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Sample records for geldings

  1. Herfstakkoord kost vooral glastuinders geld

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van der H.B.

    2012-01-01

    Op 1 oktober hebben Rutte en Samson het deelakkoord over de begroting van 2013 gepresenteerd, bijgenaamd het herfstakkoord. Net als bij het Lenteakkoord kost dit vooral glastuinders geld, maar ook grote akkerbouwers. In diverse gemeenten is bij meer dan 15% van de bedrijven het nadelig effect groter

  2. Metastatic myxosarcoma in a Quarter Horse gelding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Jonathan P; Echeverria, Kate O; Foreman, Jonathan H; Fredrickson, Richard L; Sauberli, Deborah; Whiteley, Herbert E

    2017-07-01

    A 22-y-old Quarter Horse gelding was presented to the University of Illinois Veterinary Teaching Hospital for evaluation of increased heart rate and mild colic signs. Rectal examination revealed a large left perirenal mass. Abdominal ultrasonography further confirmed this finding. Thoracic ultrasonography indicated multifocal irregularities on the pleural surface suggestive of consolidation and possibly masses in the lungs. The animal was euthanized. Autopsy findings included a large, firm, expansile, gelatinous retroperitoneal mass that surrounded both kidneys, as well as nodules with similar morphology in the lungs, liver, intestinal mesentery, cecum, and caudal mesenteric artery. Histologically, the masses were composed of neoplastic stellate-to-spindloid cells in abundant mucinous stroma. Neoplastic cells exhibited strong immunoreactivity for vimentin and were negative for pancytokeratin (A1/A3), CD3, CD20, melan A, and synaptophysin. Mucinous stroma was strongly positive with alcian blue and weakly positive with periodic acid-Schiff histochemical staining. These findings are consistent with metastatic myxosarcoma. Myxosarcoma is a rare neoplasm in horses, and metastasis to tissues other than sentinel lymph nodes has not been described previously to our knowledge.

  3. Laparoscopic-assisted cystotomy for urolith removal in geldings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röcken, Michael; Stehle, Christiane; Mosel, Gesine; Rass, Julia; Litzke, Lutz F

    2006-06-01

    To describe a technique for laparoscopic-assisted removal of cystic calculi in geldings and report outcome. Clinical report. Four geldings with cystic calculi. Laparoscopic-assisted cystotomy and urolith retrieval was performed in 4 anesthetized geldings positioned in dorsal recumbency. With a laparoscope portal located at the umbilicus, the abdomen was insufflated and then the surgical table was tilted (30 degrees head-down position) before an instrumental portal was created parallel and 2-3 cm medial to the left external inguinal ring. Laparoscopic grasping forceps were inserted to grasp the cranial aspect of the bladder and elevate it to the ventral abdominal wall. With the instrumental portal as mid-point, the parainguinal skin incision was longitudinally extended cranial and caudal (approximately 8-10 cm) to accommodate the size of the urolith. The apex of the bladder was exteriorized and sharply incised, the urolith extracted, and after cystotomy closure, the bladder was repositioned. The mini-laparotomy and trocar incisions were closed in layers. There were no intra- or post-operative complications. All horses had minor incisional swelling for 3-4 days. No signs of abdominal or incisional pain were observed. Hematuria and slight stranguria occurred until the 3rd or 4th day. Surgical time (skin incision to skin closure) was 35-40 minutes. On long-term follow-up (up to 12 months) no recurrence of clinical signs associated with cystic calculi occurred. Uroliths (6-8 cm diameter) can be removed by laparoscopic-assisted cystotomy in geldings. Laparoscopic-assisted cystotomy combines the advantages of the parainguinal laparocystotomy with laparoscopic technique for removal of cystic calculi while avoiding their disadvantages.

  4. Obstructive urolithiasis, unilateral hydronephrosis, and probable nephrolithiasis in a 12-year-old Clydesdale gelding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macbeth, Bryan J

    2008-03-01

    A 12-year-old Clydesdale gelding was presented for colic and dysuria. Obstructive urolithiasis and chronic renal disease were diagnosed via transurethral endoscopy and percutaneous ultrasonography. Nephroliths, hydronephrosis, and peri-ureteral fibrosis were present. Surgical intervention was declined and the gelding was managed medically with antibiotics and dietary modification.

  5. Die betekenis wat geld vir blankes en kleurlinge inhou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Visagie

    1978-11-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the literature indicates that money (which is an important concept in a number of theories of work motivation could mean different things to different people. Since this difference can be ascribed to early life experiences and personal factors, it could be expected that Coloureds and Whites would differ with respect to their evaluation of money. A semantic differential administered to 128 white and 109 coloured students, however, revealed no significant differences in general. The two groups differed significantly on only 2 of the 15 semantic scales.Opsomming‘n Oorsig van relevante literatuur dui daarop dat die betekenis van geld (wat 'n belangrike plek in sekere motiveringsteorieë inneem van persoon tot persoon kan verskil. Hierdie verskil kan hoofsaaklik aan persoonlike- en agtergrondsfaktore toegeskryf word. Wanneer die genoemde faktore binne groepsverband ooreenstem, ontwikkel en vorm daar unieke “groepsbetekenisse" wat aan sekere begrippe geheg word. Betekenismeting wat in hierdie ondersoek deur middel van die semantiese differensiaal op 128 Blanke- en 109 Kleurlingstudente uitgevoer is, toon egter oor die algemeen geen beduidende verskil ten opsigte van die begrip geld nie. Slegs ten opsigte van twee van 15 semantiese skale is beduidende verskille tussen die twee groepe gevind.

  6. Communication Collocations of the Lexeme Geld in General and Business German

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Hocenski-Dreiseidl

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The authors aim to analyse and compare the lexeme Geld and its collocations on the grammatical and semantic levels in general and in business German. A special emphasis will be put on the importance of the communicative function that this lexeme and its collocations have in the language of banking. The paper also has a practical purpose. Its applicability in teaching is envisaged to improve the communicative competence of students of economics.

  7. Acute myeloid leukemia with basophilic differentiation in a 3-year-old Standardbred gelding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, Mary Catherine; Setlakwe, Emile; Sallaway, John; Wood, Darren; Fromstein, Jordan; Arroyo, Luis G.

    2016-01-01

    A 3-year-old Standardbred gelding with a history of pyrexia, persistent hemorrhage from the oral cavity, and a large, soft swelling at the junction of the caudal aspect of the mandibular rami and proximal neck was evaluated. The horse had neutropenia and anemia, with atypical granulated cells in a blood smear. Additional tests confirmed acute myeloid leukemia with basophilic differentiation, which has been reported in humans, cats, dogs, and cattle but not horses. PMID:27708445

  8. Gilded and gelded. Hard-won lessons from the PR wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Dick

    2003-10-01

    A golden statue of a winged youth once perched on the roof of AT&T's old headquarters. But when AT&T lowered the 24-foot-high statue for regilding so that it could be placed in the company's new headquarters, the chairman was shocked to discover that the figure was anatomically correct. So he decreed that it also be gelded. The altered "Golden Boy" thus became a metaphor for AT&T's recent embattled history, and it serves as a cautionary symbol for all companies operating in today's brutal business environment, where perception can be as important as reality. While image consultants and executives work to gild a company's image, special interest groups and the media can geld a company with countless little cuts. The author, a former executive vice president of public relations for AT&T, provides an insider's view of some of the company's most painful public-relations scrapes. They include the collapse of two apparent CEO succession plans, AT&T's inability to meet heightened expectations after Mike Armstrong was appointed CEO, and the racially charged furor over a cartoon in an employee publication. The author offers four lessons: Don't become hypnotized by your own buzz; understand the way the business media think; address the needs of all your stakeholders; and be sensitive to the possible emotional resonance of what appear to be straightforward facts. To illustrate the final point, the author mentions AT&T's elimination of 40,000 jobs in 1996. Wall Street was impressed, but NBC's Tom Brokaw said the workforce reduction might signal "another long, anxious year for the American middle class." No rational argument from AT&T could overcome the layoffs' symbolic impact. Wounded but wiser after numerous public-relations battles, the company eventually learned to stop aggregating job-reduction information for the media.

  9. Responses of cortisol and prolactin to sexual excitement and stress in stallions and geldings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colborn, D R; Thompson, D L; Roth, T L; Capehart, J S; White, K L

    1991-06-01

    Sexual stimulation induces rapid secretion of cortisol and prolactin (PRL) in stallions. Experiment 1 was designated to determine whether stallions associated location and(or) procedure with previous sexual stimulation in that location. After a control period on d 1, four stallions were exposed to an estrous mare for 5 min on d 2. On d 3, 4, 5, and 6, the same procedure was followed with no mare present. Concentrations of PRL and cortisol increased (P less than .05) after mare exposure on d 2 but did not vary (P greater than .05) on d 1, 3, 4, 5, or 6. In Exp. 2, six stallions were used to determine the short-term effects of 1) sexual stimulation, 2) acute physical exercise, 3) restraint via a twitch (twitching), 4) epinephrine administration, and 5) no stimulation on plasma concentrations of PRL and cortisol. Stallions received one treatment per day separated by 2 d of no treatment. Concentrations of cortisol increased (P less than .05) within 10 min after sexual stimulation, exercise, twitching, and epinephrine administration but not during control bleedings. Concentrations of PRL increased (P less than .05) immediately after sexual stimulation, exercise, and twitching but not after epinephrine administration or during control bleeding. In Exp. 3, the same five treatments were administered to six geldings. Concentrations of cortisol increased (P less than .05) after epinephrine administration, exercise, and twitching but not after sexual stimulation or during control bleedings. Concentrations of PRL increased (P less than .05) after exercise and sexual stimulation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Amino acid supplementation does not alter whole-body phenylalanine kinetics in Arabian geldings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urschel, Kristine L; Geor, Raymond J; Hanigan, Mark D; Harris, Pat A

    2012-03-01

    Stable isotope infusion methods have not been extensively used in horses to study protein metabolism. The objectives were to develop infusion and sampling methodologies for [1-(13)C] phenylalanine and apply these methods to determine whether the addition of supplemental amino acids to a control diet affected whole-body phenylalanine kinetics in mature horses. Arabian geldings were studied using a 6-h primed (9 μmol/kg), constant (6 μmol · kg(-1) · h(-1)) i.v. infusion of L-[1-(13)C] phenylalanine, with blood and breath sampled every 30 min, to measure whole-body phenylalanine kinetics in response to receiving the control diet (n = 12) or the control diet supplemented with equimolar amounts of glutamate (+Glu; 55 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5), leucine (+Leu; 49 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5), lysine (+Lys; 55 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 5), or phenylalanine (+Phe; 62 mg · kg(-1) · d(-1); n = 6). The plasma concentrations of the supplemented amino acid in horses receiving the +Leu, +Lys, and +Phe diets were 58, 53, and 36% greater, respectively, than for the control treatment (P phenylalanine and breath (13)CO(2) enrichments by 60 and 270 min, respectively. Phenylalanine flux (+20%) and oxidation (+110%) were greater (P phenylalanine disposal or phenylalanine release from protein breakdown. The developed methods are a valuable way to study protein metabolism and assess dietary amino acid adequacy in horses and will provide a useful tool for studying amino acid requirements in the future.

  11. Removal of ureteral calculi in two geldings via a standing flank approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Jeremy; Freeman, David E; MacKay, Robert J; Matyjaszek, Sarah; Lewis, Jordan; Sanchez, L Chris; Meyer, Stephanie

    2012-11-01

    Two geldings, aged 11 and 17 years, were examined for treatment of ureteroliths located approximately 10 cm proximal to the bladder. Ureteral obstruction was an incidental finding in 1 horse that was referred because of urinary tract obstruction and a cystic calculus. This horse did not have clinical or laboratory evidence of renal failure, although severe hydronephrosis was evident on transabdominal ultrasonography. The second patient had a serum creatinine concentration of 6.3 mg/dL (reference range, 0.8 to 2.2 mg/dL) and mild hydronephrosis of the affected left kidney. In both patients, the obstructed ureter was exteriorized through a flank incision as a standing procedure, and the calculus was crushed and removed with a uterine biopsy forceps introduced through a ureterotomy approximately 25 cm proximal to the calculus. The cystic calculus was removed through a perineal urethrostomy by lithotripsy, piecemeal extraction, and lavage. The horse without azotemia developed pyelonephritis in the affected kidney and was euthanatized because of complications of a nephrectomy 13 months later. In the horse with azotemia, the serum creatinine concentration decreased after surgery, and the horse returned to its intended use. However, it was euthanatized approximately 2 years after surgery because of progressive renal failure, and a large nephrolith was found in the previously unobstructed right kidney. The technique used for ureterolith removal was successful in both horses in this report, did not require sophisticated equipment, and could be effective in the early stages of ureteral obstruction as a means of restoring urine flow and renal function. The outcome in the horse with advanced unilateral renal disease without azotemia would suggest that nephrectomy should be considered as a treatment in such patients.

  12. Chip fractures from the distal lateral trochlear ridge of the talus of a quarter horse gelding: a veterinary medicine clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, L

    2005-09-05

    An eighteen-month old quarter horse gelding was diagnosed with chip fractures from the distal lateral trochlear ridge of the talus. The horse presented with the symptom of persistent synovitis. The diagnosis was based on radiographic evidence. The horse was treated initially with arthroscopic surgery. He was given a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent, and a chondroprotective agent to prevent further damage to, and aid in the healing of, the damaged joint.

  13. Long-Term Outcome of En Bloc Extensive Resection of the Penis and Prepuce Associated with a Permanent Perineal Urethrostomy in a Gelding Affected by Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Straticò

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 15-year-old gelding was referred for a florid, cauliflower-like ulcerated mass, enclosing penis and prepuce together with penile urethra showing a malodorous purulent and blood-stained discharge and larvae infestation. En bloc extensive resection of the penis and prepuce, without penile retroversion or pexy to ventral abdomen associated with a permanent perineal urethrostomy, was performed. Histology of the mass revealed a squamous cell carcinoma of penis and prepuce. The surgical technique that was adopted is a modified version of that already described that allows a more proximal resection of the penile body and is a valid option for treating advanced SCC lesions involving the penis. Early postsurgical complications (mild strangury, haemorrhage from the urethrostomy site and its partial dehiscence, and infection of the abdominal wound were managed with a medical treatment and resolved within 5 to 12 days. Three years after surgery the horse is in good body condition and does not show any sign of recurrence or disorders related to the surgery.

  14. Smakelijker stierenvlees moet geld opleveren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Os, van M.

    2000-01-01

    Het effect van het ras, de gehanteerde voerstrategie en de slachtleeftijd op de uiteindelijke eetkwaliteit van het vlees is minder bekend, zo ook het verband tussen de SEUROP-classificatie en de eetkwaliteit.

  15. Energy efficiency ground-source energy system, Environmental Protection Law, article 'Heat and cold storage, value for money'; Energierendement bodemenergiesysteem, Wet milieubeheer, artikel 'WKO, waar voor je geld'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambregts, E.G.M.; Teunissen, P.O.M.; Beukenhorst, E.

    2013-01-15

    Upscaling of ground-source energy systems can contribute to heat and cold storage systems and thus reduce CO2 emission for the Amsterdam municipality. Based on the results of the project 'Heat and cold storage; Value for money' a proposal was made to the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment to include a regulation 'energy efficiency heat and cold storage' in the Environmental Protection Law [Dutch] In het kader van de CO2 doelstelling van Amsterdam om 40% CO2 te reduceren in 2025 t.o.v. van 1990 wordt de verdere opschaling van de techniek bodemenergiesysteem gezien als een techniek die in belangrijke mate kan bijdragen aan de pijler 'transitie duurzame warmte en koude'. Op landelijk en gemeentelijk niveau werd gesignaleerd dat (open) bodemenergiesystemen in de exploitatiefase veelal onvoldoende functioneerden. In dit rapport wordt op basis van de resultaten van het project 'WKO, waar voor je geld' een voorstel aan het Ministerie van I en M gedaan om een voorschrift 'energierendement wko' op te nemen in het Activiteitenbesluit Wet milieubeheer.

  16. Green money galore; Baden in gruenem Geld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, Karsten

    2010-10-15

    Towns and communities profit from renewable energy sources, and not only in terms of climate protection. Solar power, wind power and other projects can lead to significant profits as a current study on communal added value on the basis of renewable energy sources shows. (orig.)

  17. Dynamisch melken en voeren levert geld op

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouweltjes, W.; Andre, G.; Zom, R.L.G.; Bleumer, E.J.B.

    2008-01-01

    Op het High-techbedrijf van de Waiboerhoeve is in 2006 een prototype voor een dynamisch lineair adviessysteem voor melken en voeren ontwikkeld en getoetst. De resultaten geven aan dat met deze benadering een aanzienlijk beter saldo behaald kan worden dan met traditionele adviezen

  18. Bitcoins: virtueel geld, beslag op gebakken lucht?

    OpenAIRE

    Jongbloed, A.W.

    2015-01-01

    In het Delta Lloyd magazine april 2015, p. 32, wordt aandacht besteed aan Martijn Wismeijer (43 jaar). Hij liet onlangs twee chips onder zijn huid implanteren, een voor bitcoins en een voor de honderden wachtwoorden die hij voor digitale toepassingen gebruikt. 1 Het is een feit dat we in het huidige ICT-tijdperk te maken krijgen met heel veel wachtwoorden die liefst zo weinig mogelijk identiek mogen zijn en het is duidelijk dat wie toegang krijgt tot die wachtwoorden ons leven behoorlijk kan ...

  19. Bitcoins: virtueel geld, beslag op gebakken lucht?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed, A.W.

    2015-01-01

    In het Delta Lloyd magazine april 2015, p. 32, wordt aandacht besteed aan Martijn Wismeijer (43 jaar). Hij liet onlangs twee chips onder zijn huid implanteren, een voor bitcoins en een voor de honderden wachtwoorden die hij voor digitale toepassingen gebruikt. 1 Het is een feit dat we in het huidige

  20. Bitcoins: virtueel geld, beslag op gebakken lucht?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed, A.W.

    In het Delta Lloyd magazine april 2015, p. 32, wordt aandacht besteed aan Martijn Wismeijer (43 jaar). Hij liet onlangs twee chips onder zijn huid implanteren, een voor bitcoins en een voor de honderden wachtwoorden die hij voor digitale toepassingen gebruikt. 1 Het is een feit dat we in het huidige

  1. “Get to the bridge and I will help you to cross”: Merit, Personal Connections and Money in Access to Nigerian Higher Education “Get to the bridge and I will help you to cross”: Leistung, persönliche Verbindungen und Geld und der Zugang zum Hochschulstudium in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Willott

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the methods students use to gain access to a university in Nigeria’s elite federal sector. It explains the relationships between three “currencies” – merit, personal connections and money – that are utilised by students to achieve their goals. I argue that influences representing the official rules – merit – and those representing semi-official or unofficial processes – personal connections and money – intersect in ways that reveal the complexity of the relationship between state and society in contemporary Nigeria. This analysis reveals that in this case the hybrid interpretation of the neopatrimonial state, which views official and unofficial norms as existing in parallel and suffusing one another, has more analytical value than its counterpart, the wholesale state privatisation thesis.Dieser Aufsatz untersucht, welche Möglichkeiten Studierende nutzen, um die Aufnahme an einer (bundesstaatlichen Eliteuniversität in Nigeria zu erreichen. Der Autor beschreibt das Verhältnis von drei unterschiedlichen Zugangs-„Währungen“ – Leistung, persönliche Verbindungen und Geld –, die zu diesem Zweck eingesetzt werden. Er argumentiert, dass sich Zugangsmöglichkeiten nach offiziellen Regelungen, die vor allem auf Leistung beruhen, mit halb- oder inoffiziellen Wegen überschneiden, wie dem Einsatz von persönlichen Verbindungen und/oder Geld. In dieser Interdependenz sieht er einen Ausdruck der Komplexität der Beziehung zwischen Staat und Gesellschaft im heutigen Nigeria. Seine Analyse deckt auf, dass in diesem Fall die hybride Interpretation des neopatrimonialen Staates, wonach offizielle und inoffizielle Normen parallel existieren und einander durchdringen, größeren analytischen Wert besitzt als ihr Gegenstück, die These von der umfassenden Privatisierung staatlicher Strukturen.

  2. Benedikt Taschen : Geld oder Kultur? / Toomas H. Liiv

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liiv, Toomas H.

    1999-01-01

    Saksa kirjastajast Benedikt Taschenist, kes juhib omanimelist kunstiraamatute kirjastust Kölnis. Külaskäigust kirjastusse, väljaantavatest raamatutest, kirjastamise ja müügi korraldusest, oma isiklikust kunstikogust, abikaasa Angelika Muthesiusest.

  3. Vijf schimmels zijn boosdoener : zwarte vlekken op peen kosten teler veel geld Interview met Huub Schepers

    OpenAIRE

    Hurkens, Y.; Schepers, H.T.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Telers van peen hebben regelmatig te maken met zwarte vlekken op de penen. De peen gaat blank, onbeschadigd de bewaring in, maar bij het uitschuren zijn er kleine zwarte vlekjes te zien. Deze kunnen door vijf schimmels veroorzaakt worden. Om de kans op zwarte plekken zo klein mogelijk te houden geven Thieu Verdonschot (voorzitter van de commissie Zwarte vlekken) en Huub Schepers (PPO) een aantal tips

  4. Vijf schimmels zijn boosdoener : zwarte vlekken op peen kosten teler veel geld Interview met Huub Schepers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurkens, Y.; Schepers, H.T.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Telers van peen hebben regelmatig te maken met zwarte vlekken op de penen. De peen gaat blank, onbeschadigd de bewaring in, maar bij het uitschuren zijn er kleine zwarte vlekjes te zien. Deze kunnen door vijf schimmels veroorzaakt worden. Om de kans op zwarte plekken zo klein mogelijk te houden geve

  5. Gekombineerde selektie op melk en vlees bij MRIJ levert geld op.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenbroek, J.K.; Bekman, H.; Koorn, D.; Werf, van der J.H.J.; Veldhuizen, van A.

    1990-01-01

    Aan de hand van de meest recente resultaten van een dubbeldoelproef wordt ingegaan op drie vragen : kan een melkvaars tegelijkertijd melk en vlees produceren; kan een stier, die dochters voortbrengt met een hoge melkproduktie, stierkalveren voortbrengen die gunstige eigenschappen hebben voor de kalf

  6. Effect of diet on plasma tryptophan and serotonin in trained mares and geldings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberghina, D.; Giannetto, C.; Visser, E.K.; Ellis, A.D.

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of tryptophan (TRP) and serotonin (5-HT) in plasma were measured in 36 moderately trained Dutch warmblood horses after eight weeks on a high fibre (n=18) or high starch (n=18) diet. Samples were taken three hours after feeding, when the horse was at rest, either at 11.00 or 14.00 hour

  7. Van Keynes tot Keynes. De ontwikkeling van het denken over geld en werkloosheid bij Keynes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nentjes, Andries

    1977-01-01

    In dit boek zal het verder vooral gaan om de voorstellingen die economen zich hebben gevormd van het werkloosheidsverschijnsel. Werkloosheid: in de afbeeldingen die de klassieke economen van hun wereld maakten vooral in verband gebracht met overbevolkingin een wereld met beperkte hulpbronnen. Werklo

  8. Die Verflüssigung von Grenzen. Recht, Uhrzeit und Geld wider Raum und Materie

    OpenAIRE

    Pollmann, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The history of human communities in terms of their “border regime” can be considered tripartite. At first, societies saw themselves as unique, and their edges were the end of their world, surrounded by “barbarians”. Under the influence of ever-increasing trade and equalisation of human beings and populations on either side of the edges, the latter have been transformed into national boundaries. This second era is currently in transition to a third epoch, as the continuous globalisation of soc...

  9. Die Verflüssigung von Grenzen. Recht, Uhrzeit und Geld wider Raum und Materie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollmann , Christopher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The history of human communities in terms of their “border regime” can be considered tripartite. At first, societies saw themselves as unique, and their edges were the end of their world, surrounded by “barbarians”. Under the influence of ever-increasing trade and equalisation of human beings and populations on either side of the edges, the latter have been transformed into national boundaries. This second era is currently in transition to a third epoch, as the continuous globalisation of societies is going along with their atomisation and liquefaction. As entrepreneurs of ourselves, we are more and more supposed to manage our solitary existence ourselves. Law, clock and money are a tempting basis for this, because they do not prescribe nor prohibit any activity, but simply – and all the more relentlessly – establish a framework for individual action. Their limits progressively supplement collective delineations of human life (birth and residence, gender, religion, profession, etc..

  10. Efficient heating systems with money from the government; Effiziente Heizsysteme mit Geld vom Staat. Leitfaden Foerderprogramme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    In addition to the climate and resource protection, there is a growing interest in a sustainable reduction in the annual operating costs for heating and hot water. In the search for economically exploitable measures for energy conservation, the brochure under consideration reports on the most important programs at the federal level. Possible supports of financing from the Credit Institute for Reconstruction KfW (Frankfurt (Main), Federal Republic of Germany) and the Federal Office of Economics and Export Control BAFA (Eschborn, Federal Republic of Germany). The on-site consultation by a licensed energy advisor is the best first step.

  11. Efficient heating systems with money from the government; Effiziente Heizsysteme mit Geld vom Staat. Leitfaden Foerderprogramme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In addition to the climate and resource protection, there is a growing interest in a sustainable reduction in the annual operating costs for heating and hot water. In the search for economically exploitable measures for energy conservation, the brochure under consideration reports on the most important programs at the federal level. Possible supports of financing from the Credit Institute for Reconstruction KfW (Frankfurt (Main), Federal Republic of Germany) and the Federal Office of Economics and Export Control BAFA (Eschborn, Federal Republic of Germany). The on-site consultation by a licensed energy advisor is the best first step.

  12. Verantwoording en kosteneffectiviet van therapeutic drug monitoring (1) : Betere behandeling voor minder geld

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touw, D.J.; Neef, C.; Vinks, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    There are a number of effective but highly toxic drugs that exhibit a narrow therapeutic index and marked intersubject pharmacokinetic variability. Optimal therapy with such drugs requires therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in order to safely obtain the desired clinical effects. A systematic review w

  13. Reactor in search for money. Cooled neutrons for unique research; Reactor zoekt geld. Gekoelde neutronen maken onderzoek mogelijk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdult, E.

    2010-12-17

    The modernization of radiation research at the Delft University of Technology depends on subsidies for new instruments. OYSTER (Optimised Yield for Science, Technology and Education of Radiation) is the plan of the Reactor Institute Delft (RID) to realize such a modernization. The article comprises detailed drawings of the inside of the reactor and illustrates the CNIF (Cold Neutron Irradiation Facility) to fight cancer and POSH-PALS (Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectrometry) to visualize the atomic structure of materials. [Dutch] De modernisering van het stralingsonderzoek aan de Technische Universiteit Delft staat of valt met subsidie voor een nieuwe opzet van het instrumentarium. OYSTER (Optimised Yield for Science, Technology and Education of Radiation) is het plan van het Reactor Instituut Delft (RID) om de installatie te moderniseren. Het artikel bevat gedetailleerde tekeningen van de binnenkant van de reactor en illustreert de CNIF (Cold Neutron Irradiation Facility) voor de bestrijding van kanker en POSH-PALS (Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectrometry) waarmee de structuur van materialen op atoomniveau inzichtelijk kan worden gemaakt.

  14. "Natürlich kann man Geld als Medium begreifen…" - Interview mit Axel Stockburger von Ruth Sonderegger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Stockburger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ruth Sonderegger hat für die MEDIENIMPULSE Axel Stockburger interviewt, der an der Wiener Akademie der bildenden Künste im Bereich "Kunst und digitale Medien" arbeitet. Gibt es angesichts der post-medialen Kondition noch eine Medienkunst? Und wie sieht es mit dem Kunst-Wert im Kapitalismus aus?

  15. Saving energy and money with high technology and brains; Energie und Geld sparen mit Hightech und Koepfchen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmkuhl, Volker; Lepper, Rolf (comps.)

    2012-07-01

    In times of rapidly rising energy prices, investments pay off more quickly. Under this aspect, the special magazine Oeko-Test under consideration presents different contributions to the following themes: (a) Self-made energy turnaround; (b) Utilization of solar energy; (c) Energy is not used at all; (d) Installation of modern heating systems.

  16. Energy for consumers. How to save money and get your share. 2. ed.; Energie fuer Verbraucher. So sparen Sie Geld und kommen zu Ihrem guten Recht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Aribert; Holling, Leonora

    2012-08-15

    The deregulation of the energy market has changed the rules for utilities and consumers. Consumers may save up to 500 Euros per annum by changing over to a less costly provider, and those who do not change over need not accept price increases decided by the utility. The book describes the steps to be take for a consumer who wants to come into his own. In alphabetic order, all aspects of power supply are explained. The text is supplemented by information on how to save energy and how socially disadvantaged consumers can apply for state funds. With its many examples and form letters, the book is indispensable for all consumers of energy. [German] Seit der Liberalisierung des Energiemarkts gelten neue Spielregeln zwischen Verbrauchern und Energieversorgern. So kann jeder Verbraucher bis zu 500 Euro pro Jahr sparen, wenn er jaehrlich zum jeweils guenstigsten Anbieter wechselt. Wer seinem bisherigen Energielieferanten treu bleibt, braucht dessen Preiserhoehungen nicht widerspruchslos hinnehmen. Welche Spielregeln man dabei beachten muss, wird in diesem Buch beschrieben. Darin wird von A wie Anschluss ans Energienetz ueber V wie Versorgungssperre bis Z wie Zahlungsunfaehigkeit alles erklaert, was der muendige Energieverbraucher wissen muss. Energiespartipps und Hinweise auf staatliche Unterstuetzungen fuer sozial Benachteiligte runden den umfangreichen Ratgeber ab. Zahlreiche Beispiele und Musterschreiben machen das Werk zu einer unentbehrlichen Hilfe fuer jeden Energieverbraucher.

  17. Special on the Bio-based Economy. Making money with a green economy; Special Biobased Economy. Geld verdienen met een groene economie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterval, R. (ed.)

    2011-12-15

    Bio-based is booming. Increasingly more businesses see a healthy business case in products that are not made with fossil raw materials, but with biomass. But where are the opportunities for the Netherlands? And which roles can the government, trade and industry and science play? This PM special contains interviews with and experiences of pioneering entrepreneurs and agricultural attaches in the Netherlands and abroad [Dutch] Biobased is booming. Steeds meer bedrijven zien een gezonde businesscase in producten die niet gemaakt zijn met fossiele grondstoffen maar met biomassa. Waar liggen de kansen voor Nederland? En welke rol is daarbij weggelegd voor de overheid, het bedrijfsleven en de wetenschap? In deze PM-special onder meer interviews met en ervaringen van pionerende entrepreneurs en landbouwattaches in binnen- en buitenland.

  18. House supply with alternative energies. Easily installed, saves money and worries.; Hausversorgung mit alternativen Energien. Leicht gemacht, Geld und Aerger gespart.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanus, B.

    2007-07-01

    The book under consideration reports on the application of alternative energy and contains easily understandable operational descriptions of different systems: (a) Central heating plants with wood pellets; (b) Utilization of geothermal heat by heat pumps; (c) Solar-thermal plants; (d) Solar-electrical plants, photovoltaic plants; (e) Constructional measures at new buildings; (f) Constructional measures during the modernisation of older buildings. Disadvantages and weak points receive special attention. Comparisons of costs and hints to possible additional costs consequently are listed and described.

  19. Über die Natur und das Wesen des Geldes: Johann Heinrich von Thünens unveröffentlichter Beitrag zur Geldtheorie

    OpenAIRE

    Nellinger, Ludwig

    2009-01-01

    The economic works of Johann Heinrich von Thünen include 1,000 unpublished pages of drafts and notes on the basis of which he prepared the second volume of his famous 'Isolated State in Relation to Agriculture and Political Economy'. Thünen wrote his texts in the so-called Deutsche Kanzleischrift, a script which can be read today only by specialised historians, rarely by economists. In a first part of a research project of the Thünen-Gesellschaft e.V. 300 pages were transliterated, from which...

  20. Über die Natur und das Wesen des Geldes – Johann Heinrich von Thünens unveröffentlichter Beitrag zur Geldtheorie

    OpenAIRE

    Ludwig Nellinger

    2009-01-01

    The economic works of Johann Heinrich von Thünen include 1,000 unpublished pages of drafts and notes on the basis of which he prepared the second volume of his famous “Isolated State in Relation to Agriculture and Political Economy”. Thünen wrote his texts in the so-called Deutsche Kanzleischrift, a script which can be read today only by specialised histori-ans, rarely by economists. In a first part of a research project of the Thünen-Gesellschaft e.V. 300 pages were transliterated, from whic...

  1. Om de kwaliteit van het geld. Het toezicht op de muntproductie in de Republiek en de voorziening van kleingeld in Holland en West-Friesland in de achttiende eeuw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffers, Albert Antoine Jacques

    2013-01-01

    The supervision on the coin production in the Republic of the Seven United Provinces and the supply of the smallest denominations (copper duits and silver 1 stuiver) in the province of Holland and West-Friesland in the 18th Century. With information on all the functions involved, illustrated by the

  2. Om de kwaliteit van het geld. Het toezicht op de muntproductie in de Republiek en de voorziening van kleingeld in Holland en West-Friesland in de achttiende eeuw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffers, Albert Antoine Jacques

    2013-01-01

    The supervision on the coin production in the Republic of the Seven United Provinces and the supply of the smallest denominations (copper duits and silver 1 stuiver) in the province of Holland and West-Friesland in the 18th Century. With information on all the functions involved, illustrated by the

  3. Far ahead of the times. Measurements demonstrate: solar thermal heating systems save money at the highest level of domestic comfort; Der Zeit weit voraus. Messungen beweisen: solarthermische Heizsysteme sparen bares Geld bei hoechstem Wohnkomfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-12-15

    If someone wants to build or renovate its own home at present, is well advised to decide for a sustainable and cost saving energy concept. Already at the beginning of this year, the oil and gas prices amount to more than 90 cent per litre. Tendency: increasing. Many households look back on one of the most expensive heating periods of the past five years, although the winter 2011/2012 brought average temperatures statistically. If someone wants to become independent from the development of the energy prices, needs a building and heating concept which meets the heat requirement from renewable energy resources as wide-ranging as possible.

  4. Goldmine at home. An unusual reference manual for amateurs and do-it-yourselfers to save energy, money and nerves; Goldgruben zuhause. Der etwas andere Ratgeber zum Energie-, Geld- und Nervensparen fuer Laien und Heimwerker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weil, T.

    2007-07-01

    Everybody is talking about saving money, but many are afraid to take measures because they have no faith in their own capabilities. In a humorous but expert manner, the author deals with this very fault. In six chapters, he shows unheard-of possibilities to reduce the energy cost - and other cost factors - in the home and garden. From modern heating systems to service water heating and technical facilities in bathrooms and kitchens, he points out many options for improvement and saving. There is one special chapter on motor cars, in which he voices harsh criticism of miracle cures and myths around the car and also presents alternatives for those who are not do-it-yourselfers. The last chapters presents hints and information to solve many everyday problems. The reader is given a useful practical guide and good reading material. Technical terms are explained in a detailed index, and there are 17 colour pictures and 2 drawings to facilitate understanding. (orig.) [German] Geldsparen ist in aller Munde, aber alleine kann man es nicht immer effektiv umsetzen, weil man seinen eigenen Faehigkeiten zum Loslegen nicht traut. Der Autor versteht es auf seine eigene humorvolle, aber sachliche Art, den Finger genau auf diese wunde Stelle zu legen. In 6 Kapiteln eroeffnet er ungeahnte Moeglichkeiten mit AHA-Effekt, um den Energie- und sonstigen Kosten rund um Wohnung, Garten und Auto ein Schnippchen zu schlagen. Von der modernen Heizungstechnik, Brauchwassererzeugung bis hin zur Haustechnik in Bad und Kueche zeigt er viele Moeglichkeiten des Verbesserns und des Einsparens auf. Auch nennt er gnadenlos seine eigenen Erfahrungen mit Wundermitteln und sonstigen Maerchen rund ums Auto. Er zeigt aber auch Alternativen auf, wenn man seinen eigenen Heimwerkerkuensten nicht traut, um trotzdem an sein persoenliches Sparziel zu gelangen. Im letzten Kapitel zeigt er dem Leser einige ''Nervensparer'', die manche Problemloesung beinhalten. Der Leser findet einen mit Liebe zur Materie geschriebenen Ratgeber, den er gerne mehrmals in die Hand nehmen wird, um die mundgerecht dargereichten Loesungsvorschlaege auch fuer ihn selbst zu verwirklichen. Da doch einige Fachbegriffe nicht zu vermeiden sind, befindet sich im Anhang 3 noch ein gut gefuelltes Stichwortregister. Zum besseren Verstaendnis wurden 17 eigene Farbfotos und 2 Abbildungen hinzugefuegt. (orig.)

  5. More innovation for less money. 'Solar Decathlon Europa 2012' presents feasible and low-cost solar architecture; Mehr Innovation fuer weniger Geld. Der 'Solar Decathlon Europa 2012' ueberzeugt mit machbarer und preisguenstiger Solararchitektur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco de Saravia, Cristina

    2012-11-15

    In September 2012, the 'Solar Decathlon Europe 2012' again took place in Madrid. The 'Solar Decathlon Europe' is an architecture competition of universities. 19 teams from twelve countries had to pass ten tests to convince the public and the jury of their concepts for sustainable living. The eleventh test was the factor of surprise.

  6. Money from the balcony. Plug-in systems provide solar power directly into the socket; Geld vom Balkon. Plug-in-Systeme liefern den Solarstrom direkt in die Steckdose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorsatz, William

    2013-10-01

    It should be particularly warned against models that deliver electricity from micro solar systems, which are installed on the balcony or outside wall of the apartment, and can be plugged into the outlet of the final circuit in the house, because they involve accident and liability risks. [German] Es wird vor Modellen gewarnt, die Strom von Solar-Kleinstanlagen, die auf dem eigenen Balkon oder der Aussenwand der Mietwohnung installiert sind, liefern und einfach so in die Steckdose des Endstromkreises in der Wohnung gesteckt werden koennen, weil sie Unfall- und Haftungsrisiken berge.

  7. Anomalous Effects of Driving Field Linewidth on a One-Atom Dressed-State Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jin-Jin; Hu Xiang-Ming

    2007-01-01

    We examine the effects of driving Geld linewidth on a one-atom dressed state laser. Unexpectedly, the linewidth leads to anomalous effects on the cavity Geld. The mean photon number of the cavity Geld is raised or the normalized variance is reduced to a certain degree as the linewidth increases for an appropriate range of parameters. The responsible mechanism is attributed to the fluctuation-induced modification of the electromagnetic reservoir where the atom stays.

  8. Crowd funding voor juridische fijnproevers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. van der Vlies

    2012-01-01

    Crowd funding is een eigentijds instrument om geld van goede gevers te verzamelen via de sociale media. Bij crowd funding hoeft de ‘crowd’ niet als groep of gemeenschap te bestaan. Het gaat om een verzameling personen die één ding gemeen heeft: geld geven voor een bepaald doel. De oude media speelde

  9. Estrategias de alimentacion y manejo para alcanzar la uniformidad y calidad deseadas en porcino

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den L.A.; Smits, C.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    De rijksoverheid heeft het geld voor het soortenbeleid overgeheveld naar de provincies. Enkele provinciale ambtenaren aan het woord over de uitvoering van het beleid m.b.t. de bescherming van soorten in hun provincies

  10. Estrategias de alimentacion y manejo para alcanzar la uniformidad y calidad deseadas en porcino

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den L.A.; Smits, C.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    De rijksoverheid heeft het geld voor het soortenbeleid overgeheveld naar de provincies. Enkele provinciale ambtenaren aan het woord over de uitvoering van het beleid m.b.t. de bescherming van soorten in hun provincies

  11. Kosten mastitis onderschat: Hoogste kostenpost bij mastitis is melkproductieverlies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijps, K.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Mastitis kost geld. Maar hoeveel? Beduidend meer dan melkveehouders denken, zo blijkt uit recent onderzoek van het Uiergezondheidscentrum Nederland en de faculteit Diergeneeskunde onder 64 veehouders. Vooral het productieverlies bij subklinische mastitis kost veel euro’s

  12. Kosten mastitis onderschat: Hoogste kostenpost bij mastitis is melkproductieverlies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijps, K.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Mastitis kost geld. Maar hoeveel? Beduidend meer dan melkveehouders denken, zo blijkt uit recent onderzoek van het Uiergezondheidscentrum Nederland en de faculteit Diergeneeskunde onder 64 veehouders. Vooral het productieverlies bij subklinische mastitis kost veel euro’s

  13. Nonclasssical Properties in Two-Mode Fields Resonantly Interacting with a Three-Level [Ⅰ]-Type Atom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Some noclassical properties in electromagnetic Reid are investigated for the interaction of two-modes initially taken in coherent-state representation with the three-level [Ⅰ]-type atom, such as squeezing properties and violation of the Cauchy-Schwartz inequality. The enhancement of Geld squeezing is found by selective atomic measurement. The Cauchy-Schwartz inequality is violated by the application of the classical Geld followed by detection in excited state.

  14. Tracheal perforation managed by temporary tracheostomy in a horse : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Saulez

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Tracheal trauma with resultant rupture is uncommonly reported in veterinary literature. We report the case of a 16-year-old Thoroughbred gelding that sustained a 1 cm longitudinal perforation of the dorsal tracheal membrane in the proximal cervical region. The horse subsequently developed dyspnoea due to acute upper respiratory obstruction secondary to severe emphysema of the guttural pouches. A temporary tracheostomy caudal to the site of tracheal perforation was performed under local anaesthesia. This procedure helped relieve the upper airway obstruction and aided resolution of the injury by diverting air away from the site of tracheal perforation. After conservative management, the gelding recovered completely.

  15. Study on Non-Sequential Double Ionization of Aligned Diatomic Molecules in Strong Laser Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan; CHEN Jing; YANG Shi-Ping; LIU Jie

    2007-01-01

    We develop a semiclassical model to describe the non-sequential double ionization of aligned diatomic molecules in an intense linearly polarized field. It is found that in the tunnelling regime, the oriented molecule shows geometric effects on double ionization process when aligned parallel and perpendicular to the external Geld. Our results are qualitatively consistent with the recent experimental observations.

  16. Jongeren in Friesland [Youth in Friesland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, de M.P.M.; Jansma, L.G.; Ophem, J.A.C.; Verhaar, C.H.A.

    1993-01-01

    Onderzoek in opdracht van de Provincie Friesland om inzicht te krijgen in het doen en laten van de Friese jongeren met betrekking tot werk en werkloosheid, leef- en woonomgeving, binding aan Friesland en beheersing van het Fries, omgaan met geld en besteding van de vrije tijd, enz. Door middel van e

  17. Nieuwe wapens in de slag om groen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreke, J.

    2010-01-01

    Groen verliest in en rond steden vaak de slag. Burgers vinden groene gebieden belangrijk, ze stimuleren beweging, bevorderen de integratie en maken huizen meer waard. Toch kiezen bestuurders uiteindelijk vaak toch voor ‘rood’ omdat dat geld en prestige oplevert. In deze bijdrage wordt verslag gedaan

  18. Schimmels als nieuw wapen tegen malariamuggen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.

    2008-01-01

    Er gaat ieder jaar veel geld om in de - chemische - bestrijding van malariamuggen. Maar dankzij een veelbelovende schimmel staat een heel nieuwe, duurzame aanpak voor de deur, zeggen medisch entomologen Bart Knols en Willem Takken. 'Het is toch schrijnend dat we aan het begin van de eenentwintigste

  19. Een Nederlandse bakker in Beijing: 'Onder de loep'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Kuiken

    2012-01-01

    Chinezen blijken dol te zijn op croissants, stokbrood en stroopwafels. Een Nederlandse bakker in Beijing doet daar zijn voordeel mee: hij heeft een team van Chinese bakkers opgeleid en verdient daar nu geld als water. Hij spreekt geen woord Chinees en de Chinezen spreken geen Nederlands of Engels. M

  20. Miraculeus bewaard: middeleeuwse Utrechtse relieken op reis: de schat van de oud-katholieke Gertrudiskathedraal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kruijf, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Op veilingsites worden regelmatig eigendommen van popsterren en sporthelden aangeboden. De wc-bril van John Lennon, maar ook de rijstkom van Mahatma Gandhi wisselden onlangs voor grof geld van eigenaar. In de middeleeuwen was het niet anders, al waren toen vooral religieuze idolen populair.

  1. “I don’t trust my research data to stay there – I use Dropbox instead”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greifeneder, Elke Susanne

    Viel Geld wurde in den letzten zehn Jahren in virtuelle Forschungsumgebungen (VFU) investiert; VFUs galten als eine der zentralen neuen Aufgaben bibliothekarischer Services. Die Nutzung der Angebote blieb jedoch häufig gering, und nach Auslaufen der Förderung vieler Projekte wurden in den letzten...

  2. Art at Auction in 17th Century Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montias, John Michael

    2002-01-01

    Tijdens de talloze veilingen die de Amsterdamse Weeskamer in de eerste helft van de Gouden zeventiende eeuw organiseerde, blijken het vooral koopmannen te zijn geweest, en dan met name uit de Zuidelijke Nederlanden en Holland, die hun goede geld investeerden in de aankoop van een Dürer of een Gerard

  3. Die skool en die onderwyser as faktore in die geestesgesondheid van die kind*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Schutte

    1961-03-01

    Full Text Available Ons hou geestesgesondheidsweke, stig beroepsentrums, samel geld in om mense wat geestelik siek is te genees, klae oor die tekort aan psigiaters, kliniese sielkundiges, bedryfsielkundiges, voorligters, skoolpsigoloë,ens. ’n Karige kwarteeu gelede het ons aan al hierdie dinge slegs akademiese aandag gewy. In hierdie kursus wordverskeie tipes kinders bespreek en geleer hoe om hulle probleme te benader.

  4. Healing of multiple fractured thoracic dorsal spinous processes in a Quarter horse

    OpenAIRE

    Molnar, Rebeccah; Barber, Spencer M.; Pharr, John W.; Panizzi, Luca; Plaxton, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    A Quarter horse gelding sustained fracture and displacement of spinous processes T2–T10. Radiographic evidence of healing was seen 3 mo following injury, and at 2 years post-injury all spinous processes had healed and undergone partial re-alignment. This re-alignment has not been reported before.

  5. Urethrolithiasis and nephrolithiasis in a horse.

    OpenAIRE

    Saam, D

    2001-01-01

    A 9-year-old, quarter horse gelding with obstructive urethrolithiasis was treated with a perineal urethrostomy. The horse's condition deteriorated and abdominocentesis confirmed septic uroperitonitis. The horse was euthanized and postmortem examination revealed peritonitis, a tear in the lateral wall of the bladder, and a nephrolith within the left renal pelvis.

  6. Reactive mesothelial hyperplasia associated with chronic peritonitis in a 20-year-old Quarter horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoon-Hanks, Laura L; Rout, Emily D; Vap, Linda M; Aboellail, Tawfik A; Hassel, Diana M; Nout-Lomas, Yvette S

    2016-05-01

    A 20-year-old gelding was diagnosed with peritonitis and severe reactive mesothelial hyperplasia. Exploratory laparotomy findings were suggestive of a neoplastic etiology; however, additional diagnostics ruled this out and the horse made a full recovery. This report demonstrates the difficulty and value of differentiating between reactive and neoplastic mesothelial processes.

  7. Healing of multiple fractured thoracic dorsal spinous processes in a Quarter horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Rebeccah; Barber, Spencer M; Pharr, John W; Panizzi, Luca; Plaxton, Andrea

    2012-03-01

    A Quarter horse gelding sustained fracture and displacement of spinous processes T2-T10. Radiographic evidence of healing was seen 3 mo following injury, and at 2 years post-injury all spinous processes had healed and undergone partial re-alignment. This re-alignment has not been reported before.

  8. Column: lef

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reep, Frans van der

    2012-01-01

    1e alinea column: Ook in je beleggingsbeslissingen is het voor echte performance wellicht tijd om eens voorbij best practices (dan word je namelijk hoogstens tweede) te kijken naar next practices. Als je op zeker speelt, verdien je weinig geld. Want anderen gingen je al voor. Maar kun je nog meer op

  9. Protecting Financial Market Integrity: Roles and Responsibilities of Auditors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.M. Diekman (Peter)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWaarom heeft u nog vertrouwen in een bank? En waarom vertrouwt u uw geld nog toe aan banken? Deze vragen staan centraal in de oratie ‘Protecting Financial Market Integrity. Roles and Responsibilities of Auditors' van prof.dr. Peter A.M. Diekman RA. Hij stelt dat zowel de intern als de op

  10. Aggression and dominance in matched groups of subadult Icelandic horses (Equus caballus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervaecke, H.; Stevens, J.M.G.; Vandemoortele, H.; Sigurjónsdóttir, H.; Vries, Han de

    2006-01-01

    We studied sex differences in the nature of aggression and dominance behaviour in two newly formed groups of 1-year-old Icelandic horses. One herd contained nine geldings, the other nine mares. The groups were matched with regard to dominancedetermining traits such as age, weaning age, composition o

  11. Virtual Tourism Destination Image: Glocal identities constructed, perceived and experienced

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Govers (Robert)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractHet opdoemend netwerk van mondiale hubs en stromen van geld, media, technologie en migratie, hebben geleid tot een algemene bewustwording rond oplopende spanningen tussen mondiale en locale identiteiten en imago’s. Dubai, het onderzoeksdecor van dit proefschrift, is een goed voorbeeld. M

  12. Een situatieschets van mantelzorgers bereikt via leden van de vereniging van budgethouders Per Saldo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van den Berg (Bernard); N.J.A. van Exel (Job); G.A.M. van den Bos (Geertrudis); M.A. Koopmanschap (Marc)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractEen persoonsgebonden budget (PgB) is een som geld waarmee mensen die hulp en begeleiding nodig hebben als gevolg van een aandoening, deze zorg naar eigen inzicht kunnen inkopen. Het PgB wordt gezien als een belangrijk instrument om verder vorm te geven aan vraagsturing in de Nederlandse

  13. Groen mbo niet nodig voor groene carrière : onderzoekers in kritisch essay (interview met W. de Jong)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boetzkes, P.; Jong, de L.W.

    2011-01-01

    Het groen mbo heeft in zijn huidige vorm onvoldoende meerwaarde voor de arbeidsmarkt in de tuinbouw, agro & food. Vooral waar het uitvoerend werk betreft. Daarom kan de overheid het extra geld dat ze erin steekt beter anders investeren. Dat stelt onderzoeker Wim de Jong.

  14. Sociologische kijk op verantwoordelijkheid voor natuur

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dagevos, H.; Breedveld, K.

    2004-01-01

    De disciplinaire invalshoek van dit essay is de sociale. In de eerste plaats wordt ingegaan op verantwoordelijkheid als moderne notie, gezien vanuit de geïndividualiseerde postmoderne samenleving. Vervolgens wordt het begrip "vertaald" in termen van bestedingen in tijd en geld. De sociale context is

  15. Schimmels als nieuw wapen tegen malariamuggen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knols, B.G.J.; Takken, W.

    2008-01-01

    Er gaat ieder jaar veel geld om in de - chemische - bestrijding van malariamuggen. Maar dankzij een veelbelovende schimmel staat een heel nieuwe, duurzame aanpak voor de deur, zeggen medisch entomologen Bart Knols en Willem Takken. 'Het is toch schrijnend dat we aan het begin van de eenentwintigste

  16. Voorbeelde en ooradressering in tweetalige woordeboeke Examples and Overaddressing in Bilingual Dictionaries.

    OpenAIRE

    Herman L. Beyer

    2012-01-01

    Opsomming: Adresseringsekwivalensie geld in 'n woordeboekartikel wanneer al die vertaalekwivalente in die vertaalekwivalentparadigma neerslag vind in die doeltaalvoorbeelde in die koteksafdeling en elke doeltaalvoorbeeld 'n vertaalekwivalent bevat wat in die vertaalekwivalentparadigma voorkom. Die versteuring van hierdie ekwivalensie vind plaas deur prosedures van onderadressering (wanneer nie al die vertaalekwivalente in die vertaalekwivalentp...

  17. In tuinbouwketens gaat het om marktkracht : telers moeten beter dan de supermarkten weten wat de consument wil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van O.

    2010-01-01

    Hoe kunnen de telers in Nederland meer geld verdienen aan die prachtige producten die ze maken? Het antwoord is makkelijker gegeven dan gedaan. Volgens Olaf van Kooten, hoogleraar Leerstoelgroep Tuinbouwketens bij Wageningen Universiteit, is er maar één manier om op den duur een mooie positie in de

  18. Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia associated with trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole administration in a horse.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, H L; Livesey, M A

    1998-01-01

    A 10-year-old, thoroughbred gelding was administered sulphonamide drugs during surgical treatment of guttural pouch mycosis. The horse became anemic and a diagnosis of immune-mediated hemolytic anemia was made after other causes of anemia had been ruled out. The anemia resolved after the drugs were withdrawn.

  19. Evaluation of methodological aspects of digestibility meaurements in ponies fed different grass hays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafstra, F.J.W.C.; Doorn, van D.A.; Schonewille, J.T.; Wartena, F.C.; Zoon, van M.; Blok, M.C.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2015-01-01

    Methodological aspects of digestibility measurements of feedstuffs for equines were studied in four Welsh pony geldings consuming four grass-hay diets in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Diets contained either a low (L), medium (M), high (H), or very high (VH) ADF content (264, 314, 375, or 396 g·kg-1 D

  20. Functional Integrals and Free Energy in sine-Gordon-Thirring Model with Impurity Coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The free energy at low temperature in ID sine-Gordon-Thirring model with impurity coupling is studied by means of functional integrals method. For massive free sine-Gordon-Thirring model, free energy is obtained from perturbation expansion of functional determinant. Moreover, the free energy of massive model is calculated by use of an auxiliary Bose Geld method.

  1. Virtual Tourism Destination Image: Glocal identities constructed, perceived and experienced

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Govers (Robert)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractHet opdoemend netwerk van mondiale hubs en stromen van geld, media, technologie en migratie, hebben geleid tot een algemene bewustwording rond oplopende spanningen tussen mondiale en locale identiteiten en imago’s. Dubai, het onderzoeksdecor van dit proefschrift, is een goed voorbeeld. M

  2. Miraculeus bewaard: middeleeuwse Utrechtse relieken op reis: de schat van de oud-katholieke Gertrudiskathedraal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. de Kruijf

    2011-01-01

    Op veilingsites worden regelmatig eigendommen van popsterren en sporthelden aangeboden. De wc-bril van John Lennon, maar ook de rijstkom van Mahatma Gandhi wisselden onlangs voor grof geld van eigenaar. In de middeleeuwen was het niet anders, al waren toen vooral religieuze idolen populair. Voorwerp

  3. Kaderrichtlijn water: strengere spuinormen staan voor de deur (interview met Ellen Beerling)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kierkels, T.; Beerling, E.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Geen teler loost voor de lol. Spui kost geld aan water en meststoffen. Maar het gebeurt wel zeer regelmatig, om problemen op te lossen of voor de zekerheid. Gevolg: veel meststoffen en gewasbeschermingsmiddelen in de wateren rond kassengebieden. In 2027 moet dat afgelopen zijn, op grond van de

  4. Phosphorus digestibility and phytate degradation by yearlings and mature horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, A L; Hansen, T L; Strasinger, L A; Harlow, B E; Lawrence, L M

    2015-12-01

    Inorganic P is often added to growing horse diets because organic P, or phytate-P, is believed to have lower digestibility. If horses can efficiently digest organic P, then the need for inorganic P may be reduced. Much of the P in grain-based concentrates fed to growing horses is in the form of phytate-P. Little is known about the ability of growing horses to degrade phytate-P or whether horse age affects mineral digestion in horses. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of age on P, Ca, and Mg digestibility as well as phytate-P degradation. Four yearling geldings and 4 mature geldings were fed a diet of alfalfa cubes, timothy cubes, and a pelleted concentrate. The diet contained 0.28% total P and 17.4% of that P was in the phytate form. There was a 14-d diet adaptation period followed by a 4-d fecal collection period. Apparent total tract P digestibility was higher for yearlings than mature geldings ( = 0.036; 7.7 and -6.6% for yearlings and mature geldings, respectively). Phytate-P disappearance was 94.8% and did not differ between ages ( = 0.190). Apparent Ca digestibility was lower in mature geldings ( = 0.043), but apparent Mg digestibility did not differ between ages ( = 0.414). Phytate is broken down in the gastrointestinal tract, but the low P digestibilities suggest that either degradation occurs after the site of P absorption or liberated P is recycled back into the gastrointestinal tract. Yearlings can utilize organic P as well as mature horses; therefore, diets without inorganic P are acceptable for growing horses.

  5. Daily methane production pattern of Welsh ponies fed a roughage diet with or without a cereal mixture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dansen, O.; Pellikaan, W.F.; Hendriks, W.H.; Dijkstra, J.; Jacobs, M.P.T.; Everts, H.; Doorn, van D.A.

    2015-01-01

    Methane production from Welsh ponies fed 2 isoenergetic diets (NE basis) at maintenance was studied in a crossover design with 4 mature geldings (230 ± 10.5 kg BW, mean ± SE). Treatments included a roughage-only (R) diet (5.1 kg DM/d) or a roughage plus cereal mix (RC) diet (2.5 kg DM hay/d plus 1.1

  6. The effect of sugar beet pulp on caecal pH in Norwegian cold-blooded trotter horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøkner, Christine; Austbø, D.; Næsset, J.A.;

    2010-01-01

    It was hypothesised that whole barley would lower caecal pH more thatn whole barley fed in combination with Betfor®. Four geldings were fed two concentrate diets: 2.06 kg whole barley + 300 g DM Befor® (BB) and 2.06 kg whole barley (B). Timothy hay was fed as roughages in both diets. A pH electro...

  7. Die gesag van die Heilige Skrif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C.W. Duvenage

    1967-03-01

    Full Text Available Dit geld nie maar t.o.v. ’n ongeloofsbeskouing soos dié van Karl Jaspers nie wat beweer: „Die Bibel ist das Depositum eines Jahrtausends menschlicher Grenzerfahrung” of van die Rooms-Katolieke skrifbeskouing nie wat die kerklike leertradisie, soos dogmaties op die konsilie van Trente vasgelê is, beskou as die enigste gesaghebbende kriterium vir die kanonisering en interpretasie van die Skrif.

  8. Putative clinical piroplasmosis in a Burchell's zebra (Equus quagga burchelli : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Lampen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old tame zebra gelding was presented after suffering from lethargy, nervousness, reported anaemia and icterus as well as a decreased appetite. These symptoms were seen over some months, with changing severity. The animal was immobilised, treated, and blood specimens were submitted for haematology and biochemistry. This report describes molecular characterisation of Theileria equi recovered from this animal, as well as the clinical findings, treatment and historical relevance of piroplasmosis in zebra in southern Africa.

  9. Pregnancy disruption in artificially inseminated domestic horse mares as a counterstrategy against potential infanticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoš, L; Bartošová, J; Pluháček, J

    2015-11-01

    In a previous study, we suggested that the common practice of transporting a mare for mating and then bringing her back to an environment that also contains males that did not sire the fetus may be a major cause of high percentages of pregnancy disruption in domestic horses. In this study, we tested whether disruption of pregnancies induced by AI occurs as frequently as after mating with a strange stallion away from home and is affected by the same factors in the home social environment. Based on 77 records, the probability of pregnancy disruption after AI depended on the social environment in which the mare was maintained after mating and the number of foals the mare had delivered in the past. Also after AI, as with natural matings away from home, the probability of pregnancy disruption was higher when the mare had no male company in her enclosure but stallions or geldings were present in an adjacent enclosure than when the mare was sharing the enclosure with geldings (generalized linear mixed model = 8.68, = 0.007, odds ratio = 8.17). These data support the prediction that the mare perceives conception after AI equally to natural mating with a strange stallion. The results suggested pregnancy disruption may be stimulated by the social circumstances of the home environment in mares artificially inseminated as in mares mated naturally away from home. The practical implications of this result is that after AI, to reduce risk of pregnancy disruption and improve welfare, horse breeders should place the pregnant mare into an environment with no stallion or stallions/gelding or geldings or to an enclosure together with the male or males.

  10. Die rol van die onderwys in die handhawing en uitbouing van ons volkskultuur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.J. Jordaan

    1970-03-01

    Full Text Available Op die oog af lyk dit ’n baie maklike onderwerp, maar hoe meer 'n mens daaroor nadink hoe ingewikkelder en omvangryker word die implikasies wat verband hou. Dit is veral so omdat dit hier voor alles gaan om eerste fundamentele uitgangspunte, dit wil sê, om lewens- en wêreldbeskouing. Dit geld van albei komponente — van onderwys sowel as van kultuur.

  11. The challenge of motivating top management: a need satisfaction perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Arnolds

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The effective participation of South African firms in the global economy depends on how competitively affordable and quality goods and services can be produced by the productive utilisation of materials, machines, money and human resources. Opsomming Die doekreffende deelname deur Suid-Afrikaanse firmas aan die wereldekonomie hang at van hoe mededingend kwaliteit en bekostigbare goedere en dienste gelewer kan word deur die produktiewe aanwending van grondstowwe, masjinerie, geld en arbeid.

  12. Atlanto-axial approach for cervical myelography in a Thoroughbred horse with complete fusion of the atlanto-occipital bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Monica; Dimock, Abigail N; Wisner, Erik R; Prutton, Jamie W; Madigan, John E

    2014-11-01

    A 2-year-old Thoroughbred gelding with clinical signs localized to the first 6 spinal cord segments (C1 to C6) had complete fusion of the atlanto-occipital bones which precluded performing a routine myelogram. An ultrasound-assisted myelogram at the intervertebral space between the atlas and axis was successfully done and identified a marked extradural compressive myelopathy at the level of the atlas and axis, and axis and third cervical vertebrae.

  13. Comminuted fracture of the accessory carpal bone removed via an arthroscopic-assisted arthrotomy

    OpenAIRE

    Bonilla, Alvaro G.; Santschi, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    A 16-year-old American paint horse gelding was presented for evaluation of a left forelimb lameness grade III/V. Radiographs and computed tomography revealed a comminuted fracture of the accessory carpal bone involving the entire articulation with the distal radius and the proximal aspect of the articulation with the ulnar carpal bone. Multiple fragments were present in the palmar pouch of the antebrachiocarpal joint. An arthroscopic-assisted open approach was necessary to remove all fracture...

  14. THE EFFECT OF PHYTOADDITIVES ON MACROELEMENTS DIGESTIBILITY OF SPORT HORSES

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a phytogenic additive in sport horses feed rations on faecal macroelements digestibility. The experiment was realized in Riding Centre of the Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, using 6 warm blood sport horses (geldings). The control group was fed with crimped barley, meadow hay, feed mixture and mineral premix. The experimental feed rations were supplemented with a phytogenic additive conta...

  15. Iets ontbreek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Grobler

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Na aanleiding van ’n boek van ds. J. Overduin: Is geloven moeiliiker dan vroeger? Kok, Kampen, sonder jaartal. Soos van Overduin se ander boeke wat ek gelees het, boei hierdie een eweneens. Ook al verskil ’n mens plek-plek. Dit geld veral die derde hoofstuk waarin die skrywer ingaan op die vraagstuk van God en die lyde.

  16. Clinical behavior of intraocular teratoid medulloepithelioma in two-related Quarter Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Caroline S; Craft, William F; Abbott, Jeffrey R; Farina, Lisa L; Reuss, Sarah M; Czerwinski, Sarah L; Brooks, Dennis E; Plummer, Caryn E

    2016-07-20

    The objective of this paper is to describe clinical behavior, histopathologic features, and immunohistochemical staining of two-related horses with intraocular teratoid medulloepithelioma. Two-related Quarter Horses with similar intraocular masses presented to the UF-CVM Comparative Ophthalmology Service for evaluation and treatment. The first horse, a 3-year-old gelding, had glaucoma and a cyst-like mass in the anterior chamber. Enucleation was performed. Histopathology revealed a teratoid medulloepithelioma. The tumor was considered to be completely excised. Fifteen months later, the gelding presented with swelling of the enucleated orbit and local lymph nodes with deformation of the skull. Cytology revealed neuroectodermal neoplastic cells. Necropsy confirmed tumor metastasis. Six weeks later, a 9-year-old mare, a full sibling to the gelding, presented for examination. An infiltrative mass of the iris and ciliary body was found that extended into the anterior, posterior, and vitreal chambers. Uveitis was present, but secondary glaucoma was not noted. Enucleation was performed and the histopathologic diagnosis was also teratoid medulloepithelioma. The mare has had no recurrence to date, 2 years following enucleation. Metastasis of intraocular teratoid medulloepithelioma is possible. Staging is recommended in cases where the diagnosis of teratoid medulloepithelioma is confirmed. Surveillance of full siblings is recommended until more information regarding etiology is known. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  17. Genetic analysis of the longevity of French sport horses in jumping competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricard, A; Blouin, C

    2011-10-01

    The longevity of sport horses is an economic and ethical issue. The aim of this study was to analyze the duration of the competitive life of jumping horses in France to assess the potential for genetic evaluation and to propose rules of management for sport horses. Data included lifetimes spent in jumping competitions for the 209,296 horses born from 1968 onward with performances between 1972 and 2008; the data set contained 22% right-censored records. Longevity was measured in years. Discrete survival analysis included fixed effects of region of birth, month of birth, year of recording, age at first competition, interaction between sex and level of jumping performance as measured by the logarithm of earnings adjusted for sex, age, year, and random sire and maternal grand-sire effects. There were 16,668 sires and maternal grand-sires. All fixed effects were highly significant (P effect on longevity: against common belief, the younger the horse started competing, the longer it stayed in competition. For horses that started competing at an age of 6 yr, the risk of culling was 1.33-fold that of horses having started at 4 yr of age. The less success in competition, the greater was the chance for leaving competition, especially for horses without earnings. For a gelding without earnings, the risk of culling was 1.40-fold that of an average-performance gelding and 2.57-fold that of a top-rated gelding (performance at least 2 SD above the mean). Mares always had greater relative risk than geldings or stallions because they may be culled from competition to be used for breeding. The risk of culling for females was 1.45-fold that of a gelding with the same performance. The heritability of the length of competitive life was 0.10. Breeding values were predicted for sires, and 3,303 sires showed an accuracy greater than 0.60. Among these sires, 262 were used for breeding in 2008.

  18. Object habituation in horses: The effect of voluntary vs. negatively reinforced approach to frightening stimuli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther

    2013-01-01

    stress responses when negatively reinforced to approach novel objects, compared with horses allowed to voluntarily explore the objects and 2) whether a negatively reinforced approach facilitates object habituation. Methods: Twenty-two 2–3-year-old Danish Warmblood geldings were included. Half...... increased habituation. Conclusion: A negatively reinforced approach to novel objects increases stress responses during the initial exposure but facilitates habituation in young horses. Potential relevance: Although a negatively reinforced approach appears beneficial for habituation, the procedure should...... be carefully managed due to increased stress responses in the horse, which may constitute a safety risk. Further experiments should aim to investigate differences in stimulus intensity....

  19. Direct Evaluation of Transition Amplitude Using Determinant of Wave Operator in One-Dimensional Potential Scattering System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Itsuki Banno; Kazumi Fujima

    2007-01-01

    A determinantal formula is developed for direct evaluation of transition amplitude without solving the wave equation in a one-dimensional potential scattering system. Our formulation is based on the principle that a desired quantity can be extracted from the wave operator, which is the master operator maintaining all the information of the system. This principle is tested in a simplified system, I.e., in a one-dimensional potential scattering system. We are now developing a formula for direct evaluation of near-field amplitude to design a system, in which local Geld enhancement is desired.

  20. Bleeding in the subarachnoid space: a possible complication during laser therapy for equine progressive ethmoid haematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreman, S; Wiemer, P; Keesler, R I

    2013-10-01

    A 10-year-old KWPN (Royal Warmblood Studbook of the Netherlands) gelding was euthanized after developing severe neurological symptoms preceded by severe epistaxis during laser treatment for progressive ethmoid haematoma (PEH) in the right nasal cavity. Postmortem examination of the head revealed a large amount of clotted blood between the right ventral and dorsal conchae in the nasal cavity and acute haemorrhage in the right subarachnoid space. Histologically, there was moderate, acute polioencephalomalacia in the neuropil adjacent to the haemorrhage. The haemorrhages were most likely caused by the laser treatment and therefore should be considered a possible complication that could lead to severe peracute neurological symptoms.

  1. Polysynovitis in a horse due to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection – Case study

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizio Passamonti; Fabrizia Veronesi; Katia Cappelli; Stefano Capomaccio; Alice Reginato; Arianna Miglio; Doron M Vardi; Valentina Stefanetti; Mauro Coletti; Chiara Bazzica; Marco Pepe

    2015-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a multi-systemic tick-borne disease affecting both humans and animals, including horses, and is caused by a group of interrelated spirochetes classified within the[i] Borrelia burgdorferi [/i]sensu lato (s.l.) complex. Despite the high reported seroprevalence in the European equine population for [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] s.l., to-date no documented clinical cases have been described. A 6-year-old Paint gelding was referred with a history of three weeks of fever, intermit...

  2. Don Alan Pennebaker

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Geboren am 15. Juli 1925, dreht der heute vierundachtzigjährige Don Alan Pennebaker, Sohn eines Fotografen, noch immer Filme. Nach seinem Militärdienst und einem Ingenieurstudium in Yale sowie am M.I.T in Cambridge arbeitete er in verschiedenen Berufen, bevor er auf Drew und Leacock stieß. Michael Barchet zufolge verdiente Pennebaker sein Geld zunächst als Werbetexter und entwickelte u.a. ein computergestütztes Buchungssystem für Fluglinien (Barchet 1991, 154). Inspiriert durch den Filmemache...

  3. Pulsar Spin-Down by 3P2 Superfluid Neutron with Field Decay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Xin-Lian; PENG Qiu-He; CHOU Chih-Kang

    2003-01-01

    To describe pulsar spin-down, we present a simple combined torque model that takes into account both the standard magnetic dipole radiation and the electromagnetic radiation from the 3P2 superSuid vortex neutrons inside neutron star. Using an ordinary exponential model for the magnetic field decay, we derive an analytical formulae for pulsar evolution tracks. The pulsar evolution on the P-P diagram is quite different from that of the standard magnetic dipole radiation model, especially when the supernuid torque or Geld decay becomes dominant.

  4. Field-Free Molecular Orientation Generated from Cyclic Rotational States by Using Two Trains of Half-Cycle Pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yu-Xin; YANG Yu-Jun; ZHU Hong-Yu; WANG Li; WANG Hui; ZHU Qi-Ren

    2007-01-01

    We show that two trains of half-cycle pulses (HCPs) with different amplitudes irradiating alternately on polar molecules can achieve a remarkable enhancement of field-free orientation compared with the case of an equal amplitude HCPs train for the same pulse separation. This kind of orientation enhancements is mainly due to an optimal adjustment of the population distribution on every Geld-free angular momentum eigenstate, in which the populations on the undesired states of high angular momenta are effectively suppressed, and the populations on the desired states of low angular momenta are correspondingly promoted.

  5. Coherent Phase Control of Ultrafast Polarization Beats in Reverse V-Type Three-Level System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ling; NIE Zhi-Qiang; JIANG Tong; ZHANG Yan-Peng; LI Pei-Zhe; GAN Chen-Li; SONG Jian-Ping; LI Yuan-Yuan

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the third-order nonlinear absorption and dispersion of femto- and atto-second polarization beats between the one-photon degenerate four-wave mixing process and the two-photon nondegenerate four-wave mixing process in the pure homogeneously-broadened reverse V-three-level using twin noisy Gelds. The third-order nonlinear response can be controlled and modified by the colour-locked correlation of twin noisy fields. Most importantly, the coherent phase control in optical heterodyne detection for studying the phase dispersion of the third-order susceptibility is demonstrated. The radiation-matter detuning oscillation is also considered in the frequency domain.

  6. Structure of Callisto and Ice Holes on Its Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-Hui; CHEN Chu-Xin

    2003-01-01

    The discovery of the induced magnetic field of Callisto that is a satellite of Jupiter has been interpreted as evidence for a subsurface salty liquid-water ocean, so we consider a layered structure of Callisto, i.e., a rock-metal core, an outer layer of ice and a middle layer of ocean. For the rock-metal core we try to indicate how the temperature, pressure and mass density depend on the depth. Due to motion across the magnetic Geld of Jupiter in a plasma environment, the ice sheJI of Callisto must be broken down by electric current.

  7. Density Functional Theory Approach for Charged Hard Sphere Fluids Confined in Spherical Micro-Cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Yan-Shuang; WANG Hai-Jun

    2009-01-01

    Within the framework of the density functional theory for classical fluids,the equilibrium density profiles of charged hard sphere fluid confined in micro-cavity are studied by means of the modified fundamental measure theory.The dimension of micro-cavity,the charge of hard sphere and the applied electric field are found to have significant effects on the density profiles.In particular,it is shown that Coulomb interaction,excluded volume interaction and applied electric Geld play the central role in controlling the aggregated structure of the system.

  8. C-field Cosmology with Variable G in the Flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raj Bali; R. S.Tikekar

    2007-01-01

    The C-field cosmological model based on the Hoyle-Narlikar theory with variable gravitational constant G is investigated. To obtain the deterministic value of (C) =(dC/dt) we present certain constant values for integration at constants. The creation Geld is proportional to time. G and p (density) decrease with time and the universe represents an expanding universe. The creation field increases as time increases. We find C =(1/2πf)t where f>0.Thus (C)=1 when f=1/2π>0.

  9. Convective blower and radiator in a single unit: Heating and air conditioning; Geblaesekonvektor und Radiator in einem Geraet: Heizen und Klimatisieren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steenheuer, H. [Ingenieurbuero Dohrmann, Essen (Germany); Schulz, A. [Axair GmbH, Garching-Hochbrueck (Germany)

    2005-03-01

    Auxiliary cooling of a building is often a question of money. There is a trend to dual-function units. With a central units and convective blowers, i.e. a combination of heat exchanger and heating radiator, air conditioning of rooms is possible in all seasons. [German] Haeufig ist die zusaetzliche Kuehlung von Gebaeuden eine Frage des Geldes. Deshalb geht der Trend immer mehr zu Produkten, die beides ermoeglichen. Mit Zentraleinheit und Geblaesekonvektoren - eine Kombination von Waermetauscher und Heizradiator - koennen Raeume ganzjaehrig klimatisiert werden.

  10. Thrillers en sociale uitsluiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meindert Slagter

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In het laatste decennium van de vorige eeuw lag in zorg- en welzijnsland ineens het begrip sociale uitsluiting op aller lippen. In het Angelsaksische taalgebied spreekt men van social exclusion. Zowel in Nederland als in het Verenigd Koninkrijk is pas in een laat stadium, na de weg te zijn gewezen door Franse wetenschappers zoals onder andere Touraine (1991, ingezien dat voor het doorbreken van armoede meer nodig is dan het geven van geld. Armoede is verbonden met andere levensgebieden. Sociale uitsluiting gaat over meer dan armoede – het gaat ook over hindernissen op de weg naar sociale participatie.

  11. A Theoretic Approach to SU(4) Kondo Effect in Carbon Nanotube Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Rui

    2006-01-01

    We propose a mean Geld approach to the transport properties of carbon nanotube quantum dots. Quantum interaction between spin and orbital pseudo-spin degrees of freedom results in an SU(4) Kondo effect at low temperatures. By calculating the chemical potentials and the tunnelling strengths, and hence the spectral functions for different coupling constants and applied magnetic fields, we find that this exotic Kondo effect manifests as a four-peak splitting in the non-linear conductance when an axial magnetic field is applied.

  12. Comminuted fracture of the accessory carpal bone removed via an arthroscopic-assisted arthrotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Alvaro G; Santschi, Elizabeth M

    2015-02-01

    A 16-year-old American paint horse gelding was presented for evaluation of a left forelimb lameness grade III/V. Radiographs and computed tomography revealed a comminuted fracture of the accessory carpal bone involving the entire articulation with the distal radius and the proximal aspect of the articulation with the ulnar carpal bone. Multiple fragments were present in the palmar pouch of the antebrachiocarpal joint. An arthroscopic-assisted open approach was necessary to remove all fractured fragments. Subsequently the horse was re-admitted for lameness and was treated successfully with antibiotics and long-term supportive bandaging.

  13. Aspekte van die siekepastoraat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. C. Pieterse

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available Die siekepastoraat vra ons aandag in hierdie tyd omdat die versorging van siekes ’n kenmerk is van die koms van die koninkryk van God. God se barmhartigheid het in sy volheid tot gelding gekom in die optrede van Jesus Christus. Die volle seën van die heil van die Ryk van God hou ook die versorging van die siekes in. Deur die heilswerk van Christus sien die blindes weer, loop die kreupeles, word melaatses gereinig, hoor die dowes, word dooies opgewek (Luk. 7:22.

  14. Theoretical Study on Absorption of Magnetically Tunable Terahertz Quantum- Well Photodetectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yu-Ling; GUO Xu-Guang; CAO Jun-Cheng

    2006-01-01

    Because of the Zeeman splitting effect in diluted semiconductor (Zn,Cd,Mn)Se, the absorption spectrum of ZnSe/(Zn,Cd,Mn)Se quantum wells can be adjusted by magnetic field effectively. Within the effective-mass approximation, the conduction electronic structure and the absorption spectrum of ZnSe/(Zn,Cd,Mn)Se quantum wells subjected to in-plane magnetic Gelds are investigated. Our theoretical results show that it is possible to use the ZnSe/(Zn,Cd,Mn)Se quantum well as magnetically tunable terahertz photodetectors.

  15. Rheology of dispersions principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tadros, Tharwat F

    2010-01-01

    A dispersion is a system of unmixable phases in which one phase is continuous and at least one is finely distributed. Examples are found in many industrial applications, including emulsions, suspensions, foams, and geld. The control of their flow characteristics - rheology - is essential in their preparation, long-term physical stability and application. Filling the need for a practical, up-to-date book connecting the stability/instability of the dispersion to its rheological behavior, this title aids in understanding the principles of rheology and the techniques that can be applied. From the

  16. Ground-State Behavior of the Quantum Compass Model in an External Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Ke-Wei; CHEN Qing-Hu

    2011-01-01

    @@ Ground-state(GS)properties of the two-dimensional(2D)quantum compass model in an external field on a square 5×5 lattice are investigated by using the exact diagonalization(ED)method.We obtain the GS energy and evaluate quantities such as its correlation functions,nearest-neighbor entanglement and local order parameter.As the external field is presented,the first-order quantum phase point is absent and the system exhibits the behaviors of the second-order phase transition.%Ground-state (GS) properties of the two-dimensional (2D) quantum compass model in an external Geld on a square 5x5 lattice are investigated by using the exact diagonalization (ED) method. We obtain the GS energy and evaluate quantities such as its correlation functions, nearest-neighbor entanglement and local order parameter. As the external Geld is presented, the first-order quantum phase point is absent and the system exhibits the behaviors of the second-order phase transition.

  17. Recent Discoveries and Advances in Archaeozoological Studies%动物考古学研究的新发现与新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁靖

    2004-01-01

    Through archaeozoological studies the criterion of domesticated pig identification has been established, and the pigs' remains from the Cishan site in Wu' an, Hebei, dating from about 8000 BP can be taken as the earliest domesticated pig specimen. In the sacrificial activities of the Shang city at Yanshi, Henan, pigs, cattle and sheep varying in age were used as offerings, which must have had some relationship with the records on "Tai Lao" (太牢) and "Shao Lao" (少牢) in oracle-bone inscriptions. Con-cerning horses, there has so far been no evidence on the use of gelded horses for drawing in the Warring States period; but in the Qin period, geldings were used for drawing everywhere. The Han period inherited this practice. At the latest by the year of 74 BC, domesticated donkeys and double-humped camels had been spread to the Xi'an area; and the source of Japanese domesticated dogs can be traced to China.

  18. Retrospective Comparison of Gastrosplenic Entrapment of the Small Intestine to Other Strangulating Small Intestinal Lesions in Adult Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergren, Amanda L; Credille, Brent C; Epstein, Kira L; Giguère, Steeve

    2015-07-01

    To compare clinical data of horses with entrapment of the small intestine by the gastrosplenic ligament (ESIGL) to clinical data of horses with other strangulating small intestinal lesions. Retrospective case series. Medical records (January 2001-December 2011) of horses that had exploratory celiotomy for acute abdominal pain associated with strangulating small intestinal lesions were reviewed. Signalment, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic variables, surgical findings and surgical procedures performed, postoperative data and short-term survival were recorded. Clinical findings included excessive nasogastric reflux and abnormal abdominal fluid. Horses with ESIGL were significantly more likely to require intestinal resection and anastomosis and produced significantly less reflux postoperatively than horses with other strangulating small intestinal obstructions. Geldings were significantly more likely to develop ESIGL than mares or stallions. Quarter Horse or Quarter Horse type breeds were predisposed to ESIGL. Survival to hospital discharge in horses with ESIGL (16/22; 72.7%) was significantly higher than that of horses with other strangulating small intestinal obstructions (92/183; 50%). ESIGL was more prevalent in this population of horses evaluated for acute abdominal pain than in previous studies, accounting for 10.7% of all horses with strangulating small intestinal lesions. Geldings and Quarter Horse or Quarter Horse related breeds are predisposed to this condition. The prognosis for survival to hospital discharge was fair to good. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  19. Aplikasi Teori Fungsi Interpretasi Jorge J.E. Gracia Tentang Hadîth Kebiri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahruddin Zamawi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights the contradiction of two hadîths on castration. The context of the issue has appeared within the contemporary Indonesia right after the Government stated the “additional punishment” for those who commit sexual harassment. The spirit of the punishment is to give a sort of “daunting effect” for the committers and “possible predators”. Such additional punishment has, however, invited various different responses from the Indonesian people. Some have rejected it, while some other have intensely called for its implementation. Regardless of this debate, article will shed light on the historical narration of Islamic view on castration in Muhammad’s life. The research finds that there are two hadîths which are regarded as contradictory. The first hadîth has narrated that Muhammad banned his companions to geld themselves. This happened when Muhammad and his companions went to battle field. Another hadîth has, however, reported that Muhammad allowed one of his companions to geld himself. These two seemingly conflicting hadîths need further care-ful explanations in order to reach the best and proper under-standing. In doing so, the author employs Gracia’s theory on the Function of Interpretation.

  20. Neurologic signs and hyperammonemia in a horse with colic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Leslie C; DeWitt, Shane; Stockman, Cheryl

    2006-06-01

    A 23-year-old Thoroughbred gelding was referred for the evaluation of acute onset of ataxia and depression, and a 2-day history of fever. On physical examination, the gelding was profoundly depressed and 10-12% dehydrated. The horse appeared very unstable, with a wide-based stance in the hind limbs, severe symmetric ataxia in all 4 limbs, and proprioceptive deficits in both hind limbs. Nasogastric intubation produced 4 L of brown, fetid reflux, and rectal examination revealed mild small intestinal and cecal distention. Hematologic abnormalities included neutropenia with toxic change, compatible with acute inflammation and endotoxemia, and prolonged coagulation times. Serum biochemical abnormalities included prerenal azotemia. metabolic acidosis, and electrolyte abnormalities consistent with enteritis. Blood ammonia concentration was markedly increased (406 micromol/L; reference interval 4-49 micromol/L), however, serum bile acids concentration and hepatic enzyme activities were within reference intervals. Histopathologic examination of a liver biopsy revealed no abnormalities and results of tests for several infectious agents were negative. Clinical signs resolved with correction of the dehydration and electrolyte abnormalities and with antibiotic therapy. The horse was diagnosed with hyperammonemic neuropathy associated with gastrointestinal disease. In such cases, hyperammonemia is caused by increased production of ammonia by organisms in the gastrointestinal tract in combination with increased gut permeability that facilitates ammonia absorption.

  1. A validated UHPLC-MS/MS method to quantify low levels of anabolic-androgenic steroids naturally present in urine of untreated horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decloedt, Anneleen; Bailly-Chouriberry, Ludovic; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Garcia, Patrice; Popot, Marie-Agnes; Bonnaire, Yves; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2015-06-01

    Doping control is a main priority for regulatory bodies of both the horse racing industry and the equestrian sports. Urine and blood samples are screened for the presence of hundreds of forbidden substances including anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs). Based on the suspected endogenous origin of some AASs, with β-boldenone as the most illicit candidate, this study aimed to improve the knowledge of the naturally present AAS in horse urine. To this extent, a novel ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated according to the Association of Official Racing Chemists (AORC) and European Commission (EC) guidelines, proving the power of this new method. Low limits of detection (0.2 ng/mL), good reproducibility (percentage of standard deviation (%RSD)  0.99 and lack-of-fit analysis) were obtained for all included AASs. With this method, urine samples of 105 guaranteed untreated horses (47 geldings, 53 mares, and 5 stallions serving as a control) were screened for β-boldenone and five related natural steroids: androstadienedione (ADD), androstenedione (AED), alpha-testosterone (αT), beta-testosterone (βT), and progesterone (P). Progesterone, β-testosterone, and α-testosterone were detected in more than half of the horses at low concentrations (horses (mares and geldings).

  2. Does learning performance in horses relate to fearfulness, baseline stress hormone, and social rank?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Ahrendt, Line Peerstrup; Lintrup, Randi

    2012-01-01

    The ability of horses to learn and remember new tasks is fundamentally important for their use by humans. Fearfulness may, however, interfere with learning, because stimuli in the environment can overshadow signals from the rider or handler. In addition, prolonged high levels of stress hormones can...... affect neurons within the hippocampus; a brain region central to learning and memory. In a series of experiments, we aimed to investigate the link between performance in two learning tests, the baseline level of stress hormones, measured as faecal cortisol metabolites (FCM), fearfulness, and social rank....... Twenty-five geldings (2 or 3 years old) pastured in one group were included in the study. The learning tests were performed by professional trainers and included a number of predefined stages during which the horses were gradually trained to perform exercises, using either negative (NR) or positive...

  3. Taurine protects DNA of lymphocytes against oxidative alteration in riding horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokól, Janusz Leszek; Sawosz, Ewa; Niemiec, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    . The addition of taurine to feed caused smaller oxidative stress, manifested by lower concentration of TBA-RS in plasma and of 8-oxo-dG in lymphocytes. The taurine lowered the lipid peroxidation intensity that occurred in horses due to the oxidative stress caused by physical effort. Furthermore, taurine......The study aimed at evaluation the effect of dietary supplement of taurine on the oxidation-reduction status in riding horses, and especially on the extent of oxidative DNA degradation in lymphocytes. Ten Thoroughbred and half-bred geldings aged 6-13 years were classified according to breed...... and amount of work done into two groups - control (C, n=5) and experimental (E, n=5), the latter fed the diet with addition of 40 g taurine/horse/day. Blood samples were withdrawn from the horses' jugular vein before commencing the riding season and then after 30 days of working. In the blood some selected...

  4. Advanced wood burning furnaces. 2. rev. ed.; Moderne Holzfeuerungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, W. (comp.)

    2001-07-01

    New and environment-friendly technologies meet high requirements in terms of emission reduction and comfort of operation. In the field of wood burning furnaces, there is still a lack of knowledge which results in excessive cost, environmental pollution and loss of image. This brochure shows how wood furnaces should be operated correctly and also reviews the state of the art. [German] Durch die technische Entwicklung neuer, wirkungsvoller und vor allem umweltfreundlicher Heiztechniken wird zudem den in den letzten Jahren gestiegenen Anforderungen an den Emissionsschutz und den Bedienungskomfort Rechnung getragen. Mit Holz wird jedoch z. T. nicht immer richtig geheizt. Das kostet Geld und fuehrt zu vermeidbaren Umweltbelastungen und Imageschaeden. Ziel dieser Broschuere ist es daher, mit den Techniken des Heizens mit Holz vertraut zu machen und einen Ueberblick ueber den heutigen Stand zu geben. (orig.)

  5. Three-dimensional angular momentum projected relativistic point-coupling approach for the low-lying excited states in $^{24}$Mg

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, J M; Arteaga, D Pena; Ring, P; 10.1088/0256-307X/25/10/024

    2008-01-01

    A full three-dimensional angular momentum projection on top of a triaxial relativistic mean-Geld calculation is implemented for the first time. The underlying Lagrangian is a point coupling model and pairing correlations are taken into account by a monopole force. This method is applied for the low-lying excited states in 24Mg. Good agreement with the experimental data is found for the ground state properties. A minimum in the potential energy surface for the 2+ state, with beta = 0.55, gamma = 10 deg, is used as the basis to investigate the rotational energy spectrum as well as the corresponding B(E2) transition probabilities as compared to the available data.

  6. 双筒复合次级直线感应电动机起动性能的有限元计算%The Finite Element Calculation of Starting Performance in Double-Cylindrical Compound Secondary Linear Induction Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢永芳; 石军亮

    2012-01-01

    According to the structure of double cylindrical linear inductive motor,and by solving magnetic Geld equations, the starting performance of the linear motor was calculated. In computation, the effects of saturation,eddy current and the end effect were fully taken into account. The agreement of calculated values with test results shows the validity of the present method.%针对双筒复合次级直线感应电动机的结构特点,从场的角度,提出了一种通过对磁场的分析计算,求取电机起动性能的计算方法,该算法充分考虑了起动时边端效应的影响,计算数据与试验结果基本吻合,表明了该计算方法的可行性.

  7. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor in a two-year-old paint horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facemire, Paul R; Facemire, Lynn M; Honnold, Shelley P

    2012-07-01

    A 2-year-old gelding presented with a history of lethargy and anorexia. Physical examination revealed pleural and abdominal fluid, as well as several masses in the scrotum. The horse became acutely dyspneic despite 7 days of supportive care. Because of the poor prognosis, the owners elected euthanasia. Gross necropsy findings included multiple masses in the scrotum and inguinal canals and along the dorsal peritoneal cavity. The neoplasm infiltrated the kidneys, liver, spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, mesentery, and abdominal surface of the diaphragm. Histologically, the neoplasm is composed of spindle to round cells arranged in densely cellular areas, vague streams, and rare rosettes. Neoplastic cells were immunoreactive for S-100 protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein, neuron-specific enolase, neurofilament protein, and synaptophysin. Based on gross, histological, and immunohistochemical findings, a diagnosis of peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor was made. Primitive neuroectodermal tumors are rarely described in horses that were associated with the eyes.

  8. EU-policy and smart materials; EU-beleid en smart materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieters, D.; Van der Beek, M.

    2012-09-15

    Netherlands will focus on large-scale production of smart materials. Several examples from Dutch universities show that the Netherlands is very active in this sector. Nanotechnology and the development of advanced materials are considered as 'key technologies'. To realize these applications EU funding will be made available both for research projects and to support market introduction [Dutch] Nederland zet in de toekomst in op grootschalige productie van smart materials. Verschillende voorbeelden van Nederlandse universiteiten laten zien dat Nederland tot op heden zeer actief is in deze veelzijdige sector. Nanotechnologie en de ontwikkeling van geavanceerde materialen worden in dit licht beschouwd als zogenoemde 'sleuteltechnologieen'. Om deze toepassingen te realiseren komt zowel EU-geld beschikbaar voor onderzoeksprojecten als ter ondersteuning van marktintroductie.

  9. Enhancement of Bichromatic High-Order Harmonic Generation by a Strong Laser Field and Its Third Harmonic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PI Liang-Wen; SHI Ting-Yun; QIAO Hao-Xue

    2006-01-01

    We investigate high-order harmonic generation (HUG) in a linearly polarized bichromatic field composed of a fundamental laser Geld with frequencyωand an additional laser field with frequency 3ω. The numerical results show that it is possible to enhance the intensity of most high harmonics in orders of magnitude. A most striking feature in the enhancement is that the intensity of several special high harmonics is practically impaired as compared with that in the monochromatic case. The qualitative explanation to the great enhancement is that the additional high-frequency field can provide new transition paths for electrons to reach the continuum. The relative phase between the fundamental field and its third harmonic field also affects the intensity of high-order harmonics near the cutoff efficiently.

  10. Persistent Hypercalcemia and Hyperparathyroidism in a Horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cruz Villagrán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 27-year-old, American Quarter Horse gelding was evaluated for anorexia, lethargy, a swelling on the right, cranial aspect of the neck, and signs of esophageal obstruction. Serum biochemical analyses revealed hypophosphatemia, total and ionized hypercalcemia, and hemoconcentration. Sonographic examination of the neck revealed a 1.7 cm diameter mass within the right lobe of the thyroid. The serum concentration of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH was increased. The right lobe of the thyroid was excised with the horse sedated. The mass within that lobe was determined, by histological examination, to be a parathyroid adenoma. Despite excision of the mass, serial blood analyses revealed persistent hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, and increased iPTH. Anorexia and lethargy resolved, and follow-up communication with the owner and referring veterinarian one year later indicated that the horse was clinically stable.

  11. Risk factors for the hazard of lameness in Danish Standardbred trotters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigre, Håkan; Chriel, M.; Hesselholt, M.;

    2002-01-01

    A follow-up study focusing on health problems interfering with optimal training of Danish Standardbred trotters was conducted with the participation of seven professional trainers. Our aim was to estimate the incidence of health problems that cause interruptions of optimal training, and to identify......-frequent cause of interruption of optimal training: 84 events in 69 horses (0.09 events per horse-month). Respiratory diseases (16 events) and muscular problems (seven events) were the second and third most-frequent causes of interrupted training. The effects of trainer, gender, age-group, time with a trainer...... as time-dependent variables. Trainer affected the hazard of lameness. Geldings had higher hazard than mares, as did 3-year olds (compared to >4-year olds). Compared to the period where horses. had been trained by the same trainer for >3 months, horses in the period 1.5-2.5 months after they had entered...

  12. The effect of sex and time of day on testosterone concentrations in equine saliva and serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Munk; Jensen, R.B.; Palme, R.;

    2016-01-01

    In terms of exercise, testosterone is important for the growth and maintenance of skeletal muscle mass. Sampling saliva could be a non-invasive alternative to blood sampling for the quantification of testosterone levels in horses. The objective of this study was to compare testosterone......:00-08:00), at midday (11:00-13:00) and in the evening (17:00-19:00). The results demonstrated a weak correlation between saliva and serum testosterone concentrations (rs=0.25, P=0.04). Stallions had higher serum testosterone concentrations than mares and geldings (P... on salivary testosterone concentrations. The time of day did not affect the concentration of testosterone in either saliva or serum. In conclusion, our results indicate that saliva samples cannot be recommended for measuring testosterone levels in horses. However, further research is needed to identify...

  13. Behavioural and physiological effects of virginiamycin in the diets of horses with stereotypies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, R; Clegg, H A; Buckley, P; Friend, M A; McGreevy, P D

    2008-10-04

    The effects of dietary supplements of virginiamycin on the behaviour and physiology of 17 thoroughbred geldings (five cribbers, six weavers and six control horses) were compared with the effects of a placebo over a period of 16 weeks. Virginiamycin had no effect on the horses' stereotypic behaviour, but it reduced their explorative behaviour, possibly owing to a reduction in feeding motivation. Virginiamycin increased the water intake of the cribbers and decreased the water intake of the control horses, but it was not possible to eliminate possible confounding factors for this effect. Virginiamycin had no other significant effects on the behaviour or physiology of the horses, and had no effect on the digestibility of their diets.

  14. A Nordic survey of management practices and owners’ attitudes towards keeping horses in groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, E.; Bøe, K.E.; Christensen, Janne Winther

    2015-01-01

    of 17,248 horses. Only 8% of horses were never kept in groups, 47% were permanently grouped for 24 h/d, and 45% were stabled singly but grouped during turnout. Yearlings were most often permanently kept in groups (75%), mares and geldings more commonly during parts of the day (50 and 51%, respectively......), and stallions were often kept alone (38%). Icelandic horses were more likely to be permanently kept in groups (36%) than warmbloods (16%) and ponies (15%). Twice as many competition horses (51%) were never grouped compared with horses used for breeding (20%) or leisure purposes (15%). The majority...... of injury was a concern of many respondents (45%), as was introducing unfamiliar horses into already established groups (40%) and challenges in relation to feeding in groups (44%). Safety of people (23%) and difficulties handling groupkept horses (19%) were regarded as less problematic. Results suggest...

  15. Electrical Properties of Nanostructured Magnetic Colloid and Influence of Magnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PU Sheng-Li; CHEN Xian-Feng; DI Zi-Yun; GENG Tao; XIA Yu-Xing

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the electrical properties of the nanostructured magnetic colloid without and with magnetic Held. The competition between the directional motion of the charged magnetic nanoparticles and other minor nonmagnetic impurities (also small amount of ions) under applied voltage and their random orientation due to thermal activation is implemented to elaborate the electrically conduction mechanism under zero magnetic Geld. Two equivalent electric circuits are employed for explaining the charging and discharging processes. The tunnelling conduction mechanism upon application of externally magnetic field may exist in the nanostructured magnetic colloid. The alternation of the two conduction mechanisms accounts for the current spikes when the magnetic field is switched on or off. This work presents the peculiar electrical phenomena of the magnetically colloidal system.

  16. Laryngospasm, dysphagia, and emaciation associated with hyperkalemic periodic paralysis in a horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglick, M A; MacAllister, C G; Breazile, J E

    1996-07-01

    An 18-month-old Quarter Horse gelding was examined because of weight loss and dysphagia of 1 month's duration. Clinical signs included lethargy, dehydration, ptyalism, and probable aspiration pneumonia. Severe dyspnea and cyanosis were evident after mild exercise. Endoscopy revealed laryngospasm and pharyngospasm. Because clinical signs and endoscopic findings were suggestive of hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HPP), acetazolamide treatment was instituted. Marked improvement was observed within 48 hours. The horse was determined to be homozygous for HPP. It is likely that this horse's dysphagia, with resultant weight loss and aspiration pneumonia, were clinical manifestations and consequences of HPP. Regardless of age and serum potassium concentration, HPP should be considered as a differential diagnosis for pharyngeal and laryngeal abnormalities and dysphagia in horses with Quarter Horse breeding.

  17. Bianchi Type-I String Cosmological Model with Bulk Viscosity and Time-Dependent A term

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.K.Tiwari; S.Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Einstein Geld equations with the cosmological constant is considered in the presence of bulk viscosity in a Bianchi type-I universe. Solutions of the field equations are obtained by assuming the following conditions: the bulk viscosity is proportional to the expansion scalar £ oc 0; the expansion scalar is proportional to shear scalar 6 oc cr; and A is proportional to the Hubble parameter A on H. The corresponding interpretations of the cosmological solutions are also discussed.%@@ Einstein field equations with the cosmological constant is considered in the presence of bulk viscosity in a Bianchi type-I universe.Solutions of the field equations are obtained by assuming the following conditions:the bulk viscosity is proportional to the expansion scalar ξ∝θ;the expansion scalar is proportional to shear scalar θ∝σ;and ∧ is proportional to the Hubble parameter ∧∝ H.The corresponding interpretations of the cosmological solutions are also discussed.

  18. Which is better: to insulate or to heat more efficiently? An elementary study of German universities relevant to energy conservation; Isolieren oder besser heizen? Eine Grundsatzuntersuchung deutscher Universitaeten zum Energiesparen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadelmann, M. [Verband der Schweizerischen Gasindustrie, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1998-09-01

    The prejudice that a house requires the less energy the better it is thermally insulated is one of the assumptions underlying the draft energy conservation ordinance of the federal German government. It aims to cut down carbon dioxide emissions and save energy resources. As the universities of Dresden and Stuttgart are now demonstrating, intelligent technology in the heating cellar costs less yet saves more. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Vorurteil, das ein Haus um so weniger Energie braucht, je besser es waermegedaemmt ist, floss auch in den Entwurf der Energiesparverordnung der deutschen Bundesregierung ein. Mit diesem will man die CO{sub 2}-Emissionen senken und die Ressourcen schonen. Die Universitaeten Dresden und Stuttgart weisen nun nach, dass intelligente Technologie im Heizungskeller fuer weniger Geld mehr spart. (orig.)

  19. Hysteresis Loops and Phase Diagrams of the Spin-1 Ising Model in a Transverse Crystal Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Bouhou; I. Essaoudi; A. Ainane; M. Saber; J. J. de Miguel; M. Kerouad1

    2012-01-01

    Within the framework of the effective-Geld theory with a probability distribution technique, which accounts for the self-spin correlation functions, the ferromagnetic spin-l Ising model with a transverse crystal field on honeycomb, square and simple cubic lattices is studied. We have investigated the effect of the transverse crystal field on the phase diagrams, magnetization, hysteresis loops and χz,h of the system. A number of interesting phenomena of the system are discussed.%Within the framework of the effective-field theory with a probability distribution technique,which accounts for the self-spin correlation functions,the ferromagnetic spin-1 Ising model with a transverse crystal field on honeycomb,square and simple cubic lattices is studied.We have investigated the effect of the transverse crystal field on the phase diagrams,magnetization,hysteresis loops and xz,h of the system.A number of interesting phenomena of the system are discussed.

  20. A New High Power Microwave Source Operated at Low Magnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jian-Hua; ZHANG Ya-Zhou; ZHANG Jian-De; SHU-Ting; LI Chuan-Lu

    2003-01-01

    A new type of high power microwave source operated at Jow magnetic Geld is proposed and studied by the particle-in-cell (PIC) method. An oversized uniform backward-wave-oscillator-like structure is connected to a tapered slow-wave structure by a resonant cavity. In this device, the electron beam current is effectively used to yield microwaves with high efficiency, and the mode is locked in a wide range of diode voltage to reduce the requirement to the voltage wave form. The PIC simulation results show that a peat microwave power of 2.1 GW (averaged 1.1 GW) with a pure TMoi mode at 10. 7 GHz is radiated with 4.1 GW input beam power, the frequency remains approximately the same when the diode voltage changed from 300 kV to 700 kV.

  1. Remarks on Exactly Solvable Noncommutative Quantum Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ning

    2007-01-01

    We study exactly the solvable noncommutative scalar quantum Geld models of (2n) or (2n + 1) dimensions. By writing out an equivalent action of the noncommutative field, it is shown that the special condition B·θ =±I in field theoretic context means the full restoration of the maximal U(∞) gauge symmetries broken due to kinetic term. It is further shown that the model can be obtained by dimensional reduction of a 2n- dimensional exactly solvable noncommutative φ4 quantum field model closely related to the 1+1- dimensional Moyal/ matrix-valued nonlinear Schr(o)dinger (MNLS) equation. The corresponding quantum fundamental commutation relation of the MNLS model is also given explicitly.

  2. Genetic predictions of racing performance in quarter horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willham, R L; Wilson, D E

    1991-09-01

    Research on the racing performance of quarter horses has been used to develop genetic prediction summaries on all horses with at least one start on record at the American Quarter Horse Association. In the 1987 summary, records from a total of 212,065 horses were used to give genetic predictions on stallions, mares, geldings, fillies, and colts. A reduced animal model was used that incorporated the repeated records of individuals. The individual race was the contemporary group after the data were adjusted for distance, sex, and age. Estimates of heritability of .24 and repeatability of .32 suggest that increased racing performance can be achieved if the predictions are used by breeders. Continued research in variance component estimation includes the genetic covariances among the several distances, maternal influence, and genetic parameters for racing longevity.

  3. Taurine protects DNA of lymphocytes against oxidative alteration in riding horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokól, Janusz Leszek; Sawosz, Ewa; Niemiec, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    The study aimed at evaluation the effect of dietary supplement of taurine on the oxidation-reduction status in riding horses, and especially on the extent of oxidative DNA degradation in lymphocytes. Ten Thoroughbred and half-bred geldings aged 6-13 years were classified according to breed...... and amount of work done into two groups - control (C, n=5) and experimental (E, n=5), the latter fed the diet with addition of 40 g taurine/horse/day. Blood samples were withdrawn from the horses' jugular vein before commencing the riding season and then after 30 days of working. In the blood some selected....... The addition of taurine to feed caused smaller oxidative stress, manifested by lower concentration of TBA-RS in plasma and of 8-oxo-dG in lymphocytes. The taurine lowered the lipid peroxidation intensity that occurred in horses due to the oxidative stress caused by physical effort. Furthermore, taurine...

  4. Amerikas Einschätzung der deutschen Atomforschung: Das deutsche Uranprojekt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mark

    2002-07-01

    Die amerikanischen Wissenschaftler und ihre emigrierten Kollegen, die am Bau der Atombombe beteiligt waren, verfügten über sehr widersprüchliche und großteils falsche Informationen über den Fortschritt des deutschen Uranprogramms. Noch nach Kriegsende lässt sich dies an Aussagen des Leiters der amerikanischen Alsos-Mission, Samuel Goudsmit, festmachen. Tatsächlich war das deutsche Programm hinsichtlich seiner wissenschaftlichen Grundlagen und des Managements nicht so unterlegen, wie vielfach behauptet wurde. Aber die deutschen Behörden waren nicht in der Lage, Geld und Ressourcen in gleichem Maße in das Uranprojekt zu investieren, wie etwa in das Peenemünder Raketenprojekt.

  5. Adenocarcinoma involving the tongue and the epiglottis in a horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laus, Fulvio; Rossi, Giacomo; Paggi, Emanuele; Bordicchia, Matteo; Fratini, Margherita; Tesei, Beniamino

    2014-03-01

    Tumors involving the oral cavity of the horse are uncommon. No cases of equine adenocarcinoma on the dorsum of the tongue have been reported in the literature. We report a case of adenocarcinoma located on the dorsum of the posterior one-third of the tongue in a 29-year-old gelding with severe dysphagia. Endoscopy revealed an epiglottis involvement, and histology was consistent with adenocarcinoma arising from minor salivary glands, which was associated with a severe fungal colonization of affected tissues. The goals of this report are to present an uncommon case of dorsum of the tongue-associated neoplasia and to highlight the association with atypical fungal colonization, to review the literature and to discuss possible clinical approach and prognosis.

  6. Doença vestibular periférica decorrente de osteoartropatia temporoioídea em um eqüino Peripheral vestibular disease associated with temporohyoid osteoarthropathy in a horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Secorun Borges

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Um eqüino com 22 anos de idade apresentou síndrome vestibular periférica associada à paralisia de nervo facial esquerdo devido à osteoartropatia temporoioídea. O exame endoscópico das bolsas guturais mostrou alteração de contorno da bula timpânica esquerda e aumento de volume da extremidade proximal do osso estiloióide do mesmo lado.A 22-year-old gelding showed vestibular syndrome associated with left facial nerve paralysis due to temporohyoid osteoarthropathy and the diagnostic was confirmed by guttural pouch endoscopic examination. The exam revealed abnormal contour of the left tympanic bulla and an enlargement of the proximal part of the left stylohyoid bone.

  7. Grouping horses according to gender-Effects on aggression, spacing and injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meisfjord Jørgensen, Grete Helen; Borsheim, Linn; Mejdell, Cecilie Marie

    2009-01-01

    Many horse owners tend to group horses according to gender, in an attempt to reduce aggressive interactions and the risk of injuries. The aim of our experiment was to test the effects of such gender separation on injuries, social interactions and individual distance in domestic horses. A total...... of 66 horses were recruited from 4 different farms in Norway and Denmark and divided into six batches. Within each batch, horses were allotted into one mare group, one gelding group and one mixed gender group, with most groups consisting of three or four animals. After 4-6 weeks of acclimatisation......, a trained observer recorded all social interactions using direct, continuous observation 1 h in the morning and 1 h in the afternoon for three consecutive days. Recordings of the nearest neighbour of each horse were performed using instantaneous sampling every 10 min. The horses were inspected for injuries...

  8. Klossiella equi Infection in an Immunosuppressed Horse: Evidence of Long-Term Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lora R. Ballweber

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 13-year-old quarter horse gelding presented with a history of hematuria of approximately 1-year duration, anemia, weight loss over the previous six months, and bilateral nasal discharge of 2-week duration. It was determined that hematuria was most likely caused by the coccidian parasite Klossiella equi. Additional case workup suggested a diagnosis of pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction. Confirmatory testing was declined by the owners and the horse was discharged on medical therapy. Despite initial improvement after discharge, the horse developed unresolving sinusitis approximately 1 year later and was euthanized. Necropsy confirmed the presence of an adenoma of the pars intermedia of the pituitary gland, supporting the initial diagnosis. Additional findings included multiple developmental stages of K. equi present in the kidneys. This finding demonstrates infections with K. equi can be chronic in nature and supports the association of increased severity of klossiellosis and impaired immune function.

  9. Targeted Metabolomics Approach To Detect the Misuse of Steroidal Aromatase Inhibitors in Equine Sports by Biomarker Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, George Ho Man; Ho, Emmie Ngai Man; Leung, David Kwan Kon; Wong, Kin Sing; Wan, Terence See Ming

    2016-01-05

    The use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is prohibited in both human and equine sports. The conventional approach in doping control testing for AAS (as well as other prohibited substances) is accomplished by the direct detection of target AAS or their characteristic metabolites in biological samples using hyphenated techniques such as gas chromatography or liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Such an approach, however, falls short when dealing with unknown designer steroids where reference materials and their pharmacokinetics are not available. In addition, AASs with fast elimination times render the direct detection approach ineffective as the detection window is short. A targeted metabolomics approach is a plausible alternative to the conventional direct detection approach for controlling the misuse of AAS in sports. Because the administration of AAS of the same class may trigger similar physiological responses or effects in the body, it may be possible to detect such administrations by monitoring changes in the endogenous steroidal expression profile. This study attempts to evaluate the viability of using the targeted metabolomics approach to detect the administration of steroidal aromatase inhibitors, namely androst-4-ene-3,6,17-trione (6-OXO) and androsta-1,4,6-triene-3,17-dione (ATD), in horses. Total (free and conjugated) urinary concentrations of 31 endogenous steroids were determined by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for a group of 2 resting and 2 in-training thoroughbred geldings treated with either 6-OXO or ATD. Similar data were also obtained from a control (untreated) group of in-training thoroughbred geldings (n = 28). Statistical processing and chemometric procedures using principle component analysis and orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) have highlighted 7 potential biomarkers that could be used to differentiate urine samples obtained from the control and the treated groups

  10. Disposition and metabolic profile of the weak androgen Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) following administration as part of a nutritional supplement to exercised horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knych, H K; Arthur, R M; Stanley, S D; McKemie, D S

    2015-01-01

    In order to ensure the welfare of performance horses and riders as well as the integrity of the sport, the use of both therapeutic and illegal agents in horse racing is tightly regulated. While Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is not specifically banned from administration to racehorses in the United States and no screening limit or threshold concentration exists, the metabolic conversion of DHEA to testosterone make its presence in nutritional supplements a regulatory concern. The recommended regulatory threshold for total testosterone in urine is 55 and 20 ng/mL for mares and geldings, respectively. In plasma, screening and confirmation limits for free testosterone (mares and geldings), of no greater than 0.1 and 0.025 ng/mL, respectively are recommended. DHEA was administered orally, as part of a nutritional supplement, to 8 exercised female thoroughbred horses and plasma and urine samples collected at pre-determined times post administration. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), plasma and urine samples were analyzed for DHEA, DHEA-sulfate, testosterone, testosterone-sulfate, pregnenolone, androstenedione, and androstenediol. DHEA was rapidly absorbed with maximal plasma concentrations reaching 52.0 ± 43.8 ng/mL and 32.1 ± 12.9 ng/mL for DHEA and DHEA sulfate, respectively. Free testosterone was not detected in plasma or urine samples at any time. Maximum sulfate conjugated testosterone plasma concentrations were 0.98 ± 1.09 ng/mL. Plasma testosterone-sulfate concentrations did not fall below 0.1 ng/mL and urine testosterone-sulfate below 55 ng/mL until 24-36 h post DHEA administration. Urine testosterone sulfate concentrations remained slightly above baseline levels at 48 h for most of the horses studied. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Diagnosis and Clinical Significance of Gastric Tunica Mucosa Epithelial Reactive Hyperplasia and Dysplasia%胃黏膜腺体上皮反应性增生与异型增生的判断及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡艳萍; 崔莉; 杨建杰; 刘彤; 王秀芳; 刘凤阁

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinicopathologic features and the clinical significance of the P53 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen ( Ki-67) expression for gastric epithelial reactive hyperplasia (GERH) and gastric epithelial low grade dysplasia (GELD) . Methods 139 patients with gastric mucosa biopsy combined with epithelial atypical hyperplasia during January 2010 and December 2011 were divided into GERH group (n = 106) and GELD group (n =33) , based on histomorphology characteristics in pathological change of literature standard. The expression of P53 and Ki-67 in two groups were analyzed. Results In GERH group, most of the patients had obvious inflammation history, and reactive hyperplasia showed differentiation gradually to mucosa surface or to inherent membranae without clear boundary. In GELD group there was obviously clear focal distribution without inflammation, and epithelial dysplasia could extend to mucosa surface or to inherent membranae. The positive expression rate of P53 in GERH group and GELD group were 2.83% and 15. 15% respectively, and there was significant difference (P 10% ) of Ki-67 was 24.53% (26 patients) , and most of the positive cells located at basal part of gastric pits (under 1/3) were in 95 patients (89.62% ). In GELD group, the positive expression rate ( > 10% ) of Ki-67 was 90.90% (30 patients), and the positive cells located at basal and lateral of gastric pits (at 1/3) were in 13 patients (39. 39% ) , The differences were of statistical significance in expressive amount and distributed positions (χ2 =46.10, P <0. 005; χ2= 14. 83, P <0. 005). Conclusion The reactive hyperplasia and low grade dysplasia in gastric epithelial can be differentiated by the clinicopathologic features and expression of P53 and Ki-67.%目的 探讨胃黏膜腺体上皮反应性增生(gastric epithelial reactive hyperplasia,GERH)及胃黏膜腺体上皮轻度异型增生(gastric epithelial low-grade dysplasia,GELD)的临床病理特征以及P53

  12. The impact of endophyte-infected fescue consumption on digital circulation and lameness in the distal thoracic limb of the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douthit, T L; Bormann, J M; Gradert, K C; Lomas, L W; DeWitt, S F; Kouba, J M

    2012-09-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate if consumption of endophyte-infected fescue alters digital circulation in the distal thoracic limb of the horse and to assess if soundness of the hooves of horses is affected by consumption of endophyte-infected fescue. Twelve American Quarter Horses (mean initial BW 459 ± 31 kg), 6 mares and 6 geldings, were used in this 90-d study that comprised high-endophyte (E+) and low-endophyte (E-) treatment groups. Fescue seed was integrated into the E+ diet at a rate sufficient to bring total ergovaline to 200 μg/kg, and endophyte-free fescue seed was incorporated into the E- diet from d 0 to 90. From d 30 to 60, native prairie hay was replaced with high- or low-endophyte fescue hay, bringing total dietary ergovaline to 280 μg/kg (E+) and 18 μg/kg (E-). From d 61 to 90, fescue seed was ground to decrease particle size. On d 0, 30, 60, and 90, Doppler ultrasonography and thermographic imaging were used to measure the diam. of the medial palmar artery, velocity of blood flow, and surface temperature of the hoof as indicators of digital circulation. Lameness examinations were conducted on the same days. There were no consistent treatment differences observed when evaluating measurements of digital circulation. On d 60, horses in the E+ treatment group showed increased hoof sensitivity in the left limb (P = 0.02). These horses tended to have increased hoof sensitivity when both thoracic limbs were averaged (P = 0.06), and they demonstrated increased lameness during longeing (P = 0.08). Data indicated that mares may have increased digital circulation, regardless of treatment, compared with geldings (P ≤ 0.05). Heavier horses also had greater arterial diam., velocity of blood flow, and hoof temperature than lighter BW horses (P ≤ 0.05) on d 30, 60, and 90 at time points that ranged from 90 to 180 min after feeding. Although horses consuming the E+ diet demonstrated increased lameness, especially on d 60, compared with horses

  13. Polysynovitis in a horse due to [i]Borrelia burgdorferi[/i] sensu lato infection – Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Passamonti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lyme borreliosis (LB is a multi-systemic tick-borne disease affecting both humans and animals, including horses, and is caused by a group of interrelated spirochetes classified within the[i] Borrelia burgdorferi [/i]sensu lato (s.l. complex. Despite the high reported seroprevalence in the European equine population for [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] s.l., to-date no documented clinical cases have been described. A 6-year-old Paint gelding was referred with a history of three weeks of fever, intermittent lameness and digital flexor tendon sheath effusion of the right hind limb. Based on a strict diagnostic protocol, which included serological tests for infectious diseases and molecular investigations, a final diagnosis was made of polysynovitis due to [i]B. burgdorferi [/i]s.l. infection. An unreported aspect observed in this case was the absence of the pathogen DNA in two of the affected joints. To the authors’ knowledge, the case described represents the first documented clinical case of equine LB in Italy. Moreover, the absence of pathogen DNA in two of the affected joints observed in this case revealed a possible similarity with the same condition described in humans, where an immunomediated pathogenesis for arthropathy due to [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] s.l. infection is suspected. Since humans and horses share the same habitat, this report supports the role of the horse as potential sentinel for human biological risk.

  14. In vitro antimicrobial effect of different endodontic materials and propolis on Enterococus faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Maria Gaspar Novais

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available para determinar a concentração inibitória mínima.Resultados: Os valores, em milímetros, das médias dos halos de inibição produzidos por difusão das amostras testadas foram: 21,3 (gelde clorexidina; 16,2 (hidróxido de cálcio; 10,9 (extrato de própolis; 7,2 (hipoclorito de sódio. Houve diferença estatística significante entre todas as substâncias testadas (p<0,001. O extrato de própolis apresentou a concentração inibitória mínima de 1mg/mL. Conclusão: O extrato de própolis apresentou uma boa atividade antimicrobiana, sendo maior que hipoclorito de sódio a 5%, entretanto,o gel de clorexidina foi o mais efetivo contra E. faecalis.

  15. Currencies, National Images and National Identities: Public Relations for and against Currencies – Historical Experiences from Germany, the Case of the Euro and the Role of Rating Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kunczik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available My thesis is that, in the “age of markets” in Europe the Euro is of central importance for creating (or destroying already established structures of European identity (at least in parts of Europe – with Great Britain taking a very remote position. I emphasize the theoretical aspects (Aftalion´s Psychological Theory of Exchange Rates; Simmel: Philosophie des Geldes to emphasize the importance of PR. I concentrate on historical cases – mainly German experiences – e.g. the campaign against the Rubel; the ideas of Ivy Lee; the PR-campaigns of the Nazi-government to fight inflation. The introduction of the German Mark (“die Deutsche Mark”, which became a central aspect of German national identity, and the campaign to give up this currency (“harte Währung” in order to introduce the “weak” Euro. In this context I discuss campaigns against the Euro (“only idiots want the Euro”. In the final remarks I refer to the role of rating agencies and trust in currencies and countries. It is my thesis that the analysts of the rating agencies live in a “world of literary images” and are acting in a completely irresponsible way (but even more incompetent are the politicians accepting the ratings without knowing anything about the problem of commensuration.

  16. The absolute threshold of colour vision in the horse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina S V Roth

    Full Text Available Arrhythmic mammals are active both during day and night if they are allowed. The arrhythmic horses are in possession of one of the largest terrestrial animal eyes and the purpose of this study is to reveal whether their eye is sensitive enough to see colours at night. During the day horses are known to have dichromatic colour vision. To disclose whether they can discriminate colours in dim light a behavioural dual choice experiment was performed. We started the training and testing at daylight intensities and the horses continued to choose correctly at a high frequency down to light intensities corresponding to moonlight. One Shetland pony mare, was able to discriminate colours at 0.08 cd/m(2, while a half blood gelding, still discriminated colours at 0.02 cd/m(2. For comparison, the colour vision limit for several human subjects tested in the very same experiment was also 0.02 cd/m(2. Hence, the threshold of colour vision for the horse that performed best was similar to that of the humans. The behavioural results are in line with calculations of the sensitivity of cone vision where the horse eye and human eye again are similar. The advantage of the large eye of the horse lies not in colour vision at night, but probably instead in achromatic tasks where presumably signal summation enhances sensitivity.

  17. Olfactory recognition of individual competitors by means of faeces in horse (Equus caballus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Konstanze; Flauger, Birgit

    2011-03-01

    Living in complex social systems requires perceptual and cognitive capacities for the recognition of group membership and individual competitors. Olfaction is one means by which this can be achieved. Many animals can identify individual proteins in urine, skin secretions, or saliva by scent. Additionally, marking behaviour in several mammals and especially in horses indicates the importance of sniffing conspecifics' faeces for olfactory recognition. To test this hypothesis, we conducted two separate experiments: Experiment 1 addressed the question of whether horses can recognise the group membership of other horses by sniffing their faeces. The horses were presented with four faecal samples: (1) their own, (2) those of other members of their own group, (3) those of unfamiliar mares, and (4) those of unfamiliar geldings. Experiment two was designed to assess whether horses can identify the group member from whom a faecal sample came. Here, we presented two groups of horses with faecal samples from their group mates in random distribution. As controls, soil heaps and sheep faecal samples were used. In experiment one, horses distinguished their own from their conspecifics' faeces, but did not differentiate between familiarity and sex. In experiment two, the horses from both groups paid most attention to the faeces of the horses from which they received the highest amount of aggressive behaviours. We therefore suggest that horses of both sexes can distinguish individual competitors among their group mates by the smell of their faeces.

  18. Allmähliche Transformation oder plötzlicher Wandel: Historische Betrachtungen zu Massenmigrationen und Menschenleben

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Hoerder

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Sowohl die Migration als auch die Einstellungen dazu sind historisch tief verwurzelt. Wenn die aktuellen Wanderungsbewegungen und die von Derivatehändlern im Herbst 2008 verursachte Wirtschaftskrise als „neu und historisch beispiellos“ bezeichnet werden, wird über die Auswirkungen von Mustern der Vergangenheit auf die Gegenwart hinweggesehen und somit verhindert, dass Erkenntnisse über Kontinuitäten und Vergleiche gewonnen werden. Nicht die Migranten werden „entwurzelt“, wie bisweilen behauptet wird, sondern dem historischen Gedächtnis werden gezielt seine Wurzeln entzogen. Der vorliegende Beitrag geht zunächst auf die verschiedenen Probleme der heutigen Migrationsdebatten und die Historisierung der Perspektiven ein. Die einwandererfeindlichen Zuschreibungen, Stigmata und Ideologien werden kritisiert. Sodann werden die Daten präsentiert und die geographischen Dimensionen der Migrantenwege im Kontext der translokalen, transregionalen, transnationalen und globalen Vernetzung besprochen. Ein integrativer Ansatz im Sinne transkultureller Gesellschaftswissenschaften wird vorgeschlagen. Schließlich geht der Beitrag auf das Handeln (agency von Migranten ein, wobei die „Viktimisierungs”-Ansätze kritisiert werden und argumentiert wird, dass Andersartigkeit eine Ressource ist, aber auch eine Angriffsfläche für Ausbeutung bietet. Geldüberweisungen werden als Beispiel für die Schnittpunkte zwischen dem Handeln von Migranten und staatlichen Bedürfnissen angeführt. In der Schlussfolgerung wird die Gegenwart kurz in den Kontext der globalen Ungleichheiten, des wirtschaftlichen Aspekts und der Einwandererfeindlichkeit sowie des ideologischen national-essentialistischen Aspekts gesetzt.

  19. Polysynovitis in a horse due to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection – Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Passamonti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lyme borreliosis (LB is a multi-systemic tick-borne disease affecting both humans and animals, including horses, and is caused by a group of interrelated spirochetes classified within the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l. complex. Despite the high reported seroprevalence in the European equine population for B. burgdorferi s.l., to-date no documented clinical cases have been described. A 6-year-old Paint gelding was referred with a history of three weeks of fever, intermittent lameness and digital flexor tendon sheath effusion of the right hind limb. Based on a strict diagnostic protocol, which included serological tests for infectious diseases and molecular investigations, a final diagnosis was made of polysynovitis due to B. burgdorferi s.l. infection. An unreported aspect observed in this case was the absence of the pathogen DNA in two of the affected joints. To the authors’ knowledge, the case described represents the first documented clinical case of equine LB in Italy. Moreover, the absence of pathogen DNA in two of the affected joints observed in this case revealed a possible similarity with the same condition described in humans, where an immunomediated pathogenesis for arthropathy due to B. burgdorferi s.l. infection is suspected. Since humans and horses share the same habitat, this report supports the role of the horse as potential sentinel for human biological risk.

  20. Polysynovitis in a horse due to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection--Case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passamonti, Fabrizio; Veronesi, Fabrizia; Cappelli, Katia; Capomaccio, Stefano; Reginato, Alice; Miglio, Arianna; Vardi, Doron M; Stefanetti, Valentina; Coletti, Mauro; Bazzica, Chiara; Pepe, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a multi-systemic tick-borne disease affecting both humans and animals, including horses, and is caused by a group of interrelated spirochetes classified within the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) complex. Despite the high reported seroprevalence in the European equine population for B. burgdorferi s.l., to-date no documented clinical cases have been described. A 6-year-old Paint gelding was referred with a history of three weeks of fever, intermittent lameness and digital flexor tendon sheath effusion of the right hind limb. Based on a strict diagnostic protocol, which included serological tests for infectious diseases and molecular investigations, a final diagnosis was made of polysynovitis due to B. burgdorferi s.l. infection. An unreported aspect observed in this case was the absence of the pathogen DNA in two of the affected joints. To the authors' knowledge, the case described represents the first documented clinical case of equine LB in Italy. Moreover, the absence of pathogen DNA in two of the affected joints observed in this case revealed a possible similarity with the same condition described in humans, where an immunomediated pathogenesis for arthropathy due to B. burgdorferi s.l. infection is suspected. Since humans and horses share the same habitat, this report supports the role of the horse as potential sentinel for human biological risk.

  1. Pyroelectric Study on Dipolar Alignment in 0.69Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.31PbTiO3 Single Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Liang; SHEN Ming-Rong; CAO Wen-Wu

    2012-01-01

    Pyroelectric measurements are conducted during zero-Geld heating in [001], [110] and [111] poled 0.69Pb(Mg1/3 Nb2/3)O3-0.31PbTiO3 single crystals. Compared to the room-temperature-poled samples, the crystals poled by using the Rield cooling method show broad but well recognizable pyroelectric current peaks near 190℃, which is much higher than the Curie point (126℃) of the crystal. We propose that this peak of the crystals poled by field-cooling above the Curie point is ascribed to the order-disorder transition of the dipoles in polar nano-regions formed at the Burns temperature.%Pyroelectric measurements are conducted during zero-field heating in [001],[110] and [111] poled 0.69Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.31PbTiO3 single crystals.Compared to the room-temperature-poled samples,the crystals poled by using the field cooling method show broad but well recognizable pyroelectric current peaks near 190℃,which is much higher than the Curie point (126℃) of the crystal.We propose that this peak of the crystals poled by field-cooling above the Curie point is ascribed to the order-disorder transition of the dipoles in polar nano-regions formed at the Burns temperature.

  2. Mechanism of the Pyroelectric Response under Direct-Current Bias in La-Modified Lead Zirconate Titanate Stannate Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong-Ling; WANG Gen-Shui; CHEN Xue-Feng; CAO Fei; DONG Xian-Lin; GU Yan; HE Hong-Liang; LIU Yu-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Dielectric and pyroelectric properties ofPbo.97Lao.o2(Zro.42Sno.4oTio.i8)03 ceramics are investigated as functions of temperature and dc bias field. Induced and intrinsic pyroelectric coefficients pind and p0 are calculated and analyzed. It is found that the sign, value and variation of the net pyroelectric coefficient p with increasing dc bias all are dominated by p0 under applied biases. Polarization and depolarization processes under dc biases are analyzed. Besides the contribution of pind, the diffuse and decreased pyroelectric response under dc bias compared with that of an identical Geld poled sample without dc bias is mainly attributed to the depolarization process under dc bias.%@@ Dielectric and pyroelectric properties of Pbo.s7Lao.o2(Zro.42Sno.4OTio.is)O3 ceramics are investigated as functions of temperature and do bias field.Induced and intrinsic pyroelectric coefficients pind and p0 are calculated and analyzed.It is found that the sign,value and variation of the net pyroelectric coefficient p with increasing dc bias all are dominated by p0 under applied biases.Polarization and depolarization processes under do biases are analyzed.Besides the contribution of pind,the diffuse and decreased pyroelectric response under do bias compared with that of an identical field poled sample without do bias is mainly attributed to the depolarization process under do bias.

  3. ESTUDO RETROSPECTIVO DE 50 CASOS DE CÓLICA EM EQUINOS ATENDIDOS NO HOSPITAL VETERINÁRIO DA FCAV – UNESP, NO PERÍODO DE SETEMBRO DE 2004 A JULHO DE 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Alessandra Di Filippo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The medical records of 50 equine gastrointestinal colic cases submitted to laparatomy presented to the Veterinary Hospitalof FCAV-UNESP between 2004 and 2005 were reviewed. The breeds with higher predisposition to colic were Brasileira de Hipismo (28%, Paint Horse (16% and Quarter Horse (12%. Females (46% were more prone to colic than stallions (28% and geldings (26%. Overall, the 3 most common causes of colic were large colon displacement (22%, large colon impaction (16%, and inguinal hernia. Animals with average age between two and ten years were the most affected (64%. From the 50 animals with colic submitted to laparatomy, 27 (54% survived and 23 (46% were sacrificed or died. Among the 27 survivors, 21 (78% had lesions on the large intestine (LI and six (22% on the small intestine (SI. However, from the 23 animals that died or were euthanized, 15 (65.21% showed damage on SI and eight (34.78% on LI. The mean time between the first symptoms andthe carrying out of specialized treatment was 20.13 hours to the animals with damage on LI and 13.29 hours to the equines with damage on SI. In conclusion, the delay on the admission reduces the animals’ chances of recovery and contributes to the expressive number of surgical procedures performed.

  4. Conservative management of a transverse fracture of the distal phalanx in a Quarter Horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherlock, Ceri E; Eggleston, Randall B; Howerth, Elizabeth W

    2012-01-01

    A 7-year-old Quarter Horse gelding was evaluated because of sudden onset of severe left forelimb lameness of 4 days' duration. Clinical evaluation and diagnostic perineural analgesia localized the lameness to the distal portion of the left forelimb. Radiography revealed a transverse fracture of the distal phalanx of the left forelimb. The horse was treated conservatively with stall rest and stabilization of the hoof with fiberglass cast material and an elevated heel support. These treatments improved the lameness considerably. Over the following 4 months, the horse was exercised at an increasing level; external coaptation of the hoof was removed, and the horse was gradually shod in a flat shoe. At 6 months after injury, the horse had no signs of lameness when working at its previous performance level, but it was euthanized for reasons unrelated to orthopedic disease. Radiographically, the fracture was unapparent; however, results of magnetic resonance imaging and histologic examination of the cadaveric limb confirmed the presence of tissue changes consistent with a healing fracture. Conservative management of transverse fractures of the distal phalanx of a forelimb may be effective and enable affected horses to be returned to their intended use.

  5. [Effects of excess caloric fat feeding on the lipid metabolism in Shetland ponies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dühlmeier, R; Gück, T; Deegen, E; Busche, R; Sallmann, H P

    2003-04-01

    To investigate the influence of overweight and dietary fat supplementation on lipid and insulin glucose metabolism of Shetland ponies, eight Shetland pony geldings were fed a hypercaloric (30 MJ DE/150 kg bwt. and day) fat diet (10% fat as soybean oil) or a carbohydrate control diet for nine months until ponies gained an overweight of 15%. Afterwards oral glucose tolerance tests (oGTT; 5, 6 mmol/kg bwt.) were performed after a 12 hour fast and after a fast which led to an increase of plasma triglyceride concentrations to a threshold of 3 mmol/l (36-65 hrs.). Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, triglycerides and non esterified fatty acids (NEFA) were determined for 480 minutes after the glucose load. Ponys having had received the control diet tended to a higher insulin secretion in case of both oGTTs, whereas the glucose tolerance was similar in both groups but lower than in ponies of normal weight. During the oGTTs after fasting leading to the plasma triglyceride threshold, triglyceride concentrations decreased significantly (p ponies. Additionally, fat fed pony showed significantly (p ponies.

  6. Total mixed ration in exercising horse: digestibility and nitrogen metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Magni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the apparent digestibility of a total mixed ration (TMR versus a traditional mixed hay/cereals diet. Four adult trained Standardbred geldings – BW = 478±37 kg - were used. The two diets consisted of 20 kg of a commercial TMR - corn silage, alfalfa hay, wet brewers’ grain, oat, apple pomace, molasses cane, soybean oil and mineral/vitamin supplement - (Diet 1 or 7 kg of meadow hay and 4.5 kg of cereal-mix - corn, oat, barley and protein/mineral/vitamin supplement - (Diet 2. The trial was conducted according to a Latin Square design (2x2. After an adaptation period of four weeks, total faeces and urine were collected for 6 days. Both feed and faeces samples were analysed for DM, OM, CP, EE, CF, NDF, ADF, cellulose, hemicellulose, ADL and GE. Data were analysed by ANOVA. The apparent digestibility and nitrogen balance of the two diets were compared. DM, OM, CP and GE apparent digestibility were significantly different between the diets, with higher values for unifeed diet than traditional diet. Energy requirement was satisfied by both diets (96.54 vs 95.55 MJ. Nitrogen balance showed negative values in both diets (- 61.67 vs - 9.05, but the hay/cereals supplemented diet showed the best protein utilisation.

  7. Thermodynamic Interpretation of Field Equations at Horizon of BTZ Black Hole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Akbar

    2007-01-01

    A spacetime horizon comprising with a black hole singularity acts like a boundary of a thermal system associated with the notions of temperature and entropy. In the case of static metric of Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, the Reid equations near the horizon boundary can be expressed as a thermal identity dE = TdS+PrdA, where E = M is the mass of BTZ black hole, dA is the change in the area of the black hole horizon when the horizon is displaced innnitesimally small, Pr is the radial pressure provided by the source of Einstein equations, S = 4πa is the entropy and T = κ/2π is the Hawking temperature associated with the horizon. This approach is studied further to generalize it for non-static BTZ black hole, showing that it is also possible to interpret the field equation near horizon as a thermodynamic identity dE = TdS + PrdA + Ω+dJ, where Ω+ is the angular velocity and J is the angular momentum of BTZ black hole. These results indicate that the Geld equations for BTZ black hole possess intrinsic thermodynamic properties near the horizon.

  8. Sheath Criterion for a Collisional Electronegative Plasma Sheath in an Applied Magnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹秀; 刘惠平; 邱明辉; 孙骁航

    2011-01-01

    The sheath criterion for a collisional electronegative plasma sheath in an applied magnetic field is investigated.It is assumed that the system consists of hot electrons,hot negative ions and cold positive ions.The effect of an applied magnetic field on the sheath criterion is discussed.The results reveal that the magnetic field has effects on both the upper and lower limits,which cause the range of the ion Mach number to increase.In addition,the numerical calculations of the electronegative plasma sheath are carried out to demonstrate the effects of sheath criterion on the characteristics of the sheath.%The sheath criterion for a collisioned electronegative plasma sheath in an applied magnetic Geld is investigated. It is assumed that the system consists of hot electrons, hot negative ions and cold positive ions. The effect of an applied magnetic Reid on the sheath criterion is discussed. The results reveal that the magnetic field has effects on both the upper and lower limits, which cause the range of the ion Mach number to increase. In addition, the numerical calculations of the electronegative plasma sheath are carried out to demonstrate the effects of sheath criterion on the characteristics of the sheath.

  9. Estenose de piloro em eqüino adulto Pyloric stenosis in a mature horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Miluzzi Yamada

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, é descrito um caso de estenose hipertrófica de piloro diagnosticado por gastroscopia em um eqüino Quarto de Milha, de quatro anos de idade, que apresentava inapetência, emagrecimento progressivo, cólica, bruxismo e sialorréia. A gastroduodenite ulcerativa crônica e os espasmos prolongados foram as supostas causas da hipertrofia da musculatura circular do piloro, causando a estenose. O tratamento com substâncias antiulcerativas é paliativo e o acesso cirúrgico ao piloro no animal adulto é complexo, sendo o prognóstico duvidoso.A case of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis diagnosed by gastroscopy was reported in a 4-years-old Quarter Horse gelding, with signs of inappetence, chronic weight loss, colic, bruxism and sialorrhea. Gastroduodenal ulceration and spasms were supposed as causes of pyloric muscular hypertrophy and stenosis. Antiulcerative medications are merely palliative and the complex surgical approach to the site of stenosis makes the prognostic to be doubtful.

  10. Frequency of classic stereotypies in endurance horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandro E. Muñoz-Alonzo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of classic stereotypies in endurance horses of Región Metropolitana (Chile and the association of these abnormal behaviors with age and sex of the animals. All resident endurance horses from 8 equestrian centres of the Región Metropolitana were studied (n=107. A description of classic stereotipies (crib-biting, weaving and box-walking was given to each horse keeper and then they were asked for this presence or absence, along the name, sex, age and breed, of every horse under their care. To analyze the data, horses were divided by age into 3 groups: 3 to 6 years (n=28, 7 to 9 years (n=42 and 10 to 18 years (n=37. Based on their sex, they were divided into 3 groups: stallions (n =11, geldings (n=64 and mares (n=32. Results are expressed as percentages. Fisher`s test with p < 0.05 was used for statistical analysis of the variables age and sex. A 12.2% of all horses presented stereotypies: crib -biting (0.9%, weaving (6.5% and box-walking (4.7%. No relationship was found between the presence of stereotypies and variables age and sex. This study evidence a high frequency of classic stereotypies in endurance horses of Región Metropolitana, mostly weaving, and no found association between classic stereotypies and the variables age and sex of horses.

  11. Laveren tussen loyaal en formalistisch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Renders

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Meindert Fennema en Johan Rhijnsburger, Dr. Max Hirschfeld. Man van het grote geld (Amsterdam 2007.Hovering between Loyalty and BureaucracyHans Max Hirschfeld has often been the subject of discussion: he was Secretary General of the Ministry of Trade and Industry during World War II and, as such, a collaborator. Or should we regard him as a faithful and obedient civil servant who simply performed the task entrusted to him by his successive (political superiors? The question is all the more intriguing because Hirschfeld was of German descent, even though he only lived in the land of his birth for four months of his life. Hirschfeld has been the subject of two successive biographies. In the opening article of this dossier on Meindert Fennema’s biography of Hirschfeld, Hans Renders describes the value that the biographical genre holds for history writing. Although there is certainly some criticism to be levelled at Fennema’s biography, he has succeeded in providing a balanced account of this sphinx-like man. This is indeed an achievement, as Hirschfeld’s private archive was destroyed upon his death. Thanks to the use of other sources, the biographer makes a convincing case that Hirschfeld’s thoughts and deeds were strongly influenced by the headstrong Claude-Henri de Saint-Simon (1760-1825.

  12. Comparison of the cardiopulmonary effects of anesthesia maintained by continuous infusion of romifidine, guaifenesin, and ketamine with anesthesia maintained by inhalation of halothane in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurphy, Rose M; Young, Lesley E; Marlin, David J; Walsh, Karen

    2002-12-01

    To compare cardiopulmonary responses during anesthesia maintained with halothane and responses during anesthesia maintained by use of a total intravenous anesthetic (TIVA) regimen in horses. 7 healthy adult horses (1 female, 6 geldings). Each horse was anesthetized twice. Romifidine was administered IV, and anesthesia was induced by IV administration of ketamine. Anesthesia was maintained for 75 minutes by administration of halothane (HA) or IV infusion of romifidine, guaifenesin, and ketamine (TIVA). The order for TIVA or HA was randomized. Cardiopulmonary variables were measured 40, 60, and 75 minutes after the start of HA orTIVA. Systolic, diastolic, and mean carotid arterial pressures, velocity time integral, and peak acceleration of aortic blood flow were greater, and systolic, diastolic, and mean pulmonary arterial pressure were lower at all time points for TIVA than for HA. Pre-ejection period was shorter and ejection time was longer for TIVA than for HA. Heart rate was greater for HA at 60 minutes. Minute ventilation and alveolar ventilation were greater and inspiratory time was longer for TIVA than for HA at 75 minutes. The PaCO2 was higher at 60 and 75 minutes for HA than forTIVA. Horses receiving a constant-rate infusion of romifidine, guaifenesin, and ketamine maintained higher arterial blood pressures than when they were administered HA. There was some indication that left ventricular function may be better during TIVA, but influences of preload and afterload on measured variables could account for some of these differences.

  13. Effects of Slight Plastic Deformation on Magnetic Properties and Giant Magnetoimpedance of FeCoCrSiB Amorphous Ribbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.O.Volchkov; M.A.Cerdeira; V.V.Gubernatorov; E.I.Duhan; A.P.Potapov; V.A.Lukshina

    2007-01-01

    Slight plastic deformation of 0 to 1% by cold rolling is proposed as a treatment which may modify the responses of magnetoimpedance (MI) sensor with an amorphous ribbon used as a sensitive element. The dependence of the magnetic properties of melt spun Fe3Co67Cr3Si15B12 amorphous ribbons and their MI responses in the initial state and after slight plastic deformation on the value of the deformation were comparatively analysed. The shape of the hysteresis loops shows a clear correlation with the value of the deformation. The variations of the total impedance, the real and the imaginary components, are measured for the current intensity of 1.5mA for the frequency of 10 MHz. Slight plastic deformation affects both real and imaginary components and allows a control of the shape of the MI curves in a small Geld in a range usually used in biomedical applications. The proposed deformation treatments can be useful for the construction of the MI sensitive elements with a new type of the responses.

  14. THE EFFECT OF PHYTOADDITIVES ON MACROELEMENTS DIGESTIBILITY OF SPORT HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernislav GÁLIK

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a phytogenic additive in sport horses feed rations on faecal macroelements digestibility. The experiment was realized in Riding Centre of the Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, using 6 warm blood sport horses (geldings. The control group was fed with crimped barley, meadow hay, feed mixture and mineral premix. The experimental feed rations were supplemented with a phytogenic additive containing a blend of essential oils from origanum, anise and citrus, as well as a prebiotic rich in fructooligosaccharides. Higher digestibility of calcium (Ca (71.11% vs. 69.09% and phosphorus (P (52.74% vs. 47.55% was determined in horses fed the phytogenic additives (P>0.05. In this group of horses we found significantly (P<0.05 higher digestibility of magnesium (Mg, 64.32% in comparison with the control group (43.55%. Insignificantly differences in sodium (Na digestibility we found (75.98% in control group vs. 76.58% in experimental group. Significantly (P<0.05 higher potassium (K digestibility we found in horses fed with phytoadditives (57.11%. In horses fed without phytoadditives we detected significantly (P<0.05 lower digestibility of K (30.55%. In conclusion, we found positive effects of a phytogenic additive on macroelements faecal digestibility in sport horses.

  15. Influence of Entropy on Composition and Structure of Massive Protoneutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bin; Jia, Huan-Yu; Mu, Xue-Ling; Zhou, Xia

    2016-08-01

    Adjusting the suitable coupling constants in relativistic mean Geld (RMF) theory and focusing on thermal effect of an entropy per baryon (S) from 0 to 3, we investigate the composition and structure of massive protoneutron stars corresponding PSR J1614-2230 and PSR J0348+0432. It is found that massive protoneutron stars (PNSs) have more hyperons than cold neutron stars. The entropy per baryon will stiffen the equation of state, and the influence on the pressure is more obvious at low density than high density, while the influence on the energy density is more obvious at high density than low density. It is found that higher entropy will give higher maximum mass, higher central temperature and lower central density. The entropy per baryon changes from 0 to 3, the radius of a PNS corresponding PSR J0348+0432 will increase from 12.86 km to 19.31 km and PSR J1612-2230 will increase from 13.03 km to 19.93 km. The entropy per baryon will raise the central temperature of massive PNSs in higher entropy per baryon, but the central temperature of massive PNSs maybe keep unchanged in lower entropy per baryon. The entropy per baryon will increase the moment of inertia of a massive protoneutron star, while decrease gravitational redshift of a massive neutron star. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11175147

  16. Subconjunctival mycetoma caused by Scedosporium apiospermum infection in a horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzina, Inese; Trumble, Nicole Scotty; Novicki, Thomas; Sharkey, Leslie C

    2011-03-01

    An 11-year-old American Saddlebred gelding was presented for evaluation of a nonpainful subconjunctival mass involving the lateral canthus of the left eye. Other findings included a central corneal scar and a small central cataract of the lens in the left eye. Fine-needle aspiration of the mass was performed and cytologic examination revealed marked pyogranulomatous inflammation with intralesional fungal hyphae, consistent with mycetoma. The fungal structures were elongated and characterized by nonstaining walls; several bulbous yeast-like structures were also observed. The mycetoma was surgically removed and submitted for histopathologic examination and fungal culture. The histopathologic diagnosis was subconjunctival phaeohyphomycosis. Scedosporium apiospermum was identified based on macroscopic and microscopic features of the organism in culture. Scedosporium spp. have been reported as causes of mycetomatous and nonmycetomatous infections in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent people and animals. S. apiospermum and Pseudallescheria boydii, which is its teleomorphic counterpart, have been implicated as potentially emerging human and veterinary pathogens. Timely diagnosis is essential as the organism is often resistant to commonly used antifungal drugs. This report provides a detailed cytologic description of the organism and recent information on the taxonomy of this fungus and the diagnostic peculiarities of this particular infection. © 2011 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  17. Quantum Hall Effect and Different Zero-Energy Modes of Graphene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.R.Setare; D.Jahani

    2011-01-01

    @@ The effect of an inhomogeneous magnetic field,which varies inversely with distance on the ground state energy level of graphene,is studied.We analytically show that graphene under the influence of a magnetic field aris-ing from a straight long current-carrying wire(proportional to the magnetic field from carbon nanotubes and nanowires)exhibits zero-energy solutions and find that contrary to the case of a uniform magnetic field for which the zero-energy modes show the localization of electrons entirely on just one sublattice corresponding to a single valley Hamiltonian,zero-energy solutions in this case reveal that the probabilities for the electrons to be on both sublattices,say A and B,are the same.%The effect of an inhomogeneous magnetic Geld, which varies inversely with distance on the ground state energy level of graphene, is studied. We analytically show that graphene under the influence of a magnetic field arising from a straight long current-carrying wire (proportional to the magnetic Reid from carbon nanotubes and nanowires) exhibits zero-energy solutions and find that contrary to the case of a uniform magnetic field for which the zero-energy modes show the localization of electrons entirely on just one sublattice corresponding to a single valley Hamiltonian, zero-energy solutions in this case reveal that the probabilities for the electrons to be on both sublattices, say A and B, are the same.

  18. Correlations between the behavior of recreational horses, the physiological parameters and summer atmospheric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczarek, Iwona; Wilk, Izabela; Zalewska, Edyta; Bocian, Krzysztof

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this paper was to select atmospheric factors and their values, which may disrupt the correct behavior and physiological condition of recreational horses. The studies were carried out from 1 July until 1 September on 16 Anglo-Arabian geldings. Each day, from 09.00 to 10.00 hours, the horses worked under saddle. The riders and the authors gave a qualitative behavioral assessment for each horse. Mood and willingness to work were evaluated. The quantitative assessment was called 'incorrect behavior of the horse while riding' (IBHR). The percentage time of duration and the number of occurrences of the features while riding were calculated. Heart rate, body temperature and respiratory rate were taken at 08.00 hours (resting measurement) and at 10.05 hours (post-exercise measurement). Air temperature, relative air humidity, wind speed and atmospheric pressure were measured at 08.00 and 10.00 hours. The results showed that adverse changes in the behavior of recreational horses can occur if the horse is ridden when the air temperature is above 26°C and when wind speeds exceed 5.5 m/s. Such conditions may cause a reduction in the mood and willingness to work in horses. Physiological parameters like heart rate and body temperature seem to be more sensitive indicators of the horse body reaction to the weather than behavioral reactions.

  19. An Effective Heisenberg Spin Chain in a Fiber-Cavity System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟志荣; 张斌; 林秀; 苏万钧

    2011-01-01

    We propose a scheme to realize the Heisenberg spin chain in a one-dimensional array of cavities connected by-optical fibers. The proposed scheme is based on the off-resonant Raman transitions between two ground states of atoms, and is induced by the cavity modes and external Gelds. Under the interactions between the nearest neighbors (NNs) and the next NNs, the result shows that the atoms, via the exchange of virtual photons, can be effectively equal to a spin-1/2 Heisenberg model under certain conditions. The parameters of the effective Hamiltonian can be controlled by tuning the laser fields.%We propose a scheme to realize the Heisenberg spin chain in a one-dimensional array of cavities connected by optical fibers.The proposed scheme is based on the off-resonant Raman transitions between two ground states of atoms,and is induced by the cavity modes and external fields.Under the interactions between the nearest neighbors(NNs)and the next NNs,the result shows that the atoms,via the exchange of virtual photons,can be effectively equal to a spin-1/2 Heisenberg model under certain conditions.The parameters of the effective Hamiltonian can be controlled by tuning the laser fields.

  20. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    1970-04-01

    Full Text Available - Harry J. Benda, S.L. van der Wal, De Volksraad en de staatkundige ontwikkeling van Nederlandsch-Indië: Een bronnenpublikatie. The People’s Council and the political development of the Netherlands-Indies. (With an introduction and survey of the documents in English. Tweede Stuk 1927-1942. J.B. Wolters, Leiden, 1965. Appendices, Index. xx-727 pp. - J. Valkhoff, D. van Eck, Juridische aspecten van geld, met name in het vroegere Nederlands-Indië. Kluwer, Deventer 1970. 358 blz. - R.S. Wassing, Claire Holt, Art in Indonesia - Continuities and change. Cornell University Press, Ithaca 1967. 355 p., 200 ills., 8 figs., 2 maps. - P. van Emst, Hans Nevermann, Die religionen der Südsee und Australiens. Die Religionen er Menschheit, Band 5, 2. W. Kohlhammer Verlag, Stuttgart, 1968. Pp. 329., Ernest A. Worms, Helmut Petri (eds. - J. van Baal, Kenelm Burridge, Tangu Traditions. A study of the way of life, mythology, and developing experience of a New Guinea people. Clarendon Press: Oxford University Press, 1969. XXIII, 513 pp. - Elizabeth P. Wittermans, Andrew W. Lind, Hawaii: The last of the magic isles. Oxford University Press for Institute of Race Relations, London 1969. 129 p. - W.F.L. Buschkens, Frank Cancian, Economics and prestige in a Maya community; The religious cargo system in Zinacantan. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, 1969, IX + 238 pp. - ,

  1. In-depth Study on Cylinder Wake Controlled by Lorentz Force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张辉; 范宝春; 陈志华

    2011-01-01

    The underlying mechanisms of the electromagnetic control of cylinder wake are investigated and discussed.The effects of Lorentz force are found to be composed of two parts,one is its direct action on the cylinder(the wall Lorentz force)and the other is applied to the fluid(called the field Lorentz force)near the cylinder surface.Our results show that the wall Lorentz force can generate thrust and reduce the drag; the field Lorentz force increases the drag.However,the cylinder drag is dominated by the wall Lorentz force.In addition,the field Lorentz force above the upper surface decreases the lift,while the upper wall Lorentz force increases it.The total lift is dominated by the upper wall Lorentz force.%The underlying mechanisms of the electromagnetic control of cylinder wake are investigated and discussed. The effects of Lorentz force are found to be composed of two parts, one is its direct action on the cylinder (the wall Lorentz force) and the other is applied to the fluid (called the field Lorentz force) near the cylinder surface. Our results show that the wall Lorentz force can generate thrust and reduce the drag; the Geld Lorentz force increases the drag. However, the cylinder drag is dominated by the wall Lorentz force. In addition, the field Lorentz force above the upper surface decreases the lift, while the upper wall Lorentz force increases it. The total lift is dominated by the upper wall Lorentz force.

  2. Prevalence of stereotypies in thoroughbred race horses at Club Hípico Concepción, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandro Muñoz A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence of classic stereotypies in Thoroughbred racehorses at the Club Hípico Concepción (CHC in Chile and its association with sex and age. Materials and methods. The entire population of resident horses at the CHC was studied (n=341. Each horse trainer (n=23 was asked for the name, sex and age of the horses under his/her supervision. After that, all the animals were continuously observed inside their stalls for 8 hours by only one person, to record the absence or presence of classic stereotypies (cribbing, weaving, stall-walking. To analyze the data, the animals were divided by sex into 3 groups: stallions, geldings and mares. According to age, they were divided into 2 groups: < 5 years old and 5 years old or more. Descriptive statistics were used and association was tested using the chi square test using p≤0.05. Results. 13.2% of all CHC’s horses displayed stereotypies: cribbing (4.99%, weaving (2.93% and stall-walking (5.28%. No association was found between the presence of stereotypies and sex or age. Conclusions. Thoroughbred race horses at the CHC showed a high prevalence of classic stereotypies, especially stall-walking.

  3. A TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT APPROACH TO CIVIL ENGINEERING CONSULTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A.L. Ambrose

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The article describes the development of a framework for the implementation of a Total Quality Management (TQM approach in the civil consulting industry through the five phases of the typical civil engineering project. For any project to be successful the project team members must take collective and individual responsibility for their role in the project implementation. The organisational goal is “to make money now and in the future”. To achieve this goal the organization must provide value to its clientele. The clients are searching for the silver bullet; double the performance at half the price. TQM provides a means to achieve this goal.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die artikel beskryf die ontwikkeling van 'n raamwerk vir die implementering van 'n gehaltebestuurstelsel vir die siviele raadgewende bedryf soos dit deelneem aan die vyf fases van 'n tipiese siviele ingenieursprojek. Vir die suksesvolle afhandeling van 'n projek is dit noodsaaklik dat alle projekspanlede gesamentlik en afsonderlik verantwoordelikheid moet aanvaar vir hulle eie betrokkenheid by die projekimplementering. Die organisasie se oogmerk is om “nou en in die toekoms geld te maak”. Ten einde hierdie oogmerk te bereik moet die organisasie waarde vir sy kliënte bied. 'n Gehaltebestuurstelsel voorsien die gereedskap om hierdie doelwit te bereik.

  4. Traumatic tricuspid regurgitation and right-to-left intra-atrial shunt--an unusual complication of a horse-kick.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byrne, R A

    2010-02-01

    A 63-year-old male presented with sudden onset chest pain and dyspnoea following a kick to the praecordium while gelding a horse. Transthoracic echocardiography showed evidence of flail tricuspid valve leaflets, severe tricuspid regurgitation and a widely patent foramen ovale with a right-to-left shunt. Due to progressive severe systemic hypoxemia the patient underwent emergent surgical intervention. Operative findings confirmed rupture of the anterior and septal tricuspid valve papillary muscles. Successful papillary muscle reattachment was performed in association with tricuspid annuloplasty and suture closure of his patent foramen ovale. Disruption of the tricuspid valve is well described as consequence of blunt trauma to the chest wall and is often well tolerated, coming to light many years post injury. Valve disruption due to rupture at the papillary muscle level, however, typically results in greater severity of tricuspid regurgitation and the abrupt rise in right intra-atrial pressure may lead to a right-to-left shunt across a patent foramen ovale. Where hemodynamic compromise ensues, prompt surgical intervention is mandated.

  5. Epistaxis related to exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage in South African Thoroughbreds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Weideman

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated if environmental factors had an effect on the incidence of epistaxis related to exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH among racehorses in southern Africa. Data covering the period 1986-2001 and involving 778 532 race runs were analysed. This included the following information : date of race, age, sex, name of breeder, trainer, distance, jockey, state of going, weight carried, racing centre and altitude. Veterinarians employed by the Jockey Club suspended officially entered horses that presented with epistaxis (frank bleeding from the nostrils after racing. On-course endoscopy is not performedas a standard practice at any southern African racetrack. Epistaxis was identified in 1287 horses (0.165 %. More horses presented with EIPH-related epistaxis (a at sea level, (b from May to October, (c when older (> 3 years, (d after 1995, (e on Fridays and Sundays, and (f more in geldings than in mares or entire males. No association could be established between epistaxis and breeder, trainer, distance run, jockey, state of going and weight carried. It is concluded that the frequency of EIPH-related epistaxis is associated with altitude, winter and spring, sex and age. It is suggested that racing at lower altitudes may increase the probability of exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage.

  6. Disseminated Cryptococcus deuterogattii (AFLP6/VGII) infection in an Arabian horse from Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinne, Jörg; Joseph, Marina; Wernery, Ulrich; Nogradi, Nora; Hagen, Ferry

    2017-06-05

    During the past decades there has been an increase in cryptococcal infections caused by the basidiomycetous yeast species Cryptococcus gattii sensu lato, among humans and animals that live in endemic regions in Australia, Europe and the Americas. Unlike human cryptococcosis, little epidemiological data are available about C. gattii sensu lato infections in horses. A fatal case of a disseminated C. gattii sensu lato infection in an 11-year-old Arabian gelding imported from South Africa into the United Arab Emitares is reported. Tissue samples were studied by conventional mycology procedures and the obtained cryptococcal isolate was molecularly characterized by mating-type determination, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting, and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Phylogenetic analysis was performed to investigate the geographic origin of the cryptococcal isolate. The isolate was identified as Cryptococcus deuterogattii (AFLP6/VGII), mating-type α. Phylogenetic analysis showed that it was closely related to another C. deuterogattii isolate from the Middle East. A second case of a C. deuterogattii infection in the Middle East is described. It is likely that the horse acquired the infection in the Middle East, as the isolate is closely related to that of a recent human case from that region. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Babesia equi-induced anemia in a Quarter Horse and subsequent regulatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Laurie A; Pelzel, Angela M; Rush, Bonnie R; Wright, Abra M; Galgut, Bradley I; Hennager, Steven G; King, Alison O; Traub-Dargatz, Josie L

    2013-04-01

    A 7-year-old Quarter Horse gelding used for unsanctioned racing was examined because of fever and anorexia. Physical examination revealed fever, tachycardia, and tachypnea. Results of a CBC indicated anemia and mild thrombocytopenia. Results of microscopic examination of a blood smear indicated piroplasms in erythrocytes, consistent with Babesia spp. Regulatory authorities were contacted, and results of serologic testing at the National Veterinary Services Laboratories confirmed acute Babesia equi infection. Equids on the home premises of the index horse were placed under quarantine. Those equids were tested for piroplasmosis, and 6 of 63 horses had positive results for B equi. Another horse that had previously been housed on the index premises also had positive results for B equi. Competent tick vectors for piroplasmosis organisms were not identified. All 8 horses with piroplasmosis were Quarter Horses that participated in unsanctioned racing and were trained by the same person. Two of the horses were illegally removed from the index premises; these 2 horses and the other horse with piroplasmosis that was previously housed on the index premises could not be found. The other 5 horses with piroplasmosis were euthanized. Investigators concluded that transmission of B equi among horses was most likely iatrogenic. The United States has been considered piroplasmosis free. However, veterinarians should consider piroplasmosis in horses with signalments and clinical signs similar to those of the index horse of this report. Regulatory authorities should be contacted regarding horses in which piroplasmosis is suspected.

  8. Profiling the careers of Thoroughbred horses racing in Australia between 2000 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velie, B D; Wade, C M; Hamilton, N A

    2013-03-01

    Research investigating trends in racehorse careers require a benchmark for accurate comparison. Currently little whole population data exists for horses racing in Australia. To determine the range and variation in career length and number of career starts for horses racing in Australia. To document and provide evidence regarding the current differences between the sexes for career length and careers starts. Racing data were collected for Thoroughbreds over a 10-year period. Career length, number of career starts and spells per year were evaluated. Statistical analyses were performed using the statistical package R. A total of 2,782,774 performance records yielded career information for 164,046 horses. Median career length and number of career starts for the population were 14.7 months and 10 starts, respectively. Significant differences (Pracing in Australia with careers longer than 12, 24, 36 and 48 months was 56.65, 32.35, 16.66 and 7.74, respectively. Clear differences in career outcomes exist between intact males, females and geldings racing in Australia. Future research should be conscious of these differences when analysing population data. © 2012 EVJ Ltd.

  9. Effect of different oils administration on oleic and linoleic serum profile in horses during standardised exercise test on treadmill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Battista Liponi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of its energy density, fat is often added to the diet for exercising horses; however, little attention has been given to the effect of dietary fatty acid composition. The aims of this study were to compare the effect of two diets containing different oils on the fatty acids haematic profile during and after an aerobic exercise test on treadmill. Four adult trained gelding Standardbred (mean BW=481±27 kg were used in a two replicated 2x2 Latin Square design. Mixed hay-concentrate diets contained corn oil (CORN or a mix of mono-di and triglycerides of olive oil (MDTO were administrated. The horses received the diets for a period of four weeks. At the end of the adaptation period an aerobic exercise test on treadmill (30-min long was carried on. Blood samples were collected at rest, after 15’ and 30’ of exercise and during recovery period (at 10’, 30’ and 60’. Serum fatty acid concentration was determined. MDTO supplemented horses showed an higher percentage of Oleic acid during and after the exercise test; whereas Linoleic acid showed a significant difference (P<0.05 between groups with the highest value at 10’ and 30’ after exercise in the CORN supplemented group.

  10. Overview of SResearches on Global Warming Potential of Greenhouse Gases%温室气体全球增温潜能的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张若玉; 何金海; 张华

    2011-01-01

    由于人类活动的影响,温室气体的浓度在大气中大量增加,对全球气候造成了不可忽视的影响.目前,主要采用全球增温潜能的评估方法对温室气体的气候效应进行研究.综合评述了温室气体的全球增温潜能及其相关研究,并提出该领域的研究中尚待解决的一些问题,展望了未来研究的方向.%Due to human activities' influence, the concentrations of greenhouse Bases in the air have greatly increased .producing significant effects on the global climate. Presently, an assessment method called global warming potential was used to study the climate effects of greenhouse gases. In this paper, the researches on global wanning potential and relative contents were reviewed. At the same time, some unresolved problems in this Geld were proposed, ant) the further directions of future researches were predicted.

  11. Enhancing Quantum Discord in Cavity QED by Applying Classical Driving Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Yi; XU Jing-Bo

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the quantum discord dynamics in a cavity quantum electrodynamics system, which consists of two noninteracting two-level atoms driven by independent optical Gelds and classical fields, and find that the quantum discord vanishes only asymptotically although entanglement disappears suddenly during the time evolution in the absence of classical fields. It is shown that the amount of quantum discord can be increased by adjusting the classical driving fields because the increasing degree of the amount of quantum mutual information is greater than classical correlation by applying the classical driving fields. Finally, the influence of the classical driving field on the fidelity of the system is also examined.%We investigate the quantum discord dynamics in a cavity quantum electrodynamics system,which consists of two noninteracting two-level atoms driven by independent optical fields and classical fields,and find that the quantum discord vanishes only asymptotically although entanglement disappears suddenly during the time evolution in the absence of classical fields.It is shown that the amount of quantum discord can be increased by adjusting the classical driving fields because the increasing degree of the amount of quantum mutual information is greater than classical correlation by applying the classical driving fields.Finally,the influence of the classical driving field on the fidelity of the system is also examined.

  12. Induration of the cricoid cartilage complicates prosthetic laryngoplasty in a horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarniuk, Dane M; Carmalt, James L; Allen, Andrew L

    2010-01-01

    To report intraoperative complications during needle penetration and suture placement through the cricoid cartilage during a prosthetic laryngoplasty procedure. Case report. An 11-year-old American Paint gelding with grade IV left laryngeal hemiplegia underwent a terminal prosthetic laryngoplasty for teaching purposes. Passage of the needle through the cricoid cartilage was difficult and resulted in needle breakage before eventual success using a new needle. The larynx was examined postmortem. Palpation of the larynx revealed hardening of the cricoid cartilage. Radiographic examination indicated the presence of diffuse radiopaque speckling. Histologic examination did not find accumulations of calcium salts, rather it revealed a loss of proteoglycans within the cricoid cartilage. Laryngeal mineralization occurs in the horse and human with advancing age. The loss of proteoglycan and subsequent stiffening of the cricoid cartilage likely resulted in the intraoperative complications noted in this report. Radiographic examination of the larynx before performing a prosthetic laryngoplasty may reveal the presence of areas of increased radiodensity. The interpretation of this is to be made with caution as it may represent mineralization, or hardening due to the changes in proteoglycan concentration, monomer size or charge.

  13. Equine Multinodular Pulmonary Fibrosis in association with asinine herpesvirus type 5 and equine herpesvirus type 5: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    A standardbred gelding with a history of 10 days pyrexia and lethargy was referred to the Equine Hospital at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences in Uppsala, Sweden. The horse had tachypnea with increased respiratory effort and was in thin body condition. Laboratory findings included leukocytosis, hyperfibrinogenemia and hypoxemia. Thoracic radiographs showed signs of pneumonia with a multifocal nodular pattern, which in combination with lung biopsy findings indicated Equine Multinodular Pulmonary Fibrosis (EMPF). EMPF is a recently described disease in adult horses with clinical signs of fever, weight loss and respiratory problems. The pathological findings include loss of functional pulmonary parenchyma due to extensive nodular interstitial fibrosis which has been related to infection with the equine herpesvirus type 5 (EHV-5). In this case, lung biopsy and tracheal wash samples tested positive for both asinine herpesvirus type 5 (AHV-5) and EHV-5 using PCR assays. The horse failed to respond to treatment and was euthanized for humane reasons. Postmortem examination confirmed the diagnosis of EMPF. This case suggests that not only EHV-5 alone should be considered in association with the development of this disease. PMID:23009194

  14. Transnasal, Endoscopically Guided Skull-Based Surgery by Pharyngotomy for Mass Removal from the Sphenopalatine Sinus in a Horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliffe, Rolfe M; Messiaen, Yasmine; Irby, Nita L; Divers, Thomas J; Dewey, Curtis W; Mitchell, Katharyn J; Schnabel, Lauren V; Bezuidenhout, Abraham J; Scrivani, Peter V; Ducharme, Norm G

    2016-11-01

    To report a transnasal, endoscopically guided ventral surgical approach for accessing the cranial and caudal segments of the sphenopalatine sinus for mass removal in a horse. Case report. Adult horse with acute onset blindness referable to a soft tissue mass within the sphenopalatine sinus. A 7-year-old Warmblood gelding presented with a history of running into a fence and falling. No neurologic signs were identified at initial examination but acute blindness was noted 3 weeks later. On computed tomography (CT) the sphenopalatine sinus was filled with a large homogeneous mass with poor contrast enhancement that extended dorsally with thinning to the dorsal cortex of the sphenoid bone, just rostral to the entrance of the optic canals into the cranial cavity. Surgical access to the sphenopalatine sinus was achieved using a transnasal, endoscopically guided ventral pharyngotomy approach and the mass lesion was removed. A presumptive diagnosis of chondroma was made based on histopathology. The horse recovered well from surgery, and although it has not regained vision as of 6.5 years postoperatively, the disease has not progressed. Transnasal, endoscopically-guided ventral surgical access to the sphenopalatine sinus is possible in horses and may improve access in horses with disease extending caudally beyond the palatine portion of the sinus. Use of smaller diameter or specialized instruments, such as various endoscopic bone cutting instruments, and CT image guidance may improve sinus access by this route. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  15. Kondo Resonance versus Fano Interference in Double Quantum Dots Coupled to a Two-Lead One-Ring System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiong-Wen; SHI Zhen-Gang; CHEN Bao-Ju; SONG Ke-Hui

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the transport properties of a coupled double quantum dot (DQD) device with one of the dots (QD1) coupled to metallic leads and the other (QD2) embedded in an Aharonov-Bhom (A-B) ring by means of the slave-boson mean-Geld theory. It is found that in this system, the Kondo resonance and the Fano interference exist simultaneously, the enhancing Kondo effect and the increasing hopping of the QD2-Ring destroy the localized electron state in the QD2 for the QD1-leads, and accordingly, the Fano interference between the DQD-leads and the QD1-leads are suppressed. Under some conditions, the Fano interference can be quenched fully and the single Kondo resonance of the QD1-leads comes into being. Moreover, when the magnetic flux of the A-B ring is zero, the influence of the parity of the A-B ring on the transport properties is very weak, but this inSuence becomes more obvious with non-zero magnetic flux. Thus this model may be a candidate for future device applications.

  16. Verrucous hemangioma with pseudoepitheliomatous epidermal hyperplasia in an adult horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Écija, A; Estepa, J C; Barranco, I; Rodríguez-Gómez, I M; Mendoza, F J; Gómez-Laguna, J

    2014-09-01

    Verrucous hemangiomas are a rare specific variant of equine skin tumors not well described in the literature. An 8-year-old gelding presented a unilateral lesion on the pastern. Macroscopically, the mass showed a warty and verrucous surface with focal ulcerations. The histology showed a dermal proliferation of endothelial-layered capillaries and venules separated by a delicate stroma of scant fibroblasts and collagen deposition, with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia (exuberant reactive irregular epithelial hyperplasia with tongue-like projections extending into the dermis, mimicking downgrowth of squamous cell carcinoma) and orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis of the overlying epidermis. The immunohistochemical study confirmed the endothelial origin of the tumor, and a final diagnosis of verrucous hemangioma with pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia was confirmed. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first detailed description of this entity in adult horses. Moreover, the clinical progression and epidermal changes have not been previously reported, emphasizing the importance of a pathological study of any epithelial preneoplastic lesion to rule out an underlying dermal neoplasia. © The Author(s) 2013.

  17. Die Kunst des klugen Handelns 52 Irrwege, die Sie besser anderen überlassen

    CERN Document Server

    Dobelli, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Unzählige Leser begeistern sich für Rolf Dobellis gescheite Texte über unsere häufigsten Denkfehler. Doch wer Dobellis Ratschläge zum klaren Denken beherzigt, ist noch lange nicht aus dem Schneider, denn auf dem Weg vom Denken zum Handeln lauern weitere Fallstricke. Glücklicherweise kann man die umgehen - wenn man weiß, wie. Genau das verrät "Die Kunst des klugen Handelns": In 52 Kapiteln zeigt Dobelli, warum es sich lohnt, Türen zu schließen und auf Optionen zu verzichten, warum Informationsüberfluss zu unklugem Handeln anstiftet, warum Geld stets in emotionale Kleider gehüllt ist und wir es darum oft unbedacht ausgeben. Rolf Dobelli gibt Ihnen das nötige Rüstzeug: Schlagen Sie nicht jeden Irrweg ein, nur weil andere ihn gehen. Lernen Sie aus den Fehlern, die andere freundlicherweise für Sie machen. Denken Sie klar und handeln Sie klug!

  18. Ultrastructural mitochondrial alterations in equine myopathies of unknown origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Driessche, K; Ducatelle, R; Chiers, K; Van Coster, R; van der Kolk, J H; van der Kolk, H

    2015-03-01

    Very few mitochondrial myopathies have been described in horses. To examine the ultrastructure of muscle mitochondria in equine cases of myopathy of unknown origin. Biopsies of vastus lateralis of the Musculus quadriceps femoris were taken predominantly immediately post mortem and processed for transmission electron microscopy. As a result, electron micrographs of 90 horses in total were available for analysis comprising 4 control horses, 16 horses suffering from myopathy and 70 otherwise diseased horses. Following a thorough clinical and laboratory work-up, four out of five patients that did not fit into the usual algorithm to detect known causes of myopathy showed ultrastructural mitochondrial alterations. Small mitochondria with zones with complete disruption of cristae associated with lactic acidemia were detected in a 17-year-old pony mare, extremely long and slender mitochondria with longitudinal cristae in a 5-year-old Quarter horse stallion, a mixture of irregular extremely large mitochondria (measuring 2500 by 800 nm) next to smaller ones in an 8-year-old Hanoverian mare and round mitochondria with only few cristae in a 11-year-old pony gelding. It remains uncertain whether the subsarcolemmal mitochondrial accumulations observed in the fifth patient have any pathological significance. Ultrastructural alterations in mitochondria were detected in at least four horses. To conclude that these are due to mitochondrial dysfuntions, biochemical tests should be performed. The possibility of a mitochondrial myopathy should be included in the differential diagnosis of muscle weakness.

  19. Occurrence of primary lymphocytic hypophysitis in two horses and presence of scattered T-lymphocytes in the normal equine pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau-Roma, Llorenç; Peckham, Robert; Paton, Jacqui; Stahel, Anina; de Brot, Simone

    2017-01-01

    The postmortem examination of a 14-y-old Appaloosa gelding with clinically diagnosed pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction showed a unique finding of moderate multifocal lymphocytic hypophysitis (LH). The pituitary glands of 24 horses submitted for postmortem examination were examined grossly and examined histologically for the presence of lymphocytes. Of these 23 horses, 1 additional case suffered from moderate LH. The 2 cases with LH tested negative for Equid herpesvirus 1 and 4 by polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry (IHC), and no viral particles were observed by electron microscopy in 1 case examined. The cause of LH remains unknown, but based on the T-lymphocytic nature of the inflammation and the human literature, an immune-mediated origin is hypothesized. In addition, the review of 24 cases revealed that 10 horses had few and small multifocal lymphocytic infiltrates within the pituitary gland; the remaining 12 horses showed no evident lymphocytes when examined by hematoxylin and eosin. IHC for CD3 showed the presence of a small number of individual T-lymphocytes scattered through the gland in all examined horses, which appears therefore to be a normal feature of the pituitary gland in horses.

  20. Ocular manifestations of a metastatic adenocarcinoma in a horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheis, Franziska L; Birkmann, Katharina; Ruetten, Maja; Pot, Simon A; Spiess, Bernhard M

    2013-05-01

    A 10-year-old German Warmblood gelding was referred to the Equine Department of the Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Switzerland, for an iris mass OD, lethargy, intermittent fever, and coughing. Ophthalmic examination revealed a 7 × 9 mm raised, fleshy, whitish to pinkish, vascularized iris mass at the 2 o`clock position OD. Fundic examination showed multifocal round, brown to black, slightly raised lesions with indistinct margins and a surrounding hyperreflective zone OU. Physical examination revealed a temperature of 39.2 °C, sinus tachycardia, preputial and ventral edema, and an enlarged right mandibular lymph node. Results of a complete blood count and plasma biochemical profile showed mild anemia, leukocytosis, and thrombocytopenia. Severe splenopathy, moderate splenomegaly, and severe pulmonary pathology with nodules and large areas of consolidated lung parenchyma were observed on abdominal ultrasound and thoracic radiographs, respectively. Fine needle aspirates of the enlarged mandibular lymph node showed malignant epithelial neoplastic cells. The horse was euthanized because of the poor prognosis and subsequently underwent postmortem examination. Macroscopic necropsy and histopathology revealed an adenocarcinoma of suspected pulmonary origin with involvement of eyes, heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, diaphragm, skeletal muscles, mandibular, pulmonary, and internal iliac lymph nodes. Metastatic adenocarcinoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in horses with iris masses, multifocal chorioretinal infiltrates, and clinical signs that conform to a paraneoplastic syndrome. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  1. Guideline for making multi-annual maintenance of municipal real estate sustainable; Leidraad verduurzamen meerjaren onderhoud van gemeentelijk vastgoed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    The title guideline is developed for municipalities on the basis of experiences in pilots and with input from more than ten municipalities in the Netherlands. The guideline includes a roadmap for changing a MOP (Multi-year Maintenance Plan) into a DMOP (Sustainable Multi-annual Maintenance Plan). The DMOP also provides advice on outsourcing management and organizing support and communication within the municipality. With structural sustainability of its properties, a municipality can save lot of energy and money and reduce CO2 emission [Dutch] De titel leidraad is ontwikkeld voor gemeenten op basis van ervaringen in pilots en met input van ruim tien gemeenten in Nederland. De leidraad omvat een stappenplan voor het verduurzamen van een MOP (Meerjaren Onderhoudsplan) tot een DMOP (Duurzaam Meerjaren Onderhoudsplan), en geeft daarnaast adviezen voor het uitbesteden van beheer en het organiseren van draagvlak en communicatie binnen de gemeente. Met het structureel verduurzamen van het eigen vastgoed kan een gemeente veel energie en geld besparen en de uitstoot van CO2 beperken.

  2. Equine Multinodular Pulmonary Fibrosis in association with asinine herpesvirus type 5 and equine herpesvirus type 5: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Back Helena

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A standardbred gelding with a history of 10 days pyrexia and lethargy was referred to the Equine Hospital at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences in Uppsala, Sweden. The horse had tachypnea with increased respiratory effort and was in thin body condition. Laboratory findings included leukocytosis, hyperfibrinogenemia and hypoxemia. Thoracic radiographs showed signs of pneumonia with a multifocal nodular pattern, which in combination with lung biopsy findings indicated Equine Multinodular Pulmonary Fibrosis (EMPF. EMPF is a recently described disease in adult horses with clinical signs of fever, weight loss and respiratory problems. The pathological findings include loss of functional pulmonary parenchyma due to extensive nodular interstitial fibrosis which has been related to infection with the equine herpesvirus type 5 (EHV-5. In this case, lung biopsy and tracheal wash samples tested positive for both asinine herpesvirus type 5 (AHV-5 and EHV-5 using PCR assays. The horse failed to respond to treatment and was euthanized for humane reasons. Postmortem examination confirmed the diagnosis of EMPF. This case suggests that not only EHV-5 alone should be considered in association with the development of this disease.

  3. Physical and chemical data for ground water in the Michigan basin, 1986-89

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannemiller, G.T.; Baltusis, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Ground-water samples were collected from 459 wells located in the Michigan basin as part of a Regional Aquifer-System Analysis. Data on the physical and chemical characteristics of 476 ground-water samples from these wells represent ground-water characteristics in the Berea Sandstone, Coldwater Shale, Marshall Sandstone, Michigan Formation, Bayport Limestone, Saginaw Formation, Grand River Formation, and glacial deposits. Ground-water samples were measured in the Geld for specific conductance, temperature, and alkalinity. Analyses of ground water for concentrations of dissolved oxygen, ferrous iron, total iron, and sulfide were also done in the field. Additional laboratory analysis provided data on eight major and 18 minor inorganic constituents. Twenty-one samples were analyzed for tritium, 140 samples were analyzed for carbon-13, and 19 samples were analyzed for carbon-14. The stable-isotope ratio of deuterium to hydrogen was determined for 408 samples; the ratio of oxygen-18 to oxygen-16 was determined for 433 samples; and the ratio of sulfur-34 to sulfur-32 was determined for 20 samples. Sixteen samples were analyzed for the unstable isotopes of uranium; 13 samples were analyzed for radium-226; and the ratio of radium-228 to radium-226 was determined for 13 samples.

  4. Artificial cloning of domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Carol L

    2015-07-21

    Domestic animals can be cloned using techniques such as embryo splitting and nuclear transfer to produce genetically identical individuals. Although embryo splitting is limited to the production of only a few identical individuals, nuclear transfer of donor nuclei into recipient oocytes, whose own nuclear DNA has been removed, can result in large numbers of identical individuals. Moreover, clones can be produced using donor cells from sterile animals, such as steers and geldings, and, unlike their genetic source, these clones are fertile. In reality, due to low efficiencies and the high costs of cloning domestic species, only a limited number of identical individuals are generally produced, and these clones are primarily used as breed stock. In addition to providing a means of rescuing and propagating valuable genetics, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) research has contributed knowledge that has led to the direct reprogramming of cells (e.g., to induce pluripotent stem cells) and a better understanding of epigenetic regulation during embryonic development. In this review, I provide a broad overview of the historical development of cloning in domestic animals, of its application to the propagation of livestock and transgenic animal production, and of its scientific promise for advancing basic research.

  5. Going for increased recycling. A social cost-benefit analysis; Inzetten op meer recycling. Een maatschappelijke kosten-batenanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warringa, G.E.A.; De Bruyn, M.; Bijleveld, M.M.

    2013-05-15

    reduced resource dependency. In the SCBA the latter benefits were not expressed in monetary terms, however. On balance, the monetary impact is positive: the social benefits of increased recycling are greater than the social costs. A sensitivity analysis shows this to be a robust result [Dutch] De milieuvoordelen van een scenario gericht op meer recycling zijn in eerdere studies overtuigend aangetoond. De vraag dient zich echter aan of een scenario gericht op meer recycling ook economische voordelen biedt. In deze studie zijn daarom de voornaamste economische effecten in kaart gebracht van een toename van recycling in Nederland. De resultaten van de studie kunnen worden gebruikt om de beleidsvorming rondom het dossier recycling verder te helpen. Om de centrale vraag te beantwoorden, hebben we een maatschappelijke kosten-batenanalyse (MKBA) op hoofdlijnen uitgevoerd. Een MKBA is een op de welvaartstheorie gebaseerde afwegingsmethode die alle economische effecten (ook wel welvaartseffecten genoemd) van een project of beleidsingreep in kaart brengt. Welvaart wordt daarbij breed gedefinieerd: het gaat niet alleen om financieel-economische consequenties, maar ook om de gevolgen voor milieu, werkgelegenheid, etc. Alle geinventariseerde milieu-ingrepen, zoals energieverbruik, transport en emissies bij recycleprocessen, zijn per materiaalstroom in SimaPro beoordeeld. De effecten worden binnen een MKBA zoveel mogelijk in geld uitgedrukt zodat deze onderling vergelijkbaar zijn. De belangrijkste maatschappelijke kosten van meer recycling zijn hogere kosten voor gemeenten om het afval gescheiden in te zamelen. Ook zijn er lagere opbrengsten voor AVI's, omdat meer afval uit het buitenland moet worden geimporteerd. Ten slotte zijn er beleidskosten om meer recycling te stimuleren en extra inspanningen voor de burger om afval te scheiden. Deze kosten zijn niet gekwantificeerd. Hier staan positieve welvaartseffecten tegenover. De grootste batenpost is milieuwinst, die in deze studie

  6. The use of the standard exercise test to establish the clinical significance of mild echocardiographic changes in a Thoroughbred poor performer : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Meyer

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A 4-year-old Thoroughbred gelding racehorse was referred to the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital (OVAH with a history of post-race distress and collapse. In the absence of any obvious abnormalities in the preceding diagnostic work-up, a standard exercise test was performed to determine an underlying cause for the post-race distress reported. In this particular case oxygen desaturation became evident at speeds as slow as 6 m/s, where PO2 was measured at 82.3 mm Hg. Similarly at a blood pH of 7.28, PCO2 had dropped to 30.0mm Hg indicating a combined metabolic acidosis and respiratory alkalosis. The cause of the distress was attributed to a severe hypoxia, with an associated hypocapnoea, confirmed on blood gas analyses, where PO2 levels obtained were as low as 56.6 mm Hg with a mean PCO2 level of 25.4 mm Hg during strenuous exercise. Arterial oxygenation returned to normal immediately after cessation of exercise to 106.44 mm Hg, while the hypocapnoeic alkalosis, PCO2 25.67 mm Hg, persisted until the animal's breathing normalized. The results obtained were indicative of a dynamic cardiac insufficiency present during exercise. The combination of an aortic stenosis and a mitral valve insufficiency may have resulted in a condition similar to that described as high-altitude pulmonary oedema, with respiratory changes and compensation as for acute altitude disease. The results obtained were indicative of a dynamic cardiac insufficiency present during exercise and substantiate the fact that an extensive diagnostic regime may be required to establish a cause for poor performance and that the standard exercise test remains an integral part of this work-up.

  7. Evaluation of gastric pressures as an indirect method for measurement of intraabdominal pressures in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsterman, Amelia S; Hanson, Russell Reid

    2011-02-01

    To develop an indirect method for measurement of intraabdominal pressures in the standing horse using measurement of gastric pressures as a less invasive technique, and to compare this method with direct intraabdominal pressures obtained from the peritoneal cavity. Prospective, experimental study. University-based equine research facility. Ten healthy adult horses, 7 geldings and 3 mares. Gastric pressures were measured using a nasogastric tube with a U-tube manometry technique, while intraperitoneal pressures were measured with a peritoneal cannula. Measurements of intraabdominal pressure were obtained by both methods, simultaneously, and were evaluated using 5 increasing volumes of fluid infused into the stomach (0, 400, 1,000, 2,000, and 3,000 mL). Bias and agreement between the 2 methods were determined using Bland-Altman analysis and Lin's concordance correlation coefficients. Mean gastric pressure was 14.44 ± 4.69 cm H(2)O and ranged from 0 to 25.8 cm H(2)O. Intraperitoneal pressure measurements were generally subatmospheric, and ranged from -6.6 to 3.1 cm H(2) O (mean ± SD, -1.59 ± 2.09 cm H(2)O). Measurements of intraperitoneal pressures were repeatable; however, intra- and interindividual variance was significantly larger for measurements of gastric pressures. The mean and relative bias for comparison between the 2 techniques was 15.9 ± 5.3 cm H(2)O and 244.3 ± 199.2%, respectively. The Lin's concordance correlation coefficient between gastric and intraperitoneal pressures was -0.003 but this was not statistically significant (P=0.75). There was no statistical concordance between measurements of intraabdominal pressure using gastric and intraperitoneal pressure measurement, indicating that gastric pressures cannot be substituted for intraperitoneal pressure measurement. Direct measurement of intraperitoneal pressures may be a more consistent method for comparison of intraabdominal pressures between horses, due to less variability within and between

  8. Long term intensive exercise training leads to a higher plasma malate/lactate dehydrogenase (M/L) ratio and increased level of lipid mobilization in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gebin; Lee, Peter; Mori, Nobuko; Yamamoto, Ichiro; Arai, Toshiro

    2012-06-01

    Continuous high intensity training may induce alterations to enzyme activities related to glucose and lipid metabolism in horses. In our study, five Thoroughbred race horses (3 male and 2 female, avg age=5 yrs old) were compared against five riding horses (1 male, 1 female, 3 gelding, avg age=13 yrs old) in terms of energy metabolism, by examining plasma malate (MDH) and lactate (LDH) dehydrogenase activities and M/L ratio. MDH is involved in NADH and ATP generation, whereas LDH can convert NADH back into NAD(+) for ATP generation. An increase in plasma M/L ratio can reflect heightened energy metabolism in the liver and skeletal muscle of horses adapted to continuous intensive exercise. Moreover, plasma lipid metabolism analytes (adiponectin, NEFA, total cholesterol (T-Cho), and triglycerides (TG)) can reflect changes to lipolysis rate, which can also indicate a change in energy metabolism. Overall, race horses demonstrated increased MDH and LDH activity in plasma (4x and 2x greater, respectively), in addition to a plasma M/L ratio twice as high as that of riding horses (2.0 vs 1.0). In addition, race horses also demonstrated significantly higher levels of plasma NEFA (50% greater), TG (2x greater), and T-Cho (20% greater) as compared to riding horses. Therefore, race horse muscles may have adapted to prolonged high intensity endurance exercise by gaining a higher oxidative capacity and an increased capacity for fat utilization as an energy source, resulting in heightened energy metabolism and increased rate of lipid mobilization.

  9. Does work affect personality? A study in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausberger, Martine; Muller, Christine; Lunel, Christophe

    2011-02-09

    It has been repeatedly hypothesized that job characteristics are related to changes in personality in humans, but often personality models still omit effects of life experience. Demonstrating reciprocal relationships between personality and work remains a challenge though, as in humans, many other influential factors may interfere. This study investigates this relationship by comparing the emotional reactivity of horses that differed only by their type of work. Horses are remarkable animal models to investigate this question as they share with humans working activities and their potential difficulties, such as "interpersonal" conflicts or "suppressed emotions". An earlier study showed that different types of work could be associated with different chronic behavioural disorders. Here, we hypothesised that type of work would affect horses' personality. Therefore over one hundred adult horses, differing only by their work characteristics were presented standardised behavioural tests. Subjects lived under the same conditions (same housing, same food), were of the same sex (geldings), and mostly one of two breeds, and had not been genetically selected for their current type of work. This is to our knowledge the first time that a direct relationship between type of work and personality traits has been investigated. Our results show that horses from different types of work differ not as much in their overall emotional levels as in the ways they express emotions (i.e. behavioural profile). Extremes were dressage horses, which presented the highest excitation components, and voltige horses, which were the quietest. The horses' type of work was decided by the stall managers, mostly on their jumping abilities, but unconscious choice based on individual behavioural characteristics cannot be totally excluded. Further research would require manipulating type of work. Our results nevertheless agree with reports on humans and suggest that more attention should be given to work

  10. Dietary selenium and prolonged exercise alter gene expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes in equine skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S H; Johnson, S E; Bobel, J M; Warren, L K

    2016-07-01

    Untrained Thoroughbred horses (6 mares and 6 geldings; 11 yr [SE 1] and 565 kg [SE 11]) were used to evaluate antioxidant gene expression and enzyme activity in blood and skeletal muscle in response to prolonged exercise after receiving 2 levels of dietary selenium for 36 d: 0.1 (CON; = 6) or 0.3 mg/kg DM (SEL; = 6). Horses were individually fed 1.6% BW coastal bermudagrass hay, 0.4% BW whole oats, and a mineral/vitamin premix containing no Se. Sodium selenite was added to achieve either 0.1 or 0.3 mg Se/kg DM in the total diet. On d 35, horses underwent 2 h of submaximal exercise in a free-stall exerciser. Blood samples were obtained before (d 0) and after 34 d of Se supplementation and on d 35 to 36 immediately after exercise and at 6 and 24 h after exercise. Biopsies of the middle gluteal muscle were obtained on d 0, before exercise on d 34, and at 6 and 24 h after exercise. Supplementation with Se above the NRC requirement (SEL) increased serum Se ( = 0.011) and muscle thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) activity ( = 0.051) but had no effect on glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in plasma, red blood cell (RBC) lysate, or muscle in horses at rest. Serum creatine kinase activity increased ( Level of dietary Se had no overall effect on expression of , , , , , , or in muscle following exercise. The impact of prolonged exercise on the activities of antioxidant enzymes varied. Furthermore, changes in enzyme activity did not necessarily align with enzyme gene expression following exercise. A higher level of Se intake elevated Se status of untrained horses, increased GPx activity, and lessened lipid peroxidation following exercise, suggesting that Se may be beneficial for mitigating oxidative muscle damage and aiding in postexercise recovery.

  11. Auscultatory and electrocardiographic characteristics of Crioulo horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Schade

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine auscultatory and electrocardiographic characteristics of Crioulo horses, one hundred animals ranging between one and twenty-six years of age (21 stallions, nine geldings, 27 pregnant mares e 43 not pregnant mares were evaluated. The cardiac auscultation was performed during the clinical examination of the cardiovascular system, evaluating frequency, rate, normal and abnormal heart sounds (heart murmurs. The electrocardiographic examination followed the bipolar base-apex derivative system with animals at rest, by using an ECG-PC TEB equipment. The cardiac frequency, heart rate, morphology, duration, wave and complex amplitudes and interval durations were determined. The results were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey tests with an error probability of 5%. The cardiac auscultation revealed presence of functional systolic and diastolic murmur (10.00% and systolic murmur compatible with tricuspid regurgitation besides normal heart sounds S1 (100.0%, S2 (100.0%, S3 (19.0% and S4 (34.0%. The cardiac frequency obtained the average of 43.64 bpm, observing significative differences in relation to sexual and age factors and training level. The sinus rhythm was the most frequent (57.00%, followed by sinus tachycardia (38.00% and sinus arrhythmia (5.00%, being observed rhythm disturbances in 16% of tracings. The P and T waves were observed more frequently in their forms P bifida positive (95.00% and biphasic T (91.00%, being variable at tracing. There were also observed Q waves in 12.00% of the tracings. Thus, it was concluded that the auscultatory characteristics of Crioulo horses are according to the described in the literature for the species and the sexual factor, category, age factor and training level can influence some electrocardiographic parameters.

  12. Halicephalobus gingivalis (H.deletrix in the brain of a horse Halicephalobus gingivalis (H.deletrix no cérebro de um eqüino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeri de Oliveira Vasconcelos

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old Mangalarga gelding with rhabditiform nematode infection in the brain is described. Clinical signs were limited to circling and right side paralysis. Histological examination of the brain revealed marked gliosis and discreet edema. The perivascular mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate was composed of few layers of lymphocytes, plasmocytes and macrophages and rare eosinophils. The presence of rhabditiform nematodes was associated with the infiltrate. Areas of malacia associated with the parasites and parasite tracks with axonal spheroids were also seen close to the vessels and to the etiological agent and were more evident in the white matter. In the meninges there was moderate inflammatory infiltrate associated with perivascular parasites. The identification of the nematode was based on the histological examination of the cerebral fragments.Um eqüino macho, com 10 anos, Mangalarga, apresentou uma infecção por um nematódeo rabditiforme no cérebro. Os sinais clínicos limitaram-se ao fato de o animal andar em círculos e apresentar paralisia do lado direito. O exame histológico do cérebro revelou acentuada gliose e discreto edema intersticial. O infiltrado inflamatório mononuclear perivascular era composto por poucas camadas de linfócitos, plasmócitos, macrófagos e raros eosinófilos, associados aos nematódeos rabditiformes. Áreas de malácia e trajetos com esferóides axonais são vistos ao redor de vasos e do agente etiológico, sendo mais evidentes na substância branca. Nas meninges, o infiltrado inflamatório foi moderado e associado a parasitas perivasculares. A identificação do nematódeo foi baseada no exame histológico do cérebro do cavalo.

  13. The Electronic Structure of Coupled Semiconductor Quantum Dots Arranged as a Graphene Hexagonal Lattice under a Magnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Juan; LI Shu-Shen

    2012-01-01

    We study the electronic spectrum of coupled quantum dots (QDs) arranged as a graphene hexagonal lattice in the presence of an external perpendicular magnetic Geld. In our tight-binding model, the effect of the magnetic field is included in both the Peierls phase of the Hamiltonian and the tight-binding basis Wannier function. The energy of the system is analyzed when the magnetic flux through the lattice unit cell is a rational fraction of the quantum flux. The calculated spectrum has recursive properties, similar to those of the classical Hofstadter butterfly. However, unlike the ideal Hofstadter butterfly structure, our result is asymmetric since the impacts of the specific material and the magnetic field on the wavefunctions are included, making the results more realistic.%We study the electronic spectrum of coupled quantum dots (QDs) arranged as a graphene hexagonal lattice in the presence of an external perpendicular magnetic field.In our tight-binding model,the effect of the magnetic field is included in both the Peierls phase of the Hamiltonian and the tight-binding basis Wannier function.The energy of the system is analyzed when the magnetic flux through the lattice unit cell is a rational fraction of the quantum flux.The calculated spectrum has recursive properties,similar to those of the classical Hofstadter butterfly.However,unlike the ideal Hofstadter butterfly structure,our result is asymmetric since the impacts of the specific material and the magnetic field on the wavefunctions are included,making the results more realistic.

  14. [Utilization of feed energy by growing pigs. 3. Energy requirement for the growth and fattening of pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, L; Schiemann, R; Jentsch, W

    1979-02-01

    The test series for the investigation of the energy consumption of growing pigs of the breeds large white and improved land race pig as well as cross breeds of the two breeds in a total of 369 metabolism periods (as described in the first two pieces of information of this publication series -- Hoffmann and others, 1977 and Jentsch and Hoffmann, 1977) were statistically analysed for the purpose of the derivation of the energy requirement for maintenance and the partial energy requirement for growth in order to test the possibilities of the factorial analysis for the derivation of energy requirement values of growing pigs. The dependence of the maintenance requirement of growing pigs (investigations in the live weight range of 10 to 40 kg -- see 1st information--were made with boars those in the live weight range of 30 to 120 kg were made with gelded boars, 2nd information) on the live weight can best be characterised by applying a power exponent of 0,61 or 0,62 for the live weight. A definition is offered to be discussed for the energetic maintenance requirement of productive live stock and laboratory animals as a conventional value. The energy requirement values derived from the doubly-factorial statistical analysis show a satisfactory adaptation to the measured values as such concerning energy intake and observed growth performance of the test animals. The conclusion is drawn that the factorial analysis of the energy requirement (maintenance plus partial performances) results in a better estimate of the requirement of growing animals than the assessment according only to live weight and live weight increase without characterising the energy requirement for partial performances. This is important for the further working on and more exact definition of requirement norms.

  15. Effects of deoxynivalenol in naturally contaminated wheat on feed intake and health status of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Anna-Katharina; Kersten, Susanne; Dänicke, Sven; Coenen, Manfred; Vervuert, Ingrid

    2015-11-01

    The present study examined the short-term effects of deoxynivalenol (DON), administered at two different concentrations via a feed preparation using naturally contaminated wheat, on feed intake, liver and kidney metabolism and immunomodulatory properties in horses. Twelve geldings were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments for 21 days. DON was provided via naturally contaminated wheat (14.6 ± 6.5 mg DON/kg dry matter). The daily feed intake was adjusted to 4 kg of wheat and 1.7 kg of silage per 100 kg of body weight (BW). Horses were fed one of the following diets: control wheat with 0% contaminated wheat (CON), wheat mixture containing 53 ± 2% of DON-contaminated wheat [low DON intake (LDI)] or wheat mixture containing 78 ± 4% of DON-contaminated wheat [high DON intake (HDI)]. CON, LDI and HDI corresponded to a targeted daily DON intake via the complete ration of horses demonstrated any clinical signs commonly associated with the intake of DON such as colic or depression. HDI was associated with lower daily wheat intake on day 21. Serum DON concentrations increased with higher DON intake. The non-toxic DON metabolite, deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) was only detected on day 21 of the DON feeding period. No changes in haematological and serum parameters or serum globulins or in the ex vivo proliferation response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were observed. These results suggest that horses are less sensitive to DON exposure than other domestic species, for example, swine. Therefore, the European Commission guidance value for critical DON concentrations in swine feed (complete diet) of 0.9 mg/kg could be safely applied for rations intended for feeding adult horses as well.

  16. Does work affect personality? A study in horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Hausberger

    Full Text Available It has been repeatedly hypothesized that job characteristics are related to changes in personality in humans, but often personality models still omit effects of life experience. Demonstrating reciprocal relationships between personality and work remains a challenge though, as in humans, many other influential factors may interfere. This study investigates this relationship by comparing the emotional reactivity of horses that differed only by their type of work. Horses are remarkable animal models to investigate this question as they share with humans working activities and their potential difficulties, such as "interpersonal" conflicts or "suppressed emotions". An earlier study showed that different types of work could be associated with different chronic behavioural disorders. Here, we hypothesised that type of work would affect horses' personality. Therefore over one hundred adult horses, differing only by their work characteristics were presented standardised behavioural tests. Subjects lived under the same conditions (same housing, same food, were of the same sex (geldings, and mostly one of two breeds, and had not been genetically selected for their current type of work. This is to our knowledge the first time that a direct relationship between type of work and personality traits has been investigated. Our results show that horses from different types of work differ not as much in their overall emotional levels as in the ways they express emotions (i.e. behavioural profile. Extremes were dressage horses, which presented the highest excitation components, and voltige horses, which were the quietest. The horses' type of work was decided by the stall managers, mostly on their jumping abilities, but unconscious choice based on individual behavioural characteristics cannot be totally excluded. Further research would require manipulating type of work. Our results nevertheless agree with reports on humans and suggest that more attention should be

  17. Wafer-Scale Gigahertz Graphene Field Effect Transistors on SiC Substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘洪亮; 金智; 麻芃; 郭建楠; 刘新宇; 叶甜春; 李佳; 敦少博; 冯志红

    2011-01-01

    Wafer-scale graphene field-effect transistors are fabricated using benzocyclobutene and atomic layer deposition Al2O3 as the top-gate dielectric.The epitaxial-graphene layer is formed by graphitization of a 2-inch-diameter Si-face semi-insulating 6H-SiC substrate.The graphene on the silicon carbide substrate is heavily n-doped and current saturation is not found.For the intrinsic characteristic of this particular channel material,the devices cannot be switched off.The cut-off frequencies of these graphene field-effect transistors,which have a gate length of l μm,are larger than 800 MHz.The largest one can reach 1.24 GHz.There are greater than 95% active devices that can be successfully applied.We thus succeed in fabricating wafer-scale gigahertz graphene field-effect transistors,which paves the way for high-performance graphene devices and circuits.%Wafer-scale graphene Beld-effect transistors are fabricated using benzocyclobutene and atomic layer deposition AI2O3 as the top-gate dielectric. The epitaxial-graphene layer is formed by graphitization of a 2-inch-diameter Si-face semi-insulating 6H-SiC substrate. The graphene on the silicon carbide substrate is heavily n-doped and current saturation is not found. For the intrinsic characteristic of this particular channel material, the devices cannot be switched off. The cut-off frequencies of these graphene field-effect transistors, which have a gate length of l μm, are larger than 800MHz. The largest one can reach 1.24 GHz. There are greater than 95% active devices that can be successfully applied. We thus succeed in fabricating wafer-scale gigahertz graphene Geld-effect transistors, which paves the way for high-performance graphene devices and circuits.

  18. Effects of syringe type and storage temperature on results of blood gas analysis in arterial blood of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picandet, Valerie; Jeanneret, Stephanie; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Results of arterial blood gas analysis can be biased by pre-analytical factors, such as time to analysis, syringe type, and temperature during storage. However, the acceptable delay between time of collection and analysis for equine arterial blood gas remains unknown. Dedicated plastic syringes provide better stability of arterial blood gases than multipurpose plastic syringes. Eight mares, 1 stallion, and 1 gelding, ages 3 to 10 years old. Arterial blood samples were collected in a glass syringe, a plastic syringe designated for blood gas collection, and a multipurpose tuberculin plastic syringe. Blood samples were stored at ambient temperature or in iced water. For each sample, partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2), partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (PaCO2), and pH were measured within a few minutes of collection and at 5, 20, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after collection. Collection into glass syringes stored in iced water provided adequate PaO2 results for up to 117 +/- 35 minutes, whereas blood collected in either of the plastic syringes resulted in a variation >10 mm Hg after 10 +/- 3 to 17 +/- 2 minutes, depending on the storage conditions. Plastic syringes kept at ambient temperature offered more stability for PaCO2 analysis because they could be stored up to 83 +/- 16 minutes without significant variations. Values of pH did not show variations more than 0.02 for the first hour, irrespectively of storage condition. Glass syringes placed on ice are preferable for analysis of PaO2. Blood collected in plastic syringes should be analyzed within 10 minutes, irrespective of the storage temperature, to ensure the accuracy of PaO2 values.

  19. Structural, Electronic and Optical Properties of KTa0.5Nb0.5O3 Surface: A First-Principles Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hong-Guo; ZHOU Zhong-Xiang; YUAN Cheng-Xun; YANG Wen-Long; WANG He

    2012-01-01

    The crystal surface properties of potassium tantalite niobate,KTa0.5Nb0.5O3 (KTN),are studied with firstprinciples calculation based on the density functional theory (DFT).Generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functional analysis is also employed by using CASTEP software.The explanations for the differences of the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties between the bulk and surface of the material are provided.The DFT with GGA is used to determine the structure and to calculate the electronic and optical properties of the chemically ordered KTa0.5Nb0.5O3 crystal (100),(110) and (111) surfaces.The results show that the surface properties are different from the bulk properties.The data obtained agree with the expected values and can serve as guidance for future experimental studies in the fields of photorefraction and nonlinear optics.%The crystal surface properties of potassium tantalite niobate, Ktao.5Nbo.5O3 (KTN), are studied with first-principles calculation based on the density functional theory (DFT). Generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functional analysis is also employed by using CASTEP software. The explanations for the differences of the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties between the bulk and surface of the material are provided. The DFT with GGA is used to determine the structure and to calculate the electronic and optical properties of the chemically ordered Ktao.sNbo.5O3 crystal (100), (110) and (111) surfaces. The results show that the surface properties are different from the bulk properties. The data obtained agree with the expected values and can serve as guidance for future experimental studies in the Gelds of photorefraction and nonlinear optics.

  20. Characterization of viral loads, strain and state of equine herpesvirus-1 using real-time PCR in horses following natural exposure at a racetrack in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusterla, Nicola; Wilson, W David; Mapes, Samantha; Finno, Carrie; Isbell, Diane; Arthur, Rick M; Ferraro, Gregory L

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine viral loads, strain (neuropathogenic versus non-neuropathogenic) and state (lytic, non-replicating, latent) of equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the blood and nasopharyngeal secretions of adult horses following natural exposure. The index case, a 4-year-old Thoroughbred gelding with confirmed EHV-1 myeloencephalopathy, as well as potentially exposed horses, were sampled over a period of 3 weeks. The study population comprised of 39 adult Thoroughbred horses and 35 adult "pony" and outrider horses of various breeds housed at a racetrack in Northern California. Blood samples and nasopharyngeal secretions (NPS) from all horses were tested on several occasions for EHV-1 DNA viral loads, targeting the glycoprotein B (gB) gene, viral strain, targeting the ORF 30 gene, and transcriptional activity of EHV-1, targeting the gB gene and latency-associated transcripts (LATs). Viral loads and transcriptional activity of the gB gene declined rapidly in the index case following antiviral treatment. The prevalence of EHV-1 infection in NPS determined by PCR slowly decreased over the 22 day study period from 25% to 14%. The initial surveillance showed multiple clusters of exposure, one associated with the index case and two related to horses that had recently returned from a different racetrack. Viral strain differentiation showed that only two horses (the index case and a neighboring horse) were infected with only a neuropathogenic strain, while all other horses were infected with either a non-neuropathogenic strain or were dually infected with both neuropathogenic and non-neuropathogenic strains. In most cases, the virus was present in either a lytic or a non-replicating form, while latent virus was found in blood and NPS much less frequently. The molecular approach used in this study showed promise for assessing the risk of exposing other horses to EHV-1 and for studying viral kinetics in

  1. Demographics of Australian horses: results from an internet-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, G B; Dagley, K

    2016-03-01

    To obtain information on the types of Australian horses, how they are kept and their activities. An invitation to participate in an opt-in, internet-based survey was sent to 7000 people who had registered an email address to receive information from the Australian Horse Industry Council Inc. There were 3377 (48%) useable responses from owners of 26,548 horses. Most horses were kept on small properties (usually 2-8 ha) in paddocks in rural areas of Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria. Most horses were female or geldings and the most common of 54 different activities was breeding. Owners reported 19,291 horses were used in different activities and 6037 (23%) horses were not kept for any stated purpose or activity. Owners used an average of 1.95 horses in 2.9 different types of activities. The most common of the 43 breeds were Thoroughbred, Australian Stock Horse and Australian Quarter Horse. Only 1% of the total numbers of Thoroughbreds and Standardbreds in this survey were used in horse racing, indicating there is a demand for these breeds in non-racing activities. Microchip was the most favoured method of horse identification and 36% favoured compulsory registration of horses. Most respondents reported owning some other animal species. There is a wide variation in horse breeds used in different activities by Australian horse owners. There are regional differences in various management systems. There needs to be considerable improvement in the collection and recording of information to improve the validity and reliability of horse industry data. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  2. Risk factors associated with fatal injuries in Thoroughbred racehorses competing in flat racing in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, Stamatis P; Parkin, Tim D H

    2016-10-15

    OBJECTIVE To identify risk factors associated with fatal injuries in Thoroughbred racehorses in the United States and Canada. DESIGN Retrospective study. ANIMALS 1,891,483 race starts by 154,527 Thoroughbred racehorses at 89 racetracks in the United States and Canada from 2009 to 2013. PROCEDURES Data were extracted from the Equine Injury Database, which contained information for 93.9% of all official flat racing events in the United States and Canada during the 5-year observation period. Forty-four possible risk factors were evaluated by univariate then multivariable logistic regression to identify those that were significantly associated with fatal injury (death or euthanasia of a horse within 3 days after sustaining an injury during a race). RESULTS 3,572 race starts ended with a fatal injury, resulting in a period incidence rate of 1.9 fatal injuries/1,000 race starts. Twenty-two risk factors were significantly associated with fatal injury. Risk of fatal injury was greater for stallions than for mares and geldings and increased as the number of previous nonfatal injuries and race withdrawals and level of competitiveness (eg, horse's winning percentage and race purse) of the horse or race increased. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results identified several risk factors associated with fatal injuries in Thoroughbred racehorses. This information can be used as a guideline for the identification of racehorses at high risk of sustaining a fatal injury and in the design and implementation of preventative measures to minimize the number of fatal injuries sustained by horses competing in flat racing in the United States and Canada.

  3. Descriptive analysis of longitudinal endoscopy for exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage in Thoroughbred racehorses training and racing at the Hong Kong Jockey Club.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, S A; Riggs, C M; Singleton, M D; Troedsson, M H T

    2015-05-01

    Exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH) is reported as a performance limiting condition in racehorses, yet few longitudinal studies characterising EIPH have been reported. To characterise EIPH during training and racing in the absence of prophylactic medication with furosemide among horses imported to Hong Kong during 2007-2012. Retrospective descriptive study of clinical endoscopy, EIPH status, and racing records. Thoroughbred geldings (n = 822) imported from New Zealand between 2007 and 2012 were retrospectively assigned to 4 groups: diagnosed with EIPH via endoscopy (EIPH+), graded using recognised criteria; observed with epistaxis (Epistaxis); free of EIPH on endoscopy (EIPH-); and those in which no endoscopy was performed. The majority of horses (89%) were subjected to endoscopy once or more (median 15, interquartile range 3-18). Of those undergoing endoscopy, 55% of horses were diagnosed EIPH+ which varied in severity. Few (4%) experienced epistaxis. EIPH+ was diagnosed most frequently (63%) after racing. There was no significant difference in the proportion of EIPH+ and EIPH- horses that raced. Racing career longevity was longest for EIPH+ horses. The number of starts in Hong Kong for EIPH+ horses was not significantly different to EIPH- horses. [Correction added on 9 January 2015, after first online publication: The term 'lifetime starts' has been changed to 'starts in Hong Kong' in the preceding sentence.] Days to retirement were longer for EIPH+ horses. Horses with mild EIPH+ (grade racing career longevity between EIPH+ and EIPH- horses trained and raced without furosemide. See also correspondences by PS Morley and KW Hinchcliff; AD Richards; and S. Preston and C. M. Riggs. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  4. Risk factors for equine fractures in Thoroughbred flat racing in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, Stamatis Panagiotis; Parkin, Tim D H

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify risk factors associated with equine fractures in flat horse racing of Thoroughbreds in North America. Equine fractures were defined as any fracture sustained by a horse during a race. This was a cohort study that made use of all starts from the racecourses reporting injuries. The analysis was based on 2,201,152 racing starts that represent 91% of all official racing starts in the USA and Canada from 1st January 2009-31st December 2014. Approximately 3,990,000 workout starts made by the 171,523 Thoroughbreds that raced during that period were also included in the analysis. During this period the incidence of equine fractures was 2 per 1000 starts. The final multivariable logistic regression models identified risk factors significantly associated (phorses were found to have a 32% higher chance of sustaining a fracture when racing on a dirt surface compared to a synthetic surface; a 35% higher chance if they had sustained a previous injury during racing and a 47% higher chance was also found for stallions compared to mares and geldings. Furthermore, logistic regression models based on data available only from the period 2009-2013 were used to predict the probability of a Thoroughbred sustaining a fracture for 2014. The 5% of starts that had the highest score in our predictive models for 2014 were found to have 2.4 times (95% CI: 1.9-2.9) higher fracture prevalence than the mean fracture prevalence of 2014. The results of this study can be used to identify horses at higher risk on entering a race and could help inform the design and implementation of preventive measures aimed at minimising the number of Thoroughbreds sustaining fractures during racing in North America. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Firocoxib, Flunixin Meglumine, and Phenylbutazone on Platelet Function and Thromboxane Synthesis in Healthy Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Brenna N; Thomason, John M; Hurdle, Holly M; Wills, Robert W; Fontenot, Robin L

    2016-11-01

    Determine the effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) on platelet function and thromboxane synthesis immediately after drug administration and following 5 days of NSAID administration in healthy horses. Randomized cross-over study. Healthy adult horses (n=9; 6 geldings and 3 mares). Horses received either flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg IV every 12 hours), phenylbutazone (2.2 mg/kg IV every 12 hours), or firocoxib (loading dose of 0.27 mg/kg IV on day 1, then 0.09 mg/kg IV every 24 hours for 4 days) for a total of 5 days. Blood samples were collected prior to drug administration (day 0), 1 hour after initial NSAID administration (day 1), and then 1 hour post-NSAID administration on day 5. Platelet function was assessed using turbidimetric aggregometry and a platelet function analyzer. Serum thromboxane B2 concentrations were determined by commercial ELISA kit. A minimum 14 day washout period occurred between trials. At 1 hour and 5 days postadministration of firocoxib, flunixin meglumine, or phenylbutazone, there was no significant effect on platelet aggregation or function using turbidimetric aggregometry or a platelet function analyzer. There was, however, a significant decrease in thromboxane synthesis at 1 hour and 5 days postadministration of flunixin meglumine and phenylbutazone that was not seen with firocoxib. Preoperative administration of flunixin meglumine, phenylbutazone, or firocoxib should not inhibit platelet function based on our model. The clinical implications of decreased thromboxane B2 synthesis following flunixin meglumine and phenylbutazone administration are undetermined. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  6. Chagas disease in a Texan horse with neurologic deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Laura K; Hamer, Sarah A; Shaw, Sarah; Curtis-Robles, Rachel; Auckland, Lisa D; Hodo, Carolyn L; Chaffin, Keith; Rech, Raquel R

    2016-01-30

    A 10-year-old Quarter Horse gelding presented to the Texas A&M University Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a six month-history of ataxia and lameness in the hind limbs. The horse was treated presumptively for equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) based on clinical signs but was ultimately euthanized after its condition worsened. Gross lesions were limited to a small area of reddening in the gray matter of the thoracic spinal cord. Histologically, trypanosome amastigotes morphologically similar to Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease in humans and dogs, were sporadically detected within segments of the thoracic spinal cord surrounded by mild lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. Ancillary testing for Sarcocystis neurona, Neospora spp., Toxoplasma gondii and Leishmania spp. was negative. Conventional and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of affected paraffin embedded spinal cord were positive for T. cruzi, and sequencing of the amplified T. cruzi satellite DNA PCR fragment from the horse was homologous with various clones of T. cruzi in GenBank. While canine Chagas disease cases have been widely reported in southern Texas, this is the first report of clinical T. cruzi infection in an equid with demonstrable amastigotes in the spinal cord. In contrast to previous instances of Chagas disease in the central nervous system (CNS) of dogs and humans, no inflammation or T. cruzi amastigotes were detected in the heart of the horse. Based on clinical signs, there is a potential for misdiagnosis of Chagas disease with other infectious diseases that affect the equine CNS. T. cruzi should be considered as a differential diagnosis in horses with neurologic clinical signs and histologic evidence of meningomyelitis that originate in areas where Chagas disease is present. The prevalence of T. cruzi in horses and the role of equids in the parasite life cycle require further study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Systemic, renal, and colonic effects of intravenous and enteral rehydration in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, G D; Merritt, A M; Kuck, H V; Burrow, J A

    2013-01-01

    Intravenous (IV) and intragastric (IG) administration of fluid therapy are commonly used in equine practice, but there are limited data on the systemic, renal, and enteric effects. IV fluid administration will increase intestinal and fecal hydration in a rate-dependent manner after hypertonic dehydration, but will be associated with significant urinary water and electrolyte loss. Equivalent volumes of IG plain water will result in comparatively greater intestinal hydration with less renal loss. Six Thoroughbred geldings. Experimental study. 6 by 6 Latin square design investigating constant rate IV administration at 50, 100, and 150 mL/kg/d over 24 hours in horses dehydrated by water deprivation. Equivalent volumes of IG plain water were administered by 4 bolus doses over 24 hours. Water deprivation resulted in a significant decrease in the percentage of fecal water, and increases in serum and urine osmolality. IV fluids administered at 100 and 150 mL/kg/d restored fecal hydration, but increasing the rate from 100 to 150 mL/kg/d did not confer any additional intestinal benefit, but did result in significantly greater urine production and sodium loss. Equivalent 24-hour volumes of plain water resulted in greater intestinal water and less urine output. IV polyionic isotonic fluids can be used to hydrate intestinal contents in situations where enteral fluids are impractical. IV fluids administered at three times maintenance are no more efficacious and might be associated with adverse physiological findings after withdrawal. Bolus dosing of IG water can be used to restore intestinal water with minimal adverse effects. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. Collective Flow of A Hyperons within Covariant Kaon Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Yong-Zhong; ZHU Yu-Lan; WANG Yan-Yan; ZHENG Yu-Ming

    2011-01-01

    @@ The collective flow of ∧ hyperons produced in association with positively charged kaon mesons in nuclear reactions at SIS energies is studied using the quantum molecular dynamics(QMD)model within covariant kaon dynamics Our calculation indicates that both the directed and differential directed flows of ∧s are almost in agreement with the experimental data.This suggest that the covariant kaon dynamics based on the chiral mean field approximation can not only explain the collective flow of kaon mesons,but also give reasonable results for the collective flow of ∧ hyperons at SIS energies.The final-state interaction of ∧ hyperons with dense nuclear matter enhances their directed flow and improves the agreement of their differential directed flow with the experimental data.The influence of the interaction on the ∧ collective flow is more appreciable at large rapidity or transverse momentum region.%The collective How of A hyperons produced in association with positively charged kaon mesons in nuclear reactions at SIS energies is studied using the quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) model within covariant kaon dynamics. Our calculation indicates that both the directed and differential directed Sows of As are almost in agreement with the experimental data. This suggest that the covariant kaon dynamics based on the chiral mean Geld approximation can not only explain the collective flow of kaon mesons, but also give reasonable results for the collective How of A hyperons at SIS energies. The Hnal-state interaction of A hyperons with dense nuclear matter enhances their directed How and improves the agreement of their differential directed How with the experimental data. The influence of the interaction on the A collective How is more appreciable at iarge rapidity or transverse momentum region.

  9. Magnetic Properties of a Rare-Earth Antiferromagnetic Nanoparticle Investigated with a Quantum Simulation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhao-Sen; Sechovsk(y) Vladimir; Divi(s) Martin

    2011-01-01

    @@ A Usov-type quantum model based on a mean-field approximation is utilized to simulate the magnetic structure of an assumed rare-earth nanoparticle consisting of an antiferromagnetic core and a paramagnetic outer shell.We study the magnetic properties in the presence and absence of an external magnetic field.Our simulation results show that the magnetic moments in the core region orientate antiferromagnetically in zero external magnetic field; an applied magnetic field rotates all of the magnetic moments in the paramagnetic shell completely to the field direction, and turns those in the core (which tries to maintain its original antiferromagnetic structure) towards the orientation in some degree; and the paramagnetic shell does not have a strong influence on the magnetic configuration of the core.%A Usov-type quantum model based on a mean-field approximation is utilized to simulate the magnetic structure of an assumed rare-earth nanoparticle consisting of an antiferromagnetic core and a paramagnetic outer shell. We study the magnetic properties in the presence and absence of an external magnetic field. Our simulation results show that the magnetic moments in the core region orientate antiferromagnetically in zero external magnetic field; an applied magnetic field rotates all of the magnetic moments in the paramagnetic shell completely to the Geld direction, and turns those in the core (which tries to maintain its original antiferromagnetic structure) towards the orientation in some degree; and the paramagnetic shell does not have a strong influence on the magnetic configuration of the core.

  10. Heterobilharzia americana infection as a cause of hepatic parasitic granulomas in a horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corapi, Wayne V; Birch, Sharla M; Carlson, Kelly L; Chaffin, M Keith; Snowden, Karen F

    2011-10-15

    CASE DESCRIPTION-A 22-year-old American Paint Horse gelding from the Gulf Coast region of Texas was evaluated for regrowth of a perirectal squamous cell carcinoma that had been surgically removed 11 months previously. CLINICAL FINDINGS-A necrotic and ulcerated mass was present below the anus. The horse had paraphimosis and was having difficulty with urination. Histologic examination of the mass revealed that it was squamous cell carcinoma, and the horse was euthanized because of the unlikelihood that the mass could be adequately resected and its close proximity to the urethra. OUTCOME-At necropsy, in addition to the squamous cell carcinoma, hundreds of round, white to pale yellow nodules were disseminated throughout the liver, resulting in a so-called starry-sky appearance. Similar granulomas were seen in the right caudal lung lobe and small intestinal serosa. A single granuloma in the liver, which differed from the others by its larger size, contained a pair of adult schistosomes. Several hepatic granuloma specimens were used for PCR amplification and sequencing. Use of primers specific for a portion of the Heterobilharzia americana small subunit rRNA gene resulted in amplification of a 487-base pair product that had 100% sequence identity with H americana. CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Severe cases of disseminated granulomas in the liver of horses may result in a liver with a grossly abnormal starry-sky pattern. To our knowledge, this is the first report documenting the association of granulomas with H americana infection along with adult schistosomes in the liver of a horse.

  11. Familial basis of exertional rhabdomyolysis in quarter horse-related breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valberg, S J; Geyer, C; Sorum, S A; Cardinet, G H

    1996-03-01

    To trace pedigrees from affected horses, identify likely contributing founder horses, and determine the conditional probability of founder genotypes. Muscle biopsy records from the Neuromuscular Disease Laboratory at the University of California-Davis and the University of Minnesota were searched to identify horses with a polysaccharide storage myopathy and exercise intolerance/rhabdomyolysis. Pedigrees containing 5 to 6 generations were obtained where possible. 13 Quarter Horses, 4 American Paint Horses, 3 Appaloosas, and 3 Quarter Horse crossbreds (16 mares, 4 geldings, and 3 stallions) were identified with polysaccharide storage myopathy. Pedigrees were available for 18 horses. Inbreeding coefficients, founder contributions, and conditional probability of founder genotypes were calculated. Three stallions (A, B, and C) were featured prominently in the pedigrees. Stallions A and B descended from a common sire. On average, A contributed 8.8% (range, 0 to 23%) of the genes in affected horses, B contributed 4.2% (range, 0 to 14%), and C contributed 3.0% (range, 0 to 14%). The sire and dam of 4 horses were descendants of stallion A, the sire and dam of 1 horse were descendants of stallion B, and the sire and dam of 11 horses were descendants of a combination of stallions A and B. The pattern of inheritance resembled an autosomal recessive disorder. Assuming this pattern of inheritance, the conditional probability that these founders were carriers or recessive for the trait was > 99.29% for stallions A and B and 92% for stallion C. Results support a familial basis for polysaccharide storage myopathy and associated exertional rhabdomyolysis in Quarter Horse-related breeds. The strong contribution of particular founder stallions to the gene pool in some lines of Quarter Horses may explain the high incidence of exertional rhabdomyolysis in these horses.

  12. NEWER ASPECTS IN THE AGE-DEPENDING ALTERATION OF HORSE TEETHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. GÁSPÁRDY

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors give a short orientation about the age related parameters of incisors based on the literature. They tell about their own investigation of two conventional (cup depth and its yearly abrasion and of two first applied (relative abrasion and area of dental table parameters. The previous literature evaluated the parameters in question in two different ways: time period or frequency analysis. The authors introduced a new method: the linearly-corrected row data which is processed by analysis of variance. Their elaboration reaches altogether 107 individuals, three horse types (English Thoroughbred, English Half-breed and pony, and two genders (mare, stallion + gelding. The cup depth at the levelling is the shallowest in the ponies (2 mm, while it is deeper in the Half-breeds (5 mm and in the Thoroughbreds (4.4 mm. This deviation can be explained by body size differences between breeds. The degree of the absolute and the relative abrasion of the cup can be associated with the early utilisation (racing and with the intensive feeding (concentrate. The area of the dental table is the largest in the pony, and the smallest in the Thoroughbred. The reason for the slowest abrasion observed in the ponies can be explained not only by the more traditional feeding but also by the bigger occlusive surface. The authors assume that the selection for the early utilisation of the English Thoroughbred resulted in an automatic change of the well inherited chronology of dentition; more early matured animals producing, in relation to the chronology of dentition. In this breed the general refinement of the whole organism, but especially of the bone system manifests in the narrowing of the teeth also.

  13. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation on apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients and fermentation profile in healthy horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenthun, E; Coenen, M; Vervuert, I

    2013-05-01

    Supplementation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) in horses may have some potential to modify microbial populations and thereby improve fibre digestibility. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of SC on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients, with a special focus on fibre digestion in healthy horses. The fermentation profile of microbial populations was another focus of interest. Twelve geldings were randomly assigned to three groups. The basal diet consisted of cracked corn (2 g starch/kg body weight [BW]) and hay (1.2 kg/100 kg BW). During adaptation (3 weeks) and the total faecal collection period (5 days), cracked corn was fed once daily either as control (0 g SC) or supplemented with 1 or 3 g SC (1 g SC = 2 × 10(10) colony-forming units [cfu]). There was a 4-week wash-out period between the different SC regimes. Faeces were sampled by rectal collection for the analysis of pH, nitrogen, lactic acid, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and SC. In faeces, mean SC cfu was significantly lower than the quantity supplemented: 0 g SC, no detection; 1 g SC, 1.1 × 10(6) cfu; 3 g SC, 3.6 × 10(6) cfu. Apparent total tract digestibility of crude fibre varied approximately 40% without any treatment-related effects. Short-chain fatty acids, lactic acids and pH in faeces were not significantly affected by SC supplementation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation was not associated with any changes in the fermentation profiles, and fibre digestion accordingly remained unchanged in intact and healthy horses. Taking into account that fibre digestion remained unchanged and recovery rate of SC in faeces was mariginal, colonization and proliferation of SC in the healthy equine intestinal tract seems to be unlikely.

  14. Charted Choices 2013-2017. An analysis of ten election programmes. Effects on the economy and the environment; Keuzes in Kaart 2013-2017. Een analyse van tien verkiezingsprogramma's. Effecten op economie en milieu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    At the request of ten political parties, the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (CPB) and PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency have mapped out the effects of the respective election platforms on the economy and the environment. The analysis shows that each of the proposed policy measures included in the platforms has both advantages and disadvantages. The platforms thus reflect the diverse choices that have been made by the parties. The publication presents the impact of party programs on public finances, purchasing power and employment. Also included in the publication are analyses in the field of mobility, energy and climate, nature, education, housing and healthcare [Dutch] De verkiezingsprogramma's 2012 laten zien welke keuzes politieke partijen maken voor de jaren 2013-2017. De programma's tonen aan dat er echt iets te kiezen valt voor de komende kabinetsperiode. Hoe gaan we na de economische crisis de overheidsfinancien weer op orde brengen en hoe snel? Verhogen we de AOW-leeftijd en beperken we de aftrek van de hypotheekrente, of juist niet? Hoe verminderen we de filedruk? Willen we klimaatverandering aanpakken en zo ja, hoe dan? Is het de moeite waarde om meer geld uit te geven aan onderwijs of innovatie? Hoeveel trekken we uit voor natuur? Hoe kunnen we de woningmarkt beter laten functioneren? Hoe gaan we om met de stijging van de kosten van de zorg? In de aanloop naar de verkiezingen van 12 september 2012 hebben tien politieke partijen - VVD, PvdA, PVV, CDA, SP, D66, GroenLinks, ChristenUnie, SGP, DPK - gevraagd om een analyse van hun verkiezingsprogramma's. Het CPB heeft de economische effecten geanalyseerd, het PBL de effecten op milieu.

  15. Going for increased recycling. A social cost-benefit analysis; Inzetten op meer recycling. Een maatschappelijke kosten-batenanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warringa, G.E.A.; De Bruyn, M.; Bijleveld, M.M.

    2013-05-15

    reduced resource dependency. In the SCBA the latter benefits were not expressed in monetary terms, however. On balance, the monetary impact is positive: the social benefits of increased recycling are greater than the social costs. A sensitivity analysis shows this to be a robust result [Dutch] De milieuvoordelen van een scenario gericht op meer recycling zijn in eerdere studies overtuigend aangetoond. De vraag dient zich echter aan of een scenario gericht op meer recycling ook economische voordelen biedt. In deze studie zijn daarom de voornaamste economische effecten in kaart gebracht van een toename van recycling in Nederland. De resultaten van de studie kunnen worden gebruikt om de beleidsvorming rondom het dossier recycling verder te helpen. Om de centrale vraag te beantwoorden, hebben we een maatschappelijke kosten-batenanalyse (MKBA) op hoofdlijnen uitgevoerd. Een MKBA is een op de welvaartstheorie gebaseerde afwegingsmethode die alle economische effecten (ook wel welvaartseffecten genoemd) van een project of beleidsingreep in kaart brengt. Welvaart wordt daarbij breed gedefinieerd: het gaat niet alleen om financieel-economische consequenties, maar ook om de gevolgen voor milieu, werkgelegenheid, etc. Alle geinventariseerde milieu-ingrepen, zoals energieverbruik, transport en emissies bij recycleprocessen, zijn per materiaalstroom in SimaPro beoordeeld. De effecten worden binnen een MKBA zoveel mogelijk in geld uitgedrukt zodat deze onderling vergelijkbaar zijn. De belangrijkste maatschappelijke kosten van meer recycling zijn hogere kosten voor gemeenten om het afval gescheiden in te zamelen. Ook zijn er lagere opbrengsten voor AVI's, omdat meer afval uit het buitenland moet worden geimporteerd. Ten slotte zijn er beleidskosten om meer recycling te stimuleren en extra inspanningen voor de burger om afval te scheiden. Deze kosten zijn niet gekwantificeerd. Hier staan positieve welvaartseffecten tegenover. De grootste batenpost is milieuwinst, die in deze studie

  16. Frecuencia de comportamientos anormales estereotipados en caballos Chilenos estabulados Frequency of stereotyped abnormal behaviour in stabled Chilean horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Muñoz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La frecuencia de comportamientos anormales estereotipados como aerofagia, bamboleo y paseo circular en la pesebrera, fue estudiada en 100 caballos Chilenos, de ambos sexos, estabulados en pesebreras individuales durante todo el día o parte de éste, amansados y de dos años o más pertenecientes a 16 criaderos de la comuna de Chillán. Los caballos fueron observados desde las 7:00 a las 19:00 horas durante un día y su propietario o cuidador consultado si presentaba algún comportamiento anormal estereotipado. Los equinos de acuerdo a su edad se dividieron en dos grupos: de 2 a 5 años y mayores a 5 años, y de acuerdo al sexo en tres grupos: machos enteros, machos castrados y hembras. Los datos fueron analizados por medio de la planilla electrónica Microsoft® Excel, para establecer las frecuencias, y para comparar diferencias existentes entre los comportamientos anormales y las variables sexo y edad se utilizó la Prueba Exacta de Fisher, con un nivel de significancia de P The frequency of stereotyped abnormal behaviour i.e. windsucking/crib-biting, weaving and stall-walking were studied in 100 Chilean horses of both sex, stabled in individual boxes either all day long or during a certain period of time. All horses were tamed and older than 2 years old, and belonging to 16 studs of the Comuna de Chillán (Chile. The horses were observed between 7:00 and 19:00 hours during one day, and its owner or carer was asked whether the horse presented some stereotyped abnormal behaviour or not. Horses were separated according to age into 2 groups: 2 to 5 years old and older than 5 years, and also according to sex: stallions, geldings or mares. Data was analysed using the Microsoft® Excel Worksheet to establish frequencies. Differences between groups were analysed by Exact Fisher’s Test. Significance level was P < 0.05. The results showed that 50% of the studs had one or more horses with some stereotyped abnormal behaviour. Ten porcent of the horses

  17. Effects of added chelated trace minerals, organic selenium, yeast culture, direct-fed microbials, and Yucca schidigera extract in horses. Part I: Blood nutrient concentration and digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, M E; Edwards, M S; Sweeney, C R; Jerina, M L

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that feed additives such as chelated minerals, organic Se, yeast culture, direct-fed microbials, and Yucca schidigera extract would improve nutrient digestibility when included in an equine diet. Horses (Quarter Horse geldings 4.5 to 16 yr of age; mean BW 522 kg ± 46 kg) were acclimated to 100% pelleted diets formulated with (ADD) and without (CTRL) commercially available sources of the aforementioned additives followed by a 14-d collection period of feces and urine. Chelated sources of Cu, Zn, Mn and Co were utilized versus sulfated forms, at a 100% replacement rate. No significant differences among apparent the digestibility of DM, ADF, or NDF (P= 0.665, P = 0.866, P = 0.747, respectively) were detected between dietary treatments. Likewise, no differences in apparent digestibility of Cu (P = 0.724), Zn (P = 0.256), Mn (P = 0.888), Co (P = 0.71), or Se (P = 0.588) were observed. No differences were observed in serum Cu, Mn, or Co concentrations between ADD and CTRL at acclimation or collection time points (P > 0.05). While no difference in serum Zn concentrations were observed between ADD and CTRL groups at acclimation (P > 0.05), they were statistically higher at the collection time period for horses consuming CTRL (P 0.05). Serum Zn concentrations of horses consuming both ADD (P = 0.021) and CTRL (P 0.05) were observed in serum Mn concentrations. Serum Co concentrations increased over time in horses consuming both ADD (P = 0.001) and CTRL (P = 0.021). From acclimation to collection, whole blood Se concentration increased for horses consuming CTRL (P = 0.01) but not for ADD (P > 0.05). The results of this study indicate no effect on nutrient digestibility due to the inclusion of chelated minerals, organic Se, yeast culture, direct-fed microbials, and Yucca schidigera extract for horses at maintenance.

  18. Round-bale feeder design affects hay waste and economics during horse feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, K; Wilson, J; Cleary, K; Lazarus, W; Thomas, W; Hathaway, M

    2012-03-01

    Many horse owners find round bales convenient, less labor intensive, and more affordable than other hay types, but report an inability to control horse BW gain and excessive hay waste. The objectives were to compare hay waste, hay intake, and payback of 9 round-bale feeders and a no-feeder control when used during horse feeding. Nine round-bale feeders were tested: Cinch Net, Cone, Covered Cradle, Hayhut, Hay Sleigh, Ring, Tombstone, Tombstone Saver, and Waste Less. Each feeder design was placed on the ground in a dirt paddock. Five groups of 5 horses were fed in rotation for a 4-d period with each feeder. Every fourth day, groups were rotated among paddocks and a new round bale was placed in each feeder. In the 5 paddocks used, 5 feeders were installed for d 1 through 20, and the remaining 4 feeders and no-feeder control were installed for d 21 through 40. Groups of horses were sequentially assigned to feeders using two 5 × 5 Latin squares, the first for d 1 through 20, the second for d 21 through 40. Horse groups of similar age, BW, breed, and sex were formed from 25 Quarter Horse and Thoroughbred geldings and open mares (means: 11 yr; 541 kg of BW). Hay on the ground surrounding the feeder was collected daily, dried, and weighed. The total amount of hay removed around each feeder for a 4-d period was considered waste. Dry matter intake was estimated as the difference between hay disappearance and waste. Number of months for the reduction in waste to repay feeder cost (payback) were calculated using hay valued at $110/t, and improved feeder efficiency over the control. Feeder design did not affect hay intake (P > 0.05); all feeders resulted in an estimated hay intake of 2.0 to 2.4% BW; the no-feeder control resulted in a reduced intake of 1.3% BW (P = 0.001). Mean percentage of hay waste differed among feeders (P horse feeding.

  19. Westeuropas Wiederaufbau – Made in Germany? Baumaterial aus Deutschland im Versailler Vertrag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Karla

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To date, the historiography of reparations after World War I has a predominant focus on cash. The article proposes considering non-cash contributions a constitutive part of the Treaty of Versailles and investigating their impact on the post-World War I order. Contemporary debates on the supply of building materials to northern France illustrate the expectations on the German side that were raised by the promise of such deliveries in kind: Policymakers hoped that deliveries in kind would reduce the overall sum of reparations; smart entrepreneurs hoped for lucrative business, for instance from the sale of prefabricated houses; and trade unions saw new prospects for German workers and German building materials. Though deliveries in kind to the areas undergoing reconstruction in northern France were in practice small, the related debates disclose new perspectives on the post-war history. This example serves as a case in point for the potential of applying theoretical considerations about the social dimension of materiality to the context of the Treaty of Versailles and its consequences. Die Geschichtsschreibung der Reparationen nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg handelt bislang vor allem von Geld. Dieser Aufsatz plädiert dafür, auch die Sachlieferungen als einen wesentlichen Bestandteil des Versailler Vertrags zu interpretieren. Exemplarisch wird erprobt, wie sich theoretische Überlegungen zur sozialen Dimension von Dingen auf die Geschichte des Versailler Vertrags und seiner Folgen anwenden lassen. Anhand der zeitgenössischen Diskussionen über geplante Lieferungen von Baumaterial nach Nordfrankreich lässt sich nachvollziehen, dass man auf deutscher Seite mit diesen Reparationsleistungen durchaus Erwartungen verknüpfte: Aus Sicht der Politik sollten Sachlieferungen dazu beitragen, die Gesamtsumme der Reparationen zu mindern. Findige Unternehmen hofften schon 1919 auf einträgliche Geschäfte, etwa durch den Verkauf von Fertighäusern. Auch die

  20. Alfaxalone compared with ketamine for induction of anaesthesia in horses following xylazine and guaifenesin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keates, Helen L; van Eps, Andrew W; Pearson, Martin R B

    2012-11-01

    To compare anaesthesia induced with either alfaxalone or ketamine in horses following premedication with xylazine and guaifenesin. Randomized blinded cross-over experimental study. Six adult horses, five Standardbreds and one Thoroughbred; two mares and four geldings. Each horse received, on separate occasions, induction of anaesthesia with either ketamine 2.2 mg kg(-1) or alfaxalone 1 mg kg(-1) . Premedication was with xylazine 0.5 mg kg(-1) and guaifenesin 35 mg kg(-1) . Incidence of tremors/shaking after induction, recovery and ataxia on recovery were scored. Time to recovery was recorded. Partial pressure of arterial blood oxygen (PaO(2) ) and carbon dioxide (PaO(2) ), arterial blood pressures, heart rate (HR) and respiratory rates were recorded before premedication and at intervals during anaesthesia. Data were analyzed using Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank test and are expressed as median (range). There was no difference in the quality of recovery or in ataxia scores. Horses receiving alfaxalone exhibited a higher incidence of tremors/shaking on induction compared with those receiving ketamine (five and one of six horses respectively). Horses recovered to standing similarly [28 (24-47) minutes for alfaxalone; 22 (18-35) for ketamine] but took longer to recover adequately to return to the paddock after alfaxalone [44 (38-67) minutes] compared with ketamine [35 (30-47)]. There was no statistical difference between treatments in effect on HR, PaO(2) or PaCO(2) although for both regimens, PaO(2) decreased with respect to before premedication values. There was no difference between treatments in effect on blood pressure. Both alfaxalone and ketamine were effective at inducing anaesthesia, although at induction there were more muscle tremors after alfaxalone. As there were no differences between treatments in relation to cardiopulmonary responses or quality of recovery, and only minor differences in recovery times, both agents appear suitable for this purpose

  1. A Nordic survey of management practices and owners' attitudes towards keeping horses in groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, E; Bøe, K E; Christensen, J W; Hyyppä, S; Jansson, H; Jørgensen, G H M; Ladewig, J; Mejdell, C M; Norling, Y; Rundgren, M; Särkijärvi, S; Søndergaard, E; Keeling, L J

    2015-09-01

    Keeping horses in groups is widely recommended but limited information is available about how this is implemented in practice. The aim of this survey was to describe how horses are kept in the Nordic countries in relation to sex, age, breed, and equestrian discipline and to assess owners' attitudes toward keeping horses in groups. Horse owners in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden were approached using a web-based questionnaire, which was translated into 4 languages and distributed online via equestrian forums, organizations, and social media. The number of respondents was 3,229, taking care of 17,248 horses. Only 8% of horses were never kept in groups, 47% were permanently grouped for 24 h/d, and 45% were stabled singly but grouped during turnout. Yearlings were most often permanently kept in groups (75%), mares and geldings more commonly during parts of the day (50 and 51%, respectively), and stallions were often kept alone (38%). Icelandic horses were more likely to be permanently kept in groups (36%) than warmbloods (16%) and ponies (15%). Twice as many competition horses (51%) were never grouped compared with horses used for breeding (20%) or leisure purposes (15%). The majority of respondents (86%) strongly agreed that group housing benefits horse welfare and that it is important for horses to have the company of conspecifics (92%). Nevertheless, not all horses were kept in groups, showing that attitudes toward group housing may not necessarily reflect current management. The risk of injury was a concern of many respondents (45%), as was introducing unfamiliar horses into already established groups (40%) and challenges in relation to feeding in groups (44%). Safety of people (23%) and difficulties handling group-kept horses (19%) were regarded as less problematic. Results suggest that the majority of horses have the possibility to freely interact with other horses, either as fulltime members of a group during 24 h/d or during turnout. Future research should

  2. Calvin’s interpretation of the first commandment and the implications for religious pluralism and equality of religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carel F.C. Coetzee

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Scholars agree that we live in a pluralistic world. For the purpose of this article, the emphasis is on religious pluralism as distinguished from other forms of pluralism. The religious pluralism addressed in this article, can be seen as synonymous with equality of religion. From the paradigm of the Calvinistic-Reformed tradition, the question is asked what the implications of Calvin’s interpretation of the first commandment are for the phenomenon of religious pluralism and equality of religion. His interpretation in the Institutes (1536 and 1559 and Catechisms (1538 and 1545 as well as his commentaries on Exodus 20:3 and Deuteronomy 5:7 emphasise that there is only one God: the triune God of Scripture. He alone should be worshipped as he commands in his law. This claim also applies to the government. In the pluralistic context of today, the Church ought to maintain and proclaim this truth − both in its apologetic calling and witness to government.Calvyn se verklaring van die eerste gebod en die implikasies daarvan vir godsdienspluralismeen godsdiensgelykheid. Navorsers stem saam dat ons in ’n pluralistiese wêreld leef. Wat die fokus van hierdie artikel betref, val die klem op godsdienstige pluralisme in onderskeid van ander vorme van pluralisme. Godsdienspluralisme kan, sover dit die skopus van hierdie artikel betref, gesien word as sinoniem met godsdiensgelykheid. Vanuit die Calvinisties-reformatoriese tradisie word die vraag ondersoek wat die implikasies van Calvyn se verklaring van die eerste gebod vir die verskynsel van godsdienspluralisme en godsdiensgelykheid is. In sy verklaring in die Institusie (1536 en 1559 en sy Kategismus (1538 en 1545 sowel as in sy kommentare op Eksodus 20:3 en Deuteronomium 5:7, beklemtoon Calvyn dat daar net een God is, die drieenige God van die Skrif. Hy alleen moet aanbid word soos Hy in sy wet beveel. Hierdie eis geld ook vir die owerheid. In die pluralistiese tyd en samelewing moet die kerk hierdie

  3. Effects of intravenous terbutaline on heart rate, arterial pressure and blood gases in anesthetized horses breathing air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcaro, Isla; Fischer, Berit L; Lascola, Kara M; Clark-Price, Stuart C

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effects of intravenous (IV) administration of terbutaline on PaO2, PaCO2, pH, heart rate (HR) and arterial pressures in healthy, laterally recumbent horses breathing ambient air under total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA). Prospective experimental study. Eight healthy adult horses were enrolled. Six horses, four mares and two geldings weighing 433-624 kg, completed the study. Horses were sedated with xylazine (1.0 mg kg(-1)) IV for placement of arterial and venous catheters. Anesthesia was induced with midazolam (0.1 mg kg(-1)) and ketamine (2.2 mg kg(-1)) IV and maintained with an IV infusion of guaifenesin (50 mg mL(-1)), ketamine (2 mg mL(-1)) and xylazine (0.5 mg mL(-1)) at 1.9 ± 0.3 mL kg(-1) hour(-1). Horses were in left lateral recumbency and breathed air spontaneously. Arterial blood was collected for pH and blood gas analysis during xylazine sedation, 15 minutes after induction of anesthesia, immediately before and 5, 15 and 30 minutes after administration of terbutaline (2 μg kg(-1)), and when the horse was standing after recovery from anesthesia. HR, systolic (SAP), mean (MAP) and diastolic (DAP) arterial pressures were recorded at 5 minute intervals during anesthesia. Normal data were analyzed with anova and non-normal data were analyzed with a Friedman test with a p < 0.05 considered significant. The mean PaO2 decreased from baseline to <60 mmHg (8.0 kPa) during anesthesia (p < 0.0001) and did not improve after administration of terbutaline. After terbutaline administration, HR increased (p = 0.002), and SAP, MAP and DAP decreased (p < 0.001) with the greatest changes occurring immediately after terbutaline administration. Terbutaline (2 μg kg(-1)) IV did not improve PaO2 and was associated with adverse cardiovascular effects during TIVA in healthy, laterally recumbent horses breathing air. Copyright © 2016 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier

  4. Daily methane production pattern of Welsh ponies fed a roughage diet with or without a cereal mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansen, O; Pellikaan, W F; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J; Jacobs, M P T; Everts, H; van Doorn, D A

    2015-04-01

    Methane production from Welsh ponies fed 2 isoenergetic diets (NE basis) at maintenance was studied in a crossover design with 4 mature geldings (230 ± 10.5 kg BW, mean ± SE). Treatments included a roughage-only (R) diet (5.1 kg DM/d) or a roughage plus cereal mix (RC) diet (2.5 kg DM hay/d plus 1.1 kg DM cereal mix/d). For both diets, the same grass hay was used (898 g DM/kg and 4.5 MJ NE/kg DM) and a commercial cereal mix was used in the RC diet (890 g DM/kg and 9.6 MJ NE/kg DM). Ponies were housed in pairs in climate-controlled respiration chambers. Carbon dioxide production (CO2), oxygen (O2) consumption, and CH4 production were measured over 3 consecutive days. Heat production (HP) rates were calculated from gaseous exchange. Feces were collected quantitatively to determine dietary nutrient digestibility. Dry matter intake differed between diets (P Methane production was higher (P = 0.014) on the R diet (29.8 L · pony(-1) · d(-1)) compared to the RC diet (23.2 L · pony(-1) · d(-1)). Methane production expressed in liters/kilogram metabolic body weight (BW0.75) per day tended (P = 0.064) to decrease with 21% for the RC group compared with the R group. Heat production, O2 consumption, and CO2 production were not affected by diet. Diurnal patterns of CH4 production and HP were similar for both diets. Methane production increased slightly (P < 0.652) after feeding and was numerically lower for the RC diet for all time points throughout the day. For both diets, HP was higher after feeding than before feeding and decreased again within approximately 3 h after feeding. Isoenergetic replacement of roughage by a cereal mix reduces CH4 production in ponies. No clear diurnal pattern in CH4 emission can be discerned in ponies fed at maintenance.

  5. Terahertz Emission Dependence on the Fundamental Optical Intensity in Generating Terahertz Waves from Two-Color Laser-Induced Gas Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Hou-Mei; LIU Jin-Song

    2011-01-01

    A transient photocurrent model is used to explain terahertz ermission from gas plasma irritated by two-color laser pulses,with one the second harmonic of the other.Taking multiple degrees of ionization into account,the gas ionization process at different laser intensities from 1014 W/cm2 to 1015 W/cm2 is discussed.The results show that when Iω ≥ 6 × 1014 W/cm2,double ionization plays an important role in producing electrons.The corresponding terahertz spectra and waveforms are calculated,showing that increasing laser intensity can broaden the spectra to high frequencies and enhance the terahertz field.A promising method for generating terahertz (THz) waves involves emission from laser induced gas plasmas,which was first introduced hy Hamster et al.[1,2] By focusing laser femtosecond pulses with intensity greater than the thresholl for ionization of the gas molecules,one can obtain significant plasma formation.The ionized electrons will then accelerate by the lapser ponderomotive force,thus an electromagnetic pulse at THz frcqucncies can be produced.Since then,other plasma-based THz generation scheines have been proposed.L(o)ffler et al.,[3,4] applied an external dc bias to the plasma region,leading to an approximately one order of magnitude increase in the THz field strength.%A transient photocurrent model is used to explain terahertz emission from gas plasma irritated by two-color laser pulses, with one the second harmonic of the other. Taking multiple degrees of iom'xntion into account, the gas ionizntion process at different laser intensities from 1014 W/cm2 to 1015 W/cm2 is discussed. The results show that when /w > 6 X 1014 W/cin2, double ionization plays an important role in producing electrons. The corresponding terahertz spectra and waveforms are calculated, showing that increasing laser intensity can broaden the spectra to high frequencies and enhance the terahertz Geld.

  6. Is God (inkonsekwent? Heerskappy, oorweging en aanspreeklikheid in die Dawidsgeskiedenis in die boeke van Samuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaap L. Helberg

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available As ’n eenheid openbaar die Samuelboeke die aanspreeklikheid van mense in hulle verhouding tot mekaar en tot God. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die vraag na God se konsekwentheid wat ook die vraag impliseer of alles onder sy heerskappy plaasvind. Die bevinding is dat alles onder God se allesoorkoepelende, vrymagtige en persoonlike heerskappy gebeur. Vir die beperkte menslike oorweging is dit geheel en al onpeilbaar anders. Dit is nie ’n nuutskepping oor sy Woord wat die lig bring nie, maar die nuutontdekking in sy Woord. Hy laat reg en geregtigheid geld, maar in ’n nog sterker mate ook sy genade. Uiteindelik is sy konsekwentheid – ‘die dwaasheid van die kruis’ – ten volle geopenbaar in die verwagte Messias, Jesus Christus. In die huidige stukkende werklikheid oefen God ook sy heerskappy uit deur persone wat hulle eie agendas het, selfs bose agendas. So laat Hy gelowiges tot selfontdekking, berou en bekering oor hulle sonde kom. Hulle leef met kinderlike vertroue op God en volgens die groot gebod van die liefde.The books of Samuel as a unity reveal the accountability of people in their relations to each other and to God. This article explores the issue of God’s consistency, including the question whether everything happens under his reign. The finding is that everything happens under his all-embracing, all-powerful and personal sovereignty, which is unfathomable by the limited human deliberation. It is not a new creation about his Word which brings the light, but the new discovery in his Word. He asserts justice, and to an even greater extent, his grace. His consistency – ‘the foolishness of the cross’ – is ultimately fully revealed in the expected Messiah, Jesus Christ. In the present broken reality God also asserts his sovereignty through people who have their own agendas, even evil agendas. Thus, He brings believers to self-discovery, remorse and repentance from their sins. They live with childlike trust in God and according

  7. Carbon balance indicates a time limit for cultivation of organic soils in central Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sonja; Ammann, Christof; Alewell, Christine; Leifeld, Jens

    2016-04-01

    Peatlands serve as important carbon sinks. Globally, more than 30% of the soil organic carbon is stored in organic soils, although they cover only 3% of the land surface. The agricultural use of organic soils usually requires drainage thereby transforming these soils from a net carbon sink into a net source. Currently, about 2 to 3 Gt CO2 are emitted world-wide from degrading organic soils (Joosten 2011; Parish et al. 2008) which is ca. 5% of the total anthropogenic emissions. Besides these CO2 emissions, the resulting subsidence of drained peat soils during agricultural use requires that drainage system are periodically renewed and finally to use pumping systems after progressive subsidence. In Switzerland, the Seeland region is characterised by fens which are intensively used for agriculture since 1900. The organic layer is degrading and subsequently getting shallower and the underlying mineral soil, as lake marl or loam, is approaching the surface. The questions arises for how long and under which land use practises and costs these soils can be cultivated in the near future. The study site was under crop rotation until 2009 when it was converted to extensively used grassland with the water regime still being regulated. The soil is characterised by a degraded organic horizon of 40 to 70 cm. Since December 2014 we are measuring the carbon exchange of this grassland using the Eddy-Covariance method. For 2015, the carbon balance indicates that the degraded fen is a strong carbon source, with approximately 500 g C m-2 a-1. The carbon balance is dominated by CO2 emissions and harvest. Methane emissions are negligible. With the gained emission factors different future scenarios are evaluated for the current cultivation practise of organic soils in central Switzerland. Joosten, H., 2011: Neues Geld aus alten Mooren: Über die Erzeugung von Kohlenstoffzertifikaten aus Moorwiedervernässungen. Telma Beiheft 4, 183-202. Parish, F., A. Sirin, D. Charman, H. Joosten, T

  8. The Importance of a Business Plan when Planning a Lexicographical Project Die belangrikheid van 'n sakeplan wanneer 'n leksikografiese projek beplan word

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariëtta Alberts

    2012-09-01

    beplanning te doen voordat daar met 'n leksikografieprojek begin word. Dit gee aan belanghebbendes 'n aanduiding van die omvang van die beoogde leksikografiese projek. Finansiers vereis 'n sakeplan om die finansiering van 'n projek goed te keur en dit geld ook vir 'n leksikografieprojek. Hierdie artikel handel oor die waarde van en rede vir 'n sakeplan. Dit dek ook aspekte soos die opstel van 'n sakeplan, sowel as die inhoudelike vereistes daarvan.

    Sleutelwoorde: aksieplan; behoeftebepaling; belanghebbende; doel; doelwit; eindgebruiker; empiriese ondersoek; finansier; geleentheid; inligtingoordrag; kritieke suksesfaktor; leksikografie-eenheid; leksikografiepraktyk; medewerkers; menslike hulpbron; missie; organisasiestruktuur; risiko; sakeplan; situasieanalise; sleuteldiens; sleutelveranderlike; strategie; visie

     

  9. A theoretical interpersonal style repertoire for middle-level managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Koortzen

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of the interpersonal behaviour of managers has received a good deal of attention, especially in terms of the most appropriate interpersonal styles in the work context and the skills involved in developing and maintaining effective interpersonal relationships. The design of effective interpersonal development programs requires a thorough evaluation of an individual’s interpersonal development needs. In order to do this, evaluators should have an understanding of the most appropriate interpersonal styles for managers. Given the aims of the investigation, the approach that was followed was to evaluate the relevant literature in this field. The theoretical goal was to study and describe the most appropriate theoretical interpersonal style repertoire of middle-level managers using the interpersonal approach, and specifically the 1982 Interpersonal Circle. The conclusions support the notion that dominant, assured, exhibitionistic, social, friendly, warm and trusting styles are the most relevant of the 16 interpersonal segments, while the assured-dominant, social-exhibitionistic and warm-friendly octants are viewed as the most appropriate. Opsomming Die ontwikkeling van die interpersoonlike gedrag van bestuurders het reeds heelwat aandag gekry. Dit geld veral vir aangeleenthede wat verband hou met die mees toepaslike interpersoonlike style binne die werkskonteks en die vaardighede wat die ontwikkeling van effektiewe interpersoonlike verhoudings onderlê. Die ontwikkeling van effektiewe interpersoonlike ontwikkelingsprogramme vereis ’n deeglike evaluering van ’n individu se interpersoonlike ontwikkelingsbehoeftes. Om dit te vermag, is dit nodig vir evalueerders om te verstaan wat die mees toepaslike interpersoonlike style vir bestuurders is. Gegee die doelwitte van die ondersoek is die metode wat gevolg is ’n evaluering van die relevante literatuur in hierdie gebied. Die teoretiese doel was om die mees toepaslike teoretiese

  10. Model of the Crustal Magnetic Field in the Martian Aurora Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Dong-Sheng; CHEN Chu-Xin

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that aurorae are prominent on planets with a global magnetic field and occur where open magnetic Geld lines converge. The UV spectrometer used for investigating the characteristics of the atmosphere of Mars (SPICAM) on board the Mars Express made the first observation of auroral-type emission in the cusp region of the strong crustal magnetic field on Mars and found that the arc of the Martian aurora zone is very narrow in width, which obviously differs from that of other planets. Based on the observation, we put forward a model of a crustal magnetic field on the Martian aurora zone through the morphology of Martian aurorae. In the model, equivalent currents are proposed; the topology and magnitude of the magnetic field generated by these equivalent currents are consistent with that of the crustal magnetic field in the Martian aurora zone. The morphology of the Martian aurora zone generated through the model matches well with the observations made by the Mars Express orbiter.%It is well known that aurorae are prominent on planets with a global magnetic field and occur where open magnetic field lines converge.The UV spectrometer used for investigating the characteristics of the atmosphere of Mars (SPICAM) on board the Mars Express made the first observation of auroral-type emission in the cusp region of the strong crustal magnetic field on Mars and found that the arc of the Martian aurora zone is very narrow in width,which obviously differs from that of other planets.Based on the observation,we put forward a model of a crustal magnetic field on the Martian aurora zone through the morphology of Martian aurorae.In the model,equivalent currents are proposed;the topology and magnitude of the magnetic field generated by these equivalent currents are consistent with that of the crustal magnetic field in the Martian aurora zone.The morphology of the Martian aurora zone generated through the model matches well with the observations made by the Mars Express

  11. 噻呋酰胺与戊唑醇复配对水稻纹枯病的防治效果%Control Effects of the Complex Formulation of Thifluzamide and Tebuconazole on Rice Sheath Blight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷春艳; 张勇; 周凤艳; 刘小林; 高同春

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究噻呋酰胺与戊唑醇复配对水稻纹枯病的防治效果.[方法]用平皿菌落直径法测定噻呋酰胺与戊唑醇复配对水稻纹枯病病菌的毒力,并进行田间防效测定.[结果]噻呋酰胺和戊唑醇对水稻纹枯病病菌EC50值分别是0.139 3和0.135 6 μg/ml,2种药剂的毒力相当;噻呋酰胺与戊唑醇复配对水稻纹枯病病菌增效系数(SR)为0.828 3 ~2.535 0,部分配比具有显著增效作用.按照增效配比进行田间防效验证表明,225 ~ 375 g/hm2的用量对水稻纹枯病的防效可达88.04% ~97.61%,高于2个单剂的防效.[结论]噻呋酰胺与戊唑醇按5:1的比例复配对水稻纹枯病有较好的防治效果.%[Objective] The aim was to study the control effects of the complex formulation of thifluzamide and tebuconazole on rice sheath blight. [ Method ] The toxicity of the complex formulation of thifluzamide and tebuconazole on Rhizoctonia solani was determined by mycelial growth method and the field trials were performed. [ Result]The results showed that the EC50 for thifluzamide and tebuconazole in inhibiting mycelial growth of R. solani were 0.139 3 and 0.135 6 μg/ml, respectively. The toxicities of these reagents were similar. The synergistic factors ranged from 0. 8283 to 2. 535 0, indicating obvious synergistic effect. The Geld trials showed that 225 - 375 g/hm2 complex formulation provided 88.04% - 97.61 % control efficacy based on the synergistic factors, higher than that of the single reagent. [ Conclusion ] The complex formulation of thifluzamide and tebuconazole with 5-1 had good control effects on rice sheath blight.

  12. Standaardwoordeboek en kern-woordeboek: 'n Vergelykende evaluering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman L. Beyer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    OPSOMMING: Hierdie artikel probeer om 'n evaluering te gee van die vierde uitgawe van die Verklarende Handwoordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal wat in 2000 verskyn het, in vergelyking met Kernwoordeboek, waarvan die eerste uitgawe in 2000 gepubliseer is. Die ooreenkomste en verskille tussen die eksponente van hierdie twee woordeboektipes in die Afrikaanse leksikografie word uitgelig deur te fokus op die voorwerk, die makrostruktuur, die toegangstruktuur en aspekte van die mikrostruktuur in die sentrale teks. Gebruikersvriendelikheid en die leksikograaf se plig om verantwoording aan die gebruiker te doen, geld as belangrike kriteria. Die konsep kernwoordeskat vir leksikografiese doeleindes word ondersoek en metodes om die kernwoordeskat as makro-struktuur van 'n kernwoordeboek te bepaal, word krities beskou. Ander Afrikaanse woordeboeke word vergelykend betrek ten einde bepaalde aspekte van heersende leksikografiese praktyk uit te wys.

    Sleutelwoorde: EKSTERNE TOEGANGSTRUKTUUR, FREKWENSIE, GEBRUIKERS-VRIENDELIK, INTERNE TOEGANGSTRUKTUUR, KERNWOORDEBOEK, KERNWOORDESKAT, LEKSIKALE ITEM, LEKSIKOGRAAF, LEKSIKOGRAFIE, LEKSIKON, LEMMA, LEMMATEKEN, LEMMATISERING, MAKROSTRUKTUUR, METATEKS, MIKROSTRUKTUUR, NESTING, NISTING, SELEKSIE, SENTRALE TEKS, STANDAARDTAAL, STANDAARDWOORDEBOEK, SUBLEMMATISERING, TEKSVERDIGTING, TIPOLOGIE, TOEGANGSTRUKTUUR, TOELIG-TING, VERANTWOORDING, VOORWERK, WOORDESKAT

    *****

    ABSTRACT: Standard Dictionary and Core Vocabulary Dictionary: A Com-parative Evaluation. This paper attempts to give an evaluation of the fourth edition of the Verklarende Handwoordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal, which appeared in 2000, compared to Kernwoor-deboek, of which the first edition was published in 2000. The similarities and differences between the exponents of these two dictionary types in Afrikaans lexicography is addressed by focusing on the front matter, the macrostructure, the access structure and aspects of the microstructure

  13. Comportamento ingestivo de ovinos alimentados com farelo da vagem de algaroba associado a níveis de ureia = Intake behavior of sheep fed mesquite pod meal as a function of urea level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evanilton Moura Alves

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar os efeitos da inclusão de ureia em dietas contendo farelo da vagem de algaroba sobre o comportamento ingestivo de ovinos. Os tratamentos constituíram da inclusão de níveis de ureia na dieta, sendo: 0; 0,5; 1,0 e 1,5% da MS total. Foram utilizados oito animais, machos castrados, com peso médio de 33,5 kg, distribuídos em dois quadrados latinos 4 x 4. A avaliação do comportamento ingestivo ocorreu no 17º e 18º dia experimental, sendo registrado o tempo despendido em alimentação, ruminação e ócio. Foram realizadas observações por três períodos, das 10 às 12h, 14 às 16h e 18 às 20h, determinando-se o número de mastigações merícicas bolo ruminal-1 e o tempo gasto para ruminação de cada bolo. Os tempos de alimentação (317,19 min. e ruminação (468,59 min., tempo de mastigação total (13,10h dia-1, tempo gasto com mastigações bolo-1 (47,09 s, número de mastigações por bolo (60,65 e por dia (36.209,15 bem como as eficiências de alimentação e ruminação não foram influenciados pelos níveis de inclusão de ureia nas dietas. Ocomportamento ingestivo de ovinos não é afetado pela inclusão de ureia até o nível de 1,5% na MS da dieta contendo farelo da vagem de algaroba.The goal of this work was to evaluate the use of urea in diets containing mesquite pod meal on the intake behavior of sheep. Treatments consisted of the following urea levels in diet: 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of total dry matter. Eight gelded males, with mean weight of 33.5 kg, were used in an experimental design with two 4 x 4 Latin squares. Evaluation occurred at the 17th and 18th experiment day, by recording feeding, rumination and resting time. Three periods were used (10 a.m. to 12 p.m., 2 to 4 p.m. and 6 to 8 p.m. to record the number of chewing times per cud and time spent. Feeding (317.19 min. and rumination time (468.59 min., total chewing time (13.10h day-1, time spent for chewing per cud (47.09 s, number

  14. New jobs in the building sector. Employment effects of energy conservation in the built environment; Bouwen en banen. Werkgelegenheidseffecten van energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkerink, M.; Rougoor, W.; Tieben, B.; Blom, M.; Schepers, B.

    2012-12-15

    sprake is van een aanzienlijke vraaguitval. Op dit moment loopt de werkloosheid in de bouw snel op en bedraagt ongeveer 40.000 werkzoekenden. Een energiebesparing van 2 procent per jaar tot 2020 vraagt extra investeringen van in totaal circa 20 miljard euro. Bij een hoger tempo van energiebesparing (2-procent-plus) moeten alle koopwoningen naar energielabel C en alle huurwoningen naar energielabel B verbouwd worden. Voor die opwaardering is in totaal 33 miljard euro aan extra investeringen nodig. Tegenover de investeringskosten staan extra jaarlijkse besparingen op de energierekening van Nederlandse huishoudens. Deze kostenbesparingen bedragen euro 1 en euro 1,5 miljard (in respectievelijk 2% en 2%plus). Afhankelijk van de wijze van financiering kunnen huishoudens als gevolg van de investering in energiebesparing maandelijks geld overhouden.

  15. Metabolic studies of oxyguno in horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, April S.Y., E-mail: april.sy.wong-rl@hkjc.org.hk [Racing Laboratory, The Hong Kong Jockey Club, Sha Tin Racecourse, Sha Tin, N.T., Hong Kong (China); Ho, Emmie N.M. [Racing Laboratory, The Hong Kong Jockey Club, Sha Tin Racecourse, Sha Tin, N.T., Hong Kong (China); Wan, Terence S.M., E-mail: terence.sm.wan@hkjc.org.hk [Racing Laboratory, The Hong Kong Jockey Club, Sha Tin Racecourse, Sha Tin, N.T., Hong Kong (China); Lam, Kenneth K.H.; Stewart, Brian D. [Veterinary Regulation & International Liaison, The Hong Kong Jockey Club, Sha Tin Racecourse, Sha Tin, N.T, Hong Kong (China)

    2015-09-03

    Oxyguno (4-chloro-17α-methyl-17β-hydroxy-androst-4-ene-3,11-dione) is a synthetic oral anabolic androgenic steroid commercially available without a prescription. Manufacturers of oxyguno claim that its anabolic effect in metabolic enhancement exceeds that of the classic anabolic steroid testosterone by seven times, but its androgenic side-effects are only twelve percent of testosterone. Like other anabolic androgenic steroids, oxyguno is prohibited in equine sports. The metabolism of oxyguno in either human or horse has not been reported and therefore little is known about its metabolic fate. This paper describes the in vitro and in vivo metabolic studies of oxyguno in racehorses with an objective to identify the most appropriate target metabolites for detecting oxyguno administration. In vitro studies of oxyguno were performed using horse liver microsomes. Metabolites in the incubation mixtures were isolated by liquid–liquid extraction and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the EI mode after trimethylsilylation. In vitro metabolites identified include the stereoisomers of 4-chloro-17α-methyl-androst-4-ene-3-keto-11,17β-diol (M1a & M1b); 20-hydroxy-oxyguno (M2); and 4-chloro-17α-methyl-androst-4-ene-3-keto-11,17β,20-triol (M3). These novel metabolites were resulted from hydroxylation at C20, and/or reduction of the keto group at C11. For the in vivo studies, two geldings were each administered orally with a total dose of 210 mg oxyguno (52.5 mg twice daily for 2 days). Pre- and post-administration urine and blood samples were collected for analysis. The parent drug oxyguno was detected in both urine and blood, while numerous novel metabolites were detected in urine. The stereoisomers (M1a & M1b) observed in the in vitro studies were also detected in post-administration urine samples. Three other metabolites (M4 - M6) were detected. M4, 4-chloro-17α-methyl-androstane-11-keto-3,17β-diol, was resulted from reductions of the olefin

  16. Comportamento ingestivo de ovinos alimentados com farelo da vagem de algaroba associado a níveis de ureia - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i4.8832 Intake behavior of sheep fed mesquite pod meal as a function of urea level - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i4.8832

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Lúcia Albuquerque Pereira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar os efeitos da inclusão de ureia em dietas contendo farelo da vagem de algaroba sobre o comportamento ingestivo de ovinos. Os tratamentos constituíram da inclusão de níveis de ureia na dieta, sendo: 0; 0,5; 1,0 e 1,5% da MS total. Foram utilizados oito animais, machos castrados, com peso médio de 33,5 kg, distribuídos em dois quadrados latinos 4 x 4. A avaliação do comportamento ingestivo ocorreu no 17º e 18º dia experimental, sendo registrado o tempo despendido em alimentação, ruminação e ócio. Foram realizadas observações por três períodos, das 10 às 12h, 14 às 16h e 18 às 20h, determinando-se o número de mastigações merícicas bolo ruminal-1 e o tempo gasto para ruminação de cada bolo. Os tempos de alimentação (317,19 min. e ruminação (468,59 min., tempo de mastigação total (13,10h dia-1, tempo gasto com mastigações bolo-1 (47,09 s, número de mastigações por bolo (60,65 e por dia (36.209,15 bem como as eficiências de alimentação e ruminação não foram influenciados pelos níveis de inclusão de ureia nas dietas. O comportamento ingestivo de ovinos não é afetado pela inclusão de ureia até o nível de 1,5% na MS da dieta contendo farelo da vagem de algaroba.The goal of this work was to evaluate the use of urea in diets containing mesquite pod meal on the intake behavior of sheep. Treatments consisted of the following urea levels in diet: 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of total dry matter. Eight gelded males, with mean weight of 33.5 kg, were used in an experimental design with two 4 x 4 Latin squares. Evaluation occurred at the 17th and 18th experiment day, by recording feeding, rumination and resting time. Three periods were used (10 a.m. to 12 p.m., 2 to 4 p.m. and 6 to 8 p.m. to record the number of chewing times per cud and time spent. Feeding (317.19 min. and rumination time (468.59 min., total chewing time (13.10h day-1, time spent for chewing per cud (47.09 s, number

  17. Exact Solutions of Chemically Reactive Solute Distribution in MHD Boundary Layer Flow over a Shrinking Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chandaneswar Midya

    2012-01-01

    An analytical study of the distribution of a reactant solute undergoing a first-order chemical reaction in the boundary layer flow of an electrically conducting incompressible Buid over a linearly shrinking surface is presented. The Row is permeated by an externally applied magnetic Geld normal to the plane of the flow. The equations governing the Row and concentration Reid are reduced into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations using similarity variables. Closed form exact solutions of the reduced concentration equation are obtained for both prescribed power-law surface concentration (PSC) and power-law wall mass flux (PMF) as boundary conditions. The study reveals that the concentration over a shrinking sheet is signiRcantly different from that of a stretching surface. It s found that te solute boundary layer thickness is enhanced with the increasing values of the Schmidt number and the power-law index parameter, but decreases with enhanced vaJues of magnetic and reaction rate parameters for the PSC case. For the PMF case, the solute boundary layer thickness decreases with the increase of the Schmidt number, magnetic and reaction rate parameter for power-law index parameter n = 0. Negative solute boundary layer thickness is observed for the PMF case when n = 1 and 2, and these facts may not be realized in real-world applications.%An analytical study of the distribution of a reactant solute undergoing a first-order chemical reaction in the boundary layer flow of an electrically conducting incompressible fluid over a linearly shrinking surface is presented.The flow is permeated by an externally applied magnetic field normal to the plane of the flow.The equations governing the flow and concentration field are reduced into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations using similarity variables.Closed form exact solutions of the reduced concentration equation are obtained for both prescribed power-law surface concentration (PSC) and power-law wall

  18. Autologous implant of bone marrow mononuclear stem-cells as treatment for equine bicipital tendonitis: case report Implante autólogo de células mononucleares de médula ósea como tratamiento de tendinitis bicipital equina: reporte de caso clínico

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    BC Menarim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bicipital bursitis in the horse, the inflammation of the bicipital tendon and its surrounding bursa, has been reported to represent a low percentage of lameness cause. However, it is the main cause of lameness associated to the shoulder region and it has been under diagnosed. Due to high recurrence in different types of tendon injuries, treatments aiming to re-establish tendon functionality have been a focus of research. The aim of this study is to report the implant of a bone marrow mononuclear cell fraction as treatment for bicipital bursitis in a horse. A 7 year old crossbred draught gelding was presented with severe lameness of the left forelimb and pain in the shoulder region. Clinical and ultrasonographic evaluation revealed hemorrhagic synovial fluid, decrease of lameness after shoulder joint anesthesia and bicipital tendon fibers rupture and inflammation. The patient was successfully treated by triamcinolone injection adjacent to the tendon lesion followed by intralesional injection of bone marrow mononuclear cells seven days after the first treatment. Also, rest and controlled exercise were performed. Further clinical and ultrasound evaluations were executed at days 2, 15, 35, 75 and 120. After day 120 the horse started working and despite bicipital bursitis has been reported to exhibit high recurrence, neither clinical nor ultrasonographic signs of recurrence were reported for 15 months after lameness onset. These results suggest that use of regenerative medicine associated to rest and a controlled exercise protocol, accelerated tendon repair, reduced recovery period and allowed successful return to working activities without recurrence.La bursitis bicipital es la principal causa de cojera asociada al hombro equino, sin embargo representa un pequeño porcentaje de las causas de claudicaciones en caballos. Debido a la alta recurrencia observada en casos de tendinitis, tratamientos en base a medicina regenerativa se han tornado en un

  19. Aumento do nível de óleo em dietas isoenergéticas para cavalos submetidos a exercício Increase of oil level in isoenergetic diets of exercising horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Marqueze

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da inclusão de óleo de soja na dieta foi avaliado em 4 cavalos machos castrados, mestiços Quarto de Milha, com idade aproximada de 42 meses e peso médio inicial de 382kg. Os cavalos foram submetidos a exercício de intensidade e duração média e receberam a dieta controle (sem óleo de soja e a dieta com óleo de soja (4,7% de óleo duas vezes ao dia, por 3 períodos de 21 dias, num delineamento do tipo Reversão Simples. A ração foi fornecida de modo a proporcionar uma ingestão diária isoprotéica e isoenergética para os dois tratamentos. Foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: freqüência cardíaca (FC, freqüência respiratória (FR e a concentração de glicogênio muscular, antes do exercício e 20 minutos após o término do exercício, e os níveis plasmáticos de glicose e de lactato, antes do exercício e aos 10, 20, 30 e 50 minutos após o exercício. O aumento do nível de óleo na dieta não influenciou significativamente (P>0,05 a FC, a FR, os níveis de glicose e de lactato, antes e após o exercício. A concentração de glicogênio muscular foi maior (PThe effect of soybean oil inclusion in the diet of four mature Quarter horse cross geldings, having approximately 42 months of age and averaging 382kg was evaluated. The horses were submitted to a moderate intensity exercise, and received the control diet (without soybean oil and the diet containing soybean oil (4.7% twice a day for three periods of 21 days in a Switch-back design. The amount of ration was offered in a way to achieve a daily isoproteic and isoenergetic intake for both treatments. The following parameters were evaluated: heart rate (HR, respiratory rate (RR and muscle glycogen concentration, before and 20 minutes after the end of the exercise, and glucose and lactate plasma levels before the exercise and at 10, 20, 30 and 50 minutes after the exercise. The increase of oil level in the diet did not affect significantly (P>0.05 the HR, the RR

  20. Incorporation of sunflower oil or linseed oil in equine compound feedstuff: 1 Effects on haematology and on fatty acids profiles in the red blood cells membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patoux, S; Istasse, L

    2016-10-01

    Eight trained horses (6 mares - 2 geldings, 6 Selle Français, 2 Trotteur Français, 12 ± 5.8 years old, 538 ± 72.5 kg) were offered three diets to potentially affect haematology and the fatty acids (FA) profiles in red blood cells (RBC) membranes. The control diet was composed of 50% hay and 50% concentrate containing mainly rolled barley (48%) and whole spelt (48%). In the case of sunflower oil diet, sunflower oil (62.0% of α-linoleic acid, LA) was incorporated at a rate of 8% and substituted by an equal proportion of barley. In the linseed oil diet, first cold-pressed linseed oil (56.0% of α-linolenic acid, ALA) was utilised at a similar incorporation rate of 8%. The experimental design consisted of three 3 × 3 latin squares with one being incomplete. Each period lasted 8 weeks. On average, the total feed intake (straw excluded) was 6.2 kg/day and the oil intake 0.278 kg/day. The oils significantly increased the concentrations of RBC, haemoglobin and haematocrit. The oils had no significant impact on the haematology profiles except that platelets tended to decrease in both oil-based diets. The most abundant FA in the RBC membranes of the control diet samples were in the decreasing order LA, C18:1n9-7, C18:0, C16:0 and the arachidonic acid (ARA) respectively. The sunflower oil supplementation slightly increased the amount of LA (36.23 vs. 34.72 mg/dl, p = 0.55) and C22:4n-6 (0.21 vs. 0.09 mg/dl, p = 0.22), while the decrease was observed in case of other FA (C16:1n-7, 1.08 vs. 1.42 mg/dl, p = 0.03), C20:3n-6 (0.22 vs. 0.31 mg/dl, p = 0.02), and ARA (1.17 vs. 1.63 mg/dl, p = 0.08). Linseed oil induced similar effects in the n-6 series FA profiles. In the context of practical applications, our results show that linseed oil incorporation in the diet could improve the haematology and the n-3 FA profiles potentially leading to an increased performance. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Seniausias baltų rašto paminklas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytautas Mažiulis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available DAS ÄLTESTE BALTISCHE SCHRIFTDENKMALZusammenfassungDas von Stephen McCluskey kürzlich in einem Foliant (F.V. 2 der Öffentlichen Bibliothek der Universität Basel entdeckte altpreußische Manuskript (Epigraph wird vom graphi­schen und sprachlichen Standpunkt aus untersucht. Dieser Baseler altpreußische Text (BAT — vermutlich aus der Mitte des XIV. Jh. — ist das älteste baltische Schriftdenkmal. Es wird gefolgert, daß der BAT ein Hexameter ist; der BAT kann folgenderweise transliteriert, rekonstruiert und ins Litauische und Deutsche übersetzt werden:Kayle         rekyfe-       thoneaw       labonache thewelyfe-*kails            *rīkīs             *tu *n'au      *labans         *tēvelis„Sveikas,     pone!          Tu nebe       geras          dėdelis,„Zum Wohl, Herr!         Du bist kein gutes Onkelchen mehr,Eg-            koyte-        poyte-         nykoyte-      pen͡ega        doyte-*īk                 *k(vitu       *pöt               *nik(vitu    *penigan       *dtjeigu           nori tu        gerti, [bet]   ne[be]nori tu pinigą        duoti",wenn          du trinken   willst, [aber] kein Geld    [mehr] geben willst".Der BAT stammt wohl von einem Studiosus (oder von einem Nachahmer des studentischen Sprachstils; dieser Text ist ein gereimter im hexametrischen Versmaß abgefaßter Spruch, mit dem sich ein Studiosus (in einer Trinkgesellschaft an einem anderen Studiosus (einen Trinkbruder wendet, den er humoristisch-ironisch „Herr" und „Onkelchen" nennt. Es hat sich herausgestellt, daß die Rekonstruktion des BAT im Grande in der Beseitigung von bestimmten phonetisch-graphischen Manierlichkeiten besteht, die durch die studentische Art der Reim-und Versmaßbildung bedingt sind. Nach solch einer

  2. 磁感应热疗联合125I籽源近距离放疗研究%Feasibility of the Magnetic Induction Hyperthermia Combined with 125I Brachytherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡东阳; 李立; 孔维超; 赵凌云; 唐劲天

    2013-01-01

    Both alloy thermo-seed and radiation seed implanted by magnetic induction hyperthermia are at the same level with the scale. When the thermo-seed and radiation seed implant into the tumor tissue at the same time, thermal field and radiation will act together on the tumor cells, enhancing the destruction effect of tumor cell. The electromagnetic theory is applied to calculate the heat production power by thermo-seed and radiation seed in the RF magnetic Geld; and the thermo-seed and radiation seed are placed with different distributions into the RF magnetic field of the magnetic induction equipment in order to examine the temperature rise curve under various conditions by adjusting the magnetic field parameters. The heating effect of radiation seed in the RF magnetic field are studied in order to verify the safety of the radiation seed; with alloy thermo-seed and radiation seed are in a mixed configuration, the heating effect is studied in order to verify the effectiveness of the combined therapy. The theoretical calculations indicate lhat the magneto-caloric effect of radiation seed source in the RF magnetic'field of magnetic induction therapy (50~500kHz) is insignificant, and the safety of hyperthermia and radiotherapy has been verified. When radiation seed mixing with thermo-seed are implanted into the agar model and the muscle tissue in vitro, the temperature in the media implanted area is far above 43℃, realizing the sensibilization that hyperthermia has on radiotherapy in the implanted-area.%磁感应热疗植入合金热籽与放射籽源在尺度上处于同一水平,当热籽和放射籽源同时植入肿瘤组织,热场和辐射将共同作用于肿瘤细胞,提高肿瘤细胞的杀灭作用.本文应用电磁学理论计算射频磁场中热籽和放射籽源的产热功率.并将不同分布的热籽和放射籽源置于磁感应设备射频磁场中,调节磁场参数,观察不同条件下的温升曲线.同时研究了放射籽源在磁感

  3. Farelo da vagem de algaroba associado a níveis de ureia na alimentação de ovinos: balanço de nitrogênio, N-ureico no plasma e parâmetros ruminais - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i3.12759 Mesquite pod meal associated with levels of urea on feeding sheep: nitrogen balance, plasma urea-N and ruminal parameters - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i3.12759

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gonsalves Neto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar os efeitos da inclusão de ureia em dietas contendo farelo da vagem de algaroba sobre o balanço de nitrogênio, N-uréico no plasma e parâmetros ruminais em ovinos. Foram utilizados oito animais, machos castrados, com peso médio de 33,5 kg, distribuídos em dois quadrados latinos 4 x 4. Os tratamentos constituíram da inclusão de níveis de ureia na dieta, sendo: 0; 0,5; 1,0 e 1,5% da MS total. A dieta foi fornecida como dieta total na relação volumoso:concentrado de 40:60 com base na MS total da dieta. Foi realizada a coleta total de urina e fezes e determinada a excreção de nitrogênio. Foi coletado sangue, seguido com a extração do plasma e determinação do N-uréico. Para avaliação do pH e N-amoniacal no líquido ruminal foram utilizados quatro animais fistulados no rúmen. A ingestão de N (31,68 g/dia e perdas vias fecal (7,94 g/dia e urinária (9,95 g/dia não sofreram alteração. As concentrações de N-amoniacal e N-uréico no plasma aumentaram de forma linear. O pH ruminal foi semelhante entre os tratamentos. A inclusão de uréia não influencia o balanço de nitrogênio, porém eleva as concentrações de N-amoniacal no rúmen e N-uréico no plasma podendo influenciar o gasto de energia no organismo.The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of including urea in diets containing mesquite pod meal on nitrogen balance, plasma urea-N and ruminal parameters. Eight gelded males, with mean weight of 33.5 kg, were divided into two 4 x 4 Latin squares. Treatments consisted of following urea levels in diet: 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of total dry matter. The diet was provided as total diet a 40:60 forage: concentrate ratio based on total diet DM. Total urine and feces were collected and nitrogen excretion was determined. Blood was collected, followed by plasma extraction and quantification of urea nitrogen. To evaluate pH and ammonia-N in rumen fluid, four rumen fistulated animals were used

  4. Multiple scattering correction to measurement of beam attenuation in bubble wakes%气泡尾流光束衰减测量中的复散射校正

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁刚; 孙春生; 张晓晖

    2012-01-01

    为了分析复散射对气泡尾流衰减测量的影响,采用小角度辐射传输方程,引入了表征复散射效应强弱的校正因子,通过数值求解分析了典型的尾流气泡尺度分布和数密度条件下复散射校正因子与接收视场角、光学厚度、光束大小和接收截面大小等参量之间的关系.结果表明,接收视场角在前向小角度范围内的变化对复散射校正因子的影响很大,而视场角较大时对复散射校正因子的影响基本相同;光学厚度的变化对复散射校正因子的影响显著,且在光学厚度小于1时,影响更明显;接收截面大小的变化在光学厚度小于1时对复散射校正因子的影响很小,但在光学厚度较大时,对复散射校正因子的影响比较明显;光束大小的变化对复散射因子的影响相对较小,且在光束束腰较大时对复散射因子的影响基本不变.该研究为尾流光束衰减测量条件的选择和优化提供了理论依据.%For analyzing the influence of multiple scattering on measuring beam attenuation in bubble wakes, the correction coefficient was introduced which denotes the extent of multiple scattering, and its theoretical formulations was derived by means of a narrow angle approximation solution to the radiation transfer equation. Given a typical bubbles size distribution function and number density in bubbles wakes, the relation among the correction coefficient and detector Geld of view ( FOV), wake optical depth, beam size, received section size were analyzed by numerical calculation. Analysis shows that the influence of FOV in forward small angle on the correction coefficient is great, but it has a little change when the FOV is wide; and the impact of optical depth on the correction coefficient is prominent, besides the impact is more prominent when the optical depth is less than 1; and the effect of received section size on the correction coefficient is very little when depth is less lhan 1, but it

  5. Plasma rico em plaquetas no tratamento de tendinite induzida em eqüinos: avaliação ultra-sonográfica Platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of induced tendinitis in equines: ultrasonographic evaluation

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    Leandro Maia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito do plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP no tratamento da tendinite induzida no tendão do músculo flexor digital superficial (TFDS de eqüinos mediante avaliação ultra-sonográfica. Para isso foram utilizados seis eqüinos hígidos machos castrados, com idade de 8-15 anos (x=12 anos. A tendinite do TFDS foi provocada em ambos os membros torácicos, mediante a administração intratendínea de 2,5mg de colagenase (2,5mg.µL-1, sendo esse procedimento considerado o início da fase experimental. Doze dias após a indução da tendinite, os animais foram submetidos a dois tratamentos: sendo que na lesão efetuada no TFDS direito (grupo tratado, GT, foram administrados 2,5mL de PRP ativado com cloreto de cálcio a 0,0125mol.L-1, contendo concentrações variando de 320.000 a 500.000 plaquetas.µL-1; na tendinite do TFDS esquerdo (grupo controle, GC, foram injetados 2,5mL de solução salina a 0,9%. Após cinco dias, os animais foram submetidos à atividade física controlada e progressiva durante 30 dias. Os exames ultra-sonográficos foram realizados antes e após indução da tendinite (48 horas após e no 7º, 12º, 14º, 21º, 28º, 35º, 42º dias do experimento, sendo avaliado a área transversal do tendão (ATT, área transversal da lesão (ATL, o percentual da ATL, a intensidade e ecogenicidade da lesão, assim como o paralelismo das fibras colágenas. Os resultados revelaram redução (PThe objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP in the treatment of induced tendinitis in the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT of horses through ultrasonographic evaluation. Thus, six 8 to15-year-old healthy gelding horses (x=12 years were used. Tendinitis of the SDFT was provoked in both forelimbs via intratendineous administration of 2.5mg of collagenase (2.5mg.mL-1, what was considered as beginning of the experimental phase. Twelve days after induced tendinitis, the horses

  6. Ervaringen van schaamte en psychologisch lijden door voedselbankklanten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hille Hoogland

    2016-03-01

    qualify for a food parcel. Shame is also felt when going to the foodbank and as result of the lack of choice of food. Thirdly, we found a category of shame that was related to the restrictions of consumption. The foodbank clients feel that they are unable to buy the food or clothing that they want or to take part in activities.In conclusion, we found, in line with other studies, that foodbank clients experience psychological suffering and feelings of shame. These feelings of shame relate to the stigma attached to being a foodbank client and are reinforced by the way the foodbanks operate. Foodbank clients feel that they have a lack of choice, not only at the foodbank, but also in the wider context of the consumer society. SAMENVATTINGErvaringen van schaamte en psychologisch lijden door voedselbankklanten Voedselbanken bestaan al meer dan tien jaar in Nederland en groeien in aantal en omvang. Er is beperkt wetenschappelijk onderzoek gedaan naar voedselbankklanten in Nederland en ook in internationale studies ontbreekt het klantperspectief. In dit artikel presenteren wij bevindingen uit 45 diepte-interviews met voedselbankklanten in Amsterdam, waarbij wij hun ervaring centraal stelden. De centrale vraag die wij in dit artikel beantwoorden is: welke rol spelen financiële problemen, schaamte en andere emoties bij voedselbankklanten in Amsterdam? Voedselbankklanten zeggen dat zij besparen op consumptiemiddelen en activiteiten vanwege hun gelimiteerde budget. Het gebrek aan geld beperkt een aantal respondenten in hun sociale leven. In reactie op geldzorgen laten sommigen hun post ongeopend of zij verdoven zich. De respondenten uiten dat zij stress, slapeloosheid, angst, paniek, depressie en/of somberheid door geldgebrek ervaren. Dit vatten wij samen als psychologisch lijden. Hiernaast is schaamte een veel genoemde emotie. Ook uit andere studies bleek dat schaamte veel voorkomt bij voedselbankklanten. Wij zagen hiervoor drie verschillende oorzaken: het stempel voedselbankklant

  7. Angiografia in vivo para avaliação da vascularização do casco de eqüinos In vivo angiography for evaluation of equine foot vasculature

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    Carlos Henrique Maciel Brunner

    2008-02-01

    vasculature on horses in standing position. Six gelding and nine mares were used in this study, with age going from 6 to 8 years old. After the perineural anesthesia of lateral or medial palmar digital nerve and the surgical preparation an intravenous catheter was fixed to the palmar digital vein, lateral or medial. After performing a simple radiography an elastic bandage and tourniquet was applied to the area. The animal and the RX equipment were adequately positioned and 20mL of contrast were injected, followed by a first radiological exposition in dorsum palmar incidence. In sequence the tourniquet and the elastic bandage were removed for the dissipation of the contrast, keeping the venous access with infusion of isotonic saline solution. The same procedure was performed with the hoof submitted to the thermal treatment with warmed water and cold water. In four animals a radiopaque image, around each dermic lamina with vasodilatation induced by the heat was obtained, with poorly defined edges and blurred aspect. On the other hand, it was observed reduction of the radiopaque laminar image because of the vasoconstriction caused by the treatment with cold water. This fact can be seen only in four radiographies, but it has not being repeated in all angiographies performed. In seven radiographies incomplete contrast filling was observed. For this reason, it was not possible to compare the radiographs performed with no thermal treatment, that have had the appropriate filling of the contrast. The digital angiography in horses was showed to be a sensible method to evidence in vivo vasoconstriction and vasodilatation inside the hoof, however this method cannot be use to analyze alteration in the laminar perfusion because some techniques artefactual.

  8. Ruptures politiques et mutations comptables au bailliage d’Hesdin en Artois au XIVe siècle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Santamaria

    2011-11-01

    management methods such as landfills and standardization carried out by the supervisory authorities, have resulted in a change of use of such accounts, instruments of control rather than management. Codicological trends observed between the years 1320 and 1390 refer to the complexity of the financial enginery based upon financial writing games, so the virtualization of money, demanding an indispensable tool to control financial flows on a scale exceeding the frameworks Artois. From the year 1380, the specialists in charge of this control, namely the people of the accounts, were the catalysts for this codicological transformation started fifty years ago rained.Politische Unterbrechungen und Veränderungen der Rechnungskunst in der Vogtei von Hesdin am XIV. Jahrhunderts  - Die Rechnungen des Rentamts der Vogtei von Hesdin im Artois haben sich grundlegend im Laufe des XIV. Jahrhunderts verwandelt, seit Pergamentrollen, die nur einige Monate schreiben ein, bis zu weiten Registern, die unter ihnen völlige Reihen von Jahresabschlüssen verbinden. Nun parallel wechselte die Grafschaft von Artois, die besonders unter der Kontrolle der kapetischen Herzöge von Burgund, von der französischen Monarchie, vom Grafen von Flandern geht, um schließlich dem Herzog Valois de Bourgogne zuzufallen. Diese Verfassungsveränderungen hatten diese Umwälzungen begleitet und die Einführung neuer Verwaltungsmethoden, wie die Entlastungen und die durch den Kontrolldienst operierte Standardisierung, hat eine Änderung des Gebrauches dieser Rechnungen fortgezogen. Dieser werden Kontrollwerkzeuge. Die zwischen den Jahren 1320 und 1390 festgestellten Codicologie-Entwicklungen enthüllen die Kompliziertheit eines Finanzengineeringes, die immer grösser ist. Dieses Engineering ist auf Schriftumbuchungen gegründet, das heißt eine Abstraktion von Geld, der ein unentbehrliches Werkzeug für die Kontrolle der Geldbewegungen in einem größeren Maßstab als Artois fordert. Ab Jahren 1380 waren die

  9. La gestion des galères de Savoie. 1560-1637. Aspects administratifs et comptables

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    Michel Bottin

    2012-01-01

    ßt im Morgengrauen auf eine neue Weise, öffentliches Geld zu verwalten. Der rechnungspflichtige und administrative Aufbau von Emmanuel Philibert kann als Rahmen dienen, um die Modernität zu schätzen.