through June 2009 identified through PubMed and Web of Science, as well as citing and cited articles. Results: A total of 30 studies are included. Of 85 findings examining amelioration/backlash, 25% support amelioration, 22% backlash; and 53% are null. Of 13 findings examining convergence, 31% support and 23% are inconsistent with convergence; 46% are null. Conclusion: Neither the existence nor the direction of the equality and VAW relationship can be assumed. This suggests that the relationship between macro-level gender equality and alcohol should also not be assumed, but rather investigated through research. PMID:21239417

  20. The Relationship of Gender Equity to Compensation, Career Advancement and Leadership in Selected Colleges of Business in Finland, Jamaica and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Hewlett Steve

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship of gender equity to faculty compensation, career advancement, and access to leadership roles in colleges of business in Finland, Jamaica and the United States. This quantitative study, anchored by feminist, human capital and socialization theories supported the emergence of a conceptual…

  1. Tanzanian Couples' Perspectives on Gender Equity, Relationship Power, and Intimate Partner Violence: Findings from the RESPECT Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Suneeta; Vohra, Divya; de Walque, Damien; Medlin, Carol; Nathan, Rose; Dow, William H.

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is widely prevalent in Tanzania. Inequitable gender norms manifest in men's and women's attitudes about power and decision making in intimate relationships and are likely to play an important role in determining the prevalence of IPV. We used data from the RESPECT study, a randomized controlled trial that evaluated an intervention to prevent sexually transmitted infections in a cohort of young Tanzanian men and women, to examine the relationship between couples' attitudes about IPV, relationship power, and sexual decision making, concordance on these issues, and women's reports of IPV over 12 months. Women expressed less equitable attitudes than men at baseline. Over time, participants' attitudes tended to become more equitable and women's reports of IPV declined substantially. Multivariable logistic regression analyses suggested that inequitable attitudes and couple discordance were associated with higher risk of IPV. Our findings point to the need for a better understanding of the role that perceived or actual imbalances in relationship power have in heightening IPV risk. The decline in women's reports of IPV and the trend towards gender-equitable attitudes indicate that concerted efforts to reduce IPV and promote gender equity have the potential to make a positive difference in the relatively short term. PMID:23320151

  2. A New Model of Development: Between Empowerment of the Community and Gender Equality Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa Gabriela POPESCU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to contribute to the actual debates concerning the need to support the economic growth in Romania, and the reforming process that complied with requirements of reducing gender-based, age-based, and socialbased inequities in producing and accessing welfare. This research tries to answer an actual question, namely how prepared is the Romanian society to adopt this model of development? The answer to this question involves directing the research along two perspectives: (1 one provided by the new concept of development, and (2 one that focuses on public policies designed under a larger framework than the one provided by the European requirements of equal opportunity for men and women. Pragmatically, the achievement of such a structural model implies overcoming a variety of challenges. On the one hand, are the members of the community aware of the importance of their commitment? Are they truly motivated to take part in such a structure? On the other hand, how prepared are political representatives and public authorities to accept co-operation with different categories of persons? This research will try to find the answers to all these questions.

  3. Gender equality in the work of local research ethics committees in Europe: a study of practice in five countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerman, C J; Haafkens, J A; Söderström, M; Rásky, É; Maguire, P; Maschewsky‐Schneider, U; Norstedt, M; Hahn, D; Reinerth, H; McKevitt, N

    2007-01-01

    Background Funding organisations and research ethics committees (RECs) should play a part in strengthening attention to gender equality in clinical research. In the research policy of European Union (EU), funding measures have been taken to realise this, but such measures are lacking in the EU policy regarding RECs. Objective To explore how RECs in Austria, Germany, Ireland, The Netherlands and Sweden deal with gender equality issues by asking two questions: (1) Do existing procedures promote representation of women and gender expertise in the committee? (2) How are sex and gender issues dealt with in protocol evaluation? Methods Two RECs were selected from each country. Data were obtained through interviews with key informants and content analysis of relevant documents (regulations, guidelines and review tools in use in 2003). Results All countries have rules (mostly informal) to ensure the presence of women on RECs; gender expertise is not required. Drug study protocols are carefully evaluated, sometimes on a formal basis, as regards the inclusion of women of childbearing age. The reason for excluding either one of the sexes or including specific groups of women or making a gender‐specific risk–benefit analysis are investigated by some RECs. Such measures are, however, neither defined in the regulations nor integrated in review tools. Conclusions The RECs investigated in five European member states are found to pay limited attention to gender equality in their working methods and, in particular in protocol evaluation. Policy and regulations of EU are needed to strengthen attention to gender equality in the work of RECs. PMID:17264199

  4. Perceptions of gender equality in work-life balance, salary, promotion, and harassment: results of the NASPGHAN task force survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomer, Gitit; Xanthakos, Stavra; Kim, Sandra; Rao, Meenakshi; Book, Linda; Litman, Heather J; Fishman, Laurie N

    2015-04-01

    Gender equality in the workplace has not been described in pediatric gastroenterology. An electronic survey that explored perceptions of career parity, work-life balance, and workplace harassment was sent to all members of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. Reponses were anonymous. Of the 303 respondents (21%), there was an even distribution across geographic region, age, and gender (54% men). Gender affected perception of salary and promotion; 46% of men but only 9% of women feel that "women earn the same as men" (P work-life balance for either gender. Overall, women are more likely to be dissatisfied with work-life balance than men (P = 0.046). Satisfaction with work-life balance is lower among women versus men pediatric gastroenterologists, but does not correlate with flexibility of spouse's job or caring for young children. Gender-divergent perception of promotion, parity of compensation, and mentoring requires further investigation.

  5. Fábián, Katalin: "Contemporary Women’s Movements in Hungary: Globalization, Democracy and Gender Equality"

    OpenAIRE

    Penny Shima Glanz

    2011-01-01

    Fábián, Katalin. Contemporary Women’s Movements in Hungary: Globalization, Democracy and Gender Equality. The Woodrow Wilson Center Press, Washington, D.C.: 2009. 396 pp., Illus. Reviewed by Penny Shima Glanz, Freelance Writer.

  6. Gender equality probably does not affect performance at the Olympic games : A comment on Berdahl, Uhlmann, and Bai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuppens, Toon; Pollet, Thomas V.

    2015-01-01

    In a recent article, Berdahl, Uhlmann, and Bai (2015) reported that countries with higher gender equality won more medals at the 2012 and 2014 Olympic games. This relation held for both female and male athletes. The authors, however, did not control for GDP per capita, or take into account the

  7. Recent activities of the physical society of Japan and the Japan society of applied physics gender equality promotion committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaki, K.; Okiharu, F.; Tajima, S.; Takayama, H.; Watanabe, M. O.

    2013-03-01

    The results of a 2007 large-scale survey of gender equality in scientific and technological professions in Japan are reported. The activities of two Japanese physics societies in the three years since the 3rd IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics was held in 2008 are reported.

  8. 78 FR 7987 - Coordination of Policies and Programs To Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women and Girls...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... Equality and Female Empowerment Policy. The Millennium Challenge Corporation issued Gender Integration... Secretary may direct, assist in: (i) implementing existing and developing new policies, strategies, and..., its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person. (e) The Secretary of State is hereby...

  9. "Are We There Yet?" The Quest for Gender Equity in Family Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrushko, Kelly

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the pay disparity between men and women and the expectation that women should be the sole primary caregivers of children. Suggests that these problems must be addressed and equal pay and parental leave policies altered if equality between men and women and in families is to be achieved. (Contains 22 references.) (Author/JOW)

  10. Reviewing the Suitability of Affirmative Action and the Inherent Requirements of the Job as Grounds of Justification to Equal Pay Claims in Terms Of the Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998

    OpenAIRE

    Shamier

    2018-01-01

    The Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998 ("EEA") has been amended to include a specific provision dealing with equal pay claims in the form of section 6(4). Section 6(4) of the EEA prohibits unfair discrimination in terms and conditions of employment between employees performing the same or substantially the same work or work of equal value. The Minister of Labour has issued Regulations and a Code to assist with the implementation of the principle of equal pay. Both the Regulations and the Code s...

  11. Responding to the Gender and Education Millennium Development Goals in South Africa and Kenya: Reflections on Education Rights, Gender Equality, Capabilities and Global Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterhalter, Elaine; North, Amy

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores understandings of gender equality and education and the nature of global goal and target setting, drawing on empirical data collected in central and local government departments in Kenya and South Africa reflecting on their implementation of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 1, concerned with poverty, MDG 2, concerned with…

  12. Can Gender Differences in Educational Performance of 15-Year-Old Migrant Pupils Be Explained by Societal Gender Equality in Origin and Destination Countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronkers, Jaap; Kornder, Nils

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we attempt to explain the differences between reading and math scores of migrants' children (8430 daughters and 8526 sons) in 17 OECD destination countries, coming from 45 origin countries or regions, using PISA 2009 data. In addition to the societal gender equality levels of the origin and destination countries (the gender…

  13. Gender Equity On-line: Messages Portrayed with and about the New Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knupfer, Nancy Nelson; And Others

    This paper examines gender messages within advertisements and informational, technology-focused materials that are targeted toward a general population of consumers. The pattern of gender bias in visual messages and stereotyping which prevails in advertising appears to be carrying the same messages from print to television and into the newest…

  14. Making non-discrimination and equal opportunity a reality in Kenya's health provider education system: results of a gender analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Constance; Kimeu, Anastasiah; Shamblin, Leigh; Penders, Christopher; McQuide, Pamela A; Bwonya, Judith

    2011-01-01

    IntraHealth International's USAID-funded Capacity Kenya project conducted a performance needs assessment of the Kenya health provider education system in 2010. Various stakeholders shared their understandings of the role played by gender and identified opportunities to improve gender equality in health provider education. Findings suggest that occupational segregation, sexual harassment and discrimination based on pregnancy and family responsibilities present problems, especially for female students and faculty. To grow and sustain its workforce over the long term, Kenyan human resource leaders and managers must act to eliminate gender-based obstacles by implementing existing non-discrimination and equal opportunity policies and laws to increase the entry, retention and productivity of students and faculty. Families and communities must support girls' schooling and defer early marriage. All this will result in a fuller pool of students, faculty and matriculated health workers and, ultimately, a more robust health workforce to meet Kenya's health challenges.

  15. Gender equality in academic research on epilepsy-a study on scientific authorships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendels, Michael H K; Wanke, Eileen; Schöffel, Norman; Bauer, Jan; Quarcoo, David; Groneberg, David A

    2017-10-01

    The study aims to elucidate the state of gender equality in epilepsy research, analyzing the representation of female authorships from 2008 to 2016. Gendermetrics aided in analyzing 106,282 authorships from 22,180 epilepsy-related original research articles. The key methodology was the combined analysis of the relative frequency and the odds ratio of female authorships. The Prestige Index measures the distribution of prestigious authorships between the two genders. The following were held by women: 39.6% of all authorships and 44.1% of the first, 41.0% of the co-, and 29.0% of the last authorships. Female authors have an odds ratio of 1.25 (95% CI 1.21-1.29) for first, 1.17 (CI 1.14-1.20) for co-, and 0.57 (CI 0.55-0.59) for last authorships. The female authorship ratios showed substantial growth in recent years, with an annual growth rate of 1.7% overall, with 2.4% for first, 1.4% for co-, and 1.9% for last authorships. Women publish fewer articles compared to men (43.8% female authors hold 39.6% of the authorships). Women are also less likely to secure prestigious authorships in articles with many authors that attract the highest citation rates. Multi-author articles with male key authors are cited slightly more frequently than articles with female key authors. Distinct differences at the country level were revealed. The prognosis for the next decade forecasts significantly increasing female odds for first authorships and only slightly higher female odds for last authorships. A female authorship ratio of 49.2% is predicted for the year 2026. The integration of women in the scientific field of epilepsy is advanced. However, a dichotomy is present: Although the current system promotes early career steps, there is an apparent lack of female research leaders. This structural imbalance is expected to grow in the next decade due to the consistently high increase of female early career researchers. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  16. Male and Female Sexual Dysfunction in a Rapidly Changing Cultural Environment: Addressing Gender Equality versus Equivalence in the Bedroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Marianne; Morgentaler, Abraham

    2016-04-01

    The socio-sexual climate in Western cultures is changing at an astounding rate. Never before have societal expectations about gender roles shifted so radically, transforming our understanding of what it means to be a sexual man or woman today. We have observed that confusion regarding masculine and feminine roles within long-term committed relationships can represent challenges for the treatment of sexual dysfunction. Despite the relevance to sexual medicine, sexual medicine specialists have largely avoided this controversial topic. To review the current literature relating to heterosexual gender roles and sexual intimacy, to offer perspective and context on this issue, and to propose an approach to the man, woman, or couple based in evolutionary theory that we have found useful in our extensive clinical experiences. We reviewed the English-language peer-reviewed literature, primarily from 2000 through 2015, that addressed the impact of heterosexual gender role expression on sexual intimacy in long-term committed relationships. Main outcomes include a review of the applicable literature and an assessment of the literature's relevance for patients and practitioners of sexual medicine. An alternative context for understanding heterosexual gender expression grounded in evolutionary theory is provided, as is a new treatment perspective based on our work as a sex therapist and an urologist. The impact of gender expression on sexual experience might be impossible to ascertain fully because it is difficult to quantify in research, independently and especially in combination. Furthermore, existing research is fraught with challenges and inadequacies. Although we acknowledge and affirm the critical importance of gender equality, modern conceptualizations of gender in the literature ignore pertinent evolutionary adaptations and might be minimally applicable to sexual medicine patients. More research is needed. We propose that equality of genders does not necessarily mean

  17. Gender-typing, Performance and Achievement-related Behaviour in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender-related equity and quality in mathematics, science and technology (MST) education is concerned with creating equal opportunity for both sexes to access quality education in these areas. But the level of equity and quality in MST education are both group as well as individual variables. In other words, even if they ...

  18. Should governments in Europe be more aggressive in pushing for gender equality to raise fertility? The first "YES"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Toulemon

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Together with three colleagues, I have been asked by the MPIDR to debate the following question: "Should governments in Europe be more aggressive in pushing for gender equality to raise fertility? Setting aside the "lighthearted" side of this "Rostocker Debate," (12 minutes for each speech, one minute for each comment, I saw this as a good opportunity to think about the stakes behind the question. In order to address this complex issue, it is necessary to think about the many "preliminary questions" that we have to ponder before responding: Why should fertility be raised? Are political measures legitimate? Are they efficient? On what basis are we qualified to give "expert" opinions on such a topic? When the question comes to the fore, we as scholars are sometimes asked to provide an answer. It would, of course, be more comfortable not to answer, but our interlocutors (politicians, journalists, teachers, and also funding agencies often want a definite response one way or the other. Even though our position may be a matter of politics as well as a matter of science, we must give an answer. The empirical evidence shows that European countries where gender inequality is lower are also the countries where fertility is the highest. This is the evidence-based response that we can give to that question. European countries need to find a new equilibrium after the end of the baby boom period, when gender equality was very low. In all countries, the empowerment of women is underway, thanks to the economic independence given by work-related income. Increasing gender equality is an efficient way to reduce the opportunity costs of having and raising children, and thus to increase fertility. Finally, "pushing for gender equality" may have many positive effects other than raising fertility, and has few negative side effects. Gender equality is thus a convenient political aim per se; an institutional goal which leaves many political questions open. So, yes, we

  19. Does Increased Access Increase Equality? Gender and Child Health Investments in India

    OpenAIRE

    Emily Oster

    2006-01-01

    Policymakers often argue that increasing access to health care is one crucial avenue for decreasing gender inequality in the developing world. Although this is generally true in the cross section, time series evidence does not always point to the same conclusion. This paper analyzes the relationship between access to child health investments and gender inequality in those health investments in India. A simple theory of gender-biased parental investment suggests that gender inequality may actu...

  20. Gender and School Uniform: A Case Study in fairness and equity

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston-Coutts, Hayley

    2017-01-01

    Do the stakeholders (executive, parents and teaching staff) believe that students in private schools who are required to wear a formal school uniform able to access school resources equally? Do they participate equally in school life and is the financial outlay for a formal school uniform equitable for boys and girls? Many private school students are compelled to wear a school uniform that causes a variety of issues for all students but especially for the female stude...