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Sample records for gelatine based tissue

  1. Gelatin-Based Materials in Ocular Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B. Rose

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Gelatin has been used for many years in pharmaceutical formulation, cell culture and tissue engineering on account of its excellent biocompatibility, ease of processing and availability at low cost. Over the last decade gelatin has been extensively evaluated for numerous ocular applications serving as cell-sheet carriers, bio-adhesives and bio-artificial grafts. These different applications naturally have diverse physical, chemical and biological requirements and this has prompted research into the modification of gelatin and its derivatives. The crosslinking of gelatin alone or in combination with natural or synthetic biopolymers has produced a variety of scaffolds that could be suitable for ocular applications. This review focuses on methods to crosslink gelatin-based materials and how the resulting materials have been applied in ocular tissue engineering. Critical discussion of recent innovations in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine will highlight future opportunities for gelatin-based materials in ophthalmology.

  2. Photofabricated gelatin-based nerve conduits: nerve tissue regeneration potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez, Eduardo; Goto, Yoshinobu; Nagata, Kengo; Iwaki, Toru; Sasaki, Tomio; Matsuda, Takehisa

    2004-01-01

    There is a strong demand for development of nerve guide conduit with prompt nerve regeneration potential for injury-induced nerve defect. Prior to study on nerve tissue engineering using Schwann cells or nerve stem cells, the effectiveness of photofabricated scaffolds based on photocurable gelatin was examined. This study describes the evaluation of in vivo nerve tissue regeneration potentials of three custom-designed and -fabricated prostheses (inner diameter, 1.2 mm; outer diameter, 2.4 mm; wall thickness, 0.60 mm; and length, 15 mm) made of photocured gelatin: a plain photocured gelatin tube (model I), a photocured gelatin tube packed with bioactive substances (laminin, fibronectin, and nerve growth factor) coimmobilized in a photocured gelatin rod (model II), and a photocured gelatin tube packed with bioactive substances coimmobilized in multifilament fibers (model III). These prostheses were implanted between the proximal and distal stumps 10 mm of the dissected right sciatic nerve of 70 adult male Lewis rats for up to 1 year. The highest regenerative potentials were found using the model III prosthesis, followed by the model II prosthesis. Markedly retarded neural regeneration was observed using the model I prosthesis. These were evaluated from the viewpoints of functional recovery, electrophysiological responses, and tissue morphological regeneration. The significance of the synergistic cooperative functions of multifilaments, which serve as a platform that provides contact guidance to direct longitudinal cell movement and tissue ingrowth and as a cell adhesive matrix with high surface area, and immobilized bioactive substances, which enhance nerve regeneration via biological stimulation, is discussed.

  3. Gelatin/Carboxymethyl chitosan based scaffolds for dermal tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Tarun; Narayan, Rajan; Maji, Somnath; Behera, Shubhanath; Kulanthaivel, Senthilguru; Maiti, Tapas Kumar; Banerjee, Indranil; Pal, Kunal; Giri, Supratim

    2016-12-01

    The present study delineates the preparation, characterization and application of gelatin-carboxymethyl chitosan scaffolds for dermal tissue engineering. The effect of carboxymethyl chitosan and gelatin ratio was evaluated for variations in their physico-chemical-biological characteristics and drug release kinetics. The scaffolds were prepared by freeze drying method and characterized by SEM and FTIR. The study revealed that the scaffolds were highly porous with pore size ranging between 90 and 170μm, had high water uptake (400-1100%) and water retention capacity (>300%). The collagenase mediated degradation of the scaffolds was dependent on the amount of gelatin present in the formulation. A slight yet significant variation in their biological characteristics was also observed. All the formulations supported adhesion, spreading, growth and proliferation of 3T3 mouse fibroblasts. The cells seeded on the scaffolds also demonstrated expression of collagen type I, HIF1α and VEGF, providing a clue regarding their growth and proliferation along with potential to support angiogenesis during wound healing. In addition, the scaffolds showed sustained ampicillin and bovine serum albumin release, confirming their suitability as a therapeutic delivery vehicle during wound healing. All together, the results suggest that gelatin-carboxymethyl chitosan based scaffolds could be a suitable matrix for dermal tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Gelatin Nanofiber Matrices Derived from Schiff Base Derivative for Tissue Engineering Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Devina; James, Roshan; Shelke, Namdev B; Harmon, Matthew D; Brown, Justin L; Hussain, Fazle; Kumbar, Sangamesh G

    2015-11-01

    Electrospinning of water-soluble polymers and retaining their mechanical strength and bioactivity remain challenging. Volatile organic solvent soluble polymers and their derivatives are preferred for fabricating electrospun nanofibers. We report the synthesis and characterization of 2-nitrobenzyl-gelatin (N-Gelatin)--a novel gelatin Schiff base derivative--and the resulting electrospun nanofiber matrices. The 2-nitrobenzyl group is a photoactivatable-caged compound and can be cleaved from the gelatin nanofiber matrices following UV exposure. Such hydrophobic modification allowed the fabrication of gelatin and blend nanofibers with poly(caprolactone) (PCL) having significantly improved tensile properties. Neat gelatin and their PCL blend nanofiber matrices showed a modulus of 9.08 ± 1.5 MPa and 27.61 ± 4.3 MPa, respectively while the modified gelatin and their blends showed 15.63 ± 2.8 MPa and 24.47 ± 8.7 MPa, respectively. The characteristic infrared spectroscopy band for gelatin Schiff base derivative at 1560 cm(-1) disappeared following exposure to UV light indicating the regeneration of free NH2 group and gelatin. These nanofiber matrices supported cell attachment and proliferation with a well spread morphology as evidenced through cell proliferation assay and microscopic techniques. Modified gelatin fiber matrices showed a 73% enhanced cell attachment and proliferation rate compared to pure gelatin. This polymer modification methodology may offer a promising way to fabricate electrospun nanofiber matrices using a variety of proteins and peptides without loss of bioactivity and mechanical strength.

  5. 2-hydroxyethyl metahcrylate/gelatin based superporous hydrogels for tissue regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomić, Simonida Lj.; Babić, Marija M.; Vuković, Jovana S.; Perišić, Marija D.; Filipović, Vuk V.; Davidović, Sladjana Z.; Filipović, Jovanka M.

    2016-05-01

    In this study, superporous hydrogels were synthesized by free radical polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate without and in the presence of gelatin. Highly porous hydrogel structures were obtained by two different techniques: using a gas blowing agent, sodium bicarbonate, and a cryogenic treatment followed by freeze-drying. After the gel synthesis, gelatin molecules were covalently immobilised onto PHEMA via glytaraldehyde activation. All samples were characterized for morphological, mechanical, swelling and antibacterial properties. The results obtained show that samples with gelatin show better properties in comparison with PHEMA samples, which make these materials highly attractive for developing hydrogel scaffolds for tissue regeneration.

  6. Gelatin-Based Hydrogels Promote Chondrogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim Salamon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the weak regeneration potential of cartilage, there is a high clinical incidence of articular joint disease, leading to a strong demand for cartilaginous tissue surrogates. The aim of this study was to evaluate a gelatin-based hydrogel for its suitability to support chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. Gelatin-based hydrogels are biodegradable, show high biocompatibility, and offer possibilities to introduce functional groups and/or ligands. In order to prove their chondrogenesis-supporting potential, a hydrogel film was developed and compared with standard cell culture polystyrene regarding the differentiation behavior of human mesenchymal stem cells. Cellular basis for this study were human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells, which exhibit differentiation potential along the adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineage. The results obtained show a promotive effect of gelatin-based hydrogels on chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro and therefore encourage subsequent in vivo studies.

  7. Gelatin-based Hydrogel Degradation and Tissue Interaction in vivo: Insights from Multimodal Preclinical Imaging in Immunocompetent Nude Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondera, Christoph; Hauser, Sandra; Krüger-Genge, Anne; Jung, Friedrich; Neffe, Axel T.; Lendlein, Andreas; Klopfleisch, Robert; Steinbach, Jörg; Neuber, Christin; Pietzsch, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogels based on gelatin have evolved as promising multifunctional biomaterials. Gelatin is crosslinked with lysine diisocyanate ethyl ester (LDI) and the molar ratio of gelatin and LDI in the starting material mixture determines elastic properties of the resulting hydrogel. In order to investigate the clinical potential of these biopolymers, hydrogels with different ratios of gelatin and diisocyanate (3-fold (G10_LNCO3) and 8-fold (G10_LNCO8) molar excess of isocyanate groups) were subcutaneously implanted in mice (uni- or bilateral implantation). Degradation and biomaterial-tissue-interaction were investigated in vivo (MRI, optical imaging, PET) and ex vivo (autoradiography, histology, serum analysis). Multimodal imaging revealed that the number of covalent net points correlates well with degradation time, which allows for targeted modification of hydrogels based on properties of the tissue to be replaced. Importantly, the degradation time was also dependent on the number of implants per animal. Despite local mechanisms of tissue remodeling no adverse tissue responses could be observed neither locally nor systemically. Finally, this preclinical investigation in immunocompetent mice clearly demonstrated a complete restoration of the original healthy tissue. PMID:27698944

  8. Gelatin-based hydrogel for vascular endothelial growth factor release in peripheral nerve tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnavi, S; di Blasio, L; Tonda-Turo, C; Mancardi, A; Primo, L; Ciardelli, G; Gambarotta, G; Geuna, S; Perroteau, I

    2017-02-01

    Hydrogels are promising materials in regenerative medicine applications, due to their hydrophilicity, biocompatibility and capacity to release drugs and growth factors in a controlled manner. In this study, biocompatible and biodegradable hydrogels based on blends of natural polymers were used in in vitro and ex vivo experiments as a tool for VEGF-controlled release to accelerate the nerve regeneration process. Among different candidates, the angiogenic factor VEGF was selected, since angiogenesis has been long recognized as an important and necessary step during tissue repair. Recent studies have pointed out that VEGF has a beneficial effect on motor neuron survival and Schwann cell vitality and proliferation. Moreover, VEGF administration can sustain and enhance the growth of regenerating peripheral nerve fibres. The hydrogel preparation process was optimized to allow functional incorporation of VEGF, while preventing its degradation and denaturation. VEGF release was quantified through ELISA assay, whereas released VEGF bioactivity was validated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and in a Schwann cell line (RT4-D6P2T) by assessing VEGFR-2 and downstream effectors Akt and Erk1/2 phosphorylation. Moreover, dorsal root ganglia explants cultured on VEGF-releasing hydrogels displayed increased neurite outgrowth, providing confirmation that released VEGF maintained its effect, as also confirmed in a tubulogenesis assay. In conclusion, a gelatin-based hydrogel system for bioactive VEGF delivery was developed and characterized for its applicability in neural tissue engineering. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Effect of Graphite Concentration on Shear-Wave Speed in Gelatin-Based Tissue-Mimicking Phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Pamela G.; Rouze, Ned C.; Palmeri, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Elasticity-based imaging modalities are becoming popular diagnostic tools in clinical practice. Gelatin-based, tissue mimicking phantoms that contain graphite as the acoustic scattering material are commonly used in testing and validating elasticity-imaging methods to quantify tissue stiffness. The gelatin bloom strength and concentration are used to control phantom stiffness. While it is known that graphite concentration can be modulated to control acoustic attenuation, the impact of graphite concentrationon phantom elasticity has not been characterized in these gelatin phantoms. This work investigates the impact of graphite concentration on phantom shear stiffness as characterized by shear-wave speed measurements using impulsive acoustic-radiation-force excitations. Phantom shear-wave speed increased by 0.83 (m/s)/(dB/(cm MHz)) when increasing the attenuation coefficient slope of the phantom material through increasing graphite concentration. Therefore, gelatin-phantom stiffness can be affected by the conventional ways that attenuation is modulated through graphite concentration in these phantoms. PMID:21710828

  10. Nonwoven-based gelatin/polycaprolactone membrane proves suitability in a preclinical assessment for treatment of soft tissue defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Simon; Angarano, Marco; Fabritius, Martin; Mülhaupt, Rolf; Dard, Michel; Obrecht, Marcel; Tomakidi, Pascal; Steinberg, Thorsten

    2014-07-01

    Standard preclinical assessments in vitro often have limitations regarding their transferability to human beings, mainly evoked by their nonhuman and tissue-different/nontissue-specific source. Here, we aimed at employing tissue-authentic simple and complex interactive fibroblast-epithelial cell systems and their in vivo-relevant biomarkers for preclinical in vitro assessment of nonwoven-based gelatin/polycaprolactone membranes (NBMs) for treatment of soft tissue defects. NBMs were composed of electrospun gelatin and polycaprolactone nanofiber nonwovens. Scanning electron microscopy in conjunction with actin/focal contact integrin fluorescence revealed successful adhesion and proper morphogenesis of keratinocytes and fibroblasts, along with cells' derived extracellular matrix deposits. The "feel-good factor" of cells under study on the NBM was substantiated by forming a confluent connective tissue entity, which was concomitant with a stratified epithelial equivalent. Immunohistochemistry proved tissue authenticity over time by abundance of the biomarker vimentin in the connective tissue entity, and chronological increase of keratins KRT1/10 and involucrin expression in epithelial equivalents. Suitability of the novel NBM as wound dressing was evidenced by an almost completion of epithelial wound closure in a pilot mini-pig study, after a surgical intervention-caused gingival dehiscence. In summary, preclinical assessment by tissue-authentic cell systems and the animal pilot study revealed the NBM as an encouraging therapeutic medical device for prospective clinical applications.

  11. Interpenetrating networks based on gelatin methacrylamide and PEG formed using concurrent thiol click chemistries for hydrogel tissue engineering scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, Michael A; Adams, André A; Naciri, Jawad; North, Stella H; Ligler, Frances S

    2014-02-01

    The integration of biological extracellular matrix (ECM) components and synthetic materials is a promising pathway to fabricate the next generation of hydrogel-based tissue scaffolds that more accurately emulate the microscale heterogeneity of natural ECM. We report the development of a bio/synthetic interpenetrating network (BioSINx), containing gelatin methacrylamide (GelMA) polymerized within a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) framework to form a mechanically robust network capable of supporting both internal cell encapsulation and surface cell adherence. The covalently crosslinked PEG network was formed by thiol-yne coupling, while the bioactive GelMA was integrated using a concurrent thiol-ene coupling reaction. The physical properties (i.e. swelling, modulus) of BioSINx were compared to both PEG networks with physically-incorporated gelatin (BioSINP) and homogenous hydrogels. BioSINx displayed superior physical properties and significantly lower gelatin dissolution. These benefits led to enhanced cytocompatibility for both cell adhesion and encapsulation; furthermore, the increased physical strength provided for the generation of a micro-engineered tissue scaffold. Endothelial cells showed extensive cytoplasmic spreading and the formation of cellular adhesion sites when cultured onto BioSINx; moreover, both encapsulated and adherent cells showed sustained viability and proliferation.

  12. Photocrosslinkable Gelatin Hydrogel for Epidermal Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Lang, Qi; Yildirimer, Lara; Lin, Zhi Yuan; Cui, Wenguo; Annabi, Nasim; Ng, Kee Woei; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Natural hydrogels are promising scaffolds to engineer epidermis. Currently, natural hydrogels used to support epidermal regeneration are mainly collagen- or gelatin-based, which mimic the natural dermal extracellular matrix but often suffer from insufficient and uncontrollable mechanical and degradation properties. In this study, a photocrosslinkable gelatin (i.e., gelatin methacrylamide (GelMA)) with tunable mechanical, degradation, and biological properties is used to engineer the epidermis for skin tissue engineering applications. The results reveal that the mechanical and degradation properties of the developed hydrogels can be readily modified by varying the hydrogel concentration, with elastic and compressive moduli tuned from a few kPa to a few hundred kPa, and the degradation times varied from a few days to several months. Additionally, hydrogels of all concentrations displayed excellent cell viability (>90%) with increasing cell adhesion and proliferation corresponding to increases in hydrogel concentrations. Furthermore, the hydrogels are found to support keratinocyte growth, differentiation, and stratification into a reconstructed multilayered epidermis with adequate barrier functions. The robust and tunable properties of GelMA hydrogels suggest that the keratinocyte laden hydrogels can be used as epidermal substitutes, wound dressings, or substrates to construct various in vitro skin models.

  13. Development of mechanically expanded gelatin-AAc-PLLA/PLCL nanofibers for vascular tissue engineering by radiation-based techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jin Oh; Jeong, Sung In; Seo, Da Eun; Park, Jong Seok; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Ahn, Sung Jun; Lim, Youn Mook [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Young Min [Dept. of Bioengineering, Division of Applied Chemical and Bio Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Vascular tissue engineering has been accessed to mimic the natural composition of the blood vessel containing inmate, media, and adventitia layers. We fabricated mechanically expanded PLLA/PLCL nanofibers using electrospinning and UTM. The pore size of the meshes was increased the gelatin immobilized AAc-PLLA/PLCL nanofibers (203.30±49.62 microns) than PLLA/PLCL nanofibers (59.99±8.66 microns) after mechanical expansion. To increase the cell adhesion and proliferation, we introduced carboxyl group, and gelatin was conjugated on them. The properties of the PLLA/PLCL nanofibers were analyzed with SEM, ATR-FTIR, TBO staining, and water contact angle measurement, general cell responses on the PLLA/PLCL nanofibers such as adhesion, proliferation, and infiltration were also investigated using smooth muscle cell (SMC). During the SMC culture, the initial viability of the cells was significantly increased on the gelatin immobilized AAc-PLLA/PLCL nanofibers, and infiltration of the cells was also enhanced on them. Therefore, gelatin immobilized AAc-PLLA/PLCL nanofibers and mechanically expanded meshes may be a good tool for vascular tissue engineering application.

  14. Preparation of gelatin based porous biocomposite for bone tissue engineering and evaluation of gamma irradiation effect on its properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Md. Minhajul [Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Khan, Mubarak A. [Institute of Radiation and Polymer Technology (IRPT), Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE), P. O. Box No. 3787, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Rahman, Mohammed Mizanur, E-mail: mizanur.rahman@du.ac.bd [Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)

    2015-04-01

    Biodegradable porous hybrid polymer composites were prepared by using gelatin as base polymer matrix, β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and calcium sulfate (CS) as cementing materials, chitosan as an antimicrobial agent, and glutaraldehyde and polyethylene glycol (PEG) as crosslinkers at different mass ratios. Thereafter, the composites were subjected to γ-radiation sterilization. The structure and properties of these composite scaffolds were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), mechanical properties testing (compressive, bending, tensile and impact), thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), and physical stability test in simulated body fluid (SBF). We found that TCP rich composites showed enhanced mechanical properties among all the crosslinked composites. γ-Radiation sterilization triggered further cross linking in polymer matrix resulting a decrease in pore size of the composites and an increase in pore wall thickness with improved mechanical and thermal properties. The chemically crosslinked composite with 40% TCP followed by γ-radiation sterilization showed the smallest pore size distribution with a mean pore diameter of 159.22 μm, which falls in the range of 100–350 μm — known to be suitable for osteoconduction. Considering its improved mechanical and thermal properties along with osteoconduction ability without cytotoxicity, we propose this biocomposite as a viable candidate for bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Composite scaffolds were prepared from biopolymers (gelatin and chitosan). • β-TCP and CS were used as bioactive cementing materials at different ratios. • γ-Sterilization improved the mechanical properties of the biocomposites. • γ-Sterilization reduced the cytotoxicity and induced high antimicrobial properties. • Composite having 40% TCP has the proper pore size distribution for osteoconduction.

  15. A Novel Tissue Adhesive Composed of Modified Gelatin and Polysaccharides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiumei MO; Hiroo IWATA; Yoshito IKADA

    2000-01-01

    A two-component adhesive glue was prepared from gelatin and polysaccharides. Gelatin was modified with ethylenediamine (ED) in the presence of water soluble carbodiimine (WSC) to introduce more amino groups into the original gelatin, while dextran and hydroxyethyl-starch (HES) were oxidized by sodium periodate to convert neighbouring hydroxyl groups into dialdehyde groups. Upon mixing the two polymer components in aqueous solution, Schiff's base reaction occurred between the amino groups in the modified gelatin and the aldehyde groups in the modified polysaccharides to give intermolecular crosslinking and gel formation. This new glue showed a capability to stop bleeding and seal tissues when a cut liver of rat was used for hemostatic experiments. It could also form a gel much faster than fibrin glue in in-vitro experiments. The fastest gel formation took place within 2 sec and the bonding strength to porcine skin was about 225gf/cm2 when an amino-gelatin (55% amino) and an aldehyde-HES (>84% dialdehyde) was mixed. In contrast, the gelation time and bonding strength of fibrin gluewere 5 seconds and 120gf/cm2, respectively. The effective adhesive properties have also been identified by the animal experiments of rat.

  16. Gelatin based on Power-gel.TM. as solders for Cr.sup.4+laser tissue welding and sealing of lung air leak and fistulas in organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, Robert R.; Tang, Jing; Evans, Jonathan M.; Ho, Peng Pei

    2006-04-25

    Laser tissue welding can be achieved using tunable Cr.sup.4+ lasers, semiconductor lasers and fiber lasers, where the weld strength follows the absorption spectrum of water. The use of gelatin and esterified gelatin as solders in conjunction with laser inducted tissue welding impart much stronger tensile and torque strengths than albumin solders. Selected NIR wavelength from the above lasers can improve welding and avoid thermal injury to tissue when used alone or with gelatin and esterified gelatin solders. These discoveries can be used to enhance laser tissue welding of tissues such as skin, mucous, bone, blood vessel, nerve, brain, liver, pancreas, spleen, kidney, lung, bronchus, respiratory track, urinary tract, gastrointestinal tract, or gynecologic tract and as a sealant for pulmonary air leaks and fistulas such as intestinal, rectal and urinary fistulas.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of gelatin based polyester urethane scaffold

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Sarkar; A Chourasia; S Maji; S Sadhukhan; S Kumar; B Adhikari

    2006-10-01

    For tissue engineering purpose two gelatin based polyester urethane scaffolds of different compositions were prepared from lactic acid, polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) and characterized by FTIR, XRD for their mechanical and morphological properties using SEM and optical microscopic analyses. Degradation and swelling studies of gelatin based polyester urethane scaffolds in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) were performed. Human keratinocyte cells were cultured within these scaffolds, which showed good cell adherence and proliferation.

  18. Toxicology Analysis of Tissue-Mimicking Phantom Made From Gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolbashid, A. S.; Hamzah, N.; Zaman, W. S. W. K.; Mokhtar, M. S.

    2017-06-01

    Skin phantom mimics the biological skin tissues as it have the ability to respond to changes in its environment. The development of tissue-mimicking phantom could contributes towards the reduce usage of animal in cosmetics and pharmacokinetics. In this study, the skin phantoms made from gelatin were tested with four different commonly available cosmetic products to determine the toxicity of each substance. The four substances used were; mercury-based whitening face cream, carcinogenic liquid make-up foundation, paraben-based acne cleanser, and organic lip balm. Toxicity test were performed on all of the phantoms. For toxicity testing, topographical and electrophysiological changes of the phantoms were evaluated. The ability of each respective phantom to react with mild toxic substances and its electrical resistance were analysed in to determine the toxicity of all the phantom models. Four-electrode method along with custom made electrical impedance analyser was used to differentiate electrical resistance between intoxicated phantom and non-intoxicated phantom in this study. Electrical resistance values obtained from the phantom models were significantly higher than the control group. The result obtained suggests the phantom as a promising candidate to be used as alternative for toxicology testing in the future.

  19. Numerical Simulation of Mass Transfer and Three-Dimensional Fabrication of Tissue-Engineered Cartilages Based on Chitosan/Gelatin Hybrid Hydrogel Scaffold in a Rotating Bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanxia; Song, Kedong; Jiang, Siyu; Chen, Jinglian; Tang, Lingzhi; Li, Siyuan; Fan, Jiangli; Wang, Yiwei; Zhao, Jiaquan; Liu, Tianqing

    2017-01-01

    Cartilage tissue engineering is believed to provide effective cartilage repair post-injuries or diseases. Biomedical materials play a key role in achieving successful culture and fabrication of cartilage. The physical properties of a chitosan/gelatin hybrid hydrogel scaffold make it an ideal cartilage biomimetic material. In this study, a chitosan/gelatin hybrid hydrogel was chosen to fabricate a tissue-engineered cartilage in vitro by inoculating human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) at both dynamic and traditional static culture conditions. A bioreactor that provides a dynamic culture condition has received greater applications in tissue engineering due to its optimal mass transfer efficiency and its ability to simulate an equivalent physical environment compared to human body. In this study, prior to cell-scaffold fabrication experiment, mathematical simulations were confirmed with a mass transfer of glucose and TGF-β2 both in rotating wall vessel bioreactor (RWVB) and static culture conditions in early stage of culture via computational fluid dynamic (CFD) method. To further investigate the feasibility of the mass transfer efficiency of the bioreactor, this RWVB was adopted to fabricate three-dimensional cell-hydrogel cartilage constructs in a dynamic environment. The results showed that the mass transfer efficiency of RWVB was faster in achieving a final equilibrium compared to culture in static culture conditions. ADSCs culturing in RWVB expanded three times more compared to that in static condition over 10 days. Induced cell cultivation in a dynamic RWVB showed extensive expression of extracellular matrix, while the cell distribution was found much more uniformly distributing with full infiltration of extracellular matrix inside the porous scaffold. The increased mass transfer efficiency of glucose and TGF-β2 from RWVB promoted cellular proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of ADSCs inside chitosan/gelatin hybrid hydrogel scaffolds. The

  20. Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Evaluation of Gelatin-based Scaffolds

    CERN Document Server

    Tronci, G

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents the development of entropy-elastic gelatin based networks in the form of films or scaffolds. The materials have good prospects for biomedical applications, especially in the context of bone regeneration. Entropy-elastic gelatin based hydrogel films with varying crosslinking densities were prepared with tailored mechanical properties. Gelatin was covalently crosslinked in water above its sol gel transition, which suppressed the gelatin chain helicity. Amorphous films were prepared with tailorable degrees of swelling and wet state Young's modulus. The knowledge gained with this bulk material was transferred to the integrated process of foaming and crosslinking to obtain porous gelatin-based scaffolds. A gelatin solution was foamed in the presence of saponin and the resulting foam was fixed by chemical crosslinking with a diisocyanate. The scaffolds were analyzed in the dry state by micro computed tomography (\\mu CT, porosity: 65\\pm 11-73\\pm 14 vol.-%), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM,...

  1. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of chitosan–gelatin scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whu, Shu Wen [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Keelung, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Hung, Kun-Che; Hsieh, Kuo-Huang [Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chih-Hwa [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Keelung, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Ching-Lin, E-mail: tsaicl@ntuh.gov.tw [Department of Orthopaedics, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Shan-hui, E-mail: shhsu@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-07-01

    Chitosan–gelatin polyelectrolyte complexes were fabricated and evaluated as tissue engineering scaffolds for cartilage regeneration in vitro and in vivo. The crosslinker for the gelatin component was selected among glutaraldehyde, bisepoxy, and a water-soluble carbodiimide (WSC) based upon the proliferation of chondrocytes on the crosslinked gelatin. WSC was found to be the most suitable crosslinker. Complex scaffolds made from chitosan and gelatin with a component ratio equal to one possessed the proper degradation rate and mechanical stability in vitro. Chondrocytes were able to proliferate well and secrete abundant extracellular matrix in the chitosan–gelatin (1:1) complex scaffolds crosslinked by WSC (C1G1{sub WSC}) compared to the non-crosslinked scaffolds. Implantation of chondrocytes-seeded scaffolds in the defects of rabbit articular cartilage confirmed that C1G1{sub WSC} promoted the cartilage regeneration. The neotissue formed the histological feature of tide line and lacunae in 6.5 months. The amount of glycosaminoglycans in C1G1{sub WSC} constructs (0.187 ± 0.095 μg/mg tissue) harvested from the animals after 6.5 months was 14 wt.% of that in normal cartilage (1.329 ± 0.660 μg/mg tissue). The average compressive modulus of regenerated tissue at 6.5 months was about 0.539 MPa, which approached to that of normal cartilage (0.735 MPa), while that in the blank control (3.881 MPa) was much higher and typical for fibrous tissue. Type II collagen expression in C1G1{sub WSC} constructs was similarly intense as that in the normal hyaline cartilage. According to the above results, the use of C1G1{sub WSC} scaffolds may enhance the cartilage regeneration in vitro and in vivo. - Highlights: • We developed a chitosan–gelatin scaffold crosslinked with carbodiimide. • Neocartilage formation was more evident in crosslinked vs. non-crosslinked scaffolds. • Histological features of tide line and lacunae were observed in vivo at 6.5 months. • Compressive

  2. Optimization strategies on the structural modeling of gelatin/chitosan scaffolds to mimic human meniscus tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarem, Melika [Sports Engineering Group, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering (Center of Excellence), Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Freiburg, Hermann Staudinger Haus, Freiburg D-79104 (Germany); Helmholtz Virtual Institute: Multifunctional Biomaterials for Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Moztarzadeh, Fathollah [Sports Engineering Group, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering (Center of Excellence), Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Biomaterials Group, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering (Center of Excellence), Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mozafari, Masoud, E-mail: mozafari.masoud@gmail.com [Sports Engineering Group, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering (Center of Excellence), Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Biomaterials Group, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering (Center of Excellence), Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, School of Material Science and Engineering, Oklahoma State University, OK 74106 (United States); Shastri, V. Prasad [Institute for Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Freiburg, Hermann Staudinger Haus, Freiburg D-79104 (Germany); Helmholtz Virtual Institute: Multifunctional Biomaterials for Medicine, Freiburg (Germany)

    2013-12-01

    Meniscus lesions are frequently occurring injuries with poor ability to heal. Typical treatment procedure includes removal of damaged regions, which can lead to sub-optimal knee biomechanics and early onset of osteoarthritis. Some of the drawbacks of current treatment approach present an opportunity for a tissue engineering solution. In this study, gelatin (G)/chitosan (Cs) scaffolds were synthesized via gel casting method and cross-linked with naturally derived cross-linker, genipin, through scaffold cross-linking method. Based on the characteristics of native meniscus tissue microstructure and function, three different layers were chosen to design the macroporous multilayered scaffolds. The multi-layered scaffolds were investigated for their ability to support human-derived meniscus cells by evaluating their morphology and proliferation using MTT assay at various time points. Based on structural, mechanical and cell compatibility considerations, laminated scaffolds composed of G60/Cs40, G80/Cs20 and G40/Cs60 samples, for the first, second and third layers, respectively, could be an appropriate combination for meniscus tissue engineering applications. - Graphical abstract: The wedge shaped multilayer/multiporous G/Cs meniscus scaffolds were mimicked by MR images of anatomical knee meniscus. The layers were chosen as G60/Cs40, G80/Cs20 and G40/Cs60, according to their characteristics similar to meniscus natural tissue, as the first, second and third layers, respectively. - Highlights: • Different gelatin/chitosan systems were chosen to engineer a multilayered scaffold. • The compressive modulus increased gradually by increasing the gelatin concentration. • Further addition of gelatin showed a meaningful decrease in the water uptake degree. • The layers supported cell growth and mimicked the meniscus fibrocartilage structure.

  3. Gelatin Scaffolds with Controlled Pore Structure and Mechanical Property for Cartilage Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shangwu; Zhang, Qin; Nakamoto, Tomoko; Kawazoe, Naoki; Chen, Guoping

    2016-03-01

    Engineering of cartilage tissue in vitro using porous scaffolds and chondrocytes provides a promising approach for cartilage repair. However, nonuniform cell distribution and heterogeneous tissue formation together with weak mechanical property of in vitro engineered cartilage limit their clinical application. In this study, gelatin porous scaffolds with homogeneous and open pores were prepared using ice particulates and freeze-drying. The scaffolds were used to culture bovine articular chondrocytes to engineer cartilage tissue in vitro. The pore structure and mechanical property of gelatin scaffolds could be well controlled by using different ratios of ice particulates to gelatin solution and different concentrations of gelatin. Gelatin scaffolds prepared from ≥70% ice particulates enabled homogeneous seeding of bovine articular chondrocytes throughout the scaffolds and formation of homogeneous cartilage extracellular matrix. While soft scaffolds underwent cellular contraction, stiff scaffolds resisted cellular contraction and had significantly higher cell proliferation and synthesis of sulfated glycosaminoglycan. Compared with the gelatin scaffolds prepared without ice particulates, the gelatin scaffolds prepared with ice particulates facilitated formation of homogeneous cartilage tissue with significantly higher compressive modulus. The gelatin scaffolds with highly open pore structure and good mechanical property can be used to improve in vitro tissue-engineered cartilage.

  4. Chitosan-gelatin sheets as scaffolds for muscle tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiabbas, Maryam; Mashayekhan, Shohreh; Nazaripouya, Amir; Naji, Mohammad; Hunkeler, David; Rajabi Zeleti, Sareh; Sharifiaghdas, Farzaneh

    2015-04-01

    Hydrogels made of natural polymers [chitosan (CS) and gelatin (G)] have been prepared having mechanical properties similar to those of muscle tissues. In this study, the effect of polymer concentration and scaffold stiffness on the behavior of seeded muscle-derived cells (MDCs) on the CS-G hydrogel sheets has been evaluated. Both variables were found to be important in cell viability. Viability was assessed by observation of the cell morphology after 1 day as well as a 14-day MTT assay. The CS-G hydrogels were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, which revealed evidences of strong intermolecular interactions between CS and G. Hydrogel samples with intermediate concentration of CS had suitable handling characteristics for surgical purposes as well as similar elasticity to muscle tissues. The sample with intermediate stiffness (22 ± 1kPa) exhibited the greatest attachment, expansion, and proliferation rate. Such CS-G hydrogels with intermediate stiffness may be considered as new candidates for muscle tissue engineering in the reconstructive field of urology.

  5. Antibiotic-releasing porous polymethylmethacrylate/gelatin/antibiotic constructs for craniofacial tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Meng; Kretlow, James D; Spicer, Patrick P; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Demian, Nagi; Wong, Mark E; Kasper, F Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G

    2011-05-30

    An antibiotic-releasing porous polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) construct was developed to maintain the bony space and prime the wound site in the initial step of a two-stage regenerative medicine approach toward reconstructing significant bony or composite craniofacial tissue defects. Porous PMMA constructs incorporating gelatin microparticles (GMPs) were fabricated by the sequential assembly of GMPs, the antibiotic colistin, and a clinically used bone cement formulation of PMMA powder and methylmethacrylate liquid. PMMA/gelatin/antibiotic constructs with varying gelatin incorporation and drug content were investigated to elucidate the relationship between material composition and construct properties (porosity and drug release kinetics). The porosity of PMMA/gelatin/antibiotic constructs ranged between 7.6±1.8% and 38.4±1.4% depending on the amount of gelatin incorporated and the drug solution added for gelatin swelling. The constructs released colistin over 10 or 14 days with an average release rate per day above 10 μg/ml. The porosity and in vitro colistin release kinetics of PMMA/gelatin/antibiotic constructs were tuned by varying the material composition and fabrication parameters. This study demonstrates the potential of gelatin-incorporating PMMA constructs as a functional space maintainer for both promoting tissue healing/coverage and addressing local infections, enabling better long-term success of the definitive regenerated tissue construct. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Electrospun PGA/gelatin nanofibrous scaffolds and their potential application in vascular tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peirovi H

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hadi Hajiali1, Shapour Shahgasempour1, M Reza Naimi-Jamal2, Habibullah Peirovi11Nanomedicine and Tissue Engineering Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences; 2Department of Chemistry, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, IranBackground and methods: In this study, gelatin was blended with polyglycolic acid (PGA at different ratios (0, 10, 30, and 50 wt% and electrospun. The morphology and structure of the scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. The mechanical properties were also measured by the tensile test. Furthermore, for biocompatibility assessment, human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells were cultured on these scaffolds, and cell attachment and viability were evaluated.Results: PGA with 10 wt% gelatin enhanced the endothelial cells whilst PGA with 30 wt% gelatin increased smooth muscle cell adhesion, penetration, and viability compared with the other scaffold blends. Additionally, with the increase in gelatin content, the mechanical properties of the scaffolds were improved due to interaction between PGA and gelatin, as revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry.Conclusion: Incorporation of gelatin improves the biological and mechanical properties of PGA, making promising scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering.Keywords: polyglycolic acid, gelatin, nanofiber, vascular tissue engineering, biocompatible scaffold 

  7. Chip electrophoresis of gelatin-based nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Victor U; Lehner, Angela; Grombe, Ringo; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Allmaier, Günter

    2013-08-01

    Recently, biodegradable nanoparticles received increasing attention for pharmaceutical applications as well as applications in the food industry. With the current investigation we demonstrate chip electrophoresis of fluorescently (FL) labeled gelatin nanoparticles (gelatin NPs) on a commercially available instrument. FL labeling included a step for the removal of low molecular mass material (especially excess dye molecules). Nevertheless, for the investigated gelatin NP preparation two analyte peaks, one very homogeneous with an electrophoretic net mobility of μ = -24.6 ± 0.3 × 10(-9) m(2) /Vs at the peak apex (n = 17) and another more heterogeneous peak with μ between approximately -27.2 ± 0.2 × 10(-9) m(2) /Vs and -36.6 ± 0.2 × 10(-9) m(2) /Vs at the peak beginning and end point (n = 11, respectively) were recorded. Filtration allowed enrichment of particles in the size range of approximately 35 nm (pore size employed for concentration of gelatin NPs) to 200 nm (pore size employed during FL labeling). This corresponded to the very homogeneous peak linking it to gelatin NPs, whereas the more heterogeneous peak probably corresponds to gelatin not cross-linked to such a high degree (NP building blocks). Several further gelatin NP preparations were analyzed according to the same protocol yielding peaks with electrophoretic net mobilities between -23.3 ± 0.3 × 10(-9) m(2) /Vs and -28.9 ± 0.2 × 10(-9) m(2) /Vs at peak apexes (n = 15 and 6). Chip electrophoresis allows analyte separation in less than two minutes (including electrophoretic sample injection). Together with the high sensitivity of the FL detection - the LOD as derived for the first main peak of the applied dye from the threefold standard deviation of the background noise values 80 pM for determined separation conditions - this leads to a very promising high throughput separation technique especially for the analysis of bionanoparticles. For gelatin NP preparations, chip electrophoresis

  8. Gelatin-Based Hydrogels for Organ 3D Bioprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D bioprinting is a family of enabling technologies that can be used to manufacture human organs with predefined hierarchical structures, material constituents and physiological functions. The main objective of these technologies is to produce high-throughput and/or customized organ substitutes (or bioartificial organs with heterogeneous cell types or stem cells along with other biomaterials that are able to repair, replace or restore the defect/failure counterparts. Gelatin-based hydrogels, such as gelatin/fibrinogen, gelatin/hyaluronan and gelatin/alginate/fibrinogen, have unique features in organ 3D bioprinting technologies. This article is an overview of the intrinsic/extrinsic properties of the gelatin-based hydrogels in organ 3D bioprinting areas with advanced technologies, theories and principles. The state of the art of the physical/chemical crosslinking methods of the gelatin-based hydrogels being used to overcome the weak mechanical properties is highlighted. A multicellular model made from adipose-derived stem cell proliferation and differentiation in the predefined 3D constructs is emphasized. Multi-nozzle extrusion-based organ 3D bioprinting technologies have the distinguished potential to eventually manufacture implantable bioartificial organs for purposes such as customized organ restoration, high-throughput drug screening and metabolic syndrome model establishment.

  9. Gelatin-based laser direct-write technique for the precise spatial patterning of cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiele, Nathan R; Chrisey, Douglas B; Corr, David T

    2011-03-01

    Laser direct-writing provides a method to pattern living cells in vitro, to study various cell-cell interactions, and to build cellular constructs. However, the materials typically used may limit its long-term application. By utilizing gelatin coatings on the print ribbon and growth surface, we developed a new approach for laser cell printing that overcomes the limitations of Matrigel™. Gelatin is free of growth factors and extraneous matrix components that may interfere with cellular processes under investigation. Gelatin-based laser direct-write was able to successfully pattern human dermal fibroblasts with high post-transfer viability (91% ± 3%) and no observed double-strand DNA damage. As seen with atomic force microscopy, gelatin offers a unique benefit in that it is present temporarily to allow cell transfer, but melts and is removed with incubation to reveal the desired application-specific growth surface. This provides unobstructed cellular growth after printing. Monitoring cell location after transfer, we show that melting and removal of gelatin does not affect cellular placement; cells maintained registry within 5.6 ± 2.5 μm to the initial pattern. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of gelatin in laser direct-writing to create spatially precise cell patterns with the potential for applications in tissue engineering, stem cell, and cancer research.

  10. Laser Fabrication of 3D Gelatin Scaffolds for the Generation of Bioartificial Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Wilhelmi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the two-photon polymerization (2PP technique was applied to develop precisely defined biodegradable 3D tissue engineering scaffolds. The scaffolds were fabricated via photopolymerization of gelatin modified with methacrylamide moieties. The results indicate that the gelatin derivative (GelMod preserves its enzymatic degradation capability after photopolymerization. In addition, the developed scaffolds using 2PP support primary adipose-derived stem cell (ASC adhesion, proliferation and differentiation into the anticipated lineage.

  11. Chitosan-gelatin scaffolds for tissue engineering: physico-chemical properties and biological response of buffalo embryonic stem cells and transfectant of GFP-buffalo embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein-Han, W W; Saikhun, J; Pholpramoo, C; Misra, R D K; Kitiyanant, Y

    2009-11-01

    The favorable cellular response of newly developed cell line, buffalo embryonic stem (ES) cells to three-dimensional biodegradable chitosan-gelatin composite scaffolds with regard to stem-cell-based tissue engineering is described. Chitosan-gelatin composites were characterized by a highly porous structure with interconnected pores, and the mechanical properties were significantly enhanced. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction study indicated increased amorphous content in the scaffold on the addition of gelatin to chitosan. To develop a transfectant of green fluorescence protein (GFP)-buffalo ES cell, transfection of GFP plasmid to the cell was carried out via the electroporation procedure. In comparison with pure chitosan, cell spreading and proliferation were greater in highly visualized GFP-expressing cell-chitosan-gelatin scaffold constructs. The relative comparison of biological response involving cell proliferation and viability on the scaffolds suggests that blending of gelatin in chitosan improved cellular efficiency. Studies involving scanning electron and fluorescence microscopy, histological observations and flow cytometer analysis of the constructs implied that the polygonal cells attached to and penetrated the pores, and proliferated well, while maintaining their pluripotency during the culture period for 28days. Chitosan-gelatin scaffolds were cytocompatible with respect to buffalo ES cells. The study underscores for the first time that chitosan-gelatin scaffolds are promising candidates for ES-cell-based tissue engineering.

  12. Electrospinning of gelatin for tissue engineering--molecular conformation as one of the overlooked problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajkiewicz, P; Kołbuk, D

    2014-01-01

    Gelatin is one of the most promising materials in tissue engineering as a scaffold component. This biopolymer indicates biocompatibility and bioactivity caused by the existence of specific amino acid sequences, being preferred sites for interactions with cells, with high similarity to natural extracellular matrix. The present paper does not aspire to be a full review of electrospinning of gelatin and gelatin containing nanofibers as scaffolds in tissue engineering. It is focused on the still open question of the role of the higher order structures of gelatin in scaffold's bioactivity/functionality. Gelatin molecules can adopt various conformations depending on temperature, solvent, pH, etc. Our review indicates the potential ways for formation of α-helix conformation during electrospinning and the methods of further structure stabilization. It is intuitively expected that the native α-helix conformation appearing as a result of partial renaturation of gelatin can be beneficial from the viewpoint of bioactivity of scaffolds, providing thus a much cheaper alternative approach as opposed to expensive electrospinning of native collagen.

  13. Control of guided hard-tissue regeneration using phosphorylated gelatin and OCT imaging of calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Katsunori; Ma, Zhenhe; Ninomiya, Yoshihisa; Takegoshi, Minori; Kushibiki, Toshihiro; Yamamoto, Masaya; Hinds, Monica; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Wang, Ruikang K.; Awazu, Kunio

    2007-02-01

    Tendon and ligament are the transition tissues from a hard tissue to a soft tissue. The regenerative medicine of tendons needs reasonable biomaterials to regenerate precisely from the view point of composition and adhesion properties. In regenerative medicine of hard tissues, it has been reported that calcifications are influenced by phosphorylated proteins (phosphate groups) and the biomaterial possessing phosphate groups promote or inhibit the formation of HAP. We have studied to develop and evaluate the phosphorylated soft biomaterials, which is possible to control a calcification by the introduction ratio of phosphate groups, as biomaterials for tendon regeneration. In addition, we have studied measurement technologies. In the present study, we studied a FT-IR analysis of gelatins with different introduction ratio of phosphate groups, an evaluation of calcifications by the difference of introduction ratio of phosphate groups, and a fundamental survey on OCT imaging for calcifications of a gelatin and a phosphorylated gelatin. We use phosphorylated gelatins with different introduction ratios of phosphate group linked by ester bonds. The introduction ratios are measured by the FT-IR calibrated by a molybdenum blue method. Phosphorylated gelatin sheets were calcified using 1.5SBF soaking process and alternative soaking process. These gelatin sheets with different calcification conditions were measured using SD-OCT systems with 843nm centered wavelength SLD. As a result, we demonstrated that it was possible to measure the calcification on/in the gelatin sheets and sponges and phosphorylated using OCT. The main mechanism is the strong back scattering and the high scattering of deposited calcium particles.

  14. Compatibility of Chitosan-Gelatin Films with Adipose Tissue Derived Stromal Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ling; GAO Yuan; KONG Lijun; GONG Yandao; ZHAO Nanming; ZHANG Xiufang

    2006-01-01

    Chitosan has been shown to be a promising material for various applications in tissue engineering. Recently, adipose tissue derived stromal cells (ADSCs) have been investigated as an alternative source of seed cells for tissue engineering. The compatibility of chitosan and chitosan-gelatin complexes with ADSCs is not known. In the present study, ADSCs were isolated and characterized by phenotype using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). The morphology, viability, and the ability of the ADSCs to differentiate on chitosan and chitosan-gelatin composite films with 60 wt.% gelatin were evaluated. Results show that the ADSCs are positive for CD29, CD44, and CD105, but negative for CD31, CD34, and CD45. ADSCs adhere and grow better on the composite films than on the chitosan films. The ability of ADSCs to differentiate into osteogenic and adipogenic lineage cells is not affected by their being cultured on chitosan-gelatin composite films. Therefore, chitosan-gelatin composite films are compatible with ADSCs and do not impair the ability of ADSCs to differentiate into osteogenic and adipogenic lineage cells.

  15. Gelatin-Based Films and Coatings for Food Packaging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ramos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses the latest advances in the composition of gelatin-based edible films and coatings, including nanoparticle addition, and their properties are reviewed along their potential for application in the food packaging industry. Gelatin is an important biopolymer derived from collagen and is extensively used by various industries because of its technological and functional properties. Nowadays, a very wide range of components are available to be included as additives to improve its properties, as well as its applications and future potential. Antimicrobials, antioxidants and other agents are detailed due to the fact that an increasing awareness among consumers regarding healthy lifestyle has promoted research into novel techniques and additives to prolong the shelf life of food products. Thanks to its ability to improve global food quality, gelatin has been particularly considered in food preservation of meat and fish products, among others.

  16. Topological Analysis, Modeling, and Imaging of Gelatin-Based Hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Maho; Marmorat, Clement; Rafailovich, Miriam; Talmon, Yishai; Zussman, Eyal; Arinstein, Arkadii

    Gelatin is a component of natural biocompatible scaffolds used in tissue engineering constructs. However, due its supra-molecular structure, the mesh size is drastically larger compared to synthetic polymers having the same moduli, and therefore the Rubber Elastic Theory cannot be used to describe properties of gelatin. Gelatin forms distinct fibrils, bundles of triple helix chains, which form rigid areas. We experimented with two different gel moduli, made possible by varying the concentration of microbial transglutaminase (mTG). mTG forms permanent cross links and affects the morphology of the gelatin by changing the number of fibrils formed. Thus, the mesh size calculated from the Rubber Elastic Theory was much smaller than the actual size of the mesh, as measured from cryoscanning electron microscopy images and fluorescent bead particle migration. We also observed the en-mass migration behavior of dermal fibroblast cells as a function of the substrate rheological response. Our results will present the ability of the cells to sense the structure of the underlying substrate, as well as the absolute value of the modulus. Furthermore, the data will be interpreted in terms of a modified theoretical model, which takes into account the structure and mesh size of the gel.

  17. A highly versatile adaptor protein for the tethering of growth factors to gelatin-based biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addi, Cyril; Murschel, Frédéric; Liberelle, Benoît; Riahi, Nesrine; De Crescenzo, Gregory

    2017-03-01

    In the field of tissue engineering, the tethering of growth factors to tissue scaffolds in an oriented manner can enhance their activity and increase their half-life. We chose to investigate the capture of the basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) and the Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) on a gelatin layer, as a model for the functionalization of collagen-based biomaterials. Our strategy relies on the use of two high affinity interactions, that is, the one between two distinct coil peptides as well as the one occurring between a collagen-binding domain (CBD) and gelatin. We expressed a chimeric protein to be used as an adaptor that comprises one of the coil peptides and a CBD derived from the human fibronectin. We proved that it has the ability to bind simultaneously to a gelatin substrate and to form a heterodimeric coiled-coil domain with recombinant growth factors being tagged with the complementary coil peptide. The tethering of the growth factors was characterized by ELISA and surface plasmon resonance-based biosensing. The bioactivity of the immobilized bFGF and EGF was evaluated by a human umbilical vein endothelial cell proliferation assay and a vascular smooth muscle cell survival assay. We found that the tethering of EGF preserved its mitogenic and anti-apoptotic activity. In the case of bFGF, when captured via our adaptor protein, changes in its natural mode of interaction with gelatin were observed.

  18. Alginate/polyoxyethylene and alginate/gelatin hydrogels: preparation, characterization, and application in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroguz, Ayse Z; Baysal, Kemal; Adiguzel, Zelal; Baysal, Bahattin M

    2014-05-01

    Hydrogels are attractive biomaterials for three-dimensional cell culture and tissue engineering applications. The preparation of hydrogels using alginate and gelatin provides cross-linked hydrophilic polymers that can swell but do not dissolve in water. In this work, we first reinforced pure alginate by using polyoxyethylene as a supporting material. In an alginate/PEO sample that contains 20 % polyoxyethylene, we obtained a stable hydrogel for cell culture experiments. We also prepared a stable alginate/gelatin hydrogel by cross-linking a periodate-oxidized alginate with another functional component such as gelatin. The hydrogels were found to have a high fluid uptake. In this work, preparation, characterization, swelling, and surface properties of these scaffold materials were described. Lyophilized scaffolds obtained from hydrogels were used for cell viability experiments, and the results were presented in detail.

  19. In vitro evaluation of tissue adhesives composed of hydrophobically modified gelatins and disuccinimidyl tartrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyuki Matsuda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the hydrophobic group content in gelatin on the bonding strength of novel tissue–penetrating tissue adhesives was evaluated. The hydrophobic groups introduced into gelatin were the saturated hexanoyl, palmitoyl, and stearoyl groups, and the unsaturated oleoyl group. A collagen casing was employed as an adherend to model soft tissue for the in vitro determination of bonding strength of tissue adhesives composed of various hydrophobically modified gelatins and disuccinimidyl tartrate. The adhesive composed of stearoyl-modified gelatin (7.4% stearoyl; 10Ste and disuccinimidyl tartrate showed the highest bonding strength. The bonding strength of the adhesives decreased as the degree of substitution of the hydrophobic groups increased. Cell culture experiments demonstrated that fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled 10Ste was integrated onto the surface of smooth muscle cells and showed no cytotoxicity. These results suggest that 10Ste interacted with the hydrophobic domains of collagen casings, such as hydrophobic amino acid residues and cell membranes. Therefore, 10Ste–disuccinimidyl tartrate is a promising adhesive for use in aortic dissection.

  20. Surface modification of nanofibrous polycaprolactone/gelatin composite scaffold by collagen type I grafting for skin tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, Sneh [Department of Polymer and Process Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee (India); Chou, Chia-Fu [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Dinda, Amit K. [Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Science, New Delhi (India); Potdar, Pravin D. [Department of Molecular Medicine and Biology, Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Mishra, Narayan C., E-mail: mishrawise@gmail.com [Department of Polymer and Process Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee (India)

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a tri-polymer polycaprolactone (PCL)/gelatin/collagen type I composite nanofibrous scaffold has been fabricated by electrospinning for skin tissue engineering and wound healing applications. Firstly, PCL/gelatin nanofibrous scaffold was fabricated by electrospinning using a low cost solvent mixture [chloroform/methanol for PCL and acetic acid (80% v/v) for gelatin], and then the nanofibrous PCL/gelatin scaffold was modified by collagen type I (0.2–1.5 wt.%) grafting. Morphology of the collagen type I-modified PCL/gelatin composite scaffold that was analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), showed that the fiber diameter was increased and pore size was decreased by increasing the concentration of collagen type I. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis indicated the surface modification of PCL/gelatin scaffold by collagen type I immobilization on the surface of the scaffold. MTT assay demonstrated the viability and high proliferation rate of L929 mouse fibroblast cells on the collagen type I-modified composite scaffold. FE-SEM analysis of cell-scaffold construct illustrated the cell adhesion of L929 mouse fibroblasts on the surface of scaffold. Characteristic cell morphology of L929 was also observed on the nanofiber mesh of the collagen type I-modified scaffold. Above results suggest that the collagen type I-modified PCL/gelatin scaffold was successful in maintaining characteristic shape of fibroblasts, besides good cell proliferation. Therefore, the fibroblast seeded PCL/gelatin/collagen type I composite nanofibrous scaffold might be a potential candidate for wound healing and skin tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • PCL/gelatin/collagen type I scaffold was fabricated for skin tissue engineering. • PCL/gelatin/collagen type I scaffold showed higher fibroblast growth than PCL/gelatin one. • PCL/gelatin/collagen type I might be one of the ideal scaffold for

  1. Viscoelasticity of hyaluronic acid-gelatin hydrogels for vocal fold tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemirad, Siavash; Heris, Hossein K; Mongeau, Luc

    2016-02-01

    Crosslinked injectable hyaluronic acid (HA)-gelatin (Ge) hydrogels have remarkable viscoelastic and biological properties for vocal fold tissue engineering. Patient-specific tuning of the viscoelastic properties of this injectable biomaterial could improve tissue regeneration. The frequency-dependent viscoelasticity of crosslinked HA-Ge hydrogels was measured as a function of the concentration of HA, Ge, and crosslinker. Synthetic extracellular matrix hydrogels were fabricated using thiol-modified HA and Ge, and crosslinked by poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate. A recently developed characterization method based on Rayleigh wave propagation was used to quantify the frequency-dependent viscoelastic properties of these hydrogels, including shear storage and loss moduli, over a broad frequency range; that is, from 40 to 4000 Hz. The viscoelastic properties of the hydrogels increased with frequency. The storage and loss moduli values and the rate of increase with frequency varied with the concentrations of the constituents. The range of the viscoelastic properties of the hydrogels was within that of human vocal fold tissue obtained from in vivo and ex vivo measurements. Frequency-dependent parametric relations were obtained using a linear least-squares regression. The results are useful to better fine-tune the storage and loss moduli of HA-Ge hydrogels by varying the concentrations of the constituents for use in patient-specific treatments.

  2. Development of keratin–chitosan–gelatin composite scaffold for soft tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakkar, Prachi [Central Leather Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Adyar, Chennai 600020 (India); Verma, Sudhanshu; Manjubala, I. [Biomedical Engineering Division, School of Bio Sciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore 632014 (India); Madhan, B., E-mail: bmadhan76@yahoo.co.in [Central Leather Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Adyar, Chennai 600020 (India)

    2014-12-01

    Keratin has gained much attention in the recent past as a biomaterial for wound healing owing to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, intrinsic biological activity and presence of cellular binding motifs. In this paper, a novel biomimetic scaffold containing keratin, chitosan and gelatin was prepared by freeze drying method. The prepared keratin composite scaffold had good structural integrity. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed the retention of the native structure of individual biopolymers (keratin, chitosan, and gelatin) used in the scaffold. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) results revealed a high thermal denaturation temperature of the scaffold (200–250 °C). The keratin composite scaffold exhibited tensile strength (96 kPa), compression strength (8.5 kPa) and water uptake capacity (> 1700%) comparable to that of a collagen scaffold, which was used as control. The morphology of the keratin composite scaffold observed using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) exhibited good porosity and interconnectivity of pores. MTT assay using NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells demonstrated that the cell viability of the keratin composite scaffold was good. These observations suggest that the keratin–chitosan–gelatin composite scaffold is a promising alternative biomaterial for tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Fabrication of novel Keratin-Chitosan-Gelatin composite scaffold • Keratin composite scaffold shows excellent water uptake capacity and porosity • Keratin composite scaffold shows good thermal and physical stability • Biocompatibility of the developed scaffold is comparable to collagen scaffolds • Developed scaffold is a promising material for soft tissue engineering applications.

  3. Fabrication and characterization of PCL/gelatin composite nanofibrous scaffold for tissue engineering applications by electrospinning method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, Sneh [Department of Polymer and Process Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667 (India); Dinda, Amit Kumar [Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Science, New Delhi, 110029 (India); Mishra, Narayan Chandra, E-mail: mishrawise@googlemail.com [Department of Polymer and Process Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667 (India)

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, composite nanofibrous tissue engineering-scaffold consisting of polycaprolactone and gelatin, was fabricated by electrospinning method, using a new cost-effective solvent mixture: chloroform/methanol for polycaprolactone (PCL) and acetic acid for gelatin. The morphology of the nanofibrous scaffold was investigated by using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) which clearly indicates that the morphology of nanofibers was influenced by the weight ratio of PCL to gelatin in the solution. Uniform fibers were produced only when the weight ratio of PCL/gelatin is sufficiently high (10:1). The scaffold was further characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). FT-IR and TG analysis indicated some interactions between PCL and gelatin molecules within the scaffold, while XRD results demonstrated crystalline nature of PCL/gelatin composite scaffold. Cytotoxicity effect of scaffold on L929 mouse fibroblast cells was evaluated by MTT assay and cell proliferation on the scaffold was confirmed by DNA quantification. Positive results of MTT assay and DNA quantification L929 mouse fibroblast cells indicated that the scaffold made from the combination of natural polymer (gelatin) and synthetic polymer (PCL) may serve as a good candidate for tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: ► PCL/Gelatin scaffold was successfully fabricated by electrospinning method. ► PCL in CHCl{sub 3}/CH{sub 3}OH and gelatin in acetic acid: a novel polymer-solvent system. ► The morphology of nanofibers was influenced by the weight ratio of PCL/gelatin. ► Chemical interactions between PCL and gelatin molecules enhanced cell growth. ► Cell culture studies indicate the suitability of scaffold for tissue regeneration.

  4. Fish gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boran, Gokhan; Regenstein, Joe M

    2010-01-01

    Gelatin is a multifunctional ingredient used in foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and photographic films as a gelling agent, stabilizer, thickener, emulsifier, and film former. As a thermoreversible hydrocolloid with a narrower gap between its melting and gelling temperatures, both of which are below human body temperature, gelatin provides unique advantages over carbohydrate-based gelling agents. Gelatin is mostly produced from pig skin, and cattle hides and bones. Some alternative raw materials have recently gained attention from both researchers and the industry not just because they overcome religious concerns shared by Jews and Muslims but also because they provide, in some cases, technological advantages over mammalian gelatins. Fish skins from a number of fish species are among the other sources that have been comprehensively studied as sources for gelatin production. Fish skins have a significant potential for the production of high-quality gelatin with different melting and gelling temperatures over a much wider range than mammalian gelatins, yet still have a sufficiently high gel strength and viscosity. Gelatin quality is industrially determined by gel strength, viscosity, melting or gelling temperatures, the water content, and microbiological safety. For gelatin manufacturers, yield from a particular raw material is also important. Recent experimental studies have shown that these quality parameters vary greatly depending on the biochemical characteristics of the raw materials, the manufacturing processes applied, and the experimental settings used for quality control tests. In this review, the gelatin quality achieved from different fish species is reviewed along with the experimental procedures used to determine gelatin quality. In addition, the chemical structure of collagen and gelatin, the collagen-gelatin conversion, the gelation process, and the gelatin market are discussed.

  5. Hybrid chitosan-ß-glycerol phosphate-gelatin nano-/micro fibrous scaffolds with suitable mechanical and biological properties for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfi, Marzieh; Bagherzadeh, Roohollah; Naderi-Meshkin, Hojjat; Mahdipour, Elahe; Mafinezhad, Asghar; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Esmaily, Habibollah; Maleki, Masoud; Hasssanzadeh, Halimeh; Ghayaour-Mobarhan, Majid; Bidkhori, Hamid Reza; Bahrami, Ahmad Reza

    2016-03-01

    Scaffold-based tissue engineering is considered as a promising approach in the regenerative medicine. Graft instability of collagen, by causing poor mechanical properties and rapid degradation, and their hard handling remains major challenges to be addressed. In this research, a composite structured nano-/microfibrous scaffold, made from a mixture of chitosan-ß-glycerol phosphate-gelatin (chitosan-GP-gelatin) using a standard electrospinning set-up was developed. Gelatin-acid acetic and chitosan ß-glycerol phosphate-HCL solutions were prepared at ratios of 30/70, 50/50, 70/30 (w/w) and their mechanical and biological properties were engineered. Furthermore, the pore structure of the fabricated nanofibrous scaffolds was investigated and predicted using a theoretical model. Higher gelatin concentrations in the polymer blend resulted in significant increase in mean pore size and its distribution. Interaction between the scaffold and the contained cells was also monitored and compared in the test and control groups. Scaffolds with higher chitosan concentrations showed higher rate of cell attachment with better proliferation property, compared with gelatin-only scaffolds. The fabricated scaffolds, unlike many other natural polymers, also exhibit non-toxic and biodegradable properties in the grafted tissues. In conclusion, the data clearly showed that the fabricated biomaterial is a biologically compatible scaffold with potential to serve as a proper platform for retaining the cultured cells for further application in cell-based tissue engineering, especially in wound healing practices. These results suggested the potential of using mesoporous composite chitosan-GP-gelatin fibrous scaffolds for engineering three-dimensional tissues with different inherent cell characteristics.

  6. Laser fabrication of three-dimensional CAD scaffolds from photosensitive gelatin for applications in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsianikov, Aleksandr; Deiwick, Andrea; Van Vlierberghe, Sandra; Dubruel, Peter; Möller, Lena; Dräger, Gerald; Chichkov, Boris

    2011-04-11

    In the present work, 3D CAD scaffolds for tissue engineering applications were developed starting from methacrylamide-modified gelatin (GelMOD) using two-photon polymerization (2PP). The scaffolds were cross-linked employing the biocompatible photoinitiator Irgacure 2959. Because gelatin is derived from collagen (i.e., the main constituent of the ECM), the developed materials mimic the cellular microenvironment from a chemical point of view. In addition, by applying the 2PP technique, structural properties of the cellular microenvironment can also be mimicked. Furthermore, in vitro degradation assays indicated that the enzymatic degradation capability of gelatin is preserved for the methacrylamide-modified derivative. An in depth morphological analysis of the 2PP-fabricated scaffolds demonstrated that the parameters of the CAD model are reproduced with great precision, including the ridge-like surface topography on the order of 1.5 μm. The developed scaffolds showed an excellent stability in culture medium. In a final part of the present work, the suitability of the developed scaffolds for tissue engineering applications was verified. The results indicated that the applied materials are suitable to support porcine mesenchymal stem cell adhesion and subsequent proliferation. Upon applying osteogenic stimulation, the seeded cells differentiated into the anticipated lineage. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis showed the induced calcification of the scaffolds. The results clearly indicate that 2PP is capable of manufacturing precisely constructed 3D tissue engineering scaffolds using photosensitive polymers as starting material.

  7. PGS:Gelatin Nanofibrous Scaffolds with Tunable Mechanical and Structural Properties for Engineering Cardiac Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharaziha, Mahshid; Nikkhah, Mehdi; Shin, Su-Ryon; Annabi, Nasim; Masoumi, Nafiseh; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K.; Camci-Unal, Gulden; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2013-01-01

    A significant challenge in cardiac tissue engineering is the development of biomimetic grafts that can potentially promote myocardial repair and regeneration. A number of approaches have used engineered scaffolds to mimic the architecture of the native myocardium tissue and precisely regulate cardiac cell functions. However previous attempts have not been able to simultaneously recapitulate chemical, mechanical, and structural properties of the myocardial extracellular matrix (ECM). In this study, we utilized an electrospinning approach to fabricate elastomeric biodegradable poly(glycerol-sebacate) (PGS):gelatin scaffolds with a wide range of chemical composition, stiffness and anisotropy. Our findings demonstrated that through incorporation of PGS, it is possible to create nanofibrous scaffolds with well-defined anisotropy that mimics the left ventricular myocardium architecture. Furthermore, we studied attachment, proliferation, differentiation and alignment of neonatal rat cardiac fibroblast cells (CFs) as well as protein expression, alignment, and contractile function of cardiomyocyte (CMs) on PGS:gelatin scaffolds with variable amount of PGS. Notably, aligned nanofibrous scaffold, consisting of 33 wt. % PGS, induced optimal synchronous contractions of CMs while significantly enhanced cellular alignment. Overall, our study suggests that the aligned nanofibrous PGS:gelatin scaffold support cardiac cell organization, phenotype and contraction and could potentially be used to develop clinically relevant constructs for cardiac tissue engineering. PMID:23747008

  8. Enzymatically crosslinked carboxymethyl-chitosan/gelatin/nano-hydroxyapatite injectable gels for in situ bone tissue engineering application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Debasish; Bhunia, Bibhas; Banerjee, Indranil [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (India); Datta, Pallab; Dhara, Santanu [School of Medical Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (India); Maiti, Tapas K., E-mail: maititapask@gmail.com [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (India)

    2011-10-10

    Present study reports synthesis and characterization of an enzymatically crosslinked injectable gel (iGel) suitable for cell based bone tissue engineering application. The gel comprises of carboxymethyl-chitosan (CMC)/gelatin/nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp) susceptible to tyrosinase/p-cresol mediated in situ gelling at physiological temperature. Study revealed that a combination of tyrosinase (60U) and p-cresol (2 mM) as crosslinking agents yield rigid gels at physiological temperature when applied to CMC/gelatin within 35 min in presence or absence of nHAp. Rheological study in conjugation with FT-IR analysis showed that an increase in CMC concentration in the gel leads to higher degree of crosslinking and higher strength. Scanning electron microscopy showed that pore sizes of iGels increased with higher gelatin concentration. In vitro study of osteoblast cell proliferation and differentiation showed that, although all iGels are supportive towards the growth of primary osteoblast cells, GC1:1 supported cellular differentiation to the maximum. Application of iGels in mice revealed that stability of the in situ formed gels depends on the degree of crosslinking and CMC concentration. In conclusion, the iGels may be used in treating irregular small bone defects with minimal clinical invasion as well as for bone cell delivery. - Research Highlights: {yields} Enzymatically crosslinked injectable gel made up of CM-chitosan (C)/gelatin (G)/nHAp. {yields} Tyrosinase/p-cresol used for crosslinking and in situ gelling of polymers at 37deg. C. {yields} 60U tyrosinase and 2mM p-cresol is needed for gelation in 35 min. {yields} Higher GC ratio manifests lower crosslinking and gel strength but higher porosity. {yields} GC1:1 shows maximum in vivo gel stability and in vitro osteoblast differentiation.

  9. Nanoscale modification of porous gelatin scaffolds with chondroitin sulfate for corneal stromal tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai JY

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Jui-Yang Lai*, Ya-Ting Li*, Ching-Hsien Cho, Ting-Chun Yu Institute of Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan, Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Recent studies reflect the importance of using naturally occurring biopolymers as three-dimensional corneal keratocyte scaffolds and suggest that the porous structure of gelatin materials may play an important role in controlling nutrient uptake. In the current study, the authors further consider the application of carbodiimide cross-linked porous gelatin as an alternative to collagen for corneal stromal tissue engineering. The authors developed corneal keratocyte scaffolds by nanoscale modification of porous gelatin materials with chondroitin sulfate (CS using carbodiimide chemistry. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the amount of covalently incorporated polysaccharide was significantly increased when the CS concentration was increased from 0% to 1.25% (w/v. In addition, as demonstrated by dimethylmethylene blue assays, the CS content in these samples was in the range of 0.078–0.149 nmol per 10 mg scaffold. When compared with their counterparts without CS treatment, various CS-modified porous gelatin membranes exhibited higher levels of water content, light transmittance, and amount of permeated nutrients but possessed lower Young’s modulus and resistance against protease digestion. The hydrophilic and mechanical properties of scaffolds modified with 0.25% CS were comparable with those of native corneas. The samples from this group were biocompatible with the rabbit corneal keratocytes and showed enhanced proliferative and biosynthetic capacity of cultured cells. In summary, the authors found that the nanoscale-level modification has influence on the characteristics and cell-material interactions of CS-containing gelatin hydrogels

  10. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Calcium Phosphate Cement/Gelatine Composite Scaffold with Oriented Pore Structure for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Xiaopeng; HE Fupo; YE Jiandong

    2012-01-01

    The macroporous calcium phosphate(CPC) cement with oriented pore structure was prepared by freeze casting.SEM observation showed that the macropores in the porous calcium phosphate cement were interconnected aligned along the ice growth direction.The porosity of the as-prepared porous CPC was measured to be 87.6% by Archimede's principle.XRD patterns of specimens showed that poorly crystallized hydroxyapatite was the main phase present in the hydrated porous calcium phosphate cement.To improve the mechanical properties of the CPC scaffold,the 15% gelatine solution was infiltrated into the pores under vacuum and then the samples were freeze dried to form the CPC/gelatine composite scaffolds.After reinforced with gelatine,the compressive strength of CPC/gelatine composite increased to 5.12 MPa,around fifty times greater than that of the unreinforced macroporous CPC scaffold,which was only 0.1 MPa.And the toughness of the scaffold has been greatly improved via the gelatine reinforcement with a much greater fracture strain.SEM examination of the specimens indicated good bonding between the cement and gelatine.Participating the external load by the deformable gelatine,patching the defects of the CPC pores wall,and crack deflection were supposed to be the reinforcement mechanisms.In conclusion,the calcium phosphate cement/gelatine composite with oriented pore structure prepared in this work might be a potential scaffold for bone tissue engineering.

  11. Biomimetic composite scaffolds containing bioceramics and collagen/gelatin for bone tissue engineering - A mini review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttappan, Shruthy; Mathew, Dennis; Nair, Manitha B

    2016-12-01

    Bone is a natural composite material consisting of an organic phase (collagen) and a mineral phase (calcium phosphate, especially hydroxyapatite). The strength of bone is attributed to the apatite, while the collagen fibrils are responsible for the toughness and visco-elasticity. The challenge in bone tissue engineering is to develop such biomimetic composite scaffolds, having a balance between biological and biomechanical properties. This review summarizes the current state of the field by outlining composite scaffolds made of gelatin/collagen in combination with bioactive ceramics for bone tissue engineering application.

  12. Preparation and Evaluation of Gelatin-Chitosan-Nanobioglass 3D Porous Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchan Maji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to prepare and characterize bioglass-natural biopolymer based composite scaffold and evaluate its bone regeneration ability. Bioactive glass nanoparticles (58S in the size range of 20–30 nm were synthesized using sol-gel method. Porous scaffolds with varying bioglass composition from 10 to 30 wt% in chitosan, gelatin matrix were fabricated using the method of freeze drying of its slurry at 40 wt% solids loading. Samples were cross-linked with glutaraldehyde to obtain interconnected porous 3D microstructure with improved mechanical strength. The prepared scaffolds exhibited >80% porosity with a mean pore size range between 100 and 300 microns. Scaffold containing 30 wt% bioglass (GCB 30 showed a maximum compressive strength of 2.2±0.1 MPa. Swelling and degradation studies showed that the scaffold had excellent properties of hydrophilicity and biodegradability. GCB 30 scaffold was shown to be noncytotoxic and supported mesenchymal stem cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation as indicated by MTT assay and RUNX-2 expression. Higher cellular activity was observed in GCB 30 scaffold as compared to GCB 0 scaffold suggesting the fact that 58S bioglass nanoparticles addition into the scaffold promoted better cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. Thus, the study showed that the developed composite scaffolds are potential candidates for regenerating damaged bone tissue.

  13. A composite chitosan-gelatin bi-layered, biomimetic macroporous scaffold for blood vessel tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badhe, Ravindra V; Bijukumar, Divya; Chejara, Dharmesh R; Mabrouk, Mostafa; Choonara, Yahya E; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa C; Kondiah, Pierre P D; Pillay, Viness

    2017-02-10

    A composite chitosan-gelatin macroporous hydrogel-based scaffold with bi-layered tubular architecture was engineered by solvent casting-co-particulate leaching. The scaffold constituted an inner macroporous layer concealed by a non-porous outer layer mimicking the 3D matrix of blood vessels with cellular adhesion and proliferation. The scaffold was evaluated for its morphological, physicochemical, physicomechanical and biodurability properties employing SEM, FTIR, DSC, XRD, porositometry, rheology and texture analysis. The fluid uptake and biodegradation in the presence of lysozymes was also investigated. Cellular attachment and proliferation was analysed using human dermal fibroblasts (HDF-a) seeded onto the scaffold and evaluated by MTT assay, SEM, and confocal microscopy. Results demonstrated that the scaffold had a desirable tensile strength=95.81±11kPa, elongation at break 112.5±13%, porosity 82% and pores between 100 and 230μm, 50% in vitro biodegradation at day 16 and proliferated fibroblasts over 20 days. These results demonstrate that scaffold may be an excellent tubular archetype for blood vessel tissue engineering.

  14. Development of keratin-chitosan-gelatin composite scaffold for soft tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkar, Prachi; Verma, Sudhanshu; Manjubala, I; Madhan, B

    2014-12-01

    Keratin has gained much attention in the recent past as a biomaterial for wound healing owing to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, intrinsic biological activity and presence of cellular binding motifs. In this paper, a novel biomimetic scaffold containing keratin, chitosan and gelatin was prepared by freeze drying method. The prepared keratin composite scaffold had good structural integrity. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed the retention of the native structure of individual biopolymers (keratin, chitosan, and gelatin) used in the scaffold. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) results revealed a high thermal denaturation temperature of the scaffold (200-250°C). The keratin composite scaffold exhibited tensile strength (96 kPa), compression strength (8.5 kPa) and water uptake capacity (>1700%) comparable to that of a collagen scaffold, which was used as control. The morphology of the keratin composite scaffold observed using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) exhibited good porosity and interconnectivity of pores. MTT assay using NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells demonstrated that the cell viability of the keratin composite scaffold was good. These observations suggest that the keratin-chitosan-gelatin composite scaffold is a promising alternative biomaterial for tissue engineering applications.

  15. Radiation synthesis of gelatin/CM-chitosan/{beta}-tricalcium phosphate composite scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Ying [College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xu Ling, E-mail: lingxu@pku.edu.cn [College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang Xiangmei; Zhao Yinghui [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wei Shicheng, E-mail: sc-wei@pku.edu.cn [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhai Maolin [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2012-05-01

    A series of biodegradable composite scaffolds was fabricated from an aqueous solution of gelatin, carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) and {beta}-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) by radiation-induced crosslinking at ambient temperature. Ultrasonic treatment on the polymer solutions significantly influenced the distribution of {beta}-TCP particles. An ultrasonic time of 20 min, followed by 30 kGy irradiation induced a crosslinked scaffold with homogeneous distribution of {beta}-TCP particles, interconnected porous structure, sound swelling capacity and mechanical strength. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction analysis indicated that {beta}-TCP successfully incorporated with the network of gelatin and CM-chitosan. In vivo implantation of the scaffold into the mandible of beagle dog revealed that the scaffolds had excellent biocompatibility and the presence of {beta}-TCP can accelerate bone regeneration. The comprehensive results of this study paved way for the application of gelatin/CM-chitosan/{beta}-TCP composite scaffolds as candidate of bone tissue engineering material. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiation induced a crosslinked scaffold with interconnected porous structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultrasonic time of 20 min led to homogenerously distribution of {beta}-TCP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing amount of {beta}-TCP would restrict the swelling properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proper fraction of {beta}-TCP will promote the mechanical properties of the scaffolds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hybrid of {beta}-TCP promoted the bone regeneration of the mandibles of beagle dogs.

  16. Enzymatically crosslinked gelatin hydrogel promotes the proliferation of adipose tissue-derived stromal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaomei; Long, Haiyan; Qian, Hong; Ma, Kunlong

    2016-01-01

    Gelatin hydrogel crosslinked by microbial transglutaminase (mTG) exhibits excellent performance in cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. We examined the gelation time and gel strength of gelatin/mTG hydrogels in various proportions to investigate their physical properties and tested their degradation performances in vitro. Cell morphology and viability of adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) cultured on the 2D gel surface or in 3D hydrogel encapsulation were evaluated by immunofluorescence staining. Cell proliferation was tested via Alamar Blue assay. To investigate the hydrogel effect on cell differentiation, the cardiac-specific gene expression levelsof Nkx2.5, Myh6, Gja1, and Mef2c in encapsulated ADSCs with or without cardiac induction medium were detected by real-time RT-PCR. Cell release from the encapsulated status and cell migration in a 3D hydrogel model were assessed in vitro. Results show that the gelatin/mTG hydrogels are not cytotoxic and that their mechanical properties are adjustable. Hydrogel degradation is related to gel concentration and the resident cells. Cell growth morphology and proliferative capability in both 2D and 3D cultures were mainly affected by gel concentration. PCR result shows that hydrogel modulus together with induction medium affects the cardiac differentiation of ADSCs. The cell migration experiment and subcutaneous implantation show that the hydrogels are suitable for cell delivery. PMID:27703850

  17. Fabrication of Gelatin-Based Electrospun Composite Fibers for Anti-Bacterial Properties and Protein Adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ya; Wang, Yingbo; Wang, Yimin; Cui, Wenguo

    2016-10-21

    A major goal of biomimetics is the development of chemical compositions and structures that simulate the extracellular matrix. In this study, gelatin-based electrospun composite fibrous membranes were prepared by electrospinning to generate bone scaffold materials. The gelatin-based multicomponent composite fibers were fabricated using co-electrospinning, and the composite fibers of chitosan (CS), gelatin (Gel), hydroxyapatite (HA), and graphene oxide (GO) were successfully fabricated for multi-function characteristics of biomimetic scaffolds. The effect of component concentration on composite fiber morphology, antibacterial properties, and protein adsorption were investigated. Composite fibers exhibited effective antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The study observed that the composite fibers have higher adsorption capacities of bovine serum albumin (BSA) at pH 5.32-6.00 than at pH 3.90-4.50 or 7.35. The protein adsorption on the surface of the composite fiber increased as the initial BSA concentration increased. The surface of the composite reached adsorption equilibrium at 20 min. These results have specific applications for the development of bone scaffold materials, and broad implications in the field of tissue engineering.

  18. Production and characterization of chitosan/gelatin/β-TCP scaffolds for improved bone tissue regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, I.R.; Fradique, R.; Vallejo, M.C.S.; Correia, T.R.; Miguel, S.P.; Correia, I.J., E-mail: icorreia@ubi.pt

    2015-10-01

    Recently, bone tissue engineering emerged as a viable therapeutic alternative, comprising bone implants and new personalized scaffolds to be used in bone replacement and regeneration. In this study, biocompatible scaffolds were produced by freeze-drying, using different formulations (chitosan, chitosan/gelatin, chitosan/β-TCP and chitosan/gelatin/β-TCP) to be used as temporary templates during bone tissue regeneration. Sample characterization was performed through attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis. Mechanical characterization and porosity analysis were performed through uniaxial compression test and liquid displacement method, respectively. In vitro studies were also done to evaluate the biomineralization activity and the cytotoxic profile of the scaffolds. Scanning electron and confocal microscopy analysis were used to study cell adhesion and proliferation at the scaffold surface and within their structure. Moreover, the antibacterial activity of the scaffolds was also evaluated through the agar diffusion method. Overall, the results obtained revealed that the produced scaffolds are bioactive and biocompatible, allow cell internalization and show antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Such, make these 3D structures as potential candidates for being used on the bone tissue regeneration, since they promote cell adhesion and proliferation and also prevent biofilm development at their surfaces, which is usually the main cause of implant failure. - Highlights: • Production of 3D scaffolds composed by chitosan/gelatin/β-TCP by freeze-drying for bone regeneration • Physicochemical characterization of the bone substitutes by SEM, FTIR, XRD and EDS • Evaluation of the cytotoxic profile and antibacterial activity of the 3D structures through in vitro assays.

  19. Preparation of a biomimetic composite scaffold from gelatin/collagen and bioactive glass fibers for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharifi, Esmaeel; Azami, Mahmoud [Department of Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Sciences, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad [Department of Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Sciences, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pediatric Urology Research Center, Section of Tissue Engineering and Stem Cells Therapy, Department of Pediatric Urology, Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Tehran, Iran (IRI) (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moztarzadeh, Fatollah [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faridi-Majidi, Reza [Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shamousi, Atefeh; Karimi, Roya [Department of Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Sciences, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ai, Jafar, E-mail: jafar_ai@tums.ac.ir [Department of Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Sciences, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Brain and Spinal Injury Research Center (BASIR), Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-02-01

    Bone tissue is a composite material made of organic and inorganic components. Bone tissue engineering requires scaffolds that mimic bone nature in chemical and mechanical properties. This study proposes a novel method for preparing composite scaffolds that uses sub-micron bioglass fibers as the organic phase and gelatin/collagen as the inorganic phase. The scaffolds were constructed by using freeze drying and electro spinning methods and their mechanical properties were enhanced by using genipin crosslinking agent. Electron microscopy micrographs showed that the structure of composite scaffolds were porous with pore diameters of approximately 70–200 μm, this was again confirmed by mercury porosimetery. These pores are suitable for osteoblast growth. The diameters of the fibers were approximately 150–450 nm. Structural analysis confirmed the formation of desirable phases of sub-micron bioglass fibers. Cellular biocompatibility tests illustrated that scaffolds containing copper ion in the bioglass structure had more cell growth and osteoblast attachment in comparison to copper-free scaffolds. - Highlights: • Fabrication of 45S5 sub-micron bioglass fiber using electrospinning method. • Production of copper doped submicron bioglass fibers on 45S5 bioglass base by electrospinning sol gel route method. • Incorporation of bioglass/Cu-bioglass sub-micron fibers into gelatin/collagen matrix to form biomimetic composite scaffold which were non-cytotoxic according to MTT assay. • Discovering that copper can decrease the glass transition temperatures and enhance osteoblast cell adhesion and viability.

  20. Three-Dimensional Supermacroporous Carrageenan-Gelatin Cryogel Matrix for Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A tissue-engineered polymeric scaffold should provide suitable macroporous structure similar to that of extracellular matrix which can induce cellular activities and guide tissue regeneration. Cryogelation is a technique in which appropriate monomers or polymeric precursors frozen at sub-zero temperature leads to the formation of supermacroporous cryogel matrices. In this study carrageenan-gelatin (natural polymers cryogels were synthesized by using glutaraldehyde and 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl] carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC-NHS as crosslinking agent at optimum concentrations. Matrices showed large and interconnected pores which were in the range of 60–100 μm diameter. Unconfined compression analysis showed elasticity and physical integrity of all cryogels, as these matrices regained their original length after 90% compressing from the original size. Moreover Young’s modulus was found to be in the range of 4–11 kPa for the dry cryogel sections. These cryogels also exhibited good in vitro degradation capacity at 37 °C within 4 weeks of incubation. Supermacroporous carrageenan-gelatin cryogels showed efficient cell adherence and proliferation of Cos-7 cells which was examined by SEM. PI nuclear stain was used to observe cell-matrix interaction. Cytotoxicity of the scaffolds was checked by MTT assay which showed that cryogels are biocompatible and act as a potential material for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  1. Enhanced redifferentiation of chondrocytes on microperiodic silk/gelatin scaffolds: toward tailor-made tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sanskrita; Pati, Falguni; Chameettachal, Shibu; Pahwa, Shikha; Ray, Alok R; Dhara, Santanu; Ghosh, Sourabh

    2013-02-11

    Direct-write assembly allows rapid fabrication of complex three-dimensional (3D) architectures, such as scaffolds simulating anatomical shapes, avoiding the need for expensive lithographic masks. However, proper selection of polymeric ink composition and tailor-made viscoelastic properties are critically important for smooth deposition of ink and shape retention. Deposition of only silk solution leads to frequent clogging due to shear-induced β-sheet crystallization, whereas optimized viscoelastic property of silk-gelatin blends facilitate the flow of these blends through microcapillary nozzles of varying diameter. This study demonstrates that induction of controlled changes in scaffold surface chemistry, by optimizing silk-gelatin ratio, can govern cell proliferation and maintenance of chondrocyte morphology. Microperiodic silk-gelatin scaffolds can influence postexpansion redifferentiation of goat chondrocytes by enhancing Sox-9 gene expression, aggregation, and driving cartilage matrix production, as evidenced by upregulation of collagen type II and aggrecan expression. The strategy for optimizing redifferentiation of chondrocytes can offer valuable consideration in scaffold-based cartilage repair strategies.

  2. Design, fabrication and characterization of oxidized alginate-gelatin hydrogels for muscle tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniasadi, Hossein; Mashayekhan, Shohreh; Fadaoddini, Samira; Haghirsharifzamini, Yasamin

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we reported the preparation of self cross-linked oxidized alginate-gelatin hydrogels for muscle tissue engineering. The effect of oxidation degree (OD) and oxidized alginate/gelatin (OA/GEL) weight ratio were examined and the results showed that in the constant OA/GEL weight ratio, both cross-linking density and Young's modulus enhanced by increasing OD due to increment of aldehyde groups. Furthermore, the degradation rate was increased with increasing OD probably due to decrement in alginate molecular weight during oxidation reaction facilitated degradation of alginate chains. MTT cytotoxicity assays performed on Wharton's Jelly-derived umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells cultured on hydrogels with OD of 30% showed that the highest rate of cell proliferation belong to hydrogel with OA/GEL weight ratio of 30/70. Overall, it can be concluded from all obtained results that the prepared hydrogel with OA/GEL weight ratio and OD of 30/70 and 30%, respectively, could be proper candidate for use in muscle tissue engineering. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Electrospun gelatin/poly(ε-caprolactone) fibrous scaffold modified with calcium phosphate for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajzer, Izabella, E-mail: irajzer@ath.bielsko.pl [University of Bielsko-Biala (ATH), Department of Mechanical Engineering Fundamentals, Division of Materials Engineering, Willowa 2 Street, 43-309 Bielsko-Biała (Poland); Menaszek, Elżbieta [Jagiellonian University (UJ), Collegium Medicum, Department of Cytobiology, Medyczna 9 Street, 30-068 Cracow (Poland); Kwiatkowski, Ryszard [University of Bielsko-Biala (ATH), Faculty of Materials and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Textile Engineering and Polymer Materials, Willowa 2 Street, 43-309 Bielsko-Biała (Poland); Planell, Josep A.; Castano, Oscar [Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC), Biomaterials for Regenerative Therapies, Baldiri Reixac 15-21, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC), Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); CIBER-BBN The Biomedical Research Networking Center in Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    In this study gelatin (Gel) modified with calcium phosphate nanoparticles (SG5) and polycaprolactone (PCL) were used to prepare a 3D bi-layer scaffold by collecting electrospun PCL and gelatin/SG5 fibers separately in the same collector. The objective of this study was to combine the desired properties of PCL and Gel/SG5 in the same scaffold in order to enhance mineralization, thus improving the ability of the scaffold to bond to the bone tissue. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) measurements confirmed that SG5 nanoparticles were successfully incorporated into the fibrous gelatin matrix. The composite Gel/SG5/PCL scaffold exhibited more enhanced mechanical properties than individual Gel and Gel/SG5 scaffolds. The presence of SG5 nanoparticles accelerated the nucleation and growth of apatite crystals on the surface of the composite Gel/SG5/PCL scaffold in simulated body fluid (SBF). The osteoblast response in vitro to developed electrospun scaffolds (PCL and Gel/SG5/PCL) was investigated by using normal human primary NHOst cell lines. NHOst cell culture studies showed that higher alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and better mineralization were obtained in the case of composite materials than in pure PCL scaffolds. The mechanically strong PCL scaffold served as a skeleton, while the Gel/SG5 fibers facilitated cell spreading and mineralization of the scaffold. - Highlights: • Bi-layer scaffolds were produced by electrospinning method. • The addition of nanoparticles enhanced the bioactivity of scaffold. • Bi-layer scaffold enhanced ALP activity and NHOst cell mineralization.

  4. Electrospun fiber scaffolds of poly (glycerol-dodecanedioate) and its gelatin blended polymers for soft tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xizi; Kathiria, Khadija; Huang, Yen-Chih

    2014-09-01

    For tissue engineering applications, biodegradable scaffolds play a vital role in supporting and guiding the seeded cells to form functional tissues by mimicking the structure and function of native extracellular matrices. Previously, we have developed a biodegradable elastomer poly (glycerol-dodecanedioate) (PGD) with mechanical properties suitable for soft tissue engineering. In the study, we found that the PGD and PGD blended with gelatin (PGD/gelatin) were able to be electrospun into fibrous scaffolds, and the diameters of the fibers could be adjusted by controlling the PGD concentration. When using our newly designed electrospinning collector, fibers could be easily harvested and the size of the fiber mat could be flexibly adjusted. The data of Raman spectra also confirmed the esterfication reaction in PGD polymerization and showed no significant structure change after electrospinning. Biocompatibility testing of the PGD and PGD/gelatin, by using human foreskin fibroblasts, indicated that gelatin could enhance cell adhesion and proliferation. Overall, electrospun fibers made from PGD and PGD/gelatin exhibited several advantages including easy synthesis from renewable raw materials, flexible fabrication by using less toxic solvents like ethanol, and good biocompatibility.

  5. Crosslinked collagen-gelatin-hyaluronic acid biomimetic film for cornea tissue engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yang; Ren, Li, E-mail: psliren@scut.edu.cn; Wang, Yingjun, E-mail: imwangyj@163.com

    2013-01-01

    Cornea disease may lead to blindness and keratoplasty is considered as an effective treatment method. However, there is a severe shortage of donor corneas worldwide. This paper presents the crosslinked collagen (Col)-gelatin (Gel)-hyaluronic acid (HA) films developed by making use of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) as the crosslinker. The test results on the physical and biological properties indicate that the CGH631 film (the mass ratio of Col:Gel:HA = 6:3:1) has appropriate optical performance, hydrophilicity and mechanical properties. The diffusion properties of the CGH631 film to NaCl and tryptophan are also satisfactory and the measured data are 2.43 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} cm{sup 2}/s and 7.97 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2}/s, respectively. In addition, cell viability studies demonstrate that the CGH631 film has good biocompatibility, on which human corneal epithelial cells attached and proliferated well. This biocompatible film may have potential use in cornea tissue engineering. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crosslinked collagen-gelatin-hyaluronic acid films were fabricated in this study. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The film had appropriate physical properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diffusion coefficient of the film was comparable with the human cornea. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HCEC viability studies confirmed the biocompatibility of the film.

  6. Fabrication and in vitro evaluation of a sponge-like bioactive-glass/gelatin composite scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadeem, Danish [Biomaterials Engineering Group, School of Oral and Dental Sciences, University of Bristol, BS1 2LY (United Kingdom); Kiamehr, Mostafa [Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Group, Leeds Dental Institute, University of Leeds, LS2 9LU (United Kingdom); Yang, Xuebin [Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Group, Leeds Dental Institute, University of Leeds, LS2 9LU (United Kingdom); NIHR Leeds Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit, Chapel Allerton Hospital, Leeds LS7 4SA (United Kingdom); Su, Bo, E-mail: b.su@bristol.ac.uk [Biomaterials Engineering Group, School of Oral and Dental Sciences, University of Bristol, BS1 2LY (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    In this work a bioactive composite scaffold, comprised of bioactive-glass and gelatin, is introduced. Through direct foaming a sponge-like composite of a sol–gel derived bioactive-glass (70S30C; 70% SiO{sub 2}, 30% CaO) and porcine gelatin was developed for use as a biodegradable scaffold for bone tissue engineering. The composite was developed to provide a suitable alternative to synthetic polymer based scaffolds, allowing directed regeneration of bone tissue. The fabricated scaffold was characterised through X-ray microtomography, scanning electron and light microscopy demonstrating a three dimensionally porous and interconnected structure, with an average pore size (170 μm) suitable for successful cell proliferation and tissue ingrowth. Acellular bioactivity was assessed through apatite formation during submersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) whereby the rate and onset of apatite nucleation was found to be comparable to that of bioactive-glass. Modification of dehydrothermal treatment parameters induced varying degrees of crosslinking, allowing the degradation of the composite to be tailored to suit specific applications and establishing its potential for a wide range of applications. Use of genipin to supplement crosslinking by dehydrothermal treatment provided further means of modifying degradability. Biocompatibility of the composite was qualified through successful cultures of human dental pulp stem cells (HDPSCs) on samples of the composite scaffold. Osteogenic differentiation of HDPSCs and extracellular matrix deposition were confirmed through positive alkaline phosphatase staining and immunohistochemistry. - Highlights: ► Optimised composition and fabrication produced sponge-like porosity (pore size ∼ 170 μm). ► Maximum aqueous stability via dehydrothermal treatment at 145 °C, for 48 h ► Biocompatibility and osteogenic potential confirmed via successful HDPSC cultures. ► Minimal toxicity exhibited in optimally crosslinked samples (10 m

  7. Fabrication of tubular tissue constructs by centrifugal casting of cells suspended in an in situ crosslinkable hyaluronan-gelatin hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, Vladimir; Kasyanov, Vladimir; Zheng Shu, Xiao; Eisenberg, Carol; Eisenberg, Leonard; Gonda, Steve; Trusk, Thomas; Markwald, Roger R; Prestwich, Glenn D

    2005-12-01

    Achieving the optimal cell density and desired cell distribution in scaffolds is a major goal of cell seeding technologies in tissue engineering. In order to reach this goal, a novel centrifugal casting technology was developed using in situ crosslinkable hyaluronan-based (HA) synthetic extracellular matrix (sECM). Living cells were suspended in a viscous solution of thiol-modified HA and thiol-modified gelatin, a polyethyleneglycol diacrylate crosslinker was added, and a hydrogel was formed during rotation. The tubular tissue constructs consisting of a densely packed cell layer were fabricated with the rotation device operating at 2000 rpm for 10 min. The majority of cells suspended in the HA mixture before rotation were located inside the layer after centrifugal casting. Cells survived the effect of the centrifugal forces experienced under the rotational regime employed. The volume cell density (65.6%) approached the maximal possible volume density based on theoretical sphere packing models. Thus, centrifugal casting allows the fabrication of tubular constructs with the desired redistribution, composition and thickness of cell layers that makes the maximum efficient use of available cells. Centrifugal casting in this sECM would enable rapid fabrication of tissue-engineered vascular grafts, as well as other tubular and planar tissue-engineered constructs.

  8. Biomimetic interconnected porous keratin-fibrin-gelatin 3D sponge for tissue engineering application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singaravelu, Sivakumar; Ramanathan, Giriprasath; Raja, M D; Nagiah, Naveen; Padmapriya, P; Kaveri, Krishnasamy; Sivagnanam, Uma Tiruchirapalli

    2016-05-01

    The medicated wound dressing material with highly interconnected pores, mimicking the function of the extracellular matrix was fabricated for the promotion of cell growth. In this study, keratin (K), fibrin (F) and gelatin (G) composite scaffold (KFG-SPG) was fabricated by freeze drying technique and the mupirocin (D) drug was successfully incorporated with KFG-SPG (KFG-SPG-D) intended for tissue engineering applications. The fabrication of scaffold was performed without the use of any strong chemical solvents, and the solid sponge scaffold was obtained with well interconnected pores. The porous morphology of the scaffold was confirmed by SEM analysis and exhibited competent mechanical properties. KFG-SPG and KFG-SPG-D possess high level of biocompatibility, cell proliferation and cell adhesion of NIH 3T3 fibroblast and human keratinocytes (HaCaT) cell lines thereby indicating the scaffolds potential as a suitable medicated dressing for wound healing.

  9. In vitro cartilage tissue engineering using cancellous bone matrix gelatin as a biodegradable scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Yin, Zhanhai; Cao, Junling; Shi, Zhongli; Zhang, Zengtie; Song, Hongxing; Liu, Fuqiang; Caterson, Bruce

    2010-08-01

    In this study, we constructed tissue-engineered cartilage using allogeneic cancellous bone matrix gelatin (BMG) as a scaffold. Allogeneic BMG was prepared by sequential defatting, demineralization and denaturation. Isolated rabbit chondrocytes were seeded onto allogeneic cancellous BMG, and cell-BMG constructs were harvested after 1, 3 and 6 weeks for evaluation by hematoxylin and eosin staining for overall morphology, toluidine blue for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteoglycans, immunohistochemical staining for collagen type II and a transmission electron microscope for examining cellular microstructure on BMG. The prepared BMG was highly porous with mechanical strength adjustable by duration of demineralization and was easily trimmed for tissue repair. Cancellous BMG showed favorable porosity for cell habitation and metabolism material exchange with larger pore sizes (100-500 microm) than in cortical BMG (5-15 microm), allowing cell penetration. Cancellous BMG also showed good biocompatibility, which supported chondrocyte proliferation and sustained their differentiated phenotype in culture for up to 6 weeks. Rich and evenly distributed cartilage ECM proteoglycans and collagen type II were observed around chondrocytes on the surface and inside the pores throughout the cancellous BMG. Considering the large supply of banked bone allografts and relatively convenient preparation, our study suggests that allogeneic cancellous BMG is a promising scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering.

  10. In vitro cartilage tissue engineering using cancellous bone matrix gelatin as a biodegradable scaffold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Bo; Yin Zhanhai; Cao Junling; Shi Zhongli; Zhang Zengtie; Liu Fuqiang [College of Medicine, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Yanta West Road, No 76, Yanta District, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710061 (China); Song Hongxing [Department of Orthopedics, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Caterson, Bruce, E-mail: caojl@mail.xjtu.edu.c [Connective Tissue Biology Laboratories, Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Biomedical Building, Museum Avenue, Cardiff, CF10 3US (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-01

    In this study, we constructed tissue-engineered cartilage using allogeneic cancellous bone matrix gelatin (BMG) as a scaffold. Allogeneic BMG was prepared by sequential defatting, demineralization and denaturation. Isolated rabbit chondrocytes were seeded onto allogeneic cancellous BMG, and cell-BMG constructs were harvested after 1, 3 and 6 weeks for evaluation by hematoxylin and eosin staining for overall morphology, toluidine blue for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteoglycans, immunohistochemical staining for collagen type II and a transmission electron microscope for examining cellular microstructure on BMG. The prepared BMG was highly porous with mechanical strength adjustable by duration of demineralization and was easily trimmed for tissue repair. Cancellous BMG showed favorable porosity for cell habitation and metabolism material exchange with larger pore sizes (100-500 {mu}m) than in cortical BMG (5-15 {mu}m), allowing cell penetration. Cancellous BMG also showed good biocompatibility, which supported chondrocyte proliferation and sustained their differentiated phenotype in culture for up to 6 weeks. Rich and evenly distributed cartilage ECM proteoglycans and collagen type II were observed around chondrocytes on the surface and inside the pores throughout the cancellous BMG. Considering the large supply of banked bone allografts and relatively convenient preparation, our study suggests that allogeneic cancellous BMG is a promising scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering.

  11. Tissue engineering of corneal stroma with rabbit fibroblast precursors and gelatin hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Tatsuya; Amano, Shiro; Yokoo, Seiichi; Uchida, Saiko; Yamagami, Satoru; Usui, Tomohiko; Kimura, Yu; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2008-01-01

    To isolate fibroblast precursors from rabbit corneal stroma using a sphere-forming assay, to engineer corneal stroma with the precursors and gelatin, and to establish the therapeutic application of precursors in a rabbit corneal stroma. In the in vitro study, a sphere-forming assay was performed to produce precursors from rabbit corneal stroma. Corneal stroma was engineered by cultivating precursors in porous gelatin for one week. In the in vivo study, the engineered corneal stromal sheet with precursors (precursor/gelatin group) or with fibroblasts (fibroblast /gelatin group) or without cells (gelatin group) was transplanted to a pocket of rabbit corneal stroma. Gene expression and extracellular matrix production were examined immunohistochemically in each group one week and four weeks after surgery. In the in vitro study, cells in the spheres were BrdU-positive, and their progeny were keratocan-positive. The study also showed that the corneas transplanted with a porous gelatin sheet did not show any opacity four weeks after transplantation in any group. In the gelatin sheet of the precursor/gelatin group, a more intense expression of type I collagen was observed relative to the other two groups four weeks after the surgery. Our findings demonstrate that the transplantation of fibroblast precursors combined with gelatin hydrogel into the corneal stroma is a possible treatment strategy for corneal stromal regeneration.

  12. Preparation and comparative characterization of keratin-chitosan and keratin-gelatin composite scaffolds for tissue engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balaji, S.; Kumar, Ramadhar; Sripriya, R.; Kakkar, Prachi; Ramesh, D. Vijaya [Bio-products Laboratory, Biomaterial Division (India); Reddy, P. Neela Kanta [Bioorganic and Neurochemistry Department, Central Leather Research Institute, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai-20 (India); Sehgal, P.K., E-mail: sehgal_pk@yahoo.co.in [Bio-products Laboratory, Biomaterial Division (India)

    2012-05-01

    We report fabrication of three dimensional scaffolds with well interconnected matrix of high porosity using keratin, chitosan and gelatin for tissue engineering and other biomedical applications. Scaffolds were fabricated using porous Keratin-Gelatin (KG), Keratin-Chitosan (KC) composites. The morphology of both KG and KC was investigated using SEM. The scaffolds showed high porosity with interconnected pores in the range of 20-100 {mu}m. They were further tested by FTIR, DSC, CD, tensile strength measurement, water uptake and swelling behavior. In vitro cell adhesion and cell proliferation tests were carried out to study the biocompatibility behavior and their application as an artificial skin substitute. Both KG and KC composite scaffolds showed similar properties and patterns for cell proliferation. Due to rapid degradation of gelatin in KG, we found that it has limited application as compared to KC scaffold. We conclude that KC scaffold owing to its slow degradation and antibacterial properties would be a better substrate for tissue engineering and other biomedical application. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extraction of reduced keratin from horn meal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Preparation of keratin-gelatin and keratin-chitosan composite scaffolds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterizations of the composite scaffolds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparative cytotoxicity analysis on NIH3T3 fibroblasts.

  13. PLLA-collagen and PLLA-gelatin hybrid scaffolds with funnel-like porous structure for skin tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongxu; Oh, Hwan Hee; Kawazoe, Naoki; Yamagishi, Kozo; Chen, Guoping

    2012-12-01

    In skin tissue engineering, a three-dimensional porous scaffold is necessary to support cell adhesion and proliferation and to guide cells moving into the repair area in the wound healing process. Structurally, the porous scaffold should have an open and interconnected porous architecture to facilitate homogenous cell distribution. Moreover, the scaffolds should be mechanically strong to protect deformation during the formation of new skin. In this study, the hybrid scaffolds were prepared by forming funnel-like collagen or gelatin sponge on a woven poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) mesh. The hybrid scaffolds combined the advantages of both collagen or gelatin (good cell-interactions) and PLLA mesh (high mechanical strength). The hybrid scaffolds were used to culture dermal fibroblasts for dermal tissue engineering. The funnel-like porous structure promoted homogeneous cell distribution and extracellular matrix production. The PLLA mesh reinforced the scaffold to avoid deformation. Subcutaneous implantation showed that the PLLA-collagen and PLLA-gelatin scaffolds promoted the regeneration of dermal tissue and epidermis and reduced contraction during the formation of new tissue. These results indicate that funnel-like hybrid scaffolds can be used for skin tissue regeneration.

  14. PLLA–collagen and PLLA–gelatin hybrid scaffolds with funnel-like porous structure for skin tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxu Lu, Hwan Hee Oh, Naoki Kawazoe, Kozo Yamagishi and Guoping Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In skin tissue engineering, a three-dimensional porous scaffold is necessary to support cell adhesion and proliferation and to guide cells moving into the repair area in the wound healing process. Structurally, the porous scaffold should have an open and interconnected porous architecture to facilitate homogenous cell distribution. Moreover, the scaffolds should be mechanically strong to protect deformation during the formation of new skin. In this study, the hybrid scaffolds were prepared by forming funnel-like collagen or gelatin sponge on a woven poly(l-lactic acid (PLLA mesh. The hybrid scaffolds combined the advantages of both collagen or gelatin (good cell-interactions and PLLA mesh (high mechanical strength. The hybrid scaffolds were used to culture dermal fibroblasts for dermal tissue engineering. The funnel-like porous structure promoted homogeneous cell distribution and extracellular matrix production. The PLLA mesh reinforced the scaffold to avoid deformation. Subcutaneous implantation showed that the PLLA–collagen and PLLA–gelatin scaffolds promoted the regeneration of dermal tissue and epidermis and reduced contraction during the formation of new tissue. These results indicate that funnel-like hybrid scaffolds can be used for skin tissue regeneration.

  15. Fabrication of gelatin methacrylate/nanohydroxyapatite microgel arrays for periodontal tissue regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen X

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Xi Chen,1 Shizhu Bai,1 Bei Li,2 Huan Liu,1 Guofeng Wu,1 Sha Liu,3 Yimin Zhao1 1State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology and National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Department of Prosthodontics, 2State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology and National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Center for Tissue Engineering, School of Stomatology, 3Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Xijing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China Introduction: Periodontitis is a chronic infectious disease and is the major cause of tooth loss and other oral health issues around the world. Periodontal tissue regeneration has therefore always been the ultimate goal of dentists and researchers. Existing fabrication methods mainly focused on a top–down tissue engineering strategy in which several drawbacks remain, including low throughput and limited diffusion properties resulting from a large sample size. Gelatin methacrylate (GelMA is a kind of photocrosslinkable and biocompatible hydrogel, with the capacities of enabling cell encapsulation and regeneration of functional tissues. Here, we developed a novel method to fabricate GelMA/nanohydroxylapatite (nHA microgel arrays using a photocrosslinkable strategy. The viability, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation and in vivo osteogenesis of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs encapsulated in microgels were evaluated. The results suggested that such microgels provide great potential for periodontal tissue repair and regeneration. Methods: Microgel arrays were fabricated by blending different weight ratios of GelMA and nHA. hPDLSCs were encapsulated in GelMA/nHA microgels of various ratios for a systematic evaluation of cell viability, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation. In vivo osteogenesis in nude mice was also studied

  16. Enhanced electromechanical performance of bio-based gelatin/glycerin dielectric elastomer by cellulose nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Nanying; Wang, Zhifei; Yao, Yang; Zhang, Liqun; Tian, Ming

    2015-10-05

    To meet the growing demand of environmental protection and resource saving, it is imperative to explore bio-based elastomers as next-generation dielectric elastomers (DEs). In this study, we used a bio-based gelatin/glycerin (GG) elastomer as the DE matrix because GG exhibits high dielectric constant (ɛr). Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), extracted from natural cellulose fibers, were used to improve the mechanical strength of GG elastomer. The results showed that CNCs with a large number of hydroxyl groups disrupted the hydrogen bonds between gelatin molecules and formed new stronger hydrogen bonds with gelatin molecules. A good interfacial adhesion between CNCs and GG was formed, and thus a good dispersion of CNCs in GG matrix was obtained, leading to the improved mechanical strength of GG. More interestingly, the ɛr of GG elastomer was obviously increased by adding 5 wt% of CNCs, ascribed to the increase in the polarizability of gelatin chains caused by the disruption of hydrogen bonds of gelatin. As a result, a 230% increase in the actuated strain at low electric field of GG was obtained by adding 5 wt% of CNCs. Since CNCs, gelatin and glycerol are all bio-based, this study offers a new method to prepare high performance DE for its application in biological and medical fields.

  17. Differences between graphene and graphene oxide in gelatin based systems for transient biodegradable energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, G.; Sorrentino, A.; Iannace, S.; Neitzert, H. C.

    2017-02-01

    A comparison between graphene flakes and graphene oxide as filler in gelatin based systems for low-cost transient biodegradable energy storage applications has been carried out. The two bio-composites have been prepared and characterized by rheological measurements, cyclic voltammetry measurements, chronopotentiometry measurements and impedance spectroscopy. Differences in dielectric and mechanical properties have been correlated to the different structural organizations determinate by the hydrophobic/hydrophilic character of the used filler. In particular, the addition of the graphene oxide to the gelatin causes an increase in the elastic modulus with a parallel increase in the mechanical stability with time as compared to the composites obtained by adding graphene. Conversely, the surface capacitance is slightly increased by the graphene oxide addition compared to the pure gelatin sample. On the other hand, the introduction of the graphene flakes into the gelatin leads to a marked increase of the dielectric properties of the resulting bio-composite.

  18. Preparation of Astaxanthin Nanodispersions Using Gelatin-Based Stabilizer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navideh Anarjan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of lipophilic nutrients, such as astaxanthin (a fat soluble carotenoid in nanodispersion systems can either increase the water solubility, stability and bioavailability or widen their applications in aqueous food and pharmaceutical formulations. In this research, gelatin and its combinations with sucrose oleate as a small molecular emulsifier, sodium caseinate (SC as a protein and gum Arabic as a polysaccharide were used as stabilizer systems in the formation of astaxanthin nanodispersions via an emulsification-evaporation process. The results indicated that the addition of SC to gelatin in the stabilizer system could increase the chemical stability of astaxanthin nanodispersions significantly, while using a mixture of gelatin and sucrose oleate as a stabilizer led to production of nanodispersions with the smallest particle size (121.4 ± 8.6 nm. It was also shown that a combination of gelatin and gum Arabic could produce optimal astaxanthin nanodispersions in terms of physical stability (minimum polydispersity index (PDI and maximum zeta-potential. This study demonstrated that the mixture of surface active compounds showed higher emulsifying and stabilizing functionality compared to using them individually in the preparation of astaxanthin nanodispersions.

  19. The 3D printing of gelatin methacrylamide cell-laden tissue-engineered constructs with high cell viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billiet, Thomas; Gevaert, Elien; De Schryver, Thomas; Cornelissen, Maria; Dubruel, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we report on the combined efforts of material chemistry, engineering and biology as a systemic approach for the fabrication of high viability 3D printed macroporous gelatin methacrylamide constructs. First, we propose the use and optimization of VA-086 as a photo-initiator with enhanced biocompatibility compared to the conventional Irgacure 2959. Second, a parametric study on the printing of gelatins was performed in order to characterize and compare construct architectures. Hereby, the influence of the hydrogel building block concentration, the printing temperature, the printing pressure, the printing speed, and the cell density were analyzed in depth. As a result, scaffolds could be designed having a 100% interconnected pore network in the gelatin concentration range of 10-20 w/v%. In the last part, the fabrication of cell-laden scaffolds was studied, whereby the application for tissue engineering was tested by encapsulation of the hepatocarcinoma cell line (HepG2). Printing pressure and needle shape was revealed to impact the overall cell viability. Mechanically stable cell-laden gelatin methacrylamide scaffolds with high cell viability (>97%) could be printed.

  20. Composite Scaffolds Containing Silk Fibroin, Gelatin, and Hydroxyapatite for Bone Tissue Regeneration and 3D Cell Culturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisenovich, M M; Arkhipova, A Yu; Orlova, A A; Drutskaya, M S; Volkova, S V; Zacharov, S E; Agapov, I I; Kirpichnikov, M P

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) silk fibroin scaffolds were modified with one of the major bone tissue derivatives (nano-hydroxyapatite) and/or a collagen derivative (gelatin). Adhesion and proliferation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) within the scaffold were increased after modification with either nano-hydroxyapatite or gelatin. However, a significant increase in MEF adhesion and proliferation was observed when both additives were introduced into the scaffold. Such modified composite scaffolds provide a new and better platform to study wound healing, bone and other tissue regeneration, as well as artificial organ bioengineering. This system can further be applied to establish experimental models to study cell-substrate interactions, cell migration and other complex processes, which may be difficult to address using the conventional two-dimensional culture systems.

  1. A novel platform for the production of nonhydroxylated gelatins based on the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, Torsten H.; de Boer, Arjo L.; Lunenborg, Marcel G. J.; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J.

    2007-01-01

    The use of yeast as a host for heterologous expression of proteins that are normally derived from animal tissue is a promising way to ensure defined products that are devoid of potential harmful animal side products. Here we report on the production and secretion of a custom-designed gelatin, Hu3-Hi

  2. Development of Novel Biocomposite Scaffold of Chitosan-Gelatin/Nanohydroxyapatite for Potential Bone Tissue Engineering Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Yang; Liu, Ouyang; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Shuai; Feng, Xiao-bo; Shao, Zeng-wu; Yang, Cao; Yang, Shu-Hua; Hong, Ji-bo

    2016-11-01

    In this study, a three-dimensional chitosan-gelatin/nanohydroxyapatite (ChG/nHaP) scaffold was successfully fabricated and characterized in terms of swelling, degradation, cell proliferation, cell attachment, and mineralization characterizations. The ChG/nHaP scaffold was fabricated with a mean pore size of 100-180 μm. Our results showed that the physicochemical and biological properties of the scaffolds were affected by the presence of HaP. The swelling and degradation characteristics of the ChG scaffold were remarkably decreased by the addition of HaP. On the other hand, the presence of HaP remarkably improved the MC3T3-E1 cell attachment and cell growth in the scaffold membrane. The biocompatible nature of the ChG/nHaP scaffold leads to the development of finely scaled mineral deposits on the scaffold membrane. Thus, HaP played an important role in improving the biological performance of the scaffold. Therefore, the ChG/nHaP scaffold could be applied as a suitable material for bone tissue engineering applications.

  3. Fabrication of gelatin methacrylate/nanohydroxyapatite microgel arrays for periodontal tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Bai, Shizhu; Li, Bei; Liu, Huan; Wu, Guofeng; Liu, Sha; Zhao, Yimin

    Periodontitis is a chronic infectious disease and is the major cause of tooth loss and other oral health issues around the world. Periodontal tissue regeneration has therefore always been the ultimate goal of dentists and researchers. Existing fabrication methods mainly focused on a top-down tissue engineering strategy in which several drawbacks remain, including low throughput and limited diffusion properties resulting from a large sample size. Gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) is a kind of photocrosslinkable and biocompatible hydrogel, with the capacities of enabling cell encapsulation and regeneration of functional tissues. Here, we developed a novel method to fabricate GelMA/nanohydroxylapatite (nHA) microgel arrays using a photocrosslinkable strategy. The viability, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation and in vivo osteogenesis of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) encapsulated in microgels were evaluated. The results suggested that such microgels provide great potential for periodontal tissue repair and regeneration. Microgel arrays were fabricated by blending different weight ratios of GelMA and nHA. hPDLSCs were encapsulated in GelMA/nHA microgels of various ratios for a systematic evaluation of cell viability, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation. In vivo osteogenesis in nude mice was also studied. The GelMA/nHA microgels exhibited appropriate microarchitecture, mechanical strength, and surface roughness, thus enabling cell adhesion and proliferation. Additionally, the GelMA/nHA microgels (10%/2% w/v) enhanced the osteogenic differentiation of hPDLSCs by elevating the expression levels of osteogenic biomarker genes, such as ALP, BSP, OCN, and RUNX2. In vivo ectopic transplantation results showed that GelMA/nHA microgels (10%/2% w/v) increased mineralized tissue formation with abundant vascularization, compared with the 1%, 3%, and the pure GelMA group. The GelMA/nHA microgels (10%/2% w/v) facilitated hPDLSCs viability

  4. Injectable Hydrogel Composite Based Gelatin-PEG and Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles for Bone Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Thuy Duong; Tran, Ngoc Quyen; Nguyen, Dai Hai; Nguyen, Cuu Khoa; Tran, Dai Lam; Nguyen, Phuong Thi

    2016-05-01

    Gelatin hydrogels have recently attracted much attention for tissue regeneration because of their biocompatibility. In this study, we introduce poly-ethylene glycol (PEG)—grafted gelatin containing tyramine moieties which have been utilized for in situ enzyme-mediated hydrogel preparation. The hydrogel can be used to load nanoparticles of biphasic calcium phosphate, a mixture of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate, and forming injectable bio-composites. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectra indicated that tyramine-functionalized polyethylene glycol-nitrophenyl carbonate ester was conjugated to the gelatin. The hydrogel composite was rapidly formed in situ (within a few seconds) in the presence of horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide. In vitro experiments with bio-mineralization on the hydrogel composite surfaces was well-observed after 2 weeks soaking in simulated body fluid solution. The obtained results indicated that the hydrogel composite could be a potential injectable material for bone regeneration.

  5. Facile modification of gelatin-based microcarriers with multiporous surface and proliferative growth factors delivery to enhance cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Sha [Department of Oral Histology and Pathology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Wang Yijuan [Key Laboratory for Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Deng, Tianzheng [Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Jin Fang [Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, 710032 (China); Liu Shouxin [Key Laboratory for Macromolecular Science of Shaanxi Province, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Zhang Yongjie [Department of Oral Histology and Pathology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Feng Feng [Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Department of Dermatology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710038 (China); Jin Yan [Department of Oral Histology and Pathology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China)], E-mail: yanjin@fmmu.edu.cn

    2008-07-28

    The design of microcarriers plays an important role in the success of cell expansion. The present article provides a facile approach to modify the gelatin-based particles and investigates the feasibility of their acting as microcarriers for cell attachment and growth. Gelatin particles (150-320 {mu}m) were modified by cryogenic treatment and lyophilization to develop the surface with the features of multiporous morphology and were incorporated with proliferative growth factors (bFGF) by adsorption during the post-preparation, which enables them to serve as microcarriers for cells amplification, together with the advantages of larger cell-surface contact area and capability of promoting cell propagation. The microstructure and release assay of the modified microcarriers demonstrated that the pores on surface were uniform and bFGF was released in a controlled manner. Through in vitro fibroblast culture, these features resulted in a prominent increase in the cell attachment rate and cell growth rate relative to the conditions without modification. Although the scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy analysis results indicated that cells attached, spread, and proliferated on all the microcarriers, cell growth clearly showed a significant correlation with the multiporous structure of microcarriers, in particular on bFGF combined ones. These results validate our previous assumption that the facile modification could improve cell growth on the gelatin-based microcarriers obviously and the novel microcarriers may be a promising candidate in tissue engineering.

  6. Drug loaded homogeneous electrospun PCL/gelatin hybrid nanofiber structures for anti-infective tissue regeneration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jiajia; He, Min; Liu, Hao; Niu, Yuzhao; Crawford, Aileen; Coates, Phil D; Chen, Dafu; Shi, Rui; Zhang, Liqun

    2014-11-01

    Infection is the major reason for guided tissue regeneration/guided bone regeneration (GTR/GBR) membrane failure in clinical application. In this work, we developed GTR/GBR membranes with localized drug delivery function to prevent infection by electrospinning of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and gelatin blended with metronidazole (MNA). Acetic acid (HAc) was introduced to improve the miscibility of PCL and gelatin to fabricate homogeneous hybrid nanofiber membranes. The effects of the addition of HAc and the MNA content (0, 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 wt.% of polymer) on the properties of the membranes were investigated. The membranes showed good mechanical properties, appropriate biodegradation rate and barrier function. The controlled and sustained release of MNA from the membranes significantly prevented the colonization of anaerobic bacteria. Cells could adhere to and proliferate on the membranes without cytotoxicity until the MNA content reached 30%. Subcutaneous implantation in rabbits for 8 months demonstrated that MNA-loaded membranes evoked a less severe inflammatory response depending on the dose of MNA than bare membranes. The biodegradation time of the membranes was appropriate for tissue regeneration. These results indicated the potential for using MNA-loaded PCL/gelatin electrospun membranes as anti-infective GTR/GBR membranes to optimize clinical application of GTR/GBR strategies.

  7. Microsphere-integrated gelatin-siloxane hybrid scaffolds for bone tissue engineering :in vitro bioactivity & antibacterial activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Microsphere integrated gelatin-siloxane hybrid scaffolds were successfully synthesized by using a combined sol-gel processing,post-gelation soaking and freeze-drying process.A bone-like apatite layer was able to form in the Ca2+-containing porous hybrids upon soaking in a simulated body fluid (SBF) up to 1 day.The rate of gentamicin sulfate (GS) release from the GS-loaded gelatin-siloxane hybrid microsphere became constant after a 4 h burst.The antibacterial activity was assessed by the agar diffusion test (ADT) and the bactericidal effect test.It is evident that the as-synthesized porous scaffolds have excellent bioactivity and antibacterial activity,and may be favorable in bone tissue engineering.

  8. Macroporous gelatine spheres as culture substrate, transplantation vehicle, and biodegradable scaffold for guided regeneration of soft tissues. In vivo study in nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Fredrik R M; Junker, Johan P E; Johnson, Hans; Kratz, Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    In the course of development of a new type of filler for the correction of small defects in soft tissues we studied macroporous gelatine spheres as culture substrate, transplantation vehicle, and biodegradable scaffold for guided regeneration of soft tissues in vivo. We injected intradermally in nude mice gelatine spheres that had either been preseeded with human fibroblasts or preadipocytes, or left unseeded. We compared the extent of regenerated tissue with that found after injections of saline or single-cell suspensions of human fibroblasts or preadipocytes. Routine histological examinations and immunohistochemical staining for von Willebrand factor (indicating neoangiogenesis) were made after 7, 21, and 56 days. Injected saline or single-cell suspensions had no effect. However, a quick and thorough tissue regeneration with developing neoangiogenesis was elicited by the gelatine spheres and the effect of spheres preseeded with preadipocytes surpassed the effect of spheres preseeded with fibroblasts, which in turn surpassed the effect of unseeded gelatine spheres. We suggest that minor soft tissue defects such as wrinkles or creases can be corrected by injection of naked macroporous gelatine spheres, whereas larger defects are best corrected by injection of macroporous gelatine spheres preseeded with fibroblasts, or preadipocytes, or both.

  9. Design of novel injectable cationic microspheres based on aminated gelatin for prolonged insulin action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Kazuhiro; Chono, Sumio; Kosai, Tadashi; Seki, Toshinobu; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare two types of injectable cationized microspheres based on a native gelatin (NGMS) and aminated gelatin with ethylenediamine (CGMS) to prolong the action of insulin. Release of rhodamin B isothiocyanate insulin from CGMS was compared with that from NGMS under in-vitro and in-vivo conditions. Lower release of insulin from CGMS compared with that from NGMS was caused by the suppression of initial release. The disappearance of 125I-insulin from the injection site after intramuscular administration by NGMS and CGMS had a biphasic profile in mice. Almost all the 125I-insulin had disappeared from the injection site one day after administration by NGMS. The remaining insulin at the injection site after administration by CGMS was prolonged, with approximately 59% remaining after one day and 16% after 14 days. The disappearance of CGMS from the injection site was lower than that of NGMS. However, the difference in these disappearance rates was not great compared with those of 125I-insulin from the injection site by NGMS and CGMS. The time course of disappearance of 125I-CGMS from the injection site was similar to that of 125I-insulin by CGMS. The initial hypoglycaemic effect was observed 1 h after administration of insulin by NGMS, thereafter its effect rapidly disappeared. The hypoglycaemic effect was observed 2-4 h after administration by CGMS and continued to be exhibited for 7 days. The prolonged hypoglycaemic action by CGMS depended on the time profiles of the disappearance of insulin from muscular tissues, which occurs due to the enzymatic degradation of CGMS.

  10. Injectable alginate/hydroxyapatite gel scaffold combined with gelatin microspheres for drug delivery and bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jingxuan; Miao, Yuting; Tan, Huaping; Zhou, Tianle; Ling, Zhonghua; Chen, Yong; Xing, Xiaodong; Hu, Xiaohong

    2016-06-01

    Injectable and biodegradable alginate-based composite gel scaffolds doubly integrated with hydroxyapatite (HAp) and gelatin microspheres (GMs) were cross-linked via in situ release of calcium cations. As triggers of calcium cations, CaCO3 and glucono-D-lactone (GDL) were fixed as a mass ratio of 1:1 to control pH value ranging from 6.8 to 7.2 during gelation. Synchronously, tetracycline hydrochloride (TH) was encapsulated into GMs to enhance bioactivity of composite gel scaffolds. The effects of HAp and GMs on characteristics of gel scaffolds, including pH value, gelation time, mechanical properties, swelling ratio, degradation behavior and drug release, were investigated. The results showed that HAp and GMs successfully improved mechanical properties of gel scaffolds at strain from 0.1 to 0.5, which stabilized the gel network and decreased weight loss, as well as swelling ratio and gelation time. TH could be released from this composite gel scaffold into the local microenvironment in a controlled fashion by the organic/inorganic hybrid of hydrogel network. Our results demonstrate that the HAp and GMs doubly integrated alginate-based gel scaffolds, especially the one with 6% (w/v) HAp and 5% (w/v) GMs, have suitable physical performance and bioactive properties, thus provide a potential opportunity to be used for bone tissue engineering. The potential application of this gel scaffold in bone tissue engineering was confirmed by encapsulation behavior of osteoblasts. In combination with TH, the gel scaffold exhibited beneficial effects on osteoblast activity, which suggested a promising future for local treatment of pathologies involving bone loss.

  11. Fabrication and characterisation of biomimetic, electrospun gelatin fibre scaffolds for tunica media-equivalent, tissue engineered vascular grafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsayed, Y. [Advanced Materials Group, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Lekakou, C., E-mail: C.Lekakou@surrey.ac.uk [Advanced Materials Group, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Labeed, F. [Centre of Biomedical Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Tomlins, P. [National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-01

    It is increasingly recognised that biomimetic, natural polymers mimicking the extracellular matrix (ECM) have low thrombogenicity and functional motifs that regulate cell–matrix interactions, with these factors being critical for tissue engineered vascular grafts especially grafts of small diameter. Gelatin constitutes a low cost substitute of soluble collagen but gelatin scaffolds so far have shown generally low strength and suture retention strength. In this study, we have devised the fabrication of novel, electrospun, multilayer, gelatin fibre scaffolds, with controlled fibre layer orientation, and optimised gelatin crosslinking to achieve not only compliance equivalent to that of coronary artery but also for the first time strength of the wet tubular acellular scaffold (swollen with absorbed water) same as that of the tunica media of coronary artery in both circumferential and axial directions. Most importantly, for the first time for natural scaffolds and in particular gelatin, high suture retention strength was achieved in the range of 1.8–1.94 N for wet acellular scaffolds, same or better than that for fresh saphenous vein. The study presents the investigations to relate the electrospinning process parameters to the microstructural parameters of the scaffold, which are further related to the mechanical performance data of wet, crosslinked, electrospun scaffolds in both circumferential and axial tubular directions. The scaffolds exhibited excellent performance in human smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation, with SMCs seeded on the top surface adhering, elongating and aligning along the local fibres, migrating through the scaffold thickness and populating a transverse distance of 186 μm and 240 μm 9 days post-seeding for scaffolds of initial dry porosity of 74 and 83%, respectively. - Highlights: • Novel crosslinked electrospun gelatin scaffolds of specific fibre layer orientation • These scaffolds have compliance equivalent to that of coronary

  12. Mineralized gelatin methacrylate-based matrices induce osteogenic differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Heemin; Shih, Yu-Ru V.; Hwang, Yongsung; Wen, Cai; Rao, Vikram; Seo, Timothy; Varghese, Shyni

    2014-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are a promising cell source with pluripotency and self-renewal properties. Design of simple and robust biomaterials with an innate ability to induce lineage-specificity of hiPSCs is desirable to realize their applications in regenerative medicine. In this study, we investigated the potential of biomaterials containing calcium phosphate minerals to induce osteogenic differentiation of hiPSCs. hiPSCs cultured using mineralized gelatin methacrylate-based matrices underwent osteogenic differentiation ex vivo, both in two- dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) cultures, in growth medium devoid of any osteogenic-inducing chemical components or growth factors. Our findings that osteogenic differentiation of hiPSCs can be achieved through biomaterial-based cues alone present new avenues for personalized regenerative medicine. Such biomaterials that could not only act as structural scaffolds, but could also provide tissue-specific functions such as directing stem cell differentiation commitment, have great potential in bone tissue engineering. PMID:25153779

  13. Physical, Physicochemical, Mechanical, and Structural Characterization of Films Based on Gelatin/Glycerol and Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Sifuentes-Nieves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method to prepare glycerol/gelatin based films, by doping the film with carbon nanotubes (CNTs and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, was proposed. SDS was used to disperse CNTs in gelatin/glycerol films as follows: gelatin/glycerol (GG incubated with equal concentrations of CNT and SDS; GG with 0.001% w/w CNT/SDS; GG with 0.002% CNT/SDS and GG with 0.004% CNT/SDS. Diffractograms of CNT/SDS /glycerol films showed an amorphous structure, being consistent with thermograms involving temperature and fusion enthalpy. Mechanical tests showed 30% increase in elongation at break of GG with 0.004% CNT/SDS, with respect to gelatin/glycerol/SDS control. Samples with CNT had increased water vapor permeability (WVP. The film fractal dimension indicated that, with the addition of the highest concentration of CNT, films with a homogeneous surface were obtained, with probable nanotube inclusion in the protein matrix. According to the results, the easy method used to prepare gelatin composite materials gave place to films with better physical, mechanical, and thermal properties.

  14. Non-toxic agarose/gelatin-based microencapsulation system containing gallic acid for antifungal application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, P-L; Gambari, R; Kok, S H-L; Lam, K-H; Tang, J C-O; Bian, Z-X; Lee, K K-H; Chui, C-H

    2015-02-01

    Aspergillus niger (A. niger) is a common species of Aspergillus molds. Cutaneous aspergillosis usually occurs in skin sites near intravenous injection and approximately 6% of cutaneous aspergillosis cases which do not involve burn or HIV-infected patients are caused by A. niger. Biomaterials and biopharmaceuticals produced from microparticle-based drug delivery systems have received much attention as microencapsulated drugs offer an improvement in therapeutic efficacy due to better human absorption. The frequently used crosslinker, glutaraldehyde, in gelatin-based microencapsulation systems is considered harmful to human beings. In order to tackle the potential risks, agarose has become an alternative polymer to be used with gelatin as wall matrix materials of microcapsules. In the present study, we report the eco-friendly use of an agarose/gelatin-based microencapsulation system to enhance the antifungal activity of gallic acid and reduce its potential cytotoxic effects towards human skin keratinocytes. We used optimal parameter combinations, such as an agarose/gelatin ratio of 1:1, a polymer/oil ratio of 1:60, a surfactant volume of 1% w/w and a stirring speed of 900 rpm. The minimum inhibitory concentration of microencapsulated gallic acid (62.5 µg/ml) was significantly improved when compared with that of the original drug (>750 µg/ml). The anti-A. niger activity of gallic acid -containing microcapsules was much stronger than that of the original drug. Following 48 h of treatment, skin cell survival was approximately 90% with agarose/gelatin microcapsules containing gallic acid, whereas cell viability was only 25-35% with free gallic acid. Our results demonstrate that agarose/gelatin-based microcapsules containing gallic acid may prove to be helpful in the treatment of A. niger-induced skin infections near intravenous injection sites.

  15. Photoactivated chlorophyllin-based gelatin films and coatings to prevent microbial contamination of food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Carballo, G; Hernández-Muñoz, P; Gavara, R; Ocio, M J

    2008-08-15

    The aim of this work was to develop antimicrobial photosensitizer-containing edible films and coatings based on gelatin as the polymer matrix, incorporating sodium magnesium chlorophyllin (E-140) and sodium copper chlorophyllin (E-141). Chlorophyllins were incorporated into the gelatin film-forming solution and the inhibiting effect of the cast films was tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. The results demonstrated that water soluble sodium magnesium chlorophyllin and water soluble sodium copper chlorophyllin reduced the growth of S. aureus and L. monocytogenes by 5 log and 4 log respectively. Subsequently, the activity of self-standing films and coatings containing E-140 was assessed on cooked frankfurters inoculated with S. aureus and L. monocytogenes. These tests showed that it was possible to reduce microorganism growth in cooked frankfurters inoculated with S. aureus and L. monocytogenes by covering them with sodium magnesium chlorophyllin-gelatin films and coatings.

  16. Water Vapor Sensors Based on the Swelling of Relief Gelatin Gratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Calixto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on a novel device to measure relative humidity. The sensor is based on surface diffraction gratings made of gelatin. This material swells and shrinks according to the content of water vapor in air. By sending a light beam to the grating, diffracted orders appear. Due to the gelatin swelling or shrinking, first order intensity changes according to the relative humidity. Calibration curves relating intensity versus relative humidity have been found. The fabrication process of diffraction gratings and the testing of the prototype sensing devices are described.

  17. Gelatin-Methacrylamide Hydrogels as Potential Biomaterials for Fabrication of Tissue-Engineered Cartilage Constructs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, Wouter; Levett, Peter A.; Pot, Michiel W.; van Weeren, Paul Rene; Dhert, Wouter J. A.; Hutmacher, Dietmar W.; Melchels, Ferry P. W.; Klein, Travis J.; Malda, Jos

    2013-01-01

    Gelatin-methacrylamide (gelMA) hydrogels are shown to support chondrocyte viability and differentiation and give wide ranging mechanical properties depending on several cross-linking parameters. Polymer concentration, UV exposure time, and thermal gelation prior to UV exposure allow for control over

  18. Gelatin-based nanoparticles as DNA delivery systems: Synthesis, physicochemical and biocompatible characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán, M C; Rosell, N; Ruano, G; Busquets, M A; Vinardell, M P

    2015-10-01

    The rapidly rising demand for therapeutic grade DNA molecules requires associated improvements in encapsulation and delivery technologies. One of the challenges for the efficient intracellular delivery of therapeutic biomolecules after their cell internalization by endocytosis is to manipulate the non-productive trafficking from endosomes to lysosomes, where degradation may occur. The combination of the endosomal acidity with the endosomolytic capability of the nanocarrier can increase the intracellular delivery of many drugs, genes and proteins, which, therefore, might enhance their therapeutic efficacy. Among the suitable compounds, the gelification properties of gelatin as well as the strong dependence of gelatin ionization with pH makes this compound an interesting candidate to be used to the effective intracellular delivery of active biomacromolecules. In the present work, gelatin (either high or low gel strength) and protamine sulfate has been selected to form particles by interaction of oppositely charged compounds. Particles in the absence of DNA (binary system) and in the presence of DNA (ternary system) have been prepared. The physicochemical characterization (particle size, polydispersity index and degree of DNA entrapment) have been evaluated. Cytotoxicity experiments have shown that the isolated systems and the resulting gelatin-based nanoparticles are essentially non-toxic. The pH-dependent hemolysis assay and the response of the nanoparticles co-incubated in buffers at defined pHs that mimic extracellular, early endosomal and late endo-lysosomal environments demonstrated that the nanoparticles tend to destabilize and DNA can be successfully released. It was found that, in addition to the imposed compositions, the gel strength of gelatin is a controlling parameter of the final properties of these nanoparticles. The results indicate that these gelatin-based nanoparticles have excellent properties as highly potent and non-toxic intracellular delivery

  19. Preparation and characterization of electrospun PLCL/Poloxamer nanofibers and dextran/gelatin hydrogels for skin tissue engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-feng Pan

    Full Text Available In this study, two different biomaterials were fabricated and their potential use as a bilayer scaffold for skin tissue engineering applications was assessed. The upper layer biomaterial was a Poly(ε-caprolactone-co-lactide/Poloxamer (PLCL/Poloxamer nanofiber membrane fabricated using electrospinning technology. The PLCL/Poloxamer nanofibers (PLCL/Poloxamer, 9/1 exhibited strong mechanical properties (stress/strain values of 9.37 ± 0.38 MPa/187.43 ± 10.66% and good biocompatibility to support adipose-derived stem cells proliferation. The lower layer biomaterial was a hydrogel composed of 10% dextran and 20% gelatin without the addition of a chemical crosslinking agent. The 5/5 dextran/gelatin hydrogel displayed high swelling property, good compressive strength, capacity to present more than 3 weeks and was able to support cells proliferation. A bilayer scaffold was fabricated using these two materials by underlaying the nanofibers and casting hydrogel to mimic the structure and biological function of native skin tissue. The upper layer membrane provided mechanical support in the scaffold and the lower layer hydrogel provided adequate space to allow cells to proliferate and generate extracellular matrix. The biocompatibility of bilayer scaffold was preliminarily investigated to assess the potential cytotoxicity. The results show that cell viability had not been affected when cocultured with bilayer scaffold. As a consequence, the bilayer scaffold composed of PLCL/Poloxamer nanofibers and dextran/gelatin hydrogels is biocompatible and possesses its potentially high application prospect in the field of skin tissue engineering.

  20. Efficacy of supermacroporous poly(ethylene glycol)–gelatin cryogel matrix for soft tissue engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Archana [Department of Biological Sciences, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani-K.K Birla Goa Campus, 403726 Goa (India); Bhat, Sumrita [Department of Biological Sciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, 208016 UP (India); Nayak, Vijayashree, E-mail: vijayashree@goa.bits-pilani.ac.in [Department of Biological Sciences, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani-K.K Birla Goa Campus, 403726 Goa (India); Kumar, Ashok, E-mail: ashokkum@iitk.ac.in [Department of Biological Sciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, 208016 UP (India)

    2015-02-01

    Three dimensional scaffolds synthesized using natural or synthetic polymers act as an artificial niche for cell adherence and proliferation. In this study, we have fabricated cryogels employing blend of poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) and gelatin using two different crosslinkers like, glutaraldehyde and EDC-NHS by cryogelation technique. Synthesized matrices possessed interconnected porous structure in the range of 60–100 μm diameter and regained their original length after 90% compression without deformation. Visco-elastic behavior was studied by rheology and unconfined compression analysis, elastic modulus of these cryogels was observed to be > 10{sup 5} Pa which showed their elasticity and mechanical strength. TGA and DSC also showed the stability of these cryogels at different temperatures. In vitro degradation capacity was analyzed for 4 weeks at 37 °C. IMR-32, C2C12 and Cos-7 cells proliferation and ECM secretion on PEG–gelatin cryogels were observed by SEM and fluorescent analysis. In vitro biocompatibility was analyzed by MTT assay for the period of 15 days. Furthermore, cell proliferation efficiency, metabolic activity and functionality of IMR-32 cells were analyzed by neurotransmitter assay and DNA quantification. The cell–matrix interaction, elasticity, mechanical strength, stability at different temperatures, biocompatible, degradable nature showed the potentiality of these cryogels towards soft tissue engineering such as neural, cardiac and skin. - Highlights: • PEG–gelatin cryogel matrices were produced by cryogelation technology. • Matrices showed suitable properties for tissue engineering applications. • Polymeric cryogels supported growth of IMR-32, C2C12 and Cos-7 cells in vitro.

  1. Preparation of a partially calcified gelatin membrane as a model for a soft-to-hard tissue interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviv-Gavriel, Meital; Garti, Nissim; Füredi-Milhofer, Helga

    2013-01-15

    Cartilage and/or bone tissue engineering is a very challenging area in modern medicine. Since cartilage is an avascular tissue with limited capacity for self-repair, using scaffolds provides a promising option for the repair of severe cartilage damage caused by trauma, age-related degeneration, and/or diseases. Our aim in this study was to design a model for a functional biomedical membrane to form the interface between a cartilage-forming scaffold and bone. To realize such a membrane gelatin gels containing calcium or phosphate ions were exposed from one side to a solution of the other constituent ion (i.e., a sodium phosphate solution was allowed to diffuse into a calcium-containing gel and vice versa). The partially calcified gels were analyzed by XRD, ATR-FTIR spectra, E-SEM, and EDX. Thus, we confirmed the existence of a gradient of crystals, with a dense top layer, extending several micrometers into the gel. XRD spectra and Ca/P atomic ratios confirmed the existence of calcium deficient apatites. The effect of different experimental parameters on the calcification process within the gelatin membranes has been elucidated. It was shown that increasing the gelatin concentration from 5 wt % to 10 wt % retards calcification. A similar effect was observed when glycerol, which is frequently used as plasticizer, was added to the system. With increasing calcium concentration within the organic matrix, the quantity and density of calcium phosphate crystals over/within the gel increased. The possible explanations for the above phenomena are discussed.

  2. Novel Alginate-Gelatin Hybrid Nanoparticle for Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Mi Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel alginate-gelatin hybrid nanoparticles were fabricated using single oil in water (O/W emulsification techniques. Physicochemical property of the particle was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier’s transmission infrared spectroscopy. Particle size was determined using zeta potential metastasize analyzer and was found to be in range of 400–600 nm. AGNPs were used for culturing human keratinocytes for two weeks to check biocompatibility of synthesized AGNPs. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay showed increased metabolic activity of cells cultured on AGNPs in comparison to two-dimensional (2D system (control. Cellular attachment on nanoparticle was further confirmed using SEM and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining. The drug release profile shows possible electrostatic bond between alginate and gelatin resulting in controlled release of drug from AGNPs. For the first time alginate-gelatin hybrid nanosystem has been fabricated and all results showed it can be used as potential system for delivery of drug and therapeutical agents to cells and can also be used for regenerative medicine applications.

  3. Design of cationic microspheres based on aminated gelatin for controlled release of peptide and protein drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Kazuhiro; Chono, Sumio; Kosai, Tadashi; Seki, Toshinobu; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2008-02-01

    Two different types of cationized microspheres based on a native cationic gelatin (NGMS) and aminated gelatin with ethylendiamine (CGMS) were investigated for the controlled release of three model acidic peptide/protein drugs with different molecular weights (MWs) and isoelectric points (IEPs). Recombinant human (rh)-insulin (MW: 5.8 kDa, IEP: 5.3), bovine milk lactoalbumin, BMLA (MW: 14 kDa, IEP: 4.3), and bovine serum albumin (BSA MW: 67 kDa, IEP: 4.9) were used as model acidic peptide/protein drugs. The in vitro release profiles of these acidic peptide/protein drugs from NGMS and CGMS were compared and different periods of cross-linking were obtained. The slower release of these acidic peptide/protein drugs from CGMS compared with those from NGMS with cross-linking for 48 hr. was caused by the suppression of burst release during the initial phase. The degree of suppression of burst release of the three peptide/protein drugs during the initial phase by CGMS was in the following order: (rh)-insulin > BMLA > BSA. The release of insulin with a lower molecular weight from CGMS was particularly suppressed compared with the other two drugs with higher molecular weights in the initial phase. The control of the release rate of acidic peptide/protein drugs from gelatin microsphere can be achieved by amination of gelatin. Therefore, CGMS is useful for the controlled release of acidic peptide/ protein drugs.

  4. Gelatin-based biomaterial engineering with anhydride-containing oligomeric cross-linkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Tina; Hötzel, Rudi; Kascholke, Christian; Anderegg, Ulf; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela; Hacker, Michael C

    2014-06-01

    Chemically cross-linked gelatin hydrogels are versatile cell-adhesive hydrogel materials that have been established for a variety of biomedical applications. The most prominent cross-linker is glutaraldehyde, which, however, has been described to cause compatibility problems and loss of microscopic but relevant structural features. A recently developed oligomeric cross-linker that contains anhydride functionalities was evaluated as cross-linker for the fabrication of gelatin-based hydrogels and microparticles. In a fast curing reaction, hydrogels composed of gelatin and oligomeric cross-linker were fabricated with good conversion over a wide concentration range of constituents and with cross-linkers of different anhydride contents. Hydrogel properties, such as dry weight and mechanics, could be controlled by hydrogel composition and rheological properties correlated to elastic moduli from 1 to 10 kPa. The gels were shown to be cytocompatible and promoted cell adhesion. In soft formulations, cells migrated into the hydrogel bulk. Gelatin microparticles prepared by a standard water-in-oil emulsion technique were also treated with the novel oligomers, and cross-linking degrees matching those obtained with glutaraldehyde were obtained. At the same time, fewer interparticular cross-links were observed. Fluorescein-derivatized cross-linkers yielded labeled microparticles in a concentration-dependent manner. The oligomeric cross-linkers are presented as an efficient and possibly more functional and compatible alternative to glutaraldehyde. The engineered hydrogel materials hold potential for various biomedical applications.

  5. Use of macroporous gelatine spheres as a biodegradable scaffold for guided tissue regeneration of healthy dermis in humans: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, Fredrik R M; Nyman, Erika; Bolin, Johanna S C; Kratz, Gunnar

    2010-05-01

    If a biodegradable scaffold is applied, the dermis can be regenerated by guided tissue regeneration. Scaffolds can stimulate in-growth of cells from the surroundings that migrate into them and start to produce autologous extracellular matrix as the scaffold is degraded. Several materials are available, but most of them are in the form of sheets and need to be laid on an open wound surface. A number of injectable fillers have been developed to correct soft-tissue defects. However, none of these has been used for guided tissue regeneration. We present a new technique that could possibly be used to correct dermal defects by using macroporous gelatine spheres as a biodegradable scaffold for guided tissue regeneration. In eight healthy volunteers, intradermal injections of macroporous gelatine spheres were compared with injections of saline and hyaluronic acid (Restylane). Full-thickness skin biopsy specimens of the implants and surrounding tissue were removed 2, 8, 12 and 26 weeks after injection, and the (immuno)histological results were analysed. The Restylane merely occupied space. It shattered the dermal tissue and compressed collagen fibres and cells at the interface between the implant and the dermis. No regeneration of tissue was found with this material at any time. The macroporous gelatine spheres were populated with fibroblasts already after 2 weeks. After 8 weeks the spheres were completely populated by fibroblasts producing dermal tissue. After 12 and 26 weeks, the gelatine spheres had been more or less completely resorbed and replaced by vascularised neodermis. There were no signs of capsular formation, rejection or adverse events in any subject. Further in vivo studies in humans are needed to evaluate the effect of the macroporous spheres fully as a matrix for guided tissue regeneration with and without cellular pre-seeding. However, the results of this study indicate the possibility of using macroporous gelatine spheres as an injectable, three

  6. Fabrication and characterization of novel nano-biocomposite scaffold of chitosan-gelatin-alginate-hydroxyapatite for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chhavi; Dinda, Amit Kumar; Potdar, Pravin D; Chou, Chia-Fu; Mishra, Narayan Chandra

    2016-07-01

    A novel nano-biocomposite scaffold was fabricated in bead form by applying simple foaming method, using a combination of natural polymers-chitosan, gelatin, alginate and a bioceramic-nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp). This approach of combining nHAp with natural polymers to fabricate the composite scaffold, can provide good mechanical strength and biological property mimicking natural bone. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) images of the nano-biocomposite scaffold revealed the presence of interconnected pores, mostly spread over the whole surface of the scaffold. The nHAp particulates have covered the surface of the composite matrix and made the surface of the scaffold rougher. The scaffold has a porosity of 82% with a mean pore size of 112±19.0μm. Swelling and degradation studies of the scaffold showed that the scaffold possesses excellent properties of hydrophilicity and biodegradability. Short term mechanical testing of the scaffold does not reveal any rupturing after agitation under physiological conditions, which is an indicative of good mechanical stability of the scaffold. In vitro cell culture studies by seeding osteoblast cells over the composite scaffold showed good cell viability, proliferation rate, adhesion and maintenance of osteoblastic phenotype as indicated by MTT assay, ESEM of cell-scaffold construct, histological staining and gene expression studies, respectively. Thus, it could be stated that the nano-biocomposite scaffold of chitosan-gelatin-alginate-nHAp has the paramount importance for applications in bone tissue-engineering in future regenerative therapies.

  7. Improving the stability of chitosan-gelatin-based hydrogels for cell delivery using transglutaminase and controlled release of doxycycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormos, Christian J; Abraham, Carol; Madihally, Sundararajan V

    2015-12-01

    Although local cell delivery is an option to repair tissues, particularly using chitosan-based hydrogels, significant attrition of injected cells prior to engraftment has been a problem. To address this problem, we explored the possibility of stabilizing the chitosan-gelatin (CG) injectable hydrogels using (1) controlled release of doxycycline (DOX) to prevent premature degradation due to increased gelatinase activity (MMP-2 and MMP-9), and (2) transglutaminase (TG) to in situ cross-link gelatin to improve the mechanical stability. We prepared DOX-loaded PLGA nanoparticles, loaded into the CG hydrogels, measured DOX release for 5 days, and modeled using a single-compartmental assumption. Next, we assessed the influence of TG and DOX on hydrogel compression properties by incubating hydrogels for 7 days in PBS. We evaluated the effect of these changes on retention of fibroblasts and alterations in MMP-2/MMP-9 activity by seeding 500,000 fibroblasts for 5 days. These results showed that 90 % of DOX released from cross-linked CG hydrogels after 4 days, unlike CG hydrogels where 90 % of DOX was released within the first day. Addition of TG enhanced the CG hydrogel stability significantly. More than 60 % of seeded fibroblasts were recovered from the CG-TG hydrogels at day 5, unlike 40 % recovered from CG-hydrogels. Inhibition of MMP-2/MMP-9 were observed. In summary, controlled release of DOX from CG hydrogels cross-linked with TG shows a significant potential as a carrier for cell delivery.

  8. Cartilage tissue engineering application of injectable gelatin hydrogel with in situ visible-light-activated gelation capability in both air and aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hang; Cheng, Anthony Wai-Ming; Alexander, Peter G; Beck, Angela M; Tuan, Rocky S

    2014-09-01

    Chondroprogenitor cells encapsulated in a chondrogenically supportive, three-dimensional hydrogel scaffold represents a promising, regenerative approach to articular cartilage repair. In this study, we have developed an injectable, biodegradable methacrylated gelatin (mGL)-based hydrogel capable of rapid gelation via visible light (VL)-activated crosslinking in air or aqueous solution. The mild photocrosslinking conditions permitted the incorporation of cells during the gelation process. Encapsulated human-bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) showed high, long-term viability (up to 90 days) throughout the scaffold. To assess the applicability of the mGL hydrogel for cartilage tissue engineering, we have evaluated the efficacy of chondrogenesis of the encapsulated hBMSCs, using hBMSCs seeded in agarose as control. The ability of hBMSC-laden mGL constructs to integrate with host tissues after implantation was further investigated utilizing an in vitro cartilage repair model. The results showed that the mGL hydrogel, which could be photopolymerized in air and aqueous solution, supports hBMSC growth and TGF-β3-induced chondrogenesis. Compared with agarose, mGL constructs laden with hBMSCs are mechanically stronger with time, and integrate well with native cartilage tissue upon implantation based on push-out mechanical testing. VL-photocrosslinked mGL scaffold thus represents a promising scaffold for cell-based repair and resurfacing of articular cartilage defects.

  9. Ultra thin hydro-films based on lactose-crosslinked fish gelatin for wound healing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxabide, Alaitz; Vairo, Claudia; Santos-Vizcaino, Edorta; Guerrero, Pedro; Pedraz, Jose Luis; Igartua, Manoli; de la Caba, Koro; Hernandez, Rosa Maria

    2017-09-15

    This study focuses on the development and characterization of an ultra thin hydro-film based on lactose-mediated crosslinking of fish gelatin by Maillard reaction. Lactose results in the only efficient crosslinker able to produce resistant to handling hydro-films when compared to conventional crosslinkers such as glutaraldehyde or genipin (tested at 25 and 37°C in phosphate buffer saline solution (PBS)).The disappearance of the peak related to the N-containing groups (XPS) and the images obtained by SEM and AFM demonstrate the highly ordered nano-scaled structure of lactose-crosslinked gelatin, confirming the crosslinking efficiency. This dressing presents high hydrophilicity and mild occlusivity, as shown by the swelling curve (max swelling at 5min) and by the occlusion factor of 25.17±0.99%, respectively. It demonstrates high stability to hydrolysis or cell-mediated degradation. Moreover, ISO 10993-5:2009 biocompatibility assay results in undetectable cytotoxicity effects. Spreading, adhesion and proliferation assays confirm the excellent adaptability of the cells onto the hydro-film surface without invading the dressing. Finally, the hydro-film enables the controlled delivery of therapeutic factors, such as the epidermal growth factor (EGF). This study demonstrates that lactose-mediated crosslinking is able to produce ultra thin gelatin hydro-films with suitable properties for biomedical applications, such as wound healing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. THE EFFECT OF PLASTICIZER CONTENT AND DISACCHARIDE TYPE ON THE MECHANICAL, BARRIER AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BOVINE GELATIN-BASED FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEDRO GUERRERO1

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gelatins are regarded as alternative raw materials to prepare films for food packaging. However, the improvement of their mechanical and water barrier properties is necessary in order to obtain useful materials in service conditions. To improve these functional properties, two strategies have been carried out in this work. First, glycerol was added as plasticizer to increase the flexibility of the films. Second, lactose or sucrose was added to react with gelatin and increase water resistance of gelatin-based films. Commercial gelatin, glycerol and lactose or sucrose were employed in this work and processing of the films was carried out by solution casting. All gelatin films obtained were transparent and flexible. Moreover, the hydrophobic character of the films was increased and the film solubility was decreased by the addition of glycerol and disaccharides. As was observed via FTIR, the changes were due to the interactions between gelatin and glycerol and Maillard reaction between gelatin and disaccharides.

  11. Recombinant gelatin and collagen from methylotrophic yeasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de E.C.

    2002-01-01

    Based on its structural role and compatibility within the human body, collagen is a commonly used biomaterial in medical applications, such as cosmetic surgery, wound treatment and tissue engineering. Gelatin is in essence denatured and partly degraded collagen and is, as a result of

  12. Map-based cloning of the ALK gene, which controls the gelatinization temperature of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhenyu; Zeng, Dali; Cui, Xia; Zhou, Yihua; Yan, Meixian; Huang, Danian; Li, Jiayang; Qian, Qian

    2003-12-01

    Gelatinization temperature (GT) is an important parameter for evaluating the cooking and eating quality of rice besides amylose content (AC). The inheritance of the genes affecting GT has been widely studied and is considered to be controlled by a major gene. Here, we report the map-based cloning of rice ALK that encodes the soluble starch synthase II (SSSII). Comparison between the DNA sequences from different rice varieties, together with the results obtained with digestion of the rice seeds in alkali solution, indicates that the base substitutions in coding sequence of ALK may cause the alteration in GT.

  13. Graphene oxide decorated electrospun gelatin nanofibers: Fabrication, properties and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalaja, K. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 547 (India); Sreehari, V.S. [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Bhopal, Bhauri, Madhya Pradesh 462066 (India); Kumar, P.R. Anil [Tissue culture laboratory, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 012 (India); Nirmala, R. James, E-mail: nirmala@iist.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 547 (India)

    2016-07-01

    Gelatin nanofiber fabricated by electrospinning process is found to mimic the complex structural and functional properties of natural extracellular matrix for tissue regeneration. In order to improve the physico-chemical and biological properties of the nanofibers, graphene oxide is incorporated in the gelatin to form graphene oxide decorated gelatin nanofibers. The current research effort is focussed on the fabrication and evaluation of physico-chemical and biological properties of graphene oxide-gelatin composite nanofibers. The presence of graphene oxide in the nanofibers was established by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We report the effect of incorporation of graphene oxide on the mechanical, thermal and biological performance of the gelatin nanofibers. The tensile strength of gelatin nanofibers was increased from 8.29 ± 0.53 MPa to 21 ± 2.03 MPa after the incorporation of GO. In order to improve the water resistance of nanofibers, natural based cross-linking agent, namely, dextran aldehyde was employed. The cross-linked composite nanofibers showed further increase in the tensile strength up to 56.4 ± 2.03 MPa. Graphene oxide incorporated gelatin nanofibers are evaluated for bacterial activity against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria and cyto compatibility using mouse fibroblast cells (L-929 cells). The results indicate that the graphene oxide incorporated gelatin nanofibers do not prevent bacterial growth, nevertheless support the L-929 cell adhesion and proliferation. - Highlights: • Graphene oxide nano reinforced gelatin nanofibers are fabricated by electrospinning. • Graphene oxide (0.5%) loading resulted in increased tensile strength. • GO/gelatin nanofibers are cross-linked with dextran aldehyde. • Composite nanofibers favoured adhesion of L-929 cells. • GO/gelatin mats do not prevent bacterial growth.

  14. Gelatin Based Skin Regenerative Template: Market Research and Product Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Arjun G

    2009-01-01

    Skin regeneration and wound management in the Bio-Pharma industry has been an area with constant research and new product development. The range of products includes foams, sheets, sprays, powders, hydrocolloids and gels. Majority of these products that exist in the market are collagen based products. However, using collagen products is very expensive and could also have long term risks on patient’s health. Furthermore, they do not regenerate the skin to its original shape and texture and thu...

  15. Multifunctional nano-hydroxyapatite and alginate/gelatin based sticky gel composites for potential bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yurong; Yu, Juhong [The Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Materials and Manufacturing Technology of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Lab of Textile Fiber Materials & Processing Technology, College of Materials and Textile, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Kundu, Subhas C. [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302 (India); Institute of Tissue Regeneration Engineering (ITREN), Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Yao, Juming, E-mail: yaoj@zstu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Materials and Manufacturing Technology of Ministry of Education, National Engineering Lab of Textile Fiber Materials & Processing Technology, College of Materials and Textile, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2016-09-15

    To improve the fixations of the implant and implant-bone integration after joint arthroplasty from locally preventing inflammation and promoting the bone regeneration, we design a multifunctional biomaterial consisting of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) and antibiotic loaded nano-hydroxyapatite with an alginate/gelatin sticky gel. We investigate its role for the prevention of the inflammation and possibility of inducing a new bone growth along with its adhesive ability. The stickiness exists in the composite, which may help to fix itself on the bone fracture surface. The composite sustains the antibacterial effect and promotes the proliferation and differentiation of MG63 cells in vitro. In vivo experimentation also shows that the composite gel has a role for the reduction of inflammation. It enhances the formation of new bone and blood vessels compared to both the sole rhBMP-2 and non-rhBMP-2/antibiotic loaded composite gels. The multifunctional composite provides a promising material for the prosthetic and bone tissue regeneration. - Highlights: • Multifunctional nanohydroxyapatite composite is fabricated. • The composite consists of nHAP, growth factor, antibiotic and alginate/gelatin gel. • The composite shows antibacterial effect and good cytocompatibility. • No adverse effect to the cells tested in vitro and in vivo.

  16. Graphene oxide decorated electrospun gelatin nanofibers: Fabrication, properties and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalaja, K; Sreehari, V S; Kumar, P R Anil; Nirmala, R James

    2016-07-01

    Gelatin nanofiber fabricated by electrospinning process is found to mimic the complex structural and functional properties of natural extracellular matrix for tissue regeneration. In order to improve the physico-chemical and biological properties of the nanofibers, graphene oxide is incorporated in the gelatin to form graphene oxide decorated gelatin nanofibers. The current research effort is focussed on the fabrication and evaluation of physico-chemical and biological properties of graphene oxide-gelatin composite nanofibers. The presence of graphene oxide in the nanofibers was established by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We report the effect of incorporation of graphene oxide on the mechanical, thermal and biological performance of the gelatin nanofibers. The tensile strength of gelatin nanofibers was increased from 8.29±0.53MPa to 21±2.03MPa after the incorporation of GO. In order to improve the water resistance of nanofibers, natural based cross-linking agent, namely, dextran aldehyde was employed. The cross-linked composite nanofibers showed further increase in the tensile strength up to 56.4±2.03MPa. Graphene oxide incorporated gelatin nanofibers are evaluated for bacterial activity against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria and cyto compatibility using mouse fibroblast cells (L-929 cells). The results indicate that the graphene oxide incorporated gelatin nanofibers do not prevent bacterial growth, nevertheless support the L-929 cell adhesion and proliferation.

  17. Assessment of multicomponent hydrogel scaffolds of poly(acrylic acid-2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate)/gelatin for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Maneesh; Koul, Veena

    2013-03-01

    The article describes the design of the multicomponent hydrogel system of poly(acrylic acid-HEMA)/gelatin for tissue engineering application. Derivative of polycaprolactone-diol (polycaprolactone diacrylate (PCL-DAr)) was used to cross-link acrylate monomers whereas gelatin was kept free for cell proliferation. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), an anti-oxidant phytochemical, was loaded by diffusion method. Its in vitro release study in PBS (pH 6.5) at 37 ± 0.2°C (75 rpm) revealed a sustained release profile upto 20 days. Fitting of drug release data in Korsmeyer-Peppas model equation revealed probable release mechanism through the value of release coefficient (n), which was found to depend on formulations composition. Drug-polymer interaction, thermal behavior, and surface morphology were investigated by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopic (SEM). Swelling behavior of hydrogel in PBS (pH 6.5 and 7.4, 0.2 M) and in distilled water was found to increase with increasing AAc/HEMA ratio. Compression modulus decreased from 203 ± 3.7 KPa to 11.6 ± 1.1KPa, at 30% strain, whereas displacement values significantly increased from 3.2 ± 0.2 to 4.7 ± 0.6 mm at 20 N force (p < 0.05), with increasing AAc/HEMA ratio. Percentage cell viability was analyzed using indirect 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2]-2,5-diphenyltetrazo-liumbromide (MTT) assay with fibroblast L929 cells; showed ≥92.3% cell viability after 24 h incubation. Cell proliferation on the scaffold surface was found to increase with incorporation of HEMA in P(AAc)/G cross-linked hydrogel matrix upto a certain extent. These biocompatible, elastic, and swellable hydrogels can serve as a matrix for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications.

  18. The Feasibility of Gelatin-Based Retronasal Stimuli to Assess Olfactory Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Shepherd

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Links between some psychological disorders and olfactory deficits are well documented, and screening tests have been developed to exploit these associations. Odors can take one of two routes to the olfactory receptors in the nasal epithelium, the orthonasal or retronasal route. This article discusses the potential use of the retronasal route to assess olfaction using gelatin-based stimuli delivered orally. Using a relatively new psychophysical method, the Single-Interval Adjustment Matrix task, we estimated vanillin thresholds for five healthy participants sampling small vanillin flavored gels. Our data demonstrate the feasibility of using solid-state gustatory stimuli to assess retronasal perception.

  19. Adipose-derived stem cells cultivated on electrospun l-lactide/glycolide copolymer fleece and gelatin hydrogels under flow conditions - aiming physiological reality in hypodermis tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugerell, Alfred; Neumann, Anne; Kober, Johanna; Tammaro, Loredana; Hoch, Eva; Schnabelrauch, Matthias; Kamolz, Lars; Kasper, Cornelia; Keck, Maike

    2015-02-01

    Generation of adipose tissue for burn patients that suffer from an irreversible loss of the hypodermis is still one of the most complex challenges in tissue engineering. Electrospun materials with their micro- and nanostructures are already well established for their use as extracellular matrix substitutes. Gelatin is widely used in tissue engineering to gain thickness and volume. Under conventional static cultivation methods the supply of nutrients and transport of toxic metabolites is controlled by diffusion and therefore highly dependent on size and porosity of the biomaterial. A widely used method in order to overcome these limitations is the medium perfusion of 3D biomaterial-cell-constructs. In this study we combined perfusion bioreactor cultivation techniques with electrospun poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide) (P(LLG)) and gelatin hydrogels together with adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) for a new approach in soft tissue engineering. ASCs were seeded on P(LLG) scaffolds and in gelatin hydrogels and cultivated for 24 hours under static conditions. Thereafter, biomaterials were cultivated under static conditions or in a bioreactor system for three, nine or twelve days with a medium flow of 0.3ml/min. Viability, morphology and differentiation of cells was monitored. ASCs seeded on P(LLG) scaffolds had a physiological morphology and good viability and were able to migrate from one electrospun scaffold to another under flow conditions but not migrate through the mesh. Differentiated ASCs showed lipid droplet formations after 21 days. Cells in hydrogels were viable but showed rounded morphology. Under flow conditions, morphology of cells was more diffuse. ASCs could be cultivated on P(LLG) scaffolds and in gelatin hydrogels under flow conditions and showed good cell viability as well as the potential to differentiate. These results should be a next step to a physiological three-dimensional construct for soft tissue engineering and regeneration. Copyright © 2014

  20. Enzymatic regulation of functional vascular networks using gelatin hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chia-Hui; Lin, Ruei-Zeng; Tien, Han-Wen; Chu, Ya-Chun; Li, Yen-Cheng; Melero-Martin, Juan M; Chen, Ying-Chieh

    2015-06-01

    To manufacture tissue engineering-based functional tissues, scaffold materials that can be sufficiently vascularized to mimic the functionality and complexity of native tissues are needed. Currently, vascular network bioengineering is largely carried out using natural hydrogels as embedding scaffolds, but most natural hydrogels have poor mechanical stability and durability, factors that critically limit their widespread use. In this study, we examined the suitability of gelatin-phenolic hydroxyl (gelatin-Ph) hydrogels that can be enzymatically crosslinked, allowing tuning of the storage modulus and the proteolytic degradation rate, for use as injectable hydrogels to support the human progenitor cell-based formation of a stable and mature vascular network. Porcine gelatin-Ph hydrogels were found to be cytocompatible with human blood-derived endothelial colony-forming cells and white adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells, resulting in >87% viability, and cell proliferation and spreading could be modulated by using hydrogels with different proteolytic degradability and stiffness. In addition, gelatin was extracted from mouse dermis and murine gelatin-Ph hydrogels were prepared. Importantly, implantation of human cell-laden porcine or murine gelatin-Ph hydrogels into immunodeficient mice resulted in the rapid formation of functional anastomoses between the bioengineered human vascular network and the mouse vasculature. Furthermore, the degree of enzymatic crosslinking of the gelatin-Ph hydrogels could be used to modulate cell behavior and the extent of vascular network formation in vivo. Our report details a technique for the synthesis of gelatin-Ph hydrogels from allogeneic or xenogeneic dermal skin and suggests that these hydrogels can be used for biomedical applications that require the formation of microvascular networks, including the development of complex engineered tissues.

  1. Characterization of partially hydrolyzed OCP crystals deposited in a gelatin matrix as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezoe, Yushi [Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (Japan); Anada, Takahisa [Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Division of Craniofacial Function Engineering (Japan); Yamazaki, Hajime [The Forsyth Institute, Department of Applied Oral Sciences, Center for Biomineralization (United States); Handa, Takuto; Kobayashi, Kazuhito; Takahashi, Tetsu [Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (Japan); Suzuki, Osamu, E-mail: suzuki-o@m.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Division of Craniofacial Function Engineering (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    The present study was designed to investigate how hydrolysis of octacalcium phosphate (OCP) into hydroxyapatite is affected by the presence of gelatin (Gel) molecules and how osteoblastic cells respond to the resultant OCP hydrolyzate/Gel composites as the hydrolysis advances. OCP was prepared from a solution containing calcium and phosphate ions and Gel molecules, having a composition to produce a 40 wt% OCP as a final co-precipitate as the OCP/Gel. The precipitate was further incubated up to 40 h to advance the hydrolysis of OCP. These precipitates were processed to mold OCP/Gel sponges through lyophilization and dehydrothermal treatment. Chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and selected area electron diffraction revealed that the hydrolysis of OCP/Gel composite in hot water advanced in a time-dependent manner and faster than hydrolysis of OCP alone. The effect of Gel on the OCP hydrolysis was further examined in the presence of distinct concentrations of Gel molecules in hot water, showing that the Gel enhanced the hydrolysis as the concentration increased. Proliferation and differentiation of mouse bone marrow stromal ST-2 cells on the hydrolyzed OCP/Gel composites were compatible with Gel sponge alone after 21 days of culture, suggesting that these composites could be a candidate as a scaffold in bone tissue engineering.

  2. Enhanced Bone Tissue Regeneration by Porous Gelatin Composites Loaded with the Chinese Herbal Decoction Danggui Buxue Tang.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ling Wang

    Full Text Available Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT is a traditional Chinese herbal decoction containing Radix Astragali and Radix Angelicae sinensis. Pharmacological results indicate that DBT can stimulate bone cell proliferation and differentiation. The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of adding DBT to bone substitutes on bone regeneration following bone injury. DBT was incorporated into porous composites (GGT made from genipin-crosslinked gelatin and β-triclacium phosphates as bone substitutes (GGTDBT. The biological response of mouse calvarial bone to these composites was evaluated by in vivo imaging systems (IVIS, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT, and histology analysis. IVIS images revealed a stronger fluorescent signal in GGTDBT-treated defect than in GGT-treated defect at 8 weeks after implantation. Micro-CT analysis demonstrated that the level of repair from week 4 to 8 increased from 42.1% to 71.2% at the sites treated with GGTDBT, while that increased from 33.2% to 54.1% at GGT-treated sites. These findings suggest that the GGTDBT stimulates the innate regenerative capacity of bone, supporting their use in bone tissue regeneration.

  3. Electrospinning of polyvinyl alcohol/gelatin nanofiber composites and cross-linking for bone tissue engineering application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linh, Nguyen Thuy Ba; Lee, Byong-Taek

    2012-09-01

    A three-dimensional polymer composite system consisting of polyvinyl alcohol/gelatin (PVA/GE) was fabricated via the electrospinning method and physically cross linked by methanol treatment. The effects of cross-linking between PVA/GE blend on physical, mechanical, and biological properties were investigated. After treating with methanol, PVA/GE mats become dense, hard, and aggregative with increased resistance to water dissolution. Osteoblasts like MG-63 cells were seeded on the surfaces of the cross linked PVA/GE mats and were found to attach firmly by expressing philopodial extensions. In addition, MTT assay and Western Blot analysis confirmed that the cells readily proliferated on the cross linked PVA/GE scaffolds. The osteoblast cell-matrix interaction demonstrated that the active biocompatibility of the mats was facilitated by using GE and cross-linking. In conclusion, our results suggest that cross-linked PVA/GE scaffolds hold promise for tissue engineering applications, especially in the field of artificial bone implant.

  4. Starch gelatinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, Wajira S; Jackson, David S

    2009-01-01

    Starch occurs as highly organized structures, known as starch granules. Starch has unique thermal properties and functionality that have permitted its wide use in food products and industrial applications. When heated in water, starch undergoes a transition process, during which the granules break down into a mixture of polymers-in-solution, known as gelatinization. The sequence of structural transformations that the starch granule undergoes during this order-to-disorder transition has been extensively researched. None of the published starch gelatinization theories can fully and adequately explain the exact mechanism of sequential structural changes that starch granules undergo during gelatinization. This chapter analyzes several published theories and summarizes our current understanding of the starch gelatinization process.

  5. Physicochemical and mechanical properties of freeze cast hydroxyapatite-gelatin scaffolds with dexamethasone loaded PLGA microspheres for hard tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Farnaz; Nojehdehian, Hanieh; Zamanian, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA)-gelatin scaffolds incorporated with dexamethasone-loaded polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microspheres were synthesized by freeze casting technique. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs demonstrated a unidirectional microstructure and a decrease in the pore size as a function of temperature gradient. Higher amounts of HA resulted in a decrease in the pore size. According to the results, at lower cooling rates, the formation of a lamellar structure decreased the mechanical strength, but at the same time, enhanced the swelling ratio, biodegradation rate and drug release level. On the other hand, higher weight ratios of HA increased the compressive strength, and reduced the swelling ratio, biodegradation rate and drug release level. The results obtained by furrier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and bioactivity analysis illustrated that the interactions of the materials support the apatite formation in the simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. Based on the obtained results, the synthesized composite scaffolds have the necessary mechanical and physicochemical features to support the regeneration of defects and to maintain their stability during the neo-tissue formation.

  6. Studies on Manganese Peroxidase Immobilized in Gelatin-containing Microemulsion-based Gels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Shao-fang; LUAN Yu-xia; SU Xiu-rong

    2005-01-01

    The immobilized technique of manganese peroxidase(MnP) in gelatin-containing microemulsion-based gels and the effects of storage time and reuse times on its catalytic activity were studied. The results show that the MnP immobilized together with Mn2+ and H2O2 could effectively oxidize syringaldazine in n-heptane. The immobilized MnP still had a high catalytic activity after one-month storage under a freezing condition. The reuse times have a relation to the amount of the immobilized H2O2. When the amount of the immobilized H2O2 is sufficient, the microemulsion-based gels containing MnP could be used many times.

  7. Chitosan and gelatin based prototype delivery systems for the treatment of oral mucositis: from material to performance in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchyonok, V Tamara; Zhang, Shengmiao; Oberholzer, Theunis

    2013-02-01

    In this study we developed and evaluated a prototype of an effective occlusive mucoadhesive system for prophylaxis and/or treatment of oral mucositis based on chitosan and gelatine models together with nystatin as a prophylactic agent incorporated into the formulation and investigated drug release in-vitro. Results of in vitro studies showed that chitosan and gelatine based gels posses properties that makes them excellent candidates for treatment of oral mucositis. These properties include not only the palliative effects of an occlusive dressing but also the potential for delivering therapeutic compounds with chitosan gels providing drug concentrations above their minimum inhibition concentration and extending the retention time in the oral cavity due to their bioadhesive properties. Chitosan also offers an advantage over suspensions because of its inherent antimicrobial properties. The performance of gelatin-based gels highlights the novel, non-toxic, in situ forming gelatine based hydrogel. The results of in vitro drug release experiments demonstrated that all the hydrogel showed sustained release properties.

  8. Evaluation of acute tryptophan depletion and sham depletion with a gelatin-based collagen peptide protein mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbæk, D S; Einarsdottir, H S; Goregliad-Fjaellingsdal, T

    2016-01-01

    Acute Tryptophan Depletion (ATD) is a dietary method used to modulate central 5-HT to study the effects of temporarily reduced 5-HT synthesis. The aim of this study is to evaluate a novel method of ATD using a gelatin-based collagen peptide (CP) mixture. We administered CP-Trp or CP+Trp mixtures...

  9. Gelatin-hydroxypropyl methylcellulose water-in-water emulsions as a new bio-based packaging material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteghlal, Sara; Niakosari, Mehrdad; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Hashem; Mesbahi, Gholam Reza; Yousefi, Gholam Hossein

    2016-05-01

    Gelatin and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) are two incompatible and immiscible biopolymers which cannot form homogeneous composite films using usual methods. In this study, to prevent phase separation, gelatin-HPMC water-in-water (W/W) emulsion was utilized to from transparent composite films by entrapment the HPMC dispersed droplets in gelatin continuous network. The physicochemical and mechanical properties of emulsion-based films containing different amounts (5-30%) of dispersed phase were determined and compared with those of individual polymer-based films. Incorporating HPMC into W/W emulsion-based films had no significant effect on the tensile strength. The flexibility of composite films decreased at HPMC concentrations below 20%. The depletion layer at the droplets interface reduced the diffusion of water vapor molecules because of its hydrophobic nature, so the water vapor permeability remained constant. Increasing the HPMC content in the emulsion films increased the swelling and decreased the transparency. The entrapment of HPMC in continuous gelatin phase decreased its solubility. Therefore, W/W emulsions are capable of holding two incompatible polymers alongside each other within a homogeneous film network without weakening the physical properties.

  10. Morphological, thermal and annealed microhardness characterization of gelatin based interpenetrating networks of polyacrylonitrile: A hard biopolymer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sangita Rajvaidya; R Bajpai; A K Bajpai

    2005-10-01

    The present paper reports the preparation of full IPNs of gelatin and polyacrylonitrile. Various compositions of gluteraldehyde crosslinked gelatin and N,N′-methylene-bis-acrylamide crosslinked PAN were characterized by SEM and DSC techniques. The IPNs were also thermally pretreated by the annealing process. The effects of annealing temperature on the microhardness of IPNs were studied using the Vickers method. SEM indicates the homogeneous morphological features for IPN. The role of gelatin, AN and crosslinker on the developed hard biopolymer has been described with the help of DSC thermograms and microhardness measurements of annealed specimens and good correlation is observed.

  11. Preparation and characterization of bionanocomposite film based ontapioca starch/bovine gelatin/nanorod zinc oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehdi Marvizadeh, Mohammad; Oladzadabbasabadi, Nazila; Mohammadi Nafchi, Abdorreza

    2017-01-01

    To exploring a nano-packaging materials for using as coating or edible films, tapioca starch/gelatin/nanorod ZnO (ZnOsingle bondN) bionanocomposites were prepared via solution casting technique. The effects of nanofiller addition on the mechanical, physicochemical, and crystalline structures.......5% ZnOsingle bondN into biopolymer matrix. In summary combined starch/gelatin films supported by ZnOsingle bondN showed better properties compared to starch or gelatin alone. Thus, the bionanocomposite films can be used in food, medicine, and pharmaceutical packaging....

  12. Efficacy of the controlled release of concentrated platelet lysate from a collagen/gelatin scaffold for dermis-like tissue regeneration.

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Ran; Morimoto, Naoki; Pham, Liem Hieu; Taira, Tsuguyoshi; Kawai, Katsuya; Suzuki, Shigehiko

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: A collagen/gelatin scaffold (CGS) can provide a sustained release of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), which promotes wound healing. However, bFGF is approved for clinical use in Japan and China only. One potential alternative to bFGF is platelet lysate (PL), a safe and easily attainable source of a wide range of growth factors necessary for tissue repair. In the present study, we investigated the use of PL with CGS to repair wounds and identified the optimal concentration ...

  13. In vitro and in vivo Biocompatibility of Alginate Dialdehyde/Gelatin Hydrogels with and without Nanoscaled Bioactive Glass for Bone Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Rottensteiner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In addition to good mechanical properties needed for three-dimensional tissue engineering, the combination of alginate dialdehyde, gelatin and nano-scaled bioactive glass (45S5 is supposed to combine excellent cellular adhesion, proliferation and differentiation properties, good biocompatibility and predictable degradation rates. The goal of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility as a first step on the way to its use as a scaffold in bone tissue engineering. In vitro evaluation showed good cell adherence and proliferation of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells seeded on covalently crosslinked alginate dialdehyde-gelatin (ADA-GEL hydrogel films with and without 0.1% nano-Bioglass® (nBG. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH- and mitochondrial activity significantly increased in both ADA-GEL and ADA-GEL-nBG groups compared to alginate. However, addition of 0.1% nBG seemed to have slight cytotoxic effect compared to ADA-GEL. In vivo implantation did not produce a significant inflammatory reaction, and ongoing degradation could be seen after four weeks. Ongoing vascularization was detected after four weeks. The good biocompatibility encourages future studies using ADA-GEL and nBG for bone tissue engineering application.

  14. Modification of gelatin-DNA interaction for optimised DNA extraction from gelatin and gelatin capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Nurhidayatul Asma; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; El Sheikha, Aly Farag; Khairil Mokhtar, Nur Fadhilah; Ismail, Amin; Ali, Md Eaqub

    2016-05-01

    Poor quality and quantity of DNA extracted from gelatin and gelatin capsules often causes failure in the determination of animal species using PCR. Gelatin, which is mainly derived from porcine and bovine, has been a matter of concern among customers in order to fulfill religious obligation and safety precaution against several transmissible infectious diseases associated with bovine species. Thus, optimised DNA extraction from gelatin is very important for successful real-time PCR detection of gelatin species. In this work, the DNA extraction method was optimised in terms of lysis incubation period and inclusion of pre-treatment pH modification of samples. The yield of DNA extracted from porcine gelatin was significantly increased when the pH of the samples was adjusted to pH 8.5 prior to DNA precipitation with isopropanol. The optimal pH for DNA precipitation from bovine gelatin solution was then determined at the original pH range of solution: pH 7.6 to 8. A DNA fragment of approximately 300 base pairs was available for PCR amplification. DNA extracted from gelatin and commercially available capsules has been successfully utilised for species detection using real-time PCR assay. However, significant adulterations of porcine and bovine in pure gelatin and capsules have been detected, which require further analytical techniques for validation. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. 矿化明胶静电纺丝诱导牙周组织成骨的有效性%Effectiveness of mineralized gelatin electrostatic spinning on inducing periodontal tissue osteogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭瑞征; 王亚丽

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Currently, little is reported regarding the effectiveness of mineralized gelatin electrostatic spinning fibers on periodontal tissue osteogenic induction. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of mineralized gelatin electrostatic spinning on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament fibroblasts. METHODS: Human periodontal ligament fibroblasts were respectively compositely cultured with non-mineralized gelatin electrostatic spinning, gelatin electrostatic spinning after 1 day of nano-hydroxyapatite mineralization and gelatin electrostatic spinning after 5 days of nano-hydroxyapatite mineralization. Cel proliferation was determined at 1, 4, 7, 10 and 13 days of culture using MTT assay. Alkaline phosphatase activity of cels was determined at 1, 7, 14 days of culture using biochemical analyzer. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:At the 10th day of culture, the periodontal ligament cels on the surface of membrane distributed uniformly, grew wel, spread out as sheets and secreted a large amount of extracelular matrix, linked closely with the materialsl; moreover, the effect was more obvious at 5 days of mineralization. Cel growth density and status were better than those in the non-mineralized gelatin electrostatic spinning membrane group. Cel proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activities at different time points: 5-day mineralized gelatin electrostatic spinning membrane group > 1-day mineralized gelatin electrostatic spinning membrane group > non-mineralized gelatin electrostatic spinning fibers group (alP 矿化1 d明胶静电纺丝膜组>未矿化明胶静电纺丝膜组(P均<0.05)。表明经纳米羟基磷灰石矿化的明胶静电纺丝,可促进牙周膜成纤维细胞增殖及向成骨方向分化,且矿化时间越长效果越明显。

  16. Influence of palm oil and glycerol on properties of fish skin gelatin-based films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsuwan, Krisana; Benjakul, Soottawat; Prodpran, Thummanoon

    2016-06-01

    Properties of fish skin gelatin film incorporated with palm oil at 50 and 75 % (w/w) as affected by glycerol at 0-30 % (w/w) were investigated. Increases in water vapour permeability and elongation at break along with decrease in tensile strength were noticed when levels of glycerol were increased (p glycerol levels were increased (p glycerol improved water vapour barrier property of fish skin gelatin films without drastic alteration of mechanical properties.

  17. Chitosan and gelatin based biodegradable packaging films with UV-light protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shakeel; Ikram, Saiqa

    2016-10-01

    Biopolymers are polymers obtained from biological origins and used for various biological and industrial applications. A biopolymer should be non-toxic, non-antigenic, non-irritant, non-carcinogenic, sterilisable and adequately available for their widespread applications. In this study, chitosan (CS) and gelatin (GL) based films were prepared to be used as biodegradable packaging films. CS was blended with GL to improve various physicochemical properties. The blended CSGL films were crosslinked with boric acid (BA) to improve various properties viz. light barrier properties, Water Vapour Permeability (WVP), moisture content (%), Total Solubility Matter (TSM), most important to improve the strength. The studies of transparency, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and optical microscopy confirms that the synthesized films were found to be transparent and homogenous indicating good compatibility among different components. The synthesized CS and GL based films showed UV-light barrier properties as supported by data. The tensile strength of films increases, decreases water solubility, moisture content (%) and WVP on crosslinking. In order to make the crosslinked films more flexible, Polyethylene glycol was used as plasticizer, making the films more flexible and transparent. This study indicates that these biodegradable CS and GL based films are potent to be used as packing films.

  18. The effects of crosslinkers on physical, mechanical, and cytotoxic properties of gelatin sponge prepared via in-situ gas foaming method as a tissue engineering scaffold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poursamar, S. Ali [Institute for Creative Leather Technologies, Park Campus, The University of Northampton, Boughton Green Road, Northampton NN2 7AL (United Kingdom); Lehner, Alexander N. [Centre for Physical Activity and Chronic Disease and the Aging Research Centre, Institute for Health and Wellbeing, School of Health, Park Campus, The University of Northampton, Boughton Green Road, Northampton NN2 7AL (United Kingdom); Azami, Mahmoud; Ebrahimi-Barough, Somayeh [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Samadikuchaksaraei, Ali [Cellular and Molecular Research Centre, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Tissue Engineering & Regenerative Medicine, Faculty of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Medical Biotechnology, Faculty of Applied Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Antunes, A.P.M., E-mail: Paula.Antunes@northampton.ac.uk [Institute for Creative Leather Technologies, Park Campus, The University of Northampton, Boughton Green Road, Northampton NN2 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-01

    In this study porous gelatin scaffolds were prepared using in-situ gas foaming, and four crosslinking agents were used to determine a biocompatible and effective crosslinker that is suitable for such a method. Crosslinkers used in this study included: hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI), poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (epoxy), glutaraldehyde (GTA), and genipin. The prepared porous structures were analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal and mechanical analysis as well as water absorption analysis. The microstructures of the prepared samples were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The effects of the crosslinking agents were studied on the cytotoxicity of the porous structure indirectly using MTT analysis. The affinity of L929 mouse fibroblast cells for attachment on the scaffold surfaces was investigated by direct cell seeding and DAPI-staining technique. It was shown that while all of the studied crosslinking agents were capable of stabilizing prepared gelatin scaffolds, there are noticeable differences among physical and mechanical properties of samples based on the crosslinker type. Epoxy-crosslinked scaffolds showed a higher capacity for water absorption and more uniform microstructures than the rest of crosslinked samples, whereas genipin and GTA-crosslinked scaffolds demonstrated higher mechanical strength. Cytotoxicity analysis showed the superior biocompatibility of the naturally occurring genipin in comparison with other synthetic crosslinking agents, in particular relative to GTA-crosslinked samples. - Highlights: • In-situ gas foaming application in the production of sponge-like gelatin structures • The crosslinkers molecular length impacts on the physical and mechanical properties of the structure. • The effect of crosslinkers on the biocompatibility of gelatin scaffolds.

  19. Fiber-optic protease sensor based on the degradation of thin gelatin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastien Schyrr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing interest in situ monitoring of proteolytic activity in chronic wound is not possible and information can only be obtained by sampling wound exudate. In this context, we developed an evanescent wave (EW fiber-optic sensor to quantify protease activity directly in the wound bed. Detection is based on the degradation of thin gelatin films deposited on the fiber core by dip-coating, which serve as a substrate for proteases. After staining with a chlorophyllin copper sodium salt biocompatible dye, EW absorption occurs proportionally to the dye concentration, which is detected by the variation in light transmission intensity. The sensor response varies proportionally to enzymatic activity, showing sensitivity against MMP-2 and MMP-9 down to 2 μg/mL and 10 μg/mL, respectively. In addition, it is sensitive to film thickness and crosslink density, thus allowing tuning of the sensitivity and lifetime. Designed to be totally biocompatible and low cost, this miniature sensor has potential for use as a point-of-care disposable device in a clinical environment to assist physicians with quantitative information about the wound healing process.

  20. Microencapsulation of Ginger Volatile Oil Based on Gelatin/Sodium Alginate Polyelectrolyte Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lixia; Yang, Shiwei; Cao, Jinli; Zhao, Shaohua; Wang, Wuwei

    2016-01-01

    The coacervation between gelatin and sodium alginate for ginger volatile oil (GVO) microencapsulation as functions of mass ratio, pH and concentration of wall material and core material load was evaluated. The microencapsulation was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). SEM and FT-IR studies indicated the formation of polyelectrolyte complexation between gelatin and sodium alginate and successful encapsulation of GVO into the microcapsules. Thermal property study showed that the crosslinked microparticles exhibited higher thermal stability than the neat GVO, gelatin, and sodium alginate. The stability of microencapsulation of GVO in a simulated gastric and an intestinal situation in vitro was also studied. The stability results indicated that the release of GVO from microcapsules was much higher in simulated intestinal fluid, compared with that in simulated-gastric fluid.

  1. Synthesis of Bioactive Gelatin-siloxane Hybrids for Bone Tissue Engineering and Evaluation of Its Drug Release Behaviors in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Porous and bioactive gentamicin sulfate-loaded gelatin-siloxane hybrids were successfully synthesized by using a combined sol-gel processing, post-gelation soaking, and freeze-drying process. A bone-like apatite layer was able to form in the Ca2 + -containing porous gentamicin-loaded hybrids upon soaking in a simulated body fluid (SBF) up to 1 day. The drug release of gentamicin sulfate was with a burst, followed by an almost constant release up to 7 days. And the rate of release in acidic medium was lower than that in the neutral and basic media.

  2. Interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) nanogels based on gelatin and poly(acrylic acid) by inverse miniemulsion technique: synthesis and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Veena; Mohamed, Raja; Kuckling, Dirk; Adler, Hans-Jürgen P; Choudhary, Veena

    2011-04-01

    Novel interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) nanogels composed of poly(acrylic acid) and gelatin were synthesised by one pot inverse miniemulsion (IME) technique. This is based on the concept of nanoreactor and cross-checked from template polymerization technique. Acrylic acid (AA) monomer stabilized around the gelatin macromolecules in each droplet was polymerized using ammonium persulfate (APS) and tetramethyl ethylene diamine (TEMED) in 1:5 molar ratio and cross-linked with N,N-methylene bisacrylamide (BIS) to form semi-IPN (sIPN) nanogels, which were sequentially cross-linked using glutaraldehyde (Glu) to form IPNs. Span 20, an FDA approved surfactant was employed for the formation of homopolymer, sIPN and IPN nanogels. Formation of stable gelatin-AA droplets were observed at 2% surfactant concentration. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies of purified nanogels showed small, spherical IPN nanogels with an average diameter of 255 nm. In contrast, sIPN prepared using the same method gave nanogels of larger size. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, SEM, DLS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and zeta potential studies confirm the interpenetration of the two networks. Leaching of free PAA chains in sIPN upon dialysis against distilled water leads to porous nanogels. The non-uniform surface of IPN nanogels seen in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images suggests the phase separation of two polymer networks. An increase of N/C ratio from 0.07 to 0.17 (from PAA gel to IPN) and O/C ratio from 0.22 to 0.37 (from gelatin gel to IPN) of the nanogels by XPS measurements showed that both polymer components at the nanogel surface are interpenetrated. These nanogels have tailoring properties in order to use them as high potential drug delivery vehicles for cancer targeting.

  3. Single-mode biological distributed feedback lasers based on vitamin B2 doped gelatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannahme, Christoph; Maier-Flaig, F.; Lemmer, U.

    Biological second-order distributed feedback (DFB) lasers are presented. Riboflavin (vitamin B2) doped gelatin as active material is spin-coated onto nanoimprinted polymer with low refractive index. DFB grating periods of 368 nm and 384 nm yield laser emission at 543 nm and 562 nm, respectively....

  4. Single-mode biological distributed feedback lasers based on vitamin B2 doped gelatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannahme, Christoph; Maier-Flaig, F.; Lemmer, U.

    Biological second-order distributed feedback (DFB) lasers are presented. Riboflavin (vitamin B2) doped gelatin as active material is spin-coated onto nanoimprinted polymer with low refractive index. DFB grating periods of 368 nm and 384 nm yield laser emission at 543 nm and 562 nm, respectively....

  5. [Gelatinous transformation of the bone marrow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemona, A; Dziecioł, J; Sulik, M; Brykalska, A; Sobaniec-Lotowska, M; Baltaziak, M

    1990-01-01

    The incidence and histopathologic picture of gelatinous transformation of the bone marrow were analysed in non-selected autopsy material. It was found that gelatinous transformation of the bone marrow occurred in terminal stages of various diseases (malignant neoplasms, chronic inflammation). Histological studies showed that gelatinous transformation of the bone marrow led to atrophy of the hematopoietic and adipose tissues of the bone marrow and accumulation of acid mucopolysaccharides. The patients with gelatinous transformation of the bone marrow exhibit hematologic disorders, most frequently anemia and thrombocytopenia.

  6. Preservation and storage of prepared ballistic gelatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattijssen, E J A T; Alberink, I; Jacobs, B; van den Boogaard, Y

    2016-02-01

    The use of ballistic gelatine, generally accepted as a human muscle tissue simulant in wound ballistic studies, might be improved by adding a preservative (Methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate) which inhibits microbial growth. This study shows that replacing a part of the gelatine powder by the preservative does not significantly alter the penetration depth of projectiles. Storing prepared blocks of ballistic gelatine over time decreased the penetration depth of projectiles. Storage of prepared gelatine for 4 week already showed a significant effect on the penetration depth of projectiles.

  7. Mechanical, physico-chemical, and antimicrobial properties of gelatin-based film incorporated with catechin-lysozyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawdkuen Saroat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial activity is a primary cause of deterioration in many foods and is often responsible for reduced quality and safety. Food-borne illnesses associated with E. coli O157:H7, S. aureus, S. enteritidis and L. monocytogenes are a major public health concern throughout the world. A number of methods have been employed to control or prevent the growth of these microorganisms in food. Antimicrobial packaging is one of the most promising active packaging systems for effectively retarding the growth of food spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanical, physico-chemical properties and inhibitory effects of the fish gelatin films against selected food spoilage microorganisms when incorporated with catechin-lysozyme. Results The effect of the catechin-lysozyme combination addition (CLC: 0, 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5%, w/v on fish gelatin film properties was monitored. At the level of 0.5% addition, the CLC showed the greatest elongation at break (EAB at 143.17% with 0.039 mm thickness, and the lowest water vapor permeability (WVP at 6.5 x 10−8 g·mm·h-1·cm-2·Pa-1, whereas the control showed high tensile strength (TS and the highest WVP. Regarding color attributes, the gelatin film without CLC addition gave the highest lightness (L* 91.95 but lowest in redness (a*-1.29 and yellowness (b* 2.25 values. The light transmission of the film did not significantly decrease and nor did film transparency (p>0.05 with increased CLC. Incorporating CLC could not affect the film microstructure. The solubility of the gelatin based film incorporated with CLC was not affected, especially at a high level of addition (p>0.05. Inhibitory activity of the fish gelatin film against E.coli, S.aureus, L. innocua and S. cerevisiae was concentration dependent. Conclusions These findings suggested that CLC incorporation can improve mechanical, physico-chemical, and antimicrobial properties of the resulting films

  8. The effects of crosslinkers on physical, mechanical, and cytotoxic properties of gelatin sponge prepared via in-situ gas foaming method as a tissue engineering scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poursamar, S Ali; Lehner, Alexander N; Azami, Mahmoud; Ebrahimi-Barough, Somayeh; Samadikuchaksaraei, Ali; Antunes, A P M

    2016-06-01

    In this study porous gelatin scaffolds were prepared using in-situ gas foaming, and four crosslinking agents were used to determine a biocompatible and effective crosslinker that is suitable for such a method. Crosslinkers used in this study included: hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI), poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (epoxy), glutaraldehyde (GTA), and genipin. The prepared porous structures were analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal and mechanical analysis as well as water absorption analysis. The microstructures of the prepared samples were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The effects of the crosslinking agents were studied on the cytotoxicity of the porous structure indirectly using MTT analysis. The affinity of L929 mouse fibroblast cells for attachment on the scaffold surfaces was investigated by direct cell seeding and DAPI-staining technique. It was shown that while all of the studied crosslinking agents were capable of stabilizing prepared gelatin scaffolds, there are noticeable differences among physical and mechanical properties of samples based on the crosslinker type. Epoxy-crosslinked scaffolds showed a higher capacity for water absorption and more uniform microstructures than the rest of crosslinked samples, whereas genipin and GTA-crosslinked scaffolds demonstrated higher mechanical strength. Cytotoxicity analysis showed the superior biocompatibility of the naturally occurring genipin in comparison with other synthetic crosslinking agents, in particular relative to GTA-crosslinked samples.

  9. Electron beam irradiation and addition of poly(vinyl alcohol) affect gelatin based-films properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamura, Patricia Y.; Mastro, Nelida L. del, E-mail: pinamura@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Gelatin is a mixture of high molecular weight polypeptides, product of denaturation, and partial structural degradation of collagen, and one of the first materials employed as biomaterials. Aqueous solutions of gelatin (10%), glycerin as plasticizer and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) up to 10% were prepared in a water bath at 70 deg C under constant stirring. Films were irradiated with 10 and 20 kGy using an electron beam accelerator, dose rate of 22.4 kGy s{sup -1}, energy 1.407 MeV, at room temperature, in the presence of air. After irradiation, mechanical properties, color measurements, water absorption, moisture and film solubility were analyzed. The films showed an improvement in maximum force to rupture the film with increase of the irradiation dose. The higher the puncture force to rupture the lower the elongation at break. Colorimetric tests showed significant differences between samples, and also differences depending of the applied radiation dose, and analyzed color parameter. In water absorption tests a decrease of absorption percentage was found with the increase of the dose for PVA free and 5% PVA samples. The addition of PVA increased the water absorption for all applied doses. The modifications in gelatin colloids can be appointed to radiation-induced crosslinking. Also, the PVA concentration in the samples influenced the resultant material properties. (author)

  10. Rheometric Non-Isothermal Gelatinization Kinetics of Chickpea Flour-Based Gluten-Free Muffin Batters with Added Biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, María Dolores; Cuesta, Francisco Javier; Herranz, Beatriz; Canet, Wenceslao

    2017-01-01

    An attempt was made to analyze the elastic modulus (G′) of chickpea flour (CF)-based muffin batters made with CF alone and with added biopolymers (whey protein (WP), xanthan gum (XG), inulin (INL), and their blends) in order to evaluate their suitability to be a wheat flour (WF) substitute in muffins, and to model the heat-induced gelatinization of batters under non-isothermal heating condition from 25 °C to 90 °C. A rheological approach is proposed to determine the kinetic parameters (reaction order (n), frequency factor (k0), and activation energy (Ea)) using linearly-increasing temperature. Zero-order reaction kinetics adequately described batter gelatinization process, therefore assuming a constant rate independent of the initial G′ value. The change of the derivative of G′ with respect to time (dG′/dt) versus temperature is described by one exponential function with activation energies ranging from 118 to 180 kJ·mol−1. Control wheat gluten batter, with higher and lower starch and protein contents, respectively, than CF-based batters, exhibited the highest Ea value. Formulation of CF-based gluten-free batters with starch and protein contents closer to the levels of WF-based batter could be a strategy to decrease differences in kinetic parameters of muffin batters and, therefore, in technological characteristics of baked muffins. PMID:28231082

  11. Fabrication, biocompatibility, and tissue engineering substrate analysis of polyvinyl alcohol-gelatin core-shell electrospun nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Valerie Marie

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States with approximately 49% of the cardiovascular related deaths attributed to coronary heart disease (CHD). CHD is the accumulation of plaque resulting in the narrowing of the vessel lumen and a decrease in blood flow to the downstream heart muscle. In order to restore blood flow, arterial by-pass procedures can be undertaken. However, the patient's own arteries/veins may not be suitable for use as a vessel replacement, and synthetic grafts lack the compliancy and durability needed for these small diameter locations (Young's modulus and ultimate strength compared to scaffolds composed of PVA or gelatin alone. Endothelial cells had high proliferation and migration on the coaxial electrospun scaffolds with higher migration seen on the stiffer, coaxial scaffolds. The smooth muscle cells had less proliferation and lower migration rates on the coaxial scaffolds than the endothelial cells. Using a modified prothrombinase assay, the coaxial scaffolds had minimal platelet activation. Lastly, when pre-seeding the coaxial scaffolds with endothelial cells or smooth muscle cells, the platelet deposition decreased in comparison to platelet deposition with no cell pre-seeding. Overall, the 1 Gel: 1 PVA coaxial scaffolds promoted endothelial cell growth and migration, minimized smooth muscle cell growth and migration, and had minimal platelet activation. Therefore, the 1 Gel: 1 PVA coaxial nanofibers are an intriguing material for use in vascular applications.

  12. β-聚苹果酸/明胶微胶囊的制备%Preparation of microcapsules based on poly malic acid and gelatin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴艳丽; 马霞; 俞鸿千

    2013-01-01

    文章对β-聚苹果酸(β-poly malic acid,β-PMA)和明胶(gelatin)通过复凝聚法制备微胶囊进行了描述.在常温常压下,通过Plackett-Burman设计得出主要的影响因素是β-PMA和明胶的浓度、明胶的pH、反应时间.根据Box-Behnke设计得出了较好的制备条件,在该模型下优化得出的最佳条件为:PMLA浓度0.1%,明胶浓度0.13%,明胶pH4.0,反应时间25min时,微胶囊粒径为288.37nm.%This paper described the preparation of novel biodegradable and edible nanocapsule based on selfassembly of β-Polymalic acid(β-PMA) and gelatin at normal temperature and pressure.After the Plackett-Burman design(PBD) by Design-Expert 7.0,it was found that the size and PDI of the nanocapsule measured by Malvern zetasizer Nano-ZS instrument depended on mass concentration of β-PMA and gelatin,pH of gelatin and reaction time.A Box-Behnken design (BBD)was used to optimize the preparation conditions of the β-PMA/gelatin nanocapsule,and then the best experimental condition was obtained as follows:the concentrations of β-PMA and gelatin were 0.1% and 0.13%,pH of gelatin was 4.0,reaction time was 25min.The size of the nanocapsules prepared under the best contidions was 288.37nm.

  13. Effects of Gelatin-Based Edible Films Enriched with Laurel Essential Oil on the Quality of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Fillets During Refrigerated Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Baygar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of gelatin films enriched with laurel leaf essential oil on the quality of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss during refrigerated storage at (4±1 °C were examined over a period of 26 days. Fish fillets were wrapped with 8 % gelatin films containing 0, 0.1 and 1 % (by volume per mass of laurel essential oil and vacuum packaged. Sensory (raw and cooked fish, microbiological (total viable counts, psychrotrophic bacteria counts, Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria and chemical (proximate composition, pH, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N, thiobarbituric acid (TBA, free fatty acid (FFA and peroxide value (PV analysis, and colour measurement were carried out during the storage period and shelf-life was determined periodically. The obtained results showed that the gelatin film enriched with laurel essential oil was suitable for the preservation of rainbow trout fillet and the ability of laurel essential oil to preserve the film depended on its ratio. Combined effects of gelatin film and laurel essential oil (1 % by volume per mass was efficient in maintaining the quality characteristics at an acceptable level up to 22 days of storage, while the control and gelatin film without the essential oil reached an unacceptable level at 15 and 20 days, respectively.

  14. Efficient gas barrier properties of multi-layer films based on poly(lactic acid) and fish gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Fakhreddin; Javidi, Zahra; Rezaei, Masoud

    2016-11-01

    Multi-layer film structures of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and fish gelatin (FG), prepared using the solvent casting technique, were studied in an effort to produce bio-based films with low oxygen (OP) and water vapor permeability (WVP). The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of triple-layer film showed that the outer PLA layers are being closely attached to the inner FG layer to make continuous film. The OP of multi-layer film (5.02cm(3)/m(2)daybar) decreased more than 8-fold compared with that of the PLA film, and the WVP of multi-layer film (0.125gmm/kPah m(2)) also decreased 11-fold compared with that of the FG film. Lamination with PLA profoundly increased the water resistance of the bare gelatin film. Meanwhile, the tensile strength of the triple-layer film (25±2.13MPa) was greater than that of FG film (7.48±1.70MPa). At the same time, the resulting film maintains high optical clarity. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis also revealed that the materials were compatible showing only one Tg which decreased with FG deposition. This material exhibits an environmental-friendliness potential and a high versatility in food packaging.

  15. Relationship between gelatin concentrations in silk fibroin-based composite scaffolds and adhesion and proliferation of mouse embryo fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, A A; Kotlyarova, M S; Lavrenov, V S; Volkova, S V; Arkhipova, A Yu

    2014-11-01

    Porous scaffolds of silk fibroin and composite porous scaffolds with 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% gelatin were made by the freezing-thawing method. The relationship between adhesion and proliferation rate mouse embryo fibroblast and the scaffold composition was studied by laser confocal scanning microscopy. Addition of gelatin to the scaffold structure stimulated adhesion and proliferation of mouse embryo fibroblasts; the optimal content of gelatin was 30%.

  16. Effectiveness of tissue engineered chitosan-gelatin composite scaffold loaded with human platelet gel in regeneration of critical sized radial bone defect in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryan, Ahmad; Alidadi, Soodeh; Bigham-Sadegh, Amin; Moshiri, Ali; Kamali, Amir

    2017-03-29

    Although many strategies have been utilized to accelerate bone regeneration, an appropriate treatment strategy to regenerate a new bone with optimum morphology and mechanical properties has not been invented as yet. This study investigated the healing potential of a composite scaffold consisting of chitosan (CS), gelatin (Gel) and platelet gel (PG), named CS-Gel-PG, on a bilateral critical sized radial bone defect in rat. Eighty radial bone defects were bilaterally created in 40 Sprague-Dawley rats and were randomly divided into eight groups including untreated, autograft, CS, Gel, CS-PG, Gel-PG, CS-Gel, and CS-Gel-PG treated defects. The bone defects were evaluated clinically and radiologically during the study and their bone samples were assessed by gross and histopathology, histomorphometry, CT-scan, scanning electron microscopy, and biomechanical testing after 8weeks of bone injury. The autograft and CS-Gel-PG groups showed significantly higher new bone formation, density of osseous and cartilaginous tissues, bone volume, and mechanical performance than the defect, CS and Gel-PG groups (P˂0.05). In addition, bone volume, density of osseous and cartilaginous tissues, and numbers of osteons in the CS-Gel-PG group were significantly superior to the CS-PG, CS-Gel and Gel groups (P˂0.05). Increased mRNA levels of alkaline phosphatase, runt-related transcription factor 2, osteocalcin, collagen type 1 and CD31, vascular endothelial growth factor as osteogenic and angiogenic differentiation markers were found with the CS-Gel-PG scaffold by quantitative real-time PCR in vitro after 30days of culturing on bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. In conclusion, the healing potential of CS-Gel scaffold embedded with PG was comparable to autografting and therefore, it can be offered as an appropriate scaffold in bone tissue engineering and regenerative applications.

  17. Stearate organogel-gelatin hydrogel based bigels: physicochemical, thermal, mechanical characterizations and in vitro drug delivery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagiri, Sai Sateesh; Singh, Vinay K; Kulanthaivel, Senthilguru; Banerjee, Indranil; Basak, Piyali; Battachrya, M K; Pal, Kunal

    2015-03-01

    Over the past decade, researchers have been trying to develop alternative gel based formulations in comparison to the traditional hydrogels and emulgels. In this perspective, bigels were synthesized by mixing gelatin hydrogel and stearic acid based organogel by hot emulsification method. Two types of bigels were synthesized using sesame oil and soy bean oil based stearate organogels. Gelatin based emulgels prepared using sesame oil and soy bean oil were used as the controls. Microscopic studies revealed that the bigels contained aggregates of droplets, whereas, emulgels showed dispersed droplets within the continuum phase. The emulgels showed higher amount of leaching of oils, whereas, the leaching of the internal phase was negligible from the bigels. Presence of organogel matrix within the bigels was confirmed by XRD, FTIR and DSC methods. Bigels showed higher mucoadhesive and mechanical properties compared to emulgels. Cyclic creep-recovery and stress relaxation studies confirmed the viscoelastic nature of the formulations. Four elemental Burger's model was employed to analyze the cyclic creep-recovery data. Cyclic creep-recovery studies suggested that the deformation of the bigels were lower due to the presence of the organogels within its structure. The formulations showed almost 100% recovery after the creep stage and can be explained by the higher elastic nature of the formulations. Stress relaxation study showed that the relaxation time was higher in the emulgels as compared to the bigels. Also, the % relaxation was higher in emulgels suggesting its fluid dominant nature. The in vitro biocompatibility of the bigels was checked using human epidermal keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). Both emulgels and bigels were biocompatible in nature. The in vitro drug (ciprofloxacin) release behavior indicated non-Fickian diffusion of the drug from the matrices. The drug release showed good antimicrobial effect against Escherichia coli. Based on the results, it was concluded

  18. Significant degradability enhancement in multilayer coating of polycaprolactone-bioactive glass/gelatin-bioactive glass on magnesium scaffold for tissue engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdimamaghani, Mostafa [School of Chemical Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, OK 74106 (United States); Razavi, Mehdi [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, OK 74106 (United States); Vashaee, Daryoosh [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States); Pothineni, Venkata Raveendra [Biomaterials and Advanced Drug Delivery Laboratory, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94305 (United States); Rajadas, Jayakumar [Biomaterials and Advanced Drug Delivery Laboratory, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94305 (United States); Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA 94305 (United States); Stanford Cardiovascular Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA 94305 (United States); Tayebi, Lobat, E-mail: lobat.tayebi@marquette.edu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, OK 74106 (United States); Biomaterials and Advanced Drug Delivery Laboratory, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94305 (United States); Department of Developmental Sciences, Marquette University School of Dentistry, Milwaukee, WI 53233 (United States)

    2015-05-30

    Highlights: • PCL-BaG/Gel-BaG coating was applied on the surface of Mg scaffolds. • Mg scaffold/PCL-BaG/Gel-BaG presented improved biodegradation resistance. • Mg scaffold coated with the PCL-BaG layer indicated better bioactivity. - Abstract: Magnesium (Mg) is a promising candidate to be used in medical products especially as bone tissue engineering scaffolds. The main challenge for using Mg in biomedical applications is its high degradation rate in the body. For this reason, in this study, a multilayer polymeric layer composed of polycaprolactone (PCL) and gelatin (Gel) reinforced with bioactive glass (BaG) particles has been applied on the surface of Mg scaffolds. The materials characteristics of uncoated Mg scaffold, Mg scaffold coated only with PCL-BaG and Mg scaffold coated with PCL-BaG and Gel-BaG have been analyzed and compared in detail. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were utilized for microstructural studies. In vitro bioactivity and biodegradation evaluations were carried out by submerging the scaffolds in simulated body fluid (SBF) at pre-determined time points. The results demonstrated that Mg scaffold coated with PCL-BaG and Gel-BaG exhibited significant improvement in biodegradability.

  19. Significant degradability enhancement in multilayer coating of polycaprolactone-bioactive glass/gelatin-bioactive glass on magnesium scaffold for tissue engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdimamaghani, Mostafa; Razavi, Mehdi; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Pothineni, Venkata Raveendra; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Tayebi, Lobat

    2015-05-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is a promising candidate to be used in medical products especially as bone tissue engineering scaffolds. The main challenge for using Mg in biomedical applications is its high degradation rate in the body. For this reason, in this study, a multilayer polymeric layer composed of polycaprolactone (PCL) and gelatin (Gel) reinforced with bioactive glass (BaG) particles has been applied on the surface of Mg scaffolds. The materials characteristics of uncoated Mg scaffold, Mg scaffold coated only with PCL-BaG and Mg scaffold coated with PCL-BaG and Gel-BaG have been analyzed and compared in detail. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were utilized for microstructural studies. In vitro bioactivity and biodegradation evaluations were carried out by submerging the scaffolds in simulated body fluid (SBF) at pre-determined time points. The results demonstrated that Mg scaffold coated with PCL-BaG and Gel-BaG exhibited significant improvement in biodegradability.

  20. Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) versus cementum-impregnated gelatine membrane (CGM) techniques: a histologic comparison of relative effectiveness in promoting periodontal attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwa, K

    1997-12-01

    Some prior reports have suggested that guided tissue regeneration (GTR) procedures achieve only partial regeneration and induces the ankylosis rather than true attachment. Accordingly, others have developed an alternative procedure employing gelatine membrane compounded with bovine cementum particles (CGM) which has proven effective in stimulating a more physiologic form of attachment. This study was undertaken to perform a direct comparison of histological results when CGM and GTR membrane were used at comparable sites in the same monkey. Three monkeys with no periodontal disease were used. Following flap surgery, recession type defects were created on the buccal side of the maxillary lateral incisors and second premolars, and the cementum was removed from the root surface at an area corresponding to the bone crest. The right and left lateral incisors and second premolars were covered with CGM and GTR membrane, respectively. The GTR membranes were removed after 4 weeks. At 6 wks, the animals were sacrificed, and specimens were prepared for histological examination. More coronally placed true new attachment was observed following application of CGM to the planed root surfaces. Application of the GTR membrane resulted in formation of bone-like cementum and ankylosis, whereas CGM established true periodontal regeneration.

  1. Influence of mechanical stimulation in the development of a medial equivalent tissue-engineered vascular construct using a gelatin-g-vinyl acetate co-polymer scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lynda V; Nair, Prabha D

    2012-01-01

    Vascular regeneration in the area of small diameter (vinyl acetate co-polymer (GeVAc) as the scaffold material. GeVAc was synthesized by co-polymerizing gelatin and vinyl acetate monomer in the presence of AIBN as the initiator and subjected to physico-chemical characterization. A porous 3-D scaffold with open interconnected pores was then produced from GeVAc. The scaffold is non-cytotoxic with good smooth muscle cell proliferative capacity and high cell viability. Influence of smooth muscle cell phenotype in response to these scaffolds has been studied under mechanical stimulation. It was found that the cell-seeded tubular GeVAc constructs under mechanical stimulation preferentially supported the contractile phenotype of smooth muscle cells, as evidenced by the elevated expression of contractile protein markers such as alpha-SMA, calponin and SM22α. The mechanical properties and the ECM secretion were also increased on applying the mechanical stimulation. Hence, the results showed the promising potential of the GeVAc scaffolds in the regeneration of the medial equivalent tissue-engineered vascular construct.

  2. Improvement of endothelial progenitor outgrowth cell (EPOC)-mediated vascularization in gelatin-based hydrogels through pore size manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jiayin; Wiraja, Christian; Muhammad, Hamizan B; Xu, Chenjie; Wang, Dong-An

    2017-08-01

    In addition to chemical compositions, physical properties of scaffolds, such as pore size, can also influence vascularization within the scaffolds. A larger pore has been shown to improve host vascular tissue invasion into scaffolds. However, the influence of pore sizes on vascularization by endothelial cells directly encapsulated in hydrogels remains unknown. In this study, micro-cavitary hydrogels with different pore sizes were created in gelatin-methacrylate hydrogels with dissolvable gelatin microspheres (MS) varying in sizes. The effect of pore sizes on vascular network formation by endothelial progenitor outgrowth cells (EPOCs) encapsulated in hydrogels was then investigated both in vitro and in vivo. When cultured in vitro, vascular networks were formed around pore structures in micro-cavitary hydrogels. The middle pore size supported best differentiation of EPOCs and thus best hydrogel vascularization in vitro. When implantation in vivo, functional connections between encapsulated EPOCs and host vasculature micro-cavitary hydrogels were established. Vascularization in vivo was promoted best in hydrogels with the large pore size due to the increased vascular tissue invasion. These results highlight the difference between in vitro and in vivo culture conditions and indicate that pore sizes shall be designed for in vitro and in vivo hydrogel vascularization respectively. Pore sizes for hydrogel vascularization in vitro shall be middle ones and pore sizes for hydrogel vascularization in vivo shall be large ones. This study reveals that the optimal pore size for hydrogel vascularization in vitro and in vivo is different. The middle pore size supported best differentiation of EPOCs and thus best hydrogel vascularization in vitro, while vascularization in vivo was promoted best in hydrogels with the large pore size due to the increased vascular tissue invasion. These results highlight the difference between in vitro and in vivo culture conditions and indicate that

  3. Biodegradable gelatin-based nanospheres as pH-responsive drug delivery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curcio, Manuela; Altimari, Ilaria; Spizzirri, Umile Gianfranco, E-mail: g.spizzirri@unical.it; Cirillo, Giuseppe [University of Calabria, Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutrition Sciences (Italy); Vittorio, Orazio [NEST Scuola Normale Superiore, Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR (Italy); Puoci, Francesco; Picci, Nevio; Iemma, Francesca [University of Calabria, Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutrition Sciences (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    Native gelatin, N,N Prime -ethylenebisacrylamide, and sodium methacrylate were inserted into a spherical crosslinked structure by a solvent-free emulsion polymerization method, in which sunflower seed oil containing different amounts of lecithin was selected as continuous phase. Nanogels were characterized by morphological analysis, particle size distribution, and determination of swelling degree. Different dimensional distributions (100-500 nm) and water affinities were obtained by varying the amount of surfactant in the polymerization feed. Nanogels were non-toxic on human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells and enzymatically stable in the gastric tract, with weight losses ranging from 58 to 20 % in pancreatin solution. Release profiles of diclofenac sodium salt from the nanogels were evaluated at different pH and found to depend on crosslinking degree and drug-polymer interactions; while in pancreatin solution, a complete release of the drug was observed. The release mechanism and the diffusional contribution were evaluated by semiempirical equations.

  4. Organization versus frustration: low temperature transitions in a gelatine-based gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philipp, M; Mueller, U; Sanctuary, R; Baller, J; Krueger, J K [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, Universite du Luxembourg, 162A, avenue de la Faiencerie, L-1511 (Luxembourg)], E-mail: martine.philipp@uni.lu

    2008-09-15

    A commercial physical gel composed of gelatine, water and glycerol shows a sol-gel transition which has been resolved by optical rotation measurements by step-wise heating the gel. This transition is not observable in the longitudinal acoustic mode measured at hypersonic frequencies with Brillouin spectroscopy. Depending on the thermal treatment of the investigated material during the sol-gel transition and within the gel state, Brillouin spectroscopy reflects tremendously different hypersonic dynamics. These distinct dynamics are responsible for the formation of different glassy states at low temperatures including that of a glass-ceramic. The large variety of super-cooled and glassy states is attributed to distinct distributions of the gel's constituents within the samples. Surprisingly, the same gel state can be produced either by annealing the gel over months or by the non-equilibrium effect of thermo-diffusion (Soret effect) in the course of some minutes.

  5. Dual Function of Glucosamine in Gelatin/Hyaluronic Acid Cryogel to Modulate Scaffold Mechanical Properties and to Maintain Chondrogenic Phenotype for Cartilage Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Hao; Kuo, Chang-Yi; Wang, Yan-Jie; Chen, Jyh-Ping

    2016-11-23

    Glucosamine (GlcN) fulfills many of the requirements as an ideal component in scaffolds used in cartilage tissue engineering. The incorporation of GlcN in a gelatin/hyaluronic acid (GH) cryogel scaffold could provide biological cues in maintaining the phenotype of chondrocytes. Nonetheless, substituting gelatin with GlcN may also decrease the crosslinking density and modulate the mechanical properties of the cryogel scaffold, which may be beneficial as physical cues for chondrocytes in the scaffold. Thus, we prepared cryogel scaffolds containing 9% GlcN (GH-GlcN9) and 16% GlcN (GH-GlcN16) by carbodiimide-mediated crosslinking reactions at -16 °C. The crosslinking density and the mechanical properties of the cryogel matrix could be tuned by adjusting the content of GlcN used during cryogel preparation. In general, incorporation of GlcN did not influence scaffold pore size and ultimate compressive strain but increased porosity. The GH-GlcN16 cryogel showed the highest swelling ratio and degradation rate in hyaluronidase and collagenase solutions. On the contrary, the Young's modulus, storage modulus, ultimate compressive stress, energy dissipation level, and rate of stress relaxation decreased by increasing the GlcN content in the cryogel. The release of GlcN from the scaffolds in the culture medium of chondrocytes could be sustained for 21 days for GH-GlcN16 in contrast to only 7 days for GH-GlcN9. In vitro cell culture experiments using rabbit articular chondrocytes revealed that GlcN incorporation affected cell proliferation, morphology, and maintenance of chondrogenic phenotype. Overall, GH-GlcN16 showed the best performance in maintaining chondrogenic phenotype with reduced cell proliferation rate but enhanced glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and type II collagen (COL II) secretion. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction also showed time-dependent up-regulation of cartilage-specific marker genes (COL II, aggrecan and Sox9) for GH-GlcN16. Implantation of

  6. Dual Function of Glucosamine in Gelatin/Hyaluronic Acid Cryogel to Modulate Scaffold Mechanical Properties and to Maintain Chondrogenic Phenotype for Cartilage Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hao Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Glucosamine (GlcN fulfills many of the requirements as an ideal component in scaffolds used in cartilage tissue engineering. The incorporation of GlcN in a gelatin/hyaluronic acid (GH cryogel scaffold could provide biological cues in maintaining the phenotype of chondrocytes. Nonetheless, substituting gelatin with GlcN may also decrease the crosslinking density and modulate the mechanical properties of the cryogel scaffold, which may be beneficial as physical cues for chondrocytes in the scaffold. Thus, we prepared cryogel scaffolds containing 9% GlcN (GH-GlcN9 and 16% GlcN (GH-GlcN16 by carbodiimide-mediated crosslinking reactions at −16 °C. The crosslinking density and the mechanical properties of the cryogel matrix could be tuned by adjusting the content of GlcN used during cryogel preparation. In general, incorporation of GlcN did not influence scaffold pore size and ultimate compressive strain but increased porosity. The GH-GlcN16 cryogel showed the highest swelling ratio and degradation rate in hyaluronidase and collagenase solutions. On the contrary, the Young’s modulus, storage modulus, ultimate compressive stress, energy dissipation level, and rate of stress relaxation decreased by increasing the GlcN content in the cryogel. The release of GlcN from the scaffolds in the culture medium of chondrocytes could be sustained for 21 days for GH-GlcN16 in contrast to only 7 days for GH-GlcN9. In vitro cell culture experiments using rabbit articular chondrocytes revealed that GlcN incorporation affected cell proliferation, morphology, and maintenance of chondrogenic phenotype. Overall, GH-GlcN16 showed the best performance in maintaining chondrogenic phenotype with reduced cell proliferation rate but enhanced glycosaminoglycans (GAGs and type II collagen (COL II secretion. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction also showed time-dependent up-regulation of cartilage-specific marker genes (COL II, aggrecan and Sox9 for GH-GlcN16

  7. Electrospun Gelatin/β-TCP Composite Nanofibers Enhance Osteogenic Differentiation of BMSCs and In Vivo Bone Formation by Activating Ca (2+) -Sensing Receptor Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuehui; Meng, Song; Huang, Ying; Xu, Mingming; He, Ying; Lin, Hong; Han, Jianmin; Chai, Yuan; Wei, Yan; Deng, Xuliang

    2015-01-01

    Calcium phosphate- (CaP-) based composite scaffolds have been used extensively for the bone regeneration in bone tissue engineering. Previously, we developed a biomimetic composite nanofibrous membrane of gelatin/β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and confirmed their biological activity in vitro and bone regeneration in vivo. However, how these composite nanofibers promote the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) is unknown. Here, gelatin/β-TCP composite nanofibers were fabricated by incorporating 20 wt% β-TCP nanoparticles into electrospun gelatin nanofibers. Electron microscopy showed that the composite β-TCP nanofibers had a nonwoven structure with a porous network and a rough surface. Spectral analyses confirmed the presence and chemical stability of the β-TCP and gelatin components. Compared with pure gelatin nanofibers, gelatin/β-TCP composite nanofibers caused increased cell attachment, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and osteogenic gene expression in rat BMSCs. Interestingly, the expression level of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) was significantly higher on the composite nanofibrous scaffolds than on pure gelatin. For rat calvarial critical sized defects, more extensive osteogenesis and neovascularization occurred in the composite scaffolds group compared with the gelatin group. Thus, gelatin/β-TCP composite scaffolds promote osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in vitro and bone regeneration in vivo by activating Ca(2+)-sensing receptor signaling.

  8. Electrospun Gelatin/β-TCP Composite Nanofibers Enhance Osteogenic Differentiation of BMSCs and In Vivo Bone Formation by Activating Ca2+-Sensing Receptor Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehui Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate- (CaP- based composite scaffolds have been used extensively for the bone regeneration in bone tissue engineering. Previously, we developed a biomimetic composite nanofibrous membrane of gelatin/β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP and confirmed their biological activity in vitro and bone regeneration in vivo. However, how these composite nanofibers promote the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs is unknown. Here, gelatin/β-TCP composite nanofibers were fabricated by incorporating 20 wt% β-TCP nanoparticles into electrospun gelatin nanofibers. Electron microscopy showed that the composite β-TCP nanofibers had a nonwoven structure with a porous network and a rough surface. Spectral analyses confirmed the presence and chemical stability of the β-TCP and gelatin components. Compared with pure gelatin nanofibers, gelatin/β-TCP composite nanofibers caused increased cell attachment, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and osteogenic gene expression in rat BMSCs. Interestingly, the expression level of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR was significantly higher on the composite nanofibrous scaffolds than on pure gelatin. For rat calvarial critical sized defects, more extensive osteogenesis and neovascularization occurred in the composite scaffolds group compared with the gelatin group. Thus, gelatin/β-TCP composite scaffolds promote osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in vitro and bone regeneration in vivo by activating Ca2+-sensing receptor signaling.

  9. Creating 3D gelatin phantoms for experimental evaluation in biomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Nils

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe and evaluate a setup to create gelatin phantoms by robotic 3D printing. Key aspects are the large workspace, reproducibility and resolution of the created phantoms. Given its soft tissue nature, the gelatin is kept fluid during inside the system and we present parameters for additive printing of homogeneous, solid objects. The results indicate that 3D printing of gelatin can be an alternative for quickly creating larger soft tissue phantoms without the need for casting a mold.

  10. Polydopamine-Gelatin as Universal Cell-Interactive Coating for Methacrylate-Based Medical Device Packaging Materials: When Surface Chemistry Overrules Substrate Bulk Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Walle, Elke; Van Nieuwenhove, Ine; Vanderleyden, Els; Declercq, Heidi; Gellynck, Karolien; Schaubroeck, David; Ottevaere, Heidi; Thienpont, Hugo; De Vos, Winnok H; Cornelissen, Maria; Van Vlierberghe, Sandra; Dubruel, Peter

    2016-01-11

    Despite its widespread application in the fields of ophthalmology, orthopedics, and dentistry and the stringent need for polymer packagings that induce in vivo tissue integration, the full potential of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and its derivatives as medical device packaging material has not been explored yet. We therefore elaborated on the development of a universal coating for methacrylate-based materials that ideally should reveal cell-interactivity irrespective of the polymer substrate bulk properties. Within this perspective, the present work reports on the UV-induced synthesis of PMMA and its more flexible poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based derivative (PMMAPEG) and its subsequent surface decoration using polydopamine (PDA) as well as PDA combined with gelatin B (Gel B). Successful application of both layers was confirmed by multiple surface characterization techniques. The cell interactivity of the materials was studied by performing live-dead assays and immunostainings of the cytoskeletal components of fibroblasts. It can be concluded that only the combination of PDA and Gel B yields materials possessing similar cell interactivities, irrespective of the physicochemical properties of the underlying substrate. The proposed coating outperforms both the PDA functionalized and the pristine polymer surfaces. A universal cell-interactive coating for methacrylate-based medical device packaging materials has thus been realized.

  11. Development and Characterization of Biodegradable Composite Films Based on Gelatin Derived from Beef, Pork and Fish Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal A. Nur Hanani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to develop composite films using various gelatin sources with corn oil (CO incorporation (55.18% and to investigate the mechanical and physical properties of these films as potential packaging films. There were increases (p < 0.05 in the tensile strength (TS and puncture strength (PS of films when the concentration of gelatin increased. The mechanical properties of these films were also improved when compared with films produced without CO. Conversely, the water barrier properties of composite films decreased (p < 0.05 when the concentration of gelatin in composite films increased. Comparing with pure gelatin films, water and oxygen barrier properties of gelatin films decreased when manufactured with the inclusion of CO.

  12. A H2O2 Biosensor Based on Immobilization of HorseradishPeroxidase in a Gelatine Network Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Jie Zhu

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available A simple and promising H2O2 biosensor has been developed by successfulentrapment of horseradish peroxidase (HRP in a gelatine matrix which was cross-linkedwith formaldehyde. The large microscopic surface area and porous morphology of thegelatine matrix lead to high enzyme loading and the enzyme entrapped in this matrix canretain its bioactivity. This biosensor exhibited a fast amperometric response to hydrogenperoxide (H2O2. The linear range for H2O2 determination was from 2.5×10-5 to2.5×10-3 M, with a detection limit of 2.0×10-6 M based on S / N = 3. This biosensorpossessed very good reproducibility.

  13. Gelatin use impairs platelet adhesion during cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabuchi, N; deHaan, J; Huet, RCGG; Boonstra, PW; vanOeveren, W

    1995-01-01

    Artificial colloids based on gelatin are used as plasma expander to replace donor blood products. In laboratory experiments, gelatin reduced both the velocity and extend of platelet agglutination by ristocetin, and only the agglutination velocity by polybrene (p These negative effects of gelatin on

  14. In vitro growth of bioactive nanostructured apatites via agar-gelatin hybrid hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yi; Zhao, Xianghui; Zhou, Yongsheng; Zhu, Peizhi; Zhang, Li; Wei, Shicheng

    2013-12-01

    Biomimetic synthesis of bone-like carbonated apatite with good biocompatibility is a promising strategy for the development of novel biomaterials for bone engineering applications. Most research efforts have been focused on only protein-based or only polysaccharide-based template for synthesis of apatite minerals. To understand the cooperative roles of gelatin and polysaccharide playing in the biomineralization, agar hydrogel, gelatin and agar-gelatin hybrid hydrogel were respectively introduced as mineralization matrix for the in vitro growth of apatite in the study. It was shown that bundle-like carbonated apatite was successfully prepared in agar-gelatin hybrid hydrogel for the first time, through the interaction between apatite and matrix macromolecule under physiological temperature. Moreover, the in vitro biocompatibility of the prepared nanostructured apatite crystals was investigated using CCK-8 assay and alkaline phosphatase activity of osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1. Compared with HA synthesized by traditional method, the obtained apatite in agar-gelatin hybrid hydrogel could provide significantly higher cell viability and alkaline phosphatase activity. Through the study, we could better understand the role of gelatin and polysaccharide in bone formation process, and the product is a promising candidate to be used in bone tissue engineering.

  15. Fabrication of biodegradable composite microneedles based on calcium sulfate and gelatin for transdermal delivery of insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Weijiang; Jiang, Guohua; Liu, Depeng; Li, Lei; Chen, Hua; Liu, Yongkun; Huang, Qin; Tong, Zaizai; Yao, Juming; Kong, Xiangdong

    2017-02-01

    To reduce the inconvenience and pain of subcutaneous needle injection, the calcium sulfate and gelatin biodegradable composite microneedle patches with high aspect-ratio microneedles (MNs) and a flexible substrate have been developed. The microneedles with an aspect-ratio approximate 6:1 exhibit excellent mechanical property which can achieve 0.4N for each needle. The cross-section views show the inside of microneedles that have abundant pores and channels which offer potential for different drug-release profiles. The preparation procedures, degradable property for the biodegradable composite microneedle patches are described in the paper. Insulin, the drug to control blood glucose levels in diabetic patients, has been embedded into the biodegradable composite MNs. The hypoglycemic effect for transdermal delivery of insulin is studied using diabetic Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats as models in vivo. After transdermal administration to the diabetic rats, the released insulin from biodegradable composite MNs exhibit an obvious and effective hypoglycemic effect for longer time compared with that of subcutaneous injection route. This work suggests that biodegradable composite MNs containing of insulin have a potential application in diabetes treatment via transdermal ingestion.

  16. Designing of hydroxyapatite-gelatin based porous matrix as bone substitute: Correlation with biocompatibility aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study polyacrylamide (PAm-gelatin-hydroxyapatite (HA composites have been synthesized by suspension polymerization method. The prepared composites were characterized by Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTIR which revealed the presence of functional groups in the composite. The X-ray diffraction (XRD studies indicated that HA powder was present in nano size. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA revealed that composite is more thermally stable than the polymer matrix alone. The morphology of composite studied by optical microscopy (OPM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM suggested that pore size was between 3–20 µm. The composites showed adequately good mechanical properties as evident from the varying compressive strength and modulus in the range 31.57±8.16 MPa and 745±388 MPa, respectively. The water sorption behavior was found to be dependent on the chemical composition of the matrix and the sorption data were used to calculate network parameters. The porosity of composite varied between 4 to 30.66%.The in vitro blood compatibility indicated that the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA varied from 0.11 to 0.24 mg•g–1, the percentage haemolysis was between 2.4 to 6.9% and the weight of blood clot formed on the composite surfaces were found in the range 11 to 52 mg.

  17. Multilayered Magnetic Gelatin Membrane Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Sangram K.; Goranov, Vitaly; Dash, Mamoni; Russo, Alessandro; Shelyakova, Tatiana; Graziosi, Patrizio; Lungaro, Lisa; Riminucci, Alberto; Uhlarz, Marc; Bañobre-López, Manuel; Rivas, Jose; Herrmannsdörfer, Thomas; Rajadas, Jayakumar; De Smedt, Stefaan; Braeckmans, Kevin; Kaplan, David L.; Dediu, V. Alek

    2016-01-01

    A versatile approach for the design and fabrication of multilayer magnetic scaffolds with tunable magnetic gradients is described. Multilayer magnetic gelatin membrane scaffolds with intrinsic magnetic gradients were designed to encapsulate magnetized bioagents under an externally applied magnetic field for use in magnetic-field-assisted tissue engineering. The temperature of the individual membranes increased up to 43.7 °C under an applied oscillating magnetic field for 70 s by magnetic hyperthermia, enabling the possibility of inducing a thermal gradient inside the final 3D multilayer magnetic scaffolds. On the basis of finite element method simulations, magnetic gelatin membranes with different concentrations of magnetic nanoparticles were assembled into 3D multilayered scaffolds. A magnetic-gradient-controlled distribution of magnetically labeled stem cells was demonstrated in vitro. This magnetic biomaterial–magnetic cell strategy can be expanded to a number of different magnetic biomaterials for various tissue engineering applications. PMID:26451743

  18. Yield stress determines bioprintability of hydrogels based on gelatin-methacryloyl and gellan gum for cartilage bioprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouser, Vivian H M; Melchels, Ferry P W; Visser, Jetze; Dhert, Wouter J A; Gawlitta, Debby; Malda, Jos

    2016-07-19

    Bioprinting of chondrocyte-laden hydrogels facilitates the fabrication of constructs with controlled organization and shape e.g. for articular cartilage implants. Gelatin-methacryloyl (gelMA) supplemented with gellan gum is a promising bio-ink. However, the rheological properties governing the printing process, and the influence of gellan gum on the mechanical properties and chondrogenesis of the blend, are still unknown. Here, we investigated the suitability of gelMA/gellan for cartilage bioprinting. Multiple concentrations, ranging from 3% to 20% gelMA with 0%-1.5% gellan gum, were evaluated for their printability, defined as the ability to form filaments and to incorporate cells at 15 °C-37 °C. To support the printability assessment, yield stress and viscosity of the hydrogels were measured. Stiffness of UV-cured constructs, as well as cartilage-like tissue formation by embedded chondrocytes, were determined in vitro. A large range of gelMA/gellan concentrations were printable with inclusion of cells and formed the bioprinting window. The addition of gellan gum improved filament deposition by inducing yielding behavior, increased construct stiffness and supported chondrogenesis. High gellan gum concentrations, however, did compromise cartilage matrix production and distribution, and even higher concentrations resulted in too high yield stresses to allow cell encapsulation. This study demonstrates the high potential of gelMA/gellan blends for cartilage bioprinting and identifies yield stress as a dominant factor for bioprintability.

  19. Investigating Effects of Gelatin-Chitosan Film on Culture of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Karami joyani

    2015-02-01

    Conclusion: Results of proliferation,differentiation and apoptosis cultured BMSCs on a gelatin-chitosan film showed that gelatin-chitosan film can be used as a good model of a biodegradable scaffold in tissue engineering and cell therapy.

  20. Immunosensor based on nanocomposite of nanostructured zirconium oxide and gelatin-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagbi, Yana; Sharma, Anshu; Bohidar, H B; Solanki, Pratima R

    2016-01-01

    We have reported the studies related to the fabrication of a nanocomposite, comprising of sol-gel derived inorganic zirconium oxide nanoparticles (ZrO2 NPs) and organic biopolymer gelatin-A (GA), deposited on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate by drop casting method. The GA-ZrO2/ITO electrode was used for immobilization of monoclonal antibodies (Ab) specific to antigen Vibrio cholerae (Vc) followed by bovine serum albumin (BSA) for antigen Vc detection using electrochemical techniques. The structural and morphological behaviour of these ZrO2 NPs, GA-ZrO2/ITO electrode and BSA/Ab/GA-ZrO2/ITO immunosensor was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. The transmission electron microscopy study exhibited a spherical shape ZrO2 NPs. The average crystalline size of ZrO2 NPs was obtained as 10.3 ± 1 nm from X-ray diffraction measurement and 72 nm hydrodynamic radius measured by dynamic light scattering. GA-ZrO2 nanocomposite provides a porous structure which assists to higher loading of Ab on the matrix surface that improved the biosensing properties. The electrochemical response studies of the fabricated BSA/Ab/GA-ZrO2/ITO immunosensor exhibited good linearity in the range of 50-400 ng mL(-1), low limit of detection of 0.74 ng/mL, sensitivity as 0.03 Ω ng(-1)mL(-1)cm(-2) and reproducibility more than 10 times.

  1. Electrospinning of poly(glycerol sebacate)-based nanofibers for nerve tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jue; Kai, Dan; Ye, Hongye; Tian, Lingling; Ding, Xin; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Loh, Xian Jun

    2017-01-01

    Nerve tissue engineering (TE) requires biomimetic scaffolds providing essential chemical and topographical cues for nerve regeneration. Poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) is a biodegradable and elastic polymer that has gained great interest as a TE scaffolding biomaterial. However, uncured PGS is difficult to be electrospun into nanofibers. PGS would, therefore, require the addition of electrospinning agents. In this study, we modified PGS by using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) to synthesize PGS-based copolymers with methyl methacrylate (MMA). The synthesized PGS-PMMA copolymer showed a molecular weight of 82kDa and a glass transition temperature of 115°C. More importantly, the PGS-PMMA could be easily electrospun into nanofiber with a fiber diameter of 167±33nm. Blending gelatin into PGS-PMMA nanofibers was found to increase its hydrophilicity and biocompatibility. Rat PC12 cells were seeded onto the PGS-PMMA/gelatin nanofibers to investigate their potential for nerve regeneration. It was found that gelatin-containing PGS-based nanofibers promoted cell proliferation. The elongated cell morphology observed on such nanofibers indicated that the scaffolds could induce the neurite outgrowth of the nerve stem cells. Overall, our study suggested that the synthesis of PGS-based copolymers might be a promising approach to enhance their processability, and therefore advancing bioscaffold engineering for various TE applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Modification of gelatin functionality for culinary applications by using transglutaminase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvarro, Julia; Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad; Ruiz Carrascal, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Porcine gelatin was subjected to the action of different amounts of commercial transglutaminase (TGase) and subsequently used to produce foams or gels. Foam stability at 20 °C and 80 °C, and thermal stability and instrumental texture of the gels were studied. Gelatin and TGase contents...... significantly increased the foam stability at both temperatures, but the effect of TGase was much more marked. Also both factors enhanced the thermal stability of gelatin gels, so that gels containing 3% of gelatin and 0.7% TGase were still gelled after 1 h at 80 °C, while any of the gelatin-based gels without...... TGase turned rapidly into liquid in less than 10 min at 80 °C. Hardness and chewiness of the gels were strongly enhanced by gelatin content, but very especially by TGase concentration. Gels tended to be less springy with increasing amounts of TGase. Modification of gelatin-based foams and gels...

  3. Hydrophilic PCU scaffolds prepared by grafting PEGMA and immobilizing gelatin to enhance cell adhesion and proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Changcan; Yuan, Wenjie; Khan, Musammir; Li, Qian [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Feng, Yakai, E-mail: yakaifeng@tju.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin University-Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Joint Laboratory for Biomaterials and Regenerative Medicine, Tianjin 300072 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Chemical Engineering (Tianjin) Tianjin 300072 (China); Yao, Fanglian [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin University-Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Joint Laboratory for Biomaterials and Regenerative Medicine, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhang, Wencheng, E-mail: wenchengzhang@yahoo.com [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Logistics University of Chinese People' s Armed Police Force, Tianjin 300162 (China)

    2015-05-01

    Gelatin contains many functional motifs which can modulate cell specific adhesion, so we modified polycarbonate urethane (PCU) scaffold surface by immobilization of gelatin. PCU-g-gelatin scaffolds were prepared by direct immobilizing gelatins onto the surface of aminated PCU scaffolds. To increase the immobilization amount of gelatin, poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) was grafted onto PCU scaffolds by surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. Then, following amination and immobilization, PCU-g-PEGMA-g-gelatin scaffolds were obtained. Both modified scaffolds were characterized by chemical and biological methods. After immobilization of gelatin, the microfiber surface became rough, but the original morphology of scaffolds was maintained successfully. PCU-g-PEGMA-g-gelatin scaffolds were more hydrophilic than PCU-g-gelatin scaffolds. Because hydrophilic PEGMA and gelatin were grafted and immobilized onto the surface, the PCU-g-PEGMA-g-gelatin scaffolds showed low platelet adhesion, perfect anti-hemolytic activity and excellent cell growth and proliferation capacity. It could be envisioned that PCU-g-PEGMA-g-gelatin scaffolds might have potential applications in tissue engineering artificial scaffolds. - Graphical abstract: PCU-g-gelatin scaffolds were prepared by direct immobilizing gelatin onto the surface of aminated PCU scaffolds (method a). To increase the immobilization amount of gelatin, PEGMAs were grafted onto the scaffold surface by SI-ATRP. PCU-g-PEGMA-g-gelatin scaffolds were prepared by method b. The gelatin modified scaffolds exhibited high hydrophilicity, low platelet adhesion, perfect anti-hemolytic activity, and excellent cell adhesion and proliferation capacity. They might have potential applications as tissue engineering scaffolds for artificial blood vessels. - Highlights: • Hydrophilic scaffolds were prepared by grafting PEGMA and immobilization of gelatins. • Grafting PEGMA enhanced the immobilization amount of gelatin

  4. Gelatin-derived sustainable carbon-based functional materials for energy conversion and storage with controllability of structure and component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-Li; Xu, Dan; Zhong, Hai-Xia; Wang, Jun; Meng, Fan-Lu; Zhang, Xin-Bo

    2015-02-01

    Nonprecious carbon catalysts and electrodes are vital components in energy conversion and storage systems. Despite recent progress, controllable synthesis of carbon functional materials is still a great challenge. We report a novel strategy to prepare simultaneously Fe-N-C catalysts and Fe3O4/N-doped carbon hybrids based on the sol-gel chemistry of gelatin and iron with controllability of structure and component. The catalysts demonstrate higher catalytic activity and better durability for oxygen reduction than precious Pt/C catalysts. The active sites of FeN4/C (D1) and N-FeN2+2/C (D3) are identified by Mössbauer spectroscopy, and most of the Fe ions are converted into D1 or D3 species. The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity correlates well with the surface area, porosity, and the content of active Fe-N x /C (D1 + D3) species. As an anode material for lithium storage, Fe3O4/carbon hybrids exhibit superior rate capability and excellent cycling performance. The synthetic approach and the proposed mechanism open new avenues for the development of sustainable carbon-based functional materials.

  5. Improved cellular infiltration into nanofibrous electrospun cross-linked gelatin scaffolds templated with micrometer-sized polyethylene glycol fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skotak, Maciej [Biomechanics, Biomaterials and Biomedicine Instrumentation Facility, College of Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, NE 68588-0642 (United States); Ragusa, Jorge; Gonzalez, Daniela; Subramanian, Anuradha, E-mail: asubramanian2@unl.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, NE 68588-0643 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Gelatin-based nanofibrous scaffolds with a mean fiber diameter of 300 nm were prepared with and without micrometer-sized polyethylene glycol (PEG) fibers that served as sacrificial templates. Upon fabrication of the scaffolds via electrospinning, the gelatin fibers were crosslinked with glutaraldehyde, and the PEG templates were removed using tert-butanol to yield nanofibrous scaffolds with pore diameters ranging from 10 to 100 {mu}m, as estimated with mercury intrusion porosimetry. Non-templated gelatin-based nanofibrous matrices had an average pore size of 1 {mu}m. Fibroblasts were seeded onto both types of the gelatin-based nanofibrous surfaces and cultured for 14 days. For comparative purposes, chitosan-based and polyurethane-based macroporous scaffolds with pore sizes of 100 and 170 {mu}m, respectively, were also included. The number of cells as a function of the depth into the scaffold was judged and quantitatively assessed using nuclei staining. Cell penetration up to a depth of 250 and 90 {mu}m was noted in gelatin scaffolds prepared with sacrificial templates and gelatin-only nanofibrous scaffolds. Noticeably, scaffold preparation protocol presented here allowed the structural integrity to be maintained even with high template content (95%) and can easily be extended toward other classes of electrospun polymer matrices for tissue engineering.

  6. Effect of the addition of soy lecithin and Yucca schidigera extract on the properties of gelatin and glycerol based biodegradable films

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana P. Dias; Grosso,Carlos R.F.; Caroline Andreuccetti; Rosemary A. de Carvalho; Tomás Galicia-García; Fernando Martinez-Bustos

    2013-01-01

    Gelatin-based films containing soy lecithin or Yucca schidigera extract and glycerol as plasticizer were produced by casting and characterized for their mechanical properties, water vapor permeability (WVP), water solubility, opacity and morphology. The addition of glycerol reduced the tensile strength, with a difference of ~ 68% between the values for the minimum and maximum concentrations evaluated, both for the plasticizer and the surfactant. Elongation values reached 52% and 40%, for film...

  7. Localised controlled release of simvastatin from porous chitosan–gelatin scaffolds engrafted with simvastatin loaded PLGA-microparticles for bone tissue engineering application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentile, Piergiorgio [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy); School of Clinical Dentistry, University of Sheffield, 19 Claremont Crescent, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Nandagiri, Vijay Kumar [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy); School of Pharmacy, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, 123, St. Stephen Green, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Daly, Jacqueline [Division of Biology, Department of Anatomy, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, 123, St. Stephen Green, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Chiono, Valeria; Mattu, Clara; Tonda-Turo, Chiara; Ciardelli, Gianluca [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy); Ramtoola, Zebunnissa, E-mail: zramtoola@rcsi.ie [School of Pharmacy, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, 123, St. Stephen Green, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2016-02-01

    Localised controlled release of simvastatin from porous freeze-dried chitosan–gelatin (CH–G) scaffolds was investigated by incorporating simvastatin loaded poly-(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) acid (PLGA) microparticles (MSIMs) into the scaffolds. MSIMs at 10% w/w simvastatin loading were prepared using a single emulsion-solvent evaporation method. The MSIM optimal amount to be incorporated into the scaffolds was selected by analysing the effect of embedding increasing amounts of blank PLGA microparticles (BL-MPs) on the scaffold physical properties and on the in vitro cell viability using a clonal human osteoblastic cell line (hFOB). Increasing the BL-MP content from 0% to 33.3% w/w showed a significant decrease in swelling degree (from 1245 ± 56% to 570 ± 35%). Scaffold pore size and distribution changed significantly as a function of BL-MP loading. Compressive modulus of scaffolds increased with increasing BL-MP amount up to 16.6% w/w (23.0 ± 1.0 kPa). No significant difference in cell viability was observed with increasing BL-MP loading. Based on these results, a content of 16.6% w/w MSIM particles was incorporated successfully in CH–G scaffolds, showing a controlled localised release of simvastatin able to influence the hFOB cell proliferation and the osteoblastic differentiation after 11 days. - Highlights: • Simvastatin loaded PLGA microparticle engrafted porous CH–G scaffolds were produced. • The microparticle optimal amount to be incorporated into the scaffolds was studied. • Physical properties of scaffolds changed as a function of microparticle loading. • The level of simvastatin released enhanced cell proliferation and mineralisation.

  8. Non-destructive dating of fiber-based gelatin silver prints using near-infrared spectroscopy and multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ana; Daffner, Lee Ann; Fenech, Ann; McGlinchey, Christopher; Strlič, Matija

    2012-02-01

    An innovative approach to date fiber-based gelatin silver prints using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and multivariate analysis is presented. NIR spectra were acquired for 152 film stills printed in the USA between 1914 and 1986, and partial least square (PLS) analysis was used to correlate the spectra with the year the photographs were printed. Principal component analysis and spectral interpretation helped clarify the underlying correlation between the print date and the composition and ageing of the photographic papers. The method was successfully validated with an independent set of 66 film stills printed in the USA, and a prediction error (root mean square error of prediction) of 6 years was achieved. The method was also tested on films stills printed in Germany and Russia, as well as amateur prints and photographs in the collection of the Museum of Modern Art. The prediction error was significantly larger, with the exception of the amateur prints, due to differences in the composition and/or properties of the papers depending on their geographical origin and purpose as confirmed by discriminant analysis.

  9. Amperometric uric acid biosensor based on poly(vinylferrocene)-gelatin-carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erden, Pınar Esra; Kaçar, Ceren; Öztürk, Funda; Kılıç, Esma

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a new uric acid biosensor was constructed based on ferrocene containing polymer poly(vinylferrocene) (PVF), carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (c-MWCNT) and gelatin (GEL) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Uricase enzyme (UOx) was immobilized covalently through N-ethyl-N'-(3-dimethyaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxyl succinimide (NHS) chemistry onto c-MWCNT/GEL/PVF/GCE. The c-MWCNT/GEL/PVF composite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Various experimental parameters such as pH, applied potential, enzyme loading, PVF and c-MWCNT concentration were investigated in detail. Under the optimal conditions the dynamic linear range of uric acid was 2.0×10(-7) M-7.1×10(-4) M (R=0.9993) with the detection limit low to 2.3×10(-8) M. With good selectivity and sensitivity, the biosensor was successfully applied to determine the uric acid in human serum. The results of the biosensor were in good agreement with those obtained from standard method. Therefore, the presented biosensor could be a good promise for practical applications in real samples.

  10. Axonal regeneration and remyelination evaluation of chitosan/gelatin-based nerve guide combined with transforming growth factor-β1 and Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xin; Deng, Manjing; Yang, Maojin; Liu, Luchuan; Zhang, Yongjie; Wen, Xiujie

    2014-01-01

    Despite efforts in peripheral nerve injury and regeneration, it is difficult to achieve a functional recovery following extended peripheral nerve lesions. Even if artificial nerve conduit, cell components and growth factors can enhance nerve regeneration, integration in peripheral nerve repair and regeneration remains yet to be explored. For this study, we used chitosan/gelatin nerve graft constructed with collagenous matrices as a vehicle for Schwann cells and transforming growth factor-β1 to bridge a 10-mm gap of the sciatic nerve and explored the feasibility of improving regeneration and reinnervation in rats. The nerve regeneration was assessed with functional recovery, electrophysiological test, retrograde labeling, and immunohistochemistry analysis during the post-operative period of 16 weeks. The results showed that the internal sides of the conduits were compact enough to prevent the connective tissues from ingrowth. Nerve conduction velocity, average regenerated myelin area, and myelinated axon count were similar to those treated with autograft (p > 0.05) but significantly higher than those bridged with chitosan/gelatin nerve graft alone (p regeneration and remyelination. A designed graft incorporating all of the tissue-engineering strategies for peripheral nerve regeneration may provide great progress in tissue engineering for nerve repair.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of breast-phantom-based gelatine-glutaraldehyde-TiO2 as a test material for the application of breast cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukhrowiyah, Nuril; Setyaningsih, Novi; Hikmawati, Dyah; Yasin, Moh

    2017-05-01

    Synthesis of breast-phantom-based on gelatine-glutaraldehyde-TiO2 as testing material of breast cancer diagnosis using Near Infrared-Diffuse Optical Tomography (NIR-DOT) is presented. Glutaraldehyde (GA) is added to obtain optimum breast phantom which has same elasticity modulus with mammae. First, synthesis is conducted by mixing gelatine with various amounts of 1 g, 2 g and 3 g with saline solution on 40° C temperature for 30 minutes until they become homogenous. Next, GA with concentration of 0.5 and 1.0% is added. The characterization includes FTIR test, physical test, and mechanical test used to identify group of gelatine’s functions. Elasticity modulus of breast phantom of gelatine composition 2 g and 0.5% GA is obtained at 53.46 kPA which is the approximation of mammae culture elasticity. This composition is chosen to synthesise the next step. In the second step, TiO2 is added with variation of 0.01 g, 0.015 g, 0.02 g, 0.025 g, and 0,03 g. With this variation, it is aimed to get a breast phantom providing image with optimum absorption. The test of this material uses Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), homogeneity test, and analysis of coefficient absorption. The result shows the sample has a good thermal property in the range of 40 - 70° C with a good homogeneity and absorption coefficient of 0.4 mm-1.

  12. Sub-micronic capsules based on gelatin and poly(maleic anhydride-alt-vinyl acetate) obtained by interfacial condensation with potential biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iurea, Delia Mihaela; Peptu, Cătălina Anişoara; Chailan, Jean-François; Carriere, Pascal; Popa, Marcel

    2013-06-01

    New sub-micronic capsules based on a copolymer of maleic anhydride-alt-vinyl acetate and a natural polymer (gelatin) using an interfacial condensation method were obtained. Sub-micronic capsules were characterized by Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), dynamic light scattering (DLS) method, zeta-potential, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The thermal properties were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). According to some parameters of the synthesis reaction (polymer weight ratio, acetone/water ratio, surfactant concentration), the mean diameter of the sub-micronic capsules can be tuned from 200 to 760 nm. The sub-micronic capsules show a higher agglomeration tendency as the amount of gelatin in their composition increases. The swelling capacity in aqueous solutions is dependent on the composition and size of the sub-micronic capsules, decreasing with their diameter and gelatin composition. The drug loading and release capacity was studied using Penicillin G (sodium salt) (PG), and it has been proved that it is influenced by the sub-micronic capsules morphology induced by preparation parameters. Encapsulation and controlled release of small molecule were successfully carried out, demonstrating the potential biomedical applications of these new easily obtained sub-micronic capsules.

  13. Modified gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarika, P.R. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 547 (India); Cinthya, Kuriakose [Tissue Culture Laboratory, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 012 (India); Jayakrishnan, A. [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Anilkumar, P.R., E-mail: anilkumarpr@sctimst.ac.in [Tissue Culture Laboratory, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 012 (India); James, Nirmala Rachel, E-mail: nirmala@iist.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 547 (India)

    2014-10-01

    The present work deals with development of modified gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold for cell culture. A new biocompatible scaffold was developed by cross-linking gelatin (Gel) with gum arabic, a polysaccharide. Gum arabic was subjected to periodate oxidation to obtain gum arabic aldehyde (GAA). GAA was reacted with gelatin under appropriate pH to prepare the cross-linked hydrogel. Cross-linking occurred due to Schiff's base reaction between aldehyde groups of oxidized gum arabic and amino groups of gelatin. The scaffold prepared from the hydrogel was characterized by swelling properties, degree of cross-linking, in vitro degradation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cytocompatibility evaluation using L-929 and HepG2 cells confirmed non-cytotoxic and non-adherent nature of the scaffold. These properties are essential for generating multicellular spheroids and hence the scaffold is proposed to be a suitable candidate for spheroid cell culture. - Highlights: • Gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold was developed for tissue engineering. • Cross-linking was achieved by Schiff's base reaction. • The scaffold is non-cytotoxic and non adherent to fibroblast and hepatocytes. • The scaffolds are potential candidates for spheroid cell culture.

  14. Yield stress determines bioprintability of hydrogels based on gelatin-methacryloyl and gellan gum for cartilage bioprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouser, Vivian H M; Melchels, Ferry P W; Visser, Jetze; Dhert, Wouter J A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10261847X; Gawlitta, Debby; Malda, Jos

    2016-01-01

    Bioprinting of chondrocyte-laden hydrogels facilitates the fabrication of constructs with controlled organization and shape e.g. for articular cartilage implants. Gelatin-methacryloyl (gelMA) supplemented with gellan gum is a promising bio-ink. However, the rheological properties governing the print

  15. Effect of gelatinized flour fraction on thermal and rheological properties of wheat-based dough and bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Navas, H; Guadarrama-Lezama, A Y; Vernon-Carter, E J; García-Díaz, S; Reyes, I; Alvarez-Ramírez, J

    2016-11-01

    This work considered gelatinized wheat flour fraction with properties similar to hydrocolloid to enhance the strength of dough network by improving water retention and rheological characteristics. The gelatinized (90 °C) fraction of the wheat flour was incorporated in the dough formulation at different levels (5, 10, and 20% w/w). The effects of the gelatinized flour (GF) fraction on the dough rheology and thermal properties were studied. The incorporation of GF induced a moderate increase of dough viscoelasticity and reduced the freezing and melting enthalpies. On the other hand, the changes in bread textural properties brought by incorporation of GF were insignificant, indicating that the gelatinized fraction acted as a binder that enhanced water trapping in the structure. SEM images showed a more heterogeneous crumb microstructure (e.g., gas cells, porous, etc.) bread prepared using GF. Drying kinetics obtained from TGA indicated that the water diffusivity decreased with the incorporation of GF, which suggested that the bread had a compact microstructure.

  16. Gelatin microcapsules for enhanced microwave tumor hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qijun; Fu, Changhui; Tie, Jian; Liu, Tianlong; Li, Linlin; Ren, Xiangling; Huang, Zhongbing; Liu, Huiyu; Tang, Fangqiong; Li, Li; Meng, Xianwei

    2015-02-01

    Local and rapid heating by microwave (MW) irradiation is important in the clinical treatment of tumors using hyperthermia. We report here a new thermo-seed technique for the highly efficient MW irradiation ablation of tumors in vivo based on gelatin microcapsules. We achieved 100% tumor elimination in a mouse model at an ultralow power of 1.8 W without any side-effects. The results of MTT assays, a hemolysis test and the histological staining of organs indicated that the gelatin microcapsules showed excellent compatibility with the physiological environment. A possible mechanism is proposed for MW hyperthermia using gelatin microcapsules. We also used gelatin microcapsules capped with CdTe quantum dots for in vivo optical imaging. Our study suggests that these microcapsules may have potential applications in imaging-guided cancer treatment.Local and rapid heating by microwave (MW) irradiation is important in the clinical treatment of tumors using hyperthermia. We report here a new thermo-seed technique for the highly efficient MW irradiation ablation of tumors in vivo based on gelatin microcapsules. We achieved 100% tumor elimination in a mouse model at an ultralow power of 1.8 W without any side-effects. The results of MTT assays, a hemolysis test and the histological staining of organs indicated that the gelatin microcapsules showed excellent compatibility with the physiological environment. A possible mechanism is proposed for MW hyperthermia using gelatin microcapsules. We also used gelatin microcapsules capped with CdTe quantum dots for in vivo optical imaging. Our study suggests that these microcapsules may have potential applications in imaging-guided cancer treatment. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr07104b

  17. Three-dimensional dynamic fabrication of engineered cartilage based on chitosan/gelatin hybrid hydrogel scaffold in a spinner flask with a special designed steel frame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kedong, E-mail: kedongsong@dlut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian R& D Center for Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Li, Liying; Li, Wenfang [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian R& D Center for Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhu, Yanxia [Anti-Ageing and Regenerative Medicine Centre, Shenzhen University, 3688 Nanhai Avenue, Shenzhen 518060 Guangdong (China); Jiao, Zeren [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian R& D Center for Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Lim, Mayasari [Division of Bioengineering, School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637457 (Singapore); Fang, Meiyun [Department of Hematology, First Affiliated Hospital, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116011 (China); Shi, Fangxin [Department of Oncology, First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116011 (China); Wang, Ling, E-mail: whwl@hotmail.com [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, First Affiliated Hospital, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116011 (China); Liu, Tianqing, E-mail: liutq@dlut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian R& D Center for Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Cartilage transplantation using in vitro tissue engineered cartilage is considered a promising treatment for articular cartilage defects. In this study, we assessed the advantages of adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) combined with chitosan/gelatin hybrid hydrogel scaffolds, which acted as a cartilage biomimetic scaffold, to fabricate a tissue engineered cartilage dynamically in vitro and compared this with traditional static culture. Physical properties of the hydrogel scaffolds were evaluated and ADSCs were inoculated into the hydrogel at a density of 1 × 10{sup 7} cells/mL and cultured in a spinner flask with a special designed steel framework and feed with chondrogenic inductive media for two weeks. The results showed that the average pore size, porosity, swelling rate and elasticity modulus of hybrid scaffolds with good biocompatibility were 118.25 ± 19.51 μm, 82.60 ± 2.34%, 361.28 ± 0.47% and 61.2 ± 0.16 kPa, respectively. ADSCs grew well in chitosan/gelatin hybrid scaffold and successfully differentiated into chondrocytes, showing that the scaffolds were suitable for tissue engineering applications in cartilage regeneration. Induced cells cultivated in a dynamic spinner flask with a special designed steel frame expressed more proteoglycans and the cell distribution was much more uniform with the scaffold being filled mostly with extracellular matrix produced by cells. A spinner flask with framework promoted proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of ADSCs within chitosan/gelatin hybrid scaffolds and accelerated dynamic fabrication of cell–hydrogel constructs, which could be a selective and good method to construct tissue engineered cartilage in vitro. - Highlights: • ADSCs/hybrid scaffold constructs are dynamically fabricated in a spinner flask with a special framework. • Inside convection in spinner flask made enough supplement of oxygen and nutrients far beyond the depth of passive diffusion. • 3D culture environment accelerated mass

  18. Development of highly porous scaffolds based on bioactive silicates for dental tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudouri, O.M., E-mail: menti.goudouri@ww.uni-erlangen.de [Institute for Biomaterials, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Theodosoglou, E. [School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kontonasaki, E. [Department of Fixed Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Will, J. [Institute for Biomaterials, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Chrissafis, K. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Koidis, P. [Department of Fixed Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Paraskevopoulos, K.M. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Boccaccini, A.R. [Institute for Biomaterials, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Synthesis of an Mg-based glass-ceramic via the sol–gel technique. • The heat treatment of the glass-ceramic promoted the crystallization of akermanite. • Akermanite scaffolds coated with gelatin were successfully fabricated. • An HCAp layer was developed on the surface of all scaffolds after 9 days in SBF. - Abstract: Various scaffolding materials, ceramics and especially Mg-based ceramic materials, including akermanite (Ca{sub 2}MgSi{sub 2}O{sub 7}) and diopside (CaMgSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}), have attracted interest for dental tissue regeneration because of their improved mechanical properties and controllable biodegradation. The aim of the present work was the synthesis of an Mg-based glass-ceramic, which would be used for the construction of workable akermanite scaffolds. The characterization of the synthesized material was performed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Finally, the apatite forming ability of the scaffolds was assessed by immersion in simulated body fluid. The scaffolds were fabricated by the foam replica technique and were subsequently coated with gelatin to provide a functional surface for increased cell attachment. Finally, SEM microphotographs and FTIR spectra of the scaffolds after immersion in SBF solution indicated the inorganic bioactive character of the scaffolds suitable for the intended applications in dental tissue engineering.

  19. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, María Gabriela; Gordon, Michael H; Segovia, Francisco; Almajano Pablos, María Pilar

    2016-03-31

    The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) and Caesalpinia spinosa "Tara" (CS) were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts at a high concentration had lower tensile strength with higher elongation at break points, compared to the control film (p Films exhibited antioxidant activity in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and Trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays when added at 0.2%. The application of gelatine film containing CD and CS was found to be effective in delaying lipid oxidation and deterioration of beef patty quality during storage. Therefore, the films prepared in this study offered an alternative edible coating for the preservation of fresh food.

  20. Acid-base and electrolyte status during normovolemic hemodilution with succinylated gelatin or HES-containing volume replacement solutions in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna K Teloh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the past, several studies have compared different colloidal replacement solutions, whereby the focus was usually on the respective colloid. We therefore systematically studied the influence of the carrier solution's composition of five approved colloidal volume replacement solutions (Gelafundin, Gelafusal, Geloplasma, Voluven and Volulyte on acid-base as well as electrolyte status during and following acute severe normovolemic hemodilution. The solutions differed in the colloid used (succinylated gelatin vs. HES and in the presence and concentration of metabolizable anions as well as in their electrolyte composition. METHODS: Anesthetized Wistar rats were subjected to a stepwise normovolemic hemodilution with one of the solutions until a final hematocrit of 10%. Subsequent to dilution (162 min, animals were observed for an additional period (150 min. During dilution and observation time blood gas analyses were performed eight times in total. Additionally, in the Voluven and Volulyte groups as well as in 6 Gelafundin animals, electrolyte concentrations, glucose, pH and succinylated gelatin were measured in urine and histopathological evaluation of the kidney was performed. RESULTS: All animals survived without any indications of injury. Although the employed solutions differed in their respective composition, comparable results in all plasma acid-base and electrolyte parameters studied were obtained. Plasma pH increased from approximately 7.28 to 7.39, the plasma K(+ concentration decreased from circa 5.20 mM to 4.80-3.90 mM and the plasma Cl(- concentration rose from approximately 105 mM to 111-120 mM. Urinary analysis revealed increased excretion of K(+, H(+ and Cl(-. CONCLUSIONS: The present data suggest that the carrier solution's composition with regard to metabolizable anions as well as K(+, Ca(2+ only has a minor impact on acid-base and electrolyte status after application of succinylated gelatin or HES-containing colloidal

  1. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties

    OpenAIRE

    María Gabriela Gallego; Michael H. Gordon; Francisco Segovia; María Pilar Almajano Pablos

    2016-01-01

    The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD) and Caesalpinia spinosa “Tara” (CS) were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts...

  2. Development of gelatin-chitosan-hydroxyapatite based bioactive bone scaffold with controlled pore size and mechanical strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Kanchan; Dasgupta, Sudip; Kundu, Biswanath; Bissoyi, Akalabya

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite-chitosan/gelatin (HA:Chi:Gel) nanocomposite scaffold has potential to serve as a template matrix to regenerate extra cellular matrix of human bone. Scaffolds with varying composition of hydroxyapatite, chitosan, and gelatin were prepared using lyophilization technique where glutaraldehyde (GTA) acted as a cross-linking agent for biopolymers. First, phase pure hydroxyapatite-chitosan nanocrystals were in situ synthesized by coprecipitation method using a solution of 2% acetic acid dissolved chitosan and aqueous solution of calcium nitrate tetrahydrate [Ca(NO3)2,4H2O] and diammonium hydrogen phosphate [(NH4)2H PO4]. Keeping solid loading constant at 30 wt% and changing the composition of the original slurry of gelatin, HA-chitosan allowed control of the pore size, its distribution, and mechanical properties of the scaffolds. Microstructural investigation by scanning electron microscopy revealed the formation of a well interconnected porous scaffold with a pore size in the range of 35-150 μm. The HA granules were uniformly dispersed in the gelatin-chitosan network. An optimal composition in terms of pore size and mechanical properties was obtained from the scaffold with an HA:Chi:Gel ratio of 21:49:30. The composite scaffold having 70% porosity with pore size distribution of 35-150 μm exhibited a compressive strength of 3.3-3.5 MPa, which is within the range of that exhibited by cancellous bone. The bioactivity of the scaffold was evaluated after conducting mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) - materials interaction and MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay using MSCs. The scaffold found to be conducive to MSC's adhesion as evident from lamellipodia, filopodia extensions from cell cytoskeleton, proliferation, and differentiation up to 14 days of cell culture.

  3. Preparation and characterization of bionanocomposite film based on tapioca starch/bovine gelatin/nanorod zinc oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Oladzadabbasabadi, Nazila; Mohammadi Nafchi, Abdorreza; Jokar, Maryam

    2017-06-01

    To exploring a nano-packaging materials for using as coating or edible films, tapioca starch/gelatin/nanorod ZnO (ZnON) bionanocomposites were prepared via solution casting technique. The effects of nanofiller addition on the mechanical, physicochemical, and crystalline structures, as well as the barrier properties of bionanocomposite films were investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the bionanocomposite film incorporated with ZnON at a concentration of 3.5% w/w exhibited high intensity peaks compared with control samples. Results of UV-vis spectra analysis showed that incorporation of ZnON into the films can absorb the whole UV light. Tensile strength of the films was increased from 14 to 18MPa whereas elongation at breaks decreased from 18 to 8 percent and oxygen permeability decreased from 151.03 to 91.52cm(3)μm/(m(2)-day) by incorporation of 3.5% ZnON into biopolymer matrix. In summary combined starch/gelatin films supported by ZnON showed better properties compared to starch or gelatin alone. Thus, the bionanocomposite films can be used in food, medicine, and pharmaceutical packaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. An impedance method for spatial sensing of 3D cell constructs – towards applications in tissue engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canali, Chiara; Mazzoni, Chiara; Larsen, Layla Bashir

    2015-01-01

    ) cells were encapsulated in gelatin to form artificial 3D cell constructs and detected when placed in different positions inside large gelatin scaffolds. Taken together, these results open new perspectives for impedance-based sensing technologies for non-invasive monitoring in tissue engineering...

  5. Rheometric Non-Isothermal Gelatinization Kinetics of Chickpea Flour-Based Gluten-Free Muffin Batters with Added Biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, María Dolores; Cuesta, Francisco Javier; Herranz, Beatriz; Canet, Wenceslao

    2017-01-02

    An attempt was made to analyze the elastic modulus (G0) of chickpea flour (CF)-based muffin batters made with CF alone and with added biopolymers (whey protein (WP), xanthan gum (XG), inulin (INL), and their blends) in order to evaluate their suitability to be a wheat flour (WF) substitute in muffins, and to model the heat-induced gelatinization of batters under non-isothermal heating condition from 25 ◦C to 90 ◦C. A rheological approach is proposed to determine the kinetic parameters (reaction order (n), frequency factor (k0), and activation energy (Ea)) using linearly-increasing temperature. Zero-order reaction kinetics adequately described batter gelatinization process, therefore assuming a constant rate independent of the initial G0 value. The change of the derivative of G0 with respect to time (dG0/dt) versus temperature is described by one exponential function with activation energies ranging from 118 to 180 kJ·mol-1. Control wheat gluten batter, with higher and lower starch and protein contents, respectively, than CF-based batters, exhibited the highest Ea value. Formulation of CF-based gluten-free batters with starch and protein contents closer to the levels of WF-based batter could be a strategy to decrease differences in kinetic parameters of muffin batters and, therefore, in technological characteristics of baked muffins.

  6. Rheometric Non-Isothermal Gelatinization Kinetics of Chickpea Flour-Based Gluten-Free Muffin Batters with Added Biopolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Alvarez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt was made to analyze the elastic modulus (G0 of chickpea flour (CF-based muffin batters made with CF alone and with added biopolymers (whey protein (WP, xanthan gum (XG, inulin (INL, and their blends in order to evaluate their suitability to be a wheat flour (WF substitute in muffins, and to model the heat-induced gelatinization of batters under non-isothermal heating condition from 25 ◦C to 90 ◦C. A rheological approach is proposed to determine the kinetic parameters (reaction order (n, frequency factor (k0, and activation energy (Ea using linearly-increasing temperature. Zero-order reaction kinetics adequately described batter gelatinization process, therefore assuming a constant rate independent of the initial G0 value. The change of the derivative of G0 with respect to time (dG0/dt versus temperature is described by one exponential function with activation energies ranging from 118 to 180 kJ·mol−1. Control wheat gluten batter, with higher and lower starch and protein contents, respectively, than CF-based batters, exhibited the highest Ea value. Formulation of CF-based gluten-free batters with starch and protein contents closer to the levels of WF-based batter could be a strategy to decrease differences in kinetic parameters of muffin batters and, therefore, in technological characteristics of baked muffins.

  7. Synthesis of Gelatin-γ-Polyglutamic Acid-Based Hydrogel for the In Vitro Controlled Release of Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG from Camellia sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Philip Domondon Garcia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant property and other health benefits of the most abundant catechin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, are limited because of poor stability and permeability across intestine. Protecting the EGCG from the harsh gastrointestinal tract (GIT environment can help to increase its bioavailability following oral administration. In this study, EGCG was loaded to hydrogel prepared from ionic interaction between an optimized concentration of gelatin and γ-polyglutamic acid (γ-PGA, with ethylcarbodiimide (EDC as the crosslinker. Physicochemical characterization of hydrogel was done using Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The dependence of the swelling degree (SD of the hydrogel to the amount of gelatin, γ-PGA, EDC, swelling time and pH was determined. A high SD of the crosslinked hydrogel was noted at pH 4.5, 6.8 and 9.0 compared to pH 7.4, which describes pH-responsiveness. Approximately 67% of the EGCG from the prepared solution was loaded to the hydrogel after 12 h post-loading, in which loading efficiency was related to the amount of EDC. The in vitro release profile of EGCG at pH 1.2, 6.8 and 7.4, simulating GIT conditions, resulted in different sustained release curves. Wherein, the released EGCG was not degraded instantly compared to free-EGCG at controlled temperature of 37 °C at different pH monitored against time. Therefore, this study proves the potential of pH-responsive gelatin-γ-PGA-based hydrogel as a biopolymer vehicle to deliver EGCG.

  8. In Vitro Testing of Scaffolds for Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Meniscus Tissue Engineering-Introducing a New Biocompatibility Scoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achatz, Felix P; Kujat, Richard; Pfeifer, Christian G; Koch, Matthias; Nerlich, Michael; Angele, Peter; Zellner, Johannes

    2016-04-07

    A combination of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and scaffolds seems to be a promising approach for meniscus repair. To facilitate the search for an appropriate scaffold material a reliable and objective in vitro testing system is essential. This paper introduces a new scoring for this purpose and analyzes a hyaluronic acid (HA) gelatin composite scaffold and a polyurethane scaffold in combination with MSCs for tissue engineering of meniscus. The pore quality and interconnectivity of pores of a HA gelatin composite scaffold and a polyurethane scaffold were analyzed by surface photography and Berliner-Blau-BSA-solution vacuum filling. Further the two scaffold materials were vacuum-filled with human MSCs and analyzed by histology and immunohistochemistry after 21 days in chondrogenic media to determine cell distribution and cell survival as well as proteoglycan production, collagen type I and II content. The polyurethane scaffold showed better results than the hyaluronic acid gelatin composite scaffold, with signs of central necrosis in the HA gelatin composite scaffolds. The polyurethane scaffold showed good porosity, excellent pore interconnectivity, good cell distribution and cell survival, as well as an extensive content of proteoglycans and collagen type II. The polyurethane scaffold seems to be a promising biomaterial for a mesenchymal stem cell-based tissue engineering approach for meniscal repair. The new score could be applied as a new standard for in vitro scaffold testing.

  9. In Vitro Testing of Scaffolds for Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Meniscus Tissue Engineering—Introducing a New Biocompatibility Scoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix P. Achatz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A combination of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and scaffolds seems to be a promising approach for meniscus repair. To facilitate the search for an appropriate scaffold material a reliable and objective in vitro testing system is essential. This paper introduces a new scoring for this purpose and analyzes a hyaluronic acid (HA gelatin composite scaffold and a polyurethane scaffold in combination with MSCs for tissue engineering of meniscus. The pore quality and interconnectivity of pores of a HA gelatin composite scaffold and a polyurethane scaffold were analyzed by surface photography and Berliner-Blau-BSA-solution vacuum filling. Further the two scaffold materials were vacuum-filled with human MSCs and analyzed by histology and immunohistochemistry after 21 days in chondrogenic media to determine cell distribution and cell survival as well as proteoglycan production, collagen type I and II content. The polyurethane scaffold showed better results than the hyaluronic acid gelatin composite scaffold, with signs of central necrosis in the HA gelatin composite scaffolds. The polyurethane scaffold showed good porosity, excellent pore interconnectivity, good cell distribution and cell survival, as well as an extensive content of proteoglycans and collagen type II. The polyurethane scaffold seems to be a promising biomaterial for a mesenchymal stem cell-based tissue engineering approach for meniscal repair. The new score could be applied as a new standard for in vitro scaffold testing.

  10. Effect of relative humidity on properties of gelatin-pullulan-based edible films%环境湿度对明胶—普鲁兰多糖可食性膜性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张超; 高丹丹; 马越; 王丹; 赵晓燕; 江连洲

    2012-01-01

    Gelatin -puilulan -based film is a water-soluble package material. The effect of relative humidity on mechanical properties, water-vapor transmission ratio, oxygen transmission ratio, oil transmission ratio, color and water solubility of gelatin-pullulan-based film were evaluated,and the effect of relative humidity on properties of geiatin-puliulan-based film,gelatin film and pullulan film were compared. The relative humidity of 80% lowered the tensile strength of gelatin-pullulan-based film,improved its flexibility,and showed no significant different on its oxygen resistance,oil resistance and transparency. The properties of gelatin-pullulan- based film were better than that of gelatin film and pullulan film in the same relative humidity.%明胶-普鲁兰多糖膜是一种可以快速溶解于热水的可食性包装材料,研究环境湿度对明胶-普鲁兰多糖膜机械性能、氧气透过率、水蒸气透过率、油脂透过率、颜色以及水溶性的影响,并比较环境湿度对明胶膜、明胶-普鲁兰多糖膜和普鲁兰多糖膜性能的影响。结果显示,较高的环境湿度(80%)会降低明胶-普鲁兰多糖膜的抗拉强度,提高其柔韧性,而对其阻氧性、阻油性和透明度没有显著的影响;明胶-普鲁兰多糖膜的各方面性能优于明胶膜和普鲁兰多糖膜。

  11. A novel strategy for the discrimination of gelatinous Chinese medicines based on enzymatic digestion followed by nano-flow liquid chromatography in tandem with orbitrap mass spectrum detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Shen, Yuping; Xu, Ying; Maqueda, Aida Serra; Zheng, Jie; Wu, Qinan; Tam, James P

    2015-01-01

    Gelatinous Chinese medicines made from mammalian skin or horn or reptile shell are a very important type of animal-derived Chinese medicine. They have been extensively used either as both hemopoietic and hemostatic agents to treat vertigo, palpitation, hematuria, and insomnia in traditional Chinese medicine clinics; consumed as a popular tonic for weaker persons such as the elderly or women after giving birth; or further manufactured to health supplements for certain populations. However, they cannot be discriminated from each other by only using the routine approach in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, as it lacks enough specificity and, consequently, and the requirements can be met even by adding assayed ingredients. In this study, our efforts to differentiate three gelatinous Chinese medicines, Asini Corii Colla, Cervi Cornus Colla, and Testudinis Carapacis ET Plastri Colla, are presented, and a novel strategy based on enzymatic digestion followed by nano-flow liquid chromatography in tandem with orbitrap mass spectrum detector analysis is proposed herein. Fourteen diagnostic fragments identified from the digests of these medicines were exclusively selected for their discrimination. By taking advantage of the favorable features of this strategy, it is feasible and convenient to identify enzymatic-digested peptides originated from signature proteins in each medicine, which thus could be employed as potential biomarkers for their form of raw medicinal material, and the pulverized and the complex especially, that being the direct basis for authentication purpose.

  12. Gelatine-Based Antioxidant Packaging Containing Caesalpinia decapetala and Tara as a Coating for Ground Beef Patties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gabriela Gallego

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of antioxidant-active packaging has numerous advantages, such as the reduction of synthetic additives in food, the reduction of plastic waste and food protection against oxidation reactions. Different concentrations of extracts of the plants Caesalpinia decapetala (CD and Caesalpinia spinosa “Tara” (CS were incorporated into gelatine films as natural antioxidants. The physical, mechanical and antioxidant properties of these films were studied. Films containing plant extracts at a high concentration had lower tensile strength with higher elongation at break points, compared to the control film (p < 0.05. Films exhibited antioxidant activity in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC and Trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC assays when added at 0.2%. The application of gelatine film containing CD and CS was found to be effective in delaying lipid oxidation and deterioration of beef patty quality during storage. Therefore, the films prepared in this study offered an alternative edible coating for the preservation of fresh food.

  13. Investigation of the Viability, Adhesion, and Migration of Human Fibroblasts in a Hyaluronic Acid/Gelatin Microgel-Reinforced Composite Hydrogel for Vocal Fold Tissue Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heris, Hossein K; Daoud, Jamal; Sheibani, Sara; Vali, Hojatollah; Tabrizian, Maryam; Mongeau, Luc

    2016-01-21

    The potential use of a novel scaffold biomaterial consisting of cross-linked hyaluronic acid (HA)-gelatin (Ge) composite microgels is investigated for use in treating vocal fold injury and scarring. Cell adhesion integrins and kinematics of cell motion are investigated in 2D and 3D culture conditions, respectively. Human vocal fold fibroblast (hVFF) cells are seeded on HA-Ge microgels attached to a HA hydrogel thin film. The results show that hVFF cells establish effective adhesion to HA-Ge microgels through the ubiquitous expression of β1 integrin in the cell membrane. The microgels are then encapsulated in a 3D HA hydrogel for the study of cell migration. The cells within the HA-Ge microgel-reinforced composite hydrogel (MRCH) scaffold have an average motility speed of 0.24 ± 0.08 μm min(-1) . The recorded microscopic images reveal features that are presumably associated with lobopodial and lamellipodial cell migration modes within the MRCH scaffold. Average cell speed during lobopodial migration is greater than that during lamellipodial migration. The cells move faster in the MRCH than in the HA-Ge gel without microgels. These findings support the hypothesis that HA-Ge MRCH promotes cell adhesion and migration; thereby they constitute a promising biomaterial for vocal fold repair.

  14. Preparation and characterization of gelatin scaffold containing microorganism fermented cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Youn Mook; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Park, Jong Seok; Nho, Young Chang; Lee, Byeong Heon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mi Yeong; Lee, Jong Dae; Song, Sung Gi [Quegenbiotech, Co., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Cellulose, chitin, chitosan and hyaluronic acid are well known as polysaccharides. These polysaccharides have many effects on cell growth and differentiation. Cell activation increases with increasing the polysaccharides concentration. In this study, gelatin scaffold containing microorganism fermented cellulose, citrus gel were prepared by using irradiation technique. Physical properties of the scaffolds were investigated as a function of the concentrations of gelatin and citrus gel and the cell attachment, cell morphology and inflammation of the scaffolds also were characterized for regeneration of skin tissue.

  15. Understanding starch gelatinization: The phase diagram approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstedt, Jonas; Wojtasz, Joanna; Fyhr, Peter; Kocherbitov, Vitaly

    2015-09-20

    By constructing a detailed phase diagram for the potato starch-water system based on data from optical microscopy, synchrotron X-ray scattering and differential scanning calorimetry, we show that gelatinization can be interpreted in analogy with a eutectic transition. The phase rule explains why the temperature of the gelatinization transition (G) is independent on water content. Furthermore, the melting (M1) endotherm observed in DSC represents a liquidus line; the temperature for this event increases with increasing starch concentration. Both the lamellar spacing and the inter-helix distance were observed to decrease with increasing starch content for starch concentrations between approximately 65 wt% and 75 wt%, while the inter-helix distance continued decreasing upon further dehydration. Understanding starch gelatinization has been a longstanding challenge. The novel approach presented here shows interpretation of this phenomenon from a phase equilibria perspective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biomimetic fiber mesh scaffolds based on gelatin and hydroxyapatite nano-rods: Designing intrinsic skills to attain bone reparation abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartuqui, Javier; Gravina, A Noel; Rial, Ramón; Benedini, Luciano A; Yahia, L'Hocine; Ruso, Juan M; Messina, Paula V

    2016-09-01

    Intrinsic material skills have a deep effect on the mechanical and biological performance of bone substitutes, as well as on its associated biodegradation properties. In this work we have manipulated the preparation of collagenous derived fiber mesh frameworks to display a specific composition, morphology, open macroporosity, surface roughness and permeability characteristics. Next, the effect of the induced physicochemical attributes on the scaffold's mechanical behavior, bone bonding potential and biodegradability were evaluated. It was found that the scaffold microstructure, their inherent surface roughness, and the compression strength of the gelatin scaffolds can be modulated by the effect of the cross-linking agent and, essentially, by mimicking the nano-scale size of hydroxyapatite in natural bone. A clear effect of bioactive hydroxyapatite nano-rods on the scaffolds skills can be appreciated and it is greater than the effect of the cross-linking agent, offering a huge perspective for the upcoming progress of bone implant technology.

  17. Short-range and long-range cross-linking effects of polygenipin on gelatin-based composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Liming; Xu, Yongbin; Liang, Weijie; Li, Xinying; Li, Defu; Mu, Changdao

    2016-11-01

    Genipin is an ideal cross-linking agent in biomedical applications, which can undergo ring-opening polymerization in alkaline condition. The polygenipin can create short-range and long-range intermolecular cross-linking between protein chains. In this article, the polygenipin with different degree of polymerization was successfully prepared and used to fix gelatin composite materials. The short-range and long-range cross-linking effects of polygenipin were systematically studied. The results show that the composite materials present porous structure with tunable pore sizes in the gel state, which can be easily controlled by adjusting the degree of polymerization of polygenipin. Long-range cross-linking can increase the pore size of the gel. However, during the drying process, the composite films cross-linked by polygenipin with higher degree of polymerization shrank to smaller size to create more compact structure, resulting in the improvement of water resistance properties, thermal stability, tensile strength, and darker color for the composite films. It is interesting that the composite films can partly swell to the original gel structure when in contact with water and saturated water vapor. All the composite films have excellent barrier properties against UV light. However, the compatibility of gelatin and polygenipin is reduced when the degree of polymerization of polygenipin increases to a certain extent, which will result in the formation of phase separation structure. The obtained composite films are ideal candidates for food and pharmaceutical packaging materials. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2712-2722, 2016.

  18. Evaluation of the potential anti-adhesion effect of the PVA/Gelatin membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sang-Ho; Son, So-Ra; Kumar Sakar, Swapan; Nguyen, Thi-Hiep; Kim, Shin-Woo; Min, Young-Ki; Lee, Byong-Taek

    2014-05-01

    A common and prevailing complication for patients with abdominal surgery is the peritoneal adhesion that follows during the post-operative recovery period. Biodegradable polymers have been suggested as a barrier to prevent the peritoneal adhesion. In this work, as a preventive method, PVA/Gelatin hydrogel-based membrane was investigated with various combinations of PVA and gelatin (50/50, 30/70/, and 10/90). Membranes were made by casting method using hot PVA-gelatin solution and the gelatin was cross-linked by exposing UV irradiation for 5 days to render stability of the produced sheathed form in the physiological environment. Physical crosslinking was chosen to avoid the problems of potential cytotoxic effect of chemical crosslinking. Their materials characterization and mechanical properties were evaluated by SEM surface characterization, hydrophilicity, biodegradation rate, and so forth. Cytocompatibility was observed by in vitro experiments with cell proliferation using confocal laser scanning microscopy and the MTT assay by L-929 mouse fibroblast cells. The fabricated PVA/Gel membranes were implanted between artificially defected cecum and peritoneal wall in rats and were sacrificed after 1 and 2 weeks post-operative to compare their tissue adhesion extents with that of control group where the defected surface was not separated by PVA/Gel membrane. The PVA/Gel membrane (10/90) significantly reduced the adhesion extent and showed to be a potential candidate for the anti-adhesion application.

  19. Two-layer sheet of gelatin: A new topical hemostatic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Toshitaka; Tsujimoto, Hiroyuki; Torii, Hiroko; Ozamoto, Yuki; Hagiwara, Akeo

    2016-11-02

    Uncontrolled surgical bleeding is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and hospital cost. Topical hemostatic agents available today have problems controlling hemostatic effects; furthermore, their handling is difficult and they are unsafe. We devised a new hemostatic agent comprising gelatin sponge and film designed to be applied to the bleeding site, thereby creating a topical hemostatic agent made of gelatin alone. The gelatin was prepared by alkali treatment to eliminate viral activity. Hemostatic effects, surgical handling, and tissue reactions of the materials, namely a two-layer sheet of gelatin, TachoSil, and gelatin sponge, were evaluated using 21 dogs' spleens. The two-layer gelatin sheet and gelatin sponge exhibited superior hemostatic effects (100% hemostasis completed) compared with TachoSil (0-17% hemostasis). The gelatin matrix immediately absorbed blood flowing from wounds and activated the autologous components in the absorbed blood that promoted coagulation at the bleeding site. The two-layer gelatin sheet had the best surgical handling among the evaluated materials. Materials made of gelatin were associated with fewer inflammatory reactions compared with materials of TachoSil. The two-layer sheet of gelatin is a useful topical agent because of its superior hemostatic effects and usability, and is associated with a lower risk of transmitting diseases and inflammatory reactions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  20. Grating-based tomography of human tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Bert; Schulz, Georg; Mehlin, Andrea; Herzen, Julia; Lang, Sabrina; Holme, Margaret; Zanette, Irene; Hieber, Simone; Deyhle, Hans; Beckmann, Felix; Pfeiffer, Franz; Weitkamp, Timm

    2012-07-01

    The development of therapies to improve our health requires a detailed knowledge on the anatomy of soft tissues from the human body down to the cellular level. Grating-based phase contrast micro computed tomography using synchrotron radiation provides a sensitivity, which allows visualizing micrometer size anatomical features in soft tissue without applying any contrast agent. We show phase contrast tomography data of human brain, tumor vessels and constricted arteries from the beamline ID 19 (ESRF) and urethral tissue from the beamline W2 (HASYLAB/DESY) with micrometer resolution. Here, we demonstrate that anatomical features can be identified within brain tissue as well known from histology. Using human urethral tissue, the application of two photon energies is compared. Tumor vessels thicker than 20 μm can be perfectly segmented. The morphology of coronary arteries can be better extracted in formalin than after paraffin embedding.

  1. [Scaffold-based Bone Tissue Engineering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzapfel, B M; Rudert, M; Hutmacher, D W

    2017-08-01

    Tissue engineering provides the possibility of regenerating damaged or lost osseous structures without the need for permanent implants. Within this context, biodegradable and bioresorbable scaffolds can provide structural and biomechanical stability until the body's own tissue can take over their function. Additive biomanufacturing makes it possible to design the scaffold's architectural characteristics to specifically guide tissue formation and regeneration. Its nano-, micro-, and macro-architectural properties can be tailored to ensure vascularization, oxygenation, nutrient supply, waste exchange, and eventually ossification not only in its periphery but also in its center, which is not in direct contact with osteogenic elements of the surrounding healthy tissue. In this article we provide an overview about our conceptual design and process of the clinical translation of scaffold-based bone tissue engineering applications.

  2. Fibrin glue mixed with gelatin/hyaluronic acid/chondroitin-6-sulfate tri-copolymer for articular cartilage tissue engineering: the results of real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Cheng-Hung; Cheng, Winston T K; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Sun, Jui-Sheng; Lin, Feng-Huei; Tsai, Jui-Che

    2007-09-01

    Autologous fibrin glue has been demonstrated as a potential scaffold with very good biocompatibility for neocartilage formation. However, fibrin glue has been reported not to provide enough mechanical strength, but with many growth factors to interfere the tissue growth. Gelatin/hyaluronic acid/chondroitin-6-sulfate (GHC6S) tri-copolymer sponge has been prepared as scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering and showed very good results, but problems of cell seeding and cell distribution troubled the researchers. In this study, GHC6S particles would be added into the fibrin glue to provide better mechanical strength, better cell distribution, and easier cell seeding, which would be expected to improve cartilage regeneration in vitro. Porcine cryo-precipitated fibrinogen and thrombin prepared from prothrombin activated by 10% CaCl(2) solution were used in two groups. One is the fibrin glue group in which porcine chondrocytes were mixed with thrombin-fibrinogen solution, which was then converted into fibrin glue. The other is GHC6S-fibrin glue in which GHC6S particles were added into the thrombin-fibrinogen solution with porcine chondrocytes. After culturing for 1-2 weeks, the chondrocytes cultured in GHC6S-fibrin glue showed a round shape with distinct lacuna structure and showed positive in S-100 protein immunohistochemical stain. The related gene expressions of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1, matrix metalloproteinase-2, MT1-MMP, aggrecan, decorin, type I, II, X collagen, interleukin-1 beta, transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1), and Fas-associating death domain were checked by real-time PCR. The results indicated that the chondrocytes cultured in GHC6S-fibrin glue would effectively promote extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion and inhibit ECM degradation. The evidence could support that GHC6S-fibrin glue would be a promising scaffold for articular cartilage tissue engineering.

  3. Comparison on mechanical properties of single layered and bilayered chitosan-gelatin coated porous hydroxyapatite scaffold prepared through freeze drying method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effendi, M. D.; Gustiono, D.; Lukmana; Ayu, D.; Kurniawati, F.

    2017-02-01

    Biopolymer coated porous hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds were prepared for tissue engineering trough freeze drying method and impregnation. in this study, to mimic the mineral and organic component of natural bone, synthetic hydroxapatite (HA) scaffolds coated by polymer were prepared. Highly porous Hap scaffolds, fabricated by synthetic HA impregnation method on polyurethane foam, were coated with polymer coating solution, consisting of chitosan, Gelatin, and bilayered chitosan-gelatin prepared by aging and impregnating technique. For the purpose of comparison, The bare scaffolds without polymer coating layer were investigated. The Bare scaffolds were highly porous and interconnected with a pore size of around 150 µm–714 µm, has porosity at around 67,7% -85,7%, and has mechanical strength at around 0.06 Mpa - 0.071 Mpa, which is suitable for osteoblast cell Proliferation. Chitosan coated porous HA scaffold and gelatin coated porous HA scaffold had mechanical strength at around 0.81-0.85 Mpa, and 1.32-1.34 Mpa, respectively, with weight ratio of biopolymer and Hap was around 18%-22%. To compare these results, the coating on the bare scaffold with gelatin and chitosan had been conducted. Based on the result of FTIR, it could be concluded that coating procedure applied on porous hydroxy apatite (HA) coated by gelatin, chitosan coated HA scaffold, and bilayered Gelatin-chitosan coated porous HA scaffold, confirming that for allsampleshad no significant chemical effect on the coating structure. The compressive strength of bilayered Gelatin-chitosan coated HA scaffold had middle values between the rest, at around 1,06-1.2 Mpa for the samples at the same weight ratio of biopolymer: HA (around 18% - 22%). These results also confirming that coating by gelatin on porous hydroxyapatite was highest compresive strength and can be applied to improve mechanical properties of porous hydroxyapatite bare scaffold

  4. Wave propagation in ballistic gelatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naarayan, Srinivasan S; Subhash, Ghatu

    2017-01-23

    Wave propagation characteristics in long cylindrical specimens of ballistic gelatine have been investigated using a high speed digital camera and hyper elastic constitutive models. The induced transient deformation is modelled with strain rate dependent Mooney-Rivlin parameters which are determined by modelling the stress-strain response of gelatine at a range of strain rates. The varying velocity of wave propagation through the gelatine cylinder is derived as a function of prestress or stretch in the gelatine specimen. A finite element analysis is conducted using the above constitutive model by suitably defining the impulse imparted by the polymer bar into the gelatine specimen. The model results are found to capture the experimentally observed wave propagation characteristics in gelatine effectively.

  5. Release of lysozyme from electrospun PVA/lysozyme-gelatin scaffolds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-zhi YANG; Yu-hua LONG; Jun NIE

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an electrospinning process in fabricating ultra fine fibers with core-shell structure. A biodegradable polymer, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), was used as the shell; lysozyme was a kind of antioxidant; and gelatin were used as the core. Morphology and microstruc-ture of the ultra fine fibers were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron micro-scopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. As a comparison, composite nanofiber PVA/lysozyme-gelatin blend was prepared by a normal electrospinning process. In vitro drug release behaviors of the nanofibrous membranes were determined in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution. It was found that core-shell nanofibers PVA/lysozyme-gelatin obviously exhibit higher initial release rates compared to that of PVA/lysozyme-gelatin blend nanofibers. The current method may find wide application in controlled release of bioactive proteins and tissue engineering.

  6. Discussion on the Gelatin%浅谈明胶

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭玮

    2012-01-01

    Gelatin is a partially hydrolyzed product of the collagen.Most gelatins are extracted from animal tissues,such as skins and bones,etc.Gelatin has wide applications in food,pharmaceutical,photographic,and industrial areas.This paper focuses on the source and composition of gelatin,classification and application,and potential dangers.%明胶是胶原蛋白部分水解的产物,是从动物的皮、骨等结蹄组织中提取而成,在食品、医药、感光和工业等领域有着广泛的用途。文章就明胶的来源和组成、分类和应用以及潜在的危害性等方面进行综述,使人们能对明胶有个基本的认识。

  7. Hybrid scaffold bearing polymer-siloxane Schiff base linkage for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Bindu P., E-mail: bindumelekkuttu@gmail.com; Gangadharan, Dhanya; Mohan, Neethu; Sumathi, Babitha; Nair, Prabha D., E-mail: pdnair49@gmail.com

    2015-07-01

    Scaffolds that can provide the requisite biological cues for the fast regeneration of bone are highly relevant to the advances in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In the present article, we report the fabrication of a chitosan–gelatin–siloxane scaffold bearing interpolymer-siloxane Schiff base linkage, through a single-step dialdehyde cross-linking and freeze-drying method using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane as the siloxane precursor. Swelling of the scaffolds in phosphate buffered saline indicates enhancement with increase in siloxane concentration, whereas compressive moduli of the wet scaffolds reveal inverse dependence, owing to the presence of siloxane, rich in silanol groups. It is suggested that through the strategy of dialdehyde cross-linking, a limiting siloxane loading of 20 wt.% into a chitosan-gelatin matrix should be considered ideal for bone tissue engineering, because the scaffold made with 30 wt.% siloxane loading degrades by 48 wt.%, in 21 days. The hybrid scaffolds bearing Schiff base linkage between the polymer and siloxane, unlike the stable linkages in earlier reports, are expected to give a faster release of siloxanes and enhancement in osteogenesis. This is verified by the in vitro evaluation of the hybrid scaffolds using rabbit adipose mesenchymal stem cells, which revealed osteogenic cell-clusters on a polymer-siloxane scaffold, enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity and the expression of bone-specific genes, whereas the control scaffold without siloxane supported more of cell-proliferation than differentiation. A siloxane concentration dependent enhancement in osteogenic differentiation is also observed. - Highlights: • A hybrid scaffold bearing interpolymer-siloxane Schiff base linkage • A limiting siloxane loading of 20 wt.% into chitosan–gelatin matrix • A siloxane concentration dependent enhancement in osteogenic differentiation.

  8. SCAFFOLD BHA/GELATIN DENGAN PELAPIS PVA UNTUK APLIKASI IMPLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alva Edy Tontowi, MK Herliansyah, dan Punto Dewo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hard tissue defect, particularly at the bone structure, is a common problem in Indonesia causing improper function. About 60% of it is caused by defects that occur since birth, and the rest is caused by other factors, such as accidents. To treat these problems, medical doctor usually carry out transplantation or implantation. Implantation is done by filling the bone cavity with biomaterial made from Ca/P-based material, such as hydroxyapatite (HA. In the form of powder, pure HA is difficult to be formed into a certain shape and geometry since this material is brittle and has a high melting point (1400 oc, which is impossible to reach in a surgery environment. Additionally, in the form of macro-porous blocks, they are very weak and easy to break, far from the requirements. In order to form pure HA at room temperature and still fulfill the required strength, other biocompatible materials are needed. In this work, HA, gelatin and PVA were used to form samples. The HA was derived from bovine bone, bioactivity and oteoconductivity. Gelatin was used as a matrix of the composite, whilst Polyvynil Alchohol (PVA acted as a coating. The HA was derived by calcination of bovine chips at 900 oC for 2 hours, while the gelatin (G and PVA were supplied by commercial purchase. The ratio of [G/bHA] to distilled water (H2O was 30%, 40% dan 50% w/v. PVA 0.2% w/w coating was done by dipping the block in liquid nitrogen (N2. Tests were performed by DTS and microstructure analysis was carried out by SEM. The results show that sample with [G/bHA] of 50% w/v gave DTS of 6.219 MPa. This tensile strength matched the strength of human bone from a 62 year old person.  

  9. SCAFFOLD BHA/GELATIN DENGAN PELAPIS PVA UNTUK APLIKASI IMPLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alva Edy Tontowi, MK Herliansyah, dan Punto Dewo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hard tissue defect, particularly at the bone structure, is a common problem in Indonesia causing improper function. About 60% of it is caused by defects that occur since birth, and the rest is caused by other factors, such as accidents. To treat these problems, medical doctor usually carry out transplantation or implantation. Implantation is done by filling the bone cavity with biomaterial made from Ca/P-based material, such as hydroxyapatite (HA. In the form of powder, pure HA is difficult to be formed into a certain shape and geometry since this material is brittle and has a high melting point (1400 oc, which is impossible to reach in a surgery environment. Additionally, in the form of macro-porous blocks, they are very weak and easy to break, far from the requirements. In order to form pure HA at room temperature and still fulfill the required strength, other biocompatible materials are needed. In this work, HA, gelatin and PVA were used to form samples. The HA was derived from bovine bone, bioactivity and oteoconductivity. Gelatin was used as a matrix of the composite, whilst Polyvynil Alchohol (PVA acted as a coating. The HA was derived by calcination of bovine chips at 900 oC for 2 hours, while the gelatin (G and PVA were supplied by commercial purchase. The ratio of [G/bHA] to distilled water (H2O was 30%, 40% dan 50% w/v. PVA 0.2% w/w coating was done by dipping the block in liquid nitrogen (N2. Tests were performed by DTS and microstructure analysis was carried out by SEM. The results show that sample with [G/bHA] of 50% w/v gave DTS of 6.219 MPa. This tensile strength matched the strength of human bone from a 62 year old person.  

  10. Radiation stability and modification of gelatin for biological and medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haema, Kamonwon; Oyama, Tomoko Gowa; Kimura, Atsushi; Taguchi, Mitsumasa

    2014-10-01

    Gelatin is used in various biological and medical fields, including drug delivery systems and tissue engineering. In the context of these applications, radiation sterilization of gelatin was evaluated in terms of radiation stability. The molecular weight of gelatin powder irradiated by electron beams (EB) was analyzed using gel permeation chromatography (GPC). We found that irradiation decomposed the gelatin and that the weight-averaged molar mass (Mw) decreased by approximately 7-10% with sterilization doses in the range of 5-25 kGy. Also, we found that the hydrolysis rate in body and cell culture environments (37 °C water) was affected by irradiation. Although gelatin powder underwent chain scission when irradiated, crosslinking was predominantly induced when the gelatin was irradiated in water solution. Radiation-crosslinked (RX) gelatin hydrogel was fabricated without using any crosslinkers. In this case, fabrication and radiation sterilization were performed simultaneously. Using gel fraction and GPC analysis of the eluted sol, it was determined that the RX-gelatin hydrogel was stable for 7 days in water at 37 °C. These results provide important data for evaluating the feasibility of biological and medical applications of gelatin and RX-gelatin hydrogel.

  11. Antioxidant and cryoprotective effects of Amur sturgeon skin gelatin hydrolysate in unwashed fish mince.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoo, Mehdi; Benjakul, Soottawat; Xu, Xueming

    2015-08-15

    Antioxidant and cryoprotective effects of Amur sturgeon skin gelatin hydrolysates prepared using different commercial proteases in unwashed fish mince were investigated. Gelatin hydrolysates prepared using either Alcalase or Flavourzyme, were effective in preventing lipid oxidation as evidenced by the lower thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances formation. Gelatin hydrolysates were able to retard protein oxidation as indicated by the retarded protein carbonyl formation and lower loss in sulfhydryl content. In the presence of gelatin hydrolysates, unwashed mince had higher transition temperature of myosin and higher enthalpy of myosin and actin as determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Based on low field proton nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, gelatin hydrolysates prevented the displacement of water molecules between the different compartments, thus stabilizing the water associated with myofibrils in unwashed mince induced by repeated freeze-thawing. Oligopeptides in gelatin hydrolysates more likely contributed to the cryoprotective effect. Thus, gelatin hydrolysate could act as both antioxidant and cryoprotectant in unwashed fish mince.

  12. Maintenance of human embryonic stem cells on gelatin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yang; LIN ChangSheng; WANG Li; LIU Ying; MU XiaoNing; MAYue; LI LingSong

    2009-01-01

    Matrigel is routinely used as a coating material in the feeder-free culture system of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs).However,matrigel is costive and inconvenient to use.In this study,the possibility of using gelatin as an alternative coating material was investigated.The results showed that,after trypsinization,hESCs were maintained undifferentiated on gelatin.These hESCs expressed pluripotent markers,formed teratoma and maintained a normal karyotype.As measured at passage 10,the hESCs expressed a high level of Oct4 on both gelatin and Matrigel.hESCs growing on gelatin formed AP-positive colonies in similar size and number to those growing on Matrigel (P>0.05).Moreover,hESCs growing on gelatin contained a comparable percentage of SSEA-4-positive cells to those growing on Matrigel (95.1% vs.94.3%,P>0.05).H-1 hESCs were maintained undifferentiated on gelatin for 20 passages and remained the stable normal karyotype.This gelatin-based culture protocol may allow us to propagate hESCs in large scale,with less cost.

  13. Gelatin controversies in food, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products: Authentication methods, current status, and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Eaqub; Sultana, Sharmin; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Hossain, Motalib; Yehya, Wageeh A; Kader, Abdul; Bhargava, Suresh K

    2016-12-29

    Gelatin is a highly purified animal protein of pig, cow, and fish origins and is extensively used in food, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products. However, the acceptability of gelatin products greatly depends on the animal sources of the gelatin. Porcine and bovine gelatins have attractive features but limited acceptance because of religious prohibitions and potential zoonotic threats, whereas fish gelatin is welcomed in all religions and cultures. Thus, source authentication is a must for gelatin products but it is greatly challenging due to the breakdown of both protein and DNA biomarkers in processed gelatins. Therefore, several methods have been proposed for gelatin identification, but a comprehensive and systematic document that includes all of the techniques does not exist. This up-to-date review addresses this research gap and presents, in an accessible format, the major gelatin source authentication techniques, which are primarily nucleic acid and protein based. Instead of presenting these methods in paragraph form which needs much attention in reading, the major methods are schematically depicted, and their comparative features are tabulated. Future technologies are forecasted, and challenges are outlined. Overall, this review paper has the merit to serve as a reference guide for the production and application of gelatin in academia and industry and will act as a platform for the development of improved methods for gelatin authentication.

  14. SYNERESIS AND SWELLING OF GELATIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunitz, M

    1928-11-20

    1. When solid blocks of isoelectric gelatin are placed in cold distilled water or dilute buffer of pH 4.7, only those of a gelatin content of more than 10 per cent swell, while those of a lower gelatin content not only do not swell but actually lose water. 2. The final quantity of water lost by blocks of dilute gelatin is the same whether the block is immersed in a large volume of water or whether syneresis has been initiated in the gel through mechanical forces such as shaking, pressure, etc., even in the absence of any outside liquid, thus showing that syneresis is identical with the process of negative swelling of dilute gels when placed in cold water, and may be used as a convenient term for it. 3. Acid- or alkali-containing gels give rise to greater syneresis than isoelectric gels, after the acid or alkali has been removed by dialysis. 4. Salt-containing gels show greater syneresis than salt-free gels of the same pH, after the salt has been washed away. 5. The acid and alkali and also the salt effect on syneresis of gels disappears at a gelatin concentration above 8 per cent. 6. The striking similarity in the behavior of gels with respect to syneresis and of gelatin solutions with respect to viscosity suggests the probability that both are due to the same mechanism, namely the mechanism of hydration of the micellae in gelatin by means of osmosis as brought about either by diffusible ions, as in the presence of acid or alkali, or by the soluble gelatin present in the micellae. The greater the pressures that caused swelling of the micellae while the gelatin was in the sol state, the greater is the loss of water from the gels when the pressures are removed. 7. A quantitative study of the loss of water by dilute gels of various gelatin content shows that the same laws which have been found by Northrop to hold for the swelling of gels of high concentrations apply also to the process of losing water by dilute gels, i.e. to the process of syneresis. The general

  15. Differences in cytocompatibility between collagen, gelatin and keratin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yanfang; Zhang, Weiwei; Yuan, Jiang, E-mail: jyuan@njnu.edu.cn; Shen, Jian, E-mail: jshen@njnu.edu.cn

    2016-02-01

    Keratins are cysteine-rich intermediate filament proteins found in the cytoskeleton of the epithelial cells and in the matrix of hair, feathers, wool, nails and horns. The natural abundance of cell adhesion sequences, RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) and LDV (Leu-Asp-Val), makes them suitable for tissue engineering applications. The purpose of our study is to evaluate their cytocompatibility as compared to well-known collagen and gelatin proteins. Herein, collagen, gelatin and keratin were blended with poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and electrospun to afford nanofibrous mats, respectively. These PHBV/protein composite mats were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The cytocompatibility was evaluated with cell adhesion, cell viability and cell proliferation. The data from MTT and BrDU revealed that collagen had significantly superior cytocompatibility as compared to gelatin and keratin. Gelatin showed a better cytocompatibility than keratin without statistical significance difference. Finally, we gave the reasons to account for the above conclusions. - Highlights: • Collagen, gelatin and keratin were coelectrospun with PHBV to afford nanofibrous mats. • Cytocompatibility was evaluated with cell adhesion, cell viability and cell proliferation. • Collagen had significantly superior cytocompatibility as compared to gelatin and keratin.

  16. Effect of alkyl chain length on the interfacial strength of surgical sealants composed of hydrophobically-modified Alaska-pollock-derived gelatins and poly(ethylene)glycol-based four-armed crosslinker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuta, Ryo; Ito, Temmei; Taguchi, Tetsushi

    2016-10-01

    Surgical sealants are widely used clinically. Fibrin sealant is a commonly used sealant, but is ineffective under wet conditions during surgery. In this study, we developed surgical sealants composed of hydrophobically modified Alaska-pollock-derived gelatins (hm-ApGltns) with different alkyl chain lengths from C3 to C18 and a poly(ethylene)glycol-based 4-armed crosslinker (4S-PEG). The burst strength of the hm-ApGltns-based sealant was evaluated using a fresh porcine blood vessel and was found to increase with increasing alkyl chain length from 167±22 to 299±43mmHg when the substitution ratio of amino groups of ApGltn was around 10mol%. The maximum burst strength was observed when stearoyl-group modified ApGltn (Ste-ApGltn)/4S-PEG-based sealant was used, displaying 3-fold higher burst strength than the original ApGltn (Org-ApGltn)/4S-PEG sealant, and 10-fold higher than the commercial fibrin sealant. Ste-ApGltn/4S-PEG-based sealant was biodegraded in rat subcutaneous tissue within 8 weeks without severe inflammation. By molecular interaction analysis using surface plasmon resonance, the binding constant of Ste-ApGltn to fibronectin was found to be 9-fold higher than that of Org-ApGltn. Therefore, the developed sealant, in particular the Ste-ApGltn/4S-PEG-based sealant, has potential applications in the field of cardiovascular surgery as well as thoracic surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Fabrication of drug-loaded anti-infective guided tissue regeneration membrane with adjustable biodegradation property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jiajia; Shi, Rui; Niu, Yuzhao; Gong, Min; Coates, Phil; Crawford, Aileen; Chen, Dafu; Tian, Wei; Zhang, Liqun

    2015-11-01

    For guided tissue regeneration (GTR) membrane, synchronization of the membrane biodegradation rate and tissue regeneration rate is important. Besides, the major reason for GTR membrane failure in clinical application is infection which can be prevented by loading anti-bacterial drug. To realize the consistency in membrane degradation rate and tissue regeneration rate of the anti-infective membrane, we developed metronidazole-loaded electrospun poly(ɛ-caprolactone)-gelatin nanofiber membranes with different poly(ɛ-caprolactone)/gelatin ratios (95:5, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, and 50:50). Homogeneous nanofibers were successfully fabricated. The mechanical strength of the membranes increased with the poly(ɛ-caprolactone) content, while the hydrophilicity decreased. The controlled and sustained release of metronidazole from all the membranes prevented the colonization of anaerobic bacteria. At all poly(ɛ-caprolactone)/gelatin ratios, all the membranes presented good biocompatibility while the increase of gelatin content resulted in enhanced cell adhesion and proliferation. Subcutaneous implantation in rabbits for 8 months demonstrated that all the membranes showed good biocompatibility without infection. Both in vitro and in vivo results showed that the biodegradation rate of the membranes was accelerated with the increase of gelatin content. The biodegradation rate and biocompatibility of the membranes can be adjusted by changing the PCL/gelatin ratio. The optimal membrane can be chosen based on the patient and tissue type to realize the synchronization of membrane degradation with tissue regeneration for the best treatment effect.

  18. A novel strategy for the discrimination of gelatinous Chinese medicines based on enzymatic digestion followed by nano-flow liquid chromatography in tandem with orbitrap mass spectrum detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang H

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Huan Yang,1,2 Yuping Shen,1 Ying Xu,1 Aida Serra Maqueda,2 Jie Zheng,1 Qinan Wu,3 James P Tam21Department of Chinese Materia Medica and Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China; 2Division of Structural Biology and Biochemistry, School of Biological Sciences, College of Science, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore; 3Department of Chinese Medicine Authentication, School of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Gelatinous Chinese medicines made from mammalian skin or horn or reptile shell are a very important type of animal-derived Chinese medicine. They have been extensively used either as both hemopoietic and hemostatic agents to treat vertigo, palpitation, hematuria, and insomnia in traditional Chinese medicine clinics; consumed as a popular tonic for weaker persons such as the elderly or women after giving birth; or further manufactured to health supplements for certain populations. However, they cannot be discriminated from each other by only using the routine approach in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, as it lacks enough specificity and, consequently, and the requirements can be met even by adding assayed ingredients. In this study, our efforts to differentiate three gelatinous Chinese medicines, Asini Corii Colla, Cervi Cornus Colla, and Testudinis Carapacis ET Plastri Colla, are presented, and a novel strategy based on enzymatic digestion followed by nano-flow liquid chromatography in tandem with orbitrap mass spectrum detector analysis is proposed herein. Fourteen diagnostic fragments identified from the digests of these medicines were exclusively selected for their discrimination. By taking advantage of the favorable features of this strategy, it is feasible and convenient to identify enzymatic-digested peptides originated from signature proteins in each medicine, which thus could be employed as potential

  19. Trout-skin gelatin-based edible films containing phenolic antioxidants: effect on physical properties and oxidative stability of cod-liver oil model food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammineni, Nageshwar; Unlü, Gülhan; Rasco, Barbara; Powers, Joseph; Sablani, Shyam; Nindo, Caleb

    2012-11-01

    Trout-skin (Oncorhynchus mykiss) gelatin-based films containing antioxidants (epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), 50 and 250 ppm w/w) and green tea powder (1% and 20% w/w of gelatin) were tested for tensile strength, elastic modulus, and elongation, and oxygen and water vapor transmission rates, in vitro antioxidant activity using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay and effect on stabilizing cod-liver oil held under mild thermal abuse conditions. Cod-liver oil overlaid with films was stored at 40 °C for 20 d and analyzed for peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Antioxidant activity was retained in films containing green tea powder, but was reduced (P antioxidants did not change significantly (P > 0.05), but the oxygen transmission rate for films with 50 ppm EGCG and 20% green tea powder was significant (P antioxidant incorporation. The TBARS and PV of control oil increased from 0.05 ± 0.01 to 4.71 ± 0.30 g MDA/kg oil and from 3.6 ± 0.2 to 178.3 ± 24.5 millieq peroxides/kg oil, respectively, after 20 d. For cod-liver oil covered with control or antioxidant-containing films, TBARS remained below 0.37 g MDA/kg oil and PV below 7 millieq peroxides/kg oil. Incorporation of antioxidants to the films did not reduce oil oxidation (P > 0.05) at the levels tested and this was confirmed by activation energy calculations. The rate of oil oxidation was more dependent upon the inherent oxygen barrier property of the films than the presence of antioxidants. This research has the potential to enhance the utilization of fish skins, a valuable food processing by-product, as edible films with natural antioxidants to extend the shelf life of foods. The film physical properties and barrier to oxygen and water are investigated. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Fabrication of high-density collagen fibril matrix gels by renaturation of triple-helix collagen from gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyabu, Yoshimi; Yunoki, Shunji; Hatayama, Hirosuke; Teranishi, Yoshikazu

    2013-11-01

    Collagen-based 3-D hydrogels often lack sufficient mechanical strength for tissue engineering. We developed a method for fabrication of high-density collagen fibril matrix (CFM) gels from concentrated solutions of uncleaved gelatin (UCG). Denatured random-coil UCG exhibited more rapid and efficient renaturation into collagen triple-helix than cleaved gelatin (CG) over a broad range of setting temperatures. The UCG solution formed opaque gels with high-density reconstituted collagen fibrils at 28-32 °C and transparent gels similar to CG at 5%) and elasticity (1.28 ± 0.15 kPa at 5% and 4.82 ± 0.38 kPa at 8%) with minimal cell loss. The elastic modulus of these gels was higher than that of conventional CFM containing 0.5% collagen. High-strength CFM may provide more durable hydrogels for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  1. Effect of the addition of soy lecithin and Yucca schidigera extract on the properties of gelatin and glycerol based biodegradable films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana P. Dias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gelatin-based films containing soy lecithin or Yucca schidigera extract and glycerol as plasticizer were produced by casting and characterized for their mechanical properties, water vapor permeability (WVP, water solubility, opacity and morphology. The addition of glycerol reduced the tensile strength, with a difference of ~ 68% between the values for the minimum and maximum concentrations evaluated, both for the plasticizer and the surfactant. Elongation values reached 52% and 40%, for films containing yucca extract and lecithin, respectively, when higher amounts of plasticizer and surfactant were added. Lower values of WVP were obtained when the intermediate concentration of glycerol (20 g plasticizer/100 g protein was used, reaching 0.14 and 0.15 g mm/m² h kPa, respectively, for films containing yucca extract and lecithin. The solubility was not affected by adding plasticizer and / or surfactants. The morphologies of the inner sections of the films, regardless of type of surfactant used, were compact, without pores or phase separation, indicating efficient incorporation of the compounds added to the protein matrix.

  2. Superabsorbent 3D Scaffold Based on Electrospun Nanofibers for Cartilage Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiming; Chen, Shuai; Morsi, Yosry; El-Hamshary, Hany; El-Newhy, Mohamed; Fan, Cunyi; Mo, Xiumei

    2016-09-21

    Electrospun nanofibers have been used for various biomedical applications. However, electrospinning commonly produces two-dimensional (2D) membranes, which limits the application of nanofibers for the 3D tissue engineering scaffold. In the present study, a porous 3D scaffold (3DS-1) based on electrospun gelatin/PLA nanofibers has been prepared for cartilage tissue regeneration. To further improve the repairing effect of cartilage, a modified scaffold (3DS-2) cross-linked with hyaluronic acid (HA) was also successfully fabricated. The nanofibrous structure, water absorption, and compressive mechanical properties of 3D scaffold were studied. Chondrocytes were cultured on 3D scaffold, and their viability and morphology were examined. 3D scaffolds were also subjected to an in vivo cartilage regeneration study on rabbits using an articular cartilage injury model. The results indicated that 3DS-1 and 3DS-2 exhibited superabsorbent property and excellent cytocompatibility. Both these scaffolds present elastic property in the wet state. An in vivo study showed that 3DS-2 could enhance the repair of cartilage. The present 3D nanofibrous scaffold (3DS-2) would be promising for cartilage tissue engineering application.

  3. Detection of Benzoic Acid by an Amperometric Inhibitor Biosensor Based on Mushroom Tissue Homogenate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kemal Sezgintürk

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An amperometric benzoic acid-sensing inhibitor biosensor was prepared by immobilizing mushroom (Agaricus bisporus tissue homogenate on a Clark-type oxygen electrode. The effects of the quantity of mushroom tissue homogenate, the quantity of gelatin and the effect of the crosslinking agent glutaraldehyde percent on the biosensor were studied. The optimum concentration of phenol used as substrate was 200 μM. The bioanalytical properties of the proposed biosensor, such as dependence of the biosensor response on the pH value and the temperature, were investigated. The biosensor responded linearly to benzoic acid in a concentration range of 25–100 μM. Standard deviation (s.d. was ±0.49 μM for 7 successive determinations at a concentration of 75 μM. The inhibitor biosensor based on mushroom tissue homogenate was applied for the determination of benzoic acid in fizzy lemonade, some fruits and groundwater samples. Results were compared to those obtained using AOAC method, showing a good agreement.

  4. Evaluation of the factors influencing the resultant diameter of the electrospun gelatin/sodium alginate nanofibers via Box-Behnken design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gönen, Seza Özge; Erol Taygun, Melek; Küçükbayrak, Sadriye

    2016-01-01

    This article presented a study on the effects of solution properties (i.e., gelatin concentration, alginate concentration, content of alginate solution in the blend solution, and content of acetic acid in the solvent of gelatin solution) on the average diameter of electrospun gelatin/sodium alginate nanofibers, as well as its standard deviation. For this purpose, blend solutions of two natural polymers (gelatin and sodium alginate) were prepared both in the absence and presence of ethanol. Response surface methodology based on a three-level, four-variable Box-Benkhen design was employed to define quadratic relationships between the responses and the solution properties. The individual and interactive effects of the solution properties were determined. Moreover, the adequacy of the models was verified by the validation experiments. Results showed that the average diameters of the resultant nanofibers were 68-166 nm and 90-155 nm in the absence and presence of ethanol, respectively. The experimental results were in good agreement with the predicted response values. Hence, this study provides an overview on the fabrication of gelatin/sodium alginate nanofibers with targeted diameter, which may have potential to be used in the field of tissue engineering.

  5. Variation of Hydroxyapatite Content in Soft Gelatin Affects Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahsai Kantawong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gelatin is a common material used in tissue engineering and hydroxyapatite (HA has a composition and structure similar to natural bone mineral. HA is also used to increase the adhesion ability of scaffolds. The physical and mechanical properties of gelatin, together with the chemical properties of HA, can affect cell differentiation. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the gene expression of human mesenchymal stem cells (HMSCs upon culturing on gelatin composite with HA. Low amounts of HA were introduced into the gelatin in order to modulate properties of gelatin. Three types of hydrogel were fabricated by glutaraldehyde crosslinking before lyophilization to produce the porous 3D structure: (1 pure gelatin, (2 0.5 mg/ml HA in gelatin, and (3 1 mg/ml HA in gelatin. The fabricated hydrogels were used as scaffolds to cultivate HMSCs for two periods - 24 hours and 3 weeks. The results showed that all types of fabricated hydrogels could be used to cultivate HMSCs. Changes of gene expressions indicated that the HMSCs cultured on the 1 mg/ml HA in gelatin showed neuronal lineage-specific differentiation.

  6. The Dynamic Behaviour of Ballistic Gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, C. J.; Appleby-Thomas, G. J.; Hazell, P. J.; Allsop, D. F.

    2009-12-01

    In order to characterise the effect of projectiles it is necessary to understand the mechanism of both penetration and resultant wounding in biological systems. Porcine gelatin is commonly used as a tissue simulant in ballistic tests because it elastically deforms in a similar manner to muscular tissue. Bullet impacts typically occur in the 350-850 m/s range; thus knowledge of the high strain-rate dynamic properties of both the projectile and target materials are desirable to simulate wounds. Unlike projectile materials, relatively little data exists on the dynamic response of flesh simulants. The Hugoniot for a 20 wt.% porcine gelatin, which exhibits a ballistic response similar to that of human tissues at room temperature, was determined using the plate-impact technique at impact velocities of 75-860 m/s. This resulted in impact stresses around three times higher than investigated elsewhere. In US-uP space the Hugoniot had the form US = 1.57+1.77 uP, while in P-uP space it was essentially hydrodynamic. In both cases this was in good agreement with the limited available data from the literature.

  7. Thermogelling Bioadhesive Scaffolds for Intervertebral Disc Tissue Engineering: Preliminary In Vitro Comparison of Aldehyde-Based Versus Alginate Microparticle-Mediated Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltsey, C.; Christiani, T.; Williams, J.; Scaramazza, J.; Van Sciver, C.; Toomer, K.; Sheehan, J.; Branda, A.; Nitzl, A.; England, E.; Kadlowec, J.; Iftode, C.; Vernengo, J.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering of certain load-bearing parts of the body can be dependent on scaffold adhesion or integration with the surrounding tissue to prevent dislocation. One such area is the regeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD). In this work, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) was grafted with chondroitin sulfate (CS) (PNIPAAm-g-CS) and blended with aldehyde-modified CS to generate an injectable polymer that can form covalent bonds with tissue upon contact. However, the presence of the reactive aldehyde groups can compromise the viability of encapsulated cells. Thus, liposomes were encapsulated in the blend, designed to deliver the ECM derivative, gelatin, after the polymer has adhered to tissue and reached physiological temperature. This work is based on the hypothesis that the discharge of gelatin will enhance the biocompatibility of the material by covalently reacting with, or “end-capping”, the aldehyde functionalities within the gel that did not participate in bonding with tissue upon contact. As a comparison, formulations were also created without CS aldehyde and with an alternative adhesion mediator, mucoadhesive calcium alginate particles. Gels formed from blends of PNIPAAm-g-CS and CS aldehyde exhibited increased adhesive strength compared to PNIPAAm-g-CS alone (p<0.05). However, the addition of gelatin-loaded liposomes to the blend significantly decreased the adhesive strength (p<0.05). The encapsulation of alginate microparticles within PNIPAAm-g-CS gels caused the tensile strength to increase two-fold over that of PNIPAAm-g-CS blends with CS aldehyde (p<0.05). Cytocompatibility studies indicate that formulations containing alginate particles exhibit reduced cytotoxicity over those containing CS aldehyde. Overall, the results indicated that the adhesives composed of alginate microparticles encapsulated in PNIPAAm-g-CS have the potential to serve as a scaffold for IVD regeneration. PMID:25641647

  8. Thermogelling bioadhesive scaffolds for intervertebral disk tissue engineering: preliminary in vitro comparison of aldehyde-based versus alginate microparticle-mediated adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltsey, C; Christiani, T; Williams, J; Scaramazza, J; Van Sciver, C; Toomer, K; Sheehan, J; Branda, A; Nitzl, A; England, E; Kadlowec, J; Iftode, C; Vernengo, J

    2015-04-01

    Tissue engineering of certain load-bearing parts of the body can be dependent on scaffold adhesion or integration with the surrounding tissue to prevent dislocation. One such area is the regeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD). In this work, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) was grafted with chondroitin sulfate (CS) (PNIPAAm-g-CS) and blended with aldehyde-modified CS to generate an injectable polymer that can form covalent bonds with tissue upon contact. However, the presence of the reactive aldehyde groups can compromise the viability of encapsulated cells. Thus, liposomes were encapsulated in the blend, designed to deliver the ECM derivative, gelatin, after the polymer has adhered to tissue and reached physiological temperature. This work is based on the hypothesis that the discharge of gelatin will enhance the biocompatibility of the material by covalently reacting with, or "end-capping", the aldehyde functionalities within the gel that did not participate in bonding with tissue upon contact. As a comparison, formulations were also created without CS aldehyde and with an alternative adhesion mediator, mucoadhesive calcium alginate particles. Gels formed from blends of PNIPAAm-g-CS and CS aldehyde exhibited increased adhesive strength compared to PNIPAAm-g-CS alone (p<0.05). However, the addition of gelatin-loaded liposomes to the blend significantly decreased the adhesive strength (p<0.05). The encapsulation of alginate microparticles within PNIPAAm-g-CS gels caused the tensile strength to increase twofold over that of PNIPAAm-g-CS blends with CS aldehyde (p<0.05). Cytocompatibility studies indicate that formulations containing alginate particles exhibit reduced cytotoxicity over those containing CS aldehyde. Overall, the results indicated that the adhesives composed of alginate microparticles encapsulated in PNIPAAm-g-CS have the potential to serve as a scaffold for IVD regeneration.

  9. Controlled Fabrication of Gelatin Nanoparticles as Drug Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanshahi, M.; Sanati, M. H.; Minuchehr, Z.; Hajizadeh, S.; Babaei, Z.

    2007-08-01

    In recent years, significant effort has been devoted to develop nanotechnology for drug delivery since it offers a suitable means of delivering small molecular weight drugs, as well as macromolecules such as proteins, peptides or genes by either localized or targeted delivery to the tissue of interest. Nanotechnology focuses on formulating therapeutic agents in biocompatible nanocomposites such as nanoparticles, nanocapsules, micellar systems, and conjugates. Protein nanoparticles (BSA, HAS and gelatin) generally vary in size from 50-300 nm and they hold certain advantages such as greater stability during storage, stability in vivo, non-toxicity, non-antigen and ease to scale up during manufacture over the other drug delivery systems. The primary structure of gelatin offers many possibilities for chemical modification and covalent drug attachment. Here nanoparticles of gelatin type A were prepared by a two-step desolvation method as a colloidal drug delivery system and the essential parameters in fabrication were considered. Gelatin was dissolved in 25 mL distilled water under room temperature range. Then acetone was added to the gelatin solution as a desolvating agent to precipitate the high molecular weight (HMW) gelatin. The supernatant was discarded and the HMW gelatin re-dissolved by adding 25 mL distilled water and stirring at 600 rpm. Acetone were added drop-wise to form nanoparticles. At the end of the process, glutaraldehyde solution was used for preparing nanoparticles as a cross-linking agent, and stirred for 12h at 600 rpm. For purification stage we use centrifuge with 600rpm for 3 times. The objective of the present study is consideration of some factors such as temperature, gelatin concentration, agitation speed and the amount of acetone and their effects on size and distribution of nanoparticles. Among the all conditions, 60° C, 50 mg/ml gelatin concentration, 75 ml acetone had the best result and the nanoparticle size was under 170 nm. The effect

  10. Novel formulations of ballistic gelatin. 1. Rheological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecheru, Teodora; Său, Ciprian; Lăzăroaie, Claudiu; Zaharia, Cătălin; Rotariu, Traian; Stănescu, Paul-Octavian

    2016-06-01

    Ballistic gelatin is the simulant of the human body during field tests in forensics and other related fields, due to its physical and mechanical similarities to human trunk and organs. Since the ballistic gelatin used in present has important issues to overcome, an alternative approach is the use of gelatin-polymer composites, where a key factor is the insertion of biocompatible materials, which replicate accurately the human tissues. In order to be able to obtain an improved material in terms of mechanical performances by an easy industrial-scale technology, before the verification of the ballistic parameters by shooting in agreement with military standards, one of the best and cheapest solutions is to perform a thorough check of their rheological properties, in standard conditions.

  11. Recent advancement of gelatin nanoparticles in drug and vaccine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Nityananda; Sahoo, Ranjan Ku; Biswas, Nikhil; Guha, Arijit; Kuotsu, Ketousetuo

    2015-11-01

    Novel drug delivery system using nanoscale materials with a broad spectrum of applications provides a new therapeutic foundation for technological integration and innovation. Nanoparticles are suitable drug carrier for various routes of administration as well as rapid recognition by the immune system. Gelatin, the biological macromolecule is a versatile drug/vaccine delivery carrier in pharmaceutical field due to its biodegradable, biocompatible, non-antigenicity and low cost with easy availability. The surface of gelatin nanoparticles can be modified with site-specific ligands, cationized with amine derivatives or, coated with polyethyl glycols to achieve targeted and sustained release drug delivery. Compared to other colloidal carriers, gelatin nanoparticles are better stable in biological fluids to provide the desired controlled and sustained release of entrapped drug molecules. The current review highlights the different formulation aspects of gelatin nanoparticles which affect the particle characteristics like zeta potential, polydispersity index, entrapment efficacy and drug release properties. It has also given emphasis on the major applications of gelatin nanoparticles in drug and vaccine delivery, gene delivery to target tissues and nutraceutical delivery for improving the poor bioavailabity of bioactive phytonutrients.

  12. An In Vivo Study of Composite Microgels Based on Hyaluronic Acid and Gelatin for the Reconstruction of Surgically Injured Rat Vocal Folds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppoolse, Jiska M. S.; Van Kooten, T. G.; Heris, Hossein K.; Mongeau, Luc; Li, Nicole Y. K.; Thibeault, Susan L.; Pitaro, Jacob; Akinpelu, Olubunm; Daniel, Sam J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate local injection with a hierarchically microstructured hyaluronic acid-gelatin (HA-Ge) hydrogel for the treatment of acute vocal fold injury using a rat model. Method: Vocal fold stripping was performed unilaterally in 108 Sprague-Dawley rats. A volume of 25 µl saline (placebo controls),…

  13. Rheometric Non-Isothermal Gelatinization Kinetics of Chickpea Flour-Based Gluten-Free Muffin Batters with Added Biopolymers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alvarez, María; Cuesta, Francisco; Herranz, Beatriz; Canet, Wenceslao

    2017-01-01

    ...) in order to evaluate their suitability to be a wheat flour (WF) substitute in muffins, and to model the heat-induced gelatinization of batters under non-isothermal heating condition from 25 [degrees]C to 90 [degrees]C...

  14. Starch gelatinization under thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroongsarng, D; Wongpoowarak, W; Mitrevej, A

    1999-01-01

    The behavior under thermal stress of starch dispersed in water was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to estimate the heat transported through the aqueous medium in gelatinization, and to characterize the range of gelatinization temperatures. In DSC scanning mode, the endotherm of 10% starch in aqueous dispersion showed the tracing of gelatinization at between 67 and 80 degrees C, having an onset at approximately 69 degrees C. In the isothermal mode, characteristically distinct isothermal heat flow profiles were revealed. It was hypothesized that the thermal influx proposed as being analogous to the diffusion process may affect the profiles. The profiles were transformed and nonlinearly fitted according to the square root of time model to characterize a so-called t-parameter, which was related to mean square displacement of molecular distribution. The t-parameter of starch in excess of water decreased compared to that of water only. The plot of difference in these t-parameters, expressed as delta, against temperature showed a dramatically decreased delta at the temperature between 66.7 and 75.2 degrees C, which coincided with the findings from scanning mode DSC. It was further hypothesized that the decreased delta may be due to the gelatinizing process. According to the theory of polymer solution, the critical temperature (theta) at 75.2 degrees C, where the free energy became theoretically negative, i.e., the starch became spontaneously dissolved, was drawn. This theta was located within the range of gelatinizing temperatures. It was deduced that starch polymer may have dissolved during gelatinization. The dissolution from acetaminophen tablets prepared by starch paste was lower compared with that of negative controls (without paste). Moreover, the paste prepared at gelatinizing temperature (70 degrees C) seemed to inhibit acetaminophen dissolution from tablet matrices more than that prepared at subgelatinizing temperature (50 degrees C).

  15. Biopolymer-Based Nanoparticles for Drug/Gene Delivery and Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Numata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a great interest in application of nanoparticles as biomaterials for delivery of therapeutic molecules such as drugs and genes, and for tissue engineering. In particular, biopolymers are suitable materials as nanoparticles for clinical application due to their versatile traits, including biocompatibility, biodegradability and low immunogenicity. Biopolymers are polymers that are produced from living organisms, which are classified in three groups: polysaccharides, proteins and nucleic acids. It is important to control particle size, charge, morphology of surface and release rate of loaded molecules to use biopolymer-based nanoparticles as drug/gene delivery carriers. To obtain a nano-carrier for therapeutic purposes, a variety of materials and preparation process has been attempted. This review focuses on fabrication of biocompatible nanoparticles consisting of biopolymers such as protein (silk, collagen, gelatin, β-casein, zein and albumin, protein-mimicked polypeptides and polysaccharides (chitosan, alginate, pullulan, starch and heparin. The effects of the nature of the materials and the fabrication process on the characteristics of the nanoparticles are described. In addition, their application as delivery carriers of therapeutic drugs and genes and biomaterials for tissue engineering are also reviewed.

  16. Gellan gum microgel-reinforced cell-laden gelatin hydrogels

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Hyeongho; Olsen, Bradley D.; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2013-01-01

    The relatively weak mechanical properties of hydrogels remain a major drawback for their application as load-bearing tissue scaffolds. Previously, we developed cell-laden double-network (DN) hydrogels that were composed of photocrosslinkable gellan gum (GG) and gelatin. Further research into the materials as tissue scaffolds determined that the strength of the DN hydrogels decreased when they were prepared at cell-compatible conditions, and the encapsulated cells in the DN hydrogels did not f...

  17. Nanofibers coated on acellular tissue-engineered bovine pericardium supports differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into endothelial cells for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathapati, Santosh; Bishi, Dillip Kumar; Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Cherian, Kotturathu Mammen; Guhathakurta, Soma; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Verma, Rama Shanker

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to develop biodegradable, polymer-based nanofibers coated on acellular tissue-engineered bovine pericardium (ATEBP) for cell interfaces, enabling more exquisite functionality, such as mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) adhesion, proliferation and differentiation into endothelial cells for tissue engineering. ATEBP coated with nanofibers of poly(L-lactic acid)-co-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PLACL) and a blend of PLACL and gelatin were analyzed for human bone marrow-derived MSC adhesion, proliferation and differentiation into endothelial cells. The cell culture-based approach showed an increase in human bone marrow-derived MSC adhesion, proliferation and differentiation into endothelial cells on ATEBP coated with PLACL/gelatin nanofibers compared with ATEBP and PLACL nanofibers coated on ATEBP. ATEBP coated with PLACL/gelatin nanofibrous scaffolds, along with human bone marrow-derived MSCs differentiated into endothelial cells, might improve the scaffolds' functionality for tissue engineering.

  18. Cell Sheet-Based Tissue Engineering for Organizing Anisotropic Tissue Constructs Produced Using Microfabricated Thermoresponsive Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hironobu; Okano, Teruo

    2015-11-18

    In some native tissues, appropriate microstructures, including orientation of the cell/extracellular matrix, provide specific mechanical and biological functions. For example, skeletal muscle is made of oriented myofibers that is responsible for the mechanical function. Native artery and myocardial tissues are organized three-dimensionally by stacking sheet-like tissues of aligned cells. Therefore, to construct any kind of complex tissue, the microstructures of cells such as myotubes, smooth muscle cells, and cardiomyocytes also need to be organized three-dimensionally just as in the native tissues of the body. Cell sheet-based tissue engineering allows the production of scaffold-free engineered tissues through a layer-by-layer construction technique. Recently, using microfabricated thermoresponsive substrates, aligned cells are being harvested as single continuous cell sheets. The cell sheets act as anisotropic tissue units to build three-dimensional tissue constructs with the appropriate anisotropy. This cell sheet-based technology is straightforward and has the potential to engineer a wide variety of complex tissues. In addition, due to the scaffold-free cell-dense environment, the physical and biological cell-cell interactions of these cell sheet constructs exhibit unique cell behaviors. These advantages will provide important clues to enable the production of well-organized tissues that closely mimic the structure and function of native tissues, required for the future of tissue engineering. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. PLA-based foams: tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco Perero, José Ignacio; Antunes, Marcelo de Sousa Pais

    2015-01-01

    Biodegradable porous scaffolds with or without bioactive molecules prepared by clean techniques attract an enormous interest for tissue engineering applications. Scaffolds work as structural support for both cell implantation and growth, favoring the regeneration or formation of new tissue. Scaffold requisites for tissue engineering applications include a proper material selection, which has to be biocompatible and biodegradable and with a good balance of mechanical properties, as...

  20. Anisotropic silk fibroin/gelatin scaffolds from unidirectional freezing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asuncion, Maria Christine Tankeh, E-mail: christine.asuncion@u.nus.edu [National University of Singapore, Department of Biomedical Engineering (Singapore); Goh, James Cho-Hong [National University of Singapore, Department of Biomedical Engineering (Singapore); National University of Singapore, Department of Orthopedic Surgery (Singapore); Toh, Siew-Lok [National University of Singapore, Department of Biomedical Engineering (Singapore); National University of Singapore, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Singapore)

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies have underlined the importance of matching scaffold properties to the biological milieu. Tissue, and thus scaffold, anisotropy is one such property that is important yet sometimes overlooked. Methods that have been used to achieve anisotropic scaffolds present challenges such as complicated fabrication steps, harsh processing conditions and toxic chemicals involved. In this study, unidirectional freezing was employed to fabricate anisotropic silk fibroin/gelatin scaffolds in a simple and mild manner. Morphological, mechanical, chemical and cellular compatibility properties were investigated, as well as the effect of the addition of gelatin to certain properties of the scaffold. It was shown that scaffold properties were suitable for cell proliferation and that mesenchymal stem cells were able to align themselves along the directed fibers. The fabricated scaffolds present a platform that can be used for anisotropic tissue engineering applications such as cardiac patches. - Highlights: • Silk/gelatin scaffolds with unidirectional alignment were fabricated using a simple and scalable process • Presence of gelatin in silk resulted to lesser shrinkage, better water retention and improved cell proliferation. • Mesenchymal stem cells were shown to align themselves according to the fiber alignment.

  1. Effect of cellulose nanofibers concentration on mechanical, optical, and barrier properties of gelatin-based edible films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo David Andrade-Pizarro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de la concentración de gelatina, glicerol y nanofibras de celulosa (NFC sobre las propiedades mecánicas, permeabilidad al vapor de agua, y los parámetros de color de películas a base de gelatina. Los resultados indican que el color es influenciado sólo por la concentración de gelatina. Las pruebas mecánicas indican que al aumentar la concentración de gelatina y NFC hay un aumento en la resistencia a la tracción, mientras que un aumento en la concentración de glicerol provoca un aumento en el porcentaje de elongación, haciendo que las películas sean más flexibles. Un aumento en la concentración de gelatina y glicerol aumenta la permeabilidad al vapor de agua, mientras que un aumento en la concentración de NFC reduce esta propiedad. Finalmente, la adición de NFC en películas a base de gelatina mejora sus propiedades mecánicas y de barrera (vapor de agua sin afectar a la apariencia (color de las películas.

  2. Gelatin nanoparticles for use as a vaccine adjuvant in intranasal immunizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Tara D.

    Vaccine adjuvants are used to increase the immune response in the delivery of subunit antigens. Currently the only FDA approved adjuvants are aluminum based and must be delivered parenterally. Nasal mucoadhesive vaccine administration can decrease cost, increase efficiency and increase patient compliance. The purpose of this study was to develop a mucoadhesive gelatin nanoparticle >500 nm in diameter that can be used to encapsulate a model protein antigen. The particles were prepared by nanoprecipitation of a gelatin solution with acetone. Thiol groups were incubated with gelatin to increase mucoadhesivness at 20, 40, and 80 mg per 1 gram of gelatin. The thiolation chemistry was characterized using UV-Vis and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The total amount of sulfur present in the gelatin was determined to be 7.48, 30.53, and 46.75 mmol/gram respectively. However XPS analysis revealed that there was no substantial difference between surface sulfur content of the unmodified gelatin nanoparticles and the gelatin nanoparticles modified with 80 mg of iminothiolane. Particle size, charge and morphology were determined using laser light diffraction, atomic force microscopy microscopy and electron microscopy. The average diameter of the unmodified gelatin was 171 nm. The average diameter of the thiolated gelatin nanoparticles was 275 nm. The polydispersity index was approximately 0.61 +/- 0 .04 for all nanoparticles. The zeta (zeta) potential of the unmodified gelatin nanoparticles was -21.5 +/- 2.0 mV and the zeta-potential of the modified gelatin nanoparticles was -25.2 +/- 1.5, -27.3 +/- 0.8, and -28.6 +/- 3.0 mV for the 20, 40, and 80 thiolated gelatin nanoparticles. Particle encapsulation efficiency (EE) and release kinetics were conducted using fluorescein isothiocyanate-bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA) as a model antigen. The EE of the nanoparticles increased from 35.0% (unmodified gelatin) to 82.5% (highest modified gelatin). Particles encapsulated with

  3. Design of functionalized biodegradable PHA-based electrospun scaffolds meant for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Daniel; Ramier, Julien; Versace, Davy Louis; Renard, Estelle; Langlois, Valérie

    2016-06-20

    Modification of electrospun nanofibrous poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA)-based mats was implemented through two routes to obtain biomimetic scaffolds meant for tissue engineering applications. The first strategy relied on a physical functionalization of scaffolds thanks to an original route which combined both electrospinning and electrospraying, while the second approach implied the chemical modification of fiber surface via the introduction of reactive functional groups to further conjugate bioactive molecules. The degree of glycidyl methacrylate grafting on PHA reached 20% after 300s under photoactivation. Epoxy groups were modified via the attachment of a peptide sequence, such as Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD), to obtain biofunctionalized scaffolds. SEM and TEM analysis of mats showed uniform and well-oriented beadless fibers. The electrospinning/electrospraying tandem process afforded highly porous scaffolds characterized by a porosity ratio up to 83% and fibers with a surface largely covered by the electrosprayed bioceramic, i.e. hydroxyapatite. Gelatin was added to the latter PHA-based scaffolds to improve the hydrophilicity of the scaffolds (water contact angle about 0°) as well as their biological properties, in particular cell adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation after 5days of human mesenchymal stromal culture. Human mesenchymal stromal cells exhibited a better adhesion and proliferation on the biofunctionalized scaffolds than that on non-functionalized PHA mats.

  4. A Novel Albumin-Based Tissue Scaffold for Autogenic Tissue Engineering Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei-Shan; -Liang Lee, I.; Yu, Wei-Lin; Sun, Jui-Sheng; Jane, Wann-Neng; Shen, Hsin-Hsin

    2014-07-01

    Tissue scaffolds provide a framework for living tissue regeneration. However, traditional tissue scaffolds are exogenous, composed of metals, ceramics, polymers, and animal tissues, and have a defined biocompatibility and application. This study presents a new method for obtaining a tissue scaffold from blood albumin, the major protein in mammalian blood. Human, bovine, and porcine albumin was polymerised into albumin polymers by microbial transglutaminase and was then cast by freeze-drying-based moulding to form albumin tissue scaffolds. Scanning electron microscopy and material testing analyses revealed that the albumin tissue scaffold possesses an extremely porous structure, moderate mechanical strength, and resilience. Using a culture of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a model, we showed that MSCs can be seeded and grown in the albumin tissue scaffold. Furthermore, the albumin tissue scaffold can support the long-term osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. These results show that the albumin tissue scaffold exhibits favourable material properties and good compatibility with cells. We propose that this novel tissue scaffold can satisfy essential needs in tissue engineering as a general-purpose substrate. The use of this scaffold could lead to the development of new methods of artificial fabrication of autogenic tissue substitutes.

  5. Scaling laws of gelatin hydrogels for steady dynamic friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinit; Singh, Arun K.

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we use population balance based dynamic friction model for steady sliding to develop scaling laws in the terms of mesh size of gelatin hydrogels. First of all, it is observed in the sliding experiments that shear modulus of gelatin hydrogels depends on sliding velocity. This dependence is more evident in the case of low sliding velocity. Moreover, relaxation time constant of a dangling chain at the sliding interface scales with the same exponent as its stiffness. The scaling law is also developed for chain density and viscous retardation at the sliding interface. It is also established that the Hookean-based dynamic friction model is sufficient to study frictional behaviour of hydrogels. The reason for this observation is attributed to the weak bonding between a gelatin hydrogel and glass interface.

  6. Using glucosamine to improve the properties of photocrosslinked gelatin scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Hairui; Xu, Kedi; Zheng, Xiaoxiang

    2015-02-01

    The use of hydrogel-based cell transport scaffolds holds great promise in regenerative medicine, such as treating osteoarthritis. Gelatin and glucosamine are the ideal materials to be used in the hydrogel scaffolds for cartilage regeneration for they could act as compositions of cartilage. To overcome the weak strength of traditional gelatin hydrogels and down-regulate cell toxicity of glucosamine, gelatin and glucosamine molecules were grafted with acrylate groups and covalently crosslinked under photo-radiation to form hydrogels. Hydrogels with tuning physiochemical properties were produced according to different proportions of methacrylate gelatin (GelMA) and N-acryloyl glucosamine (AGA). The process of photocrosslinking was elaborated, and the hypothesis of increasing AGA concentration leading to higher strength of hydrogels was corroborated by testing rheological property and scanning micro-morphological features. A serial of properties, including smaller swelling ratio, lower gelatin dissolution and slower degradation of GelMA/AGA hydrogels with higher AGA concentration further proved our hypothesis. Moreover, AGA molecules showed less cytotoxicity than unmodified glucosamine molecules and the incorporation of AGA molecules in GelMA/AGA hydrogels upregulated cell adhesion and spreading on the hydrogel surface. All of these results indicated that addition of AGA molecules could significantly alter the physiochemical properties of GelMA/AGA hydrogels, which may have broad application prospects in the future.

  7. Review: gelatin, source, extraction and industrial applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalbasit Adam Mariod

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gelatin is an important functional biopolymer widely used in foods to improve elasticity, consistency, and stability. It can be obtained not only from the skin and bones of land animals, but also from fish and insects. In recent years gelatins from fish and edible insects provide an alternative source that is acceptable for halal (Muslim and kosher (Jewish products, gelatin extraction has been reported for different fishes and insects. In gelatin manufacture, two methods are usually used: the acid and the alkaline processes, to produce type A and type B gelatins, respectively.  

  8. Detection of porcine DNA in gelatine and gelatine-containing processed food products-Halal/Kosher authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirhan, Yasemin; Ulca, Pelin; Senyuva, Hamide Z

    2012-03-01

    A commercially available real-time PCR, based on a multi-copy target cytochrome b (cyt b) using porcine specific primers, has been validated for the Halal/Kosher authentication of gelatine. Extraction and purification of DNA from gelatine were successfully achieved using the SureFood® PREP Animal system, and real-time PCR was carried out using SureFood® Animal ID Pork Sens kit. The minimum level of adulteration that could be detected was 1.0% w/w for marshmallows and gum drops. A small survey was undertaken of processed food products such as gum drops, marshmallows and Turkish delight, believed to contain gelatine. Of fourteen food products from Germany, two samples were found to contain porcine gelatine, whereas of twenty-nine samples from Turkey twenty-eight were negative. However, one product from Turkey contained porcine DNA and thus was not Halal, and neither was the use of porcine gelatine indicated on the product label.

  9. Stem Cell-Based Dental Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Zivkovic

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of biological and biomaterial sciences profiled tissue engineering as a new and powerful tool for biological replacement of organs. The combination of stem cells and suitable scaffolds is widely used in experiments today, in order to achieve partial or whole organ regeneration. This review focuses on the use of tissue engineering strategies in tooth regeneration, using stem cells and stem cells/scaffold constructs. Although whole tooth regeneration is still not possible, there are promising results. However, to achieve this goal, it is important to understand and further explore the mechanisms underlying tooth development. Only then will we be able to mimic the natural processes with the use of stem cells and tissue engineering techniques.

  10. Gelatin Effects on the Physicochemical and Hemocompatible Properties of Gelatin/PAAm/Laponite Nanocomposite Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changpeng; Mu, Changdao; Lin, Wei; Ngai, To

    2015-08-26

    In recent years, inorganic nanoparticles such as Laponite have frequently been incorporated into polymer matrixes to obtain nanocomposite hydrogels with hierarchical structures, ultrastrong tensibilities, and high transparencies. Despite their unique physical and chemical properties, only a few reports have evaluated Laponite-based nanocomposite hydrogels for biomedical applications. This article presents the synthesis and characterization of a novel, hemocompatible nanocomposite hydrogels by in situ polymerization of acrylamide (AAm) in a mixed suspension containing Laponite and gelatin. The compatibility, structure, thermal stability, and mechanical properties of the resulting NC gels with varied gel compositions were investigated. Our results show that the prepared nanocomposite hydrogels exhibit good thermal stability and mechanical properties. The introduction of a biocompatible polymer, gelatin, into the polymer matrix did not change the transparency and homogeneity of the resulting nanocomposite hydrogels, but it significantly decreased the hydrogel's pH-responsive properties. More importantly, gelatins that were incorporated into the PAAm network resisted nonspecific protein adsorption, improved the degree of hemolysis, and eventually prolonged the clotting time, indicating that the in vitro hemocompatibility of the resulting nanocomposite hydrogels had been substantially enhanced. Therefore, these nanocomposite hydrogels provide opportunities for potential use in various biomedical applications.

  11. Effect of a gelatin-based edible coating containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) on the quality and nutrient retention of fresh strawberries during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhouri, F. M.; Casari, A. C. A.; Mariano, M.; Yamashita, F.; Innocnentini Mei, L. H.; Soldi, V.; Martelli, S. M.

    2014-08-01

    Strawberry is a non-climacteric fruit with a very short postharvest shelf-life. Loss of quality in this fruit is mostly due to its relatively high metabolic activity and sensitivity to fungal decay, meanly grey mold (Botrytis cinerea). In this study, the ability of gelatin coatings containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) to extend the shelf-life of strawberry fruit (Fragaria ananassa) over 8 days were studied. The filmogenic solution was obtained by the hydration of 5 g of gelatin (GEL) in 100 mL of distillated water containing different amounts of CNC dispersion (10 mg CNC/g of GEL or 50 mg of CNC/g of GEL) for 1 hour at room temperature. After this period, the solution was heated to 70 °C and maintained at this temperature for 10 minutes. The plasticizer (glycerol) (10g/100g of the GEL) was then added with constant, gentle stirring in order to avoid forming air bubbles and also to avoid gelatin denaturation until complete homogenization. Strawberries (purchased at the local market) were immersed in the filmogenic solution for 1 minute and after coated were dried at 15 °C by 24 hours. The strawberries were then kept under refrigeration and characterized in terms of their properties (weight loss, ascorbic acid content, titratable acidity, water content). The results have shown that samples covered with GEL/CNC had a significant improvement in its shelf- life. For instance, for the control sample (without coating) the weight loss after 8 days of storage was around 65%, while covered samples loss in the range of 31-36%. Edible coating was also effective in the retention of ascorbic acid (AA) in the strawberries, while control sample presented a fast decay in the AA content, covered samples showed a slow decay in the AA concentration. Moreover, the use of GEL/CNC edible coating had an antimicrobial effect in the fruits.

  12. Gelatin and Non-Gelatin Capsule Dosage Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullapalli, Rampurna P; Mazzitelli, Carolyn L

    2017-06-01

    Capsules offer an alternate to tablets for oral delivery of therapeutic compounds. One advantage of capsules over tablets is their amenability to deliver not only solids but also nonaqueous liquids and semisolids as a unit dose solid dosage form. Shell component is an essential part of capsule dosage forms. Capsule shells, available as hard or soft shells, are formulated from gelatin or a non-gelatin polymeric material such as hypromellose and starch, water, and with or without a nonvolatile plasticizer. The capsule shells may also be formulated to modify the release of their fill contents in a site-specific manner in the gastrointestinal tract. The goal of the current review is to provide an in-depth discussion on polymeric film-forming materials and manufacturing technologies used in the production of capsule shells. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Tissue-based map of the human proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhlén, Mathias; Fagerberg, Linn; Hallström, Björn M.

    2015-01-01

    transcriptomics at the tissue and organ level, combined with tissue microarray-based immunohistochemistry, to achieve spatial localization of proteins down to the single-cell level. Our tissue-based analysis detected more than 90% of the putative protein-coding genes. We used this approach to explore the human......Resolving the molecular details of proteome variation in the different tissues and organs of the human body will greatly increase our knowledge of human biology and disease. Here, we present a map of the human tissue proteome based on an integrated omics approach that involves quantitative...... secretome, the membrane proteome, the druggable proteome, the cancer proteome, and the metabolic functions in 32 different tissues and organs. All the data are integrated in an interactive Web-based database that allows exploration of individual proteins, as well as navigation of global expression patterns...

  14. Amino acid and proximate composition of fish bone gelatin from different warm-water species: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atma, Y.

    2017-03-01

    Research on fish bone gelatin has been increased in the last decade. The quality of gelatin depends on its physicochemical properties. Fish bone gelatin from warm-water fishes has a superior amino acid composition than cold-water fishes. The composition of amino acid can determine the strength and stability of gelatin. Thus, it is important to analyze the composition of amino acid as well as proximate composition for potential gelatin material. The warm water fish species used in this study were Grass carp, Pangasius catfish, Catfish, Lizard fish, Tiger-toothed croaker, Pink perch, Red snapper, Brown spotted grouper, and King weakfish. There werre five dominant amino acid in fish bone gelatin including glycine (21.2-36.7%), proline (8.7-11.7%), hydroxyproline (5.3-9.6%), alanine (8.48-12.9%), and glutamic acid (7.23-10.15%). Different warm-water species has some differences in amino acid composition. The proximate composition showed that fishbone gelatin from Pangasius catfish has the highest protein content. The water composition of all fishbone gelatin was well suited to the standard. Meanwhile, based on ash content, only gelatin from gelatin Pangasius catfish met the standard for food industries.

  15. Biocompatibility Studies on Bone Marrow Stromal Cells with Chitosan-gelatin Blends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Cao; YANG Shu-hua; DU Jing-yuan; XIAO Bao-jun; YE Shu-nan

    2004-01-01

    To study the effect of chitosan-gelatin blends on the growth and proliferation of in vitro cultured bone marrow stromal cells(BMSCs) and explore a new carrier for the application of tissure engineering, cells from long bones of young rabbitsaged less than two weeks were expanded in vitro for one week and seeded onto the surface of pure chitosan and chitosan-gelatin blends. Cells attached to and proliferated on both pure chitosan and chitosan-gelatin blends were monitored with the aid of an inverted light microscope and a scanning electron microscope. The cell viability was monitored by MTT after 2, 4, 6, 8 days seeding. BMSCs could be attached to and proliferated on both pure chitosan and chitosan-gelatin blends and remain their morphologies seen in vivo. Chitosan-gelatin blends could promote BMSCs to proliferate(P<0.01). It is confirmed that chitosan-gelatin blends maintain the bioactivity feature of chitosan and even enhance the growth and proliferation of in vitro cultured BMSCs because of the adding of gelatin. It is a potential carrier for the delivery of cells tissue engineering.

  16. Enhanced Critical Size Defect Repair in Rabbit Mandible by Electrospun Gelatin/β-TCP Composite Nanofibrous Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The design and fabrication of biodegradable barrier membranes with satisfactory structure and composition remain a considerable challenge for periodontal tissue regeneration. We have developed a biomimetic nanofibrous membrane made from a composite of gelatin and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP. We previously confirmed the in vitro biological performance of the membrane material, but the efficacy of the membranes in promoting bone repair in situ has not yet been examined. Gelatin/β-TCP composite nanofibers were fabricated by incorporation of 20 wt.% β-TCP nanoparticles into electrospun gelatin nanofibers. Electron microscopy showed that the composite membranes presented a nonwoven structure with an interconnected porous network and had a rough surface due to the β-TCP nanoparticles, which were distributed widely and uniformly throughout the gelatin-fiber matrix. The repair efficacy of rabbit mandible defects implanted with bone substitute (Bio-Oss and covered with the gelatin/β-TCP composite nanofibrous membrane was evaluated in comparison with pure gelatin nanofibrous membrane. Gross observation, histological examination, and immunohistochemical analysis showed that new bone formation and defect closure were significantly enhanced by the composite membranes compared to the pure gelatin ones. From these results, we conclude that nanofibrous gelatin/β-TCP composite membranes could serve as effective barrier membranes for guided tissue regeneration.

  17. 阿胶及其为主的组方在妇科出血性疾病中的应用%Donkey-hide gelatin-based group in gynecological bleeding disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海琳; 李莉

    2012-01-01

    Donkey-hide gelatin, also known as animal skin glue, lo pay caused by glue, is a valuable medicine, said "Chinese ginseng, deer horn Sambo" . Its sweel nature, into the lungs, liver and kidney meridians, yin blood, moistening hemostasis, the role of tocolysis. Compendium ot' Materia Medica, the blood "holy medicine" . "Women with blood-based . Therefore, donkey-hide gelatin was promoted as the "gynecological medicine" . In this paper, its clinical application in gynecological bleeding disorders are summarized below.%阿胶,又名驴皮胶、付致胶,是名贵中药,与人参、鹿茸并称“中药三宝”.其味甘、性平,入肺、肝、肾经,有滋阴补血、润燥止血、安胎的作用.《本草纲目》中有补血“圣药”之称.“女子以血为本”,故阿胶被推崇为“妇科要药”.文章就其在妇科出血性疾病的临床应用情况综述如下.

  18. Fabrication of micro-alginate gel tubes utilizing micro-gelatin fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Katsuhisa; Arai, Takafumi; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Umezu, Shinjiro

    2017-05-01

    Tissues engineered utilizing biofabrication techniques have recently been the focus of much attention, because these bioengineered tissues have great potential to improve the quality of life of patients with various hard-to-treat diseases. Most tissues contain micro-tubular structures including blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and bile canaliculus. Therefore, we bioengineered a micro diameter tube using alginate gel to coat the core gelatin gel. Micro-gelatin fibers were fabricated by the coacervation method and then coated with a very thin alginate gel layer by dipping. A micro diameter alginate tube was produced by dissolving the core gelatin gel. Consequently, these procedures led to the formation of micro-alginate gel tubes of various shapes and sizes. This biofabrication technique should contribute to tissue engineering research fields.

  19. Starch gelatinization in coiled heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelder, J D H; Ptasinski, K J; Kerkhof, P J A M

    2004-01-01

    A gelatinizing model food derived from a 5% w/w cross-linked waxy maize starch suspension was simulated in coiled heaters to assess the impact of centrifugal forces on flow and heat transfer. For four coil diameters (D = 0.25, 1, 2.5, and infinity m) and three flow rates (w = 0.5, 1, and 2 m/s), heat transfer, viscous development, and the severity of channeling were evaluated. Increasing curvature proved to suppress channeling as a result of more uniform heating and gelatinization. The maximum attainable viscosity was also higher, implying a lower starch consumption for a target viscosity. Higher flow rates necessitated longer heaters, and the maximum viscosity decreased. Moderate product velocities are therefore recommended.

  20. Effect of Gelatin-Based Edible Coatings Incorporated with Aloe vera and Black and Green Tea Extracts on the Shelf Life of Fresh-Cut Oranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Radi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gelatin coating incorporated with Aloe vera gel (50,100% and green and black tea extracts (5,10% on physicochemical, microbial, and sensorial properties of fresh-cut oranges at 4°C for 17 days. Significant differences in terms of quality parameters were observed between the control and coated fresh-cut oranges. The highest variation of quality parameters was observed in control, while the least variations were observed in coated slices with 100% Aloe vera and 10% green tea extract. The weight loss was increased with time, but the coating treatment especially with 100% Aloe vera had significant effect on the prevention of weight loss. Also, Aloe vera coated samples obtained the highest score in sensory evaluation. Coating with gelatin incorporated with Aloe vera and green tea extracts successfully retarded the microbial growth and therefore extended the shelf life of fresh-cut oranges during cold storage.

  1. Gelatin functionalised porous titanium alloy implants for orthopaedic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderleyden, E. [Polymer Chemistry and Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Ghent, Krijgslaan 281 S4, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Bael, S. [Prometheus, Division of Skeletal Tissue Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, O and N 1, Herestraat 49, Box 813, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Division of Production Engineering, Machine Design and Automation, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 300b, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Division of Biomechanics and Engineering Design, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 300c, Box 2419, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Chai, Y.C. [Prometheus, Division of Skeletal Tissue Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, O and N 1, Herestraat 49, Box 813, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Skeletal Biology and Engineering Research Center, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, O and N 1, Herestraat 49, Box 813, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Kruth, J.-P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Division of Production Engineering, Machine Design and Automation, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 300b, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Schrooten, J. [Prometheus, Division of Skeletal Tissue Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, O and N 1, Herestraat 49, Box 813, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, Bus 2450, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Dubruel, P., E-mail: pbmugent@gmail.com [Polymer Chemistry and Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Ghent, Krijgslaan 281 S4, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2014-09-01

    In the present work, we studied the immobilisation of the biopolymer gelatin onto the surface of three dimensional (3D) regular Ti6Al4V porous implants to improve their surface bio-activity. The successful immobilisation of the gelatin coating was made possible by a polydopamine interlayer, a polymer coating inspired by the adhesive nature of mussels. The presence of both coatings was first optimised on two dimensional titanium (2D Ti) substrates and confirmed by different techniques including X-ray photelectron spectroscopy, contact angle measurements, atomic force microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. Results showed homogeneous coatings that are stable for at least 24 h in phosphate buffer at 37 °C. In a next step, the coating procedure was successfully transferred to 3D Ti6Al4V porous implants, which indicates the versatility of the applied coating procedure with regard to complex surface morphologies. Furthermore, the bio-activity of these stable gelatin coatings was enhanced by applying a third and final coating using the cell-attractive protein fibronectin. The reproducible immobilisation process allowed for a controlled biomolecule presentation to the surrounding tissue. This newly developed coating procedure outperformed the previously reported silanisation procedure for immobilising gelatin. In vitro cell adhesion and culture studies with human periosteum-derived cells showed that the investigated coatings did not compromise the biocompatible nature of Ti6Al4V porous implants, but no distinct biological differences between the coatings were found. - Highlights: • Ti6Al4V porous implants were produced by selective laser melting. • A procedure to obtain a stable gelatin coating was developed. • Successful transfer of the coating procedure from 2D to 3D Ti6Al4V porous implants. • In vitro cell studies showed that the developed coatings supported cell growth.

  2. A new method for the production of gelatin microparticles for controlled protein release from porous polymeric scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkizilcik, Asya; Tuzlakoglu, Kadriye

    2014-03-01

    Tissue engineering using scaffolds and growth factors is a crucial approach in bone regeneration and repair. The combination of bioactive agents carrying microparticles with porous scaffolds can be an efficient solution when controlled release of bio-signalling molecules is required. The present study was based on a recent approach using a biodegradable scaffold and protein-loaded microparticles produced in an innovative manner in which protein loss is minimized during the loading process. Bovine serum albumin (BSA)-loaded gelatin microparticles were obtained by grinding freeze-dried membranes of gelatin and BSA. Porous scaffolds (250-355 µm pore size) produced from a polyactide (PLLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) blend by salt leaching/supercritical CO₂ methods were used for the experiments. Gelatin microparticles containing three different BSA amounts were incorporated into the porous scaffolds by using a surfactant. In vitro release profiles showed up to 90% protein loading efficiency. This novel method appears to be an effective approach for producing particles that can minimize protein loss during the loading process.

  3. Effects of chicken by-product gelatin on the physicochemical properties and texture of chocolate spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Poliana Fernandes; Lannes, Suzana Caetano da Silva

    2017-10-01

    Chocolate spread has a fat-based formulation and the application of gelatin as a fat replacement is related to the demand for healthier foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of gelatin as a by-product from the poultry industry in the fat replacement of chocolate spread. Vegetable fat was replaced (15, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) with gelatin (0.3, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2%) using a central composite rotatable design and the effects were evaluated by a response surface methodology. Formulations with a greater proportion of fat were lighter, of higher volume and lower density. As expected, water activity was intensified in low-fat formulations. The consistency was controlled mainly by the properties of the gelatin phase. The formulations with 50 and 75% fat replacement and 0.5-1.0% gelatin had satisfactory spreadability at 10C. All formulations were spreadable at 20C. Low-fat samples with low gelatin concentrations, at 30C, had very low consistency. Statistically, the properties were significantly influenced by the factors analyzed according to the mathematical models. Although several studies have been conducted on obtaining alternative gelatin sources for mammals, the extracted gelatin from poultry by-product is still little explored and the knowledge on the application in food products, particularly in complex systems such as emulsions, has not been well established. The development of a low-fat food should take into account the complexity of the system involved, such as the emulsion spreads. The incorporation of gelatin in aqueous solution is a challenging task because the physical properties and the rheological behavior can be strongly influenced. Given the nutritional and functional properties of the gelatin and chocolate and its wide acceptability among the consumers, the incorporation of these two ingredients in the development of a new product sets up a promising study. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Gelatinous plankton: irregularities rule the world (sometimes)

    OpenAIRE

    Boero, F.; Bouillon, J; GRAVILI C.; Miglietta, M. P.; Parsons, T. R.; Piraino, S.

    2008-01-01

    In spite of being one of the most relevant components of the biosphere, the plankton-benthos network is still poorly studied as such. This is partly due to the irregular occurrence of driving phenomena such as gelatinous plankton pulses in this realm. Gelatinous plankters rely on their life cycles and histories to exploit temporarily abundant resources with an undeniable, but often overlooked, impact on marine food webs. Dramatic increases of gelatinous filter-feeders and/or carnivores (both ...

  5. Alginate based scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valente, J.F.A.; Valente, T.A.M. [CICS-UBI - Centro de Investigacao em Ciencias da Saude, Faculdade de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilha (Portugal); Alves, P.; Ferreira, P. [CIEPQPF, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Universidade de Coimbra, Polo II, Pinhal de Marrocos, 3030-290 Coimbra (Portugal); Silva, A. [Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia Aeroespaciais, Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilha (Portugal); Correia, I.J., E-mail: icorreia@ubi.pt [CICS-UBI - Centro de Investigacao em Ciencias da Saude, Faculdade de Ciencias da Saude, Universidade da Beira Interior, Covilha (Portugal)

    2012-12-01

    The design and production of scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration is yet unable to completely reproduce the native bone properties. In the present study new alginate microparticle and microfiber aggregated scaffolds were produced to be applied in this area of regenerative medicine. The scaffolds' mechanical properties were characterized by thermo mechanical assays. Their morphological characteristics were evaluated by isothermal nitrogen adsorption and scanning electron microscopy. The density of both types of scaffolds was determined by helium pycnometry and mercury intrusion porosimetry. Furthermore, scaffolds' cytotoxic profiles were evaluated in vitro by seeding human osteoblast cells in their presence. The results obtained showed that scaffolds have good mechanical and morphological properties compatible with their application as bone substitutes. Moreover, scaffold's biocompatibility was confirmed by the observation of cell adhesion and proliferation after 5 days of being seeded in their presence and by non-radioactive assays. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Design and production of scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microparticle and microfiber alginate scaffolds were produced through a particle aggregation technique; Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scaffolds' mechanically and biologically properties were characterized through in vitro studies;.

  6. Stem cell homing-based tissue engineering using bioactive materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yinxian; Sun, Binbin; Yi, Chengqing; Mo, Xiumei

    2017-06-01

    Tissue engineering focuses on repairing tissue and restoring tissue functions by employing three elements: scaffolds, cells and biochemical signals. In tissue engineering, bioactive material scaffolds have been used to cure tissue and organ defects with stem cell-based therapies being one of the best documented approaches. In the review, different biomaterials which are used in several methods to fabricate tissue engineering scaffolds were explained and show good properties (biocompatibility, biodegradability, and mechanical properties etc.) for cell migration and infiltration. Stem cell homing is a recruitment process for inducing the migration of the systemically transplanted cells, or host cells, to defect sites. The mechanisms and modes of stem cell homing-based tissue engineering can be divided into two types depending on the source of the stem cells: endogenous and exogenous. Exogenous stem cell-based bioactive scaffolds have the challenge of long-term culturing in vitro and for endogenous stem cells the biochemical signal homing recruitment mechanism is not clear yet. Although the stem cell homing-based bioactive scaffolds are attractive candidates for tissue defect therapies, based on in vitro studies and animal tests, there is still a long way before clinical application.

  7. Hidratação de tecidos de raízes de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz. e gelatinização do amido durante a cocção Hydration of cassava tissues and starch gelatinization during the cooking process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya S. Butarelo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Durante a cocção da mandioca ocorrem modificações físicas e químicas nos tecidos e a textura final é importante para a aceitabilidade e o consumo de mandiocas. A cocção a 80° e em água em ebulição de duas cultivares, aos 12 e 25 meses após o plantio, foi acompanhada determinando-se o ganho de peso (hidratação e o grau de gelatinização das amostras. Gelatinização foi determinada por colorimetria com iodo após dissolução em álcali das amostras cozidas por diferentes períodos de tempo. A 80°C a hidratação e a gelatinização não se completaram, o que ocorreu com a cocção em água em ebulição. O grau de hidratação foi diferente entre cultivares e entre amostras de 12 e 25 meses de plantio e pode ser descrito matematicamente por modelo de ordem zero. Amostras colhidas 12 meses após ao plantio hidrataram mais rápido que aos 25 meses e a cultivar IAPAR-19 Pioneira hidratou mais rápido que a cultivar Catarina Amarela. Quanto mais rápida a hidratação mais rápido o cozimento e quanto maior a hidratação maior o rendimento em produto cozido.Cooking of cassava root tissues causes both physical and chemical modifications and the final texture of the product is important for the acceptability and consumption of the food. Cooking tissue samples at 80° and in boiling water from two cultivars, harvested 12 and 25 months after planting date, was accompanied by determinig weight gain and starch gelatinization of the samples. Starch gelatinization was determined by colorimetry with iodine after solubilization in alkali of samples cooked for different period of times. At 80°C neither hydration or gelatinization were complete, which occurred at in boiling water. Hydration was different between cultivars and harvesting ages and could be described by a zero order mathematical model. Samples harvested 12 months after planting date hydrated faster than the ones harvested after 25 months and IAPAR-19 Pioneira hydrated faster

  8. Ontology-based, Tissue MicroArray oriented, image centered tissue bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viti Federica

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue MicroArray technique is becoming increasingly important in pathology for the validation of experimental data from transcriptomic analysis. This approach produces many images which need to be properly managed, if possible with an infrastructure able to support tissue sharing between institutes. Moreover, the available frameworks oriented to Tissue MicroArray provide good storage for clinical patient, sample treatment and block construction information, but their utility is limited by the lack of data integration with biomolecular information. Results In this work we propose a Tissue MicroArray web oriented system to support researchers in managing bio-samples and, through the use of ontologies, enables tissue sharing aimed at the design of Tissue MicroArray experiments and results evaluation. Indeed, our system provides ontological description both for pre-analysis tissue images and for post-process analysis image results, which is crucial for information exchange. Moreover, working on well-defined terms it is then possible to query web resources for literature articles to integrate both pathology and bioinformatics data. Conclusions Using this system, users associate an ontology-based description to each image uploaded into the database and also integrate results with the ontological description of biosequences identified in every tissue. Moreover, it is possible to integrate the ontological description provided by the user with a full compliant gene ontology definition, enabling statistical studies about correlation between the analyzed pathology and the most commonly related biological processes.

  9. Virtual microstructural leaf tissue generation based on cell growth modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abera, M.K.; Retta, M.A.; Verboven, P.; Nicolai, B.M.; Berghuijs, H.; Struik, P.

    2016-01-01

    A cell growth algorithm for virtual leaf tissue generation is presented based on the biomechanics of plant cells in tissues. The algorithm can account for typical differences in epidermal layers, palisade mesophyll layer and spongy mesophyll layer which have characteristic differences in the shap

  10. Biodegradable Polymer-Based Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sultana, Naznin

    2013-01-01

    This book addresses the principles, methods and applications of biodegradable polymer based scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. The general principle of bone tissue engineering is reviewed and the traditional and novel scaffolding materials, their properties and scaffold fabrication techniques are explored. By acting as temporary synthetic extracellular matrices for cell accommodation, proliferation, and differentiation, scaffolds play a pivotal role in tissue engineering. This book does not only provide the comprehensive summary of the current trends in scaffolding design but also presents the new trends and directions for scaffold development for the ever expanding tissue engineering applications.

  11. Aplikasi Metode SDS-PAGE (Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Poly Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis untuk Mengidentifikasi Sumber Asal Gelatin pada Kapsul Keras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Hermanto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Gelatin as the main ingredient of capsules is still a problem for a moslem. Most of gelatin production remains largely derived from non-halal materials. One of gelatin source is came from collagen of the skin and bones of bovine or pork. The main of study is determine the source of gelatin used in hard capsules by using SDS-PAGE (Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Gel electrophoresis Poly Acrylamide method. In the early stages, optimization of standards bovine and pork gelatin were hydrolyzed by pepsin at pH 4.5 and 60°C for 1 hour, 2 hours, and 3 hours. Gelatin hydrolyzateswere analyzed by SDS-PAGE to determine the optimal hydrolysis time. Identification of gelatin hydrolyzate fragments were carried by molecular weight. Hydrolysis time optimization throught applied to identify the source of hard gelatin capsules in the samples obtained from market and compared with the simulation of hard gelatin capsules. The results showed there were of specific bands of bovine gelatin with a molecular weight of 11,4 kDa; 34 kDa; 47kDa and specific bands of pork gelatin with a molecular weight of 24.7 kDa; 28 kDa; and 60 kDa. Similar results were obtained on a sample of hard capsules with bands of protein fragments that were identical to bovine gelatinstandard. Based on the results,each of the samples were tested contain of bovine gelatin respectively. DOI :http://dx.doi.org/10.15408/jkv.v0i0.3150

  12. Irradiated gelatin-potato starch blends: evaluation of physicochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamura, Patricia Y.; Regis, Wellington; Mastro, Nelida L., E-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Macromolecular polysaccharides of large chains as starch can interlace with gelatin modifying their mechanical resistance. In this work, biodegradable bovine gelatin-potato starch blends films were developed using glycerol as plasticizer. Three formulations of gelatin/starch proportions (w/w) were used (1:0; 3:1; 1:1) and casting was the chosen method. The dried samples were then submitted to ionizing radiation coming from an electron beam (EB) accelerator with doses of 20 and 40 kGy, at room temperature, in the presence of air. Mechanical properties such as puncture strength and elongation at break were measured. Color measurements, water absorption, moisture, and film solubility were assessed. The results showed that starch addition to films based on gelatin as well as irradiation affected physical and structural properties of the films. Although the increase of starch content in the mixture led to decrease of the puncture force even in samples irradiated with the higher dose, there was a decrease of water absorption of films with the increase of the dose, and also by the higher starch content. Samples irradiated at 20 kGy presented higher moisture and film solubility. The methodology developed in this paper can be applied to other composite systems to establish the best protein:starch ratio, and the contribution of the radiation crosslinking in each specific case. (author)

  13. Fractal lattice of gelatin nanoglobules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, D. V.; Krasovskii, A. N.

    2012-11-01

    The globular structure of polymer coatings on a glass, which were obtained from micellar solutions of gelatin in the isooctane-water-sodium (bis-2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate system, has been studied using electron microscopy. It has been shown that an increase in the average globule size is accompanied by the formation of a fractal lattice of nanoglobules and a periodic physical network of macromolecules in the coating. The stability of such system of the "liquid-in-a-solid" type is limited by the destruction of globules and the formation of a homogeneous network structure of the coating.

  14. Tissue-based environmental quality benchmarks and standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, James P; Warne, Michael St J; Chapman, Peter M; Chan, King Ming; Yu, Shen; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2014-01-01

    Although the use of tissue concentrations (residues) of chemical contaminants as the dose metric to characterize chemical toxicity to aquatic organisms has been gaining acceptance over the past 20 years, tissue concentrations are less commonly used in water quality management and have yet to be formally adopted as benchmarks or environmental quality standards (EQS). This synthesis paper addresses advantages and disadvantages for the development and application of tissue-based EQS as an alternative and supplement to exposure-based EQS determined with water and sediment concentration data. Tissue-based EQS can be readily developed in parallel with conventional toxicity tests, and achieved by quantification of chemical concentrations in tissue alongside traditional concentration-response toxicity testing. Tissue-residue toxicity metrics can be used as benchmarks for screening and monitoring water and sediment quality, to derive equivalent water or sediment EQS, and for ecological risk assessments and weight of evidence approaches for assessing ecosystem impairment. Tissue-based toxicity metrics and associated EQS provide several advantages; however, there are some limitations to consider and key knowledge gaps to fill.

  15. Evaluation of hemocompatibility and endothelialization of hybrid poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/gelatin polymer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ino, Julia M; Sju, Ervi; Ollivier, Véronique; Yim, Evelyn K F; Letourneur, Didier; Le Visage, Catherine

    2013-11-01

    Engineered grafts are still needed for small diameter blood vessels reconstruction. Ideal materials would prevent thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia by displaying hemocompatibility and mechanical properties close to those of native vessels. In this study, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/gelatin blends were investigated as a potential vascular support scaffold. We modified a chemically crosslinked PVA hydrogel by incorporation of gelatin to improve endothelial cell attachment with a single-step method. A series of crosslinked PVA/gelatin films with specific ratios set at 100:0, 99:1, 95:5, and 90:10 (w/w) were prepared and their mechanical properties were examined by uniaxial tensile testing. Tubes, obtained from sutured films, were found highly compliant (3.1-4.6%) and exhibited sufficient mechanical strength to sustain hemodynamic strains. PVA-based hydrogels maintained low level of platelet adhesion and low thrombogenic potential. Endothelial cell adhesion and proliferation were drastically improved on PVA/gelatin films with a feed gelatin content as low as 1% (w/w), leading to the formation of a confluent endothelium. Hydrogels with higher gelatin content did not sustain complete endothelialization because of modifications of the film surface, including phase segregation and formation of microdomains. Thus, PVA/gelatin (99:1, w/w) hydrogels appear as promising materials for the design of endothelialized vascular materials with long-term patency.

  16. Use of gelatin-thrombin matrix haemostatic sealant in neurosurgery: Anaesthetic implications and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Khanna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The topical haemostatic agents have been developed to be used as adjunctive measures to promote haemostasis. These include bone wax, absorbable gel sponges, microfibrillar collagen, oxidised regenerated cellulose, gelatin sponges with thrombin, gelatin-thrombin matrix sealant or fibrin sealants. Gelatin-thrombin matrix sealant is a mixture of a bovine-derived gelatin matrix and human-derived thrombin component that are mixed together at the time of use. This agent has been found to be more effective haemostat than thrombin-soaked gelatine sponges. The possible adverse effects of this can be transmission of diseases from human or bovine sources, allergic reactions, thromboembolism, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC, perilesional oedema, and compression of neural tissue. Although it is used routinely in the operating room, there is little literature available on the perioperative implications with use of intraoperative gelatin-thrombin matrix sealant. Here, we present clinical report of 20 neurosurgical patients where the sealant was used and literature in view of current evidence has been reviewed.

  17. Cell-Based Strategies for Meniscus Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Wei; Guo, Weimin; Han, Shufeng; Zhu, Yun; Liu, Shuyun; Guo, Quanyi

    2016-01-01

    Meniscus injuries remain a significant challenge due to the poor healing potential of the inner avascular zone. Following a series of studies and clinical trials, tissue engineering is considered a promising prospect for meniscus repair and regeneration. As one of the key factors in tissue engineering, cells are believed to be highly beneficial in generating bionic meniscus structures to replace injured ones in patients. Therefore, cell-based strategies for meniscus tissue engineering play a fundamental role in meniscal regeneration. According to current studies, the main cell-based strategies for meniscus tissue engineering are single cell type strategies; cell coculture strategies also were applied to meniscus tissue engineering. Likewise, on the one side, the zonal recapitulation strategies based on mimicking meniscal differing cells and internal architectures have received wide attentions. On the other side, cell self-assembling strategies without any scaffolds may be a better way to build a bionic meniscus. In this review, we primarily discuss cell seeds for meniscus tissue engineering and their application strategies. We also discuss recent advances and achievements in meniscus repair experiments that further improve our understanding of meniscus tissue engineering. PMID:27274735

  18. Cell-Based Strategies for Meniscus Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Niu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Meniscus injuries remain a significant challenge due to the poor healing potential of the inner avascular zone. Following a series of studies and clinical trials, tissue engineering is considered a promising prospect for meniscus repair and regeneration. As one of the key factors in tissue engineering, cells are believed to be highly beneficial in generating bionic meniscus structures to replace injured ones in patients. Therefore, cell-based strategies for meniscus tissue engineering play a fundamental role in meniscal regeneration. According to current studies, the main cell-based strategies for meniscus tissue engineering are single cell type strategies; cell coculture strategies also were applied to meniscus tissue engineering. Likewise, on the one side, the zonal recapitulation strategies based on mimicking meniscal differing cells and internal architectures have received wide attentions. On the other side, cell self-assembling strategies without any scaffolds may be a better way to build a bionic meniscus. In this review, we primarily discuss cell seeds for meniscus tissue engineering and their application strategies. We also discuss recent advances and achievements in meniscus repair experiments that further improve our understanding of meniscus tissue engineering.

  19. Solution-processed Al-chelated gelatin for highly transparent non-volatile memory applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yu-Chi; Wang, Yeong-Her, E-mail: yhw@ee.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Microelectronics and Department of Electrical Engineering, Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 701 Taiwan (China)

    2015-03-23

    Using the biomaterial of Al-chelated gelatin (ACG) prepared by sol-gel method in the ITO/ACG/ITO structure, a highly transparent resistive random access memory (RRAM) was obtained. The transmittance of the fabricated device is approximately 83% at 550 nm while that of Al/gelatin/ITO is opaque. As to the ITO/gelatin/ITO RRAM, no resistive switching behavior can be seen. The ITO/ACG/ITO RRAM shows high ON/OFF current ratio (>10{sup 5}), low operation voltage, good uniformity, and retention characteristics at room temperature and 85 °C. The mechanism of the ACG-based memory devices is presented. The enhancement of these electrical properties can be attributed to the chelate effect of Al ions with gelatin. Results show that transparent ACG-based memory devices possess the potential for next-generation resistive memories and bio-electronic applications.

  20. Gelatin model for training ultrasound-guided puncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Campos Moraes Amato

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is indispensable that members of the medical profession receive the technical training needed to enable them to rapidly obtain effective vascular access. Training procedures should be used judiciously to familiarize students with the technique. However, existing models are expensive or ineffective, and models need to be developed that are similar to what will be encountered in real patients.OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate creation and application of a gelatin model for training ultrasound-guided puncture.METHOS: The model was made using a mixture of colorless gelatin and water in a transparent plastic receptacle with two pairs of orifices of different diameters, through which two plastic tubes were inserted, to simulate blood vessels.RESULTS: The model was a close approximation to the real medical procedure in several aspects, since gelatin has a similar consistency to human tissues, providing a more faithful reproduction of the tactile sensation at the moment when the needle reaches the interior of a vessel and its contents are aspirated.CONCLUSIONS: The method proposed here can be used to easily construct a low-cost model using everyday materials that is suitable for large-scale training of ultrasound-guided puncture.

  1. Image-based metrology of porous tissue engineering scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Robb, Richard A.

    2006-03-01

    Tissue engineering is an interdisciplinary effort aimed at the repair and regeneration of biological tissues through the application and control of cells, porous scaffolds and growth factors. The regeneration of specific tissues guided by tissue analogous substrates is dependent on diverse scaffold architectural indices that can be derived quantitatively from the microCT and microMR images of the scaffolds. However, the randomness of pore-solid distributions in conventional stochastic scaffolds presents unique computational challenges. As a result, image-based characterization of scaffolds has been predominantly qualitative. In this paper, we discuss quantitative image-based techniques that can be used to compute the metrological indices of porous tissue engineering scaffolds. While bulk averaged quantities such as porosity and surface are derived directly from the optimal pore-solid delineations, the spatially distributed geometric indices are derived from the medial axis representations of the pore network. The computational framework proposed (to the best of our knowledge for the first time in tissue engineering) in this paper might have profound implications towards unraveling the symbiotic structure-function relationship of porous tissue engineering scaffolds.

  2. Magnetic Solid-Phase Extraction Based on β-Cyclodextrins/Acrylic Acid Modified Magnetic Gelatin for Determination of Moxidectin in Milk Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinzhu Shang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available β-Cyclodextrins/acrylic acid modified magnetic gelatin was prepared and then employed as the magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE sorbent for extraction of moxidectin in milk samples. Due to the rigidity of hydrophobic cavity of β-cyclodextrins and carboxyl groups of acrylic acid, magnetic composites are prepared to form a complex with target molecules through various kinds of chemical reactions and then showed excellent extraction performance. This method exhibits the advantages of simplicity of implementation, short extraction time (5 min, low solvent consumption, and high extraction efficiency. A rapid, simple, and effective method for the analysis of moxidectin in milk samples was established by MSPE coupled with liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. The limit of detection was 0.1 ng·mL−1 and the recoveries from milk samples were in the range of 93.8%–112.5%. The relative standard deviation was not higher than 6.4%. In conclusion, magnetic solid-phase extraction is a simple and robust preconcentration technique that can be coupled to other analytical methods for the quantitative determination of target molecules in complex samples.

  3. Review: Polymeric-Based 3D Printing for Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Geng-Hsi; Hsu, Shan-Hui

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing, also referred to as additive manufacturing, is a technology that allows for customized fabrication through computer-aided design. 3D printing has many advantages in the fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds, including fast fabrication, high precision, and customized production. Suitable scaffolds can be designed and custom-made based on medical images such as those obtained from computed tomography. Many 3D printing methods have been employed for tissue engineering. There are advantages and limitations for each method. Future areas of interest and progress are the development of new 3D printing platforms, scaffold design software, and materials for tissue engineering applications.

  4. Gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... joint function in patients with osteoarthritis. Brittle bones (osteoporosis). Strengthening bones and joints. Strengthening fingernails. Improving hair quality. Weight loss. Shortening recovery after exercise and sports-related injury. Other conditions. More evidence ...

  5. Gelatin methacrylate microspheres for controlled growth factor release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Anh H; McKinney, Jay; Miller, Tobias; Bongiorno, Tom; McDevitt, Todd C

    2015-02-01

    Gelatin has been commonly used as a delivery vehicle for various biomolecules for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications due to its simple fabrication methods, inherent electrostatic binding properties, and proteolytic degradability. Compared to traditional chemical cross-linking methods, such as the use of glutaraldehyde (GA), methacrylate modification of gelatin offers an alternative method to better control the extent of hydrogel cross-linking. Here we examined the physical properties and growth factor delivery of gelatin methacrylate (GMA) microparticles (MPs) formulated with a wide range of different cross-linking densities (15-90%). Less methacrylated MPs had decreased elastic moduli and larger mesh sizes compared to GA MPs, with increasing methacrylation correlating to greater moduli and smaller mesh sizes. As expected, an inverse correlation between microparticle cross-linking density and degradation was observed, with the lowest cross-linked GMA MPs degrading at the fastest rate, comparable to GA MPs. Interestingly, GMA MPs at lower cross-linking densities could be loaded with up to a 10-fold higher relative amount of growth factor than conventional GA cross-linked MPs, despite the GA MPs having an order of magnitude greater gelatin content. Moreover, a reduced GMA cross-linking density resulted in more complete release of bone morphogenic protein 4 and basic fibroblast growth factor and accelerated release rate with collagenase treatment. These studies demonstrate that GMA MPs provide a more flexible platform for growth factor delivery by enhancing the relative binding capacity and permitting proteolytic degradation tunability, thereby offering a more potent controlled release system for growth factor delivery.

  6. Streamlined bioreactor-based production of human cartilage tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonnarelli, B; Santoro, R; Adelaide Asnaghi, M; Wendt, D

    2016-05-27

    Engineered tissue grafts have been manufactured using methods based predominantly on traditional labour-intensive manual benchtop techniques. These methods impart significant regulatory and economic challenges, hindering the successful translation of engineered tissue products to the clinic. Alternatively, bioreactor-based production systems have the potential to overcome such limitations. In this work, we present an innovative manufacturing approach to engineer cartilage tissue within a single bioreactor system, starting from freshly isolated human primary chondrocytes, through the generation of cartilaginous tissue grafts. The limited number of primary chondrocytes that can be isolated from a small clinically-sized cartilage biopsy could be seeded and extensively expanded directly within a 3D scaffold in our perfusion bioreactor (5.4 ± 0.9 doublings in 2 weeks), bypassing conventional 2D expansion in flasks. Chondrocytes expanded in 3D scaffolds better maintained a chondrogenic phenotype than chondrocytes expanded on plastic flasks (collagen type II mRNA, 18-fold; Sox-9, 11-fold). After this "3D expansion" phase, bioreactor culture conditions were changed to subsequently support chondrogenic differentiation for two weeks. Engineered tissues based on 3D-expanded chondrocytes were more cartilaginous than tissues generated from chondrocytes previously expanded in flasks. We then demonstrated that this streamlined bioreactor-based process could be adapted to effectively generate up-scaled cartilage grafts in a size with clinical relevance (50 mm diameter). Streamlined and robust tissue engineering processes, as the one described here, may be key for the future manufacturing of grafts for clinical applications, as they facilitate the establishment of compact and closed bioreactor-based production systems, with minimal automation requirements, lower operating costs, and increased compliance to regulatory guidelines.

  7. Microwave Drying Effects On Dichromated Gelatin Holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ana A.; Rebordao, Jose M.

    1989-05-01

    Holograms recorded in dichromated gelatin can easily be destroyed when subjected to high temperatures. In this work, a new treatment of holographic dichromated gelatin layers that improves remarkably the hologram life time under adverse thermal conditions, is presented: exposing the developed hologram to microwave radiaton. Similar holograms were subjected to microwave radiation for variable timelengths and then subjected to heating. The resultant angular and spectral bandwidths were measured after different heating time intervals. Some preliminary results will be presented. The role of water in holograms made with dicromated gelatin will be discussed, in this new context.

  8. Collection and culture techniques for gelatinous zooplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskoff, Kevin A; Sommer, Freya A; Hamner, William M; Cross, Katrina M

    2003-02-01

    Gelatinous zooplankton are the least understood of all planktonic animal groups. This is partly due to their fragility, which typically precludes the capture of intact specimens with nets or trawls. Specialized tools and techniques have been developed that allow researchers and aquarists to collect intact gelatinous animals at sea and to maintain many of these alive in the laboratory. This paper summarizes the scientific literature on the capture, collection, and culture of gelatinous zooplankton and incorporates many unpublished methods developed at the Monterey Bay Aquarium in the past 15 years.

  9. Nanoprecipitation versus two step desolvation technique for the preparation of gelatin nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saeed Ahmad; Schneider, Marc

    2013-02-01

    Various techniques have been used for preparation of gelatin nanoparticles, such as coacervation, emulsion/solvent evaporation, reverse phase preparation, inverse miniemulsion and two step desolvation. Both methods are based on different mechanisms of nanoparticle formation. The main goal of this study was to systematically compare the performance of nanoprecipitation and the most widely utilized two step desolvation methods with respect to effect of gelatin concentration on nanoparticle size and polydispersity index. Particles size was determined by dynamic light scattering, and the morphology by atomic force microscopy. It was observed that gelatin concentration 20 mg/ml yielded nanoparticles of around 60 nm size by two step desolvation, on the other hand nanoprecipitation produced 210 nm particles with the same gelatin concentration.

  10. Constraint-based soft tissue simulation for virtual surgical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wen; Wan, Tao Ruan

    2014-11-01

    Most of surgical simulators employ a linear elastic model to simulate soft tissue material properties due to its computational efficiency and the simplicity. However, soft tissues often have elaborate nonlinear material characteristics. Most prominently, soft tissues are soft and compliant to small strains, but after initial deformations they are very resistant to further deformations even under large forces. Such material characteristic is referred as the nonlinear material incompliant which is computationally expensive and numerically difficult to simulate. This paper presents a constraint-based finite-element algorithm to simulate the nonlinear incompliant tissue materials efficiently for interactive simulation applications such as virtual surgery. Firstly, the proposed algorithm models the material stiffness behavior of soft tissues with a set of 3-D strain limit constraints on deformation strain tensors. By enforcing a large number of geometric constraints to achieve the material stiffness, the algorithm reduces the task of solving stiff equations of motion with a general numerical solver to iteratively resolving a set of constraints with a nonlinear Gauss-Seidel iterative process. Secondly, as a Gauss-Seidel method processes constraints individually, in order to speed up the global convergence of the large constrained system, a multiresolution hierarchy structure is also used to accelerate the computation significantly, making interactive simulations possible at a high level of details. Finally, this paper also presents a simple-to-build data acquisition system to validate simulation results with ex vivo tissue measurements. An interactive virtual reality-based simulation system is also demonstrated.

  11. Olfactory Mucosa Tissue Based Biosensor for Bioelectronic Nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingjun; Ye, Weiwei; Yu, Hui; Hu, Ning; Cai, Hua; Wang, Ping

    2009-05-01

    Biological olfactory system can distinguish thousands of odors. In order to realize the biomimetic design of electronic nose on the principle of mammalian olfactory system, we have reported bioelectronic nose based on cultured olfactory cells. In this study, the electrical property of the tissue-semiconductor interface was analyzed by the volume conductor theory and the sheet conductor model. Olfactory mucosa tissue of rat was isolated and fixed on the surface of the light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS), with the natural stations of the neuronal populations and functional receptor unit of the cilia well reserved. By the extracellular potentials of the olfactory receptor cells of the mucosa tissue monitored, both the simulation and the experimental results suggested that this tissue-semiconductor hybrid system was sensitive to odorants stimulation.

  12. Powder-based 3D printing for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunello, G; Sivolella, S; Meneghello, R; Ferroni, L; Gardin, C; Piattelli, A; Zavan, B; Bressan, E

    2016-01-01

    Bone tissue engineered 3-D constructs customized to patient-specific needs are emerging as attractive biomimetic scaffolds to enhance bone cell and tissue growth and differentiation. The article outlines the features of the most common additive manufacturing technologies (3D printing, stereolithography, fused deposition modeling, and selective laser sintering) used to fabricate bone tissue engineering scaffolds. It concentrates, in particular, on the current state of knowledge concerning powder-based 3D printing, including a description of the properties of powders and binder solutions, the critical phases of scaffold manufacturing, and its applications in bone tissue engineering. Clinical aspects and future applications are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Stem Cell-based Tissue Engineering Approaches for Musculoskeletal Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patrick T.; Handorf, Andrew M.; Jeon, Won Bae; Li, Wan-Ju

    2014-01-01

    The field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering is an ever evolving field that holds promise in treating numerous musculoskeletal diseases and injuries. An important impetus in the development of the field was the discovery and implementation of stem cells. The utilization of mesenchymal stem cells, and later embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells, opens new arenas for tissue engineering and presents the potential of developing stem cell-based therapies for disease treatment. Multipotent and pluripotent stem cells can produce various lineage tissues, and allow for derivation of a tissue that may be comprised of multiple cell types. As the field grows, the combination of biomaterial scaffolds and bioreactors provides methods to create an environment for stem cells that better represent their microenvironment for new tissue formation. As technologies for the fabrication of biomaterial scaffolds advance, the ability of scaffolds to modulate stem cell behavior advances as well. The composition of scaffolds could be of natural or synthetic materials and could be tailored to enhance cell self-renewal and/or direct cell fates. In addition to biomaterial scaffolds, studies of tissue development and cellular microenvironments have determined other factors, such as growth factors and oxygen tension, that are crucial to the regulation of stem cell activity. The overarching goal of stem cell-based tissue engineering research is to precisely control differentiation of stem cells in culture. In this article, we review current developments in tissue engineering, focusing on several stem cell sources, induction factors including growth factors, oxygen tension, biomaterials, and mechanical stimulation, and the internal and external regulatory mechanisms that govern proliferation and differentiation. PMID:23432679

  14. Performance of high amylose starch-composited gelatin films influenced by gelatinization and concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenhang; Wang, Kun; Xiao, Jingdong; Liu, Yaowei; Zhao, Yana; Liu, Anjun

    2017-01-01

    In order to study the impact of starch in film performance, high amylose corn starch was composited in gelatin films under different gelatinization conditions and, in high and low concentrations (10 and 50wt.%). It was found that hot water gelatinized starch (Gel-Shw) increased film mechanical strength and was dependent upon the starch concentration. The addition of an alkali component to the starch significantly enhanced the swelling of the starch granules and expedited the gelatinization process. Incorporation of starch, especially the alkalized starch (Sha), into the gelatin films decreased film solubility which improved its water resistance and water vapor permeability (WVP). Multiple techniques (DSC, TGA, FT-IR, and XRD) were used to characterize the process and results, including the crosslinking of the dissolved starch molecules and the particles formed from gelatinized starch during retrogradation process, which played an important role in improving the thermal stability of the composited gelatin films. Overall, the starch-gelatin composition provides a potential approach to improve gelatin film performance and benefit its applications in the food industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Use and application of gelatin as potential biodegradable packaging materials for food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Hanani, Z A; Roos, Y H; Kerry, J P

    2014-11-01

    The manufacture and potential application of biodegradable films for food application has gained increased interest as alternatives to conventional food packaging polymers due to the sustainable nature associated with their availability, broad and abundant source range, compostability, environmentally-friendly image, compatibility with foodstuffs and food application, etc. Gelatin is one such material and is a unique and popularly used hydrocolloid by the food industry today due to its inherent characteristics, thereby potentially offering a wide range of further and unique industrial applications. Gelatin from different sources have different physical and chemical properties as they contain different amino acid contents which are responsible for the varying characteristics observed upon utilization in food systems and when being utilized more specifically, in the manufacture of films. Packaging films can be successfully produced from all gelatin sources and the behaviour and characteristics of gelatin-based films can be altered through the incorporation of other food ingredients to produce composite films possessing enhanced physical and mechanical properties. This review will present the current situation with respect to gelatin usage as a packaging source material and the challenges that remain in order to move the manufacture of gelatin-based films nearer to commercial reality.

  16. Transplantation of three-dimensional artificial human vascular tissues fabricated using an extracellular matrix nanofilm-based cell-accumulation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Yoshiya; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Okano, Daisuke; Matsusaki, Michiya; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2017-04-01

    We have established a novel three-dimensional (3D) tissue-constructing technique, referred to as the 'cell-accumulation method', which is based on the self-assembly of cultured human cells. In this technique, cells are coated with fibronectin and gelatin to construct extracellular matrix (ECM) nanofilms and cultured to form multi-layers in vitro. By using this method, we have successfully fabricated artificial tissues with vascular networks constructed by co-cultivation of human umbilical vein-derived vascular endothelial cells between multi-layers of normal human dermal fibroblasts. In this study, to assess these engineered vascular tissues as therapeutic implants, we transplanted the 3D human tissues with microvascular networks, fabricated based on the cell-accumulation method, onto the back skin of nude mice. After the transplantation, we found vascular networks with perfusion of blood in the transplanted graft. At the boundary between host and implanted tissue, connectivity between murine and human vessels was found. Transmission electron microscopy of the implanted artificial vascular tubules demonstrated the ultrastructural features of blood capillaries. Moreover, maturation of the vascular tissues after transplantation was shown by the presence of pericyte-like cells and abundant collagen fibrils in the ECM surrounding the vasculature. These results demonstrated that artificial human vascular tissues constructed by our method were engrafted and matured in animal skin. In addition, the implanted artificial human vascular networks were connected with the host circulatory system by anastomosis. This method is an attractive technique for engineering prevascularized artificial tissues for transplantation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Collagen-Based Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Berthod

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Collagen is the most widely distributed class of proteins in the human body. The use of collagen-based biomaterials in the field of tissue engineering applications has been intensively growing over the past decades. Multiple cross-linking methods were investigated and different combinations with other biopolymers were explored in order to improve tissue function. Collagen possesses a major advantage in being biodegradable, biocompatible, easily available and highly versatile. However, since collagen is a protein, it remains difficult to sterilize without alterations to its structure. This review presents a comprehensive overview of the various applications of collagen-based biomaterials developed for tissue engineering, aimed at providing a functional material for use in regenerative medicine from the laboratory bench to the patient bedside.

  18. Scaffold-based Drug Delivery for Cartilage Tissue Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalumon, K T; Chen, Jyh-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Regenerative engineering is an advanced field comprising the collective benefit of biodegradable polymers with cells and tissue inducing factors. Current method of replacing the defective organ is through transplantation, but is limited due to immune rejection and availability. As a solution, new polymeric biomaterial-based three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds in combination with cells and inducing factors were aroused to fulfil the existing demands. These scaffolds apply material science, biomedical technology and translational medicine to develop functional tissue engineering constructs. Presence of small molecules and growth factors guides the cell phenotypes to specific organ development. The 3D scaffold thus could also be favorably used as carriers for various types of drugs and genes, with the release profile fine-tuned by modulation of the scaffold's morphology, porosity, and composition. An increasing trend was observed in recent years toward the combination of scaffolds and growth factors to fabricate a bioactive system, which not only provide a biomimetic biodegradable physical support for tissue growth but also explores biological signals to modulate tissue regeneration. In this review, along with general aspects of tissue engineering, we also discuss the importance of various scaffold architectures like nanofibers, hydrogels, beads, meshes, microspheres etc. in combination with specific drugs, growth factors and small molecules for cartilage regeneration. Growth factors may be incorporated into scaffolds by direct blending, physical adsorption, drop casting, surface grafting, covalent bonding, chemical immobilization, coaxial electrospinning, microparticle incorporation etc. This offers new possibilities for the development of biomimetic scaffolds that are endowed with a hierarchical architecture and sophisticated release kinetics of the growth factors. This review portrait the fundamentals of tissue engineering with emphasis on the role of inducing factors

  19. Enzyme-Gelatin Electrochemical Biosensors: Scaling Down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik A. Heering

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we investigate the possibility of scaling down enzyme-gelatin modified electrodes by spin coating the enzyme-gelatin layer. Special attention is given to the electrochemical behavior of the selected enzymes inside the gelatin matrix. A glassy carbon electrode was used as a substrate to immobilize, in the first instance, horse heart cytochrome c (HHC in a gelatin matrix. Both a drop dried and a spin coated layer was prepared. On scaling down, a transition from diffusion controlled reactions towards adsorption controlled reactions is observed. Compared to a drop dried electrode, a spin coated electrode showed a more stable electrochemical behavior. Next to HHC, we also incorporated catalase in a spin coated gelatin matrix immobilized on a glassy carbon electrode. By spincoating, highly uniform sub micrometer layers of biocompatible matrices can be constructed. A full electrochemical study and characterization of the modified surfaces has been carried out. It was clear that in the case of catalase, gluteraldehyde addition was needed to prevent leaking of the catalase from the gelatin matrix.

  20. A motion model for bullet penetrating gelatin%弹头侵彻明胶的运动模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘坤; 吴志林; 徐万和; 莫根林

    2012-01-01

    To research the motion of a bullet into the muscular tissue, the gelatin was used to simulate the muscular tissue. Based on the properties of the gelatin, a two-dimensional motion model was established for the projectile penetrating the gelatin in which reflecting the difference between attack angle and yaw angle. And the bullet motions in the horizontal and vertical directions -were taken into account in the established motion model. Based on the Runge-Kutta method, the motion model was calculated by choosing the ordinary bullets with the diameters of 7, 62 and 5. 80 mm, respectively, as killer elements. The calculated results were compared with the corresponding experimental results. Comparisons show lhat the two-dimensional motion model can describe the motion of the bullets penetrating the gelatin accurately. And the motion model established is of a certain commonality and can provide a theoretical reference for the ammunition design and the wound treatment.%为探讨弹头在肌肉组织中的运动规律,以明胶作为组织模拟物,结合明胶力学性质,在区别攻角和偏角的情况下,建立同时考虑水平和垂直方向弹头侵彻明胶的二维运动模型.以7.62 mm普通弹和5.8mm普通弹为杀伤元,根据龙格-库塔法原理对运动模型进行数值计算.同时,对2种弹丸侵彻明胶实验数据进行了对比分析.分析结果表明,该二维运动模型能够准确合理的描述2种弹丸侵彻明胶的运动过程,具有一定通用性,可为弹药设计和战伤救治提供理论参考.

  1. Effect of cationized gelatins on the paracellular transport of drugs through caco-2 cell monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Toshinobu; Kanbayashi, Hiroshi; Nagao, Tomonobu; Chono, Sumio; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Morimoto, Kazuhiro

    2006-06-01

    Cationized gelatins, candidate absorption enhancers, were prepared by addition of ethylenediamine or spermine to gelatin and the effects of the resulting ethylenediaminated gelatin (EG) and sperminated gelatin (SG) on the paracellular transport of 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (CF), FITC-dextran-4 (FD4), and insulin through caco-2 cell monolayers were examined. The Renkin function was used for characterization of the paracellular pathway and changes in the pore radius (R) and pore occupancy/length ratio (epsilon/L) calculated from the apparent permeability coefficients (P(app)) of CF and FD4 are discussed. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) increased the R of the caco-2 cell monolayer and the P(app) of all compounds examined was markedly increased by the addition of EDTA. On the other hand, EG and SG did not increase R and their enhancing effects were not as strong as those of EDTA. The increase in epsilon/L could be the enhancing mechanism for the cationized gelatins. The number of pathways for water-soluble drugs, such as CF and FD4, in the caco-2 monolayers could be increased by the addition of the cationized gelatins. The ratios of the permeability coefficients of insulin (observed/calculated based on the Renkin function) suggest that insulin undergoes enzymatic degradation during transport which is not inhibited by enhancers.

  2. Visual words based approach for tissue classification in mammograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamant, Idit; Goldberger, Jacob; Greenspan, Hayit

    2013-02-01

    The presence of Microcalcifications (MC) is an important indicator for developing breast cancer. Additional indicators for cancer risk exist, such as breast tissue density type. Different methods have been developed for breast tissue classification for use in Computer-aided diagnosis systems. Recently, the visual words (VW) model has been successfully applied for different classification tasks. The goal of our work is to explore VW based methodologies for various mammography classification tasks. We start with the challenge of classifying breast density and then focus on classification of normal tissue versus Microcalcifications. The presented methodology is based on patch-based visual words model which includes building a dictionary for a training set using local descriptors and representing the image using a visual word histogram. Classification is then performed using k-nearest-neighbour (KNN) and Support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. We tested our algorithm on the MIAS and DDSM publicly available datasets. The input is a representative region-of-interest per mammography image, manually selected and labelled by expert. In the tissue density task, classification accuracy reached 85% using KNN and 88% using SVM, which competes with the state-of-the-art results. For MC vs. normal tissue, accuracy reached 95.6% using SVM. Results demonstrate the feasibility to classify breast tissue using our model. Currently, we are improving the results further while also investigating VW capability to classify additional important mammogram classification problems. We expect that the methodology presented will enable high levels of classification, suggesting new means for automated tools for mammography diagnosis support.

  3. Halal authenticity of gelatin using species-specific PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Hessam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrangiz; Mousavi, Seyed Mohammad; Dezfouli, Ehsan Ansari; Solgi, Tara; Khodaverdi, Mahdi; Rabiei, Maryam; Rastegar, Hossein; Alebouyeh, Mahmoud

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of food products derived from porcine sources is strictly prohibited in Islam. Gelatin, mostly derived from bovine and porcine sources, has many applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. To ensure that food products comply with halal regulations, development of valid and reliable analytical methods is very much required. In this study, a species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using conserved regions of mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome b gene) was performed to evaluate the halal authenticity of gelatin. After isolation of DNA from gelatin powders with known origin, conventional PCR using species-specific primers was carried out on the extracted DNA. The amplified expected PCR products of 212 and 271 bp were observed for porcine and bovine gelatin, respectively. The sensitivity of the method was tested on binary gelatin mixtures containing 0.1%, 1%, 10%, and 100% (w/w) of porcine gelatin within bovine gelatin and vice versa. Although most of the DNA is degraded due to the severe processing steps of gelatin production, the minimum level of 0.1% w/w of both porcine and bovine gelatin was detected. Moreover, eight food products labeled as containing bovine gelatin and eight capsule shells were subjected to PCR examination. The results showed that all samples contained bovine gelatin, and the absence of porcine gelatin was verified. This method of species authenticity is very useful to verify whether gelatin and gelatin-containing food products are derived from halal ingredients.

  4. Microstereolithography-based computer-aided manufacturing for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Dong-Woo; Kang, Hyun-Wook

    2012-01-01

    Various solid freeform fabrication technologies have been introduced for constructing three-dimensional (3-D) freeform structures. Of these, microstereolithography (MSTL) technology performs the best in 3-D space because it not only has high resolution, but also fast fabrication speed. Using this technology, 3-D structures with mesoscale size and microscale resolution are achievable. Many researchers have been trying to apply this technology to tissue engineering to construct medically applicable scaffolds, which require a 3-D shape that fits a defect with a mesoscale size and microscale inner architecture for efficient regeneration of artificial tissue. This chapter introduces the principles of MSTL technology and representative systems. It includes fabrication and computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) processes to show the automation process by which measurements from medical images are used to fabricate the required 3-D shape. Then, various tissue engineering applications based on MSTL are summarized.

  5. Biodegradable Gelatin Microcarriers Facilitate Re-Epithelialization of Human Cutaneous Wounds - An In Vitro Study in Human Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnqvist, Susanna; Rakar, Jonathan; Briheim, Kristina; Kratz, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    The possibility to use a suspended tridimensional matrix as scaffolding for re-epithelialization of in vitro cutaneous wounds was investigated with the aid of a human in vitro wound healing model based on viable full thickness skin. Macroporous gelatin microcarriers, CultiSpher-S, were applied to in vitro wounds and cultured for 21 days. Tissue sections showed incorporation of wound edge keratinocytes into the microcarriers and thicker neoepidermis in wounds treated with microcarriers. Thickness of the neoepidermis was measured digitally, using immunohistochemical staining of keratins as epithelial demarcation. Air-lifting of wounds enhanced stratification in control wounds as well as wounds with CultiSpher-S. Immunohistochemical staining revealed expression of keratin 5, keratin 10, and laminin 5 in the neoepidermal component. We conclude that the CultiSpher-S microcarriers can function as tissue guiding scaffold for re-epithelialization of cutaneous wounds.

  6. Architectural and mechanical cues direct mesenchymal stem cell interactions with crosslinked gelatin scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrews, Kathleen M; Kim, Min Jeong; Lam, Tuyet Y; McGrail, Daniel J; Dawson, Michelle R

    2014-12-01

    Naturally derived biomaterials have emerged as modulators of cell function and tissue substitutes. Here, we developed crosslinked glutaraldehyde (GTA) scaffolds for the expansion and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The mechanical and architectural properties of the scaffolds were altered by varying the concentration of gelatin and GTA. Higher GTA concentrations were associated with an increase in more confined pores and osteogenic differentiation. In addition, myogenic potential varied with crosslinking degree, although bulk mechanical properties were unaltered. Correlation analysis revealed that ALP activity of differentiated MSCs on higher gelatin concentration scaffolds was dependent on traditional effectors, including environment elasticity and spread area. In contrast, the differentiation capacity of cells cultured on lower gelatin concentration scaffolds did not correlate with these factors, instead it was dependent on the hydrated pore structure. These results suggest that scaffold composition can determine what factors direct differentiation and may have critical implications for biomaterial design.

  7. Evaluation of fibroblasts adhesion and proliferation on alginate-gelatin crosslinked hydrogel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bapi Sarker

    Full Text Available Due to the relatively poor cell-material interaction of alginate hydrogel, alginate-gelatin crosslinked (ADA-GEL hydrogel was synthesized through covalent crosslinking of alginate di-aldehyde (ADA with gelatin that supported cell attachment, spreading and proliferation. This study highlights the evaluation of the physico-chemical properties of synthesized ADA-GEL hydrogels of different compositions compared to alginate in the form of films. Moreover, in vitro cell-material interaction on ADA-GEL hydrogels of different compositions compared to alginate was investigated by using normal human dermal fibroblasts. Viability, attachment, spreading and proliferation of fibroblasts were significantly increased on ADA-GEL hydrogels compared to alginate. Moreover, in vitro cytocompatibility of ADA-GEL hydrogels was found to be increased with increasing gelatin content. These findings indicate that ADA-GEL hydrogel is a promising material for the biomedical applications in tissue-engineering and regeneration.

  8. Gelatin as a new humidity sensing material: Characterization and limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapardanis, Steven [School of Engineering and Technology, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, Michigan, 48859 (United States); Hudpeth, Mathew [Department of Physics, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, Michigan, 48859 (United States); Kaya, Tolga, E-mail: kaya2t@cmich.edu [School of Engineering and Technology, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, Michigan, 48859 (United States); Science of Advanced Materials Program, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, Michigan, 48859 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The goal of this work is to assert the utility of collagen and its denatured counterpart gelatin as cost-effective alternatives to existing sensing layers comprised of polymers. Rather than producing a material that will need to be discarded or recycled, collagen, as a by-product of the meat and leather industry, could be repurposed. This work examines the feasibility of using collagen as a sensing layer. Planar electrodes were patterned with lift-off process to work with the natural characteristics of gelatin by utilizing metal vapor deposition, spin coating, and photolithography. Characterization methods have also been optimized through the creation of specialized humidity chambers that isolate specific characteristics such as response time, accuracy, and hysteresis. Collagen-based sensors are found to have a sensitivity to moisture in the range of 0.065 pF/%RH. Diffusion characteristics were also analyzed with the diffusion coefficient found to be 2.5 × 10{sup −5} cm{sup 2}/s. Absorption and desorption times were found to be 20 seconds and 8 seconds, respectively. Hysteresis present in the data is attributed to temperature cross-sensitivity. Ultimately, the utility of collagen as a dielectric sensing material is, in part, due to its fibrous macrostructures as well its hydrophilic sites along the peptide chains. Gelatin was patterned between and below interdigitated copper electrodes and tested as a relative humidity sensor. This work shows that gelatin, which is inexpensive, widely available, and easy to process, can be an effective dielectric sensing polymer for capacitive-type relative humidity sensors.

  9. Gelatin as a new humidity sensing material: Characterization and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Shapardanis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work is to assert the utility of collagen and its denatured counterpart gelatin as cost-effective alternatives to existing sensing layers comprised of polymers. Rather than producing a material that will need to be discarded or recycled, collagen, as a by-product of the meat and leather industry, could be repurposed. This work examines the feasibility of using collagen as a sensing layer. Planar electrodes were patterned with lift-off process to work with the natural characteristics of gelatin by utilizing metal vapor deposition, spin coating, and photolithography. Characterization methods have also been optimized through the creation of specialized humidity chambers that isolate specific characteristics such as response time, accuracy, and hysteresis. Collagen-based sensors are found to have a sensitivity to moisture in the range of 0.065 pF/%RH. Diffusion characteristics were also analyzed with the diffusion coefficient found to be 2.5 × 10−5 cm2/s. Absorption and desorption times were found to be 20 seconds and 8 seconds, respectively. Hysteresis present in the data is attributed to temperature cross-sensitivity. Ultimately, the utility of collagen as a dielectric sensing material is, in part, due to its fibrous macrostructures as well its hydrophilic sites along the peptide chains. Gelatin was patterned between and below interdigitated copper electrodes and tested as a relative humidity sensor. This work shows that gelatin, which is inexpensive, widely available, and easy to process, can be an effective dielectric sensing polymer for capacitive-type relative humidity sensors.

  10. Gelatin as a new humidity sensing material: Characterization and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapardanis, Steven; Hudpeth, Mathew; Kaya, Tolga

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this work is to assert the utility of collagen and its denatured counterpart gelatin as cost-effective alternatives to existing sensing layers comprised of polymers. Rather than producing a material that will need to be discarded or recycled, collagen, as a by-product of the meat and leather industry, could be repurposed. This work examines the feasibility of using collagen as a sensing layer. Planar electrodes were patterned with lift-off process to work with the natural characteristics of gelatin by utilizing metal vapor deposition, spin coating, and photolithography. Characterization methods have also been optimized through the creation of specialized humidity chambers that isolate specific characteristics such as response time, accuracy, and hysteresis. Collagen-based sensors are found to have a sensitivity to moisture in the range of 0.065 pF/%RH. Diffusion characteristics were also analyzed with the diffusion coefficient found to be 2.5 × 10-5 cm2/s. Absorption and desorption times were found to be 20 seconds and 8 seconds, respectively. Hysteresis present in the data is attributed to temperature cross-sensitivity. Ultimately, the utility of collagen as a dielectric sensing material is, in part, due to its fibrous macrostructures as well its hydrophilic sites along the peptide chains. Gelatin was patterned between and below interdigitated copper electrodes and tested as a relative humidity sensor. This work shows that gelatin, which is inexpensive, widely available, and easy to process, can be an effective dielectric sensing polymer for capacitive-type relative humidity sensors.

  11. Cosmetic textiles with biological benefits: gelatin microcapsules containing vitamin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shuk Yan; Yuen, Marcus Chun Wah; Kan, Chi Wai; Cheuk, Kevin Ka Leung; Chui, Chung Hin; Lam, Kim Hung

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, textile materials with special applications in the cosmetic field have been developed. A new sector of cosmetic textiles is opened up and several cosmetic textile products are currently available in the market. Microencapsulation technology is an effective technique to control the release properties of active ingredients that prolong the functionality of cosmetic textiles. This study discusses the development of cosmetic textiles and addresses microencapsulation technology with respect to its historical background, significant advantages, microencapsulation methods and recent applications in the textile industry. Gelatin microcapsules containing vitamin C were prepared using emulsion hardening technique. Both the optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the newly developed microcapsules were in the form of core-shell spheres with relatively smooth surface. The particle size of microcapsules ranged from 5.0 to 44.1 microm with the average particle size being 24.6 microm. The gelatin microcapsules were proved to be non-cytotoxic based on the research findings of the toxicity studies conducted on human liver and breast cell lines as well as primary bone marrow culture obtained from patient with non-malignant haematological disorder. The gelatin microcapsules were successfully grafted into textile materials for the development of cosmetic textiles.

  12. Synthesis, properties, and biomedical applications of gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Kan; Trujillo-de Santiago, Grissel; Alvarez, Mario Moisés; Tamayol, Ali; Annabi, Nasim; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2015-12-01

    Gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogels have been widely used for various biomedical applications due to their suitable biological properties and tunable physical characteristics. GelMA hydrogels closely resemble some essential properties of native extracellular matrix (ECM) due to the presence of cell-attaching and matrix metalloproteinase responsive peptide motifs, which allow cells to proliferate and spread in GelMA-based scaffolds. GelMA is also versatile from a processing perspective. It crosslinks when exposed to light irradiation to form hydrogels with tunable mechanical properties. It can also be microfabricated using different methodologies including micromolding, photomasking, bioprinting, self-assembly, and microfluidic techniques to generate constructs with controlled architectures. Hybrid hydrogel systems can also be formed by mixing GelMA with nanoparticles such as carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide, and other polymers to form networks with desired combined properties and characteristics for specific biological applications. Recent research has demonstrated the proficiency of GelMA-based hydrogels in a wide range of tissue engineering applications including engineering of bone, cartilage, cardiac, and vascular tissues, among others. Other applications of GelMA hydrogels, besides tissue engineering, include fundamental cell research, cell signaling, drug and gene delivery, and bio-sensing.

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Water-based Polyurethane/Gelatin Copolymers%水性聚氨酯/明胶共聚物的制备及表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳园敏; 王鸿儒

    2011-01-01

    以二羟甲基丙酸(DMPA)作为亲水单体,采用甲苯二异氰酸酯(TDI)、聚酯二元醇(PCDL)为原料,于水性介质中在偶联剂水杨醛的作用下,制备了聚氯酯/明胶共聚物,用傅里叶变换红外光谱(FTIR)分析及凝胶渗透色谱分析(GPC)证实了该共聚反应的发生;研究结果表明,DMPA质量分数为5%时,可得到稳定的聚氨酯乳液,此时胶膜的吸水率为8.52%;热重分析(TGA)显示,共聚物胶膜在240℃开始分解;示差扫描量热分析(DSC)显示,经改性后共聚物的玻璃化温度(Tg)为66 ℃;X射线衍射分析(XRD)表明,聚氨酯的加入使共聚物胶膜的结晶度大大降低,在聚氨酯质量分数为50%时,共聚物的结晶度降为2%;力学性能分析及耐水性测试表明,当聚氨酯质量分数从0%到50%变化时,胶膜的抗张强度由83 MPa下降到37.3 MPa,断裂伸长率从25.5%增大到325.6%,当聚氨酯质量分数从10%到50%变化时,胶膜的吸水率从251%下降到65%.%The present work presents a study on the grafting of polyurethane onto chitosan in aqueous media. The effect of the amount of hydrophilic monomer on the water resistance of polyurethane was observed. Characterization of graft copolymers was performed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy ( FTIR ) , gel permeation chromatography ( GPC ) , thermogravimetric analysis ( TGA ) , differential scanning calorimetry( DSC) ,X-ray diffraction analysis( XRD) .mechanical properties testing,and water resistance testing. TGA tests reveal that the thermal decomposition temperature of the copolymers increased significantly, being 34 ℃ higher than that of pure gelatin, while DSC measurements indicate that the glass transition temperature decreased with the introduction of polyurethane. Accordingly, the mechanical and anti-water absorption properties also proved to be enhanced greatly as evidenced by mechanical test and water absorptions data in which the copolymers containing 50

  14. Three-dimensional Tissue Culture Based on Magnetic Cell Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Glauco R.; Molina, Jennifer R.; Raphael, Robert M.; Ozawa, Michael G.; Stark, Daniel J.; Levin, Carly S.; Bronk, Lawrence F.; Ananta, Jeyarama S.; Mandelin, Jami; Georgescu, Maria-Magdalena; Bankson, James A.; Gelovani, Juri G.

    2015-01-01

    Cell culture is an essential tool for drug discovery, tissue engineering, and stem cell research. Conventional tissue culture produces two-dimensional (2D) cell growth with gene expression, signaling, and morphology that can differ from those in vivo and thus compromise clinical relevancy1–5. Here we report a three-dimensional (3D) culture of cells based on magnetic levitation in the presence of hydrogels containing gold and magnetic iron oxide (MIO) nanoparticles plus filamentous bacteriophage. This methodology allows for control of cell mass geometry and guided, multicellular clustering of different cell types in co-culture through spatial variance of the magnetic field. Moreover, magnetic levitation of human glioblastoma cells demonstrates similar protein expression profiles to those observed in human tumor xenografts. Taken together, these results suggest levitated 3D culture with magnetized phage-based hydrogels more closely recapitulates in vivo protein expression and allows for long-term multi-cellular studies. PMID:20228788

  15. Aberration test of injectable tissue engineered bone carriers with algin-gelatin blend system%可注射性骨组织工程载体海藻酸钠-明胶共混体系的致畸突变试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高振奎; 张京; 夏扬; 梅芳

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Utilizing tissue engineering technique, various gel systems are served as scaffolds to repair bone defect. The scaffolds should have features of nontoxic and no teratological effects to the body. OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of sodium alginate-gelatin/osteoblast gel on chromosomal pattern aberration in rabbits. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The in vivo material animal experiments were conducted at the Beijing Shijitan Hospital and Department of Histology and Embryology, Peking University Health Science Center from October 2007 to March 2008. MATERIALS: A total of 12 New Zealand rabbits, aged 2 months, with clean grade, were randomly divided into 2 groups. The experimental group contains 4 female and 4 male rabbits, and the remaining 4 females were served as the control group. Sodium alginate dried powder were purchased from Sigma, USA, and the gelatin dried powder were supplied by Liidao Company, Hebei, China. METHODS: Following numbering, bone marrow was collected from 12 rabbits. Bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSCs) were isolated by the density gradient centrifugation, and then in vitro cultured with osteoblast inductor. Osteoblasts following passage were an order of magnitude of 10~7. Bright pink gelatiniform liquid with mass ratio of sodium alginate and gelatin at ratio of 2:3 was prepared. Rabbit osteoblasts with final concentration of 5×10~9/L were mixed with CaCb solution to form fruit jelly-shaped sodium alginate-gelatin/osteoblast gel. Critical-sized calvarial defects were created in diameter of 1.5 cm in 12 rabbits. After 1 week, cell/scaffold complex (0.5 mL) was implanted to repair the bone defect in the experimental group. There was no treatment in the control group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The change of chromosomal pattern was observed at 3 months following reparation. RESULTS: No Chromosome somatotype aberration was found in 100 metaphases in the experimental group. From 400 metaphases of the control group, 4 abnormal cells were found

  16. Virtual design of electrospun-like gelatin scaffolds: the effect of three-dimensional fibre orientation on elasticity behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guessasma, S; Oyen, M

    2016-01-14

    Remarkable mechanical performance of biological tissues is explained by a hierarchical fibrous structure. Designing materials that have similar properties is challenging because of the need to assess complex deformation mechanisms. In order to shed more light on architectural possibilities of biopolymer fibrous networks, we propose a numerical study that relates the fibre arrangement to the elastic modulus of a gelatin scaffold obtained using electrospinning. The adopted approach is based on the virtual designing of scaffolds using all possible combinations of Euler angles that define fibre orientations including preferable alignment. The generated networks are converted into a finite element model and the predicted elastic behaviour is examined. Predictions show that the fibre alignment achieved experimentally in biopolymer fibrous networks is for most of the fibres exhibiting an orthotropic behaviour. Some particular combinations of Euler angles allow transverse isotropic architectures while only limited cases are isotropic. A large sensitivity of Young's moduli to Euler angles is achieved describing multiple scenarios of independent anisotropic behaviours. An anisotropy ratio of the elastic behaviour is suggested based on a suitable combination of elastic moduli. Such a ratio exhibits a wide variation depending on individual and coupled effects of Euler angles. The finite element model predicts 2D, 3D and 4D maps representing all possible configurations of fibre alignment and their consequences on elastic behaviour. The predicted fibre orientation representing the observed anisotropic behaviour of electrospun gelatin networks demonstrates unbalanced contributions of in-plane and out-of plane fibres for a large range of processing conditions.

  17. Cardiac tissue ablation with catheter-based microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, C

    2004-11-01

    The common condition of atrial fibrillation is often treated by cutting diseased cardiac tissue to disrupt abnormal electrical conduction pathways. Heating abnormal tissue with electromagnetic power provides a minimally invasive surgical alternative to treat these cardiac arrhythmias. Radio frequency ablation has become the method of choice of many physicians. Recently, microwave power has also been shown to have great therapeutic benefit in medical treatment requiring precise heating of biological tissue. Since microwave power tends to be deposited throughout the volume of biological media, microwave heating offers advantages over other heating modalities that tend to heat primarily the contacting surface. It is also possible to heat a deeper volume of tissue with more precise control using microwaves than with purely thermal conduction or RF electrode heating. Microwave Cardiac Ablation (MCA) is used to treat heart tissue that allows abnormal electrical conduction by heating it to the point of inactivation. Microwave antennas that fit within catheter systems can be positioned close to diseased tissue. Specialized antenna designs that unfurl from the catheter within the heart can then radiate specifically shaped fields, which overcome problems such as excessive surface heating at the contact point. The state of the art in MCA is reviewed in this paper and a novel catheter-based unfurling wide aperture antenna is described. This antenna consists of the centre conductor of a coaxial line, shaped into a spiral and insulated from blood and tissue by a non-conductive fluid filled balloon. Initially stretched straight inside a catheter for transluminal guiding, once in place at the cardiac target, the coiled spiral antenna is advanced into the inflated balloon. Power is applied in the range of 50-150 W at the reserved industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) frequency of 915 MHz for 30-90 s to create an irreversible lesion. The antenna is then retracted back into the

  18. Cell-based and biomaterial approaches to connective tissue repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalling, Simone Suzette

    vitro as well as in a subcutaneous mouse model. Stable MA-MC hydrogels, of varying weight percentages, demonstrated tunable swelling and mechanical properties in the absence of cytotoxic degradation products. In vivo, 6wt% MA-MC hydrogels maintained their shape and mechanical integrity while eliciting a minimal inflammatory response; highly desirable properties for soft tissue reconstruction. These cellulose-based photopolymerizable hydrogels can be further optimized for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications to enhance wound repair.

  19. Image-based quantification of fiber alignment within electrospun tissue engineering scaffolds is related to mechanical anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fee, Timothy; Downs, Crawford; Eberhardt, Alan; Zhou, Yong; Berry, Joel

    2016-07-01

    It is well documented that electrospun tissue engineering scaffolds can be fabricated with variable degrees of fiber alignment to produce scaffolds with anisotropic mechanical properties. Several attempts have been made to quantify the degree of fiber alignment within an electrospun scaffold using image-based methods. However, these methods are limited by the inability to produce a quantitative measure of alignment that can be used to make comparisons across publications. Therefore, we have developed a new approach to quantifying the alignment present within a scaffold from scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images. The alignment is determined by using the Sobel approximation of the image gradient to determine the distribution of gradient angles with an image. This data was fit to a Von Mises distribution to find the dispersion parameter κ, which was used as a quantitative measure of fiber alignment. We fabricated four groups of electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) + Gelatin scaffolds with alignments ranging from κ = 1.9 (aligned) to κ = 0.25 (random) and tested our alignment quantification method on these scaffolds. It was found that our alignment quantification method could distinguish between scaffolds of different alignments more accurately than two other published methods. Additionally, the alignment parameter κ was found to be a good predictor the mechanical anisotropy of our electrospun scaffolds. The ability to quantify fiber alignment within and make direct comparisons of scaffold fiber alignment across publications can reduce ambiguity between published results where cells are cultured on "highly aligned" fibrous scaffolds. This could have important implications for characterizing mechanics and cellular behavior on aligned tissue engineering scaffolds. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1680-1686, 2016.

  20. Suction based mechanical characterization of superficial facial soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weickenmeier, J; Jabareen, M; Mazza, E

    2015-12-16

    The present study is aimed at a combined experimental and numerical investigation of the mechanical response of superficial facial tissues. Suction based experiments provide the location, time, and history dependent behavior of skin and SMAS (superficial musculoaponeurotic system) by means of Cutometer and Aspiration measurements. The suction method is particularly suitable for in vivo, multi-axial testing of soft biological tissue including a high repeatability in subsequent tests. The campaign comprises three measurement sites in the face, i.e. jaw, parotid, and forehead, using two different loading profiles (instantaneous loading and a linearly increasing and decreasing loading curve), multiple loading magnitudes, and cyclic loading cases to quantify history dependent behavior. In an inverse finite element analysis based on anatomically detailed models an optimized set of material parameters for the implementation of an elastic-viscoplastic material model was determined, yielding an initial shear modulus of 2.32kPa for skin and 0.05kPa for SMAS, respectively. Apex displacements at maximum instantaneous and linear loading showed significant location specificity with variations of up to 18% with respect to the facial average response while observing variations in repeated measurements in the same location of less than 12%. In summary, the proposed parameter sets for skin and SMAS are shown to provide remarkable agreement between the experimentally observed and numerically predicted tissue response under all loading conditions considered in the present study, including cyclic tests.

  1. Highly efficient removal of lead and cadmium during wastewater irrigation using a polyethylenimine-grafted gelatin sponge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingbing; Zhou, Feng; Huang, Kai; Wang, Yipei; Mei, Surong; Zhou, Yikai; Jing, Tao

    2016-09-01

    Wastewater irrigation is a very important resource for heavy metal pollution in soil and then accumulation in vegetable crops. In this study, a polyethylenimine (PEI)-grafted gelatin sponge was prepared to effectively adsorb heavy metals during wastewater irrigation. Based on the strong water adsorption ability, wastewater remained in the PEI-grafted gelatin sponge for a sufficient time for the heavy metals to interact with the sorbents. The binding capacities of Pb(II) ions and Cd(II) ions on the PEI-grafted gelatin sponge were 66 mg g‑1 and 65 mg g‑1, which were much more than those on the gelatin sponge (9.75 mg g‑1 and 9.35 mg g‑1). Subsequently, the PEI-grafted gelatin sponge was spread on the surface of soil planted with garlic and then sprayed with synthetic wastewater. The concentrations of cadmium and lead in the garlic leaves were 1.59 mg kg‑1 and 5.69 mg kg‑1, respectively, which were much lower than those (15.78 mg kg‑1 and 27.98 mg kg‑1) without the gelatin sponge, and the removal efficiencies were 89.9% and 79.7%. The PEI-grafting gelatin sponge could effectively remove heavy metals during wastewater irrigation, which improved the soil environment and reduced human exposure to heavy metals.

  2. Novel blood protein based scaffolds for cardiovascular tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuhn Antonia I.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in cardiovascular tissue engineering is the fabrication of scaffolds, which provide appropriate morphological and mechanical properties while avoiding undesirable immune reactions. In this study electrospinning was used to fabricate scaffolds out of blood proteins for cardiovascular tissue engineering. Lyophilised porcine plasma was dissolved in deionised water at a final concentration of 7.5% m/v and blended with 3.7% m/v PEO. Electrospinning resulted in homogeneous fibre morphologies with a mean fibre diameter of 151 nm, which could be adapted to create macroscopic shapes (mats, tubes. Cross-linking with glutaraldehyde vapour improved the long-term stability of protein based scaffolds in comparison to untreated scaffolds, resulting in a mass loss of 41% and 96% after 28 days of incubation in aqueous solution, respectively.

  3. Stability of Propofol in Polystyrene-Based Tissue Culture Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sall, Jeffrey W.; Leong, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Propofol has been reported to have high stability in glass and relatively high stability up to 24 hours in polyvinyl chloride-based medical plastics. Recent publications have observed the effects of propofol on cells and tissues grown in culture. Many cell culture plastics are formulated from polystyrene but we could find little information on the stability of propofol exposed to these products. We observed very little change in the concentration of propofol diluted in cell culture medium over 24 hours when exposed to glass, but substantial loss of the drug when exposed to 96-well polystyrene cell culture plates. This decrease was most rapid in the first hour but continued until 24 hours. The type of plastic used in cell and tissue culture experiments with propofol may influence the results by increasing the apparent dose required to see an effect. PMID:23632056

  4. Enhanced Vascularization in Hybrid PCL/Gelatin Fibrous Scaffolds with Sustained Release of VEGF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Creating a long-lasting and functional vasculature represents one of the most fundamental challenges in tissue engineering. VEGF has been widely accepted as a potent angiogenic factor involved in the early stages of blood vessel formation. In this study, fibrous scaffolds that consist of PCL and gelatin fibers were fabricated. The gelatin fibers were further functionalized by heparin immobilization, which provides binding sites for VEGF and thus enables the sustained release of VEGF. In vitro release test confirms the sustained releasing profile of VEGF, and stable release was observed over a time period of 25 days. In vitro cell assay indicates that VEGF release significantly promoted the proliferation of endothelial cells. More importantly, in vivo subcutaneous implantation reflects that vascularization has been effectively enhanced in the PCL/gelatin scaffolds compared with the PCL counterpart due to the sustained release of VEGF. Therefore, the heparinized PCL/gelatin scaffolds developed in this study may be a promising candidate for regeneration of complex tissues with sufficient vascularization.

  5. Tissue-engineering-based Strategies for Regenerative Endodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, M.T.P.; Valera, M.C.; Nakashima, M.; Nör, J.E.; Bottino, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Stemming from in vitro and in vivo pre-clinical and human models, tissue-engineering-based strategies continue to demonstrate great potential for the regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex, particularly in necrotic, immature permanent teeth. Nanofibrous scaffolds, which closely resemble the native extracellular matrix, have been successfully synthesized by various techniques, including but not limited to electrospinning. A common goal in scaffold synthesis has been the notion of promoting cell guidance through the careful design and use of a collection of biochemical and physical cues capable of governing and stimulating specific events at the cellular and tissue levels. The latest advances in processing technologies allow for the fabrication of scaffolds where selected bioactive molecules can be delivered locally, thus increasing the possibilities for clinical success. Though electrospun scaffolds have not yet been tested in vivo in either human or animal pulpless models in immature permanent teeth, recent studies have highlighted their regenerative potential both from an in vitro and in vivo (i.e., subcutaneous model) standpoint. Possible applications for these bioactive scaffolds continue to evolve, with significant prospects related to the regeneration of both dentin and pulp tissue and, more recently, to root canal disinfection. Nonetheless, no single implantable scaffold can consistently guide the coordinated growth and development of the multiple tissue types involved in the functional regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive perspective on the latest discoveries related to the use of scaffolds and/or stem cells in regenerative endodontics. The authors focused this review on bioactive nanofibrous scaffolds, injectable scaffolds and stem cells, and pre-clinical findings using stem-cell-based strategies. These topics are discussed in detail in an attempt to provide future direction and to shed light on

  6. Tissue-engineering-based strategies for regenerative endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, M T P; Valera, M C; Nakashima, M; Nör, J E; Bottino, M C

    2014-12-01

    Stemming from in vitro and in vivo pre-clinical and human models, tissue-engineering-based strategies continue to demonstrate great potential for the regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex, particularly in necrotic, immature permanent teeth. Nanofibrous scaffolds, which closely resemble the native extracellular matrix, have been successfully synthesized by various techniques, including but not limited to electrospinning. A common goal in scaffold synthesis has been the notion of promoting cell guidance through the careful design and use of a collection of biochemical and physical cues capable of governing and stimulating specific events at the cellular and tissue levels. The latest advances in processing technologies allow for the fabrication of scaffolds where selected bioactive molecules can be delivered locally, thus increasing the possibilities for clinical success. Though electrospun scaffolds have not yet been tested in vivo in either human or animal pulpless models in immature permanent teeth, recent studies have highlighted their regenerative potential both from an in vitro and in vivo (i.e., subcutaneous model) standpoint. Possible applications for these bioactive scaffolds continue to evolve, with significant prospects related to the regeneration of both dentin and pulp tissue and, more recently, to root canal disinfection. Nonetheless, no single implantable scaffold can consistently guide the coordinated growth and development of the multiple tissue types involved in the functional regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive perspective on the latest discoveries related to the use of scaffolds and/or stem cells in regenerative endodontics. The authors focused this review on bioactive nanofibrous scaffolds, injectable scaffolds and stem cells, and pre-clinical findings using stem-cell-based strategies. These topics are discussed in detail in an attempt to provide future direction and to shed light on

  7. Physicochemical and functional properties of gelatin extracted from Yak skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengqi; Wei, Lixin; Xiao, Yuancan; Bi, Hongtao; Yang, Hongxia; Du, Yuzhi

    2017-02-01

    Different molecular weight distribution (MWD) gelatin was extracted from Yak skin after enzymatic pretreatments and their physicochemical and functional properties (SDS-PAGE, UV-vis absorption spectra, DSC, FT-IR, Amino acid analysis, AFM, emulsibility and foamability) were analyzed. The gelatin was extracted by pepsin and got different MWD of Yak skin gelatin by controlling the enzymolysis time. The SDS-PAGE showed the MWD of the Yak skin gelatin. The UV-vis absorption turned out that the broad MWD of Yak skin gelatin had a higher maximum absorption peaks. The FT-IR and AFM indicated that the gelatin structures and microstructures changed with the change of the MWD. The broad MWD of the Yak skin gelatin had a higher denaturation temperature (TD), and it was higher than most of the other mammals and marine biological gelatin. The broad MWD gelatin also had higher imino acids (proline and hydroxyproline) contents and lower foamability and emulsibility compared to the narrow MWD gelatin. These findings, obtained for the first time for Yak skin gelatin, showed that it has great potential for application as an alternative to commercial gelatin due to its good thermotolerance, particularly in the applications of the biological materials, stabilizer of thermo-tolerant and so on.

  8. Tissue engineering of electrically responsive tissues using polyaniline based polymers: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Taimoor H; Rai, Ranjana; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2014-11-01

    Conducting polymers have found numerous applications as biomaterial components serving to effectively deliver electrical signals from an external source to the seeded cells. Several cell types including cardiomyocytes, neurons, and osteoblasts respond to electrical signals by improving their functional outcomes. Although a wide variety of conducting polymers are available, polyaniline (PANI) has emerged as a popular choice due to its attractive properties such as ease of synthesis, tunable conductivity, environmental stability, and biocompatibility. PANI in its pure form has exhibited biocompatibility both in vitro and in vivo, and has been combined with a host of biodegradable polymers to form composites having a range of mechanical, electrical, and surface properties. Moreover, recent studies in literature report on the functionalization of polyaniline oligomers with end segments that make it biodegradable and improve its biocompatibility, two properties which make these materials highly desirable for applications in tissue engineering. This review will discuss the features and properties of PANI based composites that make them effective biomaterials, and it provides a comprehensive summary of studies where the use of PANI as a biomaterial component has enhanced cellular function and behavior. We also discuss recent studies utilizing functionalized PANI oligomers, and conclude that electroactive PANI and its derivatives show great promise in eliciting favorable responses from various cell lines that respond to electrical stimuli, and are therefore effective biomaterials for the engineering of electrically responsive biological tissues and organs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Composite glycidyl methacrylated dextran (Dex-GMA)/gelatin nanoparticles for localized protein delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fa-ming CHEN; Zhi-wei MA; Guang-ying DONG; Zhi-fen WU

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Localized delivery of growth factors has significant potential as a future therapeutic strategy in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. A nanoparticle vehicle was created and evaluated in this study with the intent to deliver growth factors for periodontal regeneration. Methods: Novel composite nanoparticles based on glycidyl methacrylate derivatized dextrans (Dex-GMA) and gelatin were fabricated by a facile method without using any organic solvents. The configurations of the resultant nanoparticles were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscope. Their surfaces were characterized by zeta-potential measurements, after which their properties including swelling, degradation, drug release, and cytotoxicity were also investigated using in vitro models,Results: The particle size of Dex-GMA/gelatin nanoparticles (DG-NPs) ranged from 20 to 100 nm and showed a mono-dis-perse size distribution (mean diameter 53.7 nm) and a strongly negative surface zeta potential (-20 mV). The DC,-NPs were characterized by good swelling and degradation properties in media including dextranase. The in vitro drug release stud-ies showed that the efficient bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) release from DG-NPs was maintained for more than 12 d under degradation conditions, where more than 90% of the loaded BMP was released. No any relevant cell damage caused by DG-NPs was found in the cytotoxicity tests for a period of 24 h.Conclusion: These combined results demonstrate that DG-NPs fulfill the basic prerequisites for growth factor delivery.With further in vivo studies, those nanoparticles may offer a promising vehicle for the delivery of active drugs to the perio-dontium.

  10. Preparation and characteristics of gelatin sponges crosslinked by microbial transglutaminase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Long

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Microbial transglutaminase (mTG was used as a crosslinking agent in the preparation of gelatin sponges. The physical properties of the materials were evaluated by measuring their material porosity, water absorption, and elastic modulus. The stability of the sponges were assessed via hydrolysis and enzymolysis. To study the material degradation in vivo, subcutaneous implantations of sponges were performed on rats for 1–3 months, and the implanted sponges were analyzed. To evaluate the cell compatibility of the mTG crosslinked gelatin sponges (mTG sponges, adipose-derived stromal stem cells were cultured and inoculated into the scaffold. Cell proliferation and viability were measured using alamarBlue assay and LIVE/DEAD fluorescence staining, respectively. Cell adhesion on the sponges was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Results show that mTG sponges have uniform pore size, high porosity and water absorption, and good mechanical properties. In subcutaneous implantation, the material was partially degraded in the first month and completely absorbed in the third month. Cell experiments showed evident cell proliferation and high viability. Results also showed that the cells grew vigorously and adhered tightly to the sponge. In conclusion, mTG sponge has good biocompatibility and can be used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  11. Optical fiber based imaging of bioengineered tissue construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapoznik, Etai; Niu, Guoguang; Lu, Peng; Zhou, Yu; Xu, Yong; Soker, Shay

    2016-04-01

    Imaging cells and tissues through opaque and turbid media is challenging and presents a major barrier for monitoring maturation and remodeling of bioengineered tissues. The fiber optics based imaging system described here offers a new approach for fluorescent cell imaging. A micro imaging channel is embedded in a Polycaprolactone (PCL) electrospun scaffold designed for cell seeding, which allows us to use an optical fiber to locally deliver excitation laser close to the fluorescent cells. The emission is detected by an Electron Multiplying Charge Coupled Device (EMCCD) detector and image reconstruction of multiple excitation points is achieved with a working distance of several centimeters. The objective of this study is to assess the effects of system parameters on image reconstruction outcomes. Initial studies using fluorescent beads indicated that scaffold thickness had a small effect on image quality, whereas scaffold composition (collagen content), fluorophore spectra, and the reconstruction window size had a large effect. The results also suggest that a far-red fluorescent emission is preferential when using collagenous scaffolds with a thickness of up to 500 μm. Using these optimized parameters, we were able to image fluorescently labeled cells on a scaffold with a resolution of 15-20 μm, and have also measured muscle progenitor cell differentiation and scaffold surface coverage with endothelial cells. In the future, this imaging platform can be applied to other bioengineered tissues for non-invasive monitoring both in vitro and in vivo.

  12. Magnetic resonance brain tissue segmentation based on sparse representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    Segmentation or delineation of specific organs and structures in medical images is an important task in the clinical diagnosis and treatment, since it allows to characterize pathologies through imaging measures (biomarkers). In brain imaging, segmentation of main tissues or specific structures is challenging, due to the anatomic variability and complexity, and the presence of image artifacts (noise, intensity inhomogeneities, partial volume effect). In this paper, an automatic segmentation strategy is proposed, based on sparse representations and coupled dictionaries. Image intensity patterns are singly related to tissue labels at the level of small patches, gathering this information in coupled intensity/segmentation dictionaries. This dictionaries are used within a sparse representation framework to find the projection of a new intensity image onto the intensity dictionary, and the same projection can be used with the segmentation dictionary to estimate the corresponding segmentation. Preliminary results obtained with two publicly available datasets suggest that the proposal is capable of estimating adequate segmentations for gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) tissues, with an average overlapping of 0:79 for GM and 0:71 for WM (with respect to original segmentations).

  13. Controlled release of an extract of Calendula officinalis flowers from a system based on the incorporation of gelatin-collagen microparticles into collagen I scaffolds: design and in vitro performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Ronald A; Millán, Diana; Suesca, Edward; Sosnik, Alejandro; Fontanilla, Marta R

    2015-06-01

    Aiming to develop biological skin dresses with improved performance in the treatment of skin wounds, acellular collagen I scaffolds were modified with polymeric microparticles and the subsequent loading of a hydroglycolic extract of Calendula officinalis flowers. Microparticles made of gelatin-collagen were produced by a water-in-oil emulsion/cross-linking method. Thereafter, these microparticles were mixed with collagen suspensions at three increasing concentrations and the resulting mixtures lyophilized to make microparticle-loaded porous collagen scaffolds. Resistance to enzymatic degradation, ability to associate with the C. officinalis extract, and the extract release profile of the three gelatin-collagen microparticle-scaffold prototypes were assessed in vitro and compared to collagen scaffolds without microparticles used as control. Data indicated that the incorporation of gelatin-collagen microparticles increased the resistance of the scaffolds to in vitro enzymatic degradation, as well as their association with the C. officinalis flower extract. In addition, a sharp decrease in cytotoxicity, as well as more prolonged release of the extract, was attained. Overall results support the potential of these systems to develop innovative dermal substitutes with improved features. Furthermore, the gelatin-collagen mixture represents a low-cost and scalable alternative with high clinical transferability, especially appealing in developing countries.

  14. Thermal degradation of gelatin as applied to processing of gel mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, W C

    1978-02-01

    The rheological parameters of rigidity and viscosity were studied for gelatin, both as a 6% solution and a 38% gel mass containing glycerin, sorbitol, and water. A compressive test for rigidity and a rotational shear method for viscosity were used to characterize the thermal degradation of several lots of alkali-processed calf-skin gelatin. The objective of this study was to use kinetic data for process predictions in the manufacturing of the gel mass for soft gelatin capsules. Empirical equations relating degradation to time, temperature and pH were derived for dilute gelatin solutions. Through parallel studies with a concentrated gel mass, other empirical equations were developed to predict degradation of the gel mass based on dilute solution data and processing conditions. Analysis of the kinetic data and empirical equations have generally confirmed earlier observations on degradation, except on quantitative aspects. While these equations are adequate for the intended use in process predictions, the study revealed substantial variability both within and among lots of commercial gelatin. These variabilities of uncertain causes contributed to inexact characterization of degradation, as demonstrated by the generally approximate results of process predictions.

  15. Low-cost fabrication of poly(methyl methacrylate) microchips using disposable gelatin gel templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi; Yu, Zhengyin; Chen, Gang

    2010-06-15

    A simple method based on disposable gelatin gel templates has been developed for the low-cost fabrication of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microfluidic chips. Gelatin was dissolved in glycerol aqueous solution under heat to prepare a thermally reversible impression material. The molten gel was then sandwiched between a glass plate and a SU-8 template bearing negative relief of microstructure. After cooling, the negative SU-8 template could be easily separated from the solidified gelatin gel and a layer of gelatin template bearing positive relief of the microstructure was left on the glass plate. Subsequently, prepolymerized methyl methacrylate molding solution containing a UV-initiator was sandwiched between the gel template and a PMMA plate and was allowed to polymerize under UV light to fabricate PMMA channel plate at room temperature. Complete microchips could be obtained by bonding the channel plates with covers using plasticizer-assisted thermal bonding at 90 degrees C. Gelatin gel template can be mass-produced and will find application in the mass production of PMMA microchips at low cost. The prepared microfluidic microchips have been successfully employed in the capillary electrophoresis analysis of several ions in connection with contactless conductivity detection.

  16. Using Hydroxyapatite-Gelatin Scaffold Seeded with Bone Marrow Stromal Cells as a Bone Graft in Animal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsoumeh Behruzi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, composite scaffolds with some desired characteristics have a numerous applications in hard tissue engineering. In present study, the role of composite hydroxyapatite - gelatin was examined in both alone and coated by Bone Marrow Stromal Stem Cells (BMSCs conditions in the process of healing bone defects, reduction of time repair and the immune response of body by laboratory studies (in vitro and in vivo on the skull of adult rats as well. Materials and Methods: In present study, nano-hydroxyapatite powder and gelatin were used to provide nano-hydroxyapatite-gelatin scaffold, BMSCs were isolated by Flushing method. Fifteen adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-200 g were used. Studing groups included bone defect with hydroxyapatite-gelatin scaffold, bone defect with hydroxyapatite-gelatin with BMSCs and bone defects without scaffolding as a controlwhich were examined after a week and a month after surgery. MTT assay was used in order to evaluation of biocompatibility of scaffolds. To confirm the healing progress trend and the presence of inflammatory cells we used hematoxylin-eosin and we used Masson's trichrome staining in order to study of synthesis of collagen fibers. Results: The results of MTT showed that the scaffold has no toxic effects on stromal cells. The first signs of ossification in hydroxyapatite-gelatin with BMSCs cells group, appeared in the first week. However, in the fourth week, ossification was completed and the scaffold remaining was found as embedded islands in the spongy bone tissue. The greatest number of lymphocytes was observed in the experimental group after one week of planting scaffold. Conclusion: it seems that Hydroxyapatite-gelatin scaffold coated with BMSCs cells has a potential role in the healing process of bone and it can be suitable as a therapeutic strategy to repair extensive bone lesions.

  17. Electrospun gelatin fiber mats containing a herbal—Centella asiatica—extract and release characteristic of asiaticoside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikareepaisan, Panprung; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Supaphol, Pitt

    2008-01-01

    Ultra-fine gelatin (type A, porcine skin, ~180 Bloom) fiber mats containing a methanolic crude extract of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, a medicinal plant widely known for its traditional medical applications including its wound healing ability, were fabricated, for the first time, from the neat gelatin solution (22% w/v in 70 vol% acetic acid) containing the crude extract (mCA) in various amounts (i.e. 5-30 wt% based on the weight of gelatin powder) by electrospinning. Incorporation of mCA in the neat gelatin solution did not affect both the morphology and the size of the mCA-loaded gelatin fibers, as both of the neat and the mCA-loaded gelatin fibers were smooth and the average diameters of these fibers ranged between 226 and 232 nm. The cross-linked mCA-loaded e-spun gelatin fiber mat from the neat gelatin solution containing 30 wt% of mCA was further investigated for the release characteristic of asiaticoside, identified as the most active compound associated with the healing of wounds, in two different types of releasing medium, i.e. acetate buffer and the buffer containing 10 vol% of methanol, based on the thin-layer chromatography (TLC)-densitometry technique. Based on the unit weight of the actual amount of asiaticoside present in the specimens, the total amount of asiaticoside released from the fiber mat specimens was lower than that from the film counterparts while, based on the unit weight of the specimens, an opposite trend was observed.

  18. Electrospun gelatin fiber mats containing a herbal-Centella asiatica-extract and release characteristic of asiaticoside

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikareepaisan, Panprung [Technological Center for Electrospun Fibers and Petroleum and Petrochemical College, Chulalongkorn University, Phyathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Suksamrarn, Apichart [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ramkhamhaeng University, Ramkhamhaeng Road, Bangkapi, Bangkok 10240 (Thailand); Supaphol, Pitt [Technological Center for Electrospun Fibers and Petroleum and Petrochemical College, Chulalongkorn University, Phyathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2008-01-09

    Ultra-fine gelatin (type A, porcine skin, {approx}180 Bloom) fiber mats containing a methanolic crude extract of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, a medicinal plant widely known for its traditional medical applications including its wound healing ability, were fabricated, for the first time, from the neat gelatin solution (22% w/v in 70 vol% acetic acid) containing the crude extract (mCA) in various amounts (i.e. 5-30 wt% based on the weight of gelatin powder) by electrospinning. Incorporation of mCA in the neat gelatin solution did not affect both the morphology and the size of the mCA-loaded gelatin fibers, as both of the neat and the mCA-loaded gelatin fibers were smooth and the average diameters of these fibers ranged between 226 and 232 nm. The cross-linked mCA-loaded e-spun gelatin fiber mat from the neat gelatin solution containing 30 wt% of mCA was further investigated for the release characteristic of asiaticoside, identified as the most active compound associated with the healing of wounds, in two different types of releasing medium, i.e. acetate buffer and the buffer containing 10 vol% of methanol, based on the thin-layer chromatography (TLC)-densitometry technique. Based on the unit weight of the actual amount of asiaticoside present in the specimens, the total amount of asiaticoside released from the fiber mat specimens was lower than that from the film counterparts while, based on the unit weight of the specimens, an opposite trend was observed.

  19. Adipose tissue engineering in three-dimensional levitation tissue culture system based on magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daquinag, Alexes C; Souza, Glauco R; Kolonin, Mikhail G

    2013-05-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) is becoming widely used in regenerative medicine/cell therapy applications, and its physiological and pathological importance is increasingly appreciated. WAT is a complex organ composed of differentiated adipocytes, stromal mesenchymal progenitors known as adipose stromal cells (ASC), as well as endothelial vascular cells and infiltrating leukocytes. Two-dimensional (2D) culture that has been typically used for studying adipose cells does not adequately recapitulate WAT complexity. Improved methods for reconstruction of functional WAT ex vivo are instrumental for understanding of physiological interactions between the composing cell populations. Here, we used a three-dimensional (3D) levitation tissue culture system based on magnetic nanoparticle assembly to model WAT development and growth in organoids termed adipospheres. We show that 3T3-L1 preadipocytes remain viable in spheroids for a long period of time, while in 2D culture, they lose adherence and die after reaching confluence. Upon adipogenesis induction in 3T3-L1 adipospheres, cells efficiently formed large lipid droplets typical of white adipocytes in vivo, while only smaller lipid droplet formation is achievable in 2D. Adiposphere-based coculture of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes with murine endothelial bEND.3 cells led to a vascular-like network assembly concomitantly with lipogenesis in perivascular cells. Adipocyte-depleted stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of mouse WAT cultured in 3D underwent assembly into organoids with vascular-like structures containing luminal endothelial and perivascular stromal cell layers. Adipospheres made from primary WAT cells displayed robust proliferation and complex hierarchical organization reflected by a matricellular gradient incorporating ASC, endothelial cells, and leukocytes, while ASC quickly outgrew other cell types in adherent culture. Upon adipogenesis induction, adipospheres derived from the SVF displayed more efficient lipid droplet

  20. In vivo hemostatic efficacy of polyurethane foam compared to collagen and gelatin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekema, Ferdinand I.; van Oeveren, Wim; Selten, Maaike H. A.; Meijer, Rolf J. H.; de Wolf, Joost T. M.; Bos, Rudolf R. M.

    2013-01-01

    Topical hemostatic agents are used in all surgical disciplines. Most of these hemostats are based on animal-derived products like collagen and gelatin. They carry the potential risk of pathogen transmission. A newly developed biodegradable, fully synthetic hemostatic agent based on polyurethane foam

  1. Covalent incorporation of non-chemically modified gelatin into degradable PVA-tyramine hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Khoon S; Alves, Marie H; Poole-Warren, Laura A; Martens, Penny J

    2013-09-01

    Development of tissue engineering solutions for biomedical applications has driven the need for integration of biological signals into synthetic materials. Approaches to achieve this typically require chemical modification of the biological molecules. Examples include chemical grafting of synthetic polymers onto protein backbones and covalent modification of proteins using crosslinkable functional groups. However, such chemical modification processes can cause protein degradation, denaturation or loss of biological activity due to side chain disruption. This study exploited the observation that native tyrosine rich proteins could be crosslinked via radical initiated bi-phenol bond formation without any chemical modification of the protein. A new, tyramine functionalised poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) polymer was synthesised and characterised. The tyramine modified PVA (PVA-Tyr) was fabricated into hydrogels using a visible light initiated crosslinking system. Mass loss studies showed that PVA-Tyr hydrogels were completely degraded within 19 days most likely via degradation of ester linkages in the network. Protein incorporation to form a biosynthetic hydrogel was achieved using unmodified gelatin, a protein derived from collagen and results showed that 75% of gelatin was retained in the gel post-polymerisation. Incorporation of gelatin did not alter the sol fraction, swelling ratio and degradation profile of the hydrogels, but did significantly improve the cellular interactions. Moreover, incorporation of as little as 0.01 wt% gelatin was sufficient to facilitate fibroblast adhesion onto PVA-Tyr/gelatin hydrogels. Overall, this study details the synthesis of a new functionalised PVA macromer and demonstrates that tyrosine containing proteins can be covalently incorporated into synthetic hydrogels using this innovative PVA-Tyr system. The resultant degradable biosynthetic hydrogels hold great promise as matrices for tissue engineering applications.

  2. Evaluation of antibiotic releasing porous polymethylmethacrylate space maintainers in an infected composite tissue defect model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Patrick P; Shah, Sarita R; Henslee, Allan M; Watson, Brendan M; Kinard, Lucas A; Kretlow, James D; Bevil, Kristin; Kattchee, Lauren; Bennett, George N; Demian, Nagi; Mende, Katrin; Murray, Clinton K; Jansen, John A; Wong, Mark E; Mikos, Antonios G; Kasper, F Kurtis

    2013-11-01

    This study evaluated the in vitro and in vivo performance of antibiotic-releasing porous polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)-based space maintainers comprising a gelatin hydrogel porogen and a poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) particulate carrier for antibiotic delivery. Colistin was released in vitro from either gelatin or PLGA microparticle loaded PMMA constructs, with gelatin-loaded constructs releasing colistin over approximately 7 days and PLGA microparticle-loaded constructs releasing colistin for up to 8 weeks. Three formulations with either burst release or extended release at different doses were tested in a rabbit mandibular defect inoculated with Acinetobacter baumannii (2×10(7) colony forming units ml(-1)). In addition, one material control that released antibiotic but was not inoculated with A. baumannii was tested. A. baumannii was not detectable in any animal after 12 weeks on culture of the defect, saliva, or blood. Defects with high dose extended release implants had greater soft tissue healing compared with defects with burst release implants, with 8 of 10 animals showing healed mucosae compared with 2 of 10 respectively. Extended release of locally delivered colistin via a PLGA microparticle carrier improved soft tissue healing compared with implants with burst release of colistin from a gelatin carrier. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ontology-based, Tissue MicroArray oriented, image centered tissue bank

    OpenAIRE

    Viti Federica; Merelli Ivan; Caprera Andrea; Lazzari Barbara; Stella Alessandra; Milanesi Luciano

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Tissue MicroArray technique is becoming increasingly important in pathology for the validation of experimental data from transcriptomic analysis. This approach produces many images which need to be properly managed, if possible with an infrastructure able to support tissue sharing between institutes. Moreover, the available frameworks oriented to Tissue MicroArray provide good storage for clinical patient, sample treatment and block construction information, but their util...

  4. New approach to study starch gelatinization applying a combination of hot-stage light microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Xie, Qin; Yu, Shujuan; Gao, Qunyu

    2013-02-13

    To overcome the difficulty of the original polarizing microscope-based method in monitoring the gelatinization of starch, a new method for dynamically monitoring the gelatinization process, integral optical density (IOD), which was based on the digital image analysis technique, was proposed. Hot-stage light microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were coupled to study the dynamic changes of three types of starches: type A (corn starch), type B (potato starch), and type C (pea starch), during the gelatinization process in an excess water system. A model of response difference change of crystallite could represent the responding intensity of crystallization changes in the process of starch gelatinization. Results demonstrated that three crystalline types of starch underwent a process of swelling, accompanied with gradual disappearing of the crystallite. This difference was mainly associated with the diversity and composition of the starch structure. The IOD method was of advantage compared to the previous traditional methods that are based on a polarization microscope, such as counting the particle number and calculating polarization area methods, because it was the product of two parameters: optical density and area, which would be a response of both light intensity and area of birefringence light. The single peak in DSC corresponded to the combination of crystalline helix-helix dissociation and the reduction of the molecule helix-coil transition, while the gelatinization degree measured by the IOD method mainly corresponded to the helix-helix dissociation. The gelatinization mechanism could be revealed clearer in this study.

  5. Solubilization of bovine gelatin using power ultrasound: gelation without heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahnaky, Asgar; Zendeboodi, Fatemeh; Azizi, Rezvan; Mesbahi, Gholamreza; Majzoobi, Mahsa

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of power ultrasound without using any heating stage in solubilizeing gelatin dispersions, and to characterize the mechanical and microstructural properties of the resulting gels using texture analysis and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Usually to prepare a gel from gelatin, a primary heating stage of at about 40C or above is required to solubilize gelatin macromolecules. In this study solubilizing gelatin dispersions using power ultrasound without any heating was successfully performed. For solubilising gelatin, an ultrasound equipment with a frequency of 20 kHz, amplitude of 100% and power range of 50-150 W was used. Aqueous gelatin dispersions (4% w/v) were subjected to ultrasound for different times (40-240 s) at a constant temperature of 13C. Applying ultrasound to gelatin dispersions caused increases in water absorption and water solubility of the hydrocolloid. The textural parameters of the resulting gelatin gels, increased with increasing time and power of ultrasound. Moreover, a generalized Maxwell model with three elements was used for calculating relaxation times of the gels. The microstructural observations by SEM showed that the structural cohesiveness of the gels increased by increasing ultrasonication time. Ultrasound-assisted solubilization of gelatin can have emerging implications for industrial uses in pharmaceuticals, food and non-food systems. Usually to prepare a gel from gelatin, a primary heating stage of at about 40C or above is required to solubilize gelatin macromolecules. Therefore, the use of gelatin as a hydrocolloid in food processings or pharmaceutical formulations which lack a heating step has been a technological and practical challenge. In this study solubilizing gelatin dispersions using power ultrasound without any heating was successfully performed. Ultrasound-assisted solubilisation of gelatin can have emerging implications for industrial uses in pharmaceuticals

  6. Effect of pressure and temperature on the gelatinization of starch at various starch concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baks, Tim; Bruins, Marieke E; Janssen, Anja E M; Boom, Remko M

    2008-01-01

    The effects of pressure, temperature, and treatment time on the degree of gelatinization were determined with differential scanning calorimetry measurements for wheat starch-water mixtures with starch concentrations varying between 5 and 80 w/w %. Although simple models could be used to describe the degree of starch gelatinization as a function of pressure or temperature, a more complex model based on the Gibbs energy difference had to be used to describe the degree of gelatinization as a function of both pressure and temperature. The experimental and model data were used to construct a phase diagram for 5, 30, and 60 w/w % wheat starch-water mixtures. Data obtained from literature were in accordance with our phase diagrams. These phase diagrams can be used to estimate the degree of gelatinisation after applying a certain pressure and temperature on a starch-water mixture with starch concentrations in the range of 5 and 60 w/w %.

  7. Assessment of the ribose-induced Maillard reaction as a means of gelatine powder identification and quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Thuan-Chew; AlKarkhi, Abbas F M; Easa, Azhar Mat

    2012-10-15

    The addition of ribose to bovine or porcine gelatine solutions followed by heating at 95 °C yielded brown solutions with different pH, colour (CIE L(*) and b(*)) and absorbance (A(420*) values. These differences were used for gelatine powder identification, differentiation and quality control. Differentiation analysis of the Maillard reaction parameters was conducted using cluster analysis (CA) and confidence intervals (CI). The potential use of the method as a quality control procedure was evaluated by using statistical process control (SPC). CA revealed that the two types of gelatine could be classified into two different groups. CI (95% confidence) revealed that the absorbance and colour values could be used as indicators for differentiation between the two types of gelatine because the intervals between the Maillard reaction parameters of the samples were far apart. The methodology demonstrated good reproducibility because it behaved predictably based on the X¯-S charts generated from the SPC charts.

  8. Characterization of gelatin/chitosan scaffold blended with aloe vera and snail mucus for biomedical purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Angulo, Daniel Enrique; do Amaral Sobral, Paulo José

    2016-11-01

    Biologically active scaffolds used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have been generating promising results in skin replacement. The present study aims to test the hypothesis that the incorporation of Aloe vera and snail mucus into scaffolds based on gelatin and chitosan could improve their structure, composition and biodegradability, with a potential effect on bioactivity. Homogeneous pore diameter as well as pore walls in the composite scaffold could be seen in the SEM image. The pores in the scaffolds were interconnected and their sizes ranged from 93 to 296μm. The addition of Aloe vera and snail mucus enlarged the mean pore size with increased porosity and caused changes in the pore architecture. The FTIR analysis has shown good affinity and interaction between the matrix and the Aloe, which may decrease water-binding sites, so this fact hindered the water absorption capacity of the material. The mechanical properties could explain the highest swelling capacity of the snail scaffold, because the high percentage of elongation could facilitate the entry of liquid in it, generating a matrix with plenty of fluid retention. The real innovation in the present work could be the use of these substances (Aloe and snail mucus) for tissue engineering.

  9. Image standards in Tissue-Based Diagnosis (Diagnostic Surgical Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vollmer Ekkehard

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Progress in automated image analysis, virtual microscopy, hospital information systems, and interdisciplinary data exchange require image standards to be applied in tissue-based diagnosis. Aims To describe the theoretical background, practical experiences and comparable solutions in other medical fields to promote image standards applicable for diagnostic pathology. Theory and experiences Images used in tissue-based diagnosis present with pathology – specific characteristics. It seems appropriate to discuss their characteristics and potential standardization in relation to the levels of hierarchy in which they appear. All levels can be divided into legal, medical, and technological properties. Standards applied to the first level include regulations or aims to be fulfilled. In legal properties, they have to regulate features of privacy, image documentation, transmission, and presentation; in medical properties, features of disease – image combination, human – diagnostics, automated information extraction, archive retrieval and access; and in technological properties features of image acquisition, display, formats, transfer speed, safety, and system dynamics. The next lower second level has to implement the prescriptions of the upper one, i.e. describe how they are implemented. Legal aspects should demand secure encryption for privacy of all patient related data, image archives that include all images used for diagnostics for a period of 10 years at minimum, accurate annotations of dates and viewing, and precise hardware and software information. Medical aspects should demand standardized patients' files such as DICOM 3 or HL 7 including history and previous examinations, information of image display hardware and software, of image resolution and fields of view, of relation between sizes of biological objects and image sizes, and of access to archives and retrieval. Technological aspects should deal with image

  10. Image standards in tissue-based diagnosis (diagnostic surgical pathology).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Klaus; Görtler, Jürgen; Goldmann, Torsten; Vollmer, Ekkehard; Hufnagl, Peter; Kayser, Gian

    2008-04-18

    Progress in automated image analysis, virtual microscopy, hospital information systems, and interdisciplinary data exchange require image standards to be applied in tissue-based diagnosis. To describe the theoretical background, practical experiences and comparable solutions in other medical fields to promote image standards applicable for diagnostic pathology. THEORY AND EXPERIENCES: Images used in tissue-based diagnosis present with pathology-specific characteristics. It seems appropriate to discuss their characteristics and potential standardization in relation to the levels of hierarchy in which they appear. All levels can be divided into legal, medical, and technological properties. Standards applied to the first level include regulations or aims to be fulfilled. In legal properties, they have to regulate features of privacy, image documentation, transmission, and presentation; in medical properties, features of disease-image combination, human-diagnostics, automated information extraction, archive retrieval and access; and in technological properties features of image acquisition, display, formats, transfer speed, safety, and system dynamics. The next lower second level has to implement the prescriptions of the upper one, i.e. describe how they are implemented. Legal aspects should demand secure encryption for privacy of all patient related data, image archives that include all images used for diagnostics for a period of 10 years at minimum, accurate annotations of dates and viewing, and precise hardware and software information. Medical aspects should demand standardized patients' files such as DICOM 3 or HL 7 including history and previous examinations, information of image display hardware and software, of image resolution and fields of view, of relation between sizes of biological objects and image sizes, and of access to archives and retrieval. Technological aspects should deal with image acquisition systems (resolution, colour temperature, focus

  11. Image-based characterization of foamed polymeric tissue scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, Melissa L; Morgan, Stephen P; Crowe, John A [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); White, Lisa J; Shakesheff, Kevin M [School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Tai, Hongyun; Howdle, Steven M [School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Kockenberger, Walter [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: john.crowe@nottingham.ac.uk

    2008-03-01

    Tissue scaffolds are integral to many regenerative medicine therapies, providing suitable environments for tissue regeneration. In order to assess their suitability, methods to routinely and reproducibly characterize scaffolds are needed. Scaffold structures are typically complex, and thus their characterization is far from trivial. The work presented in this paper is centred on the application of the principles of scaffold characterization outlined in guidelines developed by ASTM International. Specifically, this work demonstrates the capabilities of different imaging modalities and analysis techniques used to characterize scaffolds fabricated from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) using supercritical carbon dioxide. Three structurally different scaffolds were used. The scaffolds were imaged using: scanning electron microscopy, micro x-ray computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and terahertz pulsed imaging. In each case two-dimensional images were obtained from which scaffold properties were determined using image processing. The findings of this work highlight how the chosen imaging modality and image-processing technique can influence the results of scaffold characterization. It is concluded that in order to obtain useful results from image-based scaffold characterization, an imaging methodology providing sufficient contrast and resolution must be used along with robust image segmentation methods to allow intercomparison of results.

  12. Formulation parameters affecting the performance of coated gelatin capsules with pulsatile release profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussemer, T; Bodmeier, R

    2003-11-28

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a rupturable pulsatile drug delivery system based on soft gelatin capsules with or without a swelling layer and an external water-insoluble but -permeable polymer coating, which released the drug after a lag time (rupturing of the external polymer coating). The swelling of the gelatin capsule itself was insufficient to rupture the external polymer coating, an additional swelling layer was applied between the capsule and the polymer coating. Croscarmellose sodium (Ac-Di-Sol) was more effective as a swelling agent than low and high molecular weight hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC; E5 or K100M). Brittle polymers, such as ethyl cellulose (EC) and cellulose acetate propionate (CAPr), led to a better rupturing and therefore more complete drug release than the flexible polymer coating, Eudragit RS. The lag time of the release system increased with higher polymer coating levels and decreased with the addition of a hydrophilic pore-former, HPMC E5 and also with an increasing amount of the intermediate swelling layer. The water uptake of the capsules was linear until rupture and was higher with CAPr than with EC. Soft gelatin capsule-based systems showed shorter lag times compared to hard gelatin capsules because of the higher hardness/filling state of the soft gelatin capsules. The swelling pressure was therefore more directed to the external polymer coating with the soft gelatin capsules. Typical pulsatile drug release profiles were obtained at lower polymer coating levels, while the release was slower and incomplete at the higher coating levels. CAPr-coated capsules resulted in a more complete release than EC-coated capsules.

  13. Porous-based rheological model for tissue fluidisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadipour, N.; Trepat, X.; Muñoz, J. J.

    2016-11-01

    It has been experimentally observed that cells exhibit a fluidisation process when subjected to a transient stretch, with an eventual recovery of the mechanical properties upon removal of the applied deformation. This fluidisation process is characterised by a decrease of the storage modulus and an increase of the phase angle. We propose a rheological model which is able to reproduce this combined mechanical response. The model is described in the context of continua and adapted to a cell-centred particle system that simulates cell-cell interactions. Mechanical equilibrium is coupled with two evolution laws: (i) one for the reference configuration, and (ii) another for the porosity or polymer density. The first law depends on the actual strain of the tissue, while the second assumes different remodelling rates during porosity increase and decrease. The theory is implemented on a particle based model and tested on a stretching experiment. The numerical results agree with the experimental measurements for different stretching magnitudes.

  14. Fabrication of circular microfluidic network in enzymatically-crosslinked gelatin hydrogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jiankang, E-mail: jiankanghe@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Chen, Ruomeng; Lu, Yongjie; Zhan, Li; Liu, Yaxiong; Li, Dichen; Jin, Zhongmin

    2016-02-01

    It is a huge challenge to engineer vascular networks in vital organ tissue engineering. Although the incorporation of artificial microfluidic network into thick tissue-engineered constructs has shown great promise, most of the existing microfluidic strategies are limited to generate rectangle cross-sectional channels rather than circular vessels in soft hydrogels. Here we present a facile approach to fabricate branched microfluidic network with circular cross-sections in gelatin hydrogels by combining micromolding and enzymatically-crosslinking mechanism. Partially crosslinked hydrogel slides with predefined semi-circular channels were molded, assembled and in situ fully crosslinked to form a seamless and circular microfluidic network. The bonding strength of the resultant gelatin hydrogels was investigated. The morphology and the dimension of the resultant circular channels were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and micro-computerized tomography (μCT). Computational fluid dynamic simulation shows that the fabrication error had little effect on the distribution of flow field but affected the maximum velocity in comparison with designed models. The microfluidic gelatin hydrogel facilitates the attachment and spreading of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs) to form a uniform endothelialized layer around the circular channel surface, which successfully exhibited barrier functions. The presented method might provide a simple way to fabricate circular microfluidic networks in biologically-relevant hydrogels to advance various applications of in vitro tissue models, organ-on-a-chip systems and tissue engineering. - Highlights: • A facile method was proposed to build a circular fluidic network in gelatin hydrogel. • The fluidic network is mechanically robust and supports physiological flow. • HUVECs formed endothelialized layer around the channel to express barrier function.

  15. The impact of tissue fixatives on morphology and antibody-based protein profiling in tissues and cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavilainen, Linda; Edvinsson, Asa; Asplund, Anna; Hober, Sophia; Kampf, Caroline; Pontén, Fredrik; Wester, Kenneth

    2010-03-01

    Pathology archives harbor large amounts of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples, used mainly in clinical diagnostics but also for research purposes. Introduction of heat-induced antigen retrieval has enabled the use of tissue samples for extensive immunohistochemical analysis, despite the fact that antigen retrieval may not recover all epitopes, owing to alterations of the native protein structure induced by formalin. The aim of this study was to investigate how different fixatives influence protein recognition by immunodetection methods in tissues, cell preparations, and protein lysates, as compared with formalin. Seventy-two affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies were used to evaluate seven different fixatives. The aldehyde-based fixative Glyo-fixx proved to be excellent for preservation of proteins in tissue detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC), similar to formalin. A non-aldehyde-based fixative, NEO-FIX was superior for fixation of cultured cells, in regard to morphology, and thereby also advantageous for IHC. Large variability in the amount of protein extracted from the differently fixed tissues was observed, and the HOPE fixative provided the overall highest yield of protein. In conclusion, morphological resolution and immunoreactivity were superior in tissues fixed with aldehyde-based fixatives, whereas the use of non-aldehyde-based fixatives can be advantageous in obtaining high protein yield for Western blot analysis. This manuscript contains online supplemental material at http://www.jhc.org. Please visit this article online to view these materials.

  16. Induction and differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells into functional cardiomyocytes on a compartmented monolayer of gelatin nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yadong; Liu, Li; Li, Junjun; Yu, Leqian; Wang, Li; Shi, Jian; Chen, Yong

    2016-07-01

    Extensive efforts have been devoted to develop new substrates for culture and differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) toward cardiac cell-based assays. A more exciting prospect is the construction of cardiac tissue for robust drug screening and cardiac tissue repairing. Here, we developed a patch method by electrospinning and crosslinking of monolayer gelatin nanofibers on a honeycomb frame made of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA). The monolayer of the nanofibrous structure can support cells with minimal exogenous contact and a maximal efficiency of cell-medium exchange whereas a single hiPSC colony can be uniformly formed in each of the honeycomb compartments. By modulating the treatment time of the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632, the shape of the hiPSC colony could be controlled from a flat layer to a hemisphere. Afterwards, the induction and differentiation of hiPSCs were achieved on the same patch, leading to a uniform cardiac layer with homogeneous contraction. This cardiac layer could then be used for extracellular recording with a commercial multi-electrode array, showing representative field potential waveforms of matured cardiac tissues with appropriate drug responses.Extensive efforts have been devoted to develop new substrates for culture and differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) toward cardiac cell-based assays. A more exciting prospect is the construction of cardiac tissue for robust drug screening and cardiac tissue repairing. Here, we developed a patch method by electrospinning and crosslinking of monolayer gelatin nanofibers on a honeycomb frame made of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA). The monolayer of the nanofibrous structure can support cells with minimal exogenous contact and a maximal efficiency of cell-medium exchange whereas a single hiPSC colony can be uniformly formed in each of the honeycomb compartments. By modulating the treatment time of the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632, the shape

  17. 3D Culture of Chondrocytes in Gelatin Hydrogels with Different Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomeng Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gelatin hydrogels can mimic the microenvironments of natural tissues and encapsulate cells homogeneously, which makes them attractive for cartilage tissue engineering. Both the mechanical and biochemical properties of hydrogels can affect the phenotype of chondrocytes. However, the influence of each property on chondrocyte phenotype is unclear due to the difficulty in separating the roles of these properties. In this study, we aimed to study the influence of hydrogel stiffness on chondrocyte phenotype while excluding the role of biochemical factors, such as adhesion site density in the hydrogels. By altering the degree of methacryloyl functionalization, gelatin hydrogels with different stiffnesses of 3.8, 17.1, and 29.9 kPa Young’s modulus were prepared from the same concentration of gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA macromers. Bovine articular chondrocytes were encapsulated in the hydrogels and cultured for 14 days. The influence of hydrogel stiffness on the cell behaviors including cell viability, cell morphology, and maintenance of chondrogenic phenotype was evaluated. GelMA hydrogels with high stiffness (29.9 kPa showed the best results on maintaining chondrogenic phenotype. These results will be useful for the design and preparation of scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering.

  18. Influence of radiation crosslinked carboxymethyl-chitosan/gelatin hydrogel on cutaneous wound healing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xin [Beijing Key Laboratory for Solid Waste Utilization and Management, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Burns, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing 100035 (China); Zhang, Yaqing; Zhang, Xiangmei [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xu, Ling, E-mail: lingxu@pku.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory for Solid Waste Utilization and Management, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Shenzhen Key Laboratory for Polymer Science, Peking University Shenzhen Institute, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Chen, Xin, E-mail: xchin@vip.sina.com [Department of Burns, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing 100035 (China); Wei, Shicheng [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2013-12-01

    A series of carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) and gelatin hydrogels were prepared by radiation crosslinking. A pre-clinical study was performed by implantation model and full-thickness cutaneous wound model in Sprague–Dawley rats to preliminarily evaluate the biocompatibility, biodegradability and effects on healing. In the implantation test, as a component of the hydrogels, CM-chitosan showed a positive effect on promoting cell proliferation and neovascularization, while gelatin was efficient to stabilize the structure and prolong the degradation time. To evaluate the function on wound healing, the hydrogels were applied to the relatively large full-thickness cutaneous wounds (Φ3.0 cm). Compared with the control groups, the hydrogel group showed significantly higher percentage of wound closure on days 9, 12 and 15 postoperatively, which was consistent with the significantly thicker granulation tissue on days 3 and 6. All results apparently revealed that the radiation crosslinked CM-chitosan/Gelatin hydrogels could induce granulation tissue formation and accelerate the wound healing. - Highlights: • The hydrogels were prepared by a facile and green method, radiation crosslinking. • The biodegradability and mechanical strength can be regulated by composition. • The hydrogels promote fibroblasts proliferation and neovascularization. • The hydrogels lead to earlier tissue granulation and re-epithelialization. • The hydrogels are ideal wound healing materials with excellent biocompatibility.

  19. Revisions to Exceptions Applicable to Certain Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-22

    : The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or Agency or we) is issuing this final rule to amend certain regulations regarding donor eligibility, including the screening and testing of donors of particular human cells, tissues, and cellular and tissue-based products (HCT/Ps), and related labeling. This final rule is in response to our enhanced understanding in this area and in response to comments from stakeholders regarding the importance of embryos to individuals and couples seeking access to donated embryos.

  20. Electrochemical Characterization of Gelatine Derived Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak A.P.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available New materials obtained by pyrolysis of gelatine (G and poly(1,2-dimethylsilazane (PSN (weight ratio: G/PSN 70/30 at temperatures 700 and 900 °C were characterized by SEM and Raman spectroscopy. The presence of ceramics influences on the cluster size of the materials. Electrochemical tests were performed by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic cyclic polarization. The capacity of G/PSN was 464 and 527 mAh/g for materials pyrolysed at 700 and 900 °C. The capacity fading was 1 % after 17th cycle for G/PSN at 900 °C. This value is higher of 185 mAh/g in comparison to capacity of gelatine pyrolysed at the same conditions.

  1. Effect of Pre-gelatinized Wheat Starch on Physical and Rheological Properties of Shortened Cake Batter and Cake Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ebrahimi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study was the effect of 1.5%, 3% and 4.5% pre-gelatinized wheat starch (based on the total weight of cake batter on improving the qualitative properties of shortened cake batter. Specific volume and viscosity of the shortened cake batter were measured for controls, 1.5%, 3% and 4.5% gelatinized starch; some important properties such as texture and sensory evaluation were examined. By increasing pre-gelatinized wheat starch used in the batter, a significant difference was observed in the rheological properties of the batter. Cake batter properties were found improved compared to the control samples. The sample with 3% pre-gelatinized starch had a lower viscosity than other treatments. The treatment with 4.5% pre-gelatinized starch had the lowest specific volume compared to other treatments. The overall results showed that the shortened cake with 3% pre-gelatinized starch was the best treatment in terms of texture and sensory evaluation factors.

  2. Gelatin-encapsulated iron oxide nanoparticles for platinum (IV) prodrug delivery, enzyme-stimulated release and MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ziyong; Dai, Yunlu; Kang, Xiaojiao; Li, Chunxia; Huang, Shanshan; Lian, Hongzhou; Hou, Zhiyao; Ma, Pingan; Lin, Jun

    2014-08-01

    A facile method for transferring hydrophobic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) from chloroform to aqueous solution via encapsulation of FITC-modified gelatin based on the hydrophobic-hydrophobic interaction is described in this report. Due to the existence of large amount of active groups such as amine groups in gelatin, the fluorescent labeling molecules of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and platinum (IV) prodrug functionalized with carboxylic groups can be conveniently conjugated on the IONPs. The nanoparticles carrying Pt(IV) prodrug exhibit good anticancer activities when the Pt(IV) complexes are reduced to Pt(II) in the intracellular environment, while the pure Pt(IV) prodrug only presents lower cytotoxicity on cancer cells. Meanwhile, fluorescence of FITC on the surface of nanoparticles was completely quenched due to the possible Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) mechanism and showed a fluorescence recovery after gelatin release and detachment from IONPs. Therefore FITC as a fluorescence probe can be used for identification, tracking and monitoring the drug release. In addition, adding pancreatic enzyme can effectively promote the gelatin release from IONPs owing to the degradation of gelatin. Noticeable darkening in magnetic resonance image (MRI) was observed at the tumor site after in situ injection of nanoparticles, indicating the IONPs-enhanced T2-weighted imaging. Our results suggest that the gelatin encapsulated Fe3O4 nanoparticles have potential applications in multi-functional drug delivery system for disease therapy, MR imaging and fluorescence sensor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Simplified dichromated gelatin hologram recording process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgekutty, Tharayil G.; Liu, Hua-Kuang

    1987-01-01

    A simplified method for making dichromated gelatin (DCG) holographic optical elements (HOE) has been discovered. The method is much less tedious and it requires a period of processing time comparable with that for processing a silver halide hologram. HOE characteristics including diffraction efficiency (DE), linearity, and spectral sensitivity have been quantitatively investigated. The quality of the holographic grating is very high. Ninety percent or higher diffraction efficiency has been achieved in simple plane gratings made by this process.

  4. Biosynthesis and Characterization of Nanocellulose-Gelatin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muenduen Phisalaphong

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A nanocellulose-gelatin (bacterial cellulose gelatin (BCG film was developed by a supplement of gelatin, at a concentration of 1%–10% w/v, in a coconut-water medium under the static cultivation of Acetobacter xylinum. The two polymers exhibited a certain degree of miscibility. The BCG film displayed dense and uniform homogeneous structures. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR results demonstrated interactions between the cellulose and gelatin. Incorporation of gelatin into a cellulose nanofiber network resulted in significantly improved optical transparency and water absorption capacity of the films. A significant drop in the mechanical strengths and a decrease in the porosity of the film were observed when the supplement of gelatin was more than 3% (w/v. The BCG films showed no cytotoxicity against Vero cells.

  5. Physico-mechanical and structural properties of eggshell membrane gelatin- chitosan blend edible films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadi, Reza; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Rouhi, Milad

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the physico-mechanical and structural properties of composite edible films based on eggshell membrane gelatin (G) and chitosan (Ch) (75G:25Ch, 50G:50Ch, 25G:75Ch). The results demonstrated that the addition of Ch increased elongation at break significantly (p< 0.05), but r......This study investigated the physico-mechanical and structural properties of composite edible films based on eggshell membrane gelatin (G) and chitosan (Ch) (75G:25Ch, 50G:50Ch, 25G:75Ch). The results demonstrated that the addition of Ch increased elongation at break significantly (p....05), but resulted in no significant change in tensile strength (TS) using 75G:25Ch, 50G:50Ch mixtures in comparison with gelatin-based film. The water solubility and water vapor permeability of the 50G:50Ch film decreased significantly compared to plain films (100G:0Ch and 0G:100Ch) and other composite films (p... interactions introduced by the addition of chitosan to eggshell membrane gelatin as new resources could improve the films’ functional properties....

  6. Predicting tissue-specific expressions based on sequence characteristics

    KAUST Repository

    Paik, Hyojung

    2011-04-30

    In multicellular organisms, including humans, understanding expression specificity at the tissue level is essential for interpreting protein function, such as tissue differentiation. We developed a prediction approach via generated sequence features from overrepresented patterns in housekeeping (HK) and tissue-specific (TS) genes to classify TS expression in humans. Using TS domains and transcriptional factor binding sites (TFBSs), sequence characteristics were used as indices of expressed tissues in a Random Forest algorithm by scoring exclusive patterns considering the biological intuition; TFBSs regulate gene expression, and the domains reflect the functional specificity of a TS gene. Our proposed approach displayed better performance than previous attempts and was validated using computational and experimental methods.

  7. Microvascular maturity elicited in tissue treated with cytokine-loaded hyaluronan-based hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosack, Luke W; Firpo, Matthew A; Scott, J Anna; Prestwich, Glenn D; Peattie, Robert A

    2008-05-01

    Hydrogels composed of crosslinked, chemically modified hyaluronic acid (HA), gelatin (Gtn) and heparin (Hp) were preloaded with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) or platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) either individually or in combination with VEGF and implanted into the Balb/c mouse ear pinna. At 7 and 14 days post-surgery, elicited vascular maturity levels were quantified using immunohistochemical (IHC) staining techniques and reported as a vascular maturity index (VMI). At both time points, it was discovered that the dual cytokine combinations elicited greater maturity levels than that of cytokine administered individually. For example, VEGF and KGF-containing HA:Hp implants at day 7 yielded VMI values of -0.1375 and -0.092, respectively, whereas their combination resulted in a VMI of 0.176 (pVMI (VEGF+KGF), whereas four of the seven HA:Hp cases yielded positive VMI values at day 14, indicating a sustained maturity response. The same general trends were found to exist in tissue treated with HA:Hp:Gtn experimental implants. Differences in elicited maturity also existed between tissue treated with HA:Hp and HA-containing hydrogels (VMI=0.176 for HA:Hp-VEGF+KGF vs. -0.064 for HA-VEGF+KGF, p<0.012), and these differences are thought to result from differences in characteristic cytokine release rates. This result also suggests that the presentation of multiple growth factors (GFs) on immobilized Hp may actively contribute to cytokine related signal transduction, a characteristic that may be exploited in the future to improve the efficacy of cytokine-loaded implants towards tissue regeneration therapeutic strategies.

  8. Content Based Mammogram Retrieval based on Breast Tissue Characterization using Statistical Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vaidehi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to retrieve the similar mammographic images based on the type of breast tissue density of the given query image. Statistical descriptors were extracted from the candidate blocks of the breast parenchyma. The mean of extracted features are fed into the SVM classifier for classification of the tissue density into any of the three classes namely dense, glandular and fatty and the classification accuracy obtained is 91.54%. After classification the mammogram images along with its feature vector are stored into three separate databases based on tissue type. Then K-means clustering algorithm is used to divide each database into 2 clusters. For content based retrieval of the mammograms based on the given query image, first the query image is classified into any of the three tissue class. Then the feature vector of the query image is compared with the two cluster centroids of the corresponding class, so as to confine the search within the closest cluster. Top 5 similar images are retrieved from its corresponding class database. Euclidean distance based k-NN is used for mammogram retrieval and this study obtained the highest precision rate ranging between 98 and 99%.

  9. Tissue Engineering of Cartilage on Ground-Based Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleshcheva, Ganna; Bauer, Johann; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Egli, Marcel; Wehland, Markus; Grimm, Daniela

    2016-06-01

    Investigations under simulated microgravity offer the opportunity for a better understanding of the influence of altered gravity on cells and the scaffold-free three-dimensional (3D) tissue formation. To investigate the short-term influence, human chondrocytes were cultivated for 2 h, 4 h, 16 h, and 24 h on a 2D Fast-Rotating Clinostat (FRC) in DMEM/F-12 medium supplemented with 10 % FCS. We detected holes in the vimentin network, perinuclear accumulations of vimentin after 2 h, and changes in the chondrocytes shape visualised by F-actin staining after 4 h of FRC-exposure. Scaffold-free cultivation of chondrocytes for 7 d on the Random Positioning Machine (RPM), the FRC and the Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) resulted in spheroid formation, a phenomenon already known from spaceflight experiments with chondrocytes (MIR Space Station) and thyroid cancer cells (SimBox/Shenzhou-8 space mission). The experiments enabled by the ESA-CORA-GBF programme gave us an optimal opportunity to study gravity-related cellular processes, validate ground-based facilities for our chosen cell system, and prepare long-term experiments under real microgravity conditions in space

  10. Dental hard tissue characterization using laser-based ultrasonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, David W.; Massey, Ward L.

    2003-07-01

    Dental health care and research workers require a means of imaging the structures within teeth in vivo. One critical need is the detection of tooth decay in its early stages. If decay can be detected early enough, the process can be monitored and interventional procedures, such as fluoride washes and controlled diet, can be initiated to help re-mineralize the tooth. Currently employed x-ray imaging is limited in its ability to visualize interfaces and incapable of detecting decay at a stage early enough to avoid invasive cavity preparation followed by a restoration. To this end, non-destructive and non-contact in vitro measurements on extracted human molars using laser-based ultrasonics are presented. Broadband ultrasonic waves are excited in the extracted sections by using a pulsed carbon-dioxide (CO2) laser operating in a region of high optical absorption in the dental hard tissues. Optical interferometric detection of the ultrasonic wave surface displacements in accomplished with a path-stabilized Michelson-type interferometer. Results for bulk and surface in-vitro characterization of caries are presented on extracted molars with pre-existing caries.

  11. Electrospinning of PVA/chitosan nanocomposite nanofibers containing gelatin nanoparticles as a dual drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathollahipour, Shahrzad; Abouei Mehrizi, Ali; Ghaee, Azadeh; Koosha, Mojtaba

    2015-12-01

    Nanofibrous core-sheath nanocomposite dual drug delivery system based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/chitosan/lidocaine hydrochloride loaded with gelatin nanoparticles were successfully prepared by the electrospinning method. Gelatin nanoparticles were prepared by nanoprecipitation and were then loaded with erythromycin antibiotic agent with the average particle size of ∼175 nm. The morphology of gelatin nanoparticles observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) was shown to be optimal at the concentration of 1.25 wt % of gelatin in aqueous phase by addition of 20 µL of glutaraldehyde 5% as the crosslinking agent. The nanoparticles were also characterized by dynamic light scattering, zeta potential measurement, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The best bead free morphology for the PVA/chitosan nanofibrous mats were obtained at the solution weight ratio of 96/4. The nanofibrous mats were analyzed by swelling studies, FTIR and antibacterial tests. In vitro dual release profile of the core-sheath nanofibers was also studied within 72 h and showed the release efficiency equal to 84.69 and 75.13% for lidocaine hydrochloride and erythromycin, respectively. According to release exponent n, the release of lidocaine hydrochloride from the sheath part of the matrix is quasi-Fickian diffusion mechanism, while the release of erythromycin is based on anomalous or non-Fickian mechanisms.

  12. Transcriptome Analysis of Gelatin Seed Treatment as a Biostimulant of Cucumber Plant Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. T. Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of gelatin capsule seed treatment on enhanced plant growth and tolerance to abiotic stress have been reported in a number of crops, but the molecular mechanisms underlying such effects are poorly understood. Using mRNA sequencing based approach, transcriptomes of one- and two-week-old cucumber plants from gelatin capsule treated and nontreated seeds were characterized. The gelatin treated plants had greater total leaf area, fresh weight, frozen weight, and nitrogen content. Pairwise comparisons of the RNA-seq data identified 620 differentially expressed genes between treated and control two-week-old plants, consistent with the timing when the growth related measurements also showed the largest differences. Using weighted gene coexpression network analysis, significant coexpression gene network module of 208 of the 620 differentially expressed genes was identified, which included 16 hub genes in the blue module, a NAC transcription factor, a MYB transcription factor, an amino acid transporter, an ammonium transporter, a xenobiotic detoxifier-glutathione S-transferase, and others. Based on the putative functions of these genes, the identification of the significant WGCNA module and the hub genes provided important insights into the molecular mechanisms of gelatin seed treatment as a biostimulant to enhance plant growth.

  13. Comparison of starch and gelatin hydrogels for non-toxic supercapacitor electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Railanmaa, Anna; Lehtimäki, Suvi; Lupo, Donald

    2017-06-01

    Starch and gelatin are two of the most abundantly available natural polymers. Their non-toxicity, low cost, and compatibility with aqueous solvents make them ideal for use in ubiquitous, environmentally friendly electronics systems. This work presents the results of conductivity measurements through impedance spectroscopy for gelatin- and starch-based aqueous gel electrolytes. The NaCl-based gels were physically cross-linked. The conductivity values were 84.6 mS/cm at 1.5 mol L-1 and 71.5 mS/cm at 2 mol L-1 for gelatin and starch, respectively. The mechanical properties of gelatin were found preferable to those of starch, although they deteriorated significantly when the salt concentration exceeded 2 mol L-1. The ability of the gels to successfully act as a supercapacitor electrolyte was demonstrated with printed electrodes on plastic substrate. The devices were characterized through cyclic voltammetry measurements. The results imply that these polymer gel electrolytes are very promising for replacing the traditional aqueous liquid electrolytes in supercapacitors in applications where, for example, user and environmental safety is essential.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of CaO-loaded electrospun matrices for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münchow, Eliseu A; Pankajakshan, Divya; Albuquerque, Maria T P; Kamocki, Krzysztof; Piva, Evandro; Gregory, Richard L; Bottino, Marco C

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to synthesize and characterize biodegradable polymer-based matrices loaded with CaO nanoparticles for osteomyelitis treatment and bone tissue engineering. Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and PCL/gelatin (1:1, w/w) solutions containing CaO nanoparticles were electrospun into fibrous matrices. Scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy, Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), contact angle (CA), tensile testing, and antibacterial activity (agar diffusion assay) against Staphylococcus aureus were performed. Osteoprecursor cell (MC3T3-E1) response (i.e., viability and alkaline phosphatase expression/ALP) and infiltration into the matrices were evaluated. CaO nanoparticles were successfully incorporated into the fibers, with the median fiber diameter decreasing after CaO incorporation. The CA decreased with the addition of CaO, and the presence of gelatin made the matrix very hydrophilic (CA = 0°). Increasing CaO concentrations progressively reduced the mechanical properties (p ≤ 0.030). CaO-loaded matrices did not display consistent antibacterial activity. MC3T3-E1 cell viability demonstrated the highest levels for CaO-loaded matrices containing gelatin after 7 days in culture. An increased ALP expression was consistently seen for PCL/CaO matrices when compared to PCL and gelatin-containing counterparts. Despite inconsistent antibacterial activity, CaO nanoparticles can be effectively loaded into PCL or PCL/gelatin fibers without negatively affecting the overall performance of the matrices. More importantly, CaO incorporation enhanced cell viability as well as differentiation capacity, as demonstrated by an increased ALP expression. CaO-loaded electrospun matrices show potential for applications in bone tissue engineering.

  15. Failure mechanisms of fibrin-based surgical tissue adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, David Hugh

    A series of studies was performed to investigate the potential impact of heterogeneity in the matrix of multiple-component fibrin-based tissue adhesives upon their mechanical and biomechanical properties both in vivo and in vitro. Investigations into the failure mechanisms by stereological techniques demonstrated that heterogeneity could be measured quantitatively and that the variation in heterogeneity could be altered both by the means of component mixing and delivery and by the formulation of the sealant. Ex vivo tensile adhesive strength was found to be inversely proportional to the amount of heterogeneity. In contrast, in vivo tensile wound-closure strength was found to be relatively unaffected by the degree of heterogeneity, while in vivo parenchymal organ hemostasis in rabbits was found to be affected: greater heterogeneity appeared to correlate with an increase in hemostasis time and amount of sealant necessary to effect hemostasis. Tensile testing of the bulk sealant showed that mechanical parameters were proportional to fibrin concentration and that the physical characteristics of the failure supported a ductile mechanism. Strain hardening as a function of percentage of strain, and strain rate was observed for both concentrations, and syneresis was observed at low strain rates for the lower fibrin concentration. Blister testing demonstrated that burst pressure and failure energy were proportional to fibrin concentration and decreased with increasing flow rate. Higher fibrin concentration demonstrated predominately compact morphology debonds with cohesive failure loci, demonstrating shear or viscous failure in a viscoelastic rubbery adhesive. The lower fibrin concentration sealant exhibited predominately fractal morphology debonds with cohesive failure loci, supporting an elastoviscous material condition. The failure mechanism for these was hypothesized and shown to be flow-induced ductile fracture. Based on these findings, the failure mechanism was

  16. Influence of radiation crosslinked carboxymethyl-chitosan/gelatin hydrogel on cutaneous wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Zhang, Yaqing; Zhang, Xiangmei; Xu, Ling; Chen, Xin; Wei, Shicheng

    2013-12-01

    A series of carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) and gelatin hydrogels were prepared by radiation crosslinking. A pre-clinical study was performed by implantation model and full-thickness cutaneous wound model in Sprague-Dawley rats to preliminarily evaluate the biocompatibility, biodegradability and effects on healing. In the implantation test, as a component of the hydrogels, CM-chitosan showed a positive effect on promoting cell proliferation and neovascularization, while gelatin was efficient to stabilize the structure and prolong the degradation time. To evaluate the function on wound healing, the hydrogels were applied to the relatively large full-thickness cutaneous wounds (Φ3.0 cm). Compared with the control groups, the hydrogel group showed significantly higher percentage of wound closure on days 9, 12 and 15 postoperatively, which was consistent with the significantly thicker granulation tissue on days 3 and 6. All results apparently revealed that the radiation crosslinked CM-chitosan/Gelatin hydrogels could induce granulation tissue formation and accelerate the wound healing.

  17. Click chemistry approach for fabricating PVA/gelatin nanofibers for the differentiation of ADSCs to keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Rajeswari; Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Sundarrajan, Subramanian; Mukherjee, Shayanti; Forsythe, John; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2013-12-01

    Every year, millions of people suffer from dermal wounds caused by heat, fire, chemicals, electricity, ultraviolet radiation or disease. Tissue engineering and nanotechnology have enabled the engineering of nanostructured materials to meet the current challenges in skin treatments owing to such rising occurrences of accidental damages, skin diseases and defects. The abundance and accessibility of adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) may prove to be novel cell therapeutics for skin regeneration. The nanofibrous PVA/gelatin/azide scaffolds were then fabricated by electrospinning using water as solvent and allowed to undergo click reaction. The scaffolds were characterized by SEM, contact angle and FTIR. The cell-scaffold interactions were analyzed by cell proliferation and the results observed that the rate of cell proliferation was significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) on PVA/gelatin/azide scaffolds compared to PVA/gelatin nanofibers. In the present study, manipulating the biochemical cues by the addition of an induction medium, in combination with environmental and physical factors of the culture substrate by functionalizing with click moieties, we were able to drive ADSCs into epidermal lineage with the development of epidermis-like structures, was further confirmed by the expression of early and intermediate epidermal differentiation markers like keratin and filaggrin. This study not only provides an insight into the design of a site-specific niche-like microenvironment for stem cell lineage commitment, but also sheds light on the therapeutic application of an alternative cell source-ADSCs, for wound healing and skin tissue reconstitution.

  18. Soft tissue sealing around dental implants based on histological interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsuta, Ikiru; Ayukawa, Yasunori; Kondo, Ryosuke; Oshiro, Wakana; Matsuura, Yuri; Furuhashi, Akihiro; Tsukiyama, Yoshihiro; Koyano, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an overview on the biology and soft tissue sealing around dental implants and teeth. This is a narrative review performed through scientific articles published between 1977 and 2014, indexed in MEDLINE and PubMed databases. The study selected articles that focused on epithelial sealing around dental implant or teeth with cell biology and histology of soft tissue. Implant therapy has been widely applied in dental rehabilitation for many years, with predictable long-term results. The longevity and functionality of dental implants is dependent on both osseointegration around the implant body and the establishment of a soft tissue barrier that protects the underlying hard tissue structures and the implant itself. The health and stability of the peri-implant mucosa also affects the esthetics of the implant. The healing and maintenance of the epithelial and connective tissues around implants are increasingly recognized as being fundamental to implant success. However, there has been little research into the function or formation of the soft tissue seal around dental implants, and the roles of this unique mucosal interface remain unclear. This narrative review explores the extent of the current knowledge of soft tissue barriers around implants from both a basic and clinical perspective, and aims to consolidate this knowledge and highlight the most pertinent questions relating to this area of research. Copyright © 2015 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Tissue Equivalents Based on Cell-Seeded Biodegradable Microfluidic Constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L. Tao

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the principal challenges in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is the formation of functional microvascular networks capable of sustaining tissue constructs. Complex tissues and vital organs require a means to support oxygen and nutrient transport during the development of constructs both prior to and after host integration, and current approaches have not demonstrated robust solutions to this challenge. Here, we present a technology platform encompassing the design, construction, cell seeding and functional evaluation of tissue equivalents for wound healing and other clinical applications. These tissue equivalents are comprised of biodegradable microfluidic scaffolds lined with microvascular cells and designed to replicate microenvironmental cues necessary to generate and sustain cell populations to replace dermal and/or epidermal tissues lost due to trauma or disease. Initial results demonstrate that these biodegradable microfluidic devices promote cell adherence and support basic cell functions. These systems represent a promising pathway towards highly integrated three-dimensional engineered tissue constructs for a wide range of clinical applications.

  20. Effect of maltodextrin on characteristics and antioxidative activity of spray-dried powder of gelatin and gelatin hydrolysate from scales of spotted golden goatfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuaychan, Sira; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2016-09-01

    Characteristics and antioxidative activity of gelatin and gelatin hydrolysate powders from scale of spotted golden goatfish using maltodextrin as a carrier agent at different ratios [1:0, 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2 (w/w)] were investigated. Gelatin hydrolysates with 40 % degree of hydrolysis exhibited the highest antioxidative activity. With increasing maltodextrin proportions, the resulting powders showed an increase in yields, total sugar content and whiteness with coincidental decrease in [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]-values and browning intensity. Solubility of gelatin powder increased with increase in maltodextrin proportion. Gelatin powder was spherical with smooth surface of hydrolysate varied, regardless of maltodextrin levels. Gelatin hydrolysate powder form, uniform agglomerates when maltodextrin was incorporated. DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities and ferric-reducing antioxidant power of gelatin and gelatin hydrolysate decreased when maltodextrin was used as a carrier agent. Thus, maltodextrin levels directly affected characteristics and antioxidative activity of gelatin and gelatin hydrolysate powders.

  1. OCT-based in vivo tissue injury mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Utku; Li, Yuandong; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2016-03-01

    Tissue injury mapping (TIM) is developed by using a non-invasive in vivo optical coherence tomography to generate optical attenuation coefficient and microvascular map of the injured tissue. Using TIM, the infarct region development in mouse cerebral cortex during stroke is visualized. Moreover, we demonstrate the in vivo human facial skin structure and microvasculature during an acne lesion development. The results indicate that TIM may help in the study and the treatment of various diseases by providing high resolution images of tissue structural and microvascular changes.

  2. Boron nitride nanotubes included thermally cross-linked gelatin-glucose scaffolds show improved properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şen, Özlem; Culha, Mustafa

    2016-02-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) are increasingly investigated for their medical and biomedical applications due to their unique properties such as resistance to oxidation, thermal and electrical insulation, and biocompatibility. BNNTs can be used to enhance mechanical strength of biomedical structures such as scaffolds in tissue engineering applications. In this study, we report the use of BNNTs and hydroxylated BNNTs (BNNT-OH) to improve the properties of gelatin-glucose scaffolds prepared with electrospinning technique. Human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells are used for the toxicity assessment and cell seeding studies. It is found that the addition of BNNTs into the scaffold does not influence cell viability, decreases the scaffold degradation rate, and improves cell attachment and proliferation compared to only-gelatin scaffold.

  3. Gelatin porous scaffolds fabricated using a modified gas foaming technique: characterisation and cytotoxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poursamar, S Ali; Hatami, Javad; Lehner, Alexander N; da Silva, Cláudia L; Ferreira, Frederico Castelo; Antunes, A P M

    2015-03-01

    The current study presents an effective and simple strategy to obtain stable porous scaffolds from gelatin via a gas foaming method. The technique exploits the intrinsic foaming ability of gelatin in the presence of CO2 to obtain a porous structure stabilised with glutaraldehyde. The produced scaffolds were characterised using physical and mechanical characterisation methods. The results showed that gas foaming may allow the tailoring of the 3-dimensional structure of the scaffolds with an interconnected porous structure. To assess the effectiveness of the preparation method in mitigating the potential cytotoxicity risk of using glutaraldehyde as a crosslinker, direct and in-direct cytotoxicity assays were performed at different concentrations of glutaraldehyde. The results indicate the potential of the gas foaming method, in the preparation of viable tissue engineering scaffolds.

  4. Differential expression of HSPA1 and HSPA2 proteins in human tissues; tissue microarray-based immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scieglinska, Dorota; Piglowski, Wojciech; Chekan, Mykola; Mazurek, Agnieszka; Krawczyk, Zdzisław

    2011-04-01

    In the present study we determined the expression pattern of HSPA1 and HSPA2 proteins in various normal human tissues by tissue-microarray based immunohistochemical analysis. Both proteins belong to the HSPA (HSP70) family of heat shock proteins. The HSPA2 is encoded by the gene originally defined as testis-specific, while HSPA1 is encoded by the stress-inducible genes (HSPA1A and HSPA1B). Our study revealed that both proteins are expressed only in some tissues from the 24 ones examined. HSPA2 was detected in adrenal gland, bronchus, cerebellum, cerebrum, colon, esophagus, kidney, skin, small intestine, stomach and testis, but not in adipose tissue, bladder, breast, cardiac muscle, diaphragm, liver, lung, lymph node, pancreas, prostate, skeletal muscle, spleen, thyroid. Expression of HSPA1 was detected in adrenal gland, bladder, breast, bronchus, cardiac muscle, esophagus, kidney, prostate, skin, but not in other tissues examined. Moreover, HSPA2 and HSPA1 proteins were found to be expressed in a cell-type-specific manner. The most pronounced cell-type expression pattern was found for HSPA2 protein. In the case of stratified squamous epithelia of the skin and esophagus, as well as in ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium lining respiratory tract, the HSPA2 positive cells were located in the basal layer. In the colon, small intestine and bronchus epithelia HSPA2 was detected in goblet cells. In adrenal gland cortex HSPA2 expression was limited to cells of zona reticularis. The presented results clearly show that certain human tissues constitutively express varying levels of HSPA1 and HSPA2 proteins in a highly differentiated way. Thus, our study can help designing experimental models suitable for cell- and tissue-type-specific functional differences between HSPA2 and HSPA1 proteins in human tissues.

  5. Hydrogel based injectable scaffolds for cardiac tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Janani; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Sethuraman, Swaminathan

    2014-01-01

    Tissue engineering promises to be an effective strategy that can overcome the lacuna existing in the current pharmacological and interventional therapies and heart transplantation. Heart failure continues to be a major contributor to the morbidity and mortality across the globe. This may be attributed to the limited regeneration capacity after the adult cardiomyocytes are terminally differentiated or injured. Various strategies involving acellular scaffolds, stem cells, and combinations of stem cells, scaffolds and growth factors have been investigated for effective cardiac tissue regeneration. Recently, injectable hydrogels have emerged as a potential candidate among various categories of biomaterials for cardiac tissue regeneration due to improved patient compliance and facile administration via minimal invasive mode that treats complex infarction. This review discusses in detail on the advances made in the field of injectable materials for cardiac tissue engineering highlighting their merits over their preformed counterparts.

  6. Diagnosis of Compartment Syndrome Based on Tissue Oxygenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-24

    c. THIS PAGE U UU 11 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code) Table of Contents...measurement of intramuscular tissue oxygenation (PmO2) of the leg during controlled induction of CS in a canine model and the development of warning...inotropic and vasoactive drugs to enhance tissue perfusion. BODY Previously reported findings: In the previous report, we reported that in Phase

  7. Surface acoustic waves induced micropatterning of cells in gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseer, Shahid M; Manbachi, Amir; Samandari, Mohamadmahdi; Walch, Philipp; Gao, Yuan; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Davoudi, Farideh; Wang, Wesley; Abrinia, Karen; Cooper, Jonathan M; Khademhosseini, Ali; Shin, Su Ryon

    2017-02-14

    Acoustic force patterning is an emerging technology that provides a platform to control the spatial location of cells in a rapid, accurate, yet contactless manner. However, very few studies have been reported on the usage of acoustic force patterning for the rapid arrangement of biological objects, such as cells, in a three-dimensional (3D) environment. In this study, we report on a bio-acoustic force patterning technique, which uses surface acoustic waves (SAWs) for the rapid arrangement of cells within an extracellular matrix-based hydrogel such as gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA). A proof-of-principle was achieved through both simulations and experiments based on the in-house fabricated piezoelectric SAW transducers, which enabled us to explore the effects of various parameters on the performance of the built construct. The SAWs were applied in a fashion that generated standing SAWs (SSAWs) on the substrate, the energy of which subsequently was transferred into the gel, creating a rapid, and contactless alignment of the cells (<10 s, based on the experimental conditions). Following ultraviolet radiation induced photo-crosslinking of the cell encapsulated GelMA pre-polymer solution, the patterned cardiac cells readily spread after alignment in the GelMA hydrogel and demonstrated beating activity in 5-7 days. The described acoustic force assembly method can be utilized not only to control the spatial distribution of the cells inside a 3D construct, but can also preserve the viability and functionality of the patterned cells (e.g. beating rates of cardiac cells). This platform can be potentially employed in a diverse range of applications, whether it is for tissue engineering, in vitro cell studies, or creating 3D biomimetic tissue structures.

  8. Tissue viability assessment via laser-based fluorescence monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Craig H.; Peyghambarian, Nasser; Dereniak, Eustace L.; Frink, Edward

    1996-04-01

    A preliminary study of the degree to which recently introduced inhalation anesthetics influence the intracellular energetic metabolism of isolated perfused rat livers is undertaken via NADH fluorometry. During liver transplantation, anesthesiologists desire to maintain a high level of metabolic energy status in newly transplanted liver tissue. Ischemic storage of donor liver tissue prior to transplantation is known to inhibit mitochondrial electron transfer, which results in decreased levels of ATP and increased levels of NADH in the stored tissue. The ability of transplanted liver tissue to regenerate ATP at normal levels is desirable for early post- operative recovery of liver function. Previous studies have examined the differential effects inhalation anesthetics have on the energetic metabolism of tissue at the cellular level; the trend of such agents is to induce a dose-dependent increase in NADH fluorescence in accordance with their strengths as general anesthetics. The present study evaluates the differential effects exhibited by new inhalation anesthetics on the return of function of energetic metabolism in liver tissue. The third-harmonic (355 nm) output of a Nd:YAG laser is spatially filtered and used as the excitation source for surface fluorometric measurements of isolated buffer-perfused rat livers. Lastly, maximum fluorescence emission versus spot-size are measured.

  9. Preparation and characterization of in-situ crosslinked pectin-gelatin hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Bhuvanesh; Tummalapalli, Mythili; Deopura, B L; Alam, M S

    2014-06-15

    Crosslinked hydrogels were developed by in-situ reaction of periodate oxidized pectin (OP) and gelatin. The reaction takes place through the formation of Schiff bases between aldehyde groups of OP and amino groups of gelatin. The effect of various process parameters such as reaction time, reaction temperature, pH of the reaction and composition on the efficacy of the crosslinking was investigated. Field emission scanning electron micrsocopy (FESEM) revealed that homogenous, single phase systems are obtained after the crosslinking of OP and gelatin. The swelling characteristics of the hydrogels were monitored. The equilibrium swelling varies in the range of 195-324% with a variation in the gelatin content (10-40%). Glycerol, when used as a plasticizer, improved the flexibility and the handling characteristics of the crosslinked hydrogels. Plasticized films retained good tensile strengths in the range of 19-48 MPa. By proper selection of the reaction conditions, the efficiency of crosslinking can be controlled to obtain the optimum results.

  10. Looking inside the Ocean: Toward an Autonomous Imaging System for Monitoring Gelatinous Zooplankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Corgnati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine plankton abundance and dynamics in the open and interior ocean is still an unknown field. The knowledge of gelatinous zooplankton distribution is especially challenging, because this type of plankton has a very fragile structure and cannot be directly sampled using traditional net based techniques. To overcome this shortcoming, Computer Vision techniques can be successfully used for the automatic monitoring of this group.This paper presents the GUARD1 imaging system, a low-cost stand-alone instrument for underwater image acquisition and recognition of gelatinous zooplankton, and discusses the performance of three different methodologies, Tikhonov Regularization, Support Vector Machines and Genetic Programming, that have been compared in order to select the one to be run onboard the system for the automatic recognition of gelatinous zooplankton. The performance comparison results highlight the high accuracy of the three methods in gelatinous zooplankton identification, showing their good capability in robustly selecting relevant features. In particular, Genetic Programming technique achieves the same performances of the other two methods by using a smaller set of features, thus being the most efficient in avoiding computationally consuming preprocessing stages, that is a crucial requirement for running on an autonomous imaging system designed for long lasting deployments, like the GUARD1. The Genetic Programming algorithm has been installed onboard the system, that has been operationally tested in a two-months survey in the Ligurian Sea, providing satisfactory results in terms of monitoring and recognition performances.

  11. Looking inside the Ocean: Toward an Autonomous Imaging System for Monitoring Gelatinous Zooplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corgnati, Lorenzo; Marini, Simone; Mazzei, Luca; Ottaviani, Ennio; Aliani, Stefano; Conversi, Alessandra; Griffa, Annalisa

    2016-12-14

    Marine plankton abundance and dynamics in the open and interior ocean is still an unknown field. The knowledge of gelatinous zooplankton distribution is especially challenging, because this type of plankton has a very fragile structure and cannot be directly sampled using traditional net based techniques. To overcome this shortcoming, Computer Vision techniques can be successfully used for the automatic monitoring of this group.This paper presents the GUARD1 imaging system, a low-cost stand-alone instrument for underwater image acquisition and recognition of gelatinous zooplankton, and discusses the performance of three different methodologies, Tikhonov Regularization, Support Vector Machines and Genetic Programming, that have been compared in order to select the one to be run onboard the system for the automatic recognition of gelatinous zooplankton. The performance comparison results highlight the high accuracy of the three methods in gelatinous zooplankton identification, showing their good capability in robustly selecting relevant features. In particular, Genetic Programming technique achieves the same performances of the other two methods by using a smaller set of features, thus being the most efficient in avoiding computationally consuming preprocessing stages, that is a crucial requirement for running on an autonomous imaging system designed for long lasting deployments, like the GUARD1. The Genetic Programming algorithm has been installed onboard the system, that has been operationally tested in a two-months survey in the Ligurian Sea, providing satisfactory results in terms of monitoring and recognition performances.

  12. Enzymatic method for measuring starch gelatinization in dry products in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, KeShun; Han, Jianchun

    2012-05-02

    An enzymatic method based on hydrolysis of starch by amyloglucosidase and measurement of d-glucose released by glucose oxidase-peroxidase was developed to measure both gelatinized starch and hydrolyzable starch in situ of dried starchy products. Efforts focused on the development of sample handling steps (particle size reduction of dry samples followed by a unique mechanical resolubilization step) prior to the enzymatic hydrolysis using native and fully gelatinized flours of corn and rice. The new steps, when optimized, were able to maximize resolubilization of gelatinized/retrograded starch while minimizing solubilization of native starch in dried samples, thus effectively addressing issues of insusceptibility of retrograded starch and susceptibility of native starch to enzymatic attacks and eliminating the need to isolate starch from dry samples before using an enzymatic method. Various factors affecting these and other steps were also investigated, with the objectives to simplify the procedures and reduce errors. Results are expressed as the percentage of the total starch content. The proposed method, verified by measuring mixed samples of native and fully gelatinized flours of five grain species (corn, rice, barley, oat, and wheat) at different ratios, is simple, accurate, and reliable, with a relative standard deviation of less than 5%.

  13. Methylcellulose Based Thermally Reversible Hydrogel System for Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram V. Devireddy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The thermoresponsive behavior of a Methylcellulose (MC polymer was systematically investigated to determine its usability in constructing MC based hydrogel systems in cell sheet engineering applications. Solution-gel analyses were made to study the effects of polymer concentration, molecular weight and dissolved salts on the gelation of three commercially available MCs using differential scanning calorimeter and rheology. For investigation of the hydrogel stability and fluid uptake capacity, swelling and degradation experiments were performed with the hydrogel system exposed to cell culture solutions at incubation temperature for several days. From these experiments, the optimal composition of MC-water-salt that was able to produce stable hydrogels at or above 32 °C, was found to be 12% to 16% of MC (Mol. wt. of 15,000 in water with 0.5× PBS (~150mOsm. This stable hydrogel system was then evaluated for a week for its efficacy to support the adhesion and growth of specific cells in culture; in our case the stromal/stem cells derived from human adipose tissue derived stem cells (ASCs. The results indicated that the addition (evenly spread of ~200 µL of 2 mg/mL bovine collagen type -I (pH adjusted to 7.5 over the MC hydrogel surface at 37 °C is required to improve the ASC adhesion and proliferation. Upon confluence, a continuous monolayer ASC sheet was formed on the surface of the hydrogel system and an intact cell sheet with preserved cell–cell and cell–extracellular matrix was spontaneously and gradually detached when the grown cell sheet was removed from the incubator and exposed to room temperature (~30 °C within minutes.

  14. Biomimetic formation of apatite on the surface of porous gelatin/bioactive glass nanocomposite scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozafari, Masoud; Rabiee, Mohammad; Azami, Mahmoud; Maleknia, Saied

    2010-12-01

    There have been several attempts to combine bioactive glasses (BaGs) with biodegradable polymers to create a scaffold material with excellent biocompatibility, bioactivity, biodegradability and toughness. In the present study, the nanocomposite scaffolds with compositions based on gelatin (Gel) and BaG nanoparticles in the ternary SiO 2-CaO-P 2O 5 system were prepared. In vitro evaluations of the nanocomposite scaffolds were performed, and for investigating their bioactive capacity these scaffolds were soaked in a simulated body fluid (SBF) at different time intervals. The scaffolds showed significant enhancement in bioactivity within few days of immersion in SBF solution. The apatite formation at the surface of the nanocomposite samples confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analyses. In vitro experiments with osteoblast cells indicated an appropriate penetration of the cells into the scaffold's pores, and also the continuous increase in cell aggregation on the bioactive scaffolds with increase in the incubation time demonstrated the ability of the scaffolds to support cell growth. The SEM observations revealed that the prepared scaffolds were porous with three dimensional (3D) and interconnected microstructure, pore size was 200-500 μm and the porosity was 72-86%. The nanocomposite scaffold made from Gel and BaG nanoparticles could be considered as a highly bioactive and potential bone tissue engineering implant.

  15. Biomimetic formation of apatite on the surface of porous gelatin/bioactive glass nanocomposite scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozafari, Masoud, E-mail: mmozafari@aut.ac.ir [Biomaterials Group, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering (Center of Excellence), Amirkabir University of Technology, PO Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rabiee, Mohammad; Azami, Mahmoud; Maleknia, Saied [Biomaterials Group, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering (Center of Excellence), Amirkabir University of Technology, PO Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    There have been several attempts to combine bioactive glasses (BaGs) with biodegradable polymers to create a scaffold material with excellent biocompatibility, bioactivity, biodegradability and toughness. In the present study, the nanocomposite scaffolds with compositions based on gelatin (Gel) and BaG nanoparticles in the ternary SiO{sub 2}-CaO-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} system were prepared. In vitro evaluations of the nanocomposite scaffolds were performed, and for investigating their bioactive capacity these scaffolds were soaked in a simulated body fluid (SBF) at different time intervals. The scaffolds showed significant enhancement in bioactivity within few days of immersion in SBF solution. The apatite formation at the surface of the nanocomposite samples confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analyses. In vitro experiments with osteoblast cells indicated an appropriate penetration of the cells into the scaffold's pores, and also the continuous increase in cell aggregation on the bioactive scaffolds with increase in the incubation time demonstrated the ability of the scaffolds to support cell growth. The SEM observations revealed that the prepared scaffolds were porous with three dimensional (3D) and interconnected microstructure, pore size was 200-500 {mu}m and the porosity was 72-86%. The nanocomposite scaffold made from Gel and BaG nanoparticles could be considered as a highly bioactive and potential bone tissue engineering implant.

  16. Preparation and Properties of Nano-Hydroxyapatite/Gelatin/Poly(vinyl alcohol) Composite Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Haotian; Shi, Kun; Peng, Jinrong; Qu, Ying; Liao, Jinfeng; Qian, Zhiyong

    2015-06-01

    In this study, the bone-like composite membrane based on blends of gelatin (Gel), nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) was fabricated by solvent casting and evaporation methods. The effect of n-HA content and the ratio of Gel/PVA on the properties of the composite was investigated. The Gel/PVA and n-HA/Gel/PVA composite membranes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), water contact angle measurement and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical properties of the composites were determined by tensile tests. The as prepared composite membranes exhibited hydrophobility, the water contact angle of composite membrane was 126.6 when its mass ratio of n-HA/Gel/PVA was 10/50/40. The tensile strength of composite membranes was greatly increased due to the introduction of n-HA, and the tensile strength was increased to 74.92 MPa when the mass ratio of n-HA/Gel/PVA was 10/50/40. SEM observation indicated that n-HA was dispersed in the membranes and a sea-island structure was formed in the n-HA/Gel/PVA composite membranes, resulting in a significant increase in tensile strength. The as-prepared n-HA/Gel/PVA composite membranes may be applied in the field of bone tissue engineering.

  17. Biodegradable poly (ɛ-caprolactone)/gelatin nanofibers: Effect of tubular halloysite on structure and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švachová, Veronika; Khunová, Viera; Vojtová, Lucy; PavliÅák, David

    2016-05-01

    The work explores preparation of new advanced nanofibers based on biodegradable polymers and biocompatible tubular halloysite (HNT). Electrospun nanofibers comprising 8 wt% gelatin (Gel) and 8 wt% poly (͛-caprolactone) (PCL) have been prepared by using eco-friendly solvent - acetic acid. The content of HNT in PCL/Gel nanofibers was 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 6.0 and 9.0 wt%. It was found that the addition of HNT significantly affected the polymer mixture spinnability and the fiber diameter. SEM observations revealed that the structure of nanofibers depends on nanofiber composition. Whilst in nanofibers with lower HNT content uniform morphology with HNTs located merely inside the individual nanofibers has been observed, in nanofibers with 6 and 9 wt% HNT individual particles as well as the agglomerates of HNT have been detected in both, the inner part as well as outside part of nanofiber. Important reinforcing effect has been achieved in whole HNT content. The highest improvement has been reached when the HNT content was 0.5 wt%. In this case, multiple enhancements of strength (2x), elongation (4x) and modulus (2x) have been confirmed. ATR-FTIR revealed that improvement of mechanical properties is also due to the increase of interface interaction in between PCL/Gel and HNT. The prepared PCL/Gel/HNT nanofibers can be used for tissue engineering and/or as drug carriers or signal molecules in whole spectrum of medical applications.

  18. Real-time tissue differentiation based on optical emission spectroscopy for guided electrosurgical tumor resection

    OpenAIRE

    Spether, Dominik; Scharpf, Marcus; Hennenlotter, Jörg; Schwentner, Christian; Neugebauer, Alexander; Nüßle, Daniela; Fischer, Klaus; Zappe, Hans; Stenzl, Arnulf; Fend, Falko; Seifert, Andreas; Enderle, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Complete surgical removal of cancer tissue with effective preservation of healthy tissue is one of the most important challenges in modern oncology. We present a method for real-time, in situ differentiation of tissue based on optical emission spectroscopy (OES) performed during electrosurgery not requiring any biomarkers, additional light sources or other excitation processes. The analysis of the optical emission spectra, enables the differentiation of healthy and tumorous tissue. By using m...

  19. RP-HPLC method using 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate incorporated with normalization technique in principal component analysis to differentiate the bovine, porcine and fish gelatins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azilawati, M I; Hashim, D M; Jamilah, B; Amin, I

    2015-04-01

    The amino acid compositions of bovine, porcine and fish gelatin were determined by amino acid analysis using 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate as derivatization reagent. Sixteen amino acids were identified with similar spectral chromatograms. Data pre-treatment via centering and transformation of data by normalization were performed to provide data that are more suitable for analysis and easier to be interpreted. Principal component analysis (PCA) transformed the original data matrix into a number of principal components (PCs). Three principal components (PCs) described 96.5% of the total variance, and 2 PCs (91%) explained the highest variances. The PCA model demonstrated the relationships among amino acids in the correlation loadings plot to the group of gelatins in the scores plot. Fish gelatin was correlated to threonine, serine and methionine on the positive side of PC1; bovine gelatin was correlated to the non-polar side chains amino acids that were proline, hydroxyproline, leucine, isoleucine and valine on the negative side of PC1 and porcine gelatin was correlated to the polar side chains amino acids that were aspartate, glutamic acid, lysine and tyrosine on the negative side of PC2. Verification on the database using 12 samples from commercial products gelatin-based had confirmed the grouping patterns and the variables correlations. Therefore, this quantitative method is very useful as a screening method to determine gelatin from various sources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Gelatin-Pectin Composite Films from Polyion Complex Hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composite films from gelatin and low-methoxyl pectin were prepared by either ionic complexation or covalent cross-linking. The ionic interactions between positively charged gelatin and negatively charged pectin produced physically reversible hydrogels. The resultant homogeneous gels had improved mec...

  1. Covalently immobilized gelatin gradients within three-dimensional porous scaffolds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU JinDan; TAN HuaPing; LI LinHui; GAO ChangYou

    2009-01-01

    A stable gelatin gradient providing continuous increment of signaling for cell adhesion and proliferation was fabricated within 3D poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) scaffolds. The porous PLLA scaffold fabricated by NaCI particle leaching was vertically fixed on a glass vial. 1,6-Hexanediamine/propanol solution was continuously injected into the vial by a micropump to aminolyze the PLLA scaffold. As a result of reaction time difference,the introduced-NH2 groups increased continuously along with the longitude of the PLLA scaffold in the z-direction. After covalent immobilization of gelatin by glutaraldehyde coupling,the gelatin gradient scaffold was thus obtained. In vitro chondrocyte culture showed that the cells had higher viability and more extending morphology in the gelatin gradient scaffold than that in the uniform gelatin control.

  2. Gelatin Functionalization of Biomaterial Surfaces: Strategies for Immobilization and Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dubruel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the immobilization of gelatin as biopolymer on two types of implantable biomaterials, polyimide and titanium, was compared. Both materials are known for their biocompatibility while lacking cell-interactive behavior. For both materials, a pre-functionalization step was required to enable gelatin immobilization. For the polyimide foils, a reactive succinimidyl ester was introduced first on the surface, followed by covalent grafting of gelatin. For the titanium material, methacrylate groups were first introduced on the Ti surface through a silanization reaction. The applied functionalities enabled the subsequent immobilization of methacrylamide modified gelatin. Both surface modified materials were characterized in depth using atomic force microscopy, static contact angle measurements, confocal fluorescence microscopy, attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy. The results indicated that the strategies elaborated for both material classes are suitable to apply stable gelatin coatings. Interestingly, depending on the material class studied, not all surface analysis techniques are applicable.

  3. Electrical Characterization and Modeling of a Gelatin/Graphene System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Landi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A gelatin/graphene composite has been analyzed by means of current density-voltage and the electrical impedance measurements. The DC electrical behavior has been interpreted in terms of an equivalent Thévenin model taking into account the open circuit voltage and the series resistance. A model based on the effect of the electrical double layer and on the diffusion of the charge carriers is used for the analysis of the experimental data, obtained in the frequency domain. The model reveals for any applied voltages a marked diffusion process at low frequencies. In particular, where the charge transfer mechanism is dominant, the time distribution of the reaction rates reveals that several multiple step reactions occur in the materials, especially at high values of the applied forward bias voltages.

  4. Theory of sampling and its application in tissue based diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayser Gian

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A general theory of sampling and its application in tissue based diagnosis is presented. Sampling is defined as extraction of information from certain limited spaces and its transformation into a statement or measure that is valid for the entire (reference space. The procedure should be reproducible in time and space, i.e. give the same results when applied under similar circumstances. Sampling includes two different aspects, the procedure of sample selection and the efficiency of its performance. The practical performance of sample selection focuses on search for localization of specific compartments within the basic space, and search for presence of specific compartments. Methods When a sampling procedure is applied in diagnostic processes two different procedures can be distinguished: I the evaluation of a diagnostic significance of a certain object, which is the probability that the object can be grouped into a certain diagnosis, and II the probability to detect these basic units. Sampling can be performed without or with external knowledge, such as size of searched objects, neighbourhood conditions, spatial distribution of objects, etc. If the sample size is much larger than the object size, the application of a translation invariant transformation results in Kriege's formula, which is widely used in search for ores. Usually, sampling is performed in a series of area (space selections of identical size. The size can be defined in relation to the reference space or according to interspatial relationship. The first method is called random sampling, the second stratified sampling. Results Random sampling does not require knowledge about the reference space, and is used to estimate the number and size of objects. Estimated features include area (volume fraction, numerical, boundary and surface densities. Stratified sampling requires the knowledge of objects (and their features and evaluates spatial features in relation to

  5. Effects of extraction conditions on the sensory and instrumental characteristics of fish gelatin gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boran, G; Lawless, H T; Regenstein, J M

    2010-01-01

    Fish skin gelatin has recently been of interest as a product that eliminates religious concerns (Jewish and Muslim) and could be an alternative value-added product from fish waste. Recent research has shown that extraction conditions affect gelatin quality. In this study, gelatin from Asian silver carp skin and extracted under different conditions have been studied sensory properties using descriptive analysis and time intensity testing to determine how extraction conditions affect gelatin sensory properties. Three pairs of gelatin samples were selected based on their gel strength, viscosity, and melting temperature. The impacts of different extraction conditions on instrumental methods were examined. Some functionality measurements were also done to determine how sensory measurements correlate with instrumental measurements. The gel strength varied between 60 ± 10 g and 590 ± 30 g while the viscosity varied between 1.9 ± 0.0 cP and 7.4 ± 0.2 cP. The hardness, melting and gelling temperature of the samples were well correlated with the gel strength (r > 0.90). The results indicated that the strongest correlation among all the sensory attributes was between firmness and melting temperature, which was a negative correlation (-0.75) suggesting that the firmer the gel samples the slower they melt. The viscosity was found to be very discriminative between samples in terms of sensory properties. The functional measurements were found to be strongly correlated within themselves while the sensory measurements were less so, which might be due to the greater variability when using sensory panelists or sensory parameters simply might not be related. The firmness, melting rate, and aftertaste were those sensory attributes most successfully discriminated by the panelists.

  6. Effect of aggregation behavior of gelatin in aqueous solution on the grafting density of gelatin modified with glycidol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Li, Tian-Duo; Tang, Xiao-Long; Qiao, Cong-De; Jiang, Qing-Wei

    2012-06-15

    The effect of aggregation behavior of gelatin in aqueous solution on the grafting density of glycidol grafted gelatin polymers (GGG polymers) was investigated. The grafting density was measured using the Van Slyke method by calculating the conversion rate of free - NH(2) groups of gelatin. The conversion rate reached peak values at 6% and 14% of the gelatin aqueous solution. SEM micrographs displayed a series of structural transitions (i.e., spherical, spindle, butterfly, irregular and dendritic aggregates) at varying concentrations from 2% to 16% (w/w) at an interval of 2% (w/w). The spindle aggregates reappeared at the concentrations of 6% and 14%. Viscosity measurements indicated that the physicochemical properties of the gelatin solution had changed with increasing concentration. UV and CD analysis indicated that hydrophobic interactions competed with hydrogen bonding, and the random coils partly transformed to β-sheet structure by changing the concentration. Zeta potential and pH data confirmed the increasing electrostatic repulsion associated with increasing the hydrophobic region. XPS analysis revealed that the elemental composition of the gelatin particle surface changed with variation in the aggregate structure, determining the monotonic variation of the grafting density with increasing concentration. Results demonstrate that aggregation behavior of gelatin in aqueous solution plays a crucial role in deciding the grafting density of gelatin modified products.

  7. Properties of electrospun pollock gelatin/poly(vinyl alcohol) and pollock gelatin/poly(lactic acid) fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock gelatin/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) fibers were electrospun using deionized water as the solvent and pollock gelatin/poly(lactic acid) (PLA) fibers were electrospun using 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) as the solvent. The chemical, thermal, and thermal stability properties were exami...

  8. Force-based assessment of tissue handling skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horeman, T.

    2014-01-01

    In laparoscopic surgery, special instruments with long and slender shafts are inserted through small incisions in the abdominal wall. A laparoscope is used for a clear vision inside the inflated abdominal cavity while laparoscopic graspers and cutters are used for manipulation of tissue. The use of

  9. Adaptive online learning based tissue segmentation of MR brain images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damkat, C.

    2007-01-01

    The aging population in the European Union and the US has increased the importance of research in neurodegenerative diseases. Imaging plays an essential role in this endeavor by providing insight to the intricate cellular and inter-cellular processes in living tissues that will otherwise be difficul

  10. Tissue Engineering of Cartilage on Ground-Based Facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aleshcheva, Ganna; Bauer, Johann; Hemmersbach, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Investigations under simulated microgravity offer the opportunity for a better understanding of the influence of altered gravity on cells and the scaffold-free threedimensional (3D) tissue formation. To investigate the shortterm influence, human chondrocytes were cultivated for 2h, 4 h, 16 h...

  11. Impedance-based monitoring for tissue engineering applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canali, Chiara; Heiskanen, Arto; Martinsen, Ø.G.

    2015-01-01

    Impedance is a promising technique for sensing the overall process of tissue engineering. Different electrode configurations can be used to characterize the scaffold that supports cell organization in terms of hydrogel polymerization and degree of porosity, monitoring cell loading, cell prolifera...

  12. Fabrication and Characterization of Electrospun Polycaprolactone Blended with Chitosan-Gelatin Complex Nanofibrous Mats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfang Qian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Design and fabrication of nanofibrous scaffolds should mimic the native extracellular matrix. This study is aimed at investigating electrospinning of polycaprolactone (PCL blended with chitosan-gelatin complex. The morphologies were observed from scanning electron microscope. As-spun blended mats had thinner fibers than pure PCL. X-ray diffraction was used to analyze the degree of crystallinity. The intensity at two peaks at 2θ of 21° and 23.5° gradually decreased with the percentage of chitosan-gelatin complex increasing. Moreover, incorporation of the complex could obviously improve the hydrophilicity of as-spun blended mats. Mechanical properties of as-spun nanofibrous mats were also tested. The elongation at break of fibrous mats increased with the PCL content increasing and the ultimate tensile strength varied with different weight ratios. The as-spun mats had higher tensile strength when the weight ratio of PCL to CS-Gel was 75/25 compared to pure PCL. Both as-spun PCL scaffolds and PCL/CS-Gel scaffolds supported the proliferation of porcine iliac endothelial cells, and PCL/CS-Gel had better cell viability than pure PCL. Therefore, electrospun PCL/Chitosan-gelatin nanofibrous mats with weight ratio of 75/25 have better hydrophilicity mechanical properties, and cell proliferation and thus would be a promising candidate for tissue engineering scaffolds.

  13. Electrospun PLGA/gelatin fibrous tubes for the application of biodegradable intestinal stent in rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, So-Ra; Franco, Rose-Ann; Bae, Sang-Ho; Min, Young-Ki; Lee, Byong-Taek

    2013-08-01

    A biodegradable fibrous tube was fabricated by electrospinning method using a combination of Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and gelatin dissolved in trifluoroethanol (TFE). Different ratios of the two polymers (PLGA/Gelatin: 1/9, 3/7, 5/5) were used for electrospinning to determine the optimum condition appropriate for intestinal stent application. Fiber morphology was visualized and analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Characterizations of physical properties were done according to its tensile strength, surface hydrophilicity, swelling ability, and biodegradability. Biocompatibility of the scaffolds was investigated in vitro using IEC-18 (Rat intestinal epithelial cell). Cell proliferation was quantified using MTT assay and cell adhesion behavior was visualized by SEM and confocal laser scanning microscope. PLGA/Gelatin (5/5) was determined to have adequate material properties and sufficient in vitro biocompatibility. This was then implanted in a male Sprague-Dawley rat for 14 days to determine in vivo behavior of the sample. Histological examination on the intestinal tissue surrounding the graft showed normal morphology comparable to non-implanted intestine.

  14. Minocycline-released hydroxyapatite-gelatin nanocomposite and its cytocompatibility in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dou Xiaochen; Zhu Xiaopeng; Zhou Jian; Cai Huaqiong; Li Quanli [Key Laboratory of Oral Disease Research of Anhui Province, Stomatologic Hospital and Collage, Anhui Medical University, Hefei (China); Tang Jian, E-mail: ql-li@126.com [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The First Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei (China)

    2011-04-15

    The incorporation of antibacterial agents into biomaterials is extremely desirable for repairing bone defects. Minocycline, a semi-synthetic tetracycline antibiotic, is active against aerobic, anaerobic, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and can enhance bone formation, decrease connective tissue breakdown and diminish bone resorption. In this study, a novel minocycline-releasing biomaterial was synthesized using a biomimetic method. A measured amount of an acidic hydroxyapatite and minocycline solution was respectively added to a gelatin solution and kept at 40 deg. C and pH 7-8 for 2 h. The mixture was aged overnight, lyophilized and a hydroxyapatite-gelatin-minocycline composite was obtained. The composite was co-cultured with rat bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in vitro. Our results show that nanohydroxyapatite was distributed evenly in the fibrils of the gelatin. Minocycline was incorporated into the composite and could be released from the composite particles slowly over 2 weeks in vitro. The composite promoted BMSC adhesion, proliferation and differentiation in vitro. The approach described here may provide a basis for the preparation of an antibacterial biomaterial for bone regeneration.

  15. Diagnosis of Compartment Syndrome Based on Tissue Oxygenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    was added in our model. Dobutamine is an inotropic agent commonly used in patients with cardiogenic shock to increase heart rate, contractility, and...to soft tissue edema and skin turgor changes after trauma that alter the depth of the muscle to be evaluated and the ability of the probe to maintain...and cardiogenic shock. Infection. 1991;19:317–323. 18. Bylund-Fellenius AC, Walker PM, Elander A, et al. Energy metabolism in relation to oxygen partial

  16. Hypoxia and Stem Cell-Based Engineering of Mesenchymal Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Teng; Grayson, Warren L.; Fröhlich, Mirjam; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2009-01-01

    Stem cells have the ability for prolonged self-renewal and differentiation into mature cells of various lineages, which makes them important cell sources for tissue engineering applications. Their remarkable ability to replenish and differentiate in vivo is regulated by both intrinsic and extrinsic cellular mechanisms. The anatomical location where the stem cells reside, known as the “stem cell niche or microenvironment,” provides signals conducive to the maintenance of definitive stem cell p...

  17. In vitro metal ion release and biocompatibility of amorphous Mg{sub 67}Zn{sub 28}Ca{sub 5} alloy with/without gelatin coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, W.Y., E-mail: chan.wing.yue@sgh.com.sg [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Singapore General Hospital (Singapore); Chian, K.S.; Tan, M.J. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore)

    2013-12-01

    Amorphous zinc-rich Mg–Zn–Ca alloys have exhibited good tissue compatibility and low hydrogen evolution in vivo. However, suboptimal cell–surface interaction on magnesium alloy surface observed in vitro could lead to reduced integration with host tissue for regenerative purpose. This study aims to improve cell–surface interaction of amorphous Mg{sub 67}Zn{sub 28}Ca{sub 5} alloy by coating a gelatin layer by electrospinning. Coated/uncoated alloys were immersed and extracted for 3 days under different CO{sub 2}. The immersion results showed that pH and metal ion release in the alloy extracts were affected by gelatin coating and CO{sub 2}, suggesting their roles in alloy biocorrosion and a mechanism has been proposed for the alloy–CO{sub 2} system with/without coating. Cytotoxicity results are evident that gelatin-coated alloy with 2-day crosslinking not only exhibited no indirect cytotoxicity, but also supported attachment of L929 and MG63 cell lines around/on the alloy with high viability. Therefore, amorphous Mg{sub 67}Zn{sub 28}Ca{sub 5} alloy coated with gelatin by electrospinning technique provides a useful method to improve alloy biocompatibility. - Highlights: • Electrospinning is a new method to coat amorphous Mg{sub 67}Zn{sub 28}Ca{sub 5} alloy with gelatin. • Gelatin-coated alloy has differential effect on pH and ion release at various CO{sub 2}. • L929 cell proliferation correlates with Mg{sup 2+} level in alloy extracts. • Biomimetic gelatin coating significantly improves cell–surface interaction.

  18. Mesoscopic spatial designs of nano- and microfiber meshes for tissue-engineering matrix and scaffold based on newly devised multilayering and mixing electrospinning techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidoaki, Satoru; Kwon, Il Kuen; Matsuda, Takehisa

    2005-01-01

    To design a mesoscopically ordered structure of the matrices and scaffolds composed of nano- and microscale fiber meshes for artificial and tissue-engineering devices, two new electrospinning techniques are proposed: multilayering electrospinning and mixing electrospinning. First, the following four kinds of component polymers were individually electrospun to determine the conditions for producing stable nano- and microfibers by optimizing the formulation parameters (solvent and polymer concentration) and operation parameters (voltage, air gap, and flow rate) for each polymer: (a) type I collagen, (b) styrenated gelatin (ST-gelatin), (c) segmented polyurethane (SPU), and (d) poly(ethylene oxide). A trilayered electrospun mesh, in which individual fiber meshes (type I collagen, ST-gelatin, and SPU) were deposited layer by layer, was formed by sequential electrospinning; this was clearly visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The mixed electrospun-fiber mesh composed of SPU and PEO was prepared by simultaneous electrospinning on a stainless-steel mandrel with high-speed rotation and traverse movement. A bilayered tubular construct composed of a thick SPU microfiber mesh as an outer layer and a thin type I collagen nanofiber mesh as an inner layer was fabricated as a prototype scaffold of artificial grafts, and visualized by scanning electron microscopy.

  19. Incorporation of mesoporous silica nanoparticles into random electrospun PLGA and PLGA/gelatin nanofibrous scaffolds enhances mechanical and cell proliferation properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehrasa, Mohammad [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technologies, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Industrial and Environmental Biotechnology, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Asadollahi, Mohammad Ali, E-mail: ma.asadollahi@ast.ui.ac.ir [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technologies, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nasri-Nasrabadi, Bijan [Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghaedi, Kamran [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salehi, Hossein [Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Alireza [DTU Nanotech, Center for Nanomedicine and Theranostics, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Arpanaei, Ayyoob, E-mail: arpanaei@yahoo.com [Department of Industrial and Environmental Biotechnology, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-09-01

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and PLGA/gelatin random nanofibrous scaffolds embedded with different amounts of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs) were fabricated using electrospinning method. To evaluate the effects of nanoparticles on the scaffolds, physical, chemical, and mechanical properties as well as in vitro degradation behavior of scaffolds were investigated. The mean diameters of nanofibers were 974 ± 68 nm for the pure PLGA scaffolds vs 832 ± 70, 764 ± 80, and 486 ± 64 for the PLGA/gelatin, PLGA/10 wt% MSNPs, and the PLGA/gelatin/10 wt% MSNPs scaffolds, respectively. The results suggested that the incorporation of gelatin and MSNPs into PLGA-based scaffolds enhances the hydrophilicity of scaffolds due to an increase of hydrophilic functional groups on the surface of nanofibers. With porosity examination, it was concluded that the incorporation of MSNPs and gelatin decrease the porosity of scaffolds. Nanoparticles also improved the tensile mechanical properties of scaffolds. Using in vitro degradation analysis, it was shown that the addition of nanoparticles to the nanofibers matrix increases the weight loss percentage of PLGA-based samples, whereas it decreases the weight loss percentage in the PLGA/gelatin composites. Cultivation of rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12), as precursor cells of dopaminergic neural cells, on the scaffolds demonstrated that the introduction of MSNPs into PLGA and PLGA/gelatin matrix leads to improved cell attachment and proliferation and enhances cellular processes. - Highlights: • PLGA-based random nanofibers embedded with mesoporous silica nanoparticles were fabricated using electrospinning method • Incorporation of gelatin and MSNPs into PLGA-based scaffolds increased the hydrophilicity of scaffold • Addition of nanoparticles also improved the tensile mechanical properties of scaffolds • Introduction of MSNPs led to improved cell attachment and proliferation.

  20. Design and In Vitro Haemolytic Evaluation of Cryptolepine Hydrochloride-Loaded Gelatine Nanoparticles as a Novel Approach for the Treatment of Malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Kuntworbe, Noble; AL-KASSAS, RAIDA

    2012-01-01

    Cryptolepine hydrochloride-loaded gelatine nanoparticles were developed and characterised as a means of exploring formulation techniques to improve the pharmaceutic profile of the compound. Cryptolepine hydrochloride-loaded gelatine-type (A) nanoparticles were developed base on the double desolvation approach. After optimisation of formulation parameters including temperature, stirring rate, incubation time polymer and cross-linker (glutaraldehyde) concentrations, the rest of the study was co...

  1. Bullet Retarding Forces in Ballistic Gelatin by Analysis of High Speed Video

    CERN Document Server

    Gaylord, Steven; Courtney, Michael; Courtney, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Though three distinct wounding mechanisms (permanent cavity, temporary cavity, and ballistic pressure wave) are described in the wound ballistics literature, they all have their physical origin in the retarding force between bullet and tissue as the bullet penetrates. If the bullet path is the same, larger retarding forces produce larger wounding effects and a greater probability of rapid incapacitation. By Newton's third law, the force of the bullet on the tissue is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the force of the tissue on the bullet. For bullets penetrating with constant mass, the retarding force on the bullet can be determined by frame by frame analysis of high speed video of the bullet penetrating a suitable tissue simulant such as calibrated 10% ballistic gelatin. Here the technique is demonstrated with 9mm NATO bullets, 32 cm long blocks of gelatin, and a high speed video camera operating at 20,000 frames per second. It is found that different 9mm NATO bullets have a wide variety of pot...

  2. The application of Silver nanoparticle based SERS in diagnosing thyroid tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Zufang; Chen Rong; Chen Guannan; Lin Duo; Xi Gangqin; Chen Yongjian; Lin Hongxin; Lei Jinping [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Science and Technology for Medicine, Ministry of Education, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China); Li Zuanfang, E-mail: chenr@fjnu.edu.cn [Academy of Integrative Medicine, Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou 350108 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is proved to be a powerful analytical tool for investigation of biological tissue. In this study, SERS based on Ag nanoparticles was used to investigate the normal and cancerous thyroid tissue. Preliminary results indicated that Raman peaks and the spectra profile from both normal and cancerous tissues showed a basic similarity, obvious differences are that, first, Raman peaks 563cm{sup -1}, 1449cm{sup -1} and 1587cm{sup -1} in cancerous tissue decreased obviously compared with the normal thyroid tissue. Besides, Raman peaks 1004cm{sup -1} and 1128cm{sup -1} might be specific peaks for normal thyroid tissue, whereas 1294cm{sup -1} might attribute to specific peak for cancerous thyroid tissue. In addition, some peaks in normal thyroid tissue appeared to have shifted in cancerous tissue. Intensity ratio of 656cm{sup -1} vs. 725cm{sup -1} in normal tissue are significantly different from cancerous tissue (P<0.005), and it can be a reference for spectroscopic diagnostics of thyroid tissue. This study demonstrates that SERS can be used to monitor the changes at molecular level as well as a complementary tool in thyroid histopathology.

  3. Gelation, oxygen permeability, and mechanical properties of mammalian and fish gelatin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avena-Bustillos, R J; Chiou, B; Olsen, C W; Bechtel, P J; Olson, D A; McHugh, T H

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the gelation, thermal, mechanical, and oxygen permeability properties of different mammalian, warm- and cold-water fish gelatin solutions and films. Mammalian gelatin solutions had the highest gel set temperatures, followed by warm-water fish and then cold-water fish gelatin solutions. These differences were related to concentrations of imino acids present in each gelatin, with mammalian gelatin having the highest and cold-water fish gelatin having the lowest concentrations. Mammalian and warm-water fish gelatin films contained helical structures, whereas cold-water fish gelatin films were amorphous. This was due to the films being dried at room temperature (23 °C), which was below or near the gelation temperatures of mammalian and warm-water fish gelatin solutions and well above the gelation temperature of cold-water fish gelatin solutions. Tensile strength, percent elongation, and puncture deformation were highest in mammalian gelatin films, followed by warm-water fish gelatin film and then by cold-water fish gelatin films. Oxygen permeability values of cold-water fish gelatin films were significantly lower than those for mammalian gelatin films. These differences were most likely due to higher moisture sorption in mammalian gelatin films, leading to higher oxygen diffusivity. Journal of Food Science © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to original US government works.

  4. Effects of Gelatinization of Enteral Nutrients on Human Gastric Emptying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Naruo; Urashima, Mitsuyoshi; Odaira, Hironori; Noro, Takuji; Suzuki, Yutaka

    2010-06-01

    Gastrointestinal side effects, particularly diarrhea, are still the main reasons for discontinuation of enteral nutrition. Gelatinization of liquid meal for the prevention of diarrhea has been reported as effective. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of gelatinization of liquid meal on gastric emptying. Ten healthy volunteers were studied two times, with 2-week interval between tests. The total calorific value was set at 225 kcal, and 3 test meals were prepared: liquid meal and 2 types of gelatinized meals. These 2 types of gelatinized meals are different viscosity. (13)C-sodium acetate (100 mg) was thoroughly mixed, and exhaled air was sampled. The results of gastric emptying were expressed as the time of peak excretion (Tmax), and absorption was expressed as the area under the (13)CO2 curve up to Tmax (AUC-Tmax). At the same time, blood samples were collected to measure levels of blood glucose, insulin and gastrin. The mean value of Tmax were 52.0, 77.3 and 85.6 min. Compared to liquid meal, gastric emptying for gelatinized meals was significantly delayed. The mean value of AUC-Tmax were 22.7, 28.7 and 33.7%dose, respectively, and no significant differences in absorption were seen. No significant differences existed in blood glucose, gastrin and insulin. Gelatinization of liquid meal delays gastric emptying. Gelatinized liquid meal may be useful for the management of diarrhea accompanied with enteral nutrition without influencing gastrointestinal hormone and blood glucose.

  5. Wet method for measuring starch gelatinization temperature using electrical conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Sanchez, E; Figueroa, J D C; Gaytan-Martínez, M

    2009-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a method for obtaining the gelatinization temperature of starches by using electrical conductivity. Native starches from corn, rice, potato, and wheat were prepared with different proportions of water and heated from room temperature to 90 degrees C, in a device especially designed for monitoring the electrical conductivity as a function of temperature. The results showed a linear trend of the electrical conductivity with the temperature until it reaches the onset gelatinization temperature. After that point, the electrical conductivity presented an increment or decrement depending on the water content in the sample and it was related to starch swelling and gelatinization phenomena. At the end gelatinization temperature, the conductivity becomes stable and linear, indicating that there are no more changes of phase. The starch gelatinization parameter, which was evaluated in the 4 types of starches using the electrical conductivity, was compared with those obtained by using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The onset temperature at which the electrical conductivity increased or decreased was found to be similar to that obtained by DSC. Also, the final temperature at which the electrical conductivity returned to linearity matched the end gelatinization temperature of the DSC. Further, a wet method for measuring the onset, peak, and end gelatinization temperatures as a function of temperature using the electrical conductivity curves is presented for a starch-water suspension.

  6. Functionally graded electrospun scaffolds with tunable mechanical properties for vascular tissue regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Vinoy [Center for Nanoscale Materials and Biointegration (CNMB), Department of Physics, University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB), AL 35294 (United States); Zhang Xing [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB), AL 35294 (United States); Catledge, Shane A [Center for Nanoscale Materials and Biointegration (CNMB), Department of Physics, University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB), AL 35294 (United States); Vohra, Yogesh K [Center for Nanoscale Materials and Biointegration (CNMB), Department of Physics, University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB), AL 35294 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    Electrospun tubular scaffolds (4 mm inner diameter) based on bio-artificial blends of polyglyconate (Maxon (registered) ) and proteins such as gelatin and elastin having a spatially designed multilayer structure were prepared for use as vascular tissue scaffolds. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of scaffolds showed a random nanofibrous morphology with fiber diameter in the range of 200-400 nm for protein-blended Maxon, which mimics the nanoscale dimensions of collagen (50-500 nm). The scaffolds have a well interconnected pore structure and porosity up to 82%, with protein blending and multi-layering in contrast to electrospun Maxon (registered) scaffolds (67%). Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry results confirmed the blended composition and crystallinity of fibers. Uniaxial tensile testing revealed a strength of 14.46 {+-} 0.42 MPa and a modulus of 15.44 {+-} 2.53 MPa with a failure strain of 322.5 {+-} 10% for a pure Maxon (registered) scaffold. The blending of polyglyconate with biopolymers decreased the tensile properties in general, with an exception of the tensile modulus (48.38 {+-} 2 MPa) of gelatin/Maxon mesh, which was higher than that of the pure Maxon (registered) scaffold. Trilayered tubular scaffolds of gelatin/elastin, gelatin/elastin/Maxon and gelatin/Maxon (GE-GEM-GM) that mimic the complex trilayer matrix structure of natural artery have been prepared by sequential electrospinning. Tensile testing under dry conditions revealed a tensile strength of 2.71 {+-} 0.2 MPa and a modulus of 20.4 {+-} 3 MPa with a failure strain of 140 {+-} 10%. However, GE-GEM-GM scaffolds tested under wet conditions after soaking in a phosphate buffered saline medium at 37 {sup 0}C for 24 h exhibited mechanical properties (2.5 MPa tensile strength and 9 MPa tensile modulus) comparable to those of native femoral artery.

  7. Functionally graded electrospun scaffolds with tunable mechanical properties for vascular tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Vinoy; Zhang, Xing; Catledge, Shane A; Vohra, Yogesh K

    2007-12-01

    Electrospun tubular scaffolds (4 mm inner diameter) based on bio-artificial blends of polyglyconate (Maxon) and proteins such as gelatin and elastin having a spatially designed multilayer structure were prepared for use as vascular tissue scaffolds. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of scaffolds showed a random nanofibrous morphology with fiber diameter in the range of 200-400 nm for protein-blended Maxon, which mimics the nanoscale dimensions of collagen (50-500 nm). The scaffolds have a well interconnected pore structure and porosity up to 82%, with protein blending and multi-layering in contrast to electrospun Maxon scaffolds (67%). Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry results confirmed the blended composition and crystallinity of fibers. Uniaxial tensile testing revealed a strength of 14.46 +/- 0.42 MPa and a modulus of 15.44 +/- 2.53 MPa with a failure strain of 322.5 +/- 10% for a pure Maxon scaffold. The blending of polyglyconate with biopolymers decreased the tensile properties in general, with an exception of the tensile modulus (48.38 +/- 2 MPa) of gelatin/Maxon mesh, which was higher than that of the pure Maxon scaffold. Trilayered tubular scaffolds of gelatin/elastin, gelatin/elastin/Maxon and gelatin/Maxon (GE-GEM-GM) that mimic the complex trilayer matrix structure of natural artery have been prepared by sequential electrospinning. Tensile testing under dry conditions revealed a tensile strength of 2.71 +/- 0.2 MPa and a modulus of 20.4 +/- 3 MPa with a failure strain of 140 +/- 10%. However, GE-GEM-GM scaffolds tested under wet conditions after soaking in a phosphate buffered saline medium at 37 degrees C for 24 h exhibited mechanical properties (2.5 MPa tensile strength and 9 MPa tensile modulus) comparable to those of native femoral artery.

  8. Non-Fourier based thermal-mechanical tissue damage prediction for thermal ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhong, Yongmin; Smith, Julian; Gu, Chengfan

    2017-01-02

    Prediction of tissue damage under thermal loads plays important role for thermal ablation planning. A new methodology is presented in this paper by combing non-Fourier bio-heat transfer, constitutive elastic mechanics as well as non-rigid motion of dynamics to predict and analyze thermal distribution, thermal-induced mechanical deformation and thermal-mechanical damage of soft tissues under thermal loads. Simulations and comparison analysis demonstrate that the proposed methodology based on the non-Fourier bio-heat transfer can account for the thermal-induced mechanical behaviors of soft tissues and predict tissue thermal damage more accurately than classical Fourier bio-heat transfer based model.

  9. Microfluidics Enables Small-Scale Tissue-Based Drug Metabolism Studies With Scarce Human Tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Midwoud, Paul M.; Verpoorte, Elisabeth; Groothuis, Geny M. M.; Merema, M.T.

    2011-01-01

    Early information on the metabolism and toxicity properties of new drug candidates is crucial for selecting the right candidates for further development. Preclinical trials rely on cell-based in vitro tests and animal studies to characterize the in vivo behavior of drug candidates, although neither

  10. Antioxidant activity of hydrolysates of deer bone gelatin in a liposome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yuhong; GAO Tian; ZHANG Ligang

    2007-01-01

    Gelatin extracted from deer bone was hydrolyzed for 3.5-120 min. The degree of hydrolysis was higher from Alcalase-hydrolyzed gelatin than that from neutral proteinase-hydrolyzed gelatin. Alcalase-hydrolyzed gelatin exhibited a stronger antioxidant activity than that of neutral proteinase-hydrolyzed gelatin. Hydrolysates showed strong radical-scavenging ability and Fe2+-chelating activity, both of which were influenced by hydrolysis time. Although nonhydrolyzed gelatin displayed a certain antioxidative effect, it was far less than that of hydrolysates. The hydrolysates of deer bone gelatin can work as a radical stabilizer and metal ion chelator to inhibit lipid oxidation.

  11. Comparison of recovered carp scales (Cyprinus carpio gelatin and commercial calf and pork skin gelatins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Tolga Dinçer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress carries some evaluations towards the developments on seafood processing technologies and waste utilizing sector in recent years. Evaluation of wastes also has the potential to provide raw material for many industrial sectors. Evaluating the wastes also has a real potential for many industry sectors to obtain raw materials. The development of new products and commercially important of bio-molecules which have to be obtained from the wastes were important area for researches. Gelatin is used as a raw material for food industry and other industries, not only in our country but also in the world. Because of the growing demand particularly in Muslim countries hesitant considering alternatives to pork and calf sourced products are required. In the current study collagen which is used as raw material for many industries was recovered from carp scales (Cyprinus carpio. Obtained collagen was also used to produce gelatin product and some physical (colour, odour and some functional (gelling temperature, viscosity, gel strength properties were compared with commercial calf and pork skin gelatins.

  12. Studies on the starch-water interactions between partially gelatinized corn starch and water during gelatinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zong-Qiang; Wang, Li-Jun; Zou, Hui; Li, Dong; Adhikari, Benu

    2014-01-30

    The effect of moisture content on the interactions between water and partially gelatinized starch during gelatinization process was investigated. The interactions were probed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The starch samples were partially gelatinized at 25°C (S25), 64°C (S64), 68°C (S68) and 70°C (S70) and the moisture contents were varied from 25% to 78% (w/w). The G endotherm was not observed and only the M1 endotherm was observed in S64, S68 and S70 in the entire moisture content range. The G endotherm was not observed and only the M1 endotherm was observed at higher peak temperature in S25 when the moisture content was below 30% (w/w). The melting temperature of M2 endotherm in S70 was the highest among all the samples tested in the entire moisture content range. At water content>30% (w/w), S68 and S70 had lower amount