WorldWideScience

Sample records for geli detectors

  1. Curves for the response of a Ge(Li) detector to gamma rays in the energy range up to 11 MeV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopecký, J.; Ratyński, W.; Warming, Inge Elisabeth

    1967-01-01

    The response function of a Ge(Li) coaxial detector with a sensitive volume of 17 cm3 for gamma rays of energies ranging from 2.23 to 10.83 MeV has been determined. The measurements were carried out with an experimental set-up using the neutron beam from the DR 3 reactor ar Risö and the (n, γ......) reaction as gamma-ray source. The important features of the spectra are discussed, and the double-escape peak efficiency is determined....

  2. Ge(Li) detector gamma-ray spectrometer system for measurement of the spectra and production cross sections of. gamma. -rays produced by 14 MeV neutron nonelastic interaction with nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen Ronglin; Shi Xiamin; Wu Yongshun; Xing Jinjiang; Ding Dazhao

    1982-02-01

    A 42 cm/sup 3/ Ge(Li) detector gamma-ray spectrometer system for measuring the spectra and the production cross sections of ..gamma..-rays produced by fast neutron nonelastic interaction with nuclei is described in this paper. The incident neutrons are produced by T(d,n)/sup 4/He reaction in an high tension set with the incident deuteron energy of 200 keV. The time of flight technique is used to discriminate between the scattered neutrons and gamma-rays resulting from nonelastic interaction. The ..cap alpha..-particles are picked up by a Si(Au) surface barrier detector and the ARC timing discriminaters are used in both Si(Au) and Ge(Li) channels. The overall time resolution (FWHM) of this system is 4.1 ns typically for energy selection threshold at 400keV. The block diagram of spectrometer system is described in detail. The complex complete shielding damage of Ge(Li) detector in this fast neutron field is well discussed.

  3. Circular polarization measurements with a Ge(Li) detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopecký, J.; Warming, Inge Elisabeth

    1969-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained in measurements of the degree of circular polarization of gamma transitions to bound states of 33S, 36Cl, 49Ti, 56Mn, 57Fe, 60Co and 64Cu following the capture of polarized thermal neutrons. Spin values have been determined on the basis of these results....

  4. [From photography to chrysotherapy: Fordos and Gelis salt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaux, G

    1999-01-01

    In 1840, the French physicist Hippolyte Fizeau (1819-1896) proposed an auric chloride and sodium thiosulfate-based reagent to fix daguerreotypes. In 1843, two French pharmacists, Mathurin-Joseph Fordos (1816-1878) and Amedee Gelis (1815-1882), isolated its main ingredient in crystalline form and analysed it as a sodium aurothiosulfate. They recommended the use of an aqueous solution of this product to fix photographic negatives. In this way, the deterioration by sulfuration that negatives underwent with Fizeau's solution could be avoided. Fordos and Gelis salt came back in the news in 1924 when Prof. Holger Christian Mollgaard (1885-1973) from Copenhagen suggested it under the term Sanocrysine for use in tuberculosis. The enthusiasm which followed the initial trials led to its being adopted by many countries. In France, Danish Sanocrysine was commercialised by the Bordeaux pharmacist Jean Dedieu (1892-1968) while sodium aurothiosulfate was marketed as Thiocrysine by Usines du Rhone in Lyon, and as Chrysalbine by Maison Poulenc Freres in Paris. Chrysalbine became Crisalbine when the two companies merged to become Societe parisienne d'expansion chimique (Specia). However, inadequate results, the toxicity of auric derivatives and, especially from 1945 on, the advent of really effective tuberculostatic agents progressively led to the decline and abandonment of Fordos and Gelis salt in the treatment of tuberculosis.

  5. Ge(Li) measurement of some neutron activation cross-sections at (14. 2+-0. 2) MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmana Das, N.; Srinivasa Rao, C.V.; Thirumala Rao, B.V.; Rama Rao, J. (Andhra Univ., Waltair (India). Lab. for Nuclear Research)

    1978-12-21

    Precision measurements of activation cross-sections were made for the reactions /sup 138/Ba(n, 2n)/sup 137/Basup(m), /sup 167/Er(n,p)/sup 167/Ho and /sup 181/Ta(n,2n)/sup 180/Tasup(m) at an incident-neutron energy of (14.2+-0.2)MeV. The mixed-powder technique and high-resolution Ge(Li) detector coupled to a ND 512 channel analyser system were employed. The cross-section values were compared with the values reported in the literature.

  6. Evaluation of HPGe detector efficiency for point sources using virtual point detector model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, M.A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81747-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdi, M.R., E-mail: r.abdi@phys.ui.ac.i [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81747-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kamali, M., E-mail: m.kamali@chem.ui.ac.i [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technologies, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chemical Processes Research Department, Engineering Research Center, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mostajaboddavati, M.; Zare, M.R. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81747-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    The concept of a virtual point detector (VPD) has been developed and validated in the past for Ge(Li) and HPGe detectors. In the present research, a new semi-empirical equation involving photon energy and source-virtual point detector distance for the efficiency of point sources by HPGe detectors is introduced , which is based on the VPD model. The calculated efficiencies for both coaxial and off-axis geometries by this equation are in good agreement with experimental data. The estimated uncertainties are less than 4%.

  7. Comparing and contrasting development and reproductive strategies in the pupal hyperparasitoids Lysibia nana and Gelis agilis (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    In most animals, the optimal phenotype is determined by trade-offs in life-history traits. Here, I compare development and reproductive strategies in two species of solitary secondary hyperparasitoids, Lysibia nana and Gelis agilis, attacking pre-pupae of their primary parasitoid host, Cotesia glome

  8. Üç Faz Transformatörlerde Harmonik Analizler İçin Geliştirilen Bir Uygulama Programı

    OpenAIRE

    ZİLE, M.

    2014-01-01

    Bu çal mada, güç sistemlerinde do rusal olmayan yük ak mlar n n neden oldu u harmonik etkilerini tahmin eden bir uygulama program geli tirilmi tir. Yaz l m program için analitik mant k, basit bir güç sistem ebekesi için geli tirilmi tir. Bu sistem bir transformatör, iki paralele kondansatör, iki iletim hatt , bir güç kayna Windows temelli bir uygulamad r. Bu uygulama program harmonik analizler yapmak için, Microsoft Visual C++ programlama dili kullan larak geli tirilmi tir. Benzetim sonuçlar ...

  9. SECAGEM DA MICROALGA Aphanothece microscopica Nägeli EM LEITO DE JORRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. JACOB-LOPES

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    A técnica do leito de jorro possui relevante aplicação em operações envolvendo contato entre partículas sólidas e fluidos. Este método vem sendo amplamente utilizado na secagem de pastas e suspensões de produtos alimentícios. Neste sentido, o trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a secagem da biomassa da microalga Aphanothece microscopica Nägeli em leito de jorro. Através de um planejamento fatorial 23, estudou-se a viabilidade técnica do processo, em função dos fatores: temperatura (80ºC, 90C, taxa de circulação acima da velocidade de jorro mínimo (60%, 100% e vazão de alimentação (200 mL/h, 300 mL/h. As condições de operação foram estabelecidas em função da qualidade final do produto, expressa em termos de umidade, teor de clorofila a e cor expressa em ângulo hue. Os resultados indicaram que os fatores avaliados influenciaram significativamente (p<0,05 as características da biomassa. A condição de secagem definida pelo planejamento experimental refere-se a temperatura de 90ºC, vazão de alimentação de 200 mL/h e taxa de circulação de ar 100% acima da velocidade de jorro mínimo.

  10. Bitki Gelişimini Teşvik Eden Rizobakterilerin Tarımda Kullanımı / Use of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria in Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Çakmakçı, Ramazan

    2011-01-01

    ÖZET: Yoğun tarım, aşırı gübre kullanımını zorunlu kılmaktadır. Yüksek verim için fazla girdi kullanan tarım sistemleri çevresel problemlere ve doğal kaynakların tükenmesine yol açmaktadır. Gübre uygulamasını minimum, bitki gelişme ve beslenmesini maksimum düzeye çıkarmak amacıyla rizosferden seçilmiş farklı mikroorganizmalar kullanılmaktadır. Bitki gelişimini teşvik eden rizobakteriler (PGPR) bitki gelişimine faydalı etkileri n...

  11. Rufinamide kullanımı sonrası gelişen akut pankreatit: Olgu Sunumu

    OpenAIRE

    Balcı, Oya; SEZER, Taner

    2017-01-01

    Akut pankreatit pankreasın akut inflamasyonudur. Hastalığın hafif bir şekli olan ödematöz pankreatitten ağır bir klinikle seyreden nekrotizan pankreatite kadar farklı şiddetlerde  patolojik değişikliklerle seyredebilir. Bu nedenle hastalığın prognozu da oldukça değişkendir.  Yeni geçirilmiş enfeksiyonlar, ilaç kullanımı, travma ve altta yatan hastalıkların üzerinde durulması akut pankreatit tanısını kolaylaştırmaktadır. Bu olgu sunumunda rufinamid tedavisine bağlı akut pankreatit gelişen bir ...

  12. Kurumsal filo kiralama sektörünün gelişimi ülke ekonomisine etkileri

    OpenAIRE

    ÇELTİK, Aynur

    2009-01-01

          Araç kiralama sektörü, araç finansmanı konusunda ülkemizin en fazla tercih
    edilen finansal yöntemleri arasında yer almaya başlamıştır. Araç kiralama ile verilen
    hizmetler; aracın finansmanı, operasyon, vergi ve sigorta masraflarının
    finansmanıdır.
    Araç kiralama peşin satın alım, banka kredisi ile finansman, finansal
    kiralamaya alternatif olarak gelişmiş finansal modellerden bir tanesidir. ...

  13. Bioaccumulation of Pb, Cd, Cu, and Cr by Porphyridium cruentum (S.F. Gray Nägeli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Retnaningsih Soeprobowati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The red microalgae Porphyridium cruentum (S.F. Gray Nägeli usually was used as feeds, a pigment for food and cosmetic, and antiviral activity that might be became industrial interest. Similar to another microalgae, P. cruentum has an ability to remediate heavy metals pollution, however research on it still limited. This research was conducted in order to find out the the accumulation of Pb, Cd, Cr, and Cu on the P. cruentum. A laboratory experiment were developed with different concentrations. Based on this research, P. cruentum with the treatment of 1 mg/L had reduced higher Cu, Pb, Cd, and Cr concentrations rather than 3 and 5 mg/L concentrations, respectively. This was also similar to the BCF, that in day 8 in order of Cu > Cr > Cd > Pb, respectively; however, in day 15 was Cu > Pb > Cd > Cr. The length of treatment influenced BCF value. P. cruentum was good for bioremediation of heavy metal pollution, with the advantage of the short of accumulation time.

  14. Otizm Spektrum Bozukluğu Olan Çocukların Sosyal İletişim Becerileri ve Dil Gelişim Özellikleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Çilem Ökcün-Akçamuş

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dil ve iletişim alanında yaşanan güçlükler, otizm spektrum bozukluğunun (OSB tanı ölçütlerinden birisidir ve bu güçlükler OSB olan çocuklarda otizmin şiddetini belirleyen önemli bir değişken olarak ele alınmaktadır. OSB olan çocukların dil gelişiminde heterojen bir yapı olduğu kabul edilmektedir. OSB olan bazı çocuklar sözel dili hiç edinemezken, bazı çocuklarda normal gelişim gösteren akranlarına yakın bir sözel dil kullanım örüntüsü görülebilmektedir. Bu derleme çalışmasında OSB olan çocukların dil ve iletişim becerilerine ilişkin gelişimsel özellikleri incelenmiştir. OSB olan çocuklarda söz öncesi dönemde sözel olmayan sosyal iletişim becerilerine, sözel dil döneminde dilin bileşenlerine ilişkin sendroma özgü gelişimsel özellikler/bozukluklar görülmektedir. Bu nedenle bu derleme çalışmasında OSB olan çocukların söz öncesi dönemde sözel olmayan sosyal iletişim becerilerine yönelik gelişimleri ele alınacaktır. Bunun yanı sıra sözel dil döneminde olan OSB olan çocukların dilin biçimbirim bilgisi/sözdizimi, anlam bilgisi ve kullanım bilgisi bileşenlerine yönelik gelişimsel özellikleri incelenecektir. Alanyazından derlenen bu çalışmanın OSB olan çocuklarda dil gelişimi üzerine çalışan öğretmenlere ve araştırmacılara yol göstereceği düşünülmektedir. Difficulties in language and communication are diagnostic criteria of autism spectrum disorders (ASD and these difficulties are taken as an important variable in determining the severity of the disorder for the children with ASD. It is accepted that language development of children with ASD is heterogeneous. While some of the children can never acquire language, some of them may show language use similar to their peers with typical development. In this review developmental characteristics of children with ASD in language and communication skills are examined. Children with ASD show

  15. Detector Unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Original detector unit of the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) BOL project. This detector unit shows that silicon detectors for nuclear physics particle detection were already developed and in use in the 1960's in Amsterdam. Also the idea of putting 'strips' onto the silicon for high spatial resolution of a particle's impact on the detector were implemented in the BOL project which used 64 of these detector units. The IKO BOL project with its silicon particle detectors was designed, built and operated from 1965 to roughly 1977. Detector Unit of the BOL project: These detectors, notably the ‘checkerboard detector’, were developed during the years 1964-1968 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by the Natuurkundig Laboratorium of the N.V. Philips Gloeilampen Fabrieken. This was done in close collaboration with the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) where the read-out electronics for their use in the BOL Project was developed and produced.

  16. Infrared detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Rogalski, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    This second edition is fully revised and reorganized, with new chapters concerning third generation and quantum dot detectors, THz detectors, cantilever and antenna coupled detectors, and information on radiometry and IR optics materials. Part IV concerning focal plane arrays is significantly expanded. This book, resembling an encyclopedia of IR detectors, is well illustrated and contains many original references … a really comprehensive book.-F. Sizov, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine

  17. Gaseous Detectors: Charged Particle Detectors - Particle Detectors and Detector Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hilke, H J

    2011-01-01

    Gaseous Detectors in 'Charged Particle Detectors - Particle Detectors and Detector Systems', part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B1: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 1: Principles and Methods'. This document is part of Part 1 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Subsection '3.1.2 Gaseous Detectors' of Section '3.1 Charged Particle Detectors' of Chapter '3 Particle Detectors and Detector Systems' with the content: 3.1.2 Gaseous Detectors 3.1.2.1 Introduction 3.1.2.2 Basic Processes 3.1.2.2.1 Gas ionization by charged particles 3.1.2.2.1.1 Primary clusters 3.1.2.2.1.2 Cluster size distribution 3.1.2.2.1.3 Total number of ion pairs 3.1.2.2.1.4 Dependence of energy deposit on particle velocity 3.1.2.2.2 Transport of...

  18. Pixel Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Wermes, Norbert

    2005-01-01

    Pixel detectors for precise particle tracking in high energy physics have been developed to a level of maturity during the past decade. Three of the LHC detectors will use vertex detectors close to the interaction point based on the hybrid pixel technology which can be considered the state of the art in this field of instrumentation. A development period of almost 10 years has resulted in pixel detector modules which can stand the extreme rate and timing requirements as well as the very harsh...

  19. Metal Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1992-01-01

    Schools that count on metal detectors to stem the flow of weapons into the schools create a false sense of security. Recommendations include investing in personnel rather than hardware, cultivating the confidence of law-abiding students, and enforcing discipline. Metal detectors can be quite effective at afterschool events. (MLF)

  20. Optical Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbert, Bernd; Goushcha, Alexander

    Optical detectors are applied in all fields of human activities from basic research to commercial applications in communication, automotive, medical imaging, homeland security, and other fields. The processes of light interaction with matter described in other chapters of this handbook form the basis for understanding the optical detectors physics and device properties.

  1. The role of play on development and learningOyunun gelişim ve öğrenmedeki rolü

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Pehlivan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Games, which are as old as the history of the world, were played all over the world in all periods of history and in all cultures; and will be played in the future. A game which can be rule governed or free of rules, but in which children always participate voluntarily is a part of real life; and is the basis for physical, cognitive, social, linguistic, emotional and social development. Games are the mirrors reflecting the inner world of children, and they are the imaginary environments re-created by children so as to understand their emotions and enthusiasm, distress and relations. A game, which is defined as a field of experimenting in which children test and reinforce what they see, sets up ties with the past and forms a source for the future. Games are regarded as  children’s most important pursuit, and they mean discovering, learning, creating and expressing oneself for children. All materials for playing which introduce regulation into children’s movements, which help them in their physical and psycho-social development, which develop their imagination are described as toys, and toys have important functions in children’s development and in the development of their learning and creativity. Designing playgrounds, which are the locations for effective learning for children,  bring about significant responsibility. Therefore, this fact should be taken into consideration while choosing toys for chidren and while desgning playgrounds, and games should be employed in pre-school education in the light of scientific data.    Özet İnsanlık tarihi kadar eski olan oyun, dünyanın her yerinde, her çağda ve her kültürde oynanmıştır ve oynanmaya da devam edecektir. Oyun, belli bir amaca yönelik olan veya olmayan, kurallı ya da kuralsız gerçekleştirilen fakat her durumda çocuğun isteyerek yer aldığı fiziksel, bilişsel, sosyal, dil, duygusal ve sosyal gelişiminin temeli olan gerçek hayatın bir parçasıdır. Oyun

  2. DUMAND detector

    CERN Multimedia

    This object is one of the 256 other detectors of the DUMAND (Deep Underwater Muon And Neutrino Detection) experiment. The goal of the experiment was the construction of the first deep ocean high energy neutrino detector, to be placed at 4800 m depth in the Pacific Ocean off Keahole Point on the Big Island of Hawaii. A few years ago, a European conference with Cosmic experiments was organized at CERN as they were projects like DUMAND in Hawaii. Along with the conference, a temporary exhibition was organised as well. It was a collaboration of institutions from Germany, Japan, Switzerland and the U.S.A. CERN had borrowed equipment and objects from different institutes around the world, including this detector of the DUMAND experiment. Most of the equipment were sent back to the institutes, however this detector sphere was offered to a CERN member of the personnel.

  3. A development of motor skills in mental disability interfere?Zihinsel engel motor becerilerin gelişimine de engel mi?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurgül Özdemir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effects of mental disability on the development of motor skills. Research has been performed with the trial.Ataturk Work Education Center and Imam-Preacher School students were collected. 20 business education high school student with the research, with trained intelligence levels of the same age group of 20 high school students without disabilities as for the development of motor skills in 3 days 2 hours training per week for 12 weeks in both groups was built pre-test post-test results were compared. Pretest and posttest measurements, the subjects height, age, flexibility, jump, 50 m.speed, standing long jump, shuttle run were compared by measuring such variables.Groups and within them, as well as evaluating the results pre-test-posttest measurements were compared with each other. SPSS statistical package program was used for statistical analysis of research data 17.00. Analysis of data, arithmetic mean descriptive statistics, Two Way Anova For Mixed Measures Test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test For Paired Samples statistical techniques were used. Characteristics of the physical development of the research training of 12 weeks in both groups were similar, but with differing levels of intelligence in the weight ratios of subjects (p =.01, shuttle run (p =.04 and the longest standing jump (p =.04 were significantly skills development. In addition, pre-test and post-test scores of the non-disabled subjects' height (p =.00, jumping (p =.00, speed (p =.00, flexibility (p =.02, skills development was also significant.   Özet Bu çalışmada zeka engelinin motor becerilerin gelişimi üzerine etkilerinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır.Araştırma deneme modelinde yapılmıştır. Araştırma verilerin Aydın Merkez Atatürk İş Eğitim Okulu ile Aydın Merkez İmam- Hatip Lisesi öğrencilerinde toplanmıştır. Araştırmada eğitilebilir zeka düzeyine sahip 20 iş eğitim okulu öğrencisi ile aynı yaş grubunda

  4. Calorimeter detectors

    CERN Document Server

    de Barbaro, P; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Although the instantaneous and integrated luminosity in HL-LHC will be far higher than the LHC detectors were originally designed for, the Barrel calorimeters of the four experiments are expected to continue to perform well  throughout the Phase II program. The conditions for the End-Cap calorimeters are far more challenging and whilst some detectors will require relatively modest changes, others require far more substantial upgrades. We present the results of longevity and performance studies for the calorimeter systems of the four main LHC experiments and outline the upgrade options under consideration. We include a discussion of the R&D required to make the final technology choices for the upgraded detectors.

  5. Pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Passmore, M S

    2001-01-01

    positions on the detector. The loss of secondary electrons follows the profile of the detector and increases with higher energy ions. studies of the spatial resolution predict a value of 5.3 lp/mm. The image noise in photon counting systems is investigated theoretically and experimentally and is shown to be given by Poisson statistics. The rate capability of the LAD1 was measured to be 250 kHz per pixel. Theoretical and experimental studies of the difference in contrast for ideal charge integrating and photon counting imaging systems were carried out. It is shown that the contrast differs and that for the conventional definition (contrast = (background - signal)/background) the photon counting device will, in some cases, always give a better contrast than the integrating system. Simulations in MEDICI are combined with analytical calculations to investigate charge collection efficiencies (CCE) in semiconductor detectors. Different pixel sizes and biasing conditions are considered. The results show charge shari...

  6. New product development and product launch strategiesYeni ürün geliştirme ve lansman stratejileri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Bozkurt Bekoğlu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In today’s highly competitive environment, a balanced product portfolio, success in new product development and product launch are important factors for the sustainability of organizations. The aim of the study is to reveal the right product launch steps for the companies through theory and case study. In the study, new product development and product launch strategies are first investigated theoretically. Afterwards, a successful product series launch case from cosmetics sector is analyzed. In this exploratory research, the secondary data is collected via literature review. Primary data is collected via in-depth interview. It is found that marketing research and market test can be evaluated as critical success factors in new product launch. Özet Dengeli bir ürün portföyü, yeni ürün geliştirme ve lansman başarısı artan rekabet ortamında işletmelerin devamlılığını sağlayan önemli faktörlerdir. Çalışmanın amacı lansmanda firmaları başarıya götüren adımları teori ve vaka üzerinden ortaya koymaktır. Bu çalışmada yeni ürün geliştirme ve lansman stratejileri önce teorik olarak, ardından kozmetik sektöründen bir ürün serisinin lansman başarısı vaka üzerinden incelenmiştir. Keşifsel türdeki araştırmada, ikincil veriler literatürden, birincil veriler ise derinlemesine mülakat ile elde edilmiştir. Pazarlama araştırması ve pazar testinin yeni ürün lansmanında kritik başarı faktörü olarak değerlendirilebileceği bulgusuna ulaşılmıştır.

  7. Balistik incelemeleri vasıtasıyla modern hareket kuramlarının Avrupa’da gelişmesi ve Osmanlı Devleti’ne girişi

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Bilim tarihinde modern hareket kuramlarının gelişmesi, balistik incelemelerle bir paralellik sergilemektedir. Osmanlılara bakıldığında da, 19. yüzyılın hemen başlarında, modern hareket kuramlarının, balistik incelemeler vasıtasıyla ele alınmaya başlandığı görülmektdir. Ancak bu çalışmalar özgün olmaktan ziyade, Avrupalı kaynaklardan çeviri ve derlemeler yoluyla gerçekleştirilmiştir. Bu bağlamda yaptığımız araştırmada da, öncelikle Avrupa‟da savaş sanatlarıyla beraber gelişen balistik...

  8. XMASS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Hiraide, K; Hirano, S; Kishimoto, Y; Kobayashi, K; Moriyama, S; Nakagawa, K; Nakahata, M; Nishiie, H; Ogawa, H; Oka, N; Sekiya, H; Shinozaki, A; Suzuki, Y; Takeda, A; Takachio, O; Ueshima, K; Umemoto, D; Yamashita, M; Yang, B S; Tasaka, S; Liu, J; Martens, K; Hosokawa, K; Miuchi, K; Murata, A; Onishi, Y; Otsuka, Y; Takeuchi, Y; Kim, Y H; Lee, K B; Lee, M K; Lee, J S; Fukuda, Y; Itow, Y; Nishitani, Y; Masuda, K; Takiya, H; Uchida, H; Kim, N Y; Kim, Y D; Kusaba, F; Motoki, D; Nishijima, K; Fujii, K; Murayama, I; Nakamura, S

    2013-01-01

    The XMASS project aims to detect dark matter, pp and $^{7}$Be solar neutrinos, and neutrinoless double beta decay using ultra pure liquid xenon. The first phase of the XMASS experiment searches for dark matter. In this paper, we describe the XMASS detector in detail, including its configuration, data acquisition equipment and calibration system.

  9. XMASS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, K. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Hieda, K. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Hiraide, K. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Hirano, S. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Kishimoto, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Moriyama, S. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Nakagawa, K. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Nakahata, M. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Nishiie, H. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Ogawa, H. [Kamioka Observatory, Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, Higashi-Mozumi, Kamioka, Hida, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); and others

    2013-07-11

    The XMASS project aims to detect dark matter, pp and {sup 7}Be solar neutrinos, and neutrinoless double beta decay using ultra pure liquid xenon. The first phase of the XMASS experiment searches for dark matter. In this paper, we describe the XMASS detector in detail, including its configuration, data acquisition equipment and calibration system.

  10. Milli Kütüphane’de Görme Engellilere Sunulan Hizmetler ve Gelişmeler / Services Provided to Blind at the National Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakırcı, Ramazan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The vocalising library collection for blind in the National Library with reference to new technology applications has been explained. Moreover, the problems of Turkey in this respect as eg. insufficient reading devices, lack of training facilities, inadequate university research and education has been elucidated, and commented upon.Milli Kütüphane’de görme engelliler için geliştirilmiş Konuşan Kitaplık, yeni teknolojiler çerçevesinde anlatılmıştır. Ayrıca Türkiye’de hala görme engelliler için profesyonel okuma programları ulusal d��zeyde çağdaş araç ve gereçlerle donatılmış bir dokümantasyon merkezi bulunmadığı, Bilgi ve Belge Yönetimi Bölümlerinde görme engellilere yönelik bir dersin olmadığı, bu yönde bir eğitimin yapılmadığı, üniversitelerde görme engellilere yönelik akademik çalışmaların yapılmadığı, bu konuda bir teze dahi rastlanmadığı gibi sorunlar ve çözümler anlatılmaktadır.

  11. Semiconductor Detectors; Detectores de Semiconductores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortina, E.

    2007-07-01

    Particle detectors based on semiconductor materials are among the few devices used for particle detection that are available to the public at large. In fact we are surrounded by them in our daily lives: they are used in photoelectric cells for opening doors, in digital photographic and video camera, and in bar code readers at supermarket cash registers. (Author)

  12. Patateste Sürgün Gelişimi Üzerine Uçucu Yağların Etkisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan BAYDAR

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Uzun süreli depolama koşullarında patateste sürgün gelişiminin kontrol altında tutulması oldukça önemlidir. Depo koşullarında sürgün büyümesini durdurmak ve yumru depo ömrünü uzatmak için kimyasal engelleyicilerin kullanımı yaygın bir uygulamadır. Bu araştırmada, farklı konsantrasyonlarda (0, 150 ve 300 mg/L 7 farklı bitkiden (biberiye- Rosmarinus officinalis, İzmir kekiği- Origanum onites, karabaş kekik- Tyhmbra spicata, lavanta- Lavandula hybrida, nane- Mentha spicata, tıbbi adaçayı- Salvia officinalis ve yayla kekiği- Origanum minituflorum izole edilen uçucu yağların ve Karaman kimyonunun ana bileşeni olan S-(+- karvon'un depo koşullarında Justine patates çeşidinin yumrularında sürgün sayısı (adet, sürgün uzunluğu (mm, yaş sürgün ağırlığı (g, kuru sürgün ağırlığı (g, sürgün veren göz oranı (% üzerine olan etkileri incelenmiştir. Çalışmada elde edilen uçucu yağların kimyasal bileşenleri gaz kromatografisi (GC/MS ile analiz edilmiş ve uçucu yağ kompozisyonları belirlenmiştir. Biberiye, yayla kekiği, lavanta, nane ve adaçayı uçucu yağılarının ana bileşenlerinin sıra ile kafur (%40.6, karvakrol (%97.2, linalol (%37.2, karvon (%64.8 ve a-thujon (%23.0 olduğu belirlenmiştir. Karabaş kekiği uçucu yağında, yüksek düzeyde karvakrol (%75.5 yanında %11.6 a-terpinen ve %9.2 p-simen bulunmuştur. Bu araştırmadan elde edilen sonuçlar; patateste depolama sürecinde sürgün gelişimini engellemek amacıyla S-(+-karvon'un etkin olarak kullanılabileceğini, ayrıca diğer uçucu yağların (örneğin kekik ve nane yağlarının da S-(+-karvon kadar etkili olabileceğini göstermiştir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Patates, Solanum Tuberosum, Depolama, Sürgün, Uçucu Yağlar

  13. Korean Gifted Education: DomainSpecific Developmental Focus / Kore Üstün Yetenekliler Eğitimi: Alana-Özgü Gelişimde Odaklanma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seokhee Cho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The current Korean gifted education system is designed to help gifted children have a balance between excellence and emotional and social wellbeing. In this article, the current status of Korean gifted education is presented, reflecting on the history, purpose, theoretical foundation, infrastructure, and state of art of gifted education with statistics. This article concludes with the obstacles that gifted education faces and recommendations for expansion and diversification. Key Words: gifted education, Korea, history, Confucian culture, intra-structure Öz Yürürlükte olan Kore üstün yetenekliler eğitim sistemi, üstün yetenekli öğrencilerin mükemmeliyet, duygusal ve sosyal iyi olma hallerini dengelemelerine yardımcı olacak şekilde tasarlanmıştır. Bu makalede güncel Kore üstün yetenekliler eğitimi, tarihine, amaçlarına, teorik temellerine, altyapısına ve gelişim seviyesine ışık tutacak istatistiklerle birlikte sunulmuştur. Ayrıca üstün yeteneklilerin eğitimlerinde karşılaşılan güçlükler ve önerilere yer verilmiştir. Anahtar Sözcükler: üstün yetenekliler eğitimi, Kore, tarih, Konfüçyüs kültürü, altyapı

  14. Annelerin Ebeveynlik Öz Yeterlik Algıları ile Gelişimi Risk Altında Olan Bebeklerin Gelişimleri Arasındaki İlişkiyi İnceleyen Araştırmalara Bir Bakış

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veysel Aksoy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmanın amacı, ebeveynlerin (özellikle annelerin öz yeterlik düzeyleri ile çocuklarının erken çocukluk dönemindeki gelişimleri arasındaki ilişkiyi inceleyen araştırmaları gözden geçirmektir. Bu amaçla betimsel alan yazın taraması yapılmıştır. Ele alınan makalelerdeki bulgular, annelerin sahip olduğu ebeveyn öz yeterlik algısının düzeyi ile çocukların bilişsel, sosyal ve dil gelişimleri arasında ilişki olduğunu göstermektedir. Ayrıca ebeveynlik öz yeterlik düzeyleri sosyo-ekonomik durum, sosyal destekler, bekâr anne olma ve annelik yaşı gibi değişkenlerden etkilenmektedir. Annelerin öz yeterlikleriyle çocuğun problem davranışları, annelik depresyonu ve stresi gibi değişkenler arasında da ilişkiler olduğu çalışmalarda rapor edilmiştir. The purpose of this study is to overview studies on relationship between the parental self-efficacy levels (especially mothers’ self-efficacy and development of their young children. For this purpose, a narrative literature review was carried out. Based on the review of the literature, it is observed that there are relationships between the parental self-efficacy and children’s cognitive, social and language development. Moreover, parental self-efficacy level is affected by some variables such as socio-economical condition, social supports, being a single mother and mother’s age. Also, studies pointed out that there is a relationship between selfefficacy levels of mothers and child’s problem behaviors, maternal depression and stress.

  15. Caracterização da fração protéica da cianobactéria Aphanothece Microscopica Nägeli cultivada no efluente da parboilização do arroz Protein characterisation of the Aphanothece Microscopica Nägeli cyanobacterium cultivated in parboiled rice effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Jacob-Lopes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a fração protéica da cianobactéria Aphanothece microscopica Nägeli cultivada no efluente da parboilização do arroz quando submetida a diferentes condições de secagem. A produção da biomassa foi realizada a partir da água residuária do processo de parboilização do arroz em bioreatores de coluna de bolhas. A biomassa foi separada do efluente por centrifugação e desidratada em secador descontínuo de bandejas nas condições de 40, 50 e 60ºC e espessuras de bandejas de 5 e 7 mm. O comportamento eletroforético das proteínas da biomassa foi analisado por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamamida na presença de dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS-PAGE e apresentou bandas com peso molecular de 15 kDa a 62,5 kDa. O perfil aminoacídico mostrou teores superiores aos recomendados pelo padrão FAO, com exceção dos aminoácidos lisina e dos sulfurados (MET+CYS. A caracterização funcional, expressa em termos de solubilidade e capacidade emulsificante, demonstrou a influência da condição de secagem na funcionalidade protéica da biomassa.The objective of the present work was to evaluate the protein fraction of Aphanothece microscopica Nägeli cyanobacteria cultivated in the parboiled rice effluent, submitted to different drying conditions. The production of the biomass was done by using wastewater from the process of rice parboiling in a bubble column bioreactor. The biomass was separated from the effluent by centrifugation and dehydrated in a tray dryer at 40, 50 and 60ºC and thicknesses of 5 and 7 mm. The eletroforetic profile of proteins of the biomass was analysed by SDS-PAGE and presented bands with molecular weight between 62.5-15kDa. The amino acid profile was higher than the concentrations recommended by standard FAO, with the exception of the amino acids (LYS and the sulphurated (MET+CYS. The functional properties characterisation in terms of protein solubility and emulsification

  16. Influência dos compostos nitrogenados na concentração de proteína da cianobactéria Aphanothece microscopica Nägeli Influence of nitrogen compounds on the protein concentration of the cyanobacterium Aphanothece microscopica Nägeli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Hornes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência dos compostos nitrogenados na concentração de proteína da cianobactéria Aphanothece microscopica Nägeli quando cultivada em meio de cultivo padrão BG11 e no efluente do processamento de pescado. As condições experimentais foram inóculo de 200 mg.L-1, 30 °C, pH 7,6 e razão C/N 20. As amostras foram retiradas no início, meio e fim da fase logarítmica e da fase estacionária e analisadas quanto à concentração de nitrogênio total, nitrogênio não proteico, amônio, nitrato, nitrito e ácidos nucleicos. Ficou demonstrado em todas as culturas que o íon amônio, juntamente com os ácidos nucleicos, representa uma importante fração do nitrogênio não proteico presente na biomassa. Os resultados mostraram que o meio de cultivo influencia a concentração de nitrogênio e que a determinação de proteína pelo método de Kjeldahl superestima a concentração proteica em cianobactérias.This study aimed to evaluate the influence of nitrogen compounds on the protein concentration of the cyanobacterium Aphanothece microscopica Nägeli cultivated in BG11 medium and fish processing effluent. The experimental conditions were 200 mg L-1 inoculum, 30 °C, pH 7.6, and C/N ratio 20. Each culture was harvested during the early, mid-log, and late logarithmic growth phase and during the stationary phase and analyzed in terms of total nitrogen, non-protein nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite, and nucleic acid. It can be said that in all cultures the ammonium ion and the nucleic acids account for great portion of the non-protein nitrogen in the biomass. The results show that the culture medium influences the nitrogen content, and that the Kjeldahl method overestimates the real protein concentration in cyanobacteria.

  17. Radiation detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi P.

    2017-06-27

    Alpha particle detecting devices are disclosed that have a chamber that can hold a fluid in a tensioned metastable state. The chamber is tuned with a suitable fluid and tension such that alpha emitting materials such as radon and one or more of its decay products can be detected. The devices can be portable and can be placed in areas, such as rooms in dwellings or laboratories and used to measure radon in these areas, in situ and in real time. The disclosed detectors can detect radon at and below 4 pCi/L in air; also, at and below 4,000 pCi/L or 300 pCi/L in water.

  18. Üniversite Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Merkezleri’nin Rol ve İşlevleri: Gelişmeler ve Sınırlılıklar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Ali Gizir

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Son yıllardaki hızlı sosyal, kültürel, ekonomik ve politik değişimlere bağlı olaraküniversite Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik (PDR merkezlerinin rol ve işlevlerinde deönemli değişiklikler meydana gelmektedir. Dolayısıyla, geçmişten günümüze akademik vekariyer gelişimi konusundaki geleneksel temel rollerinin yanı sıra son yıllardaki üniversiteöğrencilerinin kişisel ve sosyal problemlerindeki değişiklikler ve artışlara bağlı olaraküniversite PDR merkezlerinin rol ve işlevlerinin yeniden değerlendirilmesi önem arzetmektedir. Bu bilgiler ışığında, özellikle Türkiye’deki üniversite PDR merkezlerinin rol veişlevlerinin etkinleştirilmesinde yarar sağlayacağı düşünülen bu derleme çalışmasınınamacı, tarihsel gelişim süreciyle birlikte ortaya çıkan ortak temalar doğrultusunda,günümüz üniversite PDR merkezlerinin rol ve işlevlerine yönelik son gelişmeler üzerine birdeğerlendirme yapmak ve Uluslararası Psikolojik Danışma Hizmetleri Derneğinin (IACSakreditasyon standartları temelinde varolan sınırlılıklar ile çözüm önerilerini ortaya koymaktır.

  19. Absisik asit (ABA) uygulamalarının domates (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Fidelerinde bazı fizyolojik ve morfolojik özellikler ile kök gelişim değerlerine etkisi

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

           Çalışma ile farklı doz ve sürelerde uygulanan absisik asit (ABA)'in domates (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fidelerde oluşturduğu stresin; fizyolojik, morfolojik ve gelişim parametrelerine etkisi tespit edilmiş, ABA'nın domates fide yetiştiriciliğinde kullanılabilecek optimum doz ve uygulama süresi belirlenmiştir. Lycopersicon esculentum cv....

  20. Erken Çocukluk Dönemi Dini Gelişim Teorileri Bağlamında Din Eğitimi Religious Education in the Context of Early Childhood Religious Development Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemil ORUÇ

    2013-09-01

    make senseanymore, moving with these approaches lead to many permanentproblems. The child's religious education must be different from adultsin terms of both content and method. In terms of Islamic religiouseducation, doctrinal and normative religious education for children ofthis period can be said to bring harm rather than goodness. During thisperiod, religious education should take into consideration ofcontribution to emotional development, increasing communication andlanguage skills, feeling the sacred and eternal with different dimensionand being familiar with the language of religion. İnsan hayatının önemli bir alanını oluşturan dinin ya da kutsalın kaynağı, gelişimi ve kurumsallaşması konusunda yaklaşık yarım yüzyıldır birçok çalışma yapılmıştır. Bu çalışmalar bize özellikle erken çocukluk döneminin birçok açıdan keşfedilmeyi bekleyen önemli bir gelişim alanı olduğunu göstermektedir. Gelişim psikolojisindeki yaklaşımların konuyu ele alış tarzları farklı olmakla beraber, yaklaşık yedi yaşlarına kadar çocukta canlı bir dini merakın varlığı, özellikle de son dönem araştırmaların çocuk-yetişkin ilişkisini kısmen farklı bir boyutta ele almaları bu dönemdeki din eğitiminin niteliğini de etkiler mahiyettedir. Bu konuda yapılan çalışmaları üç aşamada incelemek mümkündür. İlk aşama Freud, Piaget, Erikson, Jung gibi psikanalitik ve bilişsel psikolojinin önemli temsilcilerinin çalışmalarından etkilenen ilk dini gelişim çalışmalarıdır. İkinci aşama bu teorilerin yanı sıra Kohlberg’in geliştirdiği ahlakî gelişim kuramından etkilenen ikinci dalga dini gelişim teorileridir. Üçüncü aşama ise son yirmi yıldır kültürel antropolojiden etkilenen dini gelişim çalışmalarıdır. Bu çalışmalar kaçınılmaz bir şekilde erken çocukluk dönemi din eğitimini birçok yönüyle etkilemiştir. Çünkü çocuğun yaklaşık yedi yaşlarına kadar dini bir nitelik g

  1. CLIC Detector Power Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Gaddi, A

    2013-01-01

    An estimate for the CLIC detector power requirements is outlined starting from the available data on power consumptions of the four LHC experiments and considering the differences between a typical LHC Detector (CMS) and the CLIC baseline detector concept. In particular the impact of the power pulsing scheme for the CLIC Detector electronics on the overall detector consumption is considered. The document will be updated with the requirements of the sub-detector electronics once they are more defined.

  2. Pixel Vertex Detectors

    OpenAIRE

    Wermes, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    Pixel vertex detectors are THE instrument of choice for the tracking of charged particles close to the interaction point at the LHC. Hybrid pixel detectors, in which sensor and read-out IC are separate entities, constitute the present state of the art in detector technology. Three of the LHC detectors use vertex detectors based on this technology. A development period of almost 10 years has resulted in pixel detector modules which can stand the extreme rate and timing requirements as well as ...

  3. MUON DETECTOR

    CERN Multimedia

    F. Gasparini

    DT As announced in the previous Bulletin MU DT completed the installation of the vertical chambers of barrel wheels 0, +1 and +2. 242 DT and RPC stations are now installed in the negative barrel wheels. The missing 8 (4 in YB-1 and 4 in YB-2) chambers can be installed only after the lowering of the two wheels into the UX cavern, which is planned for the last quarter of the year. Cabling on the surface of the negative wheels was finished in May after some difficulties with RPC cables. The next step was to begin the final commissioning of the wheels with the final trigger and readout electronics. Priority was giv¬en to YB0 in order to check everything before the chambers were covered by cables and services of the inner detectors. Commissioning is not easy since it requires both activity on the central and positive wheels underground, as well as on the negative wheels still on the surface. The DT community is requested to commission the negative wheels on surface to cope with a possible lack of time a...

  4. Developing a Career Adaptability and Optimism ScaleKariyer Uyumu ve İyimserliği Ölçeği’ nin geliştirilmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cennet Erdoğmuş Zorver

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the Career Adaptability and Optimism Scale (CAOS was developed for the purpose of evaluating the career adaptability and optimism of the individuals who making the transition from school to work. The participants in this study consisted of three separate groups, totalling 577 individuals, whose responses who utilized for the for pilot, validity and reliability studies.  The participants were senior students studying at state or private universities in 2009-2010 spring and 2010-2011 fall terms (N=281 as well as individuals who were recently graduated from different universities within the preceding 2 years (N= 296 but not working now. A uni-dimensional structure having a quite good adaptability index has been obtained regarding the 18 itemed CAOS during the exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the validity studies. The Cronbach alpha coefficient of CAOS was .93 and test-retest reliability was .85. There is a meaningful relation r=, 60 (p<.01 between the Vocational Outcome Expectations Scale (VOES of CAOS. These results have been assessed as the indicators that the scale is valid and reliable. ÖzetBu çalışmada okuldan işe geçiş dönemindeki bireylerin kariyer uyumu ve iyimserliğini değerlendirmeye yönelik “Kariyer Uyumu ve İyimserliği Ölçeği (KUİÖ” geliştirilmiştir.  Ölçeğin pilot uygulaması, geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışmaları üç farklı grupla yapılmıştır. Araştırmanın katılımcılarını 2009– 2010 bahar ve 2010-2011 güz döneminde devlet veya vakıf üniversitesine giden lisans son sınıf (N=281 öğrencileriyle, farklı üniversitelerdenyeni mezun ve bir ya da iki yıl önce mezun olmuş (N=296 fakat bir işte çalışmayan lisans mezunları olmak üzere toplam 577 kişi oluşturmaktadır. Geçerlik çalışmaları kapsamında yapılan açımlayıcı ve doğrulayıcı faktör analizi sonuçlarına göre KUİÖ’ye ilişkin 18 maddelik, tek boyutlu ve oldukça iyi uyum

  5. Book Review/ KİTAP İNCELEMELERİ: Üstün Zekâlı Olarak Büyümek: Evde ve Okulda Çocukların Potansiyellerini Geliştirmek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülkü Ayvaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available “Üstün Zekâlı Olarak Büyümek: Evde ve Okulda Çocukların Potansiyellerini Geliştirmek” kitabı, “Growing Up Gifted: developing the Potential of Children at School and at Home” adlı kitabın sekizinci basımından Türkçe ‘ye çevrilmiştir. Kitap üstün zekâlı çocukların kimler olduğuna, eğitimlerine ve gelişimlerine katkıda bulunmak için hangi yöntemlerin kullanılabileceğine ilişkin hem eğitimcilere hem de ebeveynlere bir bakış açısı sunmaktadır. Bu bağlamda kitap üstün zekâlı öğrencileri anlamak, üstün zekâlı ve yetenekli öğrencilerin eğitimi ve üstün zekâlı öğrenciler için etkili programlar ve hizmetler sunma olmak üzere üç üniteden oluşmaktadır. Kitabın birinci ünitesinde dört bölüm bulunmaktadır. İlk bölümde üstün zekâlı ve yetenekli öğrencilerin kimler olduğu incelenmektedir. Bu bölümde zekâ hakkındaki görüşler, kalıtım ve çevre açısından zekânın gelişimi ve zekâ, üstün zekâ ve yetenek tanımlar ele alınmaktadır. İkinci bölüm üstün zekânın gelişimine odaklanmaktadır. Bölümde üstün zekâlı çocuklar ve aileleri başlığı altında okulda aile desteğinin önemine, aile eğitim programına ve aileler için önerilere yer verilmektedir. Üstün zekâlı öğrencilerin tanılamaya yönlendirilmesi için onları diğer öğrencilerden ayıran özelliklerinin bilinmesi önemlidir; bu nedenle bölümde aileye ilişkin konuların yanı sıra yüksek ve çok yüksek düzeyde üstün zekâlı bireylerin kimler olduğuna ve ne özelliklere sahip olduğuna odaklanılmaktadır. Ayrıca bölümde doğumdan iki yaşa kadar olan süreçte üstün zekâlılığın başlangıcına ve sonrasında gelişimin desteklenmesi için erken eğitimin önemine değinilmektedir. Erken eğitime vurgu yapılmasının yanı sıra ergenlik döneminin sorunlu bir geçiş dönemi olması sebebiyle üstün zekâlı öğrencilerin ergenlik döneminde ya

  6. The MINOS Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Grashorn, A H E W

    2005-01-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) experiment's primary goal is the precision measurement of the neutrino oscillation parameters in the atmospheric neutrino sector. This long-baseline experiment uses Fermilab's NuMI beam, measured with a Near Detector at Fermilab, and again 735 km later using a Far Detector in the Soudan Mine Underground Lab in northern Minnesota. The detectors are magnetized iron/scintillator calorimeters. The Far Detector has been operational for cosmic ray and atmospheric neutrino data from July of 2003, the Near Detector from September 2004, and the NuMI beam started in early 2005. This poster presents details of the two detectors.

  7. GADRAS Detector Response Function.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Dean J.; Harding, Lee; Thoreson, Gregory G; Horne, Steven M.

    2014-11-01

    The Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) applies a Detector Response Function (DRF) to compute the output of gamma-ray and neutron detectors when they are exposed to radiation sources. The DRF is fundamental to the ability to perform forward calculations (i.e., computation of the response of a detector to a known source), as well as the ability to analyze spectra to deduce the types and quantities of radioactive material to which the detectors are exposed. This document describes how gamma-ray spectra are computed and the significance of response function parameters that define characteristics of particular detectors.

  8. The TALE Tower Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, D. R.

    The TA Low Energy Extension will include a Tower FluorescenceDetector. Extensive air showers at the lowest usful energies for fluorescence detectors will in general be close to the detector. This requires viewing all elevation angles to be able to reconstruct showers. The TALE Tower Detector, operating in conjunction with other TALE detectors will view elevation angles up to above 70 degrees, with an azimuthal coverage of about 90 degrees. Results from a prototype mirror operated in conjunction with the HiRes detector will also be presented.

  9. Türkiye’de Geliştirilmiş Seyir Konsepti Uygulamalarının Delphi Tekniği İle Değerlendirilmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güler BİLEN ALKAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Deniz taşımacılığında gemilerin, deniz çevresinin emniyeti ve korunması için yapılan çalışmalar son zamanlarda teknolojik gelişmelerden faydalanarak olası deniz kazalarındaki insan faktörünün azaltılmasına odaklanmaya başlamıştır. Özellikle Baltık Denizi’nde pilot uygulaması yapılan Mona Lisa projesi, Kuzey Deniz bölge projesi olan ACCSEAS, Avrupa Birliği ülkelerince hazırlanan EfficienSea projesi, Malakka ve Singapur Boğazları’nda pilot uygulaması yapılmakta olan MEHDP vb. projeler bunun en güzel örnekleridir. Türk Boğazları’nda günümüze kadar gerçekleşmiş deniz kazaları ve hali hazırda Boğazları kullanan gemilerden doğması muhtemel riskler göz önünde bulundurulduğunda, bu projelere benzer bir uygulamanın hayata geçirilmesi Türk Boğazları’nın geleceği açısından çok büyük bir önem arz etmektedir. Bu çalışmadaki gaye ise geliştirilmiş seyir konseptinin bir nevi temelini oluşturan bu projelerde de olduğu gibi gemi ve deniz çevresi açısından insan faktörünü minimize etmek ve Delphi Tekniği’ni kullanarak Türkiye’deki geliştirilmiş seyir uygulamalarının mevcut durumu ve potansiyeline ilişkin genel bir değerlendirme ortaya çıkarmak olacaktır

  10. Üç Boyutlu Sanal Dünyalarda Öğretim Materyalleri Geliştiren Tasarımcıların Karşılaştıkları Sorunlar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MURAT ÇOBAN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Özet: Üç boyutlu (3B sanal dünya platformlarının eğitim-öğretim sürecinde başarılı bir şekilde kullanılabilmesi ve yaygınlaşabilmesi için bu platformların sınırlılıklarının ve yaşanması muhtemel sorunlarının daha açık belirlenmesi gerekir. Bu araştırmanın amacı da; 3B sanal dünyalarda öğretim materyalleri geliştiren tasarımcıların karşılaştıkları sorunları belirlemeye çalışmaktır. Araştırmada öğretim tasarımcısı adayları (ÖTA bir eğitim-öğretim dönemi boyunca 3B Open Sim ortamında öğretim materyalleri tasarlamış ve geliştirmişlerdir. Süreçte veri toplama aracı olarak; yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme rehberi, tasarım görüntüleri ve iletişim ortamı olarak kullanılan Facebook kayıtları kullanılmıştır. Araştırmadan elde edilen veriler nitel araştırma yöntemleri kullanılarak betimlenmeye çalışılmıştır. Geliştirme sürecinde öğretim tasarımcısı adayları 3B Open Sim yazılımıyla ilgili yeterince Türkçe kaynak bulamadıklarını, teknik ve donanımsal sorunlarla karşılaştıklarını belirtmişlerdir. Anahtar sözcükler: Sanal dünyalar, 3B Open Simülatör (Open Sim, öğretim materyali, materyal tasarımı.

  11. Drift Chambers detectors; Detectores de deriva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, I.; Martinez laso, L.

    1989-07-01

    We present here a review of High Energy Physics detectors based on drift chambers. The ionization, drift diffusion, multiplication and detection principles are described. Most common drift media are analysed, and a classification of the detectors according to its geometry is done. Finally the standard read-out methods are displayed and the limits of the spatial resolution are discussed. (Author) 115 refs.

  12. Thermal kinetic inductance detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecil, Thomas; Gades, Lisa; Miceli, Antonio; Quaranta, Orlando

    2016-12-20

    A microcalorimeter for radiation detection that uses superconducting kinetic inductance resonators as the thermometers. The detector is frequency-multiplexed which enables detector systems with a large number of pixels.

  13. Forward tracking detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Klaus Mönig

    2007-11-01

    Forward tracking is an essential part of a detector at the international linear collider (ILC). The requirements for forward tracking are explained and the proposed solutions in the detector concepts are shown.

  14. The OSMOND detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, J.E. [Technology Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Dalgliesh, R. [ISIS Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Duxbury, D.M., E-mail: dom.duxbury@stfc.ac.uk [Technology Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Helsby, W.I. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Daresbury Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Holt, S.A.; Kinane, C.J. [ISIS Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Marsh, A.S. [Diamond Light Source LTD, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Diamond House, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Rhodes, N.J.; Schooneveld, E.M. [ISIS Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Spill, E.J.; Stephenson, R. [Technology Dept. Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-11

    The development and testing of the Off Specular MicrOstrip Neutron Detector (OSMOND) is described. Based on a microstrip gas chamber the aim of the project was to produce a high counting rate detector capable of replacing the existing rate limited scintillator detectors currently in use on the CRISP reflectometer for off specular reflectometry experiments. The detector system is described together with results of neutron beam tests carried out at the ISIS spallation neutron source.

  15. Gelişimsel Yetersizliği Olan Çocukların Annelerinin, Dil Edinimine ve Dilin Desteklenmesine İlişkin Görüşlerinin İncelenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyhun Servi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, annelerin gelişimsel yetersizliği olan çocuklarının dil edinimine, dil gelişimlerinin desteklenmesine ve çocuklarının iletişim ve dil performanslarına ilişkin düşünceleri incelenmiştir. Çalışmaya, gelişimsel geriliği bulunan ve yaşları 30-60 aylar arasında çocuğu olan 14 anne katılmıştır. Annelerin eğitim düzeyleri en az lise mezunu olarak belirlenmiştir. Çocukların hepsinde iletişim ve dil ile ilgili gerilik bulunmaktadır. Araştırmada yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme tekniği ile veriler toplanmıştır. Annelere, dil edinimine, çocuklarının dil ve iletişim performanslarına ve dil gelişimi desteklenmesine yönelik görüşleri sorulmuştur. Anneler, dil ve iletişim becerilerinin çocuklar tarafından taklitle, herhangi bir etki olmadan kendi başlarına ya da çevre ile sosyal etkileşime girilerek edinildiğini ifade etmişlerdir. Dil ve iletişim becerilerini desteklemede, taklide dayalı tekniklerin, çocuğun ilgisini çeken etkinliklerin ve doğal yöntemlerin etkili olduğunu dile getirmişlerdir. Çocuklarının dil ve iletişim performanslarını ise alıcı dili iyi ifade edemiyor, sözel dili tercih etmiyor ve söylediklerimizi anlamıyor Ģeklinde belirtmişlerdir. Sonuç olarak anneler, çocukların dil ediniminde taklidin etkili olduğunu ve çocuklarının söylenenleri anladıklarını ancak sözel olarak ifade edemediklerini düşünmektedirler. This study examined the views of mothers on the language acquisition and their children‟s language performance. Also mothers‟ views in supporting language development and communication skills has been investigated. The participants were 14 mothers who had children having developmental disabilities and their children aged between 30-60 months old. The education levels of the mothers were at least high school. All children had disability related to communication and language. In the study, the data were gathered

  16. Servikal nöral foraminal bölge ve uncinate çıkıntının embriolojik gelişimi ve anatomisinin klinikle ilişkilendirilmesi

    OpenAIRE

    BROHİ, Recep Ali

    2012-01-01

    Servikal bölge ile ilgili yapılan anatomik ve morfometrik çalışmaların büyük çoğunluğunda erişkin kadavra ve kemikleri kullanılmıştır. Servikal bölgenin ve bu bölge ile patolojilerde önemli rol oynayan uncinate proses ve servikal nöral foramen ile ilgili çalışmalar literatürde bulunsa da bu iki yapının embriolojik gelişimi yeterin...

  17. The CAPRICE RICH detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basini, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Codino, A.; Grimani, C. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); De Pascale, M.P. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Sezione Univ. `Tor Vergata` Rome (Italy); Cafagna, F. [Bari Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Bari (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Brancaccio, F.; Bocciolini, M. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Barbiellini, G.; Boezio, M. [Trieste Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Trieste (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    A compact RICH detector has been developed and used for particle identification in a balloon borne spectrometer to measure the flux of antimatter in the cosmic radiation. This is the first RICH detector ever used in space experiments that is capable of detecting unit charged particles, such as antiprotons. The RICH and all other detectors performed well during the 27 hours long flight.

  18. Socialsensitivity development about the problem of childbridesÇocuk gelinler sorununa toplumsal duyarlılık geliştirme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahit Margirit Coşkun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to raise awareness among university students through informing about child brides, which is an important women's health issue in the world and in our country and to contribute to the development of their social responsibility awareness. This qualitative descriptive study was conducted between May 2014 and May 2015 with 30 university student volunteers and 1252 individuals they reached after obtaining their informed consent. In the first stage of the study, an interactive training program was implemented by the expert team. Visual, written documents and documentation forms they would use were introduced and these materials were given to volunteers. In the second stage, students were asked to give education to 15 individuals and 10 groups in their environment during their summer holiday. In the final stage, focus group discussion (FGD was performed to determine the experiences of students who participated in the study and their views on the project. Quantitative data were evaluated using percentage and mean values on computer, while qualitative data were evaluated by thematic analysis. It was determined that, students gave totally 377 individual counseling and 136 group education. In the results of the FGD, students stated that they found the training program adequate, satisfying and comprehensive and that they found themselves competent enough to take their shyness away. The idea that the project reached its goal was shared, and it was stated that the people they informed were impressed and their awareness were increased.   Özet Çalışmamız, dünyada ve ülkemizde önemli bir kadın sağlığı sorunu olan çocuk gelinler konusunda üniversite öğrencilerini bilgilendirerek farkındalıklarını artırmak, sosyal sorumluluk bilinci geliştirmelerine katkıda bulunmak amacıyla yapıldı. Mayıs 2014-Mayıs 2015 tarihleri arasında kalitatif tipte tanımlayıcı yöntemle gerçekleştirilen çalışma, gönüllü ve

  19. Equalized near maximum likelihood detector

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents new detector that is used to mitigate intersymbol interference introduced by bandlimited channels. This detector is named equalized near maximum likelihood detector which combines nonlinear equalizer and near maximum likelihood detector. Simulation results show that the performance of equalized near maximum likelihood detector is better than the performance of nonlinear equalizer but worse than near maximum likelihood detector.

  20. High-energy detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E [South Setauket, NY; Camarda, Giuseppe [Farmingville, NY; Cui, Yonggang [Upton, NY; James, Ralph B [Ridge, NY

    2011-11-22

    The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

    1. The DØ detector

      Science.gov (United States)

      Abachi, S.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adam, I.; Ahn, S.; Aihara, H.; Alvarez, G.; Alves, G. A.; Amos, N.; Anderson, W.; Antipov, Yu.; Aronson, S. H.; Astur, R.; Avery, R. E.; Baden, A.; Balderston, J.; Baldin, B.; Bantly, J.; Barasch, E.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bazizi, K.; Behnke, T.; Bezzubov, V.; Bhat, P. C.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Boehnlein, A.; Borcherding, F.; Borders, J.; Bozko, N.; Brandt, A.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Buchholz, D.; Burtovoy, V.; Butler, J. M.; Callot, O.; Chakraborty, D.; Chekulaev, S.; Chen, J.; Chen, L.-P.; Chen, W.; Choudhary, B. C.; Christenson, J. H.; Claes, D.; Clark, A. R.; Cobau, W. G.; Cochran, J.; Cooper, W. E.; Cretsinger, C.; Cullen-Vidal, D.; Cummings, M.; Cutts, D.; Dahl, O. I.; Daniels, B.; De, K.; Demarteau, M.; Denisenko, K.; Denisenko, N.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S.; Dharmaratna, W.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Dixon, R.; Draper, P.; Ducros, Y.; Durston-Johnson, S.; Eartly, D.; Eberhard, P. H.; Edmunds, D.; Efimov, A.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Engelmann, R.; Eroshin, O.; Evdokimov, V.; Fahey, S.; Fanourakis, G.; Fatyga, M.; Featherly, J.; Feher, S.; Fein, D.; Ferbel, T.; Finley, D.; Finocchiaro, G.; Fisk, H. E.; Flattum, E.; Forden, G. E.; Fortner, M.; Franzini, P.; Fuess, S.; Gallas, E.; Gao, C. S.; Geld, T. L.; Genser, K.; Gerber, C. E.; Gibbard, B.; Glebov, V.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gobbi, B.; Goforth, M.; Good, M. L.; Goozen, F.; Gordon, H.; Graf, N.; Grannis, P. D.; Green, D. R.; Green, J.; Greenlee, H.; Grossman, N.; Grudberg, P.; Guida, J. A.; Guida, J. M.; Guryn, W.; Hadley, N. J.; Haggerty, H.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hall, R. E.; Hansen, S.; Hauptman, J.; Hedin, D.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Heuring, T.; Hirosky, R.; Hodel, K.; Hoftun, J. S.; Hubbard, J. R.; Huehn, T.; Huson, R.; Igarashi, S.; Ito, A. S.; James, E.; Jiang, J.; Johns, K.; Johnson, C. R.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jones, M.; Jöstlein, H.; Jung, C. K.; Kahn, S.; Kanekal, S.; Kernan, A.; Kerth, L.; Kirunin, A.; Klatchko, A.; Klima, B.; Klochkov, B.; Klopfenstein, C.; Klyukhin, V.; Kochetkov, V.; Kohli, J. M.; Kononenko, W.; Kotcher, J.; Kotov, I.; Kourlas, J.; Kozelov, A.; Kozlovsky, E.; Krafczyk, G.; Krempetz, K.; Krishnaswamy, M. R.; Kroon, P.; Krzywdzinski, S.; Kunori, S.; Lami, S.; Landsberg, G.; Lanou, R. E.; Laurens, P.; Lee-Franzini, J.; Li, J.; Li, R.; Li-Demarteau, Q. Z.; Lima, J. G. R.; Linn, S. L.; Linnemann, J.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Y.-C.; Lloyd-Owen, D.; Lobkowicz, F.; Loken, S. C.; Lokos, S.; Lueking, L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Madaras, R. J.; Madden, R.; Malamud, E.; Mangeot, Ph.; Manning, I.; Mansoulié, B.; Manzella, V.; Mao, H.-S.; Marcin, M.; Markosky, L.; Marshall, T.; Martin, H. J.; Martin, M. I.; Martin, P. S.; Marx, M.; May, B.; Mayorov, A.; McCarthy, R.; McKinley, J.; Mendoza, D.; Meng, X.-C.; Merritt, K. W.; Milder, A.; Mincer, A.; Mondal, N. K.; Montag, M.; Mooney, P.; Mudan, M.; Mulholland, G. T.; Murphy, C.; Murphy, C. T.; Nang, F.; Narain, M.; Narasimham, V. S.; Neal, H. A.; Nemethy, P.; Nešić, D.; Ng, K. K.; Norman, D.; Oesch, L.; Oguri, V.; Oltman, E.; Oshima, N.; Owen, D.; Pang, M.; Para, A.; Park, C. H.; Partridge, R.; Paterno, M.; Peryshkin, A.; Peters, M.; Pi, B.; Piekarz, H.; Pischalnikov, Yu.; Pizzuto, D.; Pluquet, A.; Podstavkov, V.; Pope, B. G.; Prosper, H. B.; Protopopescu, S.; Que, Y.-K.; Quintas, P. Z.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Raja, R.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rao, M. V. S.; Rasmussen, L.; Read, A. L.; Regan, T.; Repond, S.; Riadovikov, V.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Roe, N. A.; Rubinov, P.; Rutherfoord, J.; Santoro, A.; Sawyer, L.; Schamberger, R. D.; Sculli, J.; Selove, W.; Shea, M.; Shkurenkov, A.; Shupe, M.; Singh, J. B.; Sirotenko, V.; Smart, W.; Smith, A.; Smith, D.; Smith, R. P.; Snow, G. R.; Snyder, S.; Sosebee, M.; Souza, M.; Spadafora, A. L.; Stampke, S.; Stephens, R.; Stevenson, M. L.; Stewart, D.; Stocker, F.; Stoyanova, D.; Stredde, H.; Streets, K.; Strovink, M.; Suhanov, A.; Taketani, A.; Tartaglia, M.; Taylor, J. D.; Teiger, J.; Theodosiou, G.; Thompson, J.; Tisserant, S.; Trippe, T. G.; Tuts, P. M.; Van Berg, R.; Vaz, M.; Vishwanath, P. R.; Volkov, A.; Vorobiev, A.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, D.-C.; Wang, L.-Z.; Weerts, H.; Wenzel, W. A.; White, A.; White, J. T.; Wightman, J.; Willis, S.; Wimpenny, S. J.; Wolf, Z.; Womersley, J.; Wood, D. R.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xie, P.; Xu, H.; Yamada, R.; Yamin, P.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yang, J.; Yang, M.-J.; Yoshikawa, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, J.; Zeller, R.; Zhang, S.; Zhou, Y. H.; Zhu, Q.; Zhu, Y.-S.; Zieminska, D.; Zieminski, A.; Zinchenko, A.; Zylberstejn, A.; DØ Collaboration

      1994-01-01

      The DØ detector is a large general purpose detector for the study of short-distance phenomena in high energy antiproton-proton collisions, now in operation at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. The detector focusses upon the detection of electrons, muons, jets and missing transverse momentum. We describe the design and performance of the major elements of the detector, including the tracking chambers, transition radiation detector, liquid argon calorimetry and muon detection. The associated electronics, triggering systems and data acquisition systems are presented. The global mechanical, high voltage, and experiment monitoring and control systems which support the detector are described. We also discuss the design and implementation of software and software support systems that are specific to DØ.

    2. Noble Gas Detectors

      CERN Document Server

      Aprile, Elena; Bolozdynya, Alexander I; Doke, Tadayoshi

      2006-01-01

      This book discusses the physical properties of noble fluids, operational principles of detectors based on these media, and the best technical solutions to the design of these detectors. Essential attention is given to detector technology: purification methods and monitoring of purity, information readout methods, electronics, detection of hard ultra-violet light emission, selection of materials, cryogenics etc.The book is mostly addressed to physicists and graduate students involved in the preparation of fundamental next generation experiments, nuclear engineers developing instrumentation

    3. ATLAS inner detector performance

      CERN Document Server

      Gadomski, S

      2001-01-01

      The ATLAS Inner Detector consists of three subsystems using different tracking detector technologies: silicon pixels, silicon strips and straw tubes. The combination gives ATLAS a robust, hermetic and efficient tracking system, able to reconstruct tracks at the highest foreseen LHC luminosities. The inner detector provides vertex and momentum measurements, electron identification and some $K/\\pi$ separation. Since last year the beam pipe of ATLAS was changed, causing a redesign of the first tracking layer and a deterioration of the impact parameter resolutions.

    4. LHCb Detector Performance

      CERN Document Server

      AUTHOR|(CDS)2075808; Adeva, Bernardo; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Geraci, Angelo; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Pessina, Gianluigi; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skillicorn, Ian; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilschut, Hans; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

      2015-01-01

      The LHCb detector is a forward spectrometer at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The experiment is designed for precision measurements of CP violation and rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons. In this paper the performance of the various LHCb sub-detectors and the trigger system are described, using data taken from 2010 to 2012. It is shown that the design criteria of the experiment have been met. The excellent performance of the detector has allowed the LHCb collaboration to publish a wide range of physics results, demonstrating LHCb's unique role, both as a heavy flavour experiment and as a general purpose detector in the forward region.

    5. ALFA Detector Control System

      CERN Document Server

      Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

      2015-01-01

      ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS/LHC. The ALFA system is composed by two stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from each side of the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronic for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

    6. ALFA Detector Control System

      CERN Document Server

      Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

      2015-01-01

      ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) is one of the sub-detectors of ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus). The ALFA system is composed by four stations installed in the LHC tunnel 240 m away from the ATLAS interaction point. Each station has a vacuum and ventilation system, movement control and all the required electronics for signal processing. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of several components and ensures the safe operation of the detector contributing to good Data Quality. This paper describes the ALFA DCS system including a detector overview, operation aspects and hardware control through a SCADA system, WinCC OA.

    7. Photocapacitive MIS infrared detectors

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sher, A.; Lu, S. S.-M.; Moriarty, J. A.; Crouch, R. K.; Miller, W. E.

      1978-01-01

      A new class of room-temperature infrared detectors has been developed through use of metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) or metal-insulator-semiconductor-insulator-metal (MISIM) slabs. The detectors, which have been fabricated from Si, Ge and GaAs, rely for operation on the electrical capacitance variations induced by modulated incident radiation. The peak detectivity for a 1000-A Si MISIM detector is comparable to that of a conventional Si detector functioning in the photovoltaic mode. Optimization of the photocapacitive-mode detection sensitivity is discussed.

    8. Zihin Kuramı: Otizm Spektrum Bozukluğu Olan ve Normal Gelişen Çocukların Performanslarının Karşılaştırılması

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Bahar KEÇELİ KAYSILI

      2013-01-01

      Full Text Available Nedensel karşılaştırma deseni kullanılarak planlanan bu araştırmada, otizm spektrum bozukluğu (OSB olan ve normal gelişen (NG çocukların, zihin kuramı performansları ve bu alandaki performansların genel dil ve kronolojik yaşla ilişkisi incelenmiştir. Araştırma grubunu, Türkçe Erken Dil Gelişimi Testi (TEDİL ifade edici dil eşdeğer yaşları en az 4 olan 30 OSB olan ve 30 NG çocuk oluşturmuştur. OSB olan ve NG çocuklar ortalama sözce uzunluğuna (OSU göre eşleştirilmişlerdir. Zihin kuramı becerileri bir grup işlemle değerlendirilmiştir. Araştırma sonuçları, dilde OSU’ ya göre eşleştirilen OSB olan çocuklarla NG çocukların zihin kuramı performanslarının benzer olduğunu, her iki grupta da dilin, zihin kuramı ile ilişkili olduğunu ancak NG çocuklarda dile ek olarak kronolojik yaşın da zihin kuramı ile ilişkili olduğunu göstermiştir. This study examined the theory of mind (ToM performance and the relationship between language, chronological age and theory of mind in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD and in typically developing (TD children by utilizing the ex-post-facto design. The participants were 30 children with ASD and 30 TD children whose Test of Early Language Development (TELD - Turkish Version expressive language age scores were at least 4 years old. Children with ASD and TD children were matched on mean length of utterance (MLU. ToM ability was assessed on a battery of tasks that have developmental sequence. The findings revealed that the children with ASD and TD children who were matched according to MLU, performed similarly on ToM tasks. Besides language was related to the performance on ToM tasks in children with ASD and in TD children whereas also chronological age is related to the performance on ToM tasks in TD children.

    9. ALICE Photon Multiplicity Detector

      CERN Multimedia

      Nayak, T

      2013-01-01

      Photon Multiplicity Detector (PMD) measures the multiplicity and spatial distribution of photons in the forward region of ALICE on a event-by-event basis. PMD is a pre-shower detector having fine granularity and full azimuthal coverage in the pseudo-rapidity region 2.3 < η < 3.9.

    10. Detector Systems at CLIC

      CERN Document Server

      Simon, Frank

      2011-01-01

      The Compact Linear Collider CLIC is designed to deliver e+e- collisions at a center of mass energy of up to 3 TeV. The detector systems at this collider have to provide highly efficient tracking and excellent jet energy resolution and hermeticity for multi-TeV final states with multiple jets and leptons. In addition, the detector systems have to be capable of distinguishing physics events from large beam-induced background at a crossing frequency of 2 GHz. Like for the detector concepts at the ILC, CLIC detectors are based on event reconstruction using particle flow algorithms. The two detector concepts for the ILC, ILD and SID, were adapted for CLIC using calorimeters with dense absorbers limiting leakage through increased compactness, as well as modified forward and vertex detector geometries and precise time stamping to cope with increased background levels. The overall detector concepts for CLIC are presented, with particular emphasis on the main detector and engineering challenges, such as: the ultra-thi...

    11. ALICE Silicon Strip Detector

      CERN Multimedia

      Nooren, G

      2013-01-01

      The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) constitutes the two outermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE Experiment. The SSD plays a crucial role in the tracking of the particles produced in the collisions connecting the tracks from the external detectors (Time Projection Chamber) to the ITS. The SSD also contributes to the particle identification through the measurement of their energy loss.

    12. CMS Detector Posters

      CERN Multimedia

      2016-01-01

      CMS Detector posters (produced in 2000): CMS installation CMS collaboration From the Big Bang to Stars LHC Magnetic Field Magnet System Trackering System Tracker Electronics Calorimetry Eletromagnetic Calorimeter Hadronic Calorimeter Muon System Muon Detectors Trigger and data aquisition (DAQ) ECAL posters (produced in 2010, FR & EN): CMS ECAL CMS ECAL-Supermodule cooling and mechatronics CMS ECAL-Supermodule assembly

    13. Pixel detector readout chip

      CERN Multimedia

      1991-01-01

      Close-up of a pixel detector readout chip. The photograph shows an aera of 1 mm x 2 mm containing 12 separate readout channels. The entire chip contains 1000 readout channels (around 80 000 transistors) covering a sensitive area of 8 mm x 5 mm. The chip has been mounted on a silicon detector to detect high energy particles.

    14. The LDC detector concept

      Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

      Ties Behnke; LDC Concept Group

      2007-11-01

      In preparation of the experimental program at the international linear collider (ILC), the large detector concept (LDC) is being developed. The main points of the LDC are a large volume gaseous tracking system, combined with high precision vertex detector and an extremely granular calorimeter. The main design force behind the LDC is the particle flow concept.

    15. Görme Engellilere Yönelik Kütüphanecilik Hizmetlerinde Türkiye'deki Son Gelişmeler: Gazi Üniversitesi Merkez Kütüphanesi Görme Engelliler Bölümü Örneği

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Meliha Kazak

      2008-06-01

      Full Text Available Bu makalede görme engellilerin kullandığı Braille alfabesinin tarihçesi, görme engellilere yönelik kütüphanecilik hizmetlerinde Türkiye 'deki son gelişmeler ve bu hizmetlerin verilmesinde karşılaşılan sorunlar ile çözüm önerileri yer almaktadır. Ayrıca Gazi Üniversitesi Görme Engelliler Bölümü 'nün kuruluşu, gelişimi, kullanıcılarına sunduğu hizmetler ve ileriye yönelik hedefleri anlatılmaktadır.

    16. Introduction to detectors

      CERN Document Server

      Walenta, Albert H

      1995-01-01

      Concepts for momentum measurements,particle identification and energy measurements (calorimeters) as well for imaging applications in medecine, biology and industry (non destructive testing) will be put into relation to the specific detection princip In particular the resolution for position, time, energy and intensity measurement and the efficiency will be discussed. Signal extraction,electronic signal processing and principles of information capture will close the logic circle to the input : the radiation properties.The lecture will provide some sources for data tables and small demonstration computer programs f The basic detector physics as interaction of radiation with matter, information transport via free charges,photons and phonons and the signal formation will be presented in some depth with emphasis on the influence on specific parameters for detector The lecture will cover the most popular detector principles, gas detectors (ion chambers,MPWC's and MSGC's), semiconductor detectors scintillators and ...

    17. Nanomechanical resonance detector

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Grossman, Jeffrey C; Zettl, Alexander K

      2013-10-29

      An embodiment of a nanomechanical frequency detector includes a support structure and a plurality of elongated nanostructures coupled to the support structure. Each of the elongated nanostructures has a particular resonant frequency. The plurality of elongated nanostructures has a range of resonant frequencies. An embodiment of a method of identifying an object includes introducing the object to the nanomechanical resonance detector. A resonant response by at least one of the elongated nanostructures of the nanomechanical resonance detector indicates a vibrational mode of the object. An embodiment of a method of identifying a molecular species of the present invention includes introducing the molecular species to the nanomechanical resonance detector. A resonant response by at least one of the elongated nanostructures of the nanomechanical resonance detector indicates a vibrational mode of the molecular species.

    18. The PERDaix detector

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Bachlechner, Andreas; Beischer, Bastian; Greim, Roman [I. Physikalisches Institut B, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen 52056 (Germany); Kirn, Thomas, E-mail: kirn@physik.rwth-aachen.de [I. Physikalisches Institut B, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen 52056 (Germany); Mai, Carsten; Yearwood, Gregorio Roper; Schael, Stefan; Schug, David; Tholen, Heiner; Wienkenhoever, Jens [I. Physikalisches Institut B, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen 52056 (Germany)

      2012-12-11

      The PERDaix (Proton Electron Radiation Detector Aix-la-Chapelle) detector is designed to measure charged particles in cosmic rays. It can distinguish particle species up to 5 GV rigidity. PERDaix was flown on the BEXUS-11 balloon on 23rd November 2010. The detector has the dimensions of 246 Multiplication-Sign 400 Multiplication-Sign 859 mm{sup 3}, a geometrical acceptance of 32 cm{sup 2}sr, a low weight of 40 kg and a low power consumption of 60 W. The spectrometer consists of a time-of-flight system, a scintillating fiber tracking detector, a permanent magnet and a transition radiation detector. Silicon photomultipliers are used as photodetectors in the time-of-flight and the tracker system.

    19. The PERDaix detector

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bachlechner, Andreas; Beischer, Bastian; Greim, Roman; Kirn, Thomas; Mai, Carsten; Yearwood, Gregorio Roper; Schael, Stefan; Schug, David; Tholen, Heiner; Wienkenhöver, Jens

      2012-12-01

      The PERDaix (Proton Electron Radiation Detector Aix-la-Chapelle) detector is designed to measure charged particles in cosmic rays. It can distinguish particle species up to 5 GV rigidity. PERDaix was flown on the BEXUS-11 balloon on 23rd November 2010. The detector has the dimensions of 246×400×859 mm3, a geometrical acceptance of 32 cm2sr, a low weight of 40 kg and a low power consumption of 60 W. The spectrometer consists of a time-of-flight system, a scintillating fiber tracking detector, a permanent magnet and a transition radiation detector. Silicon photomultipliers are used as photodetectors in the time-of-flight and the tracker system.

    20. ATLAS ITk Pixel detector

      CERN Document Server

      Gemme, Claudia; The ATLAS collaboration

      2016-01-01

      The high luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC) in 2026 will provide new challenge to the ATLAS tracker. The current inner detector will be replaced with a whole silicon tracker which will consist of a five barrel layer Pixel detector surrounded by a four barrel layer Strip detector. The expected high radiation level are requiring the development of upgraded silicon sensors as well as new a front-end chip. The dense tracking environment will require finer granularity detectors. The data rates will require new technologies for high bandwidth data transmission and handling. The current status of the HL-LHC ATLA Pixel detector developments as well as the various layout options will be reviewed.

    1. İlköğretimde Sınıf Yönetiminin Etkiliğini Belirlemeye Yönelik Ölçek Geliştirme Çalışması

      OpenAIRE

      Güven, Sibel; Karslı, Mehmet Durdu

      2014-01-01

      Sınıf yönetiminin etkililiğini sağlamada yönetsel etkililik boyutlarının nasıl işlediğini belirlemek amacıyla tasarlanmış bu araştırma ile, sınıftaki yönetsel düzeylerin her biri için öngörülen etkililik ölçütlerine ilişkin öğretmen algıları belirlenmeye çalışılmıştır. Araştırma bir ölçek geliştirme çalışmasıdır. Araştırmanın uygulaması 2011-2012 öğretim yılı Ekim, Kasım ve Aralık aylarında Çanakkale İl Merkezi, görev yapmakta 191 öğretmen ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Kuramsal bir temele dayanar...

    2. Özel Okullara Yönelik Bir Tutum Ölçeğinin Geliştirilmesi: Geçerlik ve Güvenirlik Çalışması

      OpenAIRE

      OTRAR, MUSTAFA; KANDEMİR, Yasemin

      2016-01-01

      Bu çalışma devlet okulu öğretmenlerinin özel okullara yönelik tutumlarını belirlemek için Likert tipi bir ölçek geliştirmek amacıyla gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu İstanbul ili Kartal ilçesinde tesadüfi oransız küme örneklem yöntemi ile seçilen 29 adet Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı’na bağlı resmi devlet okulunda görev yapan 511 öğretmen oluşturmaktadır. Uygulamalar 2014-2015 eğitim öğretim yılında gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmada öncelikli olarak özel okullara yönelik tutumları ...

    3. 10-12 Yaş Bayan Yüzücülere Uygulanan Sekiz Haftalık Dinamik Germe Egzersizlerinin Esneklik Gelişimi Üzerine Etkisi

      OpenAIRE

      Göksu, Ömercan

      2013-01-01

      ÖZETAraştırma; 10-12 yaş grubu yarışmacı bayan yüzücülerde 8 haftalık dinamik germe (streching)egzersizlerinin esneklik gelişimi üzerindeki etkisini incelemek amacıyla yapıldı. Araştırma,deney grubunu; Galatasaray Spor Kulübünde, yaş ortalaması; 11,08±0,7 yıl, vücutağırlık ortalaması 37,08±4,8 kg, boy ortalaması; 150±8,6 cm, olan 12 sporcu ve kontrol grubunuise; Yeşilyurt Spor Kulübünde yaş ortalaması; 10,8±0,8 yıl, vücut ağırlık ortalaması38±3,3 kg, boy ortalaması; 148,8±6,5 cm olan 8 sporcu...

    4. Beden eğitimi öğretmenlerinin mesleki sosyalleşme düzeyini ölçme aracının geliştirilmesi

      OpenAIRE

      2012-01-01

      Bu çalışmanın amacı, beden eğitimi öğretmenlerinin mesleki sosyalleşme düzeylerini saptayan bir ölçek geliştirmektir. Araştırma tarama modelindedir. Araştırmanın çalışma grubu, 211 beden eğitimi öğretmeninden oluşmuştur. Ölçek formunda,   mesleki sosyalleşme ile ilgili 49 madde yer almıştır. Güvenirliğe kanıt sağlamak amacıyla Cronbach-Alpha güvenirliğine bakılmıştır. Madde geçerliğine kanıt sağlamak amacıyla madde toplam korelasyon analizi yapılmıştır. Cronbach-Alp...

    5. The HERMES recoil detector

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Airapetian, A. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Randall Laboratory of Physics; Aschenauer, E.C. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Belostotski, S. [B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Insitute, Gatchina (Russian Federation)] [and others; Collaboration: HERMES Recoil Detector Group

      2013-02-15

      For the final running period of HERA, a recoil detector was installed at the HERMES experiment to improve measurements of hard exclusive processes in charged-lepton nucleon scattering. Here, deeply virtual Compton scattering is of particular interest as this process provides constraints on generalised parton distributions that give access to the total angular momenta of quarks within the nucleon. The HERMES recoil detector was designed to improve the selection of exclusive events by a direct measurement of the four-momentum of the recoiling particle. It consisted of three components: two layers of double-sided silicon strip sensors inside the HERA beam vacuum, a two-barrel scintillating fibre tracker, and a photon detector. All sub-detectors were located inside a solenoidal magnetic field with an integrated field strength of 1Tm. The recoil detector was installed in late 2005. After the commissioning of all components was finished in September 2006, it operated stably until the end of data taking at HERA end of June 2007. The present paper gives a brief overview of the physics processes of interest and the general detector design. The recoil detector components, their calibration, the momentum reconstruction of charged particles, and the event selection are described in detail. The paper closes with a summary of the performance of the detection system.

    6. Detectors for Tomorrow's Instruments

      Science.gov (United States)

      Moseley, Harvey

      2009-01-01

      Cryogenically cooled superconducting detectors have become essential tools for a wide range of measurement applications, ranging from quantum limited heterodyne detection in the millimeter range to direct searches for dark matter with superconducting phonon detectors operating at 20 mK. Superconducting detectors have several fundamental and practical advantages which have resulted in their rapid adoption by experimenters. Their excellent performance arises in part from reductions in noise resulting from their low operating temperatures, but unique superconducting properties provide a wide range of mechanisms for detection. For example, the steep dependence of resistance with temperature on the superconductor/normal transition provides a sensitive thermometer for calorimetric and bolometric applications. Parametric changes in the properties of superconducting resonators provides a mechanism for high sensitivity detection of submillimeter photons. From a practical point of view, the use of superconducting detectors has grown rapidly because many of these devices couple well to SQUID amplifiers, which are easily integrated with the detectors. These SQUID-based amplifiers and multiplexers have matured with the detectors; they are convenient to use, and have excellent noise performance. The first generation of fully integrated large scale superconducting detection systems are now being deployed. I will discuss the prospects for a new generation of instruments designed to take full advantage of the revolution in detector technology.

    7. The Belle II Detector

      Science.gov (United States)

      Piilonen, Leo; Belle Collaboration, II

      2017-01-01

      The Belle II detector is now under construction at the KEK laboratory in Japan. This project represents a substantial upgrade of the Belle detector (and the KEKB accelerator). The Belle II experiment will record 50 ab-1 of data, a factor of 50 more than that recorded by Belle. This large data set, combined with the low backgrounds and high trigger efficiencies characteristic of an e+e- experiment, should provide unprecedented sensitivity to new physics signatures in B and D meson decays, and in τ lepton decays. The detector comprises many forefront subsystems. The vertex detector consists of two inner layers of silicon DEPFET pixels and four outer layers of double-sided silicon strips. These layers surround a beryllium beam pipe having a radius of only 10 mm. Outside of the vertex detector is a large-radius, small-cell drift chamber, an ``imaging time-of-propagation'' detector based on Cerenkov radiation for particle identification, and scintillating fibers and resistive plate chambers used to identify muons. The detector will begin commissioning in 2017.

    8. ATLAS Detector Interface Group

      CERN Multimedia

      Mapelli, L

      Originally organised as a sub-system in the DAQ/EF-1 Prototype Project, the Detector Interface Group (DIG) was an information exchange channel between the Detector systems and the Data Acquisition to provide critical detector information for prototype design and detector integration. After the reorganisation of the Trigger/DAQ Project and of Technical Coordination, the necessity to provide an adequate context for integration of detectors with the Trigger and DAQ lead to organisation of the DIG as one of the activities of Technical Coordination. Such an organisation emphasises the ATLAS wide coordination of the Trigger and DAQ exploitation aspects, which go beyond the domain of the Trigger/DAQ project itself. As part of Technical Coordination, the DIG provides the natural environment for the common work of Trigger/DAQ and detector experts. A DIG forum for a wide discussion of all the detector and Trigger/DAQ integration issues. A more restricted DIG group for the practical organisation and implementation o...

    9. Detectors - Electronics; Detecteurs - Electronique

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Bregeault, J.; Gabriel, J.L.; Hierle, G.; Lebotlan, P.; Leconte, A.; Lelandais, J.; Mosrin, P.; Munsch, P.; Saur, H.; Tillier, J. [Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire, Caen Univ., 14 (France)

      1998-04-01

      The reports presents the main results obtained in the fields of radiation detectors and associated electronics. In the domain of X-ray gas detectors for the keV range efforts were undertaken to rise the detector efficiency. Multiple gap parallel plate chambers of different types as well as different types of X {yields} e{sup -} converters were tested to improve the efficiency (values of 2.4% at 60 KeV were reached). In the field of scintillators a study of new crystals has been carried out (among which Lutetium orthosilicate). CdTe diode strips for obtaining X-ray imaging were studied. The complete study of a linear array of 8 CdTe pixels has been performed and certified. The results are encouraging and point to this method as a satisfying solution. Also, a large dimension programmable chamber was used to study the influence of temperature on the inorganic scintillators in an interval from -40 deg. C to +150 deg. C. Temperature effects on other detectors and electronic circuits were also investigated. In the report mentioned is also the work carried out for the realization of the DEMON neutron multidetector. For neutron halo experiments different large area Si detectors associated with solid and gas position detectors were realized. In the frame of a contract with COGEMA a systematic study of Li doped glasses was undertaken aiming at replacing with a neutron probe the {sup 3}He counters presently utilized in pollution monitoring. An industrial prototype has been realised. Other studies were related to integrated analog chains, materials for Cherenkov detectors, scintillation probes for experiments on fundamental processes, gas position sensitive detectors, etc. In the field of associated electronics there are mentioned the works related to the multidetector INDRA, data acquisition, software gamma spectrometry, automatic gas pressure regulation in detectors, etc

    10. The HOTWAXS detector

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Bateman, J.E.; Derbyshire, G.E. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Diakun, G. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Daresbury Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Duxbury, D.M. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)], E-mail: d.m.duxbury@rl.ac.uk; Fairclough, J.P.A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Sheffield, Brook Hill, Sheffield S3 7HF (United Kingdom); Harvey, I.; Helsby, W.I. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Daresbury Laboratory, Keckwick Lane, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Lipp, J.D.; Marsh, A.S.; Salisbury, J. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Sankar, G. [Royal Institution of GB, 21 Albemarle Street, London W1S 4BS (United Kingdom); Spill, E.J.; Stephenson, R. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Terrill, N.J. [Diamond Light Source LTD, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Diamond House, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

      2007-10-11

      The development and testing of the HOTWAXS position-sensitive X-ray detector for Synchrotron Radiation Sources is described. Funded from a facility development grant, the aim of the project was to produce a high counting rate, parallax-free photon counting detector to be used in the combined studies of X-ray absorption fine structure and X-ray diffraction (XAFS/XRD), and also in the technique of small angle and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS). The detector system is described together with results of experiments carried out at the Daresbury Laboratory Synchrotron Radiation Source.

    11. Performance of GLD detector

      Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

      T Yoshioka

      2007-12-01

      Most of the important physics processes to be studied in the international linear collider (ILC) experiment have multi-jets in the final state. In order to achieve better jet energy resolution, the so-called particle flow algorithm (PFA) will be employed and there is a general consensus that PFA derives overall ILC detector design. Four detector concepts for the ILC experiment have been proposed so far in the world; the GLD detector that has a large inner calorimeter radius, which is considered to have an advantage for a PFA, is one of them. In this paper, general scheme and performance of the GLD-PFA will be presented.

    12. Microfluidic Scintillation Detectors

      CERN Multimedia

      Microfluidic scintillation detectors are devices of recent introduction for the detection of high energy particles, developed within the EP-DT group at CERN. Most of the interest for such technology comes from the use of liquid scintillators, which entails the possibility of changing the active material in the detector, leading to an increased radiation resistance. This feature, together with the high spatial resolution and low thickness deriving from the microfabrication techniques used to manufacture such devices, is desirable not only in instrumentation for high energy physics experiments but also in medical detectors such as beam monitors for hadron therapy.

    13. The Silicon Cube detector

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Matea, I.; Adimi, N. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan - Universite Bordeaux 1 - UMR 5797, CNRS/IN2P3, Chemin du Solarium, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Blank, B. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan - Universite Bordeaux 1 - UMR 5797, CNRS/IN2P3, Chemin du Solarium, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France)], E-mail: blank@cenbg.in2p3.fr; Canchel, G.; Giovinazzo, J. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan - Universite Bordeaux 1 - UMR 5797, CNRS/IN2P3, Chemin du Solarium, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan Cedex (France); Borge, M.J.G.; Dominguez-Reyes, R.; Tengblad, O. [Insto. Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 113bis, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Thomas, J.-C. [GANIL, CEA/DSM - CNRS/IN2P3, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France)

      2009-08-21

      A new experimental device, the Silicon Cube detector, consisting of six double-sided silicon strip detectors placed in a compact geometry was developed at CENBG. Having a very good angular coverage and high granularity, it allows simultaneous measurements of energy and angular distributions of charged particles emitted from unbound nuclear states. In addition, large-volume Germanium detectors can be placed close to the collection point of the radioactive species to be studied. The setup is ideally suited for isotope separation on-line (ISOL)-type experiments to study multi-particle emitters and was tested during an experiment at the low-energy beam line of SPIRAL at GANIL.

    14. ATLAS Inner Detector Alignment

      CERN Document Server

      Bocci, A

      2008-01-01

      The ATLAS experiment is a multi-purpose particle detector that will study high-energy particle collisions produced by the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. In order to achieve its physics goals, the ATLAS tracking requires that the positions of the silicon detector elements have to be known to a precision better than 10 μm. Several track-based alignment algorithms have been developed for the Inner Detector. An extensive validation has been performed with simulated events and real data coming from the ATLAS. Results from such validation are reported in this paper.

    15. Directional radiation detectors

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Dowell, Jonathan L.

      2017-09-12

      Directional radiation detectors and systems, methods, and computer-readable media for using directional radiation detectors to locate a radiation source are provided herein. A directional radiation detector includes a radiation sensor. A radiation attenuator partially surrounds the radiation sensor and defines an aperture through which incident radiation is received by the radiation sensor. The aperture is positioned such that when incident radiation is received directly through the aperture and by the radiation sensor, a source of the incident radiation is located within a solid angle defined by the aperture. The radiation sensor senses at least one of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma particles, or neutrons.

    16. Development of online collaborative tracking and management tool for content development and the effectiveness of this tool İçerik geliştirmede çevrimiçi işbirliğine dayalı takip ve yönetim aracının geliştirilmesi ve bu aracın etkililiği

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Erinç Karataş

      2013-06-01

      Full Text Available This research, planned as a descriptive study, was accomplished with the participation of 43 employees and 2 administrators working in the Content Development Team at Community School of Distance Education in 2010-2011 academic year. In order to examine the effect the use of this tool on the content development processes, before and after the experimental process, pretest and posttest were applied to managers and employees for collecting their opinions. In the experimental process, single-group pretest-posttest experimental design was used. The independent variable of this research is the use of a collaborative online project tracking and management tool, and the dependent variable is employee opinions. The data obtained from the opinions of the organization managers and employees were analyzed with the Wilcoxon signed rank test, a non-parametric statistical method. The findings of this study are: tools like ÇİTA build up the project management process and facilitate project tracking in content development processes in terms of management, save the time in reaching the end of the project, make team communication healthy and fast, and finally the usage of these kinds of tools is simple, functional, safe, and reliable in terms of tool. Özet Bir durum çalışması olarak ele alınan bu araştırma, 2010-2011 eğitim öğretim yılı Gazi Üniversitesi Uzaktan Eğitim Meslek Yüksekokulu İçerik Geliştirme Ekibinde yer alan 43 çalışan ve 2 yöneticinin katılımı ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Aracın süreçte kullanılmasının öncesi ve sonrasında, bu aracın kullanımının içerik geliştirme süreçlerine olan etkisini incelemek amacıyla yöneticilerin ve çalışanların görüşlerinin alındığı öntest ve sontest uygulanmıştır. Deneysel işlem sürecinde tek grup öntest sontest deneysel desen kullanılmıştır. Araştırmanın bağımsız değişkeni geliştirilen çevrimiçi işbirliğine dayalı proje takip ve y

    17. Novel Photo-Detectors and Photo-Detector Systems

      OpenAIRE

      Danilov, M.

      2008-01-01

      Recent developments in photo-detectors and photo-detector systems are reviewed. The main emphasis is made on Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPM) - novel and very attractive photo-detectors. Their main features are described. Properties of detectors manufactured by different producers are compared. Different applications are discussed including calorimeters, muon detection, tracking, Cherenkov light detection, and time of flight measurements.

    18. Infrared Detectors Project

      Data.gov (United States)

      National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The end goal of this project is to develop proof-of-concept infrared detectors which can be integrated in future infrared instruments engaged in remote...

    19. ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector

      CERN Multimedia

      Christensen, C

      2013-01-01

      The Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD) extends the coverage for multiplicity of charge particles into the forward regions - giving ALICE the widest coverage of the 4 LHC experiments for these measurements.

    20. OPAL detector electromagnetic calorimeter

      CERN Multimedia

      1988-01-01

      Half of the electromagnetic calorimeter of the OPAL detector is seen in this photo. This calorimeter consists of 4720 blocks of lead glass. It was used to detect and measure the energy of photons, electrons and positrons by absorbing them.

    1. The LUX Prototype Detector

      CERN Document Server

      Akerib, D S; Bedikian, S; Bernstein, A; Bolozdynya, A; Bradley, A; Cahn, S; Carr, D; Chapman, J J; Clark, K; Classen, T; Curioni, A; Dahl, C E; Dazeley, S; deViveiros, L; Dragowsky, M; Druszkiewicz, E; Fiorucci, S; Gaitskell, R J; Hall, C; Faham, C; Holbrook, B; Kastens, L; Kazkaz, K; Kwong, J; Lander, R; Leonard, D; Malling, D; Mannino, R; McKinsey, D N; Mei, D; Mock, J; Morii, M; Nikkel, J; Phelps, P; Shutt, T; Skulski, W; Sorensen, P; Spaans, J; Steigler, T; Svoboda, R; Sweany, M; Thomson, J; Tripathi, M; Walsh, N; Webb, R; White, J; Wolfs, F L H; Woods, M; Zhang, C

      2012-01-01

      The LUX (Large Underground Xenon) detector is a two-phase xenon Time Projection Chamber (TPC) designed to search for WIMP-nucleon dark matter interactions. As with all noble element detectors, continuous purification of the detector medium is essential to produce a large ($>$1ms) electron lifetime; this is necessary for efficient measurement of the electron signal which in turn is essential for achieving robust discrimination of signal from background events. In this paper we describe the development of a novel purification system deployed in a prototype detector. The results from the operation of this prototype indicated heat exchange with an efficiency above 94% up to a flow rate of 42 slpm, allowing for an electron drift length greater than 1 meter to be achieved in approximately two days and sustained for the duration of the testing period.

    2. The CLIC Detector Concept

      CERN Document Server

      Pitters, Florian Michael

      2016-01-01

      CLIC is a concept for a future linear collider that would provide e+e- collisions at up to 3 TeV. The physics aims require a detector system with excellent jet energy and track momentum resolution, highly efficient flavour-tagging and lepton identification capabilities, full geometrical coverage extending to low polar angles and timing information in the order of nanoseconds to reject beam-induced background. To deal with those requirements, an extensive R&D programme is in place to overcome current technological limits. The CLIC detector concept includes a low-mass all-silicon vertex and tracking detector system and fine-grained calorimeters designed for particle flow analysis techniques, surrounded by a 4 T solenoid magnet. An overview of the requirements and design optimisations for the CLIC detector concept is presented.

    3. Hybrid photon detectors

      CERN Document Server

      D'Ambrosio, C

      2003-01-01

      Hybrid photon detectors detect light via vacuum photocathodes and accelerate the emitted photoelectrons by an electric field towards inversely polarized silicon anodes, where they are absorbed, thus producing electron-hole pairs. These, in turn, are collected and generate electronic signals on their ohmic contacts. This review first describes the characteristic properties of the main components of hybrid photon detectors: light entrance windows, photocathodes, and silicon anodes. Then, essential relations describing the trajectories of photoelectrons in electric and magnetic fields and their backscattering from the silicon anodes are derived. Depending on their anode configurations, three families of hybrid photon detectors are presented: hybrid photomultiplier tubes with single anodes for photon counting with high sensitivity and for gamma spectroscopy; multi-anode photon detector tubes with anodes subdivided into square or hexagonal pads for position-sensitive photon detection; imaging silicon pixel array t...

    4. GRAVITY detector systems

      Science.gov (United States)

      Mehrgan, Leander H.; Finger, Gert; Eisenhauer, Frank; Panduro, Johana

      2016-08-01

      GRAVITY is a second generation instrument for the VLT Interferometer, designed for high-precision narrow-angle astrometry and phase-referenced interferometric imaging in the K-band. It will combine the AO corrected beams of the four VLT telescopes. In total, the GRAVITY instrument uses five eAPD detectors four for the infrared wavefront sensors of each telescope and one for the fringe tracker. In addition two Hawaii2RG arrays are installed, one for the acquisition camera and one for the spectrometer. The SAPHIRA eAPD array is a newly developed near-infrared detector with sub-electron noise performance at frame rates > 1Kfps. For all seven detectors the ESO common controller, NGC, is used. This paper presents an overview and comparison of GRAVITY detector systems and their final performances at the telescope

    5. Pocked surface neutron detector

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      McGregor, Douglas (Whitmore Lake, MI); Klann, Raymond (Bolingbrook, IL)

      2003-04-08

      The detection efficiency, or sensitivity, of a neutron detector material such as of Si, SiC, amorphous Si, GaAs, or diamond is substantially increased by forming one or more cavities, or holes, in its surface. A neutron reactive material such as of elemental, or any compound of, .sup.10 B, .sup.6 Li, .sup.6 LiF, U, or Gd is deposited on the surface of the detector material so as to be disposed within the cavities therein. The portions of the neutron reactive material extending into the detector material substantially increase the probability of an energetic neutron reaction product in the form of a charged particle being directed into and detected by the neutron detector material.

    6. Europe plans megaton detector

      CERN Multimedia

      Cartlidge, Edwin

      2004-01-01

      A group of French and Italian particle physicists hopes to carry on the long tradition of building large underground detectors by constructing a device deep under the Alps containing a million tonnes of extremely pure water.

    7. The pixelated detector

      CERN Multimedia

      Sutton, C

      1990-01-01

      "Collecting data as patterns of light or subatomic particles is vitally important in all the sciences. The new generation of solid-state detectors called pixel devices could transform experimental research at all levels" (4 pages).

    8. Improved CO [lidar detector

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Jacobson, P.L.; Busch, G.E.; Thompson, D.C.; Remelius, D.K.; Wells, F.D.

      1999-07-18

      A high sensitivity, CO{sub 2} lidar detector, based on recent advances in ultra-low noise, readout integrated circuits (ROIC), is being developed. This detector will combine a high speed, low noise focal plane array (FPA) with a dispersive grating spectrometer. The spectrometer will filter the large background flux, thereby reducing the limiting background photon shot noise. In order to achieve the desired low noise levels, the HgCdTe FPA will be cooled to {approximately}50K. High speed, short pulse operation of the lidar system should enable the detector to operate with the order of a few noise electrons in the combined detector/ ROIC output. Current receiver design concepts will be presented, along with their expected noise performance.

    9. Detector Control System for the ATLAS Forward Proton detector

      CERN Document Server

      Czekierda, Sabina; The ATLAS collaboration

      2017-01-01

      The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) is a forward detector using a Roman Pot technique, recently installed in the LHC tunnel. It is aiming at registering protons that were diffractively or electromagnetically scattered in soft and hard processes. Infrastructure of the detector consists of hardware placed both in the tunnel and in the control room USA15 (about 330 meters from the Roman Pots). AFP detector, like the other detectors of the ATLAS experiment, uses the Detector Control System (DCS) to supervise the detector and to ensure its safe and coherent operation, since the incorrect detector performance may influence the physics results. The DCS continuously monitors the detector parameters, subset of which is stored in data bases. Crucial parameters are guarded by alarm system. A detector representation as a hierarchical tree-like structure of well-defined subsystems built with the use of the Finite State Machine (FSM) toolkit allows for overall detector operation and visualization. Every node in the hierarchy is...

    10. The AMANDA Neutrino Detector

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Wischnewski, R.; Andres, E.; Askebjer, P.; Barwick, S.; Bay, R.; Bergstroem, L.; Biron, A.; Booth, J.; Botner, O.; Bouchta, A.; Carius, S.; Carlson, M.; Chinowsky, W.; Chirkin, D.; Cowen, D.; Costa, C.; Dalberg, E.; Deyoung, T.; Edsjo, J.; Ekstroem, P.; Goobar, A.; Gray, L.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hardtke, R.; He, Y.; Hill, G.; Hulth, P.; Hundertmark, S.; Jacobsen, J.; Kandhadai, V.; Karle, A.; Kim, J.; Leich, H.; Leuthold, M.; Lindahl, P.; Liss, T.; Liubarsky, I.; Loaiza, P.; LOwder, D.; Marciniewski, P.; Miller, T.; Miocinovic, P.; Mock, P.; Morse, R.; Newcomer, M.; Niessen, P.; Nygren, D.; Perez de los Heros, C.; Porrata, R.; Price, P.; Przybylski, G.; Rhode, W.; Richter, S.; Rodriguez, J.; Romenesko, P.; Ross, D.; Rubinstein, H.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, E.; Schwarz, R.; Schwendicke, U.; Smoot, G.; Solarz, M.; Sorin, V.; Spiering, C.; Steffen, P.; Stokstad, R.; Streicher, O.; Thollander, L.; Thon, T.; Tilav, S.; Walck, C.; Wiebusch, C.; Woschnagg, K.; Wu, W.; Yodh, G.; Young, S

      1999-03-01

      The first stage of the AMANDA High Energy Neutrino Detector at the South Pole, the 302 PMT array AMANDA-B with an expected effective area for TeV neutrinos of {approx} 10{sup 4} m{sup 2}, has been taking data since 1997. Progress with calibration, investigation of ice properties, as well as muon and neutrino data analysis are described. The next stage 20-string detector AMANDA-II with {approx}800 PMTs will be completed in spring 2000.

    11. Fiber optic detector

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Partin, J.K.; Ward, T.E.; Grey, A.E.

      1990-12-31

      This invention is comprised of a portable fiber optic detector that senses the presence of specific target chemicals by exchanging the target chemical for a fluorescently-tagged antigen that is bound to an antibody which is in turn attached to an optical fiber. Replacing the fluorescently-tagged antigen reduces the fluorescence so that a photon sensing detector records the reduced light level and activates an appropriate alarm or indicator.

    12. Phi factory detector requirements

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Arisaka, K.; Atac, M.; Berg, R.; Buchanan, C.; Calvette, M.; Khazin, B.; Kinoshita, K.; Muller, T.; Ohshima, T.; Olsen, S.; Park, J.; Santoni, C.; Shirai, J.; Solodov, E.; Thompson, J.; Triggiani, G.; Ueno, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Detector and Simulation Working Group

      1991-08-01

      We identify the experimental problems and the conditions required for successful phi-factory operation, and show the range of detector parameters which, in conjunction with different machine designs, may meet these conditions. We started by considering, comparing and criticizing the Italian and Novosibirsk designs. With this discussion as a background, we defined the apparent experimental problems and detector constraints. In this article we summarize our understanding. (orig./HSI).

    13. Modelling semiconductor pixel detectors

      CERN Document Server

      Mathieson, K

      2001-01-01

      expected after 200 ps in most cases. The effect of reducing the charge carrier lifetime and examining the charge collection efficiency has been utilised to explore how these detectors would respond in a harsh radiation environment. It is predicted that over critical carrier lifetimes (10 ps to 0.1 ns) an improvement of 40 % over conventional detectors can be expected. This also has positive implications for fabricating detectors, in this geometry, from materials which might otherwise be considered substandard. An analysis of charge transport in CdZnTe pixel detectors has been performed. The analysis starts with simulation studies into the formation of contacts and their influence on the internal electric field of planar detectors. The models include a number of well known defect states and these are balanced to give an agreement with a typical experimental I-V curve. The charge transport study extends to the development of a method for studying the effect of charge sharing in highly pixellated detectors. The ...

    14. Gamma ray detector modules

      Science.gov (United States)

      Capote, M. Albert (Inventor); Lenos, Howard A. (Inventor)

      2009-01-01

      A radiation detector assembly has a semiconductor detector array substrate of CdZnTe or CdTe, having a plurality of detector cell pads on a first surface thereof, the pads having a contact metallization and a solder barrier metallization. An interposer card has planar dimensions no larger than planar dimensions of the semiconductor detector array substrate, a plurality of interconnect pads on a first surface thereof, at least one readout semiconductor chip and at least one connector on a second surface thereof, each having planar dimensions no larger than the planar dimensions of the interposer card. Solder columns extend from contacts on the interposer first surface to the plurality of pads on the semiconductor detector array substrate first surface, the solder columns having at least one solder having a melting point or liquidus less than 120 degrees C. An encapsulant is disposed between the interposer circuit card first surface and the semiconductor detector array substrate first surface, encapsulating the solder columns, the encapsulant curing at a temperature no greater than 120 degrees C.

    15. ATLAS Inner Detector (Pixel Detector and Silicon Tracker)

      CERN Multimedia

      ATLAS Outreach

      2006-01-01

      To raise awareness of the basic functions of the Pixel Detector and Silicon Tracker in the ATLAS detector on the LHC at CERN. This colorful 3D animation is an excerpt from the film "ATLAS-Episode II, The Particles Strike Back." Shot with a bug's eye view of the inside of the detector. The viewer is taken on a tour of the inner workings of the detector, seeing critical pieces of the detector and hearing short explanations of how each works.

    16. Detectors on the drawing board

      CERN Multimedia

      Katarina Anthony

      2011-01-01

      Linear collider detector developers inside and outside CERN are tackling the next generation of detector technology. While their focus has centred on high-energy linear collider detectors, their innovative concepts and designs will be applicable to any future detector.   A simulated event display in one of the new generation detectors. “While the LHC experiments remain the pinnacle of detector technology, you may be surprised to realise that the design and expertise behind them is well over 10 years old,” says Lucie Linssen, CERN’s Linear Collider Detector (LCD) project manager whose group is pushing the envelope of detector design. “The next generation of detectors will have to surpass the achievements of the LHC experiments. It’s not an easy task but, by observing detectors currently in operation and exploiting a decade’s worth of technological advancements, we’ve made meaningful progress.” The LCD team is curr...

    17. Anasınıfı Çocuklarına Yönelik Erken Okuryazarlık Testi (EROT Geliştirme Çalışması

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Tevhide Kargın

      2015-12-01

      Full Text Available Bu araştırma, Türk çocuklarının erken okuryazarlık becerilerini geçerli ve güvenilir bir şekilde ölçecek kapsamlı bir ölçme aracına duyulan gereksinimle planlanmıştır. Araştırmanın amacını, bu nedenle, 5 yaş çocuklarına yönelik standardizasyonu yapılmış bir erken okuryazarlık testinin-Erken Okuryazarlık Testi (EROT - geliştirilmesi ve geçerlik ve güvenirliğinin test edilmesi oluşturmuştur. Araştırmanın evrenini Ankara, örneklem grubunu ise Ankara ili kent merkezi sınırları içerisinde yer alan yedi merkez ilçede Milli Eğitim Bakanlığına bağlı bağımsız anaokulları ile ilkokulların bünyesinde 5 yaş çocuklarına eğitim veren sınıflarda öğrenim gören 403 çocuk oluşturmuştur. Çalışma içerisinde çocukların erken okuryazarlık becerileri EROT kapsamında geliştirilen 7 alt test (Alıcı Dil, İfade Edici Dil, Genel İsimlendirme, İşlev Bilgisi, Harf Bilgisi, Sesbilgisel Farkındalık ve Dinlediğini Anlama ile değerlendirilmiştir. Yapılan değerlendirmelerden elde edilen veriler ise EROT’un geçerlik ve güvenirlik hesaplamalarının yapılabilmesi için analiz edilmiştir. Analizlerden elde edilen bulgular, EROT’un 7 alt test ile erken okuryazarlık becerilerini geçerli ve güvenir şekilde ölçtüğünü göstermiştir. This study was planned due to the crucial need for a standardized measure of early literacy with demonstrated validity and reliability for Turkish children. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a standardized measure of early literacy-the Test of Early Literacy (TEL for kindergarten children and to test its validity and reliability. Participants were 403 kindergarten children selected from several schools located in neighborhoods of different socioeconomic statuses in Ankara. The early literacy skills of children were tested with seven sub-tests of TEL (Receptive Language, Expressive Language, Category Naming, Function Knowledge, Letter Knowledge

    18. Development of Geographical Concept Test (GCT for preschool and primary school childrenOkul öncesi ve ilkokul çocuklarına uygun Coğrafi Kavramlar Testi (CKT geliştirilmesi

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Sultan Baysan

      2016-12-01

      Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop a valid and reliable measurement tool of ‘geographical concept test’ for pre and primary school. In order to achieve the objectives, program goals of preschool and primary education 1st to 4th grade have been identified. Then, 51 articles consisting the concepts of the Solar System, Earth's movements, Turkey and other countries, landforms, climate and vegetation, fluvial issues, soil, natural disasters, population and settlement, energy sources were prepared. Following the preparation of the questions, an expert opinion was taken from a total number of 8 teaching staff. After the necessary arrangements ‘Geographical Concept Test’ (GCT, was applied to a number of 743 children of pre and primary schools. The reliability coefficient of the test results (KR 20 was found to be .71 for preschool, .85 for the 1st, .73 for the 2nd, .72 for the 3rd and .70 for the 4th of primary school.   Özet Bu çalışmanın amacı, test geliştirme basamaklarını dikkate alarak okul öncesi çocuklar ve ilkokul 1, 2, 3 ve 4. sınıf öğrencilerinin coğrafi kavramlara ilişkin kazanımlarını ortaya koyan geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçüm aracı geliştirmektir. Bu amaç doğrultusunda araştırmacılar tarafından öncelikle okul öncesi, ilkokul 1, 2, 3 ve 4. sınıf eğitim programındaki kazanımlar tespit edilmiştir. Daha sonra, bu kazanımları ölçmeye yönelik olarak Güneş Sistemi ve Dünya, Dünya’nın hareketleri, Türkiye ve diğer ülkeler, yerşekilleri, iklim ve bitki örtüsü, su-toprak, doğal afetler, nüfus ve yerleşme ile enerji kaynaklarına ilişkin 51 madde hazırlanmıştır. Soruların hazırlanmasının ardından 8 öğretim elemanından uzman görüşü alınmıştır. Pilot çalışmalar sonrası gerekli düzenlemeler yapılarak 26 soruluk Coğrafi Kavramlar Testi (CKT okul öncesi çocukları ve ilkokul 1, 2, 3 ve 4. sınıf seviyelerini bitirmek üzere olan toplam 743

    19. Değişen Tüketici Eğilimleri ve Teknolojik Gelişmelerin Perakendeciliğe Yansımaları(Reflections of Changing Consumer Trends and Technological Developments on Retailing

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Filiz Bozkurt Bekoğlu

      2016-03-01

      Full Text Available Pazarlama kanallarında güç uzun zamandır üreticiden perakendeciye geçmekte ve perakende sektöründe yoğun bir rekabet yaşanmaktadır. Perakendecilerin bu yoğun rekabet ortamında  başarılı olabilmek için değişen tüketici eğilimlerini ve teknolojik gelişmeleri yakından takip etmeleri ve pazarlama stratejilerini bu bilgiler doğrultusunda şekillendirmeleri gerekmektedir. Bu nedenle perakendecilikle ilgili çalışmalar her zamankinden daha fazla önem kazanmıştır. Kavramsal nitelikteki bu çalışmada, değişen tüketici eğilimlerinin ve teknolojik gelişmelerin perakendecilik alanına ne şekilde yansıdığının irdelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Yapılan incelemede, tüketicilerin farklı kanallarda birer alışverişçi olarak nasıl davrandığını anlamanın perakendecilik alanında başarıyı getiren en önemli yaklaşımlardan biri olduğu, perakendeciliğin tüketicilerin yaşam tarzına adapte edilmesi gerektiği, perakendecilik alanında kullanılan teknolojilerin, akıllı teknolojiler, biyometrik teknolojiler ve gerçekliğin farklı boyutlarıyla ilgili teknolojiler olmak üzere üç grup altında toplandığı, bu teknolojilerin hem perakendecilere hem de tüketicilere önemli avantajlar sağladığı, ancak bu avantajları değerlendirirken, yüksek geçiş ve uygulama maliyetleri, tüketicinin söz konusu teknolojiye yaklaşımı  ve  kişisel bilgilerin gizliliğine yönelik kaygıların göz önünde bulundurulması gerektiği görülmüştür. Çalışmanın sonuç kısmında perakendecilere yönelik önerilerde bulunulmuştur. Yenilikçi çizgideki bu çalışmanın perakendecilere ve perakende literatürüne katkı sağlaması beklenmektedir.

    20. The ZEUS microvertex detector

      CERN Document Server

      Garfagnini, A

      1999-01-01

      A new vertex detector for the ZEUS experiment at HERA will be installed during the 1999-2000 shutdown, for the high-luminosity runs of HERA. It will allow to reconstruct secondary vertex tracks, coming from the decay of long-lived particles with a lifetime of about 10 sup - sup 1 sup 2 s, and improve the global momentum resolution of the tracking system. The interaction region will be surrounded with single-sided silicon strip detectors, with capacitive charge division: three double layers in the central region (600 detectors), and 4 'wheels' in the forward region (112 silicon planes). Due to the high number of readout channels, 512 readout strips per silicon plane in the barrel region and 480 in the forward part, and the large coverage of the vertex detector (almost 1 m long), the front-end electronics has to be placed on top of the detectors and has to be radiation tolerant since doses up to 2 kGy are expected near the interaction region. The HELIX chip has been chosen as analog chip with a low-noise, charg...

    1. Nonequilibrium superconducting detectors

      Science.gov (United States)

      Cristiano, R.; Ejrnaes, M.; Esposito, E.; Lisitskyi, M. P.; Nappi, C.; Pagano, S.; Perez de Lara, D.

      2006-03-01

      Nonequilibrium superconducting detectors exploit the early stages of the energy down cascade which occur after the absorption of radiation. They operate on a short temporal scale ranging from few microseconds down to tens of picoseconds. In such a way they provide fast counting capability, high time discrimination and also, for some devices, energy sensitivity. Nonequilibrium superconducting detectors are developed for their use both in basic science and in practical applications for detection of single photons or single ionized macromolecules. In this paper we consider two devices: distributed readout imaging detectors (DROIDs) based on superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs), which are typically used for high-speed energy spectroscopy applications, and hot-electron superconductive detectors (HESDs), which are typically used as fast counters and time discriminators. Implementation of the DROID geometry to use a single superconductor is discussed. Progress in the fabrication technology of NbN nanostructured HESDs is presented. The two detectors share the high sensitivity that makes them able to efficiently detect even single photons down to infrared energy.

    2. Nonequilibrium superconducting detectors

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Cristiano, R [CNR-Istituto di Cibernetica E. Caianiello, 80078 Pozzuoli (Namibia) (Italy); Ejrnaes, M [CNR-Istituto di Cibernetica E. Caianiello, 80078 Pozzuoli (Namibia) (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, 80126 Naples (Italy); Esposito, E [CNR-Istituto di Cibernetica E. Caianiello, 80078 Pozzuoli (Namibia) (Italy); Lisitskyi, M P [CNR-Istituto di Cibernetica E. Caianiello, 80078 Pozzuoli (Namibia) (Italy); Nappi, C [CNR-Istituto di Cibernetica E. Caianiello, 80078 Pozzuoli (Namibia) (Italy); Pagano, S [CNR-Istituto di Cibernetica E. Caianiello, 80078 Pozzuoli (Namibia) (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Salerno, 84081 Baronissi (Saudi Arabia) (Italy); Perez de Lara, D [CNR-Istituto di Cibernetica E. Caianiello, 80078 Pozzuoli (Namibia) (Italy)

      2006-03-15

      Nonequilibrium superconducting detectors exploit the early stages of the energy down cascade which occur after the absorption of radiation. They operate on a short temporal scale ranging from few microseconds down to tens of picoseconds. In such a way they provide fast counting capability, high time discrimination and also, for some devices, energy sensitivity. Nonequilibrium superconducting detectors are developed for their use both in basic science and in practical applications for detection of single photons or single ionized macromolecules. In this paper we consider two devices: distributed readout imaging detectors (DROIDs) based on superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs), which are typically used for high-speed energy spectroscopy applications, and hot-electron superconductive detectors (HESDs), which are typically used as fast counters and time discriminators. Implementation of the DROID geometry to use a single superconductor is discussed. Progress in the fabrication technology of NbN nanostructured HESDs is presented. The two detectors share the high sensitivity that makes them able to efficiently detect even single photons down to infrared energy.

    3. Detectors in Extreme Conditions

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Blaj, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Carini, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Carron, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Haller, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hart, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hasi, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Herrmann, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kenney, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Segal, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Tomada, A. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

      2015-08-06

      Free Electron Lasers opened a new window on imaging the motion of atoms and molecules. At SLAC, FEL experiments are performed at LCLS using 120Hz pulses with 1012 - 1013 photons in 10 femtoseconds (billions of times brighter than the most powerful synchrotrons). This extreme detection environment raises unique challenges, from obvious to surprising. Radiation damage is a constant threat due to accidental exposure to insufficiently attenuated beam, focused beam and formation of ice crystals reflecting the beam onto the detector. Often high power optical lasers are also used (e.g., 25TW), increasing the risk of damage or impeding data acquisition through electromagnetic pulses (EMP). The sample can contaminate the detector surface or even produce shrapnel damage. Some experiments require ultra high vacuum (UHV) with strict design, surface contamination and cooling requirements - also for detectors. The setup is often changed between or during experiments with short turnaround times, risking mechanical and ESD damage, requiring work planning, training of operators and sometimes continuous participation of the LCLS Detector Group in the experiments. The detectors used most often at LCLS are CSPAD cameras for hard x-rays and pnCCDs for soft x-rays.

    4. Development of Instrument Performance Self-Efficacy ScaleÇalgı Performansına İlişkin Öz-Yeterlik Ölçeğinin geliştirilmesi

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Sadullah Serkan Şeker

      2016-12-01

      Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop a valid and reliable scale that can be used in determining preservice music teacher’s self-efficacy beliefs towards instrumental performance. The first step of this study is to get an expert view about items. After this process the scale was administrated 443 preservice music teachers and explanatory factor analysis was applied. According to EFA results, the scale was consisted of three sub-dimensions that are called “self-efficacy towards instrumental performance”, “negative emotions felt in instrumental practicing” and “modeling”. The cronbach alpha coefficients of this three sub dimension are found, 85 for the first factor, 82 for second factor and, 76 for third factor. The scale along with its three sub-dimensions are accounted for 52,5 percent of total variance. After EFA, DFA was applied for new data set that was consisted of 275 preservice teachers. According to DFA results, it is understood that the model showed great fit (x2 = 283.52, DF =148. After DFA, convergent validity was applied using “Self-efficacy beliefs toward instrumental performance scale developed by Girgin (2015. Correlation coefficient (r=65, p<0,01 shows that those two scales show high convergence each other. The last stage in the developmental process is test re-test analysis. For this analysis scale was administrated same group (n=68 17 days apart. The correlation coefficient shows that the scale shows high consistency when it was administrated different time periods (r= 88, p<0,01.   Özet Bu çalışmanın amacı eğitim fakültesi güzel sanatlar eğitimi bölümü müzik eğitimi anabilim dallarında öğrenim görmekte olan öğretmen adaylarının çalgısal performanslarına ilişkin öz-yeterlik düzeylerinin belirlenmesine yönelik geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçme aracı geliştirmektir. Ölçek geliştirilme aşamasında öncelikle uzman görüşüne başvurulmuş ön deneme formu hazırlandıktan sonra

    5. Ortaöğretim Müzik Dersine Yönelik Başarı Testinin Geliştirilmesi Developing The Achievement Test For The Secondary Education Music Course

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Yakup Alper VARIŞ

      2012-12-01

      ında müzik derslerinin planlanması, programlanması, yapılandırılması, çeşitli açılarından düzenlenip geliştirilmesi ve bütünsel bir bakış açısıyla değerlendirilmesi bakımından öğrencilerin elde etmeleri beklenen kuramsal bilgilere ne derece ulaştıkları belirlenmelidir. Müzik kuramları eğitiminin ortaöğretim aşamasında kapsamca genişlemesi ve ilerlemesi göz önüne alındığında müzik derslerinde öğrencilerin bilişsel becerilerinin ölçülmesinin önemi belirgin bir biçimde ortaya çıkar. Bu nedenle, müzik derslerine yönelik akademik başarı testlerinin geliştirilmesinin gerekliliği ön plana çıkmaktadır. Bu araştırmanın amacı ortaöğretim düzeyinde müzik dersi alan öğrencilerin kazanmaları hedeflenen temel müzik bilgilerini ölçmeye yarayan, geçerlik ve güvenilirlik çalışması yapılmış bir başarı testi geliştirmektir. Kapsam geçerliği için uzman görüşlerine başvurulan ölçme aracının güvenirliği için başarı testi içerisindeki maddelerin çoktan seçmeli olması ve 1-0 madde yapısı göstermesi nedeniyle KR-20 iç tutarlılık katsayısı kullanılmış madde güçlük indeksi ile madde ayırt edicilik indeksleri hesaplanmıştır. Bu analizler için ITEMAN analiz programından yararlanılmıştır. Buna göre, ortalama madde güçlük ve ayırt edicilik indeksleri sırasıyla 0,411 ve 0,384 olarak belirlenmiştir. Uzman görüşleri ve madde analizi sonunda 25 maddeye indirgenen başarı testinin geçerliliğinin yüksek olduğu saptanmıştır. Güvenirlik çalışmaları 180 öğrenci üzerinde yapılmıştır. Analiz sonucunda ölçme aracının KR-20 güvenilirlik katsayısı 0,76 bulunmuştur. Sonuç olarak Ortaöğretim Müzik Dersi Başarı Testi’nin, ortaöğretim öğrencilerinin müzik dersindeki akademik başarılarını ölçmede kullanılabilecek yeterli düzeyde geçerlik ve güvenirlik değerlerine sahip bir ölçek olduğu saptanmıştır.

    6. OPERA: Electronic Detector

      CERN Document Server

      Jollet, C

      2010-01-01

      OPERA is an hybrid detector for the ni-tau appearance search in a direct way, and the Electronic Detectors (ED) have the crucial role of triggerring for the neutrino events and of localizing such an interaction inside the target. Another very important task of the ED is to identify the muon since only a correct matching of such a track with a track in the emulsion connected to the vertex of the event allows to reduce the charm background to the desired level. The ED, fully working since 2006, consist of a target tracker (scintillator strips) and a spectrometer (RPC and drift tubes). The different sub-detectors are de- scribed in the poster, as well as their performance both on Monte Carlo (MC) and real data.

    7. Transition Radiation Detectors

      CERN Document Server

      Andronic, A

      2012-01-01

      We review the basic features of transition radiation and how they are used for the design of modern Transition Radiation Detectors (TRD). The discussion will include the various realizations of radiators as well as a discussion of the detection media and aspects of detector construction. With regard to particle identification we assess the different methods for efficient discrimination of different particles and outline the methods for the quantification of this property. Since a number of comprehensive reviews already exist, we predominantly focus on the detectors currently operated at the LHC. To a lesser extent we also cover some other TRDs, which are planned or are currently being operated in balloon or space-borne astro-particle physics experiments.

    8. The LHCb Detector Upgrade

      CERN Document Server

      Schindler, H

      2013-01-01

      The LHCb collaboration presented a Letter of Intent (LOI) to the LHCC in March 2011 for a major upgrading of the detector during Long Shutdown 2 (2018) and intends to collect a data sample of 50/fb in the LHC and High-Luminosity-LHC eras. The aim is to operate the experiment at an instantaneous luminosity 2.5 times above the present operational luminosity, which has already been pushed to twice the design value. Reading out the detector at 40MHz allows to increase the trigger efficiencies especially for the hadronic decay modes. The physics case and the strategy for the upgrade have been endorsed by the LHCC. This paper presents briefly the physics motivations for the LHCb upgrade and the proposed changes to the detector and trigger.

    9. JSATS Detector Field Manual

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Choi, Eric Y. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Flory, Adam E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lamarche, Brian L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weiland, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

      2014-06-01

      The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) Detector is a software and hardware system that captures JSATS Acoustic Micro Transmitter (AMT) signals. The system uses hydrophones to capture acoustic signals in the water. This analog signal is then amplified and processed by the Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) and Digital Signal Processor (DSP) board in the computer. This board digitizes and processes the acoustic signal to determine if a possible JSATS tag is present. With this detection, the data will be saved to the computer for further analysis. This document details the features and functionality of the JSATS Detector software. The document covers how to install the software, setup and run the detector software. The document will also go over the raw binary waveform file format and CSV files containing RMS values

    10. JSATS Detector Field Manual

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Choi, Eric Y. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Flory, Adam E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lamarche, Brian L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weiland, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

      2014-06-01

      The Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) Detector is a software and hardware system that captures JSATS Acoustic Micro Transmitter (AMT) signals. The system uses hydrophones to capture acoustic signals in the water. This analog signal is then amplified and processed by the Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) and Digital Signal Processor (DSP) board in the computer. This board digitizes and processes the acoustic signal to determine if a possible JSATS tag is present. With this detection, the data will be saved to the computer for further analysis. This document details the features and functionality of the JSATS Detector software. The document covers how to install the software, setup and run the detector software. The document will also go over the raw binary waveform file format and CSV files containing RMS values

    11. Cryogenic Tracking Detectors

      CERN Multimedia

      Luukka, P R; Tuominen, E M; Mikuz, M

      2002-01-01

      The recent advances in Si and diamond detector technology give hope of a simple solution to the radiation hardness problem for vertex trackers at the LHC. In particular, we have recently demonstrated that operating a heavily irradiated Si detector at liquid nitrogen (LN$_2$) temperature results in significant recovery of Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE). Among other potential benefits of operation at cryogenic temperatures are the use of large low-resistivity wafers, simple processing, higher and faster electrical signal because of higher mobility and drift velocity of carriers, and lower noise of the readout circuit. A substantial reduction in sensor cost could result The first goal of the approved extension of the RD39 program is to demonstrate that irradiation at low temperature in situ during operation does not affect the results obtained so far by cooling detectors which were irradiated at room temperature. In particular we shall concentrate on processes and materials that could significantly reduce th...

    12. The AFP Detector Control System

      CERN Document Server

      Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; The ATLAS collaboration

      2017-01-01

      The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector is one of the forward detectors of the ATLAS experiment at CERN aiming at measuring momenta and angles of diffractively scattered protons. Silicon Tracking and Time-of-Flight detectors are located inside Roman Pot stations inserted into beam pipe aperture. The AFP detector is composed of two stations on each side of the ATLAS interaction point and is under commissioning. The detector is provided with high and low voltage distribution systems. Each station has vacuum and cooling systems, movement control and all the required electronics for signal processing. Monitoring of environmental parameters, like temperature and radiation, is also available. The Detector Control System (DCS) provides control and monitoring of the detector hardware and ensures the safe and reliable operation of the detector, assuring good data quality. Comparing with DCS systems of other detectors, the AFP DCS main challenge is to cope with the large variety of AFP equipment. This paper describes t...

    13. ALICE Transition Radiation Detector

      CERN Multimedia

      Pachmayer, Y

      2013-01-01

      The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) is the main electron detector in ALICE. In conduction with the TPC and the ITS, it provides the necessary electron identification capability to study: - Production of light and heavy vector mesons as well as the continuum in the di-electron channel, - Semi leptonic decays of hadrons with open charm and open beauty via the single-electron channel using the displaced vertex information provided by the ITS, - Correlated DD and BB pairs via coincidences of electrons in the central barrel and muons in the forward muon arm, - Jets with high Pτ tracks in one single TRD stack.

    14. Edgeless silicon pad detectors

      Science.gov (United States)

      Perea Solano, B.; Abreu, M. C.; Avati, V.; Boccali, T.; Boccone, V.; Bozzo, M.; Capra, R.; Casagrande, L.; Chen, W.; Eggert, K.; Heijne, E.; Klauke, S.; Li, Z.; Mäki, T.; Mirabito, L.; Morelli, A.; Niinikoski, T. O.; Oljemark, F.; Palmieri, V. G.; Rato Mendes, P.; Rodrigues, S.; Siegrist, P.; Silvestris, L.; Sousa, P.; Tapprogge, S.; Trocmé, B.

      2006-05-01

      We report measurements in a high-energy pion beam of the sensitivity of the edge region in "edgeless" planar silicon pad diode detectors diced through their contact implants. A large surface current on such an edge prevents the normal reverse biasing of the device, but the current can be sufficiently reduced by the use of a suitable cutting method, followed by edge treatment, and by operating the detector at low temperature. The depth of the dead layer at the diced edge is measured to be (12.5±8 stat..±6 syst.) μm.

    15. Edgeless silicon pad detectors

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Perea Solano, B. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)]. E-mail: blanca.perea.solano@cern.ch; Abreu, M.C. [LIP and University of Algarve, 8000 Faro (Portugal); Avati, V. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Boccali, T. [INFN Sez. di Pisa and Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy); Boccone, V. [INFN Sez. di Genova and Universita di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Bozzo, M. [INFN Sez. di Genova and Universita di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Capra, R. [INFN Sez. di Genova and Universita di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Casagrande, L. [INFN Sez. di Roma 2 and Universita di Roma 2, Rome (Italy); Chen, W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Eggert, K. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Heijne, E. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Klauke, S. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Li, Z. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Maeki, T. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Mirabito, L. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Morelli, A. [INFN Sez. di Genova and Universita di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Niinikoski, T.O. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Oljemark, F. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Palmieri, V.G. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Rato Mendes, P. [LIP and University of Algarve, 8000 Faro (Portugal); Rodrigues, S. [LIP and University of Algarve, 8000 Faro (Portugal); Siegrist, P. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Silvestris, L. [INFN Sez. Di Bari, Bari (Italy); Sousa, P. [LIP and University of Algarve, 8000 Faro (Portugal); Tapprogge, S. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Trocme, B. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Villeurbanne (France)

      2006-05-01

      We report measurements in a high-energy pion beam of the sensitivity of the edge region in 'edgeless' planar silicon pad diode detectors diced through their contact implants. A large surface current on such an edge prevents the normal reverse biasing of the device, but the current can be sufficiently reduced by the use of a suitable cutting method, followed by edge treatment, and by operating the detector at low temperature. The depth of the dead layer at the diced edge is measured to be (12.5{+-}8{sub stat.}.{+-}6{sub syst.}) {mu}m.

    16. Radiation Detectors and Art

      Science.gov (United States)

      Denker, Andrea

      The use of radiation detectors in the analysis of art objects represents a very special application in a true interdisciplinary field. Radiation detectors employed in this field detect, e.g., x-rays, γ-rays, β particles, and protons. Analyzed materials range from stones, metals, over porcelain to paintings. The available nondestructive and noninvasive analytical methods cover a broad range of techniques. Hence, for the sake of brevity, this chapter will concentrate on few techniques: Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Proton Induced γ-ray Emission (PIGE).

    17. The Upgraded D0 Detector

      CERN Document Server

      Abazov, V M; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, D L; Adams, M; Adams, T; Agelou, M; Agram, J L; Ahmed, S N; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Andeen, T; Anderson, J T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Angstadt, R; Anosov, V; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Assis-Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Babukhadia, L; Bacon, Trevor C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Baffioni, S; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Balm, P W; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Bardon, O; Barg, W; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barnes, C; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bhattacharjee, M; Baturitsky, M A; Bauer, D; Bean, A; Baumbaugh, B; Beauceron, S; Begalli, M; Beaudette, F; Begel, M; Bellavance, A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Besson, A; Beuselinck, R; Beutel, D; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Binder, M; Biscarat, C; Bishoff, A; Black, K M; Blackler, I; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Blumenschein, U; Bockenthein, E; Bodyagin, V; Böhnlein, A; Boeriu, O; Bolton, T A; Bonamy, P; Bonifas, D; Borcherding, F; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Boswell, C; Bowden, M; Brandt, A; Briskin, G; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Bühler, M; Büscher, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Busato, E; Buszello, C P; Butler, D; Butler, J M; Cammin, J; Caron, S; Bystrický, J; Canal, L; Canelli, F; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Casey, D; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapin, D; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevalier, L; Chi, E; Chiche, R; Cho, D K; Choate, R; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Chopra, S; Christenson, J H; Christiansen, T; Christofek, L; Churin, I; Cisko, G; Claes, D; Clark, A R; Clement, B; Clément, C; Coadou, Y; Colling, D J; Coney, L; Connolly, B; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Coppage, D; Corcoran, M; Coss, J; Cothenet, A; Cousinou, M C; Cox, B; Crepe-Renaudin, S; Cristetiu, M; Cummings, M A C; Cutts, D; Da Motta, H; Das, M; Davies, B; Davies, G; Davis, G A; Davis, W; De, K; de Jong, P; De Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; de La Taille, C; De Oliveira Martins, C; Dean, S; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Delsart, P A; Del Signore, K; De Maat, R; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Demine, P; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Doets, M; Doidge, M; Dong, H; Doulas, S; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duperrin, A; Dvornikov, O; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Edwards, T; Ellison, J; Elmsheuser, J; Eltzroth, J T; Elvira, V D; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Eroshin, O V; Estrada, J; Evans, D; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Fagan, J; Fast, J; Fatakia, S N; Fein, D; Feligioni, L; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Ferreira, M J; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fleck, I; Fitzpatrick, T; Flattum, E; Fleuret, F; Flores, R; Foglesong, J; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Franklin, C; Freeman, W; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; Gao, M; García, C; García-Bellido, A; Gardner, J; Gavrilov, V; Gay, A; Gay, P; Gelé, D; Gelhaus, R; Genser, K; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Yu; Gillberg, D; Geurkov, G; Ginther, G; Gobbi, B; Goldmann, K; Golling, T; Gollub, N; Golovtsov, V L; Gómez, B; Gómez, G; Gómez, R; Goodwin, R W; Gornushkin, Y; Gounder, K; Goussiou, A; Graham, D; Graham, G; Grannis, P D; Gray, K; Greder, S; Green, D R; Green, J; Green, J A; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grinstein, S; Gris, P; Grivaz, J F; Groer, L; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Gu, W; Guglielmo, J; Sen-Gupta, A; Gurzhev, S N; Gutíerrez, G; Gutíerrez, P; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haggard, E; Haggerty, H; Hagopian, S; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, C; Han, L; Hance, R; Hanagaki, K; Hanlet, P; Hansen, S; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, C; Hays, J; Hazen, E; Hebbeker, T; Hebert, C; Hedin, D; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Hou, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Huang, J; Huang, Y; Hynek, V; Huffman, D; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jacquier, Y; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jain, V; Jakobs, K; Jayanti, R; Jenkins, A; Jesik, R; Jiang, Y; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Johnson, P; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Jöstlein, H; Jouravlev, N I; Juárez, M; Juste, A; Kaan, A P; Kado, M; Käfer, D; Kahl, W; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J; Kalmani, S D; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Ke, Z; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Kesisoglou, S; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A I; Kharzheev, Yu M; Kim, H; Kim, K H; Kim, T J; Kirsch, N; Klima, B; Klute, M; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J P; Komissarov, E V; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kostritskii, A V; Kotcher, J; Kothari, B; Kotwal, A V; Koubarovsky, A; Kozelov, A V; Kozminski, J; Kryemadhi, A; Kuznetsov, O; Krane, J; Kravchuk, N; Krempetz, K; Krider, J; Krishnaswamy, M R; Krzywdzinski, S; Kubantsev, M A; Kubinski, R; Kuchinsky, N; Kuleshov, S; Kulik, Y; Kumar, A; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kvita, J; Kuznetsov, V E; Kwarciany, R; Lager, S; Lahrichi, N; Landsberg, G L; Larwill, M; Laurens, P; Lavigne, B; Lazoflores, J; Le Bihan, A C; Le Meur, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, S W; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Leggett, C; Lehner, F; Leitner, R; Leonidopoulos, C; Lévêque, J; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Li, X; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Lindenmeyer, C; Linn, S L; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Litmaath, M; Lizarazo, J; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A; Lokajícek, M; Lounis, A; Love, P; Lü, J; Lubatti, H J; Lucotte, A; Lueking, L; Luo, C; Lynker, M; Lyon, A L; Machado, E; Maciel, A K A; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Magnan, A M; Maity, M; Makovec, N; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Manakov, V; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Markley, D; Markus, M; Marshall, T; Martens, M; Martin, M; Martin-Chassard, G; Mattingly, S E K; Matulik, M; Mayorov, A A; McCarthy, R; McCroskey, R; McKenna, M; McMahon, T; Meder, D; Melanson, H L; Melnitchouk, A S; Mendes, A; Mendoza, D; Mendoza, L; Meng, X; Merekov, Y P; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Michaut, M; Miao, C; Miettinen, H; Mihalcea, D; Mikhailov, V; Miller, D; Mitrevski, J; Mokhov, N; Molina, J; Mondal, N K; Montgomery, H E; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mostafa, M; Moua, S; Mulders, M; Mundim, L; Mutaf, Y D; Nagaraj, P; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Nang, F; Narain, M; Narasimhan, V S; Narayanan, A; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Nelson, S; Neuenschwander, R T; Neustroev, P; Nöding, C; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nozdrin, A; Nunnemann, T; Nurczyk, A; Nurse, E; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Oguri, V; Olis, D; Oliveira, N; Olivier, B; Olsen, J; Oshima, N; Oshinowo, B O; Oteroy-Garzon, G J; Padley, P; Papageorgiou, K; Parashar, N; Park, J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Perea, P M; Pérez, E; Peters, O; Petroff, P; Petteni, M; Phaf, L; Piegaia, R; Pleier, M A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M E; Pompos, A; Polosov, P; Pope, B G; Popkov, E; Porokhovoy, S; Prado da Silva, W L; Pritchard, W; Prokhorov, I; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S D; Przybycien, M B; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Ramberg, E; Ramirez-Gomez, R; Rani, K J; Ranjan, K; Rao, M V S; Rapidis, P A; Rapisarda, S; Raskowski, J; Ratoff, P N; Ray, R E; Reay, N W; Rechenmacher, R; Reddy, L V; Regan, T; Renardy, J F; Reucroft, S; Rha, J; Ridel, M; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F K; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Roco, M T; Rotolo, C; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Rucinski, R; Rud, V I; Rusakovich, N; Russo, P; Sabirov, B; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A; Satyanarayana, B; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, A D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schmitt, C; Schwanenberger, C; Schukin, A A; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sen-Gupta, S; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shankar, H C; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Sheahan, P; Shephard, W D; Shivpuri, R K; Shishkin, A A; Shpakov, D; Shupe, M; Sidwell, R A; Simák, V; Sirotenko, V I; Skow, D; Skubic, P L; Slattery, P F; Smith, D E; Smith, R P; Smolek, K; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Song, X; Song, Y; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sorin, V; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Spartana, N; Spurlock, B; Stanton, N R; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stefanik, A; Steinberg, J L; Steinbruck, G; Stevenson, K; Stolin, V; Stone, A; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Sznajder, A; Talby, M; Tentindo-Repond, S; Tamburello, P; Taylor, W; Telford, P; Temple, J; Terentyev, N K; Teterin, V; Thomas, E; Thompson, J; Thooris, B; Titov, M; Toback, D; Tokmenin, V V; Tolian, C; Tomoto, M; Tompkins, D; Toole, T; Torborg, J; Touze, F; Towers, S; Trefzger, T; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Trippe, T G; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Turcot, A S; Tuts, P M; Utes, M; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; Van den Berg, P J; Van Gemmeren, P; Van Kooten, R; Van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vartapetian, A H; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Vaz, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vigneault, M; Villeneuve-Séguier, F; Vishwanath, P R; Vlimant, J R; Von Törne, E; Vorobyov, A; Vreeswijk, M; Vu-Anh, T; Vysotsky, V S; Wahl, H D; Walker, R; Wallace, N; Wang, L; Wang, Z M; Warchol, J; Warsinsky, M; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Weerts, H; Wegner, M; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; White, V; Whiteson, D; Wicke, D; Wijnen, T A M; Wijngaarden, D A; Wilcer, N; Willutzki, H; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wittlin, J; Wlodek, T; Wobisch, M; Womersley, J; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Wu, Z; Xie, Y; Xu, Q; Xuan, N; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yarema, R J; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yen, Y; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Yoffe, F; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Yurkewicz, A; Zabi, A; Zanabria, M; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zdrazil, M; Zeitnitz, C; Zhang, B; Zhang, D; Zhang, X; Zhao, T; Zhao, Z; Zheng, H; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zitoun, R; Zmuda, T; Zutshi, V; Zviagintsev, S; Zverev, E G; Zylberstejn, A

      2005-01-01

      The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

    18. The Upgraded D0 detector

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahmed, S.N.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G.A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, J.T.; Anderson, S.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Sao Paulo, IFT /Alberta U.

      2005-07-01

      The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

    19. Status of the KEDR detector

      CERN Document Server

      Anashin, V V; Baibusinov, B O; Balashov, V; Baldin, E M; Barkov, L M; Barladyan, A K; Barnyakov, M Y; Baru, S E; Bedny, I; Beilin, D M; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Bondarev, D V; Bondar, A E; Buzykaev, A R; Cantoni, P; Chilingarov, A G; Dneprovsky, L V; Eidelman, S I; Epifanov, D A; Frabetti, P L; Gaidarev, P B; Groshev, V R; Karpov, S V; Kiselev, V A; Klimenko, S G; Kolachev, G M; Kononov, S A; Kozlov, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Kulikov, V F; Kurdadze, L M; Kuzmin, A S; Kuznecov, S A; Lanni, F; Lelchuk, M Y; Leontiev, L A; Levichev, E B; Malyshev, V M; Manfredi, P F; Maslennikov, A L; Minakov, G D; Nagaslaev, V P; Naumenkov, A I; Nikitin, S A; Nomerotski, A; Onuchin, A P; Oreshkin, S B; Ovechkin, R; Palombo, F; Peleganchuk, S V; Petrosyan, S S; Pivovarov, S V; Poluektov, A O; Pospelov, G E; Protopopov, I Ya; Re, V; Romanov, L V; Root, N I; Ruban, A A; Savinov, G A; Shamov, A G; Shatilov, D; Shubin, M A; Shusharo, A I; Shwartz, B A; Sidorov, V A; Skovpen, Y I; Smakhtin, V P; Snopkov, R G; Sokolov, A V; Soukharev, A M; Talyshev, A A; Tayursky, V A; Telnov, V I; Tikhonov, Yu A; Todyshev, K Y; Usov, Y V; Vorobyev, A I; Yushkov, A N; Zatcepin, A V; Zhilich, V N

      2002-01-01

      KEDR is a general-purpose detector for experiments at the VEPP-4M e sup + e sup - -collider in the energy range 2E=2.0-12 GeV. All detector subsystems (except the aerogel Cherenkov counters) have been installed into the detector at VEPP-4M. Some preliminary data have been taken in the energy region of the J/PSI meson. The tuning of the detector and the VEPP-4M collider is in progress. Preliminary results on the detector performance are presented. The future experimental program for the KEDR detector is discussed.

    20. Status of the KEDR detector

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Anashin, V.V.; Aulchenko, V.M.; Baibusinov, B.O.; Balashov, V.; Baldin, E.M.; Barkov, L.M.; Barladyan, A.K.; Barnyakov, M.Yu.; Baru, S.E.; Bedny, I.V.; Beilin, D.M.; Blinov, A.E.; Blinov, V.E.; Bondarev, D.V.; Bondar, A.E.; Buzykaev, A.R.; Cantoni, P.; Chilingarov, A.G.; Dneprovsky, L.V.; Eidelman, S.I.; Epifanov, D.A.; Frabetti, P.L.; Gaidarev, P.B.; Groshev, V.R.; Karpov, S.V.; Kiselev, V.A.; Klimenko, S.G.; Kolachev, G.M.; Kononov, S.A.; Kozlov, V.N.; Kravchenko, E.A.; Kulikov, V.F.; Kurdadze, L.M.; Kuzmin, A.S.; Kuznecov, S.A.; Lanni, F.; Lelchuk, M.Yu.; Leontiev, L.A.; Levichev, E.B.; Malyshev, V.M.; Manfredi, P.F.; Maslennikov, A.L.; Minakov, G.D.; Nagaslaev, V.P.; Naumenkov, A.; Nikitin, S.A.; Nomerotsky, A.; Onuchin, A.P.; Oreshkin, S.B.; Ovechkin, R.; Palombo, F.; Peleganchuk, S.V.; Petrosyan, S.S.; Pivovarov, S.V.; Poluektov, A.O.; Pospelov, G.E.; Protopopov, I.Ya.; Re, V.; Romanov, L.V.; Root, N.I.; Ruban, A.A.; Savinov, G.A.; Shamov, A.G.; Shatilov, D.; Shubin, M.A.; Shusharo, A.I.; Shwartz, B.A.; Sidorov, V.A.; Skovpen, Yu.I.; Smakhtin, V.P.; Snopkov, R.G.; Sokolov, A.V.; Soukharev, A.M.; Talyshev, A.A.; Tayursky, V.A.; Telnov, V.I.; Tikhonov, Yu.A. E-mail: tikhonov@cppm.in2p3.fr; Todyshev, K.Yu.; Usov, Yu.V.; Vorobyev, A.I.; Yushkov, A.N.; Zatcepin, A.V.; Zhilich, V.N

      2002-02-01

      KEDR is a general-purpose detector for experiments at the VEPP-4M e{sup +}e{sup -}-collider in the energy range 2E=2.0-12 GeV. All detector subsystems (except the aerogel Cherenkov counters) have been installed into the detector at VEPP-4M. Some preliminary data have been taken in the energy region of the J/{psi} meson. The tuning of the detector and the VEPP-4M collider is in progress. Preliminary results on the detector performance are presented. The future experimental program for the KEDR detector is discussed.

    1. Fast Detector Simulation Using Lelaps, Detector Descriptions in GODL

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Langeveld, Willy; /SLAC

      2005-07-06

      Lelaps is a fast detector simulation program which reads StdHep generator files and produces SIO or LCIO output files. It swims particles through detectors taking into account magnetic fields, multiple scattering and dE/dx energy loss. It simulates parameterized showers in EM and hadronic calorimeters and supports gamma conversions and decays. In addition to three built-in detector configurations, detector descriptions can also be read from files in the new GODL file format.

    2. Türkiye’de Yaygın Gelişimsel Bozukluklar Alanında Gerçekleştirilen Lisansüstü Tez Çalışmalarının Gözden Geçirilmesi

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Özge Eliçin

      2011-07-01

      Full Text Available Bu araştırmada, Türkiye’de yaygın gelişimsel bozukluklar alanında 1990-2011 yılları arasında lisansüstü düzeyde gerçekleştirilen tez çalışmalarının gözden geçirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bu araştırma için kaynaklara Yüksek Öğretim Kurulu’nun internet sitesinden ulaşılmıştır. Taramada anahtar kelime olarak “otizm”, “otistik bozukluk”, “otizm spektrum bozukluğu/yaygın gelişimsel bozukluk”, “Asperger” kelimeleri kullanılmıştır. Bunun yanında Zihinsel Yetersizlik ve Gelişimsel Bozukluk Alanlarında Lisansüstü Tez Bibliyografyası (Diken, Ünlü ve Karaaslan, 2008 kitabından “otizm”, “otistik bozukluk” ve “yaygın gelişimsel bozukluk”, “Asperger” kelimelerini içeren tezler araştırmaya dâhil edilmiştir. Araştırmaya dâhil edilen tezlerde a yaygın gelişimsel bozukluklar alanından bir tanı almış çocuklarla ya da bu tanı kriterlerine sahip çocukların aileleriyle yürütülmüş olması b incelenen durumların (görüş, olgu, karşılaştırma, etki yaygın gelişimsel bozukluklar alanından bir tanı almış çocuklar için yapılmış olması c çalışmaların yüksek lisans ve doktora tezi olması özellikleri aranmıştır. Araştırmada bu amaçla gerçekleştirilen toplam 79 teze ulaşılmıştır. Tezlerin analizi aşamasında, tezler konularına göre 6 kategoriye ayrılmıştır. Her bir kategoride yer alan tezler karşılaştırmalı olarak incelenmiştir. The purpose of this study is to review graduate studies (master thesis and doctoral dissertations regarding pervasive developmental disorders (PDD carried out between 1990-2011 in Turkey. Graduate studies were reached through website of Higher Education Council of Turkey by using keywords of “autism, autistic disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder/autism spectrum disorders”. In addition, graduate studies listed in the book (Diken, Ünlü and Karaaslan, 2008 entitled “Bibliography of

    3. Pixel detector insertion

      CERN Multimedia

      CMS

      2015-01-01

      Insertion of the Pixel Tracker, the 66-million-channel device used to pinpoint the vertex of each colliding proton pair, located at the heart of the detector. The geometry of CMS is a cylinder lying on its side (22 meters long and 15 meters high in dia

    4. Sensitive hydrogen leak detector

      Science.gov (United States)

      Myneni, Ganapati Rao

      1999-01-01

      A sensitive hydrogen leak detector system using passivation of a stainless steel vacuum chamber for low hydrogen outgassing, a high compression ratio vacuum system, a getter operating at 77.5 K and a residual gas analyzer as a quantitative hydrogen sensor.

    5. B-factory detectors

      CERN Document Server

      Marlow, D R

      2002-01-01

      The designs of the recently commissioned BaBar and Belle B-Factory detectors are described. The discussion is organized around the methods and instruments used to detect the so-called gold-plated-mode B sup 0->J/PSI K sub S decays and related modes.

    6. The BABAR Detector

      CERN Document Server

      CERN. Geneva

      2002-01-01

      BABAR, the detector for the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric e+e- B Factory operating at the upsilon 4S resonance, was designed to allow comprehensive studies of CP-violation in B-meson decays. Charged particle tracks are measured in a multi-layer silicon vertex tracker surrounded by a cylindrical wire drift chamber. Electromagentic showers from electrons and photons are detected in an array of CsI crystals located just inside the solenoidal coil of a superconducting magnet. Muons and neutral hadrons are identified by arrays of resistive plate chambers inserted into gaps in the steel flux return of the magnet. Charged hadrons are identified by dE/dx measurements in the tracking detectors and in a ring-imaging Cherenkov detector surrounding the drift chamber. The trigger, data acquisition and data-monitoring systems, VME- and network-based, are controlled by custom-designed online software. Details of the layout and performance of the detector components and their associated electronics and software are presented.

    7. CALIBRATION OF PHOSWICH DETECTORS

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      LEEGTE, HKW; KOLDENHOF, EE; BOONSTRA, AL; WILSCHUT, HW

      1992-01-01

      Two important aspects for the calibration of phoswich detector arrays have been investigated. It is shown that common gate ADCs can be used: The loss in particle identification due to fluctuations in the gate timing in multi-hit events can be corrected for by a simple procedure using the measured ti

    8. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

      CERN Multimedia

      P. Paolucci

      2012-01-01

      The RPC system is operating with a very high uptime, an average chamber efficiency of about 95% and an average cluster size around 1.8. The average number of active channels is 97.7%. Eight chambers are disconnected and forty are working in single-gap mode due to high-voltage problems. The total luminosity lost due to RPCs in 2012 is 88.46 pb–1. One of the main goals of 2012 was to improve the stability of the endcap trigger that is strongly correlated to the performances of the detector, due to the 3-out-3 trigger logic. At beginning of 2011 the instability of the detector efficiency was about 10%. Detailed studies found that this was mainly due to the strong correlation between the performance of the detector and the atmospheric pressure (P). Figure XXY shows the linear correlation between the average cluster size of the endcap chamber versus P. This effect is expected for gaseous detectors and can be reduced by correcting the applied high-voltage working point (HVapp) according to the followi...

    9. Ionic smoke detectors

      CERN Document Server

      2002-01-01

      Ionic smoke detectors are products incorporating radioactive material. This article summarises the process for their commercialization and marketing, and how the activity is controlled, according to regulations establishing strict design and production requisites to guarantee the absence of radiological risk associated both with their use and their final handling as conventional waste. (Author)

    10. ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector

      CERN Multimedia

      Manzari, V

      2013-01-01

      The Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) forms the innermost two layers of the 6-layer barrel Inner Tracking System (ITS). The SPD plays a key role in the determination of the position of the primary collision and in the reconstruction of the secondary vertices from particle decays.

    11. The CLIC Vertex Detector

      CERN Document Server

      Dannheim, D

      2015-01-01

      The precision physics needs at TeV-scale linear electron-positron colliders (ILC and CLIC) require a vertex-detector system with excellent flavour-tagging capabilities through a meas- urement of displaced vertices. This is essential, for example, for an explicit measurement of the Higgs decays to pairs of b-quarks, c-quarks and gluons. Efficient identification of top quarks in the decay t → W b will give access to the ttH-coupling measurement. In addition to those requirements driven by physics arguments, the CLIC bunch structure calls for hit tim- ing at the few-ns level. As a result, the CLIC vertex-detector system needs to have excellent spatial resolution, full geometrical coverage extending to low polar angles, extremely low material budget, low occupancy facilitated by time-tagging, and sufficient heat removal from sensors and readout. These considerations challenge current technological limits. A detector concept based on hybrid pixel-detector technology is under development for the CLIC ver- tex det...

    12. First ALICE detectors installed!

      CERN Multimedia

      2006-01-01

      Detectors to track down penetrating muon particles are the first to be placed in their final position in the ALICE cavern. The Alice muon spectrometer: in the foreground the trigger chamber is positioned in front of the muon wall, with the dipole magnet in the background. After the impressive transport of its dipole magnet, ALICE has begun to fill the spectrometer with detectors. In mid-July, the ALICE muon spectrometer team achieved important milestones with the installation of the trigger and the tracking chambers of the muon spectrometer. They are the first detectors to be installed in their final position in the cavern. All of the eight half planes of the RPCs (resistive plate chambers) have been installed in their final position behind the muon filter. The role of the trigger detector is to select events containing a muon pair coming, for instance, from the decay of J/ or Y resonances. The selection is made on the transverse momentum of the two individual muons. The internal parts of the RPCs, made o...

    13. Superconducting Single Photon Detectors

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Dorenbos, S.N.

      2011-01-01

      This thesis is about the development of a detector for single photons, particles of light. New techniques are being developed that require high performance single photon detection, such as quantum cryptography, single molecule detection, optical radar, ballistic imaging, circuit testing and fluoresc

    14. The BABAR Detector

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Luth, Vera G

      2001-05-18

      BABAR, the detector for the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} B Factory operating at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance, was designed to allow comprehensive studies of CP-violation in B-meson decays. Charged particle tracks are measured in a multi-layer silicon vertex tracker surrounded by a cylindrical wire drift chamber. Electromagentic showers from electrons and photons are detected in an array of CsI crystals located just inside the solenoidal coil of a superconducting magnet. Muons and neutral hadrons are identified by arrays of resistive plate chambers inserted into gaps in the steel flux return of the magnet. Charged hadrons are identified by dE/dx measurements in the tracking detectors and in a ring-imaging Cherenkov detector surrounding the drift chamber. The trigger, data acquisition and data-monitoring systems, VME- and network-based, are controlled by custom-designed online software. Details of the layout and performance of the detector components and their associated electronics and software are presented.

    15. High-resolution ionization detector and array of such detectors

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      McGregor, Douglas S. (Ypsilanti, MI); Rojeski, Ronald A. (Pleasanton, CA)

      2001-01-16

      A high-resolution ionization detector and an array of such detectors are described which utilize a reference pattern of conductive or semiconductive material to form interaction, pervious and measurement regions in an ionization substrate of, for example, CdZnTe material. The ionization detector is a room temperature semiconductor radiation detector. Various geometries of such a detector and an array of such detectors produce room temperature operated gamma ray spectrometers with relatively high resolution. For example, a 1 cm.sup.3 detector is capable of measuring .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays with room temperature energy resolution approaching 2% at FWHM. Two major types of such detectors include a parallel strip semiconductor Frisch grid detector and the geometrically weighted trapezoid prism semiconductor Frisch grid detector. The geometrically weighted detector records room temperature (24.degree. C.) energy resolutions of 2.68% FWHM for .sup.137 Cs 662 keV gamma rays and 2.45% FWHM for .sup.60 Co 1.332 MeV gamma rays. The detectors perform well without any electronic pulse rejection, correction or compensation techniques. The devices operate at room temperature with simple commercially available NIM bin electronics and do not require special preamplifiers or cooling stages for good spectroscopic results.

    16. [The Economic Roots of Political Underdevelopment in the Middle East: A Historical Perspective] Ortadoğu’daki Politik Az Gelişmişliğin Ekonomik Kökenleri: Tarihsel Bir Bakış Açısı

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Timur KURAN

      2014-09-01

      Full Text Available Özet. Çağdaş dönem öncesi Ortadoğu ekonomisinin İslam hukukuna dayanan kilit kurumları, demokratik kurumların gelişimini engelledi. Bu konuşma, kritik rol oynayan üç mekanizmayı tanımlamaktadır. Kur’an’da belirtilen vergi sistemi yönetim üzerinde kalıcı ve güvenilir kısıtlamalar geliştirmeyi başaramadı. Çeşitli kesimlere sosyal hizmetler sağlamak için kurulan İslami vakıfların politik gücü yoktu. Kâr getiren özel işletmeler küçük ölçekli ve kısa ömürlüydüler; bu özellikler devletle pazarlık edebilecek istikrarlı koalisyonlar kurmalarını önledi. Son iki mekanizma, demokratik yönetim için gerekli olan güçler ayrılığını sağlayacak sivil toplumun gelişimini geciktirdi.Anahtar Kelimeler. Ortadoğu, zekât, vakıf, ortaklık, İslam hukuku, güçler ayrılığı, demokrasi.JEL Sınıflandırma. 053, N95, H11, P48.

    17. Fire Emulator/Detector Evaluator

      Data.gov (United States)

      Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The fire emulator/detector evaluator (FE/DE) is a computer-controlled flow tunnel used to re-create the environments surrounding detectors in the early...

    18. Fire Emulator/Detector Evaluator

      Data.gov (United States)

      Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The fire emulator/detector evaluator (FE/DE) is a computer-controlled flow tunnel used to re-create the environments surrounding detectors in the early...

    19. Position sensitive solid state detectors

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Schnatterly, S.E.; Husk, D.

      1986-05-15

      Solid state detectors have been used for years as high quantum efficiency detectors for visible light. In this paper the use of PDA and CCD, solid state detectors, in the X-ray region will be discussed. In particular examples of data in the soft X-ray region are presented. Finally the use of phosphor coatings to enhance the sensitivity of solid state detectors is described.

    20. Radiation detectors laboratory; Laboratorio de detectores de radiacion

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Ramirez J, F.J. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

      1997-07-01

      The Radiation detectors laboratory was established with the assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency which gave this the responsibility to provide its services at National and regional level for Latin America and it is located at the ININ. The more expensive and delicate radiation detectors are those made of semiconductor, so it has been put emphasis in the use and repairing of these detectors type. The supplied services by this laboratory are: selection consultant, detectors installation and handling and associated systems. Installation training, preventive and corrective maintenance of detectors and detection systems calibration. (Author)

    1. ATLAS Detector : Performance and Upgrades

      CERN Document Server

      Oliveira Damazio, Denis; The ATLAS collaboration

      2016-01-01

      Describe the ATLAS detector and summarize most relevant and recent information about the detector performance in 2016 with LHC colliding bunches at sqrt(s)=13 TeV with luminosity above the nominal value. Describe the different upgrade phases previewed for the detector and main activities already ongoing.

    2. Characterizations of GEM detector prototype

      CERN Document Server

      INSPIRE-00522505; Rudra, Sharmili; Bhattacharya, P.; Sahoo, Sumanya Sekhar; Biswas, S.; Mohanty, B.; Nayak, T.K.; Sahu, P.K.; Sahu, S.

      2016-01-01

      At NISER-IoP detector laboratory an initiative is taken to build and test Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors for ALICE experiment. The optimisation of the gas flow rate and the long-term stability test of the GEM detector are performed. The method and test results are presented.

    3. Characterisations of GEM detector prototype

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Patra, Rajendra Nath [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064, West Bengal (India); Nanda, Amit [School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research, Jatni 752050 (India); Rudra, Sharmili [Department of Applied Physics, CU, 92, APC Road, Kolkata 700009, West Bengal (India); Bhattacharya, P.; Sahoo, Sumanya Sekhar [School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research, Jatni 752050 (India); Biswas, S., E-mail: saikat.ino@gmail.com [School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research, Jatni 752050 (India); Mohanty, B. [School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research, Jatni 752050 (India); Nayak, T.K. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064, West Bengal (India); Sahu, P.K.; Sahu, S. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, P.O.: Sainik School, Bhubaneswar 751005, Odisha (India)

      2016-07-11

      At NISER-IoP detector laboratory an initiative is taken to build and test Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors for ALICE experiment. The optimisation of the gas flow rate and the long-term stability test of the GEM detector are performed. The method and test results are presented.

    4. Workshops on radiation imaging detectors

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Sochinskii, N.V.; Sun, G.C.; Kostamo, P.; Silenas, A.; Saynatjoki, A.; Grant, J.; Owens, A.; Kozorezov, A.G.; Noschis, E.; Van Eijk, C.; Nagarkar, V.; Sekiya, H.; Pribat, D.; Campbell, M.; Lundgren, J.; Arques, M.; Gabrielli, A.; Padmore, H.; Maiorino, M.; Volpert, M.; Lebrun, F.; Van der Putten, S.; Pickford, A.; Barnsley, R.; Anton, M.E.G.; Mitschke, M.; Gros d' Aillon, E.; Frojdh, C.; Norlin, B.; Marchal, J.; Quattrocchi, M.; Stohr, U.; Bethke, K.; Bronnimann, C.H.; Pouvesle, J.M.; Hoheisel, M.; Clemens, J.C.; Gallin-Martel, M.L.; Bergamaschi, A.; Redondo-Fernandez, I.; Gal, O.; Kwiatowski, K.; Montesi, M.C.; Smith, K

      2005-07-01

      This document gathers the transparencies that were presented at the international workshop on radiation imaging detectors. 9 sessions were organized: 1) materials for detectors and detector structure, 2) front end electronics, 3) interconnected technologies, 4) space, fusion applications, 5) the physics of detection, 6) industrial applications, 7) synchrotron radiation, 8) X-ray sources, and 9) medical and other applications.

    5. Evsel Atıklardan Elde Edilen Kompostun Mısır ve Biberin Gelişimi ve Besin Elementi İçeriğine Etkisi

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Derviş AYNACI

      2016-04-01

      Full Text Available Araştırmada, 1 ay süre ile 10 ayrı haneden mutfak atıkları toplanmış, toplanan evsel atıklardan elde edilen kompostun sera koşullarında mısır ve biber bitkilerinin gelişimi ve besin elementi içeriğine etkisi araştırılmıştır. Deneme 2 kg toprak alan saksılarda yürütülmüş olup, kompostun 6 (0, 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 2.00 ve 4.00 ton/da dozu uygulanmıştır. Araştırma, 4 paralelli olarak, tesadüf parselleri deneme desenine göre planlanmış ve 2 ay süreyle yürütülmüştür. Araştırma sonunda hasat edilen bitkilerde kuru ağırlık değerleriyle N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn ve Mn konsantrasyonları belirlenmiştir. Uygulanan kompost miktarı arttıkça bitki kuru ağırlığı artmış, biber bitkisinin N konsantrasyonunda 2-2.4 kat arasında artışlar görülmüştür. Mısır bitkisi N konsantrasyonları da kompost dozlarından olumlu etkilenmiş fakat burada dozlar arası fark önemli olmamıştır. Bitkilerde P, K ve Ca konsantrasyonları kompost miktarı arttıkça olumlu yönde etkilenmiş, biberde Fe, Zn ve Mn konsantrasyonları, mısırda ise Mn konsantrasyonu etkisi istatistiksel anlamda önemli bulunmuştur.

    6. Detector and System Developments for LHC Detector Upgrades

      CERN Document Server

      Mandelli, Beatrice; Guida, Roberto; Rohne, Ole; Stapnes, Steinar

      2015-05-12

      The future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Physics program and the consequent improvement of the LHC accelerator performance set important challenges to all detector systems. This PhD thesis delineates the studies and strategies adopted to improve two different types of detectors: the replacement of precision trackers with ever increasingly performing silicon detectors, and the improvement of large gaseous detector systems by optimizing their gas mixtures and operation modes. Within the LHC tracker upgrade programs, the ATLAS Insertable B-layer (IBL) is the first major upgrade of a silicon-pixel detector. Indeed the overall ATLAS Pixel Detector performance is expected to degrade with the increase of luminosity and the IBL will recover the performance by adding a fourth innermost layer. The IBL Detector makes use of new pixel and front-end electronics technologies as well as a novel thermal management approach and light support and service structures. These innovations required complex developments and Quality Ass...

    7. Future liquid Argon detectors

      CERN Document Server

      Rubbia, A

      2013-01-01

      The Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber offers an innovative technology for a new class of massive detectors for rare-event detection. It is a precise tracking device that allows three-dimensional spatial reconstruction with mm-scale precision of the morphology of ionizing tracks with the imaging quality of a "bubble chamber", provides $dE/dx$ information with high sampling rate, and acts as high-resolution calorimeter for contained events. First proposed in 1977 and after a long maturing process, its holds today the potentialities of opening new physics opportunities by providing excellent tracking and calorimetry performance at the relevant multi-kton mass scales, outperforming other techniques. In this paper, we review future liquid argon detectors presently being discussed by the neutrino physics community.

    8. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors

      CERN Document Server

      Owens, Alan

      2012-01-01

      Although elemental semiconductors such as silicon and germanium are standard for energy dispersive spectroscopy in the laboratory, their use for an increasing range of applications is becoming marginalized by their physical limitations, namely the need for ancillary cooling, their modest stopping powers, and radiation intolerance. Compound semiconductors, on the other hand, encompass such a wide range of physical and electronic properties that they have become viable competitors in a number of applications. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors is a consolidated source of information on all aspects of the use of compound semiconductors for radiation detection and measurement. Serious Competitors to Germanium and Silicon Radiation Detectors Wide-gap compound semiconductors offer the ability to operate in a range of hostile thermal and radiation environments while still maintaining sub-keV spectral resolution at X-ray wavelengths. Narrow-gap materials offer the potential of exceeding the spectral resolutio...

    9. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

      CERN Multimedia

      G.Gomez

      Since September, the muon alignment system shifted from a mode of hardware installation and commissioning to operation and data taking. All three optical subsystems (Barrel, Endcap and Link alignment) have recorded data before, during and after CRAFT, at different magnetic fields and during ramps of the magnet. This first data taking experience has several interesting goals: •    study detector deformations and movements under the influence of the huge magnetic forces; •    study the stability of detector structures and of the alignment system over long periods, •    study geometry reproducibility at equal fields (specially at 0T and 3.8T); •    reconstruct B=0T geometry and compare to nominal/survey geometries; •    reconstruct B=3.8T geometry and provide DT and CSC alignment records for CMSSW. However, the main goal is to recons...

    10. The LUCID detector

      CERN Document Server

      Lasagni Manghi, Federico; The ATLAS collaboration

      2015-01-01

      Starting from 2015 LHC is performing a new run, at higher center of mass energy (13 TeV) and with 25 ns bunch-spacing. The ATLAS luminosity monitor LUCID has been completely renewed, both on detector design and in the electronics, in order to cope with the new running conditions. The new detector electronics is presented, featuring a new read-out board (LUCROD), for signal acquisition and digitization, PMT-charge integration and single-side luminosity measurements, and the revisited LUMAT board for side-A-side-C combination. The contribution covers the new boards design, the firmware and software developments, the implementation of luminosity algorithms, the optical communication between boards and the integration into the ATLAS TDAQ system.

    11. UA1 central detector

      CERN Multimedia

      The UA1 central detector was crucial to understanding the complex topology of proton-antiproton events. It played a most important role in identifying a handful of Ws and Zs among billions of collisions. The detector was a 6-chamber cylindrical assembly 5.8 m long and 2.3 m in diameter, the largest imaging drift chamber of its day. It recorded the tracks of charged particles curving in a 0.7 Tesla magnetic field, measuring their momentum, the sign of their electric charge and their rate of energy loss (dE/dx). Atoms in the argon-ethane gas mixture filling the chambers were ionised by the passage of charged particles. The electrons which were released drifted along an electric field shaped by field wires and were collected on sense wires. The geometrical arrangement of the 17000 field wires and 6125 sense wires allowed a spectacular 3-D interactive display of reconstructed physics events to be produced.

    12. Metrology with Unknown Detectors.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Altorio, Matteo; Genoni, Marco G; Somma, Fabrizia; Barbieri, Marco

      2016-03-11

      The best possible precision is one of the key figures in metrology, but this is established by the exact response of the detection apparatus, which is often unknown. There exist techniques for detector characterization that have been introduced in the context of quantum technologies but apply as well for ordinary classical coherence; these techniques, though, rely on intense data processing. Here, we show that one can make use of the simpler approach of data fitting patterns in order to obtain an estimate of the Cramér-Rao bound allowed by an unknown detector, and we present applications in polarimetry. Further, we show how this formalism provides a useful calculation tool in an estimation problem involving a continuous-variable quantum state, i.e., a quantum harmonic oscillator.

    13. Aerogel for FARICH detector

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Barnyakov, A.Yu. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lavrentieva 11, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Barnyakov, M.Yu. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lavrentieva 11, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, Karl Marks 20, Novosibirsk 630073 (Russian Federation); Bobrovnikov, V.S.; Buzykaev, A.R.; Gulevich, V.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lavrentieva 11, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Danilyuk, A.F. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Lavrentieva 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kononov, S.A.; Kravchenko, E.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lavrentieva 11, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova 2, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Kuyanov, I.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lavrentieva 11, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Lopatin, S.A. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Lavrentieva 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Onuchin, A.P.; Ovtin, I.V.; Podgornov, N.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lavrentieva 11, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, Karl Marks 20, Novosibirsk 630073 (Russian Federation); Porosev, V.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lavrentieva 11, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Predein, A.Yu.; Protsenko, R.S. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Lavrentieva 5, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

      2014-12-01

      We present our current experience in preparation of focusing aerogels for the Focusing Aerogel RICH detector. Multilayer focusing aerogel tiles have been produced in Novosibirsk by a collaboration of the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics and Boreskov Institute of Catalysis since 2004. We have obtained 2–3–4-layer blocks with the thickness of 30–45 mm. In 2012, the first samples of focusing blocks with continuous density (refractive index) gradient along thickness were produced. This technology can significantly reduce the contribution from the geometric factor of the radiator thickness to the resolution of the measured Cherenkov angle in the FARICH detector. The special installation was used for automatic control of reagents ratio during the synthesis process. The first samples were tested using the digital radiography method and on the electron beam with the FARICH prototype.

    14. Metrology with Unknown Detectors

      CERN Document Server

      Altorio, Matteo; Somma, Fabrizia; Barbieri, Marco

      2015-01-01

      The best possible precision is one of the key figures in metrology, but this is established by the exact response of the detection apparatus, which is often unknown. There exist techniques for detector characterisation, that have been introduced in the context of quantum technologies, but apply as well for ordinary classical coherence; these techniques, though, rely on intense data processing. Here we show that one can make use of the simpler approach of data fitting patterns in order to obtain an estimate of the Cram\\'er-Rao bound allowed by an unknown detector, and present applications in polarimetry. Further, we show how this formalism provide a useful calculation tool in an estimation problem involving a continuous-variable quantum state, i.e. a quantum harmonic oscillator.

    15. Radiation damage in silicon detectors

      CERN Document Server

      Lindström, G

      2003-01-01

      Radiation damage effects in silicon detectors under severe hadron and gamma-irradiation are surveyed, focusing on bulk effects. Both macroscopic detector properties (reverse current, depletion voltage and charge collection) as also the underlying microscopic defect generation are covered. Basic results are taken from the work done in the CERN-RD48 (ROSE) collaboration updated by results of recent work. Preliminary studies on the use of dimerized float zone and Czochralski silicon as detector material show possible benefits. An essential progress in the understanding of the radiation-induced detector deterioration had recently been achieved in gamma irradiation, directly correlating defect analysis data with the macroscopic detector performance.

    16. Detectors for the space telescope

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kelsall, T.

      1978-01-01

      This review of Space Telescope (ST) detectors is divided into two parts. The first part gives short summaries of detector programs carried out during the final planning stage (Phase B) of the ST and discusses such detectors as Photicon, the MAMA detectors, the CODACON, the University of Maryland ICCD, the Goddard Space Flight Center ICCD, and the 70 mm SEC TV sensor. The second part describes the detectors selected for the first ST flight, including the wide field/planetary camera, the faint object and high resolution spectrographs, and the high speed photometer.

    17. Biological detector and method

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M.; McDowell, Andrew F.

      2015-11-24

      A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

    18. Biological detector and method

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

      2014-04-15

      A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

    19. The AMANDA Neutrino Detector

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Wischnewski, R.; Andres, E.; Askebjer, P.; Barwick, S.; Bay, R.; Bergstrom, L.; Biron, A.; Booth, J.; Botner, O.; Bouchta, A.; Carius, S.; Carlson, M.; Chinowsky, W.; Chirkin, D.; Cowen, D.; Costa, C.; Dalberg,E.; Deyoung, T.; Edsjo, J.; Ekstrom, P.; Goobar, A.; Gray, L.; Hallgren,A.; Halzen, F.; Hardtke, R.; He, Y.; Hill, G.; Hulth, P.; Hundertmark,S.; Jacobsen, J.; Kandhadai, V.; Karle, A.; Kim, J.; Leich, H.; Leuthold,M.; Lindahl, P.; Liss, T.; Liubarsky, I.; Loaiza, P.; Lowder, D.; Marciniewski, P.; Miller, T.; Miocinovic, P.; Mock, P.; Morse, R.; Newcomer, M.; Niessen, P.; Nygren, D.; de, los, Heros, CP.; Porrata, R.; Price, P.; Przybylski, G.; Rhode, W.; Richter, S.; Rodriguez, J.; Romenesko, P.; Ross, D.; Rubinstein, H.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, E.; Schwarz, R.; Schwendicke, U.; Smoot, G.; Solarz, M.; Sorin, V.; Spiering,C.; Steffen, P.; Stokstad, R.; Streicher, O.; Thollander, L.; Thon, T.; Tilav, S.; Walck, C.; Wiebusch, C.; Woschnagg, K.; Wu, W.; Yodh, G.; Young, S.

      1999-08-23

      The first stage of the AMANDA High Energy Neutrino Detectorat the South Pole, the 302 PMT array AMANDA-B with an expected effectivearea for TeV neutrinos of similar to 10(4) m(2), has been taking datasince 1997. Progress with calibration, investigation of ice properties,as well as muon and neutrino data analysis are described. The next stage20-string detector AMANDA-II with similar to 800 PMTs will be completedin spring 2000.

    20. The ALEPH detector

      CERN Document Server

      1988-01-01

      For detecting the direction and momenta of charged particles with extreme accuracy, the ALEPH detector had at its core a time projection chamber, for years the world's largest. In the foreground from the left, Jacques Lefrancois, Jack Steinberger, Lorenzo Foa and Pierre Lazeyras. ALEPH was an experiment on the LEP accelerator, which studied high-energy collisions between electrons and positrons from 1989 to 2000.

    1. LHCb velo detector

      CERN Multimedia

      Patrice Loïez

      2001-01-01

      Photo 01 : L. to r.: D. Malinon, Summer Student, J. Libby, Fellow, J. Harvey, Head of CERN LHCb group, D. Schlatter, Head of the EP Division in front of the LHCb velo detector test beam (on the right). Photo 02 : L. to r.: J. Harvey, D. Schlatter, W. Riegler (staff), H.J. Hilke, LHCb Technical Coordinator in front of the muon chamber test beam

    2. Development of Portable Detectors

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      None

      2006-12-01

      The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC (the “Contractor”) and Sense Holdings, Inc. (the “Participant”) was for the development of hand-held detectors with high sensitivity and selectivity for the detection of explosives, toxic industrial chemicals and materials, and other materials of interest for security applications. The two parties built a series of demonstration and prototype handheld sensors based upon micoelectromechanical systems (MEMS) with electronic readout.

    3. Biological detector and method

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

      2013-02-26

      A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

    4. Hybrid superconducting neutron detectors

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Merlo, V.; Lucci, M.; Ottaviani, I. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Salvato, M.; Cirillo, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, I-00133 Roma (Italy); CNR SPIN Salerno, Università di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, n.132, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Scherillo, A. [Science and Technology Facility Council, ISIS Facility Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Celentano, G. [ENEA Frascati Research Centre, Via. E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Pietropaolo, A., E-mail: antonino.pietropaolo@enea.it [ENEA Frascati Research Centre, Via. E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Mediterranean Institute of Fundamental Physics, Via Appia Nuova 31, 00040 Marino, Roma (Italy)

      2015-03-16

      A neutron detection concept is presented that is based on superconductive niobium (Nb) strips coated by a boron (B) layer. The working principle of the detector relies on the nuclear reaction, {sup 10}B + n → α + {sup 7}Li, with α and Li ions generating a hot spot on the current-biased Nb strip which in turn induces a superconducting-normal state transition. The latter is recognized as a voltage signal which is the evidence of the incident neutron. The above described detection principle has been experimentally assessed and verified by irradiating the samples with a pulsed neutron beam at the ISIS spallation neutron source (UK). It is found that the boron coated superconducting strips, kept at a temperature T = 8 K and current-biased below the critical current I{sub c}, are driven into the normal state upon thermal neutron irradiation. As a result of the transition, voltage pulses in excess of 40 mV are measured while the bias current can be properly modulated to bring the strip back to the superconducting state, thus resetting the detector. Measurements on the counting rate of the device are presented and the basic physical features of the detector are discussed.

    5. MUON DETECTORS: DT

      CERN Multimedia

      M. Dallavalle.

      The DT system is ready for the LHC start up. The status of detector hardware, control and safety, of the software for calibration and monitoring and of people has been reviewed at several meetings, starting with the CMS Action Matrix Review and with the Muon Barrel Workshop (October 5 to 7). The disconnected HV channels are at a level of about 0.1%. The loss in detector acceptance because of failures in the Read-Out and Trigger electronics is about 0.5%. The electronics failure rate has been lower this year: next year will tell us whether the rate has stabilised and hopefully will confirm that the number of spares is adequate for ten years operation. Although the detector safety control is very accurate and robust, incidents have happened. In particular the DT system suffered from a significant water leak, originated in the top part of YE+1, that generated HV trips in eighteen chambers going transversely down from the top sector in YB+2 to the bottom sector in YB-2. All chambers recovered and all t...

    6. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

      CERN Multimedia

      P. Paolucci

      2011-01-01

      During data-taking in 2010 the RPC system behaviour was very satisfactory for both the detector and trigger performances. Most of the data analyses are now completed and many results and plots have been approved in order to be published in the muon detector paper. A very detailed analysis of the detector efficiency has been performed using 60 million muon events taken with the dedicated RPC monitor stream. The results have shown that the 96.3% of the system was working properly with an average efficiency of 95.4% at 9.35 kV in the Barrel region and 94.9% at 9.55 kV in the Endcap. Cluster size goes from 1.6 to 2.2 showing a clear and well-known correlation with the strip pitch. Average noise in the Barrel is less than 0.4 Hz/cm2 and about 98% of full system has averaged noise less then 1 Hz/cm2. A linear dependence of the noise versus the luminosity has been preliminary observed and is now under study. Detailed chamber efficiency maps have shown a few percent of chambers with a non-uniform efficiency distribu...

    7. UA1 prototype detector

      CERN Multimedia

      1980-01-01

      Prototype of UA1 central detector inside a plexi tube. The UA1 central detector was crucial to understanding the complex topology of proton-antiproton events. It played a most important role in identifying a handful of Ws and Zs among billions of collisions. The detector was a 6-chamber cylindrical assembly 5.8 m long and 2.3 m in diameter, the largest imaging drift chamber of its day. It recorded the tracks of charged particles curving in a 0.7 Tesla magnetic field, measuring their momentum, the sign of their electric charge and their rate of energy loss (dE/dx). Atoms in the argon-ethane gas mixture filling the chambers were ionised by the passage of charged particles. The electrons which were released drifted along an electric field shaped by field wires and were collected on sense wires. The geometrical arrangement of the 17000 field wires and 6125 sense wires allowed a spectacular 3-D interactive display of reconstructed physics events to be produced.

    8. The STAR PXL detector

      Science.gov (United States)

      Contin, G.

      2016-12-01

      The PiXeL detector (PXL) of the STAR experiment at RHIC is the first application of the state-of-the-art thin Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) technology in a collider environment. Designed to extend the STAR measurement capabilities in the heavy flavor domain, it took data in Au+Au collisions, p+p and p+Au collisions at 0√sNN=20 GeV at RHIC, during the period 2014-2016. The PXL detector is based on 50 μm-thin MAPS sensors with a pitch of 20.7 μm. Each sensor includes an array of nearly 1 million pixels, read out in rolling shutter mode in 185.6 μs. The 170 mW/cm2 power dissipation allows for air cooling and contributes to reduce the global material budget to 0.4% radiation length on the innermost layer. Experience and lessons learned from construction and operations will be presented in this paper. Detector performance and results from 2014 Au+Au data analysis, demonstrating the STAR capabilities of charm reconstruction, will be shown.

    9. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

      CERN Multimedia

      P. Paolucci

      2011-01-01

      RPC detector calibration, HV scan Thanks to the high LHC luminosity and to the corresponding high number of muons created in the first part of the 2011 the RPC community had, for the first time, the possibility to calibrate every single detector element (roll).The RPC steering committee provided the guidelines for both data-taking and data analysis and a dedicated task force worked from March to April on this specific issue. The main goal of the RPC calibration was to study the detector efficiency as a function of high-voltage working points, fit the obtained “plateau curve” with a sigmoid function and determine the “best” high-voltage working point of every single roll. On 18th and 19th March, we had eight runs at different voltages. On 27th March, the full analysis was completed, showing that 60% of the rolls had already a very good fit with an average efficiency greater than 93% in the plateau region. To improve the fit we decided to take three more runs (15th April...

    10. Commissioning the SNO+ detector

      Science.gov (United States)

      Descamps, Freija; SNO+ Collaboration

      2016-09-01

      The SNO+ experiment is the successor to the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO), in which SNO's heavy water is replaced by approximately 780T of liquid scintillator (LAB). The combination of the 2km underground location, the use of ultra-clean materials and the high light-yield of the liquid scintillator means that a low background level and a low energy threshold can be achieved. This creates a new multipurpose neutrino detector with the potential to address a diverse set of physics goals, including the detection of reactor, solar, geo- and supernova neutrinos. A main physics goal of SNO+ is the search for neutrinoless double beta decay. By loading the liquid scintillator with 0.5% of natural Tellurium, resulting in about 1300kg of 130Te (isotopic abundance is slightly over 34%), a competitive sensitivity to the effective neutrino mass can be reached. This talk will present the status of the SNO+ detector, specifically the results and status of the detector commissioning with water.

    11. The STAR Vertex Position Detector

      CERN Document Server

      Llope, W J; Nussbaum, T; Hoffmann, G W; Asselta, K; Brandenburg, J D; Butterworth, J; Camarda, T; Christie, W; Crawford, H J; Dong, X; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Geurts, F; Hammond, J; Judd, E; McDonald, D L; Perkins, C; Ruan, L; Scheblein, J; Schambach, J J; Soja, R; Xin, K; Yang, C

      2014-01-01

      The 2x3 channel pseudo Vertex Position Detector (pVPD) in the STAR experiment at RHIC has been upgraded to a 2x19 channel detector in the same acceptance, called the Vertex Position Detector (VPD). This detector is fully integrated into the STAR trigger system and provides the primary input to the minimum-bias trigger in Au+Au collisions. The information from the detector is used both in the STAR Level-0 trigger and offline to measure the location of the primary collision vertex along the beam pipe and the event "start time" needed by other fast-timing detectors in STAR. The offline timing resolution of single detector channels in full-energy Au+Au collisions is ~100 ps, resulting in a start time resolution of a few tens of picoseconds and a resolution on the primary vertex location of ~1 cm.

    12. The development scale of learning strategies used in piano lessonPiyano dersinde kullanılan öğrenme stratejileri ölçeğinin geliştirilmesi

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Özlem Kılınçer

      2013-03-01

      Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop a valid and reliable measurement tool to designate the learning strategies exploited during the piano lesson by the answers of the students studying at the departments of music education. The sampling group is composed of 372 students of 5 music education departments around Turkey at second, third and fourth grades between 2010 and 2011. The scale which is developed for the study is based on the classification of the learning strategies by Weinstein and Meyer (1986. The phrases in the scale are determined via the essays of the students and screening of the literature. The hypothesis that each item is evaluating the related psychological formation is tested by confirmative factor analysis. The scale is made up of 5 sub-dimensions and 66 items. The factorial weights of items in the scale takes place between 0.452 and 0.802. The reliability coefficient for the scale (Cronbach alpha as a whole was 0.955. The confidence coefficients for sub-scales were determined as 0.940, 0.888, 0.858, 0.884 and 0.867. The results of the study suggests that this scale may help determining and assess the aplication levels of learning strategies exploited during the piano lesson and organizing the teaching and learning environment this direction. ÖzetBu çalışmanın amacı; müzik eğitimi anabilim dallarında öğrenim görmekte olan öğrencilerin, piyano dersinde öğrenme stratejilerini kullanma düzeylerini kendi yanıtlarına göre belirleyen geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçme aracı geliştirmektir. Çalışma grubu: 2010-2011 eğitim- öğretim yılında Türkiye’deki 5 müzik eğitimi anabilim dalının 2, 3 ve 4. sınıflarında öğrenim görmekte olan 372 öğrencidir. Çalışma kapsamında geliştirilen ölçekte Weinstein ve Mayer’in (1986 öğrenme stratejileri sınıflandırmaları temel alınmıştır. Ölçekte yer alacak ifadelere, öğrenci kompozisyonları ve alan yazın taraması yoluyla karar verilmi

    13. The Social Media Factor In The Development And Promotion Of Religious Tourism İnanç Turizminin Tanıtımında ve Gelişiminde Sosyal Medya Faktörü

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      M. Murat YEŞİL

      2013-09-01

      bu destinasyonlardauygulayacakları gezi programlarını pazarlamaya ihtiyaçları vardır.İnternet teknolojisinin gelişmesiyle ortaya çıkan “sosyal medya”organları, her iki alanda da rahatlıkla kullanılabilecek uygun araçlarolarak görülmektedir. Yapılan bilimsel araştırmalarda sosyal medyakullanımı ile müşterilerin satınalma veya vazgeçme kararları arasındagüçlü bir ilişkinin var olduğu ortaya çıkmıştır. Bu ilişki, inanç turizmisektöründe destinasyonların ve tur programlarının pazarlanmasındaetkin bir destek olarak kullanılabilir. Araştırmacılara göre, sosyalmedya organları aracılığıyla gezi izlenimlerini eş, dost arkadaşlarıylapaylaşan kişiler, yakın bir zaman içinde bir yerlere gezi yapmayıplanlayan başka kişilerin gezi destinasyonlarından, kalacakları otellere,yemek yiyecekleri lokantaların seçimine kadar tüm gezi planlarıüzerinde büyük ölçüde etkili olabilmektedirler. Sosyal medya her tür işkolu için çok faydalı bir tanıtım ve pazarlama aracı olarakgörülmektedir. Ancak her araç gibi sosyal medyanın da faydalı vezararlı yönleri vardır. Sosyal medya, kendisini akıllıca kullananişyerlerini hayalini bile kuramayacakları uzak ufuklara taşır ama aksidurumlarda ise faydadan daha çok zarar getirir. Literatürde, sosyalmedya faktörünün, inanç turizminin tanıtım ve gelişmesindeoynayabileceği rol üzerinde yapılmış bir araştırmaya rastlanmıyor. Buçalışmanın amacı, hem literatürdeki bu boşluğu doldurmak hem desosyal medyanın, inanç turizminin tanıtım ve pazarlamasındaoynayabileceği rolün öneminin araştırmak ve ortaya çıkabilecekmuhtemel sorunlara çözüm yolları üretilmesi olacaktır.

    14. The DELPHI Detector (DEtector with Lepton Photon and Hadron Identification)

      CERN Multimedia

      Crawley, B; Munich, K; Mckay, R; Matorras, F; Joram, C; Malychev, V; Behrmann, A; Van dam, P; Drees, J K; Stocchi, A; Adam, W; Booth, P; Bilenki, M; Rosenberg, E I; Morton, G; Rames, J; Hahn, S; Cosme, G; Ventura, L; Marco, J; Tortosa martinez, P; Monge silvestri, R; Moreno, S; Phillips, H; Alekseev, G; Boudinov, E; Martinez rivero, C; Gitarskiy, L; Davenport, M; De clercq, C; Firestone, A; Myagkov, A; Belous, K; Haider, S; Hamilton, K M; Lamsa, J; Rahmani, M H; Malek, A; Hughes, G J; Peralta, L; Carroll, L; Fuster verdu, J A; Cossutti, F; Gorn, L; Yi, J I; Bertrand, D; Myatt, G; Richard, F; Shapkin, M; Hahn, F; Ferrer soria, A; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P; Sekulin, R; Timmermans, J; Baillon, P

      2002-01-01

      % DELPHI The DELPHI Detector (Detector with Lepton Photon and Hadron Identification) \\\\ \\\\DELPHI is a general purpose detector for physics at LEP on and above the Z$^0$, offering three-dimensional information on curvature and energy deposition with fine spatial granularity as well as identification of leptons and hadrons over most of the solid angle. A superconducting coil provides a 1.2~T solenoidal field of high uniformity. Tracking relies on the silicon vertex detector, the inner detector, the Time Projection Chamber (TPC), the outer detector and forward drift chambers. Electromagnetic showers are measured in the barrel with high granularity by the High Density Projection Chamber (HPC) and in the endcaps by $ 1 ^0 $~x~$ 1 ^0 $ projective towers composed of lead glass as active material and phototriode read-out. Hadron identification is provided mainly by liquid and gas Ring Imaging Counters (RICH). The instrumented magnet yoke serves for hadron calorimetry and as filter for muons, which are identified in t...

    15. Multiple Intelligences Areas Evaluation Scale developing studyÇoklu Zekâ Alanları Değerlendirme Ölçeği geliştirilmesi çalışması

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Celal Gülşen

      2015-12-01

      Multiple Intelligences Areas Evaluation Scale, Hotelling’s T-Square value (5793,435 is also found high. It is understood that the developed measuring device to evaluate and determine ‘the multiple intelligences areas’ is useable  and applicable.   Özet Bu çalışmanın amacı, “Çoklu Zekâ Alanlarını Değerlendirmeye/Belirlemeye Yönelik Bir Ölçek Geliştirmek”tir. Bu amaçla gerekli literatür taraması yapıldıktan sonra oluşturulan deneysel forma, uzman görüşleri de alınarak son hali verilmiştir. Uzman görüşleri sonrası son hali verilen formun kapsam geçerliliği yapılmış ve böylelikle formdaki maddelerin ve alanların kapsam geçerliliği belirlenmiştir. Kapsam geçerliliğiyle geçerlilik oranları ,80’in altında olan maddeler çalışma kapsamında çıkarılmıştır. Araştırmanın evrenini 2012-2013 öğretim yılında Nevşehir İli İl Milli Eğitim Müdürlüğü bünyesindeki ilkokul, ortaokul ve liselerde görev yapan okul müdürü, müdür başyardımcıları ve müdür yardımcıları oluşturmaktadır. Evrenin tamamına ulaşıldığı için ayrıca örneklem alınmamıştır. Sekiz zekâ alanına yönelik 80 maddeden oluşan çoklu zekâ alanlarını belirleme deneme formu, Nevşehir İli İl Milli Eğitim Müdürlüğü bünyesindeki okullarda (ilkokul, ortaokul ve lise görev yapan yöneticilere (müdür, müdür başyardımcısı ve müdür yardımcıları uygulanarak, elde edilen veriler analiz edilmiştir. “Çoklu Zekâ Alanları Değerlendirme Ölçeği”nin bulunduğu tablolar bütün halinde incelendiğinde, ölçekteki maddelerin bütün halinde Cronbach’s Alpha (α değeri 0,965 olarak bulunmuş olup, bu değere bakılarak ölçekteki maddelerin oldukça güvenilir olduğunu söyleyebiliriz. Yapılan değerlendirmeler sonucu, genel olarak ölçekteki tüm soruların pozitif yönlü etki gösterdiği görülmüştür. Ölçekteki maddelerden sadece doğacı/doğa zekâ alanına ait birinci madde olan

    16. Scintillating fiber detector

      CERN Document Server

      Vozak, Matous

      2016-01-01

      NA61 is one of the physics experiments at CERN dedicated to study hadron states coming from interactions of SPS beams with various targets. To determine the position of a secondary beam, three proportional chambers are placed along the beamline. However, these chambers tend to have slow response. In order to obtain more precise time information, use of another detector is being considered. Fast response and compact size is making scintillation fiber (SciFi) with silicon photomultiplier (Si-PM) read out a good candidate. This report is focused on analysing data from SciFi collected in a test beam at the beginning of July 2016.

    17. The ATLAS Detector Simulation

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Clark, P.J. [University of Edinburgh, School of Physics and Astronomy, James Clerk Maxwell Building, The Kings Buildings, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom)

      2011-06-15

      We present the simulation software for the ATLAS experiment [G. Aad et al., The ATLAS Experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider, JINST 3 (2008), S08003] at the Large Hadron Collider [L. Evans and P. Bryant, LHC Machine, JINST 3 (2008), S08001]. The overall infrastructure and some selected features are discussed. In particular, the detector description, the interface to Geant4, event generator support, magnetic field integration improvements, pile-up and digitisation of overlapping events and fast simulation. Also described are performance studies, large scale production and the validation of the simulated output against recent data.

    18. The WELL Detector

      CERN Document Server

      Bellazzini, R; Brez, A; Gariano, G; Latronico, L; Lumb, N; Papanestis, A; Spandre, G; Massai, M M; Raffo, R; Spezziga, M A

      1999-01-01

      We introduce the WELL detector, a new type of position-sensitive gas proportional counter produced using advanced printed circuit board (PCB) technology. The WELL is based on a thin kapton foil, copp erclad on both sides. Charge amplifying micro-wells are etched into the first metal and kapton layers. These end on a micro-strip pattern which is defined on the second metal plane. The array of micr o-strips is used for read-out to obtain 1-D positional information. First results from our systematic assessment of this device are reported.

    19. Flexible composite radiation detector

      Science.gov (United States)

      Cooke, D. Wayne; Bennett, Bryan L.; Muenchausen, Ross E.; Wrobleski, Debra A.; Orler, Edward B.

      2006-12-05

      A flexible composite scintillator was prepared by mixing fast, bright, dense rare-earth doped powdered oxyorthosilicate (such as LSO:Ce, LSO:Sm, and GSO:Ce) scintillator with a polymer binder. The binder is transparent to the scintillator emission. The composite is seamless and can be made large and in a wide variety of shapes. Importantly, the composite can be tailored to emit light in a spectral region that matches the optimum response of photomultipliers (about 400 nanometers) or photodiodes (about 600 nanometers), which maximizes the overall detector efficiency.

    20. Microstructured silicon radiation detector

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Okandan, Murat; Derzon, Mark S.; Draper, Bruce L.

      2017-03-14

      A radiation detector comprises a silicon body in which are defined vertical pores filled with a converter material and situated within silicon depletion regions. One or more charge-collection electrodes are arranged to collect current generated when secondary particles enter the silicon body through walls of the pores. The pores are disposed in low-density clusters, have a majority pore thickness of 5 .mu.m or less, and have a majority aspect ratio, defined as the ratio of pore depth to pore thickness, of at least 10.

    1. PHENIX inner detectors

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Allen, M.; Bennett, M.J.; Bobrek, M.; Boissevain, J.B.; Boose, S.; Bosze, E.; Britton, C.; Chang, J.; Chi, C.Y.; Chiu, M.; Conway, R.; Cunningham, R.; Denisov, A.; Deshpande, A.; Emery, M.S.; Enokizono, A.; Ericson, N.; Fox, B.; Fung, S.-Y.; Giannotti, P.; Hachiya, T.; Hansen, A.G.; Homma, K.; Jacak, B.V.; Jaffe, D.; Kang, J.H.; Kapustinsky, J.; Kim, S.Y.; Kim, Y.G.; Kohama, T.; Kroon, P.J.; Lenz, W.; Longbotham, N.; Musrock, M.; Nakamura, T.; Ohnishi, H.; Ryu, S.S.; Sakaguchi, A.; Seto, R.; Shiina, T.; Simpson, M.; Simon-Gillo, J.; Sondheim, W.E.; Sugitate, T.; Sullivan, J.P. E-mail: sullivan@lanl.gov; Hecke, H.W. van; Walker, J.W.; White, S.N.; Willis, P.; Xu, N

      2003-03-01

      The timing, location and particle multiplicity of a PHENIX collision are determined by the Beam-Beam Counters (BBC), the Multiplicity/Vertex Detector (MVD) and the Zero-Degree Calorimeters (ZDC). The BBCs provide both the time of interaction and position of a collision from the flight time of prompt particles. The MVD provides a measure of event particle multiplicity, collision vertex position and fluctuations in charged particle distributions. The ZDCs provide information on the most grazing collisions. A Normalization Trigger Counter (NTC) is used to obtain absolute cross-section measurements for p-p collisions. The BBC, MVD and NTC are described below.

    2. Infrared detectors for space applications

      Science.gov (United States)

      Fick, Wolfgang; Gassmann, Kai Uwe; Haas, Luis-Dieter; Haiml, Markus; Hanna, Stefan; Hübner, Dominique; Höhnemann, Holger; Nothaft, Hans-Peter; Thöt, Richard

      2013-12-01

      The motivation and intended benefits for the use of infrared (IR) detectors for space applications are highlighted. The actual status of state-of-the-art IR detectors for space applications is presented based on some of AIM's currently ongoing focal plane detector module developments covering the spectral range from the short-wavelength IR (SWIR) to the long-wavelength IR (LWIR) and very long-wavelength IR (VLWIR), where both imaging and spectroscopy applications will be addressed. In particular, the integrated detector cooler assemblies for a mid-wavelength IR (MWIR) push-broom imaging satellite mission, for the German hyperspectral satellite mission EnMAP and the IR detectors for the Sentinel 3 SLSTR will be elaborated. Additionally, dedicated detector modules for LWIR/VLWIR sounding, providing the possibility to have two different PVs driven by one ROIC, will be addressed.

    3. Scalar top study: Detector optimization

      Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

      C Milsténe; A Sopczak

      2007-11-01

      A vertex detector concept of the linear collider flavour identification (LCFI) collaboration, which studies pixel detectors for heavy quark flavour identification, has been implemented in simulations for -quark tagging in scalar top studies. The production and decay of scalar top quarks (stops) is particularly interesting for the development of the vertex detector as only two -quarks and missing energy (from undetected neutralinos) are produced for light stops. Previous studies investigated the vertex detector design in scenarios with large mass differences between stop and neutralino, corresponding to large visible energy in the detector. In this study we investigate the tagging performance dependence on the vertex detector design in a scenario with small visible energy for the international linear collider (ILC).

    4. Digital detectors for electron microscopy

      CERN Document Server

      Faruqi, A R

      2002-01-01

      Film has traditionally been used for recording images in transmission electron microscopes but there is an essential need for computer-interfaced electronic detectors. Cooled-CCD detectors, developed over the past few years, though not ideal, are increasingly used as the preferred detection system in a number of applications. We describe briefly the design of CCD-based detectors, along with their main properties, which have been used in electron crystallography. A newer detector design with a much bigger sensitive area, incorporating a 2x2 tiled array of CCDs with tapered fibre optics will overcome some of the limitations of existing CCD detectors. We also describe some preliminary results for 8 keV imaging, from (direct detection) silicon hybrid pixel detectors, which offer advantages over CCDs in terms of better spatial resolution, faster readout with minimal noise.

    5. Particle Identification: Time-of-Flight, Cherenkov and Transition Radiation Detectors - Particle Detectors and Detector Systems

      CERN Document Server

      Ullaland, O

      2011-01-01

      Particle Identification: Time-of-Flight, Cherenkov and Transition Radiation Detectors in 'Particle Detectors and Detector Systems', part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B1: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 1: Principles and Methods'. This document is part of Part 1 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Section '3.3 Particle Identification: Time-of-Flight, Cherenkov and Transition Radiation Detectors' of Chapter '3 Particle Detectors and Detector Systems' with the content: 3.3 Particle Identification: Time-of-Flight, Cherenkov and Transition Radiation Detectors 3.3.1 Introduction 3.3.2 Time of Flight Measurements 3.3.2.1 Scintillator hodoscopes 3.3.2.2 Parallel plate ToF detectors 3.3.3 Cherenkov Radiation 3.3.3.1 ...

    6. The FastGas detector

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Bateman, J.E.; Dalgliesh, R.M. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Duxbury, D.M., E-mail: dom.duxbury@stfc.ac.u [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Holt, S.A.; McPhail, D.J. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Marsh, A.S. [Diamond Light Source LTD, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Diamond House, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Rhodes, N.J.; Schooneveld, E.M.; Spill, E.J.; Stephenson, R. [Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

      2010-04-21

      The development and testing of the FastGas neutron detector is described. Based on a Gas Microstrip Chamber the aim of the project was to produce a high counting rate detector capable of replacing the existing {sup 3}He tubes for specular reflectometry, currently in use on the ISIS reflectometer instruments. The detector system is described together with results of neutron beam tests carried out at the ISIS spallation neutron source.

    7. The 4th concept detector

      Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

      John Hauptman

      2007-12-01

      The 4th concept detector consists of four detector subsystems, a small-pixel vertex detector, a high-resolution TPC, a new multiple-readout fiber calorimeter and a new dual-solenoid iron-free muon system. We discuss the design of a comprehensive facility that measures and identifies all partons of the standard model, including hadronic → and → decays, with high precision and high e±ciency. We emphasis here the calorimeter and muon systems.

    8. First detectors at the ISR

      CERN Multimedia

      1971-01-01

      Some of the first detectors at the ISR. A CERN/Rome team was looking at proton scattering at very small angles to the beam direction. A detector known as a "Roman pot" is in the foreground on the left. An Aachen/CERN/Genoa/Harvard/Turin team was looking at wider angles with the detectors seen branching off from the rings on the right.

    9. Decoherence of the Unruh detector

      CERN Document Server

      Demers, G

      1995-01-01

      As it is well known, the Minkowski vacuum appears thermally populated to a quantum mechanical detector on a uniformly accelerating course. We investigate how this thermal radiation may contribute to the classical nature of the detector's trajectory through the criteria of decoherence. An uncertainty-type relation is obtained for the detector involving the fluctuation in temperature, the time of flight and the coupling to the bath.

    10. The CMS detector before closure

      CERN Multimedia

      Patrice Loiez

      2006-01-01

      The CMS detector before testing using muon cosmic rays that are produced as high-energy particles from space crash into the Earth's atmosphere generating a cascade of energetic particles. After closing CMS, the magnets, calorimeters, trackers and muon chambers were tested on a small section of the detector as part of the magnet test and cosmic challenge. This test checked the alignment and functionality of the detector systems, as well as the magnets.

    11. Examining the Development of Secondary Mathematics Teachers’ Pedagogical Content Knowledge on Numbers [Ortaokul Matematik Öğretmenlerinin Sayılarla İlgili Pedagojik Alan Bilgilerinin Gelişiminin İncelenmesi

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ömer Şahin

      2014-12-01

      Full Text Available The aim of our research is to determine the change in the pedagogical content knowledge levels of the teachers on numbers in the period from their university education to their active teaching profession. The sample of the study is composed of a total of 210 people, 67 of whom are third grade pre-service mathematics teacher, 98 of whom are 4th grade pre-service mathematics teachers and 45 of whom are mathematics teachers who are working in various provinces of Turkey. As for the data collection tools of this research, “Mathematics Pedagogical Content Knowledge Test (MPCKT” was used. Cross-sectional comparative study, which is among the descriptive research designs, was used in this research. it was observed that the secondary mathematics teachers’ levels of knowledge of understanding students and knowledge of instructional strategies, which constitute two sub-components of pedagogical content knowledge, exhibited development from their third-year in university to the period in which they carry out teaching profession. [Bu çalışmanın amacı; öğretmenlerin sayılarla ilgili pedagojik alan bilgi düzeylerinin üniversite eğitimlerinden aktif öğretmenlik mesleğine kadar olan süreçte nasıl değiştiğini tespit etmektir. Çalışmanın örneklemini, ilköğretim matematik öğretmenliği programında öğrenim gören 67 üçüncü sınıf öğretmen adayı, 98 dördüncü sınıf matematik öğretmeni adayı ve Türkiye’nin farklı illerinde görev yapan 45 matematik öğretmeni olmak üzere toplam 210 kişi oluşturmaktadır. Araştırmada veri toplama aracı olarak Matematik Pedagojik Alan Bilgi Testi (MPABT kullanılmıştır. Bu araştırmada, betimsel araştırma yöntemlerinden biri olan enlemesine (kesitsel araştırma yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Çalışma sonunda, ilköğretim matematik öğretmenlerinin öğrencileri anlama bilgisi ve öğretim stratejileri bilgilerine ilişkin pedagojik alan bilgilerinin zamanla geli

    12. Personal Cyber Security Provision Scale development studyKişisel Siber Güvenliği Sağlama Ölçeği geliştirme çalışması

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Osman Erol

      2015-07-01

      Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop a scale to determine internet users behavior related to cyber security. In this context created an item pool in accordance with expert opinion. This item pool was administered to 810 people for exploratory factor analysis. In exploratory factor analysis; principal component analysis method which is commonly used and Varimax vertical rotation method to determine the factor structure was used. Scale was administered to 292 people and structural equation modeling approach was applied to confirmation study.As a result of factor analysis,“Personal Cyber Security Provision Scale" which consists of 5 factors and 25 items and has a good compatibility was occurred.   Özet Bu araştırmanın amacı internet kullanıcılarının siber güvenlik ile ilgili davranışlarını belirlemeye yönelik bir ölçek geliştirmektir. Bu bağlamda öncelikle uzman görüşü doğrultusunda 26 maddelik bir madde havuzu oluşturulmuştur. Bu madde havuzu yapı geçerliliğinin test edilmesi için Facebook sosyal paylaşımda bir uygulamayı kullanan 810 kişiye uygulanarak açımlayıcı faktör analizi yapılmıştır. Açımlayıcı faktör analizinde en sık kullanılan yöntem olan temel bileşenler analizi yöntemi kullanılmış, ölçekteki faktör yapısını belirlemek için ise Varimax - dikey döndürme yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Ölçeğin doğrulama çalışması için ise aynı sosyal ağ uygulamasını kullanan ve daha önce ölçeğin uygulandığı kişilerin elendiği292 kişinin verisi kullanılarak yapısal eşitlik modeli yaklaşımı uygulanmıştır. Açımlayıcı faktör analizi sonucunda 5 faktörlü ve 25 maddeden oluşan; doğrulayıcı faktör analizi sonucunda ise elde edilen uyum indekslerine göre iyi bir uyuma sahip "Kişisel Siber Güvenliği Sağlama Ölçeği" ortaya çıkmıştır.

    13. Lale Yetiştiriciliğinde Büyüme, Gelişme, Kalite ve Erkencilik Üzerine Gibberellik Asit (GA3 Uygulamalarının Etkileri

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Gamze ZENGİN

      2016-06-01

      Full Text Available Araştırma, Cafe noir ve Conqueror lale çeşitlerinin sürme zamanı, sürme oranı, yaprak sayısı, çiçek açma zamanı, çiçek çapı, çiçek boyu, çiçeklenme süresi, çiçeklenme oranı, bitki boyu, çiçek sap uzunluğu, soğan sayısı, soğan ağırlığı üzerine farklı Gibberellik Asit (GA3 dozlarının (100, 300, 500 ve 700 ppm ve uygulama sürelerinin (30 ve 60 dakika etkilerinin belirlenmesi amacıyla cam serada yürütülmüştür. Araştırmada yetiştirme ortamı olarak %50 kompost, %30 perlit, %20 bahçe toprağı kullanılmıştır. Araştırmada, lalenin büyüme, gelişme, erkencilik ve kalite özellikleri üzerine uygulamaların ve çeşitlerin etkileri önemli bulunmuştur. Lale yetiştiriciliğinde GA3 hormon dozlarının çiçeklenme zamanı, çiçeklenme oranı, çiçek sap uzunluğu,  bitki boyu, soğan sayısı ve soğan ağırlığı bakımından; hormon uygulama sürelerinin ise bitki boyu ve soğan ağırlığı bakımından önemli olduğu saptanmıştır. Tüm uygulamalardan %99’un üzerinde bir sürme oranı elde edilmiştir. Conqueror çeşidinin Cafe noir çeşidine göre 9 ile 15 gün kadar erken sürdüğü belirlenmiştir. Uygulamalara göre ilk çiçeklenme dikimden itibaren 47 ile 65 gün içinde gerçekleşmiştir. Conqueror çeşidinde ilk çiçeklenme 13 Ocakta 60 dakika 300 ppm GA3 uygulamasından;  Cafe noir çeşidine ilk çiçeklenme 31 Ocak’ta 60 dakika 700 ppm GA3 uygulamasından elde edilmiştir.

    14. Otizm Spektrum Bozukluğu Olan ve Normal Gelişim Gösteren Çocuklarda Anne-Çocuk Etkileşiminin Karşılaştırılması

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Yasemin Doğan

      2016-04-01

      Full Text Available Bu araştırmada otizm spektrum bozukluğu (OSB olan çocuğa sahip (n=34 annelerin ve normal gelişim gösteren (NG çocuğa sahip (n=28 annelerin ebeveyn-çocuk etkileşimi sırasında sergiledikleri etkileşimsel davranışları karşılaştırılmıştır. Araştırma kapsamında çalışma grubunda yer alan annelerin serbest oyun bağlamında çocukları ile etkileşimlerinin video kayıtları alınmıştır. Kayıtlar anne davranışları için oluşturulan beş kategori ve annelerin çocuklarına sunduğu pekiştireçlerin analizi ile incelenmiştir. Anne etkileşimsel davranışları kategorileri; yönlendirici olma, başarı odaklı olma, yanıtlayıcı olma, sıcak olma ve etkileşimsizliktir. Araştırma bulguları OSB‟li çocuğu olan annelerin NG‟li çocuğu olan annelere oranla daha fazla yönlendirici vedaha az yanıtlayıcı etkileşimsel davranışlar sergiledikleri yönündedir. Araştırma bulguları erken çocukluk döneminde OSB‟li çocuğu olan ve NG‟li çocuğu olan annelerin çocuklarına yönelik etkileşimsel davranışları bağlamında tartışılmış ve ileride yapılacak araştırmalara yönelik önerilere yer verilmiştir. This study compares the interactional behaviors of mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders (n=34 and mothers of typically developing children (n=28 through mother-child dyads. Participating mothers and their children were recorded while playing in an unstructured environment. Data were analyzed using five distinct mother interactional behavior categories and mother reinforcements used during the interactions. Mother interactional behaviors were: Directiveness, achievement orientation, responsivity, warmth and un-engagement. Study results were discussed in regard to the interactional behaviors of mothers of children with ASD and TD with their children and suggestions for future research were provided .

    15. MUON DETECTORS: CSC

      CERN Multimedia

      Richard Breedon

      Following the opening of the CMS detector, commissioning of the cathode strip chamber (CSC) system resumed in earnest. Some on-chamber electronics problems could be fixed on the positive endcap when each station became briefly accessible as the steel yokes were peeled off. There was no opportunity to work on the negative endcap chambers during opening; this had to wait instead until the yokes were again separated and the stations accessible during closing. In March, regular detector-operating shifts were resumed every weekday evening during which Local Runs were taken using cosmic rays to monitor and validate repairs and improvements that had taken place during the day. Since April, the CSC system has been collecting cosmic data under shift supervision 24 hours a day on weekdays, and 24/7 operation began in early June. The CSC system arranged shifts for continuous running in the entire first half of 2009. One reward of this effort is that every chamber of the CSC system is alive and recording events. There...

    16. ATLAS Detector Upgrade Prospects

      Science.gov (United States)

      Dobre, M.; ATLAS Collaboration

      2017-01-01

      After the successful operation at the centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010-2012, the LHC was ramped up and successfully took data at the centre-of-mass energies of 13 TeV in 2015 and 2016. Meanwhile, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, which will deliver of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity levelling. The ultimate goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb ‑1 expected for LHC running by the end of 2018 to 3000 fb ‑1 by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new all-silicon tracker, significant upgrades of the calorimeter and muon systems, as well as improved triggers and data acquisition. ATLAS is also examining potential benefits of extensions to larger pseudorapidity, particularly in tracking and muon systems. This report summarizes various improvements to the ATLAS detector required to cope with the anticipated evolution of the LHC luminosity during this decade and the next. A brief overview is also given on physics prospects with a pp centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV.

    17. MUON DETECTORS: CSC

      CERN Multimedia

      J. Hauser

      2011-01-01

      The earliest collision data in 2011 already show that the CSC detector performance is very similar to that seen in 2010. That is discussed in the DPG write-up elsewhere in this Bulletin. This report focuses on a few operational developments, the ME1/1 electronics replacement project, and the preparations at CERN for building the fourth station of CSC chambers ME4/2. During the 2010 LHC run, the CSC detector ran smoothly for the most part and yielded muon triggers and data of excellent quality. Moreover, no major operational problems were found that needed to be fixed during the Extended Technical Stop. Several improvements to software and configuration were however made. One such improvement is the automation of recovery from chamber high-voltage trips. The algorithm, defined by chamber experts, uses the so-called "Expert System" to analyse the trip signals sent from DCS and, based on the frequency and the timing of the signals, respond appropriately. This will make the central DCS shifters...

    18. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

      CERN Multimedia

      G. Iaselli

      During the last 3 months the RPC group has made impressive improvements in the refinement of the operation tools and understanding of the detector. The full barrel and part of the plus end cap participated systematically to global runs producing millions of trigger on cosmics. The main monitoring tools were robust and efficient in controlling the detector and in diagnosis of problems. After the refinement of the synchronization procedure, detailed studies of the chamber performances, as a function of high voltage and front-end threshold, were pursued. In parallel, new tools for the prompt analysis were developed which have enabled a fast check of the data at the CMS Centre. This effort has been very valuable since it has helped in discovering many minor bugs in the reconstruction software and database which are now being fixed. Unfortunately, a large part of the RE2 station has developed increasing operational current. Some preliminary investigation leads to the conclusion that the serial gas circulation e...

    19. MUON DETECTORS: DT

      CERN Multimedia

      Marco Dallavalle

      2013-01-01

      The DT group is undertaking substantial work both for detector maintenance and for detec-tor upgrade. Maintenance interventions on chambers and minicrates require close collaboration between DT, RPC and HO, and are difficult because they depend on the removal of thermal shields and cables on the front and rear of the chambers in order to gain access. The tasks are particularly critical on the central wheel due to the presence of fixed services. Several interventions on the chambers require extraction of the DT+RPC package: a delicate operation due to the very limited space for handling the big chambers, and the most dangerous part of the DT maintenance campaign. The interventions started in July 2013 and will go on until spring 2014. So far out of the 16 chambers with HV problems, 13 have been already repaired, with a global yield of 217 recovered channels. Most of the observed problems were due to displacement of impurities inside the gaseous volume. For the minicrates and FE, repairs occurred on 22 chambe...

    20. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

      CERN Multimedia

      G. Iaselli.

      Substantial progress has been made on the RPC system resulting in a high standard of operation. Impressive improvements have been made in the online software and DCS PVSS protocols that ensure robustness of the configuration phase and reliability of the detector monitoring tasks. In parallel, an important upgrade of CCU ring connectivity was pursued to avoid noise pick-up and consequent  data transmission errors during operation with magnetic field. While the barrel part is already well synchronized thanks to the long cosmics runs, some refinements are still required on the forward part. The "beam splashes" have been useful to cross check  the existing delay constants, but further efforts will be made as soon as a substantial sample of beam-halo events is available. Progress has been made on early detector performance studies. The RPC DQM tool is being extensively used and minor bugs have been found. More plots have been added and more people have been tr...

    1. PAU camera: detectors characterization

      Science.gov (United States)

      Casas, Ricard; Ballester, Otger; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; Castilla, Javier; Jiménez, Jorge; Maiorino, Marino; Pío, Cristóbal; Sevilla, Ignacio; de Vicente, Juan

      2012-07-01

      The PAU Camera (PAUCam) [1,2] is a wide field camera that will be mounted at the corrected prime focus of the William Herschel Telescope (Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, Canary Islands, Spain) in the next months. The focal plane of PAUCam is composed by a mosaic of 18 CCD detectors of 2,048 x 4,176 pixels each one with a pixel size of 15 microns, manufactured by Hamamatsu Photonics K. K. This mosaic covers a field of view (FoV) of 60 arcmin (minutes of arc), 40 of them are unvignetted. The behaviour of these 18 devices, plus four spares, and their electronic response should be characterized and optimized for the use in PAUCam. This job is being carried out in the laboratories of the ICE/IFAE and the CIEMAT. The electronic optimization of the CCD detectors is being carried out by means of an OG (Output Gate) scan and maximizing it CTE (Charge Transfer Efficiency) while the read-out noise is minimized. The device characterization itself is obtained with different tests. The photon transfer curve (PTC) that allows to obtain the electronic gain, the linearity vs. light stimulus, the full-well capacity and the cosmetic defects. The read-out noise, the dark current, the stability vs. temperature and the light remanence.

    2. Advanced Radiation Detector Development

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      The University of Michigan

      1998-07-01

      Since our last progress report, the project at The University of Michigan has continued to concentrate on the development of gamma ray spectrometers fabricated from cadmium zinc telluride (CZT). This material is capable of providing energy resolution that is superior to that of scintillation detectors, while avoiding the necessity for cooling associated with germanium systems. In our past reports, we have described one approach (the coplanar grid electrode) that we have used to partially overcome some of the major limitations on charge collection that is found in samples of CZT. This approach largely eliminates the effect of hole motion in the formation of the output signal, and therefore leads to pulses that depend only on the motion of a single carrier (electrons). Since electrons move much more readily through CZT than do holes, much better energy resolution can be achieved under these conditions. In our past reports, we have described a 1 cm cube CZT spectrometer fitted with coplanar grids that achieved an energy resolution of 1.8% from the entire volume of the crystal. This still represents, to our knowledge, the best energy resolution ever demonstrated in a CZT detector of this size.

    3. MUON DETECTORS: DT

      CERN Multimedia

      C. Fernandez Bedoya and M. Dallavalle

      2010-01-01

      The DT system operation since the 2010 LHC start up is remarkably smooth.
 All parts of the system have behaved very satisfactorily in the last two months of operation with LHC pp collisions. Disconnected HV channels remain at the level of 0.1%, and the loss in detector acceptance because of failures in the readout and Trigger electronics is about 0.4%. The DT DCS-LHC handshake mechanism, which was strengthened after the short 2009 LHC run, operates without major problems. A problem arose with the opto-receivers of the trigger links connecting the detector to USC; the receivers would unlock from transmission for specific frequencies of the LHC lock, in particular during the LHC ramp. For relocking the TX and RX a “re-synch” command had to be issued. The source of the problem has been isolated and cured in the Opto-RX boards and now the system is stable. The Theta trigger chain also has been commissioned and put in operation. Several interventions on the system have been made, pro...

    4. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

      CERN Multimedia

      P. Paolucci

      2011-01-01

      The RPC muon detector and trigger are working very well, contributing positively to the high quality of CMS data. Most of 2011 has been used to improve the stability of our system and the monitoring tools used online and offline by the shifters and experts. The high-voltage working point is corrected, chamber-by-chamber, for pressure variation since July 2011. Corrections are applied at PVSS level during the stand-by mode (no collision) and are not changed until the next fill. The single detector calibration, HV scan, of February and the P-correction described before were very important steps towards fine-tuning the stability of the RPC performances. A very detailed analysis of the RPC performances is now ongoing and from preliminary results we observe an important improvements of the cluster size stability in time. The maximum oscillation of the cluster size run by run is now about 1%. At the same time we are not observing the same stability in the detection efficiency that shows an oscillation of about ...

    5. MUON DETECTORS: DT

      CERN Document Server

      Marco Dallavalle

      2012-01-01

        Although the year 2012 is the third year without access to the chambers and the Front-End electronics, the fraction of good channels is still very high at 99.1% thanks also to the constant care provided by the on-site operation team. The downtime caused to CMS as a consequence of DT failures is to-date <2%. The intervention on the LV power supplies, which required a large number of CAEN modules (137 A3050, 13 A3100, and 3 MAO) to be removed from the detector, reworked and tested during this Year-End Technical Stop, can now, after a few months of stable operation of the LV, be declared to have solved once-and-for-all the persistent problem with the overheating LV Anderson connectors. Another piece of very good news is that measurements of the noise from single-hit rate outside the drift-time box as a function of the LHC luminosity show that the noise rate and distribution are consistent with expectations of the simulations in the Muon TDR, which have guided the detector design and constru...

    6. The TALE Fluorescence Detectors

      Science.gov (United States)

      Jui, Charles

      2009-05-01

      The TALE fluorescence detectors are designed to extend the threshold for fluorescence observation by TA down to 3x10^16 eV. It will comprise two main components. The first is a set of 24 telescopes working in stereo, with an existing TA FD station at ˜6 km separation. These will cover between 3-31 degrees in elevation and have azimuthal coverage maximizing the stereo aperture in the 10^18-10^19 eV energy range. The second component consists of 15 telescopes equipped with 4m diameter mirrors and covering the sky between 31 and 73 degrees in elevation. The larger mirror size pushes the physics threshold down to 3x10^16 eV, and provides view of the shower maximum for the lower energy events. The Tower detector will cover one quadrant in azimuth and operate in hybrid mode with the TALE infill array to provide redundant composition measurements from both shower maximum information and muon-to-electron ratio.

    7. VNR CMS Pixel detector replacement

      CERN Document Server

      2017-01-01

      Joel Butler, spokesperson of the CMS collaboration explains how a team from many different partner institutes installed a new detector in CMS. This detector is the silicon pixel detector and they’ve been working on it for about five years, to replace one of our existing detectors. This detectors measures particles closer to the beam than any of the other components of this huge detector behind me. It gives us the most precise picture of tracks as they come out of the collisions and expand and travel through the detector. This particular device has twice as many pixels, 120 million, as opposed to about 68 million in the old detector and it can take data faster and pump it out to the analysis more quickly. 00’53’’ Images of the descent, insertion and installation of first piece of the Pixel detector on Tue Feb 28. Images of the descent, insertion and installation of second piece of the Pixel and the two cylinders being joined.

    8. Tomography of Spatial Mode Detectors

      CERN Document Server

      Bobrov, Ivan; Markov, Anton; Straupe, Stanislav; Kulik, Sergey

      2014-01-01

      Transformation and detection of photons in higher-order spatial modes usually requires complicated holographic techniques. Detectors based on spatial holograms suffer from non-idealities and should be carefully calibrated. We report a novel method for analyzing the quality of projective measurements in spatial mode basis inspired by quantum detector tomography. It allows us to calibrate the detector response using only gaussian beams. We experimentally investigate the inherent inaccuracy of the existing methods of mode transformation and provide a full statistical reconstruction of the POVM (positive operator valued measure) elements for holographic spatial mode detectors.

    9. Position-sensitive superconductor detectors

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kurakado, M.; Taniguchi, K.

      2016-12-01

      Superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detectors and superconducting transition- edge sensors (TESs) are representative superconductor detectors having energy resolutions much higher than those of semiconductor detectors. STJ detectors are thin, thereby making it suitable for detecting low-energy X rays. The signals of STJ detectors are more than 100 times faster than those of TESs. By contrast, TESs are microcalorimeters that measure the radiation energy from the change in the temperature. Therefore, signals are slow and their time constants are typically several hundreds of μs. However, TESs possess excellent energy resolutions. For example, TESs have a resolution of 1.6 eV for 5.9-keV X rays. An array of STJs or TESs can be used as a pixel detector. Superconducting series-junction detectors (SSJDs) comprise multiple STJs and a single-crystal substrate that acts as a radiation absorber. SSJDs are also position sensitive, and their energy resolutions are higher than those of semiconductor detectors. In this paper, we give an overview of position-sensitive superconductor detectors.

    10. Mustafa Kemâleddin Bekrî’ye Göre Sûfî Benlik Gelişimi /The development of the Sufi Self according to Mustafa Kamâl al-Dîn Bakrî

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      İbrahim Işıtan

      2015-12-01

      Full Text Available The development of the Sufi Self according to Mustafa Kamâl al-Dîn Bakrî Abstract In this article, we studied how the Sufi Self develops according to Mustafa Kamâl al-Dîn Bakrî (m. 1162/1749, a prominent Sufi who was raised under the Khalwatiyya-Sha‘bâniyya tradition. The development of the sufi self relates to the transformation of the person’s inner life through climbing spiritual stages of sufi life and their influence on the person’s identity and personality. In the introduction, we briefly studied self-development according to psychology and sufism, then analyzed the notion of self-development according to our author. The Sufi’s view of sufi self-development is being considered under three major aspects: the relationship between exoterism and esoterism, struggles and Sufi exercises, relationship between guide and disciple. We started by studying the relationship between exoterism and esoterism in order to focus on the balance between inner life and outer life, then came the importance of struggling and practicing exercises in order to reach this balance and finally the relationship between the guide and the disciple travelling together on their quest to fulfill the spiritual journey. With this study and by analyzing the subject of Sufi self-development through these three topics, we aimed at contributing to clarify sufi psychology within the frame of spiritual psychology. Mustafa Kemâleddin Bekrî’ye Göre Sûfî Benlik Gelişimi Öz Bu makalede, Halvetiyye-Şa'bâniyye geleneği içerisinde yetişmiş 18. yüzyılın seçkin sûfîlerinden Mustafa Kemâleddin Bekrî (1162/1749’ye göre sûfî benlik gelişimi konusu ele alınmıştır. Sûfî benlik gelişimi, bireyin kişiliği ve kimliği üzerine etki eden sûfî yaşamın mânevî aşamalardan geçip içsel dönüşümü gerçekleştirmesi anlamında kullanılan bir terim olarak kabul edilebilir. Çalışmanın girişinde psikoloji ve tasavvufa göre kısaca benlik

    11. PET detector modules based on novel detector technologies

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Moses, W.W.; Derenzo, S.E.; Budinger, T.F.

      1994-05-01

      A successful PET detector module must identify 511 keV photons with: high efficiency (>85%), high spatial resolution (<5 mm fwhm), low cost (<$600 / in{sup 2}), low dead time (<4 {mu}s in{sup 2}), good timing resolution (<5 ns fwhm for conventional PET, <200 ps fwhm for time of flight), and good energy resolution (<100 keV fwhm), where these requirements are listed in decreasing order of importance. The ``high efficiency`` requirement also implies that the detector modules must pack together without inactive gaps. Several novel and emerging radiation detector technologies could improve the performance of PET detectors. Avalanche photodiodes, PIN photodiodes, metal channel dynode photomultiplier tubes, and new scintillators all have the potential to improve PET detectors significantly.

    12. Neutron detector and fabrication method thereof

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Bhandari, Harish B.; Nagarkar, Vivek V.; Ovechkina, Olena E.

      2016-08-16

      A neutron detector and a method for fabricating a neutron detector. The neutron detector includes a photodetector, and a solid-state scintillator operatively coupled to the photodetector. In one aspect, the method for fabricating a neutron detector includes providing a photodetector, and depositing a solid-state scintillator on the photodetector to form a detector structure.

    13. Particle detector spatial resolution

      Science.gov (United States)

      Perez-Mendez, V.

      1992-12-15

      Method and apparatus for producing separated columns of scintillation layer material, for use in detection of X-rays and high energy charged particles with improved spatial resolution is disclosed. A pattern of ridges or projections is formed on one surface of a substrate layer or in a thin polyimide layer, and the scintillation layer is grown at controlled temperature and growth rate on the ridge-containing material. The scintillation material preferentially forms cylinders or columns, separated by gaps conforming to the pattern of ridges, and these columns direct most of the light produced in the scintillation layer along individual columns for subsequent detection in a photodiode layer. The gaps may be filled with a light-absorbing material to further enhance the spatial resolution of the particle detector. 12 figs.

    14. Radiation detector with spodumene

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      D' Amorim, Raquel Aline P.O.; Lima, Hestia Raissa B.R.; Souza, Susana O. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Sasaki, Jose M., E-mail: sasaki@fisica.ufc.b [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

      2011-07-01

      In this work, {beta}-spodumene potentiality as a radiation detector was evaluated by making use of thermoluminescence (TL) and thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) techniques. The pellets were obtained from the {beta}-spodumene powder mixed with Teflon followed by a sintering process of thermal treatments of 300 deg/30 min and 400 deg/1.5 h. The samples were irradiated in standard gamma radiation beams with doses between 5 Gy and 10 kGy. The TL emission curve showed a prominent peak at 160 deg and in the case of TSEE a prominent peak at 145 Celsius approximately. Initial results show that the material is promising for high-dose dosimetry. (author)

    15. Direction sensitive neutron detector

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Ahlen, Steven; Fisher, Peter; Dujmic, Denis; Wellenstein, Hermann F.; Inglis, Andrew

      2017-01-31

      A neutron detector includes a pressure vessel, an electrically conductive field cage assembly within the pressure vessel and an imaging subsystem. A pressurized gas mixture of CF.sub.4, .sup.3He and .sup.4He at respective partial pressures is used. The field cage establishes a relatively large drift region of low field strength, in which ionization electrons generated by neutron-He interactions are directed toward a substantially smaller amplification region of substantially higher field strength in which the ionization electrons undergo avalanche multiplication resulting in scintillation of the CF.sub.4 along scintillation tracks. The imaging system generates two-dimensional images of the scintillation patterns and employs track-finding to identify tracks and deduce the rate and direction of incident neutrons. One or more photo-multiplier tubes record the time-profile of the scintillation tracks permitting the determination of the third coordinate.

    16. Pixelated gamma detector

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Dolinsky, Sergei Ivanovich; Yanoff, Brian David; Guida, Renato; Ivan, Adrian

      2016-12-27

      A pixelated gamma detector includes a scintillator column assembly having scintillator crystals and optical transparent elements alternating along a longitudinal axis, a collimator assembly having longitudinal walls separated by collimator septum, the collimator septum spaced apart to form collimator channels, the scintillator column assembly positioned adjacent to the collimator assembly so that the respective ones of the scintillator crystal are positioned adjacent to respective ones of the collimator channels, the respective ones of the optical transparent element are positioned adjacent to respective ones of the collimator septum, and a first photosensor and a second photosensor, the first and the second photosensor each connected to an opposing end of the scintillator column assembly. A system and a method for inspecting and/or detecting defects in an interior of an object are also disclosed.

    17. Subnanosecond Scintillation Detector

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hoenk, Michael (Inventor); Hennessy, John (Inventor); Hitlin, David (Inventor)

      2017-01-01

      A scintillation detector, including a scintillator that emits scintillation; a semiconductor photodetector having a surface area for receiving the scintillation, wherein the surface area has a passivation layer configured to provide a peak quantum efficiency greater than 40% for a first component of the scintillation, and the semiconductor photodetector has built in gain through avalanche multiplication; a coating on the surface area, wherein the coating acts as a bandpass filter that transmits light within a range of wavelengths corresponding to the first component of the scintillation and suppresses transmission of light with wavelengths outside said range of wavelengths; and wherein the surface area, the passivation layer, and the coating are controlled to increase the temporal resolution of the semiconductor photodetector.

    18. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

      CERN Multimedia

      G. Gomez

      2011-01-01

      A new set of muon alignment constants was approved in August. The relative position between muon chambers is essentially unchanged, indicating good detector stability. The main changes concern the global positioning of the barrel and of the endcap rings to match the new Tracker geometry. Detailed studies of the differences between track-based and optical alignment of DTs have proven to be a valuable tool for constraining Tracker alignment weak modes, and this information is now being used as part of the alignment procedure. In addition to the “split-cosmic” analysis used to investigate the muon momentum resolution at high momentum, a new procedure based on reconstructing the invariant mass of di-muons from boosted Zs is under development. Both procedures show an improvement in the momentum precision of Global Muons with respect to Tracker-only Muons. Recent developments in track-based alignment include a better treatment of the tails of residual distributions and accounting for correla...

    19. Chemical aerosol Raman detector

      Science.gov (United States)

      Aggarwal, R. L.; Farrar, L. W.; Di Cecca, S.; Amin, M.; Perkins, B. G.; Clark, M. L.; Jeys, T. H.; Sickenberger, D. W.; D'Amico, F. M.; Emmons, E. D.; Christesen, S. D.; Kreis, R. J.; Kilper, G. K.

      2017-03-01

      A sensitive chemical aerosol Raman detector (CARD) has been developed for the trace detection and identification of chemical particles in the ambient atmosphere. CARD includes an improved aerosol concentrator with a concentration factor of about 40 and a CCD camera for improved detection sensitivity. Aerosolized isovanillin, which is relatively safe, has been used to characterize the performance of the CARD. The limit of detection (SNR = 10) for isovanillin in 15 s has been determined to be 1.6 pg/cm3, which corresponds to 6.3 × 109 molecules/cm3 or 0.26 ppb. While less sensitive, CARD can also detect gases. This paper provides a more detailed description of the CARD hardware and detection algorithm than has previously been published.

    20. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

      CERN Multimedia

      Z. Szillasi and G. Gomez.

      2013-01-01

      When CMS is opened up, major components of the Link and Barrel Alignment systems will be removed. This operation, besides allowing for maintenance of the detector underneath, is needed for making interventions that will reinforce the alignment measurements and make the operation of the alignment system more reliable. For that purpose and also for their general maintenance and recalibration, the alignment components will be transferred to the Alignment Lab situated in the ISR area. For the track-based alignment, attention is focused on the determination of systematic uncertainties, which have become dominant, since now there is a large statistics of muon tracks. This will allow for an improved Monte Carlo misalignment scenario and updated alignment position errors, crucial for high-momentum muon analysis such as Z′ searches.

    1. Alpine Pixel Detector Layout

      CERN Document Server

      Delebecque, P; The ATLAS collaboration; Geffroy, N; Massol, N; Rambure, T; Todorov, T

      2013-01-01

      A description of an optimized layout of pixel sensors based on a stave that combines both barrel and endcap module orientations. The mechanical stiffness of the structure is provided by carbon fiber shells spaced by carbon foam. The cooling of the modules is provided by two-phase $CO_{2}$ flowing in a thin titanium pipe glued inside the carbon fiber foam. The electrical services of all modules are provided by a single stave flex. This layout eliminates the need for separate barrel and endcap detector structures, and therefore the barrel services material in front of the endcap. The transition from barrel to endcap module orientation is optimized separately for each layer in order to minimize the active pixel area and the traversed material. The sparse module spacing in the endcap part of the stave allows for multiple fixation points, and for a stiff overall structure composed only of staves interconnected by stiff disks.

    2. The SPICE Detector at ISAC

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Garnsworthy A.B.

      2013-12-01

      Full Text Available A new ancillary detector system for the TIGRESS HPGe array called SPectrometer for Internal Conversion Electrons (SPICE is currently under development. SPICE consists of a segmented electron detector, photon shield and a permanent magnetic lens. SPICE will enable in-beam electron spectroscopy and, in coupling to the TIGRESS HPGe array, coincident gamma-electron spectroscopy with stable and radioactive beams.

    3. Micro-channel plate detector

      Science.gov (United States)

      Elam, Jeffrey W.; Lee, Seon W.; Wang, Hsien -Hau; Pellin, Michael J.; Byrum, Karen; Frisch, Henry J.

      2015-09-22

      A method and system for providing a micro-channel plate detector. An anodized aluminum oxide membrane is provided and includes a plurality of nanopores which have an Al coating and a thin layer of an emissive oxide material responsive to incident radiation, thereby providing a plurality of radiation sensitive channels for the micro-channel plate detector.

    4. Micromegas detector developments for MIMAC

      CERN Document Server

      Ferrer-Ribas, E; Calvet, D; Colas, P; Druillole, F; Giomataris, Y; Iguaz, F J; Mols, J P; Pancin, J; Papaevangelou, T; Billard, J; Bosson, G; Bouly, J L; Bourrion, O; Fourel, Ch; Grignon, C; Guillaudin, O; Mayet, F; Richer, J P; Santos, D; Golabek, C; Lebreton, L

      2011-01-01

      The aim of the MIMAC project is to detect non-baryonic Dark Matter with a directional TPC. The recent Micromegas efforts towards building a large size detector will be described, in particular the characterization measurements of a prototype detector of 10 $\\times$ 10 cm$^2$ with a 2 dimensional readout plane. Track reconstruction with alpha particles will be shown.

    5. ALICE Time Of Flight Detector

      CERN Multimedia

      Alici, A

      2013-01-01

      Charged particles in the intermediate momentum range are identified in ALICE by the Time Of Flight (TOF) detector. The time measurement with the TOF, in conjunction with the momentum and track length measured by the tracking detector, is used to calculate the particle mass.

    6. R& D for Future Detectors

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Brau, J.

      2004-12-13

      Research and development of detector technology are critical to the future particle physics program. The goals of the International Linear Collider, in particular, require advances that are challenging, despite the progress driven in recent years by the needs of the Large Hadron Collider. The ILC detector goals and challenges are described and the program to address them is summarized.

    7. Fast Timing for Collider Detectors

      CERN Document Server

      CERN. Geneva

      2017-01-01

      Advancements in fast timing particle detectors have opened up new possibilities to design collider detectors that fully reconstruct and separate event vertices and individual particles in the time domain. The applications of these techniques are considered for the physics at HL-LHC.

    8. Space-based detectors

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sesana, A.; Weber, W. J.; Killow, C. J.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Robertson, D. I.; Ward, H.; Fitzsimons, E. D.; Bryant, J.; Cruise, A. M.; Dixon, G.; Hoyland, D.; Smith, D.; Bogenstahl, J.; McNamara, P. W.; Gerndt, R.; Flatscher, R.; Hechenblaikner, G.; Hewitson, M.; Gerberding, O.; Barke, S.; Brause, N.; Bykov, I.; Danzmann, K.; Enggaard, A.; Gianolio, A.; Vendt Hansen, T.; Heinzel, G.; Hornstrup, A.; Jennrich, O.; Kullmann, J.; Møller-Pedersen, S.; Rasmussen, T.; Reiche, J.; Sodnik, Z.; Suess, M.; Armano, M.; Sumner, T.; Bender, P. L.; Akutsu, T.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.

      2014-12-01

      The parallel session C5 on Space-Based Detectors gave a broad overview over the planned space missions related to gravitational wave detection. Overviews of the revolutionary science to be expected from LISA was given by Alberto Sesana and Sasha Buchman. The launch of LISA Pathfinder (LPF) is planned for 2015. This mission and its payload "LISA Technology Package" will demonstrate key technologies for LISA. In this context, reference masses in free fall for LISA, and gravitational physics in general, was described by William Weber, laser interferometry at the pico-metre level and the optical bench of LPF was presented by Christian Killow and the performance of the LPF optical metrology system by Paul McNamara. While LPF will not yet be sensitive to gravitational waves, it may nevertheless be used to explore fundamental physics questions, which was discussed by Michele Armano. Some parts of the LISA technology that are not going to be demonstrated by LPF, but under intensive development at the moment, were presented by Oliver Jennrich and Oliver Gerberding. Looking into the future, Japan is studying the design of a mid-frequency detector called DECIGO, which was discussed by Tomotada Akutsu. Using atom interferometry for gravitational wave detection has also been recently proposed, and it was critically reviewed by Peter Bender. In the nearer future, the launch of GRACE Follow-On (for Earth gravity observation) is scheduled for 2017, and it will include a Laser Ranging Interferometer as technology demonstrator. This will be the first inter-spacecraft laser interferometer and has many aspects in common with the LISA long arm, as discussed by Andrew Sutton.

    9. ENSTAR detector for -mesic studies

      Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

      A Chatterjee; B J Roy; V Jha; P Shukla; H Machnder; GEM Collaboration

      2006-05-01

      We have initiated a search for a new type of nuclear matter, the -mesic nucleus, using beams from the multi-GeV hadron facility, COSY at Juelich, Germany. A large acceptance scintillator detector, ENSTAR has been designed and built at BARC, Mumbai and fully assembled and tested at COSY. A test run for calibration and evaluation has been completed. In this contribution we present the design and technical details of the ENSTAR detector and how it will be used to detect protons and pions (the decay products of -mesic bound state). The detector is made of plastic scintillators arranged in three concentric cylindrical layers. The readout of the detectors is by means of optical fibres. The layers are used to generate - spectra for particle identification and total energy information of stopped particles. The granularity of the detector allows for position ( and ) determination making the event reconstruction kinematically complete.

    10. Recent detector developments at SINTEF (industrial presentation)

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sundby Avset, Berit; Evensen, Lars; Uri Jensen, Geir; Mo, Sjur; Kari Schjølberg-Henriksen; Westgaard, Trond

      1998-02-01

      Results from SINTEF's research on radiation hardness of silicon detectors, thin silicon detectors, silicon drift devices, reach-through avalanche photodiodes, and detectors with thin dead layers are presented.

    11. The 150 ns detector project: Progress with small detectors

      Science.gov (United States)

      Warburton, W. K.; Russell, S. R.; Kleinfelder, Stuart A.; Segal, Julie

      1994-09-01

      This project's long term goal is to develop a pixel area detector capable of 6 MHz frame rates (150 ns/frame). Our milestones toward this goal are: a single pixel, 1 × 256 1D and 8 × 8 2D detectors, 256 × 256 2D detectors and, finally, 1024 × 1024 2D detectors. The design strategy is to supply a complete electronics chain (resetting preamp, selectable gain amplifier, analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and memory) for each pixel. In the final detectors these will all be custom integrated circuits. The front end preamplifiers are being integrated first, since their design and performance are both the most unusual and also critical to the project's success. Similarly, our early work is also concentrating on devising and perfecting detector structures which are thick enough (1 mm) to absorb over 99% of the incident X-rays in the energy range of interest. In this paper we discuss our progress toward the 1 × 256 1D and 8 × 8 2D detectors. We have fabricated sample detectors at Stanford's Center for Integrated Systems and are preparing both to test them individually and to wirebond them to the preamplifier samples to produce our first working small 1D and 2D detectors. We will describe our solutions to the design problems associated with collecting charge in less than 30 ns from 1 mm thick pixels in high resistivity silicon. We have constructed and tested the front end of our preamplifier design using a commercial 1.2 μm CMOS technology and are moving on to produce a few channels of the complete preamplifier, including a switchable gain stage and output stage. We will discuss both the preamplifier design and our initial test results.

    12. Acquisition System and Detector Interface for Power Pulsed Detectors

      Science.gov (United States)

      Cornat, Rémi; CALICE Colaboration

      A common DAQ system is being developed within the CALICE collaboration. It provides a flexible and scalable architecture based on giga-ethernet and 8b/10b serial links in order to transmit either slow control data, fast signals or read out data. A detector interface (DIF) is used to connect detectors to the DAQ system based on a single firmware shared among the collaboration but targeted on various physical implementations. The DIF allows to build, store and queue packets of data as well as to control the detectors providing USB and serial link connectivity. The overall architecture is foreseen to manage several hundreds of thousands channels.

    13. Acquisition System and Detector Interface for Power Pulsed Detectors

      CERN Document Server

      Cornat, R

      2012-01-01

      A common DAQ system is being developed within the CALICE collaboration. It provides a flexible and scalable architecture based on giga-ethernet and 8b/10b serial links in order to transmit either slow control data, fast signals or read out data. A detector interface (DIF) is used to connect detectors to the DAQ system based on a single firmware shared among the collaboration but targeted on various physical implementations. The DIF allows to build, store and queue packets of data as well as to control the detectors providing USB and serial link connectivity. The overall architecture is foreseen to manage several hundreds of thousands channels.

    14. Detector instrumentation for nuclear fission studies

      Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

      Akhil Jhingan

      2015-09-01

      The study of heavy-ion-induced fusion–fission reactions require nuclear instrumentation that include particle detectors such as proportional counters, ionization chambers, silicon detectors, scintillation detectors, etc., and the front-end electronics for these detectors. Using the detectors mentioned above, experimental facilities have been developed for carrying out fusion–fission experiments. This paper reviews the development of detector instrumentation at IUAC.

    15. Plastic neutron detectors.

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Wilson, Tiffany M.S; King, Michael J.; Doty, F. Patrick

      2008-12-01

      This work demonstrated the feasibility and limitations of semiconducting {pi}-conjugated organic polymers for fast neutron detection via n-p elastic scattering. Charge collection in conjugated polymers in the family of substituted poly(p-phenylene vinylene)s (PPV) was evaluated using band-edge laser and proton beam ionization. These semiconducting materials can have high H/C ratio, wide bandgap, high resistivity and high dielectric strength, allowing high field operation with low leakage current and capacitance noise. The materials can also be solution cast, allowing possible low-cost radiation detector fabrication and scale-up. However, improvements in charge collection efficiency are necessary in order to achieve single particle detection with a reasonable sensitivity. The work examined processing variables, additives and environmental effects. Proton beam exposure was used to verify particle sensitivity and radiation hardness to a total exposure of approximately 1 MRAD. Conductivity exhibited sensitivity to temperature and humidity. The effects of molecular ordering were investigated in stretched films, and FTIR was used to quantify the order in films using the Hermans orientation function. The photoconductive response approximately doubled for stretch-aligned films with the stretch direction parallel to the electric field direction, when compared to as-cast films. The response was decreased when the stretch direction was orthogonal to the electric field. Stretch-aligned films also exhibited a significant sensitivity to the polarization of the laser excitation, whereas drop-cast films showed none, indicating improved mobility along the backbone, but poor {pi}-overlap in the orthogonal direction. Drop-cast composites of PPV with substituted fullerenes showed approximately a two order of magnitude increase in photoresponse, nearly independent of nanoparticle concentration. Interestingly, stretch-aligned composite films showed a substantial decrease in

    16. ATLAS Forward Detectors and Physics

      CERN Document Server

      Soni, N

      2010-01-01

      In this communication I describe the ATLAS forward physics program and the detectors, LUCID, ZDC and ALFA that have been designed to meet this experimental challenge. In addition to their primary role in the determination of ATLAS luminosity these detectors - in conjunction with the main ATLAS detector - will be used to study soft QCD and diffractive physics in the initial low luminosity phase of ATLAS running. Finally, I will briefly describe the ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) project that currently represents the future of the ATLAS forward physics program.

    17. Detector for a linear collider

      CERN Document Server

      Mnich, J

      2003-01-01

      The proposals under discussion for a new e^{+}e^{-} linear collider with centre-of-mass energies around 1 TeV include designs for large detectors with unprecedented performances in energy, momentum and position resolution. These very stringent requirements are dictated by the precision measurements aimed at this collider to complement the exploratory experiments at the Large Hadron Collider. Here a status report on detector R&D projects for the liner collider is given focused on the technologies under study for the vertex detector, the large tracking chamber and the calorimeters.

    18. Requirements on high resolution detectors

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Koch, A. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)

      1997-02-01

      For a number of microtomography applications X-ray detectors with a spatial resolution of 1 {mu}m are required. This high spatial resolution will influence and degrade other parameters of secondary importance like detective quantum efficiency (DQE), dynamic range, linearity and frame rate. This note summarizes the most important arguments, for and against those detector systems which could be considered. This article discusses the mutual dependencies between the various figures which characterize a detector, and tries to give some ideas on how to proceed in order to improve present technology.

    19. CLIC Detector and Physics Status

      CERN Document Server

      AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)627941

      2017-01-01

      This contribution to LCWS2016 presents recent developments within the CLICdp collaboration. An updated scenario for the staged operation of CLIC has been published; the accelerator will operate at 380 GeV, 1.5 TeV and 3 TeV. The lowest energy stage is optimised for precision Higgs and top physics, while the higher energy stages offer extended Higgs and BSM physics sensitivity. The detector models CLIC_SiD and CLIC_ILD have been replaced by a single optimised detector; CLICdet. Performance studies and R&D in technologies to meet the requirements for this detector design are ongoing.

    20. A computerized track detector reader

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Rosinski, S.W. (Centralne Lab. Ochrony Radiologicznej, Warsaw (Poland))

      1993-01-01

      The structure and basic operation function of a computerized facility named Track Detection Reader is described. This facility is used for recording, counting and evaluation of defects made by [alpha]-particles in a solid state detector. It consists of a microscope equipped with the movable stage, a TV screen and PC-AT computer. The microscope stage is being controlled by a stepper motor. The TV screen enables surface visualization of the detector analyzed while the PC-AT computer is being used for digital analysis of the detector surface, according to the functions of the program. (author). 4 refs, 3 figs.

    1. The CDF Silicon Vertex Detector

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Tkaczyk, S.; Carter, H.; Flaugher, B. [and others

      1993-09-01

      A silicon strip vertex detector was designed, constructed and commissioned at the CDF experiment at the Tevatron collider at Fermilab. The mechanical design of the detector, its cooling and monitoring are presented. The front end electronics employing a custom VLSI chip, the readout electronics and various components of the SVX system are described. The system performance and the experience with the operation of the detector in the radiation environment are discussed. The device has been taking colliding beams data since May of 1992, performing at its best design specifications and enhancing the physics program of CDF.

    2. Thermoluminescent Detectors in Mixed Fields

      CERN Document Server

      Mala, P; Biskup, B; Roeed, K

      2012-01-01

      This note reports on using of thermoluminescent detectors for radiation monitoring in the LHC tunnel and in the shielded areas around the tunnel. The accumulated annual doses in these areas vary a lot so a dosimeter used there should cover a large dose range. TL detectors can measure dose from 0.1 mGy to few kGy (with a recently proposed new technique which needs more studies up to 1 MGy). This report presents studies of these detectors in mixed fields similar to radiation field in the LHC and the possible usage of their results for calculation of high energy hadron and thermal neutron fluence.

    3. Kyrgyz Libraries Community – Co-Operation for Development: New Challenges and New Approaches = Kırgız Kütüphane Topluluğu – Gelişim İçin İşbirliği: Yeni Fırsatlar ve Uygulamalar

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Battalova, Sania

      2012-01-01

      Full Text Available “Kyrgyz Libraries Information Consortium”, one of the largest library associations in the country, celebrates its 10th anniversary. The Consortium was established in 2002 and through membership, it comprises more than 400 libraries within Kyrgyzstan, including the National Library, the State Patent and Technical Library, the Library of the Academy of Science, and many other academic and regional libraries. The Consortium’s creation was an answer to the challenges the country faced: lack of information, very low level of technological development, no budget for collection development, lack of cooperation and collaboration between libraries in the country as well as with the international library community. The history and development of the Consortium, the Consortium mission, its goals, its main initiatives and the strategic directions to be taken are presented in the article. The importance of library development and how libraries in developed countries established strong and effective organizations are reviewed and analyzed here. This paper also presents the challenges and approaches that must be taken for future development of libraries in Kyrgyzstan. / “Kırgız Kütüphaneleri Bilgi Konsorsiyumu” ülkedeki en büyük kütüphanecilik derneklerinden biridir ve kuruluşunun onuncu yıl dönümünü kutlamaktadır. Bu Konsorsiyum 2000 yılında kurulmuş olup, üyelik sayısı sonucu Kırgızistan içinde toplam 400'den fazla kütüphaneyi kapsamaktadır. Konsorsiyum içinde Milli Kütüphane (The National Library, Devlet Patent ve Teknik Kütüphanesi (State Patent and Technical Library, Bilim Akademisi Kütüphanesi (Library of the Academy ofScience, ile bunların yanısıra çok sayıda akademik ve bölgesel kütüphaneler de yer almaktadır. Konsorsiyum’un kuruluşu ülkede karşılaşılan güçlüklere bir karşı çıkış olmuştur: yetersiz bilgi, çok düşük düzeyli teknik gelişmeler, koleksiyon geliştirmek için b

    4. Konuşma Becerisinin Geliştirilmesinde Beyin Fırtınası Tekniğinin Etkisi: Bir Eylem Araştırması To Develop The Speech Skills Brainstorm Of The Effect: An Action Research

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Havva YAMAN

      2012-12-01

      ılmıştır. Beyin fırtınası, akıldan geçen her türlü fikrin rahatlıkla açıklanması temeline dayanan, katılımcılara eleştiriye kapalı ve eğlenceli bir ortam sunan, bireylerin yaratıcılık yeteneklerini geliştirebilen, onlara başarı hazzını yaşatarak derse karşı olumlu tutum geliştirmelerine yardımcı olan, öğrenci merkezli bir problem çözme tekniğidir. Çalışmada nitel araştırma desenlerinden eylem araştırması kullanılmış, beyin fırtınası tekniğinin merkezde olduğu dersler kamera ile kayıt altına alınmıştır. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu, maksimum çeşitlilik örneklemesi yoluyla İstanbul’daki bir ilköğretim okulundan seçilmiş öğrenciler oluşturmaktadır. Öğrencilerden elde edilen verilerin çözümlenmesinde nitel içerik çözümlemesi ve eleştirel söylem analizi kullanılmıştır. Araştırma sonunda beyin fırtınası tekniğinin konuşma eğitiminde kullanımının, öğrencilerin konuşma becerilerinin gelişimine olumlu etkisinin olduğu görülmüştür. Beyin fırtınası tekniğiyle işlenen derslerde öğrencilerin konuşma becerilerinin bilişsel ve duyuşsal anlamda geliştirilebildiği belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca tekniğin İlköğretim Türkçe Dersi Öğretim Programı’nda yer alan birtakım kazanımların gerçekleşmesine yardımcı olabileceği sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Beyin fırtınası tekniği sağladığı eğlenceli ortamla öğrencilerin konuşma ve yazma alanlarındaki becerilerini geliştirmeyi hedeflerken, beynin sol yarım küresine; hayal kurmayı, yeniliklere açık olmayı ve yaratıcı düşünmeyi teşvik ederek de sağ yarım küresine hitap etmektedir. Araştırmadan elde edilen sonuçlar, ilgili alanyazın bağlamında yorumlanmış, öğrencilerin konuşma becerilerini geliştirmek için beyin fırtınası tekniğinin kullanımıyla ilgili birtakım önerilerde bulunulmuştur.

    5. Akranların Sunduğu Sabit Bekleme Süreli Öğretim Gelişimsel Geriliği Olan Öğrencilere Tanıtıcı Levhaların Öğretiminde Etkili midir?

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Serhat Yıldırım

      2002-07-01

      Full Text Available Araştırmada normal gelişim gösteren öğreten akranların sabit bekleme süreli öğretimi kullanarak gelişimsel geriliği olan öğrenen akranlarına tanıtıcı levhaları öğretmeleri değerlendirilmiştir. Araştırma iki amaç etrafında toplanmıştır: (a Öğreten akranlar gelişimsel geriliği olan Öğrenen akranlarına tanıtıcı levhaları öğretmek üzere, sabit bekleme süreli öğretimi güvenilir bicinule kullanabilirler mi? (b sabit bekleme süreli öğretim, öğrenen akranlara tanıtıcı levhaları öğretmekte etkili midir? Ayrıca, araştırmada akranlar tarafından sunulan sabit bekleme süreli öğretimin kişilerarası genelleme etkisi ve uygulama tamamlandıktan I, 3 ve 4 hafta sonra da kalıcılık etkisi incelenmiştir. Araştırmaya normal gelişim gösteren üç öğrenci öğreten akran, gelişimsel gerilik gösteren üç Öğrenci de öğrenen akran olarak katılmıştır. Tüm oturumlar birebir öğretim düzenlemesi ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmada tek-denekli araştırma modellerinden yoklama evreli davranışlar arası çoklu yoklama modeli kullanılmış ve deneklerle replike edilmiştir. Araştırmada uygulama, yoklama, öğretim genelleme ve izleme oturumları düzenlenmiştir. Araştırma sonucunda. Öğreten akranların sabit bekleme süreli öğretimi güvenilir biçimde uyguladıkları görülmüştür. Gelişimsel geriliği olan öğrenen akranlar tanıtıcı levhaları etkili biçimde öğrenmişlerdir. Öğrenen akranlar tanıtıcı levhaları %I00 düzeyde genelleyebilmişlerdir. Ayrıca, öğrenen akranların tanıtıcı levhaların kalıcılığını yüksek düzeyde korudukları görülmüştür. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of constant time delay procedure delivered by peer tutors on teaching expressively identifying community signs to the peer tutees with developmental disabilities. The study was twofold: (a Can peer tutors deliver constant

    6. MUON DETECTORS: DT

      CERN Multimedia

      M. Dallavalle

      In the past months, the DT electronics has run in a stable and reliable way, demonstrated again through the CRAFT exercise. Operation when the CMS magnetic field was on has been satisfactory. The detector safety control and monitoring is improving constantly as the DT group accumulates running experience. The DT DAQ and DCS systems proved very stable during the intensive CRAFT period. The few issues that were identified by the DCS and on-line monitoring did not prevent the run to continue, so that the record of the DT in the data taking efficiency was very good. The long running period was also used to continue the transition from a system run by experts to one run by shifters, which was in the large part successful. Improvements, mostly in consolidation of error reporting, were identified and will be addressed in the coming shut-down. During the CRAFT data taking, DT triggered about 300 million cosmics with the magnet at 3.8T and the silicon strip tracker in the readout. Although a dedicated configuratio...

    7. MUON DETECTORS: CSC

      CERN Multimedia

      J. Hauser

      2011-01-01

      The CSC detector continued to operate well during the March-June 2011 period. As the luminosity has climbed three orders of magnitude, the currents drawn in the CSC high-voltage system have risen correspondingly, and the current trip thresholds have been increased from 1 μA to 5 μA (and 20 in ME1/1 chambers). A possible concern is that a long-lasting and undesirable corona is capable of drawing about 1 μA, and thus may not be detected by causing current trips; on the other hand it is easily dealt with by cycling HV when detected. To better handle coronas, software is being developed to better detect them, although a stumbling block is the instability of current measurements in some of the channels of the CAEN supplies used in ME1/1. A survey of other issues faced by the CSC Operations team was discussed at the 8th June 2011 CSC Operations/DPG meeting (Rakness). The most important issues, i.e. those that have caused a modest amount of downtime, are all being actively addressed. These are:...

    8. ATLAS Detector Upgrade Prospects

      CERN Document Server

      Dobre, Monica; The ATLAS collaboration

      2016-01-01

      After the successful operation at the centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010-2012, the LHC is ramped up and successfully took data at the centre-of-mass energies of 13 TeV in 2015. Meanwhile, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity levelling. The ultimate goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred f b −1 expected for LHC running to 3000 f b −1 by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new all-silicon tracker, significant upgrades of the calorimeter and muon systems, as well as improved triggers and data acquisition. ATLAS is also examining potential benefits of ext...

    9. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

      CERN Multimedia

      Pierluigi Paolucci

      2013-01-01

      In the second part of 2013 the two main activities of the RPC project are the reparation and maintenance of the present system and the construction and installation of the RE4 system. Since the opening of the barrel, repair activities on the gas, high-voltage and electronic systems are being done in parallel, in agreement with the CMS schedule. In YB0, the maintenance of the RPC detector was in the shadow of other interventions, nevertheless the scaffolding turned out to be a good solution for our gas leaks searches. Here we found eight leaking channels for about 100 l/h in total. 10 RPC/DT modules were partially extracted –– 90 cm –– in YB0, YB–1 and YB–2 to allow for the replacement of FE and LV distribution boards. Intervention was conducted on an additional two chambers on the positive endcap to solve LV and threshold control problems. Until now we were able to recover 0.67% of the total number of RPC electronic channels (1.5% of the channels...

    10. MUON DETECTORS: DT

      CERN Multimedia

      I. Redondo Fernandez

      2011-01-01

      The DT system has operated successfully during the entire 2011 data-taking: the fraction of good channels was always >99.4 % and the downtime caused to CMS amounts to a few inverse picobarns. This excellent performance does not come without a price: the DT group requested more than 30 short accesses to the underground experimental cavern (UXC).  A large fraction of interventions was for dealing with overheated LV Anderson connectors, whose failure can affect larger sections of the detector (a whole chamber, or half a wheel of the CMS barrel, etc.). A crash programme for reworking those connections will take place during the Year-End Technical Stop. The system of six vd chambers (VDC) that were installed on the DT exhaust gas line have operated successfully. The VDCs are small drift chambers the size of a shoebox that measure the drift velocity every 10 minutes. Possible deviations from the nominal value could be caused by a contamination of the gas mixture or changes in pressure or temperat...

    11. MUON DETECTORS: DT

      CERN Multimedia

      R.Carlin

      2010-01-01

      DT operation during 2010 LHC collisions, both in proton-proton and heavy ions, has been outstanding. The DT downtime has been below 0.1% throughout the whole year, mainly caused by the manual Resync commands that took around a minute for being processed. An automatic resynchronisation procedure has been enabled by August 27 and since then the downtime has been negligible (though constantly monitored). The need for these Resync commands is related to sporadic noise events that occasionally fill the RO buffers or unlock the readout links. Their rate is low, in the order of a few per week. Besides that, only one pp collisions run (1 hour 30 minutes run) has been marked as bad for DT, because of an incident with a temperature sensor that triggered a false alarm and powered off one wheel. Nevertheless, quite a large number of interventions (>30) have been made in the cavern during the year, in order to keep such a large fraction of the detector operational. Most of those are due to the overheating of the ...

    12. MUON DETECTORS: DT

      CERN Multimedia

      I. Redondo

      2011-01-01

      During the second quarter of 2011, the DT system has continued to operate successfully with a high fraction of good channels (>99 %) and causing extremely little downtime to CMS. The high fraction of operated channels did not come for free: DT requested 18 short UXC accesses in the 3 months from March to May 2011. The dominant causes for these interventions were HV related interventions (7), which typically affect a small fraction of a chamber, and interventions for dealing with overheated LV Anderson connectors (7), whose failure could affect larger fractions of the detector (a whole chamber, half a wheel). With respect to the CMS downtime, a successful effort with colleagues from the DT Track Finder of the Level-1 Trigger system allowed to overcome a relatively relevant source of downtime from DTTF FED Out-Of-Sync errors, which would appear randomly during data-taking. The DT group developed a system configuration that would make it possible to reproduce the error without beam, thereby sparing lumin...

    13. MUON DETECTORS: ALIGNMENT

      CERN Multimedia

      S. Szillasi

      2013-01-01

      The CMS detector has been gradually opened and whenever a wheel became exposed the first operation was the removal of the MABs, the sensor structures of the Hardware Barrel Alignment System. By the last days of June all 36 MABs have arrived at the Alignment Lab at the ISR where, as part of the Alignment Upgrade Project, they are refurbished with new Survey target holders. Their electronic checkout is on the way and finally they will be recalibrated. During LS1 the alignment system will be upgraded in order to allow more precise reconstruction of the MB4 chambers in Sector 10 and Sector 4. This requires new sensor components, so called MiniMABs (pictured below), that have already been assembled and calibrated. Image 6: Calibrated MiniMABs are ready for installation For the track-based alignment, the systematic uncertainties of the algorithm are under scrutiny: this study will enable the production of an improved Monte Carlo misalignment scenario and to update alignment position errors eventually, crucial...

    14. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

      CERN Multimedia

      G. Iaselli

      The RPC group has invested a large effort in the study of trigger spikes observed during CRAFT data taking. The chambers are susceptible to noise generated by the flickering of fluorescent and projector lamps in the cavern (with magnetic field on). Soon after the end of CRAFT, it was possible to reproduce the phenomena using a waveform generator and to study possible modifications to be implemented in the grounding schema. Hardware actions have been already taken in order to reduce the detector sensitivity: star washers on the chamber front panels and additional shielding have been added where possible. During the shutdown maintenance activity many different problems were tackled on the barrel part. A few faulty high voltage connector/cable problems were fixed; now only two RPC chambers are left with single-gap mode operation. One chamber in YB+2 was replaced due to gas leakage. All the front-end electronic boards were replaced in 3 chambers (stations MB2 and MB3 in YB-2), that had been damaged after the coo...

    15. Hybrid Superconducting Neutron Detectors

      CERN Document Server

      Merlo, V; Cirillo, M; Lucci, M; Ottaviani, I; Scherillo, A; Celentano, G; Pietropaolo, A

      2014-01-01

      A new neutron detection concept is presented that is based on superconductive niobium (Nb) strips coated by a boron (B) layer. The working principle of the detector relies on the nuclear reaction 10B+n $\\rightarrow$ $\\alpha$+ 7Li , with $\\alpha$ and Li ions generating a hot spot on the current-biased Nb strip which in turn induces a superconducting-normal state transition. The latter is recognized as a voltage signal which is the evidence of the incident neutron. The above described detection principle has been experimentally assessed and verified by irradiating the samples with a pulsed neutron beam at the ISIS spallation neutron source (UK). It is found that the boron coated superconducting strips, kept at a temperature T = 8 K and current-biased below the critical current Ic, are driven into the normal state upon thermal neutron irradiation. As a result of the transition, voltage pulses in excess of 40 mV are measured while the bias current can be properly modulated to bring the strip back to the supercond...

    16. MUON DETECTORS: CSC

      CERN Multimedia

      R. Breedon

      Figure 2: Five ME4/2 chambers mounted on the +endcap. At the end of June, five large, outer cathode strip chambers (CSC) that were produced as spares during the original production were mounted on part of the disk space reserved for ME4/2 on the positive endcap (Fig. 2). The chambers were cabled, attached to services, and fully integrated and commissioned into the CSC DAQ and trigger systems. Comprising almost a full trigger sector, CMS will be able to test the significant improvement the trigger efficiency of the EMU system that the presence of the full ME4/2 ring is expected to bring. The return of beam in November was observed as “splash” events in the CSCs in which the detectors were showered with a huge number of particles at the same time. Although the CSCs were operating at a lower standby voltage the multiple hits on a strips could not be individually distinguished.&am...

    17. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

      CERN Multimedia

      P. Paolucci

      2012-01-01

        2011 data-taking was very satisfactory for both the RPC detector and trigger. The RPC system ran very smoothly in 2011, showing an excellent stability and very high data-tacking efficiency. Data loss for RPC was about 0.37%, corresponding to 19 pb−1. Most of the performance studies, based on 2011 data, are now completed and the results have been already approved by CMS to be presented at the RPC 2012 conference (February 2012 at LNF). During 2011, the number of disconnected chambers increased from six to eight corresponding to 0.8% of the full system, while the single-gap-mode chambers increased from 28 to 31. Most of the problematic chambers are due to bad high-voltage connection and electronic failures that can be solved only during the 2013-2014 Long Shutdown. 98.4% of the electronic channels were operational. The average detection efficiency in 2011 was about 95%, which was the same value measured during the HV scan done at the beginning of the 2011 data-taking. Efficiency has be...

    18. MUON DETECTORS: DT

      CERN Multimedia

      M. Dallavalle

      2013-01-01

      The DT collaboration is undertaking substantial work both for detector maintenance – after three years since the last access to the chambers and their front-end electronics – and upgrade. The most critical maintenance interventions are chambers and Minicrate repairs, which have not begun yet, because they need proper access to each wheel of the CMS barrel, meaning space for handling the big chambers in the few cases where they have to be extracted, and, more in general, free access from cables and thermal shields in the front and back side of the chambers. These interventions are planned for between the coming Autumn until next spring. Meanwhile, many other activities are happening, like the “pigtail” intervention on the CAEN AC/DC converters which has just taken place. The upgrade activities continue to evolve in good accordance with the schedule, both for the theta Trigger Board (TTRB) replacement and for the Sector Collector (SC) relocation from the UXC to the US...

    19. Commissioning a Hodoscope Detector

      Science.gov (United States)

      Lulis, Andrew; Merhi, Abdul; Frank, Nathan; Bazin, Daniel; Smith, Jenna; Thoennessen, Michael; MoNA Collaboration

      2013-10-01

      Experiments on neutron-rich nuclei are interesting since they test the limits of current nuclear theory. One method to populate neutron-rich nuclei is to utilize the (d,p) reaction in which the beam nucleus picks up a neutron from the target. This heavier nucleus immediately emits a neutron resulting in the same nucleus as the beam but with lower energy. One challenge is to discriminate decay products from unreacted beam particles by their difference in energy. A hodoscope was recently installed at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) as part of the MoNA-LISA-Sweeper setup to make experiments using a (d,p) reaction possible. The hodoscope is a 5 × 5 scintillator array consisting of CsI(Na) crystals with a resolution of better than 1%. This presentation will describe the recently commissioned detector and the results of the first data analysis using this device. Work supported by Augustana College and the National Science Foundation grant #0969173.

    20. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

      CERN Multimedia

      G. Pugliese

      2010-01-01

      In the second half of 2010 run, the overall behavior of the RPC system has been very satisfactory, both in terms of detector and trigger performance. This result was achieved through interventions by skilled personnel and fine-tuned analysis procedures. The hardware was quite stable: both gas and power systems did not present significant problems during the data-taking period, confirming the high reliability achieved. Only few interventions on some HV or LV channels were necessary during the periodical technical accesses. The overall result is given by the stable percentage of active channels at about 98.5%. The single exception was at beginning of the ion collisions, when it dipped to 97.4% because of the failure of one LV module, although this was recovered after a few days. The control and monitoring software is now more robust and efficient, providing prompt diagnostics on the status of the entire system. Significant efforts were made in collaboration with the CMS cooling team to secure proper working ...

    1. Transmission diamond imaging detector

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Smedley, John, E-mail: smedley@bnl.gov; Pinelli, Don; Gaoweia, Mengjia [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Muller, Erik; Ding, Wenxiang; Zhou, Tianyi [Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Bohon, Jen [Case Center for Synchrotron Biosciences, Center for Proteomics and Bioinformatics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States)

      2016-07-27

      Many modern synchrotron techniques are trending toward use of high flux beams and/or beams which require enhanced stability and precise understanding of beam position and intensity from the front end of the beamline all the way to the sample. For high flux beams, major challenges include heat load management in optics (including the vacuum windows) and a mechanism of real-time volumetric measurement of beam properties such as flux, position, and morphology. For beam stability in these environments, feedback from such measurements directly to control systems for optical elements or to sample positioning stages would be invaluable. To address these challenges, we are developing diamond-based instrumented vacuum windows with integrated volumetric x-ray intensity, beam profile and beam-position monitoring capabilities. A 50 µm thick single crystal diamond has been lithographically patterned to produce 60 µm pixels, creating a >1kilopixel free-standing transmission imaging detector. This device, coupled with a custom, FPGA-based readout, has been used to image both white and monochromatic x-ray beams and capture the last x-ray photons at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). This technology will form the basis for the instrumented end-station window of the x-ray footprinting beamline (XFP) at NSLS-II.

    2. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

      CERN Multimedia

      G. Iaselli

      2010-01-01

      During the technical stop, the RPC team was part of the CMS task force team working on bushing replacements in the Endcap cooling system, also validating the repairs in terms of connectivity (HV, LV and signal cables), and gas leak, on RE chambers. In parallel, the RPC team profited from the opportunity to cure several known problems: six chambers with HV problems (1 off + 5 single gaps) were recovered on both gaps; four known HV problems were localized at chamber level; additional temperature sensors were installed on cooling pipes on negative REs; one broken LV module in RE-1 was replaced. During the last month, the RPC group has made big improvements in the operations tools. New trigger supervisor software has substantially reduced the configuration time. Monitoring is now more robust and more efficient in providing prompt diagnostics. The detector has been under central DCS control for two weeks. Improvements have been made to both functionality and documentation and no major problems were found. Beam s...

    3. MUON DETECTORS: DT

      CERN Multimedia

      C. Fernandez Bedova and M. Dallavalle

      2010-01-01

      After successful operation during the 2009 LHC run, a number of fixes and improvements were carried out on the DT system the winter shutdown. The main concern was related with the impact of the extensive water leak that happened in October in YE+1. Opening of CMS end-caps allowed the DT crew to check if any Minicrates (containing the first level of readout and trigger electronics) in YB+2 and YB-2 were flooded with water. The affected region from top sectors in YB+2 reaches down to the bottom sectors in YB-2 following the water path in the barrel from end to end. No evidence of water penetration was observed, though the passage of water left oxidation and white streaks on the iron and components. In particular, large signs of oxidation have been seen on the YB-2 MB1 top and bottom stations. Review of the impact in YB+1 remains for future openings of CMS wheels, and at present, effort is focused on setting up the water leak detection system in the detector. Another important issue during this shutd...

    4. MUON DETECTORS: RPC

      CERN Multimedia

      P. Paolucci

      2013-01-01

      During LS1, the Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) collaboration is focusing its efforts on installation and commissioning of the fourth endcap station (RE4) and on the reparation and maintenance of the present system (1100 detectors). The 600 bakelite gaps, needed to build 200 double-gap RE4 chambers are being produced in Korea. Chamber construction and testing sites are located at CERN, in Ghent University, and at BARC (India). At present, 42 chambers have been assembled, 32 chambers have been successfully tested with cosmic rays runs and 7 Super Modules, made by two chambers, have been built at CERN by a Bulgarian/Georgian/Italian team and are now ready to be installed in the positive endcap. The 36 Super Modules needed to complete the positive endcap will be ready in September and installation is scheduled for October 2013. The Link-Board system for RE4 is under construction in Naples. Half of the system has been delivered at CERN in June. Six crates (Link-Board Boxes) and 75 boards, needed to instrument t...

    5. MUON DETECTORS: DT

      CERN Multimedia

      C. Fernandez Bedoya

      2012-01-01

        The major activity of the DT group during this Year-End Technical Stop has been the reworking of LV modules. It has been a large campaign, carefully planned, to try to solve, once and for all, the long-standing problem of Anderson Power connectors overheating. The solution involved removing the 140 CAEN modules from the detector (6.5 kg each), soldering of “pigtails” in a temporary workshop in USC, and thorough testing of all the modules in a local system installed in USC. The operation has been satisfactorily smooth, taking into account the magnitude of the intervention. The system is now back in good shape and ready for commissioning. In addition, HV boards have been cleaned up, HV USC racks have been equipped with water detection cables, and the gas and HV have been switched back on smoothly. Other significant activities have also taken place during this YETS, such as the installation of a new and faster board for the Minicrates secondary link and the migration to Scienti...

    6. ATLAS Detector Upgrade Prospects

      CERN Document Server

      Dobre, Monica; The ATLAS collaboration

      2016-01-01

      After the successful operation at the center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV in 2010 - 2012, the LHC is ramped up and successfully took data at the center-of-mass energies of 13 TeV in 2015. Meanwhile, plans are actively advancing for a series of upgrades of the accelerator, culminating roughly ten years from now in the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) project, delivering of the order of five times the LHC nominal instantaneous luminosity along with luminosity leveling. The ultimate goal is to extend the dataset from about few hundred fb−1 expected for LHC running to 3000 fb−1 by around 2035 for ATLAS and CMS. The challenge of coping with the HL-LHC instantaneous and integrated luminosity, along with the associated radiation levels, requires further major changes to the ATLAS detector. The designs are developing rapidly for a new all-silicon tracker, significant upgrades of the calorimeter and muon systems, as well as improved triggers and data acquisition. ATLAS is also examining potential benefits of extens...

    7. A Rapid Coliform Detector Project

      Data.gov (United States)

      National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC, in collaboration with Lucigen, proposes a rapid genetic detector for spaceflight water systems to enable real-time detection of E-coli with minimal...

    8. Detector Fundamentals for Reachback Analysts

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, Steven Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

      2016-08-03

      This presentation is a part of the DHS LSS spectroscopy course and provides an overview of the following concepts: detector system components, intrinsic and absolute efficiency, resolution and linearity, and operational issues and limits.

    9. Rapid Multiplex Microbial Detector Project

      Data.gov (United States)

      National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC, in collaboration with Lucigen, proposes a rapid nucleic acid-based detector for spaceflight water systems to enable simultaneous quantification of multiple...

    10. Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector

      CERN Document Server

      Mohanty, Gagan B

      2015-01-01

      The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider in Japan is designed to indirectly probe new physics using approximately 50 times the data recorded by its predecessor. An accurate determination of the decay-point position of subatomic particles such as beauty and charm hadrons as well as a precise measurement of low-momentum charged particles will play a key role in this pursuit. These will be accomplished by a vertex detector, which comprises two layers of pixelated silicon detector and four layers of silicon vertex detector. We describe herein the design, prototyping and construction efforts of the Belle-II silicon vertex detector that is aimed to be commissioned towards the middle of 2017.

    11. GEM Detector Electric Field Simulation

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      2011-01-01

      GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) detectors have been widely employed in the experimental field of high energy physics and nuclear physics. As a successor to drift chambers, GEMs are much easier to fabricate and have a much higher spatial resolution

    12. Silicon Drift Detectors for ALICE

      CERN Document Server

      Navach, F; CERN. Geneva

      1992-01-01

      The Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) is a semiconductor, not yet extensively used in HEP experiment, which has an excellent spatial resolution and granularity about comparable to a pixel device requiring a number of readout channels two order of magnitude less.

    13. Detector Description Framework in LHCb

      CERN Document Server

      Ponce, Sébastien

      2003-01-01

      The Gaudi architecture and framework are designed to provide a common infrastructure and environment for simulation, filtering, reconstruction and analysis applications. In this context, a Detector Description Service was developed in LHCb in order to also provide easy and coherent access to the description of the experimental apparatus. This service centralizes every information about the detector, including geometry, materials, alignment, calibration, structure and controls. From the proof of concept given by the first functional implementation of this service late 2000, the Detector Description Service has grown and has become one of the major components of the LHCb software, shared among all applications, including simulation, reconstruction, analysis and visualization. We describe here the full and functional implementation of the service. We stress the easiness of customization and extension of the detector description by the user, on the seamless integration with condition databases in order to handle ...

    14. Simple dynamic electromagnetic radiation detector

      Science.gov (United States)

      Been, J. F.

      1972-01-01

      Detector monitors gamma dose rate at particular position in a radiation facility where a mixed neutron-gamma environment exists, thus determining reactor power level changes. Device also maps gamma intensity profile across a neutron-gamma beam.

    15. Microscopic Simulation of Particle Detectors

      CERN Document Server

      Schindler, Heinrich

      Detailed computer simulations are indispensable tools for the development and optimization of modern particle detectors. The interaction of particles with the sensitive medium, giving rise to ionization or excitation of atoms, is stochastic by its nature. The transport of the resulting photons and charge carriers, which eventually generate the observed signal, is also subject to statistical fluctuations. Together with the readout electronics, these processes - which are ultimately governed by the atomic cross-sections for the respective interactions - pose a fundamental limit to the achievable detector performance. Conventional methods for calculating electron drift lines based on macroscopic transport coefficients used to provide an adequate description for traditional gas-based particle detectors such as wire chambers. However, they are not suitable for small-scale devices such as micropattern gas detectors, which have significantly gained importance in recent years. In this thesis, a novel approach, bas...

    16. Nanopillar Optical Antenna Avalanche Detectors

      Science.gov (United States)

      2014-08-30

      68 , (11), 10. 51. Adachi, S., Properties of aluminium gallium ...bandwidth products > 100 GHz. 2 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Los Angeles Nanopillar Optical Antenna Avalanche Detectors A dissertation... products > 100 GHz. 6 iii The dissertation of Pradeep

    17. A Classification Leveraged Object Detector

      OpenAIRE

      Sun, Miao; Han, Tony X.; He, Zhihai

      2016-01-01

      Currently, the state-of-the-art image classification algorithms outperform the best available object detector by a big margin in terms of average precision. We, therefore, propose a simple yet principled approach that allows us to leverage object detection through image classification on supporting regions specified by a preliminary object detector. Using a simple bag-of- words model based image classification algorithm, we leveraged the performance of the deformable model objector from 35.9%...

    18. Surface events in HPGe detectors

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Abt, Iris; Dinter, Sabine; Faulstich, Florian; Majorovits, Bela; Stelzer, Franz [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany)

      2011-07-01

      Events on or close to the surface of high purity germanium, HPGe, detectors can introduce backgrounds in low background applications of such devices. The Galatea test-stand, especially developed and constructed at the MPI fuer Physik allows an almost full surface scan of a detector with alpha and beta sources. Events induced by alpha and beta particles can be characterized and surface effects can be studied. First comparisons between data and Monte Carlo are presented.

    19. Repeatability of Harris Corner Detector

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      HU Lili

      2003-01-01

      Interest point detectors are commonly employed to reduce the amount of data to be processed. The ideal interest point detector would robustly select those features which are most appropriate or salient for the application and data at hand. This paper shows that interest points are geometrically stable under different transformations.This property makes interest points very successful in the context of image matching. To measure this property quantatively, we introduce a evaluation criterion: repeatability rate.

    20. Electronic detectors for electron microscopy.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Faruqi, A R; McMullan, G

      2011-08-01

      Electron microscopy (EM) is an important tool for high-resolution structure determination in applications ranging from condensed matter to biology. Electronic detectors are now used in most applications in EM as they offer convenience and immediate feedback that is not possible with film or image plates. The earliest forms of electronic detector used routinely in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were charge coupled devices (CCDs) and for many applications these remain perfectly adequate. There are however applications, such as the study of radiation-sensitive biological samples, where film is still used and improved detectors would be of great value. The emphasis in this review is therefore on detectors for use in such applications. Two of the most promising candidates for improved detection are: monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) and hybrid pixel detectors (of which Medipix2 was chosen for this study). From the studies described in this review, a back-thinned MAPS detector appears well suited to replace film in for the study of radiation-sensitive samples at 300 keV, while Medipix2 is suited to use at lower energies and especially in situations with very low count rates. The performance of a detector depends on the energy of electrons to be recorded, which in turn is dependent on the application it is being used for; results are described for a wide range of electron energies ranging from 40 to 300 keV. The basic properties of detectors are discussed in terms of their modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) as a function of spatial frequency.

    1. L3 detector: BGO assembly

      CERN Multimedia

      CERN

      1989-01-01

      Explanation and presentation of its construction ( Feb-March 1989). The detector is a multi-layered cylindrical set of different devices, each of them measuring physical quantities relevant to the reconstruction of the collision under study. The three main outer layers are the electro-magnetic calorimeter (also called BGO because it's made of Bismuth Germanium Oxide), the hadronic calorimeter (HCAL) and the muon detector.

    2. Instrumentation of the fast detector

      CERN Document Server

      Barczyk, A.; Malgeri, L.; Casella, C.; Pohl, M.; Deiters, K.; Dick, P.; Berdugo, J.; Casaus, J.; Mana, C.; Marin, J.; Martinez, G.; Sanchez, E.; Willmott, C.

      2008-01-01

      The Fiber Active Scintillator Target (FAST) is an imaging particle detector intended for high precision muon lifetime measurement. This measurement will lead to a determination of the Fermi coupling constant (GF) with an uncertainty of 1 ppm, one order of magnitude better than the current world average. This contribution presents a description of the detector instrumentation and the first results, which have validated the design of the system.

    3. The SELEX Phototube RICH Detector

      CERN Document Server

      Engelfried, J; Kilmer, J; Kozhevnikov, A P; Kubarovskii, V P; Molchanov, V V; Nemitkin, A V; Ramberg, E; Rud, V I; Stutte, L

      1999-01-01

      In this article, construction, operation, and performance of the RICH detector of Fermilab experiment 781 (SELEX) are described. The detector utilizes a matrix of 2848 phototubes for the photocathode to detect Cherenkov photons generated in a 10m Neon radiator. For the central region an N0 of 104/cm, corresponding to 13.6 hits on a beta=1 ring, was obtained. The ring radius resolution measured is 1.6%.

    4. The SELEX phototube RICH detector

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Engelfried, J.; Filimonov, I.; Kilmer, J.; Kozhevnikov, A.; Kubarovsky, V.; Molchanov, V.; Nemitkin, A.; Ramberg, E.; Rud, V.; Stutte, L

      1999-07-11

      In this article, construction, operation, and performance of the RICH detector of Fermilab experiment 781 (SELEX) are described. The detector utilizes a matrix of 2848 phototubes for the photocathode to detect Cherenkov photons generated in a 10 m neon radiator. For the central region an N{sub 0} of 104 cm{sup -1}, corresponding to 13.6 hits on a {beta}=1 ring, was obtained. The ring radius resolution measured is 1.6%. (author)

    5. The SELEX phototube RICH detector

      Science.gov (United States)

      Engelfried, J.; Filimonov, I.; Kilmer, J.; Kozhevnikov, A.; Kubarovsky, V.; Molchanov, V.; Nemitkin, A.; Ramberg, E.; Rud, V.; Stutte, L.

      1999-07-01

      In this article, construction, operation, and performance of the RICH detector of Fermilab experiment 781 (SELEX) are described. The detector utilizes a matrix of 2848 phototubes for the photocathode to detect Cherenkov photons generated in a 10 m neon radiator. For the central region an N0 of 104 cm-1, corresponding to 13.6 hits on a β=1 ring, was obtained. The ring radius resolution measured is 1.6%.

    6. New class of neutron detectors

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Czirr, J.B.

      1997-09-01

      An optimized neutron scattering instrument design must include all significant components, including the detector. For example, useful beam intensity is limited by detector dead time; detector pixel size determines the optimum beam diameter, sample size, and sample to detector distance; and detector efficiency vs. wavelength determines the available energy range. As an example of the next generation of detectors that could affect overall instrumentation design, we will describe a new scintillator material that is potentially superior to currently available scintillators. We have grown and tested several small, single crystal scintillators based upon the general class of cerium-activated lithium lanthanide borates. The outstanding characteristic of these materials is the high scintillation efficiency-as much as five times that of Li-glass scintillators. This increase in light output permits the practical use of the exothermic B (n, alpha) reaction for low energy neutron detection. This reaction provides a four-fold increase in capture cross section relative to the Li (n, alpha) reaction, and the intriguing possibility of demanding a charged-particle/gamma ray coincidence to reduce background detection rates. These new materials will be useful in the thermal and epithermal energy ran at reactors and pulsed neutron sources.

    7. DUAL-BAND INFRARED DETECTORS

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      2000-01-01

      As the infrared technology continues to advance, there is a growing demand for multispectral detectors for advanced IR systems with better target discrimination and identification. Both HgCdTe detectors and quantum well GaAs/AlGaAs photodetectors offer wavelength flexibility from medium wavelength to very long wavelength and multicolor capability in these regions. The main challenges facing all multicolor devices are more complicated device structtures, thicker and multilayer material growth, and more difficult device fabrication, especially when the array size gets larger and pixel size gets smaller. In the paper recent progress in development of two-color HgCdTe photodiodes and quantum well infrared photodetectors is presented.More attention is devoted to HgCdTe detectors. The two-color detector arrays are based upon an n-P-N (the capital letters mean the materials with larger bandgap energy) HgCdTe triple layer heterojunction design. Vertically stacking the two p-n junctions permits incorporation of both detectros into a single pixel. Both sequential mode and simultaneous mode detectors are fabricated. The mode of detection is determined by the fabrication process of the multilayer materials.Also the performances of stacked multicolor QWIPs detectors are presented. For multicolor arrays, QWIP's narrow band spectrum is an advantage, resulting in low spectral crosstalk. The major challenge for QWIP is developing broadband or multicolor optical coupling structures that permit efficient absorption of all required spectral bands.

    8. Handheld ultrasound concealed weapons detector

      Science.gov (United States)

      Felber, Franklin S.; Wild, Norbert C.; Nunan, Scott C.; Breuner, Dennis; Doft, Frank

      1998-12-01

      A handheld, battery-operated prototype of a remove concealed weapons detector has been built and tested. The concealed weapons detector will enable law enforcement and security officers to detect metallic and nonmetallic weapons concealed beneath clothing remotely from beyond arm's length to about 20 feet. These detectors may be used to: (1) allow hands-off, stand-off frisking of suspects for metallic and nonmetallic weapons; and (2) search for metallic and nonmetallic weapons on cooperative subjects at courthouse entrances and other monitored security portals. We have demonstrated that we image weapons concealed under heavy clothing, not just detect them, at ranges up to 15 feet using the same ultrasound frequency (40 kHz) used by commercial rangefinders. The concealed weapons detector operates much as a rangefinder, but at higher peak fluxes and pulse repetition frequencies. The detector alerts the user to concealed weapons audibly and visibly by detecting ultrasound glints above a body/clothing baseline, and by compensating for changing range and attenuation. The detector locates concealed weapons within a 6-inch illuminated spot at 10 feet. The signal processor eliminates any signal from behind the target.

    9. Physics Results from the AMANDA Neutrino Detector

      CERN Document Server

      Ahrens, J; Bai, X; Barouch, G; Barwick, S W; Bay, R C; Becka, T; Becker, K; Bertrand, D; Biron, A; Boser, S; Booth, J R A; Botner, O; Bouchta, A; Boyce, M M; Carius, S; Chen, A; Chirkin, D; Conrad, J; Cooley, J; Costa, C G S; Cowen, D F; De Clercq, C; De Young, T; Desiati, P; Dewulf, J P; Doksus, P; Edsjö, J; Ekstrom, P; Feser, T; Frère, J M; Gaug, M; Gerhardt, L; Goldschmidt, A; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hanson, K; Hardtke, R; Hauschildt, T; Hellwig, M; Herquet, P; Hill, C G; Hulth, P O; Hundertmark, S; Jacobsen, J; Karle, A; Kim, J; Koci, B; Köpke, L; Kühn, K; Lamoureux, J I; Leich, H; Leuthold, M; Lindahl, P; Madsen, J; Marciniewski, P; Matis, H S; Minaeva, Y; Miocinovic, P; Morse, R; Neunhoffer, T; Niessen, P; Nygren, D R; Ogelman, H; Olbrechts, P; Perez de los Heros, C; Pohl, A; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Rawlins, K; Reed, C; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Richter, S; Martino, J R; Romenesko, P; Ross, D; Sander, H G; Schmidt, T; Schneider, D; Silvestri, A; Solarz, M; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Starinsky, N; Steele, D; Steffen, P; Stokstad, R G; Sudhoff, P; Sulanke, K H; Taboada, I; Donckt, M V; Walck, C; Weinheimer, C; Wiebusch, C H; Wischnewski, R; Wissing, H; Woschnagg, K; Yodh, G; Young, S

      2001-01-01

      In the winter season of 2000, the AMANDA (Antarctic Muon And Neutrino Detector Array) detector was completed to its final state. We report on major physics results obtained from the AMANDA-B10 detector, as well as initial results of the full AMANDA-II detector.

    10. Performance of Ultra-Fast Silicon Detectors

      CERN Document Server

      Cartiglia, N; Ely, S; Fadeyev, V; Galloway, Z; Marchetto, F; Mazza, G; Ngo, J; Obertino, M; Parker, C; Rivetti, A; Shumacher, D; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Seiden, A; Zatserklyaniy, A

      2013-01-01

      The development of Low-Gain Avalanche Detectors has opened up the possibility of manufacturing silicon detectors with signal larger than that of traditional sensors. In this paper we explore the timing performance of Low-Gain Avalanche Detectors, and in particular we demonstrate the possibility of obtaining ultra-fast silicon detector with time resolution of less than 20 picosecond.

    11. Two-dimensional microstrip detector for neutrons

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Oed, A. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

      1997-04-01

      Because of their robust design, gas microstrip detectors, which were developed at ILL, can be assembled relatively quickly, provided the prefabricated components are available. At the beginning of 1996, orders were received for the construction of three two-dimensional neutron detectors. These detectors have been completed. The detectors are outlined below. (author). 2 refs.

    12. Advanced Space Radiation Detector Technology Development

      Science.gov (United States)

      Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.

      2013-01-01

      The advanced space radiation detector development team at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has the goal of developing unique, more compact radiation detectors that provide improved real-time data on space radiation. The team has performed studies of different detector designs using a variety of combinations of solid-state detectors, which allow higher sensitivity to radiation in a smaller package and operate at lower voltage than traditional detectors. Integration of multiple solid-state detectors will result in an improved detector system in comparison to existing state-of-the-art instruments for the detection and monitoring of the space radiation field for deep space and aerospace applications.

    13. Redesigned β γ radioxenon detector

      Science.gov (United States)

      Cooper, Matthew W.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Carman, April J.; Hayes, James C.; Heimbigner, Tom R.; Hubbard, Charles W.; Lidey, Lance; Litke, Kevin E.; Morris, Scott J.; Ripplinger, Michael D.; Suarez, Reynold; Thompson, Robert

      2007-08-01

      The Automated Radio-xenon Sampler/Analyzer (ARSA), designed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) collects and detects several radioxenon isotopes, and is used to monitor underground nuclear explosions. The ARSA is very sensitive to 133Xe, 131mXe, 133mXe, and 135Xe (SCM) [M. Auera et al., Wernspergera, Appl. Radiat. 6 (2004) 60] through use of its compact high efficiency β-γ coincidence detector. For this reason, it is an excellent treaty monitoring system and it can be used as an environmental sampling device as well. Field testing of the ARSA has shown it to be both robust and reliable, but the nuclear detector requires a detailed photomultiplier tube (PMT) gain matching regime difficult to implement in a field environment. Complexity is a problem from a maintenance and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) standpoint, and efforts to reduce these issues have led to development of a simplified β-γ coincident detector. The new design reduces the number of PMT's and the complexity of the calibration needed in comparison to the old design. New scintillation materials (NaI(Tl), CsI(Na), and CsI(Tl)) were investigated and a comparison of three different gamma sensitive well detectors has been completed. A new plastic-scintillator gas cell was constructed and a new method of forming the scintillator gas cell was developed. The simplified detector system compares favorably with the original ARSA design in spectral resolution and efficiency and is significantly easier to set up and calibrate. The new materials and configuration allow the resulting β-γ coincidence detector to maintain the overall performance of the ARSA type β-γ detector while simplifying the design.

    14. Öğretmenlere Göre Bilgisayar Destekli Eğitimin Gelişim Süreci: Sivas İli Örneği / The Development Process of Computer Aided Education According to Teachers: Sivas Case Study

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Yahya Fidan

      2016-05-01

      Full Text Available The Development Process of Computer Aided Education According to Teachers: Sivas Case Study Abstract Teachers are among the people who play a key role in the development of societies. The use of computers in education, in other words, computer aided education, is done in order to increase the effectiveness of educational activities and to use their outcomes as an advantage in terms of competitiveness. This study relies on two former studies that were conducted on different dates, in order to determine the influence of computers on education. The first study was conducted in the province of Sivas, Turkey in 2002 and it was conducted as a part of a master's thesis to determine the views of the teachers working in high schools, on the use of computers in education. The second study is the reapplication of the first one and the aim of this study was to determine what has changed in the views of teachers towards the use of computers in education since the first study. Generally speaking, it is seen that teachers have a more positive approach towards the use of technology aided education more than 13 years ago. Furthermore, it was concluded that computer aided education could facilitate and increase the efficiency of the processes such as learning, practice, question solving, checking the results, online communication, getting help and etc. Thus, it is considered to be essential to focus on studies to develop programs and facilitate the use of computers in education.   Öğretmenlere Göre Bilgisayar Destekli Eğitimin Gelişim Süreci: Sivas İli Örneği Öz Öğretmen, toplumun gelişmesinde en büyük role sahip olan meslek gruplarından birisidir. Eğitim ve öğretim sürecinde bilgisayar kullanımı, bilgisayar destekli eğitim, eğitim ve öğretim etkinliklerinin etkisini artırmak ve sonuçlarını rekabet edilebilirlik açısından bir avantaja dönüştürmek için yapılan çalışmalardır. Bu çalışma, iki farklı tarihte,

    15. Report on Advanced Detector Development

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      James K. Jewell

      2012-09-01

      Neutron, gamma and charged particle detection improvements are key to supporting many of the foreseen measurements and systems envisioned in the R&D programs and the future fuel cycle requirements, such as basic nuclear physics and data, modeling and simulation, reactor instrumentation, criticality safety, materials management and safeguards. This task will focus on the developmental needs of the FCR&D experimental programs, such as elastic/inelastic scattering, total cross sections and fission neutron spectra measurements, and will leverage a number of existing neutron detector development efforts and programs, such as those at LANL, PNNL, INL, and IAC as well as those at many universities, some of whom are funded under NE grants and contracts. Novel materials and fabrication processes combined with state-of-the-art electronics and computing provide new opportunities for revolutionary detector systems that will be able to meet the high precision needs of the program. This work will be closely coordinated with the Nuclear Data Crosscut. The Advanced Detector Development effort is a broadly-focused activity that supports the development of improved nuclear data measurements and improved detection of nuclear reactions and reactor conditions. This work supports the design and construction of large-scale, multiple component detectors to provide nuclear reaction data of unprecedented quality and precision. Examples include the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) and the DANCE detector at LANL. This work also supports the fabrication and end-user application of novel scintillator materials detection and monitoring.

    16. COMMISSIONING AND DETECTOR PERFORMANCE GROUPS

      CERN Multimedia

      D. Acosta

      The commissioning effort is presently addressing two main areas: the commissioning of the hardware components at the pit and the coordination of the activities of the newly constituted Detector Performance groups (DPGs). At point 5, a plan regarding the service cavern and the commissioning of the connections of the off-detector electronics (for the data collection line and trigger primitive generation) to the central DAQ and the central Trigger has been defined. This activity was started early February and will continue until May. It began with Tracker electronics followed so far by HCAL and CSC. The goal is to have by May every detector commission, as much as possible, their data transfer paths from FED to Central DAQ as well as their trigger setups between TPGs and Global Level 1 trigger. The next focus is on connections of front-ends to the service cavern. This depends strongly on the installations of services. Presently the only detector which has its link fibers connected to the off-detector electr...

    17. Semiconductor X-ray detectors

      CERN Document Server

      Lowe, Barrie Glyn

      2014-01-01

      Identifying and measuring the elemental x-rays released when materials are examined with particles (electrons, protons, alpha particles, etc.) or photons (x-rays and gamma rays) is still considered to be the primary analytical technique for routine and non-destructive materials analysis. The Lithium Drifted Silicon (Si(Li)) X-Ray Detector, with its good resolution and peak to background, pioneered this type of analysis on electron microscopes, x-ray fluorescence instruments, and radioactive source- and accelerator-based excitation systems. Although rapid progress in Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs), Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs), and Compound Semiconductor Detectors, including renewed interest in alternative materials such as CdZnTe and diamond, has made the Si(Li) X-Ray Detector nearly obsolete, the device serves as a useful benchmark and still is used in special instances where its large, sensitive depth is essential. Semiconductor X-Ray Detectors focuses on the history and development of Si(Li) X-Ray Detect...

    18. High precision thermal neutron detectors

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Radeka, V.; Schaknowski, N.A.; Smith, G.C.; Yu, B. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

      1994-12-31

      Two-dimensional position sensitive detectors are indispensable in neutron diffraction experiments for determination of molecular and crystal structures in biology, solid-state physics and polymer chemistry. Some performance characteristics of these detectors are elementary and obvious, such as the position resolution, number of resolution elements, neutron detection efficiency, counting rate and sensitivity to gamma-ray background. High performance detectors are distinguished by more subtle characteristics such as the stability of the response (efficiency) versus position, stability of the recorded neutron positions, dynamic range, blooming or halo effects. While relatively few of them are needed around the world, these high performance devices are sophisticated and fairly complex, their development requires very specialized efforts. In this context, we describe here a program of detector development, based on {sup 3}He filled proportional chambers, which has been underway for some years at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. Fundamental approaches and practical considerations are outlined that have resulted in a series of high performance detectors with the best known position resolution, position stability, uniformity of response and reliability over time, for devices of this type.

    19. Progress on CMS detector lowering

      CERN Multimedia

      2006-01-01

      It was an amazing engineering challenge - the lowering of the first hugeendcap disc (YE+3) of the CMS detector slowly and carefully 100 metres underground. The spectacular descent took place on 30 November and was documented by a film crew from Reuters news group. The uniquely shaped slice is 16 m high, about 50 cm thick, and weighs 400 tonnes. It is one of 15 sections that make up the complete CMS detector. The solid steel structure of the disc forms part of the magnet return yoke and is equipped on both sides with muon chambers. A special gantry crane lowered the element, with just 20 cm of leeway between the edges of the detector and the walls of the shaft! On 12 December, a further section of the detector (YE+2) containing the cathode strip chamber made the 10-hour journey underground. This piece is 16 m high and weighs 880 tonnes. There are now four sections of the detector in the experimental cavern, with a further 11 to follow. The endcap disc YE+3 (seen in the foreground) begins its journey down the ...

    20. Detector problems at the SSC

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Wojcicki, S.G.

      1985-02-01

      During the last couple of years there has been considerable concern expressed among the US high energy community as to whether detector limitations would prevent one from being able to fully exploit a luminosity of 10/sup 33/ cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/ at a hadron-hadron high energy collider. As a result of these concerns, a considerable amount of work has been done recently in trying to understand the nature of potential difficulties and the required R and D that needs to be performed. A lot of this work has been summarized in the 1984 DPF Summer Study at Snowmass. This paper attempts to review some of these results. This work is limited to the discussion of detector problems associated with the study of high energy hadron-hadron collisions. We shall start with the discussion of the desirable features of the detectors and of the SSC environment in which they will have to work. After a brief discussion of the model 4..pi.. detectors, we shall discuss specific detector aspects: lepton identification, tracking, calorimetry and computing and triggering. We shall end with some remarks about possible future course of events. 15 refs., 10 figs.

    1. Portable humanitarian mine detector overview

      Science.gov (United States)

      Allsopp, David J.; Dibsdall, Ian M.

      2002-08-01

      This paper will present an overview and early results of the QinetiQ Portable Humanitarian Mine Detector project, funded by the UK Treasury Capital Modernization Fund. The project aims to develop a prototype multi-sensor man-portable detector for humanitarian demining, drawing on experience from work for UK MoD. The project runs from July 2000 to October 2002. The project team have visited mined areas and worked closely with a number of demining organizations and a manufacturer of metal detectors used in the field. The primary objective is to reduce the number of false alarms resulting from metallic ground clutter. An analysis of such clutter items found during actual demining has shown a large proportion to be very small when compared with anti-personnel mines. The planned system integrates: a lightweight multi-element pseudo-random-code ground penetrating radar array; a pulse induction metal detector and a capacitive sensor. Data from the GPR array and metal detector are fused to provide a simple audio-visual operator interface. The capacitive sensor provides information to aid processing of the radar responses and to provide feedback to the operator of the position of the sensors above the ground. At the time of presentation the project should be in the final stages of build, prior to tests and field trials, which QinetiQ hope to carry out under the International Test and Evaluation Project (ITEP) banner.

    2. The CMS Detector Power System

      CERN Document Server

      Lusin, S

      2008-01-01

      The power system for the on-detector electronics of the CMS Experiment comprises approximately 12000 low voltage channels, with a total power requirement of 1.1 MVA. The radiation environment inside the CMS experimental cavern combined with an ambient magnetic field (reaching up to 1.3 kGauss at the detector periphery) severely limit the available choices of low voltage supplies, effectively ruling out the use of commercial off-the-shelf DC power supplies. Typical current requirements at the CMS detector front end range from 1A-30A per channel at voltages ranging between 1.25V and 8V. This requires in turn that the final stage of the low voltage power supply be located on the detector periphery. Power to the CMS front-end electronics is stabilized by a 2 MVA uninterruptible power supply (UPS) located in a CMS surface building. This UPS isolates the CMS detector from disturbances on the local power grid and provides for 2 minutes of autonomy following a power failure, allowing for an orderly shutdown of detect...

    3. The EXO-200 detector, part I: Detector design and construction

      CERN Document Server

      Auger, M; Barbeau, P S; Bartoszek, L; Baussan, E; Beauchamp, E; Benitez-Medina, C; Breidenbach, M; Chauhan, D; Cleveland, B; Conley, R; Cook, J; Cook, S; Coppens, A; Craddock, W; Daniels, T; Davis, C G; Davis, J; deVoe, R; Dobi, A; Dolinski, M J; Dunford, M; Fairbank, W; Farine, J; Fierlinger, P; Franco, D; Giroux, G; Gornea, R; Graham, K; Gratta, G; Hagemann, C; Hall, C; Hall, K; Hargrove, C; Herrin, S; Hodgson, J; Hughes, M; Karelin, A; Kaufman, L J; Kirk, J; Kuchenkov, A; Kumar, K; Leonard, D S; Leonard, F; LePort, F; Mackay, D; MacLellan, R; Marino, M; Merkle, K; Mong, B; Díez, M Montero; Müller, A R; Neilson, R; Odian, A; O'Sullivan, K; Oullet, C; Piepke, A; Pocar, A; Prescott, C Y; Pushkin, K; Rivas, A; Rollin, E; Rowson, P C; Sabourov, A; Sinclair, D; Skarpaas, K; Slutsky, S; Stekhanov, V; Strickland, V; Swift, M; Tosi, D; Twelker, K; Vuilleumier, J -L; Vuilleumier, J -M; Walton, T; Weber, M; Wichoski, U; Wodin, J; Wright, J D; Yang, L; Yen, Y -R

      2012-01-01

      EXO-200 is an experiment designed to search for double beta decay of $^{136}$Xe with a single-phase, liquid xenon detector. It uses an active mass of 110 kg of xenon enriched to 80.6% in the isotope 136 in an ultra-low background time projection chamber capable of simultaneous detection of ionization and scintillation. This paper describes the EXO-200 detector with particular attention to the most innovative aspects of the design that revolves around the reduction of backgrounds, the efficient use of the expensive isotopically enriched xenon, and the optimization of the energy resolution in a relatively large volume.

    4. DRIFT EFFECTS IN HGCDTE DETECTORS

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      B. PAVAN KUMAR

      2013-08-01

      Full Text Available The characteristics of temporal drift in spectral responsivity of HgCdTe photodetectors is investigated and found to have an origin different from what has been reported in literature. Traditionally, the literature attributes the cause of drift due to the deposition of thin film of ice water on the active area of the cold detector. The source of drift as proposed in this paper is more critical owing to the difficulties in acquisition of infrared temperature measurements. A model explaining the drift phenomenon in HgCdTe detectors is described by considering the deep trapping of charge carriers and generation of radiation induced deep trap centers which are meta-stable in nature. A theoretical model is fitted to the experimental data. A comparison of the model with the experimental data shows that the radiation induced deep trap centers and charge trapping effects are mainly responsible for the drift phenomenon observed in HgCdTe detectors.

    5. The ATLAS Detector Control System

      CERN Document Server

      Schlenker, S; Kersten, S; Hirschbuehl, D; Braun, H; Poblaguev, A; Oliveira Damazio, D; Talyshev, A; Zimmermann, S; Franz, S; Gutzwiller, O; Hartert, J; Mindur, B; Tsarouchas, CA; Caforio, D; Sbarra, C; Olszowska, J; Hajduk, Z; Banas, E; Wynne, B; Robichaud-Veronneau, A; Nemecek, S; Thompson, PD; Mandic, I; Deliyergiyev, M; Polini, A; Kovalenko, S; Khomutnikov, V; Filimonov, V; Bindi, M; Stanecka, E; Martin, T; Lantzsch, K; Hoffmann, D; Huber, J; Mountricha, E; Santos, HF; Ribeiro, G; Barillari, T; Habring, J; Arabidze, G; Boterenbrood, H; Hart, R; Marques Vinagre, F; Lafarguette, P; Tartarelli, GF; Nagai, K; D'Auria, S; Chekulaev, S; Phillips, P; Ertel, E; Brenner, R; Leontsinis, S; Mitrevski, J; Grassi, V; Karakostas, K; Iakovidis, G.; Marchese, F; Aielli, G

      2011-01-01

      The ATLAS experiment is one of the multi-purpose experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), constructed to study elementary particle interactions in collisions of high-energy proton beams. Twelve different sub-detectors as well as the common experimental infrastructure are supervised by the Detector Control System (DCS). The DCS enables equipment supervision of all ATLAS sub-detectors by using a system of >130 server machines running the industrial SCADA product PVSS. This highly distributed system reads, processes and archives of the order of 106 operational parameters. Higher level control system layers allow for automatic control procedures, efficient error recognition and handling, and manage the communication with external systems such as the LHC. This contribution firstly describes the status of the ATLAS DCS and the experience gained during the LHC commissioning and the first physics data taking operation period. Secondly, the future evolution and maintenance constraints for the coming years an...

    6. Belle II silicon vertex detector

      Science.gov (United States)

      Adamczyk, K.; Aihara, H.; Angelini, C.; Aziz, T.; Babu, V.; Bacher, S.; Bahinipati, S.; Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, Ti.; Baroncelli, To.; Basith, A. K.; Batignani, G.; Bauer, A.; Behera, P. K.; Bergauer, T.; Bettarini, S.; Bhuyan, B.; Bilka, T.; Bosi, F.; Bosisio, L.; Bozek, A.; Buchsteiner, F.; Casarosa, G.; Ceccanti, M.; Červenkov, D.; Chendvankar, S. R.; Dash, N.; Divekar, S. T.; Doležal, Z.; Dutta, D.; Enami, K.; Forti, F.; Friedl, M.; Hara, K.; Higuchi, T.; Horiguchi, T.; Irmler, C.; Ishikawa, A.; Jeon, H. B.; Joo, C. W.; Kandra, J.; Kang, K. H.; Kato, E.; Kawasaki, T.; Kodyš, P.; Kohriki, T.; Koike, S.; Kolwalkar, M. M.; Kvasnička, P.; Lanceri, L.; Lettenbicher, J.; Maki, M.; Mammini, P.; Mayekar, S. N.; Mohanty, G. B.; Mohanty, S.; Morii, T.; Nakamura, K. R.; Natkaniec, Z.; Negishi, K.; Nisar, N. K.; Onuki, Y.; Ostrowicz, W.; Paladino, A.; Paoloni, E.; Park, H.; Pilo, F.; Profeti, A.; Rashevskaya, I.; Rao, K. K.; Rizzo, G.; Rozanska, M.; Sandilya, S.; Sasaki, J.; Sato, N.; Schultschik, S.; Schwanda, C.; Seino, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Stypula, J.; Suzuki, J.; Tanaka, S.; Tanida, K.; Taylor, G. N.; Thalmeier, R.; Thomas, R.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uozumi, S.; Urquijo, P.; Vitale, L.; Volpi, M.; Watanuki, S.; Watson, I. J.; Webb, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Williams, S.; Würkner, B.; Yamamoto, H.; Yin, H.; Yoshinobu, T.

      2016-09-01

      The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider in Japan is designed to indirectly probe new physics using approximately 50 times the data recorded by its predecessor. An accurate determination of the decay-point position of subatomic particles such as beauty and charm hadrons as well as a precise measurement of low-momentum charged particles will play a key role in this pursuit. These will be accomplished by an inner tracking device comprising two layers of pixelated silicon detector and four layers of silicon vertex detector based on double-sided microstrip sensors. We describe herein the design, prototyping and construction efforts of the Belle-II silicon vertex detector.

    7. Belle II silicon vertex detector

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Adamczyk, K. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Aihara, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Angelini, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Aziz, T.; Babu, V. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Bacher, S. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Bahinipati, S. [Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar, Satya Nagar (India); Barberio, E.; Baroncelli, Ti.; Baroncelli, To. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Basith, A.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Batignani, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bauer, A. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Behera, P.K. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Bergauer, T. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Bettarini, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bhuyan, B. [Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam 781039 (India); Bilka, T. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, 121 16 Prague (Czech Republic); Bosi, F. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bosisio, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); INFN Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); and others

      2016-09-21

      The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider in Japan is designed to indirectly probe new physics using approximately 50 times the data recorded by its predecessor. An accurate determination of the decay-point position of subatomic particles such as beauty and charm hadrons as well as a precise measurement of low-momentum charged particles will play a key role in this pursuit. These will be accomplished by an inner tracking device comprising two layers of pixelated silicon detector and four layers of silicon vertex detector based on double-sided microstrip sensors. We describe herein the design, prototyping and construction efforts of the Belle-II silicon vertex detector.

    8. Radiation Hardening of Silicon Detectors

      CERN Multimedia

      Leroy, C; Glaser, M

      2002-01-01

      %RD48 %title\\\\ \\\\Silicon detectors will be widely used in experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider where high radiation levels will cause significant bulk damage. In addition to increased leakage current and charge collection losses worsening the signal to noise, the induced radiation damage changes the effective doping concentration and represents the limiting factor to long term operation of silicon detectors. The objectives are to develop radiation hard silicon detectors that can operate beyond the limits of the present devices and that ensure guaranteed operation for the whole lifetime of the LHC experimental programme. Radiation induced defect modelling and experimental results show that the silicon radiation hardness depends on the atomic impurities present in the initial monocrystalline material.\\\\ \\\\ Float zone (FZ) silicon materials with addition of oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, germanium and tin were produced as well as epitaxial silicon materials with epilayers up to 200 $\\mu$m thickness. Their im...

    9. Characterization of liquid scintillation detectors

      CERN Document Server

      Schmidt, D; Böttger, R; Klein, H; Lebreton, L; Neumann, S; Nolte, R; Pichenot, G

      2002-01-01

      Five scintillation detectors of different scintillator size and type were characterized. The pulse height scale was calibrated in terms of electron light output units using photon sources. The response functions for time-of-flight (TOF)-selected monoenergetic neutrons were experimentally determined and also simulated with the NRESP code over a wide energy range. A comparison of the measured and calculated response functions allows individual characteristics of the detectors to be determined and the response matrix to be reliably derived. Various applications are discussed.

    10. Large volume cryogenic silicon detectors

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Braggio, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), via Sommarive 18, I-38100 Povo (Italy); Bressi, G. [INFN sez. di Pavia, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Carugno, G.; Corti, D. [INFN sez. di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Galeazzi, G. [INFN lab. naz. Legnaro, viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), via Sommarive 18, I-38100 Povo (Italy)

      2009-12-15

      We present preliminary measurements for the development of a large volume silicon detector to detect low energy and low rate energy depositions. The tested detector is a one cm-thick silicon PIN diode with an active volume of 31 cm{sup 3}, cooled to the liquid helium temperature to obtain depletion from thermally-generated free carriers. A thorough study has been done to show that effects of charge trapping during drift disappears at a bias field value of the order of 100V/cm.

    11. CLIC inner detectors cooling simulations

      CERN Document Server

      Duarte Ramos, F.; Villarejo Bermudez, M.

      2014-01-01

      The strict requirements in terms of material budget for the inner region of the CLIC detector concepts require the use of a dry gas for the cooling of the respective sen- sors. This, in conjunction with the compactness of the inner volumes, poses several challenges for the design of a cooling system that is able to fulfil the required detec- tor specifications. This note introduces a detector cooling strategy using dry air as a coolant and shows the results of computational fluid dynamics simulations used to validate the proposed strategy.

    12. Infrared-transparent microstrip detectors

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Fernandez, M. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (IFCA), Ed. Juan Jorda, E-39005 Santander (Spain)], E-mail: Marcos.Fernandez@cern.ch; Duarte, J.; Gonzalez, J.; Heinemeyer, S.; Jaramillo, R.; Lopez, A.; Martinez, C.; Ruiz, A.; Vila, I. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria (IFCA), Ed. Juan Jorda, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Cabruja, E.; Lozano, M.; Pellegrini, G. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica CNM-IMB, Campus Universidad Autonoma Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

      2009-01-01

      The two main limiting factors in the accuracy of an optomechanical position monitoring system based on laser sources and photosensors are mechanical transfer between the monitored imaging sensors to the active particle tracking elements and non-straight propagation of the reference laser lines. Laser based alignment systems of Si trackers that use their own tracking detectors as photosensors are not affected by the first factor. Improving the transmittance of Si to infrared beams certainly minimizes the second one. Simulation of the passage of a light beam through a real microstrip detector and analysis of first measurements of samples are presented in this paper.

    13. Research on particle imaging detectors

      CERN Document Server

      1995-01-01

      Much instrumentation has been developed for imaging the trajectories of elementary particles produced in high energy collisions. Since 1968, gaseous detectors, beginning with multiwire chambers and drift chambers, have been used for the visualisation of particle trajectories and the imaging of X-rays, neutrons, hard gamma rays, beta rays and ultraviolet photons. This book commemorates the groundbreaking research leading to the evolution of such detectors carried out at CERN by Georges Charpak, Nobel Prizewinner for Physics in 1992. Besides collecting his key papers, the book also includes original linking commentary which sets his work in the context of other worldwide research.

    14. SED Stroop Effect Detector prototype

      OpenAIRE

      Hernández Quesada, Xerach Acorán

      2013-01-01

      [ES] El Detector de Efectos Stroop (SED - Stroop Effect Detector), es una herramienta informática de asistencia, desarrollada a través del programa de investigación de Desarrollo Tecnológico Social de la Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, que ayuda a profesionales del sector neuropsicológico a identificar problemas en la corteza orbitofrontal de un individuo, usándose para ello la técnica ideada por Schenker en 1998. Como base metodológica, se han utilizado los conocimientos adquirido...

    15. The micro slit gas detector

      CERN Document Server

      Labbé, J C; Núñez, T; Pazos, A; Vázquez, P

      1999-01-01

      We describe the first tests with a new proportional gas detector. Its geometry consists of slits opened in a copper metallized kapton foil with 30 mu m anode strips suspended in these openings. In this way, the multiplication process is similar to a standard MSGC. The fundamental difference is the absence of an insulating substrate around the anode. Also the material budget is significantly reduced, and the problems related to charging-up or polarization are removed. Ageing properties of this detector are under study. (4 refs).

    16. The Micro Slit Gas Detector

      CERN Document Server

      Labbé, J C; Núñez, T

      1999-01-01

      We describe the first tests with a new proportional gas detector. Its geometry consists in slits opened in a copper metallized kapton foil with 30 $\\mu$m anode strips suspended in these openings. In this way the multiplication process is similar to a standard MSGC. The fundamental difference is the absence of an insulating substrate around the anode. Also the material budget is significantly reduced, and the problems related to charging-up or polarization are removed. Ageing properties of this detector are under study.

    17. The micro slit gas detector

      CERN Document Server

      Claude Labbe, J; Núñez, T; Pazos, A; Vázquez, P

      1999-01-01

      We describe the first tests with a new proportional gas detector. Its geometry consists of slits opened in a copper metallized kapton foil with 30 mu m anode strips suspended in these openings. In this way, the multiplication process is similar to a standard MSGC. The fundamental difference is the absence of an insulating substrate around the anode. Also the material budget is significantly reduced, and the problems related to charging-up or polarization are removed. Ageing properties of this detector are under study.

    18. Recent Developments in Detector Technology

      CERN Document Server

      Brau, James E

      2010-01-01

      This review provides an overview of many recent advances in detector technologies for particle physics experiments. Challenges for new technologies include increasing spatial and temporal sensitivity, speed, and radiation hardness while minimizing power and cost. Applications are directed at several future collider experiments, including the Large Hadron Collider luminosity upgrade (sLHC), the linear collider, and the super high luminosity B factory, as well as neutrino and other fixed target experiments, and direct dark matter searches. Furthermore, particle physics has moved into space, with significant contributions of detector technology, and new challenges for future efforts.

    19. Micro-pattern gaseous detectors

      CERN Document Server

      Shekhtman, L I

      2002-01-01

      Introduced at the end of 1980s micro-pattern gas detectors perform much better than classic wire chambers. They allow to achieve both excellent localization accuracy and high rate capability that make this technology attractive for charged particle tracking at high luminosity colliders. During its evolution micro-pattern gas technology gave raise to many different types of devices such as micro-strip gas chambers, MicroMEGAS, CAT and gas electron multipliers. Essential improvements in the performance of the detectors were achieved especially in what concerned long-term performance: aging and resistance to accidental discharges.

    20. New science with new detectors

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Graafsma, H.; Grubel, G.; Ryan, A.; Dautet, H.; Longoni, A.; Fiorini, H.; Vacchi, A.; Broennimann, C.; Gruner, S.; Berar, J.F.; Boudet, N.; Clemens, J.C.; Delpierre, P.; Siddons, P.; O' Connor, P.; Geronimo, G. de; Rehak, P.; Ryan, C.; Poulsen, H.F.; Wulff, M.; Lorenc, M.; Kong, Q.; Lo Russo, M.; Cammarata, M.; Reichenbach, W.; Eybert, L.; Claustre, L.; Miao, J.; Ishikawa, T.; Riekel, C.; Monaco, G.; Cloetens, P.; Huotari, S.; Albergamo, F.; Henriquet, C.; Graafsma, H.; Ponchut, C.; Vanko, G.; Verbeni, R.; Mokso, R.; Ludwig, W.; Boller, E.E.; Hignette, O.; Lambert, J.; Bohic, S

      2005-07-01

      The ESRF (European synchrotron radiation facility), with the help of the user community, is in the process of developing its long term strategy, covering the next 10 to 20 years. A central role in this strategy will be given to detector developments, since it is clear that the biggest possible improvement in performance is by increasing the overall detection capabilities. These improvements can be both quantitative, meaning more and larger detectors, and qualitative, meaning new detection concepts. This document gathers the abstracts and transparencies of most presentations of this workshop.

    1. Fiber optic ionizing radiation detector

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Suter, J.J. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Applied Physics Lab., Laurel, MD (United States)); Poret, J.C.; Rosen, M. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Baltimore, MD (United States))

      1992-08-01

      Radiation detection can be done by various types of devices, such as Geiger counters, thermoluminescent detectors, and electric field sensors. This paper reports on a noel design for an ionizing radiation sensor using coiled optical fibers, which can be placed within or near a radioactive source. This design has several features that make it different from sensors proposed in the past. In order to evaluate this sensor, coiled fiber samples were placed inside metallic and metal-matrix composite cylinders to evaluate the sensitivity of the detector as well as the shielding effectiveness of the materials.

    2. Silicon Detector Letter of Intent

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Aihara, H.; Burrows, P.; Oreglia, M.

      2010-05-26

      This document presents the current status of SiD's effort to develop an optimized design for an experiment at the International Linear Collider. It presents detailed discussions of each of SiD's various subsystems, an overview of the full GEANT4 description of SiD, the status of newly developed tracking and calorimeter reconstruction algorithms, studies of subsystem performance based on these tools, results of physics benchmarking analyses, an estimate of the cost of the detector, and an assessment of the detector R&D needed to provide the technical basis for an optimised SiD.

    3. CMS Barrel Pixel Detector Overview

      CERN Document Server

      Kästli, H C; Erdmann, W; Gabathuler, K; Hörmann, C; Horisberger, Roland Paul; König, S; Kotlinski, D; Meier, B; Robmann, P; Rohe, T; Streuli, S

      2007-01-01

      The pixel detector is the innermost tracking device of the CMS experiment at the LHC. It is built from two independent sub devices, the pixel barrel and the end disks. The barrel consists of three concentric layers around the beam pipe with mean radii of 4.4, 7.3 and 10.2 cm. There are two end disks on each side of the interaction point at 34.5 cm and 46.5 cm. This article gives an overview of the pixel barrel detector, its mechanical support structure, electronics components, services and its expected performance.

    4. The Effects of Electronic Publishing on Co-operative Collection Development and Library Consortia and the Applications in Turkey Elektronik Yayıncılığın Ortak Koleksiyon Geliştirme ve Kütüphane Konsorsiyumlarına Etkileri ve Türkiye’deki Uygulamalar

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Mehmet Toplu

      2009-09-01

      Full Text Available Consortiums have been one of the basic concepts in the field of libraries since the second half of 20th century. Information centers have failed to meet the user demands as the number of international publications increased, and this in turn, has forced them to share documents and develop common collections, while it also paved the way for consortiums. Interlibrary loans, document delivery, establishment of union catalogs were also among the main activities of consortiums in the same time period in which printed publications were dominating. Electronic publications have dominated the information services since the second half of 1990’s. As a result, consortiums have quickly become widespread internationally, and concentrated their activities mainly on buying the same databases together with the others. In this paper, how the consortiums have developed internationally, and how electronic publishing affected this process are investigated first. Then, the effects of the agreements of ANKOS, UNAK-OCLC consortiums and TÜBİTAK EKUAL (National Academic License for Electronic Resources on the collection development and information services are evaluated in Turkey. Finally, problematic areas are determined, and solutions are proposed. Konsorsiyum oluşumları, 20. yüzyılın ikinci yarısından itibaren, kütüphanecilik alanındaki temel kavramlardan biri olmuştur. Uluslararası düzeyde meydana gelen yayın artışı karşısında, enformasyon merkezlerinin kullanıcı taleplerini tek başlarına karşılayamamaları, kaynak paylaşımı ve ortak koleksiyon gelişimi gibi uygulamaları zorunlu kılarken, konsorsiyum oluşumlarının da zeminini hazırlamıştır. Basılı yayıncılığın etkin olduğu bu dönemde, kütüphanelerarası ödünç verme, belge sağlama, toplu katalogların oluşturulması gibi konular da, konsorsiyumların faaliyetleri arasında yer almaktadır. 1990’lı yılların ikinci yarısından itibaren, elektronik yay

    5. Open Access Concept and Its Meaning for Turkey as a Developing Country Açık Erişim Kavramı ve Gelişmekte Olan Bir Ülke Olarak Türkiye İçin Anlamı

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Hülya Dilek Kayaoğlu

      2006-03-01

      Full Text Available The problems experienced in the scholarly communication process have led scientists to review the printed periodicals publishing system. The new electronic publishing models, which would alter the framework nurturing the price increases of printed periodicals publishing, have been started to be discussed with the rapid developments in the World Wide Web, which functions as a sort of catalyst. In this respect, the concept of open access, based on the idea of unrestricted access to scholarly reserch, has been set forth. The main purpose of this article is to discuss the concept of open access, the reason for its emergence and its meaning for Turkey as a developing country in the context an introductory discussion. Basılı dergiler aracılığı ile gerçekleşen bilimsel iletişim sürecinde yaşanan sorunlar, özellikle dergi krizi olarak da adlandırılan ticari dergilerdeki keyfi ve aşırı fiyat artışları, bilimcileri, inisiyatifi ele alıp, basılı dergi yayıncılığı sürecini yeniden gözden geçirmeye yöneltmiştir. World Wide Web'deki hızlı gelişmelerin bir tür katalizör işlevi görmesiyle de, basılı dergi yayıncılığının fiyat artışlarını besleyen çerçeve koşullarını değiştirecek yeni elektronik yayıncılık modelleri tartışılmaya başlanmıştır. Bu bağlamda, bilimsel makalelere ücretsiz ve engelsiz erişim fikrine dayanan açık erişim kavramı ortaya atılmış; bu kavrama dayalı olarak da yeni elektronik yayıncılık modelleri denenmeye başlanmıştır. Bu makalenin amacı da, açık erişim kavramını, ortaya çıkış nedenlerini ve gelişimini irdeleyerek, açık erişim fikrine dayalı elektronik yayıncılık modellerinin, gelişmekte olan bir ülke olarak Türkiye için ne anlama geleceğini bir giriş çalışması kapsamında sorgulamaktır.

    6. Development of golf tourism and golf tourism demand forecasts in Turkey: a study of Belek region Türkiye’de golf turizminin gelişimi ve golf turizmi talebi tahminleri: Belek bölgesine yönelik bir çalışma

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Murat Çuhadar

      2013-06-01

      Full Text Available Golf tourism has become one of the rapidly developing tourism types in Turkey, especially in the Belek region. In this study, detailed information about the development of golf tourism in Turkey from past to present was provided and  golf tourism demand to Belek region which is a major golf tourism destinastion in the world and Turkey was modeled and forecasted monthly by Box-Jenkins methodology for the May 2013 –December 2014 period. As a measure of golf tourism demand, number of monthly golf games were taken in the study and the monthly number of golf game statistics of January 2001 – April 2013 in the golf establishments in Belek tourism center were used. By producing ex-ante forecasts it is aimed to create a basis for tourism development plans prepared by the management of private and public sector and to provide support for administrators’ monthly planning decisions.Golf turizmi, Belek bölgesi başta olmak üzere Türkiye’de hızla gelişen turizm türlerinden biri haline gelmiştir. Bu çalışmada, Türkiye’de golf turizminin geçmişten günümüze gelişimi hakkında ayrıntılı bilgiler sunularak, Türkiye’nin ve dünyanın önde gelen golf turizmi merkezlerinden olan Belek turizm merkezine yönelik golf turizmi talebi Box-Jenkins metodoljisi ile modellenmiş ve 2013 (Mayıs itibariyle ve 2014 yılları için aylık olarak tahmin edilmiştir. Çalışmada golf turizmi talebinin ölçüsü olarak golf oyun sayıları alınmış ve Ocak 2001 – Nisan 2013 döneminde Belek turizm merkezindeki golf tesislerinde gerçekleşen aylık golf oyun sayısı istatistiklerinden yararlanılmıştır. Yapılan tahminler ile, özel sektör ve kamu yönetimleri tarafından hazırlanan turistik gelişme planları için bir zemin oluşturulması ve ilgili yöneticilerin aylık planlamalarında karar almalarına destek sağlanması amaçlanmıştır.

    7. The effect of adolescent-parent relationship enhancement program on adolescent perceived parental acceptance / rejection levels and family functionsErgen-ebeveyn ilişki geliştirme programının ergenlerin algıladıkları ebeveyn kabul/red düzeylerine ve aile işlevlerine etkisi

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Hatice Epli Koç

      2016-10-01

      Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effect of adolescent-parent relationship enhancement program on adolescent perceived parental acceptance / rejection levels and family unfctions. The experimental group and control group of the research consist of 18 pairs of adolescent and parents. In the study, Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire(PARQ/Child was used and  the Family Assessment Scale(FAD. Both the experimental and control groups were given these scale as pre-test and post-test. The sessions lasted approximately 120 minutes for 10 weeks. Nothing has been applied toy he control groups. For the statistical analyses of the data, the “2x2 two way ANOVA for Repeated Measures” which is suitable for using with mixed designs was employed. In accordance with the findings gathered from the study, perceived parental rejection scores of adolescents in the experimental group were decreased more as compared with the adolescents in the control group. Moreover, perceived unhealthy family function scores of adolescents in the experimental group were decreased more as compared with the control group.   Özet Bu çalışmanın amacı, ergen-ebeveyn ilişki geliştirme programı’nın ergenlerin ebeveynlerinden algıladıkları red düzeylerine ve aile işlevlerine etkisini araştırmaktır. Araştırmanın deney ve kontrol grubu toplam 18 ergen ve ebeveyn çiftinden oluşmaktadır. Araştırmada Ebeveyn Kabul-Red Ölçeği (EKRÖ/Çocukve Aile Değerlendirme Ölçeği (ADÖ kullanılmıştır. Deney ve kontrol gruplarına bu ölçekler ön-test ve son-test olarak uygulanmıştır. Oturumlar yaklaşık 120 dakika olmak üzere 10 hafta sürmüştür. Kontrol grubu ile herhangi bir çalışma yapılmamıştır. Verilerin analizinde mixed (karışık desenlerde kullanılması uygun bir teknik olan “Tekrarlanmış Ölçümler için 2x2 İki Faktörlü ANOVA” tekniği kullanılmıştır. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre, ergen ebeveyn ili

    8. Conceptual design studies for a CEPC detector

      Science.gov (United States)

      Chekanov, S. V.; Demarteau, M.

      2016-11-01

      The physics potential of the Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) can be significantly strengthened by two detectors with complementary designs. A promising detector approach based on the Silicon Detector (SiD) designed for the International Linear Collider (ILC) is presented. Several simplifications of this detector for the lower energies expected at the CEPC are proposed. A number of cost optimizations of this detector are illustrated using full detector simulations. We show that the proposed changes will enable one to reach the physics goals at the CEPC.

    9. ILC Reference Design Report Volume 4 - Detectors

      CERN Document Server

      Behnke, Ties; Jaros, John; Miyamoto, Akiya; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Gajewski, Jan; Idzik, Marek; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kulis, Szymon; Suszycki, Leszek; Swientek, Krzysztof; Martyn, Hans-Ulrich; Bernreuther, Werner; Feld, Lutz; Hebbeker, Thomas; Muennich, Astrid; Roth, Stefan; Stahl, Achim; Tonutti, Manfred; Rindani, Saurabh; Sarkar, Utpal; Singh, S.K.; Adloff, Catherine; Delebecque, Pierre; Hermel, Richard; Karyotakis, Yannis; Lafaye, Remi; Prast, Julie; Muhlleitner, Milada Margarete; Singh, R.K.; Wagner, Carlos E.M.; Antipov, Sergei; Arnold, Ned; Berger, Edmond; Carwardine, John; Drake, Gary; Emery, Louis; Friedsam, Horst; Fuerst, Joel; Gai, Wei; Gerbick, Scot; Gerig, Rod; Kelly, Michael; Kim, Kwang-Je; Lenkszus, Frank; Liu, Wanming; Magill, Stephen; Noonan, John; Repond, Jose; Saunders, Claude; Shepard, Ken; Underwood, David G.; Wang, Haitao; Weerts, Harry; Xia, Lei; Xiao, Aimin; Zhang, Jinlong; Yock, Philip; Singh, Bhartendu K.; Ananthanarayan, B.; Biswal, S.S.; Godbole, Rohini; Vempati, Sundir K.; Comerma, Albert; Dieguez, Angel; Garrido, Luis; Gascon, David; Graciani, Ricardo; Grauges, Eugeni; Herms, Atila; Balbuena, Juan Pablo; Cabruja, Enric; Lozano, Manuel; Pellegrini, Giulio; Miquel, Ramon; Lux, Thorsten; Martinez, Manel; Padilla, Cristobal; Riu, Imma; Ward, Bennie; Sun, Yipeng; Ablikim, Medina; Bai, Sha; Bi, Xiao-Jun; Cao, J.S.; Chen, He Sheng; Chen, Sen Yu; Chen, Yuan Bo; Cheng, Jian; Chi, Yun Long; Dai, Jian Ping; Dong, Dong; Dong, Hai Yi; Du, Shuxian; Fang, Shou Xian; Gao, Jian She; Gao, Jie; Ge, Ming Qi; Ge, Rui; Geng, Zhe Qiao; Gu, Jun; He, An; Hou, Mi; Hu, Tao; Huang, Tong Ming; Jiang, Xiao Ming; Jin, Shan; Kang, Wen; Kong, Xiang Cheng; Li, Chun Hua; Li, Da Zhang; Li, Gang; Li, Shao Peng; Li, Weiguo; Li, Xiao Ping; Li, Zhong Quan; Liu, Shao Zhen; Liu, Wei Bin; Liu, Ya Ping; Liu, Yu Dong; Lu, Cai-Dian; Ma, Li; Ma, Qiang; Ouyang, Qun; Pam, Wei Min; Pei, Guo Xi; Pei, Shi Lun; Peng, G.X.; Qin, Qing; Qu, Hua Min; Shi, Cai Tu; Sun, Hong; Sun, Yi; Wang, Chun Hong; Wang, Dou; Wang, Guang Wei; Wang, Jiang; Wang, Jiu Qing; Wang, Shu Hong; Wang, Yi Fang; Wang, Zheng; Xie, Jia Lin; Xing, Zhi-Zhong; Xu, Gang; Xu, Qing Jin; Yu, Cheng Hui; Yu, Xian Ming; Yuan, Chang-Zheng; Yue, Jun Hui; Zhai, Ji Yuan; Zhang, Chuang; Zhang, He; Zhang, Jiawen; Zhang, Jing Ru; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Yuan; Zhao, Ji Jiu; Zhao, Jing Xia; Zhao, Sheng Chu; Zhou, De Min; Zhou, Shun; Zhu, Xiong Wei; Zong, Zhang Guo; Liu, Chun; Wu, Yue Liang; Yang, Jin Min; Liang, Jian Tao; Liu, Li Qiang; Lu, Wen Hui; Xiong, Lian You; Zhang, Liang; Zhao, Tong Xian; Afanaciev, Konstantin; Ignatenko, Alexandr; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Manghisoni, Massimo; Re, Valerio; Traversi, Gianluca; Eigen, Gerald; Osland, Per; Handu, Virender K.; Jawale, Suresh B.; Joshi, Gopal; Pande, Manjiri; Pande, Rajni; Rao, Sista V.L.S.; Singh, Pitamber; Sinha, Anil K.; Suthar, Rameshwar L.; Topkar, Anita; Adey, David; Hawkes, Chris; Hillier, Stephen James; Mikami, Yoshinari; Miller, Owen; Stockton, Mark; Watson, Nigel Keith; Wilson, John A.; Petersen, Troels Christian; Driouichi, Chafik; Hansen, Jorgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Klinkby, Esben; Xella, Stefania; Von Toerne, Eckhard; Brock, Ian; Desch, Klaus; Dreiner, Herbert; Hohlfeld, Mark; Killenberg, Martin; Kittel, Olaf; Koch, Manuel; Kohrs, Robert; Krautscheid, Thorsten; Kruger, Hans; Langenfeld, Ulrich; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Reuen, Lars; Ummenhofer, Martin; Wermes, Norbert; Wienemann, Peter; Butler, John; Cussans, David; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Helen; Lynch, Clare; Velthuis, Jaap J.; Hearty, Christopher; Mattison, Thomas; Anerella, Michael; Dawson, Sally; Marone, Andrew; Morse, William Michael; Parker, Brett; Parsa, Zohreh; Pogorelsky, Igor; Radeka, Veljko; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Partridge, Richard; Narain, Meenakshi; Coca, Cornelia; Orlandea, Marius Ciprian; Popescu, Sorina; Teodorescu, Eliza; Hajdu, Csaba; Horvath, Dezso; Christophe, Grojean; Baddams, Nigel; Baldy, Jean-Luc; Camporesi, Tiziano; Capatina, Ofelia; De Roeck, Albert; Delahaye, Jean-Pierre; Eliasson, Peder; Ellis, John R.; Ferguson, John; Gastal, Martin; Hauschild, Michael; Hauviller, Claude; Hawkings, Richard; Kraml, Sabine; Latina, Andrea; Parma, Vittorio; Pedersen, John; Quesnel, Jean-Pierre; Rinolfi, Louis; Rolandi, Gigi; Ruehl, Ingo; Sauli, Fabio; Schulte, Daniel; Tavian, Laurent; Zimmermann, Frank; Chung, Jin-Hyuk; Hwang, Youngseok; Kim, Donghee; Kim, Eun San; Kim, Guinyun; Kim, Hongjoo; Kim, Hyoungsuk; Kim, Kyung Sook; Kim, Youngim; Park, Hwanbae; Shin, Seunghwan; Son, Dongchul; Suh, Jun Suhk; Bhattacherjee, Biplob; Datta, Anindya; Ghosh, Kirtiman; Kundu, Anirban; Bhandari, R.K.; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Mallik, C.; Nabhiraj, P.Y.

      2007-01-01

      This report, Volume IV of the International Linear Collider Reference Design Report, describes the detectors which will record and measure the charged and neutral particles produced in the ILC's high energy e+e- collisions. The physics of the ILC, and the environment of the machine-detector interface, pose new challenges for detector design. Several conceptual designs for the detector promise the needed performance, and ongoing detector R&D is addressing the outstanding technological issues. Two such detectors, operating in push-pull mode, perfectly instrument the ILC interaction region, and access the full potential of ILC physics.

    10. Conceptual Design Studies for a CEPC Detector

      CERN Document Server

      Chekanov, S V

      2016-01-01

      The physics potential of the Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) can be significantly strengthened by two detectors with complementary designs. A promising detector approach based on the Silicon Detector (SiD) designed for the International Linear Collider (ILC) is presented. Several simplifications of this detector for the lower energies expected at the CEPC are proposed. A number of cost optimizations of this detector are illustrated using full detector simulations. We show that the proposed changes will enable to reach the physics goals at the CEPC.

    11. Okul Öncesi Eğitim Kurumuna Devam Eden 36–48 Aylık Çocukların Bilişsel Gelişim Düzeyleri / Cognitive Development Levels of 36-38 Month-Old Children Attending a Pre-School Education

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Sevinç DEMİR

      2011-12-01

      Full Text Available Araştırmada, MEB 2006 Okul Öncesi Eğitim Programında öngörülen 36–48 aylık çocukların bilişsel gelişim özelliklerine örneklemin ne derece sahip olduğunu ortaya koymak amaçlanmıştır. Tarama modelinde desenlenmiş olan bu araştırmanın örneklemini, 2009–2010 eğitim-öğretim yılında Kütahya il merkezindeki okul öncesi eğitim kurumlarına devam eden 36–48 aylık 53 çocuk oluşturmuştur. Verilerin toplanmasında araştırmacılar tarafından hazırlanmış olan Bilişsel Gelişim Değerlendirme Formu (BGDF ve Kişisel Bilgi Formu kullanılmıştır. Verilerin analizinde ikili gruplar arasındaki ilişkiye bakmak amacı ile t-testi, ANOVA ve Kruskal Wallis-H testi uygulanmıştır. Elde edilen bulgulara göre örneklemin BGDF’nin 1. ve 2. uygulamaları sonucunda aldıkları puanlar cinsiyet, devam ettikleri okul türü, okul öncesi kurumuna devam etme süresi, annenin yaşı, annenin çalışma durumu, babanın yaşı, babanın öğrenim durumu, kardeş sayısı, kaçıncı çocuk olduğu, ailenin ekonomik durumu değişkenlerine göre farklılaşmamaktadır. BGDF 1. ve 2. uygulama sonucunda alınan puanlar annenin öğrenim durumu değişkenine göre birinci uygulamada de��il, ancak ikinci uygulamada farklılaşmaktadır.

    12. Neutron transmutation doped silicon detectors

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Kim, K.; Krejner, Kh.; Ito, D.; Khusimi, K.; Okava, S.; Sirejsi, F.

      1984-01-01

      A method of doping neutron transmutation during (NTD) of Si crystals is described. Characteristics of detectors made of crystals obtained by the NTD method at low and room temperatures are measured. The possibility is studied of using the NTD method to produce Si crystals with a longer lifetime of non-base charge carriers, high specific resistance and more even distribution of specific resistance over the detector radius. The NTD method is based on /sup 30/Si isotope transmutation into /sup 31/Si following the (n, ..gamma..)-reaction. The /sup 31/Si isotope is unstable and transforms to /sup 31/P while emitting ..beta../sup -/. The NTD method consists in introduction of purified gaseous monosilan SiH/sub 4/ into the furnace to undergo thermal decomposition at 860 deg C with the formation of polycrystalline n-type Si. The polycrystalline Si prepared is treated mechanically and, after purification by the method of a ''floating zone'' in vacuum and in argon irradiated by a thermal neutron flux with the a density of 5x10/sup 11/ neUtr/(cm/sup 2/ x s) for 30-75 min. An analysis of the data obtained shows that the specifications of the Si detectors prepared by the NTD method are the same as those of conventional Si-detectors widely used nowadays but their cost of production is considerably lower.

    13. View of the ALEPH detector

      CERN Multimedia

      1996-01-01

      The inner workings of the ALEPH detector on the LEP accelerator can be seen. Cranes and hydraulics are located around the experimental cavern so that these sections can be accessed for upgrades and maintenance. The LEP accelerator and its four experiments studied high-energy collisions between electrons and positrons from 1989 to 2000.

    14. The ALICE pixel detector upgrade

      Science.gov (United States)

      Reidt, F.

      2016-12-01

      The ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC is designed to study the physics of strongly interacting matter, and in particular the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma, using proton-proton, proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions. The ALICE collaboration is preparing a major upgrade of the experimental apparatus to be installed during the second long LHC shutdown in the years 2019-2020. A key element of the ALICE upgrade is the new, ultra-light, high-resolution Inner Tracking System. With respect to the current detector, the new Inner Tracking System will significantly enhance the pointing resolution, the tracking efficiency at low transverse momenta, and the read-out rate capabilities. This will be obtained by seven concentric detector layers based on a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor with a pixel pitch of about 30×30 μm2. A key feature of the new Inner Tracking System, which is optimised for high tracking accuracy at low transverse momenta, is the very low mass of the three innermost layers, which feature a material budget of 0.3% X0 per layer. This contribution presents the design goals and layout of the upgraded ALICE Inner Tracking System, summarises the R&D activities focussing on the technical implementation of the main detector components, and the projected detector performance.

    15. COMMISSIONING AND DETECTOR PERFORMANCE GROUPS

      CERN Multimedia

      T. Camporesi

      The major progress made during the last months has been in the consolidation of services for the +endcaps and three barrel wheels (YB+2, YB+1 and YB0): all subdetectors have now final power connections (including Detector Safety protection), the gas systems have been commissioned for all gas detectors (the recirculation is not yet activated for the RPC though) and detector cooling has also been commissioned. Their integration with final services is the necessary condition for being able to operate larger fractions the detector. Recent weeks have seen full HCAL, more than 50% of EB and full wheels of DTs and CSC being operated using final services. This has not yet translated into major progress of global integration due to major interruptions of central services, which have not allowed the necessary debugging and commissioning time to all the subdetec¬tors and central activities like DAQ and trigger. Moreover the running in of the final central services has introduced instabilities related to the co...

    16. Single photon detector design features

      Science.gov (United States)

      Zaitsev, Sergey V.; Kurochkin, Vladimir L.; Kurochkin, Yury V.

      2016-12-01

      In the report are discussed the laboratory test results of SPAD detectors with InGaAs / InP avalanche photodiodes, operating in Geiger mode. Device operating in synchronous mode with the dead timer setting for proper working conditions of photodiodes. The report materials will showing the functional block diagram of the detector, real operating signals in the receiver path and clock circuits and main results of measurements. The input signal of the synchronous detector is the clock, which determines the time positions of expected photons arrival. Increasing the clock speed 1-300 MHz or getting more time positions of the time grid, we provide increased capacity for time position code of signals, when QKD information transmitted over the nets. At the same time, the maximum attainable speed of photon reception is limited by diode dead time. Diode quantum noise are minimized by inclusion of a special time interval - dead time 0.1-10 usec, after each received and registered a photon. The lowest attainable value of the dead time is determined as a compromise between transients in electrical circuits, passive avalanche «quenching» circuit and thermal transients cooling crystal diode, after each avalanche pass though photodiode. Achievable time and speed parameters are discussed with specific examples of detectors.

    17. Largest particle detector nearing completion

      CERN Multimedia

      2006-01-01

      "Construction of another part of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the worl's largest particle accelerator at CERN in Switzerland, is nearing completion. The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is oner of the LHC project's four large particle detectors. (1/2 page)

    18. Handheld Concealed Weapons Detector Development

      Science.gov (United States)

      2003-03-01

      Enforcement, Edward M. Carapezza, Donald Spector, Eds., Proc. SPIE 2938, 110 - 119 (1997). 3. Franklin Felber, Norbert Wild, Scott Nunan , Dennis Breuner... Nunan , D. Breuner, and F. Doft, "Handheld Ultrasound Concealed-Weapons Detector," in Enforcement and Security Technologies, A. Trent DePersia, J. J

    19. Physics and Detectors at CLIC

      CERN Document Server

      CERN. Geneva

      2012-01-01

      CLIC represents an attractive option for the future particle physics programme at the energy frontier. CLIC is a proposed electron-positron linear collider, based on a novel two beam accelerating structure, with the capability of operating at centre-of-mass energies of up to 3 TeV. The Physics and Detector volume of the CLIC conceptual design report was recently published as a CERN yellow report. In this seminar, I will review the conclusions of this report, focussing on four main areas. Firstly, I will give an overview of the physics potential at CLIC, and will place this in the context of a possible scenario for the staged construction of the machine. Secondly, I will discuss the challenges for a detector operating in the CLIC machine environment. I will then present detailed studies of possible detector concepts, based on high granularity particle flow calorimetry, which demonstrate that the required detector performance goals at CLIC can be met. Finally, I will highlight the main issues for the future R&a...

    20. The ATLAS Detector Safety System

      CERN Multimedia

      Helfried Burckhart; Kathy Pommes; Heidi Sandaker

      The ATLAS Detector Safety System (DSS) has the mandate to put the detector in a safe state in case an abnormal situation arises which could be potentially dangerous for the detector. It covers the CERN alarm severity levels 1 and 2, which address serious risks for the equipment. The highest level 3, which also includes danger for persons, is the responsibility of the CERN-wide system CSAM, which always triggers an intervention by the CERN fire brigade. DSS works independently from and hence complements the Detector Control System, which is the tool to operate the experiment. The DSS is organized in a Front- End (FE), which fulfills autonomously the safety functions and a Back-End (BE) for interaction and configuration. The overall layout is shown in the picture below. ATLAS DSS configuration The FE implementation is based on a redundant Programmable Logical Crate (PLC) system which is used also in industry for such safety applications. Each of the two PLCs alone, one located underground and one at the s...

    1. Sputtered film thermistor IR detectors

      Science.gov (United States)

      Baliga, Shankar B.; Rost, Martin R.; Doctor, Alan P.

      1994-07-01

      The thermistor infrared detector or bolometer is the detector of choice in many classical remote sensing applications such as horizon sensing, noncontact thermometry, and industrial applications. In recent years, the authors have developed a thin film process where the thermistor material is deposited from a target directly onto the substrate. This is an advance over the labor intensive ceramic technology, where sintered flakes of the thermistor are bonded to the substrate. The thin film technique permits a variety of device constructions and configurations. Detectors fabricated on heat-sunk ceramic substrates can withstand high operating temperatures and large incident optical power, in both pulsed and CW laser measurements. For dc or low frequency measurements, the films can be deposited onto a thermally isolated membrane with applications in motion sensing, gas detection, and temperature measurement. Utilizing advances in micromachining a 2D array of thermally isolated microbolometer sensors, integrated onto a silicon wafer containing readout circuitry may be achieved. This paper describes the construction of the sputtered film thermistor detectors, their operation, and applications.

    2. Efficient scalable solid-state neutron detector

      Science.gov (United States)

      Moses, Daniel

      2015-06-01

      We report on scalable solid-state neutron detector system that is specifically designed to yield high thermal neutron detection sensitivity. The basic detector unit in this system is made of a 6Li foil coupled to two crystalline silicon diodes. The theoretical intrinsic efficiency of a detector-unit is 23.8% and that of detector element comprising a stack of five detector-units is 60%. Based on the measured performance of this detector-unit, the performance of a detector system comprising a planar array of detector elements, scaled to encompass effective area of 0.43 m2, is estimated to yield the minimum absolute efficiency required of radiological portal monitors used in homeland security.

    3. Responsivity Calibration of Pyroelectric Terahertz Detectors

      CERN Document Server

      Berry, Christopher W; Jarrahi, Mona

      2014-01-01

      There has been a significant advancement in terahertz radiation sources in the past decade, making milliwatt terahertz power levels accessible in both continuous-wave and pulsed operation. Such high-power terahertz radiation sources circumvent the need for cryogenic-cooled terahertz detectors such as semiconductor bolometers and necessitate the need for new types of calibrated, room-temperature terahertz detectors. Among various types of room-temperature terahertz detectors, pyroelectric detectors are one of the most widely used detectors, which can offer wide dynamic range, broad detection bandwidth, and high sensitivity levels. In this article, we describe the calibration process of a commercially available pyroelectric detector (Spectrum Detector, Inc, SPI-A-65 THz), which incorporates a 5 mm diameter LiTaO3 detector with an organic terahertz absorber coating.

    4. High performance visual display for HENP detectors

      CERN Document Server

      McGuigan, M; Spiletic, J; Fine, V; Nevski, P

      2001-01-01

      A high end visual display for High Energy Nuclear Physics (HENP) detectors is necessary because of the sheer size and complexity of the detector. For BNL this display will be of special interest because of STAR and ATLAS. To load, rotate, query, and debug simulation code with a modern detector simply takes too long even on a powerful work station. To visualize the HENP detectors with maximal performance we have developed software with the following characteristics. We develop a visual display of HENP detectors on BNL multiprocessor visualization server at multiple level of detail. We work with general and generic detector framework consistent with ROOT, GAUDI etc, to avoid conflicting with the many graphic development groups associated with specific detectors like STAR and ATLAS. We develop advanced OpenGL features such as transparency and polarized stereoscopy. We enable collaborative viewing of detector and events by directly running the analysis in BNL stereoscopic theatre. We construct enhanced interactiv...

    5. Silicon Pixel Detectors for Synchrotron Applications

      CERN Document Server

      Stewart, Graeme Douglas

      Recent advances in particle accelerators have increased the demands being placed on detectors. Novel detector designs are being implemented in many different areas including, for example, high luminosity experiments at the LHC or at next generation synchrotrons. The purpose of this thesis was to characterise some of these novel detectors. The first of the new detector types is called a 3D detector. This design was first proposed by Parker, Kenney and Segal (1997). In this design, doped electrodes are created that extend through the silicon substrate. When compared to a traditional photodiode with electrodes on the opposing surfaces, the 3D design can combine a reasonable detector thickness with a small electrode spacing resulting in fast charge collection and limited charge sharing. The small electrode spacing leads to the detectors having lower depletion voltages. This, combined with the fast collection time, makes 3D detectors a candidate for radiation hard applications. These applications include the upgra...

    6. Study Performance of Liquid Scintillation Fiber Detector

      CERN Document Server

      Zhang, Yongpeng; Lu, Haoqi; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Chengcai; Yang, Changgen

      2016-01-01

      Liquid scintillator (LS) with optical fiber detector (LSOF detector) is a new type of detector, which has been applied in large-scale particle physics experiments in recent years. We were proposing LSOF detector as one option of top veto detector in Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO) experiment. The prototype detector was located in laboratory of the institute of high energy physics (IHEP). From prototype study, we found that the detector have a good performance and can satisfy JUNO requirement. The detection efficiency of cosmic ray muon is greater than 98% and can collect 58 photon electrons (p.e.) when muon is going through the detector. Further more, the relationship between p.e., material reflectivity and LS depth are studied. We also compared the data with Monte Carlo simulation, and they have a good agreement with each other.

    7. Sistema detector d'incendis WSN

      OpenAIRE

      Domínguez López, Emiliano

      2012-01-01

      Sistema detector d'incendis aprofitant una xarxa de sensors sense fils (WSN) mitjançant un sistema encastat. Sistema detector de incendios aprovechando una red de sensores inalámbricos (WSN) mediante un sistema empotrado.

    8. Progress in antenna coupled kinetic inductance detectors

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Baryshev, A.; Baselmans, J.J.A.; Freni, A.; Gerini, G.; Hoevers, H.; Iacono, A.; Neto, A.

      2011-01-01

      This paper describes the combined Dutch efforts toward the development of large wideband focal plane array receivers based on kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs). Taking into account strict electromagnetic and detector sensitivity requirements for future ground and space based observatories, this

    9. The next detectors for gravitational wave astronomy

      CERN Document Server

      Blair, David; Zhao, Chunnong; Wen, Linqing; Miao, Haixing; Cai, Ronggen; Gao, Jiangrui; Lin, Xuechun; Liu, Dong; Wu, Ling-An; Zhu, Zonghong; Hammond, Giles; Paik, Ho Jung; Fafone, Viviana; Rocchi, Alessio; Ma, Yiqiu; Qin, Jiayi; Page, Michael

      2016-01-01

      This paper focuses on the next detectors for gravitational wave astronomy which will be required after the current ground based detectors have completed their initial observations, and probably achieved the first direct detection of gravitational waves. The next detectors will need to have greater sensitivity, while also enabling the world array of detectors to have improved angular resolution to allow localisation of signal sources. Sect. 1 of this paper begins by reviewing proposals for the next ground based detectors, and presents an analysis of the sensitivity of an 8 km armlength detector, which is proposed as a safe and cost-effective means to attain a 4-fold improvement in sensitivity. The scientific benefits of creating a pair of such detectors in China and Australia is emphasised. Sect. 2 of this paper discusses the high performance suspension systems for test masses that will be an essential component for future detectors, while sect. 3 discusses solutions to the problem of Newtonian noise which ari...

    10. Sistema detector d'incendis WSN

      OpenAIRE

      Domínguez López, Emiliano

      2012-01-01

      Sistema detector d'incendis aprofitant una xarxa de sensors sense fils (WSN) mitjançant un sistema encastat. Sistema detector de incendios aprovechando una red de sensores inalámbricos (WSN) mediante un sistema empotrado.

    11. ACORDE - A Cosmic Ray Detector for ALICE

      CERN Document Server

      INSPIRE-00247175; Pagliarone, C.

      2006-01-01

      ACORDE, the ALICE COsmic Ray DEtector is one of the ALICE detectors, presently under construction. It consists of an array of plastic scintillator counters placed on the three upper faces of the ALICE magnet. This array will act as Level 0 cosmic ray trigger and, together with other ALICE sub-detectors, will provide precise information on cosmic rays with primary energies around $10^{15-17}$ eV. In this paper we will describe the ACORDE detector, trigger design and electronics.

    12. Luminosity measurements in ATLAS with MPX detectors

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Sopczak, Andre; Benes, Petr; Bergmann, Benedikt; Biskup, Bartolomej; Jakubek, Jan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Solc, Jaroslav; Sopko, Vit; Suk, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Vykydal, Zdenek [IEAP CTU Prague (Czech Republic); Asbah, Nedaa; Leroy, Claude; Soueid, Paul [Universite de Montreal (Canada)

      2013-07-01

      The ATLAS-MPX detectors are based on Medipix2 silicon devices designed by CERN for the detection of different types of radiation. These detectors are successfully operating in the ATLAS detector at 16 places and collect data independent of the ATLAS data-recording chain. Recently it has been recognized that these detectors are well suited for luminosity measurements. Results from these studies are presented.

    13. Development of Silicon Multi-strip Detector

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      TanJilian; JinGenming; WangHongwei; YuanXiaohua; DuanLiming; LiSonglin; LuZiwei; XuHushan; NingBaojun; TianDayu; WangWei; ZhangLu

      2003-01-01

      Position sensitive detector is very important for nuclear physics experiment. There several techniques can be used to fabricate position sensitive detector, for example, Si-surface barrier method, diffusion method, ion implantation and planar process etc. Among all the techniques mentioned above planar process is the best one. We have developed batch of position sensitive detector -- silicon multi-strip detector by using planar process.

    14. Status of the ATLAS detector construction

      CERN Document Server

      Lacour, D

      2003-01-01

      This paper presents the status of the ATLAS detector construction in August 2002. The first section is a brief presentation of the overall detector concept. In the second one, a description and the status of each subsystem are presented: the inner detector, the calorimetry and the muon instrumentation are the three subdetectors of the ATLAS detector. Finally, in the third section, the magnet system and the experimental area are presented. (2 refs).

    15. Integrated double-sided silicon microstrip detectors

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Perevertailo V. L.

      2011-11-01

      Full Text Available The problems of design, technology and manufacturing double-sided silicon microstrip detectors using standard equipment production line in mass production of silicon integrated circuits are considered. The design of prototype high-energy particles detector for experiment ALICE (CERN is presented. The parameters of fabricated detectors are comparable with those of similar foreign detectors, but they are distinguished by lesser cost.

    16. Trustworthiness of detectors in quantum key distribution with untrusted detectors

      Science.gov (United States)

      Qi, Bing

      2015-02-01

      Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol has been demonstrated as a viable solution to detector side-channel attacks. Recently, to bridge the strong security of MDI-QKD with the high efficiency of conventional QKD, the detector-device-independent (DDI) QKD has been proposed. One crucial assumption made in DDI-QKD is that the untrusted Bell state measurement (BSM) located inside the receiver's laboratory cannot send any unwanted information to the outside. Here, we show that if the BSM is completely untrusted, a simple scheme would allow the BSM to send information to the outside. Combined with Trojan horse attacks, this scheme could allow an eavesdropper to gain information of the quantum key without being detected. To prevent the above attack, either countermeasures to Trojan horse attacks or some trustworthiness to the "untrusted" BSM device is required.

    17. Upgraded VIRGO detector(s) and stochastic gravitational waves backgrounds

      CERN Document Server

      Babusci, D

      1999-01-01

      The sensitivity achievable by a pair of VIRGO detectors to stochastic and isotropic gravitational wave backgrounds of cosmological origin is discussed in view of the development of a second VIRGO interferometer. We describe a semi-analytical technique allowing to compute the signal-to-noise ratio for (monotonic or non-monotonic) logarithmic energy spectra of relic gravitons of arbitrary slope. We apply our results to the case of two correlated and coaligned VIRGO detectors and we compute their achievable sensitivities. The maximization of the overlap reduction function is discussed. We focus our attention on a class of models whose expected sensitivity is more promising, namely the case of string cosmological gravitons. We perform our calculations both for the case of minimal string cosmological scenario and in the case of a non-minimal scenario where a long dilaton dominated phase is present prior to the onset of the ordinary radiation dominated phase. In this framework, we study possible improvements of the...

    18. Positron Emission Mammotomography with Dual Planar Detectors

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Mark Smith; Raymond Raylman; Stanislaw Majewski

      2003-06-29

      Positron emission mammography (PEM) is usually performed with two stationary planar detectors above and below a compressed breast. There is image blurring normal to the detectors due to the limited angular range of the lines of response. Positron emission mammotomography (PEM-T) with dual planar detectors rotating about the breast can obtain complete angular sampling and has the potential to improve activity estimation.

    19. Hybrid anode for semiconductor radiation detectors

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Yang, Ge; Bolotnikov, Aleksey E; Camarda, Guiseppe; Cui, Yonggang; Hossain, Anwar; Kim, Ki Hyun; James, Ralph B

      2013-11-19

      The present invention relates to a novel hybrid anode configuration for a radiation detector that effectively reduces the edge effect of surface defects on the internal electric field in compound semiconductor detectors by focusing the internal electric field of the detector and redirecting drifting carriers away from the side surfaces of the semiconductor toward the collection electrode(s).

    20. Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons

      CERN Document Server

      Lecoq, P

      2011-01-01

      Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons in 'Charged Particle Detectors - Particle Detectors and Detector Systems', part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B1: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 1: Principles and Methods'. This document is part of Part 1 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Subsection '3.1.1 Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons' of Section '3.1 Charged Particle Detectors' of Chapter '3 Particle Detectors and Detector Systems' with the content: 3.1.1 Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons 3.1.1.1 Basic detector principles and scintillator requirements 3.1.1.1.1 Interaction of ionizing radiation with scintillator material 3.1.1.1.2 Important scint...

    1. DELPHI Barrel Ring Imaging Cherenkov Detector

      CERN Multimedia

      DELPHI was one of the four experiments installed at the LEP particle accelerator from 1989 - 2000. This is a piece of the Barrel Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector which was used to identify particles in DELPHI.It measured the Cherenkov light emitted when particles travelled faster than the speed of light through the material of the detector. The photo shows the complete Cherenkov detector.

    2. Öğretmen Adayları için “Öğretim İlke ve Yöntemleri Dersi Öz Yeterlilik Ölçeği”nin Geliştirilmesi / Developing “Teaching Principles and Methods Cors Self-Efficacy Scale” for Pre Service Teachers

      OpenAIRE

      Kuzu, Sekvan; DEMİR, Servet

      2015-01-01

      Bu çalışmada öğretmen adaylarının, öğretim ilke ve yöntemleri dersi öz yeterliklerini ölçmeye ilişkin bir ölçek geliştirmek amaçlanmıştır. Çalışmada ölçeği oluşturan maddeler YÖK’ün öğretim ilke ve yöntemleri dersi için belirlediği kur tanımına göre hazırlanmıştır. Oluşturulan taslakla ilgili konuyla ilgili uzman görüşünden yararlanılmıştır. Hazırlanan ön uygulama formu Mustafa Kemal Üniversitesinde öğrenim gören 327 öğretmen adayına uygulanmıştır. Toplanan formlardan 300 tanesi üzerinde ista...

    3. The ANTARES detector: background sources and effects on detector performance

      CERN Document Server

      Escoffier, S

      2007-01-01

      The ANTARES Collaboration is deploying a large neutrino detector at a depth of 2475 m in the Mediterranean Sea, 40 km off shore from La Seyne-sur-Mer in South France. The construction of this 12-line detector with 75 phototubes per line will be completed early 2008. Data taking has begun since April 2005 with an instrumentation line also equipped with optical modules. The first 5 detector lines are operational since January 2007. The telescope is aimed to observe high energy cosmic neutrinos through the detection of the Cerenkov light produced by up-going induced muons. Background sources are due to atmospheric neutrinos as well as misreconstructed atmospheric muons. Additional backgrounds inherent to the sea water environment come from 40K decay and marine organisms' luminescence. While the contribution of the former is expected to be constant at a level of about 45 kHz, the bioluminescence has shown large time variations, with periods of very high activity, up to several hundred kHz. Description of these ba...

    4. Detector performance of the ALICE silicon pixel detector

      CERN Document Server

      Cavicchioli, C

      2011-01-01

      The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) forms the two innermost layers of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS). It consists of two barrel layers of hybrid silicon pixel detectors at radii of 39 and 76 mm. The physics targets of the ALICE experiment require that the material budget of the SPD is kept within approximate to 1\\%X(0) per layer. This has set some stringent constraints on the design and construction of the SPD. A unique feature of the ALICE SPD is that it is capable of providing a prompt trigger signal, called Fast-OR, which contributes to the L0 trigger decision. The pixel trigger system allows to apply a set of algorithms for the trigger selection, and its output is sent to the Central Trigger Processor (CTP). The detector has been installed in the experiment in summer 2007. During the first injection tests in June 2008 the SPD was able to record the very first sign of life of the LHC by registering secondary particles from the beam dumped upstream the ALICE experiment. In the following months the...

    5. Comparison measurements of DQE for two flat panel detectors: fluoroscopic detector vs. cone beam CT detector

      Science.gov (United States)

      Betancourt Benítez, Ricardo; Ning, Ruola; Conover, David

      2006-03-01

      The physical performance of two flat panel detectors (FPD) has been evaluated using a standard x-ray beam quality set by IEC, namely RQA5. The FPDs evaluated in this study are based on an amorphous silicon photodiode array that is coupled to a thallium-doped Cesium Iodide scintillator and to a thin film transistor (TFT) array. One detector is the PaxScan 2520 that is designed for fluoro imaging, and has a small dynamic range and a large image lag. The other detector is the PaxScan 4030CB that is designed for cone beam CT, and has a large dynamic range (>16-bit), a reduced image lag and many imaging modes. Varian Medical Systems manufactured both detectors. The linearity of the FPDs was investigated by using an ionization chamber and aluminum filtration in order to obtain the beam quality. Since the FPDs are used in fluoroscopic mode, image lag of the FPD was measured in order to investigate its effect on this study, especially its effect on DQE. The spatial resolution of the FPDs was determined by obtaining the pre-sampling modulation transfer function for each detector. A sharp edge was used in accordance to IEC 62220-1. Next, the Normalized Noise Power Spectrum (NNPS) was calculated for various exposures levels at RQA5 radiation quality. Finally, the DQE of each FPD was obtained with a modified version of the international standard set by IEC 62220-1. The results show that the physical performance in DQE and MTF of the PaxScan 4030CB is superior to that of PaxScan2520.

    6. 3D silicon strip detectors

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Parzefall, Ulrich [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)], E-mail: ulrich.parzefall@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Bates, Richard [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Boscardin, Maurizio [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Eckert, Simon [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Lozano, Manuel [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pahn, Gregor [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Parkes, Chris [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Pellegrini, Giulio [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pennicard, David [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Szumlak, Tomasz [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Zoboli, Andrea [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zorzi, Nicola [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

      2009-06-01

      While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has started operation in autumn 2008, plans for a luminosity upgrade to the Super-LHC (sLHC) have already been developed for several years. This projected luminosity increase by an order of magnitude gives rise to a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors at the LHC experiments. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. Using a strawman layout for the new tracker of the ATLAS experiment as an example, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips of 2-3 cm length are foreseen to cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSD will be exposed to radiation levels up to 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, which makes radiation resistance a major concern for the upgraded ATLAS tracker. Several approaches to increasing the radiation hardness of silicon detectors exist. In this article, it is proposed to combine the radiation hard 3D-design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the established planar technology for strip detectors by using SSDs that have regularly spaced doped columns extending into the silicon bulk under the detector strips. The first 3D SSDs to become available for testing were made in the Single Type Column (STC) design, a technological simplification of the original 3D design. With such 3D SSDs, a small number of prototype sLHC detector modules with LHC-speed front-end electronics as used in the semiconductor tracking systems of present LHC experiments were built. Modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5{mu}m spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency, an Sr{sup 90}{beta}-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particle (MIP), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of

    7. Advances in lunar exploration detectors

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      XU Tao; OUYANG Ziyuan; LI Chunlai; XU Lin

      2005-01-01

      Due to the rapid development of modem science and technology, many advanced sensors have been put into use to explore our solar system, including the Moon. With the help of those detectors,we can retrieve more information to about the Moon' s composition and evolution. The Clementine (January, 1994), Lunar Prospector ( January, 1998) and especially Smart-1 ( September, 2003 ) launched successively have demonstrated the next-generation planet exploration techniques. Now China has decided to send a probe to the Moon. So it is necessary to overview the development of detectors used for the scientific observation of the Moon. In this paper, some main instruments used to acquire geochemistry information are described, which include UV-VIS-NIR CCD imaging spectroscope, neutronray, gamma-ray, and X-ray spectrometers. Moreover, the payloads of China' s first lunar satellite are introduced briefly.

    8. Forward Instrumentation for ILC Detectors

      CERN Document Server

      Abramowicz, Halina; Afanaciev, Konstantin; Aguilar, Jonathan; Ambalathankandy, Prasoon; Bambade, Philip; Bergholz, Matthias; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Castro, Elena; Chelkov, Georgy; Coca, Cornelia; Daniluk, Witold; Dragone, Angelo; Dumitru, Laurentiu; Elsener, Konrad; Emeliantchik, Igor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Gostkin, Mikhail; Grah, Christian; Grzelak, Grzegorz; Haller, Gunter; Henschel, Hans; Ignatenko, Alexandr; Idzik, Marek; Ito, Kazutoshi; Jovin, Tatjana; Kielar, Eryk; Kotula, Jerzy; Krumstein, Zinovi; Kulis, Szymon; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Levy, Aharon; Moszczynski, Arkadiusz; Nauenberg, Uriel; Novgorodova, Olga; Ohlerich, Marin; Orlandea, Marius; Oleinik, Gleb; Oliwa, Krzysztof; Olshevski, Alexander; Pandurovic, Mila; Pawlik, Bogdan; Przyborowski, Dominik; Sato, Yutaro; Sadeh, Iftach; Sailer, Andre; Schmidt, Ringo; Schumm, Bruce; Schuwalow, Sergey; Smiljanic, Ivan; Swientek, Krzysztof; Takubo, Yosuke; Teodorescu, Eliza; Wierba, Wojciech; Yamamoto, Hitoshi; Zawiejski, Leszek; Zhang, Jinlong

      2010-01-01

      Two special calorimeters are foreseen for the instrumentation of the very forward region of the ILC detector, a luminometer designed to measure the rate of low angle Bhabha scattering events with a precision better than 10-3 and a low polar angle calorimeter, adjacent to the beam-pipe. The latter will be hit by a large amount of beamstrahlung remnants. The amount and shape of these depositions will allow a fast luminosity estimate and the determination of beam parameters. The sensors of this calorimeter must be radiation hard. Both devices will improve the hermeticity of the detector in the search for new particles. Finely segmented and very compact calorimeters will match the requirements. Due to the high occupancy fast front-end electronics is needed. The design of the calorimeters developed and optimised with Monte Carlo simulations is presented. Sensors and readout electronics ASICs have been designed and prototypes are available. Results on the performance of these major components are summarised.

    9. Ultra-fast silicon detectors

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Sadrozinski, H. F.-W., E-mail: hartmut@scipp.ucsc.edu [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, UC Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Ely, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Ngo, J.; Parker, C.; Petersen, B.; Seiden, A.; Zatserklyaniy, A. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, UC Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Cartiglia, N.; Marchetto, F. [INFN Torino, Torino (Italy); Bruzzi, M.; Mori, R.; Scaringella, M.; Vinattieri, A. [University of Florence, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy)

      2013-12-01

      We propose to develop a fast, thin silicon sensor with gain capable to concurrently measure with high precision the space (∼10 μm) and time (∼10 ps) coordinates of a particle. This will open up new application of silicon detector systems in many fields. Our analysis of detector properties indicates that it is possible to improve the timing characteristics of silicon-based tracking sensors, which already have sufficient position resolution, to achieve four-dimensional high-precision measurements. The basic sensor characteristics and the expected performance are listed, the wide field of applications are mentioned and the required R and D topics are discussed. -- Highlights: •We are proposing thin pixel silicon sensors with 10's of picoseconds time resolution. •Fast charge collection is coupled with internal charge multiplication. •The truly 4-D sensors will revolutionize imaging and particle counting in many applications.

    10. The orbital TUS detector simulation

      Science.gov (United States)

      Grinyuk, A.; Grebenyuk, V.; Khrenov, B.; Klimov, P.; Lavrova, M.; Panasyuk, M.; Sharakin, S.; Shirokov, A.; Tkachenko, A.; Tkachev, L.; Yashin, I.

      2017-04-01

      The TUS space experiment is aimed at studying energy and arrival distribution of UHECR at E > 7 × 1019 eV by using the data of EAS fluorescent radiation in atmosphere. The TUS mission was launched at the end of April 2016 on board the dedicated ;Lomonosov; satellite. The TUSSIM software package has been developed to simulate performance of the TUS detector for the Fresnel mirror optical parameters, the light concentrator of the photo detector, the front end and trigger electronics. Trigger efficiency crucially depends on the background level which varies in a wide range: from 0.2 × 106 to 15 × 106 ph/(m2 μ s sr) at moonless and full moon nights respectively. The TUSSIM algorithms are described and the expected TUS statistics is presented for 5 years of data collection from the 500 km solar-synchronized orbit with allowance for the variability of the background light intensity during the space flight.

    11. Forward instrumentation for ILC detectors

      Science.gov (United States)

      Abramowicz, H.; Abusleme, A.; Afanaciev, K.; Aguilar, J.; Ambalathankandy, P.; Bambade, P.; Bergholz, M.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Castro, E.; Chelkov, G.; Coca, C.; Daniluk, W.; Dragone, A.; Dumitru, L.; Elsener, K.; Emeliantchik, I.; Fiutowski, T.; Gostkin, M.; Grah, C.; Grzelak, G.; Haller, G.; Henschel, H.; Ignatenko, A.; Idzik, M.; Ito, K.; Jovin, T.; Kielar, E.; Kotula, J.; Krumstein, Z.; Kulis, S.; Lange, W.; Lohmann, W.; Levy, A.; Moszczynski, A.; Nauenberg, U.; Novgorodova, O.; Ohlerich, M.; Orlandea, M.; Oleinik, G.; Oliwa, K.; Olshevski, A.; Pandurovic, M.; Pawlik, B.; Przyborowski, D.; Sato, Y.; Sadeh, I.; Sailer, A.; Schmidt, R.; Schumm, B.; Schuwalow, S.; Smiljanic, I.; Swientek, K.; Takubo, Y.; Teodorescu, E.; Wierba, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Zawiejski, L.; Zhang, J.

      2010-12-01

      Two special calorimeters are foreseen for the instrumentation of the very forward region of the ILC detector, a luminometer designed to measure the rate of low angle Bhabha scattering events with a precision better than 10-3 and a low polar angle calorimeter, adjacent to the beam-pipe. The latter will be hit by a large amount of beamstrahlung remnants. The amount and shape of these depositions will allow a fast luminosity estimate and the determination of beam parameters. The sensors of this calorimeter must be radiation hard. Both devices will improve the hermeticity of the detector in the search for new particles. Finely segmented and very compact calorimeters will match the requirements. Due to the high occupancy fast front-end electronics is needed. The design of the calorimeters developed and optimised with Monte Carlo simulations is presented. Sensors and readout electronics ASICs have been designed and prototypes are available. Results on the performance of these major components are summarised.

    12. Forward instrumentation for ILC detectors

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Abramowicz, H [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Abusleme, A [Stanford University, Stanford (United States); Afanaciev, K; Emeliantchik, I [NCPHEP, Minsk (Belarus); Aguilar, J; Ambalathankandy, P; Fiutowski, T [AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow (Poland); Bambade, P [Laboratoire de l Accelerateur Lineaire, Orsay (France); Bergholz, M; Castro, E; Grah, C [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade (Serbia); Chelkov, G; Gostkin, M [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Coca, C; Dumitru, L [IFIN-HH, Bucharest (Romania); Daniluk, W; Grzelak, G [INP PAN, Cracow (Poland); Dragone, A [SLAC, Menlo Park (United States); Elsener, K, E-mail: Wolfgang.Lohmann@desy.d [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

      2010-12-15

      Two special calorimeters are foreseen for the instrumentation of the very forward region of the ILC detector, a luminometer designed to measure the rate of low angle Bhabha scattering events with a precision better than 10{sup -3} and a low polar angle calorimeter, adjacent to the beam-pipe. The latter will be hit by a large amount of beamstrahlung remnants. The amount and shape of these depositions will allow a fast luminosity estimate and the determination of beam parameters. The sensors of this calorimeter must be radiation hard. Both devices will improve the hermeticity of the detector in the search for new particles. Finely segmented and very compact calorimeters will match the requirements. Due to the high occupancy fast front-end electronics is needed. The design of the calorimeters developed and optimised with Monte Carlo simulations is presented. Sensors and readout electronics ASICs have been designed and prototypes are available. Results on the performance of these major components are summarised.

    13. The CMS Detector Control System

      CERN Document Server

      Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert

      2009-01-01

      The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN is one of the Large Hadron Collider multi-purpose experiments. Its large subsystems size sum up to around 6 million Detector Control System (DCS) channels to be supervised. A cluster of ~100 servers is needed to provide the required processing resources. To cope with such a size a scalable approach has been chosen factorizing the DCS system as much as possible. CMS DCS has made a clear division between its computing resources and functionality by creating a computing framework allowing for plugging in functional components. DCS components are developed by the subsystems expert groups while the computing infrastructure is developed centrally. To ease the component development task, a framework based on PVSSII [1] has been developed by the CERN Joint Controls Project [2] (JCOP). This paper describes the current status of CMS Detector Control System, giving an overview of the DCS computing infrastructure, the integration of DCS subsystem functional components an...

    14. The Mark II detector for the SLC

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Abrams, G.; Baden, A.R.; Boyer, J.; Butler, F.; Drell, P.S.; Fay, J.; Gidal, G.; Goldhaber, G.; Haggerty, J.; Harr, R.; Hearty, C.; Herrup, D.; Holmgren, S.O.; Jaffre, M.; Juricic, I.; Kadyk, J.A.; Kral, J.F.; Levi, M.E.; Lynch, G.R.; Richman, J.D.; Rouse, F.R.; Schaad, M.W.; Schmidke, W.B.; Schumm, B.A.; Trilling, G.H.; Wood, D.R. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA); California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Dept. of Physics); Adolphsen, C.E.; Burchat, P.R.; Dorfan, D.E.; Gatto, C.; Gomez Cadenas, J.J.; Gratta, G.; Heusch, C.A.; Kent, J.; King, M.; Koepke, L.; Labarga, L.; Litke, A.M.; Sadrozinski, H.F.W.; Schwarz, A.S.; Seiden, A.; Turala, M.; Watson, S.; Weisz, S.; Zaccardelli, C.; Von Zanthier, C. (California Univ., Santa Cruz (USA)); Akerlof, C.; Bonvicini, G.; Chapman, J.; Chmeissani, M.; Frey, R.; Gero, E.; Hong, S.J.; Koska, W.; Nitz, D.; Petradza, M.; Thun, R.; Tschirhart, R.; Veltman, H. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor (USA)); Alexander, J.P.; Ballam, J.; Barklow, T.; Bartelt, J.; De Boe

      1989-08-20

      The Mark II detector has been upgraded in preparation for its role as the first detector to take data at the Stanford Linear Collider. The new detector components include the central drift chamber, the time-of-flight system, the coil, the endcap electromagnetic calorimeters and the beam energy and luminosity measuring devices. There have also been improvements in detector hermeticity. All of the major components were installed for a test run at the PEP storage ring ({radical}s=29 GeV) in 1985. This paper describes the upgraded detector, including its trigger and data acquisition systems, and gives performance figures for its components. Future improvements are also discussed. (orig.).

    15. Pixelated CdZnTe drift detectors

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Kuvvetli, Irfan; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl

      2005-01-01

      A technique, the so-called Drift Strip Method (DSM), for improving the CdZnTe detector energy response to hard X-rays and gamma-rays was applied as a pixel geometry. First tests have confirmed that this detector type provides excellent energy resolution and imaging performance. We specifically...... report on the performance of 3 mm thick prototype CZT drift pixel detectors fabricated using material from eV-products. We discuss issues associated with detector module performance. Characterization results obtained from several prototype drift pixel detectors are presented. Results of position...

    16. Highly efficient charged particle veto detector CUP

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Palacz, M. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University, ul. Pasteura 5A, PL 02-093 Warsaw (Poland)]. E-mail: palacz@slcj.uw.edu.pl; Nyberg, J. [Department of Radiation Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Bednarczyk, P. [Institute de Recherches Subatomiques, Strasbourg (France); Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow (Poland); Dworski, J. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University, ul. Pasteura 5A, PL 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Gorska, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Iwanicki, J. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University, ul. Pasteura 5A, PL 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Kapusta, M. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk (Poland); Kownacki, J. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University, ul. Pasteura 5A, PL 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Kulczycka, E. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University, ul. Pasteura 5A, PL 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Lagergren, K. [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Moszynski, M. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk (Poland); Pienkowski, L. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University, ul. Pasteura 5A, PL 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Stolarz, A. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University, ul. Pasteura 5A, PL 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Wolski, D. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk (Poland); Zieblinski, M. [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow (Poland)

      2005-09-11

      A novel, highly efficient, plastic scintillator detector has been constructed. The primary application of the detector is to act as a veto device in heavy-ion-induced fusion-evaporation reactions, in which the structure of proton-rich nuclides is investigated by {gamma}-ray spectroscopy methods. The detector rejects events in which light charged particles, like protons and {alpha} particles, are emitted in the evaporation process, facilitating selection of reaction channels associated with emission of only neutrons. The detector was used in a EUROBALL experiment, with achieved efficiencies of 80% and 63% for protons and {alpha} particles, respectively. The design of the detector, its performance and limitations are discussed.

    17. MICROMEGAS detectors in the CAST experiment

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Galan, J; Carmona, J; Dafni, T; Gomez, H; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Luzon, G; Morales, J; Rodriguez, A; Ruz, J; Tomas, A [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas, University of Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna, Zaragoza (Spain); Aune, S; Ribas, E Ferrer; Giomataris, I; Papaevangelou, T [IRFU, Centre d' etudes de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Fanourakis, G; Geralis, T; Kousouris, K; Mols, J P [Institute of Nuclear Physics, NCSR Demokritos, Athens (Greece); Vafeiadis, T, E-mail: Javier.Galan.Lacarra@cern.c [Nuclear Physics and Elementary Particle Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece)

      2010-01-15

      MICROMEGAS detectors have been running in the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) experiment since 2002. The detector, constructed of low radioactivity materials, operated efficiently exploiting its good spatial and energy resolution of the detector as well as the time information contained in the pulse shape of the events. Last year Microbulk detectors were installed in the experiment achieving very low background levels thanks to the improved performances of the detector as well as the upgraded shielding. The performance during 2008 data-taking and recent background studies will be presented.

    18. Performance of the LHCb Tracking Detectors

      CERN Document Server

      Tobin, Mark

      2013-01-01

      The LHCb experiment is making high-precision measurements of CP violation and searching for New Physics using the enormous flux of beauty and charm hadrons produced at the LHC. The detector includes a high precision tracking system consisting of a silicon-strip vertex detector surrounding the pp interaction region, a large-area silicon-strip detector located upstream of a dipole magnet, and three stations of silicon-strip detectors and straw drift tubes placed downstream. The performance of the individual silicon-strip detectors will be discussed together with the overall performance of the full tracking system.

    19. Performance Evaluation of List Sphere Detector

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      HE Xiang; LUO Han-wen; YI Yang

      2005-01-01

      A list sphere detector can use a smaller list than commonly believed by employing an appropriate soft output approximation method. Its effect on the "quality" of detector's soft output value is evaluated by measuringmutual information under ergodic channel. The result shows a length 40 list is adequate for a 4 × 4 16QAM MIMO system without system-level iteration. For the ergodic channel, the gain of a sphere detector over the linear MMSE detector is dependent on channel coding rate, which answers an important question when sphere detector should be used in system level design. All these theoretical results are then verified by Monte Carlo simulation.

    20. Germanium Blocked Impurity Band (BIB) detectors

      Science.gov (United States)

      Haller, E. E.; Baumann, H.; Beeman, J. W.; Hansen, W. L.; Luke, P. N.; Lutz, M.; Rossington, C. S.; Wu, I. C.

      1989-01-01

      Information is given in viewgraph form. The advantages of the Si blocked impurity band (BIB) detector invented by M. D. Petroff and M. G. Stabelbroek are noted: smaller detection volume leading to a reduction of cosmic ray interference, extended wavelength response because of dopant wavefunction overlap, and photoconductive gain of unity. It is argued that the stated advantages of Si BIB detectors should be realizable for Ge BIB detectors. Information is given on detector development, subtrate choice and preparation, wafer polising, epitaxy, characterization of epi layers, and preliminary Ge BIB detector test results.

    1. Backgrounds in AFP Detector Estimation

      CERN Document Server

      Huang, Yicong

      2016-01-01

      The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detectors aim to measure protons that are scattered in the ATLAS interaction point under very small angles ($90-160 \\mu rad$). The diffractive protons detected by the AFP may be accompanied by beam halo. This report presents an estimation of the beam halo backgrounds in the AFP using low pile-up data, and position distributions of the backgrounds in the AFP.

    2. Layout of the ALICE detector

      CERN Multimedia

      2003-01-01

      The ALICE experiment will study the collisions of beams of lead nuclei in an attempt to produce a new state of matter known as 'quark-gluon plasma'. The barrel of the detector will be housed in the solenoid that once contained the L3 experiment when LEP was in operation at CERN, between 1989 and 2000. Outside of the solenoid, a dipole magnet will bend the path of charged particles called muons, allowing their momenta to be measured.

    3. Infrared detectors for Earth observation

      Science.gov (United States)

      Barnes, K.; Davis, R. P.; Knowles, P.; Shorrocks, N.

      2016-05-01

      IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer), developed by CNES and launched since 2006 on the Metop satellites, is established as a major source of data for atmospheric science and weather prediction. The next generation - IASI NG - is a French national contribution to the Eumetsat Polar System Second Generation on board of the Metop second generation satellites and is under development by Airbus Defence and Space for CNES. The mission aim is to achieve twice the performance of the original IASI instrument in terms of sensitivity and spectral resolution. In turn, this places very demanding requirements on the infrared detectors for the new instrument. Selex ES in Southampton has been selected for the development of the infrared detector set for the IASI-NG instruments. The wide spectral range, 3.6 to 15.5 microns, is covered in four bands, each served by a dedicated detector design, with a common 4 x 4 array format of 1.3 mm square macropixels. Three of the bands up to 8.7 microns employ photovoltaic MCT (mercury cadmium telluride) technology and the very long wave band employs photoconductive MCT, in common with the approach taken between Airbus and Selex ES for the SEVIRI instrument on Second Generation Meteosat. For the photovoltaic detectors, the MCT crystal growth of heterojunction photodiodes is by the MOVPE technique (metal organic vapour phase epitaxy). Novel approaches have been taken to hardening the photovoltaic macropixels against localised crystal defects, and integrating transimpedance amplifiers for each macropixel into a full-custom silicon read out chip, which incorporates radiation hard design.

    4. Diamond Detectors as Beam Monitors

      CERN Document Server

      Dehning, B; Dobos, D; Pernegger, H; Griesmayer, E

      2010-01-01

      CVD diamond particle detectors are already in use in the CERN experiments ATLAS, CMS, LHCb and ALICE and at various particle accelerator laboratories in USA and Japan. This is a proven technology with high radiation tolerance and very fast signal read-out. It can be used for measuring single-particles as well as for high-intensity particle cascades, for timing measurements on the nanosecond scale and for beam protection systems. The radiation tolerance is specified with 10 MGy.

    5. Pressures Detector Calibration and Measurement

      CERN Document Server

      AUTHOR|(CDS)2156315

      2016-01-01

      This is report of my first and second projects (of 3) in NA61. I did data taking and analysis in order to do calibration of pressure detectors and verified it. I analyzed the data by ROOT software using the C ++ programming language. The first part of my project was determination of calibration factor of pressure sensors. Based on that result, I examined the relation between pressure drop, gas flow rate of in paper filter and its diameter.

    6. Improvement in Ge Detector Cooling

      Science.gov (United States)

      2008-09-01

      linear Stirling cooler manufactured by SunPower, Inc., Athens, Ohio. This hybrid system has the same footprint as a standard 30-liter LN2 Dewar and...are two such HPGe detector cooler /cryostat systems that we are modifying and evaluating for use in the RASA. The modifications will enhance vacuum... system incorporating a 4-watt pulse-tube cooler manufactured by Thales Cryogenics, Eindhoven, Netherlands, is being modified to incorporate ultra

    7. CERN manufactured hybrid photon detectors

      CERN Multimedia

      Maximilien Brice

      2004-01-01

      These hybrid photon detectors (HPDs) produce an electric signal from a single photon. An electron is liberated from a photocathode and accelerated to a silicon pixel array allowing the location of the photon on the cathode to be recorded. The electronics and optics for these devices have been developed in close collaboration with industry. HPDs have potential for further use in astrophysics and medical imaging.

    8. Build Your Own Particle Detector

      CERN Document Server

      Mehlhase, Sascha; The ATLAS collaboration

      2016-01-01

      To support the outreach activities of Atlas institutes and to grab people's attention in science exhibitions and during public events, we have created both a very detailed model of the experiment built entirely out of about Lego bricks as well as an outreach programme using Lego bricks to get people to think about particle detectors and involve them into a conversation about particle physics in general. A large Lego model, consisting of about 9500 pieces, has been 'exported' to more than 55 Atlas institutes and has been used in numerous exhibitions to explain the proportion and composition of the experiment to the public. As part of 'Build Your Own Particle Detector' programme (byopd.org) we conducted more than 15 events,either involving a competition to design and build the 'best' particle detector from a random pile of pieces or to take part in the construction of one of the large models, as part of a full day outreach event. Recently we've added miniature models of all four LHC experiments, that will be us...

    9. COMMISSIONING AND DETECTOR PERFORMANCE GROUPS

      CERN Multimedia

      T. Camporesi

      P5 Commissioning activities The commissioning effort at the pit has made major progress since the last CMS week concerning the installation and operation of the off-detector electronics in USC. The progress has been much slower in the experi¬mental cavern due to the delay in the deployment of the infrastructure which should eventually allow safe powering-up of the front ends. Nevertheless, temporary power connections have allowed operation of slices of subdetectors at any given time. HF, HE, ECAL, DTs, RPCs and CSCs have carried out local commissioning tests with these temporary services. The status of hardware deployment in USC and on the towers/balconies is represented in the detailed table below.   Table 1: Status of installation of off-detector electronics. FEDs are detector dependent hardware modules which perform the first ‘colla¬tion’ of front-end data and send it to Central-data for event building. Tracker, ECAL, HCAL have their front end electronics mo...

    10. Build Your Own Particle Detector

      CERN Document Server

      Mehlhase, Sascha; The ATLAS collaboration

      2016-01-01

      To support the outreach activities of ATLAS institutes and to grasp people’s attention in science exhibitions and during public events, a very detailed model of the experiment built entirely out of LEGO bricks as well as an outreach programme using LEGO bricks to get people to think about particle detectors and involve them into a conversation about particle physics in general have been created. A large LEGO model, consisting of about 9500 pieces, has been exported to more than 55 ATLAS institutes and has been used in numerous exhibitions to explain the proportion and composition of the experiment to the public. As part of the Build Your Own Particle Detector programme (byopd.org) more than 15 events have been conducted, either involving a competition to design and build the best particle detector from a random pile of pieces or to take part in the construction of one of the large models, as part of a full day outreach event. Recently, miniature models of all four main LHC experiments, that will be used at ...

    11. Current status of Japanese detectors

      CERN Document Server

      Tatsumi, Daisuke; Arai, Koji; Nakagawa, Noriyasu; Agatsuma, Kazuhiro; Yamazaki, Toshitaka; Fukushima, Mitsuhiro; Fujimoto, Masa-Katsu; Takamori, Akiteru; Bertolini, Alessandro; Sannibale, Virginio; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Marka, Szabolcs; Ando, Masaki; Tsubono, Kimio; Akutsu, Tomomi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Ishitsuka, Hideki; Uchiyama, Takashi; Miyoki, Shinji; Ohashi, Masatake; Kuroda, Kazuaki; Awaya, Norichika; Kanda, Nobuyuki; Araya, Akito; Telada, Souichi; Tomaru, Takayuki; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Sato, Nobuaki; Suzuki, Toshitaka; Shintomi, Takakazu

      2007-01-01

      Current status of TAMA and CLIO detectors in Japan is reported in this article. These two interferometric gravitational-wave detectors are being developed for the large cryogenic gravitational wave telescope (LCGT) which is a future plan for detecting gravitational wave signals at least once per year. TAMA300 is being upgraded to improve the sensitivity in low frequency region after the last observation experiment in 2004. To reduce the seismic noises, we are installing new seismic isolation system, which is called TAMA Seismic Attenuation System, for the four test masses. We confirmed stable mass locks of a cavity and improvements of length and angular fluctuations by using two SASs. We are currently optimizing the performance of the third and fourth SASs. We continue TAMA300 operation and R&D studies for LCGT. Next data taking in the summer of 2007 is planned. CLIO is a 100-m baseline length prototype detector for LCGT to investigate interferometer performance in cryogenic condition. The key features of...

    12. The CPLEAR detector at CERN

      CERN Document Server

      Adler, R; Alhalel, T; Angelopoulos, Angelos; Apostolakis, Alcibiades J; Aslanides, Elie; Backenstoss, Gerhard; Bal, F; Bard, J P; Barraca, D; Bee, C P; Behnke, O; Benelli, A; Bennet, J; Bertin, V; Blanc, F; Bloch, P; Bonnet, M; Bula, C; Calzas, A; Carlson, P J; Carroll, M; Carvalho, J; Cawley, E; Charalambous, S; Chardalas, M; Chardin, G; Charra, P; Chertok, M B; Cody, A; Da Silva, J; Damianoglou, D; Daniel, R; Danielsson, M; Dechelette, Paul; Dedieu, M; Dedoussis, S; Dejardin, M; Derré, J; Dijksman, A; Dinkespiler, B; Dodgson, M; Dröge, M; Duclos, J; Dudragne, J; Durand, D; Ealet, A; Eckart, B; Eleftheriadis, C; Engster, Claude; Evangelou, I; Faravel, L; Fassnacht, P; Faure, J L; Felder, C; Ferreira-Marques, R; Fetscher, W; Fidecaro, Maria; Filipcic, A; Francis, D; Fry, J; Fuglesang, C; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gally, Y; Gamet, R; Garreta, D; Geiss, D; Geralis, R; Gerber, H J; Go, A; Gumplinger, P; Guyon, D; Guyot, C; Harrison, P; Harrison, P F; Haselden, A; Hayman, P J; Hazen, E S; Henry-Coüannier, F; Heyes, W G; Hollander, R W; Hubert, E; Jacobs, C; Jansson, K; Johner, H U; Jon-And, K; Karkour, N; Kérek, A; Kesseler, G; Kettle, P R; King, D; Klados, T; Kochowski, Claude; Kokkas, P; Kontek, K; Kreuger, R; Lawry, T; Lecouturier, T; Le Gac, R; Leimgruber, F; Linget, D; Liolios, A; Löfstedt, B; Louis, F; Machado, E; Maley, P; Mall, U; Mandic, I; Manthos, N; Marel, Gérard; Marin, C P; Martin, H; Michau, J C; Mikuz, M; Miller, J; Montanet, François; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nanni, F; Onofre, A; Pagels, B; Papadopoulos, I M; Pavlopoulos, P; Pelucchi, F; Petit, P; Philippoussis, K; Pinto da Cunha, J; Policarpo, Armando; Polivka, G; Postma, H; Rheme, C; Rickenbach, R; Roberts, B L; Rozaki, E; Ruf, T; Sacks, L; Sakelliou, L; Sanders, P; Santoni, C; Sarigiannis, K; Schäfer, M; Schaller, L A; Schietinger, T; Schopper, A; Schune, P; Soares, A; Steinacher, M; Tatsis, S; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thibault, C; Touchard, F; Touramanis, C; Triantis, F A; Tröster, D A; Tsamouranis, I; Tschopp, H; Tsilimigras, Panayiotis; Van Beveren, E; van Eijk, C W E; Van Koningsfeld, V; Vanuxem, J P; Varner, G S; Verweij, H; Vlachos, S; Warner, D; Watson, E; Weber, P; Wendler, H; Wigger, O; Witzig, C; Wolter, M; Yéche, C; Zavrtanik, D; Zimmerman, D

      1996-01-01

      The CPLEAR collaboration has constructed a detector at CERN for an extensive programme of CP-, T- and CPT-symmetry studies using ${\\rm K}^0$ and $\\bar{\\rm K}^0$ produced by the annihilation of $\\bar{\\rm p}$'s in a hydrogen gas target. The ${\\rm K}^0$ and $\\bar{\\rm K}^0$ are identified by their companion products of the annihilation ${\\rm K}^{\\pm} \\pi^{\\mp}$ which are tracked with multiwire proportional chambers, drift chambers and streamer tubes. Particle identification is carried out with a liquid Cherenkov detector for fast separation of pions and kaons and with scintillators which allow the measurement of time of flight and energy loss. Photons are measured with a lead/gas sampling electromagnetic calorimeter. The required antiproton annihilation modes are selected by fast online processors using the tracking chamber and particle identification information. All the detectors are mounted in a 0.44 T uniform field of an axial solenoid of diameter 2 m and length 3.6 m to form a magnetic spectrometer capable o...

    13. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Balmer, D.K.; Haverty, T.W.; Nordin, C.W.; Tyree, W.H.

      1996-08-20

      An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite. 1 fig.

    14. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Balmer, David K. (155 Coral Way, Broomfield, CO 80020); Haverty, Thomas W. (1173 Logan, Northglenn, CO 80233); Nordin, Carl W. (7203 W. 32nd Ave., Wheatridge, CO 80033); Tyree, William H. (1977 Senda Rocosa, Boulder, CO 80303)

      1996-08-20

      An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite.

    15. New Micromegas detectors in the CAST experiment

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Aune, S. [DAPNIA, Centre d' etudes de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Braeuninger, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Dafni, T. [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas (Spain); Fanourakis, G. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, NCSR Demokritos, Athens (Greece); Ferrer Ribas, E. [DAPNIA, Centre d' etudes de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Galan Lacarra, J. [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas (Spain)], E-mail: javier.galan.lacarra@cern.ch; Geralis, T. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, NCSR Demokritos, Athens (Greece); Giomataris, I. [DAPNIA, Centre d' etudes de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Iguaz, F.; Irastorza, I.G. [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas (Spain); Kousouris, K. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, NCSR Demokritos, Athens (Greece); Morales, J. [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas (Spain); Mols, J.P. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, NCSR Demokritos, Athens (Greece); Papaevangelou, T. [DAPNIA, Centre d' etudes de Saclay, Gif sur Yvette CEDEX (France); Pivovaroff, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore (United States); Ruz, J. [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas (Spain); Soufli, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore (United States); Tomas, A. [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas (Spain); Zachariadou, K. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, NCSR Demokritos, Athens (Greece)

      2009-06-01

      A low background Micromegas detector was operating at the sunrise side of the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) experiment during the previous data taking periods (2002-2006). This detector, constructed of low radioactivity materials, operated efficiently and achieved a background level, 5x10{sup -5}keV{sup -1}cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, in the 2-7 keV region. This performance was accomplished by exploiting the spatial and energy resolution of the detector as well as the time information contained in the pulse shape of the events. During the second phase of the experiment, the detector at the sunrise was replaced and upgraded by including a shielding. Moreover, the old time projection chamber (TPC) covering the sunset side of the experiment was replaced by two new Micromegas detectors. These detectors belong to the newest generation of Micromegas detectors: 'bulk' and 'microbulk'. Performances and advantages will be presented.

    16. Ultra-thin plasma radiation detector

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Friedman, Peter S.

      2017-01-24

      A position-sensitive ionizing-radiation counting detector includes a radiation detector gas chamber having at least one ultra-thin chamber window and an ultra-thin first substrate contained within the gas chamber. The detector further includes a second substrate generally parallel to and coupled to the first substrate and defining a gas gap between the first substrate and the second substrate. The detector further includes a discharge gas between the substrates and contained within the gas chamber, where the discharge gas is free to circulate within the gas chamber and between the first and second substrates at a given gas pressure. The detector further includes a first electrode coupled to one of the substrates and a second electrode electrically coupled to the first electrode. The detector further includes a first discharge event detector coupled to at least one of the electrodes for detecting a gas discharge counting event in the electrode.

    17. Measurements on a prototype segmented Clover detector

      CERN Document Server

      Shepherd, S L; Cullen, D M; Appelbe, D E; Simpson, J; Gerl, J; Kaspar, M; Kleinböhl, A; Peter, I; Rejmund, M; Schaffner, H; Schlegel, C; France, G D

      1999-01-01

      The performance of a segmented Clover germanium detector has been measured. The segmented Clover detector is a composite germanium detector, consisting of four individual germanium crystals in the configuration of a four-leaf Clover, housed in a single cryostat. Each crystal is electrically segmented on its outer surface into four quadrants, with separate energy read-outs from nine crystal zones. Signals are also taken from the inner contact of each crystal. This effectively produces a detector with 16 active elements. One of the purposes of this segmentation is to improve the overall spectral resolution when detecting gamma radiation emitted following a nuclear reaction, by minimising Doppler broadening caused by the opening angle subtended by each detector element. Results of the tests with sources and in beam will be presented. The improved granularity of the detector also leads to an improved isolated hit probability compared with an unsegmented Clover detector. (author)

    18. Asymptotically thermal responses for smoothly switched detectors

      CERN Document Server

      Fewster, Christopher J; Louko, Jorma

      2015-01-01

      Thermal phenomena in quantum field theory can be detected with the aid of particle detectors coupled to quantum fields along stationary worldlines, by testing whether the response of such a detector satisfies the detailed balance version of the KMS condition at a constant temperature. This relation holds when the interaction between the field and the detector has infinite time duration. Operationally, however, detectors interact with fields for a finite amount of time, controlled by a switching function of compact support, and the KMS detailed balance condition cannot hold exactly for finite time interactions at arbitrarily large detector energy gap. In this large energy gap regime, we show that, for an adiabatically switched Rindler detector, the Unruh temperature emerges asymptotically after the detector and the field have interacted for a time that is polynomially long in the large energy. We comment on the significance of the adiabaticity assumption in this result.

    19. Cryogenic Detectors (Narrow Field Instruments)

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hoevers, H.; Verhoeve, P.

      Two cryogenic imaging spectrometer arrays are currently considered as focal plane instruments for XEUS. The narrow field imager 1 (NFI 1) will cover the energy range from 0.05 to 3 keV with an energy resolution of 2 eV, or better, at 500 eV. A second narrow field imager (NFI 2) covers the energy range from 1 to 15 keV with an energy resolution of 2 eV (at 1 keV) and 5 eV (at 7 keV), creating some overlap with part of the NFI 1 energy window. Both narrow field imagers have a 0.5 arcmin field of view. Their imaging capabilities are matched to the XEUS optics of 2 to 5 arcsec leading to 1 arcsec pixels. The detector arrays will be cooled by a closed cycle system comprising a mechanical cooler with a base temperature of 2.5 K and either a low temperature 3He sorption pump providing the very low temperature stage and/or an Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR). The ADR cooler is explicitly needed to cool the NFI 2 array. The narrow field imager 1} Currently a 48 times 48 element array of superconducting tunnel junctions (STJ) is envisaged. Its operating temperature is in the range between 30 and 350 mK. Small, single Ta STJs (20-50 mum on a side) have shown 3.5 eV (FWHM) resolution at E = 525 eV and small arrays have been successfully demonstrated (6 times 6 pixels), or are currently tested (10 times 12 pixels). Alternatively, a prototype Distributed Read-Out Imaging Device (DROID), consisting of a linear superconducting Ta absorber of 20 times 100 mum2, including a 20 times 20 mum STJ for readout at either end, has shown a measured energy resolution of 2.4 eV (FWHM) at E = 500 eV. Simulations involving the diffusion properties as well as loss and tunnel rates have shown that the performance can be further improved by slight modifications in the geometry, and that the size of the DROIDS can be increased to 0.5-1.0 mm without loss in energy resolution. The relatively large areas and good energy resolution compared to single STJs make DROIDS good candidates for the

    20. Generalized mean detector for collaborative spectrum sensing

      KAUST Repository

      Shakir, Muhammad Zeeshan

      2013-04-01

      In this paper, a unified generalized eigenvalue based spectrum sensing framework referred to as Generalized mean detector (GMD) has been introduced. The generalization of the detectors namely (i) the eigenvalue ratio detector (ERD) involving the ratio of the largest and the smallest eigenvalues; (ii) the Geometric mean detector (GEMD) involving the ratio of the largest eigenvalue and the geometric mean of the eigenvalues and (iii) the Arithmetic mean detector (ARMD) involving the ratio of the largest and the arithmetic mean of the eigenvalues is explored. The foundation of the proposed unified framework is based on the calculation of exact analytical moments of the random variables of test statistics of the respective detectors. In this context, we approximate the probability density function (PDF) of the test statistics of the respective detectors by Gaussian/Gamma PDF using the moment matching method. Finally, we derive closed-form expressions to calculate the decision threshold of the eigenvalue based detectors by exchanging the derived exact moments of the random variables of test statistics with the moments of the Gaussian/Gamma distribution function. The performance of the eigenvalue based detectors is compared with the traditional detectors such as energy detector (ED) and cyclostationary detector (CSD) and validate the importance of the eigenvalue based detectors particularly over realistic wireless cognitive environments. Analytical and simulation results show that the GEMD and the ARMD yields considerable performance advantage in realistic spectrum sensing scenarios. Moreover, our results based on proposed simple and tractable approximation approaches are in perfect agreement with the empirical results. © 1972-2012 IEEE.

    1. Spiral biasing adaptor for use in Si drift detectors and Si drift detector arrays

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Li, Zheng; Chen, Wei

      2016-07-05

      A drift detector array, preferably a silicon drift detector (SDD) array, that uses a low current biasing adaptor is disclosed. The biasing adaptor is customizable for any desired geometry of the drift detector single cell with minimum drift time of carriers. The biasing adaptor has spiral shaped ion-implants that generate the desired voltage profile. The biasing adaptor can be processed on the same wafer as the drift detector array and only one biasing adaptor chip/side is needed for one drift detector array to generate the voltage profiles on the front side and back side of the detector array.

    2. Detectors for Linear Colliders: Detector design for a Future Electron-Positron Collider (4/4)

      CERN Document Server

      CERN. Geneva

      2010-01-01

      In this lecture I will discuss the issues related to the overall design and optimization of a detector for ILC and CLIC energies. I will concentrate on the two main detector concepts which are being developed in the context of the ILC. Here there has been much recent progress in developing realistic detector models and in understanding the physics performance of the overall detector concept. In addition, I will discuss the how the differences in the detector requirements for the ILC and CLIC impact the overall detector design.

    3. HIgh Rate X-ray Fluorescence Detector

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Grudberg, Peter Matthew [XIA LLC

      2013-04-30

      The purpose of this project was to develop a compact, modular multi-channel x-ray detector with integrated electronics. This detector, based upon emerging silicon drift detector (SDD) technology, will be capable of high data rate operation superior to the current state of the art offered by high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors, without the need for liquid nitrogen. In addition, by integrating the processing electronics inside the detector housing, the detector performance will be much less affected by the typically noisy electrical environment of a synchrotron hutch, and will also be much more compact than current systems, which can include a detector involving a large LN2 dewar and multiple racks of electronics. The combined detector/processor system is designed to match or exceed the performance and features of currently available detector systems, at a lower cost and with more ease of use due to the small size of the detector. In addition, the detector system is designed to be modular, so a small system might just have one detector module, while a larger system can have many you can start with one detector module, and add more as needs grow and budget allows. The modular nature also serves to simplify repair. In large part, we were successful in achieving our goals. We did develop a very high performance, large area multi-channel SDD detector, packaged with all associated electronics, which is easy to use and requires minimal external support (a simple power supply module and a closed-loop water cooling system). However, we did fall short of some of our stated goals. We had intended to base the detector on modular, large-area detectors from Ketek GmbH in Munich, Germany; however, these were not available in a suitable time frame for this project, so we worked instead with pnDetector GmbH (also located in Munich). They were able to provide a front-end detector module with six 100 m^2 SDD detectors (two monolithic arrays of three elements each) along with

    4. Superconducting nanowire detector jitters limited by detector geometry

      CERN Document Server

      Calandri, Niccolò; Zhu, Di; Dane, Andrew; Berggren, Karl K

      2016-01-01

      Detection jitter quantifies variance introduced by the detector in the determination of photon arrival time. It is a crucial performance parameter for systems using superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs). In this work, we have demonstrated that the detection timing jitter is limited in part by the spatial variation of photon detection events along the length of the wire. This distribution causes the generated electrical pulses to arrive at the readout at varied times. We define this jitter source as geometric jitter since it is related to the length and area of the SNSPD. To characterize the geometric jitter, we have constructed a novel differential cryogenic readout with less than 7 ps of electronic jitter that can amplify the pulses generated from the two ends of an SNSPD. By differencing the measured arrival times of the two electrical pulses, we were able to partially cancel out the difference of the propagation times and thus reduce the uncertainty of the photon arrival time. Our exper...

    5. Reactor monitoring using antineutrino detectors

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bowden, N. S.

      2011-08-01

      Nuclear reactors have served as the antineutrino source for many fundamental physics experiments. The techniques developed by these experiments make it possible to use these weakly interacting particles for a practical purpose. The large flux of antineutrinos that leaves a reactor carries information about two quantities of interest for safeguards: the reactor power and fissile inventory. Measurements made with antineutrino detectors could therefore offer an alternative means for verifying the power history and fissile inventory of a reactor as part of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and/or other reactor safeguards regimes. Several efforts to develop this monitoring technique are underway worldwide.

    6. Ge photocapacitive MIS infrared detectors

      Science.gov (United States)

      Binari, S. C.; Miller, W. E.; Tsuo, Y. H.; Miller, W. E.

      1979-01-01

      An undoped Ge photocapacitive detector is reported which has peak normalized detectivities at wavelengh 1.4 microns and chopping frequencies 13-1000 Hz of 9 x 10 to the 12th, 4 x 10 to the 9th cm Hz to the 1/2th/W operating respectively at temperatures 77, 195, and 295 K. The observed temperature, spectral, and frequency response of the signal and noise are explained in terms of the measured space charge and interface state properties of the device.

    7. Thermopile detector radiation hard readout

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gaalema, Stephen; Van Duyne, Stephen; Gates, James L.; Foote, Marc C.

      2010-08-01

      The NASA Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) conceptual payload contains a thermal instrument with six different spectral bands ranging from 8μm to 100μm. The thermal instrument is based on multiple linear arrays of thermopile detectors that are intrinsically radiation hard; however, the thermopile CMOS readout needs to be hardened to tolerate the radiation sources of the JEO mission. Black Forest Engineering is developing a thermopile readout to tolerate the JEO mission radiation sources. The thermal instrument and ROIC process/design techniques are described to meet the JEO mission requirements.

    8. Optimisation of the LHCb detector

      CERN Document Server

      Hierck, R

      2003-01-01

      This thesis describes a comparison of the LHCb classic and LHCb light concept from a tracking perspective. The comparison includes the detector occupancies, the various pattern recognition algorithms and the reconstruction performance. The final optimised LHCb setup is used to study the physics performance of LHCb for the Bs->DsK and Bs->DsPi decay channels. This includes both the event selection and a study of the sensitivity for the Bs oscillation frequency, delta m_s, the Bs lifetime difference, DGamma_s, and the CP parameter gamma-2delta gamma.

    9. Optimisation of the LHCb detector

      CERN Document Server

      Hierck, R H

      2003-01-01

      This thesis describes a comparison of the LHCb classic and LHCb light concept from a tracking perspective. The comparison includes the detector occupancies, the various pattern recognition algorithms and the reconstruction performance. The final optimised LHCb setup is used to study the physics performance of LHCb for the Bs->DsK and Bs->DsPi decay channels. This includes both the event selection and a study of the sensitivity for the Bs oscillation frequency, delta m_s, the Bs lifetime difference, DGamma_s, and the CP parameter gamma-2delta gamma.

    10. The CPLEAR particle identification detector

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Angelopoulos, A.; Apostolakis, A.; Rozaki, E.; Sakeliou, L. (Univ. Athens (Greece)); Backenstoss, G.; Kuzminski, J.; Rickenbach, R.; Wildi, M. (Univ. Basel (Switzerland)); Carlson, P.; Francis, D.; Jansson, K.; Jon-And, K.; Kerek, A.; Szilagyi, S. (Manne Siegbahn Inst. Stockholm (Sweden)); Carvalho, J.; Cobbaert, H.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Machado, E.; Onofre, A.; Pinto da Cunha, J.; Policarpo, A. (Univ. Coimbra, LIP (Portugal) Technical Univ., Delft (Netherlands)); Charalambous, S.; Chardalas, M.; Dedoussis, S.; Touramanis, C. (Univ. Thessaloniki (Greece)); Fassnacht, P.; Pelucchi, F. (CPPM, Marseille (France) CSNSM, Orsay (France) P. Scherrer Inst., Villingen (Switzerland) DPhPe, CEN-Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)); Fetcher, W.; Gerber, H.J. (Inst. fuer Mittelenergiephysik, ETH Villingen (Switzerland)); Fuglesang, C.; Kesseler, G.; Montanet, F. (CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)); Go, A.; Lawry, T.; Miller, J.; Roberts, B.L.; Varner, G.; Warner, D.; Zimmerman, D. (Univ. Boston,; CPLEAR Collaboration

      1992-01-01

      The CPLEAR experiment will measure CP violation parameters in the neutral kaon system, using a low energy antiproton beam from the Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR) at CERN. One of its subdetectors, the Particle Identification Detector (PID), makes a fast separation of pions and kaons, which is essential for the experiment. This article describes the design of the PID and its performance during beam tests and during initial runs at LEAR. A pion rejection efficiency of 99.7% for the first level trigger (after 60 ns) is found in the relevant momentum region. (orig.).

    11. Development of innovative silicon radiation detectors

      CERN Document Server

      Balbuena, JuanPablo

      Silicon radiation detectors fabricated at the IMB-CNM (CSIC) Clean Room facilities using the most innovative techniques in detector technology are presented in this thesis. TCAD simulation comprises an important part in this work as becomes an essential tool to achieve exhaustive performance information of modelled detectors prior their fabrication and subsequent electrical characterization. Radiation tolerance is also investigated in this work using TCAD simulations through the potential and electric field distributions, leakage current and capacitance characteristics and the response of the detectors to the pass of different particles for charge collection efficiencies. Silicon detectors investigated in this thesis were developed for specific projects but also for applications in experiments which can benefit from their improved characteristics, as described in Chapter 1. Double-sided double type columns 3D (3D-DDTC) detectors have been developed under the NEWATLASPIXEL project in the framework of the CERN ...

    12. Signal development in irradiated silicon detectors

      CERN Document Server

      Kramberger, Gregor; Mikuz, Marko

      2001-01-01

      This work provides a detailed study of signal formation in silicon detectors, with the emphasis on detectors with high concentration of irradiation induced defects in the lattice. These defects give rise to deep energy levels in the band gap. As a consequence, the current induced by charge motion in silicon detectors is signifcantly altered. Within the framework of the study a new experimental method, Charge correction method, based on transient current technique (TCT) was proposed for determination of effective electron and hole trapping times in irradiated silicon detectors. Effective carrier trapping times were determined in numerous silicon pad detectors irradiated with neutrons, pions and protons. Studied detectors were fabricated on oxygenated and non-oxygenated silicon wafers with different bulk resistivities. Measured effective carrier trapping times were found to be inversely proportional to fuence and increase with temperature. No dependence on silicon resistivity and oxygen concentration was observ...

    13. Scintillation detectors of Alborz-I experiment

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Pezeshkian, Yousef [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O.Box 11155-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alborz Observatory, Sharif University of Technology, P.O.Box 11155-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bahmanabadi, Mahmud, E-mail: bahmanabadi@sharif.edu [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O.Box 11155-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Alborz Observatory, Sharif University of Technology, P.O.Box 11155-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abbasian Motlagh, Mehdi; Rezaie, Masume [Alborz Observatory, Sharif University of Technology, P.O.Box 11155-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

      2015-02-11

      A new air shower experiment of the Alborz Observatory, Alborz-I, located at the Sharif University of Technology, Iran, will be constructed in near future. An area of about 30×40 m{sup 2} will be covered by 20 plastic scintillation detectors (each with an area of 50×50 cm{sup 2}). A series of experiments have been performed to optimize the height of light enclosures of the detectors for this array and the results have been compared to an extended code simulation of these detectors. Operational parameters of the detector obtained by this code are cross checked by the Geant4 simulation. There is a good agreement between the extended-code and Geant4 simulations. We also present further discussions on the detector characteristics, which can be applicable for all scintillation detectors with a similar configuration.

    14. Gaseous Detectors: recent developments and applications

      CERN Document Server

      Titov, Maxim

      2010-01-01

      Since long time, the compelling scientific goals of future high energy physics experiments were a driving factor in the development of advanced detector technologies. A true innovation in detector instrumentation concepts came in 1968, with the development of a fully parallel readout for a large array of sensing elements - the Multiwire Proportional Chamber (MWPC), which earned Georges Charpak a Nobel prize in physics in 1992. Since that time radiation detection and imaging with fast gaseous detectors, capable of economically covering large detection volume with low mass budget, have been playing an important role in many fields of physics. Advances in photo-lithography and micro-processing techniques in the chip industry during the past decade triggered a major transition in the field of gas detectors from wire structures to Micro-Pattern Gas Detector (MPGD) concepts, revolutionizing cell size limitations for many gas detector applications. The high radiation resistance and excellent spatial and time resolut...

    15. Immune Based Intrusion Detector Generating Algorithm

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      DONG Xiao-mei; YU Ge; XIANG Guang

      2005-01-01

      Immune-based intrusion detection approaches are studied. The methods of constructing self set and generating mature detectors are researched and improved. A binary encoding based self set construction method is applied. First,the traditional mature detector generating algorithm is improved to generate mature detectors and detect intrusions faster. Then, a novel mature detector generating algorithm is proposed based on the negative selection mechanism. Accord ing to the algorithm, less mature detectors are needed to detect the abnormal activities in the network. Therefore, the speed of generating mature detectors and intrusion detection is improved. By comparing with those based on existing algo rithms, the intrusion detection system based on the algorithm has higher speed and accuracy.

    16. Scintillation detectors of Alborz-I experiment

      CERN Document Server

      Pezeshkian, Yousef; Motlagh, Mehdi Abbasian; Rezaie, Masoume

      2014-01-01

      A new air shower experiment of the Alborz Observatory, Alborz-I, located at the Sharif University of Technology, Iran, will be constructed in near future. An area of about 30$\\times$40 m$^{2}$ will be covered by 20 plastic scintillation detectors (each with an area of 50$\\times$50 cm$^{2}$). A series of experiments have been performed to optimize the height of light enclosures of the detectors for this array and the results have been compared to an extended code simulation of these detectors. Operational parameters of the detector obtained by this code are cross checked by Geant4 simulation. There is a good agreement between extended-code and Geant4 simulations. We also present further discussions on the detector characteristics, which can be applicable for all scintillation detectors with a similar configuration.

    17. Yaygın Gelişimsel Bozukluk Tanılı Çocukların Anne-Babalarının Yas Tepkilerinin, Evlilik Uyumlarının ve Sosyal Destek Algılarının Đncelenmesi

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Deniz Karpat

      2012-07-01

      Full Text Available Bu çalışma, yaygın gelişimsel bozukluk tanılı çocukların anne babalarının bu tanı nedeniyle yaşadıkları yas sürecini, evlilik uyumlarını ve algıladıkları sosyal desteği etkileyen faktörleri incelemek amacıyla gerçekleştirilmiştir. Veriler, 3-18 yaş aralığında yaygın gelişimsel bozukluk (YGB tanılı çocuğu olan gönüllü 103 anne-babaya uygulanan Hogan Yas Tepkileri Tarama Listesi, Çiftler Uyum Ölçeği, Çok Boyutlu Algılanan Sosyal Destek Ölçeği ve Kişisel Bilgi Formu kullanılarak toplanmıştır. Yaş, evlilik uyumu ve algılanan sosyal desteğin çeşitli demografik değişkenler açısından farklılaştığı bulunmuştur. YGB tanılı çocukların anne-babalarında yasın olumsuz yanını yordayan değişkenlerin annebabaların cinsiyet ve eğitim düzeyi, evlilik süresi, özel insan kategorisinden algılanan sosyal destek, arkadaş kategorisinden algılanan sosyal destek ve çift bağlılığı olduğu görülmüştür. Yasın olumlu yanını yordayan değişkenlerin ise anne-babanın cinsiyeti ve eğitim düzeyi, tanıdan sonra geçen süre ve çift uyumu olduğu belirlenmiştir. Sonuçlar ilgili alanyazın verileri ışığında tartışılmıştır. The aim of this study is to examine the factors effecting grief, marital adjustment and social support and relationship between grief, marital adjustment and social support of the parents of children with pervasive development disorder. Hogan Grief Reaction Checklist, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Dyadic Adjustment Scale and Personal Information Form which was developed by the researcher were used for this purpose. The sample of the study consists of 103 parents of the children between 3 and 18 years old with PDD. The results showed that the grief, marital adjustment and social support differentiated among the demographic variables. The variables that predict the grief of the parents of the children with PDD in a negative

    18. The Effect of Strong Start Social Emotional Learning Program on social and emotional development of five-year-old childrenGüçlü Başlangıç Sosyal Duygusal Öğrenme Programı’nın 5 yaş çocuklarının duygusal gelişimleri üzerine etkisi

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Burcu Özdemir Beceren

      2016-02-01

      Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed to determine the effectiveness of the Strong Start Social Emotional Learning Program on emotional development of the five-year-old children attending at preschool institutions. The study is conducted with pre-test and post-test control grouped experimental design. The study group consists of 40 five-year-old children attending at the two pre-school groups. Half of participants are attained to one control group and to one experimental group. Strong Start Social Emotional learning program is taught to children in experimental group once a week for 12 weeks in addition to their curriculum. Children in the control group continue to study their preschool education program. In the study, Personal Information Form, the Scale of Assessment of Children’s Emotion Skills (ACES were employed as data gathering instruments. In statistical data analysis, Mann Whitney U-Test, Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test, and Friedman Test are used.The results indicate that there is a statistically significant difference between the experiment and control group regarding their scores on emotional skills. Depending on the results obtained, it is concluded that Strong Start Social Emotional Learning Program has a positive effect on the emotional development of five-year-old children.   Özet Bu araştırmada, Güçlü Başlangıç Sosyal Duygusal Öğrenme Programı’nın okul öncesi eğitime devam eden beş yaş çocuklarının duygusal gelişimleri üzerine etkililiğinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Araştırma, öntest-sontest kontrol gruplu deneysel desende gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu beş yaş grubundaki 20 deney grubu, 20 kontrol grubu olmak üzere toplam 40 çocuk oluşturmuştur. Deney grubundaki çocuklara okul öncesi eğitim programlarına ek olarak oniki hafta süreyle haftada bir kez Güçlü Başlangıç Sosyal Duygusal Öğrenme Programı uygulanmıştır. Kontrol grubundaki çocuklar ise okullar

    19. Fiberoptic metal detector capable of profile detection

      OpenAIRE

      Hua, Wei-Shu; Hooks, Joshua R.; Erwin, Nicholas A.; Wu, Wen-Jong; Wang, Wei-Chih

      2011-01-01

      The purpose of this paper is to develop a novel ferromagnetic polymeric metal detector system by using a fiber-optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a newly developed ferromagnetic polymer as the magnetostrictive sensing device. This ferromagnetic polymeric metal detector system is simple to fabricate, small in size, and resistant to RF interference (which is common in typical electromagnetic type metal detectors). Metal detection is made possible by disrupting the magnetic flux density pres...

    20. Test Plan for Cask Identification Detector

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Rauch, Eric Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

      2016-09-29

      This document serves to outline the testing of a Used Fuel Cask Identification Detector (CID) currently being designed under the DOE-NE MPACT Campaign. A bench-scale prototype detector will be constructed and tested using surrogate neutron sources. The testing will serve to inform the design of the full detector that is to be used as a way of fingerprinting used fuel storage casks based on the neutron signature produced by the used fuel inside the cask.

    1. LHC detector status and early physics

      CERN Document Server

      Rousseau, D

      2007-01-01

      The current status of LHC machine, and ATLAS and CMS detectors are briefly stated. Expected performance for both detectors is then compared on the main physics objects. The detector understanding studies through combined test beam, cosmics, low energy running one one side, large scale accurate simulation on the other side, are described. Finally, a few physics topics for which the data collected in 2008 will be relevant are mentionned.

    2. Detector Control System of Tile Calorimeter

      CERN Document Server

      Arabidze, G; The ATLAS collaboration

      2009-01-01

      The subject of this presentation is to describe the Detector Control System (DCS) implementation for Tile Calorimeter sub-detector. It describes hardware layout and software components for main, infrastructure related and sub-detector calibration systems. It discusses implementation of the top level software Finite State Machine (FSM)and discusses state models of FSM objects. Presentation shows usage of Configuration and Conditions Data Bases, for Tile Calorimeter DCS.

    3. First results from the MINOS calibration detector

      CERN Document Server

      Vahle, P; Alner, J; Anderson, B; Attree, D; Barker, M; Belias, A; Crone, G; Durkin, T J; Felt, N; Falk, E; Harris, P; Jenner, L; Kordosky, M; Lang, K; Lebedev, A; Lee, R; Longley, N P; Marshak, M; Miyagawa, P; Michael, D G; Morse, R; Musser, J; Nichol, R; Nicholls, T; Oliver, J; Pearce, G; Petyt, D; Proga, M; Rebel, B; Saakyan, R; Smith, C; Sullivan, P; Thomas, J; Weber, A; Wojcicki, S G

      2002-01-01

      The MINOS calibration detector (CalDet) is a small version of the MINOS Near and Far neutrino detectors. A program of exposure to beams of muons, electrons, pions and protons at the CERN PS will provide calibration of the calorimetric and topological response of the Near and Far detectors. In this talk, we briefly discuss the goals and design of the CalDet and present first results from the initial beam exposure. (3 refs).

    4. XML for Detector Description at GLAST

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Bogart, Joanne

      2002-04-30

      The problem of representing a detector in a form which is accessible to a variety of applications, allows retrieval of information in ways which are natural to those applications, and is maintainable has been vexing physicists for some time. Although invented to address an entirely different problem domain, the document markup meta-language XML is well-suited to detector description. This paper describes its use for a GLAST detector.

    5. XML for Detector Description at GLAST

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      J.Bogart; D.Favretto; 等

      2001-01-01

      The problem of representing a detector in a form which is accessible to a variety of applications,allows retrieval of information in ways which are natural to those applications,and is maintainable has been vexing physicists for some time,Although invented to address an entirely different problem domain,the document markup metalanguage XML is well-suited to detector description.This paper describes its use for a GLAST detector.[7

    6. The E781 (SELEX) RICH detector

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Engelfried, J.

      1997-06-01

      First results from a new RICH detector, operating in an experiment currently taking data - Fermilab E781 (SELEX), are presented. The detector utilizes a matrix of 2848 phototubes for the photocathode. In a 650 GeV/c ?r- beam the number of photons detected is 14 per ring, giving a Figure of Merit No of 106 cm-`. The ring radius resolution obtained is 1.2 %. Results showing the particle identification ability of the detector are discussed.

    7. The E781 (SELEX) RICH detector

      Science.gov (United States)

      Engelfried, J.; Kilmer, J.; Ramberg, E.; Stutte, L.; Kozhevnikov, A.; Kubarovsky, V.; Molchanov, V.; Filimonov, I.; Nemitkin, A.; Rud, V.

      1998-02-01

      First results from a new RICH detector, operating in an experiment currently taking data - Fermilab E781 (SELEX), are presented. The detector utilizes a matrix of 2848 phototubes for the photocathode. In a 650 GeV/c π- beam the number of photons detected is 14 per ring, giving a figure of merit N0 of 106 cm-1. The ring radius resolution obtained is 1.2%. Results showing the particle identification ability of the detector are discussed.

    8. CLIC vertex detector R&D

      CERN Document Server

      AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)734627

      2015-01-01

      A vertex-detector concept is under development for the proposed multi-TeV linear e+e- Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). To perform precision physics measurements in a chal- lenging environment, the CLIC vertex detector pushes the technological requirements to the limits. This paper reviews the requirements for the CLIC vertex detector and gives an over- view of recent R&D achievements in the domains of sensor, readout, powering and cooling.

    9. CLIC vertex detector R&D

      Science.gov (United States)

      Alipour Tehrani, Niloufar

      2016-07-01

      A vertex detector concept is under development for the proposed multi-TeV linear e+e- Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). To perform precision physics measurements in a challenging environment, the CLIC vertex detector pushes the technological requirements to the limits. This paper reviews the requirements for the CLIC vertex detector and gives an overview of recent R&D achievements in the domains of sensor, readout, powering and cooling.

    10. Cosmic-Ray Detectors With Interdigitated Electrodes

      Science.gov (United States)

      Cunningham, Thomas J.; Mazed, Mohammed; Holtzman, Melinda J.; Fossum, Eric R.

      1995-01-01

      Detectors measure both positions of incidence and energies of incident charged particles. Stack of detector wafers intercept cosmic ray. Measure positions of incidence to determine cosmic-ray trajectory and charge generated within them (proportional to cosmic-ray energy dissipated within them). Interdigital electrode pattern repeated over many rows and columns on tops of detector wafers in stack. Electrode pattern defines pixels within which points of incidence of incident cosmic rays located.

    11. Forward instrumentation for ILC detectors

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Abramowicz, Halina [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel); Abusleme, Angel [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Afanaciev, Konstantin [NCPHEP, Minsk (BY)] (and others)

      2010-09-15

      Two special calorimeters are foreseen for the instrumentation of the very forward region of the ILC detector, a luminometer designed to measure the rate of low angle Bhabha scattering events with a precision better than 10{sup -3} and a low polar angle calorimeter, adjacent to the beam-pipe. The latter will be hit by a large amount of beamstrahlung remnants. The amount and shape of these depositions will allow a fast luminosity estimate and the determination of beam parameters. The sensors of this calorimeter must be radiation hard. Both devices will improve the hermeticity of the detector in the search for new particles. Finely segmented and very compact calorimeters will match the requirements. Due to the high occupancy fast front-end electronics is needed. The design of the calorimeters developed and optimised with Monte Carlo simulations is presented. Sensors and readout electronics ASICs have been designed and prototypes are available. Results on the performance of these major components are summarised. (orig.)

    12. Metal detector depth estimation algorithms

      Science.gov (United States)

      Marble, Jay; McMichael, Ian

      2009-05-01

      This paper looks at depth estimation techniques using electromagnetic induction (EMI) metal detectors. Four algorithms are considered. The first utilizes a vertical gradient sensor configuration. The second is a dual frequency approach. The third makes use of dipole and quadrapole receiver configurations. The fourth looks at coils of different sizes. Each algorithm is described along with its associated sensor. Two figures of merit ultimately define algorithm/sensor performance. The first is the depth of penetration obtainable. (That is, the maximum detection depth obtainable.) This describes the performance of the method to achieve detection of deep targets. The second is the achievable statistical depth resolution. This resolution describes the precision with which depth can be estimated. In this paper depth of penetration and statistical depth resolution are qualitatively determined for each sensor/algorithm. A scientific method is used to make these assessments. A field test was conducted using 2 lanes with emplaced UXO. The first lane contains 155 shells at increasing depths from 0" to 48". The second is more realistic containing objects of varying size. The first lane is used for algorithm training purposes, while the second is used for testing. The metal detectors used in this study are the: Geonics EM61, Geophex GEM5, Minelab STMR II, and the Vallon VMV16.

    13. Micromegas detectors for CLAS12

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Charles, Gabriel [CEA, SACLAY

      2013-08-01

      The electron accelerator of the Thomas Jefferson Laboratory (VI, USA) will soon be upgraded to deliver 12 GeV high intensity beams. This increase in the performance will give the opportunity to study the nucleon structure with an unprecedented accuracy. To meet this end, new equipments will be installed in the experimental areas, particularly in the Hall B/CLAS spectrometer. One of the most challenging aspects is the installation of a Central Tracker surrounding the target, dedicated to the detection of particles emitted at large angles. Micromegas detectors have been chosen to be a major element of this new equipment, due to their high rate capability as well as their robustness and light material. Using the recent bulk technology, part of these gaseous detectors are planned to be assembled in thin cylinders to maximize the acceptance. On the other hand, the presence of a strong magnetic field either perpendicular or parallel to the readout strips has important consequences which need to be carefully investigated. Finally, resistive Micromegas have been studied to further improve the rate capability.

    14. Straw detector: 1 - Vacuum: 0

      CERN Multimedia

      Katarina Anthony

      2012-01-01

      The NA62 straw tracker is using pioneering CERN technology to measure charged particles from very rare kaon decays. For the first time, a large straw tracker with a 4.4 m2 coverage will be placed directly into an experiment’s vacuum tank, allowing physicists to measure the direction and momentum of charged particles with extreme precision. NA62 measurements using this technique will help physicists take a clear look at the kaon decay rate, which might be influenced by particles and processes that are not included in the Standard Model.   Straw ends are glued to an aluminium frame, a crucial step in the assembly of a module. The ends are then visually inspected before a leak test is performed.  “Although straw detectors have been around since the 1980s, what makes the NA62 straw trackers different is that they can work under vacuum,” explains Hans Danielsson from the PH-DT group leading the NA62 straw project. Straw detectors are basically small drift cha...

    15. The TOTEM Detector at LHC

      CERN Document Server

      Ruggiero, G; Aspell, P; Atanassov, I; Avati, V; Berardi, V; Berretti, M; Bozzo, M; Brücken, E; Buzzo, A; Cafagna, F; Calicchio, M; Catanesi, M G; Ciocci, M A; Csanád, M; Csörgö, T; Deile, M; Dénes, E; Dimovasili, E; Doubek, M; Eggert, K; Ferro, F; Garcia, F; Giani, S; Greco, V; Grzanka, L; Heino, J; Hilden, T; Janda, M; Kaspar, J; Kopal, J; Kundrát, V; Kurvinen, K; Lami, S; Latino, G; Lauhakangas, R; Lippmaa, E; Lokajícek, M; Lo Vetere, M; Lucas Rodriguez, F; Macrí, M; Magazzù, G; Minutoli, S; Niewiadomski, H; Notarnicola, G; Novak, T; Oliveri, E; Oljemark, F; Orava, R; Oriunno, M; Österberg, K; Palazzi, P; Pedreschi, E; Petäjäjärvi, J; Quinto, M; Radermacher, E; Radicioni, E; Ravotti, F; Robutti, E; Ropelewski, L; Rummel, A; Saarikko, H; Sanguinetti, G; Santroni, A; Scribano, A; Sette, G; Snoeys, W; Spearman, W; Spinella, F; Ster, A; Taylor, C; Trummal, A; Turini, N; Vacek, V; Vitek, M; Whitmore, J; Wu, J

      2010-01-01

      The TOTEM experiment, small in size compared to the others at the LHC, is dedicated to the measurement of the total proton–proton cross-sections with a luminosity-independent method and to the study of elastic and diffractive scattering at the LHC. To achieve optimum forward coverage for charged particles emitted by the pp collisions in the IP5 interaction point, two tracking telescopes, T1 and T2, will be installed on each side in the pseudo-rapidity region between 3.1 and 6.5, and Roman Pot stations will be placed at distances of 147 and 220 m from IP5. The telescope closest to the interaction point (T1, centred at z=9 m) consists of Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC), while the second one (T2, centred at 13.5 m), makes use of Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM). The proton detectors in the Roman Pots are silicon devices designed by TOTEM with the specific objective of reducing down to a few tens of microns the insensitive area at the edge. High efficiency as close as possible to the physical detector boundary is an...

    16. COMMISSIONING AND DETECTOR PERFORMANCE GROUPS

      CERN Multimedia

      D. Acosta

      The global commissioning campaign begins this year with a series of weekly two-day global runs of limited participation until mid-March. The aim of these runs varies week-to-week, but includes the commissioning the calorimeter triggers, the muon track-finder triggers in the DT/CSC overlap, the PLL locking ranges, and generally accumulating data either for HCAL noise characterization or detector studies with cosmic muons. In mid-March a full Global Run is scheduled with all components participating, followed in April by a Cosmic Run with the aim of collecting statistics over a couple weeks with the installed Tracker and other subsystems. The ultimate milestone is the Cosmic Run At Four Tesla (CRAFT), with a completed CMS closed and the solenoid energized for data-taking during June. The Detector Performance Groups start the year with the focus to prepare for LHC collisions, and the associated challenges (CSA08) and global commissioning exercises (CRAFT) along the way. New this year is the addition of the Tri...

    17. The TOTEM Detector at LHC

      CERN Document Server

      Ruggiero, G; Aspell, P; Atanassov, I; Avati, V; Berardi, V; Berretti, M; Bozzo, M; Brücken, E; Buzzo, A; Cafagna, F; Calicchio, M; Catanesi, M G; Ciocci, M A; Csanád, M; Csörgö, T; Deile, M; Dénes, E; Dimovasili, E; Doubek, M; Eggert, K; Ferro, F; Garcia, F; Giani, S; Greco, V; Grzanka, L; Heino, J; Hilden, T; Janda, M; Kaspar, J; Kopal, J; Kundrát, V; Kurvinen, K; Lami, S; Latino, G; Lauhakangas, R; Lippmaa, E; Lokajícek, M; Lo Vetere, M; Lucas Rodriguez, F; Macrí, M; Magazzù, G; Minutoli, S; Niewiadomski, H; Notarnicola, G; Novak, T; Oliveri, E; Oljemark, F; Orava, R; Oriunno, M; Österberg, K; Pedreschi, E; Petäjäjärvi, J; Quinto, M; Radermacher, E; Radicioni, E; Ravotti, F; Robutti, E; Ropelewski, L; Rummel, A; Saarikko, H; Sanguinetti, G; Santroni, A; Scribano, A; Sette, G; Snoeys, W; Spearman, W; Spinella, F; Ster, A; Taylor, C; Trummal, A; Turini, N; Vacek, V; Vitek, M; Whitmore, J; Wu, J

      2010-01-01

      The TOTEM experiment, small in size compared to the others at the LHC, is dedicated to the measurement of the total proton-proton cross-section with the luminosity-independent method and to the study of elastic and diffractive scattering. To achieve optimum forward coverage for charged particles emitted by the pp collisions in the interaction point IP5, two tracking telescopes, T1 and T2, are installed on each side in the pseudo-rapidity region between 3.1 and 6.5, and Roman Pot (RP) stations are placed at distances of 147m and 220m from IP5. The telescope closest to the interaction point (T1, centered at z = 9 m) consists of Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC), while the second one (T2, centered at 13.5 m), makes use of Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM). The proton detectors in the RPs are silicon devices designed by TOTEM with the specific objective of reducing down to a few tens of microns the insensitive area at the edge. High efficiency as close as possible to the physical detector boundary is an essential feature...

    18. The Gravitational Wave Detector EXPLORER

      CERN Multimedia

      2002-01-01

      %RE5 EXPLORER is a cryogenic resonant-mass gravitational wave (GW) detector. It is in operation at CERN since 1984 and it has been the first cryogenic GW antenna to perform continuous observations (since 1990).\\\\ \\\\EXPLORER is actually part of the international network of resonant-mass detectors which includes ALLEGRO at the Louisiana State University, AURIGA at the INFN Legnaro Laboratories, NAUTILUS at the INFN Frascati Laboratories and NIOBE at the University of Western Australia. The EXPLORER sensitivity, at present of the same order of the other antennas, is 10$^{-20}$ Hz$^{-1/2}$ over a bandwidth of 20 Hz and 6 10$^{-22}$ Hz$^{-1/2}$ with a bandwidth of about 0.5 Hz, corresponding to a sensitivity to short GW bursts of \\textit{h} = 6 10$^{-19}$.\\\\ \\\\This sensitivity should allow the detection of the burst sources in our Galaxy and in the Local Group. No evidence of GW signals has been reported up to now.\\\\ \\\\The principle of operation is based on the assumption that any vibrational mode of a resonant bo...

    19. The DEPFET Mini-matrix Particle Detector

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      J. Scheirich

      2010-01-01

      Full Text Available The DEPFET is new type of active pixel particle detector. A MOSFET is integrated in each pixel, providing the first amplification stage of the readout electronics. Excellent noise parameters are obtained with this layout. The DEPFET detector will be integrated as an inner detector in the BELLE II and ILC experiment. A flexible measuring system with a wide control cycle range and minimal noise was designed for testing small detector prototypes.Noise of 60 electrons of the equivalent input charge was achieved during the first measurements on the system.

    20. Physics performance of the ATLAS pixel detector

      Science.gov (United States)

      Tsuno, S.

      2017-01-01

      In preparation for LHC Run-2 the ATLAS detector introduced a new pixel detector, the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). This detector is located between the beampipe and what was the innermost pixel layer. The tracking and vertex reconstruction are significantly improved and good performance is expected in high level objects such a b-quark jet tagging. This in turn, leads to better physics results. This note summarizes the impact of the IBL detector on physics results, especially focusing on the analyses using b-quark jets throughout 2016 summer physics program.

    1. Cherenkov Detector for Beam Quality Measurement

      CERN Document Server

      Orfanelli, Stella

      2015-01-01

      A new detector to measure the machine induced background at larger radiihas been developed and installed in the CMS experiment at LHC. Itconsists of 40 modules, each comprising a quartz bar read out by aphotomultiplier. Since Cerenkov radiation is emitted in a forward conearound the charged particle trajectory, these detectors can distinguishthe directions of the machine induced background.The back-end consists of a microTCA readout with excellent time resolution.The performance of the detector modules measured in several test-beamcampaigns will be reported. The installation in CMS will be described, andfirst results about operating the detector during data taking will begiven.

    2. LCDD: A complete detector description package

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Graf, Norman, E-mail: Norman.Graf@slac.stanford.edu; McCormick, Jeremy, E-mail: Jeremy.McCormick@slac.stanford.edu

      2015-07-21

      LCDD has been developed to provide a complete detector description package for physics detector simulations using Geant4. All aspects of the experimental setup, such as the physical geometry, magnetic fields, and sensitive detector readouts, as well as control of the physics simulations, such as physics processes, interaction models and kinematic limits, are defined at runtime. Users are therefore able to concentrate on the design of the detector system without having to master the intricacies of C++ programming or being proficient in setting up their own Geant4 application. We describe both the XML-based file format and the processors which communicate this information to the underlying Geant4 simulation toolkit.

    3. Advantages of gated silicon single photon detectors

      CERN Document Server

      Lunghi, T; Barreiro, C; Stucki, D; Sanguinetti, B; Zbinden, H

      2012-01-01

      We present a gated silicon single photon detector based on a commercially available avalanche photodiode. Our detector achieves a photon detection efficiency of 45\\pm5% at 808 nm with 2x 10^-6 dark count per ns at -30V of excess bias and -30{\\deg}C. We compare gated and free-running detectors and show that this mode of operation has significant advantages in two representative experimental scenarios: detecting a single photon either hidden in faint continuous light or after a strong pulse. We also explore, at different temperatures and incident light intensities, the "charge persistence" effect, whereby a detector clicks some time after having been illuminated.

    4. Computer-assisted area detector masking.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Wright, Christopher J; Zhou, Xiao Dong

      2017-03-01

      Area detectors have become the predominant type of detector for the rapid acquisition of X-ray diffraction, small-angle scattering and total scattering. These detectors record the scattering for a large area, giving each shot good statistical significance to the resulting scattered intensity I(Q) pattern. However, many of these detectors have pixel level defects, which cause error in the resulting one-dimensional patterns. In this work, new software to automatically find and mask these dead pixels and other defects is presented. This algorithm is benchmarked with both ideal simulated and experimental datasets.

    5. Ultrafast graphene-based broadband THz detector

      CERN Document Server

      Mittendorff, Martin; Kamann, Josef; Eroms, Jonathan; Weiss, Dieter; Schneider, Harald; Helm, Manfred

      2013-01-01

      We present an ultrafast graphene-based detector, working in the THz range at room temperature. A logarithmic-periodic antenna is coupled to a graphene flake that is produced by exfoliation on SiO2. The detector was characterized with the free-electron laser FELBE for wavelengths from 8 um to 220 um. The detector rise time is 50 ps in the wavelength range from 30 um to 220 um. Autocorrelation measurements exploiting the nonlinear photocurrent response at high intensities reveal an intrinsic response time below 10 ps. This detector has a high potential for characterizing temporal overlaps, e. g. in two-color pump-probe experiments.

    6. Detector R&D and Production Facilities

      Data.gov (United States)

      Federal Laboratory Consortium — Fermilab has an intensive program in particle detector research and development. This program revolves around a series of institutional capabilities, typically not...

    7. Status of the ATLAS pixel detector

      CERN Document Server

      Saavedra Aldo, F

      2005-01-01

      The ATLAS pixel detector is currently being constructed and will be installed in 2006 to be ready for commissioning at the Large Hadron Collider. The complete pixel detector is composed of three concentric barrels and six disks that are populated by 1744 ATLAS Pixel modules. The main components of the pixel module are the readout electronics and the silicon sensor whose active region is instrumented with rectangular pixels. The module has been designed to be able to survive 10 years of operation within the ATLAS detector. A brief description of the pixel detector will be presented with results and problems encountered during the production stage.

    8. Radiation experience with the CDF silicon detectors

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Husemann, Ulrich; /Rochester U.

      2005-11-01

      The silicon detectors of the CDF experiment at the Tevatron collider are operated in a harsh radiation environment. The lifetime of the silicon detectors is limited by radiation damage, and beam-related incidents are an additional risk. This article describes the impact of beam-related incidents on detector operation and the effects of radiation damage on electronics noise and the silicon sensors. From measurements of the depletion voltage as a function of the integrated luminosity, estimates of the silicon detector lifetime are derived.

    9. Detector Control System for the AFP detector in ATLAS experiment at CERN

      CERN Document Server

      Banas, Elzbieta; The ATLAS collaboration

      2017-01-01

      The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector project consists of two forward detectors located at 205 m and 217 m on either side of the ATLAS experiment. The aim is to measure the momenta and angles of diffractively scattered protons. In 2016, two detector stations on one side of the ATLAS interaction point were installed and commissioned. The detector infrastructure and necessary services were installed and are supervised by the Detector Control System (DCS), which is responsible for the coherent and safe operation of the detector. A large variety of used equipment represents a considerable challenge for the AFP DCS design. Industrial Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) product Siemens WinCCOA, together with the CERN Joint Control Project (JCOP) framework and standard industrial and custom developed server applications and protocols are used for reading, processing, monitoring and archiving of the detector parameters. Graphical user interfaces allow for overall detector operation and visualization of...

    10. Development of Entrepreneurship Scale Towards Student Teachers: A validity and reliability studyÖğretmen Adaylarına Yönelik Girişimcilik Ölçeğinin geliştirilmesi: Geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      İsa Deveci

      2015-07-01

      Full Text Available In recent years, the development of entrepreneurial characteristics of students has come to the fore at all educational levels. This situation began to reflect on the curriculum. Thus, to the extent that teachers have entrepreneurial characteristics may be important. Especially ıt can be said that science teachers who will conduct the science curriculum which is a combination of different disciplines, to what extent they must have these features. It is a matter to be examined. For this concrete measurement tools are needed. The aim of this study was to develop "Entrepreneurship Scale Toward Student Teachers". This process was firstly created to item pool. Content validity of items has been achieved by resorting to expert opinions. Application was carried out in 2013-2014 academic year. Sample consists of 730 science student teachers. To form the factor structure of the scale consists of five subscales was used the exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Analysis showed that factor loads is found that values between .51 and 79, item-total-correlations is found that values between .35 and .68. the smallest eigenvalues has been found 3.0 and the smallest Variance ratios has been found % 41. And then five factor of the scale was confirmed by CFA. As a result of DFA was verified by considering Chi-square, RMSEA, CFI, NNFI, RMR, NFI, AGFI, GFI and SRMR fit index. the smallest Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient is .77 and for test-retest reliability, the lowest correlation coefficient was found to be .66.   Özet Bu araştırmanın amacı “Öğretmen Adaylarına Yönelik Girişimcilik Ölçeği (ÖAYGÖ”ni geliştirmektir. Bu süreçte ilk olarak madde havuzu oluşturulmuştur. Uzman görüşlerine sunulan maddelerin kapsam geçerliği sağlandıktan sonra ön çalışma ile olası hatalar ve eksiklikler giderilmeye çalışılmıştır. Asıl uygulama, 2013-2014 eğitim öğretim yılında ölçüt örnekleme yöntemiyle ile se

    11. Görsellerle Desteklenmiş Altı Şapka Düşünme Tekniğinin Öğrencilerin Konuşma Becerilerini Geliştirmesine Etkisi Six Thinking Hats Technique Supported Visuals Effects of Students' Speaking Skills Develop

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Salih ORHAN

      2012-09-01

      Full Text Available to express oneself to communicate as a society to provide others. Inthis sense, individuals benefit from the ability to talk in daily life themost. Speaking a language skill can be developed which are used in avariety of methods to be used more effectively.The main objective of this study, elementary school studentsimprove their speaking skills supported by visuals than the traditionalmethod to determine the effect of six hat thinking techniques. Theprimary purpose of research 8th grade students for a period of fourweeks 'of Science and Technology' theme applied The data "SpeakingObservation Form" (Orhan, 2010 collected the data. Visuals supportedby the experimental group, while speaking activities, speaking in thecontrol group were carried out according to conventional method. Inthis context, information about the method, first given to students inthe experimental group, how to implement this method, the researcherexplained to the students by students. Then, for each color of the sixhat thinking techniques were made in the speech handed out picturesto students. The data were evaluated with SPSS 19.0, to compare withthose of the pre-test and post-test "for the measurements associatedwith the Wilcoxon signed Ranks Test" was used. As a result 'speechrules, Effective use of voice and body language, be prepared to makespeeches, their speech evaluation' goals and achievements, such as thedevelopment of speech in the Turkish Course Programme of theexperimental group students was found to be more successful than thecontrol group students and and a variety of applications related toproposing and speaking skills teachers can use this method unlessotherwise indicated. Eğitimin en temel hedeflerinden biri de insanın kendisini ifade edebilmesini ve toplumsal bir varlık olarak toplumun diğer bireyleriyle iletişim kurabilmesini sağlamaktır. Bu anlamda bireyler günlük hayatta en çok konuşma becerisinden faydalanmaktadırlar. Geliştirilebilir bir

    12. The effects of 8-week core training on the development of some motoric features among 18 year-old footballers18 yaş grubu futbolcularda 8 haftalik merkez bölge (core antrenmanlarının bazı motorik özelliklerin gelişimine etkisi

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Yakup Akif Afyon

      2016-11-01

      Full Text Available The purpose of the present research is investigating the effects of core trainings on some motoric features (strength and speed among 18 year-old footballers. In the present research, 20 experiment group (age =18 years, body weight =71,66±6,61 kg, height =171,75±5,86 cm and 20 control group (age =18 years, body weight =70,66±5,74 kg, height =171,75±2,99 cm, the total of 40 certified footballers, who played in 2013-2014 season, participated in the present research. Before the trainings, pre-test scores (sit-up, push-up, plank, vertical jump, medicine ball throwing, 30 m speed were recorded. 30-35 minute core trainings, 2 days a week, for 8 weeks were conducted on the control group in addition to their regular training. Control group participants followed their regular yearly training program. At the end of the trainings, post-test scores of both groups were recorded by two experts in the field in accordance with the protocol. In order to evaluate the effects of 8-week core trainings of the strength development of footballers, paired t test was utilized for in-group comparisons and independent samples t test was utilized for inter-group comparisons. Consequently, it was observed that 8-week core training in addition to football trainings contributed to the strength and speed development among footballers. Accordingly, core trainings can be advised for football trainers, who work for youth teams of football clubs.   Özet Bu araştırmanın amacı 18 yaş grubu futbolcularda bölgesel (core antrenmanların bazı motorik özelliklerin (kuvvet ve sürat gelişimine etkisinin incelenmesidir. Araştırmaya 2013-2014 sezonunda lisanslı olarak futbol oynayan 20 denek grubundan (yaş =18 yıl, vücut ağırlığı =71,66±6,61 kg, boy =171,75±5,86 cm ve 20 kontrol grubundan (yaş =18 yıl, vücut ağırlığı =70,66±5,74 kg, boy =171,75±2,99 cm olmak üzere 40 futbolcu katıldı. Antrenmanlar öncesi grupların ön testleri (mekik,

    13. Orff Yaklaşımı İle Yapılan Okul Öncesi Müzik Eğitiminin Öğrencilerin Sosyal Becerilerinin Gelişimine Etkileri The Influences Of Orff Preschool Music Education Approach On The Improvement Of Social Skills Of Students

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Bahar GÜDEK

      2013-03-01

      ştırmanın amacı, Orff yaklaşımı ile yapılan okul öncesimüzik eğitiminin öğrencilerin sosyal becerilerinin gelişimine etkilerininincelenmesidir. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu, 2009-2010 eğitimöğretimyılında Samsun ili, Canik Yavuz Selim Yatılı İlköğretim BölgeOkulu, okul öncesi 6 yaş grubu öğrencileri arasında deney ve kontrolgrupları için rasgele seçilen 40 kişi oluşturmuştur. AraştırmadaAvcıoğlu (2005 tarafından geliştirilen „Sosyal Becerileri DeğerlendirmeÖlçeği (4-6 yaş‟ın “Kişiler Arası İletişim Becerileri, Akran Baskısı İleBaşa Çıkma Becerileri, Sözel Açıklama Becerileri, Kendini Kontrol EtmeBecerileri, Hedef Belirleme Becerileri, Dinleme Becerileri, GörevleriTamamlama Becerileri, Sonuçları Kabul Etme Becerileri” başlıklarıaltındaki dokuz alt ölçeği alınarak, 40 öğrencinin her biri için müzikeğitimi öncesi ve sonrasında çocukların okul öncesi öğretmenleritarafından doldurulmuştur. Uygulanan ön test aşamasından sonradeney grubu öğrencileri ile 10 hafta boyunca; Pazartesi ve Çarşambagünleri 60‟ar dakika, Orff Schulwerk yaklaşımı ile okul öncesi müzik,hareket ve dans eğitimi verilmiştir. Kontrol grubunu oluşturanöğrencilere müzik eğitimi verilmemiş, bu öğrenciler okuldaki geneleğitimlerine devam etmişlerdir. Tüm çalışmaların sonunda, deney vekontrol grupları için son testler uygulanmıştır. Elde edilen verilerinişlenmesi sonucunda; Orff Schulwerk yaklaşımı ile verilen okul öncesimüzik eğitiminin, bu eğitimin verilmediği okul öncesi 6 yaş grubuçocuklara göre “Kişiler Arası İletişim, Kızgınlık Davranışlarını KontrolEtme ve Değişikliklere Uyum Sağlama, Sözel Açıklama, AmaçOluşturma, Görevleri Tamamlama Becerileri” sosyal becerilerinin dahafazla geliştikleri saptanmış ve elde edilen sonuçlara dayanarak çeşitliönerilerde bulunulmuştur.

    14. Summary of activity. Topic I: detectors and experiments. [High-energy detectors for use at ISABELLE

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Marx, J; Ozaki, S

      1978-01-01

      Results of a workshop studying detectors for Isabelle experimental halls are described. The detectors must be very reliable. Spatial resolution of the tracking detectors must be high to provide accurate measurements of angle and momentum, retain a short resolving time, and show excellent multiparticle handling capability. Included in the study were hodoscopes, drift chambers, proportional chambers, time projection chambers, Cherenkov counters, electromagnetic shower detectors, and hadron calorimeters. Data handling methods were also included in the studies. (FS)

    15. Superheated Droplet Detectors as CDM Detectors The SIMPLE Experiment

      CERN Document Server

      Collar, J I; Limagne, D; Waysand, G

      1996-01-01

      Superheated Droplet Detectors (SDDs) are becoming commonplace in neutron personnel dosimetry. Their total insensitivity to minimum ionizing radiation (while responsive to nuclear recoils of energies ~ few keV), together with their low cost, ease of production, and operation at room temperature and 1 atm makes them ideal for Cold Dark Matter (CDM) searches. SDD's are optimal for the exploration of the spin-dependent neutralino coupling due to their high fluorine content. The status of SIMPLE (Superheated Instrument for Massive ParticLe Experiments) is presented. Under realistic background considerations, we expect an improvement in the present Cold Dark Matter sensitivity of 2-3 orders of magnitude after ~1 kg-y of data acquisition.

    16. The next detectors for gravitational wave astronomy

      Science.gov (United States)

      Blair, David; Ju, Li; Zhao, ChunNong; Wen, LinQing; Miao, HaiXing; Cai, RongGen; Gao, JiangRui; Lin, XueChun; Liu, Dong; Wu, Ling-An; Zhu, ZongHong; Hammond, Giles; Paik, Ho Jung; Fafone, Viviana; Rocchi, Alessio; Blair, Carl; Ma, YiQiu; Qin, JiaYi; Page, Michael

      2015-12-01

      This paper focuses on the next detectors for gravitational wave astronomy which will be required after the current ground based detectors have completed their initial observations, and probably achieved the first direct detection of gravitational waves. The next detectors will need to have greater sensitivity, while also enabling the world array of detectors to have improved angular resolution to allow localisation of signal sources. Sect. 1 of this paper begins by reviewing proposals for the next ground based detectors, and presents an analysis of the sensitivity of an 8 km armlength detector, which is proposed as a safe and cost-effective means to attain a 4-fold improvement in sensitivity. The scientific benefits of creating a pair of such detectors in China and Australia is emphasised. Sect. 2 of this paper discusses the high performance suspension systems for test masses that will be an essential component for future detectors, while sect. 3 discusses solutions to the problem of Newtonian noise which arise from fluctuations in gravity gradient forces acting on test masses. Such gravitational perturbations cannot be shielded, and set limits to low frequency sensitivity unless measured and suppressed. Sects. 4 and 5 address critical operational technologies that will be ongoing issues in future detectors. Sect. 4 addresses the design of thermal compensation systems needed in all high optical power interferometers operating at room temperature. Parametric instability control is addressed in sect. 5. Only recently proven to occur in Advanced LIGO, parametric instability phenomenon brings both risks and opportunities for future detectors. The path to future enhancements of detectors will come from quantum measurement technologies. Sect. 6 focuses on the use of optomechanical devices for obtaining enhanced sensitivity, while sect. 7 reviews a range of quantum measurement options.

    17. CALIFA Barrel prototype detector characterisation

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Pietras, B., E-mail: benjamin.pietras@usc.es [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 (Spain); Gascón, M. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 (Spain); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd. Berkeley, CA 94701 (United States); Álvarez-Pol, H. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 (Spain); Bendel, M. [Technische Universität München, 80333 (Germany); Bloch, T. [Technische Universität Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Casarejos, E. [Universidade de Vigo, E-36310 (Spain); Cortina-Gil, D.; Durán, I. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 (Spain); Fiori, E. [Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI), D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Gernhäuser, R. [Technische Universität München, 80333 (Germany); González, D. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 (Spain); Kröll, T. [Technische Universität Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Le Bleis, T. [Technische Universität München, 80333 (Germany); Montes, N. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 (Spain); Nácher, E. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Robles, M. [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15782 (Spain); Perea, A. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Vilán, J.A. [Universidade de Vigo, E-36310 (Spain); Winkel, M. [Technische Universität München, 80333 (Germany)

      2013-11-21

      Well established in the field of scintillator detection, Caesium Iodide remains at the forefront of scintillators for use in modern calorimeters. Recent developments in photosensor technology have lead to the production of Large Area Avalanche Photo Diodes (LAAPDs), a huge advancement on traditional photosensors in terms of high internal gain, dynamic range, magnetic field insensitivity, high quantum efficiency and fast recovery time. The R{sup 3}B physics programme has a number of requirements for its calorimeter, one of the most challenging being the dual functionality as both a calorimeter and a spectrometer. This involves the simultaneous detection of ∼300MeV protons and gamma rays ranging from 0.1 to 20 MeV. This scintillator – photosensor coupling provides an excellent solution in this capacity, in part due to the near perfect match of the LAAPD quantum efficiency peak to the light output wavelength of CsI(Tl). Modern detector development is guided by use of Monte Carlo simulations to predict detector performance, nonetheless it is essential to benchmark these simulations against real data taken with prototype detector arrays. Here follows an account of the performance of two such prototypes representing different polar regions of the Barrel section of the forthcoming CALIFA calorimeter. Measurements were taken for gamma–ray energies up to 15.1 MeV (Maier-Leibnitz Laboratory, Garching, Germany) and for direct irradiation with a 180 MeV proton beam (The Svedberg Laboratoriet, Uppsala, Sweden). Results are discussed in light of complementary GEANT4 simulations. -- Highlights: •Prototypes corresponding to different sections of the forthcoming CALIFA Barrel calorimeter were tested. •The response to both high energy gamma rays and high energy protons was observed. •This response was reproduced by use of R3BROOT simulations, the geometry extrapolated to predict performance of the complete calorimeter. •Effects such as energy straggling of wrapping

    18. Radiation detectors: needs and prospects

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Armantrout, G.A.

      1981-01-01

      Important applications for x- and ..gamma..-ray spectroscopy are found in prospecting, materials characterization, environmental monitoring, the life sciences, and nuclear physics. The specific requirements vary for each application with varying degrees of emphasis on either spectrometer resolution, detection efficiency, or both. Since no one spectrometer is ideally suited to this wide range of needs, compromises are usually required. Gas and scintillation spectrometers have reached a level of maturity, and recent interest has concentrated on semiconductor spectrometers. Germanium detectors are showing continuing refinement and are the spectrometers of choice for high resolution applications. The new high-Z semiconductors, such as CdTe and HgI/sub 2/, have shown steady improvement but are limited in both resolution and size and will likely be used only in applications which require their unique properties.

    19. Recent advances with THGEM detectors

      CERN Document Server

      Bressler, S; Moleri, L; Pitt, M; Rubin, A; Breskin, A

      2013-01-01

      The Thick Gaseous Electron Multiplier (THGEM) is a simple and robust electrode suitable for large area detectors. In this work the results of extensive comparative studies of the physical properties of different THGEM-based structures are reviewed. The focus is on newly suggested THGEM-like WELL configurations as well as on recently developed characterization methods. The WELL structures are single-sided THGEM electrodes directly coupled to different anode readout electrodes. The structures differ by the coupling concept of the bottom THGEM electrode to the metallic readout pads: a Thick WELL (THWELL) with direct coupling; the Resistive WELL (RWELL) and the Segmented Resistive WELL (SRWELL) coupled through thin resistive films deposited on insulating sheets and a Resistive-Plate WELL (RPWELL) coupled through a plate of high bulk resistivity. The results are compared to that of traditional double-sided THGEM electrodes followed by induction gaps - in some cases with moderate additional multiplication within th...

    20. Rats Train As Landmine Detectors

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      单献心

      2000-01-01

      鼠,也有“改邪归正”之日!比利时的研究人员正在训练老鼠当地雷侦察员。收效甚奇:Trained rats may be the best and cheapest form of landmine(地雷)detector. 不过,老鼠心甘情愿地去发现地雷,并非被灌输了什么“为民除害”的思想,而是为了食物,为了生存: Once the minefield has been mapped,the rats sniff out a landmine and sitbeside it waiting to be rewarded with food.

    1. The PANDA Barrel DIRC detector

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hoek, M.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Hohler, R.; Kalicy, G.; Kumawat, H.; Lehmann, D.; Lewandowski, B.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M.; Dodokhov, V. Kh.; Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Uhlig, F.; Düren, M.; Föhl, K.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kröck, B.; Merle, O.; Rieke, J.; Cowie, E.; Keri, T.; Montgomery, R.; Rosner, G.; Achenbach, P.; Cardinali, M.; Lauth, W.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.; Bühler, P.; Gruber, L.; Marton, J.; Suzuki, K.

      2014-12-01

      The PANDA experiment at the new Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe (FAIR) at GSI, Darmstadt, will study fundamental questions of hadron physics and QCD using high-intensity cooled antiproton beams with momenta between 1.5 and 15 GeV/c. Efficient Particle Identification for a wide momentum range and the full solid angle is required for reconstructing the various physics channels of the PANDA program. Hadronic Particle Identification in the barrel region of the detector will be provided by a DIRC counter. The design is based on the successful BABAR DIRC with important improvements, such as focusing optics and fast photon timing. Several of these improvements, including different radiator geometries and optics, were tested in particle beams at GSI and at CERN. The evolution of the conceptual design of the PANDA Barrel DIRC and the performance of complex prototypes in test beam campaigns will be discussed.

    2. The PANDA Barrel DIRC detector

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Hoek, M., E-mail: matthias.hoek@uni-mainz.de [Institut für Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Hohler, R.; Kalicy, G.; Kumawat, H.; Lehmann, D.; Lewandowski, B.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Dodokhov, V. Kh. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Britting, A.; Eyrich, W. [Friedrich Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); and others

      2014-12-01

      The PANDA experiment at the new Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe (FAIR) at GSI, Darmstadt, will study fundamental questions of hadron physics and QCD using high-intensity cooled antiproton beams with momenta between 1.5 and 15 GeV/c. Efficient Particle Identification for a wide momentum range and the full solid angle is required for reconstructing the various physics channels of the PANDA program. Hadronic Particle Identification in the barrel region of the detector will be provided by a DIRC counter. The design is based on the successful BABAR DIRC with important improvements, such as focusing optics and fast photon timing. Several of these improvements, including different radiator geometries and optics, were tested in particle beams at GSI and at CERN. The evolution of the conceptual design of the PANDA Barrel DIRC and the performance of complex prototypes in test beam campaigns will be discussed.

    3. Commissioning the first LIGO detectors

      Science.gov (United States)

      Giaime, Joseph A.

      2002-10-01

      After years of research and planning, the first-generation detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) have been assembled and have begun operation in Livingston, Louisiana, and in Hanford, Washington. LIGO's operating principle is to use precision laser interferometry to measure the relative motion of seismically-isolated test mass mirrors due to the extremely small forces from gravitational waves (GW's) emitted by distant astrophysical events. The test masses are placed at the ends and vertex of a 4 km, L-shaped vacuum system, in order to be sensitive to the extremely small time-varying quadrupole strain in the gravitational field metric that is expected from incident GW's in the 50 Hz - 5 kHz band. This talk will summarize the collaboration's progress to date in understanding and decreasing the instrumental noise sources, as well as in developing and using LIGO's analysis pipeline on data from recent runs, in the context of astrophysical source possibilities.

    4. PIC Detector for Piano Chords

      Science.gov (United States)

      Barbancho, Ana M.; Tardón, Lorenzo J.; Barbancho, Isabel

      2010-12-01

      In this paper, a piano chords detector based on parallel interference cancellation (PIC) is presented. The proposed system makes use of the novel idea of modeling a segment of music as a third generation mobile communications signal, specifically, as a CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) signal. The proposed model considers each piano note as a CDMA user in which the spreading code is replaced by a representative note pattern. The lack of orthogonality between the note patterns will make necessary to design a specific thresholding matrix to decide whether the PIC outputs correspond to the actual notes composing the chord or not. An additional stage that performs an octave test and a fifth test has been included that improves the error rate in the detection of these intervals that are specially difficult to detect. The proposed system attains very good results in both the detection of the notes that compose a chord and the estimation of the polyphony number.

    5. Two-color infrared detector

      Science.gov (United States)

      Klem, John F; Kim, Jin K

      2014-05-13

      A two-color detector includes a first absorber layer. The first absorber layer exhibits a first valence band energy characterized by a first valence band energy function. A barrier layer adjoins the first absorber layer at a first interface. The barrier layer exhibits a second valence band energy characterized by a second valence band energy function. The barrier layer also adjoins a second absorber layer at a second interface. The second absorber layer exhibits a third valence band energy characterized by a third valence band energy function. The first and second valence band energy functions are substantially functionally or physically continuous at the first interface and the second and third valence band energy functions are substantially functionally or physically continuous at the second interface.

    6. Ion chamber based neutron detectors

      Science.gov (United States)

      Derzon, Mark S; Galambos, Paul C; Renzi, Ronald F

      2014-12-16

      A neutron detector with monolithically integrated readout circuitry, including: a bonded semiconductor die; an ion chamber formed in the bonded semiconductor die; a first electrode and a second electrode formed in the ion chamber; a neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber; and the readout circuitry which is electrically coupled to the first and second electrodes. The bonded semiconductor die includes an etched semiconductor substrate bonded to an active semiconductor substrate. The readout circuitry is formed in a portion of the active semiconductor substrate. The ion chamber has a substantially planar first surface on which the first electrode is formed and a substantially planar second surface, parallel to the first surface, on which the second electrode is formed. The distance between the first electrode and the second electrode may be equal to or less than the 50% attenuation length for neutrons in the neutron absorbing material filling the ion chamber.

    7. Alien liquid detector and control

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Potter, B.M.

      1980-09-02

      An alien liquid detector employs a monitoring element and an energizing circuit for maintaining the temperature of the monitoring element substantially above ambient temperature. For this purpose an electronic circit controls a flow of heating current to the monitoring element. The presence of an alien liquid is detected by sensing a predetermined change in heating current flow to the monitoring element, e.g., to distinguish between water and oil. In preferred embodiments the monitoring element is a thermistor whose resistance is compared with a reference resistance and heating current through the thermistor is controlled in accordance with the difference. In one embodiment a bridge circuit senses the resistance difference; the difference may be sensed by an operational amplifier arrangement. Features of the invention include positioning the monitoring element at the surface of water, slightly immersed, so that the power required to maintain the thermistor temperature substantially above ambient temperature serves to detect presence of oil pollution at the surface.

    8. Robot mapping with proximity detectors

      Science.gov (United States)

      Malik, Raashid; Prasad, Samuel

      1993-05-01

      Robots operating in unknown environments need to acquire knowledge about the environment to facilitate navigation and other tasks. Control procedures that enable a robot to acquire environment knowledge are referred to as mapping our terrain-acquisition procedures. All motion control procedures are influenced by the underlying models. In this area the significant models are: the robot model, the sensor model and the environment model. In this paper we present a mapping algorithm that uses a sensor model based on a proximity detector. The sensor is capable of detecting the presence or absence of objects within an annular ring of radius R to R + (Delta) , surrounding the robot. The sensor provides no exact range information but does indicate that angular region of contact with an obstacle. The robot is modelled as a disc of radius r (r

    9. Instrumentation for multi-detector arrays

      Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

      R K Bhowmik

      2001-07-01

      The new generation of detector arrays require complex instrumentation and data acquisition system to ensure increased reliability of operation, high degree of integration, software control and faster data handling capability. The main features of some of the existing multi-detector arrays like MSU 4 array, Gammasphere and Eurogam are summarized. The instrumentation for the proposed INGA array in India is discussed.

    10. Forward Detectors and Physics at ATLAS

      CERN Document Server

      Soni, N; The ATLAS collaboration

      2010-01-01

      This talk will cover the current Atlas forward detectors LUCID, ZDC, ALFA and the upgrade project AFP. The current forward detectors are dedicated for the luminosity measurements and the forward physics measurements at first low luminosity LHC phase. The AFP project will significantly extend the ATLAS physics program at high luminosities by tagging the very forward tagging protons.

    11. The DELPHI detector at CERN's LEP collider

      CERN Multimedia

      1998-01-01

      DELPHI (DEtector with Lepton, Photon and Hadron Identification), is a detector for e+e- physics, with special emphasis on powerful particle identification , three-dimensional information, high granularity and precise vertex determination. It is installed at LEP (Large Electron and Positron collider) at CERN where it has operated since 1989.

    12. Combining two major ATLAS inner detector components

      CERN Multimedia

      Maximilien Brice

      2006-01-01

      The semiconductor tracker is inserted into the transition radiation tracker for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. These make up two of the three major components of the inner detector. They will work together to measure the trajectories produced in the proton-proton collisions at the centre of the detector when the LHC is switched on in 2008.

    13. LHCb ring imaging Cherenkov detector mirrors

      CERN Multimedia

      Maximilien Brice

      2005-01-01

      In a large dark room, men in white move around an immense structure some 7 m high, 10 m wide and nearly 2.5 m deep. Apparently effortlessly, they are installing the two large high-precision spherical mirrors. These mirrors will focus Cherenkov light, created by the charged particles that will traverse this detector, onto the photon detectors.

    14. Physics with the ICARUS T1800 detector

      CERN Document Server

      Kisiel, J

      2006-01-01

      The 3D reconstruction of any ionizing event together with precise calorimetric measurements within the massive volume of the ICARUS detector Liquid Argon (LAr) Time Projection Chamber (TPC) allow for studies of rare phenomena. The rich physics program, including study of neutrinos from various sources and the search for nucleon decay, of the 1800 tons ICARUS detector is shortly discussed1).

    15. Heavy ion isotope resolution with polymer detectors

      OpenAIRE

      Vidal-Quadras Roca, Alejo; Ortega Girón, Manuel; Fernández Moreno, Francisco; Font Garcia, Josep Lluís; Casas Ametller, Montserrat; Baixeras Divar, Carmen; Gonzalo Cestero, Miguel

      1984-01-01

      The heavy ion mass resolution power of polymer detectors Lexan and cellulose nitrate is systematically studied both for accelerator and for cosmic ions. It is concluded that a satisfactory isotopic discrimination, better than 1 u, is hardly attainable with these detectors. Peer Reviewed

    16. Performance of Low-rank STAP detectors

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Anitori, L.; Srinivasan, R.; Rangaswamy, M.

      2008-01-01

      In this paper the STAP detector based on the lowrank approximation of the normalized adaptive matched filter (LRNAMF) is investigated for its false alarm probability (FAP) performance. An exact formula for the FAP of the LRNAMF detector is derived using the g-method estimator [4]. The non CFAR behav

    17. Metal Detectors and Feeling Safe at School

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gastic, Billie

      2011-01-01

      This article argues that metal detectors bestow an organizational stigma to schools. One symptom of this is students' heightened level of fear at school. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and a matched-pair design, this study finds that metal detectors are negatively correlated with students' sense…

    18. Radiation hardness studies of silicon pixel detectors

      CERN Document Server

      Lari, T

      2006-01-01

      At the LHC silicon vertex detectors will be exposed to hadron fluences of the order of . In order to study the effects of radiation damage on the performances of the ATLAS Pixel Vertex Detector, several full-size detector modules were irradiated to a fluence of and tested in a beam at CERN. After irradiation only a modest degradation of the detector performances is observed. At the operating ATLAS bias voltage of 600 V the average signal is still 80% of the pre-irradiation value, the spatial resolution is and the detection efficiency is 98.2%. The LHC luminosity upgrade will increase the radiation hardness requirements by a factor of 10 and will require the development of new ultra-radiation hard vertex detectors. A detailed simulation of silicon pixel detectors irradiated to very high fluence is presented and used to study the possibility to use silicon pixel detectors at the LHC after the luminosity upgrade. The charge collection properties and the detector response were computed for different silicon mater...

    19. Calibration of Li-glass Detector Efficiency

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      2011-01-01

      Li-glass detector will be used to measure the flux of neutron beam in Gamma-ray Total Absorption Facility(GTAF). We have calibrated the detection efficiency of Li-glass detector in 5SDH-2 accelerator. The beam of neutron was produced by the reaction 7Li

    20. Development of planar detectors with active edge

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Povoli, M., E-mail: povoli@disi.unitn.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento) (Italy); Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Via Sommarive, 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento) (Italy); Giacomini, G.; Vianello, E.; Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Via Sommarive, 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy)

      2011-12-01

      We report on the first batch of planar active edge sensors fabricated at Fondazione Bruno Kessler (Trento, Italy) on the way to the development of full 3D detectors with active edges. The main design and technological aspects are reported, along with selected results from the electrical characterization of detectors and test structures.