WorldWideScience

Sample records for gender based violence

  1. Social constructions of gender roles, gender-based violence and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The links between gender roles, gender-based violence and HIV/AIDS risk are complex and culturally specific. In this qualitative study we investigated how women and men in two black communities in the Western Cape, South Africa, constructed their gender identities and roles, how they understood gender-based violence ...

  2. Gender-based violence: a crucial challenge for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjel, S

    2013-01-01

    This article attempts to summarize the situations of gender-based violence, a major public health issue. Due to the unequal power relations between men and women, women are violated either in family, in the community or in the State. Gender-based violence takes different forms like physical, sexual or psychological/ emotional violence. The causes of gender-based violence are multidimensional including social, economic, cultural, political and religious. The literatures written in relation to the gender-based violence are accessed using electronic databases as PubMed, Medline and Google scholar, Google and other Internet Websites between 1994 and first quarter of 2013 using an internet search from the keywords such as gender-based violence, women violence, domestic violence, wife abuse, violence during pregnancy, women sexual abuse, political gender based violence, cultural gender-based violence, economical gender-based violence, child sexual abuse and special forms of gender-based violence in Nepal. As GBVs remain one of the most rigorous challenges of women's health and well-being, it is one of the indispensable issues of equity and social justice. To create a gender-based violence free environment, a lot works has to be done. Hence, it is suggested to provide assistance to the victims of violence developing the mechanism to support them.

  3. 16 Days of Activism against Gender-Based Violence | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-11-25

    Nov 25, 2017 ... The International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women on November 25 ... against gender-based violence and culminates with Human Rights Day ... to Canada's strong voice in the fight against sexual violence.

  4. Media approach to gender-based violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mršević Zorica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author grounds her research and the latter analysis on continually conducted daily press-clipping of seven main printed daily newspapers and two main electronic media in Serbia, within the three years period (2009 - 2011. An analysis of media reports on gender based violence, with particular focus on the most frequent domestic violence cases within the two years period, 2010 to 2011 is presented. As the best of media reports on gender based violence, the author stressed out its „whistle blower“ role - media are the main source of information on cases, dimensions and forms of gender based violence. Also the worse moments of media reporting in the mentioned period are presented - when the violence was justified or when reality is deformed by presenting these cases as romantic love stories. For example, in 2010 the worst was reporting on the „Pajčin/Kapisoda“ case, while in 2011 it was the „Ponjiger“ case. In the end, the author also warned on the worrysome fact of sudden dissapearance of media reports on partners’ murdering their wives after the last such report published in mid-october 2011, which could mean that now we have a new problem of diminished freedom of media.

  5. Do Social and Cultural Factors Perpetuate Gender Based Violence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender based violence in Malawi exist at a level that requires special acknowledgement. A survey was conducted to assess how social and cultural factors affect gender-based violence in Malawi. The study revealed that both men and women are victims of gender based violence although women bare the brunt of the ...

  6. Gender-Based Violence Prevention. Issues in Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on gender-based violence prevention. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Preventing Gender-Based Violence: An Overview (Linda Langford); (2) Q&A With Amelia Cobb; (3) Denim Day at HBCUs; (4) Dear Colleague Letter; (5) ED Grants for Violence Prevention; and (6) Higher Education Center…

  7. Gender Based Violence among Infertile Women In Mara Region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines women to women marriages (nyumba ntobhu) and its relation with gender-based violence (GBV) in Serengeti District of Mara Region. It also explores types of gender-based violence and consequences of women to women marriages among women, girls and children in the society. Both quantitative ...

  8. Effects of gender based violence on neurocognitive functioning in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Gender based violence is being recognized as a global problem1. Given the rampant trends of violence against women and girls in Zambia which include battery, sexual abuse and exploitation, sexual cleansing, assault and other forms of violence2, women are prone to increasingly mental health problems.

  9. Mainstreaming domestic and gender-based violence into sociology and the criminology of violence

    OpenAIRE

    Walby, Sylvia; Towers, Jude; Francis, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Sociological and criminological views of domestic and gender-based violence generally either dismiss it as not worthy of consideration, or focus on specific groups of offenders and victims (male youth gangs, partner violence victims). In this paper, we take a holistic approach to violence, extending the definition from that commonly in use to encompass domestic violence and sexual violence. We operationalize that definition by using data from the latest sweep of the Crime Survey for England a...

  10. Mainstreaming domestic and gender-based violence into sociology and the criminology of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walby, Sylvia; Towers, Jude; Francis, Brian

    2014-12-01

    Sociological and criminological views of domestic and gender-based violence generally either dismiss it as not worthy of consideration, or focus on specific groups of offenders and victims (male youth gangs, partner violence victims). In this paper, we take a holistic approach to violence, extending the definition from that commonly in use to encompass domestic violence and sexual violence. We operationalize that definition by using data from the latest sweep of the Crime Survey for England and Wales. By so doing, we identify that violence is currently under-measured and ubiquitous; that it is gendered, and that other forms of violence (family violence, acquaintance violence against women) are equally of concern. We argue that violence studies are an important form of activity for sociologists.

  11. Mainstreaming domestic and gender-based violence into sociology and the criminology of violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walby, Sylvia; Towers, Jude; Francis, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Sociological and criminological views of domestic and gender-based violence generally either dismiss it as not worthy of consideration, or focus on specific groups of offenders and victims (male youth gangs, partner violence victims). In this paper, we take a holistic approach to violence, extending the definition from that commonly in use to encompass domestic violence and sexual violence. We operationalize that definition by using data from the latest sweep of the Crime Survey for England and Wales. By so doing, we identify that violence is currently under-measured and ubiquitous; that it is gendered, and that other forms of violence (family violence, acquaintance violence against women) are equally of concern. We argue that violence studies are an important form of activity for sociologists. PMID:25641992

  12. Prevalence and Correlates of Gender-based Violence among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The extent of this problem in educational institutions has not been explored in Northern Nigeria. ... Keywords: Gender-based violence female university students. Introduction ..... depression, while one attributed poor academic achievement to ...

  13. Combating gender based violence in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberata Gahongayire

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Gender Based Violence (GBV exists in Rwanda as in many other African societies. Efforts are being made by Governments and NGOs to curb the menace and help its victims. This study examines these efforts with particular reference to the city of Kigali in Rwanda. The study reveals the prevalence and various strategies used by government and other organisations in combating the practice of GBV. According to the study effective response to the plight of GBV victims depends on the competence and expertise of various individuals and organisations involved in giving assistance to victims. The establishment of a one-stop assistance centre for GBV services in Kigali has successfully given much needed aid to victims. The study recommends that in order to eradicate GBV all the stakeholders should utilize available resources. Logistical, economic and socio-cultural constraints should be dealt with accordingly. Above all, the judiciary has a crucial role to play. An effective judicial system is needed to curb the practice.

  14. Factors Influencing Gender Based Violence among Men and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the factors associated with gender based violence among 3000 men and women in selected states in Nigeria. Respondents who had experienced physical violence were 806(26.9%), comprising 353(11.8%) males and 453(15.1%) females (p<0.001). Respondents who had experienced sexual ...

  15. Gender Considerations in Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, Renee; Friedman, Susan Hatters; Hall, Ryan

    2016-12-01

    The role of gender in violence is poorly understood. Research has shown that gender has an important and, at times, distinct role in the prediction of violence. However, this gender disparity diminishes in the setting of mental illness. The risk assessment of violence in women is largely based on research in violent men. There are distinct characteristics in female violence compared with male violence. Attention to these characteristics may lead to the development of gender-dependent tools that can be used to evaluate violence risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Reducing Vulnerability to Sexual and Gender-Based Violence in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    electoral violence in Kenya since the 1990s, the fact that a considerable part of that violence was gender and sexual in nature has gone largely unnoticed. The Nairobi Women's Hospital Gender Violence Recovery Center reports that between ...

  17. The Impact of Gender Based Violence on Stability and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    Resources/costsandimpactsofgbv.pdf (accessed November 4, 2010). 4 Gender Secretariat, Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency ( SIDA ...Action Plan for Sida’s Work Against Gender-Based Violence, 2008-2010 ( SIDA , Department of Democracy and Development). 5 Inger Skjelsbaek and Dan Smith

  18. Voices of Women Teachers about Gender Inequalities and Gender-Based Violence in Rural South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Naydene; Mitchell, Claudia; Bhana, Deevia

    2012-01-01

    Gender-based violence is a reality in many societies and is linked to the spread of HIV and AIDS. There have been numerous studies that have attempted to acquire an understanding of the breadth and depth of the issues around gender-based violence. However, one area that has received scant attention is the voices of women teachers. Thus, in this…

  19. Rethinking gender-based violence during war: is violence against civilian men a problem worth addressing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linos, Natalia

    2009-04-01

    Gender-based violence during conflict and post-conflict situations has received increased attention in research and in the work of development agencies. Viewed primarily as a form of violence against women, this commentary questions whether male civilians have also been victims of gender-based violence during conflict, invisible due to stereotypes surrounding masculinity and a culturally permissive approach towards violence perpetrated against men, especially at times of war. The experience of civilian males of violence, including sexual violence, during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina and other contemporary wars, suggests that the discourse on gender-based violence and public health research should begin exploring the specific needs of men. Drawing on Nancy Krieger's (Krieger, N. (2003). Genders, sexes, and health: what are the connections-and why does it matter? International Journal of Epidemiology, 32, 652-657) analysis on the differential role of 'sex' and 'gender' on a given exposure-outcome association, this commentary suggests that the impact of gender-based violence on health during conflict may be different for men and women and may require distinct therapeutic approaches. Given that perpetrators are often male, an extra level of stigma is added when heterosexual men are sexually violated, which may lead to underreporting and reduced health-service seeking behavior. Further public health research is needed to guide the work of humanitarian agencies working with survivors of gender-based violence in conflict and post-conflict settings to ensure equal access to appropriate health services for men and women.

  20. Gender-based violence and the need for evidence-based primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender-based violence is a significant problem globally and in South Africa. The public and political discourse has been dominated by calls for increased penalties and convictions for perpetrators of various types of gender-based violence. However, these responses are unlikely to prevent such violence from occurring in ...

  1. GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE: COMPARING THE EXPERIENCES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    One of the biggest challenge Sudanese women encounters in their host ... as well as embracing the new culture which presents them with opportunities of furthering ... and attained higher education are less likely to secure jobs due to gender based ... However, the women continue to experience, within the Sudanese.

  2. Prevalence and risk factors for gender based violence during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Gender Based Violence (GBV) is a pervasive and systemic public health problem affecting pregnant women but there is paucity of data on the magnitude of GBV during pregnancy and the factors associated with it in Kenya, particularly in areas where the prevalence of GBV in the general population is ...

  3. Eliminating gender-based violence: learning from the widowhood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender-based violence has received increased international focus since after the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo 1994 and the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing in 1995. This paper reports the activities and outcome of a Christian women group initiative to eliminate ...

  4. Experiences of gender based violence among refugee populations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and concealment that are associated with numerous capacity challenges in access and utilisation of the available services. The extreme conditions that refugees go through during displacement, flight and resettlement tend to exacerbate and sustain GBV. Keywords: Experiences, Gender Based Violence, Refugee Camps ...

  5. Gender-Based Violence among Married Women in Debre Tabor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Gender-based violence is one of the major public health problems in Ethiopia. This study ... This study revealed that the attitude of people and traditional norms played the major role in determining the ..... If they do, they see it as their fault. That.

  6. Factors contributing to physical Gender Based Violence reported at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    46987.2

    violence, and poverty as well as income disparities and gender inequality stand out as important community and. 4 societal factors. Copperbelt ... of all urban married women had to seek hospital treatment. 9 following domestic violence.

  7. Gender-based violence in the Spanish cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz OGANDO DÍAZ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Complex phenomena are hardly understood from one single viewpoint. Cinema has a polyhedral approach that discloses the hidden faces of reality. There are many aspects to be shown in gender?based violence (GBV, such as its genesis and the causes of its durability; emotional abuse in the form of controlling behaviors, isolation and submission; and the consequences of all this. The range of operation for GBV is very wide (within the couple, in the family and the workplace, institutional and community?based, among others, as much as it is universal, cutting across social class, race, economic status, religion or nationality. Movies may prove useful in revealing violent male?chauvinist behaviors, some of them so deeply rooted in societies that they tend to become normalized and to go unnoticed. In spite of the efforts towards visibility, and understanding and stopping violence against women, the phenomenon remains largely unknown. The movie industry is now beginning to reflect it in motion pictures, sometimes in a more explicit or argumentative manner, at other times more covertly or obliquely. We have made a selection of ten Spanish movies depicting some of these multiple facets: violence against women in the domestic domain, sexual violence, and violence related to economic and sociocultural aspects.

  8. Research calls for preventive approach to gender-based violence in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-04

    May 4, 2016 ... While several studies have been conducted on gender-based violence in ... Members of the GESTES research team present findings to Canadian ... women and girls experience sexual or physical violence in their lifetime.

  9. Gender based violence and psychosocial intervention at Quito. Weaving narratives to construct new meanings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paz Guarderas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Very few studies have been done in Ecuador on psychosocial interventions involving gender violence. This article, based on research carried out in Quito with people who have experienced this type of violence, is intended to contribute to the debate on the subject. Through narrative production methodology, we hope to construct new meanings of psychosocial intervention and gender violence. The participants offer conceptions of gender violence that go beyond aspects usually taken into account in the creation of laws and services. They point out that current psychosocial intervention in response to gender violence tends to homogenize women, providing services that reduce these situations to woman/victim-man/perpetrator scenarios.

  10. Women working at university restaurants: life and work conditions and gender-based violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristina Maxima Pereira Venancio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This is an exploratory and descriptive study with a quantitative approach that aimed to understand the social production and reproduction processes of women working at university restaurants and the occurrence and the magnitude of gender-based violence committed against them by their intimate partners. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews. The analysis categories used were social production and reproduction, gender and gender-based violence. The interviewees held a subordinate social position during the productive and reproductive periods of their lives. Approximately 70% reported having experienced gender-based violence from an intimate partner (66% psychological violence, 36.3% physical violence and 28.6% sexual violence. Most of the health problems resulting from violence were related to mental health. The results indicate that the situation requires immediate interventions, mostly guided by the instrumentalization of these women and the support by the state and the university as appropriate to address violence.

  11. Preventing Gender-based Violence in Senegal | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... agreements that protect women from violence and has the laws, strategies, and ... and giving them an opportunity to increase their skills in the areas of gender ... conference of McGill's Institute for the Study of International Development.

  12. Depressive Symptoms among Female College Students Experiencing Gender-Based Violence in Awassa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaye, Bizu; Arnold, Dodie; Williams, Michelle A.; Goshu, Miruts; Berhane, Yemane

    2009-01-01

    Little epidemiologic research has focused on the mental health effects of gender-based violence among sub-Saharan African women. The objective of this study was to assess risk of depression and depressive symptoms among 1,102 female undergraduate students who were victims of gender-based violence. Students who reported experience of any…

  13. The Evolution of Policy Enactment on Gender-Based Violence in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how policies and strategies to address school-related gender-based violence have evolved since 2000, when gender-based violence within education was largely invisible. Through an exploration of policy enactment in three countries--Liberia, South Africa, and Brazil--it traces remarkable progress in policy, programmes, and…

  14. Research calls for preventive approach to gender-based violence in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Their research looked at the root causes and impacts of violence against women and also assessed the effectiveness of existing strategies to prevent and combat gender-based violence. Their work has identified key strategies to strengthen civil society and public organizations engaged in preventing violence against ...

  15. Commentary: Gender-based Violence among the (Hmong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Lemoine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prepared for the Seminar on Cultural Factors in the Prevention and Promotion of Gender-Based Violence held at UNESCO Bangkok on 17-18 May 2012, this article presents the current state of the subject in the patrilineal, patrilocal and patriarchal (Hmong society.After delineating carefully (Hmong GBV through rape, marriage customs, domestic verbal and physical abuses and, in some cases, murder, the author investigates the roots of GBV in different directions: gender asymmetry and inequality; tribal culture and the clan system; the function of the bride price; women’s social mobility in the U.S. and values clashes with American values. After a thorough anthropological analysis, the author concludes that GBV has nothing to do with the clan system, the backbone of the tribal society, but rather involves a long-lasting borrowing of Chinese patterns from the (Hmong past in Imperial China, which could be amended. Gender inequality will hopefully regress if shame, a powerful means ofsocial control among the (Hmong, is used to deter GBV.

  16. Sexual and Gender-Based Violence : What is the World Bank Doing and What Have We Learned, A Strategic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Alys M. Willman; Crystal Corman

    2013-01-01

    Sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) is the most prevalent form of gender inequality. More than one third of the women in the world have experienced some form of gender based violence. The impacts of such violence extend far beyond the individual survivors, affecting households and communities, and spanning across generations. SGBV is widely recognized as a development constraint that f...

  17. Ending gender violence | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-11-18

    Nov 18, 2014 ... In no way should gender-based violence and sexual harassment be ... against women are men, any long-term solution to prevent violence and harassment ... roles in both preventing and condemning violence against women.

  18. Ending sexual and gender-based violence: from knowledge to action

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    most pervasive and unreported type of gender-based violence ... Ineffective laws offer limited or no protection to victims, with ... India: With support from IDRC, Peace and Equality ... 21 schools to raise awareness of child sexual abuse,.

  19. Violence against adolescents: an analysis based on the categories gender and generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Gessner

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Exploratory and descriptive study based on quantitative and qualitative methods that analyze the phenomenon of violence against adolescents based on gender and generational categories. The data source was reports of violence from the Curitiba Protection Network from 2010 to 2012 and semi-structured interviews with 16 sheltered adolescents. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20.0 and the qualitative data were subjected to content analysis. The adolescents were victims of violence in the household and outside of the family environment, as victims or viewers of violence. The violence was experienced at home, mostly toward girls, with marked overtones of gender violence. More than indicating the magnitude of the issue, this study can give information to help qualify the assistance given to victimized people and address how to face this issue.

  20. Testing a Dual Process Model of Gender-Based Violence: A Laboratory Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, Danielle S; Zeichner, Amos

    2016-01-01

    The dire impact of gender-based violence on society compels development of models comprehensive enough to capture the diversity of its forms. Research has established hostile sexism (HS) as a robust predictor of gender-based violence. However, to date, research has yet to link men's benevolent sexism (BS) to physical aggression toward women, despite correlations between BS and HS and between BS and victim blaming. One model, the opposing process model of benevolent sexism (Sibley & Perry, 2010), suggests that, for men, BS acts indirectly through HS to predict acceptance of hierarchy-enhancing social policy as an expression of a preference for in-group dominance (i. e., social dominance orientation [SDO]). The extent to which this model applies to gender-based violence remains untested. Therefore, in this study, 168 undergraduate men in a U. S. university participated in a competitive reaction time task, during which they had the option to shock an ostensible female opponent as a measure of gender-based violence. Results of multiple-mediation path analyses indicated dual pathways potentiating gender-based violence and highlight SDO as a particularly potent mechanism of this violence. Findings are discussed in terms of group dynamics and norm-based violence prevention.

  1. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE REGULATIONS ON GENDER BASED VIOLENCE IN ROMANIA AND SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAVINIA MIHAELA VLADILA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I will present the evolution of the regulation of gender based violence in Romania and Spain. This new theme is one of actuality, due to the situations that frequently happen in our social life. Both Romania and Spain have a high level of gender based violence, even if nowadays in our country are few statistics on this matter. But also, both countries now enjoy good legislations, which have been developed in the last 10 years.

  2. Dimensions of gender-based violence against Syrian refugees in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghida Anani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessments of the impact of the Syrian crisis indicate high levels of sexual and gender-based violence, with rape, assault, intimate partner violence and survival sex appearing increasingly common. Humanitarian agencies urgently need to work together to address this trend.

  3. Instructor Strategies for Responding to Disclosures of Gender-Based Violence on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Jennifer L.; Godderis, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    While increasing attention has been paid to the issue of sexual violence (SV) on university and college campuses, there is a paucity of research about how post-secondary instructors should respond to student disclosures of SV and other forms of gender-based violence (GBV). The limited amount of evidence suggests instructors who receive disclosures…

  4. Doorways III: Teacher Training Manual on School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). Teachers can play a central role in violence prevention, and they can also help…

  5. Ending sexual and gender-based violence: from knowledge to action

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... speak out and share common experiences had a significant impact on the psychological recovery and emotional well-being of these women. Read about what IDRC grantees are doing to challenge impunity against sexual violence in our brochure, Ending sexual and gender-based violence in English, French or Spanish ...

  6. Introduction: gender-based violence and international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Brysk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Violence against women (according to the WHO, one in three women worldwide suffers from gender violence is an issue of global security as well as of human rights. Because these human security violations have a very significant impact on development, conflict, public health and transnational flows, they merit study from the international relations perspective. We find that academic research into the links between neoliberal development and insecurity, the response via the mobilisation of international institutions for legal and public policy reform, and the rise of transnational social movements contributes and enriches our understanding of the dynamics and the direction to of globalisation, as well as the well-being of over a billion of our planet’s female inhabitants.

  7. A Black Experience-Based Approach to Gender-Based Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent-Goodley, Tricia B.

    2009-01-01

    Gender-based violence (GBV) affects women across race, ethnicity, age, socioeconomic status, religion, sexual orientation, and geographic boundaries. No segments of society are immune from the vestiges of this problem. Yet GBV has been particularly harmful within communities of African ancestry African American communities suffer with greater…

  8. Doorways I: Student Training Manual on School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). "Doorways I: Student Training Manual on School-Related Gender-Based Violence…

  9. Factors contributing to physical gender based violence reported at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    based violence (GBV). Design: A case control study was conducted at Ndola Central Hospital Casualty Department. The study was conducted from December 2015 to July 2016. A sample size of 85 cases and 85 controls was calculatedafter a pilot ...

  10. Prevalence and correlates of gender-based violence among female university students in Northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliyasu, Zubairu; Abubakar, Isa S; Aliyu, Muktar H; Galadanci, Hadiza S; Salihu, Hamisu M

    2011-09-01

    Gender-based violence (GBV) is a major public health and human rights problem worldwide. The extent of this problem in educational institutions has not been explored in Northern Nigeria. Using self administered questionnaires, we determined the prevalence and risk factors for gender-based violence among 300 female university students in Kano, Northern Nigeria. The overall prevalence of gender-based violence was 58.8% [95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 52.9% to 64.5%]. Specifically, 22.8%, 22.2% and 50.8% of students experienced physical, sexual or emotional violence respectively. Religious affiliation ethnicity, indigeneship, marital status, campus residence and faculty affiliation were significant predictors of GBV. GBV awareness creation programs, legal protection and implementation of an effective redress mechanism are recommended to curb this menace.

  11. Violence against adolescents: an analysis based on the categories gender and generation

    OpenAIRE

    Gessner, Rafaela; Fonseca, Rosa Maria Godoy Serpa da; Oliveira, Rebeca Nunes Guedes de

    2014-01-01

    Exploratory and descriptive study based on quantitative and qualitative methods that analyze the phenomenon of violence against adolescents based on gender and generational categories. The data source was reports of violence from the Curitiba Protection Network from 2010 to 2012 and semi-structured interviews with 16 sheltered adolescents. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20.0 and the qualitative data were subjected to content analysis. The adolescents were victims ...

  12. 16 Days of Activism against Gender-Based Violence | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-11-25

    Nov 25, 2017 ... The International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women on ... contributes to Canada's strong voice in the fight against sexual violence. ... maternal and child health, and women's economic empowerment — also ...

  13. Prevalence and structural correlates of gender based violence among a prospective cohort of female sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Kate; Kerr, T; Strathdee, S A; Shoveller, J; Montaner, J S; Tyndall, M W

    2009-08-11

    To examine the prevalence and structural correlates of gender based violence against female sex workers in an environment of criminalised prostitution. Prospective observational study. Vancouver, Canada during 2006-8. Female sex workers 14 years of age or older (inclusive of transgender women) who used illicit drugs (excluding marijuana) and engaged in street level sex work. Self reported gender based violence. Of 267 female sex workers invited to participate, 251 women returned to the study office and consented to participate (response rate of 94%). Analyses were based on 237 female sex workers who completed a baseline visit and at least one follow-up visit. Of these 237 female sex workers, 57% experienced gender based violence over an 18 month follow-up period. In multivariate models adjusted for individual and interpersonal risk practices, the following structural factors were independently correlated with violence against female sex workers: homelessness (adjusted odds ratio for physical violence (aOR(physicalviolence)) 2.14, 95% confidence interval 1.34 to 3.43; adjusted odds ratio for rape (aOR(rape)) 1.73, 1.09 to 3.12); inability to access drug treatment (adjusted odds ratio for client violence (aOR(clientviolence)) 2.13, 1.26 to 3.62; aOR(physicalviolence) 1.96, 1.03 to 3.43); servicing clients in cars or public spaces (aOR(clientviolence) 1.50, 1.08 to 2.57); prior assault by police (aOR(clientviolence) 3.45, 1.98 to 6.02; aOR(rape) 2.61, 1.32 to 5.16); confiscation of drug use paraphernalia by police without arrest (aOR(physicalviolence) 1.50, 1.02 to 2.41); and moving working areas away from main streets owing to policing (aOR(clientviolence) 2.13, 1.26 to 3.62). Our results demonstrate an alarming prevalence of gender based violence against female sex workers. The structural factors of criminalisation, homelessness, and poor availability of drug treatment independently correlated with gender based violence against street based female sex workers. Socio

  14. Challenging structures through addressing gender-based violence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Getting the past right in West Africa and beyond: Addressing gender-based ... 2 See Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women .... 6 The Protocol to the African Charter on Human and People's Rights on the ...

  15. GENDER ISSUES IN WORKPLACE VIOLENCE

    OpenAIRE

    STAICULESCU Ana Rodica

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a response to the problem of workplace gender violence and the power relationships between males and females in organizational theory. Victimization based on gender is afflicting society as a whole, but is also relevant to the construction of social attitudes at the workplace. Thus, we will present how the context of work relationships can be affected by acts of verbal and physical intimidation engaged by gender inequality and what are the consequences for managers. Moreover, we...

  16. Gender-Based Violence: Young Women's Experiences in the Slums and Streets of Three Sub-Saharan African Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduro, Georgina Yaa; Swartz, Sharlene; Arnot, Madeleine

    2012-01-01

    Using a social ecological approach (Bronfenbrenner) to violence and including Hobsbawm's historical analysis of the collective uses of violence, this article shows how gender-based violence is experienced and used. Drawing on three distinct studies in Ghana, Kenya and South Africa, it shows the commonalities and divergence of young people's…

  17. Evaluation of a gender-based violence prevention program for student athletes in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth; Das, Madhumita; Tancredi, Daniel J; McCauley, Heather L; Virata, Maria Catrina D; Nettiksimmons, Jasmine; O'Connor, Brian; Ghosh, Sancheeta; Verma, Ravi

    2014-03-01

    Gender-based violence, which includes sexual and intimate partner violence against women, is prevalent worldwide, prompting calls for primary prevention programs which engage men and boys in changing social norms that condone violence against women. Bystander intervention efforts which encourage males to say something to stop peers from enacting disrespectful and abusive behaviors toward females are a promising strategy for promoting non-violent, gender-equitable attitudes and behaviors. An evaluation of "Parivartan"--a U.S. program called "Coaching Boys Into Men" adapted for urban India cricket teams--was conducted in Mumbai, India. Baseline and 12 month follow-up surveys were administered to 309 male cricket athletes aged 10 to 16 years in 46 urban middle schools in Mumbai, India (27 intervention, 19 control). Athletes whose coaches were trained in the program demonstrated greater improvements in gender-equitable attitudes compared to athletes whose coaches provided standard coaching only. Marginally significant improvements were seen in reduction of negative bystander behavior. Violence prevention programs which utilize coaches as positive messengers for respect and non-violence may be a useful addition to global prevention efforts to reduce violence against women.

  18. Gender-Based Violence in India: Long-Term Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simister, John; Mehta, Parnika S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines long-term trends in Indian society regarding domestic violence between husband and wife, and attitudes to such violence. This article analyzes crime data and uses data from several Indian household surveys: "Work Attitudes and Spending" surveys (1992 to 2007); "World Values Survey" (1990, 1995, 2001, and…

  19. Frequency and physical factors associated with gender-based violence in the internally displaced people of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qayum, Mehran; Mohmand, Sundas; Arooj, Hina

    2012-01-01

    Gender-based violence frequency and associated physical factors were determined in internally displaced people camp of Jalozai (Pakistan). Majority of families reported that security conditions were lacking and washrooms were neither illuminated (68%, n=29) nor locked (82%, n=31). Reported incidents of emotional violence were 56% (n=35), physical violence 42% (n=26) and sexual violence 18% (n=11). Health facilities reported 12 cases of gender-based violence/ month. No health education on prevention of gender-based violence (93%, n=56) neither psychologist was provided by any health facility. There was no refugee committee (95%, n=59) for women protection and health education (93%, n=56) for prevention of gender-based violence was done. To safeguard women and children proper lightening of passage, lock facilities in washrooms and timely reporting of gender-based violence cases should be ensured. This can be established by creating women protection committees and by conducting health education programs for gender-based violence.

  20. Sexual and gender-based violence in the European asylum and reception sector: a perpetuum mobile?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keygnaert, I.; Dias, S.F.; Degomme, O.; Devillé, W.; Kennedy, P.; Kovats, A.; Meyer, S. de; Vettenburg, N.; Roelens, K.; Temmerman, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants are at risk of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and subsequent ill-health in Europe; yet, European minimum reception standards do not address SGBV. Hence, this paper explores the nature of SGBV occurring in this sector and

  1. Sexual and gender-based violence in the European asylum and reception sector: a perpetuum mobile?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keygnaert, I.; Dias, S.F.; Degomme, O.; Devillé, W.; Kennedy, P.; Kováts, A.; De Meyer, S.; Vettenburg, N.; Roelens, K.; Temmerman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants are at risk of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and subsequent ill-health in Europe; yet, European minimum reception standards do not address SGBV. Hence, this paper explores the nature of SGBV occurring in this sector and

  2. Sexual and gender-based violence in the European asylum and reception sector : A perpetuum mobile?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keygnaert, Ines; Dias, Sonia F.; Degomme, Olivier; Devillé, Walter; Kennedy, Patricia; Kováts, András; De Meyer, Sara; Vettenburg, Nicole; Roelens, Kristien; Temmerman, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants are at risk of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and subsequent ill-health in Europe; yet, European minimum reception standards do not address SGBV. Hence, this paper explores the nature of SGBV occurring in this sector and

  3. Josephine's journey: Gender-based violence and Marian devotion in urban Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermkens, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with how, in the urban setting of Madang, Papua New Guinea, Marian devotion is deployed in response to domestic and gender-based violence. While providing insight into the lived religious experiences of Catholic women living in Madang, this article shows how Mary empowers her

  4. Doorways III: Teacher Reference Materials. On School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). This booklet, "Doorways III: Teacher Reference Materials on School-Related…

  5. Josephine’s journey: Gender-based violence and Marian devotion in urban Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermkens, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with how, in the urban setting of Madang, Papua New Guinea, Marian devotion is deployed in response to domestic and gender-based violence. While providing insight into the lived religious experiences of Catholic women living in Madang, this article shows how Mary empowers her

  6. Reducing Vulnerability to Sexual and Gender-Based Violence in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Of those cases, 80% were rapes, 9% physical assaults, 7% domestic violence, ... This study explores strategies that will reduce the vulnerability of women to SGBV ... The research findings will be used to strengthen linkages between Kenya's ...

  7. 21. Effects of Gender Based Violence on Neurocognitive functioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    correlation on both psychological and sexual abuse on working memory r (263) ... to capture violence that occurs as a result of the normative role expectations .... The Working Memory and Attention Domain comprising the Paced Auditory ...

  8. GENDER VIOLENCE IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalva Ruiz-Ramírez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available School violence is multifactorial. Social and cultural, family, personal, and institutional aspects, among others, influence educational institutions, in all academic levels. Because this type of violence is increasingly common and has serious consequences, there is a need to prevent and deal with the different types of violence practiced in schools, such as bullying, mobbing, gender violence, and others. Gender violence in institutions is not produced in this scope, in the strict sense, but rather has its origin in social and cultural aspects, rooted in the patriarchal and androcentric culture. Much has been written on the different forms in which violence affects mostly women in the educational system. This essay, without being thorough, attempts to answer three basic questions on gender violence in educational institutions: Why is there gender violence in educational institutions? How is gender violence manifested in schools? And finally, what actions have been taken to mitigate aggressions against women?

  9. Development and Validation of an Adolescent Gender-Based Violence Scale (ESVIGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Penado-Abilleira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the construction of a new scale to estimate adolescent gender-based violence. The scale is specifically designed for this population and incorporates new forms of violence, such as cyberviolence. The sample consisted of 701 students aged between 13 and 18 years. The internal consistency of the scale showed a high reliability value in the overall scale (α = .965, as well as in the subscales of violence committed (α = .935 and violence suffered (α = .929. The results would suggest that the new scale is not only concise and useful, but also adapted to the current reality of adolescents. With a reduction in the number of items compared to the scales currently available (it has 13 bidirectional statements and a factorial structure with five types of violence (cyber-violence, verbal, physical, psychological, and sexual violence, the scale provides an up-to-date measure of the occurrence of this type of behavior in teen dating relationships.

  10. Gender-based violence, alcohol use, and sexual risk among female patrons of drinking venues in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Eaton, Lisa A; Cain, Demetria; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H; Pieterse, Desiree

    2013-06-01

    Gender-based violence is a well-recognized risk factor for HIV infection among women. Alcohol use is associated with both gender-based violence and sexual risk behavior, but has not been examined as a correlate of both in a context of both high HIV risk and hazardous drinking. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between recent abuse by a sex partner with alcohol and sexual risk behavior among female patrons of alcohol serving venues in South Africa. Specifically, the aim of this study is to determine whether sexual risk behaviors are associated with gender-based violence after controlling for levels of alcohol use. We surveyed 1,388 women attending informal drinking establishments in Cape Town, South Africa to assess recent history of gender-based violence, drinking, and sexual risk behaviors. Gender-based violence was associated with both drinking and sexual risk behaviors after controlling for demographics among the women. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that after controlling for alcohol use sexual risk behavior remained significantly associated with gender-based violence, particularly with meeting a new sex partner at the bar, recent STI diagnosis, and engaging in transactional sex, but not protected intercourse or number of partners. In South Africa where heavy drinking is prevalent women may be at particular risk of physical abuse from intimate partners as well as higher sexual risk. Interventions that aim to reduce gender-based violence and sexual risk behaviors must directly work to reduce drinking behavior.

  11. Gender-Based Violence: The Romanian Public Agenda and its Missing Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Badea

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The current article examines recent trends in the development of public policies addressing gender- based violence in Romania. By undertaking an analysis of the legal and institutional framework from a gender perspective, we seek to understand how and if the new developments have the potential to promote women’s rights and actively support gender equality. As a contextual reading is key to understanding the current dynamics, specific references to the Romanian background will be made along the way. While recent legal progress in this area could indicate a promising perspective, our article will point out the inconsistencies and missing points of current policies, inviting to a cautious and vigilant approach. Potential avenues for improvements, as well as key challenges in how we address violence against women will briefly be discussed.

  12. [Sex/Gender, Violence and Human Rights: Conceptual Perspectives for Approaching Gender-Based Violence against Women from the Health Sector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello-Urrego, Alejandra Del Rocío

    2013-03-01

    Based upon the public health sector perspective, this article explores conceptual approaches to address the issue of gender violence against women. To consider the election of an analysis framework regarding the phenomenon of violence against women in the health sector, in the light of the political implications of becoming a woman in the midst of a specific social order. Expert review of scientific literature published on free-access data bases so as to identify the most commonly used interpretation frameworks with regard to the phenomenon of violence against women in order to explain its political implications according to a specific social order. Becoming woman implies participation in social aspects from an inequity stemming from structural power. This is the reason why violence against women can never be considered away from its roots. i.e., a society that assigns to women social roles that imply diminished possibilities of access to the use of power through a sex/gender system which is binary, hierarchic and exclusive. In public health areas, the selection of interpretation frameworks that do not take into account the structural origin of violence against women contribute to their invisibilization and even to perpetuate it, independently from the conscience of the researcher on the basis of the political burden arising from the use of such frameworks to the detriment of others, or the intention of objectivity regarding frameworks with a heavy political burden that contribute to the maintenance of a sex/gender binary, hierarchic and excluding structure. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. Violence-prevention summit at Virginia Tech tackles bullying, gender-based violence, more

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Bullying in schools, aggression in the workplace, violence against women -- all are complex problems. On Nov. 12 and 13, Virginia Tech hosts a gathering to make recommendations about violence prevention.

  14. Rural youth and violence: a gender perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Barry L; Kulig, Judith; Grant Kalischuk, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    The public health system must consider violence as an all too common reality in modern life. Violence can contribute to long-lasting negative consequences for individuals and communities. Research on violence has primarily focused on urban environments. Research examining youth violence within rural communities is limited. This is particularly the case for the links between gender and violence in small rural settings. The purpose of this study was to examine rural violence from a gender perspective by examining four variables: meaning, causes, consequences and solutions. A survey was completed in Central Alberta, Canada with 178 students from grades 6 to 12. The schools' geographic locations represented two distinct economic settings: one natural resources and the other agriculture. The mean age of the participants was 16 years with 60% of the youth female and 40% male. The survey instrument was composed of demographic questions and 70 questions that focused on violence. Violence was a concern for all youth, but there were gender differences. Females viewed the meaning of violence as having the intent to harm others and causes contributing to violence included television, movies, video games and the internet. Females were more concerned than males about the emotional consequences of violence. For solutions, females were more accepting of intrusive means to control violence such as increased security and stricter school rules, and involving non-peer helpers such as teachers and community based agencies as a means to help combat violence. The results of this study indicate that violence exists among rural youth and causes a great deal of concern. In particular, the study underscores the fact that there are potential gender differences in relation to causes, meaning, impact and solutions to violence. All the youth believed that violence in their lives needs to be addressed and want to develop anti-violence strategies. Females in particular see the development of such

  15. Symbolic Violence and Gendered Sexualised Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    It has been suggested, that Bourdieu ´s concept of symbolic violence is useful in explaining gendered phenomena of late modern western societies, which can no longer simply be understood as classic patriarchies (B. Krais 1993). In these societies, and in spite of the existence of gendered...... sexualised phenomena such as rape and prostitution, it is often assumed that full equality of the sexes has been achieved. The concept of symbolic violence implies the participation of both men and women in aspects of discourses and other social practices related to gendering and thus to gendered sexualised...... violence. It deconstructs the dualisation of gender in gendered phenomena that contribute to the dualising/blaming controversies concerning responsibility and guilt common in discourses, activism and research pertaining to this field. Furthermore the use of the concept makes it possible to do so without...

  16. Male Teachers Talk about Gender Violence: "Zulu Men Demand Respect"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhana, Deevia; de Lange, Naydene; Mitchell, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    In South Africa, the centrality of gender-based violence in the spread of HIV/AIDS has led to many educational efforts to address it. The particular social values that male teachers hold around gender-based violence have been less examined. By focusing on African male teachers' understandings of gender-based violence, this paper highlights the…

  17. HIV testing and tolerance to gender based violence: a cross-sectional study in Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Gari

    Full Text Available This paper explores the effect of social relations and gender-based conflicts on the uptake of HIV testing in the South and Central provinces of Zambia. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study of 1716 randomly selected individuals. Associations were examined using mixed-effect multivariable logistic regression. A total of 264 men (64% and 268 women (56% had never tested for HIV. The strongest determinants for not being tested were disruptive couple relationships (OR = 2.48 95% CI = 1.00-6.19; tolerance to gender-based violence (OR = 2.10 95% CI = 1.05-4.32 and fear of social rejection (OR = 1.48 95% CI = 1.23-1.80. In the Zambian context, unequal power relationships within the couple and the community seem to play a pivotal role in the decision to test which until now have been largely underestimated. Policies, programs and interventions to rapidly increase HIV testing need to urgently address gender-power inequity in relationships and prevent gender-based violence to reduce the negative impact on the lives of couples and families.

  18. Violence and gender new proposals, old dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guita Grin Debert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses and analyzes the dilemmas involved in the use of notions that have been employed to qualify violence within social relationships marked by gender and their current developments in different instances of the justice system. Based on ethnographic studies conducted at the Women's Police Stations and Special Criminal Courts and the controversies surrounding the Maria da Penha Law, the meanings carried by expressions such as violence against women, marital violence, domestic violence, family violence and gender violence are mapped herein. The central argument is that the transformation of violence into crime leads to semantic and institutional developments that tend to replace the interest in politicizing Justice in the defense of women with the judicialization of family relations.

  19. Conspiracy of Silence. The Loneliness of Victims of Gender-Based Peer Violence in Polish Junior High Schools. Research Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Chmura-Rutkowska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This research report is an integral part of a larger research project focused on analyzing peer violence which is driven by gender stereotypes and prejudices (including sexual harassment and which is experienced by female and male students of Polish junior high schools. The present qualitative research results are the effect of eight interviews and group discussions carried out in the first half of 2013. The interviewees and discussion participants were students of four different junior high schools in different towns and villages. The discussions focused on the following issues: girls' and boys' strategies of enduring, resisting or confronting gender-based violence and harassment; their reactions and coping mechanisms as victims and/or witnesses of gender-based violence or harassment; how adolescents perceived the roles of adults (that is teachers, parents, professionals in the their experiences of violence.

  20. Family Law Reform to Challenge Gender-Based Violence: A ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    -based Women's Learning Partnership (WLP), building on its 15-year history of ... Women's Learning Partnership for Rights, Development, and Peace, Ltd. Pays d' institution. United States. Site internet. http://www.learningpartnership.org ...

  1. Gender-based Violence and ‘Feminicide’ in Queer Italian Movements: Questioning Gender, Sexuality, and the (Heteronormative Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Peroni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the development of the Italian feminist political lexicon on gender-based violence within the security frame in the last years. After the description of the historical main issues developed by feminism during the Seventies about the relation between gender-based violence, women’s self-determination and criminal law, this paper describes the new framework of feminist and queer movements against the security policies on gender-based violence adopted by the Italian government since 2007. On the one hand, feminist movements criticized the processes of criminalization and victimization produced by the security frame and denounced the underlying nexus between sexism and racism. On the other hand, they addressed the essentialism deriving from these processes. Despite the mainstream vocabulary used the term “feminicide” in order to focus on its victimizing and alarmist aspects, contemporary feminist and queer movements thus addressed gender-based violence as a problem related to the gender stereotypes and sexist prejudices by deconstructing concepts such as gender, sexuality, and (heteropatriarchy. In this perspective, gender-based violence is not only a form of dominion by men of women, but it also takes the shape of differential forms of inclusion and exclusion of LGBTQI persons in the neoliberal system, as in the case of homo- and trans-phobia Este artículo describe el desarrollo en los últimos años del léxico político feminista italiano sobre violencia de género en el marco de la seguridad. Después de describir los principales hitos históricos desarrollados por el feminismo en los años setenta, sobre la relación entre la violencia de género, la autodeterminación de las mujeres y el derecho penal, este artículo describe el nuevo marco de los movimientos feministas y queer contra las políticas de seguridad sobre violencia de género adoptadas por el gobierno italiano desde 2007. Por un lado, los movimientos

  2. Social constructions of gender roles, gender-based violence and HIV/AIDS in two communities of the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strebel, A; Crawford, M; Shefer, T; Cloete, A; Henda, N; Kaufman, M; Simbayi, L; Magome, K; Kalichman, S

    2006-11-01

    The links between gender roles, gender-based violence and HIV/AIDS risk are complex and culturally specific. In this qualitative study we investigated how women and men in two black communities in the Western Cape, South Africa, constructed their gender identities and roles, how they understood gender-based violence, and what they believed about the links between gender relations and HIV risk. First we conducted 16 key informant interviews with members of relevant stakeholder organisations. Then we held eight focus group discussions with community members in single-sex groups. Key findings included the perception that although traditional gender roles were still very much in evidence, shifts in power between men and women were occurring. Also, gender-based violence was regarded as a major problem throughout communities, and was seen to be fuelled by unemployment, poverty and alcohol abuse. HIV/AIDS was regarded as particularly a problem of African communities, with strong themes of stigma, discrimination, and especially 'othering' evident. Developing effective HIV/AIDS interventions in these communities will require tackling the overlapping as well as divergent constructions of gender, gender violence and HIV which emerged in the study.

  3. The role of mental health in primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevers, Aník; Dartnall, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In this short communication, we assert that mental health has a crucial role in the primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). However, we found that most research and practice to date has focused on the role of mental health post-violence, and SGBV primary prevention is relying on public health models that do not explicitly include mental health. Yet, key concepts, processes, and competencies in the mental health field appear essential to successful SGBV primary prevention. For example, empathy, self-esteem, compassion, emotional regulation and resilience, stress management, relationship building, and challenging problematic social norms are crucial. Furthermore, competencies such as rapport building, group processing, emotional nurturing, modelling, and the prevention of vicarious trauma among staff are important for the successful implementation of SGBV primary prevention programmes. SGBV primary prevention work would benefit from increased collaboration with mental health professionals and integration of key mental health concepts, processes, and skills in SGBV research.

  4. The role of mental health in primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aník Gevers

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this short communication, we assert that mental health has a crucial role in the primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV. However, we found that most research and practice to date has focused on the role of mental health post-violence, and SGBV primary prevention is relying on public health models that do not explicitly include mental health. Yet, key concepts, processes, and competencies in the mental health field appear essential to successful SGBV primary prevention. For example, empathy, self-esteem, compassion, emotional regulation and resilience, stress management, relationship building, and challenging problematic social norms are crucial. Furthermore, competencies such as rapport building, group processing, emotional nurturing, modelling, and the prevention of vicarious trauma among staff are important for the successful implementation of SGBV primary prevention programmes. SGBV primary prevention work would benefit from increased collaboration with mental health professionals and integration of key mental health concepts, processes, and skills in SGBV research.

  5. Gender-based violence in Families’ santiagueras: a study from the House of Orientation for Women and Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caridad A. Cala-Montoya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gender-based violence is a social problem that has accompanied man since ancient times. Currently there are many strategies implemented by countries to try to mitigate it and give to the women their rightful place in terms of gender equality and equal rights. Nevertheless, in the municipality of Santiago de Cuba the problem of gender violence is latent, which is evident from the systematicity that women, youth, adolescents, couples and families in general come to the House of Orientation the Women and Family (COMF for help. In this sense, this paper aims to characterize gender violence in santiagueras females and visible intervention strategy implemented to minimize this reality. Research is based on the triangulation of quantitative and qualitative data and methodological strategy implemented.

  6. Gender-based violence in conflict and displacement: qualitative findings from displaced women in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Andrea L; Pham, Kiemanh; Glass, Nancy; Loochkartt, Saskia; Kidane, Teemar; Cuspoca, Decssy; Rubenstein, Leonard S; Singh, Sonal; Vu, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Gender-based violence (GBV) is prevalent among, though not specific to, conflict affected populations and related to multifarious levels of vulnerability of conflict and displacement. Colombia has been marked with decades of conflict, with an estimated 5.2 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) and ongoing violence. We conducted qualitative research to understand the contexts of conflict, displacement and dynamics with GBV. This as part of a multi-phase, mixed method study, in collaboration with UNHCR, to develop a screening tool to confidentially identify cases of GBV for referral among IDP women who were survivors of GBV. Qualitative research was used to identify the range of GBV, perpetrators, contexts in conflict and displacement, barriers to reporting and service uptake, as well as to understand experiences of service providers. Thirty-five female IDPs, aged 18 years and older, who self-identified as survivors of GBV were enrolled for in-depth interviews in San Jose de Guaviare and Quibdo, Colombia in June 2012. Thirty-one service providers participated in six focus group discussions and four interviews across these sites. Survivors described a range of GBV across conflict and displacement settings. Armed actors in conflict settings perpetrated threats of violence and harm to family members, child recruitment, and, to a lesser degree, rape and forced abortion. Opportunistic violence, including abduction, rape, and few accounts of trafficking were more commonly reported to occur in the displacement setting, often perpetrated by unknown individuals. Intrafamilial violence, intimate partner violence, including physical and sexual violence and reproductive control were salient across settings and may be exacerbated by conflict and displacement. Barriers to reporting and services seeking were reported by survivors and providers alike. Findings highlight the need for early identification of GBV cases, with emphasis on confidential approaches and active

  7. The Use of the Clinical Ethnographic Narrative Interview to Understand and Support Help Seeking After Gender-Based Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Saint Arnault, Denise M.

    2017-01-01

    Gender-based violence (GBV), characterized by the abduction or rape of women and girls to humiliate, intimidate, and traumatize them and their communities, is a profoundly disturbing tactic in international conflict. Long after armed conflict has ended, survivors continue to experience physical injuries, psychological trauma, and social and cultural stigma. Guilt, shame, and continued interpersonal violence can become a normalized part of daily life, significantly challenging the road to heal...

  8. 'Even though a man takes the major role, he has no right to abuse': future male leaders' views on gender-based violence in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darj, Elisabeth; Wijewardena, Kumudu; Lindmark, Gunilla; Axemo, Pia

    2017-01-01

    Distinct gender roles influence gender inequality and build the foundation for gender-based violence. Violence against women is a major public health problem in all societies, and a violation of human rights. Prevalence surveys on gender-based violence have been published from Sri Lanka, but qualitative studies on men's perceptions are lacking. The aim of this study was to explore young educated Sri Lankan men's perceptions of violence against women. Seven focus-group discussions were held. Men at the end of their university studies were purposefully selected. A topic guide was used, covering various scenarios of violence against women. Qualitative content analysis was carried out. Four categories were developed through the analytic process: fixed gender roles - patriarchal values are accepted in society, female mobility control, and slowly changing attitudes; violence not accepted but still exists - sexual harassment exists everywhere, different laws for different people, female tolerance of violence, and men's right to punish; multiple factors cause violence - alcohol, violent behavior is inherited, violence culturally accepted, low education, and lack of communication; and prevention of violence against women - both parents must engage and socialize girls and boys equally, life skills education, premarital counselling, working places value clarification, and more women in politics and boards are suggested. Medical and management students, possible future male leaders of the country, have suggestions of prevention strategies in life skills to reduce gender-based violence and to increase knowledge of health consequences with the aim of changing attitudes.

  9. The association between female genital fistula symptoms and gender-based violence: A multicountry secondary analysis of household survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Lindsay; Tripathi, Vandana

    2018-01-01

    The Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), which include standardised questions on female genital fistula symptoms, provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the epidemiology of fistula. This study sought to examine associations between self-reported fistula symptoms and experience of gender-based violence (GBV) among women interviewed in DHS surveys. This study used data from thirteen DHS surveys with standardised fistula and domestic violence modules. Data from the most recent survey in each country were pooled, weighting each survey equally. Multivariable logistic regressions controlled for maternal and demographic factors. Prevalence of fistula symptoms in this sample of 95 625 women ranges from 0.3% to 1.8% by country. The majority of women reporting fistula symptoms (56%) have ever experienced physical violence, and more than one-quarter have ever experienced sexual violence (27%), compared with 38% and 13% among women with no symptoms, respectively. Similarly, 16% of women with fistula symptoms report recently experiencing sexual violence-twice the percentage among women not reporting symptoms (8%). Women whose first experience of sexual violence was from a non-partner have almost four times the odds of reporting fistula symptoms compared with women who never experienced sexual violence. These associations indicate a need to investigate temporal and causal relationships between violence and fistula. The increased risk of physical and sexual violence among women with fistula symptoms suggests that fistula programmes should incorporate GBV into provider training and services. © 2017 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Risk communication and gender based violence: a case of child marriage and obstetric fistula in North Central Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Oramah, Chinwe Philomina

    2015-01-01

    Master's thesis in Risk management and societal safety Gender based violence, often targeted against girl children in the name of child marriage has profound health problems, compromising victim’s physical and mental health as well as eroding their self-esteem. In addition to causing physical health problems, it is the most pervasive human rights violation in the world. Yet most of the gender based violent acts enjoy much socio-cultural support. Researches have shown increasing link betwee...

  11. An Examination of Strategies for the Prevention of Gender-Based Violence at Four-Year Institutions of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafonek, Katherine; Richards, Tara N.

    2017-01-01

    Although gender-based violence prevention programs at institutions of higher education (IHEs) are mandated by federal legislation, research focusing on the prevalence or content of programming is limited. The present exploratory research examines campus websites for a nationally representative sample of Title IX eligible IHEs that offer at least a…

  12. Doorways II: Community Counselor Reference Materials. On School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). This booklet, "Doorways II: Community Counselor Reference Materials on…

  13. Doorways II: Community Counselor Training Manual on School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). Doorways II was designed for community counselors to prevent and respond to…

  14. Barriers and Facilitators to Engaging Communities in Gender-Based Violence Prevention following a Natural Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloand, Elizabeth; Killion, Cheryl; Gary, Faye A; Dennis, Betty; Glass, Nancy; Hassan, Mona; Campbell, Doris W; Callwood, Gloria B

    2015-11-01

    Humanitarian workers in disaster settings report a dramatic increase in gender-based violence (GBV). This was true after the 2010 Haiti earthquake when women and girls lost the relative security of their homes and families. Researchers from the United States Virgin Islands and the United States mainland responded by collaborating with Haitian colleagues to develop GBV-focused strategies. To start, the research team performed a situational analysis to insure that the project was culturally, ethically, and logistically appropriate. The aim of this paper is to describe how the situational analysis framework helped the researchers effectively approach this community. Using post-earthquake Haiti as an exemplar, we identify key steps, barriers, and facilitators to undertaking a situational analysis. Barriers included logistics, infrastructure, language and community factors. Facilitators included established experts, organizations and agencies. Researchers in such circumstances need to be respectful of community members as experts and patient with local environmental and cultural conditions.

  15. Transforming discriminatory sex roles and gender stereotyping : the implementation of Article 5(a) CEDAW for the realisation of women's right to be free from gender-based violence in Jamaica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biholar, R.G.

    2013-01-01

    Gender-based violence against women is a stubborn problem worldwide. It still affects the everyday lives of many women around the world. This scourge has deep social and cultural roots, which foster a vicious cycle of gender violence. Embedded constructions of femininity and masculinity based on

  16. The contribution of gender-based violence and network trauma to gender differences in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silove, Derrick; Baker, Jess R.; Mohsin, Mohammed; Teesson, Maree; Creamer, Mark; O'Donnell, Meaghan; Forbes, David; Carragher, Natacha; Slade, Tim; Mills, Katherine; Bryant, Richard; McFarlane, Alexander; Steel, Zachary; Felmingham, Kim; Rees, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurs twice as commonly amongst women as men. Two common domains of trauma, network trauma and gender based violence (GBV), may contribute to this gender difference in PTSD rates. We examined data from a nationally representative sample of the Australian population to clarify the characteristics of these two trauma domains in their contributions to PTSD rates in men and women. Methods We drew on data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Well-being to assess gender differences across a comprehensive range of trauma domains, including (1) prevalence of lifetime exposure; (2) identification of an index trauma or DSM-IV Criterion A event; and (3) the likelihood of developing full DSM-IV PTSD symptoms once an index trauma was identified. Results Men reported more traumatic events (TEs) overall but women reported twice the prevalence of lifetime PTSD (women, 13.4%; men, 6.3%). Women reported a threefold higher level of exposure to GBV and were seven times more likely to nominate GBV as the index trauma as compared to men. Women were twice more likely than men to identify a network trauma as the index trauma and more likely to meet full PTSD symptoms in relation to that event (women, 20.6%; men, 14.6%). Conclusion Women are more likely to identify GBV and network trauma as an index trauma. Women’s far greater exposure to GBV contributes to their higher prevalence of PTSD. Women are markedly more likely to develop PTSD when network trauma is identified as the index trauma. Preventing exposure to GBV and providing timely interventions for acute psychological reactions following network trauma may assist in reducing PTSD rates amongst women. PMID:28207775

  17. The contribution of gender-based violence and network trauma to gender differences in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick Silove

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD occurs twice as commonly amongst women as men. Two common domains of trauma, network trauma and gender based violence (GBV, may contribute to this gender difference in PTSD rates. We examined data from a nationally representative sample of the Australian population to clarify the characteristics of these two trauma domains in their contributions to PTSD rates in men and women.We drew on data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Well-being to assess gender differences across a comprehensive range of trauma domains, including (1 prevalence of lifetime exposure; (2 identification of an index trauma or DSM-IV Criterion A event; and (3 the likelihood of developing full DSM-IV PTSD symptoms once an index trauma was identified.Men reported more traumatic events (TEs overall but women reported twice the prevalence of lifetime PTSD (women, 13.4%; men, 6.3%. Women reported a threefold higher level of exposure to GBV and were seven times more likely to nominate GBV as the index trauma as compared to men. Women were twice more likely than men to identify a network trauma as the index trauma and more likely to meet full PTSD symptoms in relation to that event (women, 20.6%; men, 14.6%.Women are more likely to identify GBV and network trauma as an index trauma. Women's far greater exposure to GBV contributes to their higher prevalence of PTSD. Women are markedly more likely to develop PTSD when network trauma is identified as the index trauma. Preventing exposure to GBV and providing timely interventions for acute psychological reactions following network trauma may assist in reducing PTSD rates amongst women.

  18. Characteristics of gender violence at the University of Valencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco González Sala

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempted to determine the prevalence of gender-based violence at the University of Valencia, the victim profile, resources, and beliefs about violence in the university community. The sample consisted of 3404 participants from the research and teaching staff, the administration and services personnel, and students. The results suggest an incidence of gender violence of 20.03%. The victim profile is a women student who is childless, at a perceived slight or moderate risk, who does not go to the police, but who experiences psychological repercussions from gender violence. In total, 86.99% of participants believe that the university has a gender violence service available and that action protocols and prevention programs have been implemented. Between 25% and 40% do not consider controlling behaviour and psychological abuse to constitute domestic violence. Gender violence prevention programs should be implemented.

  19. Attributing Responsibility, Sexist Attitudes, Perceived Social Support, and Self-Esteem in Aggressors Convicted for Gender-Based Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Molina, Mónica; Moreno-Manso, Juan Manuel; Guerrero-Barona, Eloísa; Cruz-Márquez, Beatriz

    2017-06-01

    This work analyzes how the assumption of responsibility by aggressors convicted for gender-based violence is related to sexist attitudes, self-esteem and perceived functional social support. Similarly, the predictive capacity of these variables is studied with respect to the aggressors' minimization of the harm done and a lack of attributing responsibility to themselves. The participants in the research were males condemned to prison sentences for crimes related with gender-based violence in Spain. The instruments applied were the Attribution of Responsibility and Minimization of Harm Scale, the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE), the Functional Social Support Questionnaire (FSSQ), and the Social Desirability Scale (SDS). The study concludes that sexist attitudes are related with a greater lack of attribution of responsibility, as well as with a greater tendency to minimize the harm done by the aggression. In addition, the aggressors with low self-esteem use self-defense as a strategy to justify the violence. Similarly, the presence of an adequate social support network for the aggressor increases the attribution of responsibility on the part of those convicted for gender-based violence.

  20. Gender-Based Violence Against Transgender People in the United States: A Call for Research and Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Andrea L; Poteat, Tonia C; Malik, Mannat; Glass, Nancy

    2018-01-01

    Gender-based violence (GBV) is an umbrella term for any harm that is perpetrated against a person's will and that results from power inequalities based on gender roles. Most global estimates of GBV implicitly refer only to the experiences of cisgender, heterosexually identified women, which often comes at the exclusion of transgender and gender nonconforming (trans) populations. Those who perpetrate violence against trans populations often target gender nonconformity, gender expression or identity, and perceived sexual orientation and thus these forms of violence should be considered within broader discussions of GBV. Nascent epidemiologic research suggests a high burden of GBV among trans populations, with an estimated prevalence that ranges from 7% to 89% among trans populations and subpopulations. Further, 165 trans persons have been reported murdered in the United States between 2008 and 2016. GBV is associated with multiple poor health outcomes and has been broadly posited as a component of syndemics, a term used to describe an interaction of diseases with underlying social forces, concomitant with limited prevention and response programs. The interaction of social stigma, inadequate laws, and punitive policies as well as a lack of effective GBV programs limits access to and use of GBV prevention and response programs among trans populations. This commentary summarizes the current body of research on GBV among trans populations and highlights areas for future research, intervention, and policy.

  1. Reclaiming Gender and Power in Sexual Violence Prevention in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elizabeth

    2018-03-01

    The Mentors in Violence Prevention (MVP) model seeks to address the root causes of gender violence using a bystander approach and leadership training to challenge structures of patriarchy. Emerging research on adolescent relationship abuse and sexual violence points to key modifiable targets-transforming gender norms, addressing homophobia, integrating with comprehensive sexuality education, and acknowledging the needs of youth already exposed to violence. A social justice-based bystander approach such as the MVP model should be part of a multi-level approach to sexual violence prevention that addresses gender and power, encourages healthy sexuality conversations, and provides safety and support for survivors.

  2. Human rights of refugee-survivors of sexual and gender-based violence with communication disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Julie; Barrett, Helen

    2018-02-01

    Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (United Nations, 1948 ) states that all people have the right to seek, receive and impart information using any means. Ensuring that people with communication disability achieve this right is inherently challenging. For people with communication disability, who are refugee-survivors of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV), additional human rights are challenged, including the right to education, protection from discrimination, a safe place to live, security of person and legal protection. Their experiences and needs, however, are poorly understood. This paper reports on a literature review of the intersectionality between SGBV, being a refugee and having a communication disability, and a preliminary investigation of the situation of refugee-survivors of SGBV with communication disability, in Rwanda. The project involved 54 participants, including 50 humanitarian and partner organisation staff and four carers of refugees with communication disabilities, from two locations (camp-based and urban refugees). Findings from both revealed that, for people with communication disability, barriers are likely to occur at each step of preventing and responding to SGBV. Moreover, stigmatisation of people with communication disability challenges SGBV prevention/support and people with communication disability may be targeted by SGBV perpetrators. SGBV service providers acknowledge their lack of knowledge and skills about communication disability, but wish to learn. Findings highlight the need for increased knowledge and skill development, in order to improve the situation for refugee-survivors of SGBV with communication disability.

  3. Community health workers as cultural producers in addressing gender-based violence in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Naydene; Mitchell, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    South Africa has been experiencing an epidemic of gender-based violence (GBV) for a long time and in some rural communities health workers, who are trained to care for those infected with HIV, are positioned at the forefront of addressing this problem, often without the necessary support. In this article, we pose the question: How might cultural production through media making with community health workers (CHWs) contribute to taking action to address GBV and contribute to social change in a rural community? This qualitative participatory arts-based study with five female CHWs working from a clinic in a rural district of South Africa is positioned as critical research, using photographs in the production of media posters. We offer a close reading of the data and its production and discuss three data moments: CHWs drawing on insider cultural knowledge; CHWs constructing messages; and CHWs taking action. In our discussion, we take up the issue of cultural production and then offer concluding thoughts on 'beyond engagement' when the researchers leave the community.

  4. Preventing gender-based violence engendered by conflict: The case of Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blay-Tofey, Morkeh; Lee, Bandy X

    2015-12-01

    Despite a growing awareness of the increased prevalence of intimate partner violence and sexual violence in conflict and post-conflict settings, much less is known about the dynamics, as well as the interventions that would be effective at individual, relational, and structural levels. In addition to the human capital lost by conflict violence, gender-based violence (GBV) poses a grave threat to the post-conflict rehabilitation process. With regard to violence that occurs during and post conflict, research must take into consideration the different types of violence that share similar causes as the larger conflict as well as become widespread as a result of the conflict and use existing frameworks to build future interventions. Researchers are trying to understand the interplay of personal, situational, and socio-cultural factors in conflict settings that combine to cause GBV and lead to guidelines for program planning to address the health and social needs of survivors as well as to prevent further GBV. These actions result from a growing recognition that violence represents a serious public health problem, is an important cause of many physical and psychological illnesses, and can cause social disruptions that impede reconstruction efforts for generations. This review studies the manifestations of GBV during and following the Ivoirian Civil War, juxtaposes them against narratives, as well as lists relevant interventions at the individual, relational, community, and institutional levels. Part of a growing literature that aims to better understand the nature of violence during and after conflict and to plan effective responses to it, this study hopes to suggest solutions for the situation of Côte d'Ivoire and elsewhere. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. ‘Even though a man takes the major role, he has no right to abuse’: future male leaders’ views on gender-based violence in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darj, Elisabeth; Wijewardena, Kumudu; Lindmark, Gunilla; Axemo, Pia

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Distinct gender roles influence gender inequality and build the foundation for gender-based violence. Violence against women is a major public health problem in all societies, and a violation of human rights. Prevalence surveys on gender-based violence have been published from Sri Lanka, but qualitative studies on men’s perceptions are lacking. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore young educated Sri Lankan men’s perceptions of violence against women. Methods: Seven focus-group discussions were held. Men at the end of their university studies were purposefully selected. A topic guide was used, covering various scenarios of violence against women. Qualitative content analysis was carried out. Results: Four categories were developed through the analytic process: fixed gender roles – patriarchal values are accepted in society, female mobility control, and slowly changing attitudes; violence not accepted but still exists – sexual harassment exists everywhere, different laws for different people, female tolerance of violence, and men’s right to punish; multiple factors cause violence – alcohol, violent behavior is inherited, violence culturally accepted, low education, and lack of communication; and prevention of violence against women – both parents must engage and socialize girls and boys equally, life skills education, premarital counselling, working places value clarification, and more women in politics and boards are suggested. Conclusions: Medical and management students, possible future male leaders of the country, have suggestions of prevention strategies in life skills to reduce gender-based violence and to increase knowledge of health consequences with the aim of changing attitudes. PMID:28753081

  6. Risk Factors for Smoking in Rural Women: The Role of Gender-Based Sexual and Intimate Partner Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Nemeth, Julianna M.; Bonomi, Amy E.; Lu, Bo; Lomax, Richard G.; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women living in Ohio Appalachia experience cervical cancer at disproportionately high rates. Intimate partner and sexual gender-based violence (GBV) and smoking are independent risk factors for cervical cancer and interact to heighten risk. Appalachian women smoke at higher rates than other Ohio women, but little is known about GBV exposure in the region. The purpose of this study was to establish prevalence of women's exposure to GBV in Ohio Appalachia and examine the association...

  7. Sexual and Gender-Based Violence Attitudes and Experiences among Nine Sub-Saharan African Militaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Vienna R; Tran, Bonnie R; Harbertson, Judith; Langa, Antonio; Grillo, Michael; Kalombo, Olivier; Thomas, Anne G

    2017-01-01

    While sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) is recognized as an important factor driving the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa, attitudes toward and prevalence of SGBV within sub-Saharan African military populations are unknown. Data on SGBV were collected from military service members of nine sub-Saharan African militaries. Attitudes related to SGBV and characteristics of those who commit and experience SGBV are reported. Data for 8815 service members (8165 men and 650 women) aged 18 years or older who voluntarily participated in the Seroprevalence and Behavioral Epidemiology Risk Surveys from 2009 to 2014 were included in this secondary data analysis. Data were collected on demographics, HIV prevalence, SGBV attitudes, and experiences. Descriptive and bivariate statistical analyses were performed. 5% of men and 9% of women reported experiencing SGBV, and 6% of men reported they had ever committed SGBV. Men and women who had experienced SGBV were significantly more likely to agree with negative gender attitudes toward SGBV, and the majority of those who reported experiencing SGBV reported that SGBV was committed by someone outside of the military. This is the first study to examine SGBV in sub-Saharan military populations during periods of limited conflict. It provides evidence that SGBV is experienced by both male and female service members at rates not typically found in previous research examining SGBV in other military populations. A better understanding of SGBV in sub-Saharan military service members is necessary to ensure appropriate services and interventions are part of the military infrastructure. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Gender-Based Violence Causing Severe Multiple Injuries; a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalard Falschung

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gender-based violence (GBV against women has been identified as a global health and development issue. We reported a case of GBV causing sever, multiple injuries in a middle-aged female. Case report: A 47-year-old woman presented to emergency room with disturbed level of consciousness, shortness of breath and multiple patches of skin discoloration. On examination, the patient was semi-conscious, with multiple ecchymosis and bilateral decreased air entry. Computed tomography scan of the neck and chest showed six rib fractures on the left side, and eight rib fractures on the right side, sternal fracture, manubriosternal dislocation, bilateral hemothorax, fracture of body of eleventh thoracic vertebra, and fracture of cervical spine of fifth and seventh vertebrae. The patient was intubated and admitted to intensive care unit. She was discharged with good health condition after 23 days of hospital admission. Conclusion: GBV is still a cause of severe trauma that puts the patient’s life at risk.

  9. Expressions of Gender-based Violence in the Impact of Anti-personnel Mine Attacks in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A. Ruiz Romero

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This text, based on fieldwork carried out between 2014 and 2015, firstly analyses the way that Gender-Based Violence (GBV in armed conflict is also expressed through forms of victimization like anti-personnel mine (APM attacks. It also studies how women who belong to associations of APM victims confront the consequences of this victimization, much of which has clear gender connotations, placing them at the highest level of vulnerability and stigmatization. The article shows that, although mines originated as an indiscriminate form of violence (given the nature of the instrument used, the violence exercised by their use contains two main components of GBV by which women are profoundly affected, in view of the patriarchal context in which such violence takes place: firstly by using the body as a space of dispute and secondly in the continuum that affects women’s lives. These two components enhance the physical and psychological consequences for the direct victims of these devices and the emotional impact for their indirect victims (victims’ relatives, and are a factor in the considerable disruption of women’s traditional roles within families, thus weakening the community’s social fabric.

  10. Gender-based violence in Brazil: an evaluation of the “Maria da Penha Law” (2006-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Maria Teresi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is a signatory to various international treaties against gender violence and has a specific law on the issue: the “Maria da Penha” Law (LMP, the tenth anniversary of the approval of which was in 2016. This law is the first systematic mechanism against gender violence in the country. This paper analyses the validity of this legislation over these ten years, studies the mechanisms created to halt domestic violence against women and assesses their effectiveness. Finally, some current challenges for the policy combating gender violence in Brazil are presented.

  11. PRIMARY PREVENTION IS? A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE ON HOW ORGANIZATIONS ENGAGING MEN IN PREVENTING GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE CONCEPTUALIZE AND OPERATIONALIZE THEIR WORK

    OpenAIRE

    Storer, Heather L.; Casey, Erin A.; Carlson, Juliana; Edleson, Jeffrey L.; Tolman, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015, The Author(s) 2015. Engaging men in addressing violence against women (VAW) has become a strategy in the global prevention of gender-based violence. Concurrently, Western public health frameworks have been utilized to guide prevention agendas worldwide. Using qualitative methods, this study describes how global anti-violence organizations that partner with men conceptualize primary prevention in their work. Findings suggest that “primary prevention” is not a fixed term in the context ...

  12. Promises of protection? Article 16 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and gender-based violence in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combrinck, Helene

    Article 16 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) guarantees persons with disabilities freedom from exploitation, violence and abuse. This article explores the current status of implementation of article 16 in South Africa, with specific reference to the legislative framework underpinning protection from exploitation, violence and abuse. This investigation is done specifically in the context of gender-based violence, which remains a cause of great concern in this country. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Gendered Violence, Intersectionalities and Resisting Gender Neutrality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Stubbs

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Developments in feminist theory and research towards a more complex approach to gender relations and a more differentiated understanding of gendered violence have been positive but also have been the subject of significant debate. Some debates have long histories, while others mark more newly emergent concerns. In this paper I reflect on three areas of debate: intersectionality, complex gendering and complex inequalities; differentiating between forms of gendered violence (with a focus on intimate partner violence (IPV, and criminalisation. In each of these areas, feminist frameworks and knowledge concerning gendered violence have been challenged and the resurgence of gender neutral accounts has been notable. I argue that keeping a structural analysis to the fore provides the best way forward for constructive debate in the field aligned with feminist aspirations for the achievement of substantive equality. El desarrollo de la teoría feminista y la investigación hacia un enfoque más complejo de las relaciones de género y una comprensión más diferenciada de la violencia de género ha sido positivo, pero también ha sido objeto de un importante debate. Algunos debates tienen una larga historia, mientras que otros marcan preocupaciones emergentes surgidas en los últimos tiempos. En este trabajo se reflexiona sobre tres áreas de debate: interseccionalidad, configuración de géneros compleja y desigualdades complejas; diferenciación entre formas de violencia de género (fijándose en la violencia de pareja (VP; y la criminalización. En cada una de estas áreas, se han cuestionado los marcos feministas y el conocimiento relativo a la violencia de género, y ha sido notable el resurgimiento de cuentas de género neutro. Se defiende que fomentar un análisis estructural ofrece la mejor forma de fomentar un debate constructivo en el campo alineado con las aspiraciones feministas para el logro de una igualdad sustantiva. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM

  14. ANALYSIS OF THE SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF GENDER VIOLENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Caudillo-Ortega

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender violence is a public health, social and human right problem, which is present at the globally and is permeated in all social classes, all socioeconomic levels and ages. Although gender-based violence has serious consequences for the health of the victims, and may even lead to murder or suicide, it is still considered a problem of private spaces, however, policies must be generated to eradicate the problem. Gender violence has its roots in gender inequalities built over time by society and perpetuated by various structures of the same. It is necessary to analyze the social determinants that influence gender violence to identify the modifiable parts of this problem. Gender violence is described as public health and then each of the social determinants that influence the phenomenon of study and finally give some final considerations of the analysis.

  15. Gender, violence and resilience among Ugandan adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namy, Sophie; Carlson, Catherine; Norcini Pala, Andrea; Faris, Devin; Knight, Louise; Allen, Elizabeth; Devries, Karen; Naker, Dipak

    2017-08-01

    Resilience, commonly understood as the ability to maintain adaptive functioning in the face of adversity, has emerged as a salient entry point in the field of positive youth development. This study makes a unique contribution by exploring dimensions of resilience among adolescents in Uganda, examining associations between violence from different perpetrators and resilience, and testing whether sex moderates these relationships. Analyses are based on data from 3706 primary school students. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) identified five factors underlying the construct of resilience: Emotional Support; Family Connectedness; School Connectedness; Social Assets; and Psychological Assets. We used regression analysis to investigate associations between these dependent variables, background characteristics, and experiences of violence (including exposure to intimate partner violence against female caregivers). Results reflect a complex relationship between violence and resilience, with patterns varying by perpetrator (e.g., teacher, peers, caregivers) and some evidence that the sex of the student moderates these dynamics. Overall, there is a consistently negative relationship between all violence measures and Psychological Assets. In addition, teacher violence is associated with lower resilience across factors and both caregiver violence and exposure to IPV are consistently associated with decreased Family Connectedness. These findings suggest that adolescents experiencing (and exposed to) violence from adults may be particularly vulnerable to internalizing and/or externalizing behaviors and withdrawal from the family. Findings point to preventing violence from teachers complemented with enhancing family relationships as promising avenues for resilience-strengthening interventions, and also emphasize the need to consider gendered strategies to ensure girls and boys benefit equally. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. "You Are a Part of the Solution": Negotiating Gender-Based Violence and Engendering Change in Urban Informal Settlements in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Proshant; Daruwalla, Nayreen; Jayaraman, Anuja; Pantvaidya, Shanti

    2016-08-04

    This article explores how women front-line workers engage with domestic and gender-based violence in the urban informal settlements of Dharavi in Mumbai, India. We conducted in-depth interviews with 13 voluntary front-line workers, along with ethnographic fieldwork in Dharavi, as a part of a pilot study. Our findings contribute to literature on context-specific approaches to understanding gender-based violence and "models" to prevent domestic violence in urban micro-spaces. Furthermore, we also discuss notions of "change" (badlaav) that the front-line workers experience. Finally, this article presents implications for socially engaged ethnographic research, as well as contextual and grounded insights on ways to reduce gender-based and domestic violence. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Gender relations, gender-based violence and sport for development and peace : Questions, concerns and cautions emerging from Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayhurst, Lyndsay M C; MacNeill, Margaret; Kidd, Bruce; Knoppers, Annelies

    2014-01-01

    In this study we discuss how gender relations are influenced by a 'girls only' martial arts-based sport, gender and development (SGD) programme that aims to improve young women's discipline, leadership skills and self-defence capabilities in a rural Ugandan community with widespread domestic and

  18. The association and a potential pathway between gender-based violence and induced abortion in Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Nguyen, Son Van; Nguyen, Manh Quang; Nguyen, Nam Truong; Keithly, Sarah Colleen; Mai, Lan Tran; Luong, Loan Thi Thu; Pham, Hoa Quynh

    2012-11-29

    Gender-based violence (GBV) has profound adverse consequences on women's physical, mental, and reproductive health. Although Vietnam has high rates of induced abortion and GBV, literature examining this relationship is lacking. This study examines the association of GBV with induced abortion among married or partnered women of reproductive age in Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam. In addition, we explore contraceptive use and unintended pregnancy as mediators in the pathway between GBV and induced abortion. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional survey of 1,281 women aged 18-49 years in four districts of Thai Nguyen province. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied to examine the associations between lifetime history of GBV, contraceptive use, unintended pregnancy, induced abortion, and repeat abortion, controlling for other covariates. One-third of respondents had undergone induced abortion in their lifetime (33.4%), and 11.5% reported having repeat abortions. The prevalence of any type of GBV was 29.1% (17.0% physical violence, 10.4% sexual violence, and 20.1% emotional violence). History of GBV was associated with induced abortion (OR=1.61, 95% CI: 1.20-2.16) and repeat abortion (OR=2.22, 95% CI: 1.48-3.32). Physical violence was significantly associated with induced abortion, and all three types of violence were associated with repeat abortion. Abused women were more likely than non-abused women to report using contraceptives and having an unintended pregnancy, and these factors were in turn associated with increased risk of induced abortion. GBV is pervasive in Thai Nguyen province and is linked to increased risks of induced abortion and repeat abortion. The findings suggest that a pathway underlying this relationship is increased risk of unintended pregnancy due in part to ineffective use of contraceptives. These findings emphasize the importance of screening and identification of GBV and incorporating women's empowerment in

  19. Gender-based violence and HIV sexual risk behavior: alcohol use and mental health problems as mediators among women in drinking venues, Cape Town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Eaton, Lisa A; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Watt, Melissa H; Skinner, Donald

    2012-10-01

    Gender-based violence is a key determinant of HIV infection among women in South Africa as elsewhere. However, research has not examined potential mediating processes to explain the link between experiencing abuse and engaging in HIV sexual risk behavior. Previous studies suggest that alcohol use and mental health problems may explain how gender-based violence predicts sexual risk. In a prospective study, we examined whether lifetime history of gender-based violence indirectly affects future sexual risk behavior through alcohol use, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a high-risk socio-environmental context. We recruited a cohort of 560 women from alcohol drinking venues in a Cape Town, South African township. Participants completed computerized interviews at baseline and 4 months later. We tested prospective mediating associations between gender-based violence, alcohol use, depression, PTSD, and sexual risk behavior. There was a significant indirect effect of gender-based violence on sexual risk behavior through alcohol use, but not mental health problems. Women who were physically and sexually abused drank more, which in turn predicted more unprotected sex. We did not find a mediated relationship between alcohol use and sexual risk behavior through the experience of recent abuse or mental health problems. Alcohol use explains the link between gender-based violence and sexual risk behavior among women attending drinking venues in Cape Town, South Africa. Efforts to reduce HIV risk in South Africa by addressing gender-based violence must also address alcohol use. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The mediation as an apt tool for the prevention of crime as result of gender violence

    OpenAIRE

    Yaíma Águila Gutiérrez; Marileydis Pino Rosa

    2017-01-01

    Violence based in gender is an actual, social, historical and cultural matter. It affects to million persons around the world in the personal, familiar and social ambit. Violence based in gender could damage relationships and also could become in a crime. Mediation is an apt tool to use before the intervention of law for solving gender violence´s conflicts which could need the intervention of criminal law. Those reasons show that is necessary the prevention of gender violence so is important ...

  1. Engaging the Voice of Patients Affected by Gender-Based Violence: Informing Practice and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-O'Connor, Annie; Chadwick, Mardi

    2015-01-01

    Evidence regarding the benefits, opportunities, and risks associated with providing health care to patients experiencing gender-based violence (GBV) and, moreover, their satisfaction with health care services is sparse. Using a patient- and trauma-informed relationship-based framework, survivors of GBV who were referred for follow-up care were asked to participate in a quality improvement (QI) initiative in an effort to understand their perspectives of receiving healthcare services. Patients were asked to answer three open-ended questions in regard to their healthcare experience. Individuals who were eligible for evidence collection after sexual assault (<5 days) were asked two additional questions. Of the 353 women and six men (359) referred to the C.A.R.E. (Coordinated Approach to Recovery and Empowerment) Clinic, 327 patients were contacted. Of the participants, 24% (86) had a mental health diagnosis; 41% (145) reported their incident to the police; 8% (28) had comorbidities of substance abuse, mental health, and/or homelessness; and 33% (118) of the incidents involved alcohol or drugs. Most of the patients stated that they were well cared for and felt safe during their visit. However, many reported "long waits," "disjointed," "chaotic," "too many" providers, "conflicting" and "miss-information," and "confusion" about what to do after their acute care visit. Over half (59%) did not report incident to the police. Some reported regrets with reporting to the police (16%) and regrets in having evidence collection (15%). Of the patients who did not have evidence collected (47), none expressed regret over choosing not to have evidence collected. Five patients with mental health problems were hospitalized within 5 days of their emergency department visit for suicidal thoughts. A number of opportunities to improve the healthcare response were identified. Patients affected by GBV require an improved coordinated and trauma-informed approach. Explicit consent related to

  2. Gender-Based Violence and Armed Conflict: A Community-Informed Socioecological Conceptual Model From Northeastern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mootz, Jennifer J.; Stabb, Sally D.; Mollen, Debra

    2017-01-01

    The high prevalence of gender-based violence (GBV) in armed conflict has been documented in various national contexts, but less is known about the complex pathways that constitute the relation between the two. Employing a community-based collaborative approach, we constructed a community-informed socioecological conceptual model from a feminist perspective, detailing how armed conflict relates to GBV in a conflict-affected rural community in Northeastern Uganda. The research questions were as follows: (1) How does the community conceptualize GBV? and (2) How does armed conflict relate to GBV? Nine focus group discussions divided by gender, age, and profession and six key informant interviews were conducted. Participants’ ages ranged from 9 to 80 years (n =34 girls/women, n = 43 boys/men). Grounded theory was used in analysis. Participants conceptualized eight forms of and 22 interactive variables that contributed to GBV. Armed conflict affected physical violence/quarreling, sexual violence, early marriage, and land grabbing via a direct pathway and four indirect pathways initiated through looting of resources, militarization of the community, death of a parent(s) or husband, and sexual violence. The findings suggest that community, organizational, and policy-level interventions, which include attention to intersecting vulnerabilities for exposure to GBV in conflict-affected settings, should be prioritized. While tertiary psychological interventions with women and girls affected by GBV in these areas should not be eliminated, we suggest that policy makers and members of community and organizational efforts make systemic and structural changes. Online slides for instructors who want to use this article for teaching are available on PWQ’s website at http://journals.sagepub.com/page/pwq/suppl/index PMID:29563663

  3. Gender-Based Violence and Armed Conflict: A Community-Informed Socioecological Conceptual Model From Northeastern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mootz, Jennifer J; Stabb, Sally D; Mollen, Debra

    2017-01-01

    The high prevalence of gender-based violence (GBV) in armed conflict has been documented in various national contexts, but less is known about the complex pathways that constitute the relation between the two. Employing a community-based collaborative approach, we constructed a community-informed socioecological conceptual model from a feminist perspective, detailing how armed conflict relates to GBV in a conflict-affected rural community in Northeastern Uganda. The research questions were as follows: (1) How does the community conceptualize GBV? and (2) How does armed conflict relate to GBV? Nine focus group discussions divided by gender, age, and profession and six key informant interviews were conducted. Participants' ages ranged from 9 to 80 years ( n =34 girls/women, n = 43 boys/men). Grounded theory was used in analysis. Participants conceptualized eight forms of and 22 interactive variables that contributed to GBV. Armed conflict affected physical violence/quarreling, sexual violence, early marriage, and land grabbing via a direct pathway and four indirect pathways initiated through looting of resources, militarization of the community, death of a parent(s) or husband, and sexual violence. The findings suggest that community, organizational, and policy-level interventions, which include attention to intersecting vulnerabilities for exposure to GBV in conflict-affected settings, should be prioritized. While tertiary psychological interventions with women and girls affected by GBV in these areas should not be eliminated, we suggest that policy makers and members of community and organizational efforts make systemic and structural changes. Online slides for instructors who want to use this article for teaching are available on PWQ 's website at http://journals.sagepub.com/page/pwq/suppl/index.

  4. Local constructions of gender-based violence amongst IDPs in northern Uganda: analysis of archival data collected using a gender- and age-segmented participatory ranking methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Alastair; Bancroft, Carolyn; Berger, Elizabeth; Stark, Lindsay

    2018-01-01

    Gender-based violence (GBV) is a significant problem in conflict-affected settings. Understanding local constructions of such violence is crucial to developing preventive and responsive interventions to address this issue. This study reports on a secondary analysis of archived data collected as part of formative qualitative work - using a group participatory ranking methodology (PRM) - informing research on the prevalence of GBV amongst IDPs in northern Uganda in 2006. Sixty-four PRM group discussions were held with women, with men, with girls (aged 14 to 18 years), and with boys (aged 14 to 18 years) selected on a randomized basis across four internally displaced persons (IDP) camps in Lira District. Discussions elicited problems facing women in the camps, and - through structured participatory methods - consensus ranking of their importance and narrative accounts explaining these judgments. Amongst forms of GBV faced by women, rape was ranked as the greatest concern amongst participants (with a mean problem rank of 3.4), followed by marital rape (mean problem rank of 4.5) and intimate partner violence (mean problem rank of 4.9). Girls ranked all forms of GBV as higher priority concerns than other participants. Discussions indicated that these forms of GBV were generally considered normalized within the camp. Gender roles and power, economic deprivation, and physical and social characteristics of the camp setting emerged as key explanatory factors in accounts of GBV prevalence, although these played out in different ways with respect to differing forms of violence. All groups acknowledged GBV to represent a significant threat - among other major concerns such as transportation, water, shelter, food and security - for women residing in the camps. Given evidence of the significantly higher risk in the camp of intimate partner violence and marital rape, the relative prominence of the issue of rape in all rankings suggests normalization of violence within the home

  5. Genderized words in affective worlds: Can experiences and relations prevent (transgender-based violence in prison?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Hochdorn

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The following paper has been realized with regard to the (contextual construction of violence and power in total institutions. Furthermore the affective role of relations has been investigated in order to understand how concepts, such as power and violence, are situated within the relational frame of everyday interactions. The topic of the research has been focused on transgender prisoners, detained in a special section of the female ward of the prison of Florence-Sollicciano. Interviewees with prison’s staff and MtF transgender inmates have been gathered, concerning to the way how gender identity claims in a highly institutionalized context. Qualitative analysis, adopting the software Transana, has been used in order to study the implicit sense of ideological, historical and relational meanings within discursive production. Results show that everyday interactions, such as between trans-prisoners themselves and amongst them and the penitentiary guards, increase the affective value of communication and consequently of interpersonal relations. The affective variable, therefore, becomes an important aspect, according to which interaction can be considered  pragmatic and situated actions. Empowering the pragmatical and strategical value of situated relations improves not only the difficult condition of detention, but also the hard and challenging tasks a those staff-members, who work in prison every day.

  6. The legacy of gender-based violence and HIV/AIDS in the postgenocide era: Stories from women in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Susan Garnett; Lim, Sanaya; Kim, Paul; Morse, Sophie

    2016-07-01

    Drawing on qualitative interviews with 22 Rwandan women, we describe the lived experiences of women survivors of gender-based violence (GBV) more than a decade and a half after the 1994 Genocide. We argue that the intersection between GBV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has long-term implications: the majority of women interviewed continue to endure trauma, stigma, social isolation, and economic hardship in the postgenocide era and are in need of expanded economic and mental health support. Our findings have implications for the importance of providing integrated psychosocial support to survivors of GBV postconflict contexts.

  7. Gender-based violence against women in contemporary France: domestic violence and forced marriage policy since the Istanbul Convention

    OpenAIRE

    Allwood, G

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT:\\ud In 2014, France ratified the Council of Europe’s Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence (the Istanbul Convention) and passed the Law for Equality between Women and Men to bring French law into line with it. The Law for Equality between Women and Men situates the fight against violence against women within a broader context of the need to address inequalities between women and men. This is not new at the international level, but it is n...

  8. Jocks, gender, binge drinking, and adolescent violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kathleen E; Melnick, Merrill J; Farrell, Michael P; Sabo, Donald F; Barnes, Grace M

    2006-01-01

    Previous research has suggested a link between athletic involvement and elevated levels of adolescent violence outside the sport context. The present study expanded on this literature by positing differences in the sport-violence relationship across dimensions of athletic involvement (athletic participation vs. jock identity), type of violence (family vs. nonfamily), and gender as well as by examining the impact of binge drinking on the sport-violence relationship. Regression analyses using a sample of 608 Western New York adolescents indicated that (a) jock identity (but not athletic participation) was associated with more frequent violence, (b) jock identity predicted nonfamily violence (but not family violence), and (c) the link between jock identity and nonfamily violence was stronger for boys than for girls. Binge drinking predicted family violence among nonjocks only.

  9. Ending sexual and gender-based violence: from knowledge to action

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-11-10

    Nov 10, 2015 ... ... and girls experience sexual or physical violence in their lifetime. ... IDRC's Governance and Justice program supports innovative research to ... with a national study on the different dimensions of sexual violence in Senegal.

  10. Gender symmetry, sexism, and intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Christopher T; Swan, Suzanne C; Raghavan, Chitra

    2009-11-01

    This study of a predominantly Hispanic sample of 92 male and 140 female college students examines both gender symmetry in intimate partner violence (IPV) and inconsistent relationships found in previous studies between sexist attitudes and IPV. Results indicate that although comparable numbers of men and women perpetrate and are victimized in their relationships with intimate partners, the path models suggest that women's violence tends to be in reaction to male violence, whereas men tend to initiate violence and then their partners respond with violence. Benevolent sexism was shown to have a protective effect against men's violence toward partners. Findings highlight the importance of studying women's violence not only in the context of men's violence but also within a broader sociocultural context.

  11. Primary Prevention Is? A Global Perspective on How Organizations Engaging Men in Preventing Gender-Based Violence Conceptualize and Operationalize Their Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storer, Heather L; Casey, Erin A; Carlson, Juliana; Edleson, Jeffrey L; Tolman, Richard M

    2016-02-01

    Engaging men in addressing violence against women (VAW) has become a strategy in the global prevention of gender-based violence. Concurrently, Western public health frameworks have been utilized to guide prevention agendas worldwide. Using qualitative methods, this study describes how global anti-violence organizations that partner with men conceptualize primary prevention in their work. Findings suggest that "primary prevention" is not a fixed term in the context of VAW and that front-line prevention work challenges rigidly delineated distinctions between levels of prevention. Much can be learned from global organizations' unique and contextualized approaches to the prevention of VAW. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. PRIMARY PREVENTION IS? A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE ON HOW ORGANIZATIONS ENGAGING MEN IN PREVENTING GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE CONCEPTUALIZE AND OPERATIONALIZE THEIR WORK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storer, Heather L.; Casey, Erin A.; Carlson, Juliana; Edleson, Jeffrey L.; Tolman, Richard M.

    2014-01-01

    Engaging men in addressing violence against women (VAW) has become a strategy in the global prevention of gender-based violence. Concurrently, Western public health frameworks have been utilized to guide prevention agendas worldwide. Using qualitative methods, this study describes how global anti-violence organizations that partner with men conceptualize primary prevention in their work. Findings suggest that ‘primary prevention’ is not a fixed term in the context of VAW and that front-line prevention work challenges rigidly delineated distinctions between levels of prevention. Much can be learned from global organizations’ unique and contextualized approaches to the prevention of VAW. PMID:26333283

  13. The association and a potential pathway between gender-based violence and induced abortion in Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong Hong Nguyen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gender-based violence (GBV has profound adverse consequences on women's physical, mental, and reproductive health. Although Vietnam has high rates of induced abortion and GBV, literature examining this relationship is lacking. Objective: This study examines the association of GBV with induced abortion among married or partnered women of reproductive age in Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam. In addition, we explore contraceptive use and unintended pregnancy as mediators in the pathway between GBV and induced abortion. Design and methods: Data were drawn from a cross-sectional survey of 1,281 women aged 18–49 years in four districts of Thai Nguyen province. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied to examine the associations between lifetime history of GBV, contraceptive use, unintended pregnancy, induced abortion, and repeat abortion, controlling for other covariates. Results: One-third of respondents had undergone induced abortion in their lifetime (33.4%, and 11.5% reported having repeat abortions. The prevalence of any type of GBV was 29.1% (17.0% physical violence, 10.4% sexual violence, and 20.1% emotional violence. History of GBV was associated with induced abortion (OR=1.61, 95% CI: 1.20–2.16 and repeat abortion (OR=2.22, 95% CI: 1.48–3.32. Physical violence was significantly associated with induced abortion, and all three types of violence were associated with repeat abortion. Abused women were more likely than non-abused women to report using contraceptives and having an unintended pregnancy, and these factors were in turn associated with increased risk of induced abortion. Conclusions: GBV is pervasive in Thai Nguyen province and is linked to increased risks of induced abortion and repeat abortion. The findings suggest that a pathway underlying this relationship is increased risk of unintended pregnancy due in part to ineffective use of contraceptives. These findings emphasize the importance of

  14. Health Services for Gender-Based Violence: Médecins Sans Frontières Experience Caring for Survivors in Urban Papua New Guinea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalini Lokuge

    Full Text Available Levels of gender-based violence in Papua New Guinea (PNG are high; health services for survivors are limited. Evidence from the few existing health services for survivors can inform improvements in care in this and similar settings.Médecins Sans Frontières supported health services for survivors in Lae, PNG from 2008-2013. Routine monitoring data from August 2010-April 2013 were used to describe patient and service characteristics.5,892 individuals received care over 6,860 presentations, the majority self-referred or referred by friends and family. Presentations were attributed to intimate partner violence(62%, non-partner sexual violence(15%, other forms of violence(3%, and past (but not current violence(21%. 97% were female; an estimated 4.9% (95%CI:4.8-5.0% of females resident in the catchment area presented to the programme during the 2.8years analysed. Of presentations for non-partner sexual violence, 79% knew their abuser and 50% were children <16 years. 92% of presentations reporting current violence received medical treatment for injuries. The majority of patients who received multiple counselling sessions reported improved functioning and decreased severity of psycho-social complaints.Community awareness of the availability of free, best-practice, accessible, confidential medical and counselling services for sexual and gender-based violence in Lae, PNG resulted in many survivors presenting for care. High levels of ongoing intimate partner violence and child sexual abuse by known abusers indicates that alongside comprehensive medical care, access to effective services in non-health sectors such as policing, protection and legal services are needed if survivors are to escape the cycle of violence.

  15. "By Seeing with Our Own Eyes, It Can Remain in Our Mind": Qualitative Evaluation Findings Suggest the Ability of Participatory Video to Reduce Gender-Based Violence in Conflict-Affected Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurman, Tilly A.; Trappler, Regan M.; Acosta, Angela; McCray, Pamella A.; Cooper, Chelsea M.; Goodsmith, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Gender-based violence is pervasive and poses unique challenges in conflict-affected settings, with women and girls particularly vulnerable to its sequelae. Furthermore, widespread stigmatization of gender-based violence promotes silence among survivors and families, inhibiting access to services. Little evidence exists regarding effective…

  16. Gender-based violence and socioeconomic inequalities: does living in more deprived neighbourhoods increase women's risk of intimate partner violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Ligia; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Heise, Lori; Zimmerman, Cathy; Gouveia, Nelson; Watts, Charlotte

    2012-04-01

    This study investigates the influence of neighbourhood socioeconomic conditions on women's likelihood of experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Data from 940 women who were interviewed as part of the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women, and census data for Sao Paulo City, were analyzed using multilevel regression techniques. A neighbourhood socioeconomic-level scale was created, and proxies for the socioeconomic positions of the couple were included. Other individual level variables included factors related to partner's behaviour and women's experiences and attitudes. Women's risk of IPV did not vary across neighbourhoods in Sao Paulo nor was it influenced by her individual socioeconomic characteristics. However, women in the middle range of the socioeconomic scale were significantly more likely to report having experienced violence by a partner. Partner behaviours such as excessive alcohol use, controlling behaviour and multiple sexual partnerships were important predictors of IPV. A women's likelihood of IPV also increased if either her mother had experienced IPV or if she used alcohol excessively. These findings suggest that although the characteristics of people living in deprived neighbourhoods may influence the probability that a woman will experience IPV, higher-order contextual dynamics do not seem to affect this risk. While poverty reduction will improve the lives of individuals in many ways, strategies to reduce IPV should prioritize shifting norms that reinforce certain negative male behaviours. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Adolescent violence exposure, gender issues and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munni, Ray; Malhi, P

    2006-07-01

    Youth violence is a growing problem worldwide. Research on adolescent violence in India is limited. Fifteen hundred high school students were investigated to study the prevalence and demographic characteristics of witnesses, victims and perpetrators of violence and to see the impact of violence exposure on their psychosocial adjustments. Sixty nine percent of students had witnessed violence in real life and 28% were of serious nature. Media violence exposure was universal. The prevalence of victims and perpetrators was 27% and 13% respectively. Bullying was prevalent. Male sex was the most important predictive risk factor for witnessing and perpetrating violence (P gender differences exist. Its impact on their psychosocial adjustments is detrimental. Early identification and corrective interventions of these adolescents is vital.

  18. Understanding Gender and Domestic Violence from a Sample of Married Women in Urban Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohe; Kerley, Kent R.; Sirisunyaluck, Bangon

    2011-01-01

    There is a widespread agreement among gender and family violence investigators that gender and socioeconomic inequalities play key roles in domestic violence against women (DVAW). By integrating the concepts of gender traditionalism and decision-making power into a variety of resource-based theories, this study develops a gender perspective to…

  19. Assessing reported cases of sexual and gender-based violence, causes and preventive strategies, in European asylum reception facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Charlotte; Keygnaert, Ines; Oliveira Martins, Maria do Rosário; Dias, Sónia

    2018-05-09

    Sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) is a widespread public health problem and a violation of human rights rooted in gender and power inequities. Refugees, asylum-seekers and migrants living in European asylum reception facilities (EARF) are especially vulnerable to SGBV. To contribute to closing the gap on systematic and accurate evidence on SGBV, we aim to explore reported cases of SGBV, causes and preventable measures described by residents and professionals from EARF. We developed a cross-sectional study using the Senperforto project database. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with residents (refugees, asylum-seekers and unaccompanied minors) and professionals (service and health care providers) at EARF, in 7 European countries. We used IBM® SPSS software to analyze our data. Further, statistical tests - Chi-square Test and Fisher's exact test (5% significance level) were conducted. In total 562 respondents: 375 residents (R) and 187 professionals (P) participated in the study. The majority of respondents were male (56.9%), aged 19 to 39 years (67.3%). Respondents described 698 cases of SGBV (R 328, P 370), comprising 1110 acts of multi-types of violence. Respondents from Malta (160) and Belgium (143) reported the highest number of SGBV cases. The main reported causes were frustration and stress (R 23.6%, P 37.6%, p 0.008) and differences related with cultural background (R 19.3%, P 20.3%, p 0.884). Respondents assumed that these acts of violence could be prevented by SGBV prevention interventions (R 31.5%, P 24.7%, p 0.293); improving living conditions (R 21.7%, P 15.3%, p 0.232); and promoting communication (R 16.1%, P 28.2%, p 0.042). The majority of R were not aware of existing preventable measures in the asylum facility or host country. While the majority of P were aware of existing preventable measures in the asylum facility or country. Proposed SGBV prevention strategies in EARF included SGBV sensitization and awareness, improving living

  20. Guns and gender-based violence in South Africa | Abrahams | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The criminal use of firearms in South Africa is widespread and a major factor in the country having the thirdhighest homicide rate in the world. Violence is a common feature of South African society. A firearm in the home is a risk factor in intimate partner violence, but this has not been readily demonstrated in ...

  1. Gender, sexuality, and violence in humanitarian crises

    OpenAIRE

    Hilhorst, Dorothea; Porter, Holly; Gordon, Rachel

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: Gender, sexuality, and violence have attracted significant attention in the sphere of humanitarianism in recent years. While this shift builds on the earlier Gender and Development approach and the Women, Peace, and Security Agenda, analytical depth is lacking in practice. Notably, gender often means a singular concern for women, neglecting questions of agency and the dynamic and changing realities of gendered power relations. This introductory paper examines why this neglect occurs...

  2. The Cultural Epigenesis of Gender-Based Violence in Cambodia: Local and Buddhist Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbruch, Maurice

    2018-06-01

    Almost one in four women in Cambodia is a victim of physical, emotional or sexual violence. The study aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the ways in which Cambodians see its causes and effects and to identify and analyse the cultural forces that underpin and shape its landscape. An ethnographic study was carried out with 102 perpetrators and survivors of emotional, physical and sexual violence against women and 228 key informants from the Buddhist and healing sectors. Their views and experiences of it were recorded-the popular idioms expressed and the symptoms of distress experienced by survivors and perpetrators. From these results, the eight cultural forces, or cultural attractors, that are seen to propel a person to violence were identified. Violence stemmed from blighted endowment, or 'bad building' (sɑmnaaŋ mɨn lʔɑɑ) determined by deeds in a previous life (kam). Children with a vicious character (kmeeŋ kaac or doṣa-carita) might grow to be abusers, and particular birthmarks on boys were thought to be portents. Krʊəh, or mishap, especially when a female's horoscope predicted a zodiac house on the descent (riesəy), explained vulnerability to violence and its timing. Astrological incompatibility (kuu kam) was a risk factor. Lust, anger and ignorance, the 'Triple Poison', fuelled it. 'Entering the road to ruin' (apāyamuk), including alcohol abuse, womanising and gambling, triggered it. Confusion and loss of judgement (mohā) led to moral blindness (mo baŋ). These were the eight cultural attractors that shaped the landscape of violence against women. The cultural epigenesis of violence against women in Cambodia is an insight which can be used to build culturally responsive interventions and strengthen the primary prevention of violence against women. An understanding of the epigenesis of violence could strengthen the primary prevention of violence against women.

  3. Agenda setting and framing of gender-based violence in Nepal: how it became a health issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombini, Manuela; Mayhew, Susannah H; Hawkins, Ben; Bista, Meera; Joshi, Sunil Kumar; Schei, Berit; Watts, Charlotte

    2016-05-01

    Gender-based violence (GBV) has been addressed as a policy issue in Nepal since the mid 1990s, yet it was only in 2010 that Nepal developed a legal and policy framework to combat GBV. This article draws on the concepts of agenda setting and framing to analyse the historical processes by which GBV became legitimized as a health policy issue in Nepal and explored factors that facilitated and constrained the opening and closing of windows of opportunity. The results presented are based on a document analysis of the policy and regulatory framework around GBV in Nepal. A content analysis was undertaken. Agenda setting for GBV policies in Nepal evolved over many years and was characterized by the interplay of political context factors, actors and multiple frames. The way the issue was depicted at different times and by different actors played a key role in the delay in bringing health onto the policy agenda. Women's groups and less powerful Ministries developed gender equity and development frames, but it was only when the more powerful human rights frame was promoted by the country's new Constitution and the Office of the Prime Minister that legislation on GBV was achieved and a domestic violence bill was adopted, followed by a National Plan of Action. This eventually enabled the health frame to converge around the development of implementation policies that incorporated health service responses. Our explicit incorporation of framing within the Kindgon model has illustrated how important it is for understanding the emergence of policy issues, and the subsequent debates about their resolution. The framing of a policy problem by certain policy actors, affects the development of each of the three policy streams, and may facilitate or constrain their convergence. The concept of framing therefore lends an additional depth of understanding to the Kindgon agenda setting model. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions

  4. Gender-based violence and sexual and reproductive health among low-income youth in three Brazilian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacham, Alessandra Sampaio; Simão, Andrea Branco; Caetano, André Junqueira

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we investigate how gender-based violence (GBV) affects the sexual and reproductive health of impoverished adolescents and young adults. We analyse data from a 2011 survey of 450 young women and 300 young men aged 15-29, living in poor neighbourhoods of three middle-sized cities in Minas Gerais, Brazil. In this survey we used a closed-ended questionnaire to collect data from 150 women and 100 men in each city. Our main goal was to explore the relationship between GBV and young women's autonomy in relation to their sexuality, using indicators appropriate to Brazil. Our results showed a decreased prevalence of condom use at first intercourse and an increased prevalence of teenage pregnancies among young women who were in a relationship with a controlling and violent partner. Lower condom use was observed mostly among young men who acknowledged being violent and controlling towards a partner and they also were more likely to have made a partner pregnant as teenagers themselves. We conclude that some variables utilized here as indicators of control and violence from a partner and of young women's autonomy can help us to understand how GBV inside relationships affects the reproductive and sexual health of young men and women, and how empowering them can reduce their susceptibility to unwanted pregnancies and HIV and other STI infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Gender-based political harassment and violence: effects on the political work and public roles of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, María Eugenia Rojas

    2010-01-01

    This article shows the significance of the problems of political harassment and violence against women in positions of political responsibility in Bolivia. This phenomenon is seen in both rural and urban areas and transcends borders. It has been shown that these attacks constitute a violation of women's civil and political rights and a threat to the physical and mental health of women leaders in Bolivia. Furthermore, there is no punishment of guilty parties, reparation, or moral or material compensation for the women who are affected. In Bolivia, gender-based harassment and violence is a fundamental barrier to women's political participation. However, this phenomenon is still not addressed by government programs and is not part of the public discourse and debate. In spite of the measures taken to promote women's political participation, several different administrations have been unable to guarantee women the capacity to occupy positions of responsibility without being threatened or harassed. The results of our research led to a bill addressing this problem. Subsequently, Ecuador took this bill as an example and replicated it in a legislative initiative. These results show the importance of research by organizations that represent women in preventing unjust situations and health problems.

  6. A cross-sectional survey on gender-based violence and mental health among female urban refugees and asylum seekers in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morof, Diane F; Sami, Samira; Mangeni, Maria; Blanton, Curtis; Cardozo, Barbara Lopes; Tomczyk, Barbara

    2014-11-01

    To assess gender-based violence and mental health outcomes among a population of female urban refugees and asylum seekers. In a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study conducted in 2010 in Kampala, Uganda, a study team interviewed a stratified random sample of female refugees and asylum seekers aged 15-59 years from the Democratic Republic of Congo and Somalia. Questionnaires were used to collect information about recent and lifetime exposure to sexual and physical violence, and symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Among the 500 women selected, 117 (23.4%) completed interviews. The weighted lifetime prevalences of experiencing any (physical and/or sexual) violence, physical violence, and sexual violence were 77.5% (95% CI 66.6-88.4), 76.2% (95% CI 65.2-87.2), and 63.3% (95% CI 51.2-75.4), respectively. Lifetime history of physical violence was associated with PTSD symptoms (Pviolence (P=0.014). Overall, 112 women had symptoms of depression (weighted prevalence 92.0; 95% CI 83.9-100) and 83 had PTSD symptoms (weighted prevalence 71.1; 95% CI 59.9-82.4). Prevalences of violence, depression, and PTSD symptoms among female urban refugees in Kampala are high. Additional services and increased availability of psychosocial programs for refugees are needed. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. Getting men in the room: perceptions of effective strategies to initiate men's involvement in gender-based violence prevention in a global sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Erin A; Leek, Cliff; Tolman, Richard M; Allen, Christopher T; Carlson, Juliana M

    2017-09-01

    As engaging men in gender-based violence prevention efforts becomes an increasingly institutionalised component of gender equity work globally, clarity is needed about the strategies that best initiate male-identified individuals' involvement in these efforts. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived relevance and effectiveness of men's engagement strategies from the perspective of men around the world who have organised or attended gender-based violence prevention events. Participants responded to an online survey (available in English, French and Spanish) and rated the effectiveness of 15 discrete engagement strategies derived from earlier qualitative work. Participants also provided suggestions regarding strategies in open-ended comments. Listed strategies cut across the social ecological spectrum and represented both venues in which to reach men, and the content of violence prevention messaging. Results suggest that all strategies, on average, were perceived as effective across regions of the world, with strategies that tailor messaging to topics of particular concern to men (such as fatherhood and healthy relationships) rated most highly. Open-ended comments also surfaced tensions, particularly related to the role of a gender analysis in initial men's engagement efforts. Findings suggest the promise of cross-regional adaptation and information sharing regarding successful approaches to initiating men's anti-violence involvement.

  8. AGAIN ABOUT GENDER BASED VIOLENCE IN ROMANIA LEGISLATIVE MODIFICATIONS PROMULGATED ON MARCH 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAVINIA MIHAELA VLĂDILĂ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article continues our last year article, presented in the same conference, on the evolution of the legislation on domestic violence in Spain and in Romania. This new study shall approach only the legislative modifications of the Law No 217/2003 inserted in March 2012 after the shooting at “Perla” Hairdresser in Bucharest, which influenced not only the lives of those involved, but also legislative changes, as an attempt from the Government to offer a better protection for women, who are usually the victims of this type of violence. The present study is dedicated to these new modifications ad their social and legal impact.

  9. Impact of School Violence on Youth Alcohol Abuse: Differences Based on Gender and Grade Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidourek, Rebecca A.; King, Keith A.; Merianos, Ashley L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of school violence on recent alcohol use and episodic heavy drinking among seventh- through 12th-grade students. A total of 54,631 students completed a survey assessing substance use and other risky behaviors. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the research questions. Results…

  10. The Use of the Clinical Ethnographic Narrative Interview to Understand and Support Help Seeking After Gender-Based Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint Arnault, Denise M

    2017-09-01

    Gender-based violence (GBV), characterized by the abduction or rape of women and girls to humiliate, intimidate, and traumatize them and their communities, is a profoundly disturbing tactic in international conflict. Long after armed conflict has ended, survivors continue to experience physical injuries, psychological trauma, and social and cultural stigma. Guilt, shame, and continued interpersonal violence can become a normalized part of daily life, significantly challenging the road to healing and recovery. Research about self-disclosure and narrative after GBV has shown that help seeking rates are shockingly low, with estimates ranging from 4-27%. From a feminist and a humanistic perspective, studying trauma history and related help seeking is delicate work that must use interview processes that ensure the survivor can tell her story without revictimization, while also aiming to restore personal mastery, empowerment, and self-understanding. Based on theories about benefits and challenges of the narrative after GBV and trauma, we propose that the Clinical Ethnographic Narrative Interview (CENI) allows researchers and practitioners a safe container to examine the complex interplay between suffering, culture, and help seeking. Using this interview, the interviewer and the participant work as partners to define, compare, and contrast the socio-cultural barriers and facilitators of help seeking. This paper explains the narrative theory and the challenges and benefits of the narrative approach after trauma. Then we provide support for the use of the CENI for an understanding of the help seeking process and facilitating a health-promoting narrative interview for survivors. We then address implications for research, practice, and policy.

  11. PSA: Topic of gender violence

    OpenAIRE

    Accensi Martínez, Maria Cinta

    2016-01-01

    Breu reflexió sobre la violència existent actualment envers les dones. Breve reflexión sobre la violencia existente actualmente hacia las mujeres. Brief reflection on currently existing violence against women.

  12. [Discourse analysis: research potentialities to gender violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azambuja, Mariana Porto Ruwer; Nogueira, Conceição

    2009-01-01

    In the last few years we see the growing use of the terms 'discourse' and 'discourses analysis' in academic and research contexts, frequently without a precise definition. This fact opens space for critics and mistakes. The aim of this paper is to show a brief contextualization of discursive studies, as well as tasks/steps to Discourse Analysis process by the Social Construcionism perspective. As examples we used fragments of an interview with a Family Doctor about gender violence. In the results we detach the potential of Discourse Analysis to deconstruct the existing discourses to subsequently (re)construction in the way to a more holistic view about gender violence problem.

  13. Gender, Poverty, and Domestic Violence in Rural Bengal: The Jeevika Development Society's Journey Through Women's Rights-based Microcredit Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Nilanjana Sengupta; Dolon Ganguly

    2014-01-01

    To understand the nature of the links among gender, poverty, and violence in specific sociocultural contexts, this article unravels a complex web of interactions among the Jeevika Development Society, the communities in which its members live, and women's individual initiatives. It also examines the process by which ruptures are made in these links through women's active participation in the Society. The article asks whether economic outcomes facilitated by the organization have any impact, o...

  14. The mediation as an apt tool for the prevention of crime as result of gender violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaíma Águila Gutiérrez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Violence based in gender is an actual, social, historical and cultural matter. It affects to million persons around the world in the personal, familiar and social ambit. Violence based in gender could damage relationships and also could become in a crime. Mediation is an apt tool to use before the intervention of law for solving gender violence´s conflicts which could need the intervention of criminal law. Those reasons show that is necessary the prevention of gender violence so is important the intervention of criminology.

  15. Risk Factors for Smoking in Rural Women: The Role of Gender-Based Sexual and Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Julianna M; Bonomi, Amy E; Lu, Bo; Lomax, Richard G; Wewers, Mary Ellen

    2016-12-01

    Women living in Ohio Appalachia experience cervical cancer at disproportionately high rates. Intimate partner and sexual gender-based violence (GBV) and smoking are independent risk factors for cervical cancer and interact to heighten risk. Appalachian women smoke at higher rates than other Ohio women, but little is known about GBV exposure in the region. The purpose of this study was to establish prevalence of women's exposure to GBV in Ohio Appalachia and examine the association between GBV and smoking among women in the region. A two-phase address-based random sampling approach was used in three purposefully selected Ohio Appalachian counties to identify women to complete an interviewer administered cross-sectional survey (n = 398). The primary exposure variable was GBV Index Score, a 4 level indices representing increasing exposure to eight abuse types. Correlation analysis and logistic regression were used to examine smoking correlations and risk. Almost 57% of women in the three selected Ohio Appalachian counties experienced GBV, with rate increasing to 77.5% among current smokers. The distribution of the GBV Exposure Index Score was significantly different across smoking status (p role GBV plays in health behavior and behavioral change interventions, including smoking and smoking cessation.

  16. Systematic review of prevention and management strategies for the consequences of gender-based violence in refugee settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Ramin; Emery, Eleanor; Wong, Marcia

    2013-06-01

    Uncertainties continue regarding effective strategies to prevent and address the consequences of gender-based violence (GBV) among refugees. The databases of PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Anthropology Plus, EMBASE, DARE, Google Scholar, MSF Field Research, UNHCR and the regional and global indices of the WHO Global Health Library were searched twice within a 6-month period (April and September 2011) for English-language clinical, public health, basic and social science studies evaluating strategies to prevent and manage health sequelae of GBV among refugees before September 2011. Studies not primarily about prevention and treatment, and not describing population, health outcome and interventions, were excluded. The literature search for the prevention and management arms produced 1212 and 1106 results, respectively. After reviewing the titles and abstracts, 29 and 27 articles were selected for review in their entirety, none of which met the inclusion criteria. Multiple panels of expert recommendations and guidelines were not supported by primary data on actual displaced populations. There is a dire need for research that evaluates the efficacy and effectiveness of various responses to GBV to ultimately allow a transition from largely theoretical and expertise driven to a more evidence-based field. We recommend strategies to improve data collection and to overcome barriers in primary data driven research.

  17. Perceptions about safety and risks in gender-based violence research: implications for the ethics review process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Jewkes, Rachel

    2011-10-01

    Does research on gender-based violence (GBV) pose greater than minimal risk to researchers and participants? This question needs to be understood particularly in light of hesitancy by Institutional Review Boards to approve research on GBV. The safety and risks of doing GBV studies and the implications for the ethical review process have not been a focus of much research. This qualitative study collected data through in-depth interviews with 12 experienced GBV researchers from various countries and a desk review. This paper explores researchers' interpretation of and meanings of the safety recommendations as provided in the WHO guidelines and whether there is empirical evidence on the presence of risks and safety concerns unique to GBV research. Informants raised a number of safety concerns about GBV research, yet in the interviews there were very few examples of problems having occurred, possibly because of the precautions applied. This paper argues that the notion that GBV studies carry greater than minimal risk when ethics precautions are followed is based on speculation, not evidence. It highlights the need for empirical evidence to support assertions of risk in research.

  18. Gender, sexuality, and violence in humanitarian crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilhorst, Dorothea; Porter, Holly; Gordon, Rachel

    2018-01-01

    Gender, sexuality, and violence have attracted significant attention in the sphere of humanitarianism in recent years. While this shift builds on the earlier 'Gender and Development' approach and the 'Women, Peace, and Security Agenda', analytical depth is lacking in practice. Notably, 'gender' often means a singular concern for women, neglecting questions of agency and the dynamic and changing realities of gendered power relations. This introductory paper examines why this neglect occurs and proposes a more relational approach to gender. It explores how the contributions to this special issue of Disasters revisit classic gender issues pertaining to violence, livelihoods, and institutions in different settings of humanitarian emergencies, while expanding one's vision beyond them. It draws from the seven papers a number of lessons for humanitarianism, concerning the entangled nature of gender relations, the risks of the unintended effects of gender programming, and the importance of paying sustained attention to how gender relations unfold in a time of crisis. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  19. Gender violence: transgender experiences with violence and discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, E L; Wilchins, R A; Priesing, D; Malouf, D

    2001-01-01

    There is a pervasive pattern of discrimination and prejudice against transgendered people within society. Both economic discrimination and experiencing violence could be the result of a larger social climate that severely sanctions people for not conforming to society's norms concerning gender; as such, both would be strongly associated with each other. Questionnaires were distributed to people either through events or through volunteers, and made available upon the World Wide Web. A sample of 402 cases was collected over the span of 12 months (April 1996-April 1997). We found that over half the people within this sample experienced some form of harassment or violence within their lifetime, with a quarter experiencing a violent incident. Further investigation found that experiencing economic discrimination because one is transgendered had the strongest association with experiencing a transgender related violent incident. Economic discrimination was related to transgendered people's experience with violence. Therefore, both hate crimes legislation and employment protections are needed for transgendered individuals.

  20. 'You already drank my beer, I can decide anything': using structuration theory to explore the dynamics of alcohol use, gender-based violence and HIV risk among female sex workers in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leddy, Anna M; Kerrigan, Deanna; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Mbwambo, Jessie; Likindikoki, Samuel; Underwood, Carol R

    2018-03-16

    Female sex workers experience high rates of gender-based violence and HIV. Alcohol has been shown to facilitate women's risk of both gender-based violence and HIV; however, little research has explored how aspects of the sex work environment shape this risk. Drawing on structuration theory, this study explored how social conduct is patterned across time and space within the sex work environment to influence alcohol consumption, gender-based violence and HIV risk among female sex workers. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 24 female sex workers enrolled in an ongoing community randomised controlled trial of a combination HIV prevention intervention in Iringa, Tanzania. Data were analysed using both inductive and deductive approaches. Findings reveal how routine interactions between female sex workers and their clients occur at three moments of time and space during the sex exchange process to facilitate alcohol consumption and increase women's risk of gender-based violence and HIV. Findings also highlight how sex workers utilise collective agency to address aspects of the sex work environment that place them at risk of alcohol abuse, gender-based violence and HIV. Implications for future interventions to prevent gender-based violence and HIV among female sex workers in Tanzania and similar contexts are discussed.

  1. Prevalence and Patterns of Gender Violence: Major Variables in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polygyny (78%) and cultural belief, traditional values and superstitions (75%) were responsible for the exposure of women to HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. The first hypothesis which states that there will be a significant difference in the perception of gender violence based on type of occupation was accepted and the second which ...

  2. Violence and the Trafficking of Women in México: A Gender Perspective Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar Acharya

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, gender-based violence has crossed all social barriers, with millions of women considering it a fact of life. Among all kinds of gender-based violence, the trafficking of women is perhaps the most important, for women are sold in the sex market for the purpose of sexual exploitation. Evidence shows that at present gender-based violence causes more deaths than diseases and accidents. The main objective of this study is to show that the trafficking of women remains as a form of sexual exploitation and violence against women in Mexico. The data has been obtained in Tapachula, a town in the state of Chiapas, Mexico.

  3. Negotiating the Use of Female-Initiated HIV Prevention Methods in a Context of Gender-Based Violence: the Narrative of Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Miriam; Montgomery, Elizabeth; Stadler, Jonathan; Laborde, Nicole; Magazi, Busisiwe; Mathebula, Florence; van der Straten, Ariane

    2016-01-01

    Female-initiated methods of HIV prevention are needed to address barriers to HIV prevention rooted in gender inequalities. Understanding the socio-cultural context of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trials, including gender-based violence, is thus critical. MTN-003C (VOICE-C), a qualitative sub-study of the larger MTN-003 (VOICE) trial, examined socio-cultural barriers and facilitators to PrEP amongst women in Johannesburg. We conducted focus group discussions, in-depth interviews, and ethnographic interviews with 102 trial participants, 22 male partners, 17 community advisory board members, and 23 community stakeholders. We analysed how discussions of rape are emblematic of the gendered context in which HIV risk occurs. Rape emerged spontaneously in half of discussions with community advisory board members, two-thirds with stakeholders and among one-fifth of interviews/discussions with trial participants. Rape was used to reframe HIV risk as external to women’s or partner’s behaviour and to justify the importance of PrEP. Our research illustrates how women, in contexts of high levels of sexual violence, may use existing gender inequalities to negotiate PrEP use. This suggests that future interventions should simultaneously address harmful gender attitudes, as well as equip women with alternative means to negotiate product use, in order to more effectively empower women to protect themselves from HIV. PMID:26551920

  4. Experiences of Gender-Based Violence at a South African University: Prevalence and Effect on Rape Myth Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finchilescu, Gillian; Dugard, Jackie

    2018-04-01

    Instances of gender-based violence (GBV) on university campuses are rarely reported to the authorities. This makes it difficult to gauge the prevalence of this problem, which in turn affects efforts for prevention. This article describes a university-wide online survey aimed at assessing, first, the prevalence of GBV experienced by the three sectors in the community-students, academic and research staff, and professional/administrative staff. Many of the findings concurred with research elsewhere-students were the predominant victims of GBV; men were the main perpetrators; and instances of rape occurred mainly when the victim/survivor was under the influence of alcohol or drugs. In contrast to some of the more well-known U.S. surveys (e.g., Georgetown University), we found relatively few instances of students being exploited by staff members. Occurrences of contrapower harassment were also reported in our survey. The second aim investigated whether rape myth acceptance was related to experiences of GBV. We found that women who had these experiences were more rejecting of rape myths than women who had not had such experiences. The opposite was found for White men. White men who had experienced GBV were more accepting of the rape myths than those who had not had such experiences. It was suggested that this reflected a need for these male victims to establish their hegemonic masculine identity. In general, the level of rape myth acceptance was relatively low. This suggested that widespread victim-blame, and self-blame does not account for the low levels of GBV reports to officials. A limitation of the study was the relatively low response rate (1,350 respondents), which was likely caused by the student protests over university fees that were ongoing at the time of the survey. These protests caused considerable disturbance for all sectors of the university community.

  5. Gender Inequality Prevents Abused Women from Seeking Care Despite Protection Given in Gender-Based Violence Legislation: A Qualitative Study from Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umubyeyi, Aline; Persson, Margareta; Mogren, Ingrid; Krantz, Gunilla

    2016-01-01

    Despite its burden on a person's life, Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is known to be poorly recognised and managed in most countries and communities. This study aimed to explore health care professionals' experiences of the health care seeking processes of women exposed to intimate partner violence in Rwanda. Six focus group discussions were conducted in three district hospitals and three mental health units in Rwanda. A sample of 43 health care professionals with various professions and length of work experience, who regularly took care of patients subjected to IPV, was selected for focus group discussions. The analysis was performed using qualitative content analysis. The theme "Gendered norms and values defeat the violence legislation in women's health care seeking when women are abused" expressed the health care professionals' experiences of the double-faced situation which women exposed to IPV met in their help seeking process. Positive initiatives to protect women were identified, but the potential for abused women to seek help and support was reduced because of poverty, gender inequality with prevailing strong norms of male superiority, and the tendency to keep abuse as a private family matter. Legislative measures have been instituted to protect women from abuse. Still many Rwandan women do not benefit from these efforts. The role of the health care services needs to be reinforced as an important and available resource for help and support for abused women but further legislative changes are also needed. Initiatives to further improve gender equality, and institutionalised collaboration between different sectors in society would contribute to protecting women from IPV.

  6. Gender Inequality Prevents Abused Women from Seeking Care Despite Protection Given in Gender-Based Violence Legislation: A Qualitative Study from Rwanda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Umubyeyi

    Full Text Available Despite its burden on a person's life, Intimate Partner Violence (IPV is known to be poorly recognised and managed in most countries and communities. This study aimed to explore health care professionals' experiences of the health care seeking processes of women exposed to intimate partner violence in Rwanda.Six focus group discussions were conducted in three district hospitals and three mental health units in Rwanda. A sample of 43 health care professionals with various professions and length of work experience, who regularly took care of patients subjected to IPV, was selected for focus group discussions. The analysis was performed using qualitative content analysis.The theme "Gendered norms and values defeat the violence legislation in women's health care seeking when women are abused" expressed the health care professionals' experiences of the double-faced situation which women exposed to IPV met in their help seeking process. Positive initiatives to protect women were identified, but the potential for abused women to seek help and support was reduced because of poverty, gender inequality with prevailing strong norms of male superiority, and the tendency to keep abuse as a private family matter.Legislative measures have been instituted to protect women from abuse. Still many Rwandan women do not benefit from these efforts. The role of the health care services needs to be reinforced as an important and available resource for help and support for abused women but further legislative changes are also needed. Initiatives to further improve gender equality, and institutionalised collaboration between different sectors in society would contribute to protecting women from IPV.

  7. Workplace violence and gender discrimination in Rwanda's health workforce: Increasing safety and gender equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    d'Arc Kanakuze Jeanne

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Workplace violence has been documented in all sectors, but female-dominated sectors such as health and social services are at particular risk. In 2007-2008, IntraHealth International assisted the Rwanda Ministries of Public Service and Labor and Health to study workplace violence in Rwanda's health sector. This article reexamines a set of study findings that directly relate to the influence of gender on workplace violence, synthesizes these findings with other research from Rwanda, and examines the subsequent impact of the study on Rwanda's policy environment. Methods Fifteen out of 30 districts were selected at random. Forty-four facilities at all levels were randomly selected in these districts. From these facilities, 297 health workers were selected at random, of whom 205 were women and 92 were men. Researchers used a utilization-focused approach and administered health worker survey, facility audits, key informant and health facility manager interviews and focus groups to collect data in 2007. After the study was disseminated in 2008, stakeholder recommendations were documented and three versions of the labor law were reviewed to assess study impact. Results Thirty-nine percent of health workers had experienced some form of workplace violence in year prior to the study. The study identified gender-related patterns of perpetration, victimization and reactions to violence. Negative stereotypes of women, discrimination based on pregnancy, maternity and family responsibilities and the 'glass ceiling' affected female health workers' experiences and career paths and contributed to a context of violence. Gender equality lowered the odds of health workers experiencing violence. Rwandan stakeholders used study results to formulate recommendations to address workplace violence gender discrimination through policy reform and programs. Conclusions Gender inequality influences workplace violence. Addressing gender discrimination and

  8. Workplace violence and gender discrimination in Rwanda's health workforce: Increasing safety and gender equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Workplace violence has been documented in all sectors, but female-dominated sectors such as health and social services are at particular risk. In 2007-2008, IntraHealth International assisted the Rwanda Ministries of Public Service and Labor and Health to study workplace violence in Rwanda's health sector. This article reexamines a set of study findings that directly relate to the influence of gender on workplace violence, synthesizes these findings with other research from Rwanda, and examines the subsequent impact of the study on Rwanda's policy environment. Methods Fifteen out of 30 districts were selected at random. Forty-four facilities at all levels were randomly selected in these districts. From these facilities, 297 health workers were selected at random, of whom 205 were women and 92 were men. Researchers used a utilization-focused approach and administered health worker survey, facility audits, key informant and health facility manager interviews and focus groups to collect data in 2007. After the study was disseminated in 2008, stakeholder recommendations were documented and three versions of the labor law were reviewed to assess study impact. Results Thirty-nine percent of health workers had experienced some form of workplace violence in year prior to the study. The study identified gender-related patterns of perpetration, victimization and reactions to violence. Negative stereotypes of women, discrimination based on pregnancy, maternity and family responsibilities and the 'glass ceiling' affected female health workers' experiences and career paths and contributed to a context of violence. Gender equality lowered the odds of health workers experiencing violence. Rwandan stakeholders used study results to formulate recommendations to address workplace violence gender discrimination through policy reform and programs. Conclusions Gender inequality influences workplace violence. Addressing gender discrimination and violence simultaneously should

  9. Workplace violence and gender discrimination in Rwanda's health workforce: Increasing safety and gender equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Constance J; de Vries, Daniel H; d'Arc Kanakuze, Jeanne; Ngendahimana, Gerard

    2011-07-19

    Workplace violence has been documented in all sectors, but female-dominated sectors such as health and social services are at particular risk. In 2007-2008, IntraHealth International assisted the Rwanda Ministries of Public Service and Labor and Health to study workplace violence in Rwanda's health sector. This article reexamines a set of study findings that directly relate to the influence of gender on workplace violence, synthesizes these findings with other research from Rwanda, and examines the subsequent impact of the study on Rwanda's policy environment. Fifteen out of 30 districts were selected at random. Forty-four facilities at all levels were randomly selected in these districts. From these facilities, 297 health workers were selected at random, of whom 205 were women and 92 were men. Researchers used a utilization-focused approach and administered health worker survey, facility audits, key informant and health facility manager interviews and focus groups to collect data in 2007. After the study was disseminated in 2008, stakeholder recommendations were documented and three versions of the labor law were reviewed to assess study impact. Thirty-nine percent of health workers had experienced some form of workplace violence in year prior to the study. The study identified gender-related patterns of perpetration, victimization and reactions to violence. Negative stereotypes of women, discrimination based on pregnancy, maternity and family responsibilities and the 'glass ceiling' affected female health workers' experiences and career paths and contributed to a context of violence. Gender equality lowered the odds of health workers experiencing violence. Rwandan stakeholders used study results to formulate recommendations to address workplace violence gender discrimination through policy reform and programs. Gender inequality influences workplace violence. Addressing gender discrimination and violence simultaneously should be a priority in workplace violence

  10. 'Because I am a man, I should be gentle to my wife and my children': positive masculinity to stop gender-based violence in a coastal district in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, T.A.; Quach, T.T; Tran, T.T.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the efforts of the government to promote gender equality in Vietnam, gender-based violence is still a critical issue. This article explores a pilot project, the Responsible Men Club, developed and implemented in a coastal district in Vietnam from 2010 to 2012 to work with men to stop

  11. What women want: social characteristics, gender-based violence and social support preferences in a cohort of women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielding, Sally; Scott, Alison

    2017-04-01

    A total of 229 women attend Chalmers Centre (a city-centre integrated sexual health centre in Edinburgh, Scotland) for their HIV care and treatment. Local third-sector agencies provide peer support, but anecdotally, it is not well utilised and some demographic groups are under-represented. The aim of this study was to gain better understanding of the background social characteristics of these women, to ascertain what issues they are affected by, and to better identify what support is required and how it should be provided/facilitated. An anonymous self-completion questionnaire was developed, and all women attending HIV clinics between July and November 2015 were given the opportunity to participate. Additional data were accessed from the National Sexual Health database on cohort size and gender-based violence enquiries. Forty-four women living with HIV completed the questionnaire. 25% are unemployed. 84.6% had a combined household income of less than £30,000 per annum. 16.7% do not know anyone else, and 59.5% know only one other person, who is living with HIV. 32.6% would like to meet other/more women living with HIV, and 25.5% were unsure if they did or not. Of those who would, 42.9% would prefer a one-to-one setting, 42.9% would prefer a group setting, and 14.3% did not mind. 64.3% would prefer to meet off NHS premises. 26.8% were interested in discussion groups on women's issues, and 31.7% were unsure. The most popular suggestions for discussion group topics were stress/anxiety (nine women), HIV disclosure (eight women), diet and nutrition (seven women), and pregnancy and childbirth (six women). 26.8% were interested in attending a "women clinic" staffed by female staff, the same number were unsure if they would utilise this service or not. 50% of women had, at some point, experienced gender-based violence, 13.5% were currently experiencing gender-based violence, and four of these women have children living with them. From National Sexual Health records, only

  12. Violence and the Trafficking of Women in México: A Gender Perspective Issue

    OpenAIRE

    Arun Kumar Acharya; Adriana Salas Stevanato

    2005-01-01

    Today, gender-based violence has crossed all social barriers, with millions of women considering it a fact of life. Among all kinds of gender-based violence, the trafficking of women is perhaps the most important, for women are sold in the sex market for the purpose of sexual exploitation. Evidence shows that at present gender-based violence causes more deaths than diseases and accidents. The main objective of this study is to show that the trafficking of women remains as a for...

  13. Gender Norms and Retaliatory Violence against Spouses and Acquaintances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Scott L.; Felson, Richard B.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines an experiment embedded within a nationally representative survey of adult Americans to investigate gender norms regarding retaliatory violence between spouses and acquaintances. Contrary to claims that societal norms permit violence within marriage, respondents disapproved of retaliatory violence against spouses more than…

  14. Age and Gender Effects in Recent Violence Perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlgren, Martha K; Kleiman, Evan M; Puhalla, Alexander A; McCloskey, Michael S

    2017-05-01

    Although we know much about the effects of violence on victims, we know less about individuals who perpetrate violence. In the present study, we used a large, nationally representative sample of adults (National Comorbidity Study-Replication; n = 9,282) to examine demographics (i.e., age and gender) and social, occupational, and cognitive functioning among perpetrators of recent violence. We found that recent violence was more prevalent among younger individuals and males (i.e., these groups were more likely to engage in at least one act of violence). Among those who did engage in violence, there was no effect of age or gender on violence frequency (i.e., number of violent acts engaged in over the past year). Furthermore, gender moderated the effect of age on recent violence prevalence, but not violence frequency. Finally, those reporting violence over the past year showed greater impairment in all examined domains of functioning, but there was no association between impairment and frequency of violence. This study represents one of the first attempts to utilize 12-month prevalence data to explore the lifetime trajectory of violence among those who perpetrate it, which seems to peak in young adulthood and then decrease across the life span. Furthermore, although males are more likely to engage in violence than females, adults who engage in at least one act of violence demonstrate no difference in frequency of yearly violent acts, regardless of gender. Finally, it is apparent that merely engaging in any acts of violence over the past year is associated with functioning problems. Overall, most significant differences emerged between those who do and do not engage in violence, which is key for informing violence risk assessment and prevention.

  15. Gendered violence and India's body politic

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, Manali Sudhir

    2016-01-01

    The paradox of rape is that it has a long history and occurs across all countries, yet its meaning can best be grasped through an analysis of specific social, cultural and political environments. Feminist writing on citizenship and the state has long noted the relevance of women’s bodies as reproducers of the nation; it is equally important to think about the uses of the sexed body in a political context. A consideration of gendered violence as part of a continuum of embodied assertions of po...

  16. Gender Equality and Violent Behavior: How Neighborhood Gender Equality Influences the Gender Gap in Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Man-Kit; Simons, Ronald L.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Edmond, Mary Bond

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of 703 African American adolescents from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS) along with census data from the year 2000, we examine the association between neighborhood-level gender equality and violence. We find that boys’ and girls’ violent behavior is unevenly distributed across neighborhood contexts. In particular, gender differences in violent behavior are less pronounced in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods compared to those characterized by gender inequality. We...

  17. Enculturation and attitudes toward intimate partner violence and gender roles in an asian Indian population: implications for community-based prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihama, Mieko; Blazevski, Juliane; Bybee, Deborah

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the relationships among enculturation, attitudes supporting intimate partner violence (IPV-supporting attitudes), and gender role attitudes among one of the largest Asian Indian population groups in the US. Data were collected via computer-assisted telephone interviews with a random sample of Gujarati men and women aged 18-64 in Metropolitan Detroit. Using structural equation modeling, we modeled the effects of three components of enculturation (behavior, values, and community participation) on gender role attitudes and IPV-supporting attitudes among married respondents (N = 373). Analyses also accounted for the effects of respondent age, education, religious service attendance, perceived financial difficulty, and lengths of residence in the US. The second-order, overall construct of enculturation was the strongest predictor of IPV-supporting attitudes (standardized B = 0.61), but not gender role attitudes. Patriarchal gender role attitudes were positively associated with IPV-supporting attitudes (B = 0.49). In addition to the overall effect of the enculturation construct, two of the components of enculturation had specific effects. "Enculturation-values" had a specific positive indirect association with IPV-supporting attitudes, through its relationship with patriarchal gender role attitudes. However, "enculturation-community participation" was negatively associated with IPV-supporting attitudes, suggesting the importance of community-based prevention of IPV among this immigrant population group.

  18. The Symbolic Dimension of Gender Violence: an introductory discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeu Gomes

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to support a positive campaign against gender violence, or violence against women, by offering an introductory account of its symbolism. First, I set out the case for taking gender and masculinity to be the keys to understanding the symbolism of violence in the conetxt of gender relations. I then use that analysis to bring into focus those cases of violence which are otherwise hidden or unrecognised. Lastly, I offer suggestions as to how the debate may be continued.

  19. Gender Equality and Violent Behavior: How Neighborhood Gender Equality Influences the Gender Gap in Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Man-Kit; Simons, Ronald L.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Edmond, Mary Bond

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of 703 African American adolescents from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS) along with census data from the year 2000, we examine the association between neighborhood-level gender equality and violence. We find that boys’ and girls’ violent behavior is unevenly distributed across neighborhood contexts. In particular, gender differences in violent behavior are less pronounced in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods compared to those characterized by gender inequality. We also find that the gender gap narrows in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods because boys’ rates of violence decrease whereas girls’ rates remain relatively low across neighborhoods. This is in stark contrast to the pessimistic predictions of theorists who argue that the narrowing of the gender gap in equalitarian settings is the result of an increase in girls’ violence. In addition, the relationship between neighborhood gender equality and violence is mediated by a specific articulation of masculinity characterized by toughness. Our results provide evidence for the use of gender-specific neighborhood prevention programs. PMID:24672996

  20. Cuando la Respuesta Penal a la Violencia Sexista se Vuelve contra las Mujeres: las Contradenuncias (When the Criminal Response to Gender-based Violence Turns Against Women: counterclaims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miren Ortubay Fuentes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In some respects, the legal response to violence against women has gone ahead of cultural change. This gap allows the resurgence of old myths and strategies against gender equality, such as the so-called "counterclaim", that is, the man who has been denounced as an aggressor by his partner, in turn, accuses her from violence against him. In addition to the context in which these cross complaints arise, this paper presents the results of a study based on a group of sentences pronounced in Biscay, in which both man and woman are condemned for gender-based violence. It concludes that, beyond the principles, the criminal justice system treats women more rigorously.En algunos aspectos, la respuesta legal frente a la violencia contra las mujeres ha ido por delante del cambio cultural. Ese desfase abre una grieta por la que resurgen viejos mitos y estrategias contrarias a la igualdad de género, como la denominada "contradenuncia", que consiste en que el hombre que ha sido denunciado como agresor por su pareja, a su vez, acusa a ésta de ejercer violencia contra él. Además del contexto en el que dichas denuncias cruzadas se plantean, se exponen los resultados del análisis realizado sobre un grupo de sentencias -dictadas en Bizkaia- en las que se condena tanto al hombre como a la mujer por violencia de género, llegando a la conclusión de que, más allá de los principios, el sistema penal trata a las mujeres con mayor rigor punitivo. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2612114

  1. A Rigorous Review of Global Research Evidence on Policy and Practice on School-Related Gender-Based Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Jenny; Heslop, Jo; Ross, Freya Johnson; Westerveld, Rosie; Unterhalter, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Every day, girls and boys around the world face many forms of physical, sexual and psychological violence in and around schools. On too many occasions, such violence is tolerated by societies and institutions, including schools, and it is these forms of violence that contribute to the alarming numbers of girls and boys being excluded from schools…

  2. The social context of gender-based violence, alcohol use and HIV risk among women involved in high-risk sexual behaviour and their intimate partners in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulkind, Jasmine; Mbonye, Martin; Watts, Charlotte; Seeley, Janet

    2016-07-01

    This paper explores the interaction between gender-based violence and alcohol use and their links to vulnerability to HIV-infection in a population of women and their regular male partners in Kampala, Uganda. Data derive from 20 life history interviews (10 women and 10 men). Participants were drawn from a cohort of women at high risk of sexually transmitted infection (including HIV). Six of the women were current or former sex workers. Findings reveal that life histories are characterised by recurrent patterns of gender inequity related to violence, limited livelihood options and socioeconomic disadvantage. Overall, findings suggest women are able to negotiate safer sex and protect themselves better against abuse and violence from clients than from their intimate partners, although the status of men as 'client' or 'partner' is transitory and fluid. Among male respondents, alcohol led to intimate partner violence and high levels of sexual-risk taking, such as engagement with sex workers and reduced condom use. However, male partners are a heterogeneous group, with distinct and contrasting attitudes towards alcohol, condom use and violence. Actions to address gender-based violence need to be multi-pronged in order to respond to different needs and circumstances, of both women and men.

  3. Psychometric properties and reliability of the Assessment Screen to Identify Survivors Toolkit for Gender Based Violence (ASIST-GBV): results from humanitarian settings in Ethiopia and Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Alexander; Wirtz, Andrea; Pham, Kiemanh; Singh, Sonal; Rubenstein, Leonard; Glass, Nancy; Perrin, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Refugees and internally displaced persons who are affected by armed-conflict are at increased vulnerability to some forms of sexual violence or other types of gender-based violence. A validated, brief and easy-to-administer screening tool will help service providers identify GBV survivors and refer them to appropriate GBV services. To date, no such GBV screening tool exists. We developed the 7-item ASIST-GBV screening tool from qualitative research that included individual interviews and focus groups with GBV refugee and IDP survivors. This study presents the psychometric properties of the ASIST-GBV with female refugees living in Ethiopia and IDPs in Colombia. Several strategies were used to validate ASIST-GBV, including a 3 month implementation to validate the brief screening tool with women/girls seeking health services, aged ≥15 years in Ethiopia (N = 487) and female IDPs aged ≥ 18 years in Colombia (N = 511). High proportions of women screened positive for past-year GBV according to the ASIST-GBV: 50.6 % in Ethiopia and 63.4 % in Colombia. The factor analysis identified a single dimension, meaning that all items loaded on the single factor. Cronbach's α = 0.77. A 2-parameter logistic IRT model was used for estimating the precision and discriminating power of each item. Item difficulty varied across the continuum of GBV experiences in the following order (lowest to highest): threats of violence (0.690), physical violence (1.28), forced sex (2.49), coercive sex for survival (2.25), forced marriage (3.51), and forced pregnancy (6.33). Discrimination results showed that forced pregnancy was the item with the strongest ability to discriminate between different levels of GBV. Physical violence and forced sex also have higher levels of discrimination with threats of violence discriminating among women at the low end of the GBV continuum and coercive sex for survival among women at the mid-range of the continuum. The findings demonstrate that

  4. El Papel Activo de los Hombres Contra la Violencia de Género (Men's Active Role Against Gender-Based Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel Otxotorena Fernandez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the experience and actions carried out by Asociación para la Igualdad On:Giz to promote active involvement of men in tackling gender-based violence. On:Giz is a small organisation of women and men committed to gender equality. This is not a usual academic paper, but rather a reflection on two case study examples of how to work with men in confronting gender-based violence and a call to the need of involving them in such actions because achieving women’s and men’s equality is everybody’s work. Este texto da cuenta de las experiencias que se están llevando a cabo desde la Asociación para la Igualdad On:Giz para que los hombres sean parte activa de la solución al problema de la violencia de género. On:Giz es una organización mixta pequeña, con mucho compromiso con la igualdad entre mujeres y hombres. La intencionalidad de este texto no es académica, sino dar a conocer un par de experiencias que sirvan como ejemplo de cómo se puede trabajar también con los hombres contra la violencia de género y de la necesidad de involucrar a estos, ya que la igualdad real entre mujeres y hombres se conseguirá con el trabajo de todas y todos. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2612127

  5. Youth Perspectives on the Intersections of Violence, Gender, and Hip-Hop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Diana; Weinstein, Hannah; Munoz-Laboy, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Youth's perceptions of violence within their social environments can provide relevant insights into the gender-based interpersonal violence epidemic in inner-city communities. To explore this issue, we examined two sets of narratives with young men and women, aged 15 to 21, involved in hip-hop culture in New York City. In the analysis, we reveal…

  6. Perception of secondary victimization in gender violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aranda López

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Gender violence is a complex phenomenon that does not end with the removal of the abuser, as the abused person can experience secondary victimization. This study examined this process in a sample of 38 battered women. A multicausal approach was used to assess satisfaction with health system, the police, and the judiciary. The study also assessed the role of two variables that have remained unaddressed: family support and perceived danger. The results indicate that dissatisfaction with judicial treatment and legal action plays a key role in the perception of secondary victimization. It was also found that women who perceive less risk value the judicial system more because they do not need the system to take protective measures or other measures for them. Moreover, women who receive family support are more satisfied with the police system.

  7. Sociology of gender violence in Spain. A proposed analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Alcañiz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Johan Galtung coined the concept of «triangle of violence» to explain the dynamics of the generation of violence in social conflicts. According to this author, violence is like an iceberg in which the visible violence (or direct violence is only a part of the conflict, with other more invisible types of violence such as structural violence and cultural violence. Understanding violence, in this case against women, means taking into account the three types of violence. Likewise, in the feminist theory, the presence of a specific type of violence to which women are exposed by their gender and which concerns injuries, physical, sexual, psychological or economic distress was made explicit. From this point of view, violence against women is understood as part of a system of domination or, more specifically, as dominance practices established by men. The purpose of the text presented hereafter is to describe and analyze the various types of violence against women in relation with the uneven situation of women in society. The methodology used has required the consultation of secondary data obtained from official resources, as well as the development of indicators which show the violence experienced by women from the perspective of the «triangle of violence», regarding data in relation with direct, structural or cultural violence. The findings suggest the interrelation of such violence types, specifying that, in all of them, the lesser power and the inequality of women with regard to men constitutes an explanatory factor in the production of violence.

  8. Gender Expression, Violence, and Bullying Victimization: Findings from Probability Samples of High School Students in 4 US School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Allegra R.; Conron, Kerith J.; Calzo, Jerel P.; White, Matthew T.; Reisner, Sari L.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2018-01-01

    Background: Young people may experience school-based violence and bullying victimization related to their gender expression, independent of sexual orientation identity. However, the associations between gender expression and bullying and violence have not been examined in racially and ethnically diverse population-based samples of high school…

  9. Women with HIV: gender violence and suicidal ideation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Flores Ceccon

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the relationship between gender violence and suicidal ideation in women with HIV. METHODS A cross-sectional study with 161 users of specialized HIV/AIDS care services. The study investigated the presence of gender violence through the Brazilian version of the World Health Organization Violence against Women instrument, and suicidal ideation through the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed with the SPSS software, using the Chi-square test and Poisson multiple regression model. RESULTS Eighty-two women with HIV reported suicidal ideation (50.0%, 78 (95.0% of who had suffered gender violence. Age at first sexual intercourse < 15 years old, high number of children, poverty, living with HIV for long, and presence of violence were statistically associated with suicidal ideation. Women who suffered gender violence showed 5.7 times more risk of manifesting suicidal ideation. CONCLUSIONS Women with HIV showed a high prevalence to gender violence and suicidal ideation. Understanding the relationship between these two grievances may contribute to the comprehensive care of these women and implementation of actions to prevent violence and suicide.

  10. Addressing Gender-Based Violence at Schools for Learners with Intellectual Disability in Gauteng, South Africa: A Multiple Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phasha, T. N.; Nyokangi, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports part of the findings of the study which investigated sexual violence at two schools catering specifically for learners with mild intellectual disability in Gauteng Province. It looks particularly on participants' suggestions for addressing sexual violence in such school. A multiple case study within the qualitative research…

  11. Mobilizing culture as an asset: a transdisciplinary effort to rethink gender violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Madelaine; Haldane, Hillary; Wies, Jennifer R

    2012-06-01

    The contested relationship between gender violence and the "culture concept" can be found in the cultural defense of gender violence, gender violence linked to postcolonial retraditionalizations of family life, the underpolicing of gender violence associated with communities labeled as culturally backward, and the overpolicing of activities categorized by human rights advocates as harmful traditional practices. Culture has been used to defend, explain, or excuse gender violence, and seen as a barrier to the elimination of gender violence. Here, however, the authors analyze how culture has been mobilized strategically as a resource in the struggle against gender violence.

  12. Gender-based violence against female sex workers in Cameroon: prevalence and associations with sexual HIV risk and access to health services and justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Michele R; Lyons, Carrie; Billong, Serge Clotaire; Njindam, Iliassou Mfochive; Grosso, Ashley; Nunez, Gnilane Turpin; Tumasang, Florence; LeBreton, Matthew; Tamoufe, Ubald; Baral, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) are at risk for HIV and physical and sexual gender-based violence (GBV). We describe the prevalence of lifetime GBV and its associations with HIV risk behaviour, access to health services and barriers in accessing justice among FSWs in Cameroon. FSWs (n=1817) were recruited for a cross-sectional study through snowball sampling in seven cities in Cameroon. We examined associations of lifetime GBV with key outcomes via adjusted logistic regression models. Overall, 60% (1098/1817) had experienced physical or sexual violence in their lifetime. GBV was associated with inconsistent condom use with clients (adjusted OR (AOR) 1.49, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.87), being offered more money for condomless sex (AOR 2.09, 95% CI 1.56 to 2.79), having had a condom slip or break (AOR 1.53, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.87) and difficulty suggesting condoms with non-paying partners (AOR 1.47, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.87). Violence was also associated with fear of health services (AOR 2.25, 95% CI 1.61 to 3.16) and mistreatment in a health centre (AOR 1.66, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.73). Access to justice was constrained for FSWs with a GBV history, specifically feeling that police did not protect them (AOR 1.41, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.78). Among FSWs in Cameroon, violence is prevalent and undermines HIV prevention and access to healthcare and justice. Violence is highly relevant to FSWs' ability to successfully negotiate condom use and engage in healthcare. In this setting of criminalised sex work, an integrated, multisectoral GBV-HIV strategy that attends to structural risk is needed to enhance safety, HIV prevention and access to care and justice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. [Gender-inclusive care of victims of violence : The model project "Gender Gewaltkonzept" at the University Hospital Aachen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evler, A; Scheller, M; Wagels, L; Bergs, R; Clemens, B; Kohn, N; Pütz, A; Voss, B; Schneider, F; Habel, U

    2016-07-01

    Violence is a topic of great social relevance, frequently causing tremendous health consequences for those affected and high consequential costs for health care and the national economy. The established consulting and assistance services are usually restricted to offers for ambulant supply, mainly from private agencies or societies. As a result, there is no identification and care for patients who have experienced violence and who are treated in hospital. Another deficiency is the identification and care of male victims of violence. Despite wide-ranging offers of assistance, only very few gender-specific consulting and support services have been available to date.Therefore, the model project "Gender Gewaltkonzept" was initiated at Aachen University Hospital to assess the prevalence of violence and the potential consequences of the violence experienced on the patients' health. In addition, we investigated whether males and females are in need of different supply requirements.Based on the results of the project "Gender Gewaltkonzept" so far, and on prevalence estimates proving that there is a high rate of violent experiences in both males and females, this overview is aimed at presenting the aid and protection concepts available for victims of violence, in addition to the existing deficiencies of the care system. We present approaches to resolving these deficiencies to be able to establish all-encompassing gender-appropriate support for victims of violence.

  14. The gendered trouble with alcohol: young people managing alcohol related violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Jo

    2012-05-01

    Alcohol related violence is a troubling backdrop to the social lives and relationships of many young people in post-industrial societies. The development of the night-time economy where young people are encouraged to drink heavily in entertainment precincts has increased the risk of violence. This paper reports on 60 individual structured in-depth interviews about the drinking biographies of young people (aged 20-24) living in Victoria, Australia. Twenty-six males and 34 females participated in the research. The participants discussed their experiences with alcohol over their life course to date. The material on alcohol related violence is analysed in this paper. Just over half of the participants (33/60) recounted negative experiences with alcohol related violence. The findings demonstrate the continuing gendered nature of experiences of perpetration and victimization. Participants reported that aggression and violence perpetrated by some men was fuelled by alcohol consumption and required ongoing management. Experiences of violence were also spatialized. Men were more likely to report managing and avoiding violence in particular public settings whilst more women than men discussed managing violence in domestic settings. The central argument of this paper is that incidents of alcohol related violence and reactions to it are specific gender performances that occur in specific socio-cultural contexts. In contrast to research which has found some young people enjoy the adventure and excitement of alcohol related violence the mainstream participants in this study saw violence as a negative force to be managed and preferably avoided. Understanding violence as a dynamic gender performance complicates the development of policy measures designed to minimize harm but also offers a more holistic approach to developing effective policy in this domain. There is a need for greater acknowledgement that alcohol related violence in public venues and in families is primarily about

  15. Egyptian Film: Gender and Class Violence Three Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Obaidi, Jabbar A.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the level of physical and verbal violence by gender and social class in Egyptian films in three cycles: romantic musicals and melodramas; war and political genres; and drug and gangster films. Concludes that the outrageous level of violence does not accurately reflect the real society. (Contains 20 references.) (LRW)

  16. Empathy and Peer Violence among Adolescents: Moderation Effect of Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojana, Dinic M.; Jasmina, Kodžopeljic S.; Valentina, Sokolovska T.; Ilija, Milovanovic Z.

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the relationships between empathy and peer violence among adolescents, along with gender as a moderator in these associations. Thereby, multidimensionality of empathy (affective and cognitive empathy) and different forms of violence (physical, verbal, and relational) were considered. The participants were 646 high school…

  17. Gender Violence in Schools in the Developing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Mairead; Humphreys, Sara; Leach, Fiona

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores gender violence in schools in what is commonly known as the "developing world" through a review of recent research written in English. Violence in the school setting has only recently emerged as a widespread and serious phenomenon in these countries, with the consequence that our knowledge and understanding of it is embryonic;…

  18. Urban violence and displacement, gender, and community ties ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-10-20

    Oct 20, 2017 ... SAIC experts explored poverty, violence, and inequality in 40 cities across Latin America, South Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The 15 research ... Urban violence and displacement, gender, and community ties. October 20 ... in urban spaces. Return to main page: Solutions to make cities safe and inclusive.

  19. Exploring the effectiveness of the output-based aid voucher program to increase uptake of gender-based violence recovery services in Kenya: A qualitative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Njuki Rebecca

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies in Africa have explored in detail the ability of output-based aid (OBA voucher programs to increase access to gender-based violence recovery (GBVR services. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in 2010 and involved: (i in-depth interviews (IDIs with health managers, service providers, voucher management agency (VMA managers and (ii focus group discussions (FGDs with voucher users, voucher non-users, voucher distributors and opinion leaders drawn from five program sites in Kenya. Results The findings showed promising prospects for the uptake of OBA GBVR services among target population. However, a number of factors affect the uptake of the services. These include lack of general awareness of the GBVR services vouchers, lack of understanding of the benefit package, immediate financial needs of survivors, as well as stigma and cultural beliefs that undermine reporting of cases or seeking essential medical services. Moreover, accreditation of only hospitals to offer GBVR services undermines access to the services in rural areas. Poor responsiveness from law enforcement agencies and fear of reprisal from perpetrators also undermine treatment options and access to medical services. Low provider knowledge on GBVR services and lack of supplies also affect effective provision and management of GBVR services. Conclusions The above findings suggest that there is a need to build the capacity of health care providers and police officers, strengthen the community strategy component of the OBA program to promote the GBVR services voucher, and conduct widespread community education programs aimed at prevention, ensuring survivors know how and where to access services and addressing stigma and cultural barriers.

  20. Exploring the effectiveness of the output-based aid voucher program to increase uptake of gender-based violence recovery services in Kenya: a qualitative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njuki, Rebecca; Okal, Jerry; Warren, Charlotte E; Obare, Francis; Abuya, Timothy; Kanya, Lucy; Undie, Chi-Chi; Bellows, Ben; Askew, Ian

    2012-06-12

    Few studies in Africa have explored in detail the ability of output-based aid (OBA) voucher programs to increase access to gender-based violence recovery (GBVR) services. A qualitative study was conducted in 2010 and involved: (i) in-depth interviews (IDIs) with health managers, service providers, voucher management agency (VMA) managers and (ii) focus group discussions (FGDs) with voucher users, voucher non-users, voucher distributors and opinion leaders drawn from five program sites in Kenya. The findings showed promising prospects for the uptake of OBA GBVR services among target population. However, a number of factors affect the uptake of the services. These include lack of general awareness of the GBVR services vouchers, lack of understanding of the benefit package, immediate financial needs of survivors, as well as stigma and cultural beliefs that undermine reporting of cases or seeking essential medical services. Moreover, accreditation of only hospitals to offer GBVR services undermines access to the services in rural areas. Poor responsiveness from law enforcement agencies and fear of reprisal from perpetrators also undermine treatment options and access to medical services. Low provider knowledge on GBVR services and lack of supplies also affect effective provision and management of GBVR services. The above findings suggest that there is a need to build the capacity of health care providers and police officers, strengthen the community strategy component of the OBA program to promote the GBVR services voucher, and conduct widespread community education programs aimed at prevention, ensuring survivors know how and where to access services and addressing stigma and cultural barriers.

  1. Social Perception through Gender Stereotypes of Partner Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Leonor M. Cantera; Josep M. Blanch

    2010-01-01

    The overall goal of this research was to assess the degree of social attachment of certain stereotypes about gender (male provider; female caregiver) and violence (violent, peaceful woman) and is framed in the context of a debate about the extent and limits of a gender approach when it comes to understanding and preventing violence in different types of partner. 741 people were involved in the research, two thirds of them women, living in Spain, Mexico, Puerto Rico and El Salvador. In each co...

  2. Sexual and Reproductive Health Education Needs, Gender Roles Attitudes and Acceptance of Couple Violence According to Engaged Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzioglu, Fusun; Kok, Gulsah; Guvenc, Gulten; Ozdemir, Funda; Gonenc, Ilknur Munevver; Hicyilmaz, Basak Demirtas; Sezer, Neslihan Yılmaz

    2018-04-01

    This descriptive study was aimed to evaluate the attitudes of the engaged men and women who are of legal age to marry towards gender roles and acceptance of couple violence, and determine their sexual/reproductive health education needs. It was conducted in two marriage registry offices in Ankara, Turkey. The study sample consisted of 740 participants. Data were collected by using semi-structured form, Gender Roles Attitude Scale and Acceptance of Couple Violence Scale. It was found that the engaged couples had educational needs concerning sexual/reproductive health; socio-demographic characteristics such as gender, age, education, residence, and income level created significant differences in the attitudes related to accepting gender roles and violence; and having an egalitarian attitude towards gender roles decreased the rate of accepting violence between the couples. Results indicate that premarital counseling is a promising strategy to support engaged couples' sexual/reproductive health needs, and increase their awareness about gender based couple violence in communities.

  3. Achieving social change on gender-based violence: a report on the impact evaluation of Soul City's fourth series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usdin, S; Scheepers, E; Goldstein, Susan; Japhet, Garth

    2005-12-01

    The Soul City Institute for Health and Development Communication--a South African multi-media health promotion project--together with the National Network on Violence Against Women, formulated an intervention to address domestic violence. Recognising that behavioural change interventions aimed solely at individuals have limited impact, the intervention was designed to impact at multiple mutually reinforcing levels; individual, community and socio-political environment. The intervention and its evaluation results are presented. Soul City successfully reached 86%, 25% and 65% of audiences through television, print booklets and radio, respectively. On an individual level there was a shift in knowledge around domestic violence including 41% of respondents hearing about the helpline. Attitude shifts were also associated with the intervention, with a 10% increase in respondents disagreeing that domestic violence was a private affair. There was also a 22% shift in perceptions of social norms on this issue. Qualitative data analysis suggests the intervention played a role in enhancing women's and communities' sense of efficacy, enabling women to make more effective decisions around their health and facilitating community action. The evaluation concluded that implementation of the Domestic Violence Act can largely be attributed to the intervention. While demonstrating actual reductions in levels of domestic violence was not possible, the evaluation shows a strong association between exposure to intervention components and a range of intermediary factors indicative of, and necessary to bring about social change. This paper reports on the evaluation, discusses its limitations and challenges as well as lessons learned regarding multi-level interventions on domestic violence.

  4. Lifting as We Climb: Recognizing Intersectional Gender Violence in Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreya Atrey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper interrogates the meaning of lifting all women as we climb the ladder of gender equality and justice by recognizing that gender violence affects women differently. This is because violence against women is perpetrated not only on the basis of their gender or sex but also other identities of race, religion, caste, region, age, disability, nationality, sexual orientation etc. With reference to CEDAW jurisprudence and examples from India, I seek to explain this understanding with the help of a normative framework of ‘intersectional integrity’. The framework insists on considering claimants as a whole by tracing unique and shared patterns of gender violence when it is also based on other identities such as race, religion, caste, region, age, disability, nationality, and sexual orientation. I argue that applying the framework allows us to diagnose and address the nature of violence suffered on multiple identities, in a clear and comprehensive way. Este artículo cuestiona el sentido de levantar a todas las mujeres a medida que se asciende la escalera de la igualdad de género y la justicia, reconociendo que la violencia de género afecta a las mujeres de manera diferente. Esto se debe a que la violencia contra las mujeres se comete no sólo sobre la base de su género o sexo, sino también por su raza, religión, casta, región, edad, discapacidad, nacionalidad, orientación sexual, etc. Se pretende explicar esta afirmación con la ayuda de un marco normativo de “integridad interseccional”, a través de referencias a la jurisprudencia del CEDAW y ejemplos de la India. El marco insiste en considerar a las demandantes en su conjunto, trazando patrones únicos y compartidos de violencia de género cuando se basa también en otras identidades como raza, religión, casta, región, edad, discapacidad, nacionalidad, orientación sexual. Se sostiene que la aplicación del marco permite diagnosticar y abordar la naturaleza de la violencia

  5. Gender violence has no frontiers. Comparative study about Colombian and Spain violence social standards of genders (2004-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Londoño Toro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Compared analysis about the Spanish and Colombian normative systems that aim for the women’s rights protection for addressing gender-based violence. The goal of this study is to build proposals that reinforce the existent instruments and allow sharing good normative practices. The advances in regulation and institutional reinforcement impulsed by women organizations can be underlined, and the actions that fortify the confidence in the procedures are highlighted, because they stop the re victimization and assure the accomplishment of the normative frameworks.

  6. Leveraging strong social ties among young men in Dar es Salaam: A pilot intervention of microfinance and peer leadership for HIV and gender-based violence prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maman, Suzanne; Kajula, Lusajo; Balvanz, Peter; Kilonzo, Mrema; Mulawa, Marta; Yamanis, Thespina

    2016-12-01

    Gender inequality is at the core of the HIV patterns that are evident in sub-Saharan Africa. Gender-based violence (GBV) and lack of economic opportunity are important structural determinants of HIV risk. We piloted a microfinance and health promotion intervention among social networks of primarily young men in Dar es Salaam. Twenty-two individuals participated in the microfinance component and 30 peer leaders were recruited and trained in the peer health leadership component. We collected and analysed observational data from trainings, monitoring data on loan repayment, and reports of peer conversations to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. Eighteen of the loan recipients (82%) paid back their loans, and of these 15 (83%) received a second, larger loan. Among the loan defaulters, one died, one had chronic health problems, and two disappeared, one of whom was imprisoned for theft. The majority of conversations reported by peer health leaders focused on condoms, sexual partner selection, and HIV testing. Few peer leaders reported conversations about GBV. We demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of this innovative HIV and GBV prevention intervention. The lessons learned from this pilot have informed the implementation of a cluster-randomised trial of the microfinance and peer health leadership intervention.

  7. Gender-based abuse: the global epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heise Lori

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Gender Based violence-including rape, domestic violence, murder and sexual abuse-is a profund health problem for women across the globe. Although a significant cause of female morbidity and mortality, violence against women has only recently begun to be recognized as an issue for public health. This paper draws together existing data on the dimensions of violence against women worldwide and reviews available literature on the health consequences of abuse. It argues that the health sector has an important role to play in combatting violence against women through increased research, screening and referral of victims, and behavioral interventions. Any strategy to confrnt violence must address the root causes of abuse in addition to meeting the immediate needs of victims. This means challenging the social attitudes and beliefs that undergird men's violence and renegotiating the balance of power between women and men at all levels of society.

  8. The intersecting roles of violence, gender, and substance use in the emergency department: a research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Esther K; Benz, Madeline; Rybarczyk, Megan; Broderick, Kerry; Linden, Judith; Boudreaux, Edwin D; Ranney, Megan L

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between gender, violence, and substance use in the emergency department (ED) is complex. This article examines the role of gender in the intersection of substance use and three types of violence: peer violence, intimate partner violence, and firearm violence. Current approaches to treatment of substance abuse and violence are similar across both genders; however, as patterns of violence and substance abuse differ by gender, interventions may be more effective if they are designed with a specific gender focus. © 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  9. Gay men and intimate partner violence: a gender analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliffe, John L; Han, Christina; Maria, Estephanie Sta; Lohan, Maria; Howard, Terry; Stewart, Donna E; MacMillan, Harriet

    2014-05-01

    Though intimate partner violence (IPV) is predominately understood as a women's health issue most often emerging within heterosexual relationships, there is increasing recognition of the existence of male victims of IPV. In this qualitative study we explored connections between masculinities and IPV among gay men. The findings show how recognising IPV was based on an array of participant experiences, including the emotional, physical and sexual abuse inflicted by their partner, which in turn led to three processes. Normalising and concealing violence referred to the participants' complicity in accepting violence as part of their relationship and their reluctance to disclose that they were victims of IPV. Realising a way out included the participants' understandings that the triggers for, and patterns of, IPV would best be quelled by leaving the relationship. Nurturing recovery detailed the strategies employed by participants to mend and sustain their wellbeing in the aftermath of leaving an abusive relationship. In terms of masculinities and men's health research, the findings reveal the limits of idealising hegemonic masculinities and gender relations as heterosexual, while highlighting a plurality of gay masculinities and the need for IPV support services that bridge the divide between male and female as well as between homosexual and heterosexual. © 2014 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Patterns of Gender-Based Violence and Associations with Mental Health and HIV Risk Behavior Among Female Sex Workers in Mombasa, Kenya: A Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah T; Flaherty, Brian P; Deya, Ruth; Masese, Linnet; Ngina, Jacqueline; McClelland, R Scott; Simoni, Jane; Graham, Susan M

    2018-03-30

    Gender-based violence (GBV) is common among female sex workers (FSWs) and is associated with multiple HIV risk factors, including poor mental health, high-risk sexual behavior, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Prior studies have focused on GBV of one type (e.g. physical or sexual) or from one kind of perpetrator (e.g., clients or regular partners), but many FSWs experience overlapping types of violence from multiple perpetrators, with varying frequency and severity. We examined the association between lifetime patterns of GBV and HIV risk factors in 283 FSWs in Mombasa, Kenya. Patterns of GBV were identified with latent class analysis based on physical, sexual, or emotional violence from multiple perpetrators. Cross-sectional outcomes included depressive symptoms, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, disordered alcohol and other drug use, number of sex partners, self-reported unprotected sex, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in vaginal secretions, and a combined unprotected sex indicator based on self-report or PSA detection. We also measured HIV/STI incidence over 12 months following GBV assessment. Associations between GBV patterns and each outcome were modeled separately using linear regression for mental health outcomes and Poisson regression for sexual risk outcomes. Lifetime prevalence of GBV was 87%. We identified 4 GBV patterns, labeled Low (21% prevalence), Sexual (23%), Physical/Moderate Emotional (18%), and Severe (39%). Compared to women with Low GBV, those with Severe GBV had higher scores for depressive symptoms, PTSD symptoms, and disordered alcohol use, and had more sex partners. Women with Sexual GBV had higher scores for disordered alcohol use than women with Low GBV, but similar sexual risk behavior. Women with Physical/Moderate Emotional GBV had more sex partners and a higher prevalence of unprotected sex than women with Low GBV, but no differences in mental health. HIV/STI incidence did not differ significantly by GBV

  11. Intimate partner violence in early adolescence: The role of gender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Intimate partner violence (IPV) among adolescents is common worldwide, but our understanding of perpetration, gender differences and the role of social-ecological factors remains limited. Objectives. To explore the prevalence of physical and sexual IPV perpetration and victimisation by gender, and ...

  12. Gender inequality and domestic violence: implications for human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Domestic violence and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are problems of great public health worldwide, especially sub-Saharan Africa and much of the developing countries. This is due to their far reaching social, economic and public health consequences. The two problems have gender inequality and gender ...

  13. The Gender Wage Gap and Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizer, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Three quarters of all violence against women is perpetrated by domestic partners. This study exploits exogenous changes in the demand for labor in female-dominated industries to estimate the impact of the male-female wage gap on domestic violence. Decreases in the wage gap reduce violence against women, consistent with a household bargaining model. These findings shed new light on the health production process as well as observed income gradients in health and suggest that in addition to addressing concerns of equity and efficiency, pay parity can also improve the health of American women via reductions in violence. PMID:25110354

  14. The Gender Wage Gap and Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizer, Anna

    2010-09-01

    Three quarters of all violence against women is perpetrated by domestic partners. This study exploits exogenous changes in the demand for labor in female-dominated industries to estimate the impact of the male-female wage gap on domestic violence. Decreases in the wage gap reduce violence against women, consistent with a household bargaining model. These findings shed new light on the health production process as well as observed income gradients in health and suggest that in addition to addressing concerns of equity and efficiency, pay parity can also improve the health of American women via reductions in violence.

  15. Preventing gender-based violence victimization in adolescent girls in lower-income countries: Systematic review of reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yount, Kathryn M; Krause, Kathleen H; Miedema, Stephanie S

    2017-11-01

    This systematic review of reviews synthesizes evidence on the impact of interventions to prevent violence against adolescent girls and young women 10-24 years (VAWG) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Theories of women's empowerment and the social ecology of multifaceted violence frame the review. Child abuse, female genital mutilation/cutting (FGMC), child marriage, intimate partner violence (IPV), and sexual violence were focal outcomes. Our review followed the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) for the systematic review of reviews, and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) for a systematic review of recent intervention studies. Of 35 reviews identified between June 7 and July 20, 2016, 18 were non-duplicate systematic reviews of medium-to-high quality. Half of these 18 reviews focused on interventions to prevent IPV. Only four focused on adolescents, of which three focused on child marriage and one compared findings across early and late adolescence. None focused on interventions to prevent child abuse or sexual violence in adolescent/young women. From these 18 reviews and the supplemental systematic review of intervention studies, data were extracted on 34 experimental or quasi-experimental intervention studies describing 28 interventions. Almost all intervention studies measured impacts on one form of VAWG. Most studies assessed impacts on child marriage (n = 13), then IPV (n = 8), sexual violence (n = 4), child abuse (n = 3), and FGMC (n = 3). Interventions included 1-6 components, involving skills to enhance voice/agency (n = 17), social networks (n = 14), human resources like schooling (n = 10), economic incentives (n = 9), community engagement (n = 11) and community infrastructure development (n = 6). Bundled individual-level interventions and multilevel interventions had more favorable impacts on VAWG. Interventions involving community engagement, skill-building to

  16. Gender subordination in the vulnerability of women to domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo Piosiadlo, Laura Christina; Godoy Serpa da Fonseca, Rosa Maria

    2016-06-01

    To create and validate an instrument that identifies women's vulnerability to domestic violence through gender subordination indicators in the family. An instrument consisting on 61 phrases was created, that indicates gender subordination in the family. After the assessment from ten judges, 34 phrases were validated. The approved version was administered to 321 health service users of São José dos Pinhais (Estado de Paraná, Brasil), along with the validated Portuguese version of the Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS) (for purposes of separating the sample group - the ''YES'' group was composed of women who have suffered violence and the ''NO'' group consisted of women who had not suffered violence). Data were transferred into the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software, version 22, and quantitatively analyzed using exploratory and factor analysis, and tests for internal consistency. After analysis (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) statistics, Monte Carlo Principal Components Analysis (PCA, and diagram segmentation), two factors were identified: F1 - consisting of phrases related to home maintenance and family structure; F2 - phrases intrinsic to the couple's relationship. For the statements that reinforce gender subordination, the mean of the factors were higher for the group that answered YES to one of the violence identifying issues. The created instrument was able to identify women who were vulnerable to domestic violence using gender subordination indicators. This could be an important tool for nurses and other professionals in multidisciplinary teams, in order to organize and plan actions to prevent violence against women.

  17. Attitudes towards help-seeking for sexual and gender-based violence in humanitarian settings: the case of Rwamwanja refugee settlement scheme in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odwe, George; Undie, Chi-Chi; Obare, Francis

    2018-03-12

    Sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) remains a silent epidemic in many humanitarian settings with many survivors concealing their experiences. Attitudes towards help-seeking for SGBV is an important determinant of SGBV service use. This paper examined the association between attitudes towards seeking care and knowledge and perceptions about SGBV among men and women in a humanitarian setting in Uganda. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from May to June 2015 among 601 heads of refugee households (261 females and 340 males) in Rwamwanja Refugees Settlement Scheme, South West Uganda. Analysis entails cross-tabulation with chi-square test and estimation of a multivariate logistic regression model. Results showed increased odds of having a favorable attitude toward seeking help for SGBV among women with progressive attitudes towards SGBV (OR = 2.78, 95% CI: 1.56-4.95); who felt that SBGV was not tolerated in the community (OR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.03-4.00); those who had not experienced violence (OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.06-4.07); and those who were aware of the timing for post-exposure prophylaxis (OR = 3.08, 95% CI: 1.57-6.04). In contrast, results for men sample showed lack of variations in attitude toward seeking help for SGBV for all independent variables except timing for PEP (OR = 2.57, 95% CI: 1.30-5.10). Among individuals who had experienced SGBV, the odds of seeking help was more likely among those with favorable attitude towards seeking help (OR = 4.22, 95% CI: 1.47-12.06) than among those with unfavorable help-seeking attitudes. The findings of the paper suggest that targeted interventions aimed at promoting awareness and progressive attitudes towards SGBV are likely to encourage positive help-seeking attitudes and behaviors in humanitarian contexts.

  18. Girls Getting to Secondary School Safely: Combating Gender-Based Violence in the Transportation Sector in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Laura

    2009-01-01

    While increasing girls' access to education is a global priority, there are numerous barriers that impede significant progress in achieving gender parity in schools. While enrollment of girl students is up in Tanzania, especially at the primary and secondary levels, AED has become concerned about the barriers girls face, including gender-based…

  19. Workplace violence and gender discrimination in Rwanda's health workforce: Increasing safety and gender equality

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, Constance J; de Vries, Daniel H; d'Arc Kanakuze, Jeanne; Ngendahimana, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Workplace violence has been documented in all sectors, but female-dominated sectors such as health and social services are at particular risk. In 2007-2008, IntraHealth International assisted the Rwanda Ministries of Public Service and Labor and Health to study workplace violence in Rwanda's health sector. This article reexamines a set of study findings that directly relate to the influence of gender on workplace violence, synthesizes these findings with other research fro...

  20. 'Business before pleasure': the golden rule of sex work, payment schedules and gendered experiences of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Elizabeth; Bungay, Vicky

    2017-03-01

    A widespread rule of sex work is that payment occurs before service provision. Drawing on a subset of data collected as part of an ethnographic study conducted in metro Vancouver, Canada, this paper explores the temporal and gendered connections between payment and financial violence in a semi-criminalised indoor sex industry. A detailed examination of the timing of payment with 51 independent indoor sex workers reveals the gendered nature of the violence and its direct connection to anti-violence strategies indoor sex workers employ. We found that women (including transgender women) (n = 26) and men (n = 25) use payment schedules to minimise potential violence, but in divergent ways. Sex workers adhere to, negotiate and reject the golden rule of payment in advance based on different experiences of gendered violence. Through a gendered relational analysis, we show the contextual relationship between men and women as they negotiate payment schedules in their sex work interactions. These findings offer insight into the significance that the timing of payment has in sex workers' anti-violence practices.

  1. Gendered violence and restorative justice: the views of victim advocates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis-Fawley, Sarah; Daly, Kathleen

    2005-05-01

    The use of restorative justice for gendered violence has been debated in the feminist literature for some time. Critics warn that it is inappropriate because the process and outcomes are not sufficiently formal or stringent, and victims may be revictimized. Proponents assert that a restorative justice process may be better for victims than court because it holds offenders accountable and gives victims greater voice. This article presents what victim advocates in two Australian states think about using restorative justice for gendered violence. We find that although victim advocates have concerns and reservations about restorative justice, most saw positive elements.

  2. INTERVENING IN GENDER VIOLENCE.CONSIDERATIOS ABOUT THTE TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Romero Sabater

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available When considering a psychological intervention with a woman who has been a victim of gender violence, one must analyze which approach to take. Here, we weigh up several factors that ground the intervention and make it meaningful, regardless of the theoretical framework of whoever is carrying out the intervention. We also analyze which elements of a gender violence victim’s background should be considered. So, instead of performing an undifferentiated intervention, we take each woman’s individuality into account and thus contribute more effectively to her recovery.

  3. Predictors of dating violence among Chinese adolescents: the role of gender-role beliefs and justification of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, April Chiung-Tao; Chiu, Marcus Yu-Lung; Gao, Jianxiu

    2012-04-01

    In Chinese societies, violence among adolescent dating partners remains a largely ignored and invisible phenomenon. The goal of this study is to examine the relationships among gender-role beliefs, attitudes justifying dating violence, and the experiences of dating-violence perpetration and victimization among Chinese adolescents. This study has used self-reporting measures to collect data from a probability sample of 976 adolescents (mean age = 15.9) in three Chinese societies: Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Shanghai. Research results reveal a high prevalence of dating violence (including physical violence, sexual violence, and controlling behavior) among Chinese adolescents with dating experience: the perpetration rate is 27.3% and the victimization rate is 39%. Study results demonstrate that adolescents who endorse traditional gender-role beliefs tend to view dating violence as acceptable behavior. Boys' endorsement of traditional gender roles, boys' attitudes justifying boy-on-girl violence, and boys' attitudes against girl-on-boy violence predict boys' actual sexual-violence behavior. Moreover, boys' attitudes justifying boy-on-girl dating violence is the strongest predictor of boys' perpetration of physical and sexual dating violence. This study also shows that boys' hostility is a significant predictor of boys' controlling behavior. Programs for preventing dating violence should include components designed to challenge traditional gender-role beliefs and attitudes justifying dating violence.

  4. Violencia de género: actitud y conocimiento del personal de salud de Nicaragua Gender based violence: knowledge and attitudes of health care providers in Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosibel de los Angeles Rodríguez-Bolaños

    2005-04-01

    la identificación y la referencia de las víctimas. CONCLUSIONES: En general, el personal de salud presentó valores altos en la actitud de rechazo hacia la VG. Sin embargo, se identificaron barreras que indican la persistencia de creencias tradicionales como la de considerar el problema de la violencia un asunto privado. Por esta razón, para que en la práctica se observe un cambio significativo, es importante que se consolide la capacitación sobre el tema con una perspectiva de género en las escuelas de medicina. Los hallazgos que se obtuvieron en el presente estudio permitirán mejorar el modelo de atención en los servicios de salud del primer nivel de atención de Nicaragua.OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge and attitudes of health care personnel towards the identification and referral of gender-based violence victims (GBV. Also, to identify barriers to identification and referral of GBV, and to assess the levels of knowledge about Norms and Procedures for Intra-Family Violence Care by the health care personnel of the Nicaraguan's Minister of Health (MINSA, for its initials in Spanish. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among healthcare professionals, including physicians, nurses and nursing technical aides (n=213, in 5 of the 17 Local Systems of Integral Attention (SILAIS from the Integral Program of Attention for Women, Children and Adolescence (AIMNA in the primary level of attention in MINSA, from April to June 2003. Attitude was measured with a Likert scale and an awareness index was created for intra-family violence care guidelines. The information was obtained using a self-administered instrument, based on the questionnaire of the study made among the personnel of the Mexican Institute for Social Security (IMSS, for its initials in Spanish, Morelos, Mexico. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate the association between attitude and several factors, as well as with the knowledge of care guidelines. RESULTS: In our

  5. Gender violence in and around schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    opperwjj

    ... to gender equality and social protection. ... across and within different school settings has the ability to provide a finer-grained, contextually ... the challenge towards gender equality in education (Bhana, 2009; Mathews et al., 2013;. Moffett ...

  6. La Interseccionalidad como Instrumento Analítico de Interpelación en la Violencia de Género (Intersectionality, a Methodological Tool for Analysing and Addressing Gender-based Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Guzman Ordaz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews peripheral feminism reflections upon the need to move beyond classic gender violence studies’ epistemological assumptions. Gender-based-analysis (GBA conceptualization represented a considerable advance in recognising patriarchy as a structural system of domination and its relevance in studying processes of violence against women. Nonetheless this approach exhibit limitations as we try to investigate further beyond simple analytical dichotomies so often deployed when discussing gender violence. Consequently we highlight the importance of relating gender to other Intersectional inequality axis such as social class, age, sexual identities different from the heteronormativity, functional diversity, ethnic group/race, or citizenship. An encompassing analytical perspective allows for a multidimensional framework more suitable for the study of such a complex phenomenon as is violence against women. In this manner we are able to visualize and analyse experiences that are usually marginalised and excluded from hegemonic definitions of gender violence. Este trabajo revisa las reflexiones de los feminismos periféricos en torno a la necesidad de avanzar sobre los presupuestos epistemológicos de los estudios de “violencia de género”. Si bien la conceptualización realizada desde los gender-based analysis (GBA ha significado un gran avance para el reconocimiento del patriarcado como sistema de dominación estructural dentro de los procesos de la violencia contra las mujeres, este enfoque se muestra limitado frente a la superación de dicotomías analíticas que se presentan a menudo en el estudio de la violencia de género. Por ello, se propone la integración interseccional del género con otros ejes de desigualdad, como clase social, edad, identidades sexuales (distintas de la heteronormatividad, diversidad funcional, raza/etnia o ciudadanía. Esta ampliación analítica proporciona la posibilidad de un enfoque multidimensional

  7. Opiniones y Actitudes de Hombres (Extranjeros frente a la Violencia de Género ((Foreign Men’s Opinions and Attitudes about Gender-based Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakea Alonso Fernández de Avilés

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of a research carried out by Cepaim Foundation in the context of the “Speak Out” project (Daphne III. This article explores the discourses of male migrants about equality between women and men and in particular the special issue of gendered violence. The aim is to elaborate a typology of discurses and to compare them with other researches. The hypothesis is that men’s opinions and attitudes on equality and gendered violence are perpetuating gender inequality. Some reflections are provided on why men express themselves in the way they do. Presentación de resultados de la investigación llevada a cabo en el marco del Proyecto Speak Out (Daphne III por la Fundación Cepaim. Se pretende indagar en los discursos de hombres extranjeros con relación a la igualdad entre mujeres y hombres en general, y a la violencia de género en particular realizándose una tipología de los mismos a la luz de clasificaciones de otras investigaciones recientes. La hipótesis de partida es que persisten opiniones y actitudes en el sexo masculino que estarían perpetuando la desigualdad de género. Se aportan reflexiones para tratar de explicar por qué los hombres entrevistados se expresan en la dirección en la que lo hacen. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2610884

  8. Tackling gender inequalities and intimate partner violence in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ending intimate partner violence (IPV) and reducing gender inequalities are recognised as critical to “'ending AIDS” by 2030. Amongst women, experiencing IPV has been shown to increase HIV acquisition, reduce women's ability to use HIV prevention strategies and reduce adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART).

  9. Ukubhinya : Gender and Sexual Violence in Bulawayo, Colonial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Ukubhinya: Gender and Sexual Violence in Bulawayo, Colonial Zimbabwe, 1946-1956. Koni Benson, Joyce Chadya. Abstract. No Abstract Available Zambezia (2003), XXX (i): 108-133. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL ...

  10. Intimate partner violence in early adolescence: The role of gender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of gender, socioeconomic factors and the school. A J Mason-Jones,1,2 ... Further qualitative exploration of the role of reciprocal violence ... some of the questions were of a sensitive nature, appropriate services were made available to ...

  11. An evaluation of the SADC gender and development protocol on equality, empowerment and gender based violence in South Africa (2008-2012) / Mothepane Yaliwe Petunia Selebogo

    OpenAIRE

    Selebogo, Mothepane Yaliwe Petunia

    2013-01-01

    Southern Africa must confront a myriad of challenges as it attempts to address effectively the needs and aspirations of its hundred million people, 40 percent of whom live in extreme poverty with per capita incomes ranging from $256 per annum in Zimbabwe to $5099 in Mauritius. The greatest challenge of the Southern African Development Community (SADC) continues to be the need to build a life for its people free from poverty, diseases, human rights abuses, gender inequality and environmental d...

  12. Gender subordination in the vulnerability of women to domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Christina Macedo Piosiadlo

    Full Text Available Objective.To create and validate an instrument that identifies women's vulnerability to domestic violence through gender subordination indicators in the family. Methods. An instrument consisting on 61 phrases was created, that indicates gender subordination in the family. After the assessment from ten judges, 34 phrases were validated. The approved version was administered to 321 health service users of São José dos Pinhais (Estado de Paraná, Brasil, along with the validated Portuguese version of the Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS (for purposes of separating the sample group - the ''YES'' group was composed of women who have suffered violence and the ''NO'' group consisted of women who had not suffered violence. Data were transferred into the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS software, version 22, and quantitatively analyzed using exploratory and factor analysis, and tests for internal consistency. Results. After analysis (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO statistics, Monte Carlo Principal Components Analysis (PCA, and diagram segmentation, two factors were identified: F1 - consisting of phrases related to home maintenance and family structure; F2 - phrases intrinsic to the couple's relationship. For the statements that reinforce gender subordination, the mean of the factors were higher for the group that answered YES to one of the violence identifying issues. Conclusions. The created instrument was able to identify women who were vulnerable to domestic violence using gender subordination indicators. This could be an important tool for nurses and other professionals in multidisciplinary teams, in order to organize and plan actions to prevent violence against women.

  13. La Importancia de la Terminología en la Conceptualización de la Violencia de Género (The Importance of Terminology in the Conceptualization of Gender-based Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Peris Vidal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AMany of the mass media of the Spanish State continue using, at present, certain expressions (as domestic violence that impede the understanding of the real meaning of the gender-based violence. In some cases there are some ideological intentions by certain sectors of society to use terms which conceal the true structural nature of the gender-based violence. In other cases, this confusion is reinforced by an inadequate understanding of this problem by journalists themselves, and the incorrect use of the names. The result is an important conceptual confusion which affects the understanding of the meaning of gender-based violence among citizens. Numerosos medios de comunicación del Estado español siguen empleando en la actualidad algunas expresiones (como violencia doméstica que impiden la comprensión del verdadero significado de la violencia de género. En algunos casos existe una intención ideológica por parte de ciertos sectores de la sociedad para emplear términos que ocultan el verdadero carácter estructural de la violencia de género. En otros casos se refuerza dicha confusión por la comprensión defectuosa de este problema por parte de los propios periodistas y la mala utilización de las denominaciones. El resultado es una importante confusión conceptual que afecta a la comprensión del significado de la violencia de género por parte de la ciudadanía.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2612144

  14. Gender-Specific Jealousy and Infidelity Norms as Sources of Sexual Health Risk and Violence Among Young Coupled Nicaraguans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Sabrina; Zeledón, Perla; Tellez, Ever; Barrington, Clare

    2016-04-01

    Gender inequity negatively affects health in Central America. In 2011, we conducted 60 semistructured interviews and 12 photovoice focus groups with young coupled men and women in León, Nicaragua, to explore the ways in which social norms around marriage and gender affect sexual health and gender-based violence. Participants' depictions of their experiences revealed gendered norms around infidelity that provided a narrative to justify male expressions of jealousy, which included limiting partner autonomy, sexual coercion, and physical violence against women, and resulted in increased women's risk of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. By understanding and taking account of these different narratives and normalized beliefs in developing health- and gender-based violence interventions, such programs might be more effective in promoting gender-equitable attitudes and behaviors among young men and women in Nicaragua.

  15. Gender's Role in Exposure to Interparental Violence, Acceptance of Violence, Self-Efficacy, and Physical Teen Dating Violence Among Quebec Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruel, Catherine; Lavoie, Francine; Hébert, Martine; Blais, Martin

    2017-05-01

    Despite efforts to prevent physical teen dating violence, it remains a major public health issue with multiple negative consequences. This study aims to investigate gender differences in the relationships between exposure to interparental violence (mother-to-father violence, father-to-mother violence), acceptance of dating violence (perpetrated by boys, perpetrated by girls), and self-efficacy to disclose teen dating violence. Data were drawn from Waves 1 and 2 of the Quebec Youth Romantic Relationships Project, conducted with a representative sample of Quebec high school students. Analyses were conducted on a subsample of 2,564 teenagers who had been in a dating relationship in the past 6 months (63.8% girls, mean age of 15.3 years). Path analyses were conducted to investigate the links among exposure to interparental violence, acceptance of violence, self-efficacy to disclose teen dating violence (measured at Wave 1), and physical teen dating violence (measured at Wave 2). General exposure to interparental violence was linked, through acceptance of girl-perpetrated violence, to victimization among both genders and to girls' perpetration of physical teen dating violence. No significant difference was identified in the impact of the gender of the perpetrating parent when considering exposure to interparental violence. Self-efficacy to disclose personal experiences of violence was not linked to exposure to interparental violence or to experiences of physical teen dating violence. The findings support the intergenerational transmission of violence. Moreover, the findings underline the importance of targeting acceptance of violence, especially girl-perpetrated violence, in prevention programs and of intervening with children and adolescents who have witnessed interparental violence.

  16. Negotiating place and gendered violence in Canada's largest open drug scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Ryan; Shannon, Kate; Shaver, Laura; Kerr, Thomas; Small, Will

    2014-05-01

    Vancouver's Downtown Eastside is home to Canada's largest street-based drug scene and only supervised injection facility (Insite). High levels of violence among men and women have been documented in this neighbourhood. This study was undertaken to explore the role of violence in shaping the socio-spatial relations of women and 'marginal men' (i.e., those occupying subordinate positions within the drug scene) in the Downtown Eastside, including access to Insite. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 23 people who inject drugs (PWID) recruited through the Vancouver Area Network of Drug Users, a local drug user organization. Interviews included a mapping exercise. Interview transcripts and maps were analyzed thematically, with an emphasis on how gendered violence shaped participants' spatial practices. Hegemonic forms of masculinity operating within the Downtown Eastside framed the everyday violence experienced by women and marginal men. This violence shaped the spatial practices of women and marginal men, in that they avoided drug scene milieus where they had experienced violence or that they perceived to be dangerous. Some men linked their spatial restrictions to the perceived 'dope quality' of neighbourhood drug dealers to maintain claims to dominant masculinities while enacting spatial strategies to promote safety. Environmental supports provided by health and social care agencies were critical in enabling women and marginal men to negotiate place and survival within the context of drug scene violence. Access to Insite did not motivate participants to enter into "dangerous" drug scene milieus but they did venture into these areas if necessary to obtain drugs or generate income. Gendered violence is critical in restricting the geographies of men and marginal men within the street-based drug scene. There is a need to scale up existing environmental interventions, including supervised injection services, to minimize violence and potential drug

  17. NEGOTIATING PLACE AND GENDERED VIOLENCE IN CANADA’S LARGEST OPEN DRUG SCENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Ryan; Shannon, Kate; Shaver, Laura; Kerr, Thomas; Small, Will

    2014-01-01

    Background Vancouver’s Downtown Eastside is home to Canada’s largest street-based drug scene and only supervised injection facility (Insite). High levels of violence among men and women have been documented in this neighbourhood. This study was undertaken to explore the role of violence in shaping the socio-spatial relations of women and ‘marginal men’ (i.e., those occupying subordinate positions within the drug scene) in the Downtown Eastside, including access to Insite. Methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 23 people who inject drugs (PWID) recruited through the Vancouver Area Network of Drug Users, a local drug user organization. Interviews included a mapping exercise. Interview transcripts and maps were analyzed thematically, with an emphasis on how gendered violence shaped participants’ spatial practices. Results Hegemonic forms of masculinity operating within the Downtown Eastside framed the everyday violence experienced by women and marginal men. This violence shaped the spatial practices of women and marginal men, in that they avoided drug scene milieus where they had experienced violence or that they perceived to be dangerous. Some men linked their spatial restrictions to the perceived 'dope quality' of neighbourhood drug dealers to maintain claims to dominant masculinities while enacting spatial strategies to promote safety. Environmental supports provided by health and social care agencies were critical in enabling women and marginal men to negotiate place and survival within the context of drug scene violence. Access to Insite did not motivate participants to enter into “dangerous” drug scene milieus but they did venture into these areas if necessary to obtain drugs or generate income. Conclusion Gendered violence is critical in restricting the geographies of men and marginal men within the street-based drug scene. There is a need to scale up existing environmental interventions, including supervised injection

  18. Sexual and gender based violence against men in the Democratic Republic of Congo: effects on survivors, their families and the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Mervyn; Safari, Octave; Ramazani, Paul; Burnham, Gilbert; Glass, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Media and service provider reports of sexual and gender based violence (SGBV) perpetrated against men in armed conflicts have increased. However, response to these reports has been limited, as existing evidence and programs have primarily focused on prevention and response to women and girl survivors of SGBV. This study aims to contribute to the evidence of SGBV experienced by males by advancing our understanding of the definition and characteristics of male SGBV and the overlap of health, social and economic consequences on the male survivor, his family and community in conflict and post-conflict settings. The qualitative study using purposive sampling was conducted from June-August 2010 in the South Kivu province of Eastern DRC, an area that has experienced over a decade of armed conflict. Semi structured individual interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with adult male survivors of SGBV, the survivors' wife and/or friend, health care and service providers, community members and leaders. This study found that SGBV against men, as for women, is multi-dimensional and has significant negative physical, mental, social and economic consequences for the male survivor and his family. SGBV perpetrated against men and boys is likely common within a conflict-affected region but often goes unreported by survivors and others due to cultural and social factors associated with sexual assaults, including survivor shame, fear of retaliation by perpetrators and stigma by community members. All key stakeholders in our study advocated for improvements and programs in several areas: (1) health care services, including capacity to identify survivors and increased access to clinical care and psychosocial support for male survivors; (2) economic development initiatives, including microfinance programs, for men and their families to assist them to regain their productive role in the family; (3) community awareness and education of SGBV against men to reduce stigma and

  19. Predictors of Dating Violence among Chinese Adolescents: The Role of Gender-Role Beliefs and Justification of Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, April Chiung-Tao; Chiu, Marcus Yu-Lung; Gao, Jianxiu

    2012-01-01

    In Chinese societies, violence among adolescent dating partners remains a largely ignored and invisible phenomenon. The goal of this study is to examine the relationships among gender-role beliefs, attitudes justifying dating violence, and the experiences of dating-violence perpetration and victimization among Chinese adolescents. This study has…

  20. Children's perceptions of school-based violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumpel, T P; Meadan, H

    2000-09-01

    An important first step in understanding school-based violence is understanding children's subjective perceptions of the phenomena. Understanding these perceptions is likely to be a major factor in determining the integrity of both prevalence and intervention studies. We investigated how elementary and secondary aged children perceived school-based violence. A sample of 979 children from a nested random sample of elementary (grades 3-6) and middle school (grades 7-8) classrooms in Jerusalem participated in this study. To understand children's perception of school violence, we used an instrument composed of 19 dichotomous items, each presenting a one-line description of a behaviour, which the respondent would define as either 'intentionally harmful' or not. Eighth graders were significantly less likely to label the behaviours described as violent compared to all other grades; and seventh graders were less likely as compared to third, fourth and fifth graders; also, some between-gender differences were found. The respondents often view the behaviours described as intentional and aggressive; this finding should serve as an impetus to widen the scope of school-based violence interventions to include these behaviours, especially for younger children.

  1. Social Perception through Gender Stereotypes of Partner Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor M. Cantera

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The overall goal of this research was to assess the degree of social attachment of certain stereotypes about gender (male provider; female caregiver and violence (violent, peaceful woman and is framed in the context of a debate about the extent and limits of a gender approach when it comes to understanding and preventing violence in different types of partner. 741 people were involved in the research, two thirds of them women, living in Spain, Mexico, Puerto Rico and El Salvador. In each country, they agreed to a stratified convenience sample according to criteria of gender, age, education level, occupational status and sexual orientation. In one session lasting between 35 and 60 minutes, the participants first answered an IAT (Implicit Association Test and then a series of items in a questionnaire with closed and open ended questions. One section includes 48 items referring to “activities” that the person must categorize numerically on a scale of 1-7, with a semantic differential format, and whose poles are “male” and “woman.” In this series two scales of 24 items each are mixed: hardness and tenderness. From the information obtained it is seen that samples from all countries organize their perception of partner violence according to gender stereotypes. Men and women both perceived attributes of the hardness scale to be masculine, and those of tenderness to be feminine, with these perceived differences in terms of gender role behaviors being even more enhanced and further polarized by the women. The socio-cultural anchor of the gender violence stereotype has theoretical and social implications in that it visualizes abuse from a man to a woman in the heterosexual couple and blurs that which occurs in other forms of partner. This raises topics which should be urgently addressed in the research agenda.

  2. Gendered violence and HIV in Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Seckinelgin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Pre-existing gender relations changed for the worse during the conflict and interventions to promote disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR failed to address the dynamics which shape the spread of HIV.

  3. Consequences of collective violence with particular focus on the gender perspective--secondary publication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Kastrup, Marianne C

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing focus on the gender perspective related to the consequences of collective violence. Women run a greater risk of being victims of sexual violence, but few studies have focused on gender differences with respect to physical violence, sexual violations and the impact on health...

  4. [Gender violence: Knowledge and attitudes of nurses in Primary Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés Sánchez, Carmen Ana; García Fernández, Carla; Sierra Díaz, Ángela

    2016-12-01

    To determine the knowledge and attitudes of nurses in Primary Care as regards gender violence and their relationship with socio-demographic factors and cases detected. Cross-sectional, descriptive study. Urban health centres. A total of 167 nurses working in Primary Care. A questionnaire was used that included questions related to knowledge, knowledge perception and attitudes to gender violence attitudes. Variables such as age, gender, marital status, work place and health area were also analysed. The response rate was 114 (68.26%). The percentage of correct responses in the knowledge questions was 62.2%, with a medium level of knowledge being observed. Married nurses or couples living in a stable relationship obtained a higher score (95.2%, P=.077). The low detection (29%) is associated with marital status (P=.004), low knowledge (P=0,008), low knowledge perception (P=.001), lack of training (P=.03) and non-implementation of the gender violence protocol (P=.001). Nurses with low self-perception of their knowledge implement the protocol less often (OR=0.26; 95% CI: 0.1-0.7), and they consider that the lack of training is the main problem in determining the diagnosis (OR=11.24; 95% CI: 1.5-81.1). The level of knowledge was adequate. Nurses have a lack of confidence in terms of their knowledge about gender violence. The detection and diagnosis attitudes are more related to self-perception of levels of knowledge than their real knowledge. Marital status influences the level of knowledge. Professionals state that the lack of training is the main problem to give an efficient healthcare response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Online and offline teen dating violence: the role of loneliness and gender

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    María Muñiz Rivas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it carried out a review of the characteristics of violence in romantic relationships in the adolescent stage in real environments (off-line and virtual (online, based on the importance of gender socialization and feelings of loneliness it has on these relationships. First, dating violence in adolescence is analyzed, according to their distinctive characteristics compared to adulthood. Secondly, virtual social networks and the Internet as present realities are discussed in the daily lives of teenagers and how this use affects social relations in general, and especially for couples. Third, the importance of gender socialization and its relationship to the development of healthy family relationships are analyzed. Fourth, the importance of loneliness is highlighted as a variable that is related to dating violence in adolescence. Finally, some conclusions and practical implications are provided with regard to the subject of the article.

  6. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of adolescents in Upper Egypt on gender-based violence, with a focus on early girls' marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Alaa El Dine H

    2015-09-01

    A large proportion of the female population all over the world, particularly in developing countries, experience some form of gender-based violence (GBV) during their life. Early marriage, a form of GBV, is particularly highly prevalent in rural Upper Egypt. The aim of the current study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of adolescents in Upper Egypt on domestic GBV, with a focus on early girls' marriage. The study was a cross-sectional descriptive household survey targeting 400 randomly selected adolescent boys and girls aged 11-16 years from five villages of Minya Governorate in Upper Egypt. The proportion of interviewed adolescents who could identify certain practices as forms of GBV was relatively low: the identified practices were mainly deprivation of work (9.0%), deprivation of inheritance (3.3%), arbitrary neglect and desertion (2.8%), and preventing from visiting relatives (0.5%). Abusive sexual behavior was not identified by any of the study participants as a form of domestic GBV. A total of 112 boys (56.0%) reported that they have been perpetrators in domestic GBV events at least once and 118 girls (59.0%) reported that they have been actual victims of domestic GBV. An overall 65.6% of study participants could correctly identify the legal age of marriage as 18 years, yet only 22.0% identified earlier ages of marriage as a form of domestic GBV. The vast majority of girls and boys reported that they would not agree to get married before the age of 18 years (91.0 and 87.0%, respectively). Adolescents in Upper Egypt demonstrated a less than satisfactory knowledge about the forms of GBV. Although early girls' marriage was not universally recognized by adolescents as a form of domestic GBV, they demonstrated satisfactory knowledge about the legal age of marriage, as well as a tendency to abandon the practice. Establishing a community-based awareness program for adolescents of both sexes about GBV with a focus on early girls' marriage is

  7. Concepto y Representación de la Violencia de Género: Reflexiones sobre el Impacto en la Población Joven (Concept and Representation of Gender-based Violence: Reflections about the Impact on Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Zurbano Berenguer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies and reports reveal that young people have a distorted concept of gender-based violence and their tolerance towards it does not decrease. There is a context of institutional concern about prevention and eradication of gender-based violence in Spain. In this context, this paper reflects on gender-based violence in order to compare the collective adolescent-young imaginary and social messages sent by the media on this problem.  We will analyze this concept based on theoretical feminist definitions, the legal national an international framework and data about the presentation of this problem on the media. We will conclude that gender-based violence is transmitted in a very simplistic and reductionist way, a way too far from feminist frameworks, so adolescents and young people find identifying and rejecting it difficult.  Los últimos estudios e informes revelan que la juventud tiene un concepto distorsionado de la violencia de género y sus niveles de tolerancia hacia las agresiones violentas por razón de género no disminuyen. En un contexto de preocupación institucional por la prevención y erradicación  de esta violencia, el presente trabajo reflexiona sobre el concepto de violencia de género con la finalidad de emprender una comparación entre el imaginario colectivo adolescente o joven y las conceptualizaciones y transmisiones sociales, en este caso por parte de los media, que se hacen de este problema. A partir de un estudio conceptual basado en las descripciones teóricas feministas de las violencias que sufren las mujeres, una revisión de los marcos legislativos definitorios del problema (tanto a nivel nacional como internacional y de datos sobre su representación en los medios de comunicación, se concluye que este problema es transmitido de modo simplista y reduccionista, muy alejado de los marcos de interpretación feministas, lo que dificulta su identificación y rechazo por parte de las personas jóvenes y

  8. Gender, sexuality and violence: perception of mobilized adolescents in an online game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Rosa Maria Godoy Serpa da; Santos, Danyelle Leonette Araújo Dos; Gessner, Rafaela; Fornari, Lucimara Fabiana; Oliveira, Rebeca Nunes Guedes de; Schoenmaker, Michaela Chiara

    2018-01-01

    To identify and analyze the perception of high school students about violence in intimacy relations in adolescence, in the light of the category Gender. A qualitative, descriptive and exploratory study, based on the comments of 27 adolescents participating in the online game, Papo Reto. The discourses were submitted to the analysis of thematic content and discussed in the light of the category Gender. Adolescents naturalize violence in their relationships of intimacy, but when they recognize it, they react in several ways: with aggressions, dialoguing with the partner or seeking support from third parties. There were discordant perceptions regarding the phenomenon, most of which reiterated gender stereotypes. However, they reveal attitudes favorable to overcoming mainly related to the attainment of autonomy.

  9. Elderly victims of gender violence in Portugal: Invisible and not heard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Maria José; Rodríguez Castro, Yolanda; Ruido, Patricia Alonso; Braga Lopez, Rita DeOliveira

    2016-12-01

    In this article, we explore professionals' representations of elderly female victims of gender violence. Semi-structured interviews were used to explore seven professionals' work philosophies and intervention methodologies in their work with elderly female victims of violence, their main problems and difficulties, and their perspectives regarding shelters for elderly women. Results show that there are no specific philosophies and methodologies to intervene with these victims. There is a tendency to homogenize all the victims of gender violence, regardless of their age and specific needs. The professionals also tended to trivialize gender violence against elderly female victims, considering that these women tolerate violence.

  10. Effectiveness of a brief behavioural intervention on psychological distress among women with a history of gender-based violence in urban Kenya: A randomised clinical trial.

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    Richard A Bryant

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gender-based violence (GBV represents a major cause of psychological morbidity worldwide, and particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. Although there are effective treatments for common mental disorders associated with GBV, they typically require lengthy treatment programs that may limit scaling up in LMICs. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of a new 5-session behavioural treatment called Problem Management Plus (PM+ that lay community workers can be taught to deliver.In this single-blind, parallel, randomised controlled trial, adult women who had experienced GBV were identified through community screening for psychological distress and impaired functioning in Nairobi, Kenya. Participants were randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio either to PM+ delivered in the community by lay community health workers provided with 8 days of training or to facility-based enhanced usual care (EUC provided by community nurses. Participants were aware of treatment allocation, but research assessors were blinded. The primary outcome was psychological distress as measured by the total score on the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 assessed at 3 months after treatment. Secondary outcomes were impaired functioning (measured by the WHO Disability Adjustment Schedule [WHODAS], symptoms of posttraumatic stress (measured by the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist [PCL], personally identified problems (measured by Psychological Outcome Profiles [PSYCHLOPS], stressful life events (measured by the Life Events Checklist [LEC], and health service utilisation. Between 15 April 2015 and 20 August 2015, 1,393 women were screened for eligibility on the basis of psychological distress and impaired functioning. Of these, 518 women (37% screened positive, of whom 421 (81% were women who had experienced GBV. Of these 421 women, 209 were assigned to PM+ and 212 to EUC. Follow-up assessments were completed on 16 January 2016. The primary

  11. Gender equality in India hit by illiteracy, child marriages and violence: a hurdle for sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmapurkar, Kishor Parashramji

    2017-01-01

    Gender equality is fundamental to accelerate sustainable development. It is necessary to conduct gender analyses to identify sex and gender-based differences in health risks. This study aimed to find the gender equality in terms of illiteracy, child marriages and spousal violence among women based on data from National Family Health Survey 2015-16 (NFHS-4). This was a descriptive analysis of secondary data of ever-married women onto reproductive age from 15 states and 3 UTs in India of the first phase of NFHS-4. Gender gap related to literacy and child marriage among urban and rural area was compared. In rural area all states except Meghalaya and Sikkim had the significantly higher percentage of women's illiteracy as compared to male. Bihar and Madhya Pradesh had higher illiterate women, 53.7% and 48.6% as compared to male, 24.7% and 21.5% respectively (P gender gap between illiteracy with women more affected in rural areas with higher prevalence of child marriages and poor utilization of maternal health services. Also, violence against women is showing an upward trend with declining sex-ratio at birth.

  12. El Problema de los Matrimonios Forzados como Violencia de Género (The Problem of Forced Marriage as a Form of Gender-based Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Igareda González

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Forced marriages is a phenomenon that appears linked to migration, but it results difficult to be defined due to its confusion with arranged marriages, fraudulent marriages or marriages of convenience. It is a little known issue in Spain, but not in other European countries that have a larger experience in migration issues and management of multiculturality. In Europe, sometimes forced marriages have been associated to a migration problem, some other times to a religion one, eventually it has been understood only as a cultural problem or as a form of gender violence. Depending on which is the diagnosis and explanation of this phenomenon, it varies the way the law regulates it. The present article identifies the main difficulties the law faces when approaches forced marriages as a form of gender violence of great complexity. Los matrimonios forzados es un fenómeno que aparece ligado a la migración, pero de difícil conceptualización por su confusión con los matrimonios pactados, los matrimonios fraudulentos o los matrimonios de conveniencia. Es una cuestión poco conocida en España, pero no en otros países europeos que cuentan con una más larga experiencia en cuestiones migratorias y gestión de la multiculturalidad. En Europa unas veces se ha vinculado los matrimonios forzados a un problema migratorio, otras veces religioso, en ocasiones se entiende como problema únicamente cultural y otras veces como una forma de violencia de género. Dependiendo de cuál es el diagnóstico y la explicación de este fenómeno, varía la forma en la que el derecho lo regula. El presente artículo identifica las principales dificultades que la ley se enfrenta para dar una respuesta a los matrimonios forzados, como una forma de violencia de género de enorme complejidad. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2611913

  13. Gender violence news in British and American press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Bustinduy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to prove which qualities, from the British and United States actual press, are more adequate for gender violence issues, comparing news on the same stories. It is evident the influence of mass media on public opinion and, therefore, the responsibility that written press has on gender violence messages, avoiding sensationalism. Psycholinguistic studies have established the relation language-thought, so language used in journalism is crucial. Following the belief that newspapers considered more liberal and independent will lead to a better treatment than traditional ones considered to be more reluctant to change, journals have been selected. Furthermore, different cultures can be as objective and respectful but maybe less committed with the issue, as it may arise from the samples. There have been emerging ethic codes giving guidelines to journalists, including discrimination, and more specific on gender sensitive reporting. Therefore, the objective to improve public opinion information, stepping away from stereotypes and oversimplifications, is substantial, and will undoubtedly result in a better understanding of equality.

  14. ¿Somos iguales? Using a structural violence framework to understand gender and health inequities from an intersectional perspective in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Geordan D; Motta, Angelica; Cáceres, Carlos F; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Bowie, Diana; Prost, Audrey

    In the Peruvian Amazon, historical events of colonization and political marginalization intersect with identities of ethnicity, class and geography in the construction of gender and health inequities. Gender-based inequalities can manifest in poor health outcomes via discriminatory practices, healthcare system imbalances, inequities in health research, and differential exposures and vulnerabilities to diseases. Structural violence is a comprehensive framework to explain the mechanisms by which social forces such as poverty, racism and gender inequity become embodied as individual experiences and health outcomes, and thus may be a useful tool in structuring an intersectional analysis of gender and health inequities in Amazonian Peru. The aim of this paper is to explore the intersection of gender inequities with other social inequalities in the production of health and disease in Peru's Amazon using a structural violence approach. Exploratory qualitative research was performed in two Loreto settings - urban Iquitos and the rural Lower Napo River region - between March and November 2015. This included participant observation with prolonged stays in the community, 46 semi-structured individual interviews and three group discussions. Thematic analysis was performed to identify emerging themes related to gender inequalities in health and healthcare and how these intersect with layered social disadvantages in the reproduction of health and illness. We employed a structural violence approach to construct an intersectional analysis of gender and health inequities in Amazonian Peru. Our findings were arranged into five interrelated domains within a gender, structural violence and health model: gender as a symbolic institution, systemic gender-based violence, interpersonal violence, the social determinants of health, and other health outcomes. Each domain represents one aspect of the complex associations between gender, gender inequity and health. Through this model, we were

  15. Perceptions of domestic violence in lesbian relationships: stereotypes and gender role expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Betsi; Terrance, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    In light of evidence suggesting that violence between lesbian couples is oftentimes dismissed as "mutually combative," expectations that support this perception were examined. Participants (N = 287) evaluated a domestic violence situation within the context of a lesbian partnership. As physical appearance may be used to support gender- and heterosexist-based stereotypes relating to lesbians, participants evaluated a domestic violence incident wherein the physical appearance of both the victim and perpetrator were systematically varied. Overall, women perceived the situation as more dangerous than did men. However, among women, the plausibility of the victim's claim, and blame assigned to the perpetrator and victim, varied as a function of the physical appearance of the couple. Implications of this research as well as future directions are discussed.

  16. [Ethical issues in health care of gender violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugarín-González, R; Bugarín-Diz, C

    2014-01-01

    Gender violence is a health problem that occasionally gives rise to ethical dilemmas for the family doctor. One of the most important conflict is probably when a patient admits to being abused by her partner, but appeals to keep the information confidential, and refuses to present an injury report. There also other problematic situations. This essay attempts to reflect on these issues and help professionals in making decisions. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Embodied harms: gender, shame, and technology-facilitated sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Nicola; Powell, Anastasia

    2015-06-01

    Criminality in cyberspace has been the subject of much debate since the 1990s, yet comparatively little attention has been paid to technology-facilitated sexual violence and harassment (TFSV). The aim of this article is to explore the ways in which retraditionalized gender hierarchies and inequalities are manifested in online contexts, and to conceptualize the cause and effects of TFSV as "embodied harms." We argue that problematic mind/body and online/off-line dualisms result in a failure to grasp the unique nature of embodied harms, precluding an adequate understanding and theorization of TFSV. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Planning responds to gender violence: evidence from Spain, Mexico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Elizabeth L; Escalante, Sara Ortiz

    2010-01-01

    Urban planning has been largely ineffective in addressing urban violence and particularly slow in responding to gender violence. This paper explores the public and private divide, structural inequalities, and issues of ethnicity and citizenship, in terms of their planning implications for gender violence. Drawing on evidence from Spain, Mexico and the United States, it examines how economic and social planning and gender violence intertwine. The three case studies demonstrate that the challenge is not only to break constructed structural inequalities and divisions between public and private spheres, but also to promote changes in the working models of institutions and organisations.

  19. Genocidal gender and sexual violence. The legacy of the ICTR, Rwanda's ordinary courts and gacaca courts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaitesi, U.

    2013-01-01

    This study has set out to investigate the legacy of post-genocide judicial institutions mandated to adjudicate cases of genocide and related offences vis-à-vis genocidal gender and sexual violence. The study takes the complex genocidal experience of victims of gender and sexual violence as the

  20. Working to Alleviate Gendered Violence on College Campuses by Designing Public Service Announcement Storyboards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staggers, Sydney M.; Myers, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Gendered violence is considered to be the "physical, verbal, emotional, sexual, and visual brutality that is inflicted disproportionately or exclusively on members of one sex". According to the World Health Organization (WHO, 2010), gendered violence is a major public health concern that often goes unnoticed because it takes place in private…

  1. Domestic Violence Between Same-Gender Partners: Recent Findings and Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClennen, Joan C.

    2005-01-01

    Empirical literature about same-gender domestic violence was relatively nonexistent until the past 20 years, and conducting research with this population about a sensitive topic remains a daunting endeavor. Existing studies reveal similarities between opposite- and same-gender domestic violence in prevalence, types of abuse, and various dynamics,…

  2. Gender Role Attitudes and Male Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration: Normative Beliefs as Moderators

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes, H. Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A.; Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Reidy, Dennis E.; Hall, Jeffrey E.

    2015-01-01

    Commonly used dating violence prevention programs assume that promotion of more egalitarian gender role attitudes will prevent dating violence perpetration. Empirical research examining this assumption, however, is limited and inconsistent. The current study examined the longitudinal association between gender role attitudes and physical dating violence perpetration among adolescent boys (n=577; 14% Black, 5% other race/ethnicity) and examined whether injunctive (i.e., acceptance of dating vi...

  3. Rape culture, lad culture and everyday sexism: researching, conceptualizing and politicizing new mediations of gender and sexual violence

    OpenAIRE

    Phipps, Alison; Ringrose, Jessica; Renold, Emma; Jackson, Carolyn

    2017-01-01

    Introduction to Special Issue of Journal of Gender Studies entitled Rape culture, lad culture and everyday sexism: Researching, conceptualizing and politicizing new mediations of gender and sexual violence.

  4. Male perpetration of teen dating violence: associations with neighborhood violence involvement, gender attitudes, and perceived peer and neighborhood norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Elizabeth; Silverman, Jay G; Raj, Anita; Decker, Michele R; Miller, Elizabeth

    2011-04-01

    This study aims to examine the link between male perpetration of teen dating violence (TDV) and neighborhood violence, as well as associations with gender attitudes and perceived peer and neighborhood norms related to violence among a sample of urban adolescent boys. Participants of this cross-sectional study (N = 275) were between the ages of 14 and 20 years and recruited from urban community health centers. Crude and adjusted logistic and linear regression models were used to examine TDV perpetration in relation to (a) neighborhood violence involvement, (b) perceptions of peer violence, (c) perceptions of neighborhood violence, and (d) gender attitudes. Slightly more than one in four (28%) boys reported at least one form of TDV perpetration; among boys who have ever had sex, almost half (45%) reported at least one form of TDV perpetration. In logistic and linear regression models adjusted for demographics, boys who reported TDV perpetration were more likely to report involvement in neighborhood violence (odds ratio (OR) = 3.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.7-5.5), beliefs that their friends have perpetrated TDV (OR = 2.7; 95%CI = 1.4-5.1), perceptions of violent activity within their neighborhood (OR = 3.0; 95%CI = 1.4-6.3), and greater support of traditional gender norms (β = 3.2, p = 0.002). The findings suggest that efforts are needed to address boys' behaviors related to the perpetration of multiple forms of violence and require explicit efforts to reduce perceived norms of violence perpetration as well as problematic gender attitudes (e.g., increasing support for gender equity) across boys' life contexts.

  5. Sexual Violence on Campus: Differences Across Gender and Sexual Minority Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Paquette, Geneviève; Bergeron, Manon; Dion, Jacinthe; Daigneault, Isabelle; Hébert, Martine; Ricci, Sandrine

    2018-06-01

    Sexual violence is a pervasive problem on university campuses. Although previous work has documented greater vulnerability for sexual violence among sexual and gender minority students, little is known about contextual variation in vulnerability to this kind of violence. The goals of the current study were (1) to identify vulnerability among sexual and gender minority students with regard to sexual violence, and (2) to explore if the context of this violence differs across sexual and gender minority status. Undergraduate students (ages 18-24) from six francophone universities in Quebec, Canada (N = 4,264) completed online questionnaires regarding their experience of sexual violence, as well as the context of these acts (e.g., the gender of the perpetrator, the status of the perpetrator, and the location of the violence). They also provided information regarding their sexual and gender minority status. Binary logistic regressions were conducted to assess for variation in experiencing sexual violence across sexual and gender minority status. Transgender/nonbinary students generally reported higher levels of sexual violence than their cisgender peers, while variation occurred with regard to vulnerability across sexual identity subgroups. Few differences in context were observed across sexual minority identity. Transgender/nonbinary students were significantly more likely to report sexual violence in athletic contexts and during volunteering activities compared to their cisgender peers. Findings highlight the higher levels of vulnerability for sexual violence among gender minority and some sexual minority university students. They also point to the contexts in which such violence occurs, suggesting specific strategies for prevention. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dating Violence and Sexual Assault Prevention with African American Middle Schoolers: Does Group Gender Composition Impact Dating Violence Attitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Beverly M.; Weisz, Arlene N.; Jayasundara, Dheeshana S.

    2012-01-01

    A dating violence and sexual assault prevention program was presented to 396, predominately African American, middle schoolers in two inner city schools in the United States. In one school the program was offered with a same-gender group composition; in the other school, the same program was offered with mixed-gender group composition. A…

  7. Public security female workers at the coast of Paraná, Brazil: intersections of gender, work, violence(s), and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Daniele; Signorelli, Marcos Claudio; Pereira, Pedro Paulo Gomes

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to promote visibility of women working in public security along the Parana coast, articulating issues of gender, violence(s), and the health-disease process. The methodology was qualitative, through an ethnographic research which included 50 women (civilians, military policewomen, and prison officers) from municipalities along the Parana coast, between March 2014 and March 2015. Results revealed: 1) the dilemmas that these women are subjected to, facing the seasonal dynamics in the field of public security in the region; 2) exposure to violence (mainly institutional and gender-based) and its impact on these women's health; 3) power relations, marked by corporations' hierarchies and gender asymmetries between men and women in professional settings. In summary, this research highlighted the need to promote visibility of women working in public security institutions, considering the impact of violence and gender inequalities in their personal and professional lives, including the resistance and rearrangements promoted by these women in the institutions in response to their presence in a hegemonic and traditionally male environment.

  8. Gender Role Attitudes and Male Adolescent Dating Violence Perpetration: Normative Beliefs as Moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A; Niolon, Phyllis Holditch; Reidy, Dennis E; Hall, Jeffrey E

    2016-02-01

    Commonly used dating violence prevention programs assume that promotion of more egalitarian gender role attitudes will prevent dating violence perpetration. Empirical research examining this assumption, however, is limited and inconsistent. The current study examined the longitudinal association between gender role attitudes and physical dating violence perpetration among adolescent boys (n = 577; 14 % Black, 5 % other race/ethnicity) and examined whether injunctive (i.e., acceptance of dating violence) and descriptive (i.e., beliefs about dating violence prevalence) normative beliefs moderated the association. As expected, the findings suggest that traditional gender role attitudes at T1 were associated with increased risk for dating violence perpetration 18 months later (T2) among boys who reported high, but not low, acceptance of dating violence (injunctive normative beliefs) at T1. Descriptive norms did not moderate the effect of gender role attitudes on dating violence perpetration. The results suggest that injunctive norms and gender role attitudes work synergistically to increase risk for dating violence perpetration among boys; as such, simultaneously targeting both of these constructs may be an effective prevention approach.

  9. Community violence exposure and substance use: cross-cultural and gender perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfving-Gupta, Sandra; Willebrand, Mimmie; Koposov, Roman; Blatný, Marek; Hrdlička, Michal; Schwab-Stone, Mary; Ruchkin, Vladislav

    2018-04-01

    The negative effects of community violence exposure on child and adolescent mental health are well documented and exposure to community violence has been linked both to a number of internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Our aim was, therefore, to investigate cross-cultural and gender differences in the relationship between community violence exposure and substance abuse. A self-report survey was conducted among 10,575, 12-18 year old adolescents in three different countries, Czech Republic (N = 4537), Russia (N = 2377) and US (N = 3661). We found that in all three countries both substance use and problem behavior associated with it increased similarly along with severity of violence exposure and this association was not gender-specific. It was concluded that in spite of the differences in the levels of violence exposure and substance use cross-culturally and by gender, the pattern of their association is neither culturally nor gender bound.

  10. Women's Work, Gender Roles, and Intimate Partner Violence in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Anastasia J; Thomas, Nicholas J

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of women's labor force participation to the risk of intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization in the past 12 months, using data for 20,635 currently married women aged 15-49 years from the 2013 nationally representative Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Multilevel logistic regression models of sexual and physical IPV, with interactions between women's work and social norms regarding traditional gender roles, were developed. Approximately 23% of women aged 15-49 years reported IPV victimization in the past 12 months. Results revealed that non-cash work relative to unemployment was positively associated with both forms of IPV victimization, after controlling for other factors. Women's engagement in cash work was positively correlated with sexual IPV. The positive association between cash work and physical IPV victimization was significantly larger for women who resided in localities with greater male approval of wife beating. In localities where husband-dominated decision making was more common, a spousal education gap that favored husbands was more positively associated with sexual IPV. The findings call for integrated IPV prevention and economic empowerment programs that consider gender norms and gender-role beliefs and are adapted to the locality setting, in order to promote social environments in which women can reap the full benefits of their economic empowerment.

  11. Attitude towards gender roles and violence against women and girls (VAWG): baseline findings from an RCT of 1752 youths in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed Ali, Tazeen; Karmaliani, Rozina; Mcfarlane, Judith; Khuwaja, Hussain M A; Somani, Yasmeen; Chirwa, Esnat D; Jewkes, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Violence against women is driven by gender norms that normalize and justify gender inequality and violence. Gender norms are substantially shaped during adolescence. Programs offered through schools offer an opportunity to influence gender attitudes toward gender equity if we understand these to be partly shaped by peers and the school environment. We present an analysis of the baseline research conducted for a randomized controlled trial with 1752 grade 6 boys and girls and their attitudes toward gender roles, VAWG, and associated factors. We used baseline data from a  cluster randomised control study. Interviews were conducted in 40 public schools in Hyderabad, with 25-65 children per school. Questions were asked about attitudes toward gender roles, peer-to-peer perpetration, and victimization experiences, and family life, including father- or in-law-to- mother violence and food security. Multiple regression models were built of factors associated with gender attitudes for boys and girls. Our result have shown youth attitudes endorsing patriarchal gender beliefs were higher for boys, compared to girls. The multiple regression model showed that for boys, patriarchal gender attitudes were positively associated with hunger, depression, being promised already in marriage, and being a victim and/or perpetrator of peer violence. For girls gender attitudes were associated with hunger, experiencing corporal punishment at home, and being a perpetrator (for some, and victim) of peer violence. Youth patriarchal attitudes are closely related to their experience of violence at school and for girl's physical punishment, at home and for boys being promised in early marriage. We suggest that these variables are indicators of gender norms among peers and in the family. The significance of peer norms is that it provides the possibility that school-based interventions which work with school peers have the potential to positively impact youth patriarchal gender attitudes and foster

  12. Wives' Attitudes toward Gender Roles and Their Experience of Intimate Partner Violence by Husbands in Central Province, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayatilleke, Achini; Poudel, Krishna C.; Sakisaka, Kayako; Yasuoka, Junko; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jimba, Masamine

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted a community based, cross-sectional study to describe the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) by husbands and the association between wives' attitudes toward gender roles and their experience of IPV in Central Province, Sri Lanka. This article included a representative sample of 624 wives between 15 and 49 years of…

  13. Building a Future without Gender Violence: Rural Teachers and Youth in Rural Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa, Leading Community Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lange, Naydene; Mitchell, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    This article advances the idea that rural youth and teachers are the key in leading community dialogue towards addressing gender-based violence (GBV) in their community through their film making. The youth voices on the realities of GBV in their school and community, in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, captured through the process of…

  14. Gender context of sexual violence and HIV sexual risk behaviors among married women in Iringa Region, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyamhanga, Tumaini M; Frumence, Gasto

    2014-01-01

    There is a dearth of empirical research illuminating possible connections between gender imbalances and sexual violence among married women in Tanzania. There is a need to generate in-depth information on the connectivity between gender imbalances (asymmetrical resource ownership, sexual decision making, roles, and norms) and sexual violence plus associated HIV risky sexual behavior among married women. This paper is based on a qualitative case study that involved use of focus group discussions (FGDs). A thematic analysis approach was used in analyzing the study findings. The study findings are presented under the three structures of gender and power theory. On sexual division of labor, our study found that economic powerlessness exposes women to sexual violence. This study suggests that married women experience a sexual risk of acquiring HIV that results from non-consensual sex. That non-consensual sex is a function of gender imbalances - ranging from women's economic dependence on their husbands or partners to socioculturally rooted norms and expectations regarding women's sexual behavior. The HIV risk is especially heightened because masculine sexual norms encourage men [husbands/partners] to engage in unprotected intra- and extramarital sex. It is recommended that the Tanzania Commission for AIDS (TACAIDS) should address the gender dimensions of sexual violence in marriage.

  15. "Maybe She Was Provoked": Exploring Gender Stereotypes About Male and Female Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarduzio, Jennifer A; Carlyle, Kellie E; Harris, Kate Lockwood; Savage, Matthew W

    2017-01-01

    The current study is concerned with the different types of gender stereotypes that participants may draw upon when exposed to news stories about intimate partner violence (IPV). We qualitatively analyzed open-ended responses examining four types of gender stereotypes-aggression, emotional, power and control, and acceptability of violence. We offer theoretical implications that extend past research on intimate terrorism and situational couple violence, the gender symmetry debate, and how stereotypes are formed. We also discuss practical implications for journalists who write stories about IPV and individuals who provide services to victims and perpetrators. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Gender Differences in the Longitudinal Impact of Exposure to Violence on Mental Health in Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zona, Kate; Milan, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence of gender differences in psychopathology during adolescence, but little research has investigated gender differences in trauma-related symptoms. Exposure to violence is a commonly experienced potentially traumatic event among urban adolescents, and the few studies examining gender differences in its mental health impact have…

  17. El Observatorio de Violencia de Género en Bizkaia (OVGB: una Experiencia de Buenas Prácticas (The Observatory on Gender-based Violence in Bizkaia (OVGB: an Experience of Good Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Díaz Arbesú

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Observatory on Gender-based Violence in Bizkaia (OVGB emerged as an initiative of the Social Action Department of Bizkaia Provincial Council (DFB in 2003.  It began to operate in 2004. This Observatory has two main objectives: To understand the reality and evolution of the situations of violence against women in Bizkaia.To make recommendations and proposals to improve the services and facilities offered by public institutions in the field of gender-based violence. Its work on compiling data on dealing with situations of gender violence within the social sphere, where there are multiple information sources, is of particular interest (123. Data gathering process coordinated by the Indicators Working Party. Along with the information on a social level, the political and legal data make up a database providing a closer view on the care provided to this collective and the analysis of the evolution.  This knowledge is used to issue recommendations as guidelines for public policies. The work carried out can be found on the OVGB website: http://www.bizkaia.eus/Gizartekintza/Genero_Indarkeria/ca_index.html El Observatorio de Violencia de Género en Bizkaia (OVGB surge como iniciativa del Departamento de Acción Social de la Diputación Foral de Bizkaia (DFB en el año 2003. En 2004 comienzan sus actuaciones. Dos son los objetivos principales de este Observatorio: Conocer la realidad y la evolución de las situaciones de violencia contra las mujeres en Bizkaia.Formular recomendaciones y propuestas de mejora en los servicios y prestaciones que se ofertan desde las instituciones públicas, en el ámbito de la violencia de género. De todo el trabajo desarrollado resulta de especial interés la compilación de los datos de las actuaciones efectuadas en atención a las víctimas de violencia de género dentro del ámbito social, en el que existen múltiples fuentes informativas (123, proceso de recogida de datos coordinado por el Grupo de Trabajo sobre

  18. Addressing gender inequality and intimate partner violence as critical barriers to an effective HIV response in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Charlotte; Seeley, Janet

    2014-01-01

    In Africa, women and girls represent 57% of people living with HIV, with gender inequality and violence being an important structural determinant of their vulnerability. This commentary draws out lessons for a more effective combination response to the HIV epidemic from three papers recently published in JIAS. Hatcher and colleagues present qualitative data from women attending ante-natal clinics in Johannesburg, describing how HIV diagnosis during pregnancy and subsequent partner disclosure are common triggers for violence within relationships. The authors describe the challenges women face in adhering to medication or using services. Kyegombe and colleagues present a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial in Uganda of SASA! - a community violence prevention programme. Along with promising community impacts on physical partner violence, significantly lower levels of sexual concurrency, condom use and HIV testing were reported by men in intervention communities. Remme and her colleagues present a systematic review of evidence on the costs and cost-effectiveness of gender-responsive HIV interventions. The review identified an ever-growing evidence base, but a paucity of accompanying economic analyses, making it difficult to assess the costs or value for money of gender-focused programmes. There is a need to continue to accumulate evidence on the effectiveness and costs of different approaches to addressing gender inequality and violence as part of a combination HIV response. A clearer HIV-specific and broader synergistic vision of financing and programming needs to be developed, to ensure that the potential synergies between HIV-specific and broader gender-focused development investments can be used to best effect to address vulnerability of women and girls to both violence and HIV.

  19. The Link Between Community-Based Violence and Intimate Partner Violence: the Effect of Crime and Male Aggression on Intimate Partner Violence Against Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Ligia; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Hossain, Mazeda; Watts, Charlotte; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2015-08-01

    Both intimate partner violence (IPV) and community violence are prevalent globally, and each is associated with serious health consequences. However, little is known about their potential links or the possible benefits of coordinated prevention strategies. Using aggregated data on community violence from the São Paulo State Security Department (INFOCRIM) merged with WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence data, random intercept models were created to assess the effect of crime on women's probability of experiencing IPV. The association between IPV and male aggression (measured by women's reports of their partner's fights with other men) was examined using logistic regression models. We found little variation in the likelihood of male IPV perpetration related to neighborhood crime level but did find an increased likelihood of IPV experiences among women whose partners were involved in male-to-male violence. Emerging evidence on violence prevention has suggested some promising avenues for primary prevention that address common risk factors for both perpetration of IPV and male interpersonal violence. Strategies such as early identification and effective treatment of emotional disorders, alcohol abuse prevention and treatment, complex community-based interventions to change gender social norms and social marketing campaigns designed to modify social and cultural norms that support violence may work to prevent simultaneously male-on-male aggression and IPV. Future evaluations of these prevention strategies should simultaneously assess the impact of interventions on IPV and male interpersonal aggression.

  20. GENDER VIOLENCE IN MIDDLE AND HIGH SCHOOLS IN THE SOUTHERN OF GUANAJUATO

    OpenAIRE

    Rocío Rosas-Vargas; Marilú León-Andrade; Alejandro Ortega-Hernández

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on some of the main results of the project Gender, Violence and Marginalization in elementary schools and high schools in southern Guanajuato. What was found is that a high number of female students presented some types of violence by either her classmates or teachers. Gossip and insults by other women were the main types of violence detected among female students analyzed; and also insults and gossip by men stood out. Both, male and female teachers, use viole...

  1. The Perpetration of School Violence in Taiwan: An Analysis of Gender, Grade Level and School Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi

    2009-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample in Taiwan, this study aims to describe the prevalence of perpetration of school violence in Taiwan. The study explores how gender, age and school type relate to students' perpetration of violence in an Asian culture context. The sample included 14,022 students from elementary to high schools in grades 4 to…

  2. The Relationship Between Childhood Gender Nonconformity and Experiencing Diverse Types of Homophobic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'haese, Lies; Dewaele, Alexis; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2016-05-01

    Experiences of homophobic violence seem to differ for various sexual-minority subgroups. Previous research has outlined that experiences differ for men and women, and for gender conforming and nonconforming lesbian, gay, and bisexual men and women (LGBs). In this article, these relationships are studied by making a distinction between four types of homophobic violence: verbal, physical, material, and sexual. In 2013, an online survey was designed to ask Flemish LGBs about their experiences of homophobic violence. The final sample consists of 1,402 Flemish sexual-minority individuals. The results show that gay and bisexual men experienced significantly more physical, material, and sexual violence during their lifetime than lesbian and bisexual women did. Moreover, LGBs who reported more childhood gender nonconformity also reported more homophobic violence, and this positive relationship is confirmed for the four forms of violence. For verbal and physical violence, however, the relationship between childhood gender nonconformity and violence varies according to the gender of the respondents. This relationship is much stronger for gay and bisexual men than for lesbian and bisexual women. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Mobility and access to services are key drivers of gendered violence ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-09-15

    Sep 15, 2016 ... In Pakistan's urban centres, gender and violence interact in unexpected ways ... to a study led by the Institute for Business Administration in Karachi. ... For example, because women have seating restrictions on public transport, ... The silence surrounding sexual violence in South Asia has been shattered.

  4. Violence as Understandable, Deserved or Unacceptable? Listening for Gender in Teenagers' Talk about Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Vanita

    2013-01-01

    Youth violence is a topic of increasing global concern. Research has primarily focused on young people's responses to existing definitions of violence in seeking to understand how best to develop violence prevention. Little work has explored how young people themselves define violence and the factors which influence their acceptance, and use, of…

  5. THE UTILITY OF THE ODR TO THE SOLUTION OF GENDER VIOLENCE CASES

    OpenAIRE

    Emiliano Carretero Morales

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to analyze how ODR (Online Dispute Resolution) may resolve cases of gender violence. It discusses the legality and legitimacy of this model in a context in which traditional measures of criminal law have not had an effect in the fight against gender violence. Through a critical analysis of the doctrine it's possible to analyze whether ODR is a more appropriate mean than incarcerate measures. It also focuses on the role of ODR in restorative justice in a contex...

  6. Gender Differences in Risk for Intimate Partner Violence Among South African Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Gass, Jesse D.; Stein, Dan J.; Williams, David R.; Seedat, Soraya

    2010-01-01

    Despite a high prevalence of intimate partner violence in South Africa, few epidemiological studies have assessed individual risk factors and differential vulnerability by gender. This study sought to analyze gender differences in risk for intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration according to childhood and adult risk factors in a national sample of South African men and women. Using data from the cross-sectional, nationally representative South Africa Stress and Health Study, ...

  7. Workplace Violence and Gender Bias in Unorganized Fisheries of Udupi, India

    OpenAIRE

    P Tripathi; R Tiwari; R Kamath

    2016-01-01

    Fisheries industry in India is an unorganized sector of occupation where considerable proportion of workers is female. However, the prevalent gender inequality in terms of task allocation, wages, and other welfare facilities makes the men as dominant workforce. Furthermore, there are occasions when incidents of workplace violence take place. The present study was conducted to find the prevalence of workplace violence at worksite and study gender bias in such events. In a cross-sectional study...

  8. The Effects of Relationship Education on Adolescent Traditional Gender Role Attitudes and Dating Violence Acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Whittaker

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined change in adolescents’ traditional gender role attitudes and dating violence acceptance following completion of a relationship education program. Using data from a larger study evaluating the effects of relationship education for adolescents, beliefs and attitudes were assessed among a diverse sample of 627 youth. Gender differences in changes from pre- to post-test were also examined. Results of repeated measures MANCOVAs revealed a time X gender interaction effect for change in traditional gender role attitudes following relationship education. A significant decrease in traditional gender role attitudes was found for both boys and girls following relationship education, with a steeper decline in traditional gender role attitudes for boys than girls over time. Although there were no significant changes in dating violence acceptance, change in traditional gender role attitudes was correlated with change in dating violence acceptance, such that moving toward more egalitarian attitudes was associated with a decrease in acceptance of dating aggression/violence. Overall, results suggest that adolescents’ attitudes about gender roles and dating violence are open to change when provided relationship education, and changes in these beliefs are linked. Findings from this study have implications for promoting healthy relationships among youth.

  9. Obstacles and Challenges to Gender Parity. Political Violence, Electoral System and Interculturalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Albaine

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is a contribution to the debate about the adoption of gender parity policies in Latin America analyzing particular obstacles and challenges related to the implementation of this principle. Electoral systems tend to either optimize or reduce the impact of such gender parity measures. As well as with quotas, the size of the electoral district and the kind of electoral list system are the two variables that most influence the effective implementation of these measures. At the same time, the socio-cultural context also influences the process of implementation of gender parity measures. In patriarchal societies –with high levels of gender-based violence– electoral processes are often characterized by gender-based harassment and political violence, one of the greatest obstacles for increasing women’s political participation. These situations are further complicated in societies which are also characterized by ethnic and cultural diversity, presenting the challenge of including women who are also discriminated against for their ethno-cultural identity.

  10. Empowering adolescent girls: developing egalitarian gender norms and relations to end violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Avni; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman

    2014-10-21

    On the occasion of the International Day of the Girl Child (October 11), this commentary highlights the problem of violence against adolescent girls. It describes the nature and magnitude of violence faced by adolescent girls, what we know about factors that drive violence against women and against adolescent girls. It highlights the importance of promoting egalitarian gender norms, particularly during adolescence, and empowering women and girls in efforts to end such violence. Finally, it offers lessons learned from some promising interventions in this area.

  11. Preventing violence against women by challenging gender stereotypes in Scottish primary schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Butler, Antoinette Mary

    2016-01-01

    Gender violence is a major public health issue in Europe; it is normalized and partly legitimized by gender stereotypes. An example of a primary prevention education programme designed to challenge the attitudes that underpin gender violence, particularly violence against women, is the Zero...... Tolerance Respect (ZTR) programme developed for Scottish pupils. Given the importance of early preventative action in this area, this paper analyses how gender stereotypes were challenged in ZTR materials for primary pupils aged 10-12 years. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the content...... of the seven lessons in the ZTR primary school programme; the materials were also evaluated in relation to best practice within attitudinal change promotion. Analysis shows that ZTR empowers pupils to reflect on and confront gender stereotypes by developing pupils’ social awareness, as respect is characterized...

  12. The transmission protocols of gender as female submission device to marital violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fátima Scaffo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the way in which women historically respond , in the familiar scenario, to marital violence. In principle, the snip, adopted as an object of study and analysis, consists of a typical mode of violence to the woman filed in the context of the cogs which  configure  the encounter between men and women. It points out the factors enhanced in this  meeting  which produce violence, exploring the  the possibility to reflect on aspects of the masculine condition or in ghosts   of the feminine universe. Considering the gender issue,    the following question is raised: Is the position of women  constructed based on educational principles  which determine  a particular type of role to  them or are there  other determinants? The analysis and discussion of this theme will be carried out considering the generational transmission of norms of gender-protocols from mother to daughter as well as  the constant reissue, in an unreflective manner, , that has been constituted as formative  roots of the   women’s behavior and which are part of the dynamics of the feminine in gender relations, in which the woman occupies a historically subordinate plan. Probably the condition of inferiority reflects  the transmission, from mother to daughter, of stereotyped patterns culturally assigned to women and that are accepted and replicated, almost automatically, in the scenario of marital relations.

  13. Experiences of violence among adolescents: gender patterns in types, perpetrators and associated psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landstedt, Evelina; Gillander Gådin, Katja

    2011-08-01

    To explore the psychological distress associations of experiences of several types of violence and the victim-perpetrator relationship of physical violence, a gender analysis was applied. Data were derived from a cross-sectional questionnaire study among 17-year-old upper secondary school students (N = 1,663). Variables in focus were: self-reported psychological distress, experiences of physical violence, sexual assault, bullying and sexual harassment. Logistic regressions were used to examine associations. Experiences of physical violence, sexual assault, bullying and sexual harassment were associated with psychological distress in boys and girls. The perpetrators of physical violence were predominately males. Whether the perpetrator was unknown or known to the victim seem to be linked to psychological distress. Victimisation by a boyfriend was strongly related to psychological distress among girls. Experiences of several types of violence should be highlighted as factors associated with mental health problems in adolescents. The victim-perpetrator relationships of violence are gendered and likely influence the psychological distress association. Gendered hierarchies and norms likely influence the extent to which adolescents experience violence and how they respond to it in terms of psychological distress.

  14. Gender differences in the effects of exposure to violence on adolescent substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchevsky, Gillian M; Wright, Emily M; Fagan, Abigail A

    2013-01-01

    To date, research exploring gender differences in the relationship between exposure to community violence and substance use has been limited. This study employs longitudinal data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) to assess the exposure to violence-substance use relationship and explore whether this relationship varies by gender. We find that the two forms of exposure to violence-direct (primary) and indirect (secondary)-independently increase the frequency of subsequent alcohol use, binge drinking, and marijuana use among males and females. One gender difference emerged, as females who had been directly victimized engaged in more frequent binge drinking than males who had been directly victimized. Across both sexes, the effect of each form of violence weakened when other predictors of substance use were included in the models. Future directions for this research are discussed, including policy recommendations to help adolescents cope with victimization experiences.

  15. Gender difference of knowledge and attitude of primary health care staff towards domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadoun F. Alazmi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cultural and traditional norms in the community can have an impact on gender equity. This can be reflected on attitude of both men and women towards domestic violence against women. Gender differences in knowledge and attitude of medical staff about domestic violence can affect their role dealing with battered women. Objective: The current study was formulated to compare knowledge and attitude of male and female medical staff about domestic violence against women. Methods: To achieve this aim, a sample of 1553 health care workers was interviewed out of 2516 allocated for this study with an overall response rate of 61.7%. The target population for this study was all physicians and nurses in the primary health care centers in Kuwait. Results: The results of the current study revealed that female medical primary health care workers tended to have a higher knowledge score about violence against women than male staff (72.8 + 9.8% compared with 68.6 + 10.3%. They also had a higher overall attitude score than males (59.9 + 13.7% compared with 57.8 + 22.4%. Multivariate analysis showed that gender was a significant predictor, after adjusting for other confounding factors, of the overall knowledge, attitude and outcome scores of violence against women. No significant difference was revealed between gender and the barrier domain of violence. Conclusion: Female health care workers tended to have a better knowledge score about definition of domestic violence against women than male medical staff. Females also tended to accept hitting of wives by their husbands if there was a good reason more than males. There is a need to improve both knowledge and attitude of primary health care workers about domestic violence against women. Keywords: Domestic violence, Primary care staff, Knowledge, Attitude gender difference

  16. Gender differences in risky sexual behavior among urban adolescents exposed to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins Fantasia, Heidi; Sutherland, Melissa A; Kelly-Weeder, Susan

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to use an ecological lens to explore gender differences in risky sexual behavior among urban adolescents exposed to violence. This was a secondary analysis of data from a larger behavioral intervention trial that targeted drinking behaviors among adolescents. Data from a total of 2,560 male and female urban adolescents between the ages of 14 and 21 were analyzed for personal, interpersonal, and community exposure to violence and risky sexual behavior. Violence has an impact on sexual risk. For females, carrying a weapon (p= 0.020) and feeling safe in intimate relationships (p= 0.029) were individual correlates of risky sexual behavior, while for males, race/ethnicity (p= 0.019) and being in a physical fight (p= 0.001) were significant correlates of risky sexual behavior. Risky sexual behavior among adolescents may lead to negative reproductive health outcomes. Nurse practitioners are in an excellent position to affect change in this population through their frequent contact with adolescents in a variety of community and school-based venues. Nurse practitioners are also well-prepared to identify at-risk adolescents and provide them with individualized care, education, and support. ©2012 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2012 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.

  17. Additional Layers of Violence: The Intersections of Gender and Disability in the Violence Experiences of Women With Physical Disabilities in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, Ingrid; Abrahams, Naeemah; Harries, Jane

    2016-04-27

    South Africa has unprecedented levels of violence and many South African women are exposed to violence during their lifetime. This article explores how gender and disability intersect in women's experiences of violence during their lifetime. Repeat in-depth qualitative interviews with 30 physically disabled women in Cape Town reveal that women with physical disabilities are exposed to various forms of violence, and shows how their impairments shape their violence experiences. The most common forms of violence women with disabilities experience are psychological violence, financial abuse, neglect, and deprivation, with disability stigma playing a central role and contributing to how women with disabilities are exploited and dehumanized. Constructions of women as asexual shape their sexual relationships and experiences of sexual violence. This article identifies that women with disabilities are more at risk and experience additional layers of violence than women without disabilities. These additional risks and layers of violence need to be recognized and inform interventions to prevent and respond to violence against women with disabilities in the country. Prevention of violence against women with physical disabilities in South Africa needs to address the role of disability stigma that shapes the types of violence they experience, change gender norms, and create accessible and safe environments and economic empowerment opportunities. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Changing Gender Norms and Reducing HIV and Violence Risk Among Workers and Students in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulerwitz, Julie; Hui, Wang; Arney, Jennifer; Scott, Lisa Mueller

    2015-08-01

    Global evidence demonstrates that inequitable gender norms negatively influence key health outcomes (e.g., violence, HIV/STI), and the importance of male involvement in prevention efforts. The China Family Planning Association and PATH partnered to develop and evaluate a gender-focused behavior change communication intervention for HIV and violence prevention. Eight participatory education sessions-adapted for the Chinese setting-were implemented in factories and schools. Baseline and endline surveys with participants (219 male factory workers and 496 male vocational students) were conducted. Support for (in)equitable norms was measured by the Gender Equitable Men Scale, as well as partner violence and communication. Focus groups with male and female workers/students, teachers, and factory managers were used to corroborate findings. At baseline, many workers and students supported inequitable gender norms, with workers generally being more inequitable. At endline, significant positive changes in gender-related views (e.g., reduction from 42% to 18% of workers agreeing that "a woman should tolerate violence in order to keep her family together") and behaviors (e.g., reduction from 15% to 7% of students reporting partner violence over the past 3 months) were reported. Results suggest that a relatively low intensity intervention can influence important gender norms and related behaviors.

  19. Effects of Socialization on Gender Discrimination and Violence Against Women in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Jinan; Farver, JoAnn M; Hamieh, Christine Sylva

    2016-03-01

    This study explored the socialization of Lebanese men's attitudes toward gender equality to understand violence against women in Middle Eastern countries. Two hundred seventy-three men completed a survey, and 73 participated in seven focus groups. Survey results showed that participants' education, parents' expectations for gender-typed behavior, school discipline, and exposure to community violence predicted the men's attitudes toward gender inequality. In focus group discussions, participants expressed that masculinity imposed a taxing role wherein they perceived themselves as "victims" of a traditional culture where norms grant men control and power over women. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Preventing violence against women by challenging gender stereotypes in Scottish primary schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fage-Butler, Antoinette Mary

    2016-01-01

    stereotypes for the individual pupil. Moreover, further attention could have been given to surrounding powerful discourses and media representations that may be at odds with the messages of the programme. The present study illustrates that the growing field of public health can be supported through an “all......Gender violence is a major public health issue in Europe; it is normalized and partly legitimized by gender stereotypes. An example of a primary prevention education programme designed to challenge the attitudes that underpin gender violence, particularly violence against women, is the Zero...... Tolerance Respect (ZTR) programme developed for Scottish pupils. Given the importance of early preventative action in this area, this paper analyses how gender stereotypes were challenged in ZTR materials for primary pupils aged 10-12 years. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the content...

  1. Violence motivated by perception of sexual orientation and gender identity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondeel, Karel; de Vasconcelos, Sofia; García-Moreno, Claudia; Stephenson, Rob; Temmerman, Marleen; Toskin, Igor

    2018-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of physical and sexual violence motivated by perception of sexual orientation and gender identity in sexual and gender minorities. We searched nine databases without language restrictions for peer-reviewed and grey literature published from 2000 to April 2016. We included studies with more than 50 participants that measured the prevalence of physical and sexual violence perceived as being motivated by sexual orientation and gender identity or gender expression. We excluded intimate partner violence and self-harm. Due to heterogeneity and the absence of confidence intervals in most studies, we made no meta-analysis. We included 76 articles from 50 countries. These covered 74 studies conducted between 1995 and 2014, including a total of 202 607 sexual and gender minority participants. The quality of data was relatively poor due to a lack of standardized measures and sometimes small and non-randomized samples. In studies where all sexual and gender minorities were analysed as one population, the prevalence of physical and sexual violence ranged from 6% (in a study including 240 people) to 25% (49/196 people) and 5.6% (28/504) to 11.4% (55/484), respectively. For transgender people the prevalence ranged from 11.8% (of a subsample of 34 people) to 68.2% (75/110) and 7.0% (in a study including 255 people) to 49.1% (54/110). More data are needed on the prevalence, risk factors and consequences of physical and sexual violence motivated by sexual orientation and gender identity in different geographical and cultural settings. National violence prevention policies and interventions should include sexual and gender minorities.

  2. Violence motivated by perception of sexual orientation and gender identity: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcelos, Sofia; García-Moreno, Claudia; Stephenson, Rob; Temmerman, Marleen; Toskin, Igor

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the prevalence of physical and sexual violence motivated by perception of sexual orientation and gender identity in sexual and gender minorities. Methods We searched nine databases without language restrictions for peer-reviewed and grey literature published from 2000 to April 2016. We included studies with more than 50 participants that measured the prevalence of physical and sexual violence perceived as being motivated by sexual orientation and gender identity or gender expression. We excluded intimate partner violence and self-harm. Due to heterogeneity and the absence of confidence intervals in most studies, we made no meta-analysis. Findings We included 76 articles from 50 countries. These covered 74 studies conducted between 1995 and 2014, including a total of 202 607 sexual and gender minority participants. The quality of data was relatively poor due to a lack of standardized measures and sometimes small and non-randomized samples. In studies where all sexual and gender minorities were analysed as one population, the prevalence of physical and sexual violence ranged from 6% (in a study including 240 people) to 25% (49/196 people) and 5.6% (28/504) to 11.4% (55/484), respectively. For transgender people the prevalence ranged from 11.8% (of a subsample of 34 people) to 68.2% (75/110) and 7.0% (in a study including 255 people) to 49.1% (54/110). Conclusion More data are needed on the prevalence, risk factors and consequences of physical and sexual violence motivated by sexual orientation and gender identity in different geographical and cultural settings. National violence prevention policies and interventions should include sexual and gender minorities. PMID:29403098

  3. Prevalence of dating violence among sexual minority youth: variation across gender, sexual minority identity and gender of sexual partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Storey, Alexa

    2015-01-01

    Dating violence during adolescence negatively influences concurrent psychosocial functioning, and has been linked with an increased likelihood of later intimate partner violence. Identifying who is most vulnerable for this negative outcome can inform the development of intervention practices addressing this problem. The two goals of this study were to assess variations in the prevalence of dating violence across different measures of sexual minority status (e.g., sexual minority identity or same-sex sexual behavior), and to assess whether this association was mediated by bullying, the number of sexual partners, binge drinking or aggressive behaviors. These goals were assessed by employing the Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey (N = 12,984), a regionally representative sample of youth ages 14-18. In this sample, a total of 540 girls and 323 boys reported a non-heterosexual identity, and 429 girls and 230 boys reported having had one or more same-sex sexual partners. The results generally supported a higher prevalence of dating violence among sexual minority youth. This vulnerability varied considerably across gender, sexual minority identity and the gender of sexual partners, but generally persisted when accounting for the mediating variables. The findings support investigating dating violence as a mechanism in the disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual youth, and the importance of addressing sexual minority youth specifically in interventions targeting dating violence.

  4. Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov home / Home Relationships Dealing with conflict Violence Violence Violence among young people is a serious problem. ... according to a recent national survey Types of violence top Youth violence can include: Hitting, pinching, punching, ...

  5. Gender and Campus Violence: A Study of University of Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research is an attempt to investigate the incidence of violence among university students using University of Lagos as a case study. A questionnaire on different kinds of violence was administered to 446 students of the university. In addition, four focus group discussion sessions were conducted to assess the types of ...

  6. 1 Gender Domination and Domestic Violence in Nigerian Video Films

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    domestic violence, divorce, murder, nudity, rape, molestation and assault. ... show what families, marriages or couples experience. ... of discouraging the negative domestic violence tendencies acted on ... considerable amount of real life experience from childhood to ..... subjects the wife to both sexual and emotional abuse.

  7. Urban violence and displacement, gender, and community ties ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-10-20

    Oct 20, 2017 ... SAIC experts explored poverty, violence, and inequality in 40 cities across Latin America, South Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The 15 research teams covered a variety of research topics such as urban infrastructure, access to basic services, sexual violence, and public security.

  8. GENDER EQUALITY POLICIES: EDUCATION FOR A VIOLENCE-FREE SCHOOL

    OpenAIRE

    Emma Zapata-Martelo; María del Rosario Ayala-Carrillo

    2014-01-01

    Gender studies began in higher education as a critique to the traditional theoretical stances that had ignored or distorted the life of women and overlooked or had no knowledge of their contribution to the general knowledge. These studies are aimed at correcting the male centered view, transforming the hegemonious approach in order to change them into more inclusive educational proposals, representative of the human reality, based on epistemological theoretical, methodological, interdisciplin...

  9. The effects of attitudes towards violence on violent behaviour among secondary school students: Moderation by gender and aggressiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oljača Milan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to explore the effects of attitudes towards violence on different forms of violence behaviour among secondary school students. The moderator roles of gender and aggressiveness in relationships between attitude and violence were also tested. The Bullying Attitudinal Scale, the Peer Violence and Victimisation Questionnaire (PVVQ, and the Aggressiveness questionnaire AVDH were administered on the sample of 643 second- to fourth-grade secondary school students from urban area (61.7% boysgrade. The results have shown that among boys more positive attitudes towards violence had significant effect on direct violence forms - physical and verbal, but that it depended on aggressiveness whether violence would be manifested as physical. Namely, the boys with more positive attitudes towards violence, who, at the same time, scored higher on aggressiveness, were more prone to physical violence. Unlike them, the boys with more positive attitudes towards violence but with lower aggressiveness were less prone to physical aggression. In the case of verbal violence, it has been shown that boys with more positive attitudes towards violence were more prone to verbal violence, regardless of aggressiveness. Aggressiveness had a unique contribution to the prediction of verbal violence and only a significant effect in the prediction of relational violence. The importance of changing the attitudes towards violence in the context of violence prevention is discussed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON179006 i br. ON179037: Nasilje u savremenom društvu: dispozicioni i kontekstualni činioci

  10. Violence in adulthood and mental health: gender and immigrant status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-del Arco, Debora; del Amo, Julia; Garcia-Pina, Rocio; Garcia-Fulgueiras, Ana Maria; Rodriguez-Arenas, M Angeles; Ibañez-Rojo, Vicente; Díaz-del Peral, Domingo; Jarrin, Inma; Fernandez-Liria, Alberto; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Garcia-Ortuzar, Visitación; Mazarrasa, Lucia; Llacer, Alicia

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to describe perceived abuse in adult Spanish and Ecuadorian women and men and to assess its association with mental health. A population-based survey was conducted in Spain in 2006. Data were taken from a probabilistic sample allowing for an equal number of men and women, Spaniards and Ecuadorians. Mental disorder was measured with the General Health Questionnaire-28. The nine questions on exposure to physical, sexual, and psychological abuse during the previous year were self-administered. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association between exposure to abuse and poor mental health, adjusting for potential confounders. The sample was composed of 1,059 individuals aged 18 to 54, 104 of whom reported physical, psychological, or sexual abuse. Some 6% refused to answer the questions on abuse. Overall, reported abuse ranged from 13% in Ecuadorian women to 5% in Spanish men. Psychological abuse was the most frequent. Half the abused women, both Spanish and Ecuadorian, reported intimate partner violence (IPV), as did 22% of abused men. Poor mental health was found in 61% of abused Spanish women (adjusted Odds Ratio [ORa] = 5.1; 95% CI: 1.8-14.4), and 62% abused Ecuadorian women (ORa = 4; 95% CI: 2-7.9), in 36% of abused Spanish men (ORa = 3; 95% CI: 0.9-10.7) and in 30% abused Ecuadorian men (ORa = 2.8; 95% CI: 1-7.7). Interpersonal violence is frequent in relations with the partner, the family, and outside the family, and it seriously affects the mental health. Ecuadorian women stand out as the most vulnerable group.

  11. An Examination of Violence and Gender Role Portrayals in Video Games: Implications for Gender Socialization and Aggressive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Tracy L.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the portrayal of women and the use of violent themes in 33 popular video games. The analysis reveals that traditional gender roles and violence are central to many games. There were no female characters in 41% of games with characters, and women were portrayed as sex objects in 28% of these games. (SLD)

  12. Addressing Gender Violence among Children in the Early Years of Schooling: Insights from Teachers in a South African Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayeza, Emmanuel; Bhana, Deevia

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores how teachers in a poor township primary school in South Africa construct meaning regarding gender violence among children, and how they talk about addressing that violence. The paper argues that major influences on the endemic violence include complex societal structures that are inscribed with cultures of violent…

  13. Gender Differences in Emotional Risk for Self- and Other-Directed Violence among Externalizing Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Naomi; Javdani, Shabnam; Finy, M. Sima; Verona, Edelyn

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Women and men generally differ in how frequently they engage in other-and self-directed physical violence and may show distinct emotional risk factors for engagement in these high-impact behaviors. To inform this area, we investigated gender differences in the relationship of emotional tendencies (i.e., anger, hostility, and anhedonic depression) that may represent risk for other-directed (i.e., physical fighting, attacking others unprovoked) and self-directed violence (i.e., self-injury, suicide attempts). METHOD The ethnically-diverse sample consisted of 372 adults (252 men and 120 women ages 18–55) with a history of criminal convictions. Facets of emotional risk assessed with the Aggression Questionnaire (Buss & Warren, 2000) and Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (Watson et al., 1995) were entered simultaneously as explanatory variables in regression analyses to investigate their unique contributions to other- and self-directed physical violence in men and women. RESULTS Analyses revealed anhedonic depressive tendencies negatively predicted other-directed violence and positively predicted self-directed violence in both men and women, consistent with a model of depression in which aggression is turned inwards (Henriksson et al., 1993). Gender differences, however, emerged for the differential contributions of anger and hostility to other-and self-directed violence. Specifically, trait anger (i.e., difficulty controlling one’s temper) was associated with other-directed violence selectively in men, whereas trait hostility (i.e., suspiciousness and alienation) was associated with self- and other-directed violence among women. CONCLUSIONS The divergent findings for trait anger and hostility underscore the need to examine gender-specific risk factors for physical violence to avoid excluding potentially useful clinical features of these mental health outcomes. PMID:21261437

  14. Gender context of sexual violence and HIV sexual risk behaviors among married women in Iringa Region, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumaini M. Nyamhanga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a dearth of empirical research illuminating possible connections between gender imbalances and sexual violence among married women in Tanzania. There is a need to generate in-depth information on the connectivity between gender imbalances (asymmetrical resource ownership, sexual decision making, roles, and norms and sexual violence plus associated HIV risky sexual behavior among married women. Design: This paper is based on a qualitative case study that involved use of focus group discussions (FGDs. A thematic analysis approach was used in analyzing the study findings. Results: The study findings are presented under the three structures of gender and power theory. On sexual division of labor, our study found that economic powerlessness exposes women to sexual violence. On sexual division of power, our study found that perception of the man as a more powerful partner in marriage is enhanced by the biased marriage arrangement and alcohol consumption. On cathexis, this study has revealed that because of societal norms and expectations regarding women's sexual behavior characterized by their sexual and emotional attachments to men, women find it hard to leave sexually abusive marriages. That is, because of societal expectations of obedience and compelled tolerance many married women do suffer in silence. They find themselves trapped in marriages that increase their risk of acquiring HIV. Conclusions: This study suggests that married women experience a sexual risk of acquiring HIV that results from non-consensual sex. That non-consensual sex is a function of gender imbalances – ranging from women's economic dependence on their husbands or partners to socioculturally rooted norms and expectations regarding women's sexual behavior. The HIV risk is especially heightened because masculine sexual norms encourage men [husbands/partners] to engage in unprotected intra- and extramarital sex. It is recommended that the Tanzania

  15. Domestic Violence: Intersection of Culture, Gender and Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonsing, Jenny C

    2016-04-01

    This study examines South Asian women's experience of domestic violence in Hong Kong. Despite the proliferation of literature on domestic violence, this issue remain unexplored in the discourse of domestic violence in Hong Kong. A qualitative research approach through face to face interview with 14 women was employed. Participants were recruited through purposive and snowball sampling. Findings from this study highlight the importance of considering the social and cultural influence on how women perceived and construct their experiences of abuse.Implications for practice and policies are highlighted.

  16. Jealousy and violence in dating relationships: gender-related differences among a Spanish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián, Julia; Verdugo, Alba; Ortiz, Beatriz

    2014-12-19

    The present study analyzes violent behavior (psychological, physical, and sexual violence) that may occur in dating relationships. Data was collected from couples of adolescents and young adults in a sample of 579 students from the region of Madrid, consisting of 319 females and 260 males aged between 12 and 22 years. A novel aspect of this study compared with the great majority of published studies is analysis of a) the frequency of violent behaviors (and not only their presence or absence) to study significant mean differences and b) potential gender and age related differences in the patterns of violence. Results indicate the high prevalence of violence in Spanish dating relationships. Specifically, females carry out more mild physical (p < .001) and psychological violence (p < .05), whereas males perpetrate more sexual violence (p < .001). However, with regard to victimization, no significant gender related differences in frequency were found between boys and girls in any type of violence. With regard to age, young adolescents perform (p < .05) and suffer (p < .01) significantly more jealous behavior, whereas the young adults of our sample commit and suffer more sexual violence (p < .05). Directions for future research are outlined, mainly concerning instruments used that ought to be more sensitive to the reality being measured.

  17. Virtual Relationship Violence and Perspectives on Punishment: Do Gender or Nationality Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Marganski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the increasingly popular use of socially interactive technology (SIT, it is believed that the way in which individuals communicate and experience relationships has drastically been changing. For those who partake in this electronic world, damaging behaviors akin to those found in the real world have emerged. Yet, we know little about the extent of these behaviors in the context of romantic relationships, especially from a gender or cultural standpoint. Research on dating violence generally indicates that women experience in-person victimization at higher rates than men, although some research has called this into question. It also suggests that some national groups experience higher rates of violence than others. However, research is almost non-existent when it comes to exploring violence in the digital world. This study investigated gender and nationality in (1 the nature and extent of socially interactive intimate violence, and (2 perceptions of the seriousness of virtual relationship violence. Using a sample of students from the United States and Poland, findings revealed that socially interactive technology may serve as a new avenue for aggressing against partners, as virtual relationship violence was not uncommon and reflected some patterns present in the real world. Some unexpected patterns also emerged. The results of this research signal a possible transferability of covert intimate violence and highlight ways in which inequalities may exist in our virtual worlds.

  18. Trajectories of dating violence: Differences by sexual minority status and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Fromme, Kim

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how sexual minority status (as assessed using both identity and behavior) was associated with trajectories of dating violence. University students from a large Southwestern university completed questions on their sexual minority identity, the gender of their sexual partners, and about experiences of dating violence for six consecutive semesters (N = 1942). Latent growth curve modeling indicated that generally, trajectories of dating violence were stable across study participation. Sexual minority identity was associated with higher initial levels of dating violence at baseline, but also with greater decreases in dating violence across time. These differences were mediated by number of sexual partners. Having same and other-sex sexual partners was associated with higher levels of dating violence at baseline, and persisted in being associated with higher levels over time. No significant gender difference was observed regarding trajectories of dating violence. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Las relaciones trilaterales entre la legislación sobre la violencia de género, la pornografía y el cine español / Trilateral Relations: Gender-Based Violence Legislation, Pornography and Spanish Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Wheeler

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available En teoría, España tiene las leyes más progresistas de Europa en cuanto a la violencia de género. Dicha legislación reconoce a los medios de comunicación como parte del problema y de la posible solución, adoptando una perspectiva que, curiosamente en una cultura que nunca ha aplicado de una manera seria y sistemática la teoría feminista a los productos audiovisuales, se basa en los mismos fundamentos que las teorías feministas internacionales que abogan por la censura de ciertas imágenes misóginas y / o pornográficas. En este artículo, compagino un análisis de estas sinergias entre el cine español y la legislación vigente con una exploración de lo que en el caso español podría aportar a debates y prácticas en el ámbito internacional.Palabras clave: violencia de género, legislación audiovisual, censura, feminismo, pornografía, sociología española, masculinidades, Luis Tosar, María Valverde, Rae Langton.AbstractIn theory, Spain has the most progressive laws on domestic violence in Europe. This legislation recognises the media as being part of the problem and of the possible solution. In a development that it is somewhat counter-intuitive for a culture that has never taken the application of feminist theory to audiovisual analysis particularly seriously, the legislation is predicated on the same logic as the work of some international feminist theorists who call for the censoring of specific misogynist and / or pornographic images. In this article, I will analyse the synergies between Spanish cinema and the current legislation, with an exploration of what the Spanish case could contribute to debates and practices in the international arena.Keywords: gender-based violence, audiovisual legislation, censorship, feminism, pornography, Spanish sociology, masculinities, Luis Tosar, María Valverde, Rae Langton.

  20. Gender and violence in cities | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-10-20

    Oct 20, 2017 ... Rapid growth, entrenched gender identities drive gendered ... a gender-focused nongovernmental organization, underscores how this ... and learning strategies that allowed them to step away from conflict. ... and to target gender relations and the structures or social systems in which men and women live.

  1. Childhood Gender Nonconformity and Intimate Partner Violence in Adolescence and Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhia, Avanti; Gordon, Allegra R; Roberts, Andrea L; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Hemenway, David; Austin, S Bryn

    2018-04-01

    Childhood gender nonconformity has been associated with numerous adverse experiences, including peer bullying and homophobic violence. However, little is known about gender nonconformity in the context of intimate relationships, independent of sexual orientation. This study aimed to examine associations between childhood gender nonconformity and intimate partner violence (IPV) in adolescence and early adulthood. Using data from the 2007 wave of the U.S. Growing Up Today Study ( N = 7,641, mean age = 22.8 years), we estimated risk ratios (RRs) for the association of gender nonconformity up to age 11 years and lifetime IPV victimization and perpetration. Models were adjusted for demographic characteristics, including sexual orientation identity. We assessed effect modification by gender and examined whether childhood abuse mediated the association between nonconformity and IPV. Males in the top decile of nonconformity were at elevated risk of IPV victimization (RR = 1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.15, 1.71]) and IPV perpetration (RR = 2.34, 95% CI = 1.54, 3.56) compared with those below median nonconformity, adjusting for sexual orientation and demographic characteristics. There was no evidence of a similar association for females in the top decile of gender nonconformity. Childhood abuse did not mediate IPV disparities by gender nonconformity. We identify gender nonconformity as an important risk indicator for IPV victimization and perpetration among young adult males, independent of sexual orientation. Findings highlight the vulnerability of boys and men who do not conform to societal gender norms and the importance of studying gender expression as a determinant of violence. IPV prevention efforts may be improved with more explicit focus on socially constructed gender norms and support for diverse gender expressions. Further research into the pathways between nonconformity and IPV and in more diverse populations is needed to build a more comprehensive

  2. GENDER EQUALITY POLICIES: EDUCATION FOR A VIOLENCE-FREE SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Zapata-Martelo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender studies began in higher education as a critique to the traditional theoretical stances that had ignored or distorted the life of women and overlooked or had no knowledge of their contribution to the general knowledge. These studies are aimed at correcting the male centered view, transforming the hegemonious approach in order to change them into more inclusive educational proposals, representative of the human reality, based on epistemological theoretical, methodological, interdisciplinary, and participative criticisms; this, besides transforming gender relations to build more equalitarian and non-violent societies. To this regard, although national and international policies have had an important role in the integration of the gender approach in higher education institutions (HEI, many of them remain simply as statements and good intentions. Women have achieved access to education, but representation in positions of power remains in the hands of men, the “crystal ceiling is still there, as are the hidden curriculum and discrimination, both at the individual and at the collective levels.

  3. Workplace Violence and Gender Bias in Unorganized Fisheries of Udupi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Tripathi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fisheries industry in India is an unorganized sector of occupation where considerable proportion of workers is female. However, the prevalent gender inequality in terms of task allocation, wages, and other welfare facilities makes the men as dominant workforce. Furthermore, there are occasions when incidents of workplace violence take place. The present study was conducted to find the prevalence of workplace violence at worksite and study gender bias in such events. In a cross-sectional study 171 fishermen and fisherwomen were interviewed to collect information about workplace violence. The overall prevalence of workplace violence reported was 14.6%. This included 2 (8% cases of physical assault, 1 (4% case of sexual harassment of fisherwoman by her colleague and 22 (88% cases of verbal abuse. A significant (p=0.002 association was found between gender and verbal abuse at the workplace. In conclusion, this study highlighted the occurrence of workplace violence among fishery workers in India. There was a gender bias towards females that can be attributed to male dominance in this occupation.

  4. Workplace Violence and Gender Bias in Unorganized Fisheries of Udupi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, P; Tiwari, R; Kamath, R

    2016-07-01

    Fisheries industry in India is an unorganized sector of occupation where considerable proportion of workers is female. However, the prevalent gender inequality in terms of task allocation, wages, and other welfare facilities makes the men as dominant workforce. Furthermore, there are occasions when incidents of workplace violence take place. The present study was conducted to find the prevalence of workplace violence at worksite and study gender bias in such events. In a cross-sectional study 171 fishermen and fisherwomen were interviewed to collect information about workplace violence. The overall prevalence of workplace violence reported was 14.6%. This included 2 (8%) cases of physical assault, 1 (4%) case of sexual harassment of fisherwoman by her colleague and 22 (88%) cases of verbal abuse. A significant (p=0.002) association was found between gender and verbal abuse at the workplace. In conclusion, this study highlighted the occurrence of workplace violence among fishery workers in India. There was a gender bias towards females that can be attributed to male dominance in this occupation.

  5. Gender, vulnerability, and violence in urban Pakistan | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-09-30

    Sep 30, 2016 ... SERIES: IMPACT STORIES | SAFE AND INCLUSIVE CITIES ... and violence in urban Pakistan (PDF, 198KB) and about the Safe and Inclusive Cities initiative. ... Economic growth is driving population growth in Indian cities, ...

  6. Gender and violence in urban Pakistan | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... and media might change and reduce violence in urban Pakistan; and, ... to detail social capital (collective benefits) and violent spaces in communities. ... seeks to identify the most effective strategies for addressing these challenges in Latin ...

  7. Women's primary care nursing in situations of gender violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Visentin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective.Identify the actions conducted by primary health care nurses for women in situations of domestic violence. Methodology. Exploratory-descriptive study with a qualitative approach. Participants were 17 nurses who worked in the Basic Health Unit in a city in the interior of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews and the information processing was performed using the interview content analysis technique. Results. By acting in a context of the violence, the nurses describe some elements and strategies they use that allow recognition and action to combat violence, namely: acceptance and empathy, establishing a bond of trust between the professional and the woman, dialogue, and intent listening. The limitations mentioned by participants were: lack of professional training to address the situation, feeling of unpreparedness, lack of time for the workload, the professional's difficulty in recognizing and dealing with violence given its complexity, low efficiency of the service network, and the sense of professional impotence against the gravity and complexity involved in violence. Conclusion. The participants are not adequately prepared to care for women in situations of domestic violence. It is necessary that this issue be addressed in the training of nursing professionals.

  8. The gender gap in domestic violence in older adults in Latin America: the IMIAS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitri Taurino Guedes

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Describe the prevalence of domestic violence in older men and women in Natal, Brazil, and Manizales, Colombia and explore whether the differences by gender are due to lifetime differences in social and financial status. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with a random sampling of 802 men and women in the IMIAS Study (International Mobility in Aging Study (65-74 years old conducted in Natal (Brazil and Manizales (Colombia. Incidents that occurred in the last six months and any time during their lives were evaluated using the HITS scale. Poisson regression was used to estimate the reasons for the prevalence of violence against women by men. RESULTS: Experience of physical violence occurring any time in life ranged from 2.2% to 18.3%, depending on the city and the sex. Psychological violence was higher in women: violence perpetrated by partners affected 25.7% of women in Natal and 19.4% in Manizales; and by the family, 18.3% in Manizales and 10% in Natal. Almost half of the participants reported suffering psychological violence at some time during their life. Experience of current violence or at some time during life was most frequent in women, even after adjustment for co-variables, with prevalence ratios of 1.60 to 2.14. CONCLUSIONS: The rates of prevalence of domestic violence in older adults show that women are more affected, which means that they should be considered a priority in the prevention policies on Latin America's health agenda.

  9. Prevalence and risk of violence against people with and without disabilities: findings from an Australian population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krnjacki, Lauren; Emerson, Eric; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Kavanagh, Anne M

    2016-02-01

    There are no population-based estimates of the prevalence of interpersonal violence among people with disabilities in Australia. The project aimed to: 1) estimate the prevalence of violence for men and women according to disability status; 2) compare the risk of violence among women and men with disabilities to their same-sex non-disabled counterparts and; 3) compare the risk of violence between women and men with disabilities. We analysed the 2012 Australian Bureau of Statistics Survey on Personal Safety of more than 17,000 adults and estimated the population-weighted prevalence of violence (physical, sexual and intimate partner violence and stalking/harassment) in the past 12 months and since the age of 15. Population-weighted, age-adjusted, logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of violence by disability status and gender. People with disabilities were significantly more likely to experience all types of violence, both in the past 12 months and since the age of 15. Women with disabilities were more likely to experience sexual and partner violence and men were more likely to experience physical violence. These results underscore the need to understand risk factors for violence, raise awareness about violence and to target policies and services to reduce violence against people with disabilities in Australia. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  10. An Examination of the Gender Inclusiveness of Current Theories of Sexual Violence in Adulthood: Recognizing Male Victims, Female Perpetrators, and Same-Sex Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchik, Jessica A; Hebenstreit, Claire L; Judson, Stephanie S

    2016-04-01

    Although the majority of adulthood sexual violence involves a male perpetrator and a female victim, there is also substantial evidence that members of both genders can be victims and perpetrators of sexual violence. As an alternative to viewing sexual violence within gender-specific terms, we advocate for the use of a gender inclusive conceptualization of sexual aggression that takes into account the factors that contribute to sexual victimization of, and victimization by, both men and women. The goal of the current review is to examine the need and importance of a gender inclusive conceptualization of sexual violence and to discuss how compatible our current theories are with this conceptualization. First, we examine evidence of how a gender-specific conceptualization of sexual violence aids in obscuring assault experiences that are not male to female and how this impacts victims of such violence. We specifically discuss this impact regarding research, law, public awareness, advocacy, and available victim treatment and resources. Next, we provide an overview of a number of major sexual violence theories that are relevant for adult perpetrators and adult victims, including neurobiological and integrated biological theories, evolutionary psychology theory, routine activity theory, feminist theory, social learning and related theories, typology approaches, and integrated theories. We critically examine these theories' applicability to thinking about sexual violence through a gender inclusive lens. Finally, we discuss further directions for research, clinical interventions, and advocacy in this area. Specifically, we encourage sexual violence researchers and clinicians to identify and utilize appropriate theoretical frameworks and to apply these frameworks in ways that incorporate a full range of sexual violence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Cross-Gender Violence Perpetration and Victimization among Early Adolescents and Associations with Attitudes toward Dating Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windle, Michael; Mrug, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in cross-gender violence perpetration and victimization (ranging from mild, e.g., push, to severe, e.g., assault with a knife or gun) and attitudes toward dating conflict, among an urban sample of 601 early adolescents (78% African-American). Comparisons across gender groups for cross-gender (e.g.,…

  12. Troubled times, troubled relationships: how economic resources, gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Shelley D; Perreira, Krista M; Durrance, Christine Piette

    2013-07-01

    We evaluate race/ethnicity and nativity-based disparities in three different types of intimate partner violence (IPV) and examine how economic hardship, maternal economic dependency, maternal gender beliefs, and neighborhood disadvantage influence these disparities. Using nationally representative data from urban mothers of young children who are living with their intimate partners (N = 1,886), we estimate a series of unadjusted and adjusted logit models on mothers' reports of physical assault, emotional abuse, and coercion. When their children were age 3, more than one in five mothers were living with a partner who abused them. The prevalence of any IPV was highest among Hispanic (26%) and foreign-born (35%) mothers. Economic hardship, economic dependency on a romantic partner, and traditional gender beliefs each increased women's risk for exposure to one or more types of IPV, whereas neighborhood conditions were not significantly related to IPV in adjusted models. These factors also explained most of the racial/ethnic and nativity disparities in IPV. Policies and programs that reduce economic hardship among women with young children, promote women's economic independence, and foster gender equity in romantic partnerships can potentially reduce multiple forms of IPV.

  13. Nightlife Violence: A Gender-Specific View on Risk Factors for Violence in Nightlife Settings--A Cross-Sectional Study in Nine European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Susanne; Bellis, Mark A.; Anderson, Zara; Hughes, Karen; Calafat, Amador; Juan, Montse; Kokkevi, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Within nightlife settings, youth violence places large burdens on both nightlife users and wider society. Internationally, research has identified risk factors for nightlife violence. However, few empirical studies have assessed differences in risk factors between genders. Here, a pan-European cross-sectional survey of 1,341 nightlife users aged…

  14. Cultural Violence and the Nigerian Woman | Arisi | African Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper highlights the cultural factors responsible for and negative effects of cultural ... Violence against Women or Gender-Based Violence is an age long ... to male dominance and control at home in ways that perpetuate gender inequality.

  15. Gender roles, physical and sexual violence prevention in primary extend to secondary school in Samutsakorn Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamroonsawasdi, Kanittha; Suparp, Jarueyporn; Kittipichai, Wirin; Khajornchaikul, Piyathida

    2010-03-01

    To enhance positive attitude and life skills on gender roles to prevent physical and sexual violence. A whole school-based participatory learning program using a quasi-experimental study with pre and post test design was conducted among 2 schools during June-September, 2005. The experimental group, were 134 students in a primary school and 179 students in a secondary school. While the control group, were 122 students in a primary school and 95 students in a secondary school. Means score of attitude toward gender roles before implementation in the experimental group was significantly lower than the control group (p 0.05). Means paired different score (after-before) between the two groups was significantly different (p = 0.002). A whole school-based program on gender roles and violence prevention is suitable for youths and should be merged as school curricula and expanded as a nationwide program at all level of education. Gender equity should be taught at an early childhood. Parental involvement in school-based activities should be negotiated.

  16. Gender, power, and intimate partner violence: a study on couples from rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Amy A

    2014-03-01

    Gender-based power imbalances are perhaps the most compelling underlying explanation for intimate partner violence (IPV) among women in sub-Saharan Africa. However, an overemphasis on female victimization results in an incomplete understanding of men's experiences as victims and the broader dyadic context in which violence occurs. This study examines the role of three domains of relationship power (power resources, processes, and outcomes) on sexual and physical IPV victimization in a unique sample of 466 young couples from Malawi. Two power resources were studied, namely, income and education level. Power processes were captured with a measure of couple communication and collaboration called unity. Power outcomes included a measure of relationship dominance (male dominated or female-dominated/egalitarian). Multilevel logistic regression using the Actor Partner Interpersonal Model framework was used to test whether respondent and partner data were predictive of IPV. The findings show that unity and male dominance were salient power factors that influenced young people's risk for sexual IPV. Unity had a stronger protective effect on sexual IPV for women than for men. Involvement in a male-dominated relationship increased the risk of sexual IPV for women, but decreased the risk for men. The findings also showed that education level and unity were protective against physical IPV for both men and women. Contrary to what was expected, partner data did not play a role in the respondent's experience of IPV. The consistency of these findings with the literature, theory, and study limitations are discussed.

  17. Gender inequality and structural violence among depressed women in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Deepa; Horton, Randall; Raguram, R

    2012-12-01

    While exploring experiences of psychological distress among psychiatric outpatients in Southern India, we set out to further understand interpersonal and socio-cultural factors that are associated with depressive symptoms. Using a grounded theory framework, we thematically coded narrative accounts of the women who sought treatment at the psychiatric clinic. In addition, we included author notes from participant observation and field work experiences in the South Indian psychiatric clinic. Of the 32 women who participated in the study, 75 % qualified for a diagnosis of a current major depressive episode. Depressive symptoms were associated with experiences of domestic violence and, in Farmer's terms, structural violence. Although only a partial response to gender-based suffering, allopathic psychiatric treatment seemed the best available means of coping with their circumstances. The paper moves beyond a medicalized model of disease and behavior to explore social and contextual factors that enabled these women to brave additional stigmas surrounding psychiatric treatment and seek a better outcome for themselves. It concludes by discussing the need for a multi-layered approach to addressing the suffering that women in South India experience.

  18. Gender, work and violence in The gravedigger’s daughter, by Joyce Carol Oates, and O apocalipse dos trabalhadores, by Valter Hugo Mãe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Queiroz Dutra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the representation of female workers and its relation to gender violence in contemporary literature. Based on the analysis of the novels The gravedigger’s daughter (2008 by Joyce Carol Oates, and O apocalipse dos trabalhadores (The workers’ apocalypse (2013 by Portuguese writer Valter Hugo Mãe, we aim to compare how the characters shift between domestic space and their workplace. Considering the perspective of gender studies and female/male authorship, we will discuss the stereotypes that are created in these narratives and their implications to incidents of violence against women, especially at their workplace.

  19. Gender inequality and domestic violence: implications for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Kaye, Dan K

    2004-01-01

    Domestic violence and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are problems of great public health worldwide, especially sub-Saharan Africa and much of the developing countries. This is due to their far reaching social, economic and public health consequences. The two problems have gender inequality and gender power imbalances as the driving force behind the “epidemics”. HIV infection is mainly acquired through heterosexual relations, which themselves are greatly influenced by socio-cultu...

  20. Victims of gender violence: a rocky road to justice / Victimes de violence de genre : un chemin difficile vers la justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Heim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This work analyses the way in which the most important developments made in the sphere of victims’ rights were received and addressed by Spanish legislation on gender violence, and the most difficult obstacles that survivors of this kind of violence have to overcome to exercise their rights. L’articolo analizza: 1 le modalità tramite le quali la maggior parte delle importanti modifiche apportate ai diritti delle vittime sono state effettuate dalla legislazione spagnola; 2 gli ostacoli principali che le sopravvissute a questo tipo di violenza devono sormontare al fine di esercitare i loro diritti. Cet article porte sur deux volets : 1 l’analyse de la manière dont les changements les plus importants dans le domaine des droits des victimes ont été reçus et abordés par la législation espagnole sur la violence de genre ; 2 l’étude des obstacles majeurs auxquels se heurtent les survivantes de ce type de violence afin d’exercer leurs droits.

  1. GENDER VIOLENCE IN MIDDLE AND HIGH SCHOOLS IN THE SOUTHERN OF GUANAJUATO

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    Rocío Rosas-Vargas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on some of the main results of the project Gender, Violence and Marginalization in elementary schools and high schools in southern Guanajuato. What was found is that a high number of female students presented some types of violence by either her classmates or teachers. Gossip and insults by other women were the main types of violence detected among female students analyzed; and also insults and gossip by men stood out. Both, male and female teachers, use violence towards some students, strengthening patriarchal ideas about what a woman has to be and punishing those who do not adhere to these stereotypes. Surveys were applied by using a sample; workshop surveys and deep interviews were conducted among students and teachers.

  2. The effects of gender violence/ harassment prevention programming in middle schools: a randomized experimental evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bruce; Stein, Nan; Burden, Frances

    2010-01-01

    In this experiment, 123 sixth and seventh grade classrooms from Cleveland area schools were randomly assigned to one of two five-session curricula addressing gender violence/ sexual harassment (GV/SH) or to a no-treatment control. Three-student surveys were administered. Students in the law and justice curricula, compared to the control group, had significantly improved outcomes in awareness of their abusive behaviors, attitudes toward GV/SH and personal space, and knowledge. Students in the interaction curricula experienced lower rates of victimization, increased awareness of abusive behaviors, and improved attitudes toward personal space. Neither curricula affected perpetration or victimization of sexual harassment. While the intervention appeared to reduce peer violence victimization and perpetration, a conflicting finding emerged-the intervention may have increased dating violence perpetration (or at least the reporting of it) but not dating violence victimization.

  3. Prison violence and the intersectionality of race/ethnicity and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerryn E. Bell

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to analyze the history occurrence and development of the problem of prison violence from the viewpoint of the intersectionality of raceethnicity and gender factors. Methods dialectical approach to cognition of social phenomena allowing to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the totality of objective and subjective factors predetermined the following research methods formallogical comparativelegal and sociological. Results Minority men and women are significantly impacted by mass incarceration. Mass incarceration has also resulted in a growth in prison violence and previous studies in this area have focused on individuals and not their interconnected statuses. This study specifically considers the role of intersectional criminology and the commitment of prison violence in a large western state on female inmates. Intersectional criminology is a theoretical approach that enables a critical look at the impact of individuals39 interconnected statuses in relation to crime. The authors do not hypothesize about the reasons for the dependences between raceethnicity and gender factors and the level of prison violence but state that minority females commit more violent infractions in prison than White women. Intersectionality allows coming closer to solving the problem of identifying the incarcerated females as members of criminal groups and study the potential impact of this factor on the violence level. Scientific novelty for the first time the research proves that intersectionality allows receiving more reliable statistical results when estimating the level of prison violence. It has been proved that minority females commit more violent infractions in prison than White women. Thus this study builds upon previous arguments that intersectionality should be more widely used in future research and discusses implications for the findings. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article

  4. Age and gender as independent predictors of violence under the influence of alcohol in Zurich, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mica, Ladislav; Oesterle, Linda; Werner, Clément M L; Simmen, Hans-Peter

    2015-04-08

    Violent behaviour associated with alcohol consumption is frequently reported by different media. Clinical data analysing the correlation between alcohol intoxication, age, gender and violence are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of age, gender and blood alcohol content on violent behaviour under the influence of alcohol under central European conditions. Three hundred patients admitted to the emergency department were included into this study in the time period from January 01. to December 31. 2009. The inclusion criteria were a blood alcohol content (BAC) of ≥10 mmol/l, any traumatic injury and an age ≥16 years. Violence was defined as an evitable act committed by others leading to patient's hospitalisation. The data were compared with Wilcoxon and χ2-test for proportions. The data were considered as significant if pviolence with no correlation to blood alcohol content found. Logistic regression analysis revealed male gender and young age as an independent predictor for violence. These results clarify the relationship between alcohol, age, gender and violence and have important implications for municipal-level alcohol policies.

  5. Fundamentalist Protestant Christian Women: Recognizing Cultural and Gender Influences on Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, Louisa L.; Warnke, Melanie A.

    2003-01-01

    Multicultural, family process and structure, and gender concepts are used to provide a framework for understanding supports for and barriers to mental health experienced by abused fundamentalist Protestant Christian (FPC) women. For FPC women who are victims of domestic violence, these factors may intersect to prohibit or facilitate healthy life…

  6. Some consideration about the gender violence in two States of Eastern and Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignazia Bartholini

    2015-01-01

    Gender violence ‒ is pessimistic conclusion of Ignazia Bartholini ‒ has an instrumental function within the relational dynamics otherwise destined to run out; has a substantive valence and specific characteristics of type cultural, ethnic, sexual able to give meaning to reality of men otherwise dispossessed of their identity.

  7. Opening Schools to All (Women): Efforts to Overcome Gender Violence in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, E.; Soler, M.; Flecha, R.

    2009-01-01

    This article shows how the dialogic approach adopted by some schools in Spain generates a shift in approaches to gender violence, an issue still not explored in the literature. The shift is from an approach determined mainly by female experts to a dialogic one in which all women, including teachers, mothers, students, sisters, stepsisters,…

  8. Community violence exposure and substance use: cross‑cultural and gender perspectives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Löfving‑Gupta, S.; Willebrand, M.; Koposov, R.; Blatný, Marek; Hrdlička, M.; Schwab‑Stone, M.; Ruchkin, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 12 (2017), s. 1-8 ISSN 1018-8827 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : community violence exposure * substance use * gender * adolescents Subject RIV: FL - Psychiatry, Sexuology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations) Impact factor: 3.295, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00787-017-1097-5

  9. Community violence exposure and substance use: cross‑cultural and gender perspectives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Löfving‑Gupta, S.; Willebrand, M.; Koposov, R.; Blatný, Marek; Hrdlička, M.; Schwab‑Stone, M.; Ruchkin, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 12 (2017), s. 1-8 ISSN 1018-8827 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : community violence exposure * substance use * gender * adolescents Subject RIV: FL - Psychiatry , Sexuology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations) Impact factor: 3.295, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00787-017-1097-5

  10. Conhecimento e atitudes dos profissionais de saúde em relação à violência de gênero Knowledge and attitudes of healthcare workers towards gender based violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Meloni Vieira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Várias são as políticas públicas no Brasil para o enfrentamento da violência contra a mulher. Registra-se na literatura que os profissionais de saúde acham o tema de difícil abordagem. Para melhorar o atendimento no SUS em Ribeirão Preto, realizou-se um estudo para avaliar o conhecimento e a atitude dos profissionais de saúde em relação à violência de gênero. MÉTODOS: Contataram-se 278 profissionais de saúde, dos quais 221 foram entrevistados utilizando-se um questionário estruturado. RESULTADOS: 51 (23,0% eram enfermeiras e 170 (77,0% médicos; 119 (53,8% homens e 102 (46,2% mulheres, com idade média de 38,6 anos; 200 (90,5% consideravam-se brancos ou asiáticos e 21 (9,5% pretos e pardos. Tinham em média 12,5 anos de vida profissional e 158 (68,8% eram oriundos de universidade pública. Apenas pouco mais da metade (58,7% mostrou conhecimento geral adequado (bom e alto sobre a violência de gênero, o que indica a necessidade de capacitar os profissionais para este atendimento. Em relação às barreiras para averiguar a violência, os profissionais citaram a falta de uma política institucional e o silêncio da mulher que não revela a violência. Os entrevistados, em particular as mulheres jovens, apresentaram atitudes mais favoráveis para o acolhimento da mulher em situação de violência. CONCLUSÕES: A maioria dos entrevistados demonstrou atitudes positivas e podemos inferir que há bom potencial para o manejo adequado dos casos, se receberem capacitação.OBJECTIVES: There are several public policies to deal with violence against women in Brazil. The literature has reported that healthcare workers find this subject difficult to approach. To improve care in the public health system (SUS of Ribeirão Preto, a study was conducted aiming to assess knowledge and attitudes of healthcare workers regarding gender violence. METHODS: A total 278 healthcare workers were contacted and 221 were interviewed using a

  11. Attitudes Toward Partner Violence and Gender Roles in Uruguayan Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucheli, Marisa; Rossi, Maximo

    2015-09-07

    The incidence of intimate partner violence (IPV) in the Latin America and Caribbean region is relatively high compared with other high-income and middle-income countries. This problem is particularly relevant in Uruguay. The empirical literature provides evidence that violence toward partners is more likely among individuals who justify, approve, or favor this type of violence. This article analyzes women's attitudes to IPV using the survey Encuesta de Situaciones Familiares carried out in 2007 by Universidad de la República, Innovation National Agency in Uruguay (ANII), and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). The data show that most women disagree with IPV; the indifference and justification of IPV have a very low prevalence. The analysis highlights that women's attitudes to IPV against men and against women are highly correlated and are explained by the same factors. A multivariate estimation indicates that the experience of violence in childhood, the strong identification of the woman as a mother, and the low confidence on women's abilities in political and business activities increase tolerance toward IPV. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Appraisal Distortions and Intimate Partner Violence: Gender, Power, and Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Jason B.; Oka, Megan; Fife, Stephen T.

    2012-01-01

    In relationships characterized by control, abuse, or violence, many appraisal distortions occur including denial and minimization. However, the nature of the distortion varies depending on the individual's role in the relationship (i.e., abuser or victim). Reducing these distortions is an important component in treatment success and involves…

  13. True Love: Effectiveness of a School-Based Program to Reduce Dating Violence Among Adolescents in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Rubi, Sandra G; Saavedra-Avendano, Biani; Piras, Claudia; Van Buren, S Janae; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio

    2017-10-01

    Dating violence is a significant problem in Mexico. National survey data estimated 76 % of Mexican youth have been victims of psychological aggression in their relationships; 15.5 % have experienced physical violence; and 16.5 % of women have been the victims of sexual violence. Female adolescents perpetrate physical violence more frequently than males, while perpetration between genders of other types of violence is unclear. Furthermore, poor, marginalized youth are at a higher risk for experiencing dating violence. "Amor… pero del Bueno" (True Love) was piloted in two urban, low-income high schools in Mexico City to prevent dating violence. The intervention consisted of school-level and individual-level components delivered over 16 weeks covering topics on gender roles, dating violence, sexual rights, and strategies for coping with dating violence. The short-term impact was assessed quasi-experimentally, using matching techniques and fixed-effects models. A sample of 885 students (381 students exposed to the classroom-based curriculum of the individual-level component (SCC, IL-1) and 540 exposed only to the school climate component (SCC)) was evaluated for the following: changes in dating violence behaviors (psychological, physical and sexual), beliefs related to gender norms, knowledge, and skills for preventing dating violence. We found a 58 % (p violence, respectively, among SCC, IL-1 males compared to males exposed only to the SCC component. We also found a significant reduction in beliefs and attitudes justifying sexism and violence in dating relationships among SCC, IL-1 females (6 %; p < 0.05) and males (7 %; p < 0.05).

  14. School Violence, Depressive Symptoms, and Help-seeking Behavior: A Gender-stratified Analysis of Biethnic Adolescents in South Korea.

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    Kim, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Ja Young; Kim, Seung-Sup

    2016-01-01

    In South Korea (hereafter Korea), the number of adolescent offspring of immigrants has rapidly increased since the early 1990s, mainly due to international marriage. This research sought to examine the association between the experience of school violence and mental health outcomes, and the role of help-seeking behaviors in the association, among biethnic adolescents in Korea. We analyzed cross-sectional data of 3627 biethnic adolescents in Korea from the 2012 National Survey of Multicultural Families. Based on the victim's help-seeking behavior, adolescents who experienced school violence were classified into three groups: 'seeking help' group; 'feeling nothing' group; 'not seeking help' group. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to examine the associations between the experience of school violence and depressive symptoms for males and females separately. In the gender-stratified analysis, school violence was associated with depressive symptoms in the 'not seeking help' (odds ratio [OR], 7.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.76 to 13.23) and the 'seeking help' group (OR, 2.77; 95% CI, 1.73 to 4.44) among male adolescents after adjusting for potential confounders, including the nationality of the immigrant parent and Korean language fluency. Similar associations were observed in the female groups. However, in the 'feeling nothing' group, the association was only significant for males (OR, 8.34; 95% CI, 2.82 to 24.69), but not females (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.18 to 3.28). This study suggests that experience of school violence is associated with depressive symptoms and that the role of victims' help-seeking behaviors in the association may differ by gender among biethnic adolescents in Korea.

  15. School Violence, Depressive Symptoms, and Help-seeking Behavior: A Gender-stratified Analysis of Biethnic Adolescents in South Korea

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    Ji-Hwan Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In South Korea (hereafter Korea, the number of adolescent offspring of immigrants has rapidly increased since the early 1990s, mainly due to international marriage. This research sought to examine the association between the experience of school violence and mental health outcomes, and the role of help-seeking behaviors in the association, among biethnic adolescents in Korea. Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data of 3627 biethnic adolescents in Korea from the 2012 National Survey of Multicultural Families. Based on the victim’s help-seeking behavior, adolescents who experienced school violence were classified into three groups: ‘seeking help’ group; ‘feeling nothing’ group; ‘not seeking help’ group. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to examine the associations between the experience of school violence and depressive symptoms for males and females separately. Results: In the gender-stratified analysis, school violence was associated with depressive symptoms in the ‘not seeking help’ (odds ratio [OR], 7.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.76 to 13.23 and the ‘seeking help’ group (OR, 2.77; 95% CI, 1.73 to 4.44 among male adolescents after adjusting for potential confounders, including the nationality of the immigrant parent and Korean language fluency. Similar associations were observed in the female groups. However, in the ‘feeling nothing’ group, the association was only significant for males (OR, 8.34; 95% CI, 2.82 to 24.69, but not females (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.18 to 3.28. Conclusions: This study suggests that experience of school violence is associated with depressive symptoms and that the role of victims’ help-seeking behaviors in the association may differ by gender among biethnic adolescents in Korea.

  16. A cluster randomized controlled trial to assess the impact on intimate partner violence of a 10-session participatory gender training curriculum delivered to women taking part in a group-based microfinance loan scheme in Tanzania (MAISHA CRT01): study protocol.

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    Harvey, Sheila; Lees, Shelley; Mshana, Gerry; Pilger, Daniel; Hansen, Christian; Kapiga, Saidi; Watts, Charlotte

    2018-04-02

    Worldwide, almost one third (30%) of women who have been in a relationship have experienced physical and/or sexual violence from an intimate partner. Given the considerable negative impacts of intimate partner violence (IPV) on women's physical health and well-being, there is an urgent need for rigorous evidence on violence prevention interventions. The study, comprising a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) and in-depth qualitative study, will assess the impact on women's past year experience of physical and/or sexual IPV of a participatory gender training curriculum (MAISHA curriculum) delivered to women participating in group-based microfinance in Tanzania. More broadly, the study aims to learn more about the factors that contribute to women's vulnerability to violence and understand how the intervention impacts on the lives of women and their families. Sixty-six eligible microfinance loan groups are enrolled and randomly allocated to: the 10-session MAISHA curriculum, delivered over 20 weeks (n = 33); or, to no intervention (n = 33). Study participants are interviewed at baseline and at 24 months post-intervention about their: household; partner; income; health; attitudes and social norms; relationship (including experiences of different forms of violence); childhood; and community. For the qualitative study and process evaluation, focus group discussions are being conducted with study participants and MAISHA curriculum facilitators. In-depth interviews are being conducted with a purposive sample of 18 participants. The primary outcome, assessed at 24 months post-intervention, is a composite of women's reported experience of physical and/or sexual IPV during the past 12 months. Secondary outcomes include: reported experience of physical, sexual and emotional/psychological IPV during the past 12 months, attitudes towards IPV and reported disclosure of IPV to others. The study forms part of a wider programme of research (MAISHA) that includes

  17. Repensando la relación entre la ley y la violencia hacia las mujeres. Una aproximación a los discursos de los/las agentes del ámbito judicial en relación a la ley integral de violencia de género en España Rethinking the relationship between law and violence against women. An approach to the juridical agents' discourses in relation to the integral law of gender-based violence

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    Nicole Schmal Cruzat

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available De las múltiples dimensiones del problema de la violencia que ejercen los hombres hacia las mujeres en el contexto de las relaciones de pareja o de ex pareja, en este artículo abordaremos lo que concierne al análisis de las producciones discursivas de actores/as institucionales que forman parte del proceso judicial. Nuestra intención es indagar en la relación que se establece entre el derecho penal y la violencia de género a partir de la reciente aplicación de la Ley Integral de Violencia de Género en España (LO. 1/2004 desde una perspectiva teórica que asume principalmente las aportaciones de la psicología social y el feminismo socio-jurídico. Nos hemos aproximado a los instrumentos jurídicos — la Ley Integral de Violencia de Género — a través de los discursos de los/las agentes jurídicos, con una mirada que cuestiona los valores, tantas veces proclamados, de universalidad, objetividad y neutralidad del Derecho. Of the many dimensions of the problem of violence exercised by men toward women in the context of the relations of partner or ex partner, this article deals with the analysis of the discursive productions of the institutional actors that are part of the judicial process. Our intention is to investigate the relationship between criminal law and gender-based violence starting from the implementation of the Law of Integral Gender-based Violence in Spain (LO. 1 / 2004 from a theoretical perspective which includes contributions from social psychology, and socio-legal feminism. We have approached the legal instrument — the Law of Integral Gender-based Violence — through the discourse of legal officers with a perspective that questions the values, so often proclaimed, of universality, objectivity and neutrality of the law.

  18. Corpses and Capital: Narratives of Gendered Violence in Two Costa Rican Novels

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    Laura Barbas Rhoden

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In a region prone to violence and political corruption, Costa Rica has been touted as an ecological paradise, a stable democracy, and an egalitarian society. However, Costa Rican fiction from the late twentieth century contests this idyllic image and presents instead a world of intrigue, violence, and criminality. El año del laberinto (2000 by Tatiana Lobo and Cruz de olvido (1999 by Carlos Cortés are two novels that serve as an excellent introduction to developments in postwar fiction and scholarship from Central America. In my analysis, I first situate the novels in the context of Central American cultural and political developments in recent decades and then consider the linking of narrative, gender, and violence in the novels. My study centers on the authors' use of crime to challenge national myths and to deconstruct narratives that have been instrumental in constructing cherished national identities. Of particular importance is the depiction of gendered bodies and the violence practiced upon them, as well as the politics surrounding bodies and violence in national narratives and in the authors' contemporary stories.

  19. Gender and cultural effects on perception of psychological violence in the partner.

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    Delgado Álvarez, Carmen; Estrada Aranda, Benito; López Huerto, José A

    2015-01-01

    Studies reporting similar figures of couple (man-woman) violence and works questioning the validity of the instruments employed have generated controversy about the conceptualization of this construct. One of the critical issues is the different ways of perceiving violence between men and women, as well as its nature in the cultural context. This may affect self-reported answers. A questionnaire evaluating the degree of violence perceived in ten kinds of psychological partner abuse was applied. 1750 students from Spain and Mexico, all of them randomly selected, completed it. Through MANOVA, greater perception of violence in the Spanish sample than in the Mexican one was obtained; in both countries, there was a greater perception in women than in men. Effects of gender-culture interaction were obtained in four dimensions: Isolation, Sexual Pressure, Emotional Manipulation, and Dominance. Multidimensional scaling showed two perceived dimensions: (1) "Proactive-Passive Tactics", stronger in the Spanish culture and (2) "Punitive-Emotional Tactics", stronger in the Mexican culture. These results confirm gender-culture effects in perception of psychological violence in the partner.

  20. The Impact of Community Violence on School-Based Research

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    Velsor-Friedrich, Barbara; Richards, Maryse; Militello, Lisa K.; Dean, Kyle C.; Scott, Darrick; Gross, Israel M.; Romeo, Edna

    2015-01-01

    Research conducted on youth exposure to violence has generally focused on documenting the prevalence of community violence and its emotional and behavioral implications. However, there is a dearth of information related to the impact of violence on the implementation and evaluation of community and school-based programs. This commentary examines…

  1. Gender Differences in Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Among Participants of a Violence Intervention Program at a Pediatric Hospital: A Pilot Study.

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    Purtle, Jonathan; Adams-Harris, Erica; Frisby, Bianca; Rich, John A; Corbin, Theodore J

    2016-01-01

    Hospital-based violence intervention programs (HVIPs) have emerged as a strategy to address posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms among violently injured patients and their families. HVIP research, however, has focused on males and little guidance exists about how HVIPs could be tailored to meet gender-specific needs. We analyzed pediatric HVIP data to assess gender differences in prevalence and type of PTS symptoms. Girls reported more PTS symptoms than boys (6.96 vs 5.21, P = .027), particularly hyperarousal symptoms (4.00 vs 2.82, P = .002) such as feeling upset by reminders of the event (88.9% vs 48.3%, P = .005). Gender-focused research represents a priority area for HVIPs.

  2. Sex, violence and HIV on the inside: cultures of violence, denial, gender inequality and homophobia negatively influence the health outcomes of those in closed settings.

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    Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Kawage, Thomas; Vallely, Andrew; Mek, Agnes; Mathers, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    To map the context of HIV in closed settings in Papua New Guinea (PNG), semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 56 prisoners and detainees and 60 key stakeholders. The nature of HIV-related risk differs for detained women and men, and reflects important gender-based issues present in PNG society more broadly. Women in detention are vulnerable to sexual violence and exploitation and at greatest risk of HIV while detained in police holding cells, where they are typically supervised by male officers, in contrast to prisons, where they have little contact with male staff. HIV risk for men in prison is associated with consensual and non-consensual sex; this risk is perpetuated by a pervasive culture of denial and institutionalised homophobia. The illegal nature of sodomy and male-to-male sex provides Correctional Services the legal grounds by which to refuse access to condoms for prisoners. Addressing HIV risk among detained men and women in PNG requires the reform of legislation, police and prison practices and an understanding of broader structural problems of gender-based violence and stigma and discrimination.

  3. Women and Refugees in Twitter: Rethorics on Abuse, Vulnerability and Violence from a Gender Perspective

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    Mar Gallego

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this unprecedented humanitarian crisis, women refugees are experiencing extreme vulnerability and violence, both during their journey and in the camps. Our objectives through this article are to analyze how women are being treated in the Social Media (images, discourses, social representations, or narratives. Data for this article were extracted from Twitter (with the help of Nodel XL Pro, from which we collected 1,807,901 tweets about “refugees”, using this word as search strings in six different languages. One complete year was covered (starting at mid-2015. Our final dataset was composed of 862,999 tweets. Results suggest that women refugees are targeted just because of their gender. Women are constantly victimized and mistreated due to the perpetuation of a patriarchal outlook that justifies abusing women. We also found many discourses disseminated through Twitter that reject refugees based on disproportionate generalizations and stereotypes, and unfounded and radicalised arguments., using gender difference to feed racism and xenophobia.

  4. Intersecciones entre Violencia de Género, Pobreza y Acceso a la Justicia: El Caso de la Ciudad de La Plata (Links between Gender-based Violence, Poverty and Access to Justice: The Case of the City of La Plata

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    Manuela Graciela González

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical reflection on the experience at Courts of female victims of gender violence is the aim of this paper. Provincial, national and international laws are the framework for the analysis. The raw material are their reports ( assesed from the perspective of the newest writings on the issue which stress the differences between the official discourse of the Administration of Justice and the victims' "accounts". Three different questions have been asked to guide our research: Are gender violence and poverty , factors linked to the lack of an effective Access to Justice? Which are the new factors observed everywhere and those which are present only in Latin America?Are there any changes in the social stereotypes which clear and ease the womens' path towards the administration of justice? En este artículo reflexionamos críticamente sobre la situación de las mujeres en La Plata-Argentina que padecen violencia de género cuando acceden a la administración de justicia. Para ello tomamos como marco referencial la normativa provincial, nacional e internacional. Utilizamos como insumo los testimonios de las mujeres, analizados a la luz de la literatura actual, que polemiza sobre la compleja y a veces contradictoria relación entre el discurso "oficial" de la Administración de justicia y los "relatos" de las mujeres. Nos interrogamos sobre tres ejes de trabajo que han orientado nuestra producción: ¿Qué intersecciones visualizamos entre violencia de género y pobreza como factores que obstaculizan el acceso a la justicia?¿Qué factores nuevos aparecen en contextos globalizados, y cuales son específicos de América Latina?¿Se observan cambios en los estereotipos sociales que despejan el camino de las mujeres a la administración de justicia? DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2611592

  5. Mixed-Gender Co-Facilitation in Therapeutic Groups for Men Who Have Perpetrated Intimate Partner Violence: Group Members' Perspectives

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    Roy, Valerie; Lindsay, Jocelyn; Dallaire, Louis-Francois

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a study that explored the use of mixed-gender co-facilitation in intimate partner violence groups, especially regarding its potential for gender role socialization. Using an interpretive approach, interviews with men from different mixed-gender co-facilitated groups in Canada were analyzed, with a focus on the men's…

  6. Nightlife violence: a gender-specific view on risk factors for violence in nightlife settings: a cross-sectional study in nine European countries.

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    Schnitzer, Susanne; Bellis, Mark A; Anderson, Zara; Hughes, Karen; Calafat, Amador; Juan, Montse; Kokkevi, Anna

    2010-06-01

    Within nightlife settings, youth violence places large burdens on both nightlife users and wider society. Internationally, research has identified risk factors for nightlife violence. However, few empirical studies have assessed differences in risk factors between genders. Here, a pan-European cross-sectional survey of 1,341 nightlife users aged 16 to 35 assessed a variety of risk-taking traits, including violence, sexual, alcohol, and drug-related current and historic behaviors. Results show that the likelihood of having been involved in a physical fight in nightlife increases with younger age, drunkenness, and increasing preference for tolerant venues for both genders. The odds of involvement in a fight for females who were drunk five or more times in the past 4 weeks were almost five times higher than those who were never drunk (odds ratio for males 1.99). Use of cocaine more than doubled the risk of involvement in violence among males. However, no association was found for females. For heterosexual men, the odds for violence almost doubled compared with bisexual or homosexual men, whereas for women heterosexuality was a protective factor. The effects of structural risk factors (e.g., bar and club characteristics) for nightlife violence differed by gender. To develop effective violence prevention measures in nightlife, considerations need to be made regarding the demographic composition of patrons in addition to wider structural elements within the nighttime environment.

  7. Gender-specific differences in risk for intimate partner violence in South Korea.

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    Lee, Minjee; Stefani, Katherine M; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2014-05-01

    Various risk factors of intimate partner violence (IPV) have been found to vary by gender. South Korea has one of the highest prevalences of IPV in the world; however, little is known about potential risk factors of IPV and whether gender influences this relationship. Using data from the 2006 Korea Welfare Panel Study, 8,877 married participants (4,545 men and 4,332 women) aged ≥30 years were included. Reported IPV was categorized as verbal or physical IPV and the association between IPV and related factors was assessed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Women were significantly more likely than men were to report IPV victimization (verbal 28.2% vs. 24.4%; physical 6.9% vs. 3.4%). Wor odds of physical perpetration than women satisfied with their family. Moreover, alcohol intake was significantly associated with IPV perpetration and victimization in both genders. Significant gender-specific differences were found among factors related to perpetrating violence and being a victim of violence among adults in heterosexual relationships in South Korea.

  8. Postgraduate Educational Research on Violence, Gender, and HIV/AIDS in and around Schools (1995-2004)

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    Moletsane, R.; Madiya, N.

    2011-01-01

    Social issues such as HIV/AIDS, bullying, and violence have recently come to the fore in schooling and related research in South Africa. This article describes and critically analyses Masters and Ph.D. research done in education in the period 1995-2004, with particular reference to the voice given to social issues, namely: gender, violence, and…

  9. Gender-Specific Election Violence: The Role of Information and Communication Technologies

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    Gabrielle Bardall

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The rising influence of new information and communication technologies (ICTs has paralleled the rapid development of women’s political participation worldwide. For women entering political life or holding public positions, new ICTs are frequently used as tools of gender-specific electoral and political violence. There is evidence of ICTs being used to perpetrate a broad range of violent acts against women during elections, especially acts inflicting fear and psychological harm. Specific characteristics of ICTs are particularly adapted to misuse in this manner. Despite these significant challenges, ICTs also offer groundbreaking solutions for preventing and mitigating violence against women in elections (VAWE. Notably, ICTs combat VAWE through monitoring and documenting violence, via education and awareness-raising platforms and through empowerment and advocacy initiatives.

  10. Intervention in gender violence in couples: the role of institutional resources

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    Roberta de Alencar-Rodrigues

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The participants in this exploratory qualitative research were 14 Latin American immigrant women, older than 18 years old, who suffered from violence in a heterosexual relationship. The qualitative data was gathered through semi-structured interviews focused on the interviewee’s perspectives about the role that institutional resources played concerning the ceasing or reduction of gender violence experienced in couples. The interviews were analyzed according to the grounded theory approach. Findings provide qualitative evidence about external factors that contribute and impede the cessation or reduction of partner violence. Empirical knowledge has practical implications, showing that the reduction or end of such problems does not depend only on individual factors, but on the interaction of resources at the individual, social and institutional levels.

  11. Gender Norms and Age-Disparate Sexual Relationships as Predictors of Intimate Partner Violence, Sexual Violence, and Risky Sex among Adolescent Gang Members.

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    Nydegger, Liesl A; DiFranceisco, Wayne; Quinn, Katherine; Dickson-Gomez, Julia

    2017-04-01

    Unequal gender norms and age-disparate sexual relationships can lead to power imbalances and are also associated with intimate partner violence (IPV), sexual coercion and violence, and sexual risk behaviors. The present study examined these variables from both victim and perpetrator perspectives among adolescent gang members. Age-disparate sexual relationships were defined as sex partners 5 or more years older among female participants and 5 or more years younger among male participants. Participants were recruited from a mid-sized Midwestern city and completed a 60-90-min audio computer-assisted self-interview in a community-based setting. Participants in this study included 107 female gang members (68 % African-American, 19 % Latina; mean age, 17.6) and 169 male gang members (62 % African-American, 28 % Latino; mean age, 17.7). As hypothesized, endorsing unequal gender norms toward women was significantly related to IPV victimization among female participants and perpetration among male participants, and engagement in group sex in the past month among both female and male participants (ps sexual relationships were significantly more likely to have experienced more IPV and report being raped and males gang members who had age-disparate sexual relationships were significantly more likely to perpetrate IPV in the past year and perpetrate rape (ps sexual relationships were also significantly related to being gang raped among female gang members and participating in a gang rape among male gang members, and engaging in group sex among both female and male gang members (ps sexual relationships were more likely to have been pregnant (ps sexual coercion/violence. Early intervention will also be necessary as these adolescent gang members are already engaged in extremely high-risk, coercive, and violent behaviors.

  12. Gender, Power, and Intimate Partner Violence: A Study on Couples From Rural Malawi

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    Conroy, Amy A.

    2013-01-01

    Gender-based power imbalances are perhaps the most compelling underlying explanation for intimate partner violence (IPV) among women in sub-Saharan Africa. However, an overemphasis on female victimization results in an incomplete understanding of men’s experiences as victims and the broader dyadic context in which violence occurs. This study examines the role of three domains of relationship power (power resources, processes, and outcomes) on sexual and physical IPV victimization in a unique sample of 466 young couples from Malawi. Two power resources were studied, namely, income and education level. Power processes were captured with a measure of couple communication and collaboration called unity. Power outcomes included a measure of relationship dominance (male dominated or female-dominated/egalitarian). Multilevel logistic regression using the Actor Partner Interpersonal Model framework was used to test whether respondent and partner data were predictive of IPV. The findings show that unity and male dominance were salient power factors that influenced young people’s risk for sexual IPV. Unity had a stronger protective effect on sexual IPV for women than for men. Involvement in a male-dominated relationship increased the risk of sexual IPV for women, but decreased the risk for men. The findings also showed that education level and unity were protective against physical IPV for both men and women. Contrary to what was expected, partner data did not play a role in the respondent’s experience of IPV. The consistency of these findings with the literature, theory, and study limitations are discussed. PMID:24227592

  13. “Go Back and Tell Them Who the Real Men Are!” Gendering Our Understanding of Kibera’s Post-election Violence

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    Caroline Wanjiku Kihato

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Using a gendered analysis, this article examines the post election violence (PEV in Kibera, Kenya, between December 2007 and February 2008. Through indepth interviews with Kibera residents, the article interrogates how gender influenced violent mobilizations in Kenya’s most notorious slum. Most scholarly analyses have tended to understand the post-election violence as a result of politicized ethnic identities, class, and local socio-economic dynamics. Implicitly or explicitly, these frameworks assume that women are victims of violence while men are its perpetrators, and ignore the ways in which gender, which cuts across these categories, produces and shapes conflict. Kibera’s conflict is often ascribed to the mobilization of disaffected male youths by political “Big Men.” But the research findings show how men, who would ordinarily not go to war, are obliged to fight to “save face” in their communities and how women become integral to the production of violent exclusionary mobilizations. Significantly, notions of masculinity and femininity modified the character of Kibera’s conflict. Acts of gender-based violence, gang rapes, and forced circumcisions became intensely entwined with ethno-political performances to annihilate opposing groups. The battle for political power was also a battle of masculinities.

  14. Does gender inequity increase the risk of intimate partner violence among women? Evidence from a national Bangladeshi sample.

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    Mosiur Rahman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence from developing countries regarding the association between gender inequity and intimate partner violence (IPV victimization in women has been suggestive but inconclusive. Using nationally representative population-based data from Bangladesh, we examined the association between multidimensional aspects of gender inequity and the risk of IPV. METHODS: We used data from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey. The analyses were based on the responses of 4,467 married women. The main explanatory variable was gender inequity, which reflects the multidimensional aspects of women's autonomy and the relationship inequality between women and their partner. The experience of physical and/or sexual IPV was the main outcome variable of interest. RESULTS: Over 53% of married Bangladeshi women experienced physical and/or sexual violence from their husbands. In the adjusted models, women who had a higher level of autonomy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.48; 99% confidence interval [CI] 0.37-0.61, a particularly high level of economic-decision-making autonomy (AOR 0.12; 99% CI 0.08-0.17, and a higher level of non-supportive attitudes towards wife beating or raping (AOR 0.61; 99% CI 0.47-0.83 were less likely to report having experienced IPV. Education level, age at marriage, and occupational discrepancy between spouses were also found to be significant predictors of IPV. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, dimensions of gender inequities were significant predictors of IPV among married women in Bangladesh. An investigation of the causal link between multidimensional aspects of gender inequity and IPV will be critical to developing interventions to reduce the risk of IPV and should be considered a public health research priority.

  15. Gender and abuse: Partner violence among young people in Baja California

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    Humberto González Galbán

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Domestic violence or spousal abuse, largely determined by the existing traditional gender roles, is the issue discussed in this article, which is focusing on the special case of young people of the state of Baja California. During the search of the conditional agents of this social process, there were valued psychological and socio–demographic variables, such as family violence during childhood, immigration status, educational level and age, all these variables were separated by the gender and age (rank 18–29 of the sudied sample.Considering the information provided of the database used; The Survey of Adolescent Reproductive Health of Baja California 2006, it is described and analyzed in this research, several indicators, all of them related with important issues which affect a part of the young population of Baja California, regardless the lack of information and almost non previous research about this theme.

  16. Legislative frameworks and educational practices on gender related violence and youth in Catalonia

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    Barbara Biglia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we wish to systematize and present to an international audience the state of the arts in preventive practices aimed at young people in the field of gender violence and an accompanying policy framework in the specific context of Catalonian society. This article is the result of the research we are carrying out in the Gap Project for training professionals working with the youth around gender violence. We will justify at the onset the extreme importance of this topic by presenting some evidence of the grave situation for young people on this issue. We shall then continue with a critical contextualization of state legislation in order to proceed to highlight the differences and similarities of other regional proposals. We end our presentation by critically analyzing a selection of preventive resources directed to the youth as developed in the Catalonian context.

  17. Gender and Educational Differences in Perception of Domestic Violence Against Women Among Libyan Migrants in Manchester.

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    El Abani, Suaad; Pourmehdi, Mansour

    2018-02-01

    Domestic violence against women (DVAW) is a worldwide phenomenon and refers to any act committed against women that results in physical and psychological harm, and coercion, loss of liberty, and deprivation. There is a dearth of research and information about the extent and prevalence of domestic violence among Libyan communities. The aim of the study was to explore community knowledge of, and attitudes toward, DVAW and to improve our understanding of the factors that influence knowledge, attitudes, and responses, particularly educational and gender differences. Using snowball sampling, we analyzed 20 semistructured interviews with Libyans living in Manchester, United Kingdom. We found gender and education-influenced participants' perception of DVAW. Men in general did not recognize DVAW as a serious social problem; noticeably, they saw it as a personal and family issue. Knowing attitudes toward DVAW is necessary for government and communities' prevention policies as attitudes influence perpetration of DVAW.

  18. Gender differences in emotions, forgiveness and tolerance in relation to political violence

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    Conejero, Susana; Etxebarria, Itziar; Montero García-Celay, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    This study, which forms part of a broader research project, analyzes gender differences in: the intensity of diverse emotions, the justification of violence, attitudes towards the terrorist group ETA, forgiveness and tolerance. Participants comprised 728 people (45.5% men and 54.5% women) resident in either Basque Country or Navarra (Spain), representative of all national identities and political ideologies existing in this context. An ad hoc questionnaire was designed and administered bet...

  19. Domestic Violence Counseling in Rural Northern China: Gender, Social Harmony, and Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lijia; Eyre, Stephen L; Barker, Judith

    2018-03-01

    Domestic violence (DV) affects over a third of Chinese women in a relationship. Focusing on ethnographic data from six staff members and six DV survivors at a rural, state-affiliated women's center in China in 2010, this article relies on Henrietta Moore's notion of the poststructuralist gendered subject to examine how the staff draw on discourses about gender and social harmony in persuading women to stay in their marriages, rather than on human rights discourses that emphasize survivor safety. It shows that DV survivors are frequently sent back to dangerous homes where their health is placed at risk.

  20. Engaging men and women as allies: a workplace curriculum module to challenge gender norms about domestic violence, male bullying and workplace violence and encourage ally behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, K C; Yates, Diane; Walcott, Quentin

    2012-01-01

    This post-hoc analysis discusses a replicable workplace behavior change module called Men and Women As Allies, that was designed and implemented by a team of labor, management and community anti-violence educators at a private sector telecommunications employer. A job site-specific educational seminar linked issues of domestic violence to male bullying and workplace violence. It challenged social stereotypes about gender, taught skills to engage ally peer behavior and provided information on how to seek assistance from union, workplace and external community resources.

  1. Domestic violence at the intersections of race, class, and gender: challenges and contributions to understanding violence against marginalized women in diverse communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokoloff, Natalie J; Dupont, Ida

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive review of the emerging domestic violence literature using a race, class, gender, sexual orientation intersectional analysis and structural framework fostered by women of color and their allies to understand the experiences and contexts of domestic violence for marginalized women in U.S. society. The first half of the article lays out a series of challenges that an intersectional analysis grounded in a structural framework provides for understanding the role of culture in domestic violence. The second half of the article points to major contributions of such an approach to feminist methods and practices in working with battered women on the margins of society.

  2. Linkages between gender equity and intimate partner violence among urban Brazilian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Anu Manchikanti; Speizer, Ilene S; Moracco, Kathryn E

    2011-10-01

    Gender inequity is a risk factor for intimate partner violence (IPV), although there is little research on this relationship that focuses on youth or males. Using survey data collected from 240 male and 198 female youth aged 15-24 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, we explore the association between individual-level support for gender equity and IPV experiences in the past 6 months and describe responses to and motivations for IPV. Factor analysis was used to construct gender equity scales for males and females. Logistic and multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between gender equity and IPV. About half of female youth reported some form of recent IPV, including any victimization (32%), any perpetration (40%), and both victimization and perpetration (22%). A total of 18% of male youth reported recently perpetrating IPV. In logistic regression models, support for gender equity had a protective effect against any female IPV victimization and any male IPV perpetration and was not associated with female IPV perpetration. Female victims reported leaving the abusive partner, but later returning to him as the most frequent response to IPV. Male perpetrators said the most common response of their victims was to retaliate with violence. Jealousy was the most frequently reported motivation of females perpetrating IPV. Gender equity is an important predictor of IPV among youth. Examining the gendered context of IPV will be useful in the development of targeted interventions to promote gender equity and healthy relationships and to help reduce IPV among youth. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. ["Give her booze and she'll loosen up": gender violence in Northeast Brazilian forró lyrics and parties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhante, Aline Veras Morais; Nations, Marilyn Kay; Catrib, Ana Maria Fontenelle

    2018-03-08

    Violence against women is primarily a socially produced issue of gender-hierarchy cultural values. This study aimed to unveil the meanings assigned to sexual violence against women in the forró lyrics by adolescent boys living on the outskirts of Fortaleza, Ceará State, Brazil. Our point of departure was ethnomusicology, the theory of which contends that studies of regional songs and their performances transcend the geographic space in which they are performed, to the extent that they reflect universally disseminated practices in the legitimation of violence. The study was conducted in state public schools in the Bom Jardim neighborhood on the outskirts of Fortaleza. This neighborhood has the highest rates of violence against women in the city. Focus groups were conducted with six to eight participants each, debating three forró songs whose lyrics referred to sexual violence. The results showed that the lyrics reproduce and influence patriarchal ideologies among Northeast Brazilian youth. Quotes by the boys reveal the discourse of "reverse rape", which seeks to condone sexual violence through the reversal of gender roles, ignoring socially constructed asymmetries. Forró proves to be a gender arena in which gladiators compete to flaunt notions of manhood, sexuality, and gender relations, replicating the dominant sexism in contemporary Brazilian society and contributing to the perpetuation of violence against women.

  4. Learners' self-reports of exposure to violence in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pervasive worldwide phenomenon of gender-based violence in schools poses ... aged between 13 and 17 years who were perpetrators or victims of violence. ... gendered comments, sexualised gestures, sexual harassment and bullying.

  5. The Intersection of Gender Identity and Violence: Victimization Experienced by Transgender College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griner, Stacey B; Vamos, Cheryl A; Thompson, Erika L; Logan, Rachel; Vázquez-Otero, Coralia; Daley, Ellen M

    2017-08-01

    College students disproportionately experience victimization, stalking, and relationship violence when compared with other groups. Few studies explore victimization by the gender identity of college students, including those who identify as transgender. The purpose of this study is to explore the rates of violence experienced by transgender students compared with male and female college students. This study utilized the National College Health Assessment-II (NCHA-II) and included data from students ( n = 82,538) across fall 2011, 2012, and 2013. Bivariate statistics and binary logistic regression were conducted to test the relationships between gender identity and victimization. Transgender students ( n = 204) were compared with male ( n = 27,322) and female ( n = 55,012) students. After adjusting for individual factors, transgender students had higher odds of experiencing all nine types of violence when compared with males and higher odds of experiencing eight types of violence than females. Transgender students experienced the highest odds in crimes involving sexual victimization, including attempted sexual penetration (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 9.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [6.17, 14.59], d = 1.00), sexual penetration without consent (aOR: 9.06, 95% CI = [5.64, 14.53], d = 0.94), and being in a sexually abusive relationship (aOR: 6.48, 95% CI = [4.01, 10.49], d = 0.48), than did male students. Findings reveal increased odds of victimization among transgender students when compared with male and female students. Results demonstrate the need for more comprehensive violence prevention efforts in college settings.

  6. Media culture and post-sexism discourse: a rhetoric study through facebook and gender violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunia Etura Hernández

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the appearance of the post-sexism discourse in Social networks through controversy in Facebook about the broadcast in the spanish television of a journalist report called ‘Sexism kills’ (February, 2016 in a prime time programme entitled “Salvados”. Specifically, we analyse a corpus of texts formed by 98 comments and more tan 4000 reactions on the night of January 31 consequence of a preview advertisement in the Jordi Evole’s Facebook page (the presentator of the programme.Our theoretical supporting research is based on feminist theory and critical discourse analyse. By means of both proposal, we have tried to find, show and describe a post-sexism discourse and the ideological frames underlying in the comments, which attacked the topic of the tv programme even before the telecast. Upon examination of this corpus, it becomes clear that exist a common discoursive patron in the postsexism prosumers in internet and a different behaviour by genders against the sexist violence.

  7. Performing Intelligible Genders through Violence: Bullying as Gender Practice and Heteronormative Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera-Fernández, María Victoria; Lameiras-Fernández, María; Rodríguez-Castro, Yolanda

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to analyse adolescents' perception of bullying and particularly of the ways intelligible masculinities and femininities are performed through violence in the framework of Queer Theory. We conducted a qualitative study using focus groups. The sample was composed of 93 Spanish adolescents (48 girls and 45 boys,…

  8. The Roles of Traditional Gender Myths and Beliefs About Beating on Self-Reported Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husnu, Shenel; Mertan, Biran E

    2015-08-24

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the roles of beliefs about beating, traditional gender myth endorsement, ambivalent sexism, and perceived partner violence in determining an individual's own reported violence toward his or her partner. The sample consisted of 205 (117 women; 88 men) Turkish and Turkish Cypriot undergraduate students, aged between 16 and 29 years. Participants completed measures of beliefs about beating, traditional gender myth endorsement, and ambivalent sexism and rated the extent to which they experienced abusive behaviors from their partner as well as the extent to which they were themselves abusive to their partners. Results showed that positive beliefs about beating, endorsing traditional gender myths, and experiencing partner abuse were all predictive of self-reported abuse to one's partner. Furthermore, the relationship between myth endorsement and self-abusive behavior was mediated by beliefs toward beating-only in men. Results are discussed in light of the traditional gender system evident in Turkish societal makeup. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Domestic violence in Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie's Purple Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender-based violence is an issue that has become a part of modern society, cutting across cultures, race, ethnicity and status. In Adichie's Purple Hibiscus, gender-based violence manifests in the form of domestic violence, projected through the Eugene Achike family around whom the story, set in the eastern part of ...

  10. The secondary role of the aggressor in television news on gender violence Summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Moreno Pachón

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Male violence against women is humankind’s most notable example of lack of affection. Myths that have blamed women for the expulsion from Paradise, genital mutilation, domestic violence, the use of sexual violence as weapon of war, or women being stoned, are all reflections of the circumstances in which women are defenseless victims. In Spain, it appears that the influence of the media has failed to penetrate deeply into the social conscience, something that is needed in order to tackle this scourge. The aim of this research is to determine the influence that news-related television contents have had upon gender violence and, more specifically, the way in which the aggressor is depicted in audiovisual storytelling. This study encompasses both a quantitative methodology –which has been gathered from the analysis of the 3660 yearly news editions from five national Spanish networks- and a qualitative methodology as well, through the use of comprehensive interviews of the individuals who closely work with this social problem.

  11. [Differential perception of gender violence by Romanian immigrants resident in the metropolitan area of Madrid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabito-Alcón, M F; Puente-García, R; Cámara-Blanco, L; De Frutos-Moneo, E; García-Jorge, S; Correas-Lauffer, J

    2013-01-01

    Battered women have poorer health. Immigrant women have a higher risk of suffering abuse by their partner, with the most frequent type being psychological abuse. A large percentage of the population living in the health district of Coslada are of Romanian origin, therefore we designed a study aimed at determining whether there are differences between Spanish and Romanian women regarding the perception of different types of violence, expecting to find significant differences. A total of 93 people (61.26% Romanian) were included in the study, and who were given a questionnaire with sociodemographic variables, family APGAR, and a questionnaire on perceptions of behaviors related to gender violence. Descriptive statistics and a hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed on the results. Nearly 30% of women from Romania and 10% of Spanish respondents were considering or had considered being victims of abuse. According to the data, the Romanian-born women in the sample identified easier those behaviours involving physical or sexual violence easier; while, like Spanish women had more difficulty recognizing psychological violence. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. A Gender Comparison of Motivations for Physical Dating Violence Among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmquist, JoAnna; Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Zapor, Heather; Febres, Jeniimarie; Shorey, Ryan C.; Hamel, John; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    There are limited empirical investigations that directly compare men and women’s motivations, or reasons, for perpetrating physical dating violence (DV). In an attempt to further understand whether men and women have similar or different motives for physical DV, the purpose of the current study was to conduct a gender comparison motives in a sample of male (n = 163) and female (n = 319) college students. Motivations for physical DV were classified according to seven broad categories proposed by Langhinrichsen-Rohling and colleagues (2012): (a) power/control, (b) self-defense, (c) expression of negative emotion (e.g., anger), (d) communication difficulties, (e) retaliation, (f) jealousy, and (g) other (e.g., because it was sexually arousing, the influence of alcohol, the influence of drugs). The prevalence of physical violence perpetration in the overall sample was 29.4%. Results indicated that communication difficulties and self-defense were among the most frequently endorsed motive categories for both male and female perpetrated dating violence. In addition, results demonstrated gender similarity in all of the examined motive categories. Research and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:25392388

  13. Social constructions of gender roles, gender-based violence and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... des liens entre les relations de sexes et le risque du VIH. Dans un premier temps, nous avons mené 16 entretiens principaux d'informateurs auprès des membres des organismes dépositaires. Ensuite, nous avons eu huit discussions des groupes de foyer avec des membres de la communauté en deux groupes différents, ...

  14. Age and gender identity in a perpetrators of sexual violence against children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dvoryanchikov N.V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper devoted to the age and gender identity among the perpetrators of sexual violence against children and discussed the factors lead to pathogenesis of abnormal sexual behavior against children. We have identified particularities of gender and age identity in perpetrators of violent sexual acts against children. It was noted that patients with a diagnosis of pedophilia have abnormalities mostly in cognitive structure of sexual identity, that is shown in undifferentiated age peculiarities of perception of self-image and gender and role stereotypes. These data allow assessing more accurately the abnormalities of sexual sphere, explaining the deviant behavior, as well as structure of age and sex self-identity in persons with the disorder of sexual desire in the form of pedophilia and take a step closer to understanding the mechanisms of abnormal choice of sexual object.

  15. [Gender violence and other factors associated with emotional distress in female users of public health services in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez-Santiago, Rosario; Juárez-Ramírez, Clara; Salgado-de Snyder, V Nelly; Agoff, Carolina; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Híjar, Martha C

    2006-01-01

    To identify and describe the factors associated with emotional distress in a national sample of women users of public health services in Mexico, such a Secretaria de Salud (SSA), Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE). This research study was conducted using the database of the National Survey of Violence against Women that consisted of the responses of a total of 26 042 female users of health care services provided by the Mexican government health agencies. The Personal Health Scale (ESP per its initials in Spanish) was used to assess emotional distress. To measure violence a 19-item scale which explores different types of violence as well as severity was used. The relationship between emotional distress and gender violence was determined through a binary logistic regression model, as were economic status and demographic variables. One of the most important findings of this study is the high prevalence of emotional distress (15.3%) among women seeking health care services from the public sector and the relationship of such emotional distress with the experience of marital physical, psychological, and sexual violence. Factors associated with emotional distress among female users of health care services were age (26 and older); activity (laborer); working hours (71 hours a week or more); alcohol intake (greater intake); abuse during childhood (frequency and types of abuse); severity of marital violence (severe violence); socioeconomic status (very low SES); and type of dwelling (urban). The principal predictor of emotional distress was intimate partner abuse, especially in severe expression. The next predictor was violence in childhood. Taking into consideration these predictors it is recommended to use screening instruments to identify emotional distress and gender violence in health setting. It is important to design and implement attention and reference programs in public

  16. How gender- and violence-related norms affect self-esteem among adolescent refugee girls living in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, L; Asghar, K; Seff, I; Cislaghi, B; Yu, G; Tesfay Gessesse, T; Eoomkham, J; Assazenew Baysa, A; Falb, K

    2018-01-01

    Evidence suggests adolescent self-esteem is influenced by beliefs of how individuals in their reference group perceive them. However, few studies examine how gender- and violence-related social norms affect self-esteem among refugee populations. This paper explores relationships between gender inequitable and victim-blaming social norms, personal attitudes, and self-esteem among adolescent girls participating in a life skills program in three Ethiopian refugee camps. Ordinary least squares multivariable regression analysis was used to assess the associations between attitudes and social norms, and self-esteem. Key independent variables of interest included a scale measuring personal attitudes toward gender inequitable norms, a measure of perceived injunctive norms capturing how a girl believed her family and community would react if she was raped, and a peer-group measure of collective descriptive norms surrounding gender inequity. The key outcome variable, self-esteem, was measured using the Rosenberg self-esteem scale. Girl's personal attitudes toward gender inequitable norms were not significantly predictive of self-esteem at endline, when adjusting for other covariates. Collective peer norms surrounding the same gender inequitable statements were significantly predictive of self-esteem at endline ( ß  = -0.130; p   =  0.024). Additionally, perceived injunctive norms surrounding family and community-based sanctions for victims of forced sex were associated with a decline in self-esteem at endline ( ß  = -0.103; p   =  0.014). Significant findings for collective descriptive norms and injunctive norms remained when controlling for all three constructs simultaneously. Findings suggest shifting collective norms around gender inequity, particularly at the community and peer levels, may sustainably support the safety and well-being of adolescent girls in refugee settings.

  17. Gender and violence: Preliminary analysis on the student cases of secondary school in the south of Guanajuato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Rosas Vargas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper some preliminary results are presented, obtained by the application of several surveys between secondary school students. The main objective of this research was to quantify the different kinds of violence that could suffer Young female students in this educative level, as well as the relationship among violence living at home, violence living in their colonies and violence living at the school. Violence to women, girls and young ladies is a complex phenomenon and wide spread in Mexican Society, like official statistics reveal; and a good example are warning signs elaborated by the ENDIREH (National Survey over the Dynamic of the Relationships en the Household over 50% of the marriage women have suffer at least one event of gender violence. Violence on girls and young ladies could cause scholar desertion (Ayala,Zapata and Martínez, 2009 and this situation is mortgage for the families because, like Kabeer point out, education Access has a positive effect over daughters and sons. Is well known that women suffer more violence at household, but, women could suffer violence in other kind of places, like in their hometowns and schools. In community level, 40% of the women, who responses the ENDIREH affirmed they have suffer any type of violence; of this last group, 31% has undergo sexual abuse in their community, the rest of the sample (69% has felt intimidated in community environment. In this way, we can talk about women vulnerability. In Guanajuato state, this figure is a little bit lower, due to 35% of women, in the survey, have affirmed they suffer violence in the community environment. In this sense, 13.4% of women in the ENDIREH survey mentioned they have suffered violence at the school; however, this number is lower compared to national levels of violence at the schools, where 15.7% of women affirmed they have been attacked.

  18. Reflecting about gender violence and african american women: The experience of the NGO Maria Mulher - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Pereira Oliveira

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The African American women's socioeconomic, political and cultural conditions are unstable; many of these women face social exclusion situations and have no access to public policies. The experience of the NGO Maria Mulher has considered racial discrimination in relation to African American women as a fact which empowers gender violence and causes damage to life quality and to health. This research tried to understand the effects of racial discrimination to the identities construction and to the subjectivation modes of African American women attended by the SOS Racism program. The women showed intense emotional suffering due to discrimination and racism they have faced. In the group process new meanings for the violence were produced, transforming the personal narrative into a public report. 

  19. Type of Violence, Age, and Gender Differences in the Effects of Family Violence on Children's Behavior Problems: A Mega-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Kathleen J.; Baradaran, Laila P.; Abbott, Craig B.; Lamb, Michael E.; Guterman, Eva

    2006-01-01

    A mega-analytic study was designed to exploit the power of a large data set combining raw data from multiple studies (n=1870) to examine the effects of type of family violence, age, and gender on children's behavior problems assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Our findings confirmed that children who experienced multiple forms of…

  20. Partner violence, power and gender differences in South African adolescents’ HIV/STI behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    TEITELMAN, Anne M.; JEMMOTT, John B.; BELLAMY, Scarlett L.; ICARD, Larry D.; O'LEARY, Ann; HEEREN, G. Anita; NGWANE, Zolani; RATCLIFFE, Sarah J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Low relationship power and victimization by intimate partner violence (IPV) have been linked to HIV risks among adult females and adolescent girls. This article examines associations of IPV and relationship power with sexual-risk behaviors and whether the associations differ by gender among South African adolescents. Methods Sexual-risk behaviors (multiple partners in past 3 months; condom use at last sex), IPV, and relationship power were collected from 786 sexually experienced adolescents (mean age = 16.9) in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa during the 54-month follow-up of a HIV/STI risk-reduction intervention trial. Logistic regression examined associations of sexual-risk behaviors with IPV and relationship power and whether the associations differed by gender. Results Adolescent boys were less likely to report condom use at last sex (p=.001) and more likely to report multiple partners (pPower interaction (p=.004) indicated that as relationship power increased, self-reported condom use at last sex increased among girls, but decreased among boys. A Gender x IPV interaction (p=.004) indicated that as IPV victimization increased, self-reports of having multiple partners increased among boys, but not among girls. As relationship power increased, self-reports of having multiple partners decreased irrespective of gender. Conclusions HIV risk-reduction interventions and policies should address gender differences in sexual-risk consequences of IPV and relationship power among adolescents and promote gender equity. PMID:27111184

  1. "I am not [just] a rabbit who has a bunch of children!": agency in the midst of suffering at the intersections of global inequalities, gendered violence, and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parson, Nia

    2010-08-01

    This article is based on an analysis of the life history narrative of Antonia, a Peruvian immigrant in Chile, in the context of ethnographic research on Chilean women's experiences of domestic violence (DV) and the post-dictatorship state's responses to DV. Structural and socio-cultural constraints and forms of violence, including global and local economic inequalities, migration, racism, and intimate, gender-based abuses in both home and receiving countries interact in Antonia's experience to produce suffering and influence a form of gendered agency. This analysis points to the need for research and policies specifically designed to attend to the intersecting vulnerabilities migrant women who suffer DV often face, as well as their agentive acts.

  2. Exploring gender norms, agency and intimate partner violence among displaced Colombian women: A qualitative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, Michelle E; Sterk, Claire E; Hennink, Monique; Patel, Shilpa; DePadilla, Lara; Yount, Kathryn M

    2016-01-01

    Women displaced by conflict are often exposed to many factors associated with a risk of intimate partner violence (IPV) such as high levels of community violence and the breakdown of social support systems. Previous research found that Colombian women perceived IPV to increase after displacement. This study explored how the experience of displacement altered gendered roles in ways that influenced the risk of IPV. Thirty-three qualitative interviews were conducted with displaced partnered Colombian women. Women disclosed that couples often held patriarchal gender norms; however, the roles of each partner necessitated by conditions of displacement were often in conflict with these norms. Men's underemployment and women's employment outside the home were viewed as gender transgressive within some partnerships and increased relationship conflict. Economic resources intended to empower displaced women, notably women's earnings and home ownership, had unintended negative consequences for women's agency. These consequences included a corresponding decrease in partner financial contributions and reduced mobility. Women's ability to obtain support or leave violent relationships was hindered by interpersonal, social and structural barriers. For women to have agency to leave violent relationships, power relationships at all levels from the interpersonal to societal must be recognised and addressed.

  3. A First Look at Gender Inequality as a Societal Risk Factor for Dating Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressard, Lindsay A; Swahn, Monica H; Tharp, Andra Teten

    2015-09-01

    One of ten U.S. high school students is a victim of adolescent dating violence (ADV). Understanding ADV risk factors guides prevention efforts; however, research examining community- and societal-level risk factors is scant. Societal gender inequality is a known risk factor for violence against women, but has yet to be explored in relation to ADV. This study aims to determine whether the Gender Inequality Index (GII) correlates with levels of physical and sexual ADV victimization across U.S. states. State-representative prevalence rates of self-reported physical and sexual ADV victimization were obtained from the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. The state GII includes five indicators: (1) maternal mortality; (2) adolescent birth rate; (3) government representation; (4) educational attainment; and (5) labor force participation. Pearson correlation coefficients determined the association between physical and sexual ADV victimization, the GII, and GII indicators. Analyses were conducted in August 2014. Among U.S. states, the prevalence of physical ADV victimization in 2013 ranged from 7.0% to 14.8%, and the prevalence of sexual ADV victimization ranged from 7.8% to 13.8%. The GII was significantly associated with the state prevalence of female physical ADV victimization (r=0.48, pgender inequality may be a societal-level risk factor for female physical ADV victimization. As ADV prevention strategies are implemented at the state level, further research examining the effect of gender inequality on ADV is needed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. College men's intimate partner violence attitudes: contributions of adult attachment and gender role stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Ryon C; Lopez, Frederick G

    2013-01-01

    Primary prevention of men's intimate partner violence (IPV) toward women in dating relationships is an important area of psychological inquiry and a significant concern for counselors working with college student populations. Previous research has identified that certain beliefs condoning or accepting physical, sexual, and psychological violence in relationships are key risk factors for IPV perpetration; however, comparatively few studies have examined the social and relational variables related to IPV acceptance attitudes. In the present study, we proposed and tested a structural model examining the combined contributions of adult attachment dimensions (i.e., attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance) and masculine gender role stress in the prediction of IPV acceptance attitudes in a large sample of college men (N = 419). We hypothesized that the relationship between attachment insecurity and IPV acceptance attitudes would be partially mediated by men's gender role stress. A partially mediated model produced the best indices of model fit, accounting for 31% of the variance in an IPV acceptance attitudes latent variable. A bootstrapping procedure confirmed the significance of mediation effects. These results suggest that aspects of adult attachment insecurity are associated with tendencies to experience stress from violations of rigidly internalized traditional male role norms, which, in turn, are associated with acceptance of IPV. Findings are further discussed in relation to adult attachment theory (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2007), gender role strain theory (Pleck, 1995), and their implications for IPV prevention in college student populations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Factors contributing to the effectiveness of four school-based sexual violence interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton-Sherrod, A Monique; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A; Gibbs, Deborah; Hawkins, Stephanie R; Hart, Laurie; Ball, Barbara; Irvin, Neil; Littler, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    This study extends past research by examining factors associated with changes in attitudes, knowledge, and intended behaviors related to sexual assault. This study included 1,182 participants from four unique multiple-session school-based sexual violence interventions. Implementation and participant factors examined include single- versus mixed-gender groups, group setting versus classroom lecture setting, and participant gender. Participants completed self-administered, paper-and-pencil pre- and postsurveys. A significant desired overall effect was found on participants' reports of positive attitudes, beliefs, and behavior regarding sexual harassment and personal boundaries and positive dating relationship norms (from pretest to posttest). There were steeper increases over time in both measures, with larger mixed-gender/single-gender differences among boys than among girls. Differences in the impact of participating in mixed- versus single-gender groups depended on classroom versus small group settings. The implications of these findings are discussed for sexual assault prevention programs.

  6. Gender inequality and violence against women in Spain, 2006–2014: towards a civilized society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, Erika M.; Ruiz-Cantero, María Teresa; Fernández-Sáez, José; Guijarro-Garvi, Marta

    2018-01-01

    Objective Considering both the economic crisis of 2008 and the Gender Equality Law (2007), this study analyses the association between gender inequality in Spanish Autonomous Communities (AC) and intimate partner violence (IPV) from 2006 to 2014 in terms of socio-demographic characteristics. Methods Ecological study in the 17 Spanish AC on the correlation between the reported cases by IPV and deaths and the Gender Inequality Index and its dimensions: empowerment, participation in the labour market and adolescent birth rates; and their correlation with Young People Not in Education, Employment or Training (NEET). Results In 2006, IPV mortality rates were higher in autonomous communities with greater gender inequality than AC with more equality (4.1 vs. 2.5 × 106 women >14 years), as were reporting rates of IPV (OR = 1.49; 95% CI: 1.47–1.50). In 2014, the IPV mortality rates in AC with greater gender inequality fell to just below the mortality rates in AC with more gender equality (2.5 vs. 2.7 × 106 women >14 years). Rates of IPV reports also decreased (OR = 1.22; 95% CI: 1.20–1.23). Adolescent birth rates were most associated with IPV reports, which were also associated with the burden of NEET by AC (ρ2006 = 0.494, ρ2014 = 0.615). Conclusion Gender-sensitive policies may serve as a platform for reduced mortality and reports of IPV in Spain, particularly in AC with more gender inequality. A reduction of NEET may reduce adolescent birth rates and in turn IPV rates. PMID:27793548

  7. Gender inequality and violence against women in Spain, 2006-2014: towards a civilized society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, Erika M; Ruiz-Cantero, María Teresa; Fernández-Sáez, José; Guijarro-Garvi, Marta

    Considering both the economic crisis of 2008 and the Gender Equality Law (2007), this study analyses the association between gender inequality in Spanish Autonomous Communities (AC) and intimate partner violence (IPV) from 2006 to 2014 in terms of socio-demographic characteristics. Ecological study in the 17 Spanish AC on the correlation between the reported cases by IPV and deaths and the Gender Inequality Index and its dimensions: empowerment, participation in the labour market and adolescent birth rates; and their correlation with Young People Not in Education, Employment or Training (NEET). In 2006, IPV mortality rates were higher in autonomous communities with greater gender inequality than AC with more equality (4.1 vs. 2.5×10 6 women >14 years), as were reporting rates of IPV (OR=1.49; 95% CI: 1.47-1.50). In 2014, the IPV mortality rates in AC with greater gender inequality fell to just below the mortality rates in AC with more gender equality (2.5 vs. 2.7×10 6 women >14 years). Rates of IPV reports also decreased (OR=1.22; 95% CI: 1.20-1.23). Adolescent birth rates were most associated with IPV reports, which were also associated with the burden of NEET by AC (ρ 2006 =0.494, ρ 2014 =0.615). Gender-sensitive policies may serve as a platform for reduced mortality and reports of IPV in Spain, particularly in AC with more gender inequality. A reduction of NEET may reduce adolescent birth rates and in turn IPV rates. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. School-based violence prevention strategy: a pilot evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakore, Rachel V; Apfeld, Jordan C; Johnson, Ronald K; Sathiyakumar, Vasanth; Jahangir, A Alex; Sethi, Manish K

    2015-07-01

    Violence has recently been reported among a primarily young, minority population in Nashville, Tennessee. School-based programs have been proven as effective methods of reducing violent behavior, beliefs, and actions that lead to violence among adolescents. Investigators implemented a rigorous search for an appropriate school-based violence prevention program for Metropolitan Nashville middle school students utilizing a systematic review and discussion group with victims of violence. 27 programs nation-wide were reviewed and 2 discussion groups with African American males under the age of 25 admitted to a level 1 trauma center for assault-related injuries were conducted. Our findings led to a single, evidence-based conflict resolution program. In conjunction with educators, we evaluated the program's effectiveness in a pilot study in a Nashville middle school with high rates of violence. 122 students completed the conflict resolution program and described their behavior and experiences with violence in a pre-test/post-test self-rate questionnaire. Results showed a significant decrease in violent behavior and an increase in students' competencies to deal with violence (p less than 0.05). This study shows that a reduction in violent behavior and beliefs among middle school students can be achieved through the implementation of a targeted violence intervention program. A larger-scale intervention is needed to develop more conclusive evidence of effectiveness. © 2015 KUMS, All rights reserved.

  9. The impact of family and community violence on children's depression trajectories: examining the interactions of violence exposure, family social support, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Angie C; Bybee, Deborah; Sullivan, Cris M; Greeson, Megan

    2010-04-01

    This longitudinal study used multilevel modeling to examine the relationships between witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV), community and school violence exposure (CSVE), family social support, gender, and depression over 2 years within a sample of 100 school-aged children. We found significant between-child differences in both the initial levels of depression and the trajectories of depression; depression over time was positively associated with change in witnessing IPV and CSVE and negatively associated with change in support. Two significant 3-way interactions were found: Gender and initial support, as well as gender and initial witnessing IPV, both significantly moderated the effect of change in witnessing IPV on the children's depression over time. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  10. Fair Play? Violence, Gender and Race in Video Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaubke, Christina R.; Miller, Patti; Parker, McCrae A.; Espejo, Eileen

    Based on the view that the level of market penetration of video games combined with the high levels of realism portrayed in these games make it important to investigate the messages video games send children, this report details a study of the 10 top-selling video games for each of 6 game systems available in the United States and for personal…

  11. How to screen for domestic violence against women in primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghaleb D. Almutairi

    2012-08-06

    Aug 6, 2012 ... health care provider, rather violence in her home.11,12. Most primary ... of physicians and nurses working in the selected centers was. 239 and ... several methods were used to verify data entry. ..... Gender-based violence,.

  12. Teen Dating Violence, Sexual Harassment, and Bullying Among Middle School Youth: Examining Measurement Invariance by Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutbush, Stacey; Williams, Jason

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated measurement invariance by gender among commonly used teen dating violence (TDV), sexual harassment, and bullying measures. Data were collected from one cohort of seventh-grade middle school students (N = 754) from four schools. Using structural equation modeling, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses assessed measurement models and tested measurement invariance by gender for aggression measures. Analyses invoked baseline data only. Physical and psychological TDV perpetration measures achieved strict measurement invariance, while bullying perpetration demonstrated partial strict invariance. Electronic TDV and sexual harassment perpetration achieved metric/scalar invariance. Study findings lend validation to prior and future studies using these measures with similar populations. Future research should increase attention to measurement development, refinement, and testing among study measures. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2016 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  13. [Repercussions of the Maria da Penha law in tackling gender violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Mueller, Betânia; Collaziol, Marceli Emer; de Quadros, Maíra Meneghel

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents the declarations about the Maria da Penha law made by a sample of women victims and care workers who handle situations of gender violence in the city of Porto Alegre. The data are part of a study that investigated the critical path followed by women who decide to denounce violence. The statements were selected from 45 semi-structured interviews answered by 21 women and 25 professionals from the police, legal, social and health services and nongovernmental institutions. Data were analyzed using NVivo software and one of the categories selected was the Maria da Penha law. Most respondents mentioned the positive and innovatory aspects of the law, though they also pointed out its limitations. The care workers see the legal device as an important tool for tackling violence, aligned with international conventions, bringing innovations and broadening women's access to justice. In terms of weaknesses, both women and care workers stress the inefficiency in the implementation of protective measures, the lack of material resources and manpower, the fragmentation of the health care network and the movement of conservative sectors in society to delegitimize the law.

  14. Current status and future challenges of programs for men convicted of gender violence in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Carbajosa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Programmes involving men convicted of intimate partner violence are subject to a wide range of discussions these days. There are numerous international debates regarding programmes aimed at men convicted of intimate partner violence. Some of the most controversial issues are: a intervention approaches, b the possibility of performing specific treatments according to the offender's characteristics, or c the need to take account of external factors such as institutional coordination or the specifics of the therapeutical process (context, therapeutical alliance, motivation of the convict, and the therapist. The aim of this article is to review the main themes that are the focus of this international debate and weigh their impact on the research and the principal programmes that exist in Spain for men convicted of gender violence. The conclusions show that research in Spain is gradually incorporating the topics identified internationally such as the efficacy of programmes in different contexts, the existence of typologies, motivational aspects, analysis of dropouts, risk factors, cultural aspects, or offenders' addictions problems. Nevertheless, it appears necessary to more closely align the programmes with the characteristics of the aggressor.

  15. Gender-based violence, stalking and fear of crime: i principali risultati di una ricerca condotta su un campione di studentesse dell’Università di Perugia / Gender-based violence, stalking and fear of crime : les principaux résultats d’une recherche menée à partir d’un échantillon d’étudiantes universitaires de l’Université de Pérouse (Italie / Gender-based violence, stalking and fear of crime: The main results of a research among female students of the University of Perugia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barro Martina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo presenta i principali risultati di una ricerca empirica condotta su un campione di studentesse universitarie dell’Università di Perugia. Il questionario verteva su episodi di molestie sessuale, di stalking e di atti sessuali non voluti che potevano essere capitati alle studentesse tanto nell’ambiente universitario che in generale. Oltre ai comportamenti citati, sono stati analizzati i dati sul contesto in cui sono avvenuti i fatti di molestia, sulle reazioni, sulle conseguenze e sul senso di minaccia percepito. Nelle conclusioni l’autrice propone un’interpretazione della rappresentazione sociale della molestia sessuale basata sulla teoria dell’identità sociale e su quella dell’autocategorizzazione del sé.RésuméCet article rend compte des principaux résultats d'une enquête menée à partir d’un échantillon d'étudiantes universitaires de l'Université de Pérouse (Italie. Le questionnaire avait pour objet les épisodes de harcèlement sexuel, de traque furtive (stalking et de violence sexuelle qui pouvaient avoir eu lieu dans le milieu universitaire comme à l’extérieur. En outre, l’auteur analyse le contexte, les réactions, les conséquences et le sentiment de menace perçu par les étudiantes. En conclusion, l’auteur propose une interprétation de la représentation sociale du harcèlement sexuel s’appuyant sur les théories de l'identité sociale et de l'auto-catégorisation.AbstractThis article presents the main results of an empirical research among female students of the University of Perugia (Italy. The questionnaire dealt with sexual harassment, stalking and unwanted sexual acts experienced by the girls inside and outside the university. In addition, contextual data connected to these incidents, the reaction, the consequences and the perceived threat are analysed. Finally, the author proposes an explanation for a social representation of sexual harassment based on Social Identity and Self

  16. Analysis of adolescent profiles by gender: strengths, attitudes toward violence and sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferragut, Marta; Blanca, Maria J; Ortiz-Tallo, Margarita

    2014-02-20

    The present study analyzes the profiles of boys and girls, considering gender, in the early stages of adolescence in the variables of character strengths, attitudes toward diversity and violence, and sexism. The aim is to explore the gender differences, whether the variables in each set differ from one another and whether these differences are maintained in profiles for boys and girls. The participants were 527 students (mean age = 12.21 and SD = 0.53) from the city of Málaga (Spain). Profile analysis was used to analyze data. The results, using an alpha of 0.0021 for each contrast, indicate that boys and girls differ in their character strengths, particularly in the case of girls, whose prominent strengths relate to pro-social behavior and peer relationships, where Cohen´s d are higher than .30. Moreover, boys justify attitudes of violence to a greater extent (Cohen´s d from .44 to .81) and show greater agreement with sexist beliefs (d = .63). The research suggests that it would be of interest to encourage advancement in character strengths at this age.

  17. A Gender Comparison of Motivations for Physical Dating Violence Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmquist, JoAnna; Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Zapor, Heather; Febres, Jeniimarie; Shorey, Ryan C; Hamel, John; Stuart, Gregory L

    2016-01-01

    There are limited empirical investigations that directly compare men and women's motivations, or reasons, for perpetrating physical dating violence (DV). In an attempt to further understand whether men and women have similar or different motives for physical DV, the purpose of the current study was to conduct a gender comparison of motives in a sample of male (n = 163) and female (n = 319) college students. Motivations for physical DV were classified according to seven broad categories proposed by Langhinrichsen-Rohling and colleagues: (a) power/control, (b) self-defense, (c) expression of negative emotion (e.g., anger), (d) communication difficulties, (e) retaliation, (f) jealousy, and (g) other (e.g., because it was sexually arousing, the influence of alcohol, the influence of drugs). The prevalence of physical violence perpetration in the overall sample was 29.4%. Results indicated that communication difficulties and self-defense were among the most frequently endorsed motive categories for both male and female perpetrated DV. In addition, results demonstrated gender similarity in all of the examined motive categories. Research and clinical implications are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Spousal Violence in 5 Transitional Countries: A Population-Based Multilevel Analysis of Individual and Contextual Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismayilova, Leyla

    2015-11-01

    I examined the individual- and community-level factors associated with spousal violence in post-Soviet countries. I used population-based data from the Demographic and Health Survey conducted between 2005 and 2012. My sample included currently married women of reproductive age (n = 3932 in Azerbaijan, n = 4053 in Moldova, n = 1932 in Ukraine, n = 4361 in Kyrgyzstan, and n = 4093 in Tajikistan). I selected respondents using stratified multistage cluster sampling. Because of the nested structure of the data, multilevel logistic regressions for survey data were fitted to examine factors associated with spousal violence in the last 12 months. Partner's problem drinking was the strongest risk factor associated with spousal violence in all 5 countries. In Moldova, Ukraine, and Kyrgyzstan, women with greater financial power than their spouses were more likely to experience violence. Effects of community economic deprivation and of empowerment status of women in the community on spousal violence differed across countries. Women living in communities with a high tolerance of violence faced a higher risk of spousal violence in Moldova and Ukraine. In more traditional countries (Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan), spousal violence was lower in conservative communities with patriarchal gender beliefs or higher financial dependency on husbands. My findings underscore the importance of examining individual risk factors in the context of community-level factors and developing individual- and community-level interventions.

  19. Wives' attitudes toward gender roles and their experience of intimate partner violence by husbands in Central Province, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayatilleke, Achini; Poudel, Krishna C; Sakisaka, Kayako; Yasuoka, Junko; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jimba, Masamine

    2011-02-01

    The authors conducted a community based, cross-sectional study to describe the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) by husbands and the association between wives' attitudes toward gender roles and their experience of IPV in Central Province, Sri Lanka. This article included a representative sample of 624 wives between 15 and 49 years of age and examined the prevalence of physical, psychological, and sexual abuse. Then, using multivariate logistic regression analysis, the authors examined the association between wives' attitudes toward gender roles and IPV. Of the 624 wives, 36% had experienced at least one episode of physical, psychological, or sexual abuse by their husbands during their life time (ever abuse), and 19% had experienced such abuse during the past 12 months (current abuse). The wives were less likely to experience current abuse by husbands if they believed that "outsiders should not intervene to protect abused wives." They were more likely to experience ever and current isolated psychological abuse by husbands if they did not believe that "a good wife always obeys her husband." This study suggests that the prevalence of IPV is high in Sri Lanka. Although several published studies on IPV suggest that traditional gender role attitudes tend to increase women's vulnerability to IPV, this study suggests that in Sri Lanka, the wives who respect cultural norms tend to experience less IPV by husbands.

  20. Gender-based violence: conceptions of professionals on the family health strategy's teams Violencia de género: concepciones de profesionales de los equipos de salud de la familia Violência de gênero: concepções de profissionais das equipes de saúde da família

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Maria Franzoi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is the result of a survey carried out with professionals of the Family Health Strategy’s teams (FHS in Araraquara, SP, Brazil. The study analyzed the conceptions held by FHS professionals concerning women, men and gender-based violence from the perspective of gender. The theoretical and methodological framework used was composed of gender and gender-based violence as social constructs guiding health practices. Empirical data were obtained from workshops and submitted to content analysis. The coexistence of critical and potentially transforming conceptions with conservative ones that reproduce the hegemonic ideology of male dominance was observed. These results confirm the need to broaden professional education to enable workers to deal with gender-based violence, which is a common element in the routine lives of women seeking health services.Artículo resultante de una investigación entre profesionales de los equipos del Programa de Salud de la Familia (PSF del municipio de Araraquara (SP que tuvo como objetivo conocer y analizar, bajo la perspectiva de género, las concepciones que los profesionales de los equipos de salud de la familia de ese municipio tienen en relación a: mujer, hombre y violencia de género. El referencial teórico metodológico fue constituido por el género y la violencia de género como constructos sociales orientadores de las prácticas en salud. Los datos empíricos fueron obtenidos en Talleres de Trabajo y sometidos al análisis de contenido. Se constató la coexistencia de concepciones críticas, potencialmente transformadoras con otras conservadoras y reproductoras de la ideología hegemónica de la dominación masculina. Esos resultados confirman la necesidad de ampliar la calificación profesional en el sentido de capacitar a los trabajadores para lidiar con el fenómeno de la violencia de género, común en lo cotidiano de la vida de las mujeres que buscan los servicios de salud.Este artigo

  1. Social Networking as a Strategic Tool in the Management of School-Based Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, Chidi Idi; Singh, Shakila

    2018-01-01

    School-based violence is serious, and on the rise in South African schools. The violence affects learners, teachers, communities and the management of schools. Towards finding possible ways to manage school violence, this article presents social networking as a strategic tool in the management of school-based violence in high schools, based on the…

  2. Importance of Gender and Attitudes about Violence in the Relationship between Exposure to Interparental Violence and the Perpetration of Teen Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Jeff R.; Shorey, Ryan C.; Tortolero, Susan R.; Wolfe, David A.; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Mounting evidence has demonstrated a link between exposure to family of origin violence and the perpetration of teen dating violence (TDV). However, only recently have mechanisms underlying this relationship been investigated and very few studies have differentiated between exposure to father-to-mother and mother-to-father violence.…

  3. Social indicators and gender violence: victim protection and social change in the EU / Indicadores sociales y violencia de género: protección de las víctimas y cambio social en la UE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Montiel Roig

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is an analysis of the legal changes EU legislation on gender violence. Specifically, it deals with the process of defining and categorization in the context of the recent entry into force of the "European protection order for victims". In this sense, the article makes a critical analysis of the construction of indicators and the definition and coordination of EU policies on the eradication of gender-based violence and care for victims. From this perspective, the text analyzes the sources developed by several European institutions on this matter.

  4. Validade do instrumento WHO VAW STUDY para estimar violência de gênero contra a mulher Validez de instrumento para estimar violencia de género contra la mujer Validity of the WHO VAW study instrument for estimating gender-based violence against women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Blima Schraiber

    2010-08-01

    less favorable outcomes, with the exception of suicide attempts in São Paulo. CONCLUSIONS: The instrument was shown to be adequate for estimating gender-based violence against women perpetrated by intimate partners and can be used in studies on this subject. It has high internal consistency and a capacity to discriminate between different forms of violence (psychological, physical and sexual perpetrated in different social contexts. The instrument also characterizes the female victim and her relationship with the aggressor, thereby facilitating gender analysis.

  5. How gender- and violence-related norms affect self-esteem among adolescent refugee girls living in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, L.; Asghar, K.; Seff, I.; Cislaghi, B.; Yu, G.; Tesfay Gessesse, T.; Eoomkham, J.; Assazenew Baysa, A.; Falb, K.

    2018-01-01

    Background. Evidence suggests adolescent self-esteem is influenced by beliefs of how individuals in their reference group perceive them. However, few studies examine how gender- and violence-related social norms affect self-esteem among refugee populations. This paper explores relationships between gender inequitable and victim-blaming social norms, personal attitudes, and self-esteem among adolescent girls participating in a life skills program in three Ethiopian refugee camps. Methods. Ordi...

  6. Prevalence and gender patterns of mental health problems in German youth with experience of violence: the KiGGS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Research examining mental health in violence-affected youth in representative samples is rare. Using data from the nationally representative German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) this study reports on gender-specific prevalence rates and associations of a broad range of internalizing and externalizing mental health problems: emotional problems, conduct problems, ADHD, disordered eating, somatic pain and substance use in youth variously affected by violence. While internalizing is generally more common in girls and externalizing in boys, observations of prior non-normative studies suggest reverse associations once an individual is affected by violence. The occurrence of such “gender cross-over effects” is therefore examined in a representative sample. Methods The sample consisted of 6,813 adolescents aged 11 to 17 from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS): Applying multivariate logistic regression analyses, associations between each type of violence history and mental health indicator were determined for perpetrators, victims, and perpetrating victims of youth violence. Moderating effects of gender were examined by using product term interaction. Results Victim status was associated primarily with internalizing problems, while perpetrators were more prone to externalizing problems. Perpetrating victims stood out with respect to the number and strength of risk associations with all investigated mental health indicators. However, the risk profiles of all violence-affected youth included both internalizing and externalizing mental health problems. Gender cross-over effects were found for girls and boys: despite lower overall prevalence, girls affected by violence were at far higher risk for conduct problems and illicit drug use; by contrast, somatic pain, although generally lower in males, was positively associated with perpetrator status and perpetrating

  7. Development Contexts, Psychological Distress, Social Self- Esteem and School Violence from a Gender Perspective in Mexican Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Villarreal-González

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between three development contexts -family, school and community-, and school violence, examining psychological distress and social selfesteem from a gender perspective in Mexican adolescents. To test these relationships, 1,285 Mexican students between 12 and 18 years of age in secondary (n = 634 and high school (n = 651 were recruited. To analyze these relationships, Structural Equation Modeling With EQS was used. Results showed that familial context is directly related to school violence, and that school and community context is indirectly related to school violence through social self-esteem and psychological distress. Finally, results and their possible implications regarding gender are discussed.

  8. Gender Differences in Workplace Disclosure and Supports for Domestic Violence: Results of a Pan-Canadian Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Jennifer C D; Wathen, C Nadine; Olszowy, Laura P; Saxton, Michael D; MacQuarrie, Barbara J

    2016-12-01

    Although domestic violence is increasingly identified as a workplace issue, little is known about workplace supports and the role of gender in workplace disclosure experiences. Using a subset of 2,831 people who experienced domestic violence, we examined (a) who discloses at work and to whom, and reasons for not disclosing; (b) helpfulness of disclosure recipients, including types of supports received; and (c) overall outcomes of disclosing, including negative consequences. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and content analysis. More than 40% of participants disclosed domestic violence at work, usually to coworkers or supervisors. They received various supports which were generally seen as helpful. Although not common, negative consequences of disclosure were reported. Men were less likely to disclose, but few other gender differences emerged. Implications for improving workplace supports are discussed.

  9. Gender Patterns in the Contribution of Different Types of Violence to Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms among South African Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminer, Debra; Hardy, Anneli; Heath, Katherine; Mosdell, Jill; Bawa, Umesh

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Identifying the comparative contributions of different forms of violence exposure to trauma sequelae can help to prioritize interventions for polyvictimized youth living in contexts of limited mental health resources. This study aimed to establish gender patterns in the independent and comparative contributions of five types of violence…

  10. Peering into "Spaces for Change": Empowerment, Subversion and Resistance in a Gendered Violence Prevention Education Programme in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobbett-Ondiek, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Changing and challenging social norms is essential to preventing gendered violence, and education is widely regarded as a key means through which this can happen. Whilst good-quality research exploring the outcomes of such educational interventions exists, very little is known about what actually happens inside educational spaces aiming to…

  11. Parent and Peer Predictors of Physical Dating Violence Perpetration in Early Adolescence: Tests of Moderation and Gender Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Shari; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Sullivan, Terri; Orpinas, Pamela; Simon, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined parenting and peer predictors of physical dating violence perpetration during early adolescence and tested moderation among these predictors and gender. Participants were 2,824 ethnically diverse sixth-grade students with a recent boyfriend/girlfriend who was part of a multisite, longitudinal investigation of the development…

  12. "The women, they maltreat them… therefore, we cannot assure that the future society will be good": Male perspectives on gender-based violence: A focus group study with young men in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Naïka C; Sloand, Elizabeth; Gary, Faye; Hassan, Mona; Bertrand, Desiree R; Campbell, Jacquelyn

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of violence against women (VAW) held by Haitian men to gain a better understanding of why VAW occurs. Women in Haiti have experienced significant violence, both before and following the 2010 earthquake. Fifteen men aged 26 to 47 participated in a focus group. The data revealed three themes: men's beliefs about VAW and its context, factors influencing VAW, and recommended interventions. When approaching VAW, men must be part of the collective effort. Their insights are valuable when planning and implementing interventions to decrease VAW in Haiti and worldwide.

  13. Representations of gender as well as police service to women victims of violence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Lage da Gama Lima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an analysis of practices of police assistance to women victims of gender violence in four police stations of the State of Rio de Janeiro, two of them  specialized in assisting with this type of conflict, located in the state capital, and two others, not specialized, located in the countryside. The creation of the Specialized Police Assistance to Women in the mid 80s was the result of pressure from the feminist movement over the government in the political context of democratization of the country after the military dictatorship. We emphasize the existence, in the daily routine of the police stations, of the confrontation among different representations on the nature of this conflict, and we have tried to analyze, in a comparative way, how this fact affects the police practices observed, in order to verify if the specialized police stations present practices of conflict management which are differentiated and more suitable to the conceptions that have guided their creation as public policy of gender. Keywords: Gender; police; Administration of conflicts.

  14. Respuestas Judiciales a la Violencia de Género: el Derecho como Discurso y Práctica Sociales (Judicial Responses to Gender-based Violence: The Law as Discourse and Social Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana N. Sánchez Busso

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Usually the studies on the legal system are limited to normative or jurisprudential analysis. However, long time ago, we know that to understand to the law needs to know its meanings, its previous values and also its speeches and practices; this is, to understand it like a social phenomenon. Social phenomenon that involves and expresses much more than a set of rules. This is an idea that not only comes from the Sociology of Law, but the feminist legal theories have incorporated too. Within this theoretical framework, the law can be understood as a powerful social discourse that gives meaning to the behavior of men and women. So, the social construction of roles, social positions and the relationship between the genres, can be best understood if it considers the contribution offered by the laws, institutions, systems, and also speeches and speaking of judges through their sentences. As well, and within this context of ideas, this work aims to understand and analyze how it is constructed and expresses from the voice of the judges themselves, the social phenomenon of gender violence; his speeches, his conceptualizations, its legitimacy; by means of the analysis of the judgments in which they express their own voice. Generalmente los estudios sobre el sistema jurídico entre los/las juristas, suelen limitarse al análisis normativo o jurisprudencial. Sin embargo, hace ya mucho tiempo que sabemos que comprender al Derecho requiere conocer sus significados, sus valores precedentes y también sus discursos y prácticas; esto es, entenderlo como un fenómeno social. Fenómeno social que implica y expresa mucho más que un conjunto de normas. Esta es una idea que no sólo proviene de la Sociología del Derecho, sino que las teorías jurídicas feministas han incorporada claramente. Es dentro de este marco teórico que, en sus relaciones con el género, el Derecho puede ser entendido como un poderoso discurso social que dota de sentido a las conductas de

  15. Intimate-Partner and Client-Initiated Violence among Female Street-Based Sex Workers in China: Does a Support Network Help?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Hail-Jares

    Full Text Available Globally, female street-based sex workers are vulnerable to gender-based violence. Previous research has shown having a peer social network can reduce sex workers' risks of victimization. However, mechanisms of how social network impacts violence among female street-based sex workers are still far from clear.Our study was based on data abstracted from a paper-and-pencil survey administered among 218 female street-based sex workers in Shanghai, China. We focused on self-reported client-initiated violence and intimate-partner violence in emotional, physical, and sexual forms. Social networks were characterized by the size and sources of financial and psychosocial support (e.g. family, friends, and peers. Multi-variable logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR of each type of violence exposure by social network structure after the adjustment of age, education, and years in Shanghai.The street-based female sex workers in our study were primarily rural-to-urban migrants (95.7% with an average age of 41 years old. 24.3% and 62.8% of the sex workers reported intimate-partner violence and client-initiated violence respectively. Lack of financial support, as defined by having only one individual or none in her peer support system to help financially, was significantly associated with self-reported intimate-partner violence (AOR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.1-5.9. Respondents who reported client-initiated violence, by contrast, were more likely to report lacked psychosocial support from family (AOR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.0-4.6 and peers (AOR: 5.1, 95% CI: 2.2-11.This study is one of the first to systematically analyze the associations between social network and gender-based violence among street-based female sex worker. We reported a high prevalence of both types of gender-based violence and their complex associations with family, friends, and peer support network. Policies with goals to reduce violence against women may apply these findings to

  16. Trauma Center Based Youth Violence Prevention Programs: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhail, Judy Nanette; Nemeth, Lynne Sheri

    2016-12-01

    Youth violence recidivism remains a significant public health crisis in the United States. Violence prevention is a requirement of all trauma centers, yet little is known about the effectiveness of these programs. Therefore, this systematic review summarizes the effectiveness of trauma center-based youth violence prevention programs. A systematic review of articles from MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsychINFO databases was performed to identify eligible control trials or observational studies. Included studies were from 1970 to 2013, describing and evaluating an intervention, were trauma center based, and targeted youth injured by violence (tertiary prevention). The social ecological model provided the guiding framework, and findings are summarized qualitatively. Ten studies met eligibility requirements. Case management and brief intervention were the primary strategies, and 90% of the studies showed some improvement in one or more outcome measures. These results held across both social ecological level and setting: both emergency department and inpatient unit settings. Brief intervention and case management are frequent and potentially effective trauma center-based violence prevention interventions. Case management initiated as an inpatient and continued beyond discharge was the most frequently used intervention and was associated with reduced rearrest or reinjury rates. Further research is needed, specifically longitudinal studies using experimental designs with high program fidelity incorporating uniform direct outcome measures. However, this review provides initial evidence that trauma centers can intervene with the highest of risk patients and break the youth violence recidivism cycle. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. The Impact of Gender Stereotypes on Legal Perceptions of Lesbian Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasarhaley, Nesa E; Lynch, Kellie R; Golding, Jonathan M; Renzetti, Claire M

    2015-05-19

    The present study examined legal perceptions of lesbian intimate partner violence (IPV) in an experimental context. Undergraduate women and men from the Southeastern United States (N = 217) read a trial summary in which the defendant was charged with physically assaulting her same-sex partner. The trial varied as to whether the victim and defendant were depicted via images as either feminine or masculine. Participants rendered verdicts and made judgments about the victim and defendant (e.g., credibility). Results indicated that the victim's and defendant's masculine or feminine appearance affected these judgments. Female participants viewed a masculine victim as more credible than a feminine victim when the defendant was masculine. When the victim was masculine, they viewed a masculine defendant as more responsible for the victim's injuries than a feminine defendant. Male participants had higher sympathy for a masculine versus feminine victim overall, but had more anger toward a masculine defendant versus a feminine defendant accused of assaulting a feminine victim. Finally, fewer participants mentioned the defendant's history of violence as a reason for a guilty of felony verdict for a feminine victim with a feminine defendant versus all other combinations of victim and defendant masculine/feminine appearance. Results are discussed in terms of gender stereotypes influencing legal decision-making in IPV cases among lesbian couples. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Negative attitudes related to violence against women: gender and ethnic differences among youth living in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djikanovic, Bosiljka; Stamenkovic, Željka; Mikanovic, Vesna Bjegovic; Vukovic, Dejana; Gordeev, Vladimir S; Maksimovic, Natasa

    2017-09-15

    This study aimed to identify to what extent negative attitudes towards intimate partner violence against women are present among young women and men living in Serbia, in Roma and non-Roma settlements. We used the data from the 2010 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey conducted in Serbia, for the respondents who were 15-24 years old. Regression analyses were used to examine the association between judgmental attitudes, socio-demographic factors and life satisfaction. In Roma settlements, 34.8% of men and 23.6% of women believed that under certain circumstances men are justified to be violent towards wives, while among non-Roma it was 5.6 and 4.0%, respectively. These negative attitudes were significantly associated with lower educational level, lower socio-economic status and being married. In multivariate model, in both Roma and non-Roma population women who were not married were less judgmental, while the richest Roma men were least judgmental (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.18-0.87). Violence prevention activities have to be focused on promoting gender equality among youth in vulnerable population groups such as Roma, especially through social support, strengthening their education and employment.

  19. Identifying victims of violence using register-based data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie; Sørensen, Jan; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was twofold. Firstly we identified victims of violence in national registers and discussed strengths and weaknesses of this approach. Secondly we assessed the magnitude of violence and the characteristics of the victims using register-based data. METHODS: We used three...... nationwide registers to identify victims of violence: The National Patient Register, the Victim Statistics, and the Causes of Death Register. We merged these data and assessed the degree of overlap between data sources. We identified a reference population by selecting all individuals in Denmark over 15....... RESULTS: In 2006, 22,000 individuals were registered as having been exposed to violence. About 70% of these victims were men. Most victims were identified from emergency room contacts and police records, and few from the Causes of Death Register. There was some overlap between the two large data sources...

  20. Gender-based street harassment and communication strategies. A comparative analysis between Spain and Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Berenguer, Belén Zurbano; Vayá, Irene Liberia; Bouchara, Aicha

    2016-01-01

    Gender-based street harassment is a common form of intimidation and control of women in the patriarchal society. It constitutes a violation of human rights and it is widely present in all societies today. In this paper we assume the gender perspective to understand the street harassment as a manifestation of gender-based violence. Then, we go in depth into media representations of this kind of practices, focusing on traditional media as well as alternative media. All this assuming that this p...

  1. Changing Gender Norms and Reducing Intimate Partner Violence: Results From a Quasi-Experimental Intervention Study With Young Men in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulerwitz, Julie; Hughes, Lindsay; Mehta, Manisha; Kidanu, Aklilu; Verani, Fabio; Tewolde, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the effects of a community-based project in Ethiopia that worked with young men to promote gender-equitable norms and reductions in intimate partner violence (IPV). Methods. A quasi-experimental design was used to assign young Ethiopian men 15 to 24 years of age (809 participants were surveyed at baseline in 2008) to an intervention involving community engagement (CE) activities in combination with interactive group education (GE) sessions promoting gender-equitable norms and violence prevention, an intervention involving CE activities alone, or a comparison group. Results. Participants in the GE + CE intervention were twice as likely (P gender-equitable norms between the baseline and end-line points. Also, the percentage of GE + CE participants who reported IPV toward their partner in the preceding 6 months decreased from 53% to 38% between baseline and end line, and the percentage in the CE-only group decreased from 60% to 37%; changes were negligible in the comparison group. Conclusions. Promoting gender equity is an important strategy to reduce IPV.

  2. Re-Theorizing Intimate Partner Violence through Post-Structural Feminism, Queer Theory, and the Sociology of Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Cannon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we apply three theoretical frameworks, poststructural feminism, queer, and sociology of gender to the issue of intimate partner violence (IPV in order to better account for heterosexual female perpetration and same-sex IPV. Although the traditional feminist paradigm—that assumes men use violence as an extension of patriarchy against their female victims—has been useful in explaining some instances of IPV, it does not adequately frame instances of heterosexual female perpetration and IPV in same-sex relationships. Therefore, in this article we seek to add to existing literature by re-theorizing IPV using poststructural feminism, queer, and sociology of gender perspectives, and their attendant understanding of power as dynamic, fluid, and relational and gender as both interactional and structural, in order to open up new ways of framing IPV and encourage new lines of empirical research resulting in better policy proscriptions and treatment interventions.

  3. Gender differences in the effects of community violence on mental health outcomes in a sample of low-income youth receiving psychiatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javdani, Shabnam; Abdul-Adil, Jaleel; Suarez, Liza; Nichols, Sara R; Farmer, A David

    2014-06-01

    Previous research suggests that community violence impacts mental health outcomes, but much of this research has not (a) distinguished between different types of community violence, (b) examined gender differences, and (c) focused on youth living in urban poverty. The current study addresses these questions. Participants were 306 youth (23 % girls) and one parent/guardian receiving outpatient psychiatric services for disruptive behavior disorders in a large urban city. Youth and parents reported on youth's experience of different types of community violence (being a direct victim, hearing reports, and witnessing violence), and whether violence was directed toward a stranger or familiar. Outcomes included youth externalizing, internalizing, and posttraumatic stress symptoms assessed via parent and youth reports. Being a direct victim of violence accords risk for all mental health outcomes similarly for both boys and girls. However, gender differences emerged with respect to indirect violence, such that girls who hear reports of violence against people they know are at increased risk for all assessed mental health outcomes, and girls who witness violence against familiars are at increased risk for externalizing mental health symptoms in particular. There are gender differences in violence-related mental health etiology, with implications for intervention assessment and design.

  4. Una ricerca sulla violenza di genere nell’Ateneo bolognese / Une recherche sur la violence de genre à l’Université de Bologne (Italie / A research on gender violence at the University of Bologna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisi Roberta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Nell’articolo vengono proposte alcune riflessioni sui dati emersi da una ricerca condotta tra le studentesse universitarie dell’Ateneo bolognese. La ricerca in tema di “GenderBased Violence, Stalking and Fear of Crime – Prevention and Intervention”, inserita entro il programma dell’Unione Europea “Prevention of and Fight Against Crime”, ha posto in evidenza la necessità che l’Università si impegni a preparare dal punto di vista professionale tutti gli operatori che, a vario titolo, lavorano su queste problematiche (volontari, forze dell’ordine, medici, operatori sociali, avvocati, giudici, ecc.. RésuméCet article a pour but de présenter quelques pistes de réflexion sur les données venant de la recherche “GenderBased Violence, Stalking and Fear of Crime – Prevention and Intervention”. Les réponses des étudiantes de l’Université de Bologne ont mis l’accent sur le fait qu’il est nécessaire que l’Université s’engage plus activement dans le développement des programmes de formation pour tous les professionnels travaillant sur ce sujet (avocats, juges, policiers, médecins, volontaires, travailleurs sociaux.AbstractThe article suggests some reflections on data gathered from a research among female students of the University of Bologna. The research dealing with “GenderBased Violence, Stalking and Fear of Crime – Prevention and Intervention”, highlighted the important role of the University in training all professionals involved in this matter (doctors, lawyers, police forces, judges, volunteers, social workers.

  5. Childhood Trauma, Gender Inequitable Attitudes, Alcohol Use and Multiple Sexual Partners: Correlates of Intimate Partner Violence in Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messersmith, Lisa J; Halim, Nafisa; Steven Mzilangwe, Ester; Reich, Naomi; Badi, Lilian; Holmes, Nelson Bingham; Servidone, Maria; Simmons, Elizabeth; Kawemama, Philbert

    2017-09-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV), including physical, sexual, emotional, and economic violence, has profound immediate and long-term effects on individuals and communities worldwide. To date, few studies have focused on couples' reporting of IPV. The aim of this article is to present the results of a survey of couples' reporting of IPV and the individual, interpersonal, and social correlates of IPV in northern Tanzania. Four hundred fifty couples from Karatu District, Tanzania, completed a questionnaire measuring attitudes on gender norms and relations, men's experience of childhood trauma, and men's perpetration and women's experience of IPV. We found high levels of acceptance and experience of IPV: 72% of men justified a husband's perpetration of IPV, and 54% of men and 76% of women said that a woman should tolerate violence to keep her family together. The majority of women had ever experienced IPV (77.8%), and 73.6% and 69% had experienced IPV in the past 12 and 3 months, respectively. Men were significantly less likely to report that they had committed IPV: 63.6% ever, 48.9% in the past 12 months, and 46.2% in the past 3 months. Multivariate logistic regression found that younger men, men who reported gender inequitable attitudes, childhood trauma, multiple sexual partners, and alcohol use were significantly more likely to report IPV perpetration in the past 3 months. Younger women, and women with low levels of education and reported food shortages were significantly more likely to report IPV in the past 3 months. These results indicate that social and individual acceptance and justification of IPV are common. Experience of violence persists over time in many relationships. This study demonstrates the need for interventions that address individual-, interpersonal-, and community-level determinants of IPV, including attitudes regarding gender equity, exposure to violence as children and intergenerational violence, lack of education, and poverty.

  6. Indicators of gender violence in romantic relationships. Case study in chilean adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cruz Sánchez Gómez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence of gender violence is increasing alarmingly in our society and has become one of our most serious social problems. The data indicate that the origin of much of this type of behaviour has its roots in early adolescent relationships, in which the presence and repetition of chauvinist patterns and models has been verified. In this paper we assume that this kind of conduct is related to socially accepted behaviours that form part of the normative patterns typical of socialization processes. To analyse this thesis, an interdisciplinary group of researchers from Spanish and Chilean universities    carried out a qualitative study on behaviours associated with gender violence in groups of adolescents and young people from different economic, geographic, social and ethnic contexts in order to gather evidence about the ways adolescents establish romantic or intimate relationships and to determine whether there are any indications of male chauvinist violence against adolescent women. The research design proposed takes as a reference the principles of Grounded Theory and employs the constant comparative method, that is, the information is collected, coded and analysed simultaneously, with theoretical sampling that involves selecting new cases as a function of their potential to help refine or expand the concepts and theories already developed. Thus, the coding of the discourse was carried out using open coding, axial coding and selective coding, and finally grouping the relevant categories or ideas into meta-categories to build the theoretical schema. Participating in the study were 156 adolescents (77 girls and 79 boys residing in the urban area of the Arica region in Chile, having been selected according to the variables “academic year” and “age”. Seventeen discussion groups were formed until data saturation was attained. The findings show that in these first adolescent dating relationships there is an important number of negative

  7. From work with men and boys to changes of social norms and reduction of inequities in gender relations: a conceptual shift in prevention of violence against women and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel; Flood, Michael; Lang, James

    2015-04-18

    Violence perpetrated by and against men and boys is a major public health problem. Although individual men's use of violence differs, engagement of all men and boys in action to prevent violence against women and girls is essential. We discuss why this engagement approach is theoretically important and how prevention interventions have developed from treating men simply as perpetrators of violence against women and girls or as allies of women in its prevention, to approaches that seek to transform the relations, social norms, and systems that sustain gender inequality and violence. We review evidence of intervention effectiveness in the reduction of violence or its risk factors, features commonly seen in more effective interventions, and how strong evidence-based interventions can be developed with more robust use of theory. Future interventions should emphasise work with both men and boys and women and girls to change social norms on gender relations, and need to appropriately accommodate the differences between men and women in the design of programmes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Legislating gender inequalities: the nature and patterns of domestic violence experienced by South Asian women with insecure immigration status in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitha, Sundari

    2011-10-01

    Research on domestic violence documents the particular vulnerability of immigrant women due to reasons including social isolation, language barriers, lack of awareness about services, and racism on the part of services. Based on qualitative interviews with 30 South Asian women with insecure immigration status residing in Yorkshire and Northwest England, this article explores how inequalities created by culture, gender, class, and race intersect with state immigration and welfare policies in the United Kingdom, thereby exacerbating structures of patriarchy within minority communities. It is within these contexts that South Asian women with insecure immigration status experience intensified forms and specific patterns of abuse.

  9. Associations of discrimination and violence with smoking among emerging adults: differences by gender and sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blosnich, John R; Horn, Kimberly

    2011-12-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (i.e., sexual minority) populations have higher smoking prevalence than their heterosexual peers, but there is a lack of empirical study into why such disparities exist. This secondary analysis of data sought to examine associations of discrimination and violence victimization with cigarette smoking within sexual orientation groups. Data from the Fall 2008 and Spring 2009 National College Health Assessments were truncated to respondents of 18-24 years of age (n = 92,470). Since heterosexuals comprised over 90% of respondents, a random 5% subsample of heterosexuals was drawn, creating a total analytic sample of 11,046. Smoking status (i.e., never-, ever-, and current smoker) was regressed on general (e.g., not sexual orientation-specific) measures of past-year victimization and discrimination. To examine within-group differences, two sets of multivariate ordered logistic regression analyses were conducted: one set of models stratified by sexual orientation and another set stratified by gender-by-sexual-orientation groups. Sexual minorities indicated more experiences of violence victimization and discrimination when compared with their heterosexual counterparts and had nearly twice the current smoking prevalence of heterosexuals. After adjusting for age and race, lesbians/gays who were in physical fights or were physically assaulted had higher proportional odds of being current smokers when compared with their lesbian/gay counterparts who did not experience those stressors. When possible, lesbian/gay and bisexual groups should be analyzed separately, as analyses revealed that bisexuals had a higher risk profile than lesbians/gays. Further research is needed with more nuanced measures of smoking (e.g., intensity), as well as examining if victimization may interact with smoking cessation.

  10. Children's Gender-Based Reasoning about Toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Carol Lynn; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Three studies examined how preschool children used gender-based reasoning in making judgments about toy preferences for themselves and for others. Found that children used gender labels to guide their own preferences and their expectations of others. Even with very attractive toys, children liked the toys less if they were labeled as being for the…

  11. Citizenship and Gender Violence on Working Women : Reflections in the Light of Spanish and Brazilian Legal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Rodríguez Escanciano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been nearly a decade since the Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing in 1995, where the violence against women was recognized as being an attack on  women’s human rights. Under such perspective and following the recommendations of the community institutions and international organizations, States such as Spain and Brazil have incorporated into their systems specific laws -- Organic Law 1/2004 of 28th December, on Integral Protection Measures against Gender Violence (LPIVG, in Spain and Law 11.340/2006 (Lei Maria da Penha, in Brazil --.These two provisions have as one of its fundamental objectives, firmly attack such despicable behaviors of violence against women, articulating a set of measures to ensure a whole, full and consistent protection of battered women, making them hold a wide range of rights pertaining to prevention, education, welfare or criminal repression, and down to what is relevant, a series of labor and social security prerogatives, confirming  in the end, a dual purpose endowed strategy: on the one hand, facilitate the employment access for women victims of gender violence and, on the other, ensure the maintenance of their jobs. A comparative study of both legal systems may serve to introduce technical improvements that result in benefit of the protected group.

  12. Violence against women: the physician's role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuel, E; Schenker, J G

    1998-10-01

    Violence against women is one reflection of the unequal power relationship between men and women in societies. Reflections of this inequality include marriage at a very young age, lack of information or choice about fertility control and forced pregnancy within marriage. The different forms of violence against women are: domestic violence and rape, genital mutilation or, gender-based violence by police and security forces, gender-based violence against women during armed conflict, gender-based violence against women refugees and asylum-seekers, violence associated with prostitution and pornography, violence in the workplace, including sexual harassment. Violence against women is condemned, whether it occurs in a societal setting or a domestic setting. It is not a private or family matter. The FIGO Committee for the Study of Ethical Aspects of Human Reproduction released statements to physicians treating women on this issue. Physicians are ethically obliged to inform themselves about the manifestations of violence and recognize cases, to treat the physical and psychological results of violence, to affirm to their patients that violent acts toward them are not acceptable and to advocate for social infrastructures to provide women the choice of seeking secure refuge and ongoing counselling.

  13. Genders at Work: Exploring the Role of Workplace Equality in Preventing Men's Violence Against Women

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Scott; Flood, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This report examines the role of workplaces, and men in workplaces in particular, in preventing men's violence against women. The report begins by noting that men's violence against women is a widespread social problem which requires urgent action. It highlights the need for preventative measures oriented to changing the social and structural conditions at the root of this violence, including through settings such as workplaces. Men's violence against women is a workplace issue. As well as be...

  14. Sociolinguistic Bases of Gender Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Poddubskaya

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The sociolinguistics studies a wide complex of the problems connected with the social nature of language and its functions in society. Social roles of the man and the woman are dictated by existing sociocultural norms, representations about "typically man's" and "typically female" are relative. The article deals with gender stereotypes and their representation in German literature.

  15. The Relationship between Social Support and Adolescent Dating Violence: A Comparison across Genders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Tara N.; Branch, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    Although much research has focused on the function of social support in adult intimate partner violence, little is known about the role of social support in adolescent dating violence. This study is an exploratory analysis of the independent impact of social support from friends and family on the risk of adolescent dating violence perpetration and…

  16. Addressing gender inequality and intimate partner violence as critical barriers to an effective HIV response in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Watts, Charlotte; Seeley, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In Africa, women and girls represent 57% of people living with HIV, with gender inequality and violence being an important structural determinant of their vulnerability. This commentary draws out lessons for a more effective combination response to the HIV epidemic from three papers recently published in JIAS. Discussion: Hatcher and colleagues present qualitative data from women attending ante-natal clinics in Johannesburg, describing how HIV diagnosis during pregnancy and subs...

  17. Critical Review of Hamby's (2014) Article Titled "Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Research, Scientific Progress, Scientific Challenges, and Gender".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstok, Zeev

    2015-07-28

    In a recent article, Hamby advocates the replacement of the "old" Conflict Tactic Scales used to measure physical partner violence (PV) with a new measurement instrument that represents and supports a thesis that gender use of physical PV is asymmetrical rather than symmetrical. This article takes a critical look at the logic, assumptions, arguments, examples, interpretations, and conclusions, presented in Hamby's article, and in some cases disagrees with them. Furthermore, this article uses Hamby's proposals as an opportunity to review and examine core issues in the study of perpetration of physical PV, including gender-related theoretical and methodological issues. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. The influence of gender role stereotyping on women's experiences of female same-sex intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassouneh, Dena; Glass, Nancy

    2008-03-01

    Female same-sex intimate partner violence (FSSIPV) is a serious problem that affects the health and safety of lesbian and bisexual women. To begin to address the paucity of research, a mixed methods study was conducted to identify shared and unique risk and protective factors for FSSIPV. This article reports on qualitative findings related to the influence of gender role stereotyping on women's experiences of FSSIPV. Findings indicate that gender role stereotyping shapes women's experiences of FSSIPV by influencing individual, familial, community, and societal perceptions and responses to this phenomenon.

  19. Domestic violence in Gulu, Northern Uganda | Kitara | East and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: When guns fell silent in the post conflict northern Uganda, another form of physical injuries has come in place, Domestic Violence also commonly referred to as Gender based violence. This injury from violence leading to physical trauma is one of the leading public health problems in this region. We describe ...

  20. Drinking, Violence Against Women and the Reproduction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rationalization of male violence with reference to the use of alcohol makes it clear that both practices are mutually implicated in the reproduction of local images of masculinity. Policy on alcohol problems and gender-based violence needs to recognize the metonymic significance of drinking and violence in the definition ...

  1. Risk factors for men's lifetime perpetration of physical violence against intimate partners: results from the international men and gender equality survey (IMAGES) in eight countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Paul J; McCleary-Sills, Jennifer; Morton, Matthew; Levtov, Ruti; Heilman, Brian; Barker, Gary

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines men's lifetime physical intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration across eight low- and middle-income countries to better understand key risk factors that interventions can target in order to promote gender equality and reduce IPV. We use data from men (n = 7806) that were collected as part of the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, Croatia, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), India, Mexico, and Rwanda. Results show that there is wide variation across countries for lifetime self-reported physical violence perpetration (range: 17% in Mexico to 45% in DRC), men's support for equal roles for men and women, and acceptability of violence against women. Across the sample, 31% of men report having perpetrated physical violence against a partner in their lifetime. In multivariate analyses examining risk factors for men ever perpetrating physical violence against a partner, witnessing parental violence was the strongest risk factor, reinforcing previous research suggesting the inter-generational transmission of violence. Additionally, having been involved in fights not specifically with an intimate partner, permissive attitudes towards violence against women, having inequitable gender attitudes, and older age were associated with a higher likelihood of ever perpetrating physical IPV. In separate analyses for each country, we found different patterns of risk factors in countries with high perpetration compared to countries with low perpetration. Findings are interpreted to identify key knowledge gaps and directions for future research, public policies, evaluation, and programming.

  2. Risk Factors for Men’s Lifetime Perpetration of Physical Violence against Intimate Partners: Results from the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) in Eight Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Paul J.; McCleary-Sills, Jennifer; Morton, Matthew; Levtov, Ruti; Heilman, Brian; Barker, Gary

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines men’s lifetime physical intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration across eight low- and middle-income countries to better understand key risk factors that interventions can target in order to promote gender equality and reduce IPV. We use data from men (n = 7806) that were collected as part of the International Men and Gender Equality Survey (IMAGES) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, Croatia, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), India, Mexico, and Rwanda. Results show that there is wide variation across countries for lifetime self-reported physical violence perpetration (range: 17% in Mexico to 45% in DRC), men’s support for equal roles for men and women, and acceptability of violence against women. Across the sample, 31% of men report having perpetrated physical violence against a partner in their lifetime. In multivariate analyses examining risk factors for men ever perpetrating physical violence against a partner, witnessing parental violence was the strongest risk factor, reinforcing previous research suggesting the inter-generational transmission of violence. Additionally, having been involved in fights not specifically with an intimate partner, permissive attitudes towards violence against women, having inequitable gender attitudes, and older age were associated with a higher likelihood of ever perpetrating physical IPV. In separate analyses for each country, we found different patterns of risk factors in countries with high perpetration compared to countries with low perpetration. Findings are interpreted to identify key knowledge gaps and directions for future research, public policies, evaluation, and programming. PMID:25734544

  3. Gender Responsive Community Based Planning and Budgeting ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Responsive Community Based Planning and Budgeting Tool for Local Governance ... in data collection, and another module that facilitates gender responsive and ... In partnership with UNESCO's Organization for Women in Science for the ...

  4. Exerting power or striking back: a gendered comparison of motivations for domestic violence perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernsmith, Poco

    2005-04-01

    This study compares the motivations for using violence and the context in which violence occurs among male and female domestic violence perpetrators. One hundred twenty-five participants in batterer intervention counseling in Los Angeles County, California, were surveyed. The sample was approximately half male and half female. Males and females were found to differ in their motivations for using violence in relationships. Females reported using violence in response to prior abuse, citing revenge and retaliation as a primary motivation. Because treatment approaches are commonly derived from the power and control model, which indicates that violence is used to gain power and control, batterer intervention counseling may not be appropriate for women, who appear more motivated by the desire to maintain personal liberties in a relationship where they have been victimized. Treatment must walk the fine line between addressing victimization issues and holding women accountable for decisions to use violence.

  5. Need for a gender-sensitive human security framework: results of a quantitative study of human security and sexual violence in Djohong District, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Parveen Kaur; Agrawal, Pooja; Goyal, Ravi; Scott, Jennifer; Greenough, P Gregg

    2014-01-01

    Human security shifts traditional concepts of security from interstate conflict and the absence of war to the security of the individual. Broad definitions of human security include livelihoods and food security, health, psychosocial well-being, enjoyment of civil and political rights and freedom from oppression, and personal safety, in addition to absence of conflict. In March 2010, we undertook a population-based health and livelihood study of female refugees from conflict-affected Central African Republic living in Djohong District, Cameroon and their female counterparts within the Cameroonian host community. Embedded within the survey instrument were indicators of human security derived from the Leaning-Arie model that defined three domains of psychosocial stability suggesting individuals and communities are most stable when their core attachments to home, community and the future are intact. While the female refugee human security outcomes describe a population successfully assimilated and thriving in their new environments based on these three domains, the ability of human security indicators to predict the presence or absence of lifetime and six-month sexual violence was inadequate. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, the study demonstrates that common human security indicators do not uncover either lifetime or recent prevalence of sexual violence. These data suggest that current gender-blind approaches of describing human security are missing serious threats to the safety of one half of the population and that efforts to develop robust human security indicators should include those that specifically measure violence against women.

  6. Women victims of gender violence in shelters: Sociodemographic and maltreatment characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liria Fernández-González

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Research on the profiles of women victims of gender violence in shelters is scarce. This study aimed to describe the sociodemographic and abuse characteristics of this group, as well as to analyze changes in the study variables over the last 10 years. A descriptive study was conducted using the document analysis technique. The sample consisted of records of women who had been assisted in two shelters of the Provincial Council of Bizkaia between 2006 and 2015, an emergency shelter (n = 834 and a medium-long stay shelter (n = 84. The results indicate that, in general, the user of these shelters is a young woman, in more than half of the cases a foreigner, with few socioeconomic resources and a history of long-term abuse. Many women had experienced poly-victimization and repeated victimization. The most substantial changes in the past ten years were found for the country of origin and work and economic situation in the emergency center, as well as the time spent at the center. The results have implications for improving interventions.

  7. Gender differences in emotions, forgiveness and tolerance in relation to political violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conejero, Susana; Etxebarria, Itziar; Montero, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    This study, which forms part of a broader research project, analyzes gender differences in: the intensity of diverse emotions, the justification of violence, attitudes towards the terrorist group ETA, forgiveness and tolerance. Participants comprised 728 people (45.5% men and 54.5% women) resident in either Basque Country or Navarra (Spain), representative of all national identities and political ideologies existing in this context. An ad hoc questionnaire was designed and administered between November 2005 and February 2006, a short time before ETA declared a ceasefire. Women reported more intensity in fear for political reasons and scored higher in two of the six measures of empathy included in the study (empathy with prisoners and empathy with those who suffer and think like oneself). Men scored higher in positive emotionality, indifference and Schadenfreude. Women perceived apology and forgiveness as more necessary elements for achieving peace than men. These results suggest that it may be beneficial for women to play a more prominent role in relation to the resolution of intergroup conflicts such as the one existing in the Basque Country.

  8. A Computer-based Training Intervention for Work Supervisors to Respond to Intimate Partner Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Glass

    2010-12-01

    Conclusion: Effective training on the impacts of IPV can improve knowledge, achieving a large effect size, and produce changes in perspective about domestic violence and motivation to address domestic violence in the workplace, based on questionnaire responses.

  9. Gender inequality in the risk of violence: material deprivation is linked to higher risk for adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Inas; Sivarajasingam, Vaseekaran; Jones, Sarah; Shepherd, Jonathan

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the association between material deprivation and injury sustained in violence by adolescents aged 11-17 years. Computerised data relating to gender, attendance date and resident postcode of all patients aged 11-17 years who received treatment for violence-related injuries at seven emergency departments (ED) in South Wales over 12 months, 1 October 2005 to 30 September 2006, were studied. The resident populations, by electoral division of three unitary authorities in Wales, Cardiff, Swansea and Newport, were obtained from the NHS administrative register. The relationships between demographic variables and material deprivation as measured by the Townsend deprivation index were analysed. Altogether 699 (475 boys; 224 girls) adolescents aged 11-17 years resident in Cardiff, Swansea and Newport attended ED in South Wales following violence. Boys and girls living in the most deprived areas had higher assault injury rates compared with those living in the most affluent areas. In the context of sustaining violence-related injury, material deprivation affected girls aged 11-17 years to a much greater extent (Cardiff most deprived vs most affluent rate ratio 6.31, Swansea 10.11, Newport 2.90) than boys of the same age group (Cardiff most deprived vs most affluent rate ratio 2.02, Swansea 7.74, Newport 1.74). Material deprivation was associated with a higher risk of violence-related injury for adolescent girls compared with adolescent boys. Risk-taking behaviour for adolescent boys and girls may be different under different socioeconomic conditions. Violence prevention efforts should focus more on tackling neighbourhood inequalities, particularly those related to material deprivation in adolescent girls.

  10. Alcohol: gender and implications in the violence / Álcool e violência em homens e mulheres

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    Rosa Maria Martins de Almeida

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The abuse of alcohol can engender serious public health problems in certain people, particularly due to its link to violence involving both men and women. This article has the aim to discuss the impact of alcohol in men and women regarding neurobiological mechanisms, emphasizing its psychoactive effects as well as its implication for violent behavior. An analysis was conduct based on reviews and articles in electronic databases, selected from 1996 to 2008 at Scielo, Lilacs, MEDLINE, Pub Med and Web of Science. From a total of 420 selected articles 90 were considered relevant for this analysis. It was evident that the abuse of alcohol causes changes in neurochemistry and in cognitive functions, and some of those changes lead to violent behavior in men and women. However, there are important differences between both genders and the type of aggressive behavior expressed. Studies on this topic are still rare and more research is necessary in order to develop better diagnostic tools and favor relevant neurobiological mechanisms for more effective treatments.

  11. Testing for Statistical Discrimination based on Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesner, Rune Vammen

    . It is shown that the implications of both screening discrimination and stereotyping are consistent with observable wage dynamics. In addition, it is found that the gender wage gap decreases in tenure but increases in job transitions and that the fraction of women in high-ranking positions within a firm does......This paper develops a model which incorporates the two most commonly cited strands of the literature on statistical discrimination, namely screening discrimination and stereotyping. The model is used to provide empirical evidence of statistical discrimination based on gender in the labour market...... not affect the level of statistical discrimination by gender....

  12. El Convenio de Estambul y los sujetos de la violencia de género. El cuestionamiento de la violencia doméstica como categoría jurídica // The Istanbul Convention and the subjects of gender violence. The questioned legal category of domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asunción Ventura Franch

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El artículo tiene por objeto analizar el concepto de violencia de género incluido en el Convenio del Consejo de Europa sobre Prevención y lucha contra la violencia contra la mujer y la violencia doméstica, hecho en Estambul el 11 de mayo de 2011. La conceptualización de la violencia de género es un hecho de suma relevancia que puede contribuir de manera importante a su erradicación. Por ello, el artículo realiza un análisis de los elementos que la doctrina científica ha señalado como básicos para la definición de la violencia de género y los sujetos que la ejercen y la sufren. Para determinar qué es la violencia de género es necesario partir de los conceptos mediante los cuales se construye argumentativamente y jurídicamente la violencia producto del patriarcado como estructura social y el género como consecuencia de esa organización. A partir de estos criterios se analiza la conceptualización de la violencia que recoge el Convenio, observando algunas contradicciones que podrían introducir elementos de confusión al elevar a categoría jurídica la violencia doméstica y no determinar los sujetos activos y pasivos de la violencia de género. En base a ello, se propone una interpretación del concepto de violencia regulado en el artículo 3 del Convenio de acuerdo con los parámetros establecidos por la doctrina para la violencia de género, a la vez que se propone iniciar el trámite de presentación de enmiendas para su modificación, previsto en el mismo Convenio.   Abstract The article aims to analyze the concept of gender violence included in the Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence, made in Istanbul on 11 May 2011. The conceptualization of gender-based violence is a fact of great importance, which can contribute significantly to its eradication manner. Therefore, the article analyzes the elements of scientific doctrine has identified as basic to

  13. Masculine Gender Ideologies, Intimate Partner Violence, and Alcohol Use Increase Risk for Genital Tract Infections Among Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuki, Kiyomi; Donta, Balaiah; Dasgupta, Anindita; Fleming, Paul J; Ghule, Mohan; Madhusudana, Battala; Nair, Saritha; Silverman, Jay G; Saggurti, Niranjan; Raj, Anita

    2017-04-01

    Masculine gender ideologies are thought to underlie alcohol use, intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration, and sexual risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We extend on studies in the Indian context by examining the roles of masculine gender ideologies, alcohol use, and IPV on three outcomes of HIV risk (condom use, genital tract infection [GTI] symptoms, and GTI diagnosis). We applied logistic regression models to cross-sectional data of men and their wives in rural Maharashtra, India ( n = 1,080 couples). We found that men with less masculine gender ideologies demonstrated greater odds of condom use (i.e., lower odds no condom use, odds ratio [OR] = 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.93, 0.98]). IPV perpetration was associated with increased odds of reporting ≥1 GTI symptom (adjusted OR [AOR] = 1.56, 95% CI = [1.07, 2.26]) and decreased GTI diagnosis (AOR = 0.28, 95% CI = [0.08, 0.97]). Moderate alcohol consumption was associated with increased odds of reporting ≥1 GTI symptom (AOR = 1.51, 95% CI = [1.01, 2.25]). Our findings have direct implications for men's and women's health in rural India, including targeted GTI diagnosis and treatment, integrated violence prevention in STI clinics, and targeted intervention on masculine gender ideologies.

  14. GENDER-BASED RESTORATIVE JUSTICE FOR VICTIMS OF VIOELENCE AGAINST WOMEN

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    Cahya Wulandari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive law is less oriented towards the protection of victims, especially women. Restorative justice appears to protect and resolve problems with the interests of the victim-oriented. This article discuss the form of legal protection for victims of violence against women, gender-based and describe the form of restorative justice for victims of gender-based violence against women. Positive criminal law does not accommodate both the interests of the victim to determine the crime against him self and to restore his suffering. This is caused due to the dominance of retributive justice in the settlement mind set crime through the criminal law. The restorative justice allows for an active role in the completion of a crime victim who happens also allows the imposition of sanctions that are beneficial to the recovery of the suffering of the victims.

  15. GENDER RECOGNITION BASED ON SIFT FEATURES

    OpenAIRE

    Sahar Yousefi; Morteza Zahedi

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a robust approach for face detection and gender classification in color images. Previous researches about gender recognition suppose an expensive computational and time-consuming pre-processing step in order to alignment in which face images are aligned so that facial landmarks like eyes, nose, lips, chin are placed in uniform locations in image. In this paper, a novel technique based on mathematical analysis is represented in three stages that eliminates align...

  16. Testing for Statistical Discrimination based on Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Lesner, Rune Vammen

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops a model which incorporates the two most commonly cited strands of the literature on statistical discrimination, namely screening discrimination and stereotyping. The model is used to provide empirical evidence of statistical discrimination based on gender in the labour market. It is shown that the implications of both screening discrimination and stereotyping are consistent with observable wage dynamics. In addition, it is found that the gender wage gap decreases in tenure...

  17. Moving Beyond Motive-based categories of Targeted Violence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weine, Stevan [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Cohen, John [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Brannegan, David [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Today’s categories for responding to targeted violence are motive-based and tend to drive policies, practices, training, media coverage, and research. These categories are based on the assumption that there are significant differences between ideological and non-ideological actors and between domestic and international actors. We question the reliance on these categories and offer an alternative way to frame the response to multiple forms of targeted violence. We propose adopting a community-based multidisciplinary approach to assess risk and provide interventions that are focused on the pre-criminal space. We describe four capabilities that should be implemented locally by establishing and maintaining multidisciplinary response teams that combine community and law-enforcement components: (1) community members are educated, making them better able to identify and report patterns associated with elevated risk for violence; (2) community-based professionals are trained to assess the risks for violent behavior posed by individuals; (3) community-based professionals learn to implement strategies that directly intervene in causal factors for those individuals who are at elevated risk; and (4) community-based professionals learn to monitor and assess an individual’s risk for violent behaviors on an ongoing basis. Community-based multidisciplinary response teams have the potential to identify and help persons in the pre-criminal space and to reduce barriers that have traditionally impeded community/law-enforcement collaboration.

  18. Identification of Domestic Violence Service Needs Among Child Welfare-Involved Parents With Substance Use Disorders: A Gender-Stratified Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Bryan G; Resko, Stella M; Ryan, Joseph P; Perron, Brian E

    2018-04-01

    The current study examined the prevalence and associations of a need for domestic violence services among child welfare-involved mothers and fathers with substance use disorders. Data were drawn from 2,231 child welfare-involved parents in Illinois with an identified substance use disorder. Approximately 42% of mothers and 33% of fathers with a substance use disorder had a concurrent need for domestic violence services. The sample was stratified by gender and logistic regression models were fit to determine the adjusted odds of an identified need for domestic violence services. For both mothers and fathers, the strongest association was an additional need for mental health services. Age, education status, alcohol use, marijuana use, and a reported history of physical violence victimization were also associated with a need for domestic violence services among mothers, while race, age, marital status, annual income, alcohol use, cocaine use, and a reported history of physical violence perpetration were associated with a need for domestic violence services among fathers. The findings of this study make clear that domestic violence is a commonly co-occurring service need for child welfare-involved parents with identified substance use disorders, and that associations with this need vary by gender.

  19. The impact of exposure to interpersonal violence on gender differences in adolescent-onset major depression: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Erin C; Gilman, Stephen E; Willett, John B; Slopen, Natalie B; Molnar, Beth E

    2012-05-01

    Beginning in adolescence, females are at significantly higher risk for depression than males. Despite substantial efforts, gaps remain in our understanding of this disparity. This study tested whether gender differences in adolescent-onset depression arise because of female's greater exposure or sensitivity to violence. Data came from 5,692 participants in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Trained interviewers collected data about major depression and participants' exposure to four types of interpersonal violence (physical abuse, sexual assault, rape, and witnessing violence) using a modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. We used discrete time survival analysis to investigate gender differences in the risk of adolescent onset depression. Of the entire sample, 5.7% met DSM-IV criteria for depression by age 18; 5.8% of the sample reported being physically abused, 11.7% sexually assaulted, 8.5% raped, and 13.2% witnessed violence by age 18. Females had 1.51 times higher odds of depression by age 18 than males. Exposure to all types of violence was associated with an increased odds of depression in both the past year and the years following exposure. Adjusting for exposure to violence partially attenuated the association between gender and depression, especially for sexual assault (odds ratio [OR] attenuated = 1.28; 15.23%) and rape (OR attenuated = 1.32; 12.59%). There was no evidence that females were more vulnerable to the effects of violence than males. Gender differences in depression are partly explained by females' higher likelihood of experiencing interpersonal violence. Reducing exposure to sexual assault and rape could therefore mitigate gender differences in depression. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Cross-gender Social Normative Effects for Violence in Middle School: Do Girls Carry a Social Multiplier Effect for At-risk Boys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, Keryn E.; Brown, H. Shelton; Perry, Cheryl L.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2014-01-01

    A social multiplier effect is a social interaction in which the behavior of a person in a social network varies with the normative behavior of others in the network, also known as an endogenous interaction. Policies and intervention efforts can harness social multiplier effects because, in theory, interventions on a subset of individuals will have “spillover effects” on other individuals in the network. This study investigates potential social multiplier effects for violence in middle schools, and whether there is evidence for a social multiplier effect transmitted from girls to boys. Three years of longitudinal data (2003–2005) from Project Northland Chicago (PNC) were used to investigate this question, with a sample consisting of youth in Grades 6 through 8 in 61 Chicago Public Schools (N = 4233 at Grade 6, N = 3771 at Grade 7, and N = 3793 at Grade 8). The sample was 49.3% female, and primarily African American (41.9%) and Latino/a (28.7%), with smaller proportions of whites (12.9%), Asians (5.2%) and other ethnicities. Results from two sets of regression models estimating the effects of 20th (low), 50th (average), and 80th (high) percentile scores for girls and boys on levels of violence in each gender group revealed evidence for social multiplier effects. Specifically, boys and girls were both influenced by social multiplier effects within their own gender group, and boys were also affected by normative violence scores among girls, typically those of the best-behaved (20th percentile) girls. The finding that girls may have positive social influence on boys’ levels of violent behavior extends prior findings of beneficial social effects of girls on boys in the domains of education and risky driving. Further, this social normative effect presents a potential opportunity to improve school-based intervention efforts for reducing violence among youth by leveraging girls as carriers of a social multiplier effect for reduced violence in the middle school

  1. Cross-gender social normative effects for violence in middle school: do girls carry a social multiplier effect for at-risk boys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, Lisa M; Pasch, Keryn E; Brown, H Shelton; Perry, Cheryl L; Komro, Kelli A

    2014-09-01

    A social multiplier effect is a social interaction in which the behavior of a person in a social network varies with the normative behavior of others in the network, also known as an endogenous interaction. Policies and intervention efforts can harness social multiplier effects because, in theory, interventions on a subset of individuals will have "spillover effects" on other individuals in the network. This study investigates potential social multiplier effects for violence in middle schools, and whether there is evidence for a social multiplier effect transmitted from girls to boys. Three years of longitudinal data (2003-2005) from Project Northland Chicago were used to investigate this question, with a sample consisting of youth in Grades 6 through 8 in 61 Chicago Public Schools (N = 4,233 at Grade 6, N = 3,771 at Grade 7, and N = 3,793 at Grade 8). The sample was 49.3% female, and primarily African American (41.9%) and Latino/a (28.7%), with smaller proportions of whites (12.9%), Asians (5.2%) and other ethnicities. Results from two sets of regression models estimating the effects of 20th (low), 50th (average), and 80th (high) percentile scores for girls and boys on levels of violence in each gender group revealed evidence for social multiplier effects. Specifically, boys and girls were both influenced by social multiplier effects within their own gender group, and boys were also affected by normative violence scores among girls, typically those of the best-behaved (20th percentile) girls. The finding that girls may have positive social influence on boys' levels of violent behavior extends prior findings of beneficial social effects of girls on boys in the domains of education and risky driving. Further, this social normative effect presents a potential opportunity to improve school-based intervention efforts for reducing violence among youth by leveraging girls as carriers of a social multiplier effect for reduced violence in the middle school environmental

  2. Critical Routes: Women Facing Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Nazareth Meneghel

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the Critical Routes International Seminar – Women Facing Violence , which took place in Porto Alegre in 2008. The seminar was promoted by the Graduate Program on Collective Health at Unisinos and by the Public Health School/RS and was supported by outstanding researchers working in the fields of collective health, and social and human sciences. Initially, we discuss some conceptual aspects about gender violence, its dimensions and its consequences for the health and the life quality of the affected women. Our understanding is that violence is one of the most effective methods of controlling women in societies scarred with gender hierarchies. The structure of the seminar focused on three main discussion themes: breaking up with the violence, mechanisms for working with gender and hearing the services. These themes were chosen aiming at looking for ways to help the women and to explore efficient mechanisms to combat, reduce and, if possible, eliminate the violence perpetrated against women. At the end of the seminar, we reiterate the political commitment on the accomplishment of the public policies to face violence and the fight against all inequality, discrimination and violence forms based on gender.

  3. Measuring personal beliefs and perceived norms about intimate partner violence: Population-based survey experiment in rural Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander C Tsai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS conducted throughout sub-Saharan Africa indicate there is widespread acceptance of intimate partner violence, contributing to an adverse health risk environment for women. While qualitative studies suggest important limitations in the accuracy of the DHS methods used to elicit attitudes toward intimate partner violence, to date there has been little experimental evidence from sub-Saharan Africa that can be brought to bear on this issue.We embedded a randomized survey experiment in a population-based survey of 1,334 adult men and women living in Nyakabare Parish, Mbarara, Uganda. The primary outcomes were participants' personal beliefs about the acceptability of intimate partner violence and perceived norms about intimate partner violence in the community. To elicit participants' personal beliefs and perceived norms, we asked about the acceptability of intimate partner violence in five different vignettes. Study participants were randomly assigned to one of three survey instruments, each of which contained varying levels of detail about the extent to which the wife depicted in the vignette intentionally or unintentionally violated gendered standards of behavior. For the questions about personal beliefs, the mean (standard deviation number of items where intimate partner violence was endorsed as acceptable was 1.26 (1.58 among participants assigned to the DHS-style survey variant (which contained little contextual detail about the wife's intentions, 2.74 (1.81 among participants assigned to the survey variant depicting the wife as intentionally violating gendered standards of behavior, and 0.77 (1.19 among participants assigned to the survey variant depicting the wife as unintentionally violating these standards. In a partial proportional odds regression model adjusting for sex and village of residence, with participants assigned to the DHS-style survey variant as the referent group, participants assigned the

  4. Gender Differences in the Relations among Patriarchal Beliefs, Parenting and Teen Relationship Violence in Mexican Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Guadalupe; Hokoda, Audrey; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Ulibarri, Monica D.; Castaneda, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Teen relationship violence is a global phenomenon associated with adverse outcomes. As in other countries, teen relationship violence is of concern in Mexico. However, few studies have examined the risk and protective factors of teen relationship violence among Mexican adolescents. The current study examined whether patriarchal beliefs and exposure to authoritarian parenting among Mexican adolescents are associated with perpetration and victimization of physical and verbal-emotional teen relationship violence. Two hundred and four students (15 – 18 years old) from Monterrey, Mexico completed questionnaires. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling for age revealed that among girls, authoritarian parenting was associated with physical and verbal-emotional victimization and verbal-emotional violence perpetration. Among boys, higher endorsement of patriarchal beliefs was associated with lower reports of physical perpetration and physical victimization. PMID:23277734

  5. Stress at Work and Its Subsequent Problems among Teachers of the Public Schools Which Operate the School-Based Violence Reduction Program (VRP) in Tulkarm Governorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oteer, Rabee

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the work-related stress and its subsequent problems among teachers of the public schools which operated the school-based Violence Reduction Program (VRP) in the governorate of Tulkarm during the second semester of 2015-2016. Besides, it aimed to identify the effect of specific variables, such as gender, specialization,…

  6. Voice based gender classification using machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raahul, A.; Sapthagiri, R.; Pankaj, K.; Vijayarajan, V.

    2017-11-01

    Gender identification is one of the major problem speech analysis today. Tracing the gender from acoustic data i.e., pitch, median, frequency etc. Machine learning gives promising results for classification problem in all the research domains. There are several performance metrics to evaluate algorithms of an area. Our Comparative model algorithm for evaluating 5 different machine learning algorithms based on eight different metrics in gender classification from acoustic data. Agenda is to identify gender, with five different algorithms: Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN), Classification and Regression Trees (CART), Random Forest (RF), and Support Vector Machine (SVM) on basis of eight different metrics. The main parameter in evaluating any algorithms is its performance. Misclassification rate must be less in classification problems, which says that the accuracy rate must be high. Location and gender of the person have become very crucial in economic markets in the form of AdSense. Here with this comparative model algorithm, we are trying to assess the different ML algorithms and find the best fit for gender classification of acoustic data.

  7. Homens, gênero e violência contra a mulher Men, gender and violence against women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Costa Lima

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Considerando o compromisso do Estado brasileiro de coibir e prevenir a violência contra a mulher, firmado em várias conferências internacionais e tendo em vista a promulgação da Lei 11.340/06 - a Lei Maria da Penha -, este artigo tem como objetivo realizar uma reflexão sobre a incorporação dos homens e da perspectiva de gênero nos esforços de prevenção e atenção à violência contra as mulheres. Apesar do crescente interesse da literatura científica e da intervenção em saúde com o envolvimento dos homens, em especial, no campo dos direitos sexuais e reprodutivos, comparativamente, reflexões e intervenções com homens autores de violência contra a mulher têm recebido bem menos atenção de órgãos governamentais, não-governamentais e pela academia. O artigo apresenta alguns conceitos e dados sobre a violência contra as mulheres e descreve um panorama sobre a conexão entre gênero, saúde e masculinidades; analisa trabalhos que abordam os temas homens e violência contra as mulheres e apresenta algumas ações voltadas à prevenção dessa forma de violência junto à população masculina; e por fim tece algumas considerações finais sobre o tema.Considering the commitment made by the Brazilian Government to restrain and prevent violence against women, signed in various international conferences, and in view of the promulgation of the Law 11.340/06 - Lei Maria da Penha -, this article intends to develop a reflection on the incorporation of men and of the gender perspective in efforts to prevent and attend to violence against women. Despite the increasing interest of scientific literature and health intervention in the involvement of men, especially in the field of sexual and reproductive rights, comparatively, reflections and interventions directed at men who have committed violence against women have received far less attention from governmental and non-governmental institutions, and from the academy. The article

  8. Limites e possibilidades avaliativas da estratégia saúde da família para a violência de gênero Límites y posibilidades de evaluación de la estrategia salud de la familia para la violencia de género The evaluative limits and possibilities in the family health strategy for gender-based violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Nunes Guedes

    2013-04-01

    íficas para hacer frente a la violencia.The study aimed to understand the evaluative limits and possibilities of the Family Health Strategy (FHS in acknowledging and confronting the health needs of women experiencing gender-based violence. This was a case study with a qualitative approach, conducted in a Basic Health Unit that operated under the FHS in São Paulo (SP. Data were collected through interviews with health professionals of the multidisciplinary teams, and women users of the service who experienced gender-based violence. The results were analyzed according to the analytical categories: gender, gender-based violence and health needs. Medicalization was seen as the most significant limitation of professional practice. Moreover, there were opportunities related to the bond afforded by the logic of attention brought by the FHS. Such possibilities, however, were still curtailed by the limitations of the biomedical model and the absence of specific technologies to deal with violence.

  9. Violencia en el noviazgo, género y apoyo social en jóvenes universitarios/Dating violence, gender and social support among college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Rodríguez Hernández

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was motivated by the phenomenon of gender differences in dating violence, the importance of social support in this setting, and the relative scarcity of studies on dating violence in Mexico and Latin America. It analysed the association between perceived support from family and friends and dating violence victimization in a sample of 679 college students from Ciudad Juarez, Mexico (n = 679; women = 67%; mean age = 20.5, SD = 2.1. Mean and women were analysed separately. Men experienced violence more frequently than women. Social support from friends was associated with various types of victimization in men. In contrast, support from family and friends was weakly associated with violence experienced by women. The results are discussed in terms of their potential to guide both future studies on this topic and prevention efforts in Mexican and Latin-American settings.

  10. Sex education and gender vs. abuse in relationships. Scenario on violence in young people in Baja California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Fernández de Juan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Violence in the relationships of courtship among young people presents growing demonstrations at international and national levels, as it occurs with the increase in the diseases of HIV/AIDS, adolescent pregnancy and sexual transmission. This work emphasizes the main strategy for the prevention of both risk behaviour is directly related to the implementation of an efficient, unprejudiced and timely sex education, especially in schools, with a gender perspective, which is lacking in general sense, at home and in Baja California in particular.

  11. Latitude Reduction Based on Gender Categorization and Gender Stereotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skewes, Lea

    This dissertation consists of four articles; two articles which apply experimental methodologies from social psychology, and two articles which apply queer theory. These two different methodologies are applied in order to uncover different kinds of asymmetrical power relations driven by sex/gender...... to take a step back from our sex/gender categories, and unveil which effects categorizing by sex/gender has on people who are considered unintelligible by the categories. Therefore, this language philosophical perspective offers tools to analyse non-binary sexed/gendered people, and the sex/gender...... categorization. The social psychology methodology is applied in order to capture fundamental psychological mechanism at play in patriarchal society – striving to unveil gender inequalities between the binary categories of men and women. The queer theoretical meta-perspective is applied in order to allow us...

  12. [Men caretakers of life: Training in gender-sensitive masculinities for the prevention of violence towards women in Medellin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza-Sosa, Gladys Rocío; Gaviria, Silvia L; Geldres-García, Denis A; Vargas-Romero, Rosamarina

    2015-01-01

    The training strategies targeted at men so as to reflect on the cultural patterns of patriarchy are an alternative in the promotion of human rights, the prevention of violence towards women and the mainstreaming of gender equality in public policies. With a socio-critical pedagogical approach, we conducted a Training Certification Program in gender equality and gender-sensitive masculinities, for a group of 76 male civil servants and civic leaders in the Colombian city of Medellin, for the purpose of questioning their gender socialization in the patriarchal model, directed towards the development and execution of social, educational or communications projects. The projects proposed by the participants criticize the andro-centric, sexist and discriminatory discourses regarding women that circulate in a manner predominant in their academic, workplace and family ambits, with a gender political commitment and respect for diversity. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. A community mobilisation intervention to prevent violence against women and reduce HIV/AIDS risk in Kampala, Uganda (the SASA! Study): study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Abramsky, Tanya; Devries, Karen; Kiss, Ligia; Francisco, Leilani; Nakuti, Janet; Musuya, Tina; Kyegombe, Nambusi; Starmann, Elizabeth; Kaye, Dan; Michau, Lori; Watts, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Gender based violence, including violence by an intimate partner, is a major global human rights and public health problem, with important connections with HIV risk. Indeed, the elimination of sexual and gender based violence is a core pillar of HIV prevention for UNAIDS. Integrated strategies to address the gender norms, relations and inequities that underlie both violence against women and HIV/AIDS are needed. However there is limited evidence about the potential impact ...

  14. Restorative justice as social justice for victims of gendered violence: a standpoint feminist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wormer, Katherine

    2009-04-01

    This article provides an overview of restorative justice as a process and examines its relevance to women who have been victimized by physical and sexual abuse. The starting point is the justice system with its roots in adversarial, offender-oriented practices of obtaining justice. The widespread dissatisfaction by battered women and rape victims and their advocates with the current system of mandatory law enforcement opens the door for consideration of alternative forms of dealing with domestic violence. Restorative justice strategies, as argued here, have several major advantages. Like social work, these strategies are solution-based rather than problem-based processes, give voice to marginalized people, and focus on healing and reconciliation. Moreover, restorative justice offers an avenue through which the profession of social work can re-establish its historic role in criminal justice. The four models most relevant to women's victimization are victim-offender conferencing, family group conferencing, healing circles, and community reparations. Each model is examined separately from a feminist standpoint. The discussion is informed by insights from the teachings of standpoint feminist theory and social work values, especially social justice.

  15. Country of residence, gender equality and victim blaming attitudes about partner violence: a multilevel analysis in EU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivert, Anna-Karin; Merlo, Juan; Gracia, Enrique

    2017-09-27

    Intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) is a global and preventable public health problem. Public attitudes, such as victim-blaming, are important for our understanding of differences in the occurrence of IPVAW, as they contribute to its justification. In this paper, we focus on victim-blaming attitudes regarding IPVAW within the EU and we apply multilevel analyses to identify contextual determinants of victim-blaming attitudes. We investigate both the general contextual effect of the country and the specific association between country level of gender equality and individual victim-blaming attitudes, as well as to what extend a possible general contextual effect was explained by county level gender equality. We analyzed data from 26 800 respondents from 27 member states of the European Union who responded to a survey on public perceptions of domestic violence. We applied multilevel logistic regression analysis and measures of variance (intra-class correlation (ICC)) were calculated, as well as the discriminatory accuracy by calculating the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve. Over and above individual characteristics, about 15% of the individual variance in the propensity for having victim-blaming attitudes was found at the country level, and country level of gender equality did not affect the general contextual effect (i.e. ICC) of the country on individual victim-blaming attitudes. The present study shows that there are important between-country differences in victim-blaming attitudes that cannot be explained by differences in individual-level demographics or in gender equality at the country level. More research on attitudes towards IPVAW is needed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  16. Entre Hechos y Derechos, la Reproducción Cultural de la Violencia de Género: la Banalización de la Desigualdad en Venezuela y en Francia (Between Facts and Rights, cultural reproduction of Gender-based Violence: the Trivialization of Inequality in ...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pérez-Bravo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The legal rights, laws, pacts, treaties and national and international agreements on gender violence proposed by the OEA, the UN and UNESCO and subscribed by the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela do not always reflect the actual facts. But we can ask ourselves whether this juridical machinery responds to the Venezuelan reality or, on the contrary, whether it is just a copy of other realities from more developed countries such as France. In that sense, the only kind of violence reported is the physical one. Physical violence is penalized in all of western societies; but other kinds of violence coexist with this cultural reality, which are invisible, not criminalized, and socially accepted. These include, first, affective nomadism; second, early pregnancy; third, paternal irresponsibility; and fourth, discrimination against women in politics and in the workforce, discrimination which has been accentuated by new rights, which indirectly exclude women from the labor market. This investigation is part of a comparative study between Venezuela and France, from a gender point of view. Los derechos, las leyes, los pactos, los tratados y los convenios nacionales e internacionales propuestos por la OEA, la ONU y la UNESCO, suscritos por la República Bolivariana de Venezuela, sobre la violencia de género, no siempre reflejan los hechos. Pero, cabría preguntarse si este aparato legal se corresponde con la realidad, o por el contrario es una copia, de países desarrollados, como Francia. Alrededor de esta realidad cultural, coexisten otros tipos de violencias invisibles, que no están tipificadas como delitos y son aceptadas socialmente: en primer lugar, el nomadismo afectivo; en segundo lugar, el embarazo precoz; en tercer lugar, la irresponsabilidad paternal; en cuarto lugar, la discriminación de las mujeres en la política y del trabajo formal. Esta investigación es parte de un estudio comparativo entre Venezuela y Francia, desde el punto de vista de g

  17. Discriminating real victims from feigners of psychological injury in gender violence: Validating a protocol for forensic setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Arce

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Standard clinical assessment of psychological injury does not provide valid evidence in forensic settings, and screening of genuine from feigned complaints must be undertaken prior to the diagnosis of mental state (American Psychological Association, 2002. Whereas psychological injury is Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD, a clinical diagnosis may encompass other nosologies (e.g., depression and anxiety. The assessment of psychological injury in forensic contexts requires a multimethod approach consisting of a psychometric measure and an interview. To assess the efficacy of the multimethod approach in discriminating real from false victims, 25 real victims of gender violence and 24 feigners were assessed using a the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R, a recognition task; and a forensic clinical interview, a knowledge task. The results revealed that feigners reported more clinical symptoms on the SCL-90-R than real victims. Moreover, the feigning indicators on the SCL-90-R, GSI, PST, and PSDI were higher in feigners, but not sufficient to provide a screening test for invalidating feigning protocols. In contrast, real victims reported more clinical symptoms related to PTSD in the forensic clinical interview than feigners. Notwithstanding, in the forensic clinical interview feigners were able to feign PTSD which was not detected by the analysis of feigning strategies. The combination of both measures and their corresponding validity controls enabled the discrimination of real victims from feigners. Hence, a protocol for discriminating the psychological sequelae of real victims from feigners of gender violence is described.

  18. Men at risk; a qualitative study on HIV risk, gender identity and violence among men who have sex with men who report high risk behavior in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Rachel; Barker, Joseph; Nakayiwa, Sylvia; Katuntu, David; Lubwama, George; Bagenda, Danstan; Lane, Tim; Opio, Alex; Hladik, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    In Uganda, men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for HIV. Between May 2008 and February 2009 in Kampala, Uganda, we used respondent driven sampling (RDS) to recruit 295 MSM≥18 years who reported having had sex with another man in the preceding three months. The parent study conducted HIV and STI testing and collected demographic and HIV-related behavioral data through audio computer-assisted self-administered interviews. We conducted a nested qualitative sub-study with 16 men purposively sampled from among the survey participants based on responses to behavioral variables indicating higher risk for HIV infection. Sub-study participants were interviewed face-to-face. Domains of inquiry included sexual orientation, gender identity, condom use, stigma, discrimination, violence and health seeking behavior. Emergent themes included a description of sexual orientation/gender identity categories. All groups of men described conflicting feelings related to their sexual orientation and contextual issues that do not accept same-sex identities or behaviors and non-normative gender presentation. The emerging domains for facilitating condom use included: lack of trust in partner and fear of HIV infection. We discuss themes in the context of social and policy issues surrounding homosexuality and HIV prevention in Uganda that directly affect men's lives, risk and health-promoting behaviors.

  19. Men at risk; a qualitative study on HIV risk, gender identity and violence among men who have sex with men who report high risk behavior in Kampala, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel King

    Full Text Available In Uganda, men who have sex with men (MSM are at high risk for HIV. Between May 2008 and February 2009 in Kampala, Uganda, we used respondent driven sampling (RDS to recruit 295 MSM≥18 years who reported having had sex with another man in the preceding three months. The parent study conducted HIV and STI testing and collected demographic and HIV-related behavioral data through audio computer-assisted self-administered interviews. We conducted a nested qualitative sub-study with 16 men purposively sampled from among the survey participants based on responses to behavioral variables indicating higher risk for HIV infection. Sub-study participants were interviewed face-to-face. Domains of inquiry included sexual orientation, gender identity, condom use, stigma, discrimination, violence and health seeking behavior. Emergent themes included a description of sexual orientation/gender identity categories. All groups of men described conflicting feelings related to their sexual orientation and contextual issues that do not accept same-sex identities or behaviors and non-normative gender presentation. The emerging domains for facilitating condom use included: lack of trust in partner and fear of HIV infection. We discuss themes in the context of social and policy issues surrounding homosexuality and HIV prevention in Uganda that directly affect men's lives, risk and health-promoting behaviors.

  20. Associations Between Peer Network Gender Norms and the Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence Among Urban Tanzanian Men: a Multilevel Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulawa, Marta I; Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A; Halpern, Carolyn T; Martin, Sandra L; Kajula, Lusajo J; Maman, Suzanne

    2018-05-01

    Male perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women in sub-Saharan Africa is widespread. Theory and empirical evidence suggest peer networks may play an important role in shaping IPV perpetration, though research on this topic in the region is limited. We assessed the degree to which peer network gender norms are associated with Tanzanian men's perpetration of IPV and examined whether the social cohesion of peer networks moderates this relationship. Using baseline data from sexually active men (n = 1103) nested within 59 peer networks enrolled in an on-going cluster-randomized HIV and IPV prevention trial, we fit multilevel logistic regression models to examine peer network-level factors associated with past-year physical IPV perpetration. Peer network gender norms were significantly associated with men's risk of perpetrating IPV, even after adjusting for their own attitudes toward gender roles (OR = 1.53 , p =  . 04). Peer network social cohesion moderated this relationship (OR = 1.50 , p =  . 04); the positive relationship between increasingly inequitable (i.e., traditional) peer network gender norms and men's risk of perpetrating IPV became stronger, as peer network social cohesion increased. Characteristics of the peer network context are associated with men's IPV perpetration and should be targeted in future interventions. While many IPV prevention interventions focus on changing individual attitudes, our findings support a unique approach, focused on transforming the peer context.