WorldWideScience

Sample records for gelatins electronic resource

  1. Electron beam effects on gelatin polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamura, Patricia Y.; Shimazaki, Kleber; Souza, Clecia de M.; Moura, Esperidiana A.B.; Mastro, Nelida L. del, E-mail: patyoko@yahoo.co [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Colombo, Maria A., E-mail: mascolombo@yahoo.com.b [Faculdade de Tecnologia da Zona Leste, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The main field of electron-beam radiation processing applications is the modification of polymeric material. Polymer development includes new pathways to produce natural polymers with better mechanical and barrier properties and thermal stability. The aim of this paper was to investigate the behavior of a gelatin/acrylamide polymer treated by electron-beam radiation. Gelatin is a heterogeneous mixture of water-soluble proteins of high average molecular mass derived by hydrolytic action from animal collagen, a fibrous insoluble protein, which is widely found in nature as the major constituent of skin, bones and connective tissue. Hydrolyzed collagen is composed of a unique sequence of amino acids, characterized particularly by the high content of glycine, proline and hydroxyproline. Among biomaterials, gelatin is an interesting material because is a partially crystalline polymer and has a relatively low melting point. Samples of gelatin together with glycerin as plasticizer and acrylamide as copolymer were irradiated with doses of 10 kGy and 40 kGy, using an electron beam accelerator, dose rate 22.41kGy/s, at room temperature in presence of air. After irradiation, some preliminary analyses were done like viscometry, texture analyses and colorimetry. The results of the diverse tests showed changes that can be ascribed to radiation-induced crosslinking. The electron-beam processed acrylamide-gelatin polymer using glycerin as plasticizer must be first extensively characterized before to be used for general applications. (author)

  2. Electron beam effects on gelatin polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inamura, Patricia Y.; Shimazaki, Kleber; Souza, Clecia de M.; Moura, Esperidiana A.B.; Mastro, Nelida L. del; Colombo, Maria A.

    2009-01-01

    The main field of electron-beam radiation processing applications is the modification of polymeric material. Polymer development includes new pathways to produce natural polymers with better mechanical and barrier properties and thermal stability. The aim of this paper was to investigate the behavior of a gelatin/acrylamide polymer treated by electron-beam radiation. Gelatin is a heterogeneous mixture of water-soluble proteins of high average molecular mass derived by hydrolytic action from animal collagen, a fibrous insoluble protein, which is widely found in nature as the major constituent of skin, bones and connective tissue. Hydrolyzed collagen is composed of a unique sequence of amino acids, characterized particularly by the high content of glycine, proline and hydroxyproline. Among biomaterials, gelatin is an interesting material because is a partially crystalline polymer and has a relatively low melting point. Samples of gelatin together with glycerin as plasticizer and acrylamide as copolymer were irradiated with doses of 10 kGy and 40 kGy, using an electron beam accelerator, dose rate 22.41kGy/s, at room temperature in presence of air. After irradiation, some preliminary analyses were done like viscometry, texture analyses and colorimetry. The results of the diverse tests showed changes that can be ascribed to radiation-induced crosslinking. The electron-beam processed acrylamide-gelatin polymer using glycerin as plasticizer must be first extensively characterized before to be used for general applications. (author)

  3. Gelatin/piassava composites treated by Electron Beam Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takinami, Patricia Yoko Inamura; Shimazaki, Kleber; Moura, Esperidiana Augusta Barretos de; Mastro, Nelida Lucia del; Colombo, Maria Aparecida

    2010-01-01

    Piassava (Attalea funifera Mart) fiber has been investigated as reinforcement for polymer composites with potential for practical applications. The purpose of the present work was to assess the behavior of specimens of piassava fiber and gelatin irradiated with electron beam at different doses and percentage. The piassava/gelatin specimens were made with 5 and 10% (w/w) piassava fiber, gelatin 25% (w/w), glycerin as plasticizer and acrylamide as copolymer. The samples were irradiated up to 40 kGy using an electron beam accelerator, at room temperature in presence of air. Preliminary results showed mechanical properties enhancement with the increase in radiation dose. (author)

  4. Preparation of spherical silver particles for solar cell electronic paste with gelatin protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ao Yiwei; Yang Yunxia; Yuan Shuanglong; Ding Lihua; Chen Guorong

    2007-01-01

    Spherical silver particles used in electronic paste for solar cell were prepared using the chemical reduction method with ammonia as a complex agent, hydrazine hydrate as a reducing agent, and gelatin as a protective agent. The gelatin protective mechanism in the preparing process of spherical silver particles was studied. Observations of SEM and results of laser particle size analysis and ultraviolet absorption spectra demonstrate the formation of the coordinative complex of silver ions with gelatin in aqueous solution which accelerated the reduction of silver ions. Moreover, gelatin can promote the nucleation of the metallic silver particles, thus beneficiating availability of the monodisperse spherical silver particles

  5. Studies on electronic structure of interfaces between Ag and gelatin for stabilization of Ag nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Tadaaki; Uchida, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    Extremely high stability of Ag nanoparticles in photographic materials has forced us to study the electronic structures of the interfaces between thin layers of Ag, Au, and Pt and their surface membranes in ambient atmosphere by photoelectron yield spectroscopy in air and Kelvin probe method. Owing to the Fermi level equalization between a metal layer and a membrane coming from air, the electron transfer took place from the membrane to Pt and Au layers and from an Ag layer to the membrane, giving the reason for poor stability of Ag nanoparticles in air. The control of the Fermi level of an Ag layer with respect to that of a gelatin membrane in air could be widely made according to Nernst's equation by changing the pH and pAg values of an aqueous gelatin solution used to form the membrane, and thus available to stabilize Ag nanoparticles in a gelatin matrix. (author)

  6. Electronic Resource Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ellingsen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer applications which deal with electronic resource management (ERM are quite a recent development. They have grown out of the need to manage the burgeoning number of electronic resources particularly electronic journals. Typically, in the early years of e-journal acquisition, library staff provided an easy means of accessing these journals by providing an alphabetical list on a web page. Some went as far as categorising the e-journals by subject and then grouping the journals either on a single web page or by using multiple pages. It didn't take long before it was recognised that it would be more efficient to dynamically generate the pages from a database rather than to continually edit the pages manually. Of course, once the descriptive metadata for an electronic journal was held within a database the next logical step was to provide administrative forms whereby that metadata could be manipulated. This in turn led to demands for incorporating more information and more functionality into the developing application.

  7. Effect of electron beam irradiation on mechanical properties of gelatin/Brazil nut shell fiber composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inamura, Patricia Y.; Shimazaki, Kleber; Moura, Esperidiana Augusta Barretos de; Mastro, Nelida L. del; Colombo, Maria Aparecida; Rosa, Ricardo de

    2010-01-01

    The use of natural fiber as polymeric matrix reinforcement has attracted interest, as fibers are renewable, of low cost, biodegradable and possesses non-toxic properties. In the present paper, Brazil nuts (Bertholletia excelsa) shell fiber (10% w/w) were mixed with gelatin (25% w/w), glycerin as plasticizer and acrylamide as copolymer to investigate the resultant mechanical properties effects upon ionizing radiation. The samples were irradiated at 40 kGy using a Dynamitron electron beam accelerator, at room temperature in the presence of air. The results showed that samples of gelatin with 10% of Brazil nuts shell fiber and irradiated at 40 kGy presented promising results for mechanical performance. (author)

  8. Electron beam irradiation and addition of poly(vinyl alcohol) affect gelatin based-films properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inamura, Patricia Y.; Mastro, Nelida L. del

    2015-01-01

    Gelatin is a mixture of high molecular weight polypeptides, product of denaturation, and partial structural degradation of collagen, and one of the first materials employed as biomaterials. Aqueous solutions of gelatin (10%), glycerin as plasticizer and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) up to 10% were prepared in a water bath at 70 deg C under constant stirring. Films were irradiated with 10 and 20 kGy using an electron beam accelerator, dose rate of 22.4 kGy s -1 , energy 1.407 MeV, at room temperature, in the presence of air. After irradiation, mechanical properties, color measurements, water absorption, moisture and film solubility were analyzed. The films showed an improvement in maximum force to rupture the film with increase of the irradiation dose. The higher the puncture force to rupture the lower the elongation at break. Colorimetric tests showed significant differences between samples, and also differences depending of the applied radiation dose, and analyzed color parameter. In water absorption tests a decrease of absorption percentage was found with the increase of the dose for PVA free and 5% PVA samples. The addition of PVA increased the water absorption for all applied doses. The modifications in gelatin colloids can be appointed to radiation-induced crosslinking. Also, the PVA concentration in the samples influenced the resultant material properties. (author)

  9. Electron beam irradiation and addition of poly(vinyl alcohol) affect gelatin based-films properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamura, Patricia Y.; Mastro, Nelida L. del, E-mail: pinamura@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Gelatin is a mixture of high molecular weight polypeptides, product of denaturation, and partial structural degradation of collagen, and one of the first materials employed as biomaterials. Aqueous solutions of gelatin (10%), glycerin as plasticizer and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) up to 10% were prepared in a water bath at 70 deg C under constant stirring. Films were irradiated with 10 and 20 kGy using an electron beam accelerator, dose rate of 22.4 kGy s{sup -1}, energy 1.407 MeV, at room temperature, in the presence of air. After irradiation, mechanical properties, color measurements, water absorption, moisture and film solubility were analyzed. The films showed an improvement in maximum force to rupture the film with increase of the irradiation dose. The higher the puncture force to rupture the lower the elongation at break. Colorimetric tests showed significant differences between samples, and also differences depending of the applied radiation dose, and analyzed color parameter. In water absorption tests a decrease of absorption percentage was found with the increase of the dose for PVA free and 5% PVA samples. The addition of PVA increased the water absorption for all applied doses. The modifications in gelatin colloids can be appointed to radiation-induced crosslinking. Also, the PVA concentration in the samples influenced the resultant material properties. (author)

  10. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kimberly R.

    2015-01-01

    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  11. Fish gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boran, Gokhan; Regenstein, Joe M

    2010-01-01

    Gelatin is a multifunctional ingredient used in foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and photographic films as a gelling agent, stabilizer, thickener, emulsifier, and film former. As a thermoreversible hydrocolloid with a narrower gap between its melting and gelling temperatures, both of which are below human body temperature, gelatin provides unique advantages over carbohydrate-based gelling agents. Gelatin is mostly produced from pig skin, and cattle hides and bones. Some alternative raw materials have recently gained attention from both researchers and the industry not just because they overcome religious concerns shared by Jews and Muslims but also because they provide, in some cases, technological advantages over mammalian gelatins. Fish skins from a number of fish species are among the other sources that have been comprehensively studied as sources for gelatin production. Fish skins have a significant potential for the production of high-quality gelatin with different melting and gelling temperatures over a much wider range than mammalian gelatins, yet still have a sufficiently high gel strength and viscosity. Gelatin quality is industrially determined by gel strength, viscosity, melting or gelling temperatures, the water content, and microbiological safety. For gelatin manufacturers, yield from a particular raw material is also important. Recent experimental studies have shown that these quality parameters vary greatly depending on the biochemical characteristics of the raw materials, the manufacturing processes applied, and the experimental settings used for quality control tests. In this review, the gelatin quality achieved from different fish species is reviewed along with the experimental procedures used to determine gelatin quality. In addition, the chemical structure of collagen and gelatin, the collagen-gelatin conversion, the gelation process, and the gelatin market are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ecophysiology of gelatinous Nostoc colonies: unprecedented slow growth and survival in resource-poor and harsh environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2014-07-01

    The cyanobacterial genus Nostoc includes several species forming centimetre-large gelatinous colonies in nutrient-poor freshwaters and harsh semi-terrestrial environments with extended drought or freezing. These Nostoc species have filaments with normal photosynthetic cells and N2-fixing heterocysts embedded in an extensive gelatinous matrix of polysaccharides and many other organic substances providing biological and environmental protection. Large colony size imposes constraints on the use of external resources and the gelatinous matrix represents extra costs and reduced growth rates. The objective of this review is to evaluate the mechanisms behind the low rates of growth and mortality, protection against environmental hazards and the persistence and longevity of gelatinous Nostoc colonies, and their ability to economize with highly limiting resources. Simple models predict the decline in uptake of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and a decline in the growth rate of spherical freshwater colonies of N. pruniforme and N. zetterstedtii and sheet-like colonies of N. commune in response to a thicker diffusion boundary layer, lower external DIC concentration and higher organic carbon mass per surface area (CMA) of the colony. Measured growth rates of N. commune and N. pruniforme at high DIC availability comply with general empirical predictions of maximum growth rate (i.e. doubling time 10-14 d) as functions of CMA for marine macroalgae and as functions of tissue thickness for aquatic and terrestrial plants, while extremely low growth rates of N. zetterstedtii (i.e. doubling time 2-3 years) are 10-fold lower than model predictions, either because of very low ambient DIC and/or an extremely costly colony matrix. DIC uptake is limited by diffusion at low concentrations for all species, although they exhibit efficient HCO3(-) uptake, accumulation of respiratory DIC within the colonies and very low CO2 compensation points. Long light paths and light attenuation by

  13. Managing electronic resources a LITA guide

    CERN Document Server

    Weir, Ryan O

    2012-01-01

    Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

  14. Gelatin/chitosan biofilm: preparation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trindade, Luciane da C.; Nunes, Raquel A.; Diniz, Nadie K.S.; Braga, Carla R.C.; Silva, Suedina M. de Lima

    2011-01-01

    In this study, gelatin, chitosan and gelatin/chitosan bio films using the ratio of gelatin/chitosan (50/50) were prepared by casting method. The bio films prepared were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and dissolution ratio. According to the results, the incorporation of chitosan into gelatin indicate the decrease of crystallinity of chitosan, a compact structure without large pores and that the dissolution of gelatin/chitosan film is little influenced by hot water than gelatin films. (author)

  15. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-11-05

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration is to consolidate all electronic resources into a single and centralized location. This would allow for better information sharing among library staff.

  16. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  17. Reagent-Free Programming of Shape-Memory Behavior in Gelatin by Electron Beams: Experiments and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Stefanie; Mayr, Stefan G.

    2018-02-01

    Recent years have seen a paradigm shift in biomaterials toward stimuli-responsive switchable systems that actively interact with their environment. This work demonstrates how to turn the ubiquitous off-the-shelf material gelatin into such a smart biomaterial. This is achieved by realizing the shape-memory effect, viz., a temperature-induced transition from a secondary into a primary shape that has been programmed in the first place merely by exposure to energetic electrons without addition of potentially hazardous cross-linkers. While this scenario is experimentally quantified for exemplary actuators, a theoretical framework capable of unraveling the molecular foundations and predicting experiments is also presented. It particularly employs molecular dynamics modeling based on force fields that are also derived within this work. Implementing this functionality into a highly accepted material, these findings open an avenue for large-scale application in a broad range of areas.

  18. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system

  19. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration

  20. PRINCIPLES OF CONTENT FORMATION EDUCATIONAL ELECTRONIC RESOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О Ю Заславская

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers modern possibilities of information and communication technologies for the design of electronic educational resources. The conceptual basis of the open educational multimedia system is based on the modular architecture of the electronic educational resource. The content of the electronic training module can be implemented in several versions of the modules: obtaining information, practical exercises, control. The regularities in the teaching process in modern pedagogical theory are considered: general and specific, and the principles for the formation of the content of instruction at different levels are defined, based on the formulated regularities. On the basis of the analysis, the principles of the formation of the electronic educational resource are determined, taking into account the general and didactic patterns of teaching.As principles of the formation of educational material for obtaining information for the electronic educational resource, the article considers: the principle of methodological orientation, the principle of general scientific orientation, the principle of systemic nature, the principle of fundamentalization, the principle of accounting intersubject communications, the principle of minimization. The principles of the formation of the electronic training module of practical studies in the article include: the principle of systematic and dose based consistency, the principle of rational use of study time, the principle of accessibility. The principles of the formation of the module for monitoring the electronic educational resource can be: the principle of the operationalization of goals, the principle of unified identification diagnosis.

  1. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-01

    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system as potential replacements namely: Proquest 360 Resource Manager, Ex Libris Alma and Open Source CORAL ERMS. After comparing and trialling the systems, it was decided to go for Proquest 360 Resource Manager.

  2. CHALLENGES OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION RESOURCES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the role of policy for proper and efficient library services in the electronic era. It points out some of the possible dangers of embarking in electronic resources without a proper focus at hand. Thus, it calls for today's librarians and policy makers to brainstorm and come up with working policies suitable to ...

  3. Library training to promote electronic resource usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Increasing the usage of electronic resources is an issue of concern for many libraries all over the world. Several studies stress the importance of information literacy and instruction in order to increase the usage. Design/methodology/approach: The present article presents the results...

  4. Electronic resource management systems a workflow approach

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Elsa K

    2014-01-01

    To get to the bottom of a successful approach to Electronic Resource Management (ERM), Anderson interviewed staff at 11 institutions about their ERM implementations. Among her conclusions, presented in this issue of Library Technology Reports, is that grasping the intricacies of your workflow-analyzing each step to reveal the gaps and problems-at the beginning is crucial to selecting and implementing an ERM. Whether the system will be used to fill a gap, aggregate critical data, or replace a tedious manual process, the best solution for your library depends on factors such as your current soft

  5. use of electronic resources by graduate students of the department

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    respondent's access electronic resources from the internet via Cybercafé .There is a high ... KEY WORDS: Use, Electronic Resources, Graduate Students, Cybercafé. INTRODUCTION ... Faculty of Education, University of Uyo, Uyo. Olu Olat ...

  6. Enzymatic degradation of polycaprolactone–gelatin blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Aditi; Chatterjee, Kaushik; Madras, Giridhar

    2015-01-01

    Blends of polycaprolactone (PCL), a synthetic polymer and gelatin, natural polymer offer a optimal combination of strength, water wettability and cytocompatibility for use as a resorbable biomaterial. The enzymatic degradation of PCL, gelatin and PCL–gelatin blended films was studied in the presence of lipase (Novozym 435, immobilized) and lysozyme. Novozym 435 degraded the PCL films whereas lysozyme degraded the gelatin. Though Novozym 435 and lysozyme individually could degrade PCL–gelatin blended films, the combination of these enzymes showed the highest degradation of these blended films. Moreover, the enzymatic degradation was much faster when fresh enzymes were added at regular intervals. The changes in physico-chemical properties of polymer films due to degradation were studied by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. These results have important implications for designing resorbable biomedical implants. (paper)

  7. Use of Electronic Resources in a Private University in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined awareness and constraints in the use of electronic resources by lecturers and students of Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo, Nigeria. It aimed at justifying the resources expended in the provision of electronic resources in terms of awareness, patronage and factors that may be affecting awareness and use ...

  8. Gender Analysis Of Electronic Information Resource Use: The Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the findings the study concluded that access and use of electronic information resources creates a “social digital divide” along gender lines. The study ... Finally, the library needs to change its marketing strategies on the availability of electronic information resources to increase awareness of these resources.

  9. Electronic Resource Management System. Vernetzung von Lizenzinformationen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Selbach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In den letzten zehn Jahren spielen elektronische Ressourcen im Bereich der Erwerbung eine zunehmend wichtige Rolle: Eindeutig lässt sich hier ein Wandel in den Bibliotheken (fort vom reinen Printbestand zu immer größeren E-Only-Beständen feststellen. Die stetig wachsende Menge an E-Ressourcen und deren Heterogenität stellt Bibliotheken vor die Herausforderung, die E-Ressourcen effizient zu verwalten. Nicht nur Bibliotheken, sondern auch verhandlungsführende Institutionen von Konsortial- und Allianzlizenzen benötigen ein geeignetes Instrument zur Verwaltung von Lizenzinformationen, welches den komplexen Anforderungen moderner E-Ressourcen gerecht wird. Die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG unterstützt ein Projekt des Hochschulbibliothekszentrums des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (hbz, der Universitätsbibliothek Freiburg, der Verbundzentrale des Gemeinsamen Bibliotheksverbundes (GBV und der Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt, in dem ein bundesweit verfügbares Electronic Ressource Managementsystem (ERMS aufgebaut werden soll. Ein solches ERMS soll auf Basis einer zentralen Knowledge Base eine einheitliche Nutzung von Daten zur Lizenzverwaltung elektronischer Ressourcen auf lokaler, regionaler und nationaler Ebene ermöglichen. Statistische Auswertungen, Rechteverwaltung für alle angeschlossenen Bibliotheken, kooperative Datenpflege sowie ein über standardisierte Schnittstellen geführter Datenaustausch stehen bei der Erarbeitung der Anforderungen ebenso im Fokus wie die Entwicklung eines Daten- und Funktionsmodells. In the last few years the importance of electronic resources in library acquisitions has increased significantly. There has been a shift from mere print holdings to both e- and print combinations and even e-only subscriptions. This shift poses a double challenge for libraries: On the one hand they have to provide their e-resource collections to library users in an appealing way, on the other hand they have to manage these

  10. Formulating gelatin free products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buwalda, P.L.

    2014-01-01

    Gels are applied in many systems in particular in foods. Gelatin is the most common of all gelling agents. In the food industry there is a long quest for replacing gelatin. This chapter focuses on a more application by application approach where a dominant property of gelatin is matched with a

  11. Electronic human resource management: Enhancing or entrancing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Poisat

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This article provides an investigation into the current level of development of the body of knowledge related to electronic human resource management (e-HRM by means of a qualitative content analysis. Several aspects of e-HRM, namely definitions of e-HRM, the theoretical perspectives around e-HRM, the role of e-HRM, the various types of e-HRM and the requirements for successful e-HRM, are examined. Research purpose: The purpose of the article was to determine the status of e-HRM and examine the studies that report on the link between e-HRM and organisational productivity. Motivation for the study: e-HRM has the capacity to improve organisational efficiency and leverage the role of human resources (HR as a strategic business partner. Main findings: The notion that the implementation of e-HRM will lead to improved organisational productivity is commonly assumed; however, empirical evidence in this regard was found to be limited. Practical/managerial implications: From the results of this investigation it is evident that more research is required to gain a greater understanding of the influence of e-HRM on organisational productivity, as well as to develop measures for assessing this influence. Contribution: This article proposes additional areas to research and measure when investigating the effectiveness of e-HRM. It provides a different lens from which to view e-HRM assessment whilst keeping it within recognised HR measurement parameters (the HR value chain. In addition, it not only provides areas for measuring e-HRM’s influence but also provides important clues as to how the measurements may be approached.

  12. Utilization of electronic information resources by academic staff at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the utilization of Electronic Information resources by the academic staff of Makerere University in Uganda. It examined the academic staff awareness of the resources available, the types of resources provided by the Makerere University Library, the factors affecting resource utilization. The study was ...

  13. Users satisfaction with electronic information resources and services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated users satisfaction on the use of electronic information resources and services in MTN Net libraries in ABU & UNIBEN. Two objectives and one null hypotheses were formulated and tested with respect to the users' satisfaction on electronic information resources and services in MTN Net libraries in ...

  14. The Role of the Acquisitions Librarian in Electronic Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Sarah B.

    2010-01-01

    With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…

  15. Solubilization of bovine gelatin using power ultrasound: gelation without heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahnaky, Asgar; Zendeboodi, Fatemeh; Azizi, Rezvan; Mesbahi, Gholamreza; Majzoobi, Mahsa

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of power ultrasound without using any heating stage in solubilizeing gelatin dispersions, and to characterize the mechanical and microstructural properties of the resulting gels using texture analysis and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Usually to prepare a gel from gelatin, a primary heating stage of at about 40C or above is required to solubilize gelatin macromolecules. In this study solubilizing gelatin dispersions using power ultrasound without any heating was successfully performed. For solubilising gelatin, an ultrasound equipment with a frequency of 20 kHz, amplitude of 100% and power range of 50-150 W was used. Aqueous gelatin dispersions (4% w/v) were subjected to ultrasound for different times (40-240 s) at a constant temperature of 13C. Applying ultrasound to gelatin dispersions caused increases in water absorption and water solubility of the hydrocolloid. The textural parameters of the resulting gelatin gels, increased with increasing time and power of ultrasound. Moreover, a generalized Maxwell model with three elements was used for calculating relaxation times of the gels. The microstructural observations by SEM showed that the structural cohesiveness of the gels increased by increasing ultrasonication time. Ultrasound-assisted solubilization of gelatin can have emerging implications for industrial uses in pharmaceuticals, food and non-food systems. Usually to prepare a gel from gelatin, a primary heating stage of at about 40C or above is required to solubilize gelatin macromolecules. Therefore, the use of gelatin as a hydrocolloid in food processings or pharmaceutical formulations which lack a heating step has been a technological and practical challenge. In this study solubilizing gelatin dispersions using power ultrasound without any heating was successfully performed. Ultrasound-assisted solubilisation of gelatin can have emerging implications for industrial uses in pharmaceuticals

  16. Investigating Linear and Nonlinear Viscoelastic behaviour and microstructures of Gelatine-Multiwalled carbon nanotubes composites

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhi; Chaieb, Saharoui; Hemar, Yacine; deCampo, Liliana; Rehm, Christine; McGillivray, Duncan James

    2015-01-01

    , and chemically-physically-crosslinked-gelatine gel-MWNT composites. Further, the internal structures of these gel-MWNT composites were characterized by ultra-small angle neutron scattering and scanning electron microscopy. The adsorption of gelatine onto

  17. Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Atılgan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined.

  18. Improving Electronic Resources through Holistic Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusik, James P.; Vargas, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    To establish a more direct link between its collections and the educational goals of Saint Xavier University, the Byrne Memorial Library has adopted a "holistic" approach to collection development. This article examines how traditional budget practices influenced the library's selection of resources and describes how holistic collection…

  19. Page 170 Use of Electronic Resources by Undergraduates in Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    undergraduate students use electronic resources such as NUC virtual library, HINARI, ... web pages articles from magazines, encyclopedias, pamphlets and other .... of Nigerian university libraries have Internet connectivity, some of the system.

  20. Utilisation of Electronic Information Resources By Lecturers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assesses the use of information resources, specifically, electronic databases by lecturers/teachers in Universities and Colleges of Education in South Western Nigeria. Information resources are central to teachers' education. It provides lecturers/teachers access to information that enhances research and ...

  1. Preservation and conservation of electronic information resources of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major holdings of the broadcast libraries of the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) are electronic information resources; therefore, providing safe places for general management of these resources have aroused interest in the industry in Nigeria for sometimes. The need to study the preservation and conservation of ...

  2. Using XML Technologies to Organize Electronic Reference Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Huser, Vojtech; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Rocha, Roberto A.

    2005-01-01

    Provision of access to reference electronic resources to clinicians is becoming increasingly important. We have created a framework for librarians to manage access to these resources at an enterprise level, rather than at the individual hospital libraries. We describe initial project requirements, implementation details, and some preliminary results.

  3. Euler European Libraries and Electronic Resources in Mathematical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    The Euler Project. Karlsruhe

    The European Libraries and Electronic Resources (EULER) Project in Mathematical Sciences provides the EulerService site for searching out "mathematical resources such as books, pre-prints, web-pages, abstracts, proceedings, serials, technical reports preprints) and NetLab (for Internet resources), this outstanding engine is capable of simple, full, and refined searches. It also offers a browse option, which responds to entries in the author, keyword, and title fields. Further information about the Project is provided at the EULER homepage.

  4. Building an electronic resource collection a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Stuart D

    2004-01-01

    This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.

  5. Organizational matters of competition in electronic educational resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Карловна Войтович

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the experience of the Udmurt State University in conducting competitions of educational publications and electronic resources. The purpose of such competitions is to provide methodological support to educational process. The main focus is on competition of electronic educational resources. The technology of such contests is discussed through detailed analysis of the main stages of the contest. It is noted that the main task of the preparatory stage of the competition is related to the development of regulations on competition and the definition of criteria for selection of the submitted works. The paper also proposes a system of evaluation criteria of electronic educational resources developed by members of the contest organizing committee and jury members. The article emphasizes the importance of not only the preparatory stages of the competition, but also measures for its completion, aimed at training teachers create quality e-learning resources.

  6. Effect of dose rate on radical and property of gelatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Shengrong; Chen Yuxia; Zu Xiaoyan; Li Xin; Jiang Hongyou

    2015-01-01

    The gelatin was irradiated respectively in the range of 0-32 kGy by dose rates of 60 Gy/min 60 Co, 480 Gy/min 60 Co and 12000 Gy/min accelerator, and the relationships of the radical character and gelatin property with dose rate were investigated through electron spin resonance (ESR) and gelatin permeation chromatogram. The results show that there is weak ESR signal from unirradiated gelatin, but irradiated one presents typical double peak. The order of ESR signal intensity of gelatin with the same absorbed dosage from high to low is 60 Gy/min 60 Co, 480 Gy/min 60 Co and 12000 Gy/min accelerator. The linear relationship between ESR signal intensity from 60 Co irradiated gelatin and absorbed dose is y= 26.983x 2 +1 641.8x-205.69. The intrinsic viscosity, average relative molecular weight, gelatin strength and breaking elongation of irradiated gelatin from high to low are 480 Gy/min 60 Co, 12000 Gy/min accelerator and 60 Gy/min 60 Co. The protection mechanism of high dose rate radiation on gelatin degradation is that the production of effective long life free radicals reduces. (authors)

  7. Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Bernon

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.

  8. Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Craven

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

  9. Practical guide to electronic resources in the humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Dubnjakovic, Ana

    2010-01-01

    From full-text article databases to digitized collections of primary source materials, newly emerging electronic resources have radically impacted how research in the humanities is conducted and discovered. This book, covering high-quality, up-to-date electronic resources for the humanities, is an easy-to-use annotated guide for the librarian, student, and scholar alike. It covers online databases, indexes, archives, and many other critical tools in key humanities disciplines including philosophy, religion, languages and literature, and performing and visual arts. Succinct overviews of key eme

  10. Discipline, availability of electronic resources and the use of Finnish National Electronic Library - FinELib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Torma

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib, Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic resources by researchers in FinELib was a stronger predictor of the frequency and purpose of use of its services than users' discipline. Regardless of discipline a good perceived provision of central resources led to a more frequent use of FinELib. The satisfaction with the services did not vary with the discipline, but with the perceived availability of resources.

  11. Investigating Linear and Nonlinear Viscoelastic behaviour and microstructures of Gelatine-Multiwalled carbon nanotubes composites

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    We have investigated the linear and nonlinear rheology of various gelatine-multiwalled carbon nanotube (gel-MWNT) composites, namely physically-crosslinked-gelatine gel-MWNT composites, chemically-crosslinked-gelatine gel-MWNT composites, and chemically-physically-crosslinked-gelatine gel-MWNT composites. Further, the internal structures of these gel-MWNT composites were characterized by ultra-small angle neutron scattering and scanning electron microscopy. The adsorption of gelatine onto the surface of MWNT is also investigated to understand gelatine-assisted dispersion of MWNT during ultrasonication. For all gelatine gels, addition of MWNT increases their complex modulus. The dependence of storage modulus with frequency for gelatine-MWNT composites is similar to that of the corresponding neat gelatine matrix. However, by incorporating MWNT, the dependence of the loss modulus on frequency is reduced. The linear viscoelastic region is decreased approximately linearly with the increase of MWNT concentration. The pre-stress results demonstrate that the addition of MWNT does not change the strain-hardening behaviour of physically-crosslinked gelatine gel. However, the addition of MWNT can increase the strain-hardening behaviour of chemically-crosslinked gelatine gel, and chemically-physically crosslinked gelatine gel. Results from light microscopy, cryo-SEM, and USANS demonstrate the hierarchical structures of MWNT, including that tens-of-micron scale MWNT agglomerates are present. Furthermore, the adsorption curve of gelatine onto the surface of MWNT follows two-stage pseudo-saturation behaviour.

  12. Access to electronic information resources by students of federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses access to electronic information resources by students of Federal Colleges of Education in Eha-Amufu and Umunze. Descriptive survey design was used to investigate sample of 526 students. Sampling technique used was a Multi sampling technique. Data for the study were generated using ...

  13. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

    1999-01-01

    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  14. ANALYTICAL REVIEW OF ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR THE STUDY OF LATIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Yu. Balalaieva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the current state of development of e-learning content in the Latin language. It is noted that the introduction of ICT in the educational space has expanded the possibility of studying Latin, opened access to digital libraries resources, made it possible to use scientific and educational potential and teaching Latin best practices of world's leading universities. A review of foreign and Ukrainian information resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is given. Much attention was paid to the didactic potential of local and online multimedia courses of Latin, electronic textbooks, workbooks of interactive tests and exercises, various dictionaries and software translators, databases and digital libraries. Based on analysis of the world market of educational services and products the main trends in the development of information resources and electronic books are examined. It was found that multimedia courses with interactive exercises or workbooks with interactive tests, online dictionaries and translators are the most widely represented and demanded. The noticeable lagging of Ukrainian education and computer linguistics in quantitative and qualitative measures in this industry is established. The obvious drawback of existing Ukrainian resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is their noninteractive nature. The prospects of e-learning content in Latin in Ukraine are outlined.

  15. Adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical science students of the University of Benin. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study and 390 students provided the data. Data collected were analysed with descriptive Statistics(Simple percentage and ...

  16. Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web 2.0 and Its Implications For Library And Information Practice In Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more ...

  17. Technical Communicator: A New Model for the Electronic Resources Librarian?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article explores whether technical communicator is a useful model for electronic resources (ER) librarians. The fields of ER librarianship and technical communication (TC) originated and continue to develop in relation to evolving technologies. A review of the literature reveals four common themes for ER librarianship and TC. While the…

  18. Graphene oxide decorated electrospun gelatin nanofibers: Fabrication, properties and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalaja, K. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 547 (India); Sreehari, V.S. [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Bhopal, Bhauri, Madhya Pradesh 462066 (India); Kumar, P.R. Anil [Tissue culture laboratory, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 012 (India); Nirmala, R. James, E-mail: nirmala@iist.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 547 (India)

    2016-07-01

    Gelatin nanofiber fabricated by electrospinning process is found to mimic the complex structural and functional properties of natural extracellular matrix for tissue regeneration. In order to improve the physico-chemical and biological properties of the nanofibers, graphene oxide is incorporated in the gelatin to form graphene oxide decorated gelatin nanofibers. The current research effort is focussed on the fabrication and evaluation of physico-chemical and biological properties of graphene oxide-gelatin composite nanofibers. The presence of graphene oxide in the nanofibers was established by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We report the effect of incorporation of graphene oxide on the mechanical, thermal and biological performance of the gelatin nanofibers. The tensile strength of gelatin nanofibers was increased from 8.29 ± 0.53 MPa to 21 ± 2.03 MPa after the incorporation of GO. In order to improve the water resistance of nanofibers, natural based cross-linking agent, namely, dextran aldehyde was employed. The cross-linked composite nanofibers showed further increase in the tensile strength up to 56.4 ± 2.03 MPa. Graphene oxide incorporated gelatin nanofibers are evaluated for bacterial activity against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria and cyto compatibility using mouse fibroblast cells (L-929 cells). The results indicate that the graphene oxide incorporated gelatin nanofibers do not prevent bacterial growth, nevertheless support the L-929 cell adhesion and proliferation. - Highlights: • Graphene oxide nano reinforced gelatin nanofibers are fabricated by electrospinning. • Graphene oxide (0.5%) loading resulted in increased tensile strength. • GO/gelatin nanofibers are cross-linked with dextran aldehyde. • Composite nanofibers favoured adhesion of L-929 cells. • GO/gelatin mats do not prevent bacterial growth.

  19. Transplantation of artificial gelatin-co-bletillastriata gelatin/ Salvia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the growth of the composite corium (constructed with fibroblast cells and gelatinco- Bletillastriata gelatin/Salvia miltiorrhiza materials) on rats. Methods: The composite artificial corium was constructed by culturing fibroblast cells in gelatin-co- Bletillastriata gelatin/Salvia miltiorrhiza materials.

  20. Gelatin Functionalization of Biomaterial Surfaces: Strategies for Immobilization and Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dubruel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the immobilization of gelatin as biopolymer on two types of implantable biomaterials, polyimide and titanium, was compared. Both materials are known for their biocompatibility while lacking cell-interactive behavior. For both materials, a pre-functionalization step was required to enable gelatin immobilization. For the polyimide foils, a reactive succinimidyl ester was introduced first on the surface, followed by covalent grafting of gelatin. For the titanium material, methacrylate groups were first introduced on the Ti surface through a silanization reaction. The applied functionalities enabled the subsequent immobilization of methacrylamide modified gelatin. Both surface modified materials were characterized in depth using atomic force microscopy, static contact angle measurements, confocal fluorescence microscopy, attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy. The results indicated that the strategies elaborated for both material classes are suitable to apply stable gelatin coatings. Interestingly, depending on the material class studied, not all surface analysis techniques are applicable.

  1. MODEL OF AN ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCE OF NEW GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy V. Loban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical structure of the modular architecture of an electronic educational resource (EER of new generation, which allows to decompose the process of studying the subjects of the course at a hierarchically ordered set of data (knowledge and procedures for manipulating them, to determine the roles of participants of process of training of and technology the development and use of EOR in the study procrate.

  2. Effects of Pressure-shift Freezing on the Structural and Physical Properties of Gelatin Hydrogel Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeongsoo; Gil, Hyung Bae; Min, Sang-Gi; Lee, Si-Kyung; Choi, Mi-Jung

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of the gelatin concentration (10-40%, w/v), freezing temperatures (from -20℃ to -50℃) and freezing methods on the structural and physical properties of gelatin matrices. To freeze gelatin, the pressure-shift freezing (PSF) is being applied at 0.1 (under atmospheric control), 50 and 100 MPa, respectively. The freezing point of gelatin solutions decrease with increasing gelatin concentrations, from -0.2℃ (10% gelatin) to -6.7℃ (40% gelatin), while the extent of supercooling did not show any specific trends. The rheological properties of the gelatin indicate that both the storage (G') and loss (G") moduli were steady in the strain amplitude range of 0.1-10%. To characterize gelatin matrices formed by the various freezing methods, the ice crystal sizes which were being determined by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) are affected by the gelatin concentrations. The ice crystal sizes are affected by gelatin concentrations and freezing temperature, while the size distributions of ice crystals depend on the freezing methods. Smaller ice crystals are being formed with PSF rather than under the atmospheric control where the freezing temperature is above -40℃. Thus, the results of this study indicate that the PSF processing at a very low freezing temperature (-50℃) offers a potential advantage over commercial atmospheric freezing points for the formation of small ice crystals. PMID:26760743

  3. Irradiation of gelatin. Important applications for the development of new materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Mastro, N. L., E-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05008-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-11-15

    Gelatin is obtained from a naturally occurring protein, collagen, by chemical and thermal hydrolysis. As a protein, gelatin is biodegradable. Among biomaterials, gelatin is an interesting material because the dehydrated gelatin is a partially crystalline polymer and has a relatively low melting point. Gelatin melts to a liquid when heated and solidifies when cooled again. Together with water, it forms a semi-solid colloid gel. If gelatin is placed in contact with cold water, some of the material dissolves, their solubility being determined by their manufacturing method. Ionizing radiation acting on aqueous biological systems produces labile intermediates. Macromolecular free radicals may be diffusion ally mobile in homogenous solutions but relatively immobile in gelled systems. In this paper, different works, some of them performed in our laboratory, are firstly described showing gelatin irradiation in diverse systems. We have already studied the mechanical properties of gelatin composites prepared with a natural fiber, plasticizer and treated by electron beam irradiation. Departing from that, the range of novel applications for gelatin composites like gelatin nanoparticles as biodegradable s and low cell toxic alternative carrier delivery systems are outlined. The potential and the possibilities of using gelatin irradiation for important applications for the development of new materials for medical and food industry are presented. (Author)

  4. Synthesis and Property of Ag(NP)/catechin/Gelatin Nanofiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Muhamad; Apriani, Dita

    2017-12-01

    Nanomaterial play important role future industry such as for the medical, food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. Ag (NP) and catechin exhibit antibacterial property. Ag(NP) with diameter around 15 nm was synthesis by microwaved method. We have successfully produce Ag(NP)/catechin/gelatin nanofiber composite by electrospinning process. Ag(NP)/catechin/gelatin nanofiber was synthesized by using gelatin from tuna fish, polyethylene oxide (PEO), acetic acid as solvent and silver nanoparticle(NP)/catechin as bioactive component, respectively. Morphology and structure of bioactive catechin-gelatin nanofiber were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), respectively. SEM analysis showed that morphology of nanofiber composite was smooth and had average diameter 398.97 nm. FTIR analysis results were used to confirm structure of catechin-gelatin nanofiber. It was confirmed by FTIR that specific vibration band peak amide A (N-H) at 3286,209 cm-1, amide B (N-H) 3069,396 cm-1, amide I (C=O) at 1643,813 cm-1, amide II (N-H and CN) at 1538,949 cm-1, amide III (C-N) at 1276,789 cm-1, C-O-C from polyethylene oxide at 1146,418 cm-1, respectively. When examined to S. Aureus bacteria, Ag/catechin/gelatin nanofiber show inhabitation performance around 40.44%. Ag(NP)/catechin/gelatin nanofiber has potential application antibacterial medical application.

  5. End-of-life resource recovery from emerging electronic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Habib, Komal; Cimpan, Ciprian

    2016-01-01

    Integrating product design with appropriate end-of-life (EoL) processing is widely recognized to have huge potentials in improving resource recovery from electronic products. In this study, we investigate both the product characteristics and EoL processing of robotic vacuum cleaner (RVC), as a case...... of emerging electronic product, in order to understand the recovery fate of different materials and its linkage to product design. Ten different brands of RVC were dismantled and their material composition and design profiles were studied. Another 125 RVCs (349 kg) were used for an experimental trial...... at a conventional ‘shred-and-separate’ type preprocessing plant in Denmark. A detailed material flow analysis was performed throughout the recycling chain. The results show a mismatch between product design and EoL processing, and the lack of practical implementation of ‘Design for EoL’ thinking. In the best...

  6. Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Fang

    The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

  7. Effects of Electronic Information Resources Skills Training for Lecturers on Pedagogical Practices and Research Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhukuvhani, Crispen; Chiparausha, Blessing; Zuvalinyenga, Dorcas

    2012-01-01

    Lecturers use various electronic resources at different frequencies. The university library's information literacy skills workshops and seminars are the main sources of knowledge of accessing electronic resources. The use of electronic resources can be said to have positively affected lecturers' pedagogical practices and their work in general. The…

  8. Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachokas, George

    2009-01-01

    The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic…

  9. Preparation and characterization of hydroxyapatite/gelatin composite membranes for immunoisolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jyh-Ping; Chang, Feng-Nian

    2012-12-01

    Composite membranes are fabricated from hydroxyapatite (HAP) and gelatin for immunoisolation of cells. The films were fabricated by crosslinking 5 wt%, 10 wt%, and 20 wt% gelatin with 1 wt% glutaraldehyde (GA) in the presence of HAP. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis confirms imide bond formation between GA and gelatin, while the crystal structure of HAP powder remains unchanged from X-ray diffraction analysis. The degree of crosslinking depends on crosslinking time and gelatin concentration. For 5% and 10% gelatin, the degree of crosslinking levels off at 90% within 48 h. From scanning electron microscopy micrographs, the microstructure of the composite membrane depends on the amount of gelatin used in the crosslinking reaction. The mechanical strength of the composite membrane could be enhanced by increasing the gelatin concentration. BET analysis indicates that pore size of the micropores on the surface HAP/gelatin agglomerates decreases with increasing gelatin concentration. However, the macropore, through which diffusion of molecules occurs, is larger at higher gelatin concentrations. The permeability coefficients of different molecules through a HAP/gelatin composite membrane increase with increasing gelatin concentration and is inversely correlated with the molecular weight of the molecule. For immunoisolation of cells, the diffusion of large molecules stimulated by the immune system can be rejected by a chamber constructed from the HAP/gelatin membrane. Insulinoma cells were encapsulated in alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate microcapsules and enclosed in a HAP/gelatin chamber. The chamber did not impair the viability and function of insulinoma cells and cells can secrete insulin in response to glucose concentration change. The chamber is therefore useful for the physiologically controlled secretion of insulin in response to the blood glucose level. Intraperitoneal transplantation of the chamber into streptozotocin-induced diabetic SD rats could

  10. Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Groenewald

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

  11. KARAKTERISTIK EDIBLE FILM YANG DIPRODUKSI DARI KOMBINASI GELATIN KULIT KAKI AYAM DAN SOY PROTEIN ISOLATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Hasdar

    2012-09-01

    SDS-PAGE dan menunjukkan sebagai molekul kolagen. Hasil analisis kandungan asam amino edible film menggunakan HPLC dihasilkan komposisi residu asam amino terbesar adalah glysin yaitu 29,42%, 37,88%, 38,32%, 39,28% dan 39,17% pada masing-masing perlakuan. Hal itu menggambarkan bahwa profil protein edible film dapat dipastikan sebagian besar berasal dari kolagen gelatin. Pengamatan dengan scaning electron microscope menunjukkan telah terbentuk cross linking antara molekul protein gelatin dan molekul soy protein isolate dan yang ditunjukan semakin berkurangnya retakan seiring dengan meningkatnya konsentrasi gelatin. Perbedaan kombinasi gelatin kulit kaki ayam dan soy protein isolate untuk membentuk edible film tidak memberikan pengaruh nyata pada kekuatan tarik (tensile strenght, dan kemuluran (elongation, namun berpengaruh nyata pada laju transmisi uap air (Water Vapour Transmision Rate. Kombinasi 95:5 protein gelatin kulit kaki ayam dan soy protein isolate menghasilkan edible film yang terbaik. (Kata kunci: Edible film, Gelatin kaki ayam, Soy protein isolate

  12. Extraction and characterization of gelatin biopolymer from black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockalingam, K.; Abdullah, H. Z.

    2015-07-01

    Black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) fish wastes (scales) were evaluated for its suitability as sources of gelatin. Scales were subjected to acid treatment for demineralization before it undergoes thermal extraction process. The raw scales were characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), which demarcated the cycloid pattern of the scales. SEM images also reveal the presence of collagen fiber in the fish scale. The black tilapia fish scales yields 11.88 % of gelatin, indicating the possibility of this fish species as sources of gelatin. Further characterizations were done on both raw scale and extracted gelatin through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and proximate analysis. The scale gelatin shows high protein content (86.9 %) with low moisture (8.2 %) and ash (1.4 %). This further proves the effectiveness of the demineralization and extraction method used. The black tilapia fish scale is found to be a prospective source of gelatin with good chemical and functional properties.

  13. Extraction and characterization of gelatin biopolymer from black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sockalingam, K., E-mail: gd130106@siswa.uthm.edu.my; Abdullah, H. Z., E-mail: hasan@uthm.edu.my [Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) fish wastes (scales) were evaluated for its suitability as sources of gelatin. Scales were subjected to acid treatment for demineralization before it undergoes thermal extraction process. The raw scales were characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), which demarcated the cycloid pattern of the scales. SEM images also reveal the presence of collagen fiber in the fish scale. The black tilapia fish scales yields 11.88 % of gelatin, indicating the possibility of this fish species as sources of gelatin. Further characterizations were done on both raw scale and extracted gelatin through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and proximate analysis. The scale gelatin shows high protein content (86.9 %) with low moisture (8.2 %) and ash (1.4 %). This further proves the effectiveness of the demineralization and extraction method used. The black tilapia fish scale is found to be a prospective source of gelatin with good chemical and functional properties.

  14. Extraction and characterization of gelatin biopolymer from black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sockalingam, K.; Abdullah, H. Z.

    2015-01-01

    Black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) fish wastes (scales) were evaluated for its suitability as sources of gelatin. Scales were subjected to acid treatment for demineralization before it undergoes thermal extraction process. The raw scales were characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), which demarcated the cycloid pattern of the scales. SEM images also reveal the presence of collagen fiber in the fish scale. The black tilapia fish scales yields 11.88 % of gelatin, indicating the possibility of this fish species as sources of gelatin. Further characterizations were done on both raw scale and extracted gelatin through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and proximate analysis. The scale gelatin shows high protein content (86.9 %) with low moisture (8.2 %) and ash (1.4 %). This further proves the effectiveness of the demineralization and extraction method used. The black tilapia fish scale is found to be a prospective source of gelatin with good chemical and functional properties

  15. Differences in cytocompatibility between collagen, gelatin and keratin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yanfang; Zhang, Weiwei; Yuan, Jiang, E-mail: jyuan@njnu.edu.cn; Shen, Jian, E-mail: jshen@njnu.edu.cn

    2016-02-01

    Keratins are cysteine-rich intermediate filament proteins found in the cytoskeleton of the epithelial cells and in the matrix of hair, feathers, wool, nails and horns. The natural abundance of cell adhesion sequences, RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) and LDV (Leu-Asp-Val), makes them suitable for tissue engineering applications. The purpose of our study is to evaluate their cytocompatibility as compared to well-known collagen and gelatin proteins. Herein, collagen, gelatin and keratin were blended with poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and electrospun to afford nanofibrous mats, respectively. These PHBV/protein composite mats were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The cytocompatibility was evaluated with cell adhesion, cell viability and cell proliferation. The data from MTT and BrDU revealed that collagen had significantly superior cytocompatibility as compared to gelatin and keratin. Gelatin showed a better cytocompatibility than keratin without statistical significance difference. Finally, we gave the reasons to account for the above conclusions. - Highlights: • Collagen, gelatin and keratin were coelectrospun with PHBV to afford nanofibrous mats. • Cytocompatibility was evaluated with cell adhesion, cell viability and cell proliferation. • Collagen had significantly superior cytocompatibility as compared to gelatin and keratin.

  16. Preparation and Characterization of Gelatin Nanofibers Containing Silver Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Lim; Park, Won Ho

    2014-01-01

    Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized in formic acid aqueous solutions through chemical reduction. Formic acid was used for a reducing agent of Ag precursor and solvent of gelatin. Silver acetate, silver tetrafluoroborate, silver nitrate, and silver phosphate were used as Ag precursors. Ag+ ions were reduced into Ag NPs by formic acid. The formation of Ag NPs was characterized by a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Ag NPs were quickly generated within a few minutes in silver nitrate (AgNO3)/formic acid solution. As the water content of formic acid aqueous solution increased, more Ag NPs were generated, at a higher rate and with greater size. When gelatin was added to the AgNO3/formic acid solution, the Ag NPs were stabilized, resulting in smaller particles. Moreover, gelatin limits further aggregation of Ag NPs, which were effectively dispersed in solution. The amount of Ag NPs formed increased with increasing concentration of AgNO3 and aging time. Gelatin nanofibers containing Ag NPs were fabricated by electrospinning. The average diameters of gelatin nanofibers were 166.52 ± 32.72 nm, but these decreased with the addition of AgNO3. The average diameters of the Ag NPs in gelatin nanofibers ranged between 13 and 25 nm, which was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). PMID:24758929

  17. Electronic Safety Resource Tools -- Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2014-09-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

  18. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2015-06-16

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  19. The Internet School of Medicine: use of electronic resources by medical trainees and the reliability of those resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egle, Jonathan P; Smeenge, David M; Kassem, Kamal M; Mittal, Vijay K

    2015-01-01

    Electronic sources of medical information are plentiful, and numerous studies have demonstrated the use of the Internet by patients and the variable reliability of these sources. Studies have investigated neither the use of web-based resources by residents, nor the reliability of the information available on these websites. A web-based survey was distributed to surgical residents in Michigan and third- and fourth-year medical students at an American allopathic and osteopathic medical school and a Caribbean allopathic school regarding their preferred sources of medical information in various situations. A set of 254 queries simulating those faced by medical trainees on rounds, on a written examination, or during patient care was developed. The top 5 electronic resources cited by the trainees were evaluated for their ability to answer these questions accurately, using standard textbooks as the point of reference. The respondents reported a wide variety of overall preferred resources. Most of the 73 responding medical trainees favored textbooks or board review books for prolonged studying, but electronic resources are frequently used for quick studying, clinical decision-making questions, and medication queries. The most commonly used electronic resources were UpToDate, Google, Medscape, Wikipedia, and Epocrates. UpToDate and Epocrates had the highest percentage of correct answers (47%) and Wikipedia had the lowest (26%). Epocrates also had the highest percentage of wrong answers (30%), whereas Google had the lowest percentage (18%). All resources had a significant number of questions that they were unable to answer. Though hardcopy books have not been completely replaced by electronic resources, more than half of medical students and nearly half of residents prefer web-based sources of information. For quick questions and studying, both groups prefer Internet sources. However, the most commonly used electronic resources fail to answer clinical queries more than half

  20. Soft gelatin capsules (softgels).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullapalli, Rampurna Prasad

    2010-10-01

    It is estimated that more than 40% of new chemical entities (NCEs) coming out of the current drug discovery process have poor biopharmaceutical properties, such as low aqueous solubility and/or permeability. These suboptimal properties pose significant challenges for the oral absorption of the compounds and for the development of orally bioavailable dosage forms. Development of soft gelatin capsule (softgel) dosage form is of growing interest for the oral delivery of poorly water soluble compounds (BCS class II or class IV). The softgel dosage form offers several advantages over other oral dosage forms, such as delivering a liquid matrix designed to solubilize and improve the oral bioavailability of a poorly soluble compound as a unit dose solid dosage form, delivering low and ultra-low doses of a compound, delivering a low melting compound, and minimizing potential generation of dust during manufacturing and thereby improving the safety of production personnel. However, due to the very dynamic nature of the softgel dosage form, its development and stability during its shelf-life are fraught with several challenges. The goal of the current review is to provide an in-depth discussion on the softgel dosage form to formulation scientists who are considering developing softgels for therapeutic compounds.

  1. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  2. Effects of ionizing radiation on gelatine films added with antioxidant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraide, Felipe H.; Inamura, Patricia Y.; Mastro, Nelida L. del

    2011-01-01

    This work evaluates the effect of ionizing radiation on the gelatin films in presence of antioxidant. Gelatin solutions of glycerine and poly vinil alcohol, with and without the addition were prepared until the complete homogenization. The films were irradiated with 20 and 40 kGy in a electron accelerator, in the presence of air and at the room temperature. The use of ionizing radiation and the addition of antioxidant changed the properties of the film. The result of water absorption test revealed that with increasing of radiation dose occurred a reduction in the absorption, suggesting that happen a reticulation

  3. Electronic resource management practical perspectives in a new technical services model

    CERN Document Server

    Elguindi, Anne

    2012-01-01

    A significant shift is taking place in libraries, with the purchase of e-resources accounting for the bulk of materials spending. Electronic Resource Management makes the case that technical services workflows need to make a corresponding shift toward e-centric models and highlights the increasing variety of e-formats that are forcing new developments in the field.Six chapters cover key topics, including: technical services models, both past and emerging; staffing and workflow in electronic resource management; implementation and transformation of electronic resource management systems; the ro

  4. Investigations on the Chemical Degradation of Silver Gelatine Prints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Ahmed ALI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Photographs are considered composite objects with complex chemical and physical structures. Therefore they are more prone to damage as compared to other objects. Chemical degradation is by far the most common decay form found among photographic collections. This study investigates the chemical degradation of silver gelatin prints (DOP and the reaction of the image, silver, gelatin, and paper to accelerated aging, to the action of light, and oxidizing gases, in terms of their physical and chemical nature. The test materials used are properly washed and poorly washed grayscale, black-and-white processed images on photographic paper (Black & White Photographic Paper BH 0 Bromofort 6P0661 Tropical from Forte Photochemical Company Vác, Hungary. After exposure, the results were studied by means of visual inspection, amino acid analyzer, Fourier transform infrared and transmission electron microscope. The results were compared with those of the control samples. Our study revealed that the image, silver, gelatin and photographic paper are greatly affected by oxidizing agents and that the effect increased if the photographic prints were inadequately washed at the time of their processing. Furthermore, our results indicated that an increased amount of ammonia and amino acid in the silver gelatin print is a reliable indicator of the degradation of its gelatine emulsion.

  5. Electronic resources access and usage among the postgraduates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and usage among the postgraduates of a Nigerian University of Technology. ... faced by postgraduates in using e-resources include takes too much time to find, ... Resources, Access, Use, Postgraduat, Students, University, Technology, Nigeria ... By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  6. Investigation of Gelatin Polypeptides of Jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum for Their Antioxidant Activity in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Liang Zhuang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Jellyfish gelatin was hydrolyzed by different proteases to obtain antioxidative polypeptides. The gelatin hydrolysate obtained by progressive hydrolysis using trypsin and Properase E exhibited the highest hydrolysis degree and antioxidant activity. Three series of gelatin polypeptides (SCP1, SCP2 and SCP3 were obtained by ultrafiltrating the gelatin hydrolysate through molecular mass cut-off membranes of 10, 6 and 2 kDa, respectively. Amino acid composition analysis showed that SCP3 had the highest total hydrophobic amino acid content. The in vitro antioxidant tests demonstrated that SCP2 had the strongest hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities and metal chelating ability, while SCP3 showed the highest reducing power, antioxidant activity in linoleic acid emulsion system and superoxide anion radical scavenging activity. The results support the feasibility of jellyfish gelatin as a natural antioxidant polypeptide provider, and enzymatic hydrolysis and ultrafiltration could be potent future processing technologies to utilize the abundant jellyfish resource.

  7. Nonvolatile Resistive Switching Memory Utilizing Cobalt Embedded in Gelatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Jung Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the preparation and electrical properties of Al/cobalt-embedded gelatin (CoG/ indium tin oxide (ITO resistive switching memories. Co. elements can be uniformly distributed in gelatin without a conventional dispersion procedure, as confirmed through energy dispersive X-ray analyzer and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy observations. With an appropriate Co. concentration, Co. ions can assist the formation of an interfacial AlOx layer and improve the memory properties. High ON/OFF ratio, good retention capability, and good endurance switching cycles are demonstrated with 1 M Co. concentration, in contrast to 0.5 M and 2 M memory devices. This result can be attributed to the suitable thickness of the interfacial AlOx layer, which acts as an oxygen reservoir and stores and releases oxygen during switching. The Co. element in a solution-processed gelatin matrix has high potential for bio-electronic applications.

  8. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  9. Evaluation of tilapia skin gelatin as a mammalian gelatin replacer in acid milk gels and low-fat stirred yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zhihua; Deeth, Hilton; Yang, Hongshun; Prakash, Sangeeta; Bansal, Nidhi

    2017-05-01

    Tilapia skin gelatin (TSG) was studied in a 3-stage process (cooling, annealing, and heating) for pure gelatin gels and in a 4-stage process (acidification, cooling, annealing, and heating) for acid milk gels and cultured yogurt. The aim was to evaluate the use of TSG as a replacement for mammalian gelatin in yogurt. In pure TSG gels, stronger gels with higher melting temperatures were formed with increasing TSG concentrations. Compared with bovine gelatin (BG), which gelled at a concentration of 2.5%, TSG gels had lower gelling (14.1°C) and melting (24°C) temperatures but comparable storage moduli during annealing. In acid milk gels, addition of TSG increased the firmness of the gels with increasing concentration. Gelling and melting points of TSG in milk gels were observed at sufficient concentrations during cooling and heating. Strands and sheets were observed in the electron micrographs of milk gels with 1% TSG and a very dense structure was observed with 2.5% TSG. Yogurt with 0.4% TSG had similar viscosity, consistency, pseudoplasticity, and thixotropy as yogurt containing 0.4% BG; no difference was perceived by sensory panelists according to a triangle test. Addition of 0.4% TSG completely prevented whey separation from the acid milk gel and yogurt. The results suggest that TSG could be a suitable replacement for mammalian gelatin in low-fat stirred yogurt. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. impact of the use of electronic resources on research output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manda

    ... Julita Nawe. University of Dar Es Salaam Library, P.O. Box 35092, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania .... significantly, while 28.3% observed that quality of service to the community had improved .... resources and evaluate them is an important area.

  11. Preparation and characterization of hydroxyapatite/gelatin composite membranes for immunoisolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jyh-Ping; Chang, Feng-Nian

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cross-linking gelatin in the presence of hydroxyapatite forms composite membranes. ► The membrane was used for immunoisolation and encapsulation of cells. ► Encapsulated islet cells secrete insulin in response to glucose concentrations. ► The membrane is a good candidate for bioartificial pancreas development. - Abstract: Composite membranes are fabricated from hydroxyapatite (HAP) and gelatin for immunoisolation of cells. The films were fabricated by crosslinking 5 wt%, 10 wt%, and 20 wt% gelatin with 1 wt% glutaraldehyde (GA) in the presence of HAP. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis confirms imide bond formation between GA and gelatin, while the crystal structure of HAP powder remains unchanged from X-ray diffraction analysis. The degree of crosslinking depends on crosslinking time and gelatin concentration. For 5% and 10% gelatin, the degree of crosslinking levels off at 90% within 48 h. From scanning electron microscopy micrographs, the microstructure of the composite membrane depends on the amount of gelatin used in the crosslinking reaction. The mechanical strength of the composite membrane could be enhanced by increasing the gelatin concentration. BET analysis indicates that pore size of the micropores on the surface HAP/gelatin agglomerates decreases with increasing gelatin concentration. However, the macropore, through which diffusion of molecules occurs, is larger at higher gelatin concentrations. The permeability coefficients of different molecules through a HAP/gelatin composite membrane increase with increasing gelatin concentration and is inversely correlated with the molecular weight of the molecule. For immunoisolation of cells, the diffusion of large molecules stimulated by the immune system can be rejected by a chamber constructed from the HAP/gelatin membrane. Insulinoma cells were encapsulated in alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate microcapsules and enclosed in a HAP/gelatin chamber. The chamber did not impair

  12. Preparation and characterization of hydroxyapatite/gelatin composite membranes for immunoisolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jyh-Ping, E-mail: jpchen@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen Hwa 1st Rd., Kwei-San, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Chang, Feng-Nian [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen Hwa 1st Rd., Kwei-San, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China)

    2012-12-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cross-linking gelatin in the presence of hydroxyapatite forms composite membranes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The membrane was used for immunoisolation and encapsulation of cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Encapsulated islet cells secrete insulin in response to glucose concentrations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The membrane is a good candidate for bioartificial pancreas development. - Abstract: Composite membranes are fabricated from hydroxyapatite (HAP) and gelatin for immunoisolation of cells. The films were fabricated by crosslinking 5 wt%, 10 wt%, and 20 wt% gelatin with 1 wt% glutaraldehyde (GA) in the presence of HAP. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis confirms imide bond formation between GA and gelatin, while the crystal structure of HAP powder remains unchanged from X-ray diffraction analysis. The degree of crosslinking depends on crosslinking time and gelatin concentration. For 5% and 10% gelatin, the degree of crosslinking levels off at 90% within 48 h. From scanning electron microscopy micrographs, the microstructure of the composite membrane depends on the amount of gelatin used in the crosslinking reaction. The mechanical strength of the composite membrane could be enhanced by increasing the gelatin concentration. BET analysis indicates that pore size of the micropores on the surface HAP/gelatin agglomerates decreases with increasing gelatin concentration. However, the macropore, through which diffusion of molecules occurs, is larger at higher gelatin concentrations. The permeability coefficients of different molecules through a HAP/gelatin composite membrane increase with increasing gelatin concentration and is inversely correlated with the molecular weight of the molecule. For immunoisolation of cells, the diffusion of large molecules stimulated by the immune system can be rejected by a chamber constructed from the HAP/gelatin membrane. Insulinoma cells were encapsulated in alginate

  13. Influence of lyophilization factors and gelatin concentration on pore structures of atelocollagen/gelatin sponge biomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Longqiang; Tanabe, Koji; Miura, Tadashi; Yoshinari, Masao; Takemoto, Shinji; Shintani, Seikou; Kasahara, Masataka

    2017-07-26

    This study aimed to investigate influences of lyophilization factors and gelatin concentration on pore structures of ACG sponge. ACG sponges of different freezing temperatures (-30, -80 and -196 o C), freezing times (1, 2 and 24 h), gelatin concentrations (0.6%AC+0.15%G, 0.6%AC+0.6%G and 0.6%AC+2.4%G), and with 500 μM fluvastatin were fabricated. Pore structures including porosity and pore size were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and ImageJ. The cytotoxic effects of ACG sponges were evaluated in vitro. Freezing temperature did not affect porosity while high freezing temperature (-30 o C) increased pore size. The high gelatin concentration group (0.6%AC+2.4%G) had decreased porosity and pore size. Freezing time and 500 μM fluvastatin did not affect pore structures. The cytotoxicity and cell proliferation assays revealed that ACG sponges had no cytotoxic effects on human mesenchymal stromal cell growth and proliferation. These results indicate that ACG sponge may be a good biomaterial scaffold for bone regeneration.

  14. Structure evolution of gelatin particles induced by pH and ionic strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Li, Tianduo; Tao, Furong; Cui, Yuezhi; Xia, Yongmei

    2013-03-01

    Microstructure of gelatin particles played a key role in determining the physicochemical properties of gelatin. Ionic strength and pH as systematic manners were considered to affect gelatin particles structure on the micrometer scale. Scanning electron microscopy was used for depicting the morphologies of gelatin particles. Increasing pH to 10.0 or decreasing pH to 4.0, spherical, spindle, and irregular aggregates of gelatin particles at 2, 6, 10, and 14% solution (w/w) were all transformed to spindle aggregates. When NaCl was added to the system, the molecular chains of gelatin possibly rearranged themselves in a stretched state, and the ribbon aggregates was observed. The structural transitions of gelatin aggregates were strongly depended on the electrostatic repulsion. In the gelatin-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) case, the micrometer scale of aggregates was larger and the different degrees of cross-links were induced through hydrophobic interaction and electrostatic repulsion. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Preservation of and Permanent Access to Electronic Information Resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hodge, Gail

    2004-01-01

    The rapid growth in the creation and dissemination of electronic information has emphasized the digital environment's speed and ease of dissemination with little regard for its long-term preservation and access...

  16. Electronic conferencing for continuing medical education: a resource survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, R J

    1986-10-01

    The use of electronic technologies to link participants for education conferences is an option for providers of Continuing Medical Education. In order to profile the kinds of electronic networks currently offering audio- or videoteleconferences for physician audiences, a survey was done during late 1985. The information collected included range of services, fees, and geographic areas served. The results show a broad diversity of providers providing both interactive and didactic programming to both physicians and other health care professionals.

  17. Transplantation of artificial gelatin-co-bletillastriata gelatin/Salvia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research April 2016; 15 (4): 735-741 ... Methods: The composite artificial corium was constructed by culturing fibroblast cells in gelatin-co- ... Conclusion: The composite artificial corium has some clinical prospects for use in the treatment of ... burns, and treatment of large areas of skin.

  18. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2017-08-22

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes obtaining an image from a communication device of a user. An individual and a landmark are identified within the image. Determinations are made that the individual is the user and that the landmark is a predetermined landmark. Access to a restricted computing resource is granted based on the determining that the individual is the user and that the landmark is the predetermined landmark. Other embodiments are disclosed.

  19. Electron beam pasteurised oil palm waste: a potential feed resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Tamikazu Kume; Tachibana, H.

    2002-01-01

    Pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was performed using electron beam single sided irradiation. The dose profiles of oil palm EFB samples for different thickness in both directions X and Y were established. The results showed the usual characteristics dose uniformity as sample thickness decreased. The mean average absorbed dose on both sides at the surface and bottom of the samples for different thickness samples lead to establishing depth dose curve. Based on depth dose curve and operation conditions of electron beam machine, the process throughput for pasteurized oil palm EFB were estimated. (Author)

  20. Projectile penetration into ballistic gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, M V; Kieser, D C; Shah, S; Kieser, J A

    2014-01-01

    Ballistic gelatin is frequently used as a model for soft biological tissues that experience projectile impact. In this paper we investigate the response of a number of gelatin materials to the penetration of spherical steel projectiles (7 to 11mm diameter) with a range of lower impacting velocities (projectile velocity are found to be linear for all systems above a certain threshold velocity required for initiating penetration. The data for a specific material impacted with different diameter spheres were able to be condensed to a single curve when the penetration depth was normalised by the projectile diameter. When the results are compared with a number of predictive relationships available in the literature, it is found that over the range of projectiles and compositions used, the results fit a simple relationship that takes into account the projectile diameter, the threshold velocity for penetration into the gelatin and a value of the shear modulus of the gelatin estimated from the threshold velocity for penetration. The normalised depth is found to fit the elastic Froude number when this is modified to allow for a threshold impact velocity. The normalised penetration data are found to best fit this modified elastic Froude number with a slope of 1/2 instead of 1/3 as suggested by Akers and Belmonte (2006). Possible explanations for this difference are discussed. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Availability of Electronic Resources for Service Provision in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also revealed that majority of the University libraries have adequate basic infrastructure for effective electronic information services. ... acquired by the library are put into maximal use by the library clientele, thereby ensuring the achievement of the library's objective which is satisfying the users, information needs.

  2. Utilization of bio-resources by low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    2003-01-01

    Utilization of bio-resources by radiation has been investigated for recycling the natural resources and reducing the environmental pollution. Polysaccharides such as chitosan and sodium alginate were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities, i.g. anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Radiation degraded chitosan was effective to enhance the growth of plants in tissue culture. It was demonstrated that the liquid sample irradiation system using low energy EB was effective for the preparation of degraded polysaccharides. Methylcellulose (MC) can be crosslinked under certain radiation condition as same as carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and produced the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use. Treatment of soybean seeds by low energy EB enhanced the growth and the number of rhizobia on the root. (author)

  3. Analysis of Pedagogic Potential of Electronic Educational Resources with Elements of Autodidactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor A.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: in recent years didactic properties of electronic educational resources undergo considerable changes, nevertheless, the question of studying of such complete phenomenon as “an electronic educational resource with autodidactics elements” remains open, despite sufficient scientific base of researches of the terms making this concept. Article purpose – determination of essence of electronic educational resources with autodidactics elements. Materials and Methods: the main method of research was the theoretical analysis of the pedagogical and psychological literature on the problem under study. We used the theoretical (analysis, synthesis, comparison and generalization methods, the method of interpretation, pedagogical modeling, and empirical methods (observation, testing, conversation, interview, analysis of students’ performance, pedagogical experiment, peer review. Results: we detected the advantages of electronic educational resources in comparison with traditional ones. The concept of autodidactics as applied to the subject of research is considered. Properties of electronic educational resources with a linear and nonlinear principle of construction are studied.The influence of the principle of construction on the development of the learners’ qualities is shown. We formulated an integral definition of electronic educational resources with elements of autodidactics, namely, the variability, adaptivity and cyclicity of training. A model of the teaching-learning process with electronic educational resources is developed. Discussion and Conclusions: further development of a problem will allow to define whether electronic educational resources with autodidactics elements pedagogical potential for realization of educational and self-educational activity of teachers have, to modify technological procedures taking into account age features of students, their specialties and features of the organization of process of training of

  4. A Study on Developing Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Resources in Evaluation Indicators of Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Younghee

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to improve the current state of electronic resource evaluation in libraries. While the use of Web DB, e-book, e-journal, and other e-resources such as CD-ROM, DVD, and micro materials is increasing in libraries, their use is not comprehensively factored into the general evaluation of libraries and may diminish the reliability of…

  5. Managing Selection for Electronic Resources: Kent State University Develops a New System to Automate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…

  6. Implantable biodegradable sponges: effect of interpolymer complex formation of chitosan with gelatin on the release behavior of tramadol hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Nagwa H; El-laithy, Hanan M; Tadros, Mina I

    2007-01-01

    The effect of interpolymer complex formation between positively charged chitosan and negatively charged gelatin (Type B) on the release behavior of tramadol hydrochloride from biodegradable chitosan-gelatin sponges was studied. Mixed sponges were prepared by freeze-drying the cross-linked homogenous stable foams produced from chitosan and gelatin solutions where gelatin acts as a foam builder. Generation of stable foams was optimized where concentration, pH of gelatin solution, temperature, speed and duration of whipping process, and, chitosan-gelatin ratio drastically affect the properties and the stability of the produced foams. The prepared sponges were evaluated for their morphology, drug content, and microstructure using scanning electron microscopy, mechanical properties, uptake capacity, drug release profile, and their pharmacodynamic activity in terms of the analgesic effect after implantation in Wistar rats. It was revealed that whipping 7% (w/w) gelatin solution, of pH 5.5, for 15 min at 25 degrees C with a stirring speed of 1000 rpm was the optimum conditions for stable gelatin foam generation. Moreover, homogenous, uniform chitosan-gelatin foam with small air bubbles were produced by mixing 2.5% w/w chitosan solution with 7% w/w gelatin solution in 1:5 ratio. Indeed, polyionic complexation between chitosan and gelatin overcame the drawbacks of chitosan sponge mechanical properties where, pliable, soft, and compressible sponge with high fluid uptake capacity was produced at 25 degrees C and 65% relative humidity without any added plasticizer. Drug release studies showed a successful retardation of the incorporated drug where the t50% values of the dissolution profiles were 0.55, 3.03, and 4.73 hr for cross-linked gelatin, un-cross-linked chitosan-gelatin, and cross-linked chitosan-gelatin sponges, respectively. All the release experiments followed Higuchi's diffusion mechanism over 12 hr. The achieved drug prolongation was a result of a combined effect

  7. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

  8. Irradiated gelatin-potato starch blends: evaluation of physicochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inamura, Patricia Y.; Regis, Wellington; Mastro, Nelida L.

    2015-01-01

    Macromolecular polysaccharides of large chains as starch can interlace with gelatin modifying their mechanical resistance. In this work, biodegradable bovine gelatin-potato starch blends films were developed using glycerol as plasticizer. Three formulations of gelatin/starch proportions (w/w) were used (1:0; 3:1; 1:1) and casting was the chosen method. The dried samples were then submitted to ionizing radiation coming from an electron beam (EB) accelerator with doses of 20 and 40 kGy, at room temperature, in the presence of air. Mechanical properties such as puncture strength and elongation at break were measured. Color measurements, water absorption, moisture, and film solubility were assessed. The results showed that starch addition to films based on gelatin as well as irradiation affected physical and structural properties of the films. Although the increase of starch content in the mixture led to decrease of the puncture force even in samples irradiated with the higher dose, there was a decrease of water absorption of films with the increase of the dose, and also by the higher starch content. Samples irradiated at 20 kGy presented higher moisture and film solubility. The methodology developed in this paper can be applied to other composite systems to establish the best protein:starch ratio, and the contribution of the radiation crosslinking in each specific case. (author)

  9. Gelatin as a carrier system for delivery of polyphenols compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the influence of different encapsulation techniques (lyophilization and spray drying on gelatin, as a carrier system for delivery of polyphenols compounds, on wild thyme extracts and on encapsulated extracts was investigated. FTIR analyses has shown the presence of carbohydrates, polysaccharides, polyphenols, flavonoids, monoterpenes and carboxylates in the dried extracts, while FTIR spectrum of the encapsulated extracts has shown almost exclusively gelatin-based stripes, indicating the efficient encapsulation of the active ingredients of the extracts and therefore their protection. Scanning electron microscopy has shown that the lyophilization process produced irregularly shaped particles, while spray drying formed spherical and pseudo-spherical particles with rough surface. Using the method of diffraction of laser light, it has been found that spray dried encapsulate possessed significantly lower particle size and significantly better uniformity in comparison to the lyophilized sample. According to the results obtained in differential scanning calorimetry, endothermic peak of lyophilized gelatin encapsulate appeared at higher temperature, thus it can be concluded that lyophilized sample was more thermostable than spray dried parallel. Additionally, the values of enthalpy of gelatin encapsulates were significantly higher compared to pure extracts, which confirmed the presence of stabilizing interactions between the encapsulated components and a carrier.

  10. Irradiated gelatin-potato starch blends: evaluation of physicochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamura, Patricia Y.; Regis, Wellington; Mastro, Nelida L., E-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Macromolecular polysaccharides of large chains as starch can interlace with gelatin modifying their mechanical resistance. In this work, biodegradable bovine gelatin-potato starch blends films were developed using glycerol as plasticizer. Three formulations of gelatin/starch proportions (w/w) were used (1:0; 3:1; 1:1) and casting was the chosen method. The dried samples were then submitted to ionizing radiation coming from an electron beam (EB) accelerator with doses of 20 and 40 kGy, at room temperature, in the presence of air. Mechanical properties such as puncture strength and elongation at break were measured. Color measurements, water absorption, moisture, and film solubility were assessed. The results showed that starch addition to films based on gelatin as well as irradiation affected physical and structural properties of the films. Although the increase of starch content in the mixture led to decrease of the puncture force even in samples irradiated with the higher dose, there was a decrease of water absorption of films with the increase of the dose, and also by the higher starch content. Samples irradiated at 20 kGy presented higher moisture and film solubility. The methodology developed in this paper can be applied to other composite systems to establish the best protein:starch ratio, and the contribution of the radiation crosslinking in each specific case. (author)

  11. Gelatine-assisted synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles for magnetic hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, André F.; Mendo, Sofia G. [Universidade de Lisboa, Centro de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências (Portugal); Ferreira, Liliana P. [Universidade de Lisboa, Biosystems and Integrative Sciences Institute, Faculdade de Ciências (Portugal); Mendonça, Maria Helena [Universidade de Lisboa, Centro de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências (Portugal); Ferreira, Paula [University of Aveiro, Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, CICECO - Aveiro Institute of Materials (Portugal); Godinho, Margarida; Cruz, Maria Margarida [Universidade de Lisboa, Biosystems and Integrative Sciences Institute, Faculdade de Ciências (Portugal); Carvalho, Maria Deus, E-mail: mdcarvalho@ciencias.ulisboa.pt [Universidade de Lisboa, Centro de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências (Portugal)

    2016-01-15

    Magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized by the co-precipitation method exploring the use of gelatine and agar as additives. For comparison, magnetite nanoparticles were also prepared by standard co-precipitation, by co-precipitation with the addition of a surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate) and by the thermal decomposition method. The structure and morphology of the synthesized nanoparticles were investigated by powder X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Their magnetic properties were studied by SQUID magnetometry and {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The nanoparticles potential for applications in magnetic hyperthermia was evaluated through heating efficiency under alternating magnetic field. The results show that all synthesis methods produce Fe{sub 3−x}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with similar sizes. The nanoparticles synthesized in the gelatine medium display the narrowest particle size distribution, the lowest oxidation degree, one of the highest saturation magnetization values and the best hyperthermia efficiency, proving that this gelatine-assisted synthesis is an efficient, environmental friendly, and low-cost method to produce magnetite nanoparticles. Graphical Abstract: A new gelatine-assisted method is an efficient and low-cost way to synthesize magnetite nanoparticles with enhanced magnetic hyperthermia.

  12. Surface modification of nanofibrous polycaprolactone/gelatin composite scaffold by collagen type I grafting for skin tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, Sneh; Chou, Chia-Fu; Dinda, Amit K.; Potdar, Pravin D.; Mishra, Narayan C.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a tri-polymer polycaprolactone (PCL)/gelatin/collagen type I composite nanofibrous scaffold has been fabricated by electrospinning for skin tissue engineering and wound healing applications. Firstly, PCL/gelatin nanofibrous scaffold was fabricated by electrospinning using a low cost solvent mixture [chloroform/methanol for PCL and acetic acid (80% v/v) for gelatin], and then the nanofibrous PCL/gelatin scaffold was modified by collagen type I (0.2–1.5 wt.%) grafting. Morphology of the collagen type I-modified PCL/gelatin composite scaffold that was analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), showed that the fiber diameter was increased and pore size was decreased by increasing the concentration of collagen type I. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis indicated the surface modification of PCL/gelatin scaffold by collagen type I immobilization on the surface of the scaffold. MTT assay demonstrated the viability and high proliferation rate of L929 mouse fibroblast cells on the collagen type I-modified composite scaffold. FE-SEM analysis of cell-scaffold construct illustrated the cell adhesion of L929 mouse fibroblasts on the surface of scaffold. Characteristic cell morphology of L929 was also observed on the nanofiber mesh of the collagen type I-modified scaffold. Above results suggest that the collagen type I-modified PCL/gelatin scaffold was successful in maintaining characteristic shape of fibroblasts, besides good cell proliferation. Therefore, the fibroblast seeded PCL/gelatin/collagen type I composite nanofibrous scaffold might be a potential candidate for wound healing and skin tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • PCL/gelatin/collagen type I scaffold was fabricated for skin tissue engineering. • PCL/gelatin/collagen type I scaffold showed higher fibroblast growth than PCL/gelatin one. • PCL/gelatin/collagen type I might be one of the ideal scaffold for

  13. Comparison of cell behavior on pva/pva-gelatin electrospun nanofibers with random and aligned configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Yu; Hu, Keng-Hsiang; Wei, Zung-Hang

    2016-12-01

    Electrospinning technique is able to create nanofibers with specific orientation. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) have good mechanical stability but poor cell adhesion property due to the low affinity of protein. In this paper, extracellular matrix, gelatin is incorporated into PVA solution to form electrospun PVA-gelatin nanofibers membrane. Both randomly oriented and aligned nanofibers are used to investigate the topography-induced behavior of fibroblasts. Surface morphology of the fibers is studied by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with image analysis. Functional group composition in PVA or PVA-gelatin is investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). The morphological changes, surface coverage, viability and proliferation of fibroblasts influenced by PVA and PVA-gelatin nanofibers with randomly orientated or aligned configuration are systematically compared. Fibroblasts growing on PVA-gelatin fibers show significantly larger projected areas as compared with those cultivated on PVA fibers which p-value is smaller than 0.005. Cells on PVA-gelatin aligned fibers stretch out extensively and their intracellular stress fiber pull nucleus to deform. Results suggest that instead of the anisotropic topology within the scaffold trigger the preferential orientation of cells, the adhesion of cell membrane to gelatin have substantial influence on cellular behavior.

  14. Physicochemical and antifungal properties of bio-nanocomposite film based on gelatin-chitin nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraee, Samar; Milani, Jafar M; Ghanbarzadeh, Babak; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2017-04-01

    The gelatin-based nanocomposite films containing chitin nanoparticles (N-chitin) with concentrations of 0, 3, 5 and 10% were prepared and their physical, thermal and anti-microbial properties were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs showed that N-chitin size distribution was around 60-70nm which dispersed appropriately at low concentration in gelatin matrix. The results showed that incorporation of N-chitin significantly influenced apparent color and transparency of the gelatin films. The reduced water vapor permeability (WVP) and solubility and higher surface hydrophobicity of the nanocomposite films were obtained by enhancing N-chitin concentration in film formulation. The use of N-chitin up to 5% concentration in the gelatin based nanocomposite film led to improved mechanical properties. Also, the results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) confirmed improved stability of nanocomposite films against melting and degradation at high temperatures in comparison to neat gelatin film. The well compatibility of chitin nanoparticles with gelatin polymer was concluded from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and X-ray diffraction (XRD) plots. Finally, the gelatin based nanocomposite films had anti-fungal properties against Aspergillus niger in the contact surface zone. Increasing the concentration of N-chitin up to 5% enlarged inhibition zone diameter, but the nanocomposite film containing 10% N-chitin showed smaller inhibition zone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The National Site Licensing of Electronic Resources: An Institutional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While academic libraries in most countries are struggling to negotiate with publishers and vendors individually or collaboratively via consortia, a few countries have experimented with a different model, national site licensing (NSL. Because NSL often involves government and large-scale collaboration, it has the potential to solve many problems in the complex licensing world. However, not many nations have adopted it. This study uses historical research approach and the comparative case study research method to explore the seemingly low level of adoption. The cases include the Canadian National Site Licensing Project (CNSLP, the United Kingdom’s National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI, and the United States, which has not adopted NSL. The theoretical framework guiding the research design and data collection is W. Richard Scott’s institutional theory, which utilizes three supporting pillars—regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive—to analyze institutional processes. In this study, the regulative pillar and the normative pillar of NSL adoption— an institutional construction and change—are examined. Data were collected from monographs, research articles, government documents, and relevant websites. Based on the analysis of these cases, a preliminary model is proposed for the adoption of NSL. The factors that support a country’s adoption of NSL include the need for new institutions, a centralized educational policy-making system and funding system, supportive political trends, and the tradition of cooperation. The factors that may prevent a country from adopting NSL include decentralized educational policy and funding, diversity and the large number of institutions, the concern for the “Big Deal,” and the concern for monopoly.

  16. Development of a gelatin-based polyurethane vascular graft by spray, phase-inversion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losi, Paola; Al Kayal, Tamer; Briganti, Enrica; Volpi, Silvia; Soldani, Giorgio; Mancuso, Luisa; Cao, Giacomo; Celi, Simona; Gualerzi, Alice

    2015-01-01

    The capacity of a composite vascular graft constituting polyurethane (PU) and gelatin to support cell growth was investigated using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Gelatin-based polyurethane grafts were fabricated by co-spraying polyurethane and gelatin using a spray, phase-inversion technique. Graft microstructure was investigated by light and scanning electron microscopy. Uniaxial tensile tests were performed to assess the grafts’ mechanical properties in longitudinal and circumferential directions. hMSCs obtained from bone marrow aspirate were seeded onto flat graft samples. After 24, 48, and 72 h of incubation, cell morphology was evaluated by Giemsa staining and cell viability was calculated by XTT assay. SEM analysis evidenced that PU samples display a microporous structure, whereas the gelatin-based PU samples show a fibrillar appearance. The presence of cross-linked gelatin produced a significant increase of ultimate tensile strength and ultimate elongation in circumferential directions compared to PU material. Qualitative analysis of hMSC adhesion onto the grafts revealed remarkable differences between gelatin-based PU and control graft. hMSCs grown onto gelatin-based PU graft form a monolayer that reached confluence at 72 h, whereas cells seeded onto the control graft were not able to undergo appropriate spreading. hMSCs grown onto gelatin-based PU graft showed significantly higher viability than cells seeded onto bare PU at all time points. In conclusion, a composite vascular graft was successfully manufactured by simultaneous co-spraying of a synthetic polymer and a protein to obtain a scaffold that combines the mechanical characteristics of polyurethanes with the favorable cell interaction features of gelatin. (paper)

  17. Preservation and storage of prepared ballistic gelatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattijssen, E J A T; Alberink, I; Jacobs, B; van den Boogaard, Y

    2016-02-01

    The use of ballistic gelatine, generally accepted as a human muscle tissue simulant in wound ballistic studies, might be improved by adding a preservative (Methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate) which inhibits microbial growth. This study shows that replacing a part of the gelatine powder by the preservative does not significantly alter the penetration depth of projectiles. Storing prepared blocks of ballistic gelatine over time decreased the penetration depth of projectiles. Storage of prepared gelatine for 4 week already showed a significant effect on the penetration depth of projectiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A survey of the use of electronic scientific information resources among medical and dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarnio Matti

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate medical and dental students' utilization of electronic information resources. Methods A web survey sent to 837 students (49.9% responded. Results Twenty-four per cent of medical students and ninteen per cent of dental students searched MEDLINE 2+ times/month for study purposes, and thiry-two per cent and twenty-four per cent respectively for research. Full-text articles were used 2+ times/month by thirty-three per cent of medical and ten per cent of dental students. Twelve per cent of respondents never utilized either MEDLINE or full-text articles. In multivariate models, the information-searching skills among students were significantly associated with use of MEDLINE and full-text articles. Conclusion Use of electronic resources differs among students. Forty percent were non-users of full-text articles. Information-searching skills are correlated with the use of electronic resources, but the level of basic PC skills plays not a major role in using these resources. The student data shows that adequate training in information-searching skills will increase the use of electronic information resources.

  19. Fabrication and characterization of PCL/gelatin composite nanofibrous scaffold for tissue engineering applications by electrospinning method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, Sneh; Dinda, Amit Kumar; Mishra, Narayan Chandra

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, composite nanofibrous tissue engineering-scaffold consisting of polycaprolactone and gelatin, was fabricated by electrospinning method, using a new cost-effective solvent mixture: chloroform/methanol for polycaprolactone (PCL) and acetic acid for gelatin. The morphology of the nanofibrous scaffold was investigated by using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) which clearly indicates that the morphology of nanofibers was influenced by the weight ratio of PCL to gelatin in the solution. Uniform fibers were produced only when the weight ratio of PCL/gelatin is sufficiently high (10:1). The scaffold was further characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). FT-IR and TG analysis indicated some interactions between PCL and gelatin molecules within the scaffold, while XRD results demonstrated crystalline nature of PCL/gelatin composite scaffold. Cytotoxicity effect of scaffold on L929 mouse fibroblast cells was evaluated by MTT assay and cell proliferation on the scaffold was confirmed by DNA quantification. Positive results of MTT assay and DNA quantification L929 mouse fibroblast cells indicated that the scaffold made from the combination of natural polymer (gelatin) and synthetic polymer (PCL) may serve as a good candidate for tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: ► PCL/Gelatin scaffold was successfully fabricated by electrospinning method. ► PCL in CHCl 3 /CH 3 OH and gelatin in acetic acid: a novel polymer-solvent system. ► The morphology of nanofibers was influenced by the weight ratio of PCL/gelatin. ► Chemical interactions between PCL and gelatin molecules enhanced cell growth. ► Cell culture studies indicate the suitability of scaffold for tissue regeneration

  20. Analytical Study of Usage of Electronic Information Resources at Pharmacopoeial Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Tyagi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to know the rate and purpose of the use of e-resource by the scientists at pharmacopoeial libraries in India. Among other things, this study examined the preferences of the scientists toward printed books and journals, electronic information resources, and pattern of using e-resources. Non-probability sampling specially accidental and purposive technique was applied in the collection of primary data through administration of user questionnaire. The sample respondents chosen for the study consists of principle scientific officer, senior scientific officer, scientific officer, and scientific assistant of different division of the laboratories, namely, research and development, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacovigilance, pharmacology, pharmacogonosy, and microbiology. The findings of the study reveal the personal experiences and perceptions they have had on practice and research activity using e-resource. The major findings indicate that of the total anticipated participants, 78% indicated that they perceived the ability to use computer for electronic information resources. The data analysis shows that all the scientists belonging to the pharmacopoeial libraries used electronic information resources to address issues relating to drug indexes and compendia, monographs, drugs obtained through online databases, e-journals, and the Internet sources—especially polices by regulatory agencies, contacts, drug promotional literature, and standards.

  1. Considering Point-of-Care Electronic Medical Resources in Lieu of Traditional Textbooks for Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, LaDonna S; Wallace, Michelle M; Adams, Courtney R; Kaufman, Michelle L; Snyder, Courtney L

    2015-09-01

    Selecting resources to support didactic courses is a critical decision, and the advantages and disadvantages must be carefully considered. During clinical rotations, students not only need to possess strong background knowledge but also are expected to be proficient with the same evidence-based POC resources used by clinicians. Students place high value on “real world” learning and therefore may place more value on POC resources that they know practicing clinicians use as compared with medical textbooks. The condensed nature of PA education requires students to develop background knowledge and information literacy skills over a short period. One way to build that knowledge and those skills simultaneously is to use POC resources in lieu of traditional medical textbooks during didactic training. Electronic POC resources offer several advantages over traditional textbooks and should be considered as viable options in PA education.

  2. Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklarının Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Al

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

  3. Radiation as a processing aid for upgrading gelatin and gelatin capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, K.M.; Tantry, M.; Sharma, G.; Gopal, N.G.S.

    1979-01-01

    Gelatin for pharmaceutical use should not contain more than 1000 microorganisms per gram and must not contain pathogenic microorganisms like Salmonella species and E.Coli. For some biological studies spore free gelatin is essential. Locally available gelatin and gelatin capsules have been found to contain a good number of microorganisms. Gelatin and its capsules containing different colours were exposed to graded doses of radiation and stored at different temperatures. They were then examined for microbial content, disintegration characteristics, pH, viscosity and colour change. The study shows that radiation treatment is useful to upgrade microbiologically both gelatin and its capsules. This technique provides apparently a useful and economic method for producing spore free gelatin which in commerce is relatively expensive. (auth.)

  4. Radiation as a processing aid for upgrading gelatin and gelatin capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, K M; Tantry, M; Sharma, G; Gopal, N G.S. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). ISOMED

    1979-01-01

    Gelatin for pharmaceutical use should not contain more than 1000 microorganisms per gram and must not contain pathogenic microorganisms like Salmonella species and E.Coli. For some biological studies spore free gelatin is essential. Locally available gelatin and gelatin capsules have been found to contain a good number of microorganisms. Gelatin and its capsules containing different colours were exposed to graded doses of radiation and stored at different temperatures. They were then examined for microbial content, disintegration characteristics, pH, viscosity and colour change. The study shows that radiation treatment is useful to upgrade microbiologically both gelatin and its capsules. This technique provides apparently a useful and economic method for producing spore free gelatin which in commerce is relatively expensive.

  5. Enhanced Critical Size Defect Repair in Rabbit Mandible by Electrospun Gelatin/β-TCP Composite Nanofibrous Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The design and fabrication of biodegradable barrier membranes with satisfactory structure and composition remain a considerable challenge for periodontal tissue regeneration. We have developed a biomimetic nanofibrous membrane made from a composite of gelatin and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP. We previously confirmed the in vitro biological performance of the membrane material, but the efficacy of the membranes in promoting bone repair in situ has not yet been examined. Gelatin/β-TCP composite nanofibers were fabricated by incorporation of 20 wt.% β-TCP nanoparticles into electrospun gelatin nanofibers. Electron microscopy showed that the composite membranes presented a nonwoven structure with an interconnected porous network and had a rough surface due to the β-TCP nanoparticles, which were distributed widely and uniformly throughout the gelatin-fiber matrix. The repair efficacy of rabbit mandible defects implanted with bone substitute (Bio-Oss and covered with the gelatin/β-TCP composite nanofibrous membrane was evaluated in comparison with pure gelatin nanofibrous membrane. Gross observation, histological examination, and immunohistochemical analysis showed that new bone formation and defect closure were significantly enhanced by the composite membranes compared to the pure gelatin ones. From these results, we conclude that nanofibrous gelatin/β-TCP composite membranes could serve as effective barrier membranes for guided tissue regeneration.

  6. Use of electronic sales data to tailor nutrition education resources for an ethnically diverse population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, H; Rodgers, A; Ni Mhurchu, C

    2010-02-01

    Nutrition education may be most effective when personally tailored. Individualised electronic supermarket sales data offer opportunities to tailor nutrition education using shopper's usual food purchases. The present study aimed to use individualised electronic supermarket sales data to tailor nutrition resources for an ethnically diverse population in a large supermarket intervention trial in New Zealand. Culturally appropriate nutrition education resources (i.e. messages and shopping lists) were developed with the target population (through two sets of focus groups) and ethnic researchers. A nutrient database of supermarket products was developed using retrospective sales data and linked to participant sales to allow tailoring by usual food purchases. Modified Heart Foundation Tick criteria were used to identify 'healthier' products in the database suitable for promotion in the resources. Rules were developed to create a monthly report listing the tailored and culturally targeted messages to be sent to each participant, and to produce automated, tailored shopping lists. Culturally targeted nutrition messages (n = 864) and shopping lists (n = 3 formats) were developed. The food and nutrient database (n = 3000 top-selling products) was created using 12 months of retrospective sales data, and comprised 60%'healthier' products. Three months of baseline sales data were used to determine usual food purchases. Tailored resources were successfully mailed to 123 Māori, 52 Pacific and 346 non-Māori non-Pacific participants over the 6-month trial intervention period. Electronic supermarket sales data can be used to tailor nutrition education resources for a large number of ethnically diverse supermarket shoppers.

  7. REVIEW OF MOODLE PLUGINS FOR DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FROM LANGUAGE DISCIPLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today the problem of designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines in Moodle is very important. This system has a lot of different, powerful resources, plugins to facilitate the learning of students with language disciplines. This article presents an overview and comparative analysis of the five Moodle plugins for designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines. There have been considered their key features and functionality in order to choose the best for studying language disciplines in the Moodle. Plugins are compared by a group of experts according to the criteria: efficiency, functionality and easy use. For a comparative analysis of the plugins it is used the analytic hierarchy process.

  8. Effects of the Use of Electronic Human Resource Management (EHRM Within Human Resource Management (HRM Functions at Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chux Gervase Iwu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to examine the effect of e-hrm systems in assisting human resource practitioners to execute their duties and responsibilities. In comparison to developed economies of the world, information technology adoption in sub-Saharan Africa has not been without certain glitches. Some of the factors that are responsible for these include poor need identification, sustainable funding, and insufficient skills. Besides these factors, there is also the issue of change management and users sticking to what they already know. Although, the above factors seem negative, there is strong evidence that information systems such as electronic human resource management present benefits to an organization. To achieve this, a dual research approach was utilized. Literature assisted immensely in both the development of the conceptual framework upon which the study hinged as well as in the development of the questionnaire items. The study also made use of an interview checklist to guide the participants. The findings reveal a mix of responses that indicate that while there are gains in adopting e-hrm systems, it is wiser to consider supporting resources as well as articulate the needs of the university better before any investment is made.

  9. The Electron Microscopy Outreach Program: A Web-based resource for research and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosinsky, G E; Baker, T S; Hand, G; Ellisman, M H

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a centralized World Wide Web (WWW)-based environment that serves as a resource of software tools and expertise for biological electron microscopy. A major focus is molecular electron microscopy, but the site also includes information and links on structural biology at all levels of resolution. This site serves to help integrate or link structural biology techniques in accordance with user needs. The WWW site, called the Electron Microscopy (EM) Outreach Program (URL: http://emoutreach.sdsc.edu), provides scientists with computational and educational tools for their research and edification. In particular, we have set up a centralized resource containing course notes, references, and links to image analysis and three-dimensional reconstruction software for investigators wanting to learn about EM techniques either within or outside of their fields of expertise. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  10. Physicochemical properties, antimicrobial activity and oil release of fish gelatin films incorporated with cinnamon essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiulin Wu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fish skin gelatin films incorporated with various concentrations of cinnamon essential oil (CEO were prepared and characterized. The results showed that tensile strength (TS, elongation at break (EAB, and water content (WC of the gelatin based film decreased with the increasing concentrations of CEO, but water vapor permeability (WVP increased. Addition of CEO improved light barrier property of the film. The Scanning electron microscope (SEM showed that the heterogeneous surface and porous formation appeared in gelatin-CEO films. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses (FTIR-ATR spectra indicated the interactions existed between gelatin and CEO. The gelatin-CEO films exhibited good inhibitory effects against the tested microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus oryzae, and Paecilomyces varioti and their antifungal activity seemed to be more effective than the resistance to bacterial growth. In vitro release studies showed an initial burst effect of CEO release and that subsequently slowed down at 40 °C, but the initial burst release was not obvious at 4 °C. The obtained results suggested that incorporation of CEO as a natural antimicrobial agent into gelatin film has potential for developing as active food packaging.

  11. Preparation of Gelatin coated hydroxyapatite nanorods and the stability of its aqueous colloidal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Minfang; Tan Junjun; Lian Yuying; Liu Debao

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a novel process for preparing Gelatin coated hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanorods to improve the stability of its aqueous colloid. As Gelatin is a typical protein with abundant hydroxyls, carboxys and imines, it is a very effective functional group to attach onto the surfaces of the HAp particles. Our data show that the Gelatin layer firmly coated on the hydroxyapatite nanorods, and their structure and interfacial chemical bonding have been studied using various techniques, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The reaction temperature, pH, amount of Gelatin, and Ca/P molar ratio in the material determine the quality of Gelatin coating and the stability of the HAp in aqueous solution. Moreover, an interesting phenomenon was found that the Gelatin coated HAp sediment separated by centrifugal was easily dispersed in water and forms HAp aqueous suspension. The suspension was stable for more than 24 h

  12. Radiation synthesis and characterization of nanosilver/gelatin/carboxymethyl chitosan hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Ying; Zhao Yinghui; Wang Lu; Xu Ling; Zhai Maolin; Wei Shicheng

    2012-01-01

    A series of antibacterial hydrogels were fabricated from an aqueous solution of AgNO 3 , gelatin and carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) by radiation-induced reduction and crosslinking at ambient temperature. The nanosilver particles were in situ synthesized accompanying with the formation of gelatin/CM-chitosan hydrogel. Transmission Electron Microscope and UV–vis analysis have verified the formation and homogeneous distribution of nanosilver particles in the hydrogel matrix. The nanosilver/gelatin/CM-chitosan hydrogels possessed interconnected porous structure, had a compressive modulus of 44 to 56 kPa, and could absorb 62 to 108 times of deionized water to its dry weight. Furthermore, the hydrogels were found to have sound antibacterial effect on Escherichia coli (E. coli), and their antibacterial ability could be significantly enhanced by the increasing of AgNO 3 content. The comprehensive results of this study suggest that nanosilver/gelatin/CM-chitosan hydrogels have potential as an antibacterial wound dressing. - Highlights: ► Nanosilver/gelatin/CM-chitosan hydrogel was synthesized by radiation crosslinking. ► Nanosilver particles distributed homogeneously in the hydrogel. ► The size of nanosilver increased with the increase of AgNO 3 concentration. ► The nanosilver/gelatin/CM-chitosan hydrogel has antibacterial ability.

  13. Preparation of reduced graphene oxide/gelatin composite films with reinforced mechanical strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wenchao; Wang, Zhipeng; Liu, Yu; Li, Nan; Wang, Wei; Gao, Jianping

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We used and compared different proportion of gelatin and chitosan as reducing agents. ► The mechanical properties of the films are investigated, especially the wet films. ► The cell toxicity of the composite films as biomaterial is carried out. ► The water absorption capabilities of the composite films also studied. -- Abstract: Graphene oxide (GO) was reduced by chitosan/gelatin solution and added to gelatin (Gel) to fabricate reduced graphene oxide/gelatin (RGO/Gel) films by a solvent-casting method using genipin as cross-linking agent. The structure and properties of the films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and UV–vis spectroscopy. The addition of RGO increased the tensile strength of the RGO/Gel films in both dry and wet states, but decreased their elongation at break. The incorperation of RGO also decreased the swelling ability of the films in water. Cell cultures were carried out in order to test the cytotoxicity of the films. The cells grew and reproduced well on the RGO/Gel films, indicating that the addition of RGO has no negative effect on the compatibility of the gelatin. Therefore, the reduced graphene oxide/gelatin composite is a promising biomaterial with excellent mechanical properties and good cell compatibility.

  14. Properties of gelatin-based films incorporated with chitosan-coated microparticles charged with rutin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammak, Ilyes; Bittante, Ana Mônica Quinta Barbosa; Lourenço, Rodrigo Vinicius; do Amaral Sobral, Paulo José

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was development an active film based on gelatin incorporated with antioxidant, rutin carried into microparticles. The complexation between oppositely charged lecithin and chitosan was applied to prepare the chitosan-coated microparticles. The generated microparticles had an average size of 520±4nm and a span of 0.3 were formulated by a rotor-stator homogenize at the homogenization speed 10,000rpm. Composite films were prepared by incorporating chitosan-coated microparticles, at various concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 0.5, or 1% (based on the weight of the gelatin powder)) in the gelatin-based films. For the prepared films, the results showed that obtained physicochemical, water vapor barrier, and mechanical were compared with native gelatin film with a slight decrease for chitosan concentration higher than 0.5%. The microstructure studies done by scanning electron microscopes, revealed different micropores embedded with oil resulting from the incorporation of the microparticles into the gelatin matrix. Moreover, the calorimetric results were comparable to those of gelatin control film with T g value 45°C and increased crystallinity percentage with increasing incorporation of microparticles. This original concept of composite biodegradable films may thus be a good alternative to incorporate liposoluble active compounds to design an active packaging with good properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Extraction of high value added gelatin biopolymer from black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) head bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockalingam, K.; Abdullah, H. Z.

    2015-07-01

    Black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) fish head bones were evaluated for its possibilities in extracting gelatin. Head bones were subjected to pre-treatment with 3% of hydrochloric acid (HCl) for demineralization before undergoes thermal extraction process. The raw head bones were characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in order to investigate the external and internal surface morphology. SEM images also reveal the presence of collagen fiber with 1 µm diameter in the head bone. The black tilapia fish head bones yields 5.75 % of gelatin in wet weight basis, indicating the possibility of this fish species as sources of gelatin. Further characterizations were done on both raw head bones and extracted gelatin through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and proximate analysis. The head bones gelatin shows high protein (10.55%) and ash (3.11 %) content with low moisture. This further proves the effectiveness of demineralization and extraction method used. The black tilapia fish head bones are found to be a prospective source of gelatin with good chemical and functional properties.

  16. Extraction of high value added gelatin biopolymer from black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) head bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sockalingam, K.; Abdullah, H. Z.

    2015-01-01

    Black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) fish head bones were evaluated for its possibilities in extracting gelatin. Head bones were subjected to pre-treatment with 3% of hydrochloric acid (HCl) for demineralization before undergoes thermal extraction process. The raw head bones were characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in order to investigate the external and internal surface morphology. SEM images also reveal the presence of collagen fiber with 1 µm diameter in the head bone. The black tilapia fish head bones yields 5.75 % of gelatin in wet weight basis, indicating the possibility of this fish species as sources of gelatin. Further characterizations were done on both raw head bones and extracted gelatin through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and proximate analysis. The head bones gelatin shows high protein (10.55%) and ash (3.11 %) content with low moisture. This further proves the effectiveness of demineralization and extraction method used. The black tilapia fish head bones are found to be a prospective source of gelatin with good chemical and functional properties

  17. Extraction of high value added gelatin biopolymer from black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) head bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sockalingam, K., E-mail: gd130106@siswa.uthm.edu.my; Abdullah, H. Z., E-mail: hasan@uthm.edu.my [Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) fish head bones were evaluated for its possibilities in extracting gelatin. Head bones were subjected to pre-treatment with 3% of hydrochloric acid (HCl) for demineralization before undergoes thermal extraction process. The raw head bones were characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in order to investigate the external and internal surface morphology. SEM images also reveal the presence of collagen fiber with 1 µm diameter in the head bone. The black tilapia fish head bones yields 5.75 % of gelatin in wet weight basis, indicating the possibility of this fish species as sources of gelatin. Further characterizations were done on both raw head bones and extracted gelatin through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and proximate analysis. The head bones gelatin shows high protein (10.55%) and ash (3.11 %) content with low moisture. This further proves the effectiveness of demineralization and extraction method used. The black tilapia fish head bones are found to be a prospective source of gelatin with good chemical and functional properties.

  18. Extraction and physicochemical characterization of broiler (Gallus gallus domesticus) skin gelatin compared to commercial bovine gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykin-Dinçer, E; Koç, A; Erbas, M

    2017-09-01

    Gelatin was extracted from broiler (Gallus gallus domesticus) skins and analyzed to compare its physicochemical properties with those of commercial bovine gelatin. The average yield of broiler skin gelatin was 6.5% on a wet weight basis. Broiler skin gelatin had more α1-and α2-chains than β-chain and contained high molecular weight (γ-chain) polymers. Glycine was the dominant amino acid in broiler skin gelatin (20.26%), followed by proline (Pro) (15.12%) then hydroxyproline (Hyp) (11.36%). Compared to commercial bovine gelatin, broiler skin gelatin had less total imino acids (Pro and Hyp) but a higher (33.65 vs. 31.38°C) melting temperature (P commercial bovine gelatins appeared to be associated with differences in their amino acid composition and molecular weight distribution. The sensory evaluation results revealed that broiler skin gelatin could be a potential alternative to commercial bovine gelatin, useful in various food products. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Identifying and evaluating electronic learning resources for use in adult-gerontology nurse practitioner education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hilaire J; Belza, Basia; Baker, Margaret; Christianson, Phyllis; Doorenbos, Ardith; Nguyen, Huong

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing existing curricula to meet newly published adult-gerontology advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) competencies in an efficient manner presents a challenge to nurse educators. Incorporating shared, published electronic learning resources (ELRs) in existing or new courses may be appropriate in order to assist students in achieving competencies. The purposes of this project were to (a) identify relevant available ELR for use in enhancing geriatric APRN education and (b) to evaluate the educational utility of identified ELRs based on established criteria. A multilevel search strategy was used. Two independent team members reviewed identified ELR against established criteria to ensure utility. Only resources meeting all criteria were retained. Resources were found for each of the competency areas and included formats such as podcasts, Web casts, case studies, and teaching videos. In many cases, resources were identified using supplemental strategies and not through traditional search or search of existing geriatric repositories. Resources identified have been useful to advanced practice educators in improving lecture and seminar content in a particular topic area and providing students and preceptors with additional self-learning resources. Addressing sustainability within geriatric APRN education is critical for sharing of best practices among educators and for sustainability of teaching and related resources. © 2014.

  20. USE OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES WHEN TRAINING IN WORK WITH SPREADSHEETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Х А Гербеков

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today the tools for maintaining training courses based on opportunities of information and communication technologies are developed. Practically in all directions of preparation and on all subject matters electronic textbook and self-instruction manuals are created. Nevertheless the industry of computer educational and methodical materials actively develops and gets more and more areas of development and introduction. In this regard more and more urgent is a problem of development of the electronic educational resources adequate to modern educational requirements. Creation and the organization of training courses with use of electronic educational resources in particular on the basis of Internet technologies remains a difficult methodical task.In article the questions connected with development of electronic educational resources for use when studying the substantial line “Information technologies” of a school course of informatics in particular for studying of spreadsheets are considered. Also the analysis of maintenance of a school course and the unified state examination from the point of view of representation of task in him corresponding to the substantial line of studying “Information technologies” on mastering technology of information processing in spreadsheets and the methods of visualization given by means of charts and schedules is carried out.

  1. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables

  2. Availability, Level of Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Resources by Law Lecturers in Public Universities in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amusa, Oyintola Isiaka; Atinmo, Morayo

    2016-01-01

    (Purpose) This study surveyed the level of availability, use and constraints to use of electronic resources among law lecturers in Nigeria. (Methodology) Five hundred and fifty-two law lecturers were surveyed and four hundred and forty-two responded. (Results) Data analysis revealed that the level of availability of electronic resources for the…

  3. Performance of high amylose starch-composited gelatin films influenced by gelatinization and concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenhang; Wang, Kun; Xiao, Jingdong; Liu, Yaowei; Zhao, Yana; Liu, Anjun

    2017-01-01

    In order to study the impact of starch in film performance, high amylose corn starch was composited in gelatin films under different gelatinization conditions and, in high and low concentrations (10 and 50wt.%). It was found that hot water gelatinized starch (Gel-Shw) increased film mechanical strength and was dependent upon the starch concentration. The addition of an alkali component to the starch significantly enhanced the swelling of the starch granules and expedited the gelatinization process. Incorporation of starch, especially the alkalized starch (Sha), into the gelatin films decreased film solubility which improved its water resistance and water vapor permeability (WVP). Multiple techniques (DSC, TGA, FT-IR, and XRD) were used to characterize the process and results, including the crosslinking of the dissolved starch molecules and the particles formed from gelatinized starch during retrogradation process, which played an important role in improving the thermal stability of the composited gelatin films. Overall, the starch-gelatin composition provides a potential approach to improve gelatin film performance and benefit its applications in the food industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of the Spindle Morphology Nanomicelles Assembled from Sericin and Gelatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhou Su

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex nanomicelles were prepared by sericin and type A gelatin with molecular weight of 5789 Da and 128664 Da separately. The assembling conditions were as follows: mass ratio (sericin/gelatin was 1 : 1, protein concentration was 0.5%, temperature was 35°C, and assembling time was 18 hours. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and dynamic light scattering (DLS were conducted to observe and characterize the complex nanomicelles. Results showed that the complex sericin/gelatin micelles was a kind of nanospindle micelles. The micelles had high electrochemical stability, thermal stability, antidilution stability, and storage stability.

  5. GUIDELINES FOR EVALUATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina P. Lavrentieva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the causes of insufficient effective use of electronic learning resources and sets out the guidelines on ways to solve the aforementioned problems. The set of didactic, methodical, psychological, pedagogical, design and ergonomic quality requirements is considered for evaluation, selection and application of information and communication technologies in the educational process. The most appropriate mechanisms for the ICT introduction into the learning process are disclosed as it should meet the specific learning needs of the student and the objectives of the educational process. The guidance for psycho-educational assessment of quality of electronic educational resources is provided. It is argued that the effectiveness of the ICT use is to be improved by means of quality evaluation mechanisms involved into the educational process.

  6. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Loban; D. A. Lovtsov

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with elec...

  7. Electrospun Gelatin/β-TCP Composite Nanofibers Enhance Osteogenic Differentiation of BMSCs and In Vivo Bone Formation by Activating Ca2+-Sensing Receptor Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehui Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate- (CaP- based composite scaffolds have been used extensively for the bone regeneration in bone tissue engineering. Previously, we developed a biomimetic composite nanofibrous membrane of gelatin/β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP and confirmed their biological activity in vitro and bone regeneration in vivo. However, how these composite nanofibers promote the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs is unknown. Here, gelatin/β-TCP composite nanofibers were fabricated by incorporating 20 wt% β-TCP nanoparticles into electrospun gelatin nanofibers. Electron microscopy showed that the composite β-TCP nanofibers had a nonwoven structure with a porous network and a rough surface. Spectral analyses confirmed the presence and chemical stability of the β-TCP and gelatin components. Compared with pure gelatin nanofibers, gelatin/β-TCP composite nanofibers caused increased cell attachment, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and osteogenic gene expression in rat BMSCs. Interestingly, the expression level of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR was significantly higher on the composite nanofibrous scaffolds than on pure gelatin. For rat calvarial critical sized defects, more extensive osteogenesis and neovascularization occurred in the composite scaffolds group compared with the gelatin group. Thus, gelatin/β-TCP composite scaffolds promote osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in vitro and bone regeneration in vivo by activating Ca2+-sensing receptor signaling.

  8. Effects of Ultrasound Assisted Extraction in Conjugation with Aid of Actinidin on the Molecular and Physicochemical Properties of Bovine Hide Gelatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanbir Ahmad

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Actinidin was used to pretreat the bovine hide and ultrasonic wave (53 kHz and 500 W was used for the time durations of 2, 4 and 6 h at 60 °C to extract gelatin samples (UA2, UA4 and UA6, respectively. Control (UAC gelatin was extracted using ultrasound for 6 h at 60 °C without enzyme pretreatment. There was significant (p < 0.05 increase in gelatin yield as the time duration of ultrasound treatment increased with UA6 giving the highest yield of 19.65%. Gel strength and viscosity of UAC and UA6 extracted gelatin samples were 627.53 and 502.16 g and 16.33 and 15.60 mPa.s, respectively. Longer duration of ultrasound treatment increased amino acids content of the extracted gelatin and UAC exhibited the highest content of amino acids. Progressive degradation of polypeptide chains was observed in the protein pattern of the extracted gelatin as the time duration of ultrasound extraction increased. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy depicted loss of molecular order and degradation in UA6. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed protein aggregation and network formation in the gelatin samples with increasing time of ultrasound treatment. The study indicated that ultrasound assisted gelatin extraction using actinidin exhibited high yield with good quality gelatin.

  9. A systematic review of portable electronic technology for health education in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Megan S; Fischer, Lydia J; Chun, Yeona; Vreeman, Rachel C

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the literature of how portable electronic technologies with offline functionality are perceived and used to provide health education in resource-limited settings. Three reviewers evaluated articles and performed a bibliography search to identify studies describing health education delivered by portable electronic device with offline functionality in low- or middle-income countries. Data extracted included: study population; study design and type of analysis; type of technology used; method of use; setting of technology use; impact on caregivers, patients, or overall health outcomes; and reported limitations. Searches yielded 5514 unique titles. Out of 75 critically reviewed full-text articles, 10 met inclusion criteria. Study locations included Botswana, Peru, Kenya, Thailand, Nigeria, India, Ghana, and Tanzania. Topics addressed included: development of healthcare worker training modules, clinical decision support tools, patient education tools, perceptions and usability of portable electronic technology, and comparisons of technologies and/or mobile applications. Studies primarily looked at the assessment of developed educational modules on trainee health knowledge, perceptions and usability of technology, and comparisons of technologies. Overall, studies reported positive results for portable electronic device-based health education, frequently reporting increased provider/patient knowledge, improved patient outcomes in both quality of care and management, increased provider comfort level with technology, and an environment characterized by increased levels of technology-based, informal learning situations. Negative assessments included high investment costs, lack of technical support, and fear of device theft. While the research is limited, portable electronic educational resources present promising avenues to increase access to effective health education in resource-limited settings, contingent

  10. Characterization of Fish Skin Gelatin Yellowfin Tuna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mala Nurilmala

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gelatin is one of the products which become a necessity for various industries, i.e. food and non-food industries. The application of gelatin has been increasing year by year in Indonesia. However, there is nogelatin industry in Indonesia so far. Thus, it is necessary to find an alternative source of gelatin, especially from fishery by products.Thus, the purpose of this research was to extract fish skin gelatin of yellowfin tuna with temperature treatments (55, 65 and 75oC. In addition, the properties of resulted gelatin were determined including yield, pH, gel strength, viscosity, functional groups, molecular weight profiles, and amino acid composition. The extraction at 75oC was chosen as the best result. The yield was 17%; pH 5.3; gel strength 1789.55 gf, viscosity 104.2 Cp, respectively. There was functional group amide A, I, II, dan III. SDS-PAGE showed β, α1 dan α2 bands for tuna skin gelatin. In addition, the main amino acids were glycine and proline.

  11. Anaphylaxis to gelatin-containing rectal suppositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, M; Inouye, S

    2001-12-01

    Some children--though the number is few-have been sensitized with gelatin. To investigate the relationship between the presence of antigelatin IgE and anaphylaxis to gelatin-containing rectal suppository, we measured antigelatin IgE in the sera of the children with anaphylaxis. Ten children showed systemic allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, to a chloral hydrate rectal suppository containing gelatin (231 mg/dose) that had been used as a sedative. These children's clinical histories and serum samples were submitted from physicians to the National Institute of Infectious Diseases during a 2-year period from 1996 to 1997. Of the 10 children, 5 showed apparent anaphylaxis, including hypotension and/or cyanosis, along with urticaria or wheezing; 2 showed both urticaria and wheezing without hypotension or cyanosis; the other 3 showed only urticaria. All of the children had antigelatin IgE (mean value +/- SD, 7.9 +/- 8.4 Ua/mL). As a control, samples from 250 randomly selected children had no antigelatin IgE. These findings suggest that the 10 children's systemic allergic reactions to this suppository were caused by the gelatin component. Gelatin-containing suppositories must be used with the same caution as gelatin-containing vaccines and other medications.

  12. Enzyme-Gelatin Electrochemical Biosensors: Scaling Down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik A. Heering

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we investigate the possibility of scaling down enzyme-gelatin modified electrodes by spin coating the enzyme-gelatin layer. Special attention is given to the electrochemical behavior of the selected enzymes inside the gelatin matrix. A glassy carbon electrode was used as a substrate to immobilize, in the first instance, horse heart cytochrome c (HHC in a gelatin matrix. Both a drop dried and a spin coated layer was prepared. On scaling down, a transition from diffusion controlled reactions towards adsorption controlled reactions is observed. Compared to a drop dried electrode, a spin coated electrode showed a more stable electrochemical behavior. Next to HHC, we also incorporated catalase in a spin coated gelatin matrix immobilized on a glassy carbon electrode. By spincoating, highly uniform sub micrometer layers of biocompatible matrices can be constructed. A full electrochemical study and characterization of the modified surfaces has been carried out. It was clear that in the case of catalase, gluteraldehyde addition was needed to prevent leaking of the catalase from the gelatin matrix.

  13. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Loban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with electronic educational resource of new generation is developed, conditionally decomposed into three basic components: the formalization model of the course in the form of the thesaurusclassifier (“Author of e-resource”, the model of learning as management (“Coordination. Consultation. Control”, the learning model with the thesaurus-classifier (“Student”. Model “Author of e-resource” allows the student to achieve completeness, high degree of didactic elaboration and structuring of the studied material in triples of variants: modules of education information, practical task and control tasks; the result of the student’s (author’s of e-resource activity is the thesaurus-classifier. Model of learning as management is based on the principle of personal orientation of learning in computer environment and determines the logic of interaction between the lecturer and the student when determining the triple of variants individually for each student; organization of a dialogue between the lecturer and the student for consulting purposes; personal control of the student’s success (report generation and iterative search for the concept of the class assignment in the thesaurus-classifier before acquiring the required level of training. Model “Student” makes it possible to concretize the learning tasks in relation to the personality of the student and to the training level achieved; the assumption of the lecturer about the level of training of a

  14. Halal authenticity of gelatin using species-specific PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Hessam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrangiz; Mousavi, Seyed Mohammad; Dezfouli, Ehsan Ansari; Solgi, Tara; Khodaverdi, Mahdi; Rabiei, Maryam; Rastegar, Hossein; Alebouyeh, Mahmoud

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of food products derived from porcine sources is strictly prohibited in Islam. Gelatin, mostly derived from bovine and porcine sources, has many applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. To ensure that food products comply with halal regulations, development of valid and reliable analytical methods is very much required. In this study, a species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using conserved regions of mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome b gene) was performed to evaluate the halal authenticity of gelatin. After isolation of DNA from gelatin powders with known origin, conventional PCR using species-specific primers was carried out on the extracted DNA. The amplified expected PCR products of 212 and 271 bp were observed for porcine and bovine gelatin, respectively. The sensitivity of the method was tested on binary gelatin mixtures containing 0.1%, 1%, 10%, and 100% (w/w) of porcine gelatin within bovine gelatin and vice versa. Although most of the DNA is degraded due to the severe processing steps of gelatin production, the minimum level of 0.1% w/w of both porcine and bovine gelatin was detected. Moreover, eight food products labeled as containing bovine gelatin and eight capsule shells were subjected to PCR examination. The results showed that all samples contained bovine gelatin, and the absence of porcine gelatin was verified. This method of species authenticity is very useful to verify whether gelatin and gelatin-containing food products are derived from halal ingredients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Thermal characterisation of gelatin extracted from yellowfin tuna skin and commercial mammalian gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Shafiur; Al-Saidi, Ghalib Said; Guizani, Nejib

    2008-05-15

    Glass transition and other thermal characteristics of gelatin from different sources were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and modulated DSC (MDSC). The initial glass transition temperatures of equilibrated gelatin samples at 11.3% relative humidity, determined from reversible heat flow thermogram of MDSC, were 23, 75 and 59°C, respectively, for tuna skin, bovine and porcine gelatin. When gelatin samples were equilibrated at higher relative humidity of 52.9%, glass transition temperature of fish skin and bovine gelatin decreased to -3 and 57°C, respectively. Further increase of equilibration relative humidity to 75.3% showed increased value in the case of tuna skin, whereas bovine and porcine did not show any significant change. DSC and MDSC results indicated that tuna gelatin showed lower glass transition compared to mammalian source gelatin equilibrated at the same constant relative humidity. In general glass transition measured by DSC was found lower than the values measured by MDSC. The results in this study showed that the degree of plasticization varied with the source of gelatin as well as their extraction methods. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Features and application of amino acid oil gelatinizer for controlling oil spills on the sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uemura, Hiroyuki

    1987-10-01

    Diffusion of oil spills is prevented and the oil can be easily recovered if it is solidified. Features and application of gelling agent for amino acid series oil are introduced. The gelatinizer for amino acid is made of amino acid derivative with solvent added thereto so that oil can be gelatinized by mere spraying of the agent over oil spills. The agent can be intermixed with oil because it floats on the sea. Oil spill is gelatinized instantly and diffusion of the oils is prevented. The oil can easily be recovered with a fishing net and the like. The influence of oil spills to living aquatic resources is greatly lessened, and the gel is safe for workers. It can gelatinize everything except alcohol. Gelatinization has the depressor effect for volatization and is effective for the prevention of fire. The gelatized oil can be burnt up although it contains 10-20 % of water. Oil film on the water can be completely controlled when the agent is sprayed over it. It contributes to the purification of nature since it is readily decomposed. (1 fig, 4 tabs, 3 refs)

  17. Physico-mechanical and structural properties of eggshell membrane gelatin- chitosan blend edible films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadi, Reza; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Rouhi, Milad

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the physico-mechanical and structural properties of composite edible films based on eggshell membrane gelatin (G) and chitosan (Ch) (75G:25Ch, 50G:50Ch, 25G:75Ch). The results demonstrated that the addition of Ch increased elongation at break significantly (p< 0.05), but r......This study investigated the physico-mechanical and structural properties of composite edible films based on eggshell membrane gelatin (G) and chitosan (Ch) (75G:25Ch, 50G:50Ch, 25G:75Ch). The results demonstrated that the addition of Ch increased elongation at break significantly (p... interactions introduced by the addition of chitosan to eggshell membrane gelatin as new resources could improve the films’ functional properties....

  18. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning

    2012-09-01

    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.

  19. [Use of internet and electronic resources among Spanish intensivist physicians. First national survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Tello, V; Latour-Pérez, J; Añón Elizalde, J M; Palencia-Herrejón, E; Díaz-Alersi, R; De Lucas-García, N

    2006-01-01

    Estimate knowledge and use habits of different electronic resources in a sample of Spanish intensivists: Internet, E-mail, distribution lists, and use of portable electronic devices. Self-applied questionnaire. A 50-question questionnaire was distributed among Spanish intensivists through the hospital marketing delegates of a pharmaceutical company and of electronic forums. A total of 682 questionnaires were analyzed (participation: 74%). Ninety six percent of those surveyed used Internet individually: 67% admitted training gap. Internet was the second source of clinical consultations most used (61%), slightly behind consultation to colleagues (65%). The pages consulted most were bibliographic databases (65%) and electronic professional journals (63%), with limited use of Evidence Based Medicine pages (19%). Ninety percent of those surveyed used e-mail regularly in the practice of their profession, although 25% admitted that were not aware of its possibilities. The use of E-mail decreased significantly with increase in age. A total of 62% of the intensivists used distribution lists. Of the rest, 42% were not aware of its existence and 32% admitted they had insufficient training to handle them. Twenty percent of those surveyed had portable electronic devices and 64% considered it useful, basically due to its rapid consultation at bedside. Female gender was a negative predictive factor of its use (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.2-0.63; p=0.0002). A large majority of the Spanish intensivists use Internet and E-mail. E-mail lists and use of portable devices are still underused resources. There are important gaps in training and infrequent use of essential pages. There are specific groups that require directed educational policies.

  20. Novel electrospun nanofibers of modified gelatin-tyrosine in cartilage tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agheb, Maria; Dinari, Mohammad; Rafienia, Mohammad; Salehi, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    In natural cartilage tissues, chondrocytes are linked to extracellular matrix (ECM) through cell-surface binding proteins. Surface modification of gelatin can provide a new generation of biopolymers and fibrous scaffolds with chemical, mechanical, and biological properties. In this study tyrosine protein and 1,2,3-triazole ring were utilized to functionalize gelatin without Cu catalyst. Their molecular structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 HNMR). Chemical cross-linkers such as glutaraldehyde (GA) and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC)/N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide (NHS) were used to electrospin the modified gelatin. The modification of gelatin and cross-linking effects were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), contact angle measurement, and mechanical tests. MTT assay using chondrocyte cells showed cell viability of electrospun modified gelatin scaffolds. In vitro cell culture studies showed that electrospun engineered protein scaffolds would support the attachment and growth of cells. The results also showed that cross-linked nanofibers with EDC/NHS could be considered excellent matrices in cell adhesion and proliferation before electrospinning process and their potential substrate in tissue engineering applications, especially in the field of cartilage engineering.

  1. Modified gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarika, P.R.; Cinthya, Kuriakose; Jayakrishnan, A.; Anilkumar, P.R.; James, Nirmala Rachel

    2014-01-01

    The present work deals with development of modified gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold for cell culture. A new biocompatible scaffold was developed by cross-linking gelatin (Gel) with gum arabic, a polysaccharide. Gum arabic was subjected to periodate oxidation to obtain gum arabic aldehyde (GAA). GAA was reacted with gelatin under appropriate pH to prepare the cross-linked hydrogel. Cross-linking occurred due to Schiff's base reaction between aldehyde groups of oxidized gum arabic and amino groups of gelatin. The scaffold prepared from the hydrogel was characterized by swelling properties, degree of cross-linking, in vitro degradation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cytocompatibility evaluation using L-929 and HepG2 cells confirmed non-cytotoxic and non-adherent nature of the scaffold. These properties are essential for generating multicellular spheroids and hence the scaffold is proposed to be a suitable candidate for spheroid cell culture. - Highlights: • Gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold was developed for tissue engineering. • Cross-linking was achieved by Schiff's base reaction. • The scaffold is non-cytotoxic and non adherent to fibroblast and hepatocytes. • The scaffolds are potential candidates for spheroid cell culture

  2. Modified gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarika, P.R. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 547 (India); Cinthya, Kuriakose [Tissue Culture Laboratory, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 012 (India); Jayakrishnan, A. [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Anilkumar, P.R., E-mail: anilkumarpr@sctimst.ac.in [Tissue Culture Laboratory, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 012 (India); James, Nirmala Rachel, E-mail: nirmala@iist.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 547 (India)

    2014-10-01

    The present work deals with development of modified gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold for cell culture. A new biocompatible scaffold was developed by cross-linking gelatin (Gel) with gum arabic, a polysaccharide. Gum arabic was subjected to periodate oxidation to obtain gum arabic aldehyde (GAA). GAA was reacted with gelatin under appropriate pH to prepare the cross-linked hydrogel. Cross-linking occurred due to Schiff's base reaction between aldehyde groups of oxidized gum arabic and amino groups of gelatin. The scaffold prepared from the hydrogel was characterized by swelling properties, degree of cross-linking, in vitro degradation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cytocompatibility evaluation using L-929 and HepG2 cells confirmed non-cytotoxic and non-adherent nature of the scaffold. These properties are essential for generating multicellular spheroids and hence the scaffold is proposed to be a suitable candidate for spheroid cell culture. - Highlights: • Gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold was developed for tissue engineering. • Cross-linking was achieved by Schiff's base reaction. • The scaffold is non-cytotoxic and non adherent to fibroblast and hepatocytes. • The scaffolds are potential candidates for spheroid cell culture.

  3. Preparation and bioactivity evaluation of hydroxyapatite-titania/chitosan-gelatin polymeric biocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Khaled R.; Mostafa, Amani A.

    2008-01-01

    Biocomposites consisting of hydroxyapatite (HA) and natural polymers such as collagen, chitosan, chitin,and gelatin have been extensively investigated. However, studies on the combination of HA and titania with chitosan and gelatin have not been conducted yet. Novel biodegradable hydroxyapatite-titania/chitosan-gelatin polymeric composites were fabricated. In this work, our results are concerning with the preparation and characterization of HA powder and HA filler containing titania powder (10 and 30%) with a chitosan and gelatin copolymer matrix. The present research focuses on characterizing the structure of this novel class of biocomposites. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDAX) were employed to assess the produced composites. The mechanical properties in terms of compressive strength and hardness test were also investigated. The in vitro study in simulated body fluid (SBF) was performed to assess the bioactivity of composites. The results proved that apatite resembling natural bone are formed faster and greater in the case the composite of HA containing 10% titania into chitosan-gelatin polymeric matrix when they are soaked in a simulated body fluid (SBF) than the composite containing 30% titania. The biocomposites containing HA with 10% titania are expected to be attractive for bioapplications as bone substitutes and scaffolds for tissue engineering in future

  4. Preparation and characterization of alginate and gelatin microcapsules containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Susiany; Bueno, Luciano; Aguiar, Francisco DE; Finkler, Christine

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the preparation and characterization of alginate beads coated with gelatin and containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Capsules were obtained by extrusion method using CaCl2 as cross linker. An experimental design was performed using alginate and gelatin concentrations as the variables investigated, while the response variable was the concentration of viable cells. Beads were characterized in terms of size, morphology, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), moisture content, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR), thermal behavior and cell viability during storage. The results showed that the highest concentration of viable cells (4.2 x 109 CFU/g) was obtained for 1 % w/v of alginate and 0.1 % w/v of gelatin. Capsules were predominantly spherical with a rough surface, a narrow size distribution ranging from 1.53 to 1.90 mm and a moisture content of 97.70 ± 0.03 %. Furthermore, FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis indicated an interaction between alginate-gelatin. Cell concentration of alginate/gelatin microcapsules was 105 CFU/g after 4 months of storage at 8 oC.

  5. On spray drying of oxidized corn starch cross-linked gelatin microcapsules for drug release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, Xugang; Yang, Mao; Shan, Zhihua; Mansouri, Shahnaz; May, Bee K; Chen, Xiaodong; Chen, Hui; Woo, Meng Wai

    2017-01-01

    Spray-dried gelatin/oxidized corn starch (G/OCS) microcapsules were produced for drug release application. The prepared microcapsules were characterized through a scanning electron microscope (SEM) picture and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The swelling characteristics of the G/OCS microcapsules and release properties of vitamin C were then investigated. The results from structural analysis indicated that the presence of miscibility and compatibility between oxidized corn starch and gelatin, and exhibits high thermal stability up to 326 °C. The swelling of G/OCS microcapsules increased with increasing pH and reduced with decreasing ionic strength, attributed to the cross-linking between gelatin and oxidized corn starch, ionization of functional groups. Vitamin C release characteristic revealed controlled release behavior in the first 3 h of contact with an aqueous medium. This release behavior was independent of the swelling behavior indicating the potential of the encapsulating matrix to produce controlled release across a spectrum of pH environment. - Highlights: • It's first time to prepare microencapsulation with gelatin and oxidized corn starch. • The microencapsulation material can be biodegradable completely. • The production technology of microcapsule is convenient. • This work explores the potential to use oxidized starch cross-linked gelatin. • The microencapsulation material can be used for drug release.

  6. Novel electrospun nanofibers of modified gelatin-tyrosine in cartilage tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agheb, Maria [Biosensor Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81744176 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dinari, Mohammad [Department of Chemistry, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rafienia, Mohammad, E-mail: m_rafienia@med.mui.ac.ir [Biosensor Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81744176 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salehi, Hossein [Biosensor Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81744176 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-01

    In natural cartilage tissues, chondrocytes are linked to extracellular matrix (ECM) through cell-surface binding proteins. Surface modification of gelatin can provide a new generation of biopolymers and fibrous scaffolds with chemical, mechanical, and biological properties. In this study tyrosine protein and 1,2,3-triazole ring were utilized to functionalize gelatin without Cu catalyst. Their molecular structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}HNMR). Chemical cross-linkers such as glutaraldehyde (GA) and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC)/N-hydroxysulfosuccinimide (NHS) were used to electrospin the modified gelatin. The modification of gelatin and cross-linking effects were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), contact angle measurement, and mechanical tests. MTT assay using chondrocyte cells showed cell viability of electrospun modified gelatin scaffolds. In vitro cell culture studies showed that electrospun engineered protein scaffolds would support the attachment and growth of cells. The results also showed that cross-linked nanofibers with EDC/NHS could be considered excellent matrices in cell adhesion and proliferation before electrospinning process and their potential substrate in tissue engineering applications, especially in the field of cartilage engineering.

  7. Preparation and characterization of alginate and gelatin microcapsules containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSIANY LOPES

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper describes the preparation and characterization of alginate beads coated with gelatin and containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Capsules were obtained by extrusion method using CaCl2 as cross linker. An experimental design was performed using alginate and gelatin concentrations as the variables investigated, while the response variable was the concentration of viable cells. Beads were characterized in terms of size, morphology, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, moisture content, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR, thermal behavior and cell viability during storage. The results showed that the highest concentration of viable cells (4.2 x 109 CFU/g was obtained for 1 % w/v of alginate and 0.1 % w/v of gelatin. Capsules were predominantly spherical with a rough surface, a narrow size distribution ranging from 1.53 to 1.90 mm and a moisture content of 97.70 ± 0.03 %. Furthermore, FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis indicated an interaction between alginate-gelatin. Cell concentration of alginate/gelatin microcapsules was 105 CFU/g after 4 months of storage at 8 oC.

  8. On spray drying of oxidized corn starch cross-linked gelatin microcapsules for drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang, Xugang; Yang, Mao; Shan, Zhihua [National Engineering Laboratory for Clean Technology Leather Manufacture, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610065 (China); Mansouri, Shahnaz [Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); May, Bee K [School of Applied Science, RMIT University, 124 La Trobe St, Melbourne, VIC 3001 (Australia); Chen, Xiaodong [Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Soochow University (China); Chen, Hui, E-mail: leather2088@sina.com [National Engineering Laboratory for Clean Technology Leather Manufacture, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610065 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Woo, Meng Wai, E-mail: meng.woo@monash.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2017-05-01

    Spray-dried gelatin/oxidized corn starch (G/OCS) microcapsules were produced for drug release application. The prepared microcapsules were characterized through a scanning electron microscope (SEM) picture and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The swelling characteristics of the G/OCS microcapsules and release properties of vitamin C were then investigated. The results from structural analysis indicated that the presence of miscibility and compatibility between oxidized corn starch and gelatin, and exhibits high thermal stability up to 326 °C. The swelling of G/OCS microcapsules increased with increasing pH and reduced with decreasing ionic strength, attributed to the cross-linking between gelatin and oxidized corn starch, ionization of functional groups. Vitamin C release characteristic revealed controlled release behavior in the first 3 h of contact with an aqueous medium. This release behavior was independent of the swelling behavior indicating the potential of the encapsulating matrix to produce controlled release across a spectrum of pH environment. - Highlights: • It's first time to prepare microencapsulation with gelatin and oxidized corn starch. • The microencapsulation material can be biodegradable completely. • The production technology of microcapsule is convenient. • This work explores the potential to use oxidized starch cross-linked gelatin. • The microencapsulation material can be used for drug release.

  9. Gelatinized and nongelatinized corn starch/ poly(epsilon-caprolactone blends: characterization by rheological, mechanical and morphological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derval S. Rosa

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Poly(epsilon-caprolactone/corn starch blends containing 25, 50 and 75 wt.% starch were prepared by mechanical processing and characterized by the melt flow index (MFI, tensile test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. For comparison, starch was used in gelatinized and nongelatinized forms and was also characterized by viscography. The addition of starch to poly(epsilon-caprolactone reduced the MFI values, the tensile strength and the elongation at break, whereas the modulus increased. The reductions in the MFI and tensile properties were most evident when gelatinized starch was used. Viscography and SEM showed that starch was well gelatinized by the gelatinization process. Blends containing nongelatinized starch showed a good dispersion of starch but poor interfacial interactions.

  10. Preparation of cathode materials for solid oxide solid fuel (SOFC) using gelatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.M.; Aquino, F. de M.; Macedo, D.A. de; Sa, A.M.; Galvao, G.O.

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that convert chemical energy into electrical energy. These devices are basically divided into interconnectors, electrolyte, anode, and cathode. Recently, studies of improvements in microstructural and morphological properties of calcium cobaltate (Ca_3Co_4O_9, C349) has been made regarding its potential use as SOFC cathode for intermediate temperature. Gelatin has proven to be effective as a polymerizing agent in the synthesis of nanocrystalline materials. This work reports the synthesis and characterization of the C349 cathode using commercial gelatin. The structural properties of the material were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Morphological characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed the formation of the crystalline phase at 900 °C, indicating the effectiveness of the gelatin in the preparation of cathodes for SOFC. (author)

  11. Synthesis, characterization and optical properties of gelatin doped with silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, K. H.; Abbo, M.

    2013-12-01

    In this study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical reduction of silver salt (AgNO3) solution. Formation of nanoparticles was confirmed by UV-visible spectrometry. The surface plasmon resonance peak is located at 430 nm. Doping of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) with gelatin biopolymer was studied. The silver content in the polymer matrix was in the range of 0.4-1 wt%. The formation of nanoparticles disappeared for silver content higher than 1 wt%. The morphology and interaction of gelatin doped with Ag NPs was examined by transmission electron microscopy and FTIR spectroscopy. The content of Ag NPs has a pronounced effect on optical and structural properties of gelatin. Optical parameters such as refractive index, complex dielectric constant were calculated. The dispersion of the refractive index was discussed in terms of the single - oscillator Wemple-DiDomenico model. Color properties of the prepared samples were discussed in the framework of CIE L*u*v* color space.

  12. Microencapsulation of Ginger Volatile Oil Based on Gelatin/Sodium Alginate Polyelectrolyte Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lixia; Yang, Shiwei; Cao, Jinli; Zhao, Shaohua; Wang, Wuwei

    2016-01-01

    The coacervation between gelatin and sodium alginate for ginger volatile oil (GVO) microencapsulation as functions of mass ratio, pH and concentration of wall material and core material load was evaluated. The microencapsulation was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). SEM and FT-IR studies indicated the formation of polyelectrolyte complexation between gelatin and sodium alginate and successful encapsulation of GVO into the microcapsules. Thermal property study showed that the crosslinked microparticles exhibited higher thermal stability than the neat GVO, gelatin, and sodium alginate. The stability of microencapsulation of GVO in a simulated gastric and an intestinal situation in vitro was also studied. The stability results indicated that the release of GVO from microcapsules was much higher in simulated intestinal fluid, compared with that in simulated-gastric fluid.

  13. The Synthesis of the Hierarchical Structure of Information Resources for Management of Electronic Commerce Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutova Anzhelika S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to develop the theoretical bases for the classification and coding of economic information and the scientific justification of the content of information resources of an electronic commerce enterprise. The essence of information resources for management of electronic business entities is investigated. It is proved that the organization of accounting in e-commerce systems is advisable to be built on the basis of two circuits: accounting for financial flows and accounting associated with transformation of business factors in products and services as a result of production activities. There presented a sequence of accounting organization that allows to combine the both circuits in a single information system, which provides a possibility for the integrated replenishment and distributed simultaneous use of the e-commerce system by all groups of users. It is proved that the guarantee of efficient activity of the information management system of electronic commerce entities is a proper systematization of the aggregate of information resources on economic facts and operations of an enterprise in accordance with the management tasks by building the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. It is suggested to understand nomenclature as an objective, primary information aggregate concerning a certain fact of the economic activity of an enterprise, which is characterized by minimum requisites, is entered into the database of the information system and is to be reflected in the accounting system. It is proposed to build a database of e-commerce systems as a part of directories (constants, personnel, goods / products, suppliers, buyers and the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. The package of documents regulating the organization of accounting at an enterprise should include: the provision on the accounting services, the order on the accounting policy, the job descriptions, the schedules of information exchange, the report card and

  14. ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FOR ONLINE SUPPORT OF MODERN CHEMISTRY CLASSES IN SPECIALIZED SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. Tukalo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article contains material of some modern electronic educational resources that can be used via the Internet to support the modern chemistry classes in specialized school. It was drawn attention to the educational chemical experiments as means of knowledge; simulated key motivational characteristics to enhance students interest for learning subjects, their cognitive and practical activity in the formation of self-reliance and self-creative; commented forecasts for creating of conditions to enhance the creative potential of students in a modern learning environment.

  15. Dextran and gelatin based photocrosslinkable tissue adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Nie, Jun; Yang, Dongzhi

    2012-11-06

    A two-component tissue adhesive based on biocompatible and bio-degradable polymers (oxidized urethane dextran (Dex-U-AD) and gelatin) was prepared and photocrosslinked under the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The adhesive could adhere to surface of gelatin, which simulated the human tissue steadily. The structures of above Dex-U-AD were characterized by FTIR, (1)H NMR spectroscopy and XRD. The adhesion property of result products was evaluated by lap-shear test. The maximum adhesion strength could reach to 4.16±0.72 MPa which was significantly higher than that of fibrin glue. The photopolymerization process of Dex-U-AD/gelatin was monitored by real time infrared spectroscopy (RTIR). It took less than 5 min to complete the curing process. The cytotoxicity of Dex-U-AD/gelatin also was evaluated which indicated that Dex-U-AD/gelatin gels were nontoxic to L929 cell. The relationship between all the above-mentioned properties and degree of oxidization of Dex-U-AD was assessed. The obtained products have the potential to serve as tissue adhesive in the future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. THE MODEL OF LINGUISTIC TEACHERS’ COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT ON DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE MOODLE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of developing the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system. The concept of "the competence of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system" is justified and defined. Identified and characterized the components by which the levels of the competency development of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system should be assessed. Developed a model for the development of the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system, which is based on the main scientific approaches, used in adult education, and consists of five blocks: target, informative, technological, diagnostic and effective.

  17. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Kida, Akiko; Kameya, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) as secondary metal resources. → The content and the total amount of metals in specific equipment are both important. → We categorized 21 EEE types from contents and total amounts of various metals. → Important equipment types as secondary resources were listed for each metal kind. → Collectability and possible collection systems of various EEE types were discussed. - Abstract: End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection

  18. Open-Source Electronic Health Record Systems for Low-Resource Settings: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syzdykova, Assel; Malta, André; Zolfo, Maria; Diro, Ermias; Oliveira, José Luis

    2017-11-13

    Despite the great impact of information and communication technologies on clinical practice and on the quality of health services, this trend has been almost exclusive to developed countries, whereas countries with poor resources suffer from many economic and social issues that have hindered the real benefits of electronic health (eHealth) tools. As a component of eHealth systems, electronic health records (EHRs) play a fundamental role in patient management and effective medical care services. Thus, the adoption of EHRs in regions with a lack of infrastructure, untrained staff, and ill-equipped health care providers is an important task. However, the main barrier to adopting EHR software in low- and middle-income countries is the cost of its purchase and maintenance, which highlights the open-source approach as a good solution for these underserved areas. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of open-source EHR systems based on the requirements and limitations of low-resource settings. First, we reviewed existing literature on the comparison of available open-source solutions. In close collaboration with the University of Gondar Hospital, Ethiopia, we identified common limitations in poor resource environments and also the main requirements that EHRs should support. Then, we extensively evaluated the current open-source EHR solutions, discussing their strengths and weaknesses, and their appropriateness to fulfill a predefined set of features relevant for low-resource settings. The evaluation methodology allowed assessment of several key aspects of available solutions that are as follows: (1) integrated applications, (2) configurable reports, (3) custom reports, (4) custom forms, (5) interoperability, (6) coding systems, (7) authentication methods, (8) patient portal, (9) access control model, (10) cryptographic features, (11) flexible data model, (12) offline support, (13) native client, (14) Web client,(15) other clients, (16) code

  19. THE MODEL OF LINGUISTIC TEACHERS’ COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT ON DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE MOODLE SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2017-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of developing the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system. The concept of "the competence of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system" is justified and defined. Identified and characterized the components by which the levels of the competency development of teachers of language disciplines on designing ...

  20. Determining the level of awareness of the physicians in using the variety of electronic information resources and the effecting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papi, Ahmad; Ghazavi, Roghayeh; Moradi, Salimeh

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of the medical society's from the types of information resources for quick and easy access to information is an imperative task in medical researches and management of the treatment. The present study was aimed to determine the level of awareness of the physicians in using various electronic information resources and the factors affecting it. This study was a descriptive survey. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. The study population included all the physicians and specialty physicians of the teaching hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and numbered 350. The sample size based on Morgan's formula was set at 180. The content validity of the tool was confirmed by the library and information professionals and the reliability was 95%. Descriptive statistics were used including the SPSS software version 19. On reviewing the need of the physicians to obtain the information on several occasions, the need for information in conducting the researches was reported by the maximum number of physicians (91.9%) and the usage of information resources, especially the electronic resources, formed 65.4% as the highest rate with regard to meeting the information needs of the physicians. Among the electronic information databases, the maximum awareness was related to Medline with 86.5%. Among the various electronic information resources, the highest awareness (43.3%) was related to the E-journals. The highest usage (36%) was also from the same source. The studied physicians considered the most effective deterrent in the use of electronic information resources as being too busy and lack of time. Despite the importance of electronic information resources for the physician's community, there was no comprehensive knowledge of these resources. This can lead to less usage of these resources. Therefore, careful planning is necessary in the hospital libraries in order to introduce the facilities and full capabilities of the

  1. Success criteria for electronic medical record implementations in low-resource settings: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Fleur; Tilahun, Binyam; Dugas, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Electronic medical record (EMR) systems have the potential of supporting clinical work by providing the right information at the right time to the right people and thus make efficient use of resources. This is especially important in low-resource settings where reliable data are also needed to support public health and local supporting organizations. In this systematic literature review, our objectives are to identify and collect literature about success criteria of EMR implementations in low-resource settings and to summarize them into recommendations. Our search strategy relied on PubMed queries and manual bibliography reviews. Studies were included if EMR implementations in low-resource settings were described. The extracted success criteria and measurements were summarized into 7 categories: ethical, financial, functionality, organizational, political, technical, and training. We collected 381 success criteria with 229 measurements from 47 articles out of 223 articles. Most papers were evaluations or lessons learned from African countries, published from 1999 to 2013. Almost half of the EMR systems served a specific disease area like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The majority of criteria that were reported dealt with the functionality, followed by organizational issues, and technical infrastructures. Sufficient training and skilled personnel were mentioned in roughly 10%. Political, ethical, and financial considerations did not play a predominant role. More evaluations based on reliable frameworks are needed. Highly reliable data handling methods, human resources and effective project management, as well as technical architecture and infrastructure are all key factors for successful EMR implementation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Obtention of gelatin biopolymers by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takinami, Patricia Yoko Inamura

    2014-01-01

    The gelatin (Gel) is a biocompatible and biodegradable biopolymer, which naturally forms semi-solid colloids or hydrogels in aqueous solutions. As a hydrophilic polymer, the Gel has structural and physico-mechanical properties that distinguish it from synthetic hydrophilic polymers. The study of these properties led to the development of the present work. Thus, Gel-based films and hydrogels were developed using ionizing radiation technology by different techniques: irradiation with 60 Co, electron beam (EB) and/or pulsed EB. The Gel based-films enriched with different additives, such as glycerol (GLY), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), acrylamide and/or vegetal fiber, were irradiated with doses from 10 to 60 kGy, depending on the additive; some parameters like mechanical properties, color, and water absorption were analyzed. In the radio-induced synthesis of GEL nanohydrogels, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and the mixture (MIX) of additives, PEG and GEL, the size, molar mass and surface morphology of the nanohydrogels were analyzed. There was a significant increase of gel fraction with increase of the radiation dose for the GEL/fiber samples. The GEL based-films with 10% PVA irradiated at 20 kGy showed the highest puncture strength. The addition of antioxidant BHT affected on some GEL based-films properties on applied conditions. Regarding the nanohydrogels, there was a decrease of hydrodynamic radius of MIX irradiated with 60 Co from 68 ± 25 nm (2 kGy) to 35 ± 4 nm (5 kGy). The radiation proved to be a convenient tool in the modification of polymeric materials for both, GEL films and hydrogels. (author)

  3. Impact of Knowledge Resources Linked to an Electronic Health Record on Frequency of Unnecessary Tests and Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kenneth; Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Nowacki, Amy; Hickner, John

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic knowledge resources have the potential to rapidly provide answers to clinicians' questions. We sought to determine clinicians' reasons for searching these resources, the rate of finding relevant information, and the perceived clinical impact of the information they retrieved. Methods: We asked general internists, family…

  4. Resource conservation approached with an appropriate collection and upgrade-remanufacturing for used electronic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlamparet, Gabriel I; Tan, Quanyin; Stevels, A B; Li, Jinhui

    2018-03-01

    This comparative research represents an example for a better conservation of resources by reducing the amount of waste (kg) and providing it more value under the umbrella of remanufacturing. The three discussed cases will expose three issues already addressed separately in the literature. The generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) interacts with the environmental depletion. In this article, we gave the examples of addressed issues under the concept of remanufacturing. Online collection opportunity eliminating classical collection, a business to business (B2B) implementation for remanufactured servers and medical devices. The material reuse (recycling), component sustainability, reuse (part harvesting), product reuse (after repair/remanufacturing) indicates the recovery potential using remanufacturing tool for a better conservation of resources adding more value to the products. Our findings can provide an overview of new system organization for the general collection, market potential and the technological advantages using remanufacturing instead of recycling of WEEE or used electrical and electronic equipment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Electronic theses and dissertations: a review of this valuable resource for nurse scholars worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, L M

    2009-06-01

    A worldwide repository of electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs) could provide worldwide access to the most up-to-date research generated by masters and doctoral students. Until that international repository is established, it is possible to access some of these valuable knowledge resources. ETDs provide a technologically advanced medium with endless multimedia capabilities that far exceed the print and bound copies of theses and dissertations housed traditionally in individual university libraries. CURRENT USE: A growing trend exists for universities worldwide to require graduate students to submit theses or dissertations as electronic documents. However, nurse scholars underutilize ETDs, as evidenced by perusing bibliographic citation lists in many of the research journals. ETDs can be searched for and retrieved through several digital resources such as the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (http://www.ndltd.org), ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (http://www.umi.com), the Australasian Digital Theses Program (http://adt.caul.edu.au/) and through individual university web sites and online catalogues. An international repository of ETDs benefits the community of nurse scholars in many ways. The ability to access recent graduate students' research electronically from anywhere in the world is advantageous. For scholars residing in developing countries, access to these ETDs may prove to be even more valuable. In some cases, ETDs are not available for worldwide access and can only be accessed through the university library from which the student graduated. Public access to university library ETD collections is not always permitted. Nurse scholars from both developing and developed countries could benefit from ETDs.

  6. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-17

    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables and challenges as well as lessons learnt by the Project Team.

  7. Surface modification of nanofibrous polycaprolactone/gelatin composite scaffold by collagen type I grafting for skin tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Sneh; Chou, Chia-Fu; Dinda, Amit K; Potdar, Pravin D; Mishra, Narayan C

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a tri-polymer polycaprolactone (PCL)/gelatin/collagen type I composite nanofibrous scaffold has been fabricated by electrospinning for skin tissue engineering and wound healing applications. Firstly, PCL/gelatin nanofibrous scaffold was fabricated by electrospinning using a low cost solvent mixture [chloroform/methanol for PCL and acetic acid (80% v/v) for gelatin], and then the nanofibrous PCL/gelatin scaffold was modified by collagen type I (0.2-1.5wt.%) grafting. Morphology of the collagen type I-modified PCL/gelatin composite scaffold that was analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), showed that the fiber diameter was increased and pore size was decreased by increasing the concentration of collagen type I. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis indicated the surface modification of PCL/gelatin scaffold by collagen type I immobilization on the surface of the scaffold. MTT assay demonstrated the viability and high proliferation rate of L929 mouse fibroblast cells on the collagen type I-modified composite scaffold. FE-SEM analysis of cell-scaffold construct illustrated the cell adhesion of L929 mouse fibroblasts on the surface of scaffold. Characteristic cell morphology of L929 was also observed on the nanofiber mesh of the collagen type I-modified scaffold. Above results suggest that the collagen type I-modified PCL/gelatin scaffold was successful in maintaining characteristic shape of fibroblasts, besides good cell proliferation. Therefore, the fibroblast seeded PCL/gelatin/collagen type I composite nanofibrous scaffold might be a potential candidate for wound healing and skin tissue engineering applications. © 2013.

  8. Recombinant gelatin and collagen from methylotrophic yeasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de E.C.

    2002-01-01

    Based on its structural role and compatibility within the human body, collagen is a commonly used biomaterial in medical applications, such as cosmetic surgery, wound treatment and tissue engineering. Gelatin is in essence denatured and partly degraded collagen and is,

  9. Characterization of proteic content of gelatins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Bayle

    1995-03-01

    Otherwise, results obtained in Kjeldahl and Biuret methods are proportional. In fact, the authors suggest a limit proteic concentration expressed in mg BSA/g solid gelatin : 750 mg BSA /g corresponding to the standard decided by the Codex, 14 % nitrogen minimum.

  10. Electronic tracking of human resource skills and knowledge, just in time training, manageable due diligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodziej, M.A. [Quick Test International Inc., (Canada). Canadian Technology Human Resource Board; Baker, O. [KeySpan Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    KeySpan Energy Canada is in the process of obtaining recognition of various occupational profiles including pipeline operators, inspectors, and field and plant operators from various certifying organizations. The process of allowing individuals to obtain certification is recognized by Canadian Technology Human Resources Board as a step towards national standards for technologists and technicians. Proven competency is a must for workers in todays oil industry in response to increasingly stringent government safety regulations, environmental concerns and high public scrutiny. Quick Test international Inc. has developed a management tool in collaboration with end users at KeySpan Energy Canada. It is an electronic, Internet based competency tool for tracking personal competencies and maintaining continued competency. Response to the tool has been favourable. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  11. OPTIMIZATION OF MARSHMALLOW GELATIN FUNCTIONAL PURPOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Marshmallow on gelatin or marshmallow items finely porous foam structure. This product is a popular and widely demanded confectionery products to the public, especially children and students. Urgent by the NE-a method for producing a mini-marshmallow functionality in terms of domestic production with natural-functional ingredient – gum-arabic «Instantgum», which is the source of natural-fiber, improving gastrointestinal function, lowering blood glucose levels that especially important in the use of products of diabetics. The inclusion of gum-arabic in the diet leads to a prebiotic effect, stimulating human immune system and improves the functioning intestines. Technology mini marshmallow gelatin with gum-arabic comprises the following manufacturing steps of: preparing a gelatin solution, an aqueous solution of gum-arabic, sugar syrup, invert syrup, whipped gelatinous mass density of 400-600 kg / m3, molding or pressing off mass fractionation followed by cooling and cutting, exposure and dusting starch and sugar mixture housings mini marshmallows. The optimization formulation mini marshmallows on gelatin with functional ingredients «Instantgum» based on gum-arabic method of multicriteria optimization of op-using desirability function Harrington. The greatest value generalized desirability function had a sample with 10% in-functional ingredient, since it belongs to the best set of parameters optimization. The developed product has high organoleptic, physical and chemical parameters, satisfactory form-retaining ability elastic chewing consistency and a functional purpose by NIJ-containing dietary fiber. Proposed can be recommended for the production on-time with continuous mechanized lines to develop Pastila products.

  12. Availability, Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Information Resources by Postgraduates Students at the University of Ibadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dare Samuel Adeleke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Availability, awareness and use of electronic resources provide access to authoritative, reliable, accurate and timely access to information. The use of electronic information resources (EIRs can enable innovation in teaching and increase timeliness in research of postgraduate students which will eventual result into encouragement of the expected research-led enquiry in this digital age. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. Samples of 300 of postgraduate students within seven out 13 Faculties were randomly selected. Data were collected using questionnaire designed to elicit response from respondents and data were analyzed using descriptive statistics methods percentages, mean, and standard deviation. Results indicated that internet was ranked most available and used in the university. Low level of usage of electronic resources, in particular, full texts data bases is linked to a number of constraints: Interrupted power supply was ranked highest among other factors as speed and capacity of computers, retrieval of records with high recall and low precision, retrieving records relevant to information need, lack of knowledge of search techniques to retrieve information effectively, non possession of requisite IT skills and problems accessing the internet. The study recommended that usage of electronic resources be made compulsory, intensifying awareness campaigns concerning the availability, training on use of electronic resources and the problem of power outage be addressed.

  13. Using mobile electronic devices to deliver educational resources in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazal, Jonathan Robert; Ludwig, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries have far fewer trained radiography professionals than developed countries, which exacerbates the limited access to imaging services. The lack of trained radiographers reflects, in part, limited availability of radiographer-specific educational resources. Historically, organizations that provided such resources in the developing world faced challenges related to the limited stock of current materials as well as expenses associated with shipping and delivery. Four mobile electronic devices (MEDs) were loaded with educational content (e-books, PDFs, and digital applications) spanning major radiography topics. The MEDs were distributed to 4 imaging departments in Ghana, India, Nepal, and Nigeria based on evidence of need for radiography-specific resources, as revealed by survey responses. A cost comparison of postal delivery vs digital delivery of educational content was performed. The effectiveness of delivering additional content via Wi-Fi transmission also was evaluated. Feedback was solicited on users' experience with the MEDs as a delivery tool for educational content. An initial average per e-book expense of $30.05, which included the cost of the device, was calculated for the MED delivery method compared with $15.56 for postal delivery of printed materials. The cost of the MED delivery method was reduced to an average of $10.05 for subsequent e-book deliveries. Additional content was successfully delivered via Wi-Fi transmission to all recipients during the 3-month follow-up period. Overall user feedback on the experience was positive, and ideas for enhancing the MED-based method were identified. Using MEDs to deliver radiography-specific educational content appears to be more cost effective than postal delivery of printed materials on a long-term basis. MEDs are more efficient for providing updates to educational materials. Customization of content to department needs, and using projector devices could enhance the usefulness of MEDs for

  14. The electronic encapsulation of knowledge in hydraulics, hydrology and water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Michael B.

    The rapidly developing practice of encapsulating knowledge in electronic media is shown to lead necessarily to the restructuring of the knowledge itself. The consequences of this for hydraulics, hydrology and more general water-resources management are investigated in particular relation to current process-simulation, real-time control and advice-serving systems. The generic properties of the electronic knowledge encapsulator are described, and attention is drawn to the manner in which knowledge 'goes into hiding' through encapsulation. This property is traced in the simple situations of pure mathesis and in the more complex situations of taxinomia using one example each from hydraulics and hydrology. The consequences for systems architectures are explained, pointing to the need for multi-agent architectures for ecological modelling and for more general hydroinformatics systems also. The relevance of these developments is indicated by reference to ongoing projects in which they are currently being realised. In conclusion, some more general epistemological aspects are considered within the same context. As this contribution is so much concerned with the processes of signification and communication, it has been partly shaped by the theory of semiotics, as popularised by Eco ( A Theory of Semiotics, Indiana University, Bloomington, 1977).

  15. Plastics disassembly versus bulk recycling: engineering design for end-of-life electronics resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Pedro; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed

    2003-12-01

    Annual plastic flows through the business and consumer electronics manufacturing supply chain include nearly 3 billion lb of high-value engineering plastics derived from petroleum. The recovery of resource value from this stream presents critical challenges in areas of materials identification and recycling process design that demand new green engineering technologies applied together with life cycle assessment and ecological supply chain analysis to create viable plastics-to-plastics supply cycles. The sustainable recovery of potentially high-value engineering plastics streams requires that recyclers either avoid mixing plastic parts or purify later by separating smaller plastic pieces created in volume reduction (shredding) steps. Identification and separation constitute significant barriers in the plastics-to-plastics recycling value proposition. In the present work, we develop a model that accepts randomly arriving electronic products to study scenarios by which a recycler might identify and separate high-value engineering plastics as well as metals. Using discrete eventsimulation,we compare current mixed plastics recovery with spectrochemical plastic resin identification and subsequent sorting. Our results show that limited disassembly with whole-part identification can produce substantial yields in separated streams of recovered engineering thermoplastics. We find that disassembly with identification does not constitute a bottleneck, but rather, with relatively few workers, can be configured to pull the process and thus decrease maximum staging space requirements.

  16. SAGES: a suite of freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri L Lewis

    Full Text Available Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations.

  17. Novel electrospun gelatin/oxycellulose nanofibers as a suitable platform for lung disease modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Švachová, Veronika, E-mail: xcsvachova@fch.vutbr.cz [Institute of Materials Chemistry, Brno University of Technology (Czech Republic); Vojtová, Lucy [CEITEC – Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology (Czech Republic); SCITEG, a.s., Brno (Czech Republic); Pavliňák, David [Department of Physical Electronics, Masaryk University (Czech Republic); Vojtek, Libor [Institute of Experimental Biology, Masaryk University (Czech Republic); Sedláková, Veronika [Department of Histology and Embryology, Masaryk University (Czech Republic); International Clinical Research, St. Anne' s University Hospital, Brno (Czech Republic); Hyršl, Pavel [Institute of Experimental Biology, Masaryk University (Czech Republic); Alberti, Milan [Department of Physical Electronics, Masaryk University (Czech Republic); Jaroš, Josef; Hampl, Aleš [Department of Histology and Embryology, Masaryk University (Czech Republic); International Clinical Research, St. Anne' s University Hospital, Brno (Czech Republic); Jančář, Josef [Institute of Materials Chemistry, Brno University of Technology (Czech Republic); CEITEC – Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology (Czech Republic); SCITEG, a.s., Brno (Czech Republic)

    2016-10-01

    Novel hydrolytically stable gelatin nanofibers modified with sodium or calcium salt of oxycellulose were prepared by electrospinning method. The unique inhibitory effect of these nanofibers against Escherichia coli bacteria was examined by luminometric method. Biocompatibility of these gelatin/oxycellulose nanofibers with eukaryotic cells was tested using human lung adenocarcinoma cell line NCI-H441. Cells firmly adhered to nanofiber surface, as determined by scanning electron microscopy, and no signs of cell dying were detected by fluorescent live/dead assay. We propose that the newly developed gelatin/oxycellulose nanofibers could be used as promising scaffold for lung disease modeling and anti-cancer drug testing. - Highlights: • Novel hydrolytically stable gelatin nanofibers modified with oxycellulose were prepared by electrospinning. • ATR–FTIR spectroscopy and EDX confirmed the presence of oxycellulose in the nanofibers. • Nanofibers modified with calcium salt of oxycellulose exhibited significant antibacterial properties. • Nanofibers modified with sodium salt of oxycellulose revealed excellent biocompatibility with cell line NCI-H441.

  18. Development of keratin–chitosan–gelatin composite scaffold for soft tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakkar, Prachi [Central Leather Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Adyar, Chennai 600020 (India); Verma, Sudhanshu; Manjubala, I. [Biomedical Engineering Division, School of Bio Sciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore 632014 (India); Madhan, B., E-mail: bmadhan76@yahoo.co.in [Central Leather Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Adyar, Chennai 600020 (India)

    2014-12-01

    Keratin has gained much attention in the recent past as a biomaterial for wound healing owing to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, intrinsic biological activity and presence of cellular binding motifs. In this paper, a novel biomimetic scaffold containing keratin, chitosan and gelatin was prepared by freeze drying method. The prepared keratin composite scaffold had good structural integrity. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed the retention of the native structure of individual biopolymers (keratin, chitosan, and gelatin) used in the scaffold. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) results revealed a high thermal denaturation temperature of the scaffold (200–250 °C). The keratin composite scaffold exhibited tensile strength (96 kPa), compression strength (8.5 kPa) and water uptake capacity (> 1700%) comparable to that of a collagen scaffold, which was used as control. The morphology of the keratin composite scaffold observed using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) exhibited good porosity and interconnectivity of pores. MTT assay using NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells demonstrated that the cell viability of the keratin composite scaffold was good. These observations suggest that the keratin–chitosan–gelatin composite scaffold is a promising alternative biomaterial for tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Fabrication of novel Keratin-Chitosan-Gelatin composite scaffold • Keratin composite scaffold shows excellent water uptake capacity and porosity • Keratin composite scaffold shows good thermal and physical stability • Biocompatibility of the developed scaffold is comparable to collagen scaffolds • Developed scaffold is a promising material for soft tissue engineering applications.

  19. STABILITY OF SYNTHESIZED SILVER NANOPARTICLES IN CITRATE AND MIXED GELATIN/CITRATE SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kavuličová

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on an investigation of the influence of both citrate and mixed gelatin/citrate as a reductant and stabilizer on the colloidal stability of silver nanoparticles (AgNPssynthesized by a chemical reduction of Ag+ ions after a short - (7th day - and long - (118th day - term storage. Formed AgNPs were characterized by a UV–vis Spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM, Dynamic light scattering (DLS and Zeta-potential (ZP. The obtained results revealed that a short-term stability of the synthesized AgNPs was greatly influenced by a citrate stabilizer with the absence of gelatin. Smaller-sized AgNPs (average particle diameter of 3 nm, roughly spherical in a shape, were obtained with a narrow size distribution. The very negative value of the Zeta-potential confirmed a strong stability of the citrate capped AgNPs. However, a surface coating of the AgNPs by a gelatin/citrate stabilizer was found to be a dominant contributor in improving a long-term stability of the AgNPs (average particle diameter of 26 nm. The use of gelatin in mixed stabilizer solution provided the AgNPs with higher monodispersity and a controllable size after both the short and long-term storage.

  20. Comparison of starch and gelatin hydrogels for non-toxic supercapacitor electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Railanmaa, Anna; Lehtimäki, Suvi; Lupo, Donald

    2017-06-01

    Starch and gelatin are two of the most abundantly available natural polymers. Their non-toxicity, low cost, and compatibility with aqueous solvents make them ideal for use in ubiquitous, environmentally friendly electronics systems. This work presents the results of conductivity measurements through impedance spectroscopy for gelatin- and starch-based aqueous gel electrolytes. The NaCl-based gels were physically cross-linked. The conductivity values were 84.6 mS/cm at 1.5 mol L-1 and 71.5 mS/cm at 2 mol L-1 for gelatin and starch, respectively. The mechanical properties of gelatin were found preferable to those of starch, although they deteriorated significantly when the salt concentration exceeded 2 mol L-1. The ability of the gels to successfully act as a supercapacitor electrolyte was demonstrated with printed electrodes on plastic substrate. The devices were characterized through cyclic voltammetry measurements. The results imply that these polymer gel electrolytes are very promising for replacing the traditional aqueous liquid electrolytes in supercapacitors in applications where, for example, user and environmental safety is essential.

  1. Controlled Antibiotic Delivery by Gelatin Nanospheres: Optimization, Characterization and Antibacterial Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Fathollahipour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work focuses on preparation and characterization of erythromycin loaded gelatin nanoparticles through nanoprecipitation method. The procedure consists of the addition of the aqueous gelatin solution to the non-solvent phase containing Lutherol F127. Three different measures of cross-linker and polymer concentration were also examined, and the optimum concentration was found. The morphology of gelatin nanoparticles was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope. It was shown that the optimal morphology can be achieved at the concentration of 1.25 wt % of gelatin in aqueous phase by addition of 20 mL of glutaraldehyde 5%, as the crosslinking agent. Nanoparticle wet size determination was carried out using a dynamic light scattering system and found to be approximately 100 nm. Furthermore, Erythromycin release studies proved the suitability of these particles as a drug delivery system, at least in the studied 72 hours interval. As suggested by related measurements, these nanoparticles are good candidates for antibacterial agent release in any possible related application.

  2. Internal structure of normal maize starch granules revealed by chemical surface gelatinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, D D; Jane, J I

    2000-01-01

    Normal maize starch was fractionated into two sizes: large granules with diameters more than 5 microns and small granules with diameters less than 5 microns. The large granules were surface gelatinized by treating them with an aqueous LiCl solution (13 M) at 22-23 degrees C. Surface-gelatinized remaining granules were obtained by mechanical blending, and gelatinized surface starch was obtained by grinding with a mortar and a pestle. Starches of different granular sizes and radial locations, obtained after different degrees of surface gelatinization, were subjected to scanning electron microscopy, iodine potentiometric titration, gel-permeation chromatography, and amylopectin branch chain length analysis. Results showed that the remaining granules had a rough surface with a lamella structure. Amylose was more concentrated at the periphery than at the core of the granule. Amylopectin had longer long B-chains at the core than at the periphery of the granule. Greater proportions of the long B-chains were present at the core than at the periphery of the granule.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Gelatin-Based Mucoadhesive Nanocomposites as Intravesical Gene Delivery Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Wen Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop optimal gelatin-based mucoadhesive nanocomposites as scaffolds for intravesical gene delivery to the urothelium. Hydrogels were prepared by chemically crosslinking gelatin A or B with glutaraldehyde. Physicochemical and delivery properties including hydration ratio, viscosity, size, yield, thermosensitivity, and enzymatic degradation were studied, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM was carried out. The optimal hydrogels (H, composed of 15% gelatin A175, displayed an 81.5% yield rate, 87.1% hydration ratio, 42.9 Pa·s viscosity, and 125.8 nm particle size. The crosslinking density of the hydrogels was determined by performing pronase degradation and ninhydrin assays. In vitro lentivirus (LV release studies involving p24 capsid protein analysis in 293T cells revealed that hydrogels containing lentivirus (H-LV had a higher cumulative release than that observed for LV alone (3.7-, 2.3-, and 2.3-fold at days 1, 3, and 5, resp.. Lentivirus from lentivector constructed green fluorescent protein (GFP was then entrapped in hydrogels (H-LV-GFP. H-LV-GFP showed enhanced gene delivery in AY-27 cells in vitro and to rat urothelium by intravesical instillation in vivo. Cystometrogram showed mucoadhesive H-LV reduced peak micturition and threshold pressure and increased bladder compliance. In this study, we successfully developed first optimal gelatin-based mucoadhesive nanocomposites as intravesical gene delivery scaffolds.

  4. Electronic Human Resources Management (e-HRM Adoption Studies: Past and Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winarto Winarto

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic human resource management (e-HRM systems become more widely used by profit and non-profit organization. However, the field currently lacks sound theoretical frameworks that can be useful in addressing a key issue concerning the implementation of e-HRM systems, in particular to obtain a better understanding of the factors influencing the adoption of e-HRM systems. The objective of this paper is to provide a foundation towards the development of a theoretical framework for the implementation of e-HRM systems and develop a conceptual model that would reflect the nature of e-HRM systems’ adoption through systematic literature review. Adopting Crossan and Apaydin’s procedure of systematic review, this paper investigated 21 empirical papers of electronics human resources management, then categorized them into 4 characteristics which influence the adoption; System and technology characteristics; Organizational characteristics; User/individual characteristics, and Environmental and contextual characteristics. Finally, the e-HRM adoption research framework is drawn and based on the framework; avenues for future research are discussed.   Bahasa Indonesia Abstrak: Manajemen sumber daya manusia elektronik (selanjutnya disebut dengan e-HRM semakin banyak digunakan oleh organisasi profit dan nonprofit. Namun, bidang dan topik ini belum memiliki kerangka teori yang mapan, yang dapat digunakan untuk menganalisis isu-isu terkait penerapan e-HRM, terutama mengenai faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi adopsi sistem e-HRM. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memberikan landasan bagi pengembangan kerangka teoritis untuk implementasi sistem e-HRM dan mengembangkan model konseptual yang akan menggambarkan adopsi sistem e-HRM melalui tinjauan literatur sistematis. Mengadopsi prosedur dan metode Crossan dan Apaydin untuk melakukan telaah literatur secara sistematis, paper ini menyelidiki 21 publikasi empiris manajemen sumber daya manusia elektronik dari 2

  5. Electrospun polycaprolactone/gelatin composites with enhanced cell–matrix interactions as blood vessel endothelial layer scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yong-Chao [National Center for International Research of Micro-Nano Molding Technology, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); School of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI (United States); Wisconsin Institute for Discovery, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI (United States); Jiang, Lin [National Center for International Research of Micro-Nano Molding Technology, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI (United States); Wisconsin Institute for Discovery, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI (United States); Huang, An [South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI (United States); Wisconsin Institute for Discovery, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI (United States); Wang, Xiao-Feng [National Center for International Research of Micro-Nano Molding Technology, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); School of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Li, Qian [National Center for International Research of Micro-Nano Molding Technology, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China); Turng, Lih-Sheng, E-mail: turng@engr.wisc.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI (United States); Wisconsin Institute for Discovery, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-02-01

    During the fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds and subsequent tissue regeneration, surface bioactivity is vital for cell adhesion, spreading, and proliferation, especially for endothelium dysfunction repair. In this paper, synthetic polymer polycaprolactone (PCL) was blended with natural polymer gelatin at four different weight ratios followed by crosslinking (i.e., 100:0, 70:30, 50:50, 30:70, labeled as PCL-C, P7G3-C, P5G5-C, and P3G7-C) to impart enhanced bioactivity and tunable mechanical properties. The PCL/gelatin blends were first dissolved in 2,2,2-trifluroethanol (TFE) and supplementary acetic acid (1% relative to TFE) solvent, electrospun, and then cross-linked to produce PBS-proof fibrous scaffolds. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) indicated that fibers of each sample were smooth and homogeneous, with the fiber diameters increasing from 1.01 ± 0.51 μm to 1.61 ± 0.46 μm as the content of gelatin increased. While thermal resistance and crystallization of the blends were affected by the presence of gelatin, as reflected by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results, water contact angle (WCA) tests confirmed that the scaffold surfaces became more hydrophilic. Tensile tests showed that PCL-C and P7G3-C scaffolds had mechanical properties comparable to those of human coronary arteries. As for cytocompatibility, skeleton staining images showed that human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) had more favorable binding sites on PCL/gelatin scaffolds than those on PCL scaffolds. Cell proliferation assays revealed that P7G3-C scaffolds could support the most number of hMSCs. The results of this study demonstrated the enhanced cell-matrix interactions and potential use of electrospun PCL/gelatin scaffolds in the tissue engineering field, especially in wound dressings and endothelium regeneration. - Highlights: • Aqueous solution-resistant PCL/gelatin scaffolds were made via electrospinning. • PCL/gelatin composite scaffolds have tunable biophysical

  6. Electrospun polycaprolactone/gelatin composites with enhanced cell–matrix interactions as blood vessel endothelial layer scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yong-Chao; Jiang, Lin; Huang, An; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Li, Qian; Turng, Lih-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    During the fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds and subsequent tissue regeneration, surface bioactivity is vital for cell adhesion, spreading, and proliferation, especially for endothelium dysfunction repair. In this paper, synthetic polymer polycaprolactone (PCL) was blended with natural polymer gelatin at four different weight ratios followed by crosslinking (i.e., 100:0, 70:30, 50:50, 30:70, labeled as PCL-C, P7G3-C, P5G5-C, and P3G7-C) to impart enhanced bioactivity and tunable mechanical properties. The PCL/gelatin blends were first dissolved in 2,2,2-trifluroethanol (TFE) and supplementary acetic acid (1% relative to TFE) solvent, electrospun, and then cross-linked to produce PBS-proof fibrous scaffolds. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) indicated that fibers of each sample were smooth and homogeneous, with the fiber diameters increasing from 1.01 ± 0.51 μm to 1.61 ± 0.46 μm as the content of gelatin increased. While thermal resistance and crystallization of the blends were affected by the presence of gelatin, as reflected by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results, water contact angle (WCA) tests confirmed that the scaffold surfaces became more hydrophilic. Tensile tests showed that PCL-C and P7G3-C scaffolds had mechanical properties comparable to those of human coronary arteries. As for cytocompatibility, skeleton staining images showed that human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) had more favorable binding sites on PCL/gelatin scaffolds than those on PCL scaffolds. Cell proliferation assays revealed that P7G3-C scaffolds could support the most number of hMSCs. The results of this study demonstrated the enhanced cell-matrix interactions and potential use of electrospun PCL/gelatin scaffolds in the tissue engineering field, especially in wound dressings and endothelium regeneration. - Highlights: • Aqueous solution-resistant PCL/gelatin scaffolds were made via electrospinning. • PCL/gelatin composite scaffolds have tunable biophysical

  7. Optical and structural properties of ensembles of colloidal Ag2S quantum dots in gelatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovchinnikov, O. V.; Smirnov, M. S.; Shapiro, B. I.; Shatskikh, T. S.; Perepelitsa, A. S.; Korolev, N. V.

    2015-01-01

    The size dependences of the absorption and luminescence spectra of ensembles of hydrophilic colloidal Ag 2 S quantum dots produced by the sol-gel method and dispersed in gelatin are analyzed. By X-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy, the formation of core/shell nanoparticles is detected. The characteristic feature of the nanoparticles is the formation of crystalline cores, 1.5–2.0 nm in dimensions, and shells of gelatin and its complexes with the components of synthesis. The observed slight size dependence of the position of infrared photoluminescence bands (in the range 1000–1400 nm) in the ensembles of hydrophilic colloidal Ag 2 S quantum dots is explained within the context of the model of the radiative recombination of electrons localized at structural and impurity defects with free holes

  8. Biosynthesis and Characterization of Nanocellulose-Gelatin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muenduen Phisalaphong

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A nanocellulose-gelatin (bacterial cellulose gelatin (BCG film was developed by a supplement of gelatin, at a concentration of 1%–10% w/v, in a coconut-water medium under the static cultivation of Acetobacter xylinum. The two polymers exhibited a certain degree of miscibility. The BCG film displayed dense and uniform homogeneous structures. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR results demonstrated interactions between the cellulose and gelatin. Incorporation of gelatin into a cellulose nanofiber network resulted in significantly improved optical transparency and water absorption capacity of the films. A significant drop in the mechanical strengths and a decrease in the porosity of the film were observed when the supplement of gelatin was more than 3% (w/v. The BCG films showed no cytotoxicity against Vero cells.

  9. The decontamination effects of gamma irradiation on the edible gelatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Junjie; Shen, Weiqiao; Bao, Jinsong; Chen, Qinglong

    2000-01-01

    The decontamination effects of gamma irradiation on the edible gelatin were studied. The results indicated that the bacterium and mold in the gelatin decreased significantly with the dose of 5 kGy treatment. However, the content of crude protein, microelement, amino acid in the gelatin remained unchanged under the irradiation of 4 and 8 kGy. The viscosity of the gelatin decreased with the increase of the irradiation dose, but the gelatin with a dose of 5 kGy treatment still accorded with the standard of the second-order class. These results suggested that the optimum irradiation dose for edible gelatin for the purpose of decontamination was in the range 3-5 kGy. (author)

  10. Structural change of the porous sulfur cathode using gelatin as a binder during discharge and charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang You; Huang Yaqin; Wang Weikun; Huang Chongjun; Yu Zhongbao; Zhang, Hao; Sun Jing; Wang Anbang; Yuan Keguo

    2009-01-01

    The structural change of the porous sulfur cathode using gelatin as a binder was studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The original sulfur cathode exhibited a homogenous distribution of sulfur, carbon and pores. During the discharge process, the pores and elemental sulfur disappeared gradually. However, those changes were reversed and elemental sulfur was reformed after the charge process, which improved the electrochemical performance of lithium-sulfur batteries.

  11. Impact of Electronic Resources and Usage in Academic Libraries in Ghana: Evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akussah, Maxwell; Asante, Edward; Adu-Sarkodee, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between impact of electronic resources and its usage in academic libraries in Ghana: evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana. The study was a quantitative approach using questionnaire to gather data and information. A valid response rate of 58.5% was assumed. SPSS…

  12. Utilization of Electronic Information Resources by Undergraduate Students of University of Ibadan: A Case Study of Social Sciences and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Sola; Idowu, Oluwafemi A.; Okocha, Foluke; Ogundare, Atinuke Omotayo

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluated utilization of electronic information resources by undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a study population of 1872 undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan, from which a…

  13. Creating 3D gelatin phantoms for experimental evaluation in biomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Nils

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe and evaluate a setup to create gelatin phantoms by robotic 3D printing. Key aspects are the large workspace, reproducibility and resolution of the created phantoms. Given its soft tissue nature, the gelatin is kept fluid during inside the system and we present parameters for additive printing of homogeneous, solid objects. The results indicate that 3D printing of gelatin can be an alternative for quickly creating larger soft tissue phantoms without the need for casting a mold.

  14. Gelatin behaviour in dilute aqueous solution : designing a nanoparticulate formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Farrugia, Claude; Groves, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    Although it has been claimed that nanoparticles can be produced from gelatin, a naturally occurring polypeptide, the commercial conversion of animal collagen to gelatin results in a heterogeneous product with a wide molecular-weight range. This is probably responsible for the widely observed variation in the experimental conditions required for nanoparticle formation. In this study, 0.2% w/v aqueous B225 gelatin solutions were incubated under various conditions of time, temperature, pH an...

  15. Extraction and characterisation of gelatin from the skin of striped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Functional properties of gelatin from skin of striped catfish with and without bleaching for 48 h by 5% H2O2 (w/v)) were studied. Gelatin from skin bleached with 5% H2O2 for 48 h showed the highest yield (16.18 g). Bleaching not only improved the colour of gelatin gel by increasing the L* (lightness)-value and decreasing ...

  16. Stavudine loaded gelatin liposomes for HIV therapy: Preparation, characterization and in vitro cytotoxic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayak, Debasis; Boxi, Ankita; Ashe, Sarbani; Thathapudi, Neethi Chandra; Nayak, Bismita, E-mail: nayakb@nitrkl.ac.in

    2017-04-01

    Despite continuous research and availability of 25 different active compounds for treating chronic HIV-1 infection, there is no absolute cure for this deadly disease. Primarily, the residual viremia remains hidden in latently infected reservoir sites and persistently release the viral RNA into the blood stream. The study proposes the dual utilization of the prepared stavudine-containing nanoformulations to control the residual viremia as well as target the reservoir sites. Gelatin nanoformulations containing very low dosage of stavudine were prepared through classical desolvation process and were later loaded in soya lecithin-liposomes. The nanoformulations were characterized through dynamic light scattering (DLS), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and ATR-FTIR. All the formulations were in nano regime with high hemocompatibility and exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxicity towards Raw 264.7 macrophages. Among the various formulations, SG-3 (Stavudine-Gelatin Nanoformulation sample 3) and SG-LP-3 (Stavudine-Gelatin Nano-Liposome formulation sample 3) showed the best results in terms of yield, size, charge, encapsulation efficiency, hemocompatibility and % cell viability. For the first time, liposomal delivery of antiretroviral drugs using nanocarriers has been demonstrated using very low dosage (lower than the recommended WHO dosage) showing the prominent linear release of stavudine for up to 12 h which would reduce the circulatory viremia as well as reach the sanctuary reservoir sites due to their nanosize. This method of liposomal delivery of antiretroviral drugs in very low concentrations using nanocarriers could provide a novel therapeutic alternative to target HIV reservoir sites. - Highlights: • Stavudine entrapped gelatin nanocarriers prepared with two step desolvation process • Linear and release of stavudine from liposomal formulations up to 12 h • All the SG nanoparticles and SG-LP formulations showed negligible

  17. Stavudine loaded gelatin liposomes for HIV therapy: Preparation, characterization and in vitro cytotoxic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, Debasis; Boxi, Ankita; Ashe, Sarbani; Thathapudi, Neethi Chandra; Nayak, Bismita

    2017-01-01

    Despite continuous research and availability of 25 different active compounds for treating chronic HIV-1 infection, there is no absolute cure for this deadly disease. Primarily, the residual viremia remains hidden in latently infected reservoir sites and persistently release the viral RNA into the blood stream. The study proposes the dual utilization of the prepared stavudine-containing nanoformulations to control the residual viremia as well as target the reservoir sites. Gelatin nanoformulations containing very low dosage of stavudine were prepared through classical desolvation process and were later loaded in soya lecithin-liposomes. The nanoformulations were characterized through dynamic light scattering (DLS), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and ATR-FTIR. All the formulations were in nano regime with high hemocompatibility and exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxicity towards Raw 264.7 macrophages. Among the various formulations, SG-3 (Stavudine-Gelatin Nanoformulation sample 3) and SG-LP-3 (Stavudine-Gelatin Nano-Liposome formulation sample 3) showed the best results in terms of yield, size, charge, encapsulation efficiency, hemocompatibility and % cell viability. For the first time, liposomal delivery of antiretroviral drugs using nanocarriers has been demonstrated using very low dosage (lower than the recommended WHO dosage) showing the prominent linear release of stavudine for up to 12 h which would reduce the circulatory viremia as well as reach the sanctuary reservoir sites due to their nanosize. This method of liposomal delivery of antiretroviral drugs in very low concentrations using nanocarriers could provide a novel therapeutic alternative to target HIV reservoir sites. - Highlights: • Stavudine entrapped gelatin nanocarriers prepared with two step desolvation process • Linear and release of stavudine from liposomal formulations up to 12 h • All the SG nanoparticles and SG-LP formulations showed negligible

  18. Cavitation nucleation in gelatin: Experiment and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Wonmo; Adnan, Ashfaq; O'Shaughnessy, Thomas; Bagchi, Amit

    2018-02-01

    Dynamic cavitation in soft materials is becoming increasingly relevant due to emerging medical implications such as the potential of cavitation-induced brain injury or cavitation created by therapeutic medical devices. However, the current understanding of dynamic cavitation in soft materials is still very limited, mainly due to lack of robust experimental techniques. To experimentally characterize cavitation nucleation under dynamic loading, we utilize a recently developed experimental instrument, the integrated drop tower system. This technique allows quantitative measurements of the critical acceleration (a cr ) that corresponds to cavitation nucleation while concurrently visualizing time evolution of cavitation. Our experimental results reveal that a cr increases with increasing concentration of gelatin in pure water. Interestingly, we have observed the distinctive transition from a sharp increase (pure water to 1% gelatin) to a much slower rate of increase (∼10× slower) between 1% and 7.5% gelatin. Theoretical cavitation criterion predicts the general trend of increasing a cr , but fails to explain the transition rates. As a likely mechanism, we consider concentration-dependent material properties and non-spherical cavitation nucleation sites, represented by pre-existing bubbles in gels, due to possible interplay between gelatin molecules and nucleation sites. This analysis shows that cavitation nucleation is very sensitive to the initial configuration of a bubble, i.e., a non-spherical bubble can significantly increase a cr . This conclusion matches well with the experimentally observed liquid-to-gel transition in the critical acceleration for cavitation nucleation. From a medical standpoint, understanding dynamic cavitation within soft materials, i.e., tissues, is important as there are both potential injury implications (blast-induced cavitation within the brain) as well as treatments utilizing the phenomena (lithotripsy). In this regard, the main

  19. Systematic review of electronic surveillance of infectious diseases with emphasis on antimicrobial resistance surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanaumpawan, Pinyo; Boonyasiri, Adhiratha; Vong, Sirenda; Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2018-02-01

    Electronic surveillance of infectious diseases involves rapidly collecting, collating, and analyzing vast amounts of data from interrelated multiple databases. Although many developed countries have invested in electronic surveillance for infectious diseases, the system still presents a challenge for resource-limited health care settings. We conducted a systematic review by performing a comprehensive literature search on MEDLINE (January 2000-December 2015) to identify studies relevant to electronic surveillance of infectious diseases. Study characteristics and results were extracted and systematically reviewed by 3 infectious disease physicians. A total of 110 studies were included. Most surveillance systems were developed and implemented in high-income countries; less than one-quarter were conducted in low-or middle-income countries. Information technologies can be used to facilitate the process of obtaining laboratory, clinical, and pharmacologic data for the surveillance of infectious diseases, including antimicrobial resistance (AMR) infections. These novel systems require greater resources; however, we found that using electronic surveillance systems could result in shorter times to detect targeted infectious diseases and improvement of data collection. This study highlights a lack of resources in areas where an effective, rapid surveillance system is most needed. The availability of information technology for the electronic surveillance of infectious diseases, including AMR infections, will facilitate the prevention and containment of such emerging infectious diseases. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of ballistic impact effects between biological tissue and gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yongxi; Mai, Ruimin; Wu, Cheng; Han, Ruiguo; Li, Bingcang

    2018-02-01

    Gelatin is commonly used in ballistic testing as substitute for biological tissue. Comparison of ballistic impact effects produced in the gelatin and living tissue is lacking. The work in this paper was aimed to compare the typical ballistic impact effects (penetration trajectory, energy transfer, temporary cavity) caused by 4.8mm steel ball penetrating the 60kg porcine hind limbs and 10wt% gelatin. The impact event in the biological tissue was recorded by high speed flash X-ray machine at different delay time, while the event in the gelatin continuously recorded by high speed video was compared to that in the biological tissue. The collected results clearly displayed that the ballistic impact effects in the muscle and gelatin were similar for the steel ball test; as for instance, the projectile trajectory in the two targets was basically similar, the process of energy transfer was highly coincident, and the expansion of temporary cavity followed the same pattern. This study fully demonstrated that choosing gelatin as muscle simulant was reasonable. However, the maximum temporary cavity diameter in the gelatin was a little larger than that in the muscle, and the expansion period of temporary cavity was longer in the gelatin. Additionally, the temporary cavity collapse process in the two targets followed different patterns, and the collapse period in the gelatin was two times as long as that in the muscle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Instrumental texture profile analysis of gelatin gel extracted from grouper skin and commercial (bovine and porcine) gelatin gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Shafiur; Al-Mahrouqi, Abdullah Issa

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical compression was used to study the gelling characteristics of gelatin gels. Texture profile analysis (TPA) showed that the hardness of fish and mammalian gelatin increased significantly as the concentrations of gels increased. TPA attributes of 10% fish skin gel showed significant differences from those obtained from 20% and 30% gels. In bovine and porcine cases, such generic trends were not observed. Mechanical characteristics of 10% gels of gelatin from fish skin, determined from one cycle compression, were significantly lower than other sources of gelatin gels, while bovine and porcine gels did not show any significant differences. In the case of TPA, hardness of bovine gelatin gel was highest at 41 N for 10% gel, followed by porcine (30 N) then fish skin (5 N) gelatin gels. The gels prepared from different sources did not show any generic trends when all other mechanical attributes were considered.

  2. In vitro and in vivo study to the biocompatibility and biodegradation of hydroxyapatite/poly(vinyl alcohol)/gelatin composite.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, M.; Li, Y.; Wu, J.; Xu, F.; Zuo, Y.; Jansen, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    A novel porous composite material composed of hydroxyapatite, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and gelatin (Gel) was fabricated by emulsification. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the material had a well-interconnected porous structure including many macropores (100-500 microm) and micropores

  3. Reduction and aggregation of silver, copper and cadmium ions in aqueous solutions of gelatin and carboxymethyl cellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, S.; Gopinathan, C.

    1998-01-01

    Radiolytic reduction of silver, copper and cadmium ions and the subsequent formation of their clusters was studied in aqueous gelatin or carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) solutions. Presence of gelatin or CMC in the solution affects the early processes. The rate of reduction by hydrated electron reduces due to complexation. However, when the ratio of silver ions to monomeric chains decreases over a certain limit the process of reduction inhibits completely. The effect of ionic strength or pH and the reducing radical on the rate of formation of colloidal Cu and Cd is also discussed

  4. The Use of Electronic Resources by Academic Staff at the University of Ilorin, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, Adeyinka; Orim, Faith; Ibrahim, Dauda Morenikeji; Memudu, Suleiman Ajala

    2018-01-01

    The use of e-resources is now commonplace among academics in tertiary educational institutions the world over. Many academics including those in the universities are exploring the opportunities of e-resources to facilitate teaching and research. As the use of e-resources is increasing particularly among academics at the University of Ilorin,…

  5. Preparation of Starch/Gelatin Blend Microparticles by a Water-in-Oil Emulsion Method for Controlled Release Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phromsopha, Theeraphol; Baimark, Yodthong

    2014-01-01

    Information on the preparation and properties of starch/gelatin blend microparticles with and without crosslinking for drug delivery is presented. The blend microparticles were prepared by the water-in-oil emulsion solvent diffusion method. Glutaraldehyde and methylene blue were used as the crosslinker and the water-soluble drug model, respectively. The blend microparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The functional groups of the starch and gelatin blend matrices were determined from the FTIR spectra. Blend microparticles with a nearly spherical shape and internal porous structure were observed from SEM images. The average particle size of the gelatin microparticles depended on the crosslinker ratio but not on the starch/gelatin blend ratio. The in vitro drug release content significantly decreased as the crosslinker ratio increased and the starch blend ratio decreased. The results demonstrated that the starch/gelatin blend microparticles should be a useful controlled release delivery carrier for water-soluble drugs.

  6. Modeling antecedents of electronic medical record system implementation success in low-resource setting hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Binyam; Fritz, Fleur

    2015-08-01

    With the increasing implementation of Electronic Medical Record Systems (EMR) in developing countries, there is a growing need to identify antecedents of EMR success to measure and predict the level of adoption before costly implementation. However, less evidence is available about EMR success in the context of low-resource setting implementations. Therefore, this study aims to fill this gap by examining the constructs and relationships of the widely used DeLone and MacLean (D&M) information system success model to determine whether it can be applied to measure EMR success in those settings. A quantitative cross sectional study design using self-administered questionnaires was used to collect data from 384 health professionals working in five governmental hospitals in Ethiopia. The hospitals use a comprehensive EMR system since three years. Descriptive and structural equation modeling methods were applied to describe and validate the extent of relationship of constructs and mediating effects. The findings of the structural equation modeling shows that system quality has significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.32, P quality has significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.44, P service quality has strong significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.36, P effect of EMR use on user satisfaction was not significant. Both EMR use and user satisfaction have significant influence on perceived net-benefit (β = 0.31, P mediating factor in the relationship between service quality and EMR use (P effect on perceived net-benefit of health professionals. EMR implementers and managers in developing countries are in urgent need of implementation models to design proper implementation strategies. In this study, the constructs and relationships depicted in the updated D&M model were found to be applicable to assess the success of EMR in low resource settings. Additionally, computer literacy was found to be a mediating factor in EMR use and user satisfaction of

  7. Molecular beacon-based real-time PCR method for detection of porcine DNA in gelatin and gelatin capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Nurhidayatul Asma; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Khairil Mokhtar, Nur Fadhilah; El Sheikha, Aly Farag

    2018-03-05

    The pharmaceutical industry has boosted gelatin consumption worldwide. This is supported by the availability of cost-effective gelatin production from porcine by-products. However, cross-contamination of gelatin materials, where porcine gelatin was unintentionally included in the other animal sources of gelatin, has caused significant concerns about halal authenticity. The real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has enabled a highly specific and sensitive animal species detection method in various food products. Hence, such a technique was employed in the present study to detect and quantify porcine DNA in gelatin using a molecular beacon probe, with differences in performance between mitochondrial (cytochrome b gene) and chromosomal DNA-(MPRE42 repetitive element) based porcine-specific PCR assays being compared. A higher sensitivity was observed in chromosomal DNA (MPRE-PCR assay), where this assay allows the detection of gelatin DNA at amounts as as low as 1 pg, whereas mitochondrial DNA (CBH-PCR assay) can only detect at levels down to 10 pg of gelatin DNA. When an analysis with commercial gelatin and gelatin capsule samples was conducted, the same result was observed, with a significantly more sensitive detection being provided by the repetitive element of chromosomal DNA. The present study has established highly sensitive DNA-based porcine detection systems derived from chromosomal DNA that are feasible for highly processed products such as gelatin and gelatin capsules containing a minute amount of DNA. This sensitive detection method can also be implemented to assist the halal authentication process of various food products available on the market. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Use and Cost of Electronic Resources in Central Library of Ferdowsi University Based on E-metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Davarpanah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of electronic journals in Ferdowsi University, Iran based on e-metrics. The paper also aimed to emphasize the analysis of cost-benefit and the correlation between the journal impact factors and the usage data. In this study experiences of Ferdowsi University library on licensing and usage of electronic resources was evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage statistics of electronic resources. Vendor-provided data were also compared with local usage data. The usage data were collected by tracking web-based access locally, and by collecting vender-provided usage data. The data sources were one-year of vendor-supplied e-resource usage data such as Ebsco, Elsevier, Proquest, Emerald, Oxford and Springer and local usage data collected from the Ferdowsi university web server. The study found that actual usage values differ for vendor-provided data and local usage data. Elsevier has got the highest usage degree in searches, sessions and downloads. Statistics also showed that a small number of journals satisfy significant amount of use while the majority of journals were used less frequent and some were never used at all. The users preferred the PDF rather than HTML format. The data in subject profile suggested that the provided e-resources were best suited to certain subjects. There was no correlation between IF and electronic journal use. Monitoring the usage of e-resources gained increasing importance for acquisition policy and budget decisions. The article provided information about local metrics for the six surveyed vendors/publishers, e.g. usage trends, requests per package, cost per use as related to the scientific specialty of the university.

  9. Assessment of Matrix Metalloproteinases by Gelatin Zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathcart, Jillian

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases are endopeptidases responsible for remodeling of the extracellular matrix and have been identified as critical contributors to breast cancer progression. Gelatin zymography is a valuable tool which allows the analysis of MMP expression. In this approach, enzymes are resolved electrophoretically on a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel copolymerized with the substrate for the MMP of interest. Post electrophoresis, the enzymes are refolded in order for proteolysis of the incorporated substrate to occur. This assay yields valuable information about MMP isoforms or changes in activation and can be used to analyze the role of MMPs in normal versus pathological conditions.

  10. Modified titanium surface with gelatin nano gold composite increases osteoblast cell biocompatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young-Hee; Bhattarai, Govinda; Aryal, Santosh; Lee, Nan-Hee; Lee, Min-Ho; Kim, Tae-Gun; Jhee, Eun-Chung; Kim, Hak-Yong; Yi, Ho-Keun

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the gelatin nano gold (GnG) composite for surface modification of titanium in addition to insure biocompatibility on dental implants or biomaterials. The GnG composite was constructed by gelatin and hydrogen tetrachloroaurate in presence of reducing agent, sodium borohydrate (NabH 4 ). The GnG composite was confirmed by UV-VIS spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A dipping method was used to modify the titanium surface by GnG composite. Surface was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The MC-3T3 E1 cell viability was assessed by trypan blue and the expression of proteins to biocompatibility were analyzed by Western blotting. The GnG composite showed well dispersed character, the strong absorption at 530 nm, roughness, regular crystal and clear C, Na, Cl, P, and Au signals onto titanium. Further, this composite allowed MC-3T3 E1 growth and viability compared to gelatin and pure titanium. It induced ERK activation and the expression of cell adherent molecules, FAK and SPARC, and growth factor, VEGF. However, GnG decreased the level of SAPK/JNK. This shows that GnG composite coated titanium surfaces have a good biocompatibility for osteoblast growth and attachment than in intact by simple and versatile dipping method. Furthermore, it offers good communication between cell and implant surfaces by regulating cell signaling and adherent molecules, which are useful to enhance the biocompatibility of titanium surfaces.

  11. Dehydration of pollock skin prior to gelatin production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaska pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) is the U.S.A.'s largest commercial fishery, with an annual catch of over 1 million tons. During pollock processing, the skins are discarded or made into fish meal, despite their value for gelatin production. The absence of gelatin-processing facilities in Alask...

  12. Extraction and characterisation of gelatin from the skin of striped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prabjeet Singh

    2017-01-04

    Jan 4, 2017 ... squid skin in 1% H2O2 in 0.01 M NaOH for 48 h could improve the ... of fish skin gelatin. Gelatin was extracted from washed giant catfish skin as described ..... bleached, because the flesh could be stained by ink, viscera and ...

  13. Gelatin Nanoparticles with Enhanced Affinity for Calcium Phosphate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farbod, K.; Diba, M.; Zinkevich, T.; Schmidt, S.; Harrington, M.J.; Kentgens, A.P.; Leeuwenburgh, S.C.

    2016-01-01

    Gelatin nanoparticles can be tuned with respect to their drug loading efficiency, degradation rate, and release kinetics, which renders these drug carriers highly suitable for a wide variety of biomedical applications. The ease of functionalization has rendered gelatin an interesting candidate

  14. Modification of gelatin functionality for culinary applications by using transglutaminase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvarro, Julia; Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad; Ruiz Carrascal, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    TGase turned rapidly into liquid in less than 10 min at 80 °C. Hardness and chewiness of the gels were strongly enhanced by gelatin content, but very especially by TGase concentration. Gels tended to be less springy with increasing amounts of TGase. Modification of gelatin-based foams and gels...

  15. Use and User Perception of Electronic Information Resources: A Case Study of Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velmurugan Chandran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to explore the use and user perception of electronic resources in Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India. A total number of 123 users were taken into account for the study through a questionnaire-based survey method. A well-structured questionnaire was designed and distributed to the selected 200 students and staff members. 123 copies of the questionnaires were returned dully filled in and the overall response rate was 61.50 percent. The questionnaire contained both open- and close-ended questions. The collected data were classified, analyzed, and tabulated by using simple statistical methods. This study covers the impact of electronic resources on students and faculty in their academic pursuit.

  16. Challenges in the implementation of an electronic surveillance system in a resource-limited setting: Alerta, in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto Giselle

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious disease surveillance is a primary public health function in resource-limited settings. In 2003, an electronic disease surveillance system (Alerta was established in the Peruvian Navy with support from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD. Many challenges arose during the implementation process, and a variety of solutions were applied. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss these issues. Methods This is a retrospective description of the Alerta implementation. After a thoughtful evaluation according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines, the main challenges to implementation were identified and solutions were devised in the context of a resource-limited setting, Peru. Results After four years of operation, we have identified a number of challenges in implementing and operating this electronic disease surveillance system. These can be divided into the following categories: (1 issues with personnel and stakeholders; (2 issues with resources in a developing setting; (3 issues with processes involved in the collection of data and operation of the system; and (4 issues with organization at the central hub. Some of the challenges are unique to resource-limited settings, but many are applicable for any surveillance system. For each of these challenges, we developed feasible solutions that are discussed. Conclusion There are many challenges to overcome when implementing an electronic disease surveillance system, not only related to technology issues. A comprehensive approach is required for success, including: technical support, personnel management, effective training, and cultural sensitivity in order to assure the effective deployment of an electronic disease surveillance system.

  17. RESEARCH OF INFLUENCE OF QUALITY OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES ON QUALITY OF TRAINING WITH USE OF DISTANCE TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Kravtsov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Communication improving of educational processes requires today new approaches to the management arrangements and forming of educational policy in the field of distance learning, which is based on the use of modern information and communication technologies. An important step in this process is the continuous monitoring of the development and implementation of information technology and, in particular, the distance learning systems in higher educational establishments. The main objective of the monitoring is the impact assessment on the development of distance learning following the state educational standards, curricula, methodical and technical equipment and other factors; factors revelation that influence the implementation and outcomes of distance learning; results comparison of educational institution functioning and distance education systems in order to determine the most efficient ways of its development. The paper presents the analysis results of the dependence of the quality of educational services on the electronic educational resources. Trends in educational services development was studied by comparing the quality influence of electronic educational resources on the quality of educational services of higher pedagogical educational institutions of Ukraine as of 2009-2010 and 2012-2013. Generally, the analysis of the survey results allows evaluating quality of the modern education services as satisfactory and it can be said that almost 70% of the success of their future development depends on the quality of the used electronic educational resources and distance learning systems in particular.

  18. Tracking the Flow of Resources in Electronic Waste - The Case of End-of-Life Computer Hard Disk Drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Komal; Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik

    2015-10-20

    Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of resources in a conventional WEEE treatment plant in Denmark. Computer hard disk drives (HDDs) containing neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets were selected as the case product for this experiment. The resulting output fractions were tracked until their final treatment in order to estimate the recovery potential of rare earth elements (REEs) and other resources contained in HDDs. The results further show that out of the 244 kg of HDDs treated, 212 kg comprising mainly of aluminum and steel can be finally recovered from the metallurgic process. The results further demonstrate the complete loss of REEs in the existing shredding-based WEEE treatment processes. Dismantling and separate processing of NdFeB magnets from their end-use products can be a more preferred option over shredding. However, it remains a technological and logistic challenge for the existing system.

  19. HELP (INFORMATION ELECTRONIC RESOURCE "CHRONICLE OF ONU: DATES, FACTS, EVENTS": HISTORY OF UNIVERSITY IN INFORMATION SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Гавриленко

    2016-03-01

    Object of research is the help information resource "The chronicle of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov: dates, facts, events". The main objective of our article – to state the main methodological bases of creation of information resource. One of advantages of information resource is possibility of continuous updating and replenishment by new information. Main objective of creation of this information resource is systematization of material on stories of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov from the date of his basis to the present, ensuring interactive access to information on the main dates, the most significant events in life of university. The base of research are sources on the history of university, chronology of historical development, formation of infrastructure, cadres and scientific researches. In information resource the main stages of development, functioning and transformation of the Odessa University are analyzed, information on its divisions is collected. For creation of this information resource in Scientific library the method of work was developed, the main selection criteria of data are allocated. This information resource have practical value for all who is interested in history of university, historians, scientists-researchers of history of science and the city of Odessa.

  20. Electrospun Zein/Gelatin Scaffold-Enhanced Cell Attachment and Growth of Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanqiao Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is a widespread dental disease affecting 10 to 15% of worldwide adult population, yet the current treatments are far from satisfactory. The human periodontal ligament stem cell is a promising potential seed cell population type in cell-based therapy and tissue regeneration, which require appropriate scaffold to provide a mimic extracellular matrix. Zein, a native protein derived from corn, has an excellent biodegradability, and therefore becomes a hotspot on research and application in the field of biomaterials. However, the high hydrophobicity of zein is unfavorable for cell adhesion and thus greatly limits its use. In this study, we fabricate co-electrospun zein/gelatin fiber scaffolds in order to take full advantages of the two natural materials and electrospun fiber structure. Zein and gelatin in four groups of different mass ratios (100:00, 100:20, 100:34, 100:50, and dissolved the mixtures in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol, then produced membranes by electrospinning. The results showed that the scaffolds were smooth and homogeneous, as shown in scanning electron micrographs. The diameter of hybrid fibers was increased from 69 ± 22 nm to 950 ± 356 nm, with the proportion of gelatin increase. The cell affinity of zein/gelatin nanofibers was evaluated by using human periodontal ligament stem cells. The data showed that hydrophilicity and cytocompatibility of zein nanofibers were improved by blended gelatin. Taken together, our results indicated that the zein/gelatin co-electrospun fibers had sufficient mechanical properties, satisfied cytocompatibility, and can be utilized as biological scaffolds in the field of tissue regeneration.

  1. Development and characterization of coaxially electrospun gelatin coated poly (3-hydroxybutyric acid) thin films as potential scaffolds for skin regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagiah, Naveen; Madhavi, Lakshmi; Anitha, R.; Anandan, C.; Srinivasan, Natarajan Tirupattur; Sivagnanam, Uma Tirichurapalli

    2013-01-01

    The morphology of fibers synthesized through electrospinning has been found to mimic extracellular matrix. Coaxially electrospun fibers of gelatin (sheath) coated poly (3-hydroxybutyric acid) (PHB) (core) was developed using 2,2,2 trifluoroethanol(TFE) and 1,1,1,3,3,3 hexafluoro-2-propanol(HFIP) as solvents respectively. The coaxial structure and coating of gelatin with PHB fibers was confirmed through transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Thermal stability of the coaxially electrospun fibers was analyzed using thermogravimetric analysis(TGA), differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) and differential thermogravimetric analysis(DTA). Complete evaporation of solvent and gelatin grafting over PHB fibers was confirmed through attenuated total reflection-Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). The coaxially electrospun fibers exhibited competent tensile properties for skin regeneration with high surface area and porosity. In vitro degradation studies proved the stability of fibers and its potential applications in tissue engineering. The fibers supported the growth of human dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes with normal morphology indicating its potential as a scaffold for skin regeneration. - Highlights: • Coaxial electrospinning was employed to develop core-shell fibers of PHB and gelatin. • The scaffold has competent physicochemical properties. • Developed scaffold will have high impact as a dermal substitute in skin regeneration

  2. Development and characterization of coaxially electrospun gelatin coated poly (3-hydroxybutyric acid) thin films as potential scaffolds for skin regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagiah, Naveen [Bioproducts Lab, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai (India); Madhavi, Lakshmi; Anitha, R. [CavinKare Research Centre, Ekkattuthangal, Chennai (India); Anandan, C. [National Aerospace Laboratory, Banglore (India); Srinivasan, Natarajan Tirupattur, E-mail: naveen.nagiah@gmail.com [Conducting Polymers Lab, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai (India); Sivagnanam, Uma Tirichurapalli, E-mail: suma67@gmail.com [Bioproducts Lab, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai (India)

    2013-10-01

    The morphology of fibers synthesized through electrospinning has been found to mimic extracellular matrix. Coaxially electrospun fibers of gelatin (sheath) coated poly (3-hydroxybutyric acid) (PHB) (core) was developed using 2,2,2 trifluoroethanol(TFE) and 1,1,1,3,3,3 hexafluoro-2-propanol(HFIP) as solvents respectively. The coaxial structure and coating of gelatin with PHB fibers was confirmed through transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Thermal stability of the coaxially electrospun fibers was analyzed using thermogravimetric analysis(TGA), differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) and differential thermogravimetric analysis(DTA). Complete evaporation of solvent and gelatin grafting over PHB fibers was confirmed through attenuated total reflection-Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). The coaxially electrospun fibers exhibited competent tensile properties for skin regeneration with high surface area and porosity. In vitro degradation studies proved the stability of fibers and its potential applications in tissue engineering. The fibers supported the growth of human dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes with normal morphology indicating its potential as a scaffold for skin regeneration. - Highlights: • Coaxial electrospinning was employed to develop core-shell fibers of PHB and gelatin. • The scaffold has competent physicochemical properties. • Developed scaffold will have high impact as a dermal substitute in skin regeneration.

  3. Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Kanta

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…

  4. Understanding intention to use electronic information resources: A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model (TAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Donghua

    2008-11-06

    This study extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by examining the roles of two aspects of e-resource characteristics, namely, information quality and system quality, in predicting public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments. Both focus groups and a questionnaire were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that perceived usefulness played a major role in determining students' intention to use e-resources. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use fully mediated the impact that information quality and system quality had on behavior intention. The research model enriches the existing technology acceptance literature by extending TAM. Representing two aspects of e-resource characteristics provides greater explanatory information for diagnosing problems of system design, development, and implementation.

  5. Wet method for measuring starch gelatinization temperature using electrical conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Sanchez, E; Figueroa, J D C; Gaytan-Martínez, M

    2009-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a method for obtaining the gelatinization temperature of starches by using electrical conductivity. Native starches from corn, rice, potato, and wheat were prepared with different proportions of water and heated from room temperature to 90 degrees C, in a device especially designed for monitoring the electrical conductivity as a function of temperature. The results showed a linear trend of the electrical conductivity with the temperature until it reaches the onset gelatinization temperature. After that point, the electrical conductivity presented an increment or decrement depending on the water content in the sample and it was related to starch swelling and gelatinization phenomena. At the end gelatinization temperature, the conductivity becomes stable and linear, indicating that there are no more changes of phase. The starch gelatinization parameter, which was evaluated in the 4 types of starches using the electrical conductivity, was compared with those obtained by using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The onset temperature at which the electrical conductivity increased or decreased was found to be similar to that obtained by DSC. Also, the final temperature at which the electrical conductivity returned to linearity matched the end gelatinization temperature of the DSC. Further, a wet method for measuring the onset, peak, and end gelatinization temperatures as a function of temperature using the electrical conductivity curves is presented for a starch-water suspension.

  6. Building and Managing Electronic Resources in Digital Era in India with Special Reference to IUCAA and NIV, Pune: A Comparative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, H. K.; Singh, S. N.

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses and presents a comparative case study of two libraries in Pune, India, Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Information Centre and Library of National Institute of Virology (Indian Council of Medical Research). It compares how both libraries have managed their e-resource collections, including acquisitions, subscriptions, and consortia arrangements, while also developing a collection of their own resources, including pre-prints and publications, video lectures, and other materials in an institutional repository. This study illustrates how difficult it is to manage electronic resources in a developing country like India, even though electronic resources are used more than print resources. Electronic resource management can be daunting, but with a systematic approach, various problems can be solved, and use of the materials will be enhanced.

  7. The level of the usage of the human resource information system and electronic recruitment in Croatian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Pivac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Performing business according to contemporary requirements influences companies for continuous usage of modern managerial tools, such as a human resource information system (HRIS and electronic recruitment (ER. Human resources have been recognised as curtail resources and the main source of a competitive advantage in creation of successful business performance. In order to attract and select the top employees, companies use quality information software for attracting internal ones, and electronic recruitment for attracting the best possible external candidates. The main aim of this paper is to research the level of the usage of HRIS and ER within medium-size and large Croatian companies. Moreover, the additional aim of this paper is to evaluate the relationship among the usage of these modern managerial tools and the overall success of human resource management within these companies. For the purpose of this paper, primary and secondary research has been conducted in order to reveal the level of the usage of HRIS and ER as well as the overall success of human resource management in Croatian companies. The companies’ classification (HRIS and ER is done by using the non-hierarchical k-means cluster method as well as the nonparametric Kruskal Wallis test. Further, the companies are ranked by the multicriteria PROMETHEE method. Relevant nonparametric tests are used for testing the overall companies’ HRM. Finally, binary logistic regression is estimated, relating binary variable HRM and HRIS development. After detailed research, it can be concluded that large Croatian companies apply HRIS in majority (with a positive relation to HRM performance, but still require certain degrees of its development.

  8. Preparation, characterization and biological evaluation of curcumin loaded alginate aldehyde–gelatin nanogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarika, P.R., E-mail: sarikapaithal@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (IIST), Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 547 (India); James, Nirmala Rachel, E-mail: nirmala@iist.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (IIST), Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 547 (India); Anil Kumar, P.R., E-mail: anilkumarpr@sctimst.ac.in [Tissue Culture Laboratory, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 012 (India); Raj, Deepa K., E-mail: kdeeps3@gmail.com [Tissue Culture Laboratory, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 012 (India)

    2016-11-01

    Curcumin, a natural polyphenol exhibits chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities towards cancer. In order to improve the bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy, curcumin is encapsulated in alginate aldehyde–gelatin (Alg Ald-Gel) nanogels. Alginate aldehyde–gelatin nanogels are prepared by inverse miniemulsion technique. Physicochemical properties of the curcumin loaded nanogels are evaluated by, Dynamic light scattering (DLS), NMR spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Curcumin loaded nanogels show hydrodynamic diameter of 431 ± 8 nm and a zeta potential of − 36 ± 4 mV. The prepared nanogels exhibit an encapsulation efficiency of 72 ± 2%. In vitro drug release studies show a controlled release of curcumin from nanogels over a period of 48 h. Hemocompatibility and cytocompatibility of the nanogels are evaluated. Bare nanogels are cytocompatible and curcumin loaded nanogels induce anticancer activity towards MCF-7 cells. In vitro cellular uptake of the curcumin loaded nanogels using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) confirms the uptake of nanogels in MCF-7 cells. Hence, the developed nanogel system can be a suitable candidate for curcumin delivery to cancer cells. - Highlights: • Curcumin loaded alginate aldehyde–gelatin nanogels are prepared. • Alg Ald-Gel nanogels maintained spherical morphology after curcumin loading. • Curcumin release is higher at acidic pH compared to neutral pH. • Cytotoxicity analysis proved the toxicity of the nanogels in MCF-7 cells. • Green fluorescence in MCF-7 cells confirmed the intra cellular uptake.

  9. Effects of surfactants on the formation of gelatin nanofibres for controlled release of curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lingli; Kang, Xuefan; Liu, Yuyu; Feng, Fengqin; Zhang, Hui

    2017-09-15

    This work studied the effects of non-ionic Tween 80, anionic sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS) and cationic cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactants on the morphology of electrospun gelatin nanofibres, and on the release behaviour, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity of encapsulated curcumin. Scanning electron micrographs showed that addition of SDS significantly increased the nanofibre diameter. Fourier transform infrared and differential scanning calorimetry analysis indicated that gelatin and SDS intimately interacted via electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. However, these interactions inhibited the release of curcumin from the nanofibres with SDS, while CTAB and Tween 80 both facilitated the release. SDS and Tween 80 showed protective effects on curcumin from the attack of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) radicals, and the increased release of curcumin from nanofibres with CTAB or Tween 80 resulted in a higher reducing power. The antimicrobial activity results suggested that the curcumin encapsulated gelatin nanofibres with CTAB exhibited effective inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fabrication and Characterization of Electrospun Polycaprolactone Blended with Chitosan-Gelatin Complex Nanofibrous Mats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfang Qian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Design and fabrication of nanofibrous scaffolds should mimic the native extracellular matrix. This study is aimed at investigating electrospinning of polycaprolactone (PCL blended with chitosan-gelatin complex. The morphologies were observed from scanning electron microscope. As-spun blended mats had thinner fibers than pure PCL. X-ray diffraction was used to analyze the degree of crystallinity. The intensity at two peaks at 2θ of 21° and 23.5° gradually decreased with the percentage of chitosan-gelatin complex increasing. Moreover, incorporation of the complex could obviously improve the hydrophilicity of as-spun blended mats. Mechanical properties of as-spun nanofibrous mats were also tested. The elongation at break of fibrous mats increased with the PCL content increasing and the ultimate tensile strength varied with different weight ratios. The as-spun mats had higher tensile strength when the weight ratio of PCL to CS-Gel was 75/25 compared to pure PCL. Both as-spun PCL scaffolds and PCL/CS-Gel scaffolds supported the proliferation of porcine iliac endothelial cells, and PCL/CS-Gel had better cell viability than pure PCL. Therefore, electrospun PCL/Chitosan-gelatin nanofibrous mats with weight ratio of 75/25 have better hydrophilicity mechanical properties, and cell proliferation and thus would be a promising candidate for tissue engineering scaffolds.

  11. On spray drying of oxidized corn starch cross-linked gelatin microcapsules for drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Xugang; Yang, Mao; Shan, Zhihua; Mansouri, Shahnaz; May, Bee K; Chen, Xiaodong; Chen, Hui; Woo, Meng Wai

    2017-05-01

    Spray-dried gelatin/oxidized corn starch (G/OCS) microcapsules were produced for drug release application. The prepared microcapsules were characterized through a scanning electron microscope (SEM) picture and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The swelling characteristics of the G/OCS microcapsules and release properties of vitamin C were then investigated. The results from structural analysis indicated that the presence of miscibility and compatibility between oxidized corn starch and gelatin, and exhibits high thermal stability up to 326°C. The swelling of G/OCS microcapsules increased with increasing pH and reduced with decreasing ionic strength, attributed to the cross-linking between gelatin and oxidized corn starch, ionization of functional groups. Vitamin C release characteristic revealed controlled release behavior in the first 3h of contact with an aqueous medium. This release behavior was independent of the swelling behavior indicating the potential of the encapsulating matrix to produce controlled release across a spectrum of pH environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Extraction and electrospinning of gelatin from fish skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songchotikunpan, Panida; Tattiyakul, Jirarat; Supaphol, Pitt

    2008-04-01

    Ultra-fine gelatin fibers were successfully fabricated by electrospinning from the solutions of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) skin-extracted gelatin in either acetic acid or formic acid aqueous solutions. The extracted gelatin contained 7.3% moisture, 89.4% protein, 0.3% lipid, and 0.4% ash contents (on the basis of wet weight), while the bloom gel strength, the shear viscosity, and the pH values were 328 g, 17.8 mPa s, and 5.0, respectively. Both the acid concentration and the concentration of the gelatin solutions strongly influenced the properties of the as-prepared solutions and the obtained gelatin fibers. At low acid concentrations (i.e., 15% (w/v) extracted gelatin solutions in 10 and 20% (v/v) acetic acid solvents or 10-60% (v/v) formic acid solvents), a combination between smooth and beaded fibers was observed. At low concentrations of the gelatin solutions in either 40% (v/v) acetic acid solvent or 80% (v/v) formic acid solvent (i.e., 5-11%, w/v), either discrete beads or beaded fibers were obtained, while, at higher concentrations (i.e., 14-29%, w/v), only smooth or a combination of smooth and beaded fibers were obtained. The average diameters of the obtained fibers, regardless of the types of the acid solvents used, ranged between 109 and 761 nm. Lastly, cross-linking of the obtained gelatin fiber mats with glutaraldehyde vapor caused slight shrinkage from their original dimension, and the cross-linked gelatin fiber mats became stiffer.

  13. Fabrication of circular microfluidic network in enzymatically-crosslinked gelatin hydrogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jiankang, E-mail: jiankanghe@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Chen, Ruomeng; Lu, Yongjie; Zhan, Li; Liu, Yaxiong; Li, Dichen; Jin, Zhongmin

    2016-02-01

    It is a huge challenge to engineer vascular networks in vital organ tissue engineering. Although the incorporation of artificial microfluidic network into thick tissue-engineered constructs has shown great promise, most of the existing microfluidic strategies are limited to generate rectangle cross-sectional channels rather than circular vessels in soft hydrogels. Here we present a facile approach to fabricate branched microfluidic network with circular cross-sections in gelatin hydrogels by combining micromolding and enzymatically-crosslinking mechanism. Partially crosslinked hydrogel slides with predefined semi-circular channels were molded, assembled and in situ fully crosslinked to form a seamless and circular microfluidic network. The bonding strength of the resultant gelatin hydrogels was investigated. The morphology and the dimension of the resultant circular channels were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and micro-computerized tomography (μCT). Computational fluid dynamic simulation shows that the fabrication error had little effect on the distribution of flow field but affected the maximum velocity in comparison with designed models. The microfluidic gelatin hydrogel facilitates the attachment and spreading of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs) to form a uniform endothelialized layer around the circular channel surface, which successfully exhibited barrier functions. The presented method might provide a simple way to fabricate circular microfluidic networks in biologically-relevant hydrogels to advance various applications of in vitro tissue models, organ-on-a-chip systems and tissue engineering. - Highlights: • A facile method was proposed to build a circular fluidic network in gelatin hydrogel. • The fluidic network is mechanically robust and supports physiological flow. • HUVECs formed endothelialized layer around the channel to express barrier function.

  14. Mineralization and Characterization of Composite Lyophilized Gelatin Sponges Intended for Early Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Rodriguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of freeze-dried gelatin sponges as alternative bone grafting substitutes has many advantages, including the ability to swell, high porosity, tailorable degradation, and versatility to incorporate multiple components such as growth factors and nanofillers. The purpose of this study was to mineralize (M and further characterize 1-Ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl]carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC cross-linked gelatin sponges enhanced with preparations rich in growth factors, hydroxyapatite, and chitin whiskers (PHCE. Sponges were characterized for their swelling and in vitro mineralization potential, surface characteristics, protein release, mechanical properties, and MG-63 cell attachment and infiltration. All sponges swelled up to 50% of their original volume upon hydration. Scanning electron microscopy showed sparse mineral deposition for gelatin-M scaffolds while PHCE-M scaffolds exhibited more uniform mineral nucleation. Over 21 days, PHCE-M scaffolds cumulatively released significantly more (30% of its initial protein content than all other scaffolds. PHCE-M scaffolds reported lower modulus values (1.3–1.6 MPa when compared to gelatin control scaffolds (1.6–3.2 MPa. Increased cell attachment and infiltration was noticed on PHCE and PHCE-M scaffolds. The results of the study demonstrate the enhanced performance of PHCE and PHCE-M scaffolds to serve as bone healing scaffolds. Their potential to release incorporated factors, comparable composition/mechanical properties to tissues developed in the early stages of bone healing, and enhanced initial cellular response make them suitable for further studies evaluating more complex cellular interactions.

  15. Electrospun Gelatin/poly(Glycerol Sebacate Membrane with Controlled Release of Antibiotics for Wound Dressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Shirazaki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most important risk that threatens the skin wounds is infections. Therefore, fabrication of a membrane as a wound dressing with the ability of antibiotic delivery in a proper delivery rate is especially important. Materials and Methods: Poly(glycerol sebacate (PGS was prepared from sebacic acid and glycerol with 1:1 ratio; then, it was added to gelatin in the 1:3 ratio and was dissolved in 80% (v/v acetic acid, and finally, ciprofloxacin was added in 10% (w/v of polymer solution. The gelatin/PGS membrane was fabricated using an electrospinning method. The membrane was cross-linked using ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropylcarbodiim (EDC and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS in different time periods to achieve a proper drug release rate. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy was being used to manifest the peaks of polymers and drug in the membrane. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to evaluate the morphology, fibers diameter, pore size, and porosity before and after crosslinking process. Ultraviolet (UV-visible spectrophotometry was used to show the ciprofloxacin release from the cross-linked membrane. Results: FTIR analysis showed the characteristic peaks of gelatin, PGS, and ciprofloxacin without any added peaks after the crosslinking process. SEM images revealed that nanofibers' size increased during the crosslinking process and porosity was higher than 80% before and after crosslinking process. UV-visible spectrophotometry showed the proper rate of ciprofloxacin release occurred from cross-linked membrane that remaining in EDC/NHS ethanol solution for 120 min. Conclusion: The obtained results suggest that this recently developed gelatin/PGS membrane with controlled release of ciprofloxacin could be a promising biodegradable membrane for wound dressing.

  16. The characterisation of a genipin-gelatin gel dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, J B; Bosi, S; Baldock, C

    2010-01-01

    Genipin cross links gelatin to slowly form a blue colour that bleaches upon irradiation. Spectrophotometric measurements of the absorbance change following irradiation to doses up to 100 Gy gives a linear dose response for certain concentrations of the gel ingredients; genipin, gelatin and sulphuric acid. Dose sensitivity increases with increasing concentrations of sulphuric acid and genipin and is also strongly dependent on the time allowed for the genipin-gelatin cross linking reaction (referred to here as blending) to take place. The optimum formulation of this gel was found for genipin concentration between 0.3 - 0.5 mM and blending time of at least 4 h.

  17. Production of 131I gelatin capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freud, A.; Hirshfeld, N.; Canfi, A.; Melamud, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Radioiodine ( 131 I) hard-gelatin capsules are widely used for the diagnosis and treatment of various thyroid disorders. Until 1980 radioiodine was supplied by us as a liquid dosage. This proved to be a rather inconvenient form since it resulted in inaccurate dosing by the physicians and caused frequent contamination of the patients and the hospital personnel. In an attempt to overcome these problems we have designed and constructed a production facility for capsules in which 1311 is packaged. Because of the extreme precautions necessary in handling radioactive compounds, encapsulation of radioactive materials requires specifically designed production techniques, special instrumentation and unique quality control procedures that are not encountered in the standard capsule production processes in the pharmaceutical industry

  18. Gelation on heating of supercooled gelatin solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guigo, Nathanaël; Sbirrazzuoli, Nicolas; Vyazovkin, Sergey

    2012-04-23

    Diluted (1.0-1.5 wt%) aqueous gelatin solutions have been cooled to -10 °C at a cooling rate 20 °C min(-1) without freezing and detectable gelation. When heated at a constant heating rate (0.5 -2 °C min(-1)), the obtained supercooled solutions demonstrate an atypical process of gelation that has been characterized by regular and stochastically modulated differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as well as by isoconversional kinetic analysis. The process is detectable as an exothermic peak in the total heat flow of regular DSC and in the nonreversing heat flow of stochastically modulated DSC. Isoconversional kinetic analysis applied to DSC data reveals that the effective activation energy of the process increases from approximately 75 to 200 kJ mol(-1) as a supercooled solution transforms to gel on continuous heating. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Protein gradient films of fibroin and gelatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claussen, Kai U; Lintz, Eileen S; Giesa, Reiner; Schmidt, Hans-Werner; Scheibel, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Gradients are a natural design principle in biological systems that are used to diminish stress concentration where materials of differing mechanical properties connect. An interesting example of a natural gradient material is byssus, which anchors mussels to rocks and other hard substrata. Building upon previous work with synthetic polymers and inspired by byssal threads, protein gradient films are cast using glycerine-plasticized gelatine and fibroin exhibiting a highly reproducible and smooth mechanical gradient, which encompasses a large range of modulus from 160 to 550 MPa. The reproducible production of biocompatible gradient films represents a first step towards medical applications. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. MendelWeb: An Electronic Science/Math/History Resource for the WWW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Roger B.

    This paper describes a hypermedia resource, called MendelWeb that integrates elementary biology, discrete mathematics, and the history of science. MendelWeb is constructed from Gregor Menders 1865 paper, "Experiments in Plant Hybridization". An English translation of Mendel's paper, which is considered to mark the birth of classical and…

  1. Helping Patrons Find Locally Held Electronic Resources: An Interlibrary Loan Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The University of North Texas Libraries provide extensive online access to academic journals through major vendor databases. As illustrated by interlibrary loan borrowing requests for items held in our databases, patrons often have difficulty navigating the available resources. In this study, the Interlibrary Loan staff used data gathered from the…

  2. QR Codes as Finding Aides: Linking Electronic and Print Library Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Danielle; Schneidewind, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    As part of a focused, methodical, and evaluative approach to emerging technologies, QR codes are one of many new technologies being used by the UC Irvine Libraries. QR codes provide simple connections between print and virtual resources. In summer 2010, a small task force began to investigate how QR codes could be used to provide information and…

  3. Institute for Non-Lethal Defense Technologies Report: Ballistic Gelatin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nicholas, N. C; Welsch, J. R

    2004-01-01

    Ballistic gelatin is designed to simulate living soft tissue. It is the standard for evaluating the effectiveness of firearms against humans because of its convenience and acceptability over animal or cadaver testing...

  4. Starvation marrow – gelatinous transformation of bone marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Osgood

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gelatinous bone marrow transformation (GMT, also known as starvation marrow, represents a rare pathological entity of unclear etiology, in which bone marrow histopathology demonstrates hypoplasia, fat atrophy, and gelatinous infiltration. The finding of gelatinous marrow transformation lacks disease specificity; rather, it is an indicator of severe illness and a marker of poor nutritional status, found in patients with eating disorders, acute febrile illnesses, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, alcoholism, malignancies, and congestive heart failure. We present a middle-aged woman with a history of alcoholism, depression, and anorexia nervosa who presented with failure to thrive and macrocytic anemia, with bone marrow examination demonstrative of gelatinous transformation, all of which resolved with appropriate treatment. To our knowledge, there are very few cases of GMT which have been successfully treated; thus, our case highlights the importance of proper supportive management.

  5. Eavesdropping on Electronic Guidebooks: Observing Learning Resources in Shared Listening Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Allison; Aoki, Paul M.; Grinter, Rebecca E.; Hurst, Amy; Szymanski, Margaret H.; Thornton, James D.

    This paper describes an electronic guidebook, "Sotto Voce," that enables visitors to share audio information by eavesdropping on each others guidebook activity. The first section discusses the design and implementation of the guidebook device, key aspects of its user interface, the design goals for the audio environment, the eavesdropping…

  6. Hydrophilic PCU scaffolds prepared by grafting PEGMA and immobilizing gelatin to enhance cell adhesion and proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Changcan; Yuan, Wenjie; Khan, Musammir; Li, Qian [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Feng, Yakai, E-mail: yakaifeng@tju.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin University-Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Joint Laboratory for Biomaterials and Regenerative Medicine, Tianjin 300072 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Chemical Engineering (Tianjin) Tianjin 300072 (China); Yao, Fanglian [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin University-Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Joint Laboratory for Biomaterials and Regenerative Medicine, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhang, Wencheng, E-mail: wenchengzhang@yahoo.com [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Logistics University of Chinese People' s Armed Police Force, Tianjin 300162 (China)

    2015-05-01

    Gelatin contains many functional motifs which can modulate cell specific adhesion, so we modified polycarbonate urethane (PCU) scaffold surface by immobilization of gelatin. PCU-g-gelatin scaffolds were prepared by direct immobilizing gelatins onto the surface of aminated PCU scaffolds. To increase the immobilization amount of gelatin, poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) was grafted onto PCU scaffolds by surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. Then, following amination and immobilization, PCU-g-PEGMA-g-gelatin scaffolds were obtained. Both modified scaffolds were characterized by chemical and biological methods. After immobilization of gelatin, the microfiber surface became rough, but the original morphology of scaffolds was maintained successfully. PCU-g-PEGMA-g-gelatin scaffolds were more hydrophilic than PCU-g-gelatin scaffolds. Because hydrophilic PEGMA and gelatin were grafted and immobilized onto the surface, the PCU-g-PEGMA-g-gelatin scaffolds showed low platelet adhesion, perfect anti-hemolytic activity and excellent cell growth and proliferation capacity. It could be envisioned that PCU-g-PEGMA-g-gelatin scaffolds might have potential applications in tissue engineering artificial scaffolds. - Graphical abstract: PCU-g-gelatin scaffolds were prepared by direct immobilizing gelatin onto the surface of aminated PCU scaffolds (method a). To increase the immobilization amount of gelatin, PEGMAs were grafted onto the scaffold surface by SI-ATRP. PCU-g-PEGMA-g-gelatin scaffolds were prepared by method b. The gelatin modified scaffolds exhibited high hydrophilicity, low platelet adhesion, perfect anti-hemolytic activity, and excellent cell adhesion and proliferation capacity. They might have potential applications as tissue engineering scaffolds for artificial blood vessels. - Highlights: • Hydrophilic scaffolds were prepared by grafting PEGMA and immobilization of gelatins. • Grafting PEGMA enhanced the immobilization amount of gelatin

  7. The edible gelatin irradiation sterilization technology and quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Junjie; Shi Jianjun; Shen Weiqiao

    2000-01-01

    60 Co γ-ray irradiation sterilization technology was used in treating edible gelatin and the irradiation effects on viscosity, protein and amino acid were studied. The results demonstrated that the irradiation dose had negative correlation with viscosity, and there were no damage effects on the gelatin with 360 days storage under room temperature. According to D 10 Value, the suitable irradiation dose should be 3-5 kGy

  8. Investigations on the Chemical Degradation of Silver Gelatine Prints

    OpenAIRE

    Maha Ahmed ALI; Mona Fouad ALI; Mohammed Osama SAKER; Abdel Azez El Bayoumi ABDEL ALEEM; Khaled Ibrahim EL NAGAR

    2012-01-01

    Photographs are considered composite objects with complex chemical and physical structures. Therefore they are more prone to damage as compared to other objects. Chemical degradation is by far the most common decay form found among photographic collections. This study investigates the chemical degradation of silver gelatin prints (DOP) and the reaction of the image, silver, gelatin, and paper to accelerated aging, to the action of light, and oxidizing gases, in terms of their physical and che...

  9. [Biomimetic nanohydroxyapatite/gelatin composite material preparation and in vitro study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siriguleng; Hu, Xiaowen

    2014-09-01

    To prepare nHA/gelatin porous scaffold and to evaluate its physical and chemical properties and biocompatibility. We used nano-powders of HA and gelatin to prepare 3D porous composite scaffold by freeze-drying technique, and used scanning electron microscope, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and universal testing machine to characterize the composite material. Osteoblasts were primarily cultured, and the third-passage osteoblasts were co-cultured with the composite material. The cell adhesion and morphology were examined under scanning electron microscope. The cell viability analysis was performed by MTT assay, and the alkaline phosphatase activity was measured with alkaline phosphatase kit. Scanning electron microscope showed that the scaffold possessed a 3-dimensional interconnected homogenous porous structure with pore sizes ranging from 150 to 400 μm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the composite material had a strong chemical bond between the inorganic phase and organic phase. The scaffold presented the compressive strength of (3.28 ± 0.51) MPa and porosities of (80.6 ± 4.1)%. Composite materials showed features of had good biocompatibility. Mouse osteoblasts were well adhered and spread on the materials. The grade of the cell toxicity ranged from I to II. On the 5th and 7th day the proliferative rate of osteoblasts on scaffolds in the composite materials was significantly higher than that in the control group. The activity of alkaline phosphatase was obviously higher than that in the control group on Day 1 and 3. Nano-hydroxyapatite and gelatin in certain proportions and under certain conditions can be prepared into a composite biomimetic porous scaffolds with high porosity and three-dimensional structure using freeze-drying method. The scaffold shows good biocompatibility with mouse osteoblasts and may be a novel scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

  10. Viscoelastic shock wave in ballistic gelatin behind soft body armor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Fan, Yurun; Li, Wei

    2014-06-01

    Ballistic gelatins are widely used as a surrogate of biological tissue in blunt trauma tests. Non-penetration impact tests of handgun bullets on the 10wt% ballistic gelatin block behind soft armor were carried out in which a high-speed camera recorded the crater׳s movement and pressure sensors imbedded in the gelatin block recorded the pressure waves at different locations. The observed shock wave attenuation indicates the necessity of considering the gelatin׳s viscoelasticity. A three-element viscoelastic constitutive model was adopted, in which the relevant parameters were obtained via fitting the damping free oscillations at the beginning of the creep-mode of rheological measurement, and by examining the data of published split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) experiments. The viscoelastic model is determined by a retardation time of 5.5×10(-5)s for high oscillation frequencies and a stress relaxation time of 2.0-4.5×10(-7)s for shock wave attenuation. Using the characteristic-line method and the spherical wave assumption, the propagation of impact pressure wave front and the subsequent unloading profile can be simulated using the experimental velocity boundary condition. The established viscoelastic model considerably improves the prediction of shock wave attenuation in the ballistic gelatin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Gelatin-Based Hydrogels for Organ 3D Bioprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D bioprinting is a family of enabling technologies that can be used to manufacture human organs with predefined hierarchical structures, material constituents and physiological functions. The main objective of these technologies is to produce high-throughput and/or customized organ substitutes (or bioartificial organs with heterogeneous cell types or stem cells along with other biomaterials that are able to repair, replace or restore the defect/failure counterparts. Gelatin-based hydrogels, such as gelatin/fibrinogen, gelatin/hyaluronan and gelatin/alginate/fibrinogen, have unique features in organ 3D bioprinting technologies. This article is an overview of the intrinsic/extrinsic properties of the gelatin-based hydrogels in organ 3D bioprinting areas with advanced technologies, theories and principles. The state of the art of the physical/chemical crosslinking methods of the gelatin-based hydrogels being used to overcome the weak mechanical properties is highlighted. A multicellular model made from adipose-derived stem cell proliferation and differentiation in the predefined 3D constructs is emphasized. Multi-nozzle extrusion-based organ 3D bioprinting technologies have the distinguished potential to eventually manufacture implantable bioartificial organs for purposes such as customized organ restoration, high-throughput drug screening and metabolic syndrome model establishment.

  12. Molecular interactions in gelatin/chitosan composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Congde; Ma, Xianguang; Zhang, Jianlong; Yao, Jinshui

    2017-11-15

    Gelatin and chitosan were mixed at different mass ratios in solution forms, and the rheological properties of these film-forming solutions, upon cooling, were studied. The results indicate that the significant interactions between gelatin and chitosan promote the formation of multiple complexes, reflected by an increase in the storage modulus of gelatin solution. Furthermore, these molecular interactions hinder the formation of gelatin networks, consequently decreasing the storage modulus of polymer gels. Both hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions are formed between gelatin and chitosan, as evidenced by the shift of the amide-II bands of polymers. X-ray patterns of composite films indicate that the contents of triple helices decrease with increasing chitosan content. Only one glass transition temperature (T g ) was observed in composite films with different composition ratios, and it decreases gradually with an increase in chitosan proportion, indicating that gelatin and chitosan have good miscibility and form a wide range of blends. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Development and evolution of The Knowledge Hub for Pathology and related electronic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, David F; Sinard, John; Silva, Fred

    2011-06-01

    The Knowledge Hub for Pathology was created to provide authenticated and validated knowledge for United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology members and pathologists worldwide with access to the Web. Using the material presented at the annual meeting of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology with existing selection and review procedures ensured that these criteria were met without added costly procedures. Further submissions for courses and research papers are provided in electronic format and funded by universities and hospitals for their creation; thus, the principal costs borne by the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology are Web site-posting costs. Use has escalated rapidly from 2 million hits in 2002 to 51 million in 2009 with use by 35,000 pathologists from now a total of 180 countries. This true "freemium" model is a successful process as are more traditional continuing professional development course structures such as Anatomic Pathology Electronic Case Series, a "premium" model for learning electronically also sponsored by the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  15. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-03

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  16. Optical and structural properties of ensembles of colloidal Ag{sub 2}S quantum dots in gelatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovchinnikov, O. V., E-mail: Ovchinnikov-O-V@rambler.ru; Smirnov, M. S. [Voronezh State University (Russian Federation); Shapiro, B. I. [Moscow State University of Fine Chemical Technologies (Russian Federation); Shatskikh, T. S.; Perepelitsa, A. S.; Korolev, N. V. [Voronezh State University (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    The size dependences of the absorption and luminescence spectra of ensembles of hydrophilic colloidal Ag{sub 2}S quantum dots produced by the sol-gel method and dispersed in gelatin are analyzed. By X-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy, the formation of core/shell nanoparticles is detected. The characteristic feature of the nanoparticles is the formation of crystalline cores, 1.5–2.0 nm in dimensions, and shells of gelatin and its complexes with the components of synthesis. The observed slight size dependence of the position of infrared photoluminescence bands (in the range 1000–1400 nm) in the ensembles of hydrophilic colloidal Ag{sub 2}S quantum dots is explained within the context of the model of the radiative recombination of electrons localized at structural and impurity defects with free holes.

  17. Effect of egg albumen protein addition on physicochemical properties and nanostructure of gelatin from fish skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Luyun; Feng, Jianhui; Peng, Xichun; Regenstein, Joe M; Li, Xiuxia; Li, Jianrong; Zhao, Wei

    2016-12-01

    The physicochemical properties and nanostructure of mixtures of egg albumen protein (EAP) and gelatin from under-utilised grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella ) skins were studied. The gelatin with 1% EAP had an acceptable gel strength. The addition of 5% EAP significantly increased the melting and gelling temperatures of gelatin gels. Additionally, the colour turned white and the crystallinity was higher in gelatin gels with gradient concentrations of EAP (1, 3, and 5%). Gelatin with 5% EAP had the highest G' values while gelatin with 1% EAP had the lowest G' values. Atomic force microscopy showed the heterogeneous nanostructure of fish gelatin, and a simple coacervate with a homogeneous distribution was only observed with the addition of 1% EAP, indicating interaction between gelatin and EAP. These results showed that EAP effect fish gelatin's physicochemical and nanostructure properties and has potential applications in foods and pharmaceuticals.

  18. Comparison of water gel desserts from fish skin and pork gelatins using instrumental measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Regenstein, Joe M

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare water gel desserts from various gelatins using instrumental measurements. The puncture test and texture profile analysis (TPA) with compression were determined at 25% and 75% deformation; the melting properties were determined rheologically by monitoring the change of storage modulus (G') with increasing temperature. The measurements with 25% deformation were always nondestructive, while measurements with 75% deformation were mostly destructive. Desserts made from Alaska pollock gelatin (AG) or gelatin mixtures containing AG were more resistant to the destruction caused by the large deformation than tilapia gelatin and pork gelatins. In addition, the gel dessert made from AG melted at a lower temperature than those from tilapia skin gelatin and pork gelatins, while desserts made from gelatin mixtures reflected the melting properties of the separate gelatins.

  19. The physico-chemical properties of pangas catfish (Pangasius pangasius) skin gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradarameswari, K. A.; Zaelani, K.; Waluyo, E.; Nurdiani, R.

    2018-04-01

    Gelatin can be used as emulsifier and stabilizer in food products. Until now, the most widely used raw materials for the production of gelatin industry are cow bone, cow skin and pig skin. Fish gelatin has been highlighted as a better alternative to replace mammals gelatin based on ethical and religious perspective. Fish gelatin was extracted from Pangas catfish skin to determine its physico-chemical properties. Different temperatures (45 °C, 50 °C, 55 °C) were employed during gelatin extraction. Higher temperature increased the yield and fat contents of Pangas catfish skin gelatin. In contrary, higher water, protein, ash contents were observed during lower temperature. Temperature significantly (p fish skin gelatin. Based on the FTIR spectrum catfish skin gelatin functional groups can be identified as N-H, O-H, C = H, C-O and C-H.

  20. Bistable resistive memory behavior in gelatin-CdTe quantum dot composite film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallabhapurapu, Sreedevi; Rohom, Ashwini; Chaure, N. B.; Du, Shengzhi; Srinivasan, Ananthakrishnan

    2018-05-01

    Bistable memory behavior has been observed for the first time in gelatin type A thin film dispersed with functionalized CdTe quantum dots. The two terminal device with the polymer nanocomposite layer sandwiched between an indium tin oxide coated glass plate and an aluminium top electrode performs as a bistable resistive random access memory module. Butterfly shaped (O-shaped with a hysteresis in forward and reverse sweeps) current-voltage response is observed in this device. The conduction mechanism leading to the bistable electrical switching has been deduced to be a combination of ohmic and electron hopping.

  1. Designing a model of electronic human resource management’s implementation at the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirali Seyednaghavi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available : In the first phase of this study a model for electronic human resource management in government agencies based on new public services was explored by using software MAXQDA, then in the second phase, relationship between the elements of the theory were tested using software Smart PLS2. So the aim of this study is to design a model of electronic human resource management’s implementation at the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology. In this regard, according to Strauss and Corbin’s structured plan, five hypotheses were tested. Quantitative data analysis indicates that the pressures of the policies and global perspectives cause to move toward e-HRM. Among the contextual conditions macro structural mechanisms, considerations of actors, governance considerations have a significant impact on the strategy of new public services and therefore lead to the consequences of its implementation in public organizations. The findings suggest that e-HRM does not have a positive and meaningful impact on new public services, and in our country, although the recent political developments have somehow removed the gap between public policy makers, administrators, and the public, but there is still a long way to go.

  2. Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

  3. Internet and electronic resources for inflammatory bowel disease: a primer for providers and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortinsky, Kyle J; Fournier, Marc R; Benchimol, Eric I

    2012-06-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly turning to the Internet to research their condition and engage in discourse on their experiences. This has resulted in new dynamics in the relationship between providers and their patients, with misinformation and advertising potentially presenting barriers to the cooperative patient-provider partnership. This article addresses important issues of online IBD-related health information and social media activity, such as quality, reliability, objectivity, and privacy. We reviewed the medical literature on the quality of online information provided to IBD patients, and summarized the most commonly accessed Websites related to IBD. We also assessed the activity on popular social media sites (such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube), and evaluated currently available applications for use by IBD patients and providers on mobile phones and tablets. Through our review of the literature and currently available resources, we developed a list of recommended online resources to strengthen patient participation in their care by providing reliable, comprehensive educational material. Copyright © 2011 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  4. Controlled Fabrication of Gelatin Nanoparticles as Drug Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanshahi, M.; Sanati, M. H.; Minuchehr, Z.; Hajizadeh, S.; Babaei, Z.

    2007-08-01

    In recent years, significant effort has been devoted to develop nanotechnology for drug delivery since it offers a suitable means of delivering small molecular weight drugs, as well as macromolecules such as proteins, peptides or genes by either localized or targeted delivery to the tissue of interest. Nanotechnology focuses on formulating therapeutic agents in biocompatible nanocomposites such as nanoparticles, nanocapsules, micellar systems, and conjugates. Protein nanoparticles (BSA, HAS and gelatin) generally vary in size from 50-300 nm and they hold certain advantages such as greater stability during storage, stability in vivo, non-toxicity, non-antigen and ease to scale up during manufacture over the other drug delivery systems. The primary structure of gelatin offers many possibilities for chemical modification and covalent drug attachment. Here nanoparticles of gelatin type A were prepared by a two-step desolvation method as a colloidal drug delivery system and the essential parameters in fabrication were considered. Gelatin was dissolved in 25 mL distilled water under room temperature range. Then acetone was added to the gelatin solution as a desolvating agent to precipitate the high molecular weight (HMW) gelatin. The supernatant was discarded and the HMW gelatin re-dissolved by adding 25 mL distilled water and stirring at 600 rpm. Acetone were added drop-wise to form nanoparticles. At the end of the process, glutaraldehyde solution was used for preparing nanoparticles as a cross-linking agent, and stirred for 12h at 600 rpm. For purification stage we use centrifuge with 600rpm for 3 times. The objective of the present study is consideration of some factors such as temperature, gelatin concentration, agitation speed and the amount of acetone and their effects on size and distribution of nanoparticles. Among the all conditions, 60° C, 50 mg/ml gelatin concentration, 75 ml acetone had the best result and the nanoparticle size was under 170 nm. The effect

  5. Gelatinized and nongelatinized corn starch/ poly(epsilon-caprolactone) blends: characterization by rheological, mechanical and morphological properties

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa,Derval S.; Guedes,Cristina G. F.; Pedroso,Andréa G.

    2004-01-01

    Poly(epsilon-caprolactone)/corn starch blends containing 25, 50 and 75 wt.% starch were prepared by mechanical processing and characterized by the melt flow index (MFI), tensile test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For comparison, starch was used in gelatinized and nongelatinized forms and was also characterized by viscography. The addition of starch to poly(epsilon-caprolactone) reduced the MFI values, the tensile strength and the elongation at break, whereas the modulus increased. T...

  6. Preparation of Starch/Gelatin Blend Microparticles by a Water-in-Oil Emulsion Method for Controlled Release Drug Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Phromsopha, Theeraphol; Baimark, Yodthong

    2014-01-01

    Information on the preparation and properties of starch/gelatin blend microparticles with and without crosslinking for drug delivery is presented. The blend microparticles were prepared by the water-in-oil emulsion solvent diffusion method. Glutaraldehyde and methylene blue were used as the crosslinker and the water-soluble drug model, respectively. The blend microparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and UV-Vis spe...

  7. Room temperature synthesis of silver nanowires from tabular silver bromide crystals in the presence of gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Suwen; Wehmschulte, Rudolf J.; Lian, Guoda; Burba, Christopher M.

    2006-03-01

    Long silver nanowires were synthesized at room temperature by a simple and fast process derived from the development of photographic films. A film consisting of an emulsion of tabular silver bromide grains in gelatin was treated with a photographic developer (4-(methylamino)phenol sulfate (metol), citric acid) in the presence of additional aqueous silver nitrate. The silver nanowires have lengths of more than 50 μm, some even more than 100 μm, and average diameters of about 80 nm. Approximately, 70% of the metallic silver formed in the reduction consists of silver nanowires. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) results indicate that the silver nanowires grow along the [111] direction. It was found that the presence of gelatin, tabular silver bromide crystals and silver ions in solution are essential for the formation of the silver nanowires. The nanowires appear to originate from the edges of the silver bromide crystals. They were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), SAED, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD).

  8. Room temperature synthesis of silver nanowires from tabular silver bromide crystals in the presence of gelatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Suwen; Wehmschulte, Rudolf J.; Lian Guoda; Burba, Christopher M.

    2006-01-01

    Long silver nanowires were synthesized at room temperature by a simple and fast process derived from the development of photographic films. A film consisting of an emulsion of tabular silver bromide grains in gelatin was treated with a photographic developer (4-(methylamino)phenol sulfate (metol), citric acid) in the presence of additional aqueous silver nitrate. The silver nanowires have lengths of more than 50 μm, some even more than 100 μm, and average diameters of about 80 nm. Approximately, 70% of the metallic silver formed in the reduction consists of silver nanowires. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) results indicate that the silver nanowires grow along the [111] direction. It was found that the presence of gelatin, tabular silver bromide crystals and silver ions in solution are essential for the formation of the silver nanowires. The nanowires appear to originate from the edges of the silver bromide crystals. They were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), SAED, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD)

  9. Preparation of three-dimensional macroporous chitosan-gelatin B microspheres and HepG2-cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fang; Cui, Long; Peng, Cheng-Hong; Wu, Xu-Bo; Han, Bao-San; Dong, Ya-Dong

    2016-12-01

    Chitosan-gelatin B microspheres with an open, interconnected, highly macroporous (100-200 µm) structure were prepared via a three-step protocol combining freeze-drying with an electrostatic and ionic cross-linking method. Saturated tripolyphosphate ethanol solution (85% ethanol) was chosen as the crosslinking agent to prevent destruction of the porous structure and to improve the biostability of the chitosan-gelatin B microspheres, with N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethyl-carbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide as a second crosslinking agent to react with gelatin A and fixed chitosan-gelatin B microspheres to attain improved biocompatibility. Water absorption of the three-dimensional macroporous chitosan-gelatin B microspheres (3D-P-CGMs) was 12.84, with a porosity of 85.45%. In vitro lysozyme degradation after 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, and 21 days showed improved biodegradation in the 3D-P-CGMs. The morphology of human hepatoma cell lines (HepG2 cells) cultured on the 3D-P-CGMs was spherical, unlike that of cells cultured under traditional two-dimensional conditions. Scanning electron microscopy and paraffin sections were used to confirm the porous structure of the 3D-P-CGMs. HepG2 cells were able to migrate inside through the pore. Cell proliferation and levels of albumin and lactate dehydrogenase suggested that the 3D-P-CGMs could provide a larger specific surface area and an appropriate microenvironment for cell growth and survival. Hence, the 3D-P-CGMs are eminently suitable as macroporous scaffolds for cell cultures in tissue engineering and cell carrier studies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Characterization and cytological effects of a novel glycated gelatine substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonkaew, Benjawan; Supaphol, Pitt; Tompkins, Kevin; Manokawinchoke, Jeeranan; Pavasant, Prasit

    2014-01-01

    Hyperglycemia in diabetes results in the glycation of long-lived proteins. Protein glycation leads to the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which are implicated in delayed wound healing and other diabetes-associated pathologies, one of which is periodontal disease. Research into the mechanisms by which glycated long-lived proteins such as collagen exert their effects can allow for the understanding of diabetic pathologies and the development of appropriate treatments. However, the high cost of purified protein can be a limitation for many laboratories around the world. The objective of this study was to develop a low-cost in vitro model of glycated gelatine as an alternative to the glycated collagen model. We investigated the glycation of gelatine type A, a denatured form of collagen, which is low-cost and abundantly available. In this study, gelatine was incubated for 7 days with ribose or methylglyoxal (MG). Cross-linking, autofluorescence and UV–Vis spectrophotometry assays were performed and indicated a dose-dependent linear increase in cross-linking and autofluorescence of gelatine by ribose and MG. MG produced more cross-linking compared to ribose at the same concentrations. The UV–Vis spectra of the glycated gelatines confirmed the presence of AGE fluorophores. Because diabetes is a risk factor for periodontal disease, the effect of the glycated substrates on the basic behaviour of human periodontal ligament (HPDL) cells was evaluated. Glycation dose dependently reduced HPDL attachment and cell spreading, indicating that the novel glycated gelatine substrate affects cell behaviour. These results show that gelatine glycated with ribose or MG can be used as low-cost in vitro models to study the effects of protein glycation on cell behaviour in diabetes and ageing. (paper)

  11. Gelatin/hydroxypropyl methylcellulose matrices — Polymer interactions approach for oral disintegrating films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedesco, Marcela P., E-mail: marcela.tedesco@usp.br; Monaco-Lourenço, Carla A., E-mail: carla.monaco@usp.br; Carvalho, Rosemary A., E-mail: rosecarvalho@usp.br

    2016-12-01

    Oral disintegrating film represents an optimal alternative for delivery system of active compounds. The choice of film-forming polymer is the first step in the development of oral disintegrating films and the knowledge of molecular interactions in this matrix is fundamental to advance in this area. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize gelatin and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) films and their blends as matrices of oral disintegrating films. The films were produced by casting technique and were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, mechanical properties, contact angle, time disintegration and bioadhesive strength. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that enthalpy of fusion and melting temperatures of the blends films were lower than those of the gelatin film, which may be associated with the lack of intra-chain interactions also observed in the Fourier transform infrared spectra. In blends, a less compact cross-section structure was observed in scanning electron microscopy images compared with isolated polymer films. The addition of HPMC increased the elongation, hydrophilicity and in vitro bioadhesive force and decreased in vitro disintegration time, important properties in the development of oral disintegrating films. Although the mixture of the polymers showed no synergistic behavior, this study may contribute to the development of new applications for polymeric matrices in the pharmaceutical industry. - Highlights: • Effect of gelatin/HPMC blend on oral disintegrating films properties. • Intramolecular interaction of films was evaluated. • Mixtures of the polymers provoked reductions in intra-chain interactions. • HPMC content affects hydrophilic of oral disintegrating films.

  12. Gelatin/hydroxypropyl methylcellulose matrices — Polymer interactions approach for oral disintegrating films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tedesco, Marcela P.; Monaco-Lourenço, Carla A.; Carvalho, Rosemary A.

    2016-01-01

    Oral disintegrating film represents an optimal alternative for delivery system of active compounds. The choice of film-forming polymer is the first step in the development of oral disintegrating films and the knowledge of molecular interactions in this matrix is fundamental to advance in this area. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize gelatin and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) films and their blends as matrices of oral disintegrating films. The films were produced by casting technique and were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, mechanical properties, contact angle, time disintegration and bioadhesive strength. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that enthalpy of fusion and melting temperatures of the blends films were lower than those of the gelatin film, which may be associated with the lack of intra-chain interactions also observed in the Fourier transform infrared spectra. In blends, a less compact cross-section structure was observed in scanning electron microscopy images compared with isolated polymer films. The addition of HPMC increased the elongation, hydrophilicity and in vitro bioadhesive force and decreased in vitro disintegration time, important properties in the development of oral disintegrating films. Although the mixture of the polymers showed no synergistic behavior, this study may contribute to the development of new applications for polymeric matrices in the pharmaceutical industry. - Highlights: • Effect of gelatin/HPMC blend on oral disintegrating films properties. • Intramolecular interaction of films was evaluated. • Mixtures of the polymers provoked reductions in intra-chain interactions. • HPMC content affects hydrophilic of oral disintegrating films.

  13. Electronic medical records in diabetes consultations: participants' gaze as an interactional resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Penny; Small, Neil; Rowley, Emma; Langdon, Mark; Ariss, Steven; Wright, John

    2008-09-01

    Two routine consultations in primary care diabetes clinics are compared using extracts from video recordings of interactions between nurses and patients. The consultations were chosen to present different styles of interaction, in which the nurse's gaze was either primarily toward the computer screen or directed more toward the patient. Using conversation analysis, the ways in which nurses shift both gaze and body orientation between the computer screen and patient to influence the style, pace, content, and structure of the consultation were investigated. By examining the effects of different levels of engagement between the electronic medical record and the embodied patient in the consultation room, we argue for the need to consider the contingent nature of the interface of technology and the person in the consultation. Policy initiatives designed to deliver what is considered best-evidenced practice are modified in the micro context of the interactions of the consultation.

  14. Granulometric composition study of mineral resources using opto-electronic devices and Elsieve software system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaminski Stanislaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of mechanical sieves has a great impact on measurement results because occurrence of anisometric particles causes undercounting the average size. Such errors can be avoided by using opto-electronic measuring devices that enable measurement of particles from 10 μm up to a few dozen millimetres in size. The results of measurement of each particle size fraction are summed up proportionally to its weight with the use of Elsieve software system and for every type of material particle-size distribution can be obtained. The software allows further statistical interpretation of the results. Beam of infrared radiation identifies size of particles and counts them precisely. Every particle is represented by an electronic impulse proportional to its size. Measurement of particles in aqueous suspension that replaces the hydrometer method can be carried out by using the IPS L analyser (range from 0.2 to 600 μm. The IPS UA analyser (range from 0.5 to 2000 μm is designed for measurement in the air. An ultrasonic adapter enables performing measurements of moist and aggregated particles from 0.5 to 1000 μm. The construction and software system allow to determine second dimension of the particle, its shape coefficient and specific surface area. The AWK 3D analyser (range from 0.2 to 31.5 mm is devoted to measurement of various powdery materials with subsequent determination of particle shape. The AWK B analyser (range from 1 to 130 mm measures materials of thick granulation and shape of the grains. The presented method of measurement repeatedly accelerates and facilitates study of granulometric composition.

  15. Cosilencing Intestinal Transglutaminase-2 and Interleukin-15 Using Gelatin-Based Nanoparticles in an in Vitro Model of Celiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attarwala, Husain; Clausen, Valerie; Chaturvedi, Prasoon; Amiji, Mansoor M

    2017-09-05

    In this study, we have developed a type B gelatin nanoparticle based siRNA delivery system for silencing of intestinal transglutaminase-2 (TG2) and interleukin-15 (IL-15) genes in cultured human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2) and murine alveolar macrophage cells (J774A.1). Small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting the TG2 or IL-15 gene was encapsulated within gelatin nanoparticles using ethanol-water solvent displacement method. Size, charge, and morphology of gelatin nanoparticles were evaluated using a Zetasizer instrument and transmission electron microscopy. siRNA encapsulation efficiency was determined using an siRNA specific stem-loop quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay. Cellular uptake of siRNA-containing gelatin nanoparticles was determined using fluorescent microscopy and stem-loop qPCR assay. siRNA loading in the RISC (RNA-induced silencing complex) was determined by immunoprecipitation of argonaute 2 (AGO2) protein followed by stem-loop qPCR for siRNA quantification. Gene expression analysis of TG2, IL-15, and the proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ), was performed using qPCR assays. Efficacy of silencing TG2 and IL-15 knockdown was evaluated in an in vitro model of celiac disease by utilizing immunogenic α-gliadin peptide p31-43 in cultured J774A.1 cells. siRNA-containing gelatin nanoparticles were spherical in shape with mean particle size and charge of 217 ± 8.39 nm and -6.2 ± 0.95 mV, respectively. siRNA loading efficiency within gelatin nanoparticles was found to be 89.3 ± 3.05%. Evaluations of cellular uptake using fluorescent microscopy showed rapid internalization of gelatin nanoparticles within 2 h of dosing, with cytosolic localization of delivered siRNA in Caco-2 cells. Gelatin nanoparticles showed greater intracellular siRNA exposure with a longer half-life, when compared to Lipofectamine-mediated siRNA delivery. Approximately 0.1% of total intracellular si

  16. Massive consumption of gelatinous plankton by Mediterranean apex predators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Cardona

    Full Text Available Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were used to test the hypothesis that stomach content analysis has systematically overlooked the consumption of gelatinous zooplankton by pelagic mesopredators and apex predators. The results strongly supported a major role of gelatinous plankton in the diet of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus, little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus, spearfish (Tetrapturus belone and swordfish (Xiphias gladius. Loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta in the oceanic stage and ocean sunfish (Mola mola also primarily relied on gelatinous zooplankton. In contrast, stable isotope ratios ruled out any relevant consumption of gelatinous plankton by bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix, blue shark (Prionace glauca, leerfish (Lichia amia, bonito (Sarda sarda, striped dolphin (Stenella caerueloalba and loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta in the neritic stage, all of which primarily relied on fish and squid. Fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus were confirmed as crustacean consumers. The ratios of stable isotopes in albacore (Thunnus alalunga, amberjack (Seriola dumerili, blue butterfish (Stromaeus fiatola, bullet tuna (Auxis rochei, dolphinfish (Coryphaena hyppurus, horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus, mackerel (Scomber scombrus and pompano (Trachinotus ovatus were consistent with mixed diets revealed by stomach content analysis, including nekton and crustaceans, but the consumption of gelatinous plankton could not be ruled out completely. In conclusion, the jellyvorous guild in the Mediterranean integrates two specialists (ocean sunfish and loggerhead sea turtles in the oceanic stage and several opportunists (bluefin tuna, little tunny, spearfish, swordfish and, perhaps, blue butterfish, most of them with shrinking populations due to overfishing.

  17. Characterization of pre-gelatinized rice and bean flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vânia Carvalho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a pre-gelatinized flour using a mixture of broken rice and split beans by thermoplastic extrusion, and to evaluate the physicochemical, nutritional, and technological quality of the final product. The extrusion parameters were maintained using three heating zones with temperatures of 30 ºC, 40 ºC, and 70 ºC; screw speed of 177 rpm; feed rate of 257 g/m, and circular matrix of 3.85 mm. The following characterization analyses were performed: physicochemical, nutritional, water absorption index (WAI, water solubility index (WSI, and paste viscosity. The pre-gelatinized rice and bean flour had an intermediate value of WAI, 7.51 g/g, and high WSI value, 24.61%. Regarding proteins, it was verified an average content of 12.9% in the final product. The amino acid contents found in the pre-gelatinized flour indicate that the mixture has the essential amino acids. It was also found that the pre-gelatinized flour supplies more than 60% of the essential amino acids recommended for children aged one to three years old. The gelatinized flour composed of broken rice and split beans is an alternative to the use of these by-products of the manufacture process of rice and beans to obtain a product with viable technological characteristics and high nutritional value.

  18. Antioxidative activity and emulsifying properties of cuttlefish skin gelatin modified by oxidised phenolic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aewsiri, T.; Benjakul, S.; Visessanguan, W.; Eun, J.B.; Wierenga, P.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2009-01-01

    Antioxidative activity and emulsifying properties of cuttlefish skin gelatin modified by different oxidised phenolic compounds including caffeic acid, ferulic acid and tannic acid at different concentrations were investigated. Oxidised phenolic compounds were covalently attached to gelatin as

  19. Investigating Effects of Gelatin-Chitosan Film on Culture of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Karami joyani

    2015-02-01

    Conclusion: Results of proliferation,differentiation and apoptosis cultured BMSCs on a gelatin-chitosan film showed that gelatin-chitosan film can be used as a good model of a biodegradable scaffold in tissue engineering and cell therapy.

  20. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

  1. Detection of porcine DNA in gelatine and gelatine-containing processed food products-Halal/Kosher authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirhan, Yasemin; Ulca, Pelin; Senyuva, Hamide Z

    2012-03-01

    A commercially available real-time PCR, based on a multi-copy target cytochrome b (cyt b) using porcine specific primers, has been validated for the Halal/Kosher authentication of gelatine. Extraction and purification of DNA from gelatine were successfully achieved using the SureFood® PREP Animal system, and real-time PCR was carried out using SureFood® Animal ID Pork Sens kit. The minimum level of adulteration that could be detected was 1.0% w/w for marshmallows and gum drops. A small survey was undertaken of processed food products such as gum drops, marshmallows and Turkish delight, believed to contain gelatine. Of fourteen food products from Germany, two samples were found to contain porcine gelatine, whereas of twenty-nine samples from Turkey twenty-eight were negative. However, one product from Turkey contained porcine DNA and thus was not Halal, and neither was the use of porcine gelatine indicated on the product label. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Novel formulations of ballistic gelatin. 1. Rheological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecheru, Teodora; Său, Ciprian; Lăzăroaie, Claudiu; Zaharia, Cătălin; Rotariu, Traian; Stănescu, Paul-Octavian

    2016-06-01

    Ballistic gelatin is the simulant of the human body during field tests in forensics and other related fields, due to its physical and mechanical similarities to human trunk and organs. Since the ballistic gelatin used in present has important issues to overcome, an alternative approach is the use of gelatin-polymer composites, where a key factor is the insertion of biocompatible materials, which replicate accurately the human tissues. In order to be able to obtain an improved material in terms of mechanical performances by an easy industrial-scale technology, before the verification of the ballistic parameters by shooting in agreement with military standards, one of the best and cheapest solutions is to perform a thorough check of their rheological properties, in standard conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Drug delivery with microsecond laser pulses into gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Hanqun; Casperson, Lee W.; Shearin, Alan; Gregory, Kenton W.; Prahl, Scott A.

    1996-07-01

    Photoacoustic drug delivery is a technique for localized drug delivery by laser-induced hydrodynamic pressure following cavitation bubble expansion and collapse. Photoacoustic drug delivery was investigated on gelatin-based thrombus models with planar and cylindrical geometries by use of one microsecond laser pulses. Solutions of a hydrophobic dye in mineral oil permitted monitoring of delivered colored oil into clear gelatin-based thrombus models. Cavitation bubble development and photoacoustic drug delivery were visualized with flash photography. This study demonstrated that cavitation is the governing mechanism for photoacoustic drug delivery, and the deepest penetration of colored oil in gels followed the bubble collapse. Spatial distribution measurements revealed that colored oil could be driven a few millimeters into the gels in both axial and radial directions, and the penetration was less than 500 mu m when the gelatin structure was not fractured. localized drug delivery, cavitation bubble, laser thrombolysis.

  4. Gelatin-Based Films and Coatings for Food Packaging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ramos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses the latest advances in the composition of gelatin-based edible films and coatings, including nanoparticle addition, and their properties are reviewed along their potential for application in the food packaging industry. Gelatin is an important biopolymer derived from collagen and is extensively used by various industries because of its technological and functional properties. Nowadays, a very wide range of components are available to be included as additives to improve its properties, as well as its applications and future potential. Antimicrobials, antioxidants and other agents are detailed due to the fact that an increasing awareness among consumers regarding healthy lifestyle has promoted research into novel techniques and additives to prolong the shelf life of food products. Thanks to its ability to improve global food quality, gelatin has been particularly considered in food preservation of meat and fish products, among others.

  5. Evaluating conditions for the formation of chitosan/gelatin microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia C. Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan/gelatin microparticles were prepared by complex coacervation. Three chitosan (CH samples, with different acetylation degrees and intrinsic viscosities, were used together with commercial gelatin (G samples. Microparticles formation was investigated at various CH/G ratios, within the pH range of 3.5 to 6.0. Reactions were carried out at 40 and 60 ºC, for 2, 4, and 6 hours. Turbidity measurements performed at 633 nm were used to monitor the process. The resulting curves revealed maximum values, which were correlated to the glucosamine content of CH samples. After isolation, yields were determined, and the microparticles were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and thermogravimetry (TGA. Both techniques evidenced the formation of coacervate microparticles. The highest yields in microparticles were determined for the system comprising the CH sample with the lowest degree of acetylation and intrinsic viscosity, and the gelatin sample with the lowest bloom strength.

  6. Enhancement of recovery of Neisseria meningitidis by gelatin in blood culture media.

    OpenAIRE

    Pai, C H; Sorger, S

    1981-01-01

    The efficacy of gelatin for the recovery of Neisseria meningitidis from blood cultures was evaluated in a clinical setting. The organism was isolated from seven patients with meningococcal infections in blood culture media containing 1% gelatin. In contrast, only two blood cultures from these patients were positive in media without gelatin (P less than 0.05). Gelatin did not influence the recovery of other organisms isolated during this study. Conventional blood culture media may be supplemen...

  7. Preparation of Rhodamine B Fluorescent Poly(methacrylic acid) Coated Gelatin Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Gan, Zhenhai; Ju, Jianhui; Zhang, Ting; Wu, Daocheng

    2011-01-01

    Poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA)-coated gelatin nanoparticles encapsulated with fluorescent dye rhodamine B were prepared by the coacervation method with the aim to retard the release of rhodamine B from the gelatin matrix. With sodium sulfate as coacervation reagent for gelatin, a kind of biopolymer with excellent biocompatibility, the formed gelatin nanoparticles were cross-linked by formaldehyde followed by the polymerization of methacrylic acid coating. The fluorescent poly(methacrylic acid)...

  8. The management of online resources and long-term saving of electronic documents by transfer into the digital space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Daniel MAREŞ

    2011-12-01

    The electronic archive refers to the electronic storage system, along with the totality of electronic-type stored documents, while using as storage support any environment that can support storing and from which an electronic document can be presented.

  9. Production and characterization of chitosan/gelatin/β-TCP scaffolds for improved bone tissue regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, I.R.; Fradique, R.; Vallejo, M.C.S.; Correia, T.R.; Miguel, S.P.; Correia, I.J., E-mail: icorreia@ubi.pt

    2015-10-01

    Recently, bone tissue engineering emerged as a viable therapeutic alternative, comprising bone implants and new personalized scaffolds to be used in bone replacement and regeneration. In this study, biocompatible scaffolds were produced by freeze-drying, using different formulations (chitosan, chitosan/gelatin, chitosan/β-TCP and chitosan/gelatin/β-TCP) to be used as temporary templates during bone tissue regeneration. Sample characterization was performed through attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis. Mechanical characterization and porosity analysis were performed through uniaxial compression test and liquid displacement method, respectively. In vitro studies were also done to evaluate the biomineralization activity and the cytotoxic profile of the scaffolds. Scanning electron and confocal microscopy analysis were used to study cell adhesion and proliferation at the scaffold surface and within their structure. Moreover, the antibacterial activity of the scaffolds was also evaluated through the agar diffusion method. Overall, the results obtained revealed that the produced scaffolds are bioactive and biocompatible, allow cell internalization and show antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Such, make these 3D structures as potential candidates for being used on the bone tissue regeneration, since they promote cell adhesion and proliferation and also prevent biofilm development at their surfaces, which is usually the main cause of implant failure. - Highlights: • Production of 3D scaffolds composed by chitosan/gelatin/β-TCP by freeze-drying for bone regeneration • Physicochemical characterization of the bone substitutes by SEM, FTIR, XRD and EDS • Evaluation of the cytotoxic profile and antibacterial activity of the 3D structures through in vitro assays.

  10. Electrospun gelatin/poly(ε-caprolactone) fibrous scaffold modified with calcium phosphate for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajzer, Izabella, E-mail: irajzer@ath.bielsko.pl [University of Bielsko-Biala (ATH), Department of Mechanical Engineering Fundamentals, Division of Materials Engineering, Willowa 2 Street, 43-309 Bielsko-Biała (Poland); Menaszek, Elżbieta [Jagiellonian University (UJ), Collegium Medicum, Department of Cytobiology, Medyczna 9 Street, 30-068 Cracow (Poland); Kwiatkowski, Ryszard [University of Bielsko-Biala (ATH), Faculty of Materials and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Textile Engineering and Polymer Materials, Willowa 2 Street, 43-309 Bielsko-Biała (Poland); Planell, Josep A.; Castano, Oscar [Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC), Biomaterials for Regenerative Therapies, Baldiri Reixac 15-21, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC), Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); CIBER-BBN The Biomedical Research Networking Center in Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    In this study gelatin (Gel) modified with calcium phosphate nanoparticles (SG5) and polycaprolactone (PCL) were used to prepare a 3D bi-layer scaffold by collecting electrospun PCL and gelatin/SG5 fibers separately in the same collector. The objective of this study was to combine the desired properties of PCL and Gel/SG5 in the same scaffold in order to enhance mineralization, thus improving the ability of the scaffold to bond to the bone tissue. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) measurements confirmed that SG5 nanoparticles were successfully incorporated into the fibrous gelatin matrix. The composite Gel/SG5/PCL scaffold exhibited more enhanced mechanical properties than individual Gel and Gel/SG5 scaffolds. The presence of SG5 nanoparticles accelerated the nucleation and growth of apatite crystals on the surface of the composite Gel/SG5/PCL scaffold in simulated body fluid (SBF). The osteoblast response in vitro to developed electrospun scaffolds (PCL and Gel/SG5/PCL) was investigated by using normal human primary NHOst cell lines. NHOst cell culture studies showed that higher alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and better mineralization were obtained in the case of composite materials than in pure PCL scaffolds. The mechanically strong PCL scaffold served as a skeleton, while the Gel/SG5 fibers facilitated cell spreading and mineralization of the scaffold. - Highlights: • Bi-layer scaffolds were produced by electrospinning method. • The addition of nanoparticles enhanced the bioactivity of scaffold. • Bi-layer scaffold enhanced ALP activity and NHOst cell mineralization.

  11. Production and characterization of chitosan/gelatin/β-TCP scaffolds for improved bone tissue regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra, I.R.; Fradique, R.; Vallejo, M.C.S.; Correia, T.R.; Miguel, S.P.; Correia, I.J.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, bone tissue engineering emerged as a viable therapeutic alternative, comprising bone implants and new personalized scaffolds to be used in bone replacement and regeneration. In this study, biocompatible scaffolds were produced by freeze-drying, using different formulations (chitosan, chitosan/gelatin, chitosan/β-TCP and chitosan/gelatin/β-TCP) to be used as temporary templates during bone tissue regeneration. Sample characterization was performed through attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis. Mechanical characterization and porosity analysis were performed through uniaxial compression test and liquid displacement method, respectively. In vitro studies were also done to evaluate the biomineralization activity and the cytotoxic profile of the scaffolds. Scanning electron and confocal microscopy analysis were used to study cell adhesion and proliferation at the scaffold surface and within their structure. Moreover, the antibacterial activity of the scaffolds was also evaluated through the agar diffusion method. Overall, the results obtained revealed that the produced scaffolds are bioactive and biocompatible, allow cell internalization and show antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Such, make these 3D structures as potential candidates for being used on the bone tissue regeneration, since they promote cell adhesion and proliferation and also prevent biofilm development at their surfaces, which is usually the main cause of implant failure. - Highlights: • Production of 3D scaffolds composed by chitosan/gelatin/β-TCP by freeze-drying for bone regeneration • Physicochemical characterization of the bone substitutes by SEM, FTIR, XRD and EDS • Evaluation of the cytotoxic profile and antibacterial activity of the 3D structures through in vitro assays

  12. A modified gelatin zymography technique incorporating total protein normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raykin, Julia; Snider, Eric; Bheri, Sruti; Mulvihill, John; Ethier, C Ross

    2017-03-15

    Gelatinase zymography is a commonly used laboratory procedure; however, variability in sample loading and concentration reduce the accuracy of quantitative results obtained from this technique. To facilitate normalization of gelatinase activity by loaded protein amount, we developed a protocol using the trihalocompound 2,2,2-trichloroethanol to allow for gelatin zymography and total protein labeling within the same gel. We showed that detected protein levels increased linearly with loading, and describe a loading concentration range over which normalized gelatinase activity was constant. We conclude that in-gel total protein detection is feasible in gelatin zymography and greatly improves comparison of gelatinase activity between samples. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. UV, visible and IR laser interaction with gelatine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oujja, M; Rebollar, E; Abrusci, C; Amo, A Del; Catalina, F; Castillejo, M

    2007-01-01

    In this work we investigate the effects on gelatine films of nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation at different laser wavelengths from the UV to the IR at 248, 266, 355, 532 and 1064 nm. We compared gelatines differing in gel strength values (Bloom 75 and 225) and in crosslinking degree. Formation of bubbles at the wavelengths in the UV (248 and 266 nm), melting and resolidification at 355 nm, and formation of craters by ablation in the VIS and IR (532 and 1064 nm) are the observed morphological changes. On the other hand, changes of the fluorescence behaviour of the films upon UV irradiation reveal chemical modifications of photolabile chromophores

  14. Microencapsulation of sulforaphane from broccoli seed extracts by gelatin/gum arabic and gelatin/pectin complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Saldaña, Jesús S; Campas-Baypoli, Olga N; López-Cervantes, Jaime; Sánchez-Machado, Dalia I; Cantú-Soto, Ernesto U; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Roberto

    2016-06-15

    Sulforaphane is a phytochemical that has received attention in recent years due to its chemopreventive properties. However, the uses and applications of this compound are very limited, because is an unstable molecule that is degraded mainly by changes in temperature and pH. In this research, the use of food grade polymers for microencapsulation of sulforaphane was studied by a complex coacervation method using the interaction of oppositely charged polymers as gelatin/gum arabic and gelatin/pectin. The polymers used were previously characterized in moisture content, ash and nitrogen. The encapsulation yield was over 80%. The gelatin/pectin complex had highest encapsulation efficiency with 17.91%. The presence of sulforaphane in the complexes was confirmed by FTIR and UV/visible spectroscopy. The materials used in this work could be a new and attractive option for the protection of sulforaphane. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Eco-friendly biorefractory films of gelatin and TEMPO-oxidized cellulose ester for food packaging application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Chen; Tao, Furong; Cui, Yuezhi

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, many types of food-packaging films and composites have been prepared using gelatin because of its good film-forming ability, non-toxic nature and cost-effectiveness. However, the relatively weak thermal stability, poor mechanical properties and easily-degradable quality limit the potential application of gelatin as a practical material. Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), which comprises one of the most abundant biomass resources, has been regarded as a safe and reliable food additive because it has the same ingredients as the cellulose in people's daily intake. Food-packaging films with the excellent properties provided by gelatin and oxidized-cellulose represent a topic of great interest. MCC was modified by 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO)-mediated oxidation and chosen as the base of the macromolecule cross-linker (TMN). After modification of gelatin film by TMN, the minimum amount of free -NH 2 in solution was 4.8 × 10 -4  mol g -1 ). The thermal property obviously increased (from 322.31  o C to 352.63  o C) and was crucial for usage in the food industry. The highest water contact value 123.09° (η = 25%) indicated a better surface hydrophobicity. The higher E ab (58.88%) and lower E m (77.16%) demonstrated that a more flexible and shatter-proof material was obtained. Water vapor uptake studies suggested increased moisture absorption and greater swelling ability. The film material obtained in the present study was safe, stable, eco-friendly and biorefractory and could also be decomposed completely by the environment after disposal as a result of the properties of the ingredients gelatin and cellulose. The incorporation of a cellulosic cross-linker to gelatin-based films was an ideal choice with respect to developing a packaging for the food industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Development of an Electronic Medical Record Based Alert for Risk of HIV Treatment Failure in a Low-Resource Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttkammer, Nancy; Zeliadt, Steven; Balan, Jean Gabriel; Baseman, Janet; Destiné, Rodney; Domerçant, Jean Wysler; France, Garilus; Hyppolite, Nathaelf; Pelletier, Valérie; Raphael, Nernst Atwood; Sherr, Kenneth; Yuhas, Krista; Barnhart, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Background The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk. Methods Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005–2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6–12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves. Results Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6–12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2%) met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC) measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (pART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation. Conclusions Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs. PMID:25390044

  17. Development of an electronic medical record based alert for risk of HIV treatment failure in a low-resource setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Puttkammer

    Full Text Available The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk.Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005-2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6-12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves.Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6-12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2% met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (p<0.01. When additional information including sex, baseline CD4, and duration of enrollment in HIV care prior to ART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation.Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs.

  18. Coating electrospun poly(epsilon-caprolactone) fibers with gelatin and calcium phosphate and their use as biomimetic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoran; Xie, Jingwei; Yuan, Xiaoyan; Xia, Younan

    2008-12-16

    Electrospinning was employed to fabricate fibrous scaffolds of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) in the form of nonwoven mats. The surfaces of the fibers were then coated with gelatin through layer-by-layer self-assembly, followed by functionalization with a uniform coating of bonelike calcium phosphate by mineralization in the 10 times concentrated simulated body fluid for 2 h. Transmission electron microscopy, water contact angle, and scanning electron microscopy measurements confirmed the presence of gelatin and calcium phosphate coating layers, and X-ray diffraction results suggested that the deposited mineral phase was a mixture of dicalcium phosphate dehydrate (a precursor to apatite) and apatite. It was also demonstrated that the incorporation of gelatin promoted nucleation and growth of calcium phosphate. The porous scaffolds could mimic the structure, composition, and biological function of bone extracellular matrix. It was found that the preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells attached, spread, and proliferated well with a flat morphology on the mineralized scaffolds. The proliferation rate of the cells on the mineralized scaffolds was significantly higher (by 1.9-fold) than that on the pristine fibrous scaffolds after culture for 7 days. These results indicated that the hybrid system containing poly(epsilon-caprolactone), gelatin, and calcium phosphate could serve as a new class of biomimetic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

  19. Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Y.; Kondo, M.; Shimoda, K.; Takahashi, T.

    2001-07-01

    It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two π type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO 2 surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally applied

  20. Recombinant Gelatin Microspheres : Novel Formulations for Tissue Repair?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuin, Annemarie; Kluijtmans, Sebastiaan G.; Bouwstra, Jan B.; Harmsen, Martin C.; Van Luyn, Marja J. A.

    Microspheres (MSs) can function as multifunctional scaffolds in different approaches of tissue repair (TR), as a filler, a slow-release depot for growth factors, or a delivery vehicle for cells. Natural cell adhesion-supporting extracellular matrix components like gelatin are good materials for

  1. Periodontal tissue regeneration with PRP incorporated gelatin hydrogel sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Dai; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Sato, Soh

    2015-10-20

    Gelatin hydrogels have been designed and prepared for the controlled release of the transforming growth factor (TGF-b1) and the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB). PRP (Platelet rich plasma) contains many growth factors including the PDGF and TGF-b1. The objective of this study was to evaluate the regeneration of periodontal tissue following the controlled release of growth factors in PRP. For the periodontal ligament cells and osteoblast, PRP of different concentrations was added. The assessment of DNA, mitochondrial activity and ALP activity were measured. To evaluate the TGF-β1 release from PRP incorporated gelatin sponge, amounts of TGF-β1 in each supernatant sample were determined by the ELISA. Transplantation experiments to prepare a bone defect in a rat alveolar bone were an implanted gelatin sponge incorporated with different concentration PRP. In DNA assay and MTT assay, after the addition of PRP to the periodontal ligament cells and osteoblast, the cell count and mitochondrial activity had increased the most in the group with the addition of 5  ×  PRP. In the ALP assay, after the addition of PRP to the periodontal ligament cells, the cell activity had increased the most in the group with the addition of 3  ×  PRP. In the transplantation, the size of the bone regenerated in the defect with 3  ×  PRP incorporated gelatin sponge was larger than that of the other group.

  2. Rheological evaluation of the irradiated pectin/gelatin mixed systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inamura, Patricia Y.; Mastro, Nelida L. del

    2011-01-01

    The main biopolymers used in the edible films production are polysaccharides and proteins. Pectin is a heterosaccharidic polymer derived from the vegetal cell wall. Gelatin is a heterogeneous mixture of water-soluble proteins of high average molecular mass derived by hydrolytic action from animal collagen. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation on either the biopolymers alone or on the mixed systems prepared with high-and low-methoxyl pectin and gelatin in solution and mixed gel. The results showed that gelatin viscosity remained almost unaffected by the irradiation with doses from 1 to 15 kGy, with a slight increase at 3 kGy. On the other hand, there was a sharp decrease of viscosity values of all pectin solutions upon irradiation, being this behavior predominant when both polysaccharides and proteins were present in a mixed system. The gel hardness and gel brittleness of the gelatin were affected by the increase of radiation dose. (author)

  3. Anisotropic silk fibroin/gelatin scaffolds from unidirectional freezing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asuncion, Maria Christine Tankeh, E-mail: christine.asuncion@u.nus.edu [National University of Singapore, Department of Biomedical Engineering (Singapore); Goh, James Cho-Hong [National University of Singapore, Department of Biomedical Engineering (Singapore); National University of Singapore, Department of Orthopedic Surgery (Singapore); Toh, Siew-Lok [National University of Singapore, Department of Biomedical Engineering (Singapore); National University of Singapore, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Singapore)

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies have underlined the importance of matching scaffold properties to the biological milieu. Tissue, and thus scaffold, anisotropy is one such property that is important yet sometimes overlooked. Methods that have been used to achieve anisotropic scaffolds present challenges such as complicated fabrication steps, harsh processing conditions and toxic chemicals involved. In this study, unidirectional freezing was employed to fabricate anisotropic silk fibroin/gelatin scaffolds in a simple and mild manner. Morphological, mechanical, chemical and cellular compatibility properties were investigated, as well as the effect of the addition of gelatin to certain properties of the scaffold. It was shown that scaffold properties were suitable for cell proliferation and that mesenchymal stem cells were able to align themselves along the directed fibers. The fabricated scaffolds present a platform that can be used for anisotropic tissue engineering applications such as cardiac patches. - Highlights: • Silk/gelatin scaffolds with unidirectional alignment were fabricated using a simple and scalable process • Presence of gelatin in silk resulted to lesser shrinkage, better water retention and improved cell proliferation. • Mesenchymal stem cells were shown to align themselves according to the fiber alignment.

  4. Periodontal tissue regeneration with PRP incorporated gelatin hydrogel sponges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Dai; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Sato, Soh

    2015-01-01

    Gelatin hydrogels have been designed and prepared for the controlled release of the transforming growth factor (TGF-b1) and the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB). PRP (Platelet rich plasma) contains many growth factors including the PDGF and TGF-b1. The objective of this study was to evaluate the regeneration of periodontal tissue following the controlled release of growth factors in PRP. For the periodontal ligament cells and osteoblast, PRP of different concentrations was added. The assessment of DNA, mitochondrial activity and ALP activity were measured. To evaluate the TGF-β1 release from PRP incorporated gelatin sponge, amounts of TGF-β1 in each supernatant sample were determined by the ELISA. Transplantation experiments to prepare a bone defect in a rat alveolar bone were an implanted gelatin sponge incorporated with different concentration PRP. In DNA assay and MTT assay, after the addition of PRP to the periodontal ligament cells and osteoblast, the cell count and mitochondrial activity had increased the most in the group with the addition of 5  ×  PRP. In the ALP assay, after the addition of PRP to the periodontal ligament cells, the cell activity had increased the most in the group with the addition of 3  ×  PRP. In the transplantation, the size of the bone regenerated in the defect with 3  ×  PRP incorporated gelatin sponge was larger than that of the other group. (paper)

  5. Preparation of Astaxanthin Nanodispersions Using Gelatin-Based Stabilizer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navideh Anarjan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of lipophilic nutrients, such as astaxanthin (a fat soluble carotenoid in nanodispersion systems can either increase the water solubility, stability and bioavailability or widen their applications in aqueous food and pharmaceutical formulations. In this research, gelatin and its combinations with sucrose oleate as a small molecular emulsifier, sodium caseinate (SC as a protein and gum Arabic as a polysaccharide were used as stabilizer systems in the formation of astaxanthin nanodispersions via an emulsification-evaporation process. The results indicated that the addition of SC to gelatin in the stabilizer system could increase the chemical stability of astaxanthin nanodispersions significantly, while using a mixture of gelatin and sucrose oleate as a stabilizer led to production of nanodispersions with the smallest particle size (121.4 ± 8.6 nm. It was also shown that a combination of gelatin and gum Arabic could produce optimal astaxanthin nanodispersions in terms of physical stability (minimum polydispersity index (PDI and maximum zeta-potential. This study demonstrated that the mixture of surface active compounds showed higher emulsifying and stabilizing functionality compared to using them individually in the preparation of astaxanthin nanodispersions.

  6. The use of gelatine in wound ballistics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, D J; Stevenson, T; Mahoney, P F

    2018-04-25

    Blocks of gelatine are used in both lethality and survivability studies for broadly the same reason, i.e. comparison of ammunition effects using a material that it is assumed represents (some part of) the human body. The gelatine is used to visualise the temporary and permanent wound profiles; elements of which are recognised as providing a reasonable approximation to wounding in humans. One set of researchers aim to improve the lethality of the projectile, and the other to understand the effects of the projectile on the body to improve survivability. Research areas that use gelatine blocks are diverse and include ammunition designers, the medical and forensics communities and designers of ballistic protective equipment (including body armour). This paper aims to provide an overarching review of the use of gelatine for wound ballistics studies; it is not intended to provide an extensive review of wound ballistics as that already exists, e.g. Legal Med 23:21-29, 2016. Key messages are that test variables, projectile type (bullet, fragmentation), impact site on the body and intermediate layers (e.g. clothing, personal protective equipment (PPE)) can affect the resulting wound profiles.

  7. Cashew gum and gelatin blend for food packaging application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashew gum (CG) and gelatin (G) films were developed using the casting method and response surface methodology. The objective was produce packaging films from CG/G blends that exhibit effective barrier properties. A study of zeta potential versus pH was first carried out to determine the isoelectric...

  8. Lecithin, gelatin and hydrolyzed collagen orally disintegrating films: functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, J G; Silva, A G; Cervi-Bitencourt, C M; Vanin, F M; Carvalho, R A

    2016-05-01

    Orally disintegrating films (ODFs) can transport natural active compounds such as ethanol extract of propolis (EEP). This paper aimed to investigate the effect of lecithin on different gelatin and hydrolyzed collagen (HC) polymeric matrices with addition of EEP. ODFs were prepared by casting technique and were characterized (color parameters, water content, mechanical properties, microstructure, disintegration time (DT), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), contact angle (CA), swelling degree and total phenolic content). The mechanical properties were influenced by HC. The microstructure demonstrated increased porosity and roughness in films with EEP, and the addition of lecithin resulted in an increase in the number of pores. Lecithin-gelatin and lecithin-EEP-gelatin interactions were observed by FTIR. The addition of HC and EEP reduced the DT and CA, and HC and lecithin reduced the swelling capacity. However, the swelling capacity was not affected by presence of EEP. The addition of lecithin to gelatin and HC ODFs may improve the incorporation and the oral transport of active compounds such as EEP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Formulation and Evaluation of Microspheres Based on Gelatin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formulation and Evaluation of Microspheres Based on Gelatin-Mucin Admixtures for the Rectal Delivery of Cefuroxime Sodium. K C Ofokansi, M U Adikwu. Abstract. Purpose: Swellable microspheres based on polymers or their admixtures are frequently employed as drug delivery systems to achieve a controlled release ...

  10. Dichromated gelatin and its importance for optical hologram recording

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmíd, Petr; Hiklová, H.; Keprt, Jiří

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 12 (2004), s. 1461-1472 ISSN 0011-4626 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A015 Keywords : dichromated gelatin * holography * volume program Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.292, year: 2004

  11. Consumer reports [electronic resource

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1942-01-01

    ... only. A limited number of selected reports, advice on product selection and safety alerts are freely available, as are a five year listing of product recalls, a listing of major consumer product...

  12. Curcumin loaded gum arabic aldehyde-gelatin nanogels for breast cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarika, P.R., E-mail: sarikapaithal@gmail.com; Nirmala, Rachel James, E-mail: nirmala@iist.ac.in

    2016-08-01

    Curcumin, a widely studied hydrophobic polyphenol with anticancer potential is loaded in gum arabic aldehyde-gelatin (GA Ald-Gel) nanogels to improve its bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy towards cancer cells. Physicochemical properties of the curcumin loaded GA Ald-Gel nanogels are investigated by different techniques including dynamic light scattering (DLS), NMR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These nanogels exhibit hydrodynamic diameter of 452 ± 8 nm with a zeta potential of − 27 mV. The nanogels possess an encapsulation efficiency of 65 ± 3%. Potential of the nanogels for controlled release of curcumin is illustrated by in vitro drug release studies. Hemocompatibility and cytocompatibility of the drug loaded nanogels are evaluated. In vitro cytotoxicity of the bare and curcumin loaded nanogels are analyzed by MTT assay towards MCF-7 cells. The results manifest that curcumin loaded nanogels induce toxicity in MCF-7 cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) studies indicate in vitro cellular uptake of the nanogels in MCF-7 cells. All these results prove the suitability of the curcumin loaded GA Ald-Gel nanogels for cancer therapy. - Highlights: • Curcumin loaded gum arabic aldehyde-gelatin nanogels were prepared. • Nanogels maintained negative zeta potential after curcumin loading. • Curcumin release is higher at acidic pH compared to neutral pH. • Curcumin loaded GA Ald-Gel nanogels shows toxicity towards MCF-7 cells. • Green fluorescence in MCF-7 cells confirmed the intracellular uptake.

  13. Curcumin loaded gum arabic aldehyde-gelatin nanogels for breast cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarika, P.R.; Nirmala, Rachel James

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin, a widely studied hydrophobic polyphenol with anticancer potential is loaded in gum arabic aldehyde-gelatin (GA Ald-Gel) nanogels to improve its bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy towards cancer cells. Physicochemical properties of the curcumin loaded GA Ald-Gel nanogels are investigated by different techniques including dynamic light scattering (DLS), NMR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These nanogels exhibit hydrodynamic diameter of 452 ± 8 nm with a zeta potential of − 27 mV. The nanogels possess an encapsulation efficiency of 65 ± 3%. Potential of the nanogels for controlled release of curcumin is illustrated by in vitro drug release studies. Hemocompatibility and cytocompatibility of the drug loaded nanogels are evaluated. In vitro cytotoxicity of the bare and curcumin loaded nanogels are analyzed by MTT assay towards MCF-7 cells. The results manifest that curcumin loaded nanogels induce toxicity in MCF-7 cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) studies indicate in vitro cellular uptake of the nanogels in MCF-7 cells. All these results prove the suitability of the curcumin loaded GA Ald-Gel nanogels for cancer therapy. - Highlights: • Curcumin loaded gum arabic aldehyde-gelatin nanogels were prepared. • Nanogels maintained negative zeta potential after curcumin loading. • Curcumin release is higher at acidic pH compared to neutral pH. • Curcumin loaded GA Ald-Gel nanogels shows toxicity towards MCF-7 cells. • Green fluorescence in MCF-7 cells confirmed the intracellular uptake.

  14. Polycaprolactone diacrylate crosslinked biodegradable semi-interpenetrating networks of polyacrylamide and gelatin for controlled drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaiswal, Maneesh; Koul, Veena; Dinda, Amit K; Gupta, Asheesh

    2010-01-01

    A biodegradable semi-interpenetrating hydrogel network (semi-IPN) of polyacrylamide and gelatin was prepared using polycaprolactone diacrylate (mol. wt ∼ 640) as a crosslinker. The drug-polymer interaction and IPN formation were investigated by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Scanning electron micrographs of lyophilized matrices revealed porous internal structure with varying pore sizes under equilibrium hydrated conditions, depending upon formulation composition. pH-dependent swelling and degradation was enhanced with increasing gelatin content and decreasing crosslinker concentration (Cs). Compression modulus (CM) (at 20% strain) increased significantly from 23 ± 1.4 to 75 ± 2.7 kPa (p 0 C). Fitting of drug release data in the Korsmeyer-Peppas model suggested sustained release behavior up to 10 days with a combination of diffusion and erosion mechanism (0.5 t /M ∞ ≤ 0.6). The newly developed porous, biodegradable and elastic semi-IPNs may serve as an ideal matrix for controlled drug release and wound healing applications. The possibilities can be explored for pharmaceutical and tissue engineering applications.

  15. Folic acid modified gelatine coated quantum dots as potential reagents for in vitro cancer diagnostics

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gerard, Valerie A

    2011-11-10

    Abstract Background Gelatine coating was previously shown to effectively reduce the cytotoxicity of CdTe Quantum Dots (QDs) which was a first step towards utilising them for biomedical applications. To be useful they also need to be target-specific which can be achieved by conjugating them with Folic Acid (FA). Results The modification of QDs with FA via an original "one-pot" synthetic route was proved successful by a range of characterisation techniques including UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, Photoluminescence (PL) emission spectroscopy, fluorescence life-time measurements, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). The resulting nanocomposites were tested in Caco-2 cell cultures which over-express FA receptors. The presence of FA on the surface of QDs significantly improved the uptake by targeted cells. Conclusions The modification with folic acid enabled to achieve a significant cellular uptake and cytotoxicity towards a selected cancer cell lines (Caco-2) of gelatine-coated TGA-CdTe quantum dots, which demonstrated good potential for in vitro cancer diagnostics.

  16. Gelatin-carboxymethyl tamarind gum biocomposites: In vitro characterization & anti-inflammatory pharmacodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jana, Sougata, E-mail: janapharmacy@rediffmail.com; Banerjee, Abhisek; Sen, Kalyan Kumar; Maiti, Sabyasachi

    2016-12-01

    In this study, gelatin and carboxymethyl tamarind gum (CTG) were chemically cross-linked to control the delivery of aceclofenac from their interpenetrating network (IPNs). Infrared spectra, thermal and X-ray data supported that drug and polymer was compatible in the composite hydrogels. Irregularly shaped IPN microstructures were seen under field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). IPN system was capable of entrapping about 96% of the drug fed. CTG in IPN structures suppressed the drug release rate in HCl solution (pH 1.2); however extended the same in phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.8). The drug release was controlled by polymer chain relaxation/swelling and simple diffusion in vitro. The anti-inflammatory activity of drug-loaded biocomposites lasted over 7 h in albino rats, thus suggesting their potential as an anti-inflammatory therapeutics. - Highlights: • Novel gelatin-carboxymethyl tamarind gum biocomposites was synthesized. • FTIR, thermal and X-ray study ensured compatibility between drug and polymers. • FE-SEM image revealed irregular shape of the IPN microstructures. • In vivo anti-inflammatory pharmacodynamics in rat model was encouraging.

  17. Gelatin controversies in food, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products: Authentication methods, current status, and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Eaqub; Sultana, Sharmin; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Hossain, Motalib; Yehya, Wageeh A; Kader, Abdul; Bhargava, Suresh K

    2018-06-13

    Gelatin is a highly purified animal protein of pig, cow, and fish origins and is extensively used in food, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products. However, the acceptability of gelatin products greatly depends on the animal sources of the gelatin. Porcine and bovine gelatins have attractive features but limited acceptance because of religious prohibitions and potential zoonotic threats, whereas fish gelatin is welcomed in all religions and cultures. Thus, source authentication is a must for gelatin products but it is greatly challenging due to the breakdown of both protein and DNA biomarkers in processed gelatins. Therefore, several methods have been proposed for gelatin identification, but a comprehensive and systematic document that includes all of the techniques does not exist. This up-to-date review addresses this research gap and presents, in an accessible format, the major gelatin source authentication techniques, which are primarily nucleic acid and protein based. Instead of presenting these methods in paragraph form which needs much attention in reading, the major methods are schematically depicted, and their comparative features are tabulated. Future technologies are forecasted, and challenges are outlined. Overall, this review paper has the merit to serve as a reference guide for the production and application of gelatin in academia and industry and will act as a platform for the development of improved methods for gelatin authentication.

  18. Fabrication and Physical Evaluation of Gelatin-Coated Carbonate Apatite Foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanae Hara

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbonate apatite (CO3Ap foam has gained much attention in recent years because of its ability to rapidly replace bone. However, its mechanical strength is extremely low for clinical use. In this study, to understand the potential of gelatin-reinforced CO3Ap foam for bone replacement, CO3Ap foam was reinforced with gelatin and the resulting physical characteristics were evaluated. The mechanical strength increased significantly with the gelatin reinforcement. The compressive strength of gelatin-free CO3Ap foam was 74 kPa whereas that of the gelatin-reinforced CO3Ap foam, fabricated using 30 mass % gelatin solution, was approximately 3 MPa. Heat treatment for crosslinking gelatin had little effect on the mechanical strength of the foam. The gelatin-reinforced foam did not maintain its shape when immersed in a saline solution as this promoted swelling of the gelatin; however, in the same conditions, the heat-treated gelatin-reinforced foam proved to be stable. It is concluded, therefore, that heat treatment is the key to the fabrication of stable gelatin-reinforced CO3Ap foam.

  19. The electronic Rothamsted Archive (e-RA), an online resource for data from the Rothamsted long-term experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perryman, Sarah A M; Castells-Brooke, Nathalie I D; Glendining, Margaret J; Goulding, Keith W T; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Macdonald, Andy J; Ostler, Richard J; Poulton, Paul R; Rawlings, Christopher J; Scott, Tony; Verrier, Paul J

    2018-05-15

    The electronic Rothamsted Archive, e-RA (www.era.rothamsted.ac.uk) provides a permanent managed database to both securely store and disseminate data from Rothamsted Research's long-term field experiments (since 1843) and meteorological stations (since 1853). Both historical and contemporary data are made available via this online database which provides the scientific community with access to a unique continuous record of agricultural experiments and weather measured since the mid-19 th century. Qualitative information, such as treatment and management practices, plans and soil information, accompanies the data and are made available on the e-RA website. e-RA was released externally to the wider scientific community in 2013 and this paper describes its development, content, curation and the access process for data users. Case studies illustrate the diverse applications of the data, including its original intended purposes and recent unforeseen applications. Usage monitoring demonstrates the data are of increasing interest. Future developments, including adopting FAIR data principles, are proposed as the resource is increasingly recognised as a unique archive of data relevant to sustainable agriculture, agroecology and the environment.

  20. Epigallocatechin Gallate-Modified Gelatin Sponges Treated by Vacuum Heating as a Novel Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Yoshitomo; Takeda, Yoshihiro; Li, Peiqi; Huang, Anqi; Sasayama, Satoshi; Hara, Eiki; Uemura, Naoya; Ueda, Mamoru; Hashimoto, Masanori; Arita, Kenji; Matsumoto, Naoyuki; Hashimoto, Yoshiya; Baba, Shunsuke; Tanaka, Tomonari

    2018-04-11

    Chemical modification of gelatin using epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) promotes bone formation in vivo. However, further improvements are required to increase the mechanical strength and bone-forming ability of fabricated EGCG-modified gelatin sponges (EGCG-GS) for practical applications in regenerative therapy. In the present study, we investigated whether vacuum heating-induced dehydrothermal cross-linking of EGCG-GS enhances bone formation in critical-sized rat calvarial defects. The bone-forming ability of vacuum-heated EGCG-GS (vhEGCG-GS) and other sponges was evaluated by micro-computed tomography and histological staining. The degradation of sponges was assessed using protein assays, and cell morphology and proliferation were verified by scanning electron microscopy and immunostaining using osteoblastic UMR106 cells in vitro. Four weeks after the implantation of sponges, greater bone formation was detected for vhEGCG-GS than for EGCG-GS or vacuum-heated gelatin sponges (dehydrothermal cross-linked sponges without EGCG). In vitro experiments revealed that the relatively low degradability of vhEGCG-GS supports cell attachment, proliferation, and cell-cell communication on the matrix. These findings suggest that vacuum heating enhanced the bone forming ability of EGCG-GS, possibly via the dehydrothermal cross-linking of EGCG-GS, which provides a scaffold for cells, and by maintaining the pharmacological effect of EGCG.

  1. Eco-friendly synthesis of gelatin-capped bimetallic Au-Ag nanoparticles for chemiluminescence detection of anticancer raloxifene hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarfaj, Nawal A; El-Tohamy, Maha F

    2016-09-01

    This study described the utility of green analytical chemistry in the synthesis of gelatin-capped silver, gold and bimetallic gold-silver nanoparticles (NPs). The preparation of nanoparticles was based on the reaction of silver nitrate or chlorauric acid with a 1.0 wt% aqueous gelatin solution at 50°C. The gelatin-capped silver, gold and bimetallic NPs were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, UV-vis, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and were used to enhance a sensitive sequential injection chemiluminescence luminol-potassium ferricyanide system for determination of the anticancer drug raloxifene hydrochloride. The developed method is eco-friendly and sensitive for chemiluminescence detection of the selected drug in its bulk powder, pharmaceutical injections and biosamples. After optimizing the conditions, a linear relationship in the range of 1.0 × 10(-9) to 1.0 × 10(-1)  mol/L was obtained with a limit of detection of 5.0 × 10(-10)  mol/L and a limit of quantification of 1.0 × 10(-9)  mol/L. Statistical treatment and method validation were performed based on ICH guidelines. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Facile modification of gelatin-based microcarriers with multiporous surface and proliferative growth factors delivery to enhance cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Sha [Department of Oral Histology and Pathology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Wang Yijuan [Key Laboratory for Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Deng, Tianzheng [Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Jin Fang [Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, 710032 (China); Liu Shouxin [Key Laboratory for Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Zhang Yongjie [Department of Oral Histology and Pathology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Feng Feng [Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Department of Dermatology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710038 (China); Jin Yan [Department of Oral Histology and Pathology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China)], E-mail: yanjin@fmmu.edu.cn

    2008-07-28

    The design of microcarriers plays an important role in the success of cell expansion. The present article provides a facile approach to modify the gelatin-based particles and investigates the feasibility of their acting as microcarriers for cell attachment and growth. Gelatin particles (150-320 {mu}m) were modified by cryogenic treatment and lyophilization to develop the surface with the features of multiporous morphology and were incorporated with proliferative growth factors (bFGF) by adsorption during the post-preparation, which enables them to serve as microcarriers for cells amplification, together with the advantages of larger cell-surface contact area and capability of promoting cell propagation. The microstructure and release assay of the modified microcarriers demonstrated that the pores on surface were uniform and bFGF was released in a controlled manner. Through in vitro fibroblast culture, these features resulted in a prominent increase in the cell attachment rate and cell growth rate relative to the conditions without modification. Although the scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy analysis results indicated that cells attached, spread, and proliferated on all the microcarriers, cell growth clearly showed a significant correlation with the multiporous structure of microcarriers, in particular on bFGF combined ones. These results validate our previous assumption that the facile modification could improve cell growth on the gelatin-based microcarriers obviously and the novel microcarriers may be a promising candidate in tissue engineering.

  3. Healing of skin wounds with a chitosan-gelatin sponge loaded with tannins and platelet-rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bitao; Wang, Tianyou; Li, Zhiquan; Dai, Fangying; Lv, Lingmei; Tang, Fengling; Yu, Kun; Liu, Jiawei; Lan, Guangqian

    2016-01-01

    A chitosan-gelatin sponge (CSGT) was prepared using a chitosan/ascorbic acid solution blend containing gelatin, followed by crosslinking with tannin acid and freeze-drying, thereby combining the chitosan sponge and gelatin sponge. The structure of the CSGT was observed by scanning electron microscopy and was shown to have uniform and abundant pores measuring about 145-240μm in size. We also characterized the sponges by infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, mechanical property tests, swelling behavior analysis, water retention capacity tests, antibacterial property analysis, and cytotoxicity tests. Our data showed that the CSGT had good thermostability and mechanical properties as well as efficient water absorption and retention capacities. Moreover, the CSGT could effectively inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with low toxicity. In animal experiments, macroscopic observations and histological examinations showed that the wound covered by the CSGT healed quickly. Additionally, loading of the CSGT with platelet-rich plasma resulted in further acceleration of wound healing. Therefore, the CSGT and the CSGT with platelet-rich plasma were suitable for application as a wound dressing and may have potential for use in various biomedical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Facile modification of gelatin-based microcarriers with multiporous surface and proliferative growth factors delivery to enhance cell growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Sha; Wang Yijuan; Deng, Tianzheng; Jin Fang; Liu Shouxin; Zhang Yongjie; Feng Feng; Jin Yan

    2008-01-01

    The design of microcarriers plays an important role in the success of cell expansion. The present article provides a facile approach to modify the gelatin-based particles and investigates the feasibility of their acting as microcarriers for cell attachment and growth. Gelatin particles (150-320 μm) were modified by cryogenic treatment and lyophilization to develop the surface with the features of multiporous morphology and were incorporated with proliferative growth factors (bFGF) by adsorption during the post-preparation, which enables them to serve as microcarriers for cells amplification, together with the advantages of larger cell-surface contact area and capability of promoting cell propagation. The microstructure and release assay of the modified microcarriers demonstrated that the pores on surface were uniform and bFGF was released in a controlled manner. Through in vitro fibroblast culture, these features resulted in a prominent increase in the cell attachment rate and cell growth rate relative to the conditions without modification. Although the scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy analysis results indicated that cells attached, spread, and proliferated on all the microcarriers, cell growth clearly showed a significant correlation with the multiporous structure of microcarriers, in particular on bFGF combined ones. These results validate our previous assumption that the facile modification could improve cell growth on the gelatin-based microcarriers obviously and the novel microcarriers may be a promising candidate in tissue engineering

  5. Fabrication of mineralized electrospun PLGA and PLGA/gelatin nanofibers and their potential in bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Z X; Li, H F; Sun, Z Z; Zheng, W; Zheng, Y F

    2013-03-01

    Surface mineralization is an effective method to produce calcium phosphate apatite coating on the surface of bone tissue scaffold which could create an osteophilic environment similar to the natural extracellular matrix for bone cells. In this study, we prepared mineralized poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and PLGA/gelatin electrospun nanofibers via depositing calcium phosphate apatite coating on the surface of these nanofibers to fabricate bone tissue engineering scaffolds by concentrated simulated body fluid method, supersaturated calcification solution method and alternate soaking method. The apatite products were characterized by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) methods. A large amount of calcium phosphate apatite composed of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), hydroxyapatite (HA) and octacalcium phosphate (OCP) was deposited on the surface of resulting nanofibers in short times via three mineralizing methods. A larger amount of calcium phosphate was deposited on the surface of PLGA/gelatin nanofibers rather than PLGA nanofibers because gelatin acted as nucleation center for the formation of calcium phosphate. The cell culture experiments revealed that the difference of morphology and components of calcium phosphate apatite did not show much influence on the cell adhesion, proliferation and activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of ageing on the calibration of ballistic gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guey, Jason; Rodrigues, S; Pullen, A; Shaw, B; Kieser, D C

    2018-02-27

    Ballistic gelatin is commonly used as a validated surrogate for soft tissue during terminal ballistic testing. However, the effect of a delay between production and testing of a gelatin mould remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine any potential effects of ageing on ballistic gelatin. Depth of penetration (DoP) of 4.5 mm spherical fragment simulating projectiles was ascertained using mixtures of 10%, 11.25% and 20% Type A 250 Bloom ballistic gelatin. Testing was performed daily for 5 days using velocities between 75 and 210 m/s. DoP at day 5 was statistically compared with day 1, and net mass change was recorded daily. No significant difference was found for DoP observed with time in any of the samples (P>0.05). Spearman correlation was excellent in all moulds. The moulds with known standard calibrations remained in calibration throughout the study period. Mass loss of less than 1% was noted in all samples. Mass loss was the only quantifiable measure of changes in the blocks with time, but did not correlate with any changes in DoP. This may provide reassurance when undertaking such testing that an inadvertent delay will not significantly alter the penetration properties of the mould. Future research is recommended to determine any potential effect on the mechanical properties of gelatin at higher velocity impacts and whether the calibration corresponds to an adequate simulation under such conditions. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Effectiveness of a new gelatin sealant system for dural closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Hisashi; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Nishimura, Fumihiko; Motoyama, Yasushi; Park, Young-Su; Nakamura, Mitsutoshi; Nakase, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Shuko; Ikada, Yoshito

    2014-10-01

    Watertight dural closure is imperative after neurosurgical procedures because inadequately treated leakage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can have serious consequences. In this study, the authors test the use of a new gelatin glue as a dural sealant in in vitro and in vivo canine models of transdural CSF leakage. The in vitro model was sutured semicircles of canine dura mater and artificial dural substitute. The sutures were sealed with gelatin glue (n  =  20), fibrin glue (n  =  20), or a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based hydrogel sealant (n  =  20). Each sample was set in a device to measure water pressure, and pressure was increased until leakage occurred. Bonding strength was subjectively evaluated. The in vivo model was dogs who underwent dural excision and received either no sealant (control group; n  =  5) or gelatin glue sealant (n  =  5) before dural closure. Twenty-eight days post-surgery, the maximum intracranial pressure was measured at the cisterna magna using Valsalva maneuver and tissue adhesion was evaluated. The water pressure at which leakage occurred in the in vitro model was higher with gelatin glue (76·5 ± 39·8 mmHg) than with fibrin glue (38·3 ± 27·4 mmHg, P control group (13·8 ± 4·0 mmHg, P control group (P  =  0·005). The new gelatin glue provides an effective watertight closure when used as an adjunct to sutured dural repair.

  8. In vitro evaluation of crosslinked electrospun fish gelatin scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, S.R.; Rodrigues, G.; Martins, G.G.; Henriques, C.M.R.; Silva, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Gelatin from cold water fish skin was electrospun, crosslinked and investigated as a substrate for the adhesion and proliferation of cells. Gelatin was first dissolved in either water or concentrated acetic acid and both solutions were successfully electrospun. Cross-linking was achieved via three different routes: glutaraldehyde vapor, genipin and dehydrothermal treatment. Solution's properties (surface tension, electrical conductivity and viscosity) and scaffold's properties (chemical bonds, weight loss and fiber diameters) were measured. Cellular viability was analyzed culturing 3T3 fibroblasts plated on the scaffolds and grown up to 7 days. The cells were fixed and observed with SEM or stained for DNA and F-actin and observed with confocal microscopy. In all scaffolds, the cells attached and spread with varying degrees. The evaluation of cell viability showed proliferation of cells until confluence in scaffolds crosslinked by glutaraldehyde and genipin; however the rate of growth in genipin crosslinked scaffolds was slow, recovering only by day five. The results using the dehydrothermal treatment were the less satisfactory. Our results show that glutaraldehyde treated fish gelatin is the most suitable substrate, of the three studied, for fibroblast adhesion and proliferation. - Highlights: ► Electrospinning of fish gelatin dissolved in both water or concentrated acetic acid ► Glutaraldehyde, genipin and dehydrothermal treatment effectively crosslink the fish gelatin fibers ► Fibroblasts effectively adhere to and propagate on all scaffolds ► Cell population is highest for glutaraldehyde crosslinked scaffolds ► Cells exhibit more filopodia and stress fibers on glutaraldehyde crosslinked scaffolds

  9. In vitro evaluation of crosslinked electrospun fish gelatin scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, S.R. [Centro de Física e Investigação Tecnológica / Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Rodrigues, G.; Martins, G.G. [Centro de Biologia Ambiental / Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, FCUL, 1749-016 Campo Grande, Lisboa (Portugal); Henriques, C.M.R. [Centro de Física e Investigação Tecnológica / Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Silva, J.C., E-mail: jcs@fct.unl.pt [Centro de Física e Investigação Tecnológica / Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2013-04-01

    Gelatin from cold water fish skin was electrospun, crosslinked and investigated as a substrate for the adhesion and proliferation of cells. Gelatin was first dissolved in either water or concentrated acetic acid and both solutions were successfully electrospun. Cross-linking was achieved via three different routes: glutaraldehyde vapor, genipin and dehydrothermal treatment. Solution's properties (surface tension, electrical conductivity and viscosity) and scaffold's properties (chemical bonds, weight loss and fiber diameters) were measured. Cellular viability was analyzed culturing 3T3 fibroblasts plated on the scaffolds and grown up to 7 days. The cells were fixed and observed with SEM or stained for DNA and F-actin and observed with confocal microscopy. In all scaffolds, the cells attached and spread with varying degrees. The evaluation of cell viability showed proliferation of cells until confluence in scaffolds crosslinked by glutaraldehyde and genipin; however the rate of growth in genipin crosslinked scaffolds was slow, recovering only by day five. The results using the dehydrothermal treatment were the less satisfactory. Our results show that glutaraldehyde treated fish gelatin is the most suitable substrate, of the three studied, for fibroblast adhesion and proliferation. - Highlights: ► Electrospinning of fish gelatin dissolved in both water or concentrated acetic acid ► Glutaraldehyde, genipin and dehydrothermal treatment effectively crosslink the fish gelatin fibers ► Fibroblasts effectively adhere to and propagate on all scaffolds ► Cell population is highest for glutaraldehyde crosslinked scaffolds ► Cells exhibit more filopodia and stress fibers on glutaraldehyde crosslinked scaffolds.

  10. Gelatin functionalised porous titanium alloy implants for orthopaedic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderleyden, E. [Polymer Chemistry and Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Ghent, Krijgslaan 281 S4, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Bael, S. [Prometheus, Division of Skeletal Tissue Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, O and N 1, Herestraat 49, Box 813, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Division of Production Engineering, Machine Design and Automation, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 300b, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Division of Biomechanics and Engineering Design, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 300c, Box 2419, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Chai, Y.C. [Prometheus, Division of Skeletal Tissue Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, O and N 1, Herestraat 49, Box 813, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Skeletal Biology and Engineering Research Center, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, O and N 1, Herestraat 49, Box 813, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Kruth, J.-P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Division of Production Engineering, Machine Design and Automation, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 300b, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Schrooten, J. [Prometheus, Division of Skeletal Tissue Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, O and N 1, Herestraat 49, Box 813, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, Bus 2450, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Dubruel, P., E-mail: pbmugent@gmail.com [Polymer Chemistry and Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Ghent, Krijgslaan 281 S4, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2014-09-01

    In the present work, we studied the immobilisation of the biopolymer gelatin onto the surface of three dimensional (3D) regular Ti6Al4V porous implants to improve their surface bio-activity. The successful immobilisation of the gelatin coating was made possible by a polydopamine interlayer, a polymer coating inspired by the adhesive nature of mussels. The presence of both coatings was first optimised on two dimensional titanium (2D Ti) substrates and confirmed by different techniques including X-ray photelectron spectroscopy, contact angle measurements, atomic force microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. Results showed homogeneous coatings that are stable for at least 24 h in phosphate buffer at 37 °C. In a next step, the coating procedure was successfully transferred to 3D Ti6Al4V porous implants, which indicates the versatility of the applied coating procedure with regard to complex surface morphologies. Furthermore, the bio-activity of these stable gelatin coatings was enhanced by applying a third and final coating using the cell-attractive protein fibronectin. The reproducible immobilisation process allowed for a controlled biomolecule presentation to the surrounding tissue. This newly developed coating procedure outperformed the previously reported silanisation procedure for immobilising gelatin. In vitro cell adhesion and culture studies with human periosteum-derived cells showed that the investigated coatings did not compromise the biocompatible nature of Ti6Al4V porous implants, but no distinct biological differences between the coatings were found. - Highlights: • Ti6Al4V porous implants were produced by selective laser melting. • A procedure to obtain a stable gelatin coating was developed. • Successful transfer of the coating procedure from 2D to 3D Ti6Al4V porous implants. • In vitro cell studies showed that the developed coatings supported cell growth.

  11. Principles of formation of the content of an educational electronic resource on the basis of general and didactic patterns of learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Юрьевна Заславская

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the influence of the development of technical means of teaching on the effectiveness of educational and methodical resources. Modern opportunities of information and communication technologies allow creating electronic educational resources that represent educational information that automates the learning process, provide information assistance, if necessary, collect and process statistical information on the degree of development of the content of the school material by schoolchildren, set an individual trajectory of learning, and so on. The main principle of data organization is the division of the training course into separate sections on the thematic elements and components of the learning process. General regularities include laws that encompass the entire didactic system, and in specific (particular cases, those whose actions extend to a separate component (aspect of the system. From the standpoint of the existence of three types of electronic training modules in the aggregate content of the electronic learning resource - information, control and module of practical classes - the principles of the formation of the electronic learning resource, in our opinion, should regulate all these components. Each of the certain principles is considered in the groups: scientific orientation, methodological orientation, systemic nature, accounting of interdisciplinary connections, fundamentalization, systematic and dosage sequence, rational use of study time, accessibility, minimization, operationalization of goals, unified identification diagnosis.

  12. The module of methodical support in system of electronic educational resources as the innovative element of the modern maintenance of formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Николаевна Крылова

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces some results of research, which were devoted to evaluation of tearches' mobility to introduce innovations in the contents of education. The author considers innovative potential of modules of the methodical support for system of electronic educational resources.

  13. Charting a Course through CORAL: Texas A&M University Libraries' Experience Implementing an Open-Source Electronic Resources Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Eric; Beh, Eugenia; Resnick, Taryn; Ugaz, Ana; Tabacaru, Simona

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, after two previous unsuccessful attempts at electronic resources management system (ERMS) implementation, Texas A&M University (TAMU) Libraries set out once again to find an ERMS that would fit its needs. After surveying the field, TAMU Libraries selected the University of Notre Dame Hesburgh Libraries-developed, open-source ERMS,…

  14. Iota-carrageenan/chitosan/gelatin scaffold for the osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived MSCs in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junjie; Yang, Boguang; Qian, Yufeng; Wang, Qiyu; Han, Ruijin; Hao, Tong; Shu, Yao; Zhang, Yabin; Yao, Fanglian; Wang, Changyong

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we have developed ι-carrageenan/chitosan/gelatin (CCG) scaffold containing multiple functional groups (-NH2 , -OH, -COOH, and -SO3 H) to resemble the native extracellular matrix (ECM), using the ion-shielding technology and ultrasonic dispersion method. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of the CCG scaffolds suggests that the formation of CCG network involves electrostatic interactions between ι-carrageenan (ι-CA) and chitosan/gelatin, and the covalent cross-linking among amino groups of chitosan and/or gelatin. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observation reveals that the porous structure of scaffolds can be modulated by the ratio of ι-CA to chitosan/gelatin. The swelling ratio of the hydrogels increases as the ι-CA contents increase. Using differential scanning calorimetry, we found that the double helix structure of ι-CA is only stabilized at low contents of ι-CA in the CCG scaffolds (e.g., 5 wt %). The scaffolds containing 5% ι-CA showed the best protein adsorption capacity (4.46 ± 0.63 μg protein/mg scaffold) and elastic modulus (5.37 ± 1.03 MPa). In addition, the CCG scaffolds exhibit excellent support for adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) attachment and proliferation, and they can improve the osteogenic differentiation and neovascularization capacities of ADMSCs. Overall, we conclude that the CCG may represent an ideal scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Characterization and thermal behavior of PrMO{sub 3} (M = Co or Ni) ceramic materials obtained from gelatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, F.M., E-mail: flavyma@hotmail.com [Federal University of Rio Grande of Norte, Laboratory of Catalysis and Refining – NUPRAR, Av. Senador Salgado Filho, 3000, CEP 59078-970, Natal-RN (Brazil); Melo, D.M.A. [Federal University of Rio Grande of Norte, Laboratory of Catalysis and Refining – NUPRAR, Av. Senador Salgado Filho, 3000, CEP 59078-970, Natal-RN (Brazil); Pimentel, P.M. [Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido, Campus Angicos, CEP 59515-000, Angicos-RN (Brazil); Braga, R.M.; Melo, M.A.F.; Martinelli, A.E.; Costa, A.F. [Federal University of Rio Grande of Norte, Laboratory of Catalysis and Refining – NUPRAR, Av. Senador Salgado Filho, 3000, CEP 59078-970, Natal-RN (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    Graphical abstract: The micrograph in figure shows sample calcined at temperature 900 °C. The sample exhibits morphology with considerable porosity and the formation of agglomerated nanometric particles. Gelatin provides the system with a large amount of organic matter, which is then removed during calcinations, favoring the appearance of pores in the material. Highlights: ► Oxides with PrNiO{sub 3} and PrCoO{sub 3} were prepared by new method synthesis. ► The gelatin, through its carboxylate groups and amine, is an efficient director. ► The obtained materials have magnetic properties and application in catalysis. ► The decomposition kinetic study of bonding groups of gelatin with metallic ions that takes part in the synthesis of PrMO{sub 3}. -- Abstract: Metal oxides with perovskite-type structure have attracted considerable interest in recent years due to their magnetic and electrical properties, as well as their catalytic activity. In this study, oxides with PrNiO{sub 3} and PrCoO{sub 3} composition were prepared by using gelatin powder as a precursor agent for its use as a catalyst. The powders obtained were calcined at 700 °C and 900 °C and characterized using the X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis (thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis), infrared spectroscopy, temperature programed reduction and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Thermogravimetric data using the non-isothermal kinetic models of Flynn and Wall and “Model-free Kinetics” were used to determine the activation energy to study the decomposition kinetics of the ligand groups with system's metallic ions that takes part in the synthesis of PrMO{sub 3} (M = Ni or Co).

  16. Fabrication of mineralized electrospun PLGA and PLGA/gelatin nanofibers and their potential in bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Z.X. [Center for Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Li, H.F. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Sun, Z.Z. [Center for Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Zheng, W., E-mail: zhengwei@hrbeu.edu.cn [Center for Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Zheng, Y.F., E-mail: yfzheng@pku.edu.cn [Center for Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2013-03-01

    Surface mineralization is an effective method to produce calcium phosphate apatite coating on the surface of bone tissue scaffold which could create an osteophilic environment similar to the natural extracellular matrix for bone cells. In this study, we prepared mineralized poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and PLGA/gelatin electrospun nanofibers via depositing calcium phosphate apatite coating on the surface of these nanofibers to fabricate bone tissue engineering scaffolds by concentrated simulated body fluid method, supersaturated calcification solution method and alternate soaking method. The apatite products were characterized by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) methods. A large amount of calcium phosphate apatite composed of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), hydroxyapatite (HA) and octacalcium phosphate (OCP) was deposited on the surface of resulting nanofibers in short times via three mineralizing methods. A larger amount of calcium phosphate was deposited on the surface of PLGA/gelatin nanofibers rather than PLGA nanofibers because gelatin acted as nucleation center for the formation of calcium phosphate. The cell culture experiments revealed that the difference of morphology and components of calcium phosphate apatite did not show much influence on the cell adhesion, proliferation and activity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ca-P phases were coated on PLGA/gelatin electrospun nanofiber membranes within 3 h. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ca-P coatings prepared by 3 methods exhibited different structures and components. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ca-P coating weight increase depends on the apatite nucleation velocity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Surface hydrophilicity enhanced the velocity and quantity of apatite nucleation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The resulting Ca-P apatite coatings exhibit good biocompatibility to MG63 cells.

  17. Enzymatically crosslinked carboxymethyl-chitosan/gelatin/nano-hydroxyapatite injectable gels for in situ bone tissue engineering application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Debasish; Bhunia, Bibhas; Banerjee, Indranil [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (India); Datta, Pallab; Dhara, Santanu [School of Medical Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (India); Maiti, Tapas K., E-mail: maititapask@gmail.com [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (India)

    2011-10-10

    Present study reports synthesis and characterization of an enzymatically crosslinked injectable gel (iGel) suitable for cell based bone tissue engineering application. The gel comprises of carboxymethyl-chitosan (CMC)/gelatin/nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) susceptible to tyrosinase/p-cresol mediated in situ gelling at physiological temperature. Study revealed that a combination of tyrosinase (60U) and p-cresol (2 mM) as crosslinking agents yield rigid gels at physiological temperature when applied to CMC/gelatin within 35 min in presence or absence of nHAp. Rheological study in conjugation with FT-IR analysis showed that an increase in CMC concentration in the gel leads to higher degree of crosslinking and higher strength. Scanning electron microscopy showed that pore sizes of iGels increased with higher gelatin concentration. In vitro study of osteoblast cell proliferation and differentiation showed that, although all iGels are supportive towards the growth of primary osteoblast cells, GC1:1 supported cellular differentiation to the maximum. Application of iGels in mice revealed that stability of the in situ formed gels depends on the degree of crosslinking and CMC concentration. In conclusion, the iGels may be used in treating irregular small bone defects with minimal clinical invasion as well as for bone cell delivery. - Research Highlights: {yields} Enzymatically crosslinked injectable gel made up of CM-chitosan (C)/gelatin (G)/nHAp. {yields} Tyrosinase/p-cresol used for crosslinking and in situ gelling of polymers at 37deg. C. {yields} 60U tyrosinase and 2mM p-cresol is needed for gelation in 35 min. {yields} Higher GC ratio manifests lower crosslinking and gel strength but higher porosity. {yields} GC1:1 shows maximum in vivo gel stability and in vitro osteoblast differentiation.

  18. Electric field-assisted formation of organically modified hydroxyapatite (ormoHAP) spheres in carboxymethylated gelatin gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, C; Heinemann, S; Kruppke, B; Worch, H; Thomas, J; Wiesmann, H P; Hanke, T

    2016-10-15

    A biomimetic strategy was developed in order to prepare organically modified hydroxyapatite (ormoHAP) with spherical shape. The technical approach is based on electric field-assisted migration of calcium ions and phosphate ions into a hydrogel composed of carboxymethylated gelatin. The electric field as well as the carboxymethylation using glucuronic acid (GlcA) significantly accelerates the mineralization process, which makes the process feasible for lab scale production of ormoHAP spheres and probably beyond. A further process was developed for gentle separation of the ormoHAP spheres from the gelatin gel without compromising the morphology of the mineral. The term ormoHAP was chosen since morphological analyses using electron microscopy (SEM, TEM) and element analysis (EDX, FT-IR, XRD) confirmed that carboxymethylated gelatin molecules use to act as organic templates for the formation of nanocrystalline HAP. The hydroxyapatite (HAP) crystals self-organize to form hollow spheres with diameters ranging from 100 to 500nm. The combination of the biocompatible chemical composition and the unique structure of the nanocomposites is considered to be a useful basis for future applications in functionalized degradable biomaterials. A novel bioinspired mineralization process was developed based on electric field-assisted migration of calcium and phosphate ions into biochemically carboxymethylated gelatin acting as organic template. Advantages over conventional hydroxyapatite include particle size distribution and homogeneity as well as achievable mechanical properties of relevant composites. Moreover, specifically developed calcium ion or phosphate ion release during degradation can be useful to adjust the fate of bone cells in order to manipulate remodeling processes. The hollow structure of the spheres can be useful for embedding drugs in the core, encapsulated by the highly mineralized outer shell. In this way, controlled drug release could be achieved, which enables

  19. Fabrication of mineralized electrospun PLGA and PLGA/gelatin nanofibers and their potential in bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Z.X.; Li, H.F.; Sun, Z.Z.; Zheng, W.; Zheng, Y.F.

    2013-01-01

    Surface mineralization is an effective method to produce calcium phosphate apatite coating on the surface of bone tissue scaffold which could create an osteophilic environment similar to the natural extracellular matrix for bone cells. In this study, we prepared mineralized poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and PLGA/gelatin electrospun nanofibers via depositing calcium phosphate apatite coating on the surface of these nanofibers to fabricate bone tissue engineering scaffolds by concentrated simulated body fluid method, supersaturated calcification solution method and alternate soaking method. The apatite products were characterized by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) methods. A large amount of calcium phosphate apatite composed of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), hydroxyapatite (HA) and octacalcium phosphate (OCP) was deposited on the surface of resulting nanofibers in short times via three mineralizing methods. A larger amount of calcium phosphate was deposited on the surface of PLGA/gelatin nanofibers rather than PLGA nanofibers because gelatin acted as nucleation center for the formation of calcium phosphate. The cell culture experiments revealed that the difference of morphology and components of calcium phosphate apatite did not show much influence on the cell adhesion, proliferation and activity. - Highlights: ► Ca–P phases were coated on PLGA/gelatin electrospun nanofiber membranes within 3 h. ► Ca–P coatings prepared by 3 methods exhibited different structures and components. ► The Ca–P coating weight increase depends on the apatite nucleation velocity. ► Surface hydrophilicity enhanced the velocity and quantity of apatite nucleation. ► The resulting Ca–P apatite coatings exhibit good biocompatibility to MG63 cells.

  20. Hydroxyapatite/gelatin functionalized graphene oxide composite coatings deposited on TiO2 nanotube by electrochemical deposition for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Yajing; Zhang, Xuejiao; Mao, Huanhuan; Huang, Yong; Ding, Qiongqiong; Pang, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphene oxide cross-linked gelatin was firstly employed as reinforcement fillers in hydroxyapatite coatings by electrochemical deposition process on TiO 2 nanotube arrays. • Gelatin functionalized graphene oxide induced the formation of hydroxyapatite coatings. • The success of gelatin and graphene oxide incorporation was evidenced with FTIR and XPS. • The synthesized composite coatings showed good biocompatibility and no adverse effect in cell culture tests. - Abstract: Graphene oxide cross-linked gelatin was employed as reinforcement fillers in hydroxyapatite coatings by electrochemical deposition process on TiO 2 nanotube arrays (TNs). The TNs were grown on titanium by electrochemical anodization in hydrofluoric electrolyte using constant voltage. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Field emission scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analysis and biological studies were used to characterize the coatings. The corrosion resistance of the coatings was also investigated by electrochemical method in simulated body fluid solution

  1. Characteristics and Gel Properties of Gelatin from Goat Skin as Influenced by Alkaline-pretreatment Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Mad-Ali

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics and properties of gelatin from goat skin pretreated with NaOH solutions (0.50 and 0.75 M for various times (1 to 4 days were investigated. All gelatins contained α-chains as the predominant component, followed by β-chain. Gelling and melting temperatures of those gelatins were 23.02°C to 24.16°C and 33.07°C to 34.51°C, respectively. Gel strength of gelatins increased as NaOH concentration and pretreatment time increased (p<0.05. Pretreatment for a longer time yielded gelatin with a decrease in L*-value but an increase in b*-value. Pretreatment of goat skin using 0.75 M NaOH for 2 days rendered the highest yield (15.95%, wet weight basis as well as high gel strength (222.42 g, which was higher than bovine gelatin (199.15 g. Gelatin obtained had the imino acid content of 226 residues/1,000 residues and the gelatin gel had a fine and ordered structure. Therefore, goat skin gelatin could be used as a potential replacer of commercial gelatin.

  2. Detection of growth factor binding to gelatin and heparin using a photonic crystal optical biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, Abby W.; Chan, Leo L.; Sendemir-Urkmez, Aylin; Cunningham, Brian T.; Jamison, Russell D.

    2010-01-01

    Drug-carrier interactions are important to protein controlled release systems to protect the protein from denaturation and ensure properly timed release. A novel photonic crystal biosensor was used to investigate a gelatin-protein controlled release system to determine the amount of protein bound to the carrier at physiological conditions. The Biomolecular Interaction Detection (BIND) system reflects a narrow band of wavelengths when white light is shone incident to the grating. As mass is deposited onto the surface, the peak wavelength value is shifted due to changes in the optical density of the biosensor. The BIND system was used to detect the binding of growth factors onto acidic gelatin, basic gelatin, and heparin on the sensor surface. Through a series of experiments, including functionalizing the sensor, adjusting the ionic strength of the solution, adjusting the substrate concentration, and minimizing non-specific signal, the adsorption of the gelatins and heparin on the sensor was enhanced. The binding interaction of recombinant human transforming growth factor (rhTGF)-β1 and bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP)-2 with the two types of gelatin and heparin were investigated. The strength of the interaction between rhTGF-β1 and the substrates is in the following order: heparin > acidic gelatin > basic gelatin. RhBMP-2 bound to the substrates but with less intensity than TGF-β1: heparin > basic gelatin > acidic gelatin. This work provides support for the controlled release mechanism through degradation of the gelatin carrier.

  3. Holographic diffuser by use of a silver halide sensitized gelatin process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Il; Choi, Yoon Sun; Ham, Yong Nam; Park, Chong Yun; Kim, Jong Man

    2003-05-01

    Diffusers play an important role in liquid-crystal display (LCD) application as a beam-shaping device, a brightness homogenizer, a light-scattering device, and an imaging screen. The transmittance and diffusing angle of the diffusers are the critical aspects for the applications to the LCD. The holographic diffusers by use of various processing methods have been investigated. The diffusing characteristics of different diffusing materials and processing methods have been evaluated and compared. The micro-structures of holographic diffusers have been investigated by use of using scanning electron microscopy. The holographic diffusers by use of the silver halide sensitized gelatin (SHSG) method have the structural merits for the improvement of the quality of diffusers. The features of holographic diffuser were exceptional in terms of transmittance and diffusing angle. The replication method by use of the SHSG process can be directly used for the manufacturing of diffusers for the display application.

  4. Preparation, characterization, and antibacterial activity of γ-irradiated silver nanoparticles in aqueous gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroudi, Majid; Ahmad, Mansor B.; Hakimi, Mohammad; Zamiri, Reza; Zak, Ali Khorsand; Hosseini, Hasan Ali; Zargar, Mohsen

    2013-04-01

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were obtained through γ-irradiation of aqueous solutions containing AgNO3 and gelatin as a silver source and stabilizer, respectively. The absorbed dose of γ-irradiation influences the particle diameter of the Ag-NPs, as evidenced from surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. When the γ-irradiation dose was increased (from 2 to 50 kGy), the mean particle size was decreased continuously as a result of γ-induced Ag-NPs fragmentation. The antibacterial properties of the Ag-NPs were tested against Methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (Gram-positive) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P.a) (Gram-negative) bacteria. This approach reveals that the γ-irradiation-mediated method is a promising simple route for synthesizing highly stable Ag-NPs in aqueous solutions with good antibacterial properties for different applications.

  5. Gelatin capsule waste: new source of protein to develop a biodegradable film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Campo

    Full Text Available Abstract This work aimed to develop biodegradable films utilizing a new source of gelatin derived from the nutraceutical capsule manufacture waste of coconut with safflower oil, coconut oil and safflower oil. The mechanical, physicochemical, barrier, optical, biodegradation, thermal and morphological properties were evaluated. All films showed low water vapor permeability, intermediate water solubility and high elongation at break. In addition, the films exhibited excellent barrier ability to ultraviolet light. After 15 days of soil burial degradation, the films lost over 68% of initial weight. Scanning electron microscopy showed an appearance free of pores, cracks or bubbles. Furthermore the films showed similar characteristics independent of the waste utilized. The results demonstrated that all the biodegradable films prepared presented appropriate characteristics to be used as substitute to synthetic packaging.

  6. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  7. PENGARUH JENIS LARUTAN PERENDAM SERTA METODE PENGERINGAN TERHADAP SIFAT FISIK, KIMIA, DAN FUNGSIONAL GELATIN DARI KULIT CUCUT [The Influence of Solvent Variety and Drying Method on Physical, Chemical and Functional Characteristic of Shark Skin Gelatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Astawan 1

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Gelatin is a denaturation product of collagen and has been widely utilized for foods, photography uses, medical materials, and culture materials for microorganisms. Recently, gelatin’s uses has expanded to new applications such as health foods. Gelatin of land animal origin such as bovine and porcine has been mainly used. However, gelatin with new properties is desired to develop expanded applications. In this research gelatin was made from shark skin. The shark skin collagen was distended by acetic acid solution (acid process and sodium hydroxide solution (alkali process, and gelatin was then extracted at 80oC of water. The extracted gelatin was dried by vacuum drying and freeze drying to obtain powder product. Shark gelatin produced by the combination of alkali and vacuum drying process (OVB gelatin had better qualities on yield, water content, gel strength, melting point, and emulsion stability as compared to the others. Sensory evaluation indicated that shark gelatin had lower values in color, odor, and performance as compared to the commercial gelatin of fish, pig and bovine (SKW Biosystem. However, as compared to the commercial gelatins, OVB gelatin had a similar values on gel strength (202 bloom and emulsion stability (100%, but higher values on viscosity (8 cP and pH (9.3. Those values indicated that ray skin gelatin can be used to substitute the commercial gelatin in some food industries

  8. Transglutaminase reactivity with gelatine: perspective applications in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, F; Barbani, N; Giusti, P; Ciardelli, G

    2006-05-01

    Gelatine was crosslinked by means of an enzymatic treatment using tissue transglutaminase (tTGase) (Sigma) and microbial transglutaminase (mTGase) (Ajinomoto) which catalyses the formation of isopeptide bonds between the gamma-carbonyl group of a glutamine residue and the epsilon-amino group of a lysine residue. The reaction is an interesting alternative to the traditional glutaraldehyde crosslinking, which has several drawbacks (e.g., in medical application) due to the toxicity of the chemical reagent. To further investigate the possibility to utilize the modified protein for tissue engineering application, TGase crosslinked gelatine was incorporated in a gellan matrix, a polysaccharide, to enhance the stability in aqueous media. Films obtained by casting were characterized by thermal analysis, chemical imaging, swelling behaviour and cell adhesion.

  9. Evaluation of hard gelatin capsules and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose containing ampicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella Gonçalves Weigert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop and evaluate formulations containing ampicillin in capsules of gelatin and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC. Two formulations (A and B were developed. The final product quality was evaluated by testing for quality control and the results were in agreement with the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia. The formulations with HPMC capsules showed lower percentages of drug dissolved (99.67%, HPMC-A and 87.70%, HPMC-B than the gelatin (100.18%, GEL-A and 101.16% GEL-B. Because of the delay of the ampicillin release observed in the dissolution profiles, it becomes necessary to evaluate the drugs that can be conditioned in the HPMC capsules.

  10. On-Demand Microwave-Assisted Fabrication of Gelatin Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane D. Frazier

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultraporous gelatin foams (porosity >94%, ρ ≈ 0.039–0.056 g/cm3 have been fabricated via microwave radiation. The resulting foam structures are unique with regard to pore morphology (i.e., closed-cell and exhibit 100% macroporosity (pore size 332 to 1700 μm, presence of an external skin, and densities similar to aerogels. Results indicate that the primary foaming mechanism is governed by the vaporization of water that is tightly bound in secondary structures (i.e., helices, β-turns, β-sheets that are present in dehydrated gelatin films but not present in the foams after microwave radiation (700 Watts.

  11. Gelatin films plasticized with a simulated biodiesel coproduct stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore the possibility of substituting an unrefined biodiesel coproduct stream (BCS for refined glycerol as a polymer plasticizer we have prepared cast gelatin films plasticized with a simulated BCS, i.e., mixtures of glycerol and some of the typical components found in BCS (methyl linoleate, methyl oleate, linoleic acid, and oleic acid. We measured the tensile properties as a function of plasticizer composition, and analyzed the specific effect of each individual component on tensile properties. We found that it is the unrecovered alkyl esters that largely determine the tensile properties, and that BCS can be successfully used to plasticize cast gelatin films as long as the BCS contains 11 parts by weight, or less, of unrecovered alkyl esters per 100 parts glycerol.

  12. Doubly slanted layer structures in holographic gelatin emulsions: solar concentrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Jenny; Tam, Wing Yim; Chan, Po Shan; Sun, Caiming; Ho, Choi Wing

    2010-01-01

    We have fabricated doubly slanted layer structures in holographic gelatin emulsions using a double-exposure two-beam interference from two light sources with different wavelengths. The doubly slanted layers, with different spacings and overlapping with each other, are fabricated such that they are slanted in opposite directions making a 30° angle with the holographic plate. The doubly slanted layer structures exhibit photonic stop bands corresponding to the two layered structures. More importantly, diffracted light beams from the slanted layers travel in different directions and emerge, through internal reflections, at the opposite edges of the gelatin plate. The doubly slanted layer structures could be used as solar concentrators such that sunlight is separated into different components and steered directly to photovoltaics with the corresponding wavelength sensitivities to enhance energy conversion efficiency

  13. Fabrication and Optimization of Gelatin/ Nano Bioglass Conduits for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Foroutan Koudehi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Peripheral nerve injury is common in trauma patients and 4.5% of all soft-tissue injuries are accompanied by defects of peripheral nerve. Peripheral nerve injuries can lead to lifetime loss of function and permanent disfigurement. Designed conduits com-prised of natural and synthetic materials are now widely used in the construction of damaged tissues. The aim of this project was to prepare nanocomposite conduits from gelatin and bioglass for damaged peripheral nerve reconstruction. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study,compound water solution of gelatin and nano bioglass synthesized through sol gel method, was made. After preparing the solution, special mandrels were dipped in solution several times and freeze dried in order to be emptied of wa-ter via sublimation. The conduits had the following dimensions: internal diameter: 1.6 mm, outside diameter: 2.2 mm and length about 12 mm. In order to evaluate the biocompatibility of conduits we used cytotoxicity test by Chinese ovary cells and MTT assay by Miapaca-2 (pancreatic cancer cell line. Results: The prepared nano bioglass and conduits were characterized using transmission elec-tron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Results of biocompatibility test showed no sign of cytotoxicity and cells were found to be attached to the pore walls offered by the conduits. Conclusion: According to the results, nano bioglass conduits could be a good candidate for peripheral nerve regeneration. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2014; 21 (2:152-160

  14. Antibacterial performance of bovine lactoferrin-fish gelatine electrospun nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Padrão, Jorge; Machado, Raul; Casal, Margarida; Rodrigues, L. R.; Dourado, Fernando; Lanceros-Méndez, S.; Sencadas, V.

    2014-01-01

    Antibacterial performance of bovine lactoferrin-fish gelatine electrospun nanocomposites The alarming increase of antibiotic resistant microorganisms urged the development and synthesis of novel antimicrobial biomaterials, to be employed in a broad range of applications, ranging from food casings to medical devices [1 – 3]. This work describes the processing and characterization of an innovative fully biobased eletrctrospun nanocomposite material displaying antibacterial properties. Its c...

  15. Preparation and characterization of gelatin/cerium(Ⅲ) film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄崇军; 黄雅钦; 田娜; 童元建; 殷瑞贤

    2010-01-01

    A novel gelatin film with antibacterial activity was prepared by electrostatic crosslinking using cerium (Ⅲ) nitrate hexahydrate as the crosslinking agent. The structure and properties of the films were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectra, tensile tests, thermogravimetric analysis, static drop contact angle and disc diffusion method. The results showed that cross-linking could not only improve the thermal and mechanical properties and lower the hydrophilic property of the films, but also make...

  16. Gelatin as a new humidity sensing material: Characterization and limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapardanis, Steven [School of Engineering and Technology, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, Michigan, 48859 (United States); Hudpeth, Mathew [Department of Physics, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, Michigan, 48859 (United States); Kaya, Tolga, E-mail: kaya2t@cmich.edu [School of Engineering and Technology, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, Michigan, 48859 (United States); Science of Advanced Materials Program, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, Michigan, 48859 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The goal of this work is to assert the utility of collagen and its denatured counterpart gelatin as cost-effective alternatives to existing sensing layers comprised of polymers. Rather than producing a material that will need to be discarded or recycled, collagen, as a by-product of the meat and leather industry, could be repurposed. This work examines the feasibility of using collagen as a sensing layer. Planar electrodes were patterned with lift-off process to work with the natural characteristics of gelatin by utilizing metal vapor deposition, spin coating, and photolithography. Characterization methods have also been optimized through the creation of specialized humidity chambers that isolate specific characteristics such as response time, accuracy, and hysteresis. Collagen-based sensors are found to have a sensitivity to moisture in the range of 0.065 pF/%RH. Diffusion characteristics were also analyzed with the diffusion coefficient found to be 2.5 × 10{sup −5} cm{sup 2}/s. Absorption and desorption times were found to be 20 seconds and 8 seconds, respectively. Hysteresis present in the data is attributed to temperature cross-sensitivity. Ultimately, the utility of collagen as a dielectric sensing material is, in part, due to its fibrous macrostructures as well its hydrophilic sites along the peptide chains. Gelatin was patterned between and below interdigitated copper electrodes and tested as a relative humidity sensor. This work shows that gelatin, which is inexpensive, widely available, and easy to process, can be an effective dielectric sensing polymer for capacitive-type relative humidity sensors.

  17. Gelatin as a new humidity sensing material: Characterization and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Shapardanis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work is to assert the utility of collagen and its denatured counterpart gelatin as cost-effective alternatives to existing sensing layers comprised of polymers. Rather than producing a material that will need to be discarded or recycled, collagen, as a by-product of the meat and leather industry, could be repurposed. This work examines the feasibility of using collagen as a sensing layer. Planar electrodes were patterned with lift-off process to work with the natural characteristics of gelatin by utilizing metal vapor deposition, spin coating, and photolithography. Characterization methods have also been optimized through the creation of specialized humidity chambers that isolate specific characteristics such as response time, accuracy, and hysteresis. Collagen-based sensors are found to have a sensitivity to moisture in the range of 0.065 pF/%RH. Diffusion characteristics were also analyzed with the diffusion coefficient found to be 2.5 × 10−5 cm2/s. Absorption and desorption times were found to be 20 seconds and 8 seconds, respectively. Hysteresis present in the data is attributed to temperature cross-sensitivity. Ultimately, the utility of collagen as a dielectric sensing material is, in part, due to its fibrous macrostructures as well its hydrophilic sites along the peptide chains. Gelatin was patterned between and below interdigitated copper electrodes and tested as a relative humidity sensor. This work shows that gelatin, which is inexpensive, widely available, and easy to process, can be an effective dielectric sensing polymer for capacitive-type relative humidity sensors.

  18. Gelatin model for training ultrasound-guided puncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Campos Moraes Amato

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is indispensable that members of the medical profession receive the technical training needed to enable them to rapidly obtain effective vascular access. Training procedures should be used judiciously to familiarize students with the technique. However, existing models are expensive or ineffective, and models need to be developed that are similar to what will be encountered in real patients.OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate creation and application of a gelatin model for training ultrasound-guided puncture.METHOS: The model was made using a mixture of colorless gelatin and water in a transparent plastic receptacle with two pairs of orifices of different diameters, through which two plastic tubes were inserted, to simulate blood vessels.RESULTS: The model was a close approximation to the real medical procedure in several aspects, since gelatin has a similar consistency to human tissues, providing a more faithful reproduction of the tactile sensation at the moment when the needle reaches the interior of a vessel and its contents are aspirated.CONCLUSIONS: The method proposed here can be used to easily construct a low-cost model using everyday materials that is suitable for large-scale training of ultrasound-guided puncture.

  19. Effect of extraction temperature on characteristics of chicken legskin gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sompie, M.; Triasih, A.

    2018-01-01

    Gelatin is a denaturalized protein that is derived from collagen by acidic or alkaline hydrolysis and is an important functional biopolymer that has a very broad application in many industrial fields. Its functional properties depend on processing conditions as well as the raw material. The objective of the research was to study effect of extraction temperature on characteristics of native chicken legskin gelatin. This study used Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four treatments (T1 = 500C, T2 = 550C, T3 = 600C, T4 = 650C) and five replications. Statistical analysis were carried out by one Anova and the mean difference was tested using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The result of research indicated that, extraction temperature had significant effect (Pchicken legskin gelatin, but it had no significant effect (P>0.05) on water content. It was concluded that the use of extraction temperature 600C was (yields 13.75, gel strength 78.75 g bloom, viscosity 6.52 cP, protein content 84.23% and water content 6.20%).

  20. In vitro evaluation of crosslinked electrospun fish gelatin scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, S R; Rodrigues, G; Martins, G G; Henriques, C M R; Silva, J C

    2013-04-01

    Gelatin from cold water fish skin was electrospun, crosslinked and investigated as a substrate for the adhesion and proliferation of cells. Gelatin was first dissolved in either water or concentrated acetic acid and both solutions were successfully electrospun. Cross-linking was achieved via three different routes: glutaraldehyde vapor, genipin and dehydrothermal treatment. Solution's properties (surface tension, electrical conductivity and viscosity) and scaffold's properties (chemical bonds, weight loss and fiber diameters) were measured. Cellular viability was analyzed culturing 3T3 fibroblasts plated on the scaffolds and grown up to 7 days. The cells were fixed and observed with SEM or stained for DNA and F-actin and observed with confocal microscopy. In all scaffolds, the cells attached and spread with varying degrees. The evaluation of cell viability showed proliferation of cells until confluence in scaffolds crosslinked by glutaraldehyde and genipin; however the rate of growth in genipin crosslinked scaffolds was slow, recovering only by day five. The results using the dehydrothermal treatment were the less satisfactory. Our results show that glutaraldehyde treated fish gelatin is the most suitable substrate, of the three studied, for fibroblast adhesion and proliferation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The study of consistent properties of gelatinous shampoo with minoxidil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Gnitko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is the study of consistent properties of gelatinous shampoo with minoxidil 1% for the complex therapy and prevention of alopecia. This shampoo with minoxidil was selected according to the complex physical-chemical, biopharmaceutical and microbiological investigations. Methods and results. It has been established that consistent properties of the gelatinous minoxidil 1% shampoo and the «mechanical stability» (1.70 describe the formulation as exceptionally thixotropic composition with possibility of restoration after mechanical loads. Also this fact allows to predict stability of the consistent properties during long storage. Conclusion. Factors of dynamic flowing for the foam detergent gel with minoxidil (Кd1=38.9%; Kd2=78.06% quantitatively confirm sufficient degree of distribution at the time of spreading composition on the skin surface of the hairy part of head or during technological operations of manufacturing. Insignificant difference of «mechanical stability» for the gelatinous minoxidil 1% shampoo and its base indicates the absence of interactions between active substance and the base.

  2. Study and characterization of porous ceramic obtained via gelatinization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storion, A.G.; Campos, M.G.N.; Mariano, N.A.; Maestrelli, S.C.; Mariano, W.A.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional processes for manufacturing porous ceramic sometimes provide bodies with low mechanical strength, showing cracks and macro defects, in addition to the high complexity or cost. This work proposes a new porous ceramic processing route called cold gelatinization, using as raw material a clay with low plasticity, water and gelatin. At first, the characterization of the clay was carried out and then specimens of various compositions were produced by varying clay content (40, 50, 55 and 60% of solids) and keeping the water and gelatin content constant in the formulation. After cold forming the samples were and fired under various conditions: initial temperature of 300 or 600 °C; maximum firing temperature of 800, 900, 1000, 1100 or 1350 °C. After firing, it was obtained water absorption, apparent density, apparent porosity, linear shrinkage and mechanical resistance via 3 points bending test. The best results were for samples fired in temperatures lower than 1100 °C and 50% and 55 % of solid content. (author)

  3. Antimicrobial and Barrier Properties of Bovine Gelatin Films Reinforced by Nano TiO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nassiri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of nano titanium dioxide incorporation were investigated on the water vaporpermeability, oxygen permeability, and antimicrobial properties of bovine gelatin films. The nano TiO2 (TiO2-N was homogenized by sonication and incorporated into bovine gelatin solutions at different concentrations(e.g. 1, 2, 3, and 5% w/w of dried gelatin. The permeability of the films to water vapor and oxygen wassignificantly decreased by incorporating of low concentration TiO2-N to gelatin solutions. TiO2-N gelatin filmsshowed an excellent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Theseproperties suggest that TiO2-N has the potential as filler in gelatin-based films for using as an active packagingmaterials in pharmaceutical and food packaging industries.

  4. The role of three-dimensional pure bovine gelatin scaffolds in tendon healing, modeling, and remodeling: an in vivo investigation with potential clinical value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryan, Ahmad; Sharifi, Pardis; Moshiri, Ali; Silver, Ian A

    2017-09-01

    Large tendon defects involving extensive tissue loss present complex clinical problems. Surgical reconstruction of such injuries is normally performed by transplanting autogenous and allogenous soft tissues that are expected to remodel to mimic a normal tendon. However, the use of grafts has always been associated with significant limitations. Tissue engineering employing artificial scaffolds may provide acceptable alternatives. Gelatin is a hydrolyzed form of collagen that is bioactive, biodegradable, and biocompatible. The present study has investigated the suitability of gelatin scaffold for promoting healing of a large tendon-defect model in rabbits. An experimental model of a large tendon defect was produced by partial excision of the Achilles tendon of the left hind leg in adult rabbits. To standardize and stabilize the length of the tendon defect a modified Kessler core suture was anchored in the sectioned tendon ends. The defects were either left untreated or filled with three-dimensional gelatin scaffold. Before euthanasia 60 days after injury, the progress of healing was evaluated clinically. Samples of healing tendon were harvested at autopsy and evaluated by gross, histopathologic, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy, and by biomechanical testing. The treated animals showed superior weight-bearing and physical activity compared with those untreated, while frequency of peritendinous adhesions around the healing site was reduced. The gelatin scaffold itself was totally degraded and replaced by neo-tendon that morphologically had significantly greater numbers, diameters, density, and maturation of collagen fibrils, fibers, and fiber bundles than untreated tendon scar tissue. It also had mechanically higher ultimate load, yield load, stiffness, maximum stress and elastic modulus, when compared to the untreated tendons. Gelatin scaffold may be a valuable option in surgical reconstruction of large tendon defects.

  5. Extraction optimization and characterization of gelatine from fish dry skin of Spanish mackerel (Scomberromorus commersoni)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumaningrum, I.; Pranoto, Y.; Hadiwiyoto, S.

    2018-04-01

    This work was to optimized gelatin extraction from dry skin of Spanish mackerel (Scomberromorus commersoni) using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The aim of this study was to determine the optimal condition of temperature and time for extraction process and properties of the gelatin extracted from dry mackerel skin. The optimal condition for extraction was 59.71°C for 4.25 hours. Results showed that predicted yield by RSM was 13.69% and predicted gel strength was 291.93 Bloom, whereas the actual experiment for yield and gel strength were 13.03% and 291.33 Bloom, respectively. The gelatin extracted from dried skin were analyzed for their proximate composition, yield, gel strength, viscosity, color, and amino acid composition. The results of dried skin gelatin properties compared to the commercial gelatin. Gelatin extracted from the dried skin gave content lower moisture, ash and protein content but higher fat compared to commercial gelatin. This study also shows that the gelatin extracted from the dried skin gave higher gel strength and pH but the lower amino acid composition compared to commercial gelatin.

  6. Gelatin Nano-coating for Inhibiting Surface Crystallization of Amorphous Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerakapibal, Rattavut; Gui, Yue; Yu, Lian

    2018-01-05

    Inhibit the fast surface crystallization of amorphous drugs with gelatin nano-coatings. The free surface of amorphous films of indomethacin or nifedipine was coated by a gelatin solution (type A or B) and dried. The coating's effect on surface crystallization was evaluated. Coating thickness was estimated from mass change after coating. For indomethacin (weak acid, pK a  = 4.5), a gelatin coating of either type deposited at pH 5 and 10 inhibited its fast surface crystal growth. The coating thickness was 20 ± 10 nm. A gelatin coating deposited at pH 3, however, provided no protective effect. These results suggest that an effective gelatin coating does not require that the drug and the polymer have opposite charges. The ineffective pH 3 coating might reflect the poor wetting of indomethacin's neutral, hydrophobic surface by the coating solution. For nifedipine (weak base, pK a  = 2.6), a gelatin coating of either type deposited at pH 5 inhibited its fast surface crystal growth. Gelatin nano-coatings can be conveniently applied to amorphous drugs from solution to inhibit fast surface crystallization. Unlike strong polyelectrolyte coatings, a protective gelatin coating does not require strict pairing of opposite charges. This could make gelatin coating a versatile, pharmaceutically acceptable coating for stabilizing amorphous drugs.

  7. Variation of Hydroxyapatite Content in Soft Gelatin Affects Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahsai Kantawong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gelatin is a common material used in tissue engineering and hydroxyapatite (HA has a composition and structure similar to natural bone mineral. HA is also used to increase the adhesion ability of scaffolds. The physical and mechanical properties of gelatin, together with the chemical properties of HA, can affect cell differentiation. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the gene expression of human mesenchymal stem cells (HMSCs upon culturing on gelatin composite with HA. Low amounts of HA were introduced into the gelatin in order to modulate properties of gelatin. Three types of hydrogel were fabricated by glutaraldehyde crosslinking before lyophilization to produce the porous 3D structure: (1 pure gelatin, (2 0.5 mg/ml HA in gelatin, and (3 1 mg/ml HA in gelatin. The fabricated hydrogels were used as scaffolds to cultivate HMSCs for two periods - 24 hours and 3 weeks. The results showed that all types of fabricated hydrogels could be used to cultivate HMSCs. Changes of gene expressions indicated that the HMSCs cultured on the 1 mg/ml HA in gelatin showed neuronal lineage-specific differentiation.

  8. Study and characterization of powder mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson) bone gelatin through hydrolysis of hydrochloric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardawati, E.; Sugandi, H.; Kayaputri, I. L.; Cahyana, Y.; Wira, D. W.; Pujianto, T.; Kastaman, R.

    2018-02-01

    Gelatin is one of the most common food additives in the food and beverage industry. Gelatin is generally made of leather or pig bones, causing concerns about the halal and safety of its product. Mackerel fish bone (Scomberomorus commerson) is a waste fish that has not been utilized well and it contains 18.6% of collagen so that it can be made into gelatin. The purpose of this research is to know the relation between HCl concentration with physical and chemical characteristics of gelatin and to know the best HCl concentration for gelatin production. Based on the physical and chemical analysis of gelatin, it is known that the concentration of hydrochloric acid influences the yield, viscosity, gel strength and pH produced. The higher HCl concentration there will be decrease in the pH value, gel strength, viscosity and protein. The yield will rise to the optimum point then decrease with respect to the high HCl concentration. Gelatin with 2% HCl concentration was the best treatment, with pH value 3.83, viscosity 3.65cP, gel strength 190.50 blooms which fulfilled British Standard, yield 10.16%, protein content 43.34%. It has functional group such as amino acids glycine, proline and hydroxyproline and 15 other amino acids, the gelatin group uptake in the region of amide wave numbers A, amides I, II and III, with a gelatin molecular weight of 290.35 g/mol.

  9. Evaluation of three electronic report processing systems for preparing hydrologic reports of the U.S Geological Survey, Water Resources Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiltner, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    In 1987, the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey undertook three pilot projects to evaluate electronic report processing systems as a means to improve the quality and timeliness of reports pertaining to water resources investigations. The three projects selected for study included the use of the following configuration of software and hardware: Ventura Publisher software on an IBM model AT personal computer, PageMaker software on a Macintosh computer, and FrameMaker software on a Sun Microsystems workstation. The following assessment criteria were to be addressed in the pilot studies: The combined use of text, tables, and graphics; analysis of time; ease of learning; compatibility with the existing minicomputer system; and technical limitations. It was considered essential that the camera-ready copy produced be in a format suitable for publication. Visual improvement alone was not a consideration. This report consolidates and summarizes the findings of the electronic report processing pilot projects. Text and table files originating on the existing minicomputer system were successfully transformed to the electronic report processing systems in American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format. Graphics prepared using a proprietary graphics software package were transferred to all the electronic report processing software through the use of Computer Graphic Metafiles. Graphics from other sources were entered into the systems by scanning paper images. Comparative analysis of time needed to process text and tables by the electronic report processing systems and by conventional methods indicated that, although more time is invested in creating the original page composition for an electronically processed report , substantial time is saved in producing subsequent reports because the format can be stored and re-used by electronic means as a template. Because of the more compact page layouts, costs of printing the reports were 15% to 25

  10. Electronic resources of the rare books and valuable editions department of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University: open access for research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. К. Журавльова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes tasks that electronic collections of rare books fulfill: broad access for readers to rare and valuable editions providing, preservation of ensuring of the original. On the example of the electronic collection of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University – «eScriptorium: electronic archive of rare books and manuscripts for research and education» the possibility of the full-text resources of the valuable editions using is shown. The principles of creation, structure, chronological frameworks, directions of adding the documents to the archive are represented. The perspectives of the project development are outlined as well as examples of the digital libraries of the European countries and Ukraine are provided, the actual task of preserving the originals of the rare books of the country is raised, the innovative approaches to serving users with electronic resources are considered. The evidences of cooperation of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University with the largest world digital libraries: World Digital Library and Europeana are provided.

  11. The use of quality benchmarking in assessing web resources for the dermatology virtual branch library of the National electronic Library for Health (NeLH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel Boulos, M N; Roudsari, A V; Gordon, C; Muir Gray, J A

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, the U.K. National Health Service Information for Health Strategy proposed the implementation of a National electronic Library for Health to provide clinicians, healthcare managers and planners, patients and the public with easy, round the clock access to high quality, up-to-date electronic information on health and healthcare. The Virtual Branch Libraries are among the most important components of the National electronic Library for Health. They aim at creating online knowledge based communities, each concerned with some specific clinical and other health-related topics. This study is about the envisaged Dermatology Virtual Branch Libraries of the National electronic Library for Health. It aims at selecting suitable dermatology Web resources for inclusion in the forthcoming Virtual Branch Libraries after establishing preliminary quality benchmarking rules for this task. Psoriasis, being a common dermatological condition, has been chosen as a starting point. Because quality is a principal concern of the National electronic Library for Health, the study includes a review of the major quality benchmarking systems available today for assessing health-related Web sites. The methodology of developing a quality benchmarking system has been also reviewed. Aided by metasearch Web tools, candidate resources were hand-selected in light of the reviewed benchmarking systems and specific criteria set by the authors. Over 90 professional and patient-oriented Web resources on psoriasis and dermatology in general are suggested for inclusion in the forthcoming Dermatology Virtual Branch Libraries. The idea of an all-in knowledge-hallmarking instrument for the National electronic Library for Health is also proposed based on the reviewed quality benchmarking systems. Skilled, methodical, organized human reviewing, selection and filtering based on well-defined quality appraisal criteria seems likely to be the key ingredient in the envisaged National electronic Library for

  12. Preparation of cathode materials for solid oxide solid fuel (SOFC) using gelatin; Preparacao de materiais catodicos para celulas a combustivel de oxido solido (SOFC) atraves do uso de gelatina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, R.M.; Aquino, F. de M.; Macedo, D.A. de; Sa, A.M.; Galvao, G.O., E-mail: rinaldo_mendesa@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that convert chemical energy into electrical energy. These devices are basically divided into interconnectors, electrolyte, anode, and cathode. Recently, studies of improvements in microstructural and morphological properties of calcium cobaltate (Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9}, C349) has been made regarding its potential use as SOFC cathode for intermediate temperature. Gelatin has proven to be effective as a polymerizing agent in the synthesis of nanocrystalline materials. This work reports the synthesis and characterization of the C349 cathode using commercial gelatin. The structural properties of the material were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Morphological characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed the formation of the crystalline phase at 900 °C, indicating the effectiveness of the gelatin in the preparation of cathodes for SOFC. (author)

  13. Barriers to electronic access and delivery of educational information in resource constrained public schools: a case of Greater Tubatse Municipality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pholotho, T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are capable of expanding access to quality education, educational resources and provide teachers with new skills. Nevertheless, a majority of rural public schools have limited ICTs, mainly due...

  14. Electronic Grey Literature in Accelerator Science and Its Allied Subjects : Selected Web Resources for Scientists and Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Rajendiran, P

    2006-01-01

    Grey literature Web resources in the field of accelerator science and its allied subjects are collected for the scientists and engineers of RRCAT (Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology). For definition purposes the different types of grey literature are described. The Web resources collected and compiled in this article (with an overview and link for each) specifically focus on technical reports, preprints or e-prints, which meet the main information needs of RRCAT users.

  15. Amino Acid Profile, Group of Functional and Molecular Weight Distribution of Goat Skin Gelatin That Produced Through Acid Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irfan Said

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Gelatin is a product of hydrolysis of collagen protein from animals that are partially processed.  Gelatin used in food and non food industries.  Gelatin is produced when many import of raw skins and bones of pigs and cows.  Goat skins potential as a raw material substitution that still doubt its halal. Process production of gelatin determine the properties of gelatin. The objectives of this research were to determine amino acid profile, group of functional and molecular weight distribution of gelatin made from goat skins which was produced through a process of acid. The skin of male Bligon goat, 1.5 to 2.5 year old was used as raw materials. Process production of gelatin was using acid type acetic acid (CH3COOH 0.5 M (v/v as curing material. The experimental design applied in this study and commercial gelatin was used as control. The results showed that gelatin produced from goat skin through the process of acid had properties identical with commercial gelatin. It can be concluded that the gelatin has the potential substitute product of commercial gelatin. Keywords: collagen, gelatin, goat skin, curing, acid process

  16. Polycaprolactone diacrylate crosslinked biodegradable semi-interpenetrating networks of polyacrylamide and gelatin for controlled drug delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaiswal, Maneesh; Koul, Veena [Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India); Dinda, Amit K [Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India); Gupta, Asheesh, E-mail: veenak_iitd@yahoo.co [Department of Biochemical Pharmacology, Defense Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Ministry of Defense, New Delhi 110059 (India)

    2010-12-15

    A biodegradable semi-interpenetrating hydrogel network (semi-IPN) of polyacrylamide and gelatin was prepared using polycaprolactone diacrylate (mol. wt {approx} 640) as a crosslinker. The drug-polymer interaction and IPN formation were investigated by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Scanning electron micrographs of lyophilized matrices revealed porous internal structure with varying pore sizes under equilibrium hydrated conditions, depending upon formulation composition. pH-dependent swelling and degradation was enhanced with increasing gelatin content and decreasing crosslinker concentration (Cs). Compression modulus (CM) (at 20% strain) increased significantly from 23 {+-} 1.4 to 75 {+-} 2.7 kPa (p < 0.02) with increasing Cs (from 0.5 to 2.0 mol%), while it decreased from 162 {+-} 6.4 to 23 {+-} 1.4 kPa (p < 0.05) with decreasing PAm/G ratio. Cell viability studies by MTT assay showed excellent cytocompatibility of matrices with fibroblast L929 cells. Curcumin, a hydrophobic phytochemical, was loaded by a diffusion method and its release profile was investigated in 4% w/v aqueous BSA solution at 75 rpm (at 37 {+-} 0.2 {sup 0}C). Fitting of drug release data in the Korsmeyer-Peppas model suggested sustained release behavior up to 10 days with a combination of diffusion and erosion mechanism (0.5 < n < 1.0; M{sub t}/M{sub {infinity} {<=}} 0.6). The newly developed porous, biodegradable and elastic semi-IPNs may serve as an ideal matrix for controlled drug release and wound healing applications. The possibilities can be explored for pharmaceutical and tissue engineering applications.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and biocompatibility evaluation of hydroxyapatite - gelatin polyLactic acid ternary nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Nabipour

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: The current study reports the production and biocompatibility evaluation of a ternary nanocomposite consisting of HA, PLA, and gelatin for biomedical application.Materials and Methods: Hydroxyapatite nanopowder (HA: Ca10(PO46(OH2 was produced by burning the bovine cortical bone within the temperature range of 350-450 oC followed by heating in an oven at 800. Synthesis of the ternary nanocomposite was carried out in two steps: synthesis of gelatin-hydroxyapatite binary nanocomposite and addition of poly lactic acid with different percentages to the resulting composition. The crystal structure was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD, while major elements and impurities of hydroxyapatite were identified by elemental analysis of X-ray fluorescence (XRF. Functional groups were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Morphology and size of the nanocomposites were evaluated using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM.Biocompatibility of nanocomposites was investigated by MTT assay. Results: XRD patterns verified the ideal crystal structure of the hydroxyapatite, which indicated an appropriate synthesis process and absence of disturbing phases. Results of FTIR analysis determined the polymers’ functional groups, specified formation of the polymers on the hydroxyapatite surface, and verified synthesis of nHA/PLA/Gel composite. FESEM images also indicated the homogeneous structure of the composite in the range of 50 nanometers. MTT assay results confirmed the biocompatibility of nanocomposite samples.Conclusion: This study suggested that the ternary nanocomposite of nHA/PLA/Gel can be a good candidate for biomedical application such as drug delivery systems, but for evaluation of its potential in hard tissue replacement, mechanical tests should be performed.

  18. A novel fluoride anion modified gelatin nanogel system for ultrasound-triggered drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Daocheng; Wan, Mingxi

    2008-01-01

    Controlled drug release, especially tumor-targeted drug release, remains a great challenge. Here, we prepare a novel fluoride anion-modified gelatin nanogel system and investigate its characteristics of ultrasound-triggered drug release. Adriamycin gelatin nanogel modified with fluoride anion (ADM-GNMF) was prepared by a modified co-precipitation method with fluoride anion and sodium sulfate. The loading and encapsulation efficiency of the anti-neoplastic agent adriamycin (ADM) were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The size and shape of ADM-GNMF were determined by electron microscopy and photo-correlation spectroscopy. The size distribution and drug release efficiency of ADM-GNMF, before and after sonication, were measured by two designed measuring devices that consisted of either a submicron particle size analyzer and an ultrasound generator as well as an ultrasound generator, automatic sampler, and HPLC. The ADM-GNMF was stable in solution with an average diameter of 46+/-12 nm; the encapsulation and loading efficiency of adriamycin were 87.2% and 6.38%, respectively. The ultrasound-triggered drug release and size change were most efficient at a frequency of 20 kHz, power density of 0.4w/cm2, and a 1~2 min duration. Under this ultrasound-triggered condition, 51.5% of drug in ADM-GNMF was released within 1~2 min, while the size of ADM-GNMF changed from 46 +/- 12 nm to 1212 +/- 35 nm within 1~2 min of sonication and restored to its previous size in 2~3 min after the ultrasound stopped. In contrast, 8.2% of drug in ADM-GNMF was released within 2~3 min without sonication, and only negligible size changes were found. The ADM-GNMF system efficiently released the encompassed drug in response to ultrasound, offering a novel and promising controlled drug release system for targeted therapy for cancer or other diseases.

  19. Particle size modeling and morphology study of chitosan/gelatin/nanohydroxyapatite nanocomposite microspheres for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri-Khoulenjani, Shadab; Mirzadeh, Hamid; Etrati-Khosroshahi, Mohammad; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali

    2013-06-01

    In this study, nanocomposite microspheres based on chitosan/gelatin/nanohydroxyapatite were fabricated, and effects of the nanohydroxyapatite/biopolymer (chitosan/gelatin) weight ratio (nHA/P), stirring rate, chitosan concentration and biopolymer concentration on the particle size, and morphology of nanocomposite microspheres were investigated. Particle size of microspheres was modeled by design of experiments using the surface response method. Particle size, morphology of microspheres, and distribution of nanoparticles within the composite microspheres were evaluated using an optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were applied to study the physical and chemical characteristics of microspheres. Results showed that by modulating the nHA/P ratio, chitosan concentration, polymer concentration, and stirring rate, it is possible to fabricate microspheres in wide rages of particle size (5-150 μm). Analysis of variance confirmed that the modified quadratic model can be used to predict the particle size of nanocomposite microspheres within the design space. SEM studies showed that microspheres with different compositions had totally different morphologies from dense morphologies to porous ones. TEM images demonstrated that nanoparticles were distributed uniformly within the polymeric matrix. MTT assay and cell culture studies showed that microspheres with different compositions possessed good biocompatibility. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Rejoining of cut wounds by engineered gelatin-keratin glue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirupathi Kumara Raja, S; Thiruselvi, T; Sailakshmi, G; Ganesh, S; Gnanamani, A

    2013-08-01

    Rejoining of cut tissue ends of a critical site challenges clinicians. The toxicity, antigenicity, low adhesive strength, flexibility, swelling and cost of the currently employed glue demands an alternative. Engineered gelatin-keratin glue (EGK-glue) described in the present study was found to be suitable for wet tissue approximation. EGK-glue was prepared by engineering gelatin with caffeic acid using EDC and conjugating with keratin by periodate oxidation. UV-visible, (1)H NMR and circular dichroism analyses followed by experiments on gelation time, rheology, gel adhesive strength (in vitro), wet tissue approximation (in vivo), H&E staining of tissue sections at scheduled time intervals and tensile strength of the healed skin were carried out to assess the effectiveness of the EGK-glue in comparison with fibrin glue and cyanoacrylate. Results of UV-visible, NMR and CD analyses confirmed the functionalization and secondary structural changes. Increasing concentration of keratin reduces the gelation time (glue for clinical applications. Tissue approximation property assessed using the incision wound model (Wistar strain) in comparison with cyanoacrylate and fibrin glue suggested, that EGK-glue explicitly accelerates the rejoining of tissue with a 1.86 fold increase in skin tensile strength after healing. Imparting quinone moiety to gelatin-keratin conjugates through caffeic acid and a weaker oxidizing agent provides an adhesive glue with appreciable strength, and hemocompatible, cytocompatible and biodegradable properties, which, rejoin the cut tissue ends effectively. EGK-glue obtained in the present study finds wide biomedical/clinical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ocular biocompatibility of gelatin microcarriers functionalized with oxidized hyaluronic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Jui-Yang, E-mail: jylai@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Institute of Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan (China); Biomedical Engineering Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan (China); Center for Tissue Engineering, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan 33305, Taiwan (China); Department of Ophthalmology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan 33305, Taiwan (China); Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, New Taipei City 24301, Taiwan (China); Ma, David Hui-Kang [Center for Tissue Engineering, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan 33305, Taiwan (China); Department of Ophthalmology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan 33305, Taiwan (China); Department of Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan (China)

    2017-03-01

    Given that the presence of aldehyde groups on the oxidized sugar residues may pose toxicity concerns, it is necessary to examine the safety of gelatin microcarriers (GMC) functionalized with oxidized hyaluronic acid (oHA) for potential ophthalmic applications. In this study, the ocular biocompatibility of biopolymer microcarriers was investigated in vitro using primary rabbit corneal cell cultures and in vivo using the anterior chamber of the rabbit eye model. Our results showed that different types of corneal cells including epithelial, stromal, and endothelial cells remain viable and actively proliferate following 2 and 4 days of exposure to test materials. In addition, similar interleukin-6 gene expression levels and comet tail lengths were seen in the presence and absence of biopolymer microcarriers, suggesting no cellular inflammation and genotoxicity. After 7 and 14 days of intracameral injection in the rabbit eyes, both the GMC samples and their counterparts functionalized with oHA were well tolerated in the ocular anterior chamber as demonstrated by slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Clinical observations including specular microscopic examinations, corneal topography, and corneal thickness measurements also showed that the rabbits bearing biopolymer microcarriers exhibit no signs of corneal edema and astigmatism as well as endothelial damage, indicating the absence of tissue response. It is concluded that the GMC materials functionalized with oHA (oxidation level: 10.4 ± 0.9%) are compatible toward corneal cells and ocular anterior segment tissues at a concentration of 10 mg/ml. The information about the effect of coupling of aldehyde-functionalized HA to gelatin on in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of biopolymer composites can be used as further development of corneal stromal cell microcarriers for tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • We examine in vitro and in vivo ocular biocompatibility of biopolymer microcarrier. • Gelatin-oxidized HA

  2. Ocular biocompatibility of gelatin microcarriers functionalized with oxidized hyaluronic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Jui-Yang; Ma, David Hui-Kang

    2017-01-01

    Given that the presence of aldehyde groups on the oxidized sugar residues may pose toxicity concerns, it is necessary to examine the safety of gelatin microcarriers (GMC) functionalized with oxidized hyaluronic acid (oHA) for potential ophthalmic applications. In this study, the ocular biocompatibility of biopolymer microcarriers was investigated in vitro using primary rabbit corneal cell cultures and in vivo using the anterior chamber of the rabbit eye model. Our results showed that different types of corneal cells including epithelial, stromal, and endothelial cells remain viable and actively proliferate following 2 and 4 days of exposure to test materials. In addition, similar interleukin-6 gene expression levels and comet tail lengths were seen in the presence and absence of biopolymer microcarriers, suggesting no cellular inflammation and genotoxicity. After 7 and 14 days of intracameral injection in the rabbit eyes, both the GMC samples and their counterparts functionalized with oHA were well tolerated in the ocular anterior chamber as demonstrated by slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Clinical observations including specular microscopic examinations, corneal topography, and corneal thickness measurements also showed that the rabbits bearing biopolymer microcarriers exhibit no signs of corneal edema and astigmatism as well as endothelial damage, indicating the absence of tissue response. It is concluded that the GMC materials functionalized with oHA (oxidation level: 10.4 ± 0.9%) are compatible toward corneal cells and ocular anterior segment tissues at a concentration of 10 mg/ml. The information about the effect of coupling of aldehyde-functionalized HA to gelatin on in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of biopolymer composites can be used as further development of corneal stromal cell microcarriers for tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • We examine in vitro and in vivo ocular biocompatibility of biopolymer microcarrier. • Gelatin-oxidized HA

  3. The effects of gelatin supplementation prior to cooling on ram semen quality and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The physical and chemical characteristics of gelatin have been used to justify its inclusion in extenders to preserve the sperm quality and improve results of cervical artificial insemination with cooled semen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of gelatin supplementation in cool...

  4. Effect of dry-heating with pectin on gelatinization properties of sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of dry-heating with pectin at different dry heating temperatures, heating times and pH on the gelatinization properties of sweet potato starch. Methods: The gelatinization properties of sweet potato starch - pectin blend were analyzed using a rapid viscosity analyzer (RVA), differential scanning ...

  5. The Role of Bloom Index of Gelatin on the Interaction with Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui Yang Lai

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Biocompatible materials are of considerable interest in the development of cell/drug delivery carriers for therapeutic applications. This paper investigates the effects of the Bloom index of gelatin on its interaction with retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells. Following two days of culture of ARPE-19 cells with gelatin samples G75-100, G175, and G300, the in vitro biocompatibility was determined by cell proliferation and viability assays, and glutamate uptake measurements, as well as cytokine expression analyses. The mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity in the G300 groups was significantly lower than that of G75-100 and G175 groups. The Live/Dead assays also showed that the gelatin samples G300 induced mild cytotoxicity. In comparison with the treatment of gelatins with low Bloom index, the exposure to high Bloom strength gelatins markedly reduced the glutamate uptake capacity of ARPE-19 cells. One possible explanation for these observations is that the presence of gelatin samples G300 with high viscosity in the medium may affect the nutrient availability to cultured cells. The analyses of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 expression at both mRNA and protein levels showed that the gelatins with low Bloom index caused less cellular inflammatory reaction and had more acceptable biocompatibility than their high Bloom strength counterparts. These findings suggest that the Bloom index gives influence on cellular responses to gelatin materials.

  6. Gelatin Scaffolds with Controlled Pore Structure and Mechanical Property for Cartilage Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shangwu; Zhang, Qin; Nakamoto, Tomoko; Kawazoe, Naoki; Chen, Guoping

    2016-03-01

    Engineering of cartilage tissue in vitro using porous scaffolds and chondrocytes provides a promising approach for cartilage repair. However, nonuniform cell distribution and heterogeneous tissue formation together with weak mechanical property of in vitro engineered cartilage limit their clinical application. In this study, gelatin porous scaffolds with homogeneous and open pores were prepared using ice particulates and freeze-drying. The scaffolds were used to culture bovine articular chondrocytes to engineer cartilage tissue in vitro. The pore structure and mechanical property of gelatin scaffolds could be well controlled by using different ratios of ice particulates to gelatin solution and different concentrations of gelatin. Gelatin scaffolds prepared from ≥70% ice particulates enabled homogeneous seeding of bovine articular chondrocytes throughout the scaffolds and formation of homogeneous cartilage extracellular matrix. While soft scaffolds underwent cellular contraction, stiff scaffolds resisted cellular contraction and had significantly higher cell proliferation and synthesis of sulfated glycosaminoglycan. Compared with the gelatin scaffolds prepared without ice particulates, the gelatin scaffolds prepared with ice particulates facilitated formation of homogeneous cartilage tissue with significantly higher compressive modulus. The gelatin scaffolds with highly open pore structure and good mechanical property can be used to improve in vitro tissue-engineered cartilage.

  7. Pemisahan krom pada limbah cair industri penyamakan kulit menggunakan gelatin dan flokulan anorganik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugihartono

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to determine the ability of gelatin, ferrous sulfate, aluminium sulfate, and combination of gelatin with ferrous sulfate or aluminium sulfate for total chromium content (trivalent chromium and hexavalent chromium separation from tannery wastewater. Reduction of total chromium content in the wastewater was conducted using combination of gelatin and ferrous sulfate or gelatin and aluminium sulfate with a ratio of 4:0; 3:1; 2:2; 1:3; and 0:4 (w/w. The results showed that gelatin, ferrous sulfate, and aluminium sulfate, were able to reduce total chromium content in the wastewater. Combination of gelatin/ferrous sulfate or gelatin/aluminium sulfate as flocculants provide synergistic work in reducing the total chromium content. A 94.75% removal of total chromium content was achieved by combining gelatine and aluminium sulfate with a ratio of 3:1, clearer wastewater, and followed by reduction of degree of turbidity up to 74.47%. The total chromium content after treatment was 0.61 ppm, which met the requirements of wastewater for business and or daily activities especially for tanning industry.

  8. Synthesis of fish scales gelatin-chitosan crosslinked films by gamma irradiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erizal; Perkasa, D.P.; Abbas, B.; Sulistioso, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    Gelatin is an important component of fish scales. Nowadays, attention has increased concerning the application of gelatin.The aim of this research was to improve the mechanical properties of gelatin produced from fish scales, which concurrently could increase the usefulness of fish scales. Gelatin (G) is prone to degrade or dissolve in water at room temperature, therefore to enhance its lifetime, it has to be modified with other compound such as chitosan. Chitosan (Cs) is a biodegradable polymer, which has biocompatibility and antibacterial properties. In this study, gelatin solution was mixed with chitosan solution in various ratios (G/Cs: 100/0, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75, 0/100), casted at room temperature to make composite films, then tested for the effectiveness of various gamma irradiation doses (10-40 kGy) for crosslinking of the two polymers. Chemical changes of the films were measured by FT-IR, gel fractions were determined by gravimetry, and mechanical properties were determined by tensile strength and elongation at break using universal testing machine. At optimum conditions ( 30 kGy and 75% Cs), the gel fraction, tensile strength, and elongation at break were higher leading to a stronger composite films as compared to the gelatin film. FTIR spectral analysis showed that gelatin and chitosan formed a crosslinked network. It was concluded that G-Cs films prepared by gamma irradiation have improved their mechanical properties than the gelatin itself. (author)

  9. SIFAT FISIKO-KIMIA GELATIN KULIT IKAN BELUT DAN LELE PADA KEADAAN SEGAR DAN KERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafni Rahmawati

    2016-06-01

    The first stage of the research was raw material preparation (fresh and dry fish skin soaked in aquadest for 4 hours. Fish skin extracted using 0,05 M acetic acid for 10 hours, washed in water and then extracted using aquadest at 80OC for 2 hours to get gelatin liquid, the liquid was filtrated. Filtrat was dried in cabinet dryer at 55OC for  48 hours to get gelatin layers, and then blended to get gelatin granule. The results were showing viscosity of gelatin from dry fish skin as same as from fresh fish skin, gel strength and melting point of gelatin from dry fish skin was higher than from fresh fish skin. Influence of fish skin drying was increase turbidity and color of gelatin. The best gelatin was ekstracted from dry skin swamp ell with viscosity 6,65 cps, gel strength 206,30 Bloom, melting point 22,33OC. Gelatin from fresh skin swamp ell was the best turbidity 1,65 ntu and color (L = 41,87, a = 8,90, b = 27,27.

  10. Biomimetic Synthesis of Gelatin Polypeptide-Assisted Noble-Metal Nanoparticles and Their Interaction Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Liu, Xiaoheng; Wang, Xin

    2011-12-01

    Herein, the generation of gold, silver, and silver-gold (Ag-Au) bimetallic nanoparticles was carried out in collagen (gelatin) solution. It first showed that the major ingredient in gelatin polypeptide, glutamic acid, acted as reducing agent to biomimetically synthesize noble metal nanoparticles at 80°C. The size of nanoparticles can be controlled not only by the mass ratio of gelatin to gold ion but also by pH of gelatin solution. Interaction between noble-metal nanoparticles and polypeptide has been investigated by TEM, UV-visible, fluorescence spectroscopy, and HNMR. This study testified that the degradation of gelatin protein could not alter the morphology of nanoparticles, but it made nanoparticles aggregated clusters array (opposing three-dimensional α-helix folding structure) into isolated nanoparticles stabilized by gelatin residues. This is a promising merit of gelatin to apply in the synthesis of nanoparticles. Therefore, gelatin protein is an excellent template for biomimetic synthesis of noble metal/bimetallic nanoparticle growth to form nanometer-sized device.

  11. Combined gelatin-chondroitin sulfate hydrogels for controlled release of cationic antibacterial proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, A. J.; Engbers, G. H. M.; Meyvis, T. K. L.; de Smedt, S. S. C.; Demeester, J.; Krijgsveld, J.; Zaat, S. A. J.; Dankert, J.; Feijen, J.

    2000-01-01

    Chemically cross-linked gelatin-chondroitin sulfate (ChS) hydrogels were prepared for the controlled release of small cationic proteins. The amount of chondroitin sulfate in the gelatin gels varied between 0 and 20 wt %. The chemical cross-link density, the degree of swelling, and the rheological

  12. The microstructure and rheology of homogeneous and phase separated gelatine gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ersch, Carsten; Linden, van der Erik; Venema, Paul; Martin, Anneke

    2016-01-01

    The gelation of gelatine in mixtures of gelatine (type A or type B) and globular proteins (Whey Protein Isolate (WPI), Whey Protein Aggregates (WPA) and Soy Protein Isolate (SPI)) was studied with a focus on their phase separation during gelation. Confocal laser scanning microscopy, visual

  13. The microstructure and rheology of homogeneous and phase separated gelatine gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ersch, C.; Linden, E. van der; Venema, P.; Martin, A.

    2016-01-01

    The gelation of gelatine in mixtures of gelatine (type A or type B) and globular proteins (Whey Protein Isolate (WPI), Whey Protein Aggregates (WPA) and Soy Protein Isolate (SPI)) was studied with a focus on their phase separation during gelation. Confocal laser scanning microscopy, visual

  14. Immobilization of an L-aminoacylase-producing strain of Aspergillus oryzae into gelatin pellets and its application in the resolution of D,L-methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan Yj, Ying-jin; Wang Sh, Shu-hao; Song Zx, Zheng-xiao; Gao Rc, Rui-chang

    2002-04-01

    The conditions for immobilization of an l-aminoacylase-producing strain of Aspergillus oryzae in gelatin and the enzymic characteristics of the immobilized pellets were studied. The optimal concentrations of gelatin, glutaraldehyde and ethyldiamine and time of immobilization were determined. Scanning electron micrographs reveal the cross-linked structure differences between the native and immobilized pellets. Optimum pH and temperature of the native and immobilized pellets were determined. Effects of ionic strength and substrate concentration on relative activity of the native and immobilized pellets were investigated in detail. The immobilized pellets were more stable over broader temperature and pH ranges. In addition, the immobilized pellets showed stable activity under operational and storage conditions. The immobilized pellets lost about 20% of their initial activity after five cycles of reuse. The results reported in this paper show the potential for using the immobilized A. oryzae pellets to resolve d,l-methionine.

  15. Preparation of gelatin-assisted polypyrrole-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Eun Jin; Male, Umashankar; Huh, Do Sung [Dept.of Chemistry and Nanosystem Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Conductive polymer composite was synthesized by the polymerization of pyrrole with 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene using ammonium persulfate as an oxidant with different concentrations of gelatin dispersed in aqueous medium along with the polymerization. Differently from pure polypyrrole–poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PPy–PEDOT) copolymer, the gelatin-assisted composites showed good solubility in aqueous media. The prepared PPy–PEDOT/gelatin composites were identified with Fourier-transform infrared, UV–visible spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Morphological analysis and temperature-dependent direct current conductivity of PPy–PEDOT/gelatin composites were carried out. Obtained results revealed that added gelatin greatly increased conductivity due to the improved mobility of charge carriers.

  16. Effects of chicken by-product gelatin on the physicochemical properties and texture of chocolate spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Poliana Fernandes; Lannes, Suzana Caetano da Silva

    2017-10-01

    Chocolate spread has a fat-based formulation and the application of gelatin as a fat replacement is related to the demand for healthier foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of gelatin as a by-product from the poultry industry in the fat replacement of chocolate spread. Vegetable fat was replaced (15, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) with gelatin (0.3, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2%) using a central composite rotatable design and the effects were evaluated by a response surface methodology. Formulations with a greater proportion of fat were lighter, of higher volume and lower density. As expected, water activity was intensified in low-fat formulations. The consistency was controlled mainly by the properties of the gelatin phase. The formulations with 50 and 75% fat replacement and 0.5-1.0% gelatin had satisfactory spreadability at 10C. All formulations were spreadable at 20C. Low-fat samples with low gelatin concentrations, at 30C, had very low consistency. Statistically, the properties were significantly influenced by the factors analyzed according to the mathematical models. Although several studies have been conducted on obtaining alternative gelatin sources for mammals, the extracted gelatin from poultry by-product is still little explored and the knowledge on the application in food products, particularly in complex systems such as emulsions, has not been well established. The development of a low-fat food should take into account the complexity of the system involved, such as the emulsion spreads. The incorporation of gelatin in aqueous solution is a challenging task because the physical properties and the rheological behavior can be strongly influenced. Given the nutritional and functional properties of the gelatin and chocolate and its wide acceptability among the consumers, the incorporation of these two ingredients in the development of a new product sets up a promising study. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Evaluation of cross-linked gelatin membranes as delivery carriers for retinal sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Jui-Yang, E-mail: jylai@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Institute of Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, 33302 Taiwan (China); Biomedical Engineering Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, 33302 Taiwan (China); Molecular Medicine Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, 33302 Taiwan (China); Li, Ya-Ting [Institute of Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, 33302 Taiwan (China)

    2010-06-15

    The delivery of intact sheet transplants to the subretinal space can prevent cell loss that is generally associated with the injection of cell suspensions or cell aggregates. The aim of this study was to develop chemically modified gelatin matrices that enhance the delivery efficiency and analyze whether the gelatin membranes cross-linked with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) can be considered as potential carriers for retinal sheets. The characteristics of EDC cross-linked gelatin membranes were determined by mechanical and in vitro degradation tests, melting point measurements, cell proliferation assays, cytokine expression analyses, and tissue delivery studies. Gelatin membranes without cross-linking and glutaraldehyde cross-linked gelatin samples were used for comparison. Results of this study indicated that introduction of cross-links is capable of rendering the gelatin network more stable against mechanical stresses and deformations as well as rapid hydrolysis during intraocular delivery of delicate tissue sheets. In comparison with the glutaraldehyde treated samples, the EDC cross-linked gelatin membranes showed a better degradation profile and a relatively higher cytocompatibility. In addition, after EDC cross-linking, the gelatin matrices having an acceptable melting point could be used for the fabrication of a sandwich-like carrier with a high transfer and encapsulation efficiency. These findings suggest that the cross-linking agent type gives an influence on delivery functionality of gelatin membranes. In summary, the EDC cross-linked gelatin is an ideal candidate for use as a carrier material in retinal sheet delivery applications.

  18. Application of Bio-digestion for Capsule Gelatin-- From the Pharmaceutical Wastes to the Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, C.; Huang, S.; Chang, Y.; Wen, J.

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to bio-digest the capsule gelatin from the waste of pharmaceutical processes such as cutting and stamping for capsule shells producing. We screened soil bacterial flora for capsule gelatin biolysis, and found the most competent one named Yuntech-7. A 15% (w/w) of capsule gelatin could fully digested by Yuntech-7 for 3 days growth with an N-limited medium in a 37°C incubator. In order to recycle and reuse the gelatin waste, the different percentages of capsule gelatin were co-composted with the vegetable residues to produce manure in an anaerobic fermentation by an extra Yuntech-7 inoculation. After 14 days incubation, we collected the filtrate to examine the contents of N, P, and K. The data shows that the P and K keep the same value by roughly between the blank and the control sets, but the total N values were approximately a 5-fold increase in 20% and a 10-fold increase in 40% of capsule gelatin integrated. We suggested that the capsule gelatin was majorly decomposed by Yuntech-7, because the total N value was no observable change in the capsule gelatin and vegetable residues co-compost with a Yuntech-7-free condition. We also performed some field tests using the capsule gelatin generated liquid manure, and the preliminary test shows the plants got great benefits on culture size and in environmental resistance. In conclusion, the process in bio-digestion of waste capsule gelatin by soil bacteria, Yuntech-7, was produced a valuable manure not only aliment the plants but also complement the soil bacterial populations.

  19. Evaporation-based method for preparing gelatin foams with aligned tubular pore structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, Shane D.; Srubar, Wil V.

    2016-01-01

    Gelatin-based foams with aligned tubular pore structures were prepared via liquid-to-gas vaporization of tightly bound water in dehydrated gelatin hydrogels. This study elucidates the mechanism of the foaming process by investigating the secondary (i.e., helical) structure, molecular interactions, and water content of gelatin films before and after foaming using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. Experimental data from gelatin samples prepared at various gelatin-to-water concentrations (5–30 wt.%) substantiate that resulting foam structures are similar in pore diameter (approximately 350 μm), shape, and density (0.05–0.22 g/cm"3) to those fabricated using conventional methods (e.g., freeze-drying). Helical structures were identified in the films but were not evident in the foamed samples after vaporization (~ 150 °C), suggesting that the primary foaming mechanism is governed by the vaporization of water that is tightly bound in secondary structures (i.e., helices, β-turns, β-sheets) that are present in dehydrated gelatin films. FTIR and TGA data show that the foaming process leads to more disorder and reduced hydrogen bonding to hydroxyl groups in gelatin and that no thermal degradation of gelatin occurs before or after foaming. - Highlights: • A new method is presented for fabricating gelatin foams with aligned, tubular pores. • Gelatin hydrogels were dehydrated then heated to 150 °C to induce foaming. • Vaporization of tightly (vs. loosely) bound water is the primary foaming mechanism • Foaming induced no thermal degradation but caused disorder in secondary structures • Foam microstructures are similar to those prepared using conventional methods.

  20. Evaporation-based method for preparing gelatin foams with aligned tubular pore structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, Shane D.; Srubar, Wil V., E-mail: wsrubar@colorado.edu

    2016-05-01

    Gelatin-based foams with aligned tubular pore structures were prepared via liquid-to-gas vaporization of tightly bound water in dehydrated gelatin hydrogels. This study elucidates the mechanism of the foaming process by investigating the secondary (i.e., helical) structure, molecular interactions, and water content of gelatin films before and after foaming using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. Experimental data from gelatin samples prepared at various gelatin-to-water concentrations (5–30 wt.%) substantiate that resulting foam structures are similar in pore diameter (approximately 350 μm), shape, and density (0.05–0.22 g/cm{sup 3}) to those fabricated using conventional methods (e.g., freeze-drying). Helical structures were identified in the films but were not evident in the foamed samples after vaporization (~ 150 °C), suggesting that the primary foaming mechanism is governed by the vaporization of water that is tightly bound in secondary structures (i.e., helices, β-turns, β-sheets) that are present in dehydrated gelatin films. FTIR and TGA data show that the foaming process leads to more disorder and reduced hydrogen bonding to hydroxyl groups in gelatin and that no thermal degradation of gelatin occurs before or after foaming. - Highlights: • A new method is presented for fabricating gelatin foams with aligned, tubular pores. • Gelatin hydrogels were dehydrated then heated to 150 °C to induce foaming. • Vaporization of tightly (vs. loosely) bound water is the primary foaming mechanism • Foaming induced no thermal degradation but caused disorder in secondary structures • Foam microstructures are similar to those prepared using conventional methods.

  1. Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources do not Guarantee Accuracy in Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs. A review of: McKibbon, K. Ann, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Effectiveness of Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources for Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs.” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 13.6 (2006: 653‐9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Ingrid Preddie

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine if electronic information resources selected by primary care physicians improve their ability to answer simulated clinical questions.Design – An observational study utilizing hour‐long interviews and think‐aloud protocols.Setting – The offices and clinics of primary care physicians in Canada and the United States.Subjects – Twenty‐five primary care physicians of whom 4 were women, 17 were from Canada, 22 were family physicians,and 24 were board certified.Methods – Participants provided responses to 23 multiple‐choice questions. Each physician then chose two questions and looked for the answers utilizing information resources of their own choice. The search processes, chosen resources and search times were noted. These were analyzed along with data on the accuracy of the answers and certainties related to the answer to each clinical question prior to the search.Main results – Twenty‐three physicians sought answers to 46 simulated clinical questions. Utilizing only electronic information resources, physicians spent a mean of 13.0 (SD 5.5 minutes searching for answers to the questions, an average of 7.3(SD 4.0 minutes for the first question and 5.8 (SD 2.2 minutes to answer the second question. On average, 1.8 resources were utilized per question. Resources that summarized information, such as the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, UpToDate and Clinical Evidence, were favored 39.2% of the time, MEDLINE (Ovid and PubMed 35.7%, and Internet resources including Google 22.6%. Almost 50% of the search and retrieval strategies were keyword‐based, while MeSH, subheadings and limiting were used less frequently. On average, before searching physicians answered 10 of 23 (43.5% questions accurately. For questions that were searched using clinician‐selected electronic resources, 18 (39.1% of the 46 answers were accurate before searching, while 19 (42.1% were accurate after searching. The difference of

  2. Fabrication of chemically cross-linked porous gelatin matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzini, Sabrina; Petrini, Paola; Altomare, Lina; Tanzi, Maria Cristina

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to chemically cross-link gelatin, by reacting its free amino groups with an aliphatic diisocyanate. To produce hydrogels with controllable properties, the number of reacting amino groups was carefully determined. Porosity was introduced into the gelatin-based hydrogels through the lyophilization process. Porous and non-porous matrices were characterized with respect to their chemical structure, morphology, water uptake and mechanical properties. The physical, chemical and mechanical properties of the porous matrices are related to the extent of their cross-linking, showing that they can be controlled by varying the reaction parameters. Water uptake values (24 hours) vary between 160% and 200% as the degree of cross-linking increases. The flexibility of the samples also decreases by changing the extent of cross-linking. Young's modulus shows values between 0.188 KPa, for the highest degree, and 0.142 KPa for the lowest degree. The matrices are potential candidates for use as tissue-engineering scaffolds by modulating their physical chemical properties according to the specific application.

  3. Self-Paced Interactive Multimedia Courseware: A Learning Support Resource for Enhancing Electronic Theses and Dissertations Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essel, Harry Barton; Osei-Poku, Patrick; Tachie-Menson, Akosua; Opoku-Asare, Nana Afia

    2016-01-01

    Submission of Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETDs) by postgraduate students has become a common phenomenon in learning environments globally. The purpose of ETDs is to train postgraduate students as knowledge workers in online publishing and also extend their skills beyond word processing. The challenge however, is that many postgraduate…

  4. Web Accessibility Issues for Higher & Further Education. EDNER (Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource) Project. Issues Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester Metropolitan Univ. (England).

    This issues paper, sixth in a series of eight, is intended to distill formative evaluation questions on topics that are central to the development of the higher and further education information environment in the United Kingdom. In undertaking formative evaluation studies, the Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource…

  5. Analyzing the Academic Research Trends by Using University Digital Resources: A Bibliometric Study of Electronic Commerce in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Anam; Abbas, Asad; Ming, Wan; Zaheer, Ahmad Nawaz; Akhtar, Masood-ul-Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Technology plays a vital role in every field of life especially in business and education. Electronic commerce (EC) begins in the year of 1991 right after internet was introduced for commercial use. It is known to be the 12th five years' plan (2011 to 2015) of Chinese Ministry of Industry and Information Technology. The main "objective"…

  6. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-01-01

    Under third-party power intervention (TPPI), which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced ...

  7. The relationship between red meat allergy and sensitization to gelatin and galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Raymond James; James, Hayley; Platts-Mills, Thomas A.E.; Commins, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Background We have observed patients clinically allergic to red meat and meat-derived gelatin. Objective We describe a prospective evaluation of the clinical significance of gelatin sensitization, the predictive value of a positive test and an examination of the relationship between allergic reactions to red meat and sensitization to gelatin and alpha-Gal. Methods Adult patients evaluated 1997-2011 for suspected allergy/anaphylaxis to medication, insect venom or food were skin tested with gelatin colloid. In vitro (ImmunoCap) testing was undertaken where possible. Results Positive gelatin tests were observed in 40/1335 individuals; 30/40 patients with red meat allergy (12 also clinically allergic to gelatin); 2/2 with gelatin colloid anaphylaxis; 4/172 with idiopathic anaphylaxis (all responded to intravenous gelatin challenge of 0.02 to 0.4g); 4/368 with drug allergy. Testing was negative in all patients with venom allergy (n=241), non-meat food allergy (n=222), and miscellaneous disorders (n=290). ImmunoCap was positive to alpha-Gal in 20/24 meat allergics and in 20/22 with positive gelatin skin tests. The results of gelatin skin testing and anti-alpha-Gal IgE were strongly correlated (r=0.46; Pmeat were sensitized to gelatin and a subset was clinically allergic to both. The detection of alpha-Gal in gelatin and correlation between the results of alpha-Gal and gelatin testing raises the possibility that alpha-Gal IgE may be the target of reactivity to gelatin. The pathogenic relationship between tick bites and sensitization to red meat, alpha-Gal and gelatin (with or without clinical reactivity) remains uncertain. PMID:22480538

  8. Relationship between red meat allergy and sensitization to gelatin and galactose-α-1,3-galactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Raymond James; James, Hayley; Platts-Mills, Thomas A E; Commins, Scott

    2012-05-01

    We have observed patients clinically allergic to red meat and meat-derived gelatin. We describe a prospective evaluation of the clinical significance of gelatin sensitization, the predictive value of a positive test result, and an examination of the relationship between allergic reactions to red meat and sensitization to gelatin and galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal). Adult patients evaluated in the 1997-2011 period for suspected allergy/anaphylaxis to medication, insect venom, or food were skin tested with gelatin colloid. In vitro (ImmunoCAP) testing was undertaken where possible. Positive gelatin test results were observed in 40 of 1335 subjects: 30 of 40 patients with red meat allergy (12 also clinically allergic to gelatin), 2 of 2 patients with gelatin colloid-induced anaphylaxis, 4 of 172 patients with idiopathic anaphylaxis (all responded to intravenous gelatin challenge of 0.02-0.4 g), and 4 of 368 patients with drug allergy. Test results were negative in all patients with venom allergy (n = 241), nonmeat food allergy (n = 222), and miscellaneous disorders (n = 290). ImmunoCAP results were positive to α-Gal in 20 of 24 patients with meat allergy and in 20 of 22 patients with positive gelatin skin test results. The results of gelatin skin testing and anti-α-Gal IgE measurements were strongly correlated (r = 0.46, P meat were sensitized to gelatin, and a subset was clinically allergic to both. The detection of α-Gal in gelatin and correlation between the results of α-Gal and gelatin testing raise the possibility that α-Gal IgE might be the target of reactivity to gelatin. The pathogenic relationship between tick bites and sensitization to red meat, α-Gal, and gelatin (with or without clinical reactivity) remains uncertain. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Anti-inflammatory effects of sodium alginate/gelatine porous scaffolds merged with fucoidan in murine microglial BV2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van-Tinh; Ko, Seok-Chun; Oh, Gun-Woo; Heo, Seong-Yeong; Jeon, You-Jin; Park, Won Sun; Choi, Il-Whan; Choi, Sung-Wook; Jung, Won-Kyo

    2016-12-01

    Microglia are the immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS). Overexpression of inflammatory mediators by microglia can induce several neurological diseases. Thus, the underlying basic requirement for neural tissue engineering is to develop materials that exhibit little or no neuro-inflammatory effects. In this study, we have developed a method to create porous scaffolds by adding fucoidan (Fu) into porous sodium alginate (Sa)/gelatine (G) (SaGFu). For mechanical characterization, in vitro degradation, stress/strain, swelling, and pore size were measured. Furthermore, the biocompatibility was evaluated by assessing the adhesion and proliferation of BV2 microglial cells on the SaGFu porous scaffolds using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, respectively. Moreover, we studied the neuro-inflammatory effects of SaGFu on BV2 microglial cells. The effect of gelatine and fucoidan content on the various properties of the scaffold was investigated and the results showed that mechanical properties increased porosity and swelling ratio with an increase in the gelatine and fucoidan, while the in vitro biodegradability decreased. The average SaGFu diameter attained by fabrication of SaGFu ranged from 60 to 120μm with high porosity (74.44%-88.30%). Cell culture using gelatine 2.0% (SaG2Fu) and 4.0% (SaG4Fu), showed good cell proliferation; more than 60-80% that with Sa alone. Following stimulation with 0.5μg/mL LPS, microglia cultured in porous SaGFu decreased their expression of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and reactive oxygen species (ROS). SaG2Fu and SaG4Fu also inhibited the activation and translocation of p65 NF-κB protein levels, resulting in reduction of NO, ROS, and PGE2 production. These results provide insights into the diverse biological effects and opens new avenues for the applications of SaGFu in neuroscience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of cross-linked porous gelatin carriers and their interaction with corneal endothelium: biopolymer concentration effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Yang Lai

    Full Text Available Cell sheet-mediated tissue regeneration is a promising approach for corneal reconstruction. However, the fragility of bioengineered corneal endothelial cell (CEC monolayers allows us to take advantage of cross-linked porous gelatin hydrogels as cell sheet carriers for intraocular delivery. The aim of this study was to further investigate the effects of biopolymer concentrations (5-15 wt% on the characteristic and safety of hydrogel discs fabricated by a simple stirring process combined with freeze-drying method. Results of scanning electron microscopy, porosity measurements, and ninhydrin assays showed that, with increasing solid content, the pore size, porosity, and cross-linking index of carbodiimide treated samples significantly decreased from 508±30 to 292±42 µm, 59.8±1.1 to 33.2±1.9%, and 56.2±1.6 to 34.3±1.8%, respectively. The variation in biopolymer concentrations and degrees of cross-linking greatly affects the Young's modulus and swelling ratio of the gelatin carriers. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements and glucose permeation studies indicated that for the samples with a highest solid content, the highest pore wall thickness and the lowest fraction of mobile water may inhibit solute transport. When the biopolymer concentration is in the range of 5-10 wt%, the hydrogels have high freezable water content (0.89-0.93 and concentration of permeated glucose (591.3-615.5 µg/ml. These features are beneficial to the in vitro cultivation of CECs without limiting proliferation and changing expression of ion channel and pump genes such as ATP1A1, VDAC2, and AQP1. In vivo studies by analyzing the rabbit CEC morphology and count also demonstrate that the implanted gelatin discs with the highest solid content may cause unfavorable tissue-material interactions. It is concluded that the characteristics of cross-linked porous gelatin hydrogel carriers and their triggered biological responses are in relation to biopolymer

  11. Preparation of Low Molecular Weight Gelatin Using Microwave Discharge Electrodeless Lamp/TiO2 Photocatalyst Hybrid System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Do-Jin; Kim, Hangun; Park, Young-Kwon; Kim, Byung Hoon; Lee, Heon; Jungf, Sana-Chul

    2016-02-01

    In this study, an MDEL/TiO2 photocatalyst hybrid system was applied to the production of low molecular weight gelatin. The molecular weight of produed gelatin decreased with increasing microwave intensity and increasing treatment time. The abscission of the chemical bonds between the con- stituents of gelatin by photocatalytic reaction did not alter the characteristics of gelatin. Formation of any by-products due to side reaction was not observed. It is suggested that gelatin was depolymerized by hydroxyl radicals produced during the MDEL/TiO2 photochemical reaction.

  12. Share and share alike: encouraging the reuse of academic resources through the Scottish electronic Staff Development Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna M. Campbell

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Scottish electronic Staff Development Library (http://www.sesdl.scotcit.acuk is an ongoing collaborative project involving the Universities of Edinburgh, Paisley and Strathclyde which has been funded by SHEFC as part of their current ScotCIT Programme (http:llwww.scotcit.ac.uk. This project is being developed in response to the increasing demand for flexible, high-quality staff development materials.

  13. Characterization of film-forming solutions and films incorporating free and nanoencapsulated tea polyphenol prepared by gelatins with different Bloom values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelatin film-forming solutions and their films incorporating tea polyphenol (TP) and chitosan nanoparticles (CSNs) were prepared from gelatins with different Bloom values (100, 150 and 225). Blank gelatin film-forming solutions and films were prepared as controls. Gelatins with higher Bloom values h...

  14. Preparation of a biomimetic composite scaffold from gelatin/collagen and bioactive glass fibers for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharifi, Esmaeel; Azami, Mahmoud [Department of Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Sciences, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad [Department of Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Sciences, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pediatric Urology Research Center, Section of Tissue Engineering and Stem Cells Therapy, Department of Pediatric Urology, Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Tehran, Iran (IRI) (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moztarzadeh, Fatollah [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faridi-Majidi, Reza [Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shamousi, Atefeh; Karimi, Roya [Department of Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Sciences, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ai, Jafar, E-mail: jafar_ai@tums.ac.ir [Department of Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Sciences, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Brain and Spinal Injury Research Center (BASIR), Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-02-01

    Bone tissue is a composite material made of organic and inorganic components. Bone tissue engineering requires scaffolds that mimic bone nature in chemical and mechanical properties. This study proposes a novel method for preparing composite scaffolds that uses sub-micron bioglass fibers as the organic phase and gelatin/collagen as the inorganic phase. The scaffolds were constructed by using freeze drying and electro spinning methods and their mechanical properties were enhanced by using genipin crosslinking agent. Electron microscopy micrographs showed that the structure of composite scaffolds were porous with pore diameters of approximately 70–200 μm, this was again confirmed by mercury porosimetery. These pores are suitable for osteoblast growth. The diameters of the fibers were approximately 150–450 nm. Structural analysis confirmed the formation of desirable phases of sub-micron bioglass fibers. Cellular biocompatibility tests illustrated that scaffolds containing copper ion in the bioglass structure had more cell growth and osteoblast attachment in comparison to copper-free scaffolds. - Highlights: • Fabrication of 45S5 sub-micron bioglass fiber using electrospinning method. • Production of copper doped submicron bioglass fibers on 45S5 bioglass base by electrospinning sol gel route method. • Incorporation of bioglass/Cu-bioglass sub-micron fibers into gelatin/collagen matrix to form biomimetic composite scaffold which were non-cytotoxic according to MTT assay. • Discovering that copper can decrease the glass transition temperatures and enhance osteoblast cell adhesion and viability.

  15. Preparation of a biomimetic composite scaffold from gelatin/collagen and bioactive glass fibers for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharifi, Esmaeel; Azami, Mahmoud; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Moztarzadeh, Fatollah; Faridi-Majidi, Reza; Shamousi, Atefeh; Karimi, Roya; Ai, Jafar

    2016-01-01

    Bone tissue is a composite material made of organic and inorganic components. Bone tissue engineering requires scaffolds that mimic bone nature in chemical and mechanical properties. This study proposes a novel method for preparing composite scaffolds that uses sub-micron bioglass fibers as the organic phase and gelatin/collagen as the inorganic phase. The scaffolds were constructed by using freeze drying and electro spinning methods and their mechanical properties were enhanced by using genipin crosslinking agent. Electron microscopy micrographs showed that the structure of composite scaffolds were porous with pore diameters of approximately 70–200 μm, this was again confirmed by mercury porosimetery. These pores are suitable for osteoblast growth. The diameters of the fibers were approximately 150–450 nm. Structural analysis confirmed the formation of desirable phases of sub-micron bioglass fibers. Cellular biocompatibility tests illustrated that scaffolds containing copper ion in the bioglass structure had more cell growth and osteoblast attachment in comparison to copper-free scaffolds. - Highlights: • Fabrication of 45S5 sub-micron bioglass fiber using electrospinning method. • Production of copper doped submicron bioglass fibers on 45S5 bioglass base by electrospinning sol gel route method. • Incorporation of bioglass/Cu-bioglass sub-micron fibers into gelatin/collagen matrix to form biomimetic composite scaffold which were non-cytotoxic according to MTT assay. • Discovering that copper can decrease the glass transition temperatures and enhance osteoblast cell adhesion and viability.

  16. Demonstration of vessels in CNS and other organs by AMG silver enhancement of colloidal gold particles dispersed in gelatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danscher, G; Andreasen, A

    1997-12-01

    We present a new autometallographic technique for demonstrating vessels and other small cavities at light microscopy (LM) and electron microscopy (EM) levels. It is possible to obtain detailed knowledge of the 3-D appearance of the vascular system by exchanging blood with a 40 degrees C, 8% gelatine solution containing colloidal gold particles (gold gelatine solution, GGS) and ensuing silver enhancement of the gold particles by autometallography (AMG). The GGS-AMG technique demonstrates the vascular system as a dark web that can be studied in cryostat, vibratome, methacrylate, paraffin and Epon sections at all magnifications. The infused GGS becomes increasingly viscous and finally becomes rigid when the temperature falls below 20 degrees C. An additional advantage of this technique is the fact that none of the tested counterstains or immunotechniques interfere with this AMG approach. The GGS-AMG technique is demonstrated on rat brains but can be applied to any organ. We believe that the present technique is valuable for both experimental studies and routine pathology.

  17. Localized surface plasmon behavior of Ag-Cu alloy nanoparticles stabilized by rice-starch and gelatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Manish Kumar; Mandal, R. K., E-mail: rkmandal.met@itbhu.ac.in [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, IIT (BHU), Varanasi and DST Unit on Nanoscience and Technology, BHU, Varanasi-221 005 (India); Manda, Premkumar; Singh, A. K. [DefenceMetallurgical Research Laboratory, KanchanBagh, Hyderabad-500058 (India)

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of this communication was to understand localized surface plasmon behavior of a series of Ag-Cu alloy nanoparticles capped by rice-starch and gelatin. The structures of dried powders were investigated with the help of X-ray diffraction. The analysis revealed Ag-rich and Cu-rich phases with maximum solid solubility of Cu ∼9 atom per cent; 8 atom per cent and Ag ∼ 16 atom per cent; 14 atom per cent in rice-starch and gelatin capped samples respectively. Transmission electron microscope was used for knowing the particle size as well as to supplement FCC phase formations of Ag-rich and Cu-rich solid phases arrived at based on X-ray diffraction studies. The UV-Vis spectra of sols were examined for the formation and stability of alloy nanoparticles. The temporal evolution of LSPR curves gave us to assert that the sol is stable for more than two months. Small angle X-ray scattering in the sol state was extensively utilized to understand nature of suspensions in terms of fractals. Such a study is important for having a correlation between LSPR behaviors with those of nanoparticle dispersion in aqueous media. It is believed that this work will be a contribution to the emerging field of plasmonics that include applications in the area of photophysical processes and photochemical reactions.

  18. Bioactivation of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite with foamed gelatin gel. A new injectable self-setting bone analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessì, M; Alvarez-Perez, M A; De Santis, R; Ginebra, M P; Planell, J A; Ambrosio, L

    2014-02-01

    An alternative approach to bone repair for less invasive surgical techniques, involves the development of biomaterials directly injectable into the injury sites and able to replicate a spatially organized platform with features of bone tissue. Here, the preparation and characterization of an innovative injectable bone analogue made of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite and foamed gelatin is presented. The biopolymer features and the cement self-setting reaction were investigated by rheological analysis. The porous architecture, the evolution of surface morphology and the grains dimension were analyzed with electron microscopy (SEM/ESEM/TEM). The physico-chemical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction and FTIR analysis. Moreover, an injection test was carried out to prove the positive effect of gelatin on the flow ensuing that cement is fully injectable. The cement mechanical properties are adequate to function as temporary substrate for bone tissue regeneration. Furthermore, MG63 cells and bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were able to migrate and proliferate inside the pores, and hMSCs differentiated to the osteoblastic phenotype. The results are paving the way for an injectable bone substitute with properties that mimic natural bone tissue allowing the successful use as bone filler for craniofacial and orthopedic reconstructions in regenerative medicine.

  19. Extraction and characterization of gelatin from two edible Sudanese insects and its applications in ice cream making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariod, Abdalbasit Adam; Fadul, Hadia

    2015-07-01

    Three methods were used for extraction of gelatin from two insects, melon bug (Coridius viduatus) and sorghum bug (Agonoscelis versicoloratus versicoloratus). Extraction of insect gelatin using hot water gave higher yield reached up to 3.0%, followed by mild acid extraction which gave 1.5% and distilled water extraction which gave only 1.0%, respectively. The obtained gelatins were characterized by FTIR and the spectra of insect's gelatin seem to be similar when compared with commercial gelatin. Amide II bands of gelatins from melon and sorghum bug appeared around at 1542-1537 cm(-1). Slight differences in the amino acid composition of gelatin extracted from the two insects were observed. Ice cream was made by using 0.5% insect's gelatin and compared with that made using 0.5% commercial gelatin as stabilizing agent. The properties of the obtained ice cream produced using insects gelatin were significantly different when compared with that made using commercial gelatin. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Effect of sodium lauryl sulfate in dissolution media on dissolution of hard gelatin capsule shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Malayev, Vyacheslav; Rao, Venkatramana; Hussain, Munir

    2004-01-01

    Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) is a commonly used surfactant in dissolution media for poorly water soluble drugs. However, it has occasionally been observed that SLS negatively impacts the dissolution of drug products formulated in gelatin capsules. This study investigated the effect of SLS on the dissolution of hard gelatin capsule shells. The USP paddle method was used with online UV monitoring at 214 nm (peptide bond). Empty size #0 capsule shells were held to the bottom of the dissolution vessel by magnetic three-prong sinkers. SLS significantly slowed down the dissolution of gelatin shells at pH < 5. Visually, the gelatin shells transformed into some less-soluble precipitate under these conditions. This precipitate was found to contain a higher sulfur content than the gelatin control sample by elemental analysis, indicating that SLS is part of the precipitate. Additionally, the slowdown of capsule shell dissolution was shown to be dependent on the SLS concentration and the ionic strength of the media. SLS interacts with gelatin to form a less-soluble precipitate at pH < 5. The use of SLS in dissolution media at acidic pH should be carefully evaluated for gelatin capsule products.

  1. Evaluation of hemocompatibility and endothelialization of hybrid poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/gelatin polymer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ino, Julia M; Sju, Ervi; Ollivier, Véronique; Yim, Evelyn K F; Letourneur, Didier; Le Visage, Catherine

    2013-11-01

    Engineered grafts are still needed for small diameter blood vessels reconstruction. Ideal materials would prevent thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia by displaying hemocompatibility and mechanical properties close to those of native vessels. In this study, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/gelatin blends were investigated as a potential vascular support scaffold. We modified a chemically crosslinked PVA hydrogel by incorporation of gelatin to improve endothelial cell attachment with a single-step method. A series of crosslinked PVA/gelatin films with specific ratios set at 100:0, 99:1, 95:5, and 90:10 (w/w) were prepared and their mechanical properties were examined by uniaxial tensile testing. Tubes, obtained from sutured films, were found highly compliant (3.1-4.6%) and exhibited sufficient mechanical strength to sustain hemodynamic strains. PVA-based hydrogels maintained low level of platelet adhesion and low thrombogenic potential. Endothelial cell adhesion and proliferation were drastically improved on PVA/gelatin films with a feed gelatin content as low as 1% (w/w), leading to the formation of a confluent endothelium. Hydrogels with higher gelatin content did not sustain complete endothelialization because of modifications of the film surface, including phase segregation and formation of microdomains. Thus, PVA/gelatin (99:1, w/w) hydrogels appear as promising materials for the design of endothelialized vascular materials with long-term patency. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The correlation between gelatin macroscale differences and nanoparticle properties: providing insight into biopolymer variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, André T; Jankus, Danny J; Tarshis, Max A; Whittington, Abby R

    2018-05-21

    From therapeutic delivery to sustainable packaging, manipulation of biopolymers into nanostructures imparts biocompatibility to numerous materials with minimal environmental pollution during processing. While biopolymers are appealing natural based materials, the lack of nanoparticle (NP) physicochemical consistency has decreased their nanoscale translation into actual products. Insights regarding the macroscale and nanoscale property variation of gelatin, one of the most common biopolymers already utilized in its bulk form, are presented. Novel correlations between macroscale and nanoscale properties were made by characterizing similar gelatin rigidities obtained from different manufacturers. Samples with significant differences in clarity, indicating sample purity, obtained the largest deviations in NP diameter. Furthermore, a statistically significant positive correlation between macroscale molecular weight dispersity and NP diameter was determined. New theoretical calculations proposing the limited number of gelatin chains that can aggregate and subsequently get crosslinked for NP formation were presented as one possible reason to substantiate the correlation analysis. NP charge and crosslinking extent were also related to diameter. Lower gelatin sample molecular weight dispersities produced statistically smaller average diameters (<75 nm), and higher average electrostatic charges (∼30 mV) and crosslinking extents (∼95%), which were independent of gelatin rigidity, conclusions not shown in the literature. This study demonstrates that the molecular weight composition of the starting material is one significant factor affecting gelatin nanoscale properties and must be characterized prior to NP preparation. Identifying gelatin macroscale and nanoscale correlations offers a route toward greater physicochemical property control and reproducibility of new NP formulations for translation to industry.

  3. Physicochemical Properties of Gelatin Extracted from Buffalo Hide Pretreated with Different Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyani, Sri; Setyabudi, Francis M C Sigit; Pranoto, Yudi; Santoso, Umar

    2017-01-01

    The acid pretreatment of collagen molecules disrupts their crosslinks and assists in the release of acid-soluble proteins, fats, and other components. Generally, to achieve optimum extraction efficiency, strong acids may be used at a lower acid concentration compared to weak acids. This study aimed to determine the yield and physicochemical properties of gelatins extracted from buffalo hides pretreated with different acids. Hides were extracted with hydrochloric, citric, and acetic acids at concentrations of 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.5 M. A completely randomized design and the least significant difference test were used in the experimental design, and all measurements were performed in triplicate. The highest yield (29.17%) was obtained from pretreatment with 0.9 M HCl. The gel strength did not differ significantly ( p >0.05) according to acid type (280.26-259.62 g Bloom), and the highest viscosity was obtained from the 0.6 M citric acid pretreatment. All the gelatins contained α- and β-chain components and several degraded peptides (24-66 kDa). The color and Fourier-transform infrared spectrum of the gelatin extracted using 0.9 M HCl were similar to those of commercial bovine skin gelatin. In general, the physicochemical properties of the gelatin complied with the industry standard set by the Gelatin Manufacturers Institute of America, revealing that buffalo hide could serve as a potential alternative source of gelatin.

  4. Inhibition of ice crystal growth in ice cream mix by gelatin hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodaran, Srinivasan

    2007-12-26

    The inhibition of ice crystal growth in ice cream mix by gelatin hydrolysate produced by papain action was studied. The ice crystal growth was monitored by thermal cycling between -14 and -12 degrees C at a rate of one cycle per 3 min. It is shown that the hydrolysate fraction containing peptides in the molecular weight range of about 2000-5000 Da exhibited the highest inhibitory activity on ice crystal growth in ice cream mix, whereas fractions containing peptides greater than 7000 Da did not inhibit ice crystal growth. The size distribution of gelatin peptides formed in the hydrolysate was influenced by the pH of hydrolysis. The optimum hydrolysis conditions for producing peptides with maximum ice crystal growth inhibitory activity was pH 7 at 37 degrees C for 10 min at a papain to gelatin ratio of 1:100. However, this may depend on the type and source of gelatin. The possible mechanism of ice crystal growth inhibition by peptides from gelatin is discussed. Molecular modeling of model gelatin peptides revealed that they form an oxygen triad plane at the C-terminus with oxygen-oxygen distances similar to those found in ice nuclei. Binding of this oxygen triad plane to the prism face of ice nuclei via hydrogen bonding appears to be the mechanism by which gelatin hydrolysate might be inhibiting ice crystal growth in ice cream mix.

  5. VAPOR MIXER FOR GELATINIZATION OF STARCH IN LIQUEFYING STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ananskikh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Starch hydrolysis is main technological process in production of starch sweeteners. Acid hydrolysis of starch using hydrochloric acid is carried out very fast but it does not allow to carry out full hydrolysis and to produce products with given carbohydrate composition. Bioconversion of starch allows to eliminate these limitations. At production of starch sweeteners from starch using enzymes starch hydrolysis is carried out in two stages At first starch – starch liquefaction the rapid increase of viscosity takes place which requires intensive mixing. Liquefying station consists of jet-cooker, holder, pressure regulator and evaporator. Jet-cooker of starch is its main part, starch is quickly turns into soluble (gelatinized state and it is partially liquefied by injection of starch suspension by flow of water vapor under pressure not less than 0,8 MPa. Heat and hydraulic calculation were carried out in order to determine constructive sizes of mixer for cooking of starch. The main hydraulic definable parameters are pressure drop in mixer, vapor pressure at mixer inlet, daily capacity of station by glucose syrup M, product consumption (starch suspension, diameter of inlet section of vapor nozzle. The goal of calculation was to determine vapor consumption M1, diameter d2 of outlet section of confuser injector, length l2 of gelatinization section. For heat calculation there was used Shukhov’s formula along with heat balance equation for gelatinization process. The numerical solution obtained with adopted assumptions given in applied mathematical package MATHCAD, for M = 50 t/day gives required daily vapor consumption M1 = 14,446 т. At hydraulic calculation of pressure drop in mixer there was used Bernoulli’s theorem. Solving obtained equations using MATHCAD found diameter of outlet section of consufer d2 = 0,023 м, vapor pressure inside of mixer p2 = 3,966·105 Па, l2 = 0,128 м. Developed method of calculation is used to determine

  6. Success factors for implementing and sustaining a mature electronic medical record in a low-resource setting: a case study of iSanté in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deRiel, E; Puttkammer, N; Hyppolite, N; Diallo, J; Wagner, S; Honoré, J G; Balan, J G; Celestin, N; Vallès, J S; Duval, N; Thimothé, G; Boncy, J; Coq, N R L; Barnhart, S

    2018-03-01

    Electronic health information systems, including electronic medical records (EMRs), have the potential to improve access to information and quality of care, among other things. Success factors and challenges for novel EMR implementations in low-resource settings have increasingly been studied, although less is known about maturing systems and sustainability. One systematic review identified seven categories of implementation success factors: ethical, financial, functionality, organizational, political, technical and training. This case study applies this framework to iSanté, Haiti's national EMR in use in more than 100 sites and housing records for more than 750 000 patients. The author group, consisting of representatives of different agencies within the Haitian Ministry of Health (MSPP), funding partner the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Haiti, and implementing partner the International Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH), identify successes and lessons learned according to the seven identified categories, and propose an additional cross-cutting category, sustainability. Factors important for long-term implementation success of complex information systems are balancing investments in hardware and software infrastructure upkeep, user capacity and data quality control; designing and building a system within the context of the greater eHealth ecosystem with a plan for interoperability and data exchange; establishing system governance and strong leadership to support local system ownership and planning for system financing to ensure sustainability. Lessons learned from 10 years of implementation of the iSanté EMR system are relevant to sustainability of a full range of increasingly interrelated information systems (e.g. for laboratory, supply chain, pharmacy and human resources) in the health sector in low-resource settings. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene

  7. Aspergillus niger PA2 Tyrosinase Covalently Immobilized on a Novel Eco-Friendly Bio-Composite of Chitosan-Gelatin and Its Evaluation for L-DOPA Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Pragati; Dubey, Swati; Singh, Mukta; Singh, Rajesh P.

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosinase (EC 1.14.18.1) a copper-containing monooxygenase, isolated from a fungal isolate Aspergillus niger PA2 was subjected for immobilization onto a composite consisting of chitosan and gelatin biopolymers. The homogeneity of the chitosan-gelatin biocomposite film was characterized by X-ray diffraction analyses. To evaluate immobilization efficiency, chitosan-gelatin-Tyr bio-composite films were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and UV-spectroscopy. The rough morphology of the film led to a high loading of enzyme and it could retain its bioactivity for a longer period. The enzyme adsorbed onto the film exhibited 72% of its activity after 10 days and exhibited good repeatability for up to nine times, after intermittent storage. Moreover, the immobilized enzyme exhibited broader pH and temperature profile as compared to free counterpart. Immobilized enzyme was further evaluated for the synthesis of L-DOPA (2,4-dihydroxy phenylalanine) which is a precursor of dopamine and a potent drug for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and for myocardium neurogenic injury. PMID:28066399

  8. Shooting with sound: optimizing an affordable ballistic gelatin recipe in a graded ultrasound phantom education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanious, Shariff F; Cline, Jamie; Cavin, Jennifer; Davidson, Nathan; Coleman, J Keegan; Goodmurphy, Craig W

    2015-06-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the durability and longevity of gelatin formulas for the production of staged ultrasound phantoms for education. Gelatin phantoms were prepared from Knox gelatin (Kraft Foods, Northfield, IL) and a standard 10%-by-mass ordinance gelatin solution. Phantoms were durability tested by compressing to a 2-cm depth until cracking was visible. Additionally, 16 containers with varying combinations of phenol, container type, and storage location were tested for longevity against desiccation and molding. Once formulation was determined, 4 stages of phantoms from novice to clinically relevant were poured, and clinicians with ultrasound training ranked them on a 7-point Likert scale based on task difficulty, phantom suitability, and fidelity. On durability testing, the ballistic gelatin outperformed the Knox gelatin by more than 200 compressions. On longevity testing, gelatin with a 0.5% phenol concentration stored with a lid and refrigeration lasted longest, whereas containers without a lid had desiccation within 1 month, and those without phenol became moldy within 6 weeks. Ballistic gelatin was more expensive when buying in small quantities but was 7.4% less expensive when buying in bulk. The staged phantoms were deemed suitable for training, but clinicians did not consistently rank the phantoms in the intended order of 1 to 4 (44%). Refrigerated and sealed ballistic gelatin with phenol was a cost-effective method for creating in-house staged ultrasound phantoms suitable for large-scale ultrasound educational training needs. Clinician ranking of phantoms may be influenced by current training methods that favor biological tissue scanning as easier. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  9. The effects of crosslinkers on physical, mechanical, and cytotoxic properties of gelatin sponge prepared via in-situ gas foaming method as a tissue engineering scaffold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poursamar, S. Ali [Institute for Creative Leather Technologies, Park Campus, The University of Northampton, Boughton Green Road, Northampton NN2 7AL (United Kingdom); Lehner, Alexander N. [Centre for Physical Activity and Chronic Disease and the Aging Research Centre, Institute for Health and Wellbeing, School of Health, Park Campus, The University of Northampton, Boughton Green Road, Northampton NN2 7AL (United Kingdom); Azami, Mahmoud; Ebrahimi-Barough, Somayeh [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Samadikuchaksaraei, Ali [Cellular and Molecular Research Centre, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Tissue Engineering & Regenerative Medicine, Faculty of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Applied Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Antunes, A.P.M., E-mail: Paula.Antunes@northampton.ac.uk [Institute for Creative Leather Technologies, Park Campus, The University of Northampton, Boughton Green Road, Northampton NN2 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-01

    In this study porous gelatin scaffolds were prepared using in-situ gas foaming, and four crosslinking agents were used to determine a biocompatible and effective crosslinker that is suitable for such a method. Crosslinkers used in this study included: hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI), poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (epoxy), glutaraldehyde (GTA), and genipin. The prepared porous structures were analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal and mechanical analysis as well as water absorption analysis. The microstructures of the prepared samples were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The effects of the crosslinking agents were studied on the cytotoxicity of the porous structure indirectly using MTT analysis. The affinity of L929 mouse fibroblast cells for attachment on the scaffold surfaces was investigated by direct cell seeding and DAPI-staining technique. It was shown that while all of the studied crosslinking agents were capable of stabilizing prepared gelatin scaffolds, there are noticeable differences among physical and mechanical properties of samples based on the crosslinker type. Epoxy-crosslinked scaffolds showed a higher capacity for water absorption and more uniform microstructures than the rest of crosslinked samples, whereas genipin and GTA-crosslinked scaffolds demonstrated higher mechanical strength. Cytotoxicity analysis showed the superior biocompatibility of the naturally occurring genipin in comparison with other synthetic crosslinking agents, in particular relative to GTA-crosslinked samples. - Highlights: • In-situ gas foaming application in the production of sponge-like gelatin structures • The crosslinkers molecular length impacts on the physical and mechanical properties of the structure. • The effect of crosslinkers on the biocompatibility of gelatin scaffolds.

  10. The effects of crosslinkers on physical, mechanical, and cytotoxic properties of gelatin sponge prepared via in-situ gas foaming method as a tissue engineering scaffold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poursamar, S. Ali; Lehner, Alexander N.; Azami, Mahmoud; Ebrahimi-Barough, Somayeh; Samadikuchaksaraei, Ali; Antunes, A.P.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this study porous gelatin scaffolds were prepared using in-situ gas foaming, and four crosslinking agents were used to determine a biocompatible and effective crosslinker that is suitable for such a method. Crosslinkers used in this study included: hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI), poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (epoxy), glutaraldehyde (GTA), and genipin. The prepared porous structures were analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal and mechanical analysis as well as water absorption analysis. The microstructures of the prepared samples were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The effects of the crosslinking agents were studied on the cytotoxicity of the porous structure indirectly using MTT analysis. The affinity of L929 mouse fibroblast cells for attachment on the scaffold surfaces was investigated by direct cell seeding and DAPI-staining technique. It was shown that while all of the studied crosslinking agents were capable of stabilizing prepared gelatin scaffolds, there are noticeable differences among physical and mechanical properties of samples based on the crosslinker type. Epoxy-crosslinked scaffolds showed a higher capacity for water absorption and more uniform microstructures than the rest of crosslinked samples, whereas genipin and GTA-crosslinked scaffolds demonstrated higher mechanical strength. Cytotoxicity analysis showed the superior biocompatibility of the naturally occurring genipin in comparison with other synthetic crosslinking agents, in particular relative to GTA-crosslinked samples. - Highlights: • In-situ gas foaming application in the production of sponge-like gelatin structures • The crosslinkers molecular length impacts on the physical and mechanical properties of the structure. • The effect of crosslinkers on the biocompatibility of gelatin scaffolds

  11. Curcumin-Loaded Chitosan/Gelatin Composite Sponge for Wound Healing Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Cuong Nguyen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three composite sponges were made with 10% of curcumin and by using polymers, namely, chitosan and gelatin with various ratios. The chemical structure and morphology were evaluated by FTIR and SEM. These sponges were evaluated for water absorption capacity, antibacterial activity, in vitro drug release, and in vivo wound healing studies by excision wound model using rabbits. The in vivo study presented a greater wound closure in wounds treated with curcumin-composite sponge than those with composite sponge without curcumin and untreated group. These obtained results showed that combination of curcumin, chitosan and gelatin could improve the wound healing activity in comparison to chitosan, and gelatin without curcumin.

  12. Preparation of biodegradable gelatin/PVA porous scaffolds for skin regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnama, Hossein; Dadbin, Susan; Frounchi, Masoud; Rajabi, Sareh

    2017-08-01

    Porous scaffolds composed of gelatin/poly (vinyl alcohol), (Gel/PVA), were prepared using combination of freeze gelation and freeze drying methods. The effect of polymer concentration, gelatin/PVA ratio, and glutaraldehyde/gelatin ratio (GA/Gel) was investigated on morphology of pores, swelling ratio, biodegradation, and skin cell culture. At optimum preparation conditions the scaffolds had uniform pore size distributions showing high swelling ratio of 23.6. The scaffolds were of biodegradable nature and almost degraded in 28 days. Human dermal fibroblast cells (HDF) were cultured on the scaffolds and MTS assay was conducted to evaluate the influence of PVA on growth and proliferation of the cells.

  13. Association of saponins in water and water-gelatine mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarnthein-Graf, Carlo; La Mesa, Camillo

    2004-08-15

    The solution properties of a commercial saponin obtained from Quillaja Bark (QBS), have been investigated in a wide range of experimental conditions in water and in the presence of moderate amounts of porcine skin gelatine, GEL. Saponins are surface active and form micelles at very low concentration. Significant changes in the solution dielectric properties are concomitant to micelle formation. The combination of thermodynamic, spectroscopic, transport and dielectric methods characterises the micelle formation, giving information on interactions between the components. NMR relaxation times, NMR self-diffusion and dielectric measurements were used. Micelle aggregation numbers, inferred from light scattering, indicate the formation of relatively large aggregates. No evidence for interactions between protein and surfactant was obtained. This is presumably due to the limited ionisation of acidic groups on the surfactant, which does not allow significant electrostatic binding with the protein.

  14. Association of saponins in water and water-gelatine mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarnthein-Graf, Carlo; La Mesa, Camillo

    2004-01-01

    The solution properties of a commercial saponin obtained from Quillaja Bark (QBS), have been investigated in a wide range of experimental conditions in water and in the presence of moderate amounts of porcine skin gelatine, GEL. Saponins are surface active and form micelles at very low concentration. Significant changes in the solution dielectric properties are concomitant to micelle formation. The combination of thermodynamic, spectroscopic, transport and dielectric methods characterises the micelle formation, giving information on interactions between the components. NMR relaxation times, NMR self-diffusion and dielectric measurements were used. Micelle aggregation numbers, inferred from light scattering, indicate the formation of relatively large aggregates. No evidence for interactions between protein and surfactant was obtained. This is presumably due to the limited ionisation of acidic groups on the surfactant, which does not allow significant electrostatic binding with the protein

  15. 3D printing process of oxidized nanocellulose and gelatin scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaodong; Zhou, Jiping; Jiang, Yani; Zhang, Qi; Shi, Hongcan; Liu, Dongfang

    2018-08-01

    For tissue engineering applications tissue scaffolds need to have a porous structure to meet the needs of cell proliferation/differentiation, vascularisation and sufficient mechanical strength for the specific tissue. Here we report the results of a study of the 3D printing process for composite materials based on oxidized nanocellulose and gelatin, that was optimised through measuring rheological properties of different batches of materials after different crosslinking times, simulation of the pneumatic extrusion process and 3D scaffolds fabrication with Solidworks Flow Simulation, observation of its porous structure by SEM, measurement of pressure-pull performance, and experiments aimed at finding out the vitro cytotoxicity and cell morphology. The materials printed are highly porous scaffolds with good mechanical properties.

  16. Selective flotation of PVC using gelatin and lignin alkali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenial, Unzile; Kangal, Olgaç; Güney, Ali

    2013-06-01

    Recycling has become one of the most important issues as a result of increasing waste mass in present day. This is especially important for polymer wastes as they are hard to degenerate in nature. Today, most of the practical methods used for the recycling of waste mass, such as hand sorting, gravity separation, etc., cannot be performed successfully owing to close densities of polymers. Froth flotation can be used successfully and economically for this purpose. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of plasticizer reagents and the success of froth flotation at plastic recycling. In this study, lignin alkali and gelatin were used as plasticizer reagents. The effect of these reagents was searched with the parameters of pH, concentration, conditioning and flotation time. In the case of post-consumed polyethylene terephthalate and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 98.9% purity of PVC was obtained at optimum conditions.

  17. Electrical Characterization and Modeling of a Gelatin/Graphene System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Landi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A gelatin/graphene composite has been analyzed by means of current density-voltage and the electrical impedance measurements. The DC electrical behavior has been interpreted in terms of an equivalent Thévenin model taking into account the open circuit voltage and the series resistance. A model based on the effect of the electrical double layer and on the diffusion of the charge carriers is used for the analysis of the experimental data, obtained in the frequency domain. The model reveals for any applied voltages a marked diffusion process at low frequencies. In particular, where the charge transfer mechanism is dominant, the time distribution of the reaction rates reveals that several multiple step reactions occur in the materials, especially at high values of the applied forward bias voltages.

  18. Gelatin methacrylamide as coating material in cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Michael; Tovar, Günter E M; Hoch, Eva; Southan, Alexander

    2016-06-13

    Unmodified gelatin (uG) is widely used as a coating material in cell culture for improving surface properties. In this study, the authors investigated if gelatin methacrylamide (GM) with a medium degree of methacrylamide modification (GM1.5) and a high degree of methacrylamide modification (GM4) are equally suitable for this purpose. Therefore, gold surfaces were coated with uG, GM1.5, and GM4 by adsorption of the polymers on the surfaces. Coating success was confirmed by spectroscopic ellipsometry, contact angle measurements, surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPRS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The authors found that upon adsorption of uG, GM1.5, a nd GM4 on gold, thin films with thicknesses of 2.95 nm, 2.50 nm, and 2.26 nm were formed. The coated surfaces showed advancing contact angles of 46° (uG and GM1.5) and 52° (GM4) without alteration of the surface roughness determined by AFM. Protein adsorption taking place on the coated surfaces was measured during contact of the surfaces with fetal calf serum by SPRS. Protein adsorption on the coated surfaces was reduced by the factor of 6.4 (uG), 5.4 (GM1.5), and 4.6 (GM4) compared to gold surfaces. Human fibroblasts cultured on the surfaces showed excellent viability shown by water soluble tetrazolium salt assay as well as live/dead staining with propidium iodide and fluorescein diacetate. No cytotoxic effects of the GM coated surfaces were observed, giving rise to the conclusion that GMs are suitable materials as coatings in cell culture.

  19. Cellularized Bilayer Pullulan-Gelatin Hydrogel for Skin Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Mathew N; Jeschke, Marc G; Amini-Nik, Saeid

    2016-05-01

    Skin substitutes significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality of patients with burn injuries and chronic wounds. However, current skin substitutes have disadvantages related to high costs and inadequate skin regeneration due to highly inflammatory wounds. Thus, new skin substitutes are needed. By combining two polymers, pullulan, an inexpensive polysaccharide with antioxidant properties, and gelatin, a derivative of collagen with high water absorbency, we created a novel inexpensive hydrogel-named PG-1 for "pullulan-gelatin first generation hydrogel"-suitable for skin substitutes. After incorporating human fibroblasts and keratinocytes onto PG-1 using centrifugation over 5 days, we created a cellularized bilayer skin substitute. Cellularized PG-1 was compared to acellular PG-1 and no hydrogel (control) in vivo in a mouse excisional skin biopsy model using newly developed dome inserts to house the skin substitutes and prevent mouse skin contraction during wound healing. PG-1 had an average pore size of 61.69 μm with an ideal elastic modulus, swelling behavior, and biodegradability for use as a hydrogel for skin substitutes. Excellent skin cell viability, proliferation, differentiation, and morphology were visualized through live/dead assays, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine proliferation assays, and confocal microscopy. Trichrome and immunohistochemical staining of excisional wounds treated with the cellularized skin substitute revealed thicker newly formed skin with a higher proportion of actively proliferating cells and incorporation of human cells compared to acellular PG-1 or control. Excisional wounds treated with acellular or cellularized hydrogels showed significantly less macrophage infiltration and increased angiogenesis 14 days post skin biopsy compared to control. These results show that PG-1 has ideal mechanical characteristics and allows ideal cellular characteristics. In vivo evidence suggests that cellularized PG-1 promotes skin regeneration and may

  20. Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources Elektronik Kaynakların Seçimi ve Değerlendirilmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Atılgan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined. İkinci dünya savaşından sonra görülen yayın patlaması, basılı kaynakların denetim ve erişiminde sorunlar yaşanmasına neden olmuştur. Bu da yayıncılık sektöründe yeni arayışlara yol açmıştır. 1980’li yıllardan sonra basılı yayın fiyatlarındaki hızlı artış da bu etmenlere eklenince elektronik yayıncılık sektörü gelişmeye başlamıştır. Öncelikle bilimsel ve akademik yayınlarla başlayan elektronik yayın günümüzde tüm yayın türlerini kapsamaktadır. Yayıncılıktaki bu gelişim bilgi merkezlerinin derme geliştirme ve hizmet politikalarını da önemli ölçüde değiştirmiştir. Bu çalışmada elektronik yayınların seçim, değerlendirme ve sağlama konularında genel bir girişten sonra bir devlet üniversitesinin bir de özel üniversitenin abone olduğu veritabanları ve bu veri tabanlarının kullanımının değerlendirilmesi yapılmaktadır.

  1. Dynamic Load Measurement of Ballistic Gelatin Impact Using an Instrumented Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidt, J. D.; Periira, J. M.; Hammer, J. T.; Gilat, A.; Ruggeri, C. R.

    2012-01-01

    Bird strikes are a common problem for the aerospace industry and can cause serious damage to an aircraft. Ballistic gelatin is frequently used as a surrogate for actual bird carcasses in bird strike tests. Numerical simulations of these tests are used to supplement experimental data, therefore it is necessary to use numerical modeling techniques that can accurately capture the dynamic response of ballistic gelatin. An experimental technique is introduced to validate these modeling techniques. A ballistic gelatin projectile is fired into a strike plate attached to a 36 in. long sensor tube. Dynamic load is measured at two locations relative to the strike plate using strain gages configured in a full Wheatstone bridge. Data from these experiments are used to validate a gelatin constitutive model. Simulations of the apparatus are analyzed to investigate its performance.

  2. A gelatin composite scaffold strengthened by drug-loaded halloysite nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Lijun; Qiao, Wei; Zhang, Yuheng; Wu, Huayu; Miao, Shiyong; Cheng, Zhilin; Gong, Qianming; Liang, Ji; Zhu, Aiping

    2017-09-01

    Mechanical properties and anti-infection are two of the most concerned issues for artificial bone grafting materials. Bone regeneration porous scaffolds with sustained drug release were developed by freeze-drying the mixture of nanosized drug-loaded halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) and gelatin. The scaffolds showed porous structure and excellent biocompatibility. The mechanical properties of the obtained composite scaffolds were enhanced significantly by HNTs to >300%, comparing to those of gelatin scaffold, and match to those of natural cancellous bones. The ibuprofen-loaded HNTs incorporated in the scaffolds allowed extended drug release over 100h, comparing to 8h when directly mixed the drug into the gelatin scaffold. The biological properties of the composite scaffolds were investigated by culturing MG63 cells on them. The HNTs/gelatin scaffolds with excellent mechanical properties and sustained drug release could be a promising artificial bone grating material. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sodium alginate/gelatin with silica nanoparticles a novel hydrogel for 3D printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Raghav; Roopavath, Uday Kiran; Mahanta, Urbashi; Deshpande, A. S.; Rath, S. N.

    2018-05-01

    Sodium alginate/gelatin hydrogels are promising materials for 3D bio-printing due to its good biocompatibility and biodegradability. Gelatin is used for thermal crosslinking and its cell adhesion properties. Hence patient specific sodium alginate/gelatin hydrogel scaffolds can be bio-fabricated in a temperature range of 4-14 oC. In this study we made an attempt to introduce silica (SiO2) nanoparticles in the polymer network of sodium alginate (2.5%)/gelatin (8%) hydrogel at different concentrations (w/v) as 0%, 1.25%, 2.5%, 5%, and 7.5%. The effect of silica nanoparticles on viscosity, swelling behavior, and degradation rate are analyzed. Hydrogels with 5% silica nanoparticles show significantly less swelling and degradation when compared to other concentrations. The viscosity of the hydrogels gradually increases up to 5% addition of silica nanoparticles enhancing the stability of 3D printed structures.

  4. Enzyme immunoassay for the detection of porcine gelatine in edible bird's nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukiran, Nur Azira; Ismail, Amin; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Hamid, Muhajir

    2015-01-01

    Porcine gelatine is a common adulterant found in edible bird's nests (EBNs) used to increase the net weight prior to sale. This study aimed to develop indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for porcine gelatine adulteration using anti-peptide polyclonal antibodies. Three indirect ELISAs were developed (PAB1, 2 and 3), which had limits of detection (LODs) of 0.12, 0.10 and 0.11 µg g(-1), respectively. When applied to standard solutions of porcine gelatine, the inter- and intra-assays showed coefficients of variation (CVs) less than 20% and were able to detect at least 0.5 ng µg(-1) (0.05%) porcine gelatine in spiked samples. The proposed ELISA offers attractions for quality control in the EBN industry.

  5. Algorithms Development in Detection of the Gelatinization Process during Enzymatic ‘Dodol’ Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman Hamzah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Computer vision systems have found wide application in foods processing industry to perform quality evaluation. The systems enable to replace human inspectors for the evaluation of a variety of quality attributes. This paper describes the implementation of the Fast Fourier Transform and Kalman filtering algorithms to detect the glutinous rice flour slurry (GRFS gelatinization in an enzymatic „dodol. processing. The onset of the GRFS gelatinization is critical in determining the quality of an enzymatic „dodol.. Combinations of these two algorithms were able to detect the gelatinization of the GRFS. The result shows that the gelatinization of the GRFS was at the time range of 11.75 minutes to 14.75 minutes for 24 batches of processing. This paper will highlight the capability of computer vision using our proposed algorithms in monitoring and controlling of an enzymatic „dodol. processing via image processing technology.

  6. New polymeric formulation for control of biomphalaria Alexandria based on pharmaceutical waste gelatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenawy, E.; El-Maghraby, A.

    2005-01-01

    In the recent years, important new areas of application for plastics have emerged in medicine such as devices for the controlled release of drugs. The increases in the use of plastic materials in all sectors of industry have led to a continuous increase in the generation of plastic wastes. Recycling allow the waste to be reintroduced into the consumption cycle. Pharmaceutical companies which manufacture soft gels with different shapes, sizes and colors based mainly on gelatin formulations produce huge amount of gelatin waste. Schistosomiasis is one of the most important public health problems in our country. We now report the utilization of gelatin scrap by incorporating them in biodegradable films containing the molluscicide niclosamide for control of Biomphalaria Alexandrina snails. The preparation of the gelatin films will be described. The release of niclosamide from the prepared blends was investigated. The prepared formulations proved to be useful compared with free niclosamide

  7. [Use of "gelatamp" colloidal silver gelatin sponge to prevent dry socket after extracting mandibular impacted teeth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao-zhong; Guan, Qun-li; Li, Ya-xin; Guo, Ji-lai; Jiang, Ling; Jia, Mu-yun; Deng, Yue

    2013-02-01

    To study the clinical effect of "gelatamp" colloidal silver gelatin sponge on preventing dry socket after extracting the mandibular impacted teeth. 1350 teeth extracted from 976 patients who needed to extract the mandibular impacted teeth were divided into group A, group B and group C randomly. "Gelatamp" colloidal silver gelatin sponge was implanted into alveolar socket after teeth extraction in group A, with absorbable gelatin sponge was implanted into alveolar socket in group B and nothing was implanted into alveolar socket in group C. The incidence of dry socket was observed, the data was analyzed using SPSS10.0 software package. The incidence of dry socket was 0.44% in group A, 2% in group B and 4.44% in group C. There was significant difference in the incidence of dry socket between group A and group C(Pcolloidal silver gelatin sponge can prevent the occurrence of dry socket after teeth extraction, which is of wide clinical use.

  8. Determination of the gelatinization temperature of starch presented in maize flours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coral, D F; Pineda-Gomez, P; Rosales-Rivera, A [Laboratorio de Magnetismo y Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Manizales, Caldas (Colombia); Rodriguez-Garcia, M E, E-mail: dfcoralc@unal.edu.c [Departamento de Nanotecnologia, Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, UNAM, Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    A study of the influence of the moisture and the grain size on the gelatinization temperature (Tp1) of starch from four industrial maize flours as well as an unprocessed maize sample is presented. The gelatinization is a phase transition that can be observed using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), and it is manifest as an endothermic peak in the DSC thermogram. Results show that for 60, 65, 70 and 75% of moisture, the endothermic peak temperature increases from 70 to 75 deg. C when the moisture increases, and decrease when the grain size increases from 250 to 420mum. A study of the gelatinization enthalpy (DELTAHp) is also presented, this is related with the gelatinized starch present in the sample. The enthalpy decrease when the moisture increases and it decrease when grain size is increased.

  9. Algorithms Development in Detection of the Gelatinization Process during Enzymatic ‘Dodol’ Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman Hamzah

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Computer vision systems have found wide application in foods processing industry to perform the quality evaluation. The systems enable to replace human inspectors for the evaluation of a variety of quality attributes. This paper describes the implementation of the Fast Fourier Transform and Kalman filtering algorithms to detect the glutinous rice flour slurry (GRFS gelatinization in an enzymatic ‘dodol’ processing. The onset of the GRFS gelatinization is critical in determining the quality of an enzymatic ‘dodol’. Combinations of these two algorithms were able to detect the gelatinization of the GRFS. The result shows that the gelatinization of the GRFS was at the time range of 11.75 minutes to 15.33 minutes for 20 batches of processing. This paper will highlight the capability of computer vision using our proposed algorithms in monitoring and controlling of an enzymatic ‘dodol’ processing via image processing technology.

  10. Electrophoretic Ink Display Prepared by Jelly Fig Pectin/Gelatin Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing-Ming Chou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A brand new Bio-Electronic ink (Bio-E ink display device was prepared and characterized in this study. Semiconductor material, copper phthalocyanine (CuPc was modified by cationic surfactants, cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC, as the core material, and the shell of capsule was prepared by jelly fig pectin, gelatin and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS. Here, jelly fig pectin was provided as the shell material for the first time. Chemical structure of the modified CuPc was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR. The core-shell microcapsules were achieved by coacervation method in an oil/water (O/W emulsion system. The particle size and morphology of microcapsules were affected by the concentrations of SDS and pH values of the O/W emulsion system. A new microcapsule-based electrophoretic display device was presented. Its image display ability of the microcapsules electrophoretic device was presented as appropriated electric power was applied, and the response time was 0.06 sec under 0.1 V/mm of electric field. Moreover, we found that its image contrast ratio of display device was influenced by the particle sizes of the microcapsules.

  11. In vitro cartilage tissue engineering using cancellous bone matrix gelatin as a biodegradable scaffold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bo; Yin Zhanhai; Cao Junling; Shi Zhongli; Zhang Zengtie; Liu Fuqiang; Song Hongxing; Caterson, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we constructed tissue-engineered cartilage using allogeneic cancellous bone matrix gelatin (BMG) as a scaffold. Allogeneic BMG was prepared by sequential defatting, demineralization and denaturation. Isolated rabbit chondrocytes were seeded onto allogeneic cancellous BMG, and cell-BMG constructs were harvested after 1, 3 and 6 weeks for evaluation by hematoxylin and eosin staining for overall morphology, toluidine blue for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteoglycans, immunohistochemical staining for collagen type II and a transmission electron microscope for examining cellular microstructure on BMG. The prepared BMG was highly porous with mechanical strength adjustable by duration of demineralization and was easily trimmed for tissue repair. Cancellous BMG showed favorable porosity for cell habitation and metabolism material exchange with larger pore sizes (100-500 μm) than in cortical BMG (5-15 μm), allowing cell penetration. Cancellous BMG also showed good biocompatibility, which supported chondrocyte proliferation and sustained their differentiated phenotype in culture for up to 6 weeks. Rich and evenly distributed cartilage ECM proteoglycans and collagen type II were observed around chondrocytes on the surface and inside the pores throughout the cancellous BMG. Considering the large supply of banked bone allografts and relatively convenient preparation, our study suggests that allogeneic cancellous BMG is a promising scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering.

  12. Effect of Fabrication Process Parameters on the Size of Gelatin/Nanohydroxyapatite Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bagheri-Khoulenjani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nano-hydroxyapatite/gelatin (nHA/Ge microspheres are currently used in bone tissue engineering as bone filler. In this  study, the effect of fabrication process parameters on the particle size of nano-hydroxyapatite/gelatinmicrospheres was investigated. The nHA/Ge microspheres were fabricated using water in oil emulsion. In order to design an experimental design, a surface response model with 2 factors including the rate of shaking and water to oil volume ratio in 3 levels was applied. Particle size was evaluated by using an optical microscope. The morphology of microspheres and distribution of nano-particles within the microspheres were studied by using scanning electron microscope and Ca elemental map obtained from energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX, respectively. Statistical analysis of the results obtained from particle size measurements revealed that the rate of shaking has stronger influence on the particle size of microspheres. Morphological studies showed that the fabricated microspheres were spherical with smooth surface. Ca elemental map of the microspheres showed that nano-hydroxyapatite particles distributed uniformly within the microspheres.

  13. Chitosan and Nanohydroxyapatite Roles in Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Gelatin/Chitosan/Nanohydroxyapatite Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bagheri-Khoulenjani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of chitosan/biopolymer (C/P and nanohydroxyapatite/ biopolymer (nHA/P weight ratios on particle size and its uniformity, cross-linking density and NH2 content of nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan/gelatin (nHA/C/G microspheres were investigated. Microspheres were fabricated using water-in-oil emulsion. Cross-linking of microspheres was performed using water soluble carbodiimide. Particle size and its uniformity were evaluated using an optical microscope. The morphology of microspheres was studied by scanning electron microscopy. The obtained data from particle size measurements revealed that increments in C/P ratio increased the particle size while reducing its uniformity, and increased the NH2 content and cross linking density of the microspheres. It was shown that incremental increase in nHA/P ratio increased the particle size and its uniformity and reduced the NH2 content and cross-linking density of the microspheres.Morphological studies showed that the fabricated microspheres had spherical shape in medium level of C/P ratio and nHA/P ratio. However, increasing in chitosan/biopolymer ratio induced some micro-cracks into the structure of microspheres.

  14. Preparation and Properties of Nano-Hydroxyapatite/Gelatin/Poly(vinyl alcohol) Composite Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Haotian; Shi, Kun; Peng, Jinrong; Qu, Ying; Liao, Jinfeng; Qian, Zhiyong

    2015-06-01

    In this study, the bone-like composite membrane based on blends of gelatin (Gel), nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) was fabricated by solvent casting and evaporation methods. The effect of n-HA content and the ratio of Gel/PVA on the properties of the composite was investigated. The Gel/PVA and n-HA/Gel/PVA composite membranes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), water contact angle measurement and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical properties of the composites were determined by tensile tests. The as prepared composite membranes exhibited hydrophobility, the water contact angle of composite membrane was 126.6 when its mass ratio of n-HA/Gel/PVA was 10/50/40. The tensile strength of composite membranes was greatly increased due to the introduction of n-HA, and the tensile strength was increased to 74.92 MPa when the mass ratio of n-HA/Gel/PVA was 10/50/40. SEM observation indicated that n-HA was dispersed in the membranes and a sea-island structure was formed in the n-HA/Gel/PVA composite membranes, resulting in a significant increase in tensile strength. The as-prepared n-HA/Gel/PVA composite membranes may be applied in the field of bone tissue engineering.

  15. In vitro study of nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan–gelatin composites for bio-applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled R. Mohamed

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to study the in vitro properties of nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan–gelatin composite materials. In vitro behavior was performed in simulated body fluid (SBF to verify the formation of apatite layer onto the composite surfaces. The in vitro data proved the deposition of calcium and phosphorus ions onto hydroxyapatite /polymeric composite surfaces especially those containing high concentrations of polymer content. The degradation of the composites decreased with increase in the polymeric matrix content and highly decreased in the presence of citric acid (CA, especially these composites which contain 30% polymeric content. The water absorption of the composites increased with increase in the polymeric content and highly increased with CA addition. The Fourier transformed infrared reflectance (FT-IR and scanning electron microscope (SEM for the composites confirmed the formation of bone-like apatite layer on the composite surfaces, especially those containing high content of polymers (30% with 0.2 M of CA. These promising composites have suitable properties for bio-applications such as bone grafting and bone tissue engineering applications in the future.

  16. Composite films from pectin and fish skin gelatin or soybean flour protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, LinShu; Liu, Cheng-Kung; Fishman, Marshall L; Hicks, Kevin B

    2007-03-21

    Composite films were prepared from pectin and fish skin gelatin (FSG) or pectin and soybean flour protein (SFP). The inclusion of protein promoted molecular interactions, resulting in a well-organized homogeneous structure, as revealed by scanning electron microscopy and fracture-acoustic emission analysis. The resultant composite films showed an increase in stiffness and strength and a decrease in water solubility and water vapor transmission rate, in comparison with films cast from pectin alone. The composite films inherited the elastic nature of proteins, thus being more flexible than the pure pectin films. Treating the composite films with glutaraldehyde/methanol induced chemical cross-linking with the proteins and reduced the interstitial spaces among the macromolecules and, consequently, improved their mechanical properties and water resistance. Treating the protein-free pectin films with glutaraldehyde/methanol also improved the Young's modulus and tensile strength, but showed little effect on the water resistance, because the treatment caused only dehydration of the pectin films and the dehydration is reversible. The composite films were biodegradable and possessed moderate mechanical properties and a low water vapor transmission rate. Therefore, the films are considered to have potential applications as packaging or coating materials for food or drug industries.

  17. Dual Cross-Linked Carboxymethyl Sago Pulp-Gelatine Complex Coacervates for Sustained Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Muniyandy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we report for the first time the complex coacervation of carboxymethyl sago pulp (CMSP with gelatine for sustained drug delivery. Toluene saturated with glutaraldehyde and aqueous aluminum chloride was employed as cross-linkers. Measurements of zeta potential confirm neutralization of two oppositely charged colloids due to complexation, which was further supported by infrared spectroscopy. The coacervates encapsulated a model drug ibuprofen and formed microcapsules with a loading of 29%–56% w/w and an entrapment efficiency of 85%–93% w/w. Fresh coacervates loaded with drug had an average diameter of 10.8 ± 1.93 µm (n = 3 ± s.d.. The coacervates could encapsulate only the micronized form of ibuprofen in the absence of surfactant. Analysis through an optical microscope evidenced the encapsulation of the drug in wet spherical coacervates. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the non-spherical geometry and surface roughness of dried drug-loaded microcapsules. X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and thermal analysis confirmed intact and crystalline ibuprofen in the coacervates. Gas chromatography indicated the absence of residual glutaraldehyde in the microcapsules. Dual cross-linked microcapsules exhibited a slower release than mono-cross-linked microcapsules and could sustain the drug release over the period of 6 h following Fickian diffusion.

  18. Gelatine/PLLA sponge-like scaffolds: morphological and biological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Luigi; Cascone, Maria Grazia; Danti, Serena; Serino, Lorenzo Pio; Moscato, Stefania; Bernardini, Nunzia

    2007-07-01

    Biodegradable synthetic polymers such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA) are widely used to prepare scaffolds for cell transplantation and tissue growth, using different techniques set up for the purpose. However the poor hydrophilicity of these polymers represents the main limitation to their use as scaffolds because it causes a low affinity for the cells. An effective way to solve this problem could be represented by the addition of biopolymers that are in general highly hydrophilic. The present work concerns porous biodegradable sponge-like systems based on poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and gelatine. Morphology and porosity characteristics of the sponges were studied by scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry respectively. Blood compatibility was investigated by bovine plasma fibrinogen (BPF) adsorption test and platelet adhesion test (PAT). The cell culture method was used in order to evaluate the ability of the matrices to work as scaffolds for tissue regeneration. The obtained results indicate that the sponges have interesting porous characteristics, good blood compatibility and above all good ability to support cell adhesion and growth. In fact viable and metabolically active animal cells were found inside the sponges after 8 weeks in culture. On this basis the systems produced seem to be good candidates as scaffolds for tissue regeneration.

  19. Biomimetic formation of apatite on the surface of porous gelatin/bioactive glass nanocomposite scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozafari, Masoud, E-mail: mmozafari@aut.ac.ir [Biomaterials Group, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering (Center of Excellence), Amirkabir University of Technology, PO Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rabiee, Mohammad; Azami, Mahmoud; Maleknia, Saied [Biomaterials Group, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering (Center of Excellence), Amirkabir University of Technology, PO Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    There have been several attempts to combine bioactive glasses (BaGs) with biodegradable polymers to create a scaffold material with excellent biocompatibility, bioactivity, biodegradability and toughness. In the present study, the nanocomposite scaffolds with compositions based on gelatin (Gel) and BaG nanoparticles in the ternary SiO{sub 2}-CaO-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} system were prepared. In vitro evaluations of the nanocomposite scaffolds were performed, and for investigating their bioactive capacity these scaffolds were soaked in a simulated body fluid (SBF) at different time intervals. The scaffolds showed significant enhancement in bioactivity within few days of immersion in SBF solution. The apatite formation at the surface of the nanocomposite samples confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analyses. In vitro experiments with osteoblast cells indicated an appropriate penetration of the cells into the scaffold's pores, and also the continuous increase in cell aggregation on the bioactive scaffolds with increase in the incubation time demonstrated the ability of the scaffolds to support cell growth. The SEM observations revealed that the prepared scaffolds were porous with three dimensional (3D) and interconnected microstructure, pore size was 200-500 {mu}m and the porosity was 72-86%. The nanocomposite scaffold made from Gel and BaG nanoparticles could be considered as a highly bioactive and potential bone tissue engineering implant.

  20. Biomimetic formation of apatite on the surface of porous gelatin/bioactive glass nanocomposite scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozafari, Masoud; Rabiee, Mohammad; Azami, Mahmoud; Maleknia, Saied

    2010-12-01

    There have been several attempts to combine bioactive glasses (BaGs) with biodegradable polymers to create a scaffold material with excellent biocompatibility, bioactivity, biodegradability and toughness. In the present study, the nanocomposite scaffolds with compositions based on gelatin (Gel) and BaG nanoparticles in the ternary SiO 2-CaO-P 2O 5 system were prepared. In vitro evaluations of the nanocomposite scaffolds were performed, and for investigating their bioactive capacity these scaffolds were soaked in a simulated body fluid (SBF) at different time intervals. The scaffolds showed significant enhancement in bioactivity within few days of immersion in SBF solution. The apatite formation at the surface of the nanocomposite samples confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analyses. In vitro experiments with osteoblast cells indicated an appropriate penetration of the cells into the scaffold's pores, and also the continuous increase in cell aggregation on the bioactive scaffolds with increase in the incubation time demonstrated the ability of the scaffolds to support cell growth. The SEM observations revealed that the prepared scaffolds were porous with three dimensional (3D) and interconnected microstructure, pore size was 200-500 μm and the porosity was 72-86%. The nanocomposite scaffold made from Gel and BaG nanoparticles could be considered as a highly bioactive and potential bone tissue engineering implant.

  1. Biomimetic formation of apatite on the surface of porous gelatin/bioactive glass nanocomposite scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozafari, Masoud; Rabiee, Mohammad; Azami, Mahmoud; Maleknia, Saied

    2010-01-01

    There have been several attempts to combine bioactive glasses (BaGs) with biodegradable polymers to create a scaffold material with excellent biocompatibility, bioactivity, biodegradability and toughness. In the present study, the nanocomposite scaffolds with compositions based on gelatin (Gel) and BaG nanoparticles in the ternary SiO 2 -CaO-P 2 O 5 system were prepared. In vitro evaluations of the nanocomposite scaffolds were performed, and for investigating their bioactive capacity these scaffolds were soaked in a simulated body fluid (SBF) at different time intervals. The scaffolds showed significant enhancement in bioactivity within few days of immersion in SBF solution. The apatite formation at the surface of the nanocomposite samples confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analyses. In vitro experiments with osteoblast cells indicated an appropriate penetration of the cells into the scaffold's pores, and also the continuous increase in cell aggregation on the bioactive scaffolds with increase in the incubation time demonstrated the ability of the scaffolds to support cell growth. The SEM observations revealed that the prepared scaffolds were porous with three dimensional (3D) and interconnected microstructure, pore size was 200-500 μm and the porosity was 72-86%. The nanocomposite scaffold made from Gel and BaG nanoparticles could be considered as a highly bioactive and potential bone tissue engineering implant.

  2. Evaluation of released malathion and spinosad from chitosan/alginate/gelatin capsules against Culex pipiens larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badawy MEI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed EI Badawy,1 Nehad EM Taktak,2 Osama M Awad,2 Souraya A Elfiki,2 Nadia E Abou El-Ela2 1Department of Pesticide Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, 2Department of Tropical Health, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt Abstract: Efficacy of spinosad and malathion loaded in eco-friendly biodegradable formulations was evaluated for controlling Culex pipiens larvae. Malathion (organophosphorus larvicide and spinosad (naturally derived insecticide were loaded on chitosan/alginate/gelatin capsules. Capsules were characterized by size measurement, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and water uptake. In vitro release kinetics of the larvicides was studied in the running and stagnant water. Biochemical studies on the larvae treated with technical and formulated insecticides were also demonstrated. The results indicated that the released spinosad was active for a long time up to 48 and 211 days in the running and stagnant water, respectively. However, the capsules loaded with malathion showed larvicidal activity for 20 and 27 days in the running and stagnant water, respectively. Technical and formulated malathion and spinosad had an inhibition effect on acetylcholinesterase, carboxylesterase, and glutathione S-transferase. The results proved that the prepared capsules consisting of biodegradable polymers containing larvicides could be effective as controlled-release formulation against C. pipiens larvae for a long period. Keywords: chitosan capsules, larvicide, controlled-release formulation, swelling, mosquitocidal activity, Culex pipiens, biochemical study

  3. In vitro cartilage tissue engineering using cancellous bone matrix gelatin as a biodegradable scaffold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Bo; Yin Zhanhai; Cao Junling; Shi Zhongli; Zhang Zengtie; Liu Fuqiang [College of Medicine, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Yanta West Road, No 76, Yanta District, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710061 (China); Song Hongxing [Department of Orthopedics, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Caterson, Bruce, E-mail: caojl@mail.xjtu.edu.c [Connective Tissue Biology Laboratories, Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Biomedical Building, Museum Avenue, Cardiff, CF10 3US (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-01

    In this study, we constructed tissue-engineered cartilage using allogeneic cancellous bone matrix gelatin (BMG) as a scaffold. Allogeneic BMG was prepared by sequential defatting, demineralization and denaturation. Isolated rabbit chondrocytes were seeded onto allogeneic cancellous BMG, and cell-BMG constructs were harvested after 1, 3 and 6 weeks for evaluation by hematoxylin and eosin staining for overall morphology, toluidine blue for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteoglycans, immunohistochemical staining for collagen type II and a transmission electron microscope for examining cellular microstructure on BMG. The prepared BMG was highly porous with mechanical strength adjustable by duration of demineralization and was easily trimmed for tissue repair. Cancellous BMG showed favorable porosity for cell habitation and metabolism material exchange with larger pore sizes (100-500 {mu}m) than in cortical BMG (5-15 {mu}m), allowing cell penetration. Cancellous BMG also showed good biocompatibility, which supported chondrocyte proliferation and sustained their differentiated phenotype in culture for up to 6 weeks. Rich and evenly distributed cartilage ECM proteoglycans and collagen type II were observed around chondrocytes on the surface and inside the pores throughout the cancellous BMG. Considering the large supply of banked bone allografts and relatively convenient preparation, our study suggests that allogeneic cancellous BMG is a promising scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering.

  4. Utility of the electronic information resource UpToDate for clinical decision-making at bedside rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, J; See, K C; Khalizah, H J; Low, S P; Lim, T K

    2012-02-01

    Clinical questions often arise at daily hospital bedside rounds. Yet, little information exists on how the search for answers may be facilitated. The aim of this prospective study was, therefore, to evaluate the overall utility, including the feasibility and usefulness of incorporating searches of UpToDate, a popular online information resource, into rounds. Doctors searched UpToDate for any unresolved clinical questions during rounds for patients in general medicine and respiratory wards, and in the medical intensive care unit of a tertiary teaching hospital. The nature of the questions and the results of the searches were recorded. Searches were deemed feasible if they were completed during the rounds and useful if they provided a satisfactory answer. A total of 157 UpToDate searches were performed during the study period. Questions were raised by all ranks of clinicians from junior doctors to consultants. The searches were feasible and performed immediately during rounds 44% of the time. Each search took a median of three minutes (first quartile: two minutes, third quartile: five minutes). UpToDate provided a useful and satisfactory answer 75% of the time, a partial answer 17% of the time and no answer 9% of the time. It led to a change in investigations, diagnosis or management 37% of the time, confirmed what was originally known or planned 38% of the time and had no effect 25% of the time. Incorporating UpToDate searches into daily bedside rounds was feasible and useful in clinical decision-making.

  5. Laser Fabrication of 3D Gelatin Scaffolds for the Generation of Bioartificial Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Wilhelmi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the two-photon polymerization (2PP technique was applied to develop precisely defined biodegradable 3D tissue engineering scaffolds. The scaffolds were fabricated via photopolymerization of gelatin modified with methacrylamide moieties. The results indicate that the gelatin derivative (GelMod preserves its enzymatic degradation capability after photopolymerization. In addition, the developed scaffolds using 2PP support primary adipose-derived stem cell (ASC adhesion, proliferation and differentiation into the anticipated lineage.

  6. A Non-destructive and Continuous Measurement of Gelatinization of Rice in Rice Cooking Process

    OpenAIRE

    Hagura, Yoshio; Suzuki, Kanichi

    2002-01-01

    A non-destructive and continuous method to measure gelatinization of rice samples in a rice-water system during rice cooking process was examined. An aluminum pot and a lid of a rice cooker were used as two electrode plates, and changes in dielectric properties (capacitance : C, and dielectric dissipation factor : tan δ) of the samples in the rice cooking process were measured by a capacitance meter. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to measure gelatinization enthalpy and to de...

  7. Influence of palm oil and glycerol on properties of fish skin gelatin-based films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsuwan, Krisana; Benjakul, Soottawat; Prodpran, Thummanoon

    2016-06-01

    Properties of fish skin gelatin film incorporated with palm oil at 50 and 75 % (w/w) as affected by glycerol at 0-30 % (w/w) were investigated. Increases in water vapour permeability and elongation at break along with decrease in tensile strength were noticed when levels of glycerol were increased (p fish skin gelatin films without drastic alteration of mechanical properties.

  8. EKSTRAKSI GELATIN DARI KAKI AYAM BROILER MELALUI BERBAGAI LARUTAN ASAM DAN BASA DENGAN VARIASI LAMA PERENDAMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rasyid Indrawan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gelatin is a biopolymer that can be obtained from partially hydrolysis of collagen present in skin, bone, and connective tissues of animals This study used chicken Broiler feet as a source of collagen. This study was conducted to determine the effect of soaking treatment with solution of acid and base, and with variety of soaking time. The solution used is HCl, CH3COOH, and NaOH with different concentration. The process of soaking followed by extraction, filtration, and drying to obtain a sheet of gelatin. Gelatin was analyzed qualitatively with chemical reaction. The best results of yield can be obtained from various methods of soaking given by HCl 2% for 2 days, CH3COOH 2% for 3 days, and NaOH 2% for 1 day. Keywords : Gelatin, Chicken feet Broiler’s, Acid-treated, Alkali-treated ABSTRAK Gelatin merupakan biopolimer yang biasanya diperoleh dari hidrolisis parsial kolagen jaringan kulit, tulang, dan jaringan ikat hewan. Penelitian ini menggunakan kaki ayam broiler sebagai sumber kolagen. Penelitian dilakukan untuk melihat pengaruh perlakuan perendaman kaki ayam broiler melalui berbagai larutan asam dan basa dengan variasi lama perendaman. Larutan yang digunakan yaitu HCl, CH3COOH, dan NaOH dengan berbagai konsentrasi. Proses perendaman dilanjutkan dengan ekstraksi, filtrasi, dan pengeringan untuk mendapatkan lembaran gelatin. Gelatin yang diperoleh dianalisis secara kualitatif melalui reaksi kimia. Hasil rendemen terbaik dapat diperoleh dari berbagai metode perendaman yaitu HCl 2% selama 2 hari, CH3COOH 2% selama 3 hari, dan NaOH 2% selama 1 hari. Kata Kunci : Gelatin, Kaki ayam Broiler, Metode asam, Metode basa

  9. Low density, microcellular, dopable, agar/gelatin foams for pulsed power experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNamara, W.F. [Orion International Technologies, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aubert, J.H. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Low-density, microcellular foams prepared from the natural polymers agar and gelatin have been developed for pulsed-power physics experiments. Numerous experiments were supported with foams having densities at or below 10 mg/cm{sup 3}. For some of the experiments, the agar/gelatin foam was uniformly doped with metallic elements using soluble salts. Depending on the method of preparation, cell sizes were typically below 10 microns and for one process were below 1.0 micron.

  10. Photonic band gap effect and structural color from silver nanoparticle gelatin emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Mang Hin; Ma, Rui; Lee, Jeffrey Chi Wai; Tam, Wing Yim; Chan, C. T.; Sheng, Ping; Cheah, Kok Wai

    2005-10-01

    We have fabricated planar structures of silver nanoparticles in monochromatic gelatin emulsion with a continuous spacing ranging from 0.15-0.40 micron using a two-beam interference of a single laser source. Our planar holograms display a colorful “rainbow” pattern and photonic bandgaps covering the visible and IR ranges. We model the planar silver nanoparticle-gelatin composite system using an effective medium approach and good agreement is obtained between theory and experiment.

  11. Gelatin- and starch-based hydrogels. Part A: Hydrogel development, characterization and coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nieuwenhove, Ine; Salamon, Achim; Peters, Kirsten; Graulus, Geert-Jan; Martins, José C; Frankel, Daniel; Kersemans, Ken; De Vos, Filip; Van Vlierberghe, Sandra; Dubruel, Peter

    2016-11-05

    The present work aims at constructing the ideal scaffold matrix of which the physico-chemical properties can be altered according to the targeted tissue regeneration application. Ideally, this scaffold should resemble the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) as close as possible both in terms of chemical composition and mechanical properties. Therefore, hydrogel films were developed consisting of methacrylamide-modified gelatin and starch-pentenoate building blocks because the ECM can be considered as a crosslinked hydrogel network consisting of both polysaccharides and structural, signaling and cell-adhesive proteins. For the gelatin hydrogels, three different substitution degrees were evaluated including 31%, 72% and 95%. A substitution degree of 32% was applied for the starch-pentenoate building block. Pure gelatin hydrogels films as well as interpenetrating networks with gelatin and starch were developed. Subsequently, these films were characterized using gel fraction and swelling experiments, high resolution-magic angle spinning (1)H NMR spectroscopy, rheology, infrared mapping and atomic force microscopy. The results indicate that both the mechanical properties and the swelling extent of the developed hydrogel films can be controlled by varying the chemical composition and the degree of substitution of the methacrylamide-modified gelatin applied. The storage moduli of the developed materials ranged between 14 and 63kPa. Phase separation was observed for the IPNs for which separated starch domains could be distinguished located in the surrounding gelatin matrix. Furthermore, we evaluated the affinity of aggrecan for gelatin by atomic force microscopy and radiolabeling experiments. We found that aggrecan can be applied as a bioactive coating for gelatin hydrogels by a straightforward physisorption procedure. Thus, we achieved distinct fine-tuning of the physico-chemical properties of these hydrogels which render them promising candidates for tissue engineering

  12. Evaluation of proanthocyanidin-crosslinked electrospun gelatin nanofibers for drug delivering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Chiung-Hua; Chi, Chin-Ying; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Chen, Kuo-Yu; Chen, Pei-Lain; Yao, Chun-Hsu

    2012-01-01

    Electrospun nanofibers are excellent candidates for various biomedical applications. We successfully fabricated proanthocyanidin‐crosslinked gelatin electrospun nanofibers. Proanthocyanidin, a low cytotoxic collagen crosslinking reagent, increased the gelatin crosslinking percentage in the nanofibers from 53% to 64%. The addition of proanthocyanidin kept the nanofibers from swelling, and, thus, made the fibers more stable in the aqueous state. The compatibility and the release behavior of the drug in the nanofibers were examined using magnesium ascorbyl phosphate as the model drug. Proanthocyanidin also promoted drug loading and kept the drug release rate constant. These properties make the proanthocyanidin‐crosslinked gelatin nanofibers an excellent material for drug delivery. In the cell culture study, L929 fibroblast cells had a significantly higher proliferation rate when cultured with the gelatin/proanthocyanidin blended nanofibers. This characteristic showed that proanthocyanidin‐crosslinked gelatin electrospun nanofibers could potentially be employed as a wound healing material by increasing cell spreading and proliferation. - Highlights: ► Proanthocyanidin‐crosslinked gelatin nanofibers (GEL/PA) is synthesized. ► Proanthocyanidin promoted drug loading and kept the drug release rate constant. ► The GEL/PA nanofibers accelerate fibroblast cell proliferation. ► The GEL/PA nanofibers increase the drug loading efficiency.

  13. Preparation and physicochemistry properties of smart edible films based on gelatin-starch nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Furong; Shi, Chengmei; Cui, Yuezhi

    2018-04-24

    Among the natural polymers able to form edible films, starch and gelatin (Gel) are potential sources. Corn starch is a polysaccharide widely produced around the world, and gelatin differs from other hydrocolloids as a fully digestible protein, containing nearly all the essential amino acids, except tryptophan. Based on this, with advantages such as abundance, relatively low cost, biodegradability, and edibility, studies considering alternative systems for food protection that utilize biopolymers have increased significantly in the recent years. A novel macromolecular crosslinker Starch-BTCAD-NHS (starch - butanetetracarboxylic acid dianhydride - N-hydroxysuccinimide, SBN) was successfully prepared to modify gelatin film. Compared with the blank gelatin films, the resulting SBN-Gel films exhibited the improved surface hydrophobicity, the higher tense strength and elongation-at-break, the lower Young's modulus values, the greater opacity, the poorer water vapor uptake properties and better anti-degradation capacity. The modified gelatin film material with advanced properties obtained in this work was safe, stable eco-friendly and biorefractory, and was an ideal choice to form a packaging in food industry. Also, the crosslinking SBN-gelatin coating was effective in reducing the corruption and extending the shelf life for the peeled apple substantially. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Gelatin-based laser direct-write technique for the precise spatial patterning of cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiele, Nathan R; Chrisey, Douglas B; Corr, David T

    2011-03-01

    Laser direct-writing provides a method to pattern living cells in vitro, to study various cell-cell interactions, and to build cellular constructs. However, the materials typically used may limit its long-term application. By utilizing gelatin coatings on the print ribbon and growth surface, we developed a new approach for laser cell printing that overcomes the limitations of Matrigel™. Gelatin is free of growth factors and extraneous matrix components that may interfere with cellular processes under investigation. Gelatin-based laser direct-write was able to successfully pattern human dermal fibroblasts with high post-transfer viability (91% ± 3%) and no observed double-strand DNA damage. As seen with atomic force microscopy, gelatin offers a unique benefit in that it is present temporarily to allow cell transfer, but melts and is removed with incubation to reveal the desired application-specific growth surface. This provides unobstructed cellular growth after printing. Monitoring cell location after transfer, we show that melting and removal of gelatin does not affect cellular placement; cells maintained registry within 5.6 ± 2.5 μm to the initial pattern. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of gelatin in laser direct-writing to create spatially precise cell patterns with the potential for applications in tissue engineering, stem cell, and cancer research.

  15. Isolation of fish skin and bone gelatin from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): Response surface approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpi, N.; Fahrizal; Novita, M.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, gelatin from fish collagen, as one of halal sources, was extracted from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) skin and bone, by using Response Surface Methodology to optimize gelatin extraction conditions. Concentrations of alkaline NaOH and acid HCl, in the pretreatment process, and temperatures in extraction process were chosen as independent variables, while dependent variables were yield, gel strength, and emulsion activity index (EAI). The result of investigation showed that lower NaOH pretreatment concentrations provided proper pH extraction conditions which combine with higher extraction temperatures resulted in high gelatin yield. However, gelatin emulsion activity index increased proportionally to the decreased in NaOH concentrations and extraction temperatures. No significant effect of the three independent variables on the gelatin gel strength. RSM optimization process resulted in optimum gelatin extraction process conditions using alkaline NaOH concentration of 0.77 N, acid HCl of 0.59 N, and extraction temperature of 66.80 °C. The optimal solution formula had optimization targets of 94.38%.

  16. Synthesis of biocompatible hydrophobic silica-gelatin nano-hybrid by sol-gel process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitha, S; Shajesh, P; Mukundan, P; Nair, T D R; Warrier, K G K

    2007-03-15

    Silica-biopolymer hybrid has been synthesised using colloidal silica as the precursor for silica and gelatin as the biopolymer counterpart. The surface modification of the hybrid material has been done with methyltrimethoxysilane leading to the formation of biocompatible hydrophobic silica-gelatin hybrid. Here we are reporting hydrophobic silica-gelatin hybrid and coating precursor for the first time. The hybrid gel has been evaluated for chemical modification, thermal degradation, hydrophobicity, particle size, transparency under the UV-visible region and morphology. FTIR spectroscopy has been used to verify the presence of CH(3) groups which introduce hydrophobicity to the SiO2-MTMS-gelatin hybrids. The hydrophobic property has also been tailored by varying the concentration of methyltrimethoxysilane. Contact angle by Wilhelmy plate method of transparent hydrophobic silica-gelatin coatings has been found to be as high as approximately 95 degrees . Oxidation of the organic group which induces the hydrophobic character occurs at 530 degrees C which indicates that the surface hydrophobicity is retained up to that temperature. Optical transmittance of SiO2-MTMS-gelatin hybrid coatings on glass substrates has been found to be close to 100% which will enable the hybrid for possible optical applications and also for preparation of transparent biocompatible hydrophobic coatings on biological substrates such as leather.

  17. Use and application of gelatin as potential biodegradable packaging materials for food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Hanani, Z A; Roos, Y H; Kerry, J P

    2014-11-01

    The manufacture and potential application of biodegradable films for food application has gained increased interest as alternatives to conventional food packaging polymers due to the sustainable nature associated with their availability, broad and abundant source range, compostability, environmentally-friendly image, compatibility with foodstuffs and food application, etc. Gelatin is one such material and is a unique and popularly used hydrocolloid by the food industry today due to its inherent characteristics, thereby potentially offering a wide range of further and unique industrial applications. Gelatin from different sources have different physical and chemical properties as they contain different amino acid contents which are responsible for the varying characteristics observed upon utilization in food systems and when being utilized more specifically, in the manufacture of films. Packaging films can be successfully produced from all gelatin sources and the behaviour and characteristics of gelatin-based films can be altered through the incorporation of other food ingredients to produce composite films possessing enhanced physical and mechanical properties. This review will present the current situation with respect to gelatin usage as a packaging source material and the challenges that remain in order to move the manufacture of gelatin-based films nearer to commercial reality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Gelatin for purification and proliferation of primary keratinocyte culture for use in chronic wounds and burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahsaz, Marjan; Geramizadeh, Bita; Kaviani, Maryam; Marzban, Saeed

    2015-04-01

    Human epidermal keratinocytes are currently established as a treatment for burns and wounds and have laboratory applications. Keratinocyte culture contamination by unwanted cells and inhibition of cell proliferation are barriers in primary keratinocyte culture. According to the recent literature, these cells are hard to culture. The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of gelatin-coated surfaces in keratinocyte cultures. After enzymatic isolation of keratinocytes from normal epidermis by trypsin, the cells were cultured on gelatin-coated flasks in serum-free medium. Another group of cells were cultured as a control group without gelatin coating. We showed positive effects of surface coating with gelatin on the primary culture of keratinocytes. Culture of these cells on a gelatincoated surface showed better proliferation with suitable morphology. By using gelatin, adhesion of these cells to the surface was more efficient and without contamination by small round cells. Successful primary culture of keratinocytes on a gelatin-coated surface may provide better yield and optimal number of cells for research and clinical applications.

  19. Preparation of Rhodamine B Fluorescent Poly(methacrylic acid Coated Gelatin Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhai Gan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(methacrylic acid (PMAA-coated gelatin nanoparticles encapsulated with fluorescent dye rhodamine B were prepared by the coacervation method with the aim to retard the release of rhodamine B from the gelatin matrix. With sodium sulfate as coacervation reagent for gelatin, a kind of biopolymer with excellent biocompatibility, the formed gelatin nanoparticles were cross-linked by formaldehyde followed by the polymerization of methacrylic acid coating. The fluorescent poly(methacrylic acid coated gelatin (FPMAAG nanoparticles had a uniform spherical shape and a size distribution of 60±5 nm. Infrared spectral analysis confirmed the formation of PMAA coating on the gelatin nanoparticles. Based on UV-Vis spectra, the loading efficiency of rhodamine B for the FPMAAG nanoparticles was 0.26 μg per mg nanoparticles. The encapsulated rhodamine B could sustain for two weeks. Favorable fluorescence property and fluorescence imaging of cells confirmed that the FPMAAG nanoparticles have promising biochemical, bioanalytical, and biomedical applications.

  20. Traceability System Model for Quality Gelatin Raw Material of Cattle Hides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Nur

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Several criteria must be accomplished within the provision of quality products in terms of the types of materials, the processing methods and effort to get it. Traceability system involves various parties that have different needs and goals in the process of supplying raw materials. Hence, there is a need for institutional systems engineering that can organize and manage the tracking process, the procurement of raw materials that guarantee the origin of gelatin raw materials, and facilitate the industry and customer to create a standardized quality of product. The purpose of the study formulates the institutional tracking models of gelatin raw material from cattle hide based on various criteria and assessment of the expert opinion. The methods used in this study were Interpretative structural modeling to formulate a representation of institutional tracking efficiently and analytical hierarchy process to determine the tracking strategy of industrial gelatin raw materials from cowhide. The results obtained from the study were some key elements of institutional tracking model for industrial gelatin raw materials from cowhide and the traceability strategies for industrial raw materials from cattle hide gelatin Indonesia. (Animal Production 12(3: 190-198 (2010 Key Words: traceability, institutional model, cattle hide, gelatin