WorldWideScience

Sample records for gelatin

  1. Fish gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boran, Gokhan; Regenstein, Joe M

    2010-01-01

    Gelatin is a multifunctional ingredient used in foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and photographic films as a gelling agent, stabilizer, thickener, emulsifier, and film former. As a thermoreversible hydrocolloid with a narrower gap between its melting and gelling temperatures, both of which are below human body temperature, gelatin provides unique advantages over carbohydrate-based gelling agents. Gelatin is mostly produced from pig skin, and cattle hides and bones. Some alternative raw materials have recently gained attention from both researchers and the industry not just because they overcome religious concerns shared by Jews and Muslims but also because they provide, in some cases, technological advantages over mammalian gelatins. Fish skins from a number of fish species are among the other sources that have been comprehensively studied as sources for gelatin production. Fish skins have a significant potential for the production of high-quality gelatin with different melting and gelling temperatures over a much wider range than mammalian gelatins, yet still have a sufficiently high gel strength and viscosity. Gelatin quality is industrially determined by gel strength, viscosity, melting or gelling temperatures, the water content, and microbiological safety. For gelatin manufacturers, yield from a particular raw material is also important. Recent experimental studies have shown that these quality parameters vary greatly depending on the biochemical characteristics of the raw materials, the manufacturing processes applied, and the experimental settings used for quality control tests. In this review, the gelatin quality achieved from different fish species is reviewed along with the experimental procedures used to determine gelatin quality. In addition, the chemical structure of collagen and gelatin, the collagen-gelatin conversion, the gelation process, and the gelatin market are discussed.

  2. Starch gelatinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, Wajira S; Jackson, David S

    2009-01-01

    Starch occurs as highly organized structures, known as starch granules. Starch has unique thermal properties and functionality that have permitted its wide use in food products and industrial applications. When heated in water, starch undergoes a transition process, during which the granules break down into a mixture of polymers-in-solution, known as gelatinization. The sequence of structural transformations that the starch granule undergoes during this order-to-disorder transition has been extensively researched. None of the published starch gelatinization theories can fully and adequately explain the exact mechanism of sequential structural changes that starch granules undergo during gelatinization. This chapter analyzes several published theories and summarizes our current understanding of the starch gelatinization process.

  3. Wave propagation in ballistic gelatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naarayan, Srinivasan S; Subhash, Ghatu

    2017-01-23

    Wave propagation characteristics in long cylindrical specimens of ballistic gelatine have been investigated using a high speed digital camera and hyper elastic constitutive models. The induced transient deformation is modelled with strain rate dependent Mooney-Rivlin parameters which are determined by modelling the stress-strain response of gelatine at a range of strain rates. The varying velocity of wave propagation through the gelatine cylinder is derived as a function of prestress or stretch in the gelatine specimen. A finite element analysis is conducted using the above constitutive model by suitably defining the impulse imparted by the polymer bar into the gelatine specimen. The model results are found to capture the experimentally observed wave propagation characteristics in gelatine effectively.

  4. Modification of gelatin-DNA interaction for optimised DNA extraction from gelatin and gelatin capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Nurhidayatul Asma; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; El Sheikha, Aly Farag; Khairil Mokhtar, Nur Fadhilah; Ismail, Amin; Ali, Md Eaqub

    2016-05-01

    Poor quality and quantity of DNA extracted from gelatin and gelatin capsules often causes failure in the determination of animal species using PCR. Gelatin, which is mainly derived from porcine and bovine, has been a matter of concern among customers in order to fulfill religious obligation and safety precaution against several transmissible infectious diseases associated with bovine species. Thus, optimised DNA extraction from gelatin is very important for successful real-time PCR detection of gelatin species. In this work, the DNA extraction method was optimised in terms of lysis incubation period and inclusion of pre-treatment pH modification of samples. The yield of DNA extracted from porcine gelatin was significantly increased when the pH of the samples was adjusted to pH 8.5 prior to DNA precipitation with isopropanol. The optimal pH for DNA precipitation from bovine gelatin solution was then determined at the original pH range of solution: pH 7.6 to 8. A DNA fragment of approximately 300 base pairs was available for PCR amplification. DNA extracted from gelatin and commercially available capsules has been successfully utilised for species detection using real-time PCR assay. However, significant adulterations of porcine and bovine in pure gelatin and capsules have been detected, which require further analytical techniques for validation. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. SYNERESIS AND SWELLING OF GELATIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunitz, M

    1928-11-20

    1. When solid blocks of isoelectric gelatin are placed in cold distilled water or dilute buffer of pH 4.7, only those of a gelatin content of more than 10 per cent swell, while those of a lower gelatin content not only do not swell but actually lose water. 2. The final quantity of water lost by blocks of dilute gelatin is the same whether the block is immersed in a large volume of water or whether syneresis has been initiated in the gel through mechanical forces such as shaking, pressure, etc., even in the absence of any outside liquid, thus showing that syneresis is identical with the process of negative swelling of dilute gels when placed in cold water, and may be used as a convenient term for it. 3. Acid- or alkali-containing gels give rise to greater syneresis than isoelectric gels, after the acid or alkali has been removed by dialysis. 4. Salt-containing gels show greater syneresis than salt-free gels of the same pH, after the salt has been washed away. 5. The acid and alkali and also the salt effect on syneresis of gels disappears at a gelatin concentration above 8 per cent. 6. The striking similarity in the behavior of gels with respect to syneresis and of gelatin solutions with respect to viscosity suggests the probability that both are due to the same mechanism, namely the mechanism of hydration of the micellae in gelatin by means of osmosis as brought about either by diffusible ions, as in the presence of acid or alkali, or by the soluble gelatin present in the micellae. The greater the pressures that caused swelling of the micellae while the gelatin was in the sol state, the greater is the loss of water from the gels when the pressures are removed. 7. A quantitative study of the loss of water by dilute gels of various gelatin content shows that the same laws which have been found by Northrop to hold for the swelling of gels of high concentrations apply also to the process of losing water by dilute gels, i.e. to the process of syneresis. The general

  6. Starch gelatinization under thermal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroongsarng, D; Wongpoowarak, W; Mitrevej, A

    1999-01-01

    The behavior under thermal stress of starch dispersed in water was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to estimate the heat transported through the aqueous medium in gelatinization, and to characterize the range of gelatinization temperatures. In DSC scanning mode, the endotherm of 10% starch in aqueous dispersion showed the tracing of gelatinization at between 67 and 80 degrees C, having an onset at approximately 69 degrees C. In the isothermal mode, characteristically distinct isothermal heat flow profiles were revealed. It was hypothesized that the thermal influx proposed as being analogous to the diffusion process may affect the profiles. The profiles were transformed and nonlinearly fitted according to the square root of time model to characterize a so-called t-parameter, which was related to mean square displacement of molecular distribution. The t-parameter of starch in excess of water decreased compared to that of water only. The plot of difference in these t-parameters, expressed as delta, against temperature showed a dramatically decreased delta at the temperature between 66.7 and 75.2 degrees C, which coincided with the findings from scanning mode DSC. It was further hypothesized that the decreased delta may be due to the gelatinizing process. According to the theory of polymer solution, the critical temperature (theta) at 75.2 degrees C, where the free energy became theoretically negative, i.e., the starch became spontaneously dissolved, was drawn. This theta was located within the range of gelatinizing temperatures. It was deduced that starch polymer may have dissolved during gelatinization. The dissolution from acetaminophen tablets prepared by starch paste was lower compared with that of negative controls (without paste). Moreover, the paste prepared at gelatinizing temperature (70 degrees C) seemed to inhibit acetaminophen dissolution from tablet matrices more than that prepared at subgelatinizing temperature (50 degrees C).

  7. Review: gelatin, source, extraction and industrial applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalbasit Adam Mariod

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gelatin is an important functional biopolymer widely used in foods to improve elasticity, consistency, and stability. It can be obtained not only from the skin and bones of land animals, but also from fish and insects. In recent years gelatins from fish and edible insects provide an alternative source that is acceptable for halal (Muslim and kosher (Jewish products, gelatin extraction has been reported for different fishes and insects. In gelatin manufacture, two methods are usually used: the acid and the alkaline processes, to produce type A and type B gelatins, respectively.  

  8. Gelatin and Non-Gelatin Capsule Dosage Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullapalli, Rampurna P; Mazzitelli, Carolyn L

    2017-06-01

    Capsules offer an alternate to tablets for oral delivery of therapeutic compounds. One advantage of capsules over tablets is their amenability to deliver not only solids but also nonaqueous liquids and semisolids as a unit dose solid dosage form. Shell component is an essential part of capsule dosage forms. Capsule shells, available as hard or soft shells, are formulated from gelatin or a non-gelatin polymeric material such as hypromellose and starch, water, and with or without a nonvolatile plasticizer. The capsule shells may also be formulated to modify the release of their fill contents in a site-specific manner in the gastrointestinal tract. The goal of the current review is to provide an in-depth discussion on polymeric film-forming materials and manufacturing technologies used in the production of capsule shells. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Starch gelatinization in coiled heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelder, J D H; Ptasinski, K J; Kerkhof, P J A M

    2004-01-01

    A gelatinizing model food derived from a 5% w/w cross-linked waxy maize starch suspension was simulated in coiled heaters to assess the impact of centrifugal forces on flow and heat transfer. For four coil diameters (D = 0.25, 1, 2.5, and infinity m) and three flow rates (w = 0.5, 1, and 2 m/s), heat transfer, viscous development, and the severity of channeling were evaluated. Increasing curvature proved to suppress channeling as a result of more uniform heating and gelatinization. The maximum attainable viscosity was also higher, implying a lower starch consumption for a target viscosity. Higher flow rates necessitated longer heaters, and the maximum viscosity decreased. Moderate product velocities are therefore recommended.

  10. Multilayered Magnetic Gelatin Membrane Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Sangram K.; Goranov, Vitaly; Dash, Mamoni; Russo, Alessandro; Shelyakova, Tatiana; Graziosi, Patrizio; Lungaro, Lisa; Riminucci, Alberto; Uhlarz, Marc; Bañobre-López, Manuel; Rivas, Jose; Herrmannsdörfer, Thomas; Rajadas, Jayakumar; De Smedt, Stefaan; Braeckmans, Kevin; Kaplan, David L.; Dediu, V. Alek

    2016-01-01

    A versatile approach for the design and fabrication of multilayer magnetic scaffolds with tunable magnetic gradients is described. Multilayer magnetic gelatin membrane scaffolds with intrinsic magnetic gradients were designed to encapsulate magnetized bioagents under an externally applied magnetic field for use in magnetic-field-assisted tissue engineering. The temperature of the individual membranes increased up to 43.7 °C under an applied oscillating magnetic field for 70 s by magnetic hyperthermia, enabling the possibility of inducing a thermal gradient inside the final 3D multilayer magnetic scaffolds. On the basis of finite element method simulations, magnetic gelatin membranes with different concentrations of magnetic nanoparticles were assembled into 3D multilayered scaffolds. A magnetic-gradient-controlled distribution of magnetically labeled stem cells was demonstrated in vitro. This magnetic biomaterial–magnetic cell strategy can be expanded to a number of different magnetic biomaterials for various tissue engineering applications. PMID:26451743

  11. Gelatinous plankton: irregularities rule the world (sometimes)

    OpenAIRE

    Boero, F.; Bouillon, J; GRAVILI C.; Miglietta, M. P.; Parsons, T. R.; Piraino, S.

    2008-01-01

    In spite of being one of the most relevant components of the biosphere, the plankton-benthos network is still poorly studied as such. This is partly due to the irregular occurrence of driving phenomena such as gelatinous plankton pulses in this realm. Gelatinous plankters rely on their life cycles and histories to exploit temporarily abundant resources with an undeniable, but often overlooked, impact on marine food webs. Dramatic increases of gelatinous filter-feeders and/or carnivores (both ...

  12. [Gelatinous transformation of the bone marrow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemona, A; Dziecioł, J; Sulik, M; Brykalska, A; Sobaniec-Lotowska, M; Baltaziak, M

    1990-01-01

    The incidence and histopathologic picture of gelatinous transformation of the bone marrow were analysed in non-selected autopsy material. It was found that gelatinous transformation of the bone marrow occurred in terminal stages of various diseases (malignant neoplasms, chronic inflammation). Histological studies showed that gelatinous transformation of the bone marrow led to atrophy of the hematopoietic and adipose tissues of the bone marrow and accumulation of acid mucopolysaccharides. The patients with gelatinous transformation of the bone marrow exhibit hematologic disorders, most frequently anemia and thrombocytopenia.

  13. Preservation and storage of prepared ballistic gelatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattijssen, E J A T; Alberink, I; Jacobs, B; van den Boogaard, Y

    2016-02-01

    The use of ballistic gelatine, generally accepted as a human muscle tissue simulant in wound ballistic studies, might be improved by adding a preservative (Methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate) which inhibits microbial growth. This study shows that replacing a part of the gelatine powder by the preservative does not significantly alter the penetration depth of projectiles. Storing prepared blocks of ballistic gelatine over time decreased the penetration depth of projectiles. Storage of prepared gelatine for 4 week already showed a significant effect on the penetration depth of projectiles.

  14. Fractal lattice of gelatin nanoglobules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, D. V.; Krasovskii, A. N.

    2012-11-01

    The globular structure of polymer coatings on a glass, which were obtained from micellar solutions of gelatin in the isooctane-water-sodium (bis-2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate system, has been studied using electron microscopy. It has been shown that an increase in the average globule size is accompanied by the formation of a fractal lattice of nanoglobules and a periodic physical network of macromolecules in the coating. The stability of such system of the "liquid-in-a-solid" type is limited by the destruction of globules and the formation of a homogeneous network structure of the coating.

  15. Gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... joint function in patients with osteoarthritis. Brittle bones (osteoporosis). Strengthening bones and joints. Strengthening fingernails. Improving hair quality. Weight loss. Shortening recovery after exercise and sports-related injury. Other conditions. More evidence ...

  16. Microwave Drying Effects On Dichromated Gelatin Holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ana A.; Rebordao, Jose M.

    1989-05-01

    Holograms recorded in dichromated gelatin can easily be destroyed when subjected to high temperatures. In this work, a new treatment of holographic dichromated gelatin layers that improves remarkably the hologram life time under adverse thermal conditions, is presented: exposing the developed hologram to microwave radiaton. Similar holograms were subjected to microwave radiation for variable timelengths and then subjected to heating. The resultant angular and spectral bandwidths were measured after different heating time intervals. Some preliminary results will be presented. The role of water in holograms made with dicromated gelatin will be discussed, in this new context.

  17. Collection and culture techniques for gelatinous zooplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskoff, Kevin A; Sommer, Freya A; Hamner, William M; Cross, Katrina M

    2003-02-01

    Gelatinous zooplankton are the least understood of all planktonic animal groups. This is partly due to their fragility, which typically precludes the capture of intact specimens with nets or trawls. Specialized tools and techniques have been developed that allow researchers and aquarists to collect intact gelatinous animals at sea and to maintain many of these alive in the laboratory. This paper summarizes the scientific literature on the capture, collection, and culture of gelatinous zooplankton and incorporates many unpublished methods developed at the Monterey Bay Aquarium in the past 15 years.

  18. Performance of high amylose starch-composited gelatin films influenced by gelatinization and concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenhang; Wang, Kun; Xiao, Jingdong; Liu, Yaowei; Zhao, Yana; Liu, Anjun

    2017-01-01

    In order to study the impact of starch in film performance, high amylose corn starch was composited in gelatin films under different gelatinization conditions and, in high and low concentrations (10 and 50wt.%). It was found that hot water gelatinized starch (Gel-Shw) increased film mechanical strength and was dependent upon the starch concentration. The addition of an alkali component to the starch significantly enhanced the swelling of the starch granules and expedited the gelatinization process. Incorporation of starch, especially the alkalized starch (Sha), into the gelatin films decreased film solubility which improved its water resistance and water vapor permeability (WVP). Multiple techniques (DSC, TGA, FT-IR, and XRD) were used to characterize the process and results, including the crosslinking of the dissolved starch molecules and the particles formed from gelatinized starch during retrogradation process, which played an important role in improving the thermal stability of the composited gelatin films. Overall, the starch-gelatin composition provides a potential approach to improve gelatin film performance and benefit its applications in the food industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Gelatin microcapsules for enhanced microwave tumor hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Qijun; Fu, Changhui; Tie, Jian; Liu, Tianlong; Li, Linlin; Ren, Xiangling; Huang, Zhongbing; Liu, Huiyu; Tang, Fangqiong; Li, Li; Meng, Xianwei

    2015-02-01

    Local and rapid heating by microwave (MW) irradiation is important in the clinical treatment of tumors using hyperthermia. We report here a new thermo-seed technique for the highly efficient MW irradiation ablation of tumors in vivo based on gelatin microcapsules. We achieved 100% tumor elimination in a mouse model at an ultralow power of 1.8 W without any side-effects. The results of MTT assays, a hemolysis test and the histological staining of organs indicated that the gelatin microcapsules showed excellent compatibility with the physiological environment. A possible mechanism is proposed for MW hyperthermia using gelatin microcapsules. We also used gelatin microcapsules capped with CdTe quantum dots for in vivo optical imaging. Our study suggests that these microcapsules may have potential applications in imaging-guided cancer treatment.Local and rapid heating by microwave (MW) irradiation is important in the clinical treatment of tumors using hyperthermia. We report here a new thermo-seed technique for the highly efficient MW irradiation ablation of tumors in vivo based on gelatin microcapsules. We achieved 100% tumor elimination in a mouse model at an ultralow power of 1.8 W without any side-effects. The results of MTT assays, a hemolysis test and the histological staining of organs indicated that the gelatin microcapsules showed excellent compatibility with the physiological environment. A possible mechanism is proposed for MW hyperthermia using gelatin microcapsules. We also used gelatin microcapsules capped with CdTe quantum dots for in vivo optical imaging. Our study suggests that these microcapsules may have potential applications in imaging-guided cancer treatment. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr07104b

  20. Enzyme-Gelatin Electrochemical Biosensors: Scaling Down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik A. Heering

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we investigate the possibility of scaling down enzyme-gelatin modified electrodes by spin coating the enzyme-gelatin layer. Special attention is given to the electrochemical behavior of the selected enzymes inside the gelatin matrix. A glassy carbon electrode was used as a substrate to immobilize, in the first instance, horse heart cytochrome c (HHC in a gelatin matrix. Both a drop dried and a spin coated layer was prepared. On scaling down, a transition from diffusion controlled reactions towards adsorption controlled reactions is observed. Compared to a drop dried electrode, a spin coated electrode showed a more stable electrochemical behavior. Next to HHC, we also incorporated catalase in a spin coated gelatin matrix immobilized on a glassy carbon electrode. By spincoating, highly uniform sub micrometer layers of biocompatible matrices can be constructed. A full electrochemical study and characterization of the modified surfaces has been carried out. It was clear that in the case of catalase, gluteraldehyde addition was needed to prevent leaking of the catalase from the gelatin matrix.

  1. Halal authenticity of gelatin using species-specific PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Hessam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrangiz; Mousavi, Seyed Mohammad; Dezfouli, Ehsan Ansari; Solgi, Tara; Khodaverdi, Mahdi; Rabiei, Maryam; Rastegar, Hossein; Alebouyeh, Mahmoud

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of food products derived from porcine sources is strictly prohibited in Islam. Gelatin, mostly derived from bovine and porcine sources, has many applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries. To ensure that food products comply with halal regulations, development of valid and reliable analytical methods is very much required. In this study, a species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using conserved regions of mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome b gene) was performed to evaluate the halal authenticity of gelatin. After isolation of DNA from gelatin powders with known origin, conventional PCR using species-specific primers was carried out on the extracted DNA. The amplified expected PCR products of 212 and 271 bp were observed for porcine and bovine gelatin, respectively. The sensitivity of the method was tested on binary gelatin mixtures containing 0.1%, 1%, 10%, and 100% (w/w) of porcine gelatin within bovine gelatin and vice versa. Although most of the DNA is degraded due to the severe processing steps of gelatin production, the minimum level of 0.1% w/w of both porcine and bovine gelatin was detected. Moreover, eight food products labeled as containing bovine gelatin and eight capsule shells were subjected to PCR examination. The results showed that all samples contained bovine gelatin, and the absence of porcine gelatin was verified. This method of species authenticity is very useful to verify whether gelatin and gelatin-containing food products are derived from halal ingredients.

  2. Chip electrophoresis of gelatin-based nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Victor U; Lehner, Angela; Grombe, Ringo; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Allmaier, Günter

    2013-08-01

    Recently, biodegradable nanoparticles received increasing attention for pharmaceutical applications as well as applications in the food industry. With the current investigation we demonstrate chip electrophoresis of fluorescently (FL) labeled gelatin nanoparticles (gelatin NPs) on a commercially available instrument. FL labeling included a step for the removal of low molecular mass material (especially excess dye molecules). Nevertheless, for the investigated gelatin NP preparation two analyte peaks, one very homogeneous with an electrophoretic net mobility of μ = -24.6 ± 0.3 × 10(-9) m(2) /Vs at the peak apex (n = 17) and another more heterogeneous peak with μ between approximately -27.2 ± 0.2 × 10(-9) m(2) /Vs and -36.6 ± 0.2 × 10(-9) m(2) /Vs at the peak beginning and end point (n = 11, respectively) were recorded. Filtration allowed enrichment of particles in the size range of approximately 35 nm (pore size employed for concentration of gelatin NPs) to 200 nm (pore size employed during FL labeling). This corresponded to the very homogeneous peak linking it to gelatin NPs, whereas the more heterogeneous peak probably corresponds to gelatin not cross-linked to such a high degree (NP building blocks). Several further gelatin NP preparations were analyzed according to the same protocol yielding peaks with electrophoretic net mobilities between -23.3 ± 0.3 × 10(-9) m(2) /Vs and -28.9 ± 0.2 × 10(-9) m(2) /Vs at peak apexes (n = 15 and 6). Chip electrophoresis allows analyte separation in less than two minutes (including electrophoretic sample injection). Together with the high sensitivity of the FL detection - the LOD as derived for the first main peak of the applied dye from the threefold standard deviation of the background noise values 80 pM for determined separation conditions - this leads to a very promising high throughput separation technique especially for the analysis of bionanoparticles. For gelatin NP preparations, chip electrophoresis

  3. Understanding starch gelatinization: The phase diagram approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstedt, Jonas; Wojtasz, Joanna; Fyhr, Peter; Kocherbitov, Vitaly

    2015-09-20

    By constructing a detailed phase diagram for the potato starch-water system based on data from optical microscopy, synchrotron X-ray scattering and differential scanning calorimetry, we show that gelatinization can be interpreted in analogy with a eutectic transition. The phase rule explains why the temperature of the gelatinization transition (G) is independent on water content. Furthermore, the melting (M1) endotherm observed in DSC represents a liquidus line; the temperature for this event increases with increasing starch concentration. Both the lamellar spacing and the inter-helix distance were observed to decrease with increasing starch content for starch concentrations between approximately 65 wt% and 75 wt%, while the inter-helix distance continued decreasing upon further dehydration. Understanding starch gelatinization has been a longstanding challenge. The novel approach presented here shows interpretation of this phenomenon from a phase equilibria perspective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Gelatin use impairs platelet adhesion during cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabuchi, N; deHaan, J; Huet, RCGG; Boonstra, PW; vanOeveren, W

    1995-01-01

    Artificial colloids based on gelatin are used as plasma expander to replace donor blood products. In laboratory experiments, gelatin reduced both the velocity and extend of platelet agglutination by ristocetin, and only the agglutination velocity by polybrene (p These negative effects of gelatin on

  5. Physicochemical and functional properties of gelatin extracted from Yak skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengqi; Wei, Lixin; Xiao, Yuancan; Bi, Hongtao; Yang, Hongxia; Du, Yuzhi

    2017-02-01

    Different molecular weight distribution (MWD) gelatin was extracted from Yak skin after enzymatic pretreatments and their physicochemical and functional properties (SDS-PAGE, UV-vis absorption spectra, DSC, FT-IR, Amino acid analysis, AFM, emulsibility and foamability) were analyzed. The gelatin was extracted by pepsin and got different MWD of Yak skin gelatin by controlling the enzymolysis time. The SDS-PAGE showed the MWD of the Yak skin gelatin. The UV-vis absorption turned out that the broad MWD of Yak skin gelatin had a higher maximum absorption peaks. The FT-IR and AFM indicated that the gelatin structures and microstructures changed with the change of the MWD. The broad MWD of the Yak skin gelatin had a higher denaturation temperature (TD), and it was higher than most of the other mammals and marine biological gelatin. The broad MWD gelatin also had higher imino acids (proline and hydroxyproline) contents and lower foamability and emulsibility compared to the narrow MWD gelatin. These findings, obtained for the first time for Yak skin gelatin, showed that it has great potential for application as an alternative to commercial gelatin due to its good thermotolerance, particularly in the applications of the biological materials, stabilizer of thermo-tolerant and so on.

  6. Recombinant gelatin and collagen from methylotrophic yeasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de E.C.

    2002-01-01

    Based on its structural role and compatibility within the human body, collagen is a commonly used biomaterial in medical applications, such as cosmetic surgery, wound treatment and tissue engineering. Gelatin is in essence denatured and partly degraded collagen and is, as a result of

  7. Modification of gelatin functionality for culinary applications by using transglutaminase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvarro, Julia; Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad; Ruiz Carrascal, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Porcine gelatin was subjected to the action of different amounts of commercial transglutaminase (TGase) and subsequently used to produce foams or gels. Foam stability at 20 °C and 80 °C, and thermal stability and instrumental texture of the gels were studied. Gelatin and TGase contents...... significantly increased the foam stability at both temperatures, but the effect of TGase was much more marked. Also both factors enhanced the thermal stability of gelatin gels, so that gels containing 3% of gelatin and 0.7% TGase were still gelled after 1 h at 80 °C, while any of the gelatin-based gels without...... TGase turned rapidly into liquid in less than 10 min at 80 °C. Hardness and chewiness of the gels were strongly enhanced by gelatin content, but very especially by TGase concentration. Gels tended to be less springy with increasing amounts of TGase. Modification of gelatin-based foams and gels...

  8. Solubilization of bovine gelatin using power ultrasound: gelation without heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahnaky, Asgar; Zendeboodi, Fatemeh; Azizi, Rezvan; Mesbahi, Gholamreza; Majzoobi, Mahsa

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of power ultrasound without using any heating stage in solubilizeing gelatin dispersions, and to characterize the mechanical and microstructural properties of the resulting gels using texture analysis and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Usually to prepare a gel from gelatin, a primary heating stage of at about 40C or above is required to solubilize gelatin macromolecules. In this study solubilizing gelatin dispersions using power ultrasound without any heating was successfully performed. For solubilising gelatin, an ultrasound equipment with a frequency of 20 kHz, amplitude of 100% and power range of 50-150 W was used. Aqueous gelatin dispersions (4% w/v) were subjected to ultrasound for different times (40-240 s) at a constant temperature of 13C. Applying ultrasound to gelatin dispersions caused increases in water absorption and water solubility of the hydrocolloid. The textural parameters of the resulting gelatin gels, increased with increasing time and power of ultrasound. Moreover, a generalized Maxwell model with three elements was used for calculating relaxation times of the gels. The microstructural observations by SEM showed that the structural cohesiveness of the gels increased by increasing ultrasonication time. Ultrasound-assisted solubilization of gelatin can have emerging implications for industrial uses in pharmaceuticals, food and non-food systems. Usually to prepare a gel from gelatin, a primary heating stage of at about 40C or above is required to solubilize gelatin macromolecules. Therefore, the use of gelatin as a hydrocolloid in food processings or pharmaceutical formulations which lack a heating step has been a technological and practical challenge. In this study solubilizing gelatin dispersions using power ultrasound without any heating was successfully performed. Ultrasound-assisted solubilisation of gelatin can have emerging implications for industrial uses in pharmaceuticals

  9. Electrochemical Characterization of Gelatine Derived Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak A.P.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available New materials obtained by pyrolysis of gelatine (G and poly(1,2-dimethylsilazane (PSN (weight ratio: G/PSN 70/30 at temperatures 700 and 900 °C were characterized by SEM and Raman spectroscopy. The presence of ceramics influences on the cluster size of the materials. Electrochemical tests were performed by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic cyclic polarization. The capacity of G/PSN was 464 and 527 mAh/g for materials pyrolysed at 700 and 900 °C. The capacity fading was 1 % after 17th cycle for G/PSN at 900 °C. This value is higher of 185 mAh/g in comparison to capacity of gelatine pyrolysed at the same conditions.

  10. Simplified dichromated gelatin hologram recording process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgekutty, Tharayil G.; Liu, Hua-Kuang

    1987-01-01

    A simplified method for making dichromated gelatin (DCG) holographic optical elements (HOE) has been discovered. The method is much less tedious and it requires a period of processing time comparable with that for processing a silver halide hologram. HOE characteristics including diffraction efficiency (DE), linearity, and spectral sensitivity have been quantitatively investigated. The quality of the holographic grating is very high. Ninety percent or higher diffraction efficiency has been achieved in simple plane gratings made by this process.

  11. Photocrosslinkable Gelatin Hydrogel for Epidermal Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Lang, Qi; Yildirimer, Lara; Lin, Zhi Yuan; Cui, Wenguo; Annabi, Nasim; Ng, Kee Woei; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Natural hydrogels are promising scaffolds to engineer epidermis. Currently, natural hydrogels used to support epidermal regeneration are mainly collagen- or gelatin-based, which mimic the natural dermal extracellular matrix but often suffer from insufficient and uncontrollable mechanical and degradation properties. In this study, a photocrosslinkable gelatin (i.e., gelatin methacrylamide (GelMA)) with tunable mechanical, degradation, and biological properties is used to engineer the epidermis for skin tissue engineering applications. The results reveal that the mechanical and degradation properties of the developed hydrogels can be readily modified by varying the hydrogel concentration, with elastic and compressive moduli tuned from a few kPa to a few hundred kPa, and the degradation times varied from a few days to several months. Additionally, hydrogels of all concentrations displayed excellent cell viability (>90%) with increasing cell adhesion and proliferation corresponding to increases in hydrogel concentrations. Furthermore, the hydrogels are found to support keratinocyte growth, differentiation, and stratification into a reconstructed multilayered epidermis with adequate barrier functions. The robust and tunable properties of GelMA hydrogels suggest that the keratinocyte laden hydrogels can be used as epidermal substitutes, wound dressings, or substrates to construct various in vitro skin models.

  12. Gelatin-Based Materials in Ocular Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B. Rose

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Gelatin has been used for many years in pharmaceutical formulation, cell culture and tissue engineering on account of its excellent biocompatibility, ease of processing and availability at low cost. Over the last decade gelatin has been extensively evaluated for numerous ocular applications serving as cell-sheet carriers, bio-adhesives and bio-artificial grafts. These different applications naturally have diverse physical, chemical and biological requirements and this has prompted research into the modification of gelatin and its derivatives. The crosslinking of gelatin alone or in combination with natural or synthetic biopolymers has produced a variety of scaffolds that could be suitable for ocular applications. This review focuses on methods to crosslink gelatin-based materials and how the resulting materials have been applied in ocular tissue engineering. Critical discussion of recent innovations in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine will highlight future opportunities for gelatin-based materials in ophthalmology.

  13. Biosynthesis and Characterization of Nanocellulose-Gelatin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muenduen Phisalaphong

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A nanocellulose-gelatin (bacterial cellulose gelatin (BCG film was developed by a supplement of gelatin, at a concentration of 1%–10% w/v, in a coconut-water medium under the static cultivation of Acetobacter xylinum. The two polymers exhibited a certain degree of miscibility. The BCG film displayed dense and uniform homogeneous structures. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR results demonstrated interactions between the cellulose and gelatin. Incorporation of gelatin into a cellulose nanofiber network resulted in significantly improved optical transparency and water absorption capacity of the films. A significant drop in the mechanical strengths and a decrease in the porosity of the film were observed when the supplement of gelatin was more than 3% (w/v. The BCG films showed no cytotoxicity against Vero cells.

  14. Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Evaluation of Gelatin-based Scaffolds

    CERN Document Server

    Tronci, G

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents the development of entropy-elastic gelatin based networks in the form of films or scaffolds. The materials have good prospects for biomedical applications, especially in the context of bone regeneration. Entropy-elastic gelatin based hydrogel films with varying crosslinking densities were prepared with tailored mechanical properties. Gelatin was covalently crosslinked in water above its sol gel transition, which suppressed the gelatin chain helicity. Amorphous films were prepared with tailorable degrees of swelling and wet state Young's modulus. The knowledge gained with this bulk material was transferred to the integrated process of foaming and crosslinking to obtain porous gelatin-based scaffolds. A gelatin solution was foamed in the presence of saponin and the resulting foam was fixed by chemical crosslinking with a diisocyanate. The scaffolds were analyzed in the dry state by micro computed tomography (\\mu CT, porosity: 65\\pm 11-73\\pm 14 vol.-%), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM,...

  15. Creating 3D gelatin phantoms for experimental evaluation in biomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Nils

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe and evaluate a setup to create gelatin phantoms by robotic 3D printing. Key aspects are the large workspace, reproducibility and resolution of the created phantoms. Given its soft tissue nature, the gelatin is kept fluid during inside the system and we present parameters for additive printing of homogeneous, solid objects. The results indicate that 3D printing of gelatin can be an alternative for quickly creating larger soft tissue phantoms without the need for casting a mold.

  16. Effect of maltodextrin on characteristics and antioxidative activity of spray-dried powder of gelatin and gelatin hydrolysate from scales of spotted golden goatfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuaychan, Sira; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2016-09-01

    Characteristics and antioxidative activity of gelatin and gelatin hydrolysate powders from scale of spotted golden goatfish using maltodextrin as a carrier agent at different ratios [1:0, 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2 (w/w)] were investigated. Gelatin hydrolysates with 40 % degree of hydrolysis exhibited the highest antioxidative activity. With increasing maltodextrin proportions, the resulting powders showed an increase in yields, total sugar content and whiteness with coincidental decrease in [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]-values and browning intensity. Solubility of gelatin powder increased with increase in maltodextrin proportion. Gelatin powder was spherical with smooth surface of hydrolysate varied, regardless of maltodextrin levels. Gelatin hydrolysate powder form, uniform agglomerates when maltodextrin was incorporated. DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities and ferric-reducing antioxidant power of gelatin and gelatin hydrolysate decreased when maltodextrin was used as a carrier agent. Thus, maltodextrin levels directly affected characteristics and antioxidative activity of gelatin and gelatin hydrolysate powders.

  17. Graphene oxide decorated electrospun gelatin nanofibers: Fabrication, properties and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalaja, K. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 547 (India); Sreehari, V.S. [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Bhopal, Bhauri, Madhya Pradesh 462066 (India); Kumar, P.R. Anil [Tissue culture laboratory, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 012 (India); Nirmala, R. James, E-mail: nirmala@iist.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 547 (India)

    2016-07-01

    Gelatin nanofiber fabricated by electrospinning process is found to mimic the complex structural and functional properties of natural extracellular matrix for tissue regeneration. In order to improve the physico-chemical and biological properties of the nanofibers, graphene oxide is incorporated in the gelatin to form graphene oxide decorated gelatin nanofibers. The current research effort is focussed on the fabrication and evaluation of physico-chemical and biological properties of graphene oxide-gelatin composite nanofibers. The presence of graphene oxide in the nanofibers was established by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We report the effect of incorporation of graphene oxide on the mechanical, thermal and biological performance of the gelatin nanofibers. The tensile strength of gelatin nanofibers was increased from 8.29 ± 0.53 MPa to 21 ± 2.03 MPa after the incorporation of GO. In order to improve the water resistance of nanofibers, natural based cross-linking agent, namely, dextran aldehyde was employed. The cross-linked composite nanofibers showed further increase in the tensile strength up to 56.4 ± 2.03 MPa. Graphene oxide incorporated gelatin nanofibers are evaluated for bacterial activity against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria and cyto compatibility using mouse fibroblast cells (L-929 cells). The results indicate that the graphene oxide incorporated gelatin nanofibers do not prevent bacterial growth, nevertheless support the L-929 cell adhesion and proliferation. - Highlights: • Graphene oxide nano reinforced gelatin nanofibers are fabricated by electrospinning. • Graphene oxide (0.5%) loading resulted in increased tensile strength. • GO/gelatin nanofibers are cross-linked with dextran aldehyde. • Composite nanofibers favoured adhesion of L-929 cells. • GO/gelatin mats do not prevent bacterial growth.

  18. Graphene oxide decorated electrospun gelatin nanofibers: Fabrication, properties and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalaja, K; Sreehari, V S; Kumar, P R Anil; Nirmala, R James

    2016-07-01

    Gelatin nanofiber fabricated by electrospinning process is found to mimic the complex structural and functional properties of natural extracellular matrix for tissue regeneration. In order to improve the physico-chemical and biological properties of the nanofibers, graphene oxide is incorporated in the gelatin to form graphene oxide decorated gelatin nanofibers. The current research effort is focussed on the fabrication and evaluation of physico-chemical and biological properties of graphene oxide-gelatin composite nanofibers. The presence of graphene oxide in the nanofibers was established by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We report the effect of incorporation of graphene oxide on the mechanical, thermal and biological performance of the gelatin nanofibers. The tensile strength of gelatin nanofibers was increased from 8.29±0.53MPa to 21±2.03MPa after the incorporation of GO. In order to improve the water resistance of nanofibers, natural based cross-linking agent, namely, dextran aldehyde was employed. The cross-linked composite nanofibers showed further increase in the tensile strength up to 56.4±2.03MPa. Graphene oxide incorporated gelatin nanofibers are evaluated for bacterial activity against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria and cyto compatibility using mouse fibroblast cells (L-929 cells). The results indicate that the graphene oxide incorporated gelatin nanofibers do not prevent bacterial growth, nevertheless support the L-929 cell adhesion and proliferation.

  19. Gelatin-Pectin Composite Films from Polyion Complex Hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composite films from gelatin and low-methoxyl pectin were prepared by either ionic complexation or covalent cross-linking. The ionic interactions between positively charged gelatin and negatively charged pectin produced physically reversible hydrogels. The resultant homogeneous gels had improved mec...

  20. Covalently immobilized gelatin gradients within three-dimensional porous scaffolds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU JinDan; TAN HuaPing; LI LinHui; GAO ChangYou

    2009-01-01

    A stable gelatin gradient providing continuous increment of signaling for cell adhesion and proliferation was fabricated within 3D poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) scaffolds. The porous PLLA scaffold fabricated by NaCI particle leaching was vertically fixed on a glass vial. 1,6-Hexanediamine/propanol solution was continuously injected into the vial by a micropump to aminolyze the PLLA scaffold. As a result of reaction time difference,the introduced-NH2 groups increased continuously along with the longitude of the PLLA scaffold in the z-direction. After covalent immobilization of gelatin by glutaraldehyde coupling,the gelatin gradient scaffold was thus obtained. In vitro chondrocyte culture showed that the cells had higher viability and more extending morphology in the gelatin gradient scaffold than that in the uniform gelatin control.

  1. Gelatin Functionalization of Biomaterial Surfaces: Strategies for Immobilization and Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dubruel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the immobilization of gelatin as biopolymer on two types of implantable biomaterials, polyimide and titanium, was compared. Both materials are known for their biocompatibility while lacking cell-interactive behavior. For both materials, a pre-functionalization step was required to enable gelatin immobilization. For the polyimide foils, a reactive succinimidyl ester was introduced first on the surface, followed by covalent grafting of gelatin. For the titanium material, methacrylate groups were first introduced on the Ti surface through a silanization reaction. The applied functionalities enabled the subsequent immobilization of methacrylamide modified gelatin. Both surface modified materials were characterized in depth using atomic force microscopy, static contact angle measurements, confocal fluorescence microscopy, attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy. The results indicated that the strategies elaborated for both material classes are suitable to apply stable gelatin coatings. Interestingly, depending on the material class studied, not all surface analysis techniques are applicable.

  2. Effect of aggregation behavior of gelatin in aqueous solution on the grafting density of gelatin modified with glycidol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Li, Tian-Duo; Tang, Xiao-Long; Qiao, Cong-De; Jiang, Qing-Wei

    2012-06-15

    The effect of aggregation behavior of gelatin in aqueous solution on the grafting density of glycidol grafted gelatin polymers (GGG polymers) was investigated. The grafting density was measured using the Van Slyke method by calculating the conversion rate of free - NH(2) groups of gelatin. The conversion rate reached peak values at 6% and 14% of the gelatin aqueous solution. SEM micrographs displayed a series of structural transitions (i.e., spherical, spindle, butterfly, irregular and dendritic aggregates) at varying concentrations from 2% to 16% (w/w) at an interval of 2% (w/w). The spindle aggregates reappeared at the concentrations of 6% and 14%. Viscosity measurements indicated that the physicochemical properties of the gelatin solution had changed with increasing concentration. UV and CD analysis indicated that hydrophobic interactions competed with hydrogen bonding, and the random coils partly transformed to β-sheet structure by changing the concentration. Zeta potential and pH data confirmed the increasing electrostatic repulsion associated with increasing the hydrophobic region. XPS analysis revealed that the elemental composition of the gelatin particle surface changed with variation in the aggregate structure, determining the monotonic variation of the grafting density with increasing concentration. Results demonstrate that aggregation behavior of gelatin in aqueous solution plays a crucial role in deciding the grafting density of gelatin modified products.

  3. Properties of electrospun pollock gelatin/poly(vinyl alcohol) and pollock gelatin/poly(lactic acid) fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock gelatin/poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) fibers were electrospun using deionized water as the solvent and pollock gelatin/poly(lactic acid) (PLA) fibers were electrospun using 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) as the solvent. The chemical, thermal, and thermal stability properties were exami...

  4. The Dynamic Behaviour of Ballistic Gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, C. J.; Appleby-Thomas, G. J.; Hazell, P. J.; Allsop, D. F.

    2009-12-01

    In order to characterise the effect of projectiles it is necessary to understand the mechanism of both penetration and resultant wounding in biological systems. Porcine gelatin is commonly used as a tissue simulant in ballistic tests because it elastically deforms in a similar manner to muscular tissue. Bullet impacts typically occur in the 350-850 m/s range; thus knowledge of the high strain-rate dynamic properties of both the projectile and target materials are desirable to simulate wounds. Unlike projectile materials, relatively little data exists on the dynamic response of flesh simulants. The Hugoniot for a 20 wt.% porcine gelatin, which exhibits a ballistic response similar to that of human tissues at room temperature, was determined using the plate-impact technique at impact velocities of 75-860 m/s. This resulted in impact stresses around three times higher than investigated elsewhere. In US-uP space the Hugoniot had the form US = 1.57+1.77 uP, while in P-uP space it was essentially hydrodynamic. In both cases this was in good agreement with the limited available data from the literature.

  5. Gelation, oxygen permeability, and mechanical properties of mammalian and fish gelatin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avena-Bustillos, R J; Chiou, B; Olsen, C W; Bechtel, P J; Olson, D A; McHugh, T H

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the gelation, thermal, mechanical, and oxygen permeability properties of different mammalian, warm- and cold-water fish gelatin solutions and films. Mammalian gelatin solutions had the highest gel set temperatures, followed by warm-water fish and then cold-water fish gelatin solutions. These differences were related to concentrations of imino acids present in each gelatin, with mammalian gelatin having the highest and cold-water fish gelatin having the lowest concentrations. Mammalian and warm-water fish gelatin films contained helical structures, whereas cold-water fish gelatin films were amorphous. This was due to the films being dried at room temperature (23 °C), which was below or near the gelation temperatures of mammalian and warm-water fish gelatin solutions and well above the gelation temperature of cold-water fish gelatin solutions. Tensile strength, percent elongation, and puncture deformation were highest in mammalian gelatin films, followed by warm-water fish gelatin film and then by cold-water fish gelatin films. Oxygen permeability values of cold-water fish gelatin films were significantly lower than those for mammalian gelatin films. These differences were most likely due to higher moisture sorption in mammalian gelatin films, leading to higher oxygen diffusivity. Journal of Food Science © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to original US government works.

  6. Effects of Gelatinization of Enteral Nutrients on Human Gastric Emptying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Naruo; Urashima, Mitsuyoshi; Odaira, Hironori; Noro, Takuji; Suzuki, Yutaka

    2010-06-01

    Gastrointestinal side effects, particularly diarrhea, are still the main reasons for discontinuation of enteral nutrition. Gelatinization of liquid meal for the prevention of diarrhea has been reported as effective. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of gelatinization of liquid meal on gastric emptying. Ten healthy volunteers were studied two times, with 2-week interval between tests. The total calorific value was set at 225 kcal, and 3 test meals were prepared: liquid meal and 2 types of gelatinized meals. These 2 types of gelatinized meals are different viscosity. (13)C-sodium acetate (100 mg) was thoroughly mixed, and exhaled air was sampled. The results of gastric emptying were expressed as the time of peak excretion (Tmax), and absorption was expressed as the area under the (13)CO2 curve up to Tmax (AUC-Tmax). At the same time, blood samples were collected to measure levels of blood glucose, insulin and gastrin. The mean value of Tmax were 52.0, 77.3 and 85.6 min. Compared to liquid meal, gastric emptying for gelatinized meals was significantly delayed. The mean value of AUC-Tmax were 22.7, 28.7 and 33.7%dose, respectively, and no significant differences in absorption were seen. No significant differences existed in blood glucose, gastrin and insulin. Gelatinization of liquid meal delays gastric emptying. Gelatinized liquid meal may be useful for the management of diarrhea accompanied with enteral nutrition without influencing gastrointestinal hormone and blood glucose.

  7. Wet method for measuring starch gelatinization temperature using electrical conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Sanchez, E; Figueroa, J D C; Gaytan-Martínez, M

    2009-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a method for obtaining the gelatinization temperature of starches by using electrical conductivity. Native starches from corn, rice, potato, and wheat were prepared with different proportions of water and heated from room temperature to 90 degrees C, in a device especially designed for monitoring the electrical conductivity as a function of temperature. The results showed a linear trend of the electrical conductivity with the temperature until it reaches the onset gelatinization temperature. After that point, the electrical conductivity presented an increment or decrement depending on the water content in the sample and it was related to starch swelling and gelatinization phenomena. At the end gelatinization temperature, the conductivity becomes stable and linear, indicating that there are no more changes of phase. The starch gelatinization parameter, which was evaluated in the 4 types of starches using the electrical conductivity, was compared with those obtained by using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The onset temperature at which the electrical conductivity increased or decreased was found to be similar to that obtained by DSC. Also, the final temperature at which the electrical conductivity returned to linearity matched the end gelatinization temperature of the DSC. Further, a wet method for measuring the onset, peak, and end gelatinization temperatures as a function of temperature using the electrical conductivity curves is presented for a starch-water suspension.

  8. Maintenance of human embryonic stem cells on gelatin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yang; LIN ChangSheng; WANG Li; LIU Ying; MU XiaoNing; MAYue; LI LingSong

    2009-01-01

    Matrigel is routinely used as a coating material in the feeder-free culture system of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs).However,matrigel is costive and inconvenient to use.In this study,the possibility of using gelatin as an alternative coating material was investigated.The results showed that,after trypsinization,hESCs were maintained undifferentiated on gelatin.These hESCs expressed pluripotent markers,formed teratoma and maintained a normal karyotype.As measured at passage 10,the hESCs expressed a high level of Oct4 on both gelatin and Matrigel.hESCs growing on gelatin formed AP-positive colonies in similar size and number to those growing on Matrigel (P>0.05).Moreover,hESCs growing on gelatin contained a comparable percentage of SSEA-4-positive cells to those growing on Matrigel (95.1% vs.94.3%,P>0.05).H-1 hESCs were maintained undifferentiated on gelatin for 20 passages and remained the stable normal karyotype.This gelatin-based culture protocol may allow us to propagate hESCs in large scale,with less cost.

  9. Antioxidant activity of hydrolysates of deer bone gelatin in a liposome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yuhong; GAO Tian; ZHANG Ligang

    2007-01-01

    Gelatin extracted from deer bone was hydrolyzed for 3.5-120 min. The degree of hydrolysis was higher from Alcalase-hydrolyzed gelatin than that from neutral proteinase-hydrolyzed gelatin. Alcalase-hydrolyzed gelatin exhibited a stronger antioxidant activity than that of neutral proteinase-hydrolyzed gelatin. Hydrolysates showed strong radical-scavenging ability and Fe2+-chelating activity, both of which were influenced by hydrolysis time. Although nonhydrolyzed gelatin displayed a certain antioxidative effect, it was far less than that of hydrolysates. The hydrolysates of deer bone gelatin can work as a radical stabilizer and metal ion chelator to inhibit lipid oxidation.

  10. Comparison of recovered carp scales (Cyprinus carpio gelatin and commercial calf and pork skin gelatins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Tolga Dinçer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress carries some evaluations towards the developments on seafood processing technologies and waste utilizing sector in recent years. Evaluation of wastes also has the potential to provide raw material for many industrial sectors. Evaluating the wastes also has a real potential for many industry sectors to obtain raw materials. The development of new products and commercially important of bio-molecules which have to be obtained from the wastes were important area for researches. Gelatin is used as a raw material for food industry and other industries, not only in our country but also in the world. Because of the growing demand particularly in Muslim countries hesitant considering alternatives to pork and calf sourced products are required. In the current study collagen which is used as raw material for many industries was recovered from carp scales (Cyprinus carpio. Obtained collagen was also used to produce gelatin product and some physical (colour, odour and some functional (gelling temperature, viscosity, gel strength properties were compared with commercial calf and pork skin gelatins.

  11. Studies on the starch-water interactions between partially gelatinized corn starch and water during gelatinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zong-Qiang; Wang, Li-Jun; Zou, Hui; Li, Dong; Adhikari, Benu

    2014-01-30

    The effect of moisture content on the interactions between water and partially gelatinized starch during gelatinization process was investigated. The interactions were probed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The starch samples were partially gelatinized at 25°C (S25), 64°C (S64), 68°C (S68) and 70°C (S70) and the moisture contents were varied from 25% to 78% (w/w). The G endotherm was not observed and only the M1 endotherm was observed in S64, S68 and S70 in the entire moisture content range. The G endotherm was not observed and only the M1 endotherm was observed at higher peak temperature in S25 when the moisture content was below 30% (w/w). The melting temperature of M2 endotherm in S70 was the highest among all the samples tested in the entire moisture content range. At water content>30% (w/w), S68 and S70 had lower amount of unfreezable water, while S64 had higher amount of unfreezable water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Gelatin Effects on the Physicochemical and Hemocompatible Properties of Gelatin/PAAm/Laponite Nanocomposite Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changpeng; Mu, Changdao; Lin, Wei; Ngai, To

    2015-08-26

    In recent years, inorganic nanoparticles such as Laponite have frequently been incorporated into polymer matrixes to obtain nanocomposite hydrogels with hierarchical structures, ultrastrong tensibilities, and high transparencies. Despite their unique physical and chemical properties, only a few reports have evaluated Laponite-based nanocomposite hydrogels for biomedical applications. This article presents the synthesis and characterization of a novel, hemocompatible nanocomposite hydrogels by in situ polymerization of acrylamide (AAm) in a mixed suspension containing Laponite and gelatin. The compatibility, structure, thermal stability, and mechanical properties of the resulting NC gels with varied gel compositions were investigated. Our results show that the prepared nanocomposite hydrogels exhibit good thermal stability and mechanical properties. The introduction of a biocompatible polymer, gelatin, into the polymer matrix did not change the transparency and homogeneity of the resulting nanocomposite hydrogels, but it significantly decreased the hydrogel's pH-responsive properties. More importantly, gelatins that were incorporated into the PAAm network resisted nonspecific protein adsorption, improved the degree of hemolysis, and eventually prolonged the clotting time, indicating that the in vitro hemocompatibility of the resulting nanocomposite hydrogels had been substantially enhanced. Therefore, these nanocomposite hydrogels provide opportunities for potential use in various biomedical applications.

  13. Gelatin/graphene systems for low cost energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landi, Giovanni [Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, FernUniversität Hagen, 58084 Hagen (Germany); Fedi, Filippo; Sorrentino, Andrea; Iannace, Salvatore [Institute for Composite and Biomedical Materials (IMCB-CNR), Piazzale Enrico Fermi 1, 80055 Portici (Italy); Neitzert, Heinz C. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, 84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    In this work, we introduce the possibility to use a low cost, biodegradable material for temporary energy storage devices. Here, we report the use of biologically derived organic electrodes composed of gelatin ad graphene. The graphene was obtained by mild sonication in a mixture of volatile solvents of natural graphite flakes and subsequent centrifugation. The presence of exfoliated graphene sheets was detected by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy. The homogeneous dispersion in gelatin demonstrates a good compatibility between the gelatin molecules and the graphene particles. The electrical characterization of the resulting nanocomposites suggests the possible applications as materials for transient, low cost energy storage device.

  14. The characterisation of a genipin-gelatin gel dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, J B; Bosi, S; Baldock, C, E-mail: jbd@ansto.gov.a

    2010-11-01

    Genipin cross links gelatin to slowly form a blue colour that bleaches upon irradiation. Spectrophotometric measurements of the absorbance change following irradiation to doses up to 100 Gy gives a linear dose response for certain concentrations of the gel ingredients; genipin, gelatin and sulphuric acid. Dose sensitivity increases with increasing concentrations of sulphuric acid and genipin and is also strongly dependent on the time allowed for the genipin-gelatin cross linking reaction (referred to here as blending) to take place. The optimum formulation of this gel was found for genipin concentration between 0.3 - 0.5 mM and blending time of at least 4 h.

  15. Gelatin/piassava composites treated by Electron Beam Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takinami, Patricia Yoko Inamura; Shimazaki, Kleber; Moura, Esperidiana Augusta Barretos de; Mastro, Nelida Lucia del, E-mail: patyoko@yahoo.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Colombo, Maria Aparecida [Faculdade de Tecnologia da Zona Leste (FATEC), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Piassava (Attalea funifera Mart) fiber has been investigated as reinforcement for polymer composites with potential for practical applications. The purpose of the present work was to assess the behavior of specimens of piassava fiber and gelatin irradiated with electron beam at different doses and percentage. The piassava/gelatin specimens were made with 5 and 10% (w/w) piassava fiber, gelatin 25% (w/w), glycerin as plasticizer and acrylamide as copolymer. The samples were irradiated up to 40 kGy using an electron beam accelerator, at room temperature in presence of air. Preliminary results showed mechanical properties enhancement with the increase in radiation dose. (author)

  16. Rheological properties of gelatin, carrageenan and locust bean gum mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Guy Matthew John

    2004-01-01

    This thesis reports data on blends of carrageenan (0.3%w/w) and locust bean gum (0.3%w/w) in the presence of biopolymers, particularly gelatin of varying concentration. Particular attention is given to their behaviour on autoclaving since this is relevant to one of the most important applications of these materials as gelling agents in canned meat products. It was shown there is such 3% gelatin could be found in the gelling system as a result of from collagen in the meat. Gelatin at this ...

  17. Gelation on heating of supercooled gelatin solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guigo, Nathanaël; Sbirrazzuoli, Nicolas; Vyazovkin, Sergey

    2012-04-23

    Diluted (1.0-1.5 wt%) aqueous gelatin solutions have been cooled to -10 °C at a cooling rate 20 °C min(-1) without freezing and detectable gelation. When heated at a constant heating rate (0.5 -2 °C min(-1)), the obtained supercooled solutions demonstrate an atypical process of gelation that has been characterized by regular and stochastically modulated differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as well as by isoconversional kinetic analysis. The process is detectable as an exothermic peak in the total heat flow of regular DSC and in the nonreversing heat flow of stochastically modulated DSC. Isoconversional kinetic analysis applied to DSC data reveals that the effective activation energy of the process increases from approximately 75 to 200 kJ mol(-1) as a supercooled solution transforms to gel on continuous heating.

  18. Solvent effects on starch dissolution and gelatinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koganti, Nagamani; Mitchell, John R; Ibbett, Roger N; Foster, Tim J

    2011-08-08

    The disruption of starch granular structure during dissolution in varying concentrations of N-methyl morpholine N-oxide (NMMO) has been studied using three maize starches with varying ratios of amylose and amylopectin. Behavior in NMMO has been characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), microscopy, rapid viscosity analysis (RVA), and rheometry. Exothermic transitions were observed for the three starches in both 78 and 70% NMMO; the transition changed to an endotherm at 60 and 50% NMMO. Consistent with DSC, hot stage microscopy showed that starch granules dissolved at NMMO concentrations of 78 and 70%, whereas in 60 and 50% NMMO, gelatinization behavior similar to that found for starch in water was observed. Mechanical spectroscopy revealed the dominant viscous behavior (G″ > G') of starch at NMMO concentrations of 70 and 78% and more elastic behavior (G' > G″) at lower concentrations. Starch solutions in 78% NMMO obey the Cox-Merz rule, suggesting that the solutions are homogeneous on a molecular level.

  19. IgE-mediated allergic reactions to fruit gums and investigation of cross-reactivity between gelatine and modified gelatine-containing products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, R; Kleinhans, D

    1989-01-01

    A 32-year-old female reacted with a contact urticaria syndrome after eating 'gummy bears' (fruit gums). The reaction began in the oral mucosa and led to treatment on an inpatient basis. RAST measurements with allergen discs produced with gelatine and gelatine-containing products (among them 'gummy bears') demonstrated the presence of IgE antibodies in the serum of this patient. Proteins with molecular weights in the range of 40-120 kD were identified as the allergens in gelatine by using Western blot analysis. RAST inhibition showed cross-reactivity between gelatine, gelatine-containing products and the modified gelatine used in some plasma substitutes. Allergic reactions towards coloured fruit candies and 'gummy bears' may result from an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity towards gelatine. The long-known anaphylactoid reactions towards gelatine-containing plasma substitutes may, at least in part, be of an allergic nature.

  20. Starvation marrow – gelatinous transformation of bone marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Osgood

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Gelatinous bone marrow transformation (GMT, also known as starvation marrow, represents a rare pathological entity of unclear etiology, in which bone marrow histopathology demonstrates hypoplasia, fat atrophy, and gelatinous infiltration. The finding of gelatinous marrow transformation lacks disease specificity; rather, it is an indicator of severe illness and a marker of poor nutritional status, found in patients with eating disorders, acute febrile illnesses, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, alcoholism, malignancies, and congestive heart failure. We present a middle-aged woman with a history of alcoholism, depression, and anorexia nervosa who presented with failure to thrive and macrocytic anemia, with bone marrow examination demonstrative of gelatinous transformation, all of which resolved with appropriate treatment. To our knowledge, there are very few cases of GMT which have been successfully treated; thus, our case highlights the importance of proper supportive management.

  1. Possible influences on bullet trajectory deflection in ballistic gelatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Fabiano; Kerkhoff, Wim; Bolck, Annabel; Mattijssen, Erwin J A T

    2017-02-01

    The influence of the distance to the top and bottom of a gelatine block and to bullet tracks from previously fired shots on a bullet's trajectory, when passing through ballistic gelatine, was studied. No significant difference in deflection was found when trajectories of 9mm Luger bullets, fired at a 3.5cm distance to the top and bottom of a gelatine block and to bullet tracks from previously fired shots, were compared to trajectories of bullets fired 7cm or more away from any of the aforementioned aspects. A surprisingly consistent 6.5° absolute deflection angle was found when these bullets passed through 22.5 to 23.5cm of ballistic gelatine. The projection angle, determined by the direction of the deflection, appeared to be random. The consistent absolute angle, in combination with the random projection angle, resulted in a cone-like deflection pattern.

  2. Release of lysozyme from electrospun PVA/lysozyme-gelatin scaffolds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-zhi YANG; Yu-hua LONG; Jun NIE

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an electrospinning process in fabricating ultra fine fibers with core-shell structure. A biodegradable polymer, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), was used as the shell; lysozyme was a kind of antioxidant; and gelatin were used as the core. Morphology and microstruc-ture of the ultra fine fibers were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron micro-scopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. As a comparison, composite nanofiber PVA/lysozyme-gelatin blend was prepared by a normal electrospinning process. In vitro drug release behaviors of the nanofibrous membranes were determined in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution. It was found that core-shell nanofibers PVA/lysozyme-gelatin obviously exhibit higher initial release rates compared to that of PVA/lysozyme-gelatin blend nanofibers. The current method may find wide application in controlled release of bioactive proteins and tissue engineering.

  3. Marine ecology: gelatinous bells may ring change in marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Steve

    2006-09-05

    Gelatinous plankton are critical components of marine ecosystems. Recent studies are providing evidence of increased population outbursts of such species. Jellyfish seem to respond when an ecosystem is over-fished, and their ecology is under-researched.

  4. Dichromated-gelatin hologram process for improved optical quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    Optical distortions are eliminated by use of wetting agency followed by sequential immersion in several alcohol-water baths of increasing alcohol concentration. Dehydration proceeds uniformly over surface of gelatin. Dried plate is free of optically-distorting thickness variations.

  5. Discussion on the Gelatin%浅谈明胶

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭玮

    2012-01-01

    Gelatin is a partially hydrolyzed product of the collagen.Most gelatins are extracted from animal tissues,such as skins and bones,etc.Gelatin has wide applications in food,pharmaceutical,photographic,and industrial areas.This paper focuses on the source and composition of gelatin,classification and application,and potential dangers.%明胶是胶原蛋白部分水解的产物,是从动物的皮、骨等结蹄组织中提取而成,在食品、医药、感光和工业等领域有着广泛的用途。文章就明胶的来源和组成、分类和应用以及潜在的危害性等方面进行综述,使人们能对明胶有个基本的认识。

  6. Preparation and Characterization Analysis of Hydroxyapatite/Gelatin Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The hydroxyapatite (HAp)/gelatin composite was prepared by self-assembly method. X-ray diffraction confirmed that the inorganic phase in the composite was HAp. The Fourier transform infra-red spectrum(FT-IR) indicated the presence of amide and hydroxyl groups in the composite. The organic-inorganic ratio of the composite is similar to that of the human bone, which was determined by differential thermal analysis ( DTA )and thermogravimetric analysis ( TGA ). Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) showed that the composite is composed by spindly grains and the multilayer nanostructure can also be seen. Gelatin in the composite assembled orderly and directionally ; and the HAp crystals grew along the gelatin molecule at nearly the same direction. A model was established to explain the process of the interaction between gelatin and HAp.

  7. Preparation and characterization of gelatin scaffold containing microorganism fermented cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Youn Mook; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Park, Jong Seok; Nho, Young Chang; Lee, Byeong Heon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mi Yeong; Lee, Jong Dae; Song, Sung Gi [Quegenbiotech, Co., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Cellulose, chitin, chitosan and hyaluronic acid are well known as polysaccharides. These polysaccharides have many effects on cell growth and differentiation. Cell activation increases with increasing the polysaccharides concentration. In this study, gelatin scaffold containing microorganism fermented cellulose, citrus gel were prepared by using irradiation technique. Physical properties of the scaffolds were investigated as a function of the concentrations of gelatin and citrus gel and the cell attachment, cell morphology and inflammation of the scaffolds also were characterized for regeneration of skin tissue.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of gelatin based polyester urethane scaffold

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Sarkar; A Chourasia; S Maji; S Sadhukhan; S Kumar; B Adhikari

    2006-10-01

    For tissue engineering purpose two gelatin based polyester urethane scaffolds of different compositions were prepared from lactic acid, polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) and characterized by FTIR, XRD for their mechanical and morphological properties using SEM and optical microscopic analyses. Degradation and swelling studies of gelatin based polyester urethane scaffolds in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) were performed. Human keratinocyte cells were cultured within these scaffolds, which showed good cell adherence and proliferation.

  9. Soft Collagen-Gelatine Sponges by Convection Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Meyer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study showed that thermally labile fibrillar collagen could be processed continuously in combination with gelatine as foaming additive by convection drying. The procedure led to stable sponges with similar structural and physical properties as found for freeze-dried collagen samples. The fibrillar collagen remained native, while gelatine acted as foaming additive. The absorbency of the sponges was improved by opening the surface with abrasives. A use as medical device with hemostyptic properties would be possible.

  10. Enzymatic regulation of functional vascular networks using gelatin hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chia-Hui; Lin, Ruei-Zeng; Tien, Han-Wen; Chu, Ya-Chun; Li, Yen-Cheng; Melero-Martin, Juan M; Chen, Ying-Chieh

    2015-06-01

    To manufacture tissue engineering-based functional tissues, scaffold materials that can be sufficiently vascularized to mimic the functionality and complexity of native tissues are needed. Currently, vascular network bioengineering is largely carried out using natural hydrogels as embedding scaffolds, but most natural hydrogels have poor mechanical stability and durability, factors that critically limit their widespread use. In this study, we examined the suitability of gelatin-phenolic hydroxyl (gelatin-Ph) hydrogels that can be enzymatically crosslinked, allowing tuning of the storage modulus and the proteolytic degradation rate, for use as injectable hydrogels to support the human progenitor cell-based formation of a stable and mature vascular network. Porcine gelatin-Ph hydrogels were found to be cytocompatible with human blood-derived endothelial colony-forming cells and white adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells, resulting in >87% viability, and cell proliferation and spreading could be modulated by using hydrogels with different proteolytic degradability and stiffness. In addition, gelatin was extracted from mouse dermis and murine gelatin-Ph hydrogels were prepared. Importantly, implantation of human cell-laden porcine or murine gelatin-Ph hydrogels into immunodeficient mice resulted in the rapid formation of functional anastomoses between the bioengineered human vascular network and the mouse vasculature. Furthermore, the degree of enzymatic crosslinking of the gelatin-Ph hydrogels could be used to modulate cell behavior and the extent of vascular network formation in vivo. Our report details a technique for the synthesis of gelatin-Ph hydrogels from allogeneic or xenogeneic dermal skin and suggests that these hydrogels can be used for biomedical applications that require the formation of microvascular networks, including the development of complex engineered tissues.

  11. Hydrophilic PCU scaffolds prepared by grafting PEGMA and immobilizing gelatin to enhance cell adhesion and proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Changcan; Yuan, Wenjie; Khan, Musammir; Li, Qian [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Feng, Yakai, E-mail: yakaifeng@tju.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin University-Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Joint Laboratory for Biomaterials and Regenerative Medicine, Tianjin 300072 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Chemical Engineering (Tianjin) Tianjin 300072 (China); Yao, Fanglian [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin University-Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Joint Laboratory for Biomaterials and Regenerative Medicine, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhang, Wencheng, E-mail: wenchengzhang@yahoo.com [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Logistics University of Chinese People' s Armed Police Force, Tianjin 300162 (China)

    2015-05-01

    Gelatin contains many functional motifs which can modulate cell specific adhesion, so we modified polycarbonate urethane (PCU) scaffold surface by immobilization of gelatin. PCU-g-gelatin scaffolds were prepared by direct immobilizing gelatins onto the surface of aminated PCU scaffolds. To increase the immobilization amount of gelatin, poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA) was grafted onto PCU scaffolds by surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. Then, following amination and immobilization, PCU-g-PEGMA-g-gelatin scaffolds were obtained. Both modified scaffolds were characterized by chemical and biological methods. After immobilization of gelatin, the microfiber surface became rough, but the original morphology of scaffolds was maintained successfully. PCU-g-PEGMA-g-gelatin scaffolds were more hydrophilic than PCU-g-gelatin scaffolds. Because hydrophilic PEGMA and gelatin were grafted and immobilized onto the surface, the PCU-g-PEGMA-g-gelatin scaffolds showed low platelet adhesion, perfect anti-hemolytic activity and excellent cell growth and proliferation capacity. It could be envisioned that PCU-g-PEGMA-g-gelatin scaffolds might have potential applications in tissue engineering artificial scaffolds. - Graphical abstract: PCU-g-gelatin scaffolds were prepared by direct immobilizing gelatin onto the surface of aminated PCU scaffolds (method a). To increase the immobilization amount of gelatin, PEGMAs were grafted onto the scaffold surface by SI-ATRP. PCU-g-PEGMA-g-gelatin scaffolds were prepared by method b. The gelatin modified scaffolds exhibited high hydrophilicity, low platelet adhesion, perfect anti-hemolytic activity, and excellent cell adhesion and proliferation capacity. They might have potential applications as tissue engineering scaffolds for artificial blood vessels. - Highlights: • Hydrophilic scaffolds were prepared by grafting PEGMA and immobilization of gelatins. • Grafting PEGMA enhanced the immobilization amount of gelatin

  12. Differences in cytocompatibility between collagen, gelatin and keratin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yanfang; Zhang, Weiwei; Yuan, Jiang, E-mail: jyuan@njnu.edu.cn; Shen, Jian, E-mail: jshen@njnu.edu.cn

    2016-02-01

    Keratins are cysteine-rich intermediate filament proteins found in the cytoskeleton of the epithelial cells and in the matrix of hair, feathers, wool, nails and horns. The natural abundance of cell adhesion sequences, RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) and LDV (Leu-Asp-Val), makes them suitable for tissue engineering applications. The purpose of our study is to evaluate their cytocompatibility as compared to well-known collagen and gelatin proteins. Herein, collagen, gelatin and keratin were blended with poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and electrospun to afford nanofibrous mats, respectively. These PHBV/protein composite mats were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The cytocompatibility was evaluated with cell adhesion, cell viability and cell proliferation. The data from MTT and BrDU revealed that collagen had significantly superior cytocompatibility as compared to gelatin and keratin. Gelatin showed a better cytocompatibility than keratin without statistical significance difference. Finally, we gave the reasons to account for the above conclusions. - Highlights: • Collagen, gelatin and keratin were coelectrospun with PHBV to afford nanofibrous mats. • Cytocompatibility was evaluated with cell adhesion, cell viability and cell proliferation. • Collagen had significantly superior cytocompatibility as compared to gelatin and keratin.

  13. Gelatin-Based Hydrogels for Organ 3D Bioprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D bioprinting is a family of enabling technologies that can be used to manufacture human organs with predefined hierarchical structures, material constituents and physiological functions. The main objective of these technologies is to produce high-throughput and/or customized organ substitutes (or bioartificial organs with heterogeneous cell types or stem cells along with other biomaterials that are able to repair, replace or restore the defect/failure counterparts. Gelatin-based hydrogels, such as gelatin/fibrinogen, gelatin/hyaluronan and gelatin/alginate/fibrinogen, have unique features in organ 3D bioprinting technologies. This article is an overview of the intrinsic/extrinsic properties of the gelatin-based hydrogels in organ 3D bioprinting areas with advanced technologies, theories and principles. The state of the art of the physical/chemical crosslinking methods of the gelatin-based hydrogels being used to overcome the weak mechanical properties is highlighted. A multicellular model made from adipose-derived stem cell proliferation and differentiation in the predefined 3D constructs is emphasized. Multi-nozzle extrusion-based organ 3D bioprinting technologies have the distinguished potential to eventually manufacture implantable bioartificial organs for purposes such as customized organ restoration, high-throughput drug screening and metabolic syndrome model establishment.

  14. Preparation and stabilization of heparin/gelatin complex coacervate microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsung, M; Burgess, D J

    1997-05-01

    The aims of this study are to optimize conditions for the preparation, stabilization, and harvesting of heparin/gelatin microcapsules prepared by complex coacervation. Microelectrophoresis and dry coacervate weight were used to determine the optimum conditions of pH and ionic strength for maximum heparin/gelatin coacervate yield. Heparin/gelatin microcapsules were formed by complex coacervation in the presence and absence of poly(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP), which was used as a stabilizer. The microcapsules were collected using a spray-drying technique. Microcapsule particle size was analyzed using an AccuSizer optical sizer. Optimized conditions for maximum coacervate yield were pH 2.6, ionic strength 10 mM, and a 1:2 heparin/gelatin A ratio. PVP stabilized the heparin/gelatin coacervate droplets and reduced droplet aggregation during spray-drying. The mean particle diameter of the spray-dried coacervate droplets was lower in the presence of PVP and was unaffected by PVP concentration (in the range 0.5-2.0% w/w). Heparin/gelatin microcapsules, prepared under conditions optimized for maximum coacervate yield, were stabilized without the use of chemical cross-linking agents. Stabilization was achieved by a combination of the addition of PVP and spray-drying.

  15. Microchannel emulsification using gelatin and surfactant-free coacervate microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kei; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Nakajima, Mitsutoshi; Shono, Atsushi; Satoh, Kazumi

    2004-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the use of microchannel (MC) emulsifications in producing monodisperse gelatin/acacia complex coacervate microcapsules of soybean oil. This is considered to be a novel method for preparing monodisperse O/W and W/O emulsions. Generally, surfactants are necessary for MC emulsification, but they can also inhibit the coacervation process. In this study, we investigated a surfactant-free system. First, MC emulsification using gelatin was compared with that using decaglycerol monolaurate. The results demonstrated the potential use of gelatin for MC emulsification. MC emulsification experiments conducted over a range of conditions revealed that the pH of the continuous phase should be maintained above the isoelectric point of the gelatin. A high concentration of gelatin was found to inhibit the production of irregular-sized droplets. Low-bloom gelatin was found to be suitable for obtaining monodisperse emulsions. Finally, surfactant-free monodisperse droplets prepared by MC emulsification were microencapsulated with coacervate. The microcapsules produced by this technique were observed with a confocal laser scanning microscope. Average diameters of the inner cores and outer shells were 37.8 and 51.5 microm; their relative standard deviations were 4.9 and 8.4%.

  16. Molecular interactions in gelatin/chitosan composite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Congde; Ma, Xianguang; Zhang, Jianlong; Yao, Jinshui

    2017-11-15

    Gelatin and chitosan were mixed at different mass ratios in solution forms, and the rheological properties of these film-forming solutions, upon cooling, were studied. The results indicate that the significant interactions between gelatin and chitosan promote the formation of multiple complexes, reflected by an increase in the storage modulus of gelatin solution. Furthermore, these molecular interactions hinder the formation of gelatin networks, consequently decreasing the storage modulus of polymer gels. Both hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions are formed between gelatin and chitosan, as evidenced by the shift of the amide-II bands of polymers. X-ray patterns of composite films indicate that the contents of triple helices decrease with increasing chitosan content. Only one glass transition temperature (Tg) was observed in composite films with different composition ratios, and it decreases gradually with an increase in chitosan proportion, indicating that gelatin and chitosan have good miscibility and form a wide range of blends. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hydration of gelatin molecules in glycerol-water solvent and phase diagram of gelatin organogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanwlani, Shilpa; Kumar, Pradip; Bohidar, H B

    2011-06-09

    We present a systematic investigation of hydration and gelation of the polypeptide gelatin in water-glycerol mixed solvent (glycerol solutions). Raman spectroscopy results indicated enhancement in water structure in glycerol solutions and the depletion of glycerol density close to hydration sheath of the protein molecule. Gelation concentration (c(g)) was observed to decrease from 1.92 to 1.15% (w/v) while the gelation temperature (T(g)) was observed to increase from 31.4 to 40.7 °C with increase in glycerol concentration. Data on hand established the formation of organogels having interconnected networks, and the universal gelation mechanism could be described through an anomalous percolation model. The viscosity of sol diverged as η ∼ (1 - c(g)/c)(-k) as c(g) was approached from below (c c(g)). It is important to note that values determined for critical exponents k and t were universal; that is, they did not depend on the microscopic details. The measured values were k = 0.38 ± 0.10 and t = 0.92 ± 0.17 whereas the percolation model predicts k = 0.7-1.3 and t = 1.9. Isothermal frequency sweep studies showed power-law dependence of gel storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G'') on oscillation frequency ω given as G'(ω) ∼ ω(n') and G''(ω) ∼ ω(n''), and consistent with percolation model prediction it was found that n' ≈ n'' ≈ δ ≈ 0.73 close to gelation concentration. We propose a unique 3D phase diagram for the gelatin organogels. Circular dichroism data revealed that the gelatin molecules retained their biological activity in these solvents. Thus, it is shown that the thermomechanical properties of these organogels could be systematically tuned and customized as per application requirement.

  18. Controlled Fabrication of Gelatin Nanoparticles as Drug Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanshahi, M.; Sanati, M. H.; Minuchehr, Z.; Hajizadeh, S.; Babaei, Z.

    2007-08-01

    In recent years, significant effort has been devoted to develop nanotechnology for drug delivery since it offers a suitable means of delivering small molecular weight drugs, as well as macromolecules such as proteins, peptides or genes by either localized or targeted delivery to the tissue of interest. Nanotechnology focuses on formulating therapeutic agents in biocompatible nanocomposites such as nanoparticles, nanocapsules, micellar systems, and conjugates. Protein nanoparticles (BSA, HAS and gelatin) generally vary in size from 50-300 nm and they hold certain advantages such as greater stability during storage, stability in vivo, non-toxicity, non-antigen and ease to scale up during manufacture over the other drug delivery systems. The primary structure of gelatin offers many possibilities for chemical modification and covalent drug attachment. Here nanoparticles of gelatin type A were prepared by a two-step desolvation method as a colloidal drug delivery system and the essential parameters in fabrication were considered. Gelatin was dissolved in 25 mL distilled water under room temperature range. Then acetone was added to the gelatin solution as a desolvating agent to precipitate the high molecular weight (HMW) gelatin. The supernatant was discarded and the HMW gelatin re-dissolved by adding 25 mL distilled water and stirring at 600 rpm. Acetone were added drop-wise to form nanoparticles. At the end of the process, glutaraldehyde solution was used for preparing nanoparticles as a cross-linking agent, and stirred for 12h at 600 rpm. For purification stage we use centrifuge with 600rpm for 3 times. The objective of the present study is consideration of some factors such as temperature, gelatin concentration, agitation speed and the amount of acetone and their effects on size and distribution of nanoparticles. Among the all conditions, 60° C, 50 mg/ml gelatin concentration, 75 ml acetone had the best result and the nanoparticle size was under 170 nm. The effect

  19. Gelatin/chitosan biofilm: preparation and characterization; Biofilme gelatina/quitosana: preparacao e caracterizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trindade, Luciane da C.; Nunes, Raquel A.; Diniz, Nadie K.S. [Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande - UFCG, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Braga, Carla R.C. [Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais da UFCG, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Silva, Suedina M. de Lima, E-mail: suedina@dema.ufcg.edu.br [Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais da UFCG, Campina Grande (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In this study, gelatin, chitosan and gelatin/chitosan bio films using the ratio of gelatin/chitosan (50/50) were prepared by casting method. The bio films prepared were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and dissolution ratio. According to the results, the incorporation of chitosan into gelatin indicate the decrease of crystallinity of chitosan, a compact structure without large pores and that the dissolution of gelatin/chitosan film is little influenced by hot water than gelatin films. (author)

  20. Effects of Gelatinization of Enteral Nutrients on Human Gastric Emptying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Naruo; Urashima, Mitsuyoshi; Odaira, Hironori; Noro, Takuji; Suzuki, Yutaka

    2010-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal side effects, particularly diarrhea, are still the main reasons for discontinuation of enteral nutrition. Gelatinization of liquid meal for the prevention of diarrhea has been reported as effective. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of gelatinization of liquid meal on gastric emptying. Methods Ten healthy volunteers were studied two times, with 2-week interval between tests. The total calorific value was set at 225 kcal, and 3 test meals were prepared: liquid meal and 2 types of gelatinized meals. These 2 types of gelatinized meals are different viscosity. 13C-sodium acetate (100 mg) was thoroughly mixed, and exhaled air was sampled. The results of gastric emptying were expressed as the time of peak excretion (Tmax), and absorption was expressed as the area under the 13CO2 curve up to Tmax (AUC-Tmax). At the same time, blood samples were collected to measure levels of blood glucose, insulin and gastrin. Results The mean value of Tmax were 52.0, 77.3 and 85.6 min. Compared to liquid meal, gastric emptying for gelatinized meals was significantly delayed. The mean value of AUC-Tmax were 22.7, 28.7 and 33.7%dose, respectively, and no significant differences in absorption were seen. No significant differences existed in blood glucose, gastrin and insulin. Conclusions Gelatinization of liquid meal delays gastric emptying. Gelatinized liquid meal may be useful for the management of diarrhea accompanied with enteral nutrition without influencing gastrointestinal hormone and blood glucose. PMID:27942287

  1. Investigating Linear and Nonlinear Viscoelastic behaviour and microstructures of Gelatine-Multiwalled carbon nanotubes composites

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhi

    2015-12-01

    We have investigated the linear and nonlinear rheology of various gelatine-multiwalled carbon nanotube (gel-MWNT) composites, namely physically-crosslinked-gelatine gel-MWNT composites, chemically-crosslinked-gelatine gel-MWNT composites, and chemically-physically-crosslinked-gelatine gel-MWNT composites. Further, the internal structures of these gel-MWNT composites were characterized by ultra-small angle neutron scattering and scanning electron microscopy. The adsorption of gelatine onto the surface of MWNT is also investigated to understand gelatine-assisted dispersion of MWNT during ultrasonication. For all gelatine gels, addition of MWNT increases their complex modulus. The dependence of storage modulus with frequency for gelatine-MWNT composites is similar to that of the corresponding neat gelatine matrix. However, by incorporating MWNT, the dependence of the loss modulus on frequency is reduced. The linear viscoelastic region is decreased approximately linearly with the increase of MWNT concentration. The pre-stress results demonstrate that the addition of MWNT does not change the strain-hardening behaviour of physically-crosslinked gelatine gel. However, the addition of MWNT can increase the strain-hardening behaviour of chemically-crosslinked gelatine gel, and chemically-physically crosslinked gelatine gel. Results from light microscopy, cryo-SEM, and USANS demonstrate the hierarchical structures of MWNT, including that tens-of-micron scale MWNT agglomerates are present. Furthermore, the adsorption curve of gelatine onto the surface of MWNT follows two-stage pseudo-saturation behaviour.

  2. Recent advancement of gelatin nanoparticles in drug and vaccine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Nityananda; Sahoo, Ranjan Ku; Biswas, Nikhil; Guha, Arijit; Kuotsu, Ketousetuo

    2015-11-01

    Novel drug delivery system using nanoscale materials with a broad spectrum of applications provides a new therapeutic foundation for technological integration and innovation. Nanoparticles are suitable drug carrier for various routes of administration as well as rapid recognition by the immune system. Gelatin, the biological macromolecule is a versatile drug/vaccine delivery carrier in pharmaceutical field due to its biodegradable, biocompatible, non-antigenicity and low cost with easy availability. The surface of gelatin nanoparticles can be modified with site-specific ligands, cationized with amine derivatives or, coated with polyethyl glycols to achieve targeted and sustained release drug delivery. Compared to other colloidal carriers, gelatin nanoparticles are better stable in biological fluids to provide the desired controlled and sustained release of entrapped drug molecules. The current review highlights the different formulation aspects of gelatin nanoparticles which affect the particle characteristics like zeta potential, polydispersity index, entrapment efficacy and drug release properties. It has also given emphasis on the major applications of gelatin nanoparticles in drug and vaccine delivery, gene delivery to target tissues and nutraceutical delivery for improving the poor bioavailabity of bioactive phytonutrients.

  3. Electrospun gelatin/polyurethane blended nanofibers for wound healing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Eun; Heo, Dong Nyoung; Lee, Jung Bok; Kwon, Il Keun [Department of Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Ryul; Park, Sang Hyuk [Conservative Dentistry and Institute of Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Seong Ho, E-mail: kwoni@khu.ac.k [College of Pharmacy, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    In this study, we prepared a blended nanofiber scaffold using synthetic and natural polymers, polyurethane (PU) and gelatin respectively, using the electrospinning method to prepare a material for wound dressing. In order to confirm the properties of this gelatin/PU blended nanofiber scaffold, we performed scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, contact angle, water uptake, mechanical property, recovery, and degradation tests, and cellular response. The results obtained indicate that the mean diameter of these nanofibers was uniformly electrospun and ranged from 0.4 to 2.1{mu}m. According to the results, when the amount of gelatin in the blended solution decreased, the contact angle increased and water uptake of the scaffold decreased concurrently. In the mechanical tests, the blended nanofibrous scaffolds were elastic, and elasticity increased as the total amount of PU increased. Moreover, as the total amount of gelatin increased, the cell proliferation increased with the same amount of culture time. Therefore, this gelatin/PU blended nanofiber scaffold has potential application for use as a wound dressing.

  4. A Novel Tissue Adhesive Composed of Modified Gelatin and Polysaccharides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiumei MO; Hiroo IWATA; Yoshito IKADA

    2000-01-01

    A two-component adhesive glue was prepared from gelatin and polysaccharides. Gelatin was modified with ethylenediamine (ED) in the presence of water soluble carbodiimine (WSC) to introduce more amino groups into the original gelatin, while dextran and hydroxyethyl-starch (HES) were oxidized by sodium periodate to convert neighbouring hydroxyl groups into dialdehyde groups. Upon mixing the two polymer components in aqueous solution, Schiff's base reaction occurred between the amino groups in the modified gelatin and the aldehyde groups in the modified polysaccharides to give intermolecular crosslinking and gel formation. This new glue showed a capability to stop bleeding and seal tissues when a cut liver of rat was used for hemostatic experiments. It could also form a gel much faster than fibrin glue in in-vitro experiments. The fastest gel formation took place within 2 sec and the bonding strength to porcine skin was about 225gf/cm2 when an amino-gelatin (55% amino) and an aldehyde-HES (>84% dialdehyde) was mixed. In contrast, the gelation time and bonding strength of fibrin gluewere 5 seconds and 120gf/cm2, respectively. The effective adhesive properties have also been identified by the animal experiments of rat.

  5. Massive consumption of gelatinous plankton by Mediterranean apex predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Luis; Álvarez de Quevedo, Irene; Borrell, Assumpció; Aguilar, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were used to test the hypothesis that stomach content analysis has systematically overlooked the consumption of gelatinous zooplankton by pelagic mesopredators and apex predators. The results strongly supported a major role of gelatinous plankton in the diet of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus), spearfish (Tetrapturus belone) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius). Loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the oceanic stage and ocean sunfish (Mola mola) also primarily relied on gelatinous zooplankton. In contrast, stable isotope ratios ruled out any relevant consumption of gelatinous plankton by bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix), blue shark (Prionace glauca), leerfish (Lichia amia), bonito (Sarda sarda), striped dolphin (Stenella caerueloalba) and loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) in the neritic stage, all of which primarily relied on fish and squid. Fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) were confirmed as crustacean consumers. The ratios of stable isotopes in albacore (Thunnus alalunga), amberjack (Seriola dumerili), blue butterfish (Stromaeus fiatola), bullet tuna (Auxis rochei), dolphinfish (Coryphaena hyppurus), horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), mackerel (Scomber scombrus) and pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) were consistent with mixed diets revealed by stomach content analysis, including nekton and crustaceans, but the consumption of gelatinous plankton could not be ruled out completely. In conclusion, the jellyvorous guild in the Mediterranean integrates two specialists (ocean sunfish and loggerhead sea turtles in the oceanic stage) and several opportunists (bluefin tuna, little tunny, spearfish, swordfish and, perhaps, blue butterfish), most of them with shrinking populations due to overfishing.

  6. Using glucosamine to improve the properties of photocrosslinked gelatin scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Hairui; Xu, Kedi; Zheng, Xiaoxiang

    2015-02-01

    The use of hydrogel-based cell transport scaffolds holds great promise in regenerative medicine, such as treating osteoarthritis. Gelatin and glucosamine are the ideal materials to be used in the hydrogel scaffolds for cartilage regeneration for they could act as compositions of cartilage. To overcome the weak strength of traditional gelatin hydrogels and down-regulate cell toxicity of glucosamine, gelatin and glucosamine molecules were grafted with acrylate groups and covalently crosslinked under photo-radiation to form hydrogels. Hydrogels with tuning physiochemical properties were produced according to different proportions of methacrylate gelatin (GelMA) and N-acryloyl glucosamine (AGA). The process of photocrosslinking was elaborated, and the hypothesis of increasing AGA concentration leading to higher strength of hydrogels was corroborated by testing rheological property and scanning micro-morphological features. A serial of properties, including smaller swelling ratio, lower gelatin dissolution and slower degradation of GelMA/AGA hydrogels with higher AGA concentration further proved our hypothesis. Moreover, AGA molecules showed less cytotoxicity than unmodified glucosamine molecules and the incorporation of AGA molecules in GelMA/AGA hydrogels upregulated cell adhesion and spreading on the hydrogel surface. All of these results indicated that addition of AGA molecules could significantly alter the physiochemical properties of GelMA/AGA hydrogels, which may have broad application prospects in the future.

  7. Massive consumption of gelatinous plankton by Mediterranean apex predators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Cardona

    Full Text Available Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen were used to test the hypothesis that stomach content analysis has systematically overlooked the consumption of gelatinous zooplankton by pelagic mesopredators and apex predators. The results strongly supported a major role of gelatinous plankton in the diet of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus, little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus, spearfish (Tetrapturus belone and swordfish (Xiphias gladius. Loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta in the oceanic stage and ocean sunfish (Mola mola also primarily relied on gelatinous zooplankton. In contrast, stable isotope ratios ruled out any relevant consumption of gelatinous plankton by bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix, blue shark (Prionace glauca, leerfish (Lichia amia, bonito (Sarda sarda, striped dolphin (Stenella caerueloalba and loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta in the neritic stage, all of which primarily relied on fish and squid. Fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus were confirmed as crustacean consumers. The ratios of stable isotopes in albacore (Thunnus alalunga, amberjack (Seriola dumerili, blue butterfish (Stromaeus fiatola, bullet tuna (Auxis rochei, dolphinfish (Coryphaena hyppurus, horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus, mackerel (Scomber scombrus and pompano (Trachinotus ovatus were consistent with mixed diets revealed by stomach content analysis, including nekton and crustaceans, but the consumption of gelatinous plankton could not be ruled out completely. In conclusion, the jellyvorous guild in the Mediterranean integrates two specialists (ocean sunfish and loggerhead sea turtles in the oceanic stage and several opportunists (bluefin tuna, little tunny, spearfish, swordfish and, perhaps, blue butterfish, most of them with shrinking populations due to overfishing.

  8. Effect of gelatinization on gastric emptying and absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Naruo; Suzuki, Yutaka; Urashima, Mitsuyoshi; Nakayoshi, Tomoko; Tsuboi, Kazuto; Tanishima, Yuichiro; Hanyu, Nobuyoshi; Kashiwagi, Hideyuki

    2008-01-01

    For gastrointestinal functional analysis such as gastric emptying tests, either a liquid or solid meal is used as a test meal. Only a few studies have compared meal characteristics, such as liquid and solid. No previous study has compared test meals that had the same composition but different properties. The aim of this study was to compare the gastric emptying and absorption obtained by 13C-breath test after ingestion of liquid or gelatinized liquid nutrients. Ten healthy volunteers were studied four times, with 2-week intervals. For the test meal, 200 mL of liquid meals (200 kcal) and gelatinized liquid meals were used. Gelatinized liquid nutrients were prepared by mixing 6 g, 12 g and 18 g of Natural psyllium husk with 200 mL of liquid meals. Breath samples were collected for four hours. Gastric emptying were expressed as the time of peak excretion, absorption were expressed as the area under the 13CO2 curve up to the time of peak excretion. Gastric emptying times were 54.5, 54.5, 81.7 and 93.3 min. Absorption was 20.8, 20.9, 27.8 and 29.8% dose. Gelatinization influences gastric emptying, but does not influence absorption. Gelatinized liquid meals may be useful for a substitute for solid meals on gastrointestinal functional analysis.

  9. The interaction between tea polyphenols and rice starch during gelatinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue; Lin, Qinlu; Chen, Zhengxing; Xiao, HuaXi

    2011-12-01

    The interaction between tea polyphenols (TPLs) and rice starch (RS) during gelatinization has been studied. In the RVA analysis, TPLs-fortified RS exhibited no clearly defined peak viscosity and hot paste viscosity. After excluding other factors, irregular viscosity changes were attributed to the strong interactions between RS and TPLs during pasting/gelatinization. Subsequently, the coupling constants of samples A (the gelatinized sample of the blend of 16% TPLs and RS) and B (the blend of 16% TPLs and gelatinized RS sample) in (1)H-NMR measurements were found to be the difference. Sample A had two coupling constants, (26h)J(HH) = 82.08, 100.77 Hz and (6h)J(HH) = 35.57 Hz, whereas Sample B had one larger coupling constant, (9h)J(HH) = 140.24 Hz. This implied that these two samples differed in H-H interaction and interaction strength of sample A may be stronger than that of sample B. More important is, sample A had clearly broadened O-H stretching and frequency red-shifts of C-O-H bending as compared with sample B in quantitative FT-IR analysis. The overall results indicate that TPLs and RS can have hydrogen bonding interaction during gelatinization.

  10. Investigations on the Chemical Degradation of Silver Gelatine Prints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Ahmed ALI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Photographs are considered composite objects with complex chemical and physical structures. Therefore they are more prone to damage as compared to other objects. Chemical degradation is by far the most common decay form found among photographic collections. This study investigates the chemical degradation of silver gelatin prints (DOP and the reaction of the image, silver, gelatin, and paper to accelerated aging, to the action of light, and oxidizing gases, in terms of their physical and chemical nature. The test materials used are properly washed and poorly washed grayscale, black-and-white processed images on photographic paper (Black & White Photographic Paper BH 0 Bromofort 6P0661 Tropical from Forte Photochemical Company Vác, Hungary. After exposure, the results were studied by means of visual inspection, amino acid analyzer, Fourier transform infrared and transmission electron microscope. The results were compared with those of the control samples. Our study revealed that the image, silver, gelatin and photographic paper are greatly affected by oxidizing agents and that the effect increased if the photographic prints were inadequately washed at the time of their processing. Furthermore, our results indicated that an increased amount of ammonia and amino acid in the silver gelatin print is a reliable indicator of the degradation of its gelatine emulsion.

  11. Meat & bone meal extract and gelatin as renewable flocculants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, G J; Garcia, R A

    2010-01-01

    Readily available proteins were tested as renewable flocculants, and their actions were compared to that of anionic PAM, a common, commercial flocculant that requires the coaddition of a calcium ion source. Two soy proteins, a whey fraction, a porcine gelatin, and a meat & bone meal (MBM) extract were used in the flocculation test. It was found that MBM extract and porcine gelatin promoted clay flocculation, and flocculation was complete by 24h with or without the addition of calcium chloride. The other tested proteins did not promote clay flocculation, but all of the proteins were found to be adsorbed to clay. The protein adsorptions were well described by the Langmuir model, and gelatin and MBM extract had higher maximum adsorption capacities than the other proteins. Zwitterionic buffer solutions at pH 5.5, 7.0, and 10.0 were tested in the flocculation experiments. Addition of the pH 5.5 buffer caused the two soy proteins to become clay flocculants and lowered the concentration of gelatin and MBM extract necessary to promote complete flocculation by 24h. Calcium chloride was not required for flocculation. Under optimal testing conditions, the dried weight of gelatin or MBM extract was 2.6 and 17 times higher, respectively, than the weight of anionic PAM required for complete flocculation at 24h.

  12. Enhanced Vascularization in Hybrid PCL/Gelatin Fibrous Scaffolds with Sustained Release of VEGF

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Kai; Chen, Xuejiao; Pan, Yiwa; Cui, Yun; Zhou, Xin; Kong, Deling; Zhao, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    .... In this study, fibrous scaffolds that consist of PCL and gelatin fibers were fabricated. The gelatin fibers were further functionalized by heparin immobilization, which provides binding sites for VEGF and thus enables the sustained release of VEGF...

  13. The Preparation of Chitosan Oligosaccharide/Alginate Sodium/Gelatin Nanofibers by Spiral-Electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weipeng; Xu, Haitao; Zhang, Bing; Ma, Ming; Guo, Yanchuan

    2016-03-01

    A spiral-electrospinning was used to mass-produce gelatin nanofibers with a content of chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) and alginate sodium (AS). Multiple jets were observed to form on the edges of the helix slice-spinneret simultaneously. Important electrospinning parameters, such as concentration of COS/gelatin aqueous solution, rotational velocity of spinneret and spinning distance, were examined to investigate the electrospinnability of COS/gelatin solution and the morphology of COS/gelatin nanofiber membranes. Due to the poor miscibility between COS and AS, COS/AS/gelatin nanofiber membranes were obtained from COS/gelatin solution and AS/gelatin solution by mixing electrospinning with multi-spinnerets. The novel needleless electrospinning not only avoided the possibility of nozzle-clogging, but also prepared COS/AS/gelatin nanofibers on a large scale for a wide variety of applications.

  14. Investigating Effects of Gelatin-Chitosan Film on Culture of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Karami joyani

    2015-02-01

    Conclusion: Results of proliferation,differentiation and apoptosis cultured BMSCs on a gelatin-chitosan film showed that gelatin-chitosan film can be used as a good model of a biodegradable scaffold in tissue engineering and cell therapy.

  15. Antioxidative activity and emulsifying properties of cuttlefish skin gelatin modified by oxidised phenolic compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aewsiri, T.; Benjakul, S.; Visessanguan, W.; Eun, J.B.; Wierenga, P.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2009-01-01

    Antioxidative activity and emulsifying properties of cuttlefish skin gelatin modified by different oxidised phenolic compounds including caffeic acid, ferulic acid and tannic acid at different concentrations were investigated. Oxidised phenolic compounds were covalently attached to gelatin as indica

  16. Detection of porcine DNA in gelatine and gelatine-containing processed food products-Halal/Kosher authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirhan, Yasemin; Ulca, Pelin; Senyuva, Hamide Z

    2012-03-01

    A commercially available real-time PCR, based on a multi-copy target cytochrome b (cyt b) using porcine specific primers, has been validated for the Halal/Kosher authentication of gelatine. Extraction and purification of DNA from gelatine were successfully achieved using the SureFood® PREP Animal system, and real-time PCR was carried out using SureFood® Animal ID Pork Sens kit. The minimum level of adulteration that could be detected was 1.0% w/w for marshmallows and gum drops. A small survey was undertaken of processed food products such as gum drops, marshmallows and Turkish delight, believed to contain gelatine. Of fourteen food products from Germany, two samples were found to contain porcine gelatine, whereas of twenty-nine samples from Turkey twenty-eight were negative. However, one product from Turkey contained porcine DNA and thus was not Halal, and neither was the use of porcine gelatine indicated on the product label.

  17. Gelatin-Based Films and Coatings for Food Packaging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ramos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses the latest advances in the composition of gelatin-based edible films and coatings, including nanoparticle addition, and their properties are reviewed along their potential for application in the food packaging industry. Gelatin is an important biopolymer derived from collagen and is extensively used by various industries because of its technological and functional properties. Nowadays, a very wide range of components are available to be included as additives to improve its properties, as well as its applications and future potential. Antimicrobials, antioxidants and other agents are detailed due to the fact that an increasing awareness among consumers regarding healthy lifestyle has promoted research into novel techniques and additives to prolong the shelf life of food products. Thanks to its ability to improve global food quality, gelatin has been particularly considered in food preservation of meat and fish products, among others.

  18. Characterization of gelatin-sodium alginate complex coacervation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinde Ujwala

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A gelatin and sodium alginate complex coacervation system was studied and an effect of pH and colloid mixing ratios on coacervation was investigated. A colloid mixing ratio at which optimum coacervation occurred varied with the coacervation pH. Viscometric, turbidity and coacervate dry yield investigations were used to investigate optimum conditions for complex coacervation. Optimum coacervation occurred at pH 3.5 at a gelatin sodium alginate ratio 4:1. Coacervate and equilibrium fluid was analyzed for gelatin and sodium alginate contents and yields calculated on the basis of chemical analysis showed that optimum coacervation occurred at 25% sodium alginate fraction at pH 3.5.

  19. Novel formulations of ballistic gelatin. 1. Rheological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecheru, Teodora; Său, Ciprian; Lăzăroaie, Claudiu; Zaharia, Cătălin; Rotariu, Traian; Stănescu, Paul-Octavian

    2016-06-01

    Ballistic gelatin is the simulant of the human body during field tests in forensics and other related fields, due to its physical and mechanical similarities to human trunk and organs. Since the ballistic gelatin used in present has important issues to overcome, an alternative approach is the use of gelatin-polymer composites, where a key factor is the insertion of biocompatible materials, which replicate accurately the human tissues. In order to be able to obtain an improved material in terms of mechanical performances by an easy industrial-scale technology, before the verification of the ballistic parameters by shooting in agreement with military standards, one of the best and cheapest solutions is to perform a thorough check of their rheological properties, in standard conditions.

  20. Evaluating conditions for the formation of chitosan/gelatin microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia C. Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan/gelatin microparticles were prepared by complex coacervation. Three chitosan (CH samples, with different acetylation degrees and intrinsic viscosities, were used together with commercial gelatin (G samples. Microparticles formation was investigated at various CH/G ratios, within the pH range of 3.5 to 6.0. Reactions were carried out at 40 and 60 ºC, for 2, 4, and 6 hours. Turbidity measurements performed at 633 nm were used to monitor the process. The resulting curves revealed maximum values, which were correlated to the glucosamine content of CH samples. After isolation, yields were determined, and the microparticles were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and thermogravimetry (TGA. Both techniques evidenced the formation of coacervate microparticles. The highest yields in microparticles were determined for the system comprising the CH sample with the lowest degree of acetylation and intrinsic viscosity, and the gelatin sample with the lowest bloom strength.

  1. Pressure-induced gelatinization of starch in excess water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallons, Katleen J R; Ryan, Liam A M; Arendt, Elke K

    2014-01-01

    High pressure processing is a promising non-thermal technology for the development of fresh-like, shelf-stable foods. The effect of high pressure on starch has been explored by many researchers using a wide range of techniques. In general, heat and pressure have similar effects: if sufficiently high, they both induce gelatinization of starch in excess water, resulting in a transition of the native granular structure to a starch paste or gel. However, there are significant differences in the structural and rheological properties between heated and pressurized starches. These differences offer benefits with respect to new product development. However, in order to implement high-pressure technology to starch and starch-containing products, a good understanding of the mechanism of pressure-induced gelatinization is necessary. Studies that are published in this area are reviewed, and the similarities and differences between starches gelatinized by pressure and by temperature are summarized.

  2. Scaling laws of gelatin hydrogels for steady dynamic friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vinit; Singh, Arun K.

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we use population balance based dynamic friction model for steady sliding to develop scaling laws in the terms of mesh size of gelatin hydrogels. First of all, it is observed in the sliding experiments that shear modulus of gelatin hydrogels depends on sliding velocity. This dependence is more evident in the case of low sliding velocity. Moreover, relaxation time constant of a dangling chain at the sliding interface scales with the same exponent as its stiffness. The scaling law is also developed for chain density and viscous retardation at the sliding interface. It is also established that the Hookean-based dynamic friction model is sufficient to study frictional behaviour of hydrogels. The reason for this observation is attributed to the weak bonding between a gelatin hydrogel and glass interface.

  3. THE COMBINATION OF GELATIN WITH HYDROCHLORIC ACID : II. NEW DETERMINATIONS OF THE ISOELECTRIC POINT AND COMBINING CAPACITY OF A PURIFIED GELATIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, D I

    1929-03-20

    1. Cooper's gelatin purified according to Northrop and Kunitz exhibited a minimum of osmotic pressure and a maximum of opacity at pH 5.05 +/-0.05. The pH of solutions of this gelatin in water was also close to this value. It is inferred that such gelatin is isoelectric at this pH and not at pH 4.70. 2. Hydrogen electrode measurements with KCl-agar junctions were made with concentrated solutions of this gelatin in HCl up to 0.1 M. The combination curve calculated from these data is quite exactly horizontal between pH 2 and 1, indicating that 1 gm. of this gelatin can combine with a maximum of 9.35 x 10(-4) equivalents of H(+). 3. Conductivity titrations of this gelatin with HCl gave an endpoint at 9.41 (+/-0.05) x 10(-4) equivalents of HCl per gram gelatin. 4. E.M.F. measurements of the cell without liquid junction, Ag, AgCl, HCl + gelatin, H(2), lead to the conclusion that this gelatin in 0.1 M HCl combines with a maximum of 9.4 x 10(-4) equivalents of H(+) and 1.7 x 10(-4) equivalents of Cl(-) per gram gelatin.

  4. Photofabricated gelatin-based nerve conduits: nerve tissue regeneration potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez, Eduardo; Goto, Yoshinobu; Nagata, Kengo; Iwaki, Toru; Sasaki, Tomio; Matsuda, Takehisa

    2004-01-01

    There is a strong demand for development of nerve guide conduit with prompt nerve regeneration potential for injury-induced nerve defect. Prior to study on nerve tissue engineering using Schwann cells or nerve stem cells, the effectiveness of photofabricated scaffolds based on photocurable gelatin was examined. This study describes the evaluation of in vivo nerve tissue regeneration potentials of three custom-designed and -fabricated prostheses (inner diameter, 1.2 mm; outer diameter, 2.4 mm; wall thickness, 0.60 mm; and length, 15 mm) made of photocured gelatin: a plain photocured gelatin tube (model I), a photocured gelatin tube packed with bioactive substances (laminin, fibronectin, and nerve growth factor) coimmobilized in a photocured gelatin rod (model II), and a photocured gelatin tube packed with bioactive substances coimmobilized in multifilament fibers (model III). These prostheses were implanted between the proximal and distal stumps 10 mm of the dissected right sciatic nerve of 70 adult male Lewis rats for up to 1 year. The highest regenerative potentials were found using the model III prosthesis, followed by the model II prosthesis. Markedly retarded neural regeneration was observed using the model I prosthesis. These were evaluated from the viewpoints of functional recovery, electrophysiological responses, and tissue morphological regeneration. The significance of the synergistic cooperative functions of multifilaments, which serve as a platform that provides contact guidance to direct longitudinal cell movement and tissue ingrowth and as a cell adhesive matrix with high surface area, and immobilized bioactive substances, which enhance nerve regeneration via biological stimulation, is discussed.

  5. Extraction and characterization of gelatin from two edible Sudanese insects and its applications in ice cream making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariod, Abdalbasit Adam; Fadul, Hadia

    2015-07-01

    Three methods were used for extraction of gelatin from two insects, melon bug (Coridius viduatus) and sorghum bug (Agonoscelis versicoloratus versicoloratus). Extraction of insect gelatin using hot water gave higher yield reached up to 3.0%, followed by mild acid extraction which gave 1.5% and distilled water extraction which gave only 1.0%, respectively. The obtained gelatins were characterized by FTIR and the spectra of insect's gelatin seem to be similar when compared with commercial gelatin. Amide II bands of gelatins from melon and sorghum bug appeared around at 1542-1537 cm(-1). Slight differences in the amino acid composition of gelatin extracted from the two insects were observed. Ice cream was made by using 0.5% insect's gelatin and compared with that made using 0.5% commercial gelatin as stabilizing agent. The properties of the obtained ice cream produced using insects gelatin were significantly different when compared with that made using commercial gelatin.

  6. Microencapsulation of sulforaphane from broccoli seed extracts by gelatin/gum arabic and gelatin/pectin complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Saldaña, Jesús S; Campas-Baypoli, Olga N; López-Cervantes, Jaime; Sánchez-Machado, Dalia I; Cantú-Soto, Ernesto U; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Roberto

    2016-06-15

    Sulforaphane is a phytochemical that has received attention in recent years due to its chemopreventive properties. However, the uses and applications of this compound are very limited, because is an unstable molecule that is degraded mainly by changes in temperature and pH. In this research, the use of food grade polymers for microencapsulation of sulforaphane was studied by a complex coacervation method using the interaction of oppositely charged polymers as gelatin/gum arabic and gelatin/pectin. The polymers used were previously characterized in moisture content, ash and nitrogen. The encapsulation yield was over 80%. The gelatin/pectin complex had highest encapsulation efficiency with 17.91%. The presence of sulforaphane in the complexes was confirmed by FTIR and UV/visible spectroscopy. The materials used in this work could be a new and attractive option for the protection of sulforaphane.

  7. Distribution and emission of chloropicrin applied as gelatin capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chloropicrin (CP) is a potential methyl bromide alternative for controlling soil-borne pests. However, the compound is highly volatile that poses strong exposure risks for humans and the environment because of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. A gelatin capsule formulation was developed as...

  8. Gelatinous drop-like corneal dystrophy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaza, Hrishikesh; Barik, Manas R; Reddy, Mamatha M; Mittal, Ruchi; Das, Sujata

    2017-01-01

    Gelatinous drop-like corneal dystrophy (GDLD) is a rare autosomal recessive form of corneal dystrophy characterised by subepithelial and stromal amyloid deposits. It is relatively common in Japan. It usually presents in the first two decades of life with subepithelial nodular lesions that later coalesce to form mulberry-like opacities. Although various surgical modalities have been attempted, recurrence remains a major challenge.

  9. Biopolymers produced from gelatin and other sustainable resources using polyphenols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several researchers have recently demonstrated the feasibility of producing biopolymers from the reaction of polyphenolics with gelatin in combination with other proteins (e.g. whey) or with carbohydrates (e.g. chitosan and pectin). These combinations would take advantage of the unique properties o...

  10. Preparation of Astaxanthin Nanodispersions Using Gelatin-Based Stabilizer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navideh Anarjan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of lipophilic nutrients, such as astaxanthin (a fat soluble carotenoid in nanodispersion systems can either increase the water solubility, stability and bioavailability or widen their applications in aqueous food and pharmaceutical formulations. In this research, gelatin and its combinations with sucrose oleate as a small molecular emulsifier, sodium caseinate (SC as a protein and gum Arabic as a polysaccharide were used as stabilizer systems in the formation of astaxanthin nanodispersions via an emulsification-evaporation process. The results indicated that the addition of SC to gelatin in the stabilizer system could increase the chemical stability of astaxanthin nanodispersions significantly, while using a mixture of gelatin and sucrose oleate as a stabilizer led to production of nanodispersions with the smallest particle size (121.4 ± 8.6 nm. It was also shown that a combination of gelatin and gum Arabic could produce optimal astaxanthin nanodispersions in terms of physical stability (minimum polydispersity index (PDI and maximum zeta-potential. This study demonstrated that the mixture of surface active compounds showed higher emulsifying and stabilizing functionality compared to using them individually in the preparation of astaxanthin nanodispersions.

  11. Prolonged Culture of Aligned Skeletal Myotubes on Micromolded Gelatin Hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettadapur, Archana; Suh, Gio C.; Geisse, Nicholas A.; Wang, Evelyn R.; Hua, Clara; Huber, Holly A.; Viscio, Alyssa A.; Kim, Joon Young; Strickland, Julie B.; McCain, Megan L.

    2016-06-01

    In vitro models of skeletal muscle are critically needed to elucidate disease mechanisms, identify therapeutic targets, and test drugs pre-clinically. However, culturing skeletal muscle has been challenging due to myotube delamination from synthetic culture substrates approximately one week after initiating differentiation from myoblasts. In this study, we successfully maintained aligned skeletal myotubes differentiated from C2C12 mouse skeletal myoblasts for three weeks by utilizing micromolded (μmolded) gelatin hydrogels as culture substrates, which we thoroughly characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Compared to polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microcontact printed (μprinted) with fibronectin (FN), cell adhesion on gelatin hydrogel constructs was significantly higher one week and three weeks after initiating differentiation. Delamination from FN-μprinted PDMS precluded robust detection of myotubes. Compared to a softer blend of PDMS μprinted with FN, myogenic index, myotube width, and myotube length on μmolded gelatin hydrogels was similar one week after initiating differentiation. However, three weeks after initiating differentiation, these parameters were significantly higher on μmolded gelatin hydrogels compared to FN-μprinted soft PDMS constructs. Similar results were observed on isotropic versions of each substrate, suggesting that these findings are independent of substrate patterning. Our platform enables novel studies into skeletal muscle development and disease and chronic drug testing in vitro.

  12. Solution Blow Spinning of Food-Grade Gelatin Nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Avena-Bustillos, Roberto J; Bilbao-Sainz, Cristina; Woods, Rachelle; Chiou, Bor-Sen; Wood, Delilah; Williams, Tina; Yokoyama, Wallace; Glenn, Gregory M; McHugh, Tara H; Zhong, Fang

    2017-06-01

    The primary advantage of nanofibers over larger diameter fibers is the larger surface area to volume ratio. This study evaluated solution blow spinning (SBS) processing conditions for obtaining food-grade gelatin nanofibers from mammalian and fishery byproducts, such as pork skin gelatins (PGs) and high molecular weight fish skin gelatin (HMWFG). HMWFG had a highest intact collagen structure compared to PGs. PGs with different Bloom values, solution viscosities, and surface tensions were compared with HMWFG for their ability to produce nanofibers through SBS. Only HMWFG fibers were obtained irrespective of processing conditions, which looked like fluffy cotton candy. HMWFG nanofibers had round morphologies with a narrower diameter distribution and lower average fiber diameter (AFD) under medium gelatin concentrations, medium air pressures, and medium feed rates. The highest glass transition temperature (Tg ) values were obtained at medium concentrations, medium air pressure, and either high or low feed rate. The thinnest HMWFG nanofibers with an AFD of 80.1 nm and the highest Tg value of 59.0 °C could be formed by combining a concentration of 17.6% (w/v), an air pressure of 0.379 MPa, and a feed rate of 0.06 mL/min from the response surface analysis. HMWFG Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller surface area increased from 221 to 237 m(2) /g, indicating their potential applicability for active compound carrier. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. Microencapsulation of Eugenol by Gelatin-Sodium Alginate Complex Coacervation

    OpenAIRE

    Ujwala Shinde; Mangal Nagarsenker

    2011-01-01

    Present study describes microencapsulation of eugenol using gelatin-sodium alginate complex coacervation. The effects of core to coat ratio and drying method on properties of the eugenol microcapsules were investigated. The eugenol microcapsules were evaluated for surface characteristics, micromeritic properties, oil loading and encapsulation efficiency. Eugenol microcapsules possessed good flow properties, thus improved handling. The scanning electron photomicrographs showed globular surface...

  14. Gelatine-assisted synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles for magnetic hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, André F.; Mendo, Sofia G. [Universidade de Lisboa, Centro de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências (Portugal); Ferreira, Liliana P. [Universidade de Lisboa, Biosystems and Integrative Sciences Institute, Faculdade de Ciências (Portugal); Mendonça, Maria Helena [Universidade de Lisboa, Centro de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências (Portugal); Ferreira, Paula [University of Aveiro, Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, CICECO - Aveiro Institute of Materials (Portugal); Godinho, Margarida; Cruz, Maria Margarida [Universidade de Lisboa, Biosystems and Integrative Sciences Institute, Faculdade de Ciências (Portugal); Carvalho, Maria Deus, E-mail: mdcarvalho@ciencias.ulisboa.pt [Universidade de Lisboa, Centro de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências (Portugal)

    2016-01-15

    Magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized by the co-precipitation method exploring the use of gelatine and agar as additives. For comparison, magnetite nanoparticles were also prepared by standard co-precipitation, by co-precipitation with the addition of a surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate) and by the thermal decomposition method. The structure and morphology of the synthesized nanoparticles were investigated by powder X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Their magnetic properties were studied by SQUID magnetometry and {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The nanoparticles potential for applications in magnetic hyperthermia was evaluated through heating efficiency under alternating magnetic field. The results show that all synthesis methods produce Fe{sub 3−x}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with similar sizes. The nanoparticles synthesized in the gelatine medium display the narrowest particle size distribution, the lowest oxidation degree, one of the highest saturation magnetization values and the best hyperthermia efficiency, proving that this gelatine-assisted synthesis is an efficient, environmental friendly, and low-cost method to produce magnetite nanoparticles. Graphical Abstract: A new gelatine-assisted method is an efficient and low-cost way to synthesize magnetite nanoparticles with enhanced magnetic hyperthermia.

  15. Topological Analysis, Modeling, and Imaging of Gelatin-Based Hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Maho; Marmorat, Clement; Rafailovich, Miriam; Talmon, Yishai; Zussman, Eyal; Arinstein, Arkadii

    Gelatin is a component of natural biocompatible scaffolds used in tissue engineering constructs. However, due its supra-molecular structure, the mesh size is drastically larger compared to synthetic polymers having the same moduli, and therefore the Rubber Elastic Theory cannot be used to describe properties of gelatin. Gelatin forms distinct fibrils, bundles of triple helix chains, which form rigid areas. We experimented with two different gel moduli, made possible by varying the concentration of microbial transglutaminase (mTG). mTG forms permanent cross links and affects the morphology of the gelatin by changing the number of fibrils formed. Thus, the mesh size calculated from the Rubber Elastic Theory was much smaller than the actual size of the mesh, as measured from cryoscanning electron microscopy images and fluorescent bead particle migration. We also observed the en-mass migration behavior of dermal fibroblast cells as a function of the substrate rheological response. Our results will present the ability of the cells to sense the structure of the underlying substrate, as well as the absolute value of the modulus. Furthermore, the data will be interpreted in terms of a modified theoretical model, which takes into account the structure and mesh size of the gel.

  16. Irradiated gelatin-potato starch blends: evaluation of physicochemical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamura, Patricia Y.; Regis, Wellington; Mastro, Nelida L., E-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Macromolecular polysaccharides of large chains as starch can interlace with gelatin modifying their mechanical resistance. In this work, biodegradable bovine gelatin-potato starch blends films were developed using glycerol as plasticizer. Three formulations of gelatin/starch proportions (w/w) were used (1:0; 3:1; 1:1) and casting was the chosen method. The dried samples were then submitted to ionizing radiation coming from an electron beam (EB) accelerator with doses of 20 and 40 kGy, at room temperature, in the presence of air. Mechanical properties such as puncture strength and elongation at break were measured. Color measurements, water absorption, moisture, and film solubility were assessed. The results showed that starch addition to films based on gelatin as well as irradiation affected physical and structural properties of the films. Although the increase of starch content in the mixture led to decrease of the puncture force even in samples irradiated with the higher dose, there was a decrease of water absorption of films with the increase of the dose, and also by the higher starch content. Samples irradiated at 20 kGy presented higher moisture and film solubility. The methodology developed in this paper can be applied to other composite systems to establish the best protein:starch ratio, and the contribution of the radiation crosslinking in each specific case. (author)

  17. Rheological evaluation of the irradiated pectin/gelatin mixed systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamura, Patricia Y.; Mastro, Nelida L. del, E-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The main biopolymers used in the edible films production are polysaccharides and proteins. Pectin is a heterosaccharidic polymer derived from the vegetal cell wall. Gelatin is a heterogeneous mixture of water-soluble proteins of high average molecular mass derived by hydrolytic action from animal collagen. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation on either the biopolymers alone or on the mixed systems prepared with high-and low-methoxyl pectin and gelatin in solution and mixed gel. The results showed that gelatin viscosity remained almost unaffected by the irradiation with doses from 1 to 15 kGy, with a slight increase at 3 kGy. On the other hand, there was a sharp decrease of viscosity values of all pectin solutions upon irradiation, being this behavior predominant when both polysaccharides and proteins were present in a mixed system. The gel hardness and gel brittleness of the gelatin were affected by the increase of radiation dose. (author)

  18. Lecithin, gelatin and hydrolyzed collagen orally disintegrating films: functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, J G; Silva, A G; Cervi-Bitencourt, C M; Vanin, F M; Carvalho, R A

    2016-05-01

    Orally disintegrating films (ODFs) can transport natural active compounds such as ethanol extract of propolis (EEP). This paper aimed to investigate the effect of lecithin on different gelatin and hydrolyzed collagen (HC) polymeric matrices with addition of EEP. ODFs were prepared by casting technique and were characterized (color parameters, water content, mechanical properties, microstructure, disintegration time (DT), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), contact angle (CA), swelling degree and total phenolic content). The mechanical properties were influenced by HC. The microstructure demonstrated increased porosity and roughness in films with EEP, and the addition of lecithin resulted in an increase in the number of pores. Lecithin-gelatin and lecithin-EEP-gelatin interactions were observed by FTIR. The addition of HC and EEP reduced the DT and CA, and HC and lecithin reduced the swelling capacity. However, the swelling capacity was not affected by presence of EEP. The addition of lecithin to gelatin and HC ODFs may improve the incorporation and the oral transport of active compounds such as EEP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Anisotropic silk fibroin/gelatin scaffolds from unidirectional freezing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asuncion, Maria Christine Tankeh, E-mail: christine.asuncion@u.nus.edu [National University of Singapore, Department of Biomedical Engineering (Singapore); Goh, James Cho-Hong [National University of Singapore, Department of Biomedical Engineering (Singapore); National University of Singapore, Department of Orthopedic Surgery (Singapore); Toh, Siew-Lok [National University of Singapore, Department of Biomedical Engineering (Singapore); National University of Singapore, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Singapore)

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies have underlined the importance of matching scaffold properties to the biological milieu. Tissue, and thus scaffold, anisotropy is one such property that is important yet sometimes overlooked. Methods that have been used to achieve anisotropic scaffolds present challenges such as complicated fabrication steps, harsh processing conditions and toxic chemicals involved. In this study, unidirectional freezing was employed to fabricate anisotropic silk fibroin/gelatin scaffolds in a simple and mild manner. Morphological, mechanical, chemical and cellular compatibility properties were investigated, as well as the effect of the addition of gelatin to certain properties of the scaffold. It was shown that scaffold properties were suitable for cell proliferation and that mesenchymal stem cells were able to align themselves along the directed fibers. The fabricated scaffolds present a platform that can be used for anisotropic tissue engineering applications such as cardiac patches. - Highlights: • Silk/gelatin scaffolds with unidirectional alignment were fabricated using a simple and scalable process • Presence of gelatin in silk resulted to lesser shrinkage, better water retention and improved cell proliferation. • Mesenchymal stem cells were shown to align themselves according to the fiber alignment.

  20. Fabrication and Physical Evaluation of Gelatin-Coated Carbonate Apatite Foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanae Hara

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbonate apatite (CO3Ap foam has gained much attention in recent years because of its ability to rapidly replace bone. However, its mechanical strength is extremely low for clinical use. In this study, to understand the potential of gelatin-reinforced CO3Ap foam for bone replacement, CO3Ap foam was reinforced with gelatin and the resulting physical characteristics were evaluated. The mechanical strength increased significantly with the gelatin reinforcement. The compressive strength of gelatin-free CO3Ap foam was 74 kPa whereas that of the gelatin-reinforced CO3Ap foam, fabricated using 30 mass % gelatin solution, was approximately 3 MPa. Heat treatment for crosslinking gelatin had little effect on the mechanical strength of the foam. The gelatin-reinforced foam did not maintain its shape when immersed in a saline solution as this promoted swelling of the gelatin; however, in the same conditions, the heat-treated gelatin-reinforced foam proved to be stable. It is concluded, therefore, that heat treatment is the key to the fabrication of stable gelatin-reinforced CO3Ap foam.

  1. Gelatin Nanofiber Matrices Derived from Schiff Base Derivative for Tissue Engineering Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Devina; James, Roshan; Shelke, Namdev B; Harmon, Matthew D; Brown, Justin L; Hussain, Fazle; Kumbar, Sangamesh G

    2015-11-01

    Electrospinning of water-soluble polymers and retaining their mechanical strength and bioactivity remain challenging. Volatile organic solvent soluble polymers and their derivatives are preferred for fabricating electrospun nanofibers. We report the synthesis and characterization of 2-nitrobenzyl-gelatin (N-Gelatin)--a novel gelatin Schiff base derivative--and the resulting electrospun nanofiber matrices. The 2-nitrobenzyl group is a photoactivatable-caged compound and can be cleaved from the gelatin nanofiber matrices following UV exposure. Such hydrophobic modification allowed the fabrication of gelatin and blend nanofibers with poly(caprolactone) (PCL) having significantly improved tensile properties. Neat gelatin and their PCL blend nanofiber matrices showed a modulus of 9.08 ± 1.5 MPa and 27.61 ± 4.3 MPa, respectively while the modified gelatin and their blends showed 15.63 ± 2.8 MPa and 24.47 ± 8.7 MPa, respectively. The characteristic infrared spectroscopy band for gelatin Schiff base derivative at 1560 cm(-1) disappeared following exposure to UV light indicating the regeneration of free NH2 group and gelatin. These nanofiber matrices supported cell attachment and proliferation with a well spread morphology as evidenced through cell proliferation assay and microscopic techniques. Modified gelatin fiber matrices showed a 73% enhanced cell attachment and proliferation rate compared to pure gelatin. This polymer modification methodology may offer a promising way to fabricate electrospun nanofiber matrices using a variety of proteins and peptides without loss of bioactivity and mechanical strength.

  2. Irradiation of gelatin. Important applications for the development of new materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Mastro, N. L., E-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05008-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-11-15

    Gelatin is obtained from a naturally occurring protein, collagen, by chemical and thermal hydrolysis. As a protein, gelatin is biodegradable. Among biomaterials, gelatin is an interesting material because the dehydrated gelatin is a partially crystalline polymer and has a relatively low melting point. Gelatin melts to a liquid when heated and solidifies when cooled again. Together with water, it forms a semi-solid colloid gel. If gelatin is placed in contact with cold water, some of the material dissolves, their solubility being determined by their manufacturing method. Ionizing radiation acting on aqueous biological systems produces labile intermediates. Macromolecular free radicals may be diffusion ally mobile in homogenous solutions but relatively immobile in gelled systems. In this paper, different works, some of them performed in our laboratory, are firstly described showing gelatin irradiation in diverse systems. We have already studied the mechanical properties of gelatin composites prepared with a natural fiber, plasticizer and treated by electron beam irradiation. Departing from that, the range of novel applications for gelatin composites like gelatin nanoparticles as biodegradable s and low cell toxic alternative carrier delivery systems are outlined. The potential and the possibilities of using gelatin irradiation for important applications for the development of new materials for medical and food industry are presented. (Author)

  3. Gelatin controversies in food, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products: Authentication methods, current status, and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Eaqub; Sultana, Sharmin; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Hossain, Motalib; Yehya, Wageeh A; Kader, Abdul; Bhargava, Suresh K

    2016-12-29

    Gelatin is a highly purified animal protein of pig, cow, and fish origins and is extensively used in food, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products. However, the acceptability of gelatin products greatly depends on the animal sources of the gelatin. Porcine and bovine gelatins have attractive features but limited acceptance because of religious prohibitions and potential zoonotic threats, whereas fish gelatin is welcomed in all religions and cultures. Thus, source authentication is a must for gelatin products but it is greatly challenging due to the breakdown of both protein and DNA biomarkers in processed gelatins. Therefore, several methods have been proposed for gelatin identification, but a comprehensive and systematic document that includes all of the techniques does not exist. This up-to-date review addresses this research gap and presents, in an accessible format, the major gelatin source authentication techniques, which are primarily nucleic acid and protein based. Instead of presenting these methods in paragraph form which needs much attention in reading, the major methods are schematically depicted, and their comparative features are tabulated. Future technologies are forecasted, and challenges are outlined. Overall, this review paper has the merit to serve as a reference guide for the production and application of gelatin in academia and industry and will act as a platform for the development of improved methods for gelatin authentication.

  4. Two-layer sheet of gelatin: A new topical hemostatic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Toshitaka; Tsujimoto, Hiroyuki; Torii, Hiroko; Ozamoto, Yuki; Hagiwara, Akeo

    2016-11-02

    Uncontrolled surgical bleeding is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and hospital cost. Topical hemostatic agents available today have problems controlling hemostatic effects; furthermore, their handling is difficult and they are unsafe. We devised a new hemostatic agent comprising gelatin sponge and film designed to be applied to the bleeding site, thereby creating a topical hemostatic agent made of gelatin alone. The gelatin was prepared by alkali treatment to eliminate viral activity. Hemostatic effects, surgical handling, and tissue reactions of the materials, namely a two-layer sheet of gelatin, TachoSil, and gelatin sponge, were evaluated using 21 dogs' spleens. The two-layer gelatin sheet and gelatin sponge exhibited superior hemostatic effects (100% hemostasis completed) compared with TachoSil (0-17% hemostasis). The gelatin matrix immediately absorbed blood flowing from wounds and activated the autologous components in the absorbed blood that promoted coagulation at the bleeding site. The two-layer gelatin sheet had the best surgical handling among the evaluated materials. Materials made of gelatin were associated with fewer inflammatory reactions compared with materials of TachoSil. The two-layer sheet of gelatin is a useful topical agent because of its superior hemostatic effects and usability, and is associated with a lower risk of transmitting diseases and inflammatory reactions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  5. Antioxidant and cryoprotective effects of Amur sturgeon skin gelatin hydrolysate in unwashed fish mince.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoo, Mehdi; Benjakul, Soottawat; Xu, Xueming

    2015-08-15

    Antioxidant and cryoprotective effects of Amur sturgeon skin gelatin hydrolysates prepared using different commercial proteases in unwashed fish mince were investigated. Gelatin hydrolysates prepared using either Alcalase or Flavourzyme, were effective in preventing lipid oxidation as evidenced by the lower thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances formation. Gelatin hydrolysates were able to retard protein oxidation as indicated by the retarded protein carbonyl formation and lower loss in sulfhydryl content. In the presence of gelatin hydrolysates, unwashed mince had higher transition temperature of myosin and higher enthalpy of myosin and actin as determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Based on low field proton nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, gelatin hydrolysates prevented the displacement of water molecules between the different compartments, thus stabilizing the water associated with myofibrils in unwashed mince induced by repeated freeze-thawing. Oligopeptides in gelatin hydrolysates more likely contributed to the cryoprotective effect. Thus, gelatin hydrolysate could act as both antioxidant and cryoprotectant in unwashed fish mince.

  6. UV treatments on the physicochemical properties of tilapia skin and pig skin gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C K; Tsai, J S; Chen, Z Y; Sung, W C

    2015-06-01

    Tilapia skin gelatin, pig skin gelatin, and their mousse premixes were exposed to UV irradiation for 103, 206, and 309 kJ/cm(2). All samples after 309 kJ/cm(2) exposure exhibited a significant increase in gel strength, gel forming ability as well as viscosity of solutions. It was shown that UV treatment could also improve the pig skin gelatin foam stability and foam formation ability compared to those of tilapia skin gelatin. Nevertheless, the panelists gave the lowest scores to mousse made with 309 kJ/cm(2) UV-irradiated premix mousse pig skin gelatin. Tilapia skin gelatin could be used as a substitute ingredient for premix mousse made from pig skin gelatin.

  7. In vitro evaluation of crosslinked electrospun fish gelatin scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, S.R. [Centro de Física e Investigação Tecnológica / Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Rodrigues, G.; Martins, G.G. [Centro de Biologia Ambiental / Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, FCUL, 1749-016 Campo Grande, Lisboa (Portugal); Henriques, C.M.R. [Centro de Física e Investigação Tecnológica / Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Silva, J.C., E-mail: jcs@fct.unl.pt [Centro de Física e Investigação Tecnológica / Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2013-04-01

    Gelatin from cold water fish skin was electrospun, crosslinked and investigated as a substrate for the adhesion and proliferation of cells. Gelatin was first dissolved in either water or concentrated acetic acid and both solutions were successfully electrospun. Cross-linking was achieved via three different routes: glutaraldehyde vapor, genipin and dehydrothermal treatment. Solution's properties (surface tension, electrical conductivity and viscosity) and scaffold's properties (chemical bonds, weight loss and fiber diameters) were measured. Cellular viability was analyzed culturing 3T3 fibroblasts plated on the scaffolds and grown up to 7 days. The cells were fixed and observed with SEM or stained for DNA and F-actin and observed with confocal microscopy. In all scaffolds, the cells attached and spread with varying degrees. The evaluation of cell viability showed proliferation of cells until confluence in scaffolds crosslinked by glutaraldehyde and genipin; however the rate of growth in genipin crosslinked scaffolds was slow, recovering only by day five. The results using the dehydrothermal treatment were the less satisfactory. Our results show that glutaraldehyde treated fish gelatin is the most suitable substrate, of the three studied, for fibroblast adhesion and proliferation. - Highlights: ► Electrospinning of fish gelatin dissolved in both water or concentrated acetic acid ► Glutaraldehyde, genipin and dehydrothermal treatment effectively crosslink the fish gelatin fibers ► Fibroblasts effectively adhere to and propagate on all scaffolds ► Cell population is highest for glutaraldehyde crosslinked scaffolds ► Cells exhibit more filopodia and stress fibers on glutaraldehyde crosslinked scaffolds.

  8. Technique to optimize magnetic response of gelatin coated magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Nidhi; Parekh, Kinnari

    2015-07-01

    The paper describes the results of optimization of magnetic response for highly stable bio-functionalize magnetic nanoparticles dispersion. Concentration of gelatin during in situ co-precipitation synthesis was varied from 8, 23 and 48 mg/mL to optimize magnetic properties. This variation results in a change in crystallite size from 10.3 to 7.8 ± 0.1 nm. TEM measurement of G3 sample shows highly crystalline spherical nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 7.2 ± 0.2 nm and diameter distribution (σ) of 0.27. FTIR spectra shows a shift of 22 cm(-1) at C=O stretching with absence of N-H stretching confirming the chemical binding of gelatin on magnetic nanoparticles. The concept of lone pair electron of the amide group explains the mechanism of binding. TGA shows 32.8-25.2% weight loss at 350 °C temperature substantiating decomposition of chemically bind gelatin. The magnetic response shows that for 8 mg/mL concentration of gelatin, the initial susceptibility and saturation magnetization is the maximum. The cytotoxicity of G3 sample was assessed in Normal Rat Kidney Epithelial Cells (NRK Line) by MTT assay. Results show an increase in viability for all concentrations, the indicative probability of a stimulating action of these particles in the nontoxic range. This shows the potential of this technique for biological applications as the coated particles are (i) superparamagnetic (ii) highly stable in physiological media (iii) possibility of attaching other drug with free functional group of gelatin and (iv) non-toxic.

  9. Gelatin functionalised porous titanium alloy implants for orthopaedic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanderleyden, E. [Polymer Chemistry and Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Ghent, Krijgslaan 281 S4, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Bael, S. [Prometheus, Division of Skeletal Tissue Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, O and N 1, Herestraat 49, Box 813, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Division of Production Engineering, Machine Design and Automation, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 300b, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Division of Biomechanics and Engineering Design, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 300c, Box 2419, 3001 Heverlee (Belgium); Chai, Y.C. [Prometheus, Division of Skeletal Tissue Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, O and N 1, Herestraat 49, Box 813, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Skeletal Biology and Engineering Research Center, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, O and N 1, Herestraat 49, Box 813, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Kruth, J.-P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Division of Production Engineering, Machine Design and Automation, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 300b, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Schrooten, J. [Prometheus, Division of Skeletal Tissue Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, O and N 1, Herestraat 49, Box 813, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 44, Bus 2450, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Dubruel, P., E-mail: pbmugent@gmail.com [Polymer Chemistry and Biomaterials Research Group, Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Ghent, Krijgslaan 281 S4, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2014-09-01

    In the present work, we studied the immobilisation of the biopolymer gelatin onto the surface of three dimensional (3D) regular Ti6Al4V porous implants to improve their surface bio-activity. The successful immobilisation of the gelatin coating was made possible by a polydopamine interlayer, a polymer coating inspired by the adhesive nature of mussels. The presence of both coatings was first optimised on two dimensional titanium (2D Ti) substrates and confirmed by different techniques including X-ray photelectron spectroscopy, contact angle measurements, atomic force microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. Results showed homogeneous coatings that are stable for at least 24 h in phosphate buffer at 37 °C. In a next step, the coating procedure was successfully transferred to 3D Ti6Al4V porous implants, which indicates the versatility of the applied coating procedure with regard to complex surface morphologies. Furthermore, the bio-activity of these stable gelatin coatings was enhanced by applying a third and final coating using the cell-attractive protein fibronectin. The reproducible immobilisation process allowed for a controlled biomolecule presentation to the surrounding tissue. This newly developed coating procedure outperformed the previously reported silanisation procedure for immobilising gelatin. In vitro cell adhesion and culture studies with human periosteum-derived cells showed that the investigated coatings did not compromise the biocompatible nature of Ti6Al4V porous implants, but no distinct biological differences between the coatings were found. - Highlights: • Ti6Al4V porous implants were produced by selective laser melting. • A procedure to obtain a stable gelatin coating was developed. • Successful transfer of the coating procedure from 2D to 3D Ti6Al4V porous implants. • In vitro cell studies showed that the developed coatings supported cell growth.

  10. Radiation stability and modification of gelatin for biological and medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haema, Kamonwon; Oyama, Tomoko Gowa; Kimura, Atsushi; Taguchi, Mitsumasa

    2014-10-01

    Gelatin is used in various biological and medical fields, including drug delivery systems and tissue engineering. In the context of these applications, radiation sterilization of gelatin was evaluated in terms of radiation stability. The molecular weight of gelatin powder irradiated by electron beams (EB) was analyzed using gel permeation chromatography (GPC). We found that irradiation decomposed the gelatin and that the weight-averaged molar mass (Mw) decreased by approximately 7-10% with sterilization doses in the range of 5-25 kGy. Also, we found that the hydrolysis rate in body and cell culture environments (37 °C water) was affected by irradiation. Although gelatin powder underwent chain scission when irradiated, crosslinking was predominantly induced when the gelatin was irradiated in water solution. Radiation-crosslinked (RX) gelatin hydrogel was fabricated without using any crosslinkers. In this case, fabrication and radiation sterilization were performed simultaneously. Using gel fraction and GPC analysis of the eluted sol, it was determined that the RX-gelatin hydrogel was stable for 7 days in water at 37 °C. These results provide important data for evaluating the feasibility of biological and medical applications of gelatin and RX-gelatin hydrogel.

  11. Characteristics and Gel Properties of Gelatin from Goat Skin as Influenced by Alkaline-pretreatment Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Mad-Ali

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics and properties of gelatin from goat skin pretreated with NaOH solutions (0.50 and 0.75 M for various times (1 to 4 days were investigated. All gelatins contained α-chains as the predominant component, followed by β-chain. Gelling and melting temperatures of those gelatins were 23.02°C to 24.16°C and 33.07°C to 34.51°C, respectively. Gel strength of gelatins increased as NaOH concentration and pretreatment time increased (p<0.05. Pretreatment for a longer time yielded gelatin with a decrease in L*-value but an increase in b*-value. Pretreatment of goat skin using 0.75 M NaOH for 2 days rendered the highest yield (15.95%, wet weight basis as well as high gel strength (222.42 g, which was higher than bovine gelatin (199.15 g. Gelatin obtained had the imino acid content of 226 residues/1,000 residues and the gelatin gel had a fine and ordered structure. Therefore, goat skin gelatin could be used as a potential replacer of commercial gelatin.

  12. CHARACTERISTICS OF GELATIN FROM SWIM BLADDER OF YELLOWFIN TUNA (THUNNUS ALBACORES AS INFLUENCED BY EXTRACTING TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kaewdang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gelatin was extracted from the swim bladder of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacores at different temperatures (60, 70 and 80°C with the extraction yields of 35.6%, 41.1% and 47.3% (dryweight basis, respectively. The α-chains of gelatin decreased with increasing extraction temperatures.Similar amino acid compositions were noticeable among all gelatins, in which glycine constituted the major amino acid. Imino acids ranged from 169 to 172 residues/1,000 residues. Thegel strength of gelatin extracted at lower temperature was higher than that of gelatins extracted at higher temperatures. Gelling and melting temperatures for swim bladder gelatin were 11.07-15.24 and 20.36-22.33°C, respectively. Higher gelling and melting points were observed for gelatin extracted at lower temperatures. Microstructure of gel of gelatin extracted at 60°C was finerwith smaller voids, compared with others. FTIR spectra of obtained gelatins revealed the significant loss of molecular order of the triple-helix. Thus, extraction temperatures showed the directimpact on characteristics of gelatin from swim bladder.

  13. Incorporation of Ag metallic nanoparticles in 3D gelatin matrix via the green strategy solution plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pootawang, Panuphong; Kim, Seong Cheol; Kim, Jung Wan; Lee, Sang Yul

    2013-01-01

    The environmental concern pays much attention to the recent cause of the global warming effect. The reduction of the chemical uses is one of many ways to avoid this crucial problem. Herein, the green process for silver nanometallic particle formation and incorporation in gelatin are proposed. By using a novel discharge process in solution named solution plasma, the silver nanometallic particle formation and its incorporation in gelatin could be accomplished in one-batch reactor during discharge by using silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution as the precursor and controlling systematical parameters. The three-dimensional scaffolds of gelatin/silver biocomposite were fabricated using lyophilizer and the water-soluble property of gelatin was improved by irradiation of ultraviolet ray. The well dispersed silver nanoparticles with the mean particle size 10-20 nm in the good texture of gelatin matrix were obtained. The density of micropore in gelatin/silver scaffold was proportional to the gelatin concentration. In addition, thermal stability of prepared samples had no change comparing with pure gelatin, indicating that the incorporation of silver nanoparticles in gelatin matrix did not affect to the nature of gelatin.

  14. How safe is gelatin? A systematic review and meta-analysis of gelatin-containing plasma expanders vs crystalloids and albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Claudia; Fleischmann, Carolin; Thomas-Rueddel, Daniel; Vlasakov, Vlasislav; Rochwerg, Bram; Theurer, Philip; Gattinoni, Luciano; Reinhart, Konrad; Hartog, Christiane S

    2016-10-01

    Gelatin is a widely used synthetic colloid resuscitation fluid. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of adverse effects in randomized and nonrandomized studies comparing gelatin with crystalloid or albumin for treatment of hypovolemia. Multiple databases were searched systematically without language restrictions until August 2015. We assessed risk of bias of individual studies and certainty in evidence assessment by the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. Sixty studies were eligible, including 30 randomized controlled trials, 8 nonrandomized studies, and 22 animal studies. After gelatin administration, the risk ratios were 1.15 (95% confidence interval, 0.96-1.38) for mortality, 1.10 (0.86-1.41) for requiring allogeneic blood transfusion, 1.35 (0.58-3.14) for acute kidney injury, and 3.01 (1.27-7.14) for anaphylaxis. Well-performed nonrandomized trials found increased rates of hospital mortality and acute kidney injury or renal replacement therapy in the gelatin intervention periods. Between 17% and 31% of administered gelatin was taken up extravascularly. The mean crystalloid-to-colloid ratio was 1.4. Gelatin solutions increase the risk of anaphylaxis and may be harmful by increasing mortality, renal failure, and bleeding possibly due to extravascular uptake and coagulation impairment. Until well-designed randomized controlled trials show that gelatin is safe, we caution against the use of gelatins because cheaper and safer fluid alternatives are available. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reagent-free crosslinking of aqueous gelatin: manufacture and characteristics of gelatin gels irradiated with gamma-ray and electron beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terao, Ken; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Nishida, Hirokazu; Furusawa, Kazuya; Mori, Yasutaka; Yoshii, Fumio; Dobashi, Toshiaki

    2003-01-01

    In order to obtain a gelatin hydrogel crosslinked by a reagent-free method, gamma-ray and electron beam radiation was applied to porcine, bovine and fish gelatin gels and the products were characterized by measuring the gel fraction, the swelling ratio and the enzymatic degradability. On increasing the radiation dose, the gel fraction increased and both the swelling ratio and the enzymatic degradability decreased. The transition temperature from gel to sol of the hydrogel containing more than 5% mammal gelatins increased up to more than 90 degrees C when gamma-ray or electron beam were irradiated by more than 10 kGy. The results show that the degree of crosslinking of irradiated gelatin hydrogels increases with increasing irradiation dose and with decreasing concentration. It is suggested that the radiation crosslinking occurs around the physical crosslinking point or multiple helix structure of gelatin gel.

  16. Gelatin films plasticized with a simulated biodiesel coproduct stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore the possibility of substituting an unrefined biodiesel coproduct stream (BCS for refined glycerol as a polymer plasticizer we have prepared cast gelatin films plasticized with a simulated BCS, i.e., mixtures of glycerol and some of the typical components found in BCS (methyl linoleate, methyl oleate, linoleic acid, and oleic acid. We measured the tensile properties as a function of plasticizer composition, and analyzed the specific effect of each individual component on tensile properties. We found that it is the unrecovered alkyl esters that largely determine the tensile properties, and that BCS can be successfully used to plasticize cast gelatin films as long as the BCS contains 11 parts by weight, or less, of unrecovered alkyl esters per 100 parts glycerol.

  17. In situ observation of crystallinity disruption patterns during starch gelatinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Canhui; Wei, Cunxu

    2013-01-30

    Twelve starches were isolated from the tuberous root of sweet potato, the rhizomes of lotus and yam, the tuber of potato, the corm of water chestnut, and the seeds of pea, bean, barley, wheat, lotus, water caltrop, and ginkgo. Their gelatinization processes were in situ viewed using a polarizing microscope in combination with a hot stage. Four patterns of crystallinity disruption during heating were proposed. The crystallinity disruption initially occurred on the proximal surface of the eccentric hilum, on the distal surface of the eccentric hilum, from the central hilum, or on the surface of the central hilum starch granule. The patterns of initial disruption on the distal surface of the eccentric hilum and on the surface of the central hilum starch were reported for the first time. The heterogeneous distribution of amylose in starch granule might partly explain the different patterns of crystallinity disruption and swelling during gelatinization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Encapsulation of cationic peptides into polymersomes through in situ gelatinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Huile; Pang, Zhiqing; Lu, Wei; Pan, Shuaiqi; Jiang, Xinguo

    2011-01-01

    Encapsulation of peptides and proteins remains an obstacle in drug nanoformulations. Here, we established an alternative method to encapsulate peptides and proteins into polymersomes (POs). NC-1900, a type of cationic peptide that can induce the gelatinization of deacetylated gellan gum (DGG), was selected as a model peptide. DGG was first trapped in POs to serve as a reservoir to capture NC-1900. Analysis of the optimized formulation revealed that the drug-loading capability of NC-1900-loaded POs was 1.20%, and the encapsulation efficiency was 30%. The release of NC-1900 from the gel was the rate-limiting step and could be expressed by Fick's law of diffusion. These results indicated that the preparation of POs encapsulated with gelatin could be employed as an effective loading method for ionic peptides and proteins.

  19. Ballistic gelatin as a putative substrate for EEG phantom devices

    CERN Document Server

    Hairston, W David; Yu, Alfred B

    2016-01-01

    Phantom devices allow the human variable to be controlled for in order to allow clear comparison and validation of biomedical imaging hardware and software. There is currently no standard phantom for electroencephalography (EEG). To be useful, such a device would need to: (a) accurately recreate the real and imaginary components of scalp electrical impedance, (b) contain internal emitters to create electrical dipoles, and (c) be easily replicable across various labs and research groups. Cost-effective materials, which are conductive, repeatable, and easily formed are a missing key enabler for EEG phantoms. Here, we explore the use of ballistics gelatin, an inexpensive, easily-formable and repeatable material, as a putative substrate by examining its electrical properties and physical stability over time. We show that varied concentrations of NaCl salt relative to gelatin powder shifts the phase/frequency response profile, allowing for selective tuning of the material electrical properties.

  20. Heterogeneities in gelatin film formation using single-sided NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Sushanta; Mattea, Carlos; Denner, Paul; Stapf, Siegfried

    2010-12-16

    Gelatin solutions were prepared in D(2)O. The drying process of cast solutions was followed with a single-sided nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) scanner until complete solidification occurred. Spin-spin relaxation times (T(2)) were measured at different layers with microscopic resolution and were correlated with the drying process during film formation. Additionally, the evaporation of the gelatin solution was observed optically from the reduction of the sample thickness, revealing that at the macroscopic level, the rate of evaporation is not uniform throughout the experiment. A crossover in the spatial evolution of the drying process is observed from the NMR results. At the early stages, the gel appears to be drier in the upper layers near the evaporation front, while this tendency is inverted at the later stages, when drying is faster from the bottom. XRD (X-ray diffraction) data showed that a structural heterogeneity persists in the final film.

  1. PLGA Microspheres Incorporated Gelatin Scaffold: Microspheres Modulate Scaffold Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Indranil Banerjee; Debasish Mishra; Maiti, Tapas K.

    2009-01-01

    Freeze drying is one of the popular methods of fabrication for poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres incorporated polymer scaffolds. However, the consequence of microspheres incorporation on physical and biological properties of scaffold has not been studied yet. In this study, attempt has been made to characterize the effect of PLGA microsphere incorporation on the physical properties of freeze-dried gelatin scaffold and its influence on cytocompatibility. Scaffolds loaded with va...

  2. Effects Of Gelatine-Coated Vascular Grafts On Human Neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Frank

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the immune-modulatory potential of commercially available PTFE and polyester vascular grafts with and without gelatine-coating. The biomaterial-cell-interaction was characterized by changes of established parameters such as PMN-related receptors/mediators, phagocytosis potential and capacity as well as the effect of an additional plasma-dependent modulation.

  3. Gelatin methacrylate microspheres for controlled growth factor release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Anh H; McKinney, Jay; Miller, Tobias; Bongiorno, Tom; McDevitt, Todd C

    2015-02-01

    Gelatin has been commonly used as a delivery vehicle for various biomolecules for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications due to its simple fabrication methods, inherent electrostatic binding properties, and proteolytic degradability. Compared to traditional chemical cross-linking methods, such as the use of glutaraldehyde (GA), methacrylate modification of gelatin offers an alternative method to better control the extent of hydrogel cross-linking. Here we examined the physical properties and growth factor delivery of gelatin methacrylate (GMA) microparticles (MPs) formulated with a wide range of different cross-linking densities (15-90%). Less methacrylated MPs had decreased elastic moduli and larger mesh sizes compared to GA MPs, with increasing methacrylation correlating to greater moduli and smaller mesh sizes. As expected, an inverse correlation between microparticle cross-linking density and degradation was observed, with the lowest cross-linked GMA MPs degrading at the fastest rate, comparable to GA MPs. Interestingly, GMA MPs at lower cross-linking densities could be loaded with up to a 10-fold higher relative amount of growth factor than conventional GA cross-linked MPs, despite the GA MPs having an order of magnitude greater gelatin content. Moreover, a reduced GMA cross-linking density resulted in more complete release of bone morphogenic protein 4 and basic fibroblast growth factor and accelerated release rate with collagenase treatment. These studies demonstrate that GMA MPs provide a more flexible platform for growth factor delivery by enhancing the relative binding capacity and permitting proteolytic degradation tunability, thereby offering a more potent controlled release system for growth factor delivery.

  4. Preparation and characterization of gelatin/cerium(Ⅲ) film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄崇军; 黄雅钦; 田娜; 童元建; 殷瑞贤

    2010-01-01

    A novel gelatin film with antibacterial activity was prepared by electrostatic crosslinking using cerium (Ⅲ) nitrate hexahydrate as the crosslinking agent. The structure and properties of the films were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectra, tensile tests, thermogravimetric analysis, static drop contact angle and disc diffusion method. The results showed that cross-linking could not only improve the thermal and mechanical properties and lower the hydrophilic property of the films, but also make...

  5. Gelatin as a new humidity sensing material: Characterization and limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapardanis, Steven [School of Engineering and Technology, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, Michigan, 48859 (United States); Hudpeth, Mathew [Department of Physics, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, Michigan, 48859 (United States); Kaya, Tolga, E-mail: kaya2t@cmich.edu [School of Engineering and Technology, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, Michigan, 48859 (United States); Science of Advanced Materials Program, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, Michigan, 48859 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The goal of this work is to assert the utility of collagen and its denatured counterpart gelatin as cost-effective alternatives to existing sensing layers comprised of polymers. Rather than producing a material that will need to be discarded or recycled, collagen, as a by-product of the meat and leather industry, could be repurposed. This work examines the feasibility of using collagen as a sensing layer. Planar electrodes were patterned with lift-off process to work with the natural characteristics of gelatin by utilizing metal vapor deposition, spin coating, and photolithography. Characterization methods have also been optimized through the creation of specialized humidity chambers that isolate specific characteristics such as response time, accuracy, and hysteresis. Collagen-based sensors are found to have a sensitivity to moisture in the range of 0.065 pF/%RH. Diffusion characteristics were also analyzed with the diffusion coefficient found to be 2.5 × 10{sup −5} cm{sup 2}/s. Absorption and desorption times were found to be 20 seconds and 8 seconds, respectively. Hysteresis present in the data is attributed to temperature cross-sensitivity. Ultimately, the utility of collagen as a dielectric sensing material is, in part, due to its fibrous macrostructures as well its hydrophilic sites along the peptide chains. Gelatin was patterned between and below interdigitated copper electrodes and tested as a relative humidity sensor. This work shows that gelatin, which is inexpensive, widely available, and easy to process, can be an effective dielectric sensing polymer for capacitive-type relative humidity sensors.

  6. Gelatin as a new humidity sensing material: Characterization and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Shapardanis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work is to assert the utility of collagen and its denatured counterpart gelatin as cost-effective alternatives to existing sensing layers comprised of polymers. Rather than producing a material that will need to be discarded or recycled, collagen, as a by-product of the meat and leather industry, could be repurposed. This work examines the feasibility of using collagen as a sensing layer. Planar electrodes were patterned with lift-off process to work with the natural characteristics of gelatin by utilizing metal vapor deposition, spin coating, and photolithography. Characterization methods have also been optimized through the creation of specialized humidity chambers that isolate specific characteristics such as response time, accuracy, and hysteresis. Collagen-based sensors are found to have a sensitivity to moisture in the range of 0.065 pF/%RH. Diffusion characteristics were also analyzed with the diffusion coefficient found to be 2.5 × 10−5 cm2/s. Absorption and desorption times were found to be 20 seconds and 8 seconds, respectively. Hysteresis present in the data is attributed to temperature cross-sensitivity. Ultimately, the utility of collagen as a dielectric sensing material is, in part, due to its fibrous macrostructures as well its hydrophilic sites along the peptide chains. Gelatin was patterned between and below interdigitated copper electrodes and tested as a relative humidity sensor. This work shows that gelatin, which is inexpensive, widely available, and easy to process, can be an effective dielectric sensing polymer for capacitive-type relative humidity sensors.

  7. Gelatin as a new humidity sensing material: Characterization and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapardanis, Steven; Hudpeth, Mathew; Kaya, Tolga

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this work is to assert the utility of collagen and its denatured counterpart gelatin as cost-effective alternatives to existing sensing layers comprised of polymers. Rather than producing a material that will need to be discarded or recycled, collagen, as a by-product of the meat and leather industry, could be repurposed. This work examines the feasibility of using collagen as a sensing layer. Planar electrodes were patterned with lift-off process to work with the natural characteristics of gelatin by utilizing metal vapor deposition, spin coating, and photolithography. Characterization methods have also been optimized through the creation of specialized humidity chambers that isolate specific characteristics such as response time, accuracy, and hysteresis. Collagen-based sensors are found to have a sensitivity to moisture in the range of 0.065 pF/%RH. Diffusion characteristics were also analyzed with the diffusion coefficient found to be 2.5 × 10-5 cm2/s. Absorption and desorption times were found to be 20 seconds and 8 seconds, respectively. Hysteresis present in the data is attributed to temperature cross-sensitivity. Ultimately, the utility of collagen as a dielectric sensing material is, in part, due to its fibrous macrostructures as well its hydrophilic sites along the peptide chains. Gelatin was patterned between and below interdigitated copper electrodes and tested as a relative humidity sensor. This work shows that gelatin, which is inexpensive, widely available, and easy to process, can be an effective dielectric sensing polymer for capacitive-type relative humidity sensors.

  8. Gellan gum microgel-reinforced cell-laden gelatin hydrogels

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Hyeongho; Olsen, Bradley D.; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2013-01-01

    The relatively weak mechanical properties of hydrogels remain a major drawback for their application as load-bearing tissue scaffolds. Previously, we developed cell-laden double-network (DN) hydrogels that were composed of photocrosslinkable gellan gum (GG) and gelatin. Further research into the materials as tissue scaffolds determined that the strength of the DN hydrogels decreased when they were prepared at cell-compatible conditions, and the encapsulated cells in the DN hydrogels did not f...

  9. Cosmetic textiles with biological benefits: gelatin microcapsules containing vitamin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shuk Yan; Yuen, Marcus Chun Wah; Kan, Chi Wai; Cheuk, Kevin Ka Leung; Chui, Chung Hin; Lam, Kim Hung

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, textile materials with special applications in the cosmetic field have been developed. A new sector of cosmetic textiles is opened up and several cosmetic textile products are currently available in the market. Microencapsulation technology is an effective technique to control the release properties of active ingredients that prolong the functionality of cosmetic textiles. This study discusses the development of cosmetic textiles and addresses microencapsulation technology with respect to its historical background, significant advantages, microencapsulation methods and recent applications in the textile industry. Gelatin microcapsules containing vitamin C were prepared using emulsion hardening technique. Both the optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the newly developed microcapsules were in the form of core-shell spheres with relatively smooth surface. The particle size of microcapsules ranged from 5.0 to 44.1 microm with the average particle size being 24.6 microm. The gelatin microcapsules were proved to be non-cytotoxic based on the research findings of the toxicity studies conducted on human liver and breast cell lines as well as primary bone marrow culture obtained from patient with non-malignant haematological disorder. The gelatin microcapsules were successfully grafted into textile materials for the development of cosmetic textiles.

  10. In vitro evaluation of crosslinked electrospun fish gelatin scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, S R; Rodrigues, G; Martins, G G; Henriques, C M R; Silva, J C

    2013-04-01

    Gelatin from cold water fish skin was electrospun, crosslinked and investigated as a substrate for the adhesion and proliferation of cells. Gelatin was first dissolved in either water or concentrated acetic acid and both solutions were successfully electrospun. Cross-linking was achieved via three different routes: glutaraldehyde vapor, genipin and dehydrothermal treatment. Solution's properties (surface tension, electrical conductivity and viscosity) and scaffold's properties (chemical bonds, weight loss and fiber diameters) were measured. Cellular viability was analyzed culturing 3T3 fibroblasts plated on the scaffolds and grown up to 7 days. The cells were fixed and observed with SEM or stained for DNA and F-actin and observed with confocal microscopy. In all scaffolds, the cells attached and spread with varying degrees. The evaluation of cell viability showed proliferation of cells until confluence in scaffolds crosslinked by glutaraldehyde and genipin; however the rate of growth in genipin crosslinked scaffolds was slow, recovering only by day five. The results using the dehydrothermal treatment were the less satisfactory. Our results show that glutaraldehyde treated fish gelatin is the most suitable substrate, of the three studied, for fibroblast adhesion and proliferation.

  11. Gelatin model for training ultrasound-guided puncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Campos Moraes Amato

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is indispensable that members of the medical profession receive the technical training needed to enable them to rapidly obtain effective vascular access. Training procedures should be used judiciously to familiarize students with the technique. However, existing models are expensive or ineffective, and models need to be developed that are similar to what will be encountered in real patients.OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate creation and application of a gelatin model for training ultrasound-guided puncture.METHOS: The model was made using a mixture of colorless gelatin and water in a transparent plastic receptacle with two pairs of orifices of different diameters, through which two plastic tubes were inserted, to simulate blood vessels.RESULTS: The model was a close approximation to the real medical procedure in several aspects, since gelatin has a similar consistency to human tissues, providing a more faithful reproduction of the tactile sensation at the moment when the needle reaches the interior of a vessel and its contents are aspirated.CONCLUSIONS: The method proposed here can be used to easily construct a low-cost model using everyday materials that is suitable for large-scale training of ultrasound-guided puncture.

  12. Ultrasonic characterization of lactose crystallization in gelatin gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Umut; Coupland, John N

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic velocity and attenuation measurements (2.25 MHz center frequency) were used to follow bulk crystallization of lactose (43% and 46%) from gelatin (1.5% and 3%) gels at 25 °C, and compared to turbidity (500 nm) and isothermal calorimetric measurements. Ultrasonic velocity decreased slightly (approximately 0.5%) during crystallization while ultrasonic attenuation was low in the absence of lactose crystals and increased progressively during crystallization. The lag time before the onset of crystallization decreased and the maximum rate of increase in attenuation during crystallization increased with increasing lactose supersaturation but was not affected by gelatin concentration (P crystallization kinetics in complex food matrices and to be applied on-line. Practical Application: Many foods contain crystals that affect their taste and texture (for example, lactose crystals can give a grainy defect in ice cream). The formation of crystals is often hard to predict so methods to measure the development of crystals inside real foods are useful. In this study, we show that as lactose crystallizes in a gelatin gel the ultrasonic attenuation--capacity to absorb sound--increases and can be related to the amount of crystals present. Ultrasound is easier to apply in real food processing than the existing methodologies.

  13. Release of vancomycin from multilayer coated absorbent gelatin sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Anita; Fang, Jean C; Puranam, Sravanthi; Hammond, Paula T

    2012-01-10

    Wounds have the potential to become infected during any surgical procedure. Gelatin sponges that are commonly used to absorb blood during invasive surgeries would benefit tremendously if they released antibiotics. In this work, we have examined coating a commercial gelatin sponge with degradable polymer multilayer films containing vancomycin. The effect of the film on sponge absorption capabilities and the effect of the sponge on drug release kinetics were both examined. Application of vancomycin containing layer-by-layer assembled films to this highly porous substrate greatly increased drug loading up to approximately 880% compared to a flat substrate. Vancomycin drug release was extended out to 6 days compared to 2 days for film coated flat substrates. Additionally, the absorbent properties of the gelatin sponge were actually enhanced by up to 170% due to the presence of the vancomycin film coating. A comparison of film coated sponges with sponges soaked directly in vancomycin demonstrated the ability of the multilayer films to control drug release. Film released vancomycin was also found to remain highly therapeutic with unchanged antimicrobial properties compared to the neat drug, demonstrated by quantifying vancomycin activity against Staphylococcus aureus in vitro.

  14. Atmospheric Pressure Non-Equilibrium Plasma as a Green Tool to Crosslink Gelatin Nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Anna; Bigi, Adriana; Colombo, Vittorio; Focarete, Maria Letizia; Gherardi, Matteo; Gualandi, Chiara; Oleari, Maria Chiara; Panzavolta, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    Electrospun gelatin nanofibers attract great interest as a natural biomaterial for cartilage and tendon repair despite their high solubility in aqueous solution, which makes them also difficult to crosslink by means of chemical agents. In this work, we explore the efficiency of non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma in stabilizing gelatin nanofibers. We demonstrate that plasma represents an innovative, easy and environmentally friendly approach to successfully crosslink gelatin electrospun mats directly in the solid state. Plasma treated gelatin mats display increased structural stability and excellent retention of fibrous morphology after immersion in aqueous solution. This method can be successfully applied to induce crosslinking both in pure gelatin and genipin-containing gelatin electrospun nanofibers, the latter requiring an even shorter plasma exposure time. A complete characterization of the crosslinked nanofibres, including mechanical properties, morphological observations, stability in physiological solution and structural modifications, has been carried out in order to get insights on the occurring reactions triggered by plasma.

  15. KARAKTERISTIK EDIBLE FILM YANG DIPRODUKSI DARI KOMBINASI GELATIN KULIT KAKI AYAM DAN SOY PROTEIN ISOLATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Hasdar

    2012-09-01

    SDS-PAGE dan menunjukkan sebagai molekul kolagen. Hasil analisis kandungan asam amino edible film menggunakan HPLC dihasilkan komposisi residu asam amino terbesar adalah glysin yaitu 29,42%, 37,88%, 38,32%, 39,28% dan 39,17% pada masing-masing perlakuan. Hal itu menggambarkan bahwa profil protein edible film dapat dipastikan sebagian besar berasal dari kolagen gelatin. Pengamatan dengan scaning electron microscope menunjukkan telah terbentuk cross linking antara molekul protein gelatin dan molekul soy protein isolate dan yang ditunjukan semakin berkurangnya retakan seiring dengan meningkatnya konsentrasi gelatin. Perbedaan kombinasi gelatin kulit kaki ayam dan soy protein isolate untuk membentuk edible film tidak memberikan pengaruh nyata pada kekuatan tarik (tensile strenght, dan kemuluran (elongation, namun berpengaruh nyata pada laju transmisi uap air (Water Vapour Transmision Rate. Kombinasi 95:5 protein gelatin kulit kaki ayam dan soy protein isolate menghasilkan edible film yang terbaik. (Kata kunci: Edible film, Gelatin kaki ayam, Soy protein isolate

  16. Extraction and characterization of gelatin biopolymer from black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockalingam, K.; Abdullah, H. Z.

    2015-07-01

    Black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) fish wastes (scales) were evaluated for its suitability as sources of gelatin. Scales were subjected to acid treatment for demineralization before it undergoes thermal extraction process. The raw scales were characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), which demarcated the cycloid pattern of the scales. SEM images also reveal the presence of collagen fiber in the fish scale. The black tilapia fish scales yields 11.88 % of gelatin, indicating the possibility of this fish species as sources of gelatin. Further characterizations were done on both raw scale and extracted gelatin through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and proximate analysis. The scale gelatin shows high protein content (86.9 %) with low moisture (8.2 %) and ash (1.4 %). This further proves the effectiveness of the demineralization and extraction method used. The black tilapia fish scale is found to be a prospective source of gelatin with good chemical and functional properties.

  17. Extraction and characterization of gelatin biopolymer from black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sockalingam, K., E-mail: gd130106@siswa.uthm.edu.my; Abdullah, H. Z., E-mail: hasan@uthm.edu.my [Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) fish wastes (scales) were evaluated for its suitability as sources of gelatin. Scales were subjected to acid treatment for demineralization before it undergoes thermal extraction process. The raw scales were characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), which demarcated the cycloid pattern of the scales. SEM images also reveal the presence of collagen fiber in the fish scale. The black tilapia fish scales yields 11.88 % of gelatin, indicating the possibility of this fish species as sources of gelatin. Further characterizations were done on both raw scale and extracted gelatin through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and proximate analysis. The scale gelatin shows high protein content (86.9 %) with low moisture (8.2 %) and ash (1.4 %). This further proves the effectiveness of the demineralization and extraction method used. The black tilapia fish scale is found to be a prospective source of gelatin with good chemical and functional properties.

  18. Barrier layers against oxygen transmission on the basis of electron beam cured methacrylated gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherzer, Tom

    1997-08-01

    The development of barrier layers against oxygen transmission on the basis of radiation-curable methacrylated gelatin will be reported. The electron beam cured gelatin coatings show an extremely low oxygen permeability and a high resistance against boiling water. Moreover, the methacrylated gelatins possess good adhesion characteristics. Therefore, they are suited as barrier adhesives in laminates for food packaging applications. If substrate foils from biodegradable polymers are used, the development of completely biodegradable packaging materials seems to be possible.

  19. Optical properties of gelatin/CdS bionanocomposite and its conformational change**

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Shi-hua; Li You-qun; Wang Jun; Wang Bai-yang

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The properties, integration mechanism and conformation change of protein are closely related with the biological effects of nanocomposites. OBJECTIVE:To study the optical properties and integration mechanism of gelatin/CdS bionanocomposite, and to analyze the conformation change of gelatin macromolecule at pH 12.0. METHODS:The gelatin/CdS bionanocomposites were synthesized via one-pot chemical route with the materials of gelatin, cadmium acetate and Na 2 S•9H 2 O through adding the Cd2+and S2−solution into the gelatin dilute solution at the temperature of 296, 302 and 308 K, and with the concentration of 8×10−6-1.2×10−3 RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Transmission electron microscopy images showed that the morphology of gelatin/CdS nanocomposites was mainly chain-shaped. The ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy showed that the gelatin/CdS nanocomposites band gap was decreased with the increasing in both the CdS concentration and temperature, and they showed an obvious quantum size effect. The dynamic light scattering showed that theζpotential was negative and decreased slightly with the increasing in concentration of CdS. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that level ofα-helix andβ-sheets in gelatin macromolecular conformation was decreased and theβ-turns level was increased. The gelatin/Cd 2+complex and gelatin/CdS nanocomposites were formed on the basis of various observations, the most plausible mechanism is proposed for the integration of gelatin/CdS nanocomposites, which includes the coordination (Cd2+with the oxygen of carbonyl group in gelatin molecular chain), vulcanization and surface coated. The shape,ζpotential and optical properties of samples were characterized by transmission electron microscope, dynamic light scattering, X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  20. Study on encapsulation of chlorine dioxide in gelatin microsphere for reducing release rate

    OpenAIRE

    Ci, Ying; Wang,Lin; Guo, YanChuan; Sun, Ruixue; Wang, Xijie; Li, Jinyou

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to explore the effects of encapsulation of chlorine dioxide in a hydrophilic biodegradable polymer gelatin to reduce its release rate. Methods: An emulsification-coacervation method was adopted. The characterizations of chlorine dioxide-gelatin microspheres were described. Using UV-vis spectrophotometer the λmax of chlorine dioxide was observed at 358 nm. The particle size and distribution of chlorine oxide-gelatin microspheres was measured by a dynamic light scatte...

  1. Influence of gelatine on corrosion behavior of copper in acidic media

    OpenAIRE

    Todorović Dragiša A.; Milenković Dragan D.; Milosavljević Milutin M.; Marković Dragan A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of gelatin and benzotriazole (BTA) inhibitory action on copper in the acid medium by the method of weight loss. The investigation was carried out in the citric acid solution (1, 5 and 20%) at the temperature of 293 K. Under such conditions, the gelatin showed higher efficiency of corrosion protection in comparison to BTA. The results, obtained through the Gibbs and Langmuir adsorption isotherm, show that gelatin adsorption on copper surface obey the Langm...

  2. Determining the Equation of State (EoS) Parameters for Ballistic Gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    ARL-TR-7467 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Determining the Equation of State (EoS) Parameters for Ballistic Gelatin ...EoS) Parameters for Ballistic Gelatin by Yolin Huang Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL Approved for...State (EoS) Parameters for Ballistic Gelatin 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Yolin Huang 5d

  3. Preparation, Electromechanical, and Structural Study of Carbon Nanotube/Gelatin Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-15

    composite [22]. Gelatin is a high molecular weight polypeptide obtained by controlled hydrolysis of collagen [23]. It is a good film and particle... CNTs ) are a new form of carbon, consisting of concentric cylinders of graphite layers rolled into graphene cylinders. The combination of their shape...shows the incorporation of the MWNT into the gelatin fibrils and a possible cross-linked MWNT /gelatin composite. The interaction between CNT and SDS

  4. Variation of Hydroxyapatite Content in Soft Gelatin Affects Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahsai Kantawong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gelatin is a common material used in tissue engineering and hydroxyapatite (HA has a composition and structure similar to natural bone mineral. HA is also used to increase the adhesion ability of scaffolds. The physical and mechanical properties of gelatin, together with the chemical properties of HA, can affect cell differentiation. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the gene expression of human mesenchymal stem cells (HMSCs upon culturing on gelatin composite with HA. Low amounts of HA were introduced into the gelatin in order to modulate properties of gelatin. Three types of hydrogel were fabricated by glutaraldehyde crosslinking before lyophilization to produce the porous 3D structure: (1 pure gelatin, (2 0.5 mg/ml HA in gelatin, and (3 1 mg/ml HA in gelatin. The fabricated hydrogels were used as scaffolds to cultivate HMSCs for two periods - 24 hours and 3 weeks. The results showed that all types of fabricated hydrogels could be used to cultivate HMSCs. Changes of gene expressions indicated that the HMSCs cultured on the 1 mg/ml HA in gelatin showed neuronal lineage-specific differentiation.

  5. Hydrolyzed collagen (gelatin decreases food efficiency and the bioavailability of high-quality protein in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Cantelli Daud BORDIN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective Although deficient in all indispensable amino acids, gelatin is used in protein-restricted diets. Food efficiency and protein quality of casein and gelatin mixtures in low protein diets in Wistar rats were investigated. Methods The rats were treated with protein-restricted diets (10.0 and 12.5% containing casein (control diets, casein with gelatin mixtures (4:1 of protein content, and gelatin as sources of protein. The food conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, relative and corrected protein efficiency ratio, true protein digestibility, and hepatic parameters were estimated. Results After 28 days of the experiment, food efficiency of 10.0% casein/gelatin diet decreased when compared to that of 10.0% casein diet, and the protein efficiency ratio of the casein/gelatin mixtures (10.0%=2.41 and 12.5%=2.03 were lower than those of the casein (10.0%=2.90 and 12.5%=2.32. After 42 days of the experiment, the weight of the liver of the animals treated with 10.0 and 12.5% casein/gelatin diets, and the liver protein retention of the 12.5% casein/gelatin diet group of animals were lower than those of the control group. Conclusion Gelatin decreases food efficiency and high-quality protein bioavailability in protein-restricted diets.

  6. Gelatin nanoparticles for use as a vaccine adjuvant in intranasal immunizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Tara D.

    Vaccine adjuvants are used to increase the immune response in the delivery of subunit antigens. Currently the only FDA approved adjuvants are aluminum based and must be delivered parenterally. Nasal mucoadhesive vaccine administration can decrease cost, increase efficiency and increase patient compliance. The purpose of this study was to develop a mucoadhesive gelatin nanoparticle >500 nm in diameter that can be used to encapsulate a model protein antigen. The particles were prepared by nanoprecipitation of a gelatin solution with acetone. Thiol groups were incubated with gelatin to increase mucoadhesivness at 20, 40, and 80 mg per 1 gram of gelatin. The thiolation chemistry was characterized using UV-Vis and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The total amount of sulfur present in the gelatin was determined to be 7.48, 30.53, and 46.75 mmol/gram respectively. However XPS analysis revealed that there was no substantial difference between surface sulfur content of the unmodified gelatin nanoparticles and the gelatin nanoparticles modified with 80 mg of iminothiolane. Particle size, charge and morphology were determined using laser light diffraction, atomic force microscopy microscopy and electron microscopy. The average diameter of the unmodified gelatin was 171 nm. The average diameter of the thiolated gelatin nanoparticles was 275 nm. The polydispersity index was approximately 0.61 +/- 0 .04 for all nanoparticles. The zeta (zeta) potential of the unmodified gelatin nanoparticles was -21.5 +/- 2.0 mV and the zeta-potential of the modified gelatin nanoparticles was -25.2 +/- 1.5, -27.3 +/- 0.8, and -28.6 +/- 3.0 mV for the 20, 40, and 80 thiolated gelatin nanoparticles. Particle encapsulation efficiency (EE) and release kinetics were conducted using fluorescein isothiocyanate-bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA) as a model antigen. The EE of the nanoparticles increased from 35.0% (unmodified gelatin) to 82.5% (highest modified gelatin). Particles encapsulated with

  7. Gelatinization kinetic of waxy starches under pressure according to ionic strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonin, Hélène; Guyon, Claire; de Lamballerie, Marie; Lebail, Alain

    2010-12-01

    High pressure is a potential technology for the texturization of food products at ambient temperature. In this area, waxy starches are particularly interesting because they gelatinize quickly under sufficient pressure. However, gelatinization may be influenced by other components in the food matrix. Here, we investigate the influence of increasing ionic strength on gelatinization rate and kinetics at 500 MPa for waxy corn and waxy rice starches. We show that increasing ionic strength strongly retards and inhibits starch gelatinization under pressure and leads to heterogeneous gels with remnant granules.

  8. Gelatinization and solubility of corn starch during heating in excess water: new insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, Wajira S; Jackson, David S

    2006-05-17

    Starch gelatinization is associated with the disruption of granular structure causing starch molecules to disperse in water. This study was designed to examine starch granules as they were heated in water, and their resulting morphological, structural, and solubility traits. The results indicate that starch gelatinization is a more complex process than the previously suggested order-to-disorder transition. The energy absorbed by the granules facilitates the rearrangement or formation of new bonds among molecules prior to the temperatures normally associated with the melting of amylopectin crystallites during gelatinization. It is also evident that amylose plays an important role during the initial stages of corn starch gelatinization.

  9. Tissue engineering of corneal stroma with rabbit fibroblast precursors and gelatin hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Tatsuya; Amano, Shiro; Yokoo, Seiichi; Uchida, Saiko; Yamagami, Satoru; Usui, Tomohiko; Kimura, Yu; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2008-01-01

    To isolate fibroblast precursors from rabbit corneal stroma using a sphere-forming assay, to engineer corneal stroma with the precursors and gelatin, and to establish the therapeutic application of precursors in a rabbit corneal stroma. In the in vitro study, a sphere-forming assay was performed to produce precursors from rabbit corneal stroma. Corneal stroma was engineered by cultivating precursors in porous gelatin for one week. In the in vivo study, the engineered corneal stromal sheet with precursors (precursor/gelatin group) or with fibroblasts (fibroblast /gelatin group) or without cells (gelatin group) was transplanted to a pocket of rabbit corneal stroma. Gene expression and extracellular matrix production were examined immunohistochemically in each group one week and four weeks after surgery. In the in vitro study, cells in the spheres were BrdU-positive, and their progeny were keratocan-positive. The study also showed that the corneas transplanted with a porous gelatin sheet did not show any opacity four weeks after transplantation in any group. In the gelatin sheet of the precursor/gelatin group, a more intense expression of type I collagen was observed relative to the other two groups four weeks after the surgery. Our findings demonstrate that the transplantation of fibroblast precursors combined with gelatin hydrogel into the corneal stroma is a possible treatment strategy for corneal stromal regeneration.

  10. Core-shell nanofibers: Integrating the bioactivity of gelatin and the mechanical property of polyvinyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkle, Valerie M; Zeng, Like; Slepian, Marvin J; Wu, Xiaoyi

    2014-04-01

    Coaxial electrospinning is used to fabricate nanofibers with gelatin in the shell and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in the core in order to derive mechanical strength from PVA and bioactivity from gelatin. At a 1:1 PVA/gelatin mass ratio, the core-shell nanofiber scaffolds display a Young's modulus of 168.6 ± 36.5 MPa and a tensile strength of 5.42 ± 1.95 MPa, which are significantly higher than those of the scaffolds composed solely of gelatin or PVA. The Young's modulus and tensile strength of the core-shell nanofibers are further improved by reducing the PVA/gelatin mass ratio from 1:1 to 1:3. The mechanical analysis of the core-shell nanofibers suggests that the presence of the gelatin shell may improve the molecular alignment of the PVA core, transforming the semi-crystalline, plastic PVA into a more crystallized, elastic PVA, and enhancing the mechanical properties of the core. Lastly, the PVA/gelatin core-shell nanofibers possess cellular viability, proliferation, and adhesion similar to these of the gelatin nanofibers, and show significantly higher proliferation and adhesion than the PVA nanofibers. Taken together, the coaxial electrospinning of nanofibers with a core-shell structure permits integration of the bioactivity of gelatin and the mechanical strength of PVA in single fibers.

  11. Enhancing water repellence and mechanical properties of gelatin films by tannin addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Cristina; de la Caba, Koro; Eceiza, Arantxa; Ruseckaite, Roxana; Mondragon, Iñaki

    2010-09-01

    In order to reduce pollution caused by traditional non-biodegradable plastic films, renewable raw materials from plants and wastes of meat industries have been employed in this work. A hydrolysable chestnut-tree tannin was used for gelatin modification. Films of gelatin and gelatin-tannin were obtained by casting at room conditions. Transition temperatures of both gelatin and gelatin-tannin systems were determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Glass transition temperatures of modified gelatin occurred at higher temperatures than for neat gelatin. Enthalpy and temperature of helix-coil transition decreased when tannin content increased due to variations in the helical structure of gelatin as a consequence of tannin presence in agreement with X-ray analysis. Mechanical and thermal behaviour varied as a function of the content of tannin, showing optimum values for films modified with 10 wt% tannin. The transparency of films was maintained after modification with tannin. Solubility and swelling tests of the films revealed that the presence of tannin reduced the water affinity of gelatin. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Preparation and characterization of hydroxyapatite/gelatin composite membranes for immunoisolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jyh-Ping, E-mail: jpchen@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen Hwa 1st Rd., Kwei-San, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China); Chang, Feng-Nian [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen Hwa 1st Rd., Kwei-San, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan (China)

    2012-12-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cross-linking gelatin in the presence of hydroxyapatite forms composite membranes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The membrane was used for immunoisolation and encapsulation of cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Encapsulated islet cells secrete insulin in response to glucose concentrations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The membrane is a good candidate for bioartificial pancreas development. - Abstract: Composite membranes are fabricated from hydroxyapatite (HAP) and gelatin for immunoisolation of cells. The films were fabricated by crosslinking 5 wt%, 10 wt%, and 20 wt% gelatin with 1 wt% glutaraldehyde (GA) in the presence of HAP. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis confirms imide bond formation between GA and gelatin, while the crystal structure of HAP powder remains unchanged from X-ray diffraction analysis. The degree of crosslinking depends on crosslinking time and gelatin concentration. For 5% and 10% gelatin, the degree of crosslinking levels off at 90% within 48 h. From scanning electron microscopy micrographs, the microstructure of the composite membrane depends on the amount of gelatin used in the crosslinking reaction. The mechanical strength of the composite membrane could be enhanced by increasing the gelatin concentration. BET analysis indicates that pore size of the micropores on the surface HAP/gelatin agglomerates decreases with increasing gelatin concentration. However, the macropore, through which diffusion of molecules occurs, is larger at higher gelatin concentrations. The permeability coefficients of different molecules through a HAP/gelatin composite membrane increase with increasing gelatin concentration and is inversely correlated with the molecular weight of the molecule. For immunoisolation of cells, the diffusion of large molecules stimulated by the immune system can be rejected by a chamber constructed from the HAP/gelatin membrane. Insulinoma cells were encapsulated in alginate

  13. Characterization of edible film fabricated with channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) gelatin extract using selected pretreatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S; Wang, Y; Herring, J L; Oh, J-H

    2007-11-01

    Farm-raised catfish are important to the economy of the southeastern states in the United States, and catfish processing produces about 55% of by-products for inexpensive sale. Therefore, the utilization of catfish by-products is of great interest to the catfish industry. The objectives of this research were to determine the optimum pretreatment method to extract catfish gelatin for edible film application, and to characterize physical, mechanical, and barrier properties of edible films fabricated with catfish skin gelatin. Catfish skins obtained from a local plant were treated with 6 selected pretreatment methods. The main extraction was performed with deionized water at 50 degrees C after pretreatment. The gelatin yield was calculated and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was performed to characterize molecular weight (MW) profile. Color, tensile strength (TS), elongation, and water barrier property were determined to characterize the fabricated catfish gelatin films. From the results of gelatin yield, color, SDS-PAGE, as well as mechanical and barrier properties of the film, the pretreatment method with 0.25 M NaOH and 0.09 M acetic acid, followed by extraction at 50 degrees C for 3 h, was determined as the optimum extraction method. The catfish gelatin exhibited higher MW fractions than commercial mammalian gelatin. The catfish gelatin extracts possessed film-forming properties determined by TS, elongation, and water vapor permeability (WVP) comparable to those of commercial mammalian gelatin. The selected formula for catfish gelatin film was determined as 1% gelatin and 20% glycerol, resulting in greatest TS and lowest WVP.

  14. Studies on the particle size control of gelatin microspheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruixue SUN; Jingjing SHI; Yanchuan GUO; Lijuan CHEN

    2009-01-01

    A series of gelatin microspheres (GMs) were prepared through emulsification-coacervation method in water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions. The influence of preparation parameters on particle size, surface morphology, and dispersion of GMs was examined. The studied preparation parameters include concentration of gelatin solutions, concentration of the emulsifier, w/o ratio, emulsifying time, stirring speed, and so on. The surface morphology, dispersion, and particle sizes of GMs were determined by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), SemAfore 4 Demo software, and particle size distribution graphic charts. The experimental results indicated that increasing the concentration of gelatin solution would increase the particle size of GMs. When the solution concentration increased from 0.050 to 0.200 g/mL gradually, the particle size increased correspondingly. The relationship between the two quantities was linear. On the contrary, increasing the concentration of the emulsifier would decrease the particle size of GMs. Furthermore, the particle size reduced quickly at initial time and slowed down latterly. With the increase of emulsifier concentration from 0 to 0.020 g/mL, the mean diameters of GMs decreased from 17.32 to 5.38 urn. However, the particle size dwindled slowly when emulsifier concentration was higher than 0.020 g/mL. The excellent result was obtained with the condition of 0.050 g/mL of emulsifier concentration, 0.100 g/mL of gelatin solution concentration, 1/5 of w/o ratio, 10 min of emulsifying time, and 900 r/min of the stirring speed. The GMs prepared at this condition had the smallest sizes, the narrowest size distribution, the best spherical shape, and fluidity. The w/o ratio has the same influence on particle size of GMs as that of gelatin solution concentration. With the increase of w/o ratio, the average particle sizes increased linearly, and the surface of microspheres become smoother as well. It is supposed that w/o ratio can be used to change the diameters

  15. SCAFFOLD BHA/GELATIN DENGAN PELAPIS PVA UNTUK APLIKASI IMPLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alva Edy Tontowi, MK Herliansyah, dan Punto Dewo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hard tissue defect, particularly at the bone structure, is a common problem in Indonesia causing improper function. About 60% of it is caused by defects that occur since birth, and the rest is caused by other factors, such as accidents. To treat these problems, medical doctor usually carry out transplantation or implantation. Implantation is done by filling the bone cavity with biomaterial made from Ca/P-based material, such as hydroxyapatite (HA. In the form of powder, pure HA is difficult to be formed into a certain shape and geometry since this material is brittle and has a high melting point (1400 oc, which is impossible to reach in a surgery environment. Additionally, in the form of macro-porous blocks, they are very weak and easy to break, far from the requirements. In order to form pure HA at room temperature and still fulfill the required strength, other biocompatible materials are needed. In this work, HA, gelatin and PVA were used to form samples. The HA was derived from bovine bone, bioactivity and oteoconductivity. Gelatin was used as a matrix of the composite, whilst Polyvynil Alchohol (PVA acted as a coating. The HA was derived by calcination of bovine chips at 900 oC for 2 hours, while the gelatin (G and PVA were supplied by commercial purchase. The ratio of [G/bHA] to distilled water (H2O was 30%, 40% dan 50% w/v. PVA 0.2% w/w coating was done by dipping the block in liquid nitrogen (N2. Tests were performed by DTS and microstructure analysis was carried out by SEM. The results show that sample with [G/bHA] of 50% w/v gave DTS of 6.219 MPa. This tensile strength matched the strength of human bone from a 62 year old person.  

  16. SCAFFOLD BHA/GELATIN DENGAN PELAPIS PVA UNTUK APLIKASI IMPLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alva Edy Tontowi, MK Herliansyah, dan Punto Dewo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hard tissue defect, particularly at the bone structure, is a common problem in Indonesia causing improper function. About 60% of it is caused by defects that occur since birth, and the rest is caused by other factors, such as accidents. To treat these problems, medical doctor usually carry out transplantation or implantation. Implantation is done by filling the bone cavity with biomaterial made from Ca/P-based material, such as hydroxyapatite (HA. In the form of powder, pure HA is difficult to be formed into a certain shape and geometry since this material is brittle and has a high melting point (1400 oc, which is impossible to reach in a surgery environment. Additionally, in the form of macro-porous blocks, they are very weak and easy to break, far from the requirements. In order to form pure HA at room temperature and still fulfill the required strength, other biocompatible materials are needed. In this work, HA, gelatin and PVA were used to form samples. The HA was derived from bovine bone, bioactivity and oteoconductivity. Gelatin was used as a matrix of the composite, whilst Polyvynil Alchohol (PVA acted as a coating. The HA was derived by calcination of bovine chips at 900 oC for 2 hours, while the gelatin (G and PVA were supplied by commercial purchase. The ratio of [G/bHA] to distilled water (H2O was 30%, 40% dan 50% w/v. PVA 0.2% w/w coating was done by dipping the block in liquid nitrogen (N2. Tests were performed by DTS and microstructure analysis was carried out by SEM. The results show that sample with [G/bHA] of 50% w/v gave DTS of 6.219 MPa. This tensile strength matched the strength of human bone from a 62 year old person.  

  17. Concentration-temperature superposition of helix folding rates in gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornall, J L; Terentjev, E M

    2007-07-13

    Using optical rotation as the primary technique, we have characterized the kinetics of helix renaturation in water solutions of gelatin. By covering a wide range of solution concentrations we identify a universal exponential dependence of folding rate on concentration and quench temperature. We demonstrate a new concentration-temperature superposition of data at all temperatures and concentrations, and build the corresponding master curve. The normalized rate constant is consistent with helix lengthening. Nucleation of the triple helix occurs rapidly and contributes less to the helical onset than previously thought.

  18. Mineralization, biodegradation, and drug release behavior of gelatin/apatite composite microspheres for bone regeneration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G.; Jo, J.; Wang, H.; Yamamoto, M.; Jansen, J.A.; Tabata, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Gelatin microspheres are well-known for their capacity to release growth factors in a controlled manner, but gelatin microspheres do not calcify in the absence of so-called bioactive substances that induce deposition of calcium phosphate (CaP) bone mineral. This study has investigated if CaP nanocry

  19. Study on encapsulation of chlorine dioxide in gelatin microsphere for reducing release rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ci, Ying; Wang, Lin; Guo, Yanchuan; Sun, Ruixue; Wang, Xijie; Li, Jinyou

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore the effects of encapsulation of chlorine dioxide in a hydrophilic biodegradable polymer gelatin to reduce its release rate. An emulsification-coacervation method was adopted. The characterizations of chlorine dioxide-gelatin microspheres were described. Using UV-vis spectrophotometer the λmax of chlorine dioxide was observed at 358 nm. The particle size and distribution of chlorine oxide-gelatin microspheres was measured by a dynamic light scattering (DLS) method, the diameter was (1400~1900) nm. The entrapment of chlorine dioxide-gelatin microspheres was confirmed by IR. The surface morphology, size, and shape of chlorine dioxide-gelatin microspheres were analyzed using Scanning electron microscope (SEM). It showed that the encapsulated microspheres size was around 2000 nm with uniform distribution. The percentage entrapment of chlorine dioxide in the encapsulated samples was about 80~85%. A slow release study of chlorine dioxide from the encapsulated biopolymer (gelatin) in air was also carried out, which showed continuous release up to ten days. It can be concluded that it is possible to make a slow release formulation of ClO2 by entrapped in a hydrophilic biodegradable polymer gelatin. ClO2-gelatin microspheres can stable release low concentration ClO2 gas over an extended period.

  20. Electrospun polyurethane-core and gelatin-shell coaxial fibre coatings for miniature implantable biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Burugapalli, Krishna; Wijesuriya, Shavini; Far, Mahshid Yazdi; Song, Wenhui; Moussy, Francis; Zheng, Yudong; Ma, Yanxuan; Wu, Zhentao; Li, Kang

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to introduce bioactivity to the electrospun coating for implantable glucose biosensors. Coaxial fibre membranes having polyurethane as the core and gelatin as the shell were produced using a range of polyurethane concentrations (2, 4, 6 and 8% wt/v) while keeping gelatin concentration (10% wt/v) constant in 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol. The gelatin shell was stabilized using glutaraldehyde vapour. The formation of core-shell structure was confirmed using transmission/scanning electron microscopy and FTIR. The coaxial fibre membranes showed uniaxial tensile properties intermediate to that of the pure polyurethane and the gelatin fibre membranes. The gelatin shell increased hydrophilicity and glucose transport flux across the coaxial fibre membranes. The coaxial fibre membranes having small fibre diameter (541 nm) and a thick gelatin shell (52%) did not affect the sensor sensitivity, but decreased sensor's linearity in the long run. In contrast, thicker coaxial fibre membranes (1133 nm) having a thin gelatin shell (34%) maintained both sensitivity and linearity for the 84 days of the study period. To conclude, polyurethane-gelatin coaxial fibre membranes, due to their faster permeability to glucose, tailorable mechanical properties and bioactivity, are potential candidates for coatings to favourably modify the host responses to extend the reliable in vivo lifetime of implantable glucose biosensors.

  1. Ligation of pork skin gelatin with glucose moieties affects the junction zones in gelled networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baigts Allende, Diana; Jongh, de H.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the role of the ligation of steric moieties on the formation of junction zones during network formation of gelatin gels. The molecular conformational propensities, heat stability and mechanical properties of gradually chemically modified pork skin gelatin have been

  2. Ligation of pork skin gelatin with glucose moieties affects the junction zones in gelled networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baigts Allende, Diana; Jongh, de H.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the role of the ligation of steric moieties on the formation of junction zones during network formation of gelatin gels. The molecular conformational propensities, heat stability and mechanical properties of gradually chemically modified pork skin gelatin have been

  3. Gelation, oxygen permeability and mechanical properties of mammalian and fish gelatin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the gelation, thermal, mechanical and oxygen permeability properties of different mammalian, warm- and cold-water fish gelatin solutions and films. Mammalian gelatin solutions had the highest gel set temperatures, followed by warm-water fish and then cold-...

  4. Utilization of agricultural by-products to supplement gelatin in preparation of products for leather

    Science.gov (United States)

    When polyphenolic-modified gelatin-products were used as fillers, improvements were seen in the subjective properties of the leather. When the treated samples were compared to control samples, there were no significant changes in mechanical properties. Gelatin is in high demand and short supply, a...

  5. Utilization of agricultural by-products to partially replace gelatin in preparation of products for leather

    Science.gov (United States)

    When polyphenolic-modified gelatin-products were used as fillers, improvements were seen in the subjective properties of the leather. When the treated samples were compared to control samples, there were no significant changes in mechanical properties. At the present time, gelatin is in short supp...

  6. Biomimetic Synthesis of Gelatin Polypeptide-Assisted Noble-Metal Nanoparticles and Their Interaction Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Ying

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Herein, the generation of gold, silver, and silver–gold (Ag–Au bimetallic nanoparticles was carried out in collagen (gelatin solution. It first showed that the major ingredient in gelatin polypeptide, glutamic acid, acted as reducing agent to biomimetically synthesize noble metal nanoparticles at 80°C. The size of nanoparticles can be controlled not only by the mass ratio of gelatin to gold ion but also by pH of gelatin solution. Interaction between noble-metal nanoparticles and polypeptide has been investigated by TEM, UV–visible, fluorescence spectroscopy, and HNMR. This study testified that the degradation of gelatin protein could not alter the morphology of nanoparticles, but it made nanoparticles aggregated clusters array (opposing three-dimensional α-helix folding structure into isolated nanoparticles stabilized by gelatin residues. This is a promising merit of gelatin to apply in the synthesis of nanoparticles. Therefore, gelatin protein is an excellent template for biomimetic synthesis of noble metal/bimetallic nanoparticle growth to form nanometer-sized device.

  7. Gelatin Scaffolds with Controlled Pore Structure and Mechanical Property for Cartilage Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shangwu; Zhang, Qin; Nakamoto, Tomoko; Kawazoe, Naoki; Chen, Guoping

    2016-03-01

    Engineering of cartilage tissue in vitro using porous scaffolds and chondrocytes provides a promising approach for cartilage repair. However, nonuniform cell distribution and heterogeneous tissue formation together with weak mechanical property of in vitro engineered cartilage limit their clinical application. In this study, gelatin porous scaffolds with homogeneous and open pores were prepared using ice particulates and freeze-drying. The scaffolds were used to culture bovine articular chondrocytes to engineer cartilage tissue in vitro. The pore structure and mechanical property of gelatin scaffolds could be well controlled by using different ratios of ice particulates to gelatin solution and different concentrations of gelatin. Gelatin scaffolds prepared from ≥70% ice particulates enabled homogeneous seeding of bovine articular chondrocytes throughout the scaffolds and formation of homogeneous cartilage extracellular matrix. While soft scaffolds underwent cellular contraction, stiff scaffolds resisted cellular contraction and had significantly higher cell proliferation and synthesis of sulfated glycosaminoglycan. Compared with the gelatin scaffolds prepared without ice particulates, the gelatin scaffolds prepared with ice particulates facilitated formation of homogeneous cartilage tissue with significantly higher compressive modulus. The gelatin scaffolds with highly open pore structure and good mechanical property can be used to improve in vitro tissue-engineered cartilage.

  8. Gelatinous zooplankton assemblages in temperate coastal waters - seasonal variations (Gulf of Trieste, Adriatic Sea):

    OpenAIRE

    Malej, Alenka; Miloš, Čarna

    2005-01-01

    Gelatinous plankton composition, abundance, biomass and their seasonality was studied in the Gulf of Trieste (Adriatic Sea) over a yearly cycle. The most diversive gelatinous groups were Hydromedusae with 14 species, followed by Siphonophora (six species), Appendicularia (five species), Chaetognatha (two species), and Thaliacea (one species)....

  9. Influence of monoglycerides on the gelatinization and enzymatic breakdown of wheat and cassava starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lonkhuysen, H. van; Blankestijn, J.

    1976-01-01

    The influence of monoglycerides on the flocculation and gelatinization of suspensions of wheat starch and cassava starch was studied. The sedimentation volumes of native and gelatinized starch with and without added monoglycerides were measured and the quantity of bound monoglycerides was

  10. Pemisahan krom pada limbah cair industri penyamakan kulit menggunakan gelatin dan flokulan anorganik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugihartono

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to determine the ability of gelatin, ferrous sulfate, aluminium sulfate, and combination of gelatin with ferrous sulfate or aluminium sulfate for total chromium content (trivalent chromium and hexavalent chromium separation from tannery wastewater. Reduction of total chromium content in the wastewater was conducted using combination of gelatin and ferrous sulfate or gelatin and aluminium sulfate with a ratio of 4:0; 3:1; 2:2; 1:3; and 0:4 (w/w. The results showed that gelatin, ferrous sulfate, and aluminium sulfate, were able to reduce total chromium content in the wastewater. Combination of gelatin/ferrous sulfate or gelatin/aluminium sulfate as flocculants provide synergistic work in reducing the total chromium content. A 94.75% removal of total chromium content was achieved by combining gelatine and aluminium sulfate with a ratio of 3:1, clearer wastewater, and followed by reduction of degree of turbidity up to 74.47%. The total chromium content after treatment was 0.61 ppm, which met the requirements of wastewater for business and or daily activities especially for tanning industry.

  11. The microstructure and rheology of homogeneous and phase separated gelatine gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ersch, C.; Linden, E. van der; Venema, P.; Martin, A.

    2016-01-01

    The gelation of gelatine in mixtures of gelatine (type A or type B) and globular proteins (Whey Protein Isolate (WPI), Whey Protein Aggregates (WPA) and Soy Protein Isolate (SPI)) was studied with a focus on their phase separation during gelation. Confocal laser scanning microscopy, visual observati

  12. The microstructure and rheology of homogeneous and phase separated gelatine gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ersch, Carsten; Linden, van der Erik; Venema, Paul; Martin, Anneke

    2016-01-01

    The gelation of gelatine in mixtures of gelatine (type A or type B) and globular proteins (Whey Protein Isolate (WPI), Whey Protein Aggregates (WPA) and Soy Protein Isolate (SPI)) was studied with a focus on their phase separation during gelation. Confocal laser scanning microscopy, visual observ

  13. The formation of light-induced gratings in the rigid eosine K solution in gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorob'ev, A. A.; Kolchanova, S. A.; Sizykh, A. G.; Sul'Kis, I. G.

    1992-03-01

    The mechanism of the formation of light-induced amplitude gratings in the rigid eosine K solution in gelatin is investigated. It is shown that spatial modulation of the absorptance of the recording medium is caused by the transformation of the dye into a colorless form in the process of photosensitized proton transfer from gelatin to the eosine.

  14. In vivo compatibility and degradation of crosslinked gelatin gels incorporated in knitted Dacron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, AJ; van Wachem, PB; van Luyn, MJA; Plantinga, JA; Engbers, GHM; Krijgsveld, J; Zaat, SAJ; Feijen, J

    2000-01-01

    Gelatin gels were applied to porous Dacron meshes with the aim of using these gels for local drug delivery. in this article, the biocompatibility and degradation of gelatin gels with different crosslink densities applied in Dacron were studied in vivo by subcutaneous implantation in rats. Dacron dis

  15. In vivo compatibility and degradation of crosslinked gelatin gels incorporated in knitted Dacron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, A.J.; Wachem, van P.B.; Luyn, van M.J.A.; Plantinga, J.A.; Engbers, G.H.M.; Krijgsveld, J.; Zaat, S.A.J.; Dankert, J.; Feijen, J.

    2000-01-01

    Gelatin gels were applied to porous Dacron meshes with the aim of using these gels for local drug delivery. In this article, the biocompatibility and degradation of gelatin gels with different crosslink densities applied in Dacron were studied in vivo by subcutaneous implantation in rats. Dacron dis

  16. Composite gels structured by a gelatin protein matrix filled with oil bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirimlidou, Miro; Matsakidou, Anthia; Scholten, Elke; Nikiforidis, Constantinos V.; Kiosseoglou, Vassilios

    2017-01-01

    Oil body extracts from sesame seeds and hazelnuts were subjected to centrifugation to recover oil body concentrated creams, which were then suitably diluted with gelatin solutions to prepare mixtures of 25.0. wt% of oil and 2.0-6.0. wt% of gelatin. The gelling behaviour of the mixtures was followed

  17. Antibiotic-releasing porous polymethylmethacrylate/gelatin/antibiotic constructs for craniofacial tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Meng; Kretlow, James D; Spicer, Patrick P; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Demian, Nagi; Wong, Mark E; Kasper, F Kurtis; Mikos, Antonios G

    2011-05-30

    An antibiotic-releasing porous polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) construct was developed to maintain the bony space and prime the wound site in the initial step of a two-stage regenerative medicine approach toward reconstructing significant bony or composite craniofacial tissue defects. Porous PMMA constructs incorporating gelatin microparticles (GMPs) were fabricated by the sequential assembly of GMPs, the antibiotic colistin, and a clinically used bone cement formulation of PMMA powder and methylmethacrylate liquid. PMMA/gelatin/antibiotic constructs with varying gelatin incorporation and drug content were investigated to elucidate the relationship between material composition and construct properties (porosity and drug release kinetics). The porosity of PMMA/gelatin/antibiotic constructs ranged between 7.6±1.8% and 38.4±1.4% depending on the amount of gelatin incorporated and the drug solution added for gelatin swelling. The constructs released colistin over 10 or 14 days with an average release rate per day above 10 μg/ml. The porosity and in vitro colistin release kinetics of PMMA/gelatin/antibiotic constructs were tuned by varying the material composition and fabrication parameters. This study demonstrates the potential of gelatin-incorporating PMMA constructs as a functional space maintainer for both promoting tissue healing/coverage and addressing local infections, enabling better long-term success of the definitive regenerated tissue construct. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of high molecular weight plasticizers on the gelatinization of starch under static and shear conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Ata; Favis, Basil D

    2013-02-15

    Starch gelatinization in the presence of high molecular weight polyol plasticizers and water was studied under static and dynamic conditions and was compared to a glycerol reference. For static gelatinization, glycerol, sorbitol, diglycerol and polyglycerol were examined using polarized light microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. A wide range of starch/water/plasticizer compositions were prepared to explore the gelatinization regime for each plasticizer. The plasticizers show that the onset and conclusion temperatures for sorbitol and glycerol are in the same range and are lower than the other two plasticizers. On the other hand, polyglycerol shows a higher gelatinization temperature than diglycerol because of its higher molecular weight and viscosity. The results indicate that in the case of all plasticizers, increasing the water content tends to decrease the gelatinization temperature and, except for polyglycerol, increasing the plasticizer content increases the gelatinization temperature. In the case of polyglycerol, however, increasing the plasticizer content had the opposite effect and this was found to be related to the borderline solubility of polyglycerol in water. When the polyglycerol/water solubility was increased by increasing the temperature of the water/plasticizer/starch slurry, the gelatinization temperature dependence was found to be similar to the other polyols. A rheological technique was developed to study the dynamic gelatinization process by tracking the influence of shear on the complex viscosity in a couette flow system. Glycerol, diglycerol and sorbitol were subjected to different dynamic gelatinization treatments and the results were compared with static gelatinization. It is quantitatively shown that shear has a major effect on the gelatinization process. The conclusion temperature of gelatinization is significantly diminished (up to 21 °C) in the presence of shear whereas the onset temperature of gelatinization remains

  19. Preparation of gelatin-assisted polypyrrole-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Eun Jin; Male, Umashankar; Huh, Do Sung [Dept.of Chemistry and Nanosystem Engineering, Center for Nano Manufacturing, Inje University, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Conductive polymer composite was synthesized by the polymerization of pyrrole with 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene using ammonium persulfate as an oxidant with different concentrations of gelatin dispersed in aqueous medium along with the polymerization. Differently from pure polypyrrole–poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PPy–PEDOT) copolymer, the gelatin-assisted composites showed good solubility in aqueous media. The prepared PPy–PEDOT/gelatin composites were identified with Fourier-transform infrared, UV–visible spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Morphological analysis and temperature-dependent direct current conductivity of PPy–PEDOT/gelatin composites were carried out. Obtained results revealed that added gelatin greatly increased conductivity due to the improved mobility of charge carriers.

  20. Genotype diversity in structure of amylopectin of waxy rice and its influence on gelatinization properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jheng-Hua; Singh, Harinder; Ciao, Jhih-Ying; Kao, Wen-Tzu; Huang, Wei-Hsiang; Chang, Yung-Ho

    2013-02-15

    A set of 13 waxy rice genotypes prepared by chemically-induced mutation of non-waxy rice variety TNG67 and 7 waxy rice varieties widely planted in Taiwan were screened for various structural and gelatinization properties of starches. Wide variation on physicochemical properties and molecular structure of amylopectin for the 20 waxy rice starches were obtained and relationship between gelatinization properties and molecular structure of starch were discussed. More attributes on swelling and gelatinization thermal properties, comparing to pasting attributes, showed significant correlation with molecular structure parameters. The swelling and gelatinization thermal properties of waxy rice starch did not show significant correlation with molecular size of amylopectin, while significant correlations were found between the swelling or gelatinization thermal properties and chain length of amylopectin. Results suggest that the swelling and pasting of waxy starch is essentially dominated by granule architecture and is dependent on the interactions among amylopectin chains. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Determination of the gelatinization temperature of starches via thermoanalytical and rheological methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szepes, Aniko; Fehér, András; Eros, István; Szabóné, Révész Piroska

    2007-01-01

    This work provides a short review concerning the measuring techniques frequently applied to characterize the gelatinization behaviour of starches. The aim of the experiments was to determine the gelatinization temperatures of maize (A-type) and potato (B-type) starches via isothermal microcalorimetry and rheological methods (rotational viscosimetry and dynamic oscillatory testing). A significant difference was observed between the gelatinization temperatures of the aqueous starch suspensions, which can be attributed to the structural differences between A-type and B-type starches. Comparison of the applied measuring methods revealed a close correlation between the experimental data obtained by isothermal microcalorimetry and oscillatory testing, while rotational viscosimetry overestimated the gelatinization temperature. Additionally dynamic oscillatory tests provided valuable information not only on the gelatinization point, but also on the pasting temperature of the starch suspensions.

  2. Investigation of Gelatin Polypeptides of Jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum for Their Antioxidant Activity in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Liang Zhuang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Jellyfish gelatin was hydrolyzed by different proteases to obtain antioxidative polypeptides. The gelatin hydrolysate obtained by progressive hydrolysis using trypsin and Properase E exhibited the highest hydrolysis degree and antioxidant activity. Three series of gelatin polypeptides (SCP1, SCP2 and SCP3 were obtained by ultrafiltrating the gelatin hydrolysate through molecular mass cut-off membranes of 10, 6 and 2 kDa, respectively. Amino acid composition analysis showed that SCP3 had the highest total hydrophobic amino acid content. The in vitro antioxidant tests demonstrated that SCP2 had the strongest hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities and metal chelating ability, while SCP3 showed the highest reducing power, antioxidant activity in linoleic acid emulsion system and superoxide anion radical scavenging activity. The results support the feasibility of jellyfish gelatin as a natural antioxidant polypeptide provider, and enzymatic hydrolysis and ultrafiltration could be potent future processing technologies to utilize the abundant jellyfish resource.

  3. Gelatin increases the coarseness of whey protein gels and impairs water exudation from the mixed gel at low temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, A.H.; Bakhuizen, E.; Ersch, C.; Urbonaite, V.; Jongh, H.H.J. de; Pouvreau, L.

    2016-01-01

    To understand the origin of water holding of mixed protein gels, a study was performed on water exudation from mixed whey protein (WP)-gelatin gels upon applied pressure. Mixed gels were prepared with varying WP and gelatin concentration and gelatin type to obtain gels with a wide range of gel

  4. Effects of chicken by-product gelatin on the physicochemical properties and texture of chocolate spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Poliana Fernandes; Lannes, Suzana Caetano da Silva

    2017-10-01

    Chocolate spread has a fat-based formulation and the application of gelatin as a fat replacement is related to the demand for healthier foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of gelatin as a by-product from the poultry industry in the fat replacement of chocolate spread. Vegetable fat was replaced (15, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) with gelatin (0.3, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2%) using a central composite rotatable design and the effects were evaluated by a response surface methodology. Formulations with a greater proportion of fat were lighter, of higher volume and lower density. As expected, water activity was intensified in low-fat formulations. The consistency was controlled mainly by the properties of the gelatin phase. The formulations with 50 and 75% fat replacement and 0.5-1.0% gelatin had satisfactory spreadability at 10C. All formulations were spreadable at 20C. Low-fat samples with low gelatin concentrations, at 30C, had very low consistency. Statistically, the properties were significantly influenced by the factors analyzed according to the mathematical models. Although several studies have been conducted on obtaining alternative gelatin sources for mammals, the extracted gelatin from poultry by-product is still little explored and the knowledge on the application in food products, particularly in complex systems such as emulsions, has not been well established. The development of a low-fat food should take into account the complexity of the system involved, such as the emulsion spreads. The incorporation of gelatin in aqueous solution is a challenging task because the physical properties and the rheological behavior can be strongly influenced. Given the nutritional and functional properties of the gelatin and chocolate and its wide acceptability among the consumers, the incorporation of these two ingredients in the development of a new product sets up a promising study. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Microscopic Structures of Endosperms Before and After Gelatinization in Rice Varieties with Varied Grain Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ze-min; WANG Wei-jin; LAN Sheng-yin; XU Zhen-xiu; ZHOU Zhu-qing; WANG Meng

    2003-01-01

    The microscopic structures of the endosperm of indica rice varieties with different quality be-fore and after gelatinization were observed using scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the de-gree of gelatinization varied in different parts of the grain and in different varieties under the same experimen-tal conditions. The gelatinization of dorsal side was the most complete. Its cells were decomposed totally intopuff-like or flocculent materials. The ventral side gelatinized less thoroughly, appearing agglomerate and somecell frames were still visible. The middle part gelatinized most incompletely and the cells were still integrated.Evident differences in gelatinization were observed among different varieties, the dorsal, ventral and middleparts of high quality varieties gelatinized more thoroughly than those of the corresponding parts of low qualityvarieties respectively. An obvious concavity often appeared in the middle of the cross-section of the low qualitygrains while the cross-section of high quality grains was normally flat. The same phenomenon was noted whencomparing the early maturing indica rice and the late maturing indica rice. Varietal difference of gelatiniza-tion in dorsal sides was not as distinct as in middle parts and ventral sides. The difference among dorsal side,middle part and ventral side in gelatinization was greater in low quality grains than that of high quality grains.In addition, a lot of ruptured cells were observed in the cross-section of high quality rice, while few of themcould be found in the low quality rice. Apparently, the number of ruptured cells is positively correlated withrice quality. Quality of rice grain also has positive correlation with the rate of water absorption and extension. Highrates of water absorption and extension lead to better gelatinization of rice grain, and hence indicate good quality.

  6. Preparation and characteristics of gelatin sponges crosslinked by microbial transglutaminase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Long

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Microbial transglutaminase (mTG was used as a crosslinking agent in the preparation of gelatin sponges. The physical properties of the materials were evaluated by measuring their material porosity, water absorption, and elastic modulus. The stability of the sponges were assessed via hydrolysis and enzymolysis. To study the material degradation in vivo, subcutaneous implantations of sponges were performed on rats for 1–3 months, and the implanted sponges were analyzed. To evaluate the cell compatibility of the mTG crosslinked gelatin sponges (mTG sponges, adipose-derived stromal stem cells were cultured and inoculated into the scaffold. Cell proliferation and viability were measured using alamarBlue assay and LIVE/DEAD fluorescence staining, respectively. Cell adhesion on the sponges was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Results show that mTG sponges have uniform pore size, high porosity and water absorption, and good mechanical properties. In subcutaneous implantation, the material was partially degraded in the first month and completely absorbed in the third month. Cell experiments showed evident cell proliferation and high viability. Results also showed that the cells grew vigorously and adhered tightly to the sponge. In conclusion, mTG sponge has good biocompatibility and can be used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  7. Inhibition of ice crystal growth in ice cream mix by gelatin hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodaran, Srinivasan

    2007-12-26

    The inhibition of ice crystal growth in ice cream mix by gelatin hydrolysate produced by papain action was studied. The ice crystal growth was monitored by thermal cycling between -14 and -12 degrees C at a rate of one cycle per 3 min. It is shown that the hydrolysate fraction containing peptides in the molecular weight range of about 2000-5000 Da exhibited the highest inhibitory activity on ice crystal growth in ice cream mix, whereas fractions containing peptides greater than 7000 Da did not inhibit ice crystal growth. The size distribution of gelatin peptides formed in the hydrolysate was influenced by the pH of hydrolysis. The optimum hydrolysis conditions for producing peptides with maximum ice crystal growth inhibitory activity was pH 7 at 37 degrees C for 10 min at a papain to gelatin ratio of 1:100. However, this may depend on the type and source of gelatin. The possible mechanism of ice crystal growth inhibition by peptides from gelatin is discussed. Molecular modeling of model gelatin peptides revealed that they form an oxygen triad plane at the C-terminus with oxygen-oxygen distances similar to those found in ice nuclei. Binding of this oxygen triad plane to the prism face of ice nuclei via hydrogen bonding appears to be the mechanism by which gelatin hydrolysate might be inhibiting ice crystal growth in ice cream mix.

  8. Biocompatibility Studies on Bone Marrow Stromal Cells with Chitosan-gelatin Blends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Cao; YANG Shu-hua; DU Jing-yuan; XIAO Bao-jun; YE Shu-nan

    2004-01-01

    To study the effect of chitosan-gelatin blends on the growth and proliferation of in vitro cultured bone marrow stromal cells(BMSCs) and explore a new carrier for the application of tissure engineering, cells from long bones of young rabbitsaged less than two weeks were expanded in vitro for one week and seeded onto the surface of pure chitosan and chitosan-gelatin blends. Cells attached to and proliferated on both pure chitosan and chitosan-gelatin blends were monitored with the aid of an inverted light microscope and a scanning electron microscope. The cell viability was monitored by MTT after 2, 4, 6, 8 days seeding. BMSCs could be attached to and proliferated on both pure chitosan and chitosan-gelatin blends and remain their morphologies seen in vivo. Chitosan-gelatin blends could promote BMSCs to proliferate(P<0.01). It is confirmed that chitosan-gelatin blends maintain the bioactivity feature of chitosan and even enhance the growth and proliferation of in vitro cultured BMSCs because of the adding of gelatin. It is a potential carrier for the delivery of cells tissue engineering.

  9. Electrospun PGA/gelatin nanofibrous scaffolds and their potential application in vascular tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peirovi H

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hadi Hajiali1, Shapour Shahgasempour1, M Reza Naimi-Jamal2, Habibullah Peirovi11Nanomedicine and Tissue Engineering Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences; 2Department of Chemistry, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, IranBackground and methods: In this study, gelatin was blended with polyglycolic acid (PGA at different ratios (0, 10, 30, and 50 wt% and electrospun. The morphology and structure of the scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. The mechanical properties were also measured by the tensile test. Furthermore, for biocompatibility assessment, human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells were cultured on these scaffolds, and cell attachment and viability were evaluated.Results: PGA with 10 wt% gelatin enhanced the endothelial cells whilst PGA with 30 wt% gelatin increased smooth muscle cell adhesion, penetration, and viability compared with the other scaffold blends. Additionally, with the increase in gelatin content, the mechanical properties of the scaffolds were improved due to interaction between PGA and gelatin, as revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry.Conclusion: Incorporation of gelatin improves the biological and mechanical properties of PGA, making promising scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering.Keywords: polyglycolic acid, gelatin, nanofiber, vascular tissue engineering, biocompatible scaffold 

  10. Recrystallization characteristics of high hydrostatic pressure gelatinized normal and waxy corn starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenhao; Tian, Xiaoling; Wang, Peng; Saleh, Ahmed S M; Luo, Qingui; Zheng, Jianmei; Ouyang, Shaohui; Zhang, Guoquan

    2016-02-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) can lead to starch gelatinization at room temperature, while the retrogradation mechanism of HHP gelatinized starch is not well known. HHP gelatinized normal and waxy corn starches were stored at room temperature for 192 h in order to investigate the retrogradation characteristics. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM), polarised light microscopy and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis showed that the pressurization of normal and waxy corn starch suspensions with concentration of 30% (w/v) at 600 MPa for 15 min resulted in a complete gelatinization. In addition, the pressure-gelatinized normal and waxy corn starch gels were stored and subjected to X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, resistant starch content determination, swelling power and pasting behavior. The retrograded normal maize and waxy maize starch showed a substantial loss of A-type crystallinity. Both pressure-gelatinized normal and waxy corn starches showed an increase in resistant starch content and relative crystallinity degree with the increase of storage time. In addition, restricted starch swelling power and lower pasting viscosities were observed for these two retrograded starches. The amylose molecule within starch granules has been regarded as the main factor to affect the structural and physicochemical properties during the retrogradation process of HHP-gelatinized starch granules.

  11. Comparison of cell behavior on pva/pva-gelatin electrospun nanofibers with random and aligned configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen-Yu; Hu, Keng-Hsiang; Wei, Zung-Hang

    2016-12-01

    Electrospinning technique is able to create nanofibers with specific orientation. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) have good mechanical stability but poor cell adhesion property due to the low affinity of protein. In this paper, extracellular matrix, gelatin is incorporated into PVA solution to form electrospun PVA-gelatin nanofibers membrane. Both randomly oriented and aligned nanofibers are used to investigate the topography-induced behavior of fibroblasts. Surface morphology of the fibers is studied by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with image analysis. Functional group composition in PVA or PVA-gelatin is investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). The morphological changes, surface coverage, viability and proliferation of fibroblasts influenced by PVA and PVA-gelatin nanofibers with randomly orientated or aligned configuration are systematically compared. Fibroblasts growing on PVA-gelatin fibers show significantly larger projected areas as compared with those cultivated on PVA fibers which p-value is smaller than 0.005. Cells on PVA-gelatin aligned fibers stretch out extensively and their intracellular stress fiber pull nucleus to deform. Results suggest that instead of the anisotropic topology within the scaffold trigger the preferential orientation of cells, the adhesion of cell membrane to gelatin have substantial influence on cellular behavior.

  12. Basic Evaluation of Gelatinous Fat to Improve Properties of Nursing Care Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Junya; Noda, Ryuji; Watanabe, Shinji; Aoyama, Toshiaki; Sato, Yukinori; Kayashita, Jun; Muto, Norio

    2015-01-01

    Nursing care food, made smooth and soft by adding a substantial amount of water, has been provided to elderly people who exhibit a decline in chewing and swallowing function. However, this is associated with problems such as an increase in the volume of meals and a decrease in the nutritional value per unit weight, causing malnutrition. To resolve these issues, we aimed to develop gelatinous fat suitable for processing nursing care food. We compared several types of oil and fat including this gelatinous fat using rheology measurement and sensory evaluation. In the measurement of fat alone using a dynamic viscoelastometer, the gelatinous fat had the highest values of storage elastic modulus (G') and loss elastic modulus (G") at the predetermined ranges of temperature and frequency. In the measurement of fat mixed with food using a creep meter, the gelatinous fat showed a significantly lower level of firmness and a higher level of cohesiveness than other types of fat. In the sensory evaluation, food processed with gelatinous fat was evaluated to be better than food processed with no addition or the addition of another type of fat in terms of softness, smoothness, low feeling of residual food, and palatability. These results suggest that the newly developed gelatinous fat is most suitable for nursing care food processing among the types of fat examined. It is expected that nursing care food processed with gelatinous fat can facilitate the consumption of food with high energy and reduce the risk of malnutrition in the elderly.

  13. Evaluation of hemocompatibility and endothelialization of hybrid poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/gelatin polymer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ino, Julia M; Sju, Ervi; Ollivier, Véronique; Yim, Evelyn K F; Letourneur, Didier; Le Visage, Catherine

    2013-11-01

    Engineered grafts are still needed for small diameter blood vessels reconstruction. Ideal materials would prevent thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia by displaying hemocompatibility and mechanical properties close to those of native vessels. In this study, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/gelatin blends were investigated as a potential vascular support scaffold. We modified a chemically crosslinked PVA hydrogel by incorporation of gelatin to improve endothelial cell attachment with a single-step method. A series of crosslinked PVA/gelatin films with specific ratios set at 100:0, 99:1, 95:5, and 90:10 (w/w) were prepared and their mechanical properties were examined by uniaxial tensile testing. Tubes, obtained from sutured films, were found highly compliant (3.1-4.6%) and exhibited sufficient mechanical strength to sustain hemodynamic strains. PVA-based hydrogels maintained low level of platelet adhesion and low thrombogenic potential. Endothelial cell adhesion and proliferation were drastically improved on PVA/gelatin films with a feed gelatin content as low as 1% (w/w), leading to the formation of a confluent endothelium. Hydrogels with higher gelatin content did not sustain complete endothelialization because of modifications of the film surface, including phase segregation and formation of microdomains. Thus, PVA/gelatin (99:1, w/w) hydrogels appear as promising materials for the design of endothelialized vascular materials with long-term patency.

  14. Development of valsartan-loaded gelatin microcapsule without crystal change using hydroxypropylmethylcellulose as a stabilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong Xun; Yan, Yi Dong; Oh, Dong Hoon; Yang, Kwan Yeol; Seo, Yoon Gi; Kim, Jong Oh; Kim, Yong-Il; Yong, Chul Soon; Choi, Han-Gon

    2010-07-01

    To develop a valsartan-loaded gelatin microcapsule using hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) as a stabilizer, which could improve the physical stability and bioavailability of valsartan, the gelatin microcapsules were prepared with various ratios of gelatin and HPMC using a spray-drying technique. Their solubility, dissolution, thermal characteristics, crystallinity, and physical stability were investigated. The bioavailability of drug in valsartan-loaded microcapsule was then evaluated compared to drug powder and commercial product in rats. The microcapsule with gelatin and/or HPMC enhanced the solubility and dissolution of drug compared to valsartan powder. Among the formulations tested, the valsartan-loaded gelatin microcapsule at the weight ratio of valsartan/gelatin/HPMC of 1/2/1 gave excellent drug solubility of approximately 2 microg/ml and dissolution of 70% at 1 h. The crystal state of valsartan in this microcapsule was changed from crystalline to amorphous form during the spray-drying process and maintained as an amorphous form at 40 degrees C for at least 3 months, indicating that it was physically stable. HPMC in this microcapsule could inhibit the recrystallization, resulting in stabilizing the amorphous form of valsartan. Furthermore, it improved the oral bioavailability of valsartan compared to valsartan powder and gave the similar AUC, C(max), and T(max) values to commercial product, suggesting that it was bioequivalent to commercial product in rats. Thus, the gelatin microcapsule with HPMC would be a more effective and stable oral delivery system of poorly water-soluble valsartan.

  15. Solvation dynamics of DCM in a polypeptide-surfactant aggregate: gelatin-sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Arnab; Sen, Pratik; Burman, Anupam Das; Bhattacharyya, Kankan

    2004-02-03

    Solvation dynamics of 4-(dicyanomethylidene)-2-[p-(dimethylamino)styryl]-6-methyl-4H-pyran (DCM) is studied in a polypeptide-surfactant aggregate consisting of gelatin and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KP) buffer. The average solvation time (tauS) in gelatin-SDS aggregate at 45 degrees C is found to be 1780 ps, which is about 13 times slower than that in 15 mM SDS in KP buffer at the same temperature. The fluorescence anisotropy decay in gelatin-SDS aggregate is also different from that in SDS micelles in KP buffer. DCM displays negligible emission in the presence of gelatin in aqueous solution. Thus the solvation dynamics in the presence of gelatin and SDS is exclusively due to the probe (DCM) molecules at the gelatin-micelle interface. The slow solvation dynamics is ascribed to the restrictions imposed on the water molecules trapped between the polypeptide chain and micellar aggregates. The critical association concentration (cac) of SDS for gelatin is determined to be 0.5 +/- 0.1 mM.

  16. VAPOR MIXER FOR GELATINIZATION OF STARCH IN LIQUEFYING STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ananskikh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Starch hydrolysis is main technological process in production of starch sweeteners. Acid hydrolysis of starch using hydrochloric acid is carried out very fast but it does not allow to carry out full hydrolysis and to produce products with given carbohydrate composition. Bioconversion of starch allows to eliminate these limitations. At production of starch sweeteners from starch using enzymes starch hydrolysis is carried out in two stages At first starch – starch liquefaction the rapid increase of viscosity takes place which requires intensive mixing. Liquefying station consists of jet-cooker, holder, pressure regulator and evaporator. Jet-cooker of starch is its main part, starch is quickly turns into soluble (gelatinized state and it is partially liquefied by injection of starch suspension by flow of water vapor under pressure not less than 0,8 MPa. Heat and hydraulic calculation were carried out in order to determine constructive sizes of mixer for cooking of starch. The main hydraulic definable parameters are pressure drop in mixer, vapor pressure at mixer inlet, daily capacity of station by glucose syrup M, product consumption (starch suspension, diameter of inlet section of vapor nozzle. The goal of calculation was to determine vapor consumption M1, diameter d2 of outlet section of confuser injector, length l2 of gelatinization section. For heat calculation there was used Shukhov’s formula along with heat balance equation for gelatinization process. The numerical solution obtained with adopted assumptions given in applied mathematical package MATHCAD, for M = 50 t/day gives required daily vapor consumption M1 = 14,446 т. At hydraulic calculation of pressure drop in mixer there was used Bernoulli’s theorem. Solving obtained equations using MATHCAD found diameter of outlet section of consufer d2 = 0,023 м, vapor pressure inside of mixer p2 = 3,966·105 Па, l2 = 0,128 м. Developed method of calculation is used to determine

  17. Curcumin-Loaded Chitosan/Gelatin Composite Sponge for Wound Healing Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Cuong Nguyen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three composite sponges were made with 10% of curcumin and by using polymers, namely, chitosan and gelatin with various ratios. The chemical structure and morphology were evaluated by FTIR and SEM. These sponges were evaluated for water absorption capacity, antibacterial activity, in vitro drug release, and in vivo wound healing studies by excision wound model using rabbits. The in vivo study presented a greater wound closure in wounds treated with curcumin-composite sponge than those with composite sponge without curcumin and untreated group. These obtained results showed that combination of curcumin, chitosan and gelatin could improve the wound healing activity in comparison to chitosan, and gelatin without curcumin.

  18. Morphological, thermal and annealed microhardness characterization of gelatin based interpenetrating networks of polyacrylonitrile: A hard biopolymer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sangita Rajvaidya; R Bajpai; A K Bajpai

    2005-10-01

    The present paper reports the preparation of full IPNs of gelatin and polyacrylonitrile. Various compositions of gluteraldehyde crosslinked gelatin and N,N′-methylene-bis-acrylamide crosslinked PAN were characterized by SEM and DSC techniques. The IPNs were also thermally pretreated by the annealing process. The effects of annealing temperature on the microhardness of IPNs were studied using the Vickers method. SEM indicates the homogeneous morphological features for IPN. The role of gelatin, AN and crosslinker on the developed hard biopolymer has been described with the help of DSC thermograms and microhardness measurements of annealed specimens and good correlation is observed.

  19. 2-hydroxyethyl metahcrylate/gelatin based superporous hydrogels for tissue regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomić, Simonida Lj.; Babić, Marija M.; Vuković, Jovana S.; Perišić, Marija D.; Filipović, Vuk V.; Davidović, Sladjana Z.; Filipović, Jovanka M.

    2016-05-01

    In this study, superporous hydrogels were synthesized by free radical polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate without and in the presence of gelatin. Highly porous hydrogel structures were obtained by two different techniques: using a gas blowing agent, sodium bicarbonate, and a cryogenic treatment followed by freeze-drying. After the gel synthesis, gelatin molecules were covalently immobilised onto PHEMA via glytaraldehyde activation. All samples were characterized for morphological, mechanical, swelling and antibacterial properties. The results obtained show that samples with gelatin show better properties in comparison with PHEMA samples, which make these materials highly attractive for developing hydrogel scaffolds for tissue regeneration.

  20. Regulatory effect of porcine plasma protein hydrolysates on pasting and gelatinization action of corn starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Baohua; Niu, Haili; Sun, Fangda; Han, Jianchun; Liu, Qian

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the regulatory effect of porcine plasma protein hydrolysates (PPPH) on the physicochemical, pasting, and gelatinization properties of corn starch (CS). The results showed that the solubility of CS markedly increased, whereas swelling power and gel penetration force decreased with increased PPPH concentration (Pgelatinization temperature as determined in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) (Pgelatinization. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images indicated that the blocklet sizes of gelatinized CS-PPPH mixtures were smaller and more uniform than native CS. The results proved that pasting and gelatinization abilities of CS can be effectively influenced by adding PPPH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Preparation and characterization of bionanocomposite film based ontapioca starch/bovine gelatin/nanorod zinc oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehdi Marvizadeh, Mohammad; Oladzadabbasabadi, Nazila; Mohammadi Nafchi, Abdorreza

    2017-01-01

    To exploring a nano-packaging materials for using as coating or edible films, tapioca starch/gelatin/nanorod ZnO (ZnOsingle bondN) bionanocomposites were prepared via solution casting technique. The effects of nanofiller addition on the mechanical, physicochemical, and crystalline structures.......5% ZnOsingle bondN into biopolymer matrix. In summary combined starch/gelatin films supported by ZnOsingle bondN showed better properties compared to starch or gelatin alone. Thus, the bionanocomposite films can be used in food, medicine, and pharmaceutical packaging....

  2. Universal kinetics of helix-coil transition in gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornall, J L; Terentjev, E M

    2008-03-01

    By covering a much wider concentration range than previous studies we find a very unusual exponential dependence of the rate of helix formation on concentration of gelatin in water and ethylene glycol solutions. By applying a procedure of concentration-temperature superposition we build a master curve describing the initial renaturation rates in both solvents. The growth of the normalized helical fraction chi(t) is a first-order process, with a rate constant consistent with cis-trans isomerization, in most situations. We propose that association of three separate chains to form a triple helical nucleus occurs rapidly and contributes less to the helical onset than previously thought. The measured helix content is a result of lengthening of the triple helix after nucleation, by zipping from the associated nuclei.

  3. Dichromatic laser photolysis of eosin in solid gelatinous matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizykh, A. G.; Slyusareva, E. A.

    2004-05-01

    The laser irradiation of the thin films of solid solution of eosin in gelatinous matrix in the first and some upper dyes absorption bands leads to decrease of films optical density due to reaction of photoreduction. In the paper the kinetic of photoreduction of the dye eosin K in polymeric matrix in three cases of irradiation was experimentally investigated: a) irradiation by N2 laser (λ=337nm, second band of absorption, π=2 nsec, repetition rate-100 Hz, average power-2,2 mW), b) irradiation by Ar-laser (λ=488 nm, first band of absorption, 6,5-12 mW), c) under a simultaneous action of both Ar and N2-lasers. It was demonstrated that the most effective reaction of photoreduction took place in case of direct populating of upper singlet states with probable following nonradiative transition into equienergetic triplet states (energy ranges 35000-45000 sm-1).

  4. Electrical Characterization and Modeling of a Gelatin/Graphene System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Landi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A gelatin/graphene composite has been analyzed by means of current density-voltage and the electrical impedance measurements. The DC electrical behavior has been interpreted in terms of an equivalent Thévenin model taking into account the open circuit voltage and the series resistance. A model based on the effect of the electrical double layer and on the diffusion of the charge carriers is used for the analysis of the experimental data, obtained in the frequency domain. The model reveals for any applied voltages a marked diffusion process at low frequencies. In particular, where the charge transfer mechanism is dominant, the time distribution of the reaction rates reveals that several multiple step reactions occur in the materials, especially at high values of the applied forward bias voltages.

  5. Microencapsulation of eugenol by gelatin-sodium alginate complex coacervation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujwala Shinde

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Present study describes microencapsulation of eugenol using gelatin-sodium alginate complex coacervation. The effects of core to coat ratio and drying method on properties of the eugenol microcapsules were investigated. The eugenol microcapsules were evaluated for surface characteristics, micromeritic properties, oil loading and encapsulation efficiency. Eugenol microcapsules possessed good flow properties, thus improved handling. The scanning electron photomicrographs showed globular surface of microcapsules prepared with core: coat ratio1:1.The treatment with dehydrating agent isopropanol lead to shrinking of microcapsule wall with cracks on it. The percent oil loading and encapsulation efficiency increased with increase in core: coat ratio whereas treatment with dehydrating agent resulted in reduction in loading and percent encapsulation efficiency of eugenol microcapsules.

  6. Microencapsulation of Eugenol by Gelatin-Sodium Alginate Complex Coacervation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Ujwala; Nagarsenker, Mangal

    2011-01-01

    Present study describes microencapsulation of eugenol using gelatin-sodium alginate complex coacervation. The effects of core to coat ratio and drying method on properties of the eugenol microcapsules were investigated. The eugenol microcapsules were evaluated for surface characteristics, micromeritic properties, oil loading and encapsulation efficiency. Eugenol microcapsules possessed good flow properties, thus improved handling. The scanning electron photomicrographs showed globular surface of microcapsules prepared with core: coat ratio1:1.The treatment with dehydrating agent isopropanol lead to shrinking of microcapsule wall with cracks on it. The percent oil loading and encapsulation efficiency increased with increase in core: coat ratio whereas treatment with dehydrating agent resulted in reduction in loading and percent encapsulation efficiency of eugenol microcapsules. PMID:22457558

  7. Gelatin blends with alginate: gels for lipase immobilization and purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadnavis, Nitin W; Sheelu, Gurrala; Kumar, Bezavada Mani; Bhalerao, Mahendra U; Deshpande, Ashlesha A

    2003-01-01

    Blends of natural polysaccharide sodium alginate (5%) with gelatin (3%) cross-linked with glutaraldehyde provide beads with excellent compressive strength (8 x 10(4) Pa) and regular structure on treatment with calcium chloride. Lipases from porcine pancreas, Pseudomonas cepacia, and Candida rugosa were immobilized in such a blend with excellent efficiency. The immobilized enzymes were stable and were reused several times without significant loss of enzyme activity both in aqueous and reverse micellar media. The beads were functionalized with succinic anhydride to obtain beads with extra carboxylic acid groups. These functionalized beads were then successfully used for 7.4-fold purification of crude porcine pancreatic lipase in a simple operation of protein binding at pH 5 and release at pH 8.5.

  8. ESR investigation of starch gelatinization using novel spin probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, James A; Sutcliffe, Leslie H

    2005-06-01

    The spin probes 1,1,3,3-tetramethylisoindolin-2-yloxyl (TMIO) and the sodium salt of its sulfonate, 1,1,3,3-tetramethylisoindolin-2-yloxyl-5-sulfonate (NaTMIOS) were used to monitor the microviscosity changes of water during starch gelatinization. In cereal starch, which contains mainly A-type polymorphs, evidence was found for the amylopectin and amylose regions, the latter undergoing a transition at about 55 degrees C and a large increase in the microviscosity on cooling. Pea starch contains both A-and B-type polymorphs and this was also found to have two domains and the 55 degrees C transition was observed for the amylose phase: the less mobile amylopectin showed a reversible decrease in water microviscosity on heating. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Effect of polysaccharides on the gelatinization properties of cornstarch dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiting; Zhong, Fang; Li, Yue; Shoemaker, Charles F; Yokoyama, Wallace H; Xia, Wenshui

    2012-01-18

    Konjac glucomannan (KG, neutral), carboxymethylcellulose (CMC, negatively charged), and chitosan (positively charged) were added to cornstarch dispersions to study the effect of polysaccharide-starch interactions on starch gelatinization properties. Pasting and retrogradation properties were measured with a rheometer and DSC. Swelling properties of the starch granules were determined by solubility index, swelling power, and particle size distribution. Depending on the nature of the different polysaccharides, viscosities of cornstarch dispersions were affected differently. The particle size distributions were not influenced by the addition of any of the polysaccharides. Swelling results showed that the KG and CMC molecules interacted with the released or partly released amylose in the cornstarch dispersions. This was correlated with the short-term retrogradation of the starch pastes being retarded by the additions of KG and CMC. However, the chitosan molecules appeared not to associate with the amylose, so the retrogradation of the chitosan-cornstarch dispersions was not retarded.

  10. Comparison of dosimetry gels prepared by agar and bovine gelatine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sağsöz, M. E.; Korkut, Ö.; Alemdar, N.; Aktaş, S.; Çalı, E. B.; Kantarcı, M.

    2016-04-01

    Gel dosimeters are unique materials capable of showing three dimensional (3D) dose distributions of therapeutic or diagnostic exposures. Fricke gel dosimeters can be considered as chemical dosimeters that rely on a radiation-induced chemical reaction. Dose distribution of Fricke solutions containing Fe+2 ions determines the transformation of acidic, oxygen saturated Fe+2 ions to Fe+3 ions by the ionizing radiation in aqueous solutions. In this study we produced two different types of gel dosimeters using agar and bovine gelatin with similar fabrication methods. We compared the magnetic resonance (MR) T1 imaging responses of these two gel dosimeters to acquire a dose dependency of MR intensities. In conclusion agar gel dosimeters found to be produced easily and more consistent.

  11. Cellularized Bilayer Pullulan-Gelatin Hydrogel for Skin Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Mathew N; Jeschke, Marc G; Amini-Nik, Saeid

    2016-05-01

    Skin substitutes significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality of patients with burn injuries and chronic wounds. However, current skin substitutes have disadvantages related to high costs and inadequate skin regeneration due to highly inflammatory wounds. Thus, new skin substitutes are needed. By combining two polymers, pullulan, an inexpensive polysaccharide with antioxidant properties, and gelatin, a derivative of collagen with high water absorbency, we created a novel inexpensive hydrogel-named PG-1 for "pullulan-gelatin first generation hydrogel"-suitable for skin substitutes. After incorporating human fibroblasts and keratinocytes onto PG-1 using centrifugation over 5 days, we created a cellularized bilayer skin substitute. Cellularized PG-1 was compared to acellular PG-1 and no hydrogel (control) in vivo in a mouse excisional skin biopsy model using newly developed dome inserts to house the skin substitutes and prevent mouse skin contraction during wound healing. PG-1 had an average pore size of 61.69 μm with an ideal elastic modulus, swelling behavior, and biodegradability for use as a hydrogel for skin substitutes. Excellent skin cell viability, proliferation, differentiation, and morphology were visualized through live/dead assays, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine proliferation assays, and confocal microscopy. Trichrome and immunohistochemical staining of excisional wounds treated with the cellularized skin substitute revealed thicker newly formed skin with a higher proportion of actively proliferating cells and incorporation of human cells compared to acellular PG-1 or control. Excisional wounds treated with acellular or cellularized hydrogels showed significantly less macrophage infiltration and increased angiogenesis 14 days post skin biopsy compared to control. These results show that PG-1 has ideal mechanical characteristics and allows ideal cellular characteristics. In vivo evidence suggests that cellularized PG-1 promotes skin regeneration and may

  12. Nanoprecipitation versus two step desolvation technique for the preparation of gelatin nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saeed Ahmad; Schneider, Marc

    2013-02-01

    Various techniques have been used for preparation of gelatin nanoparticles, such as coacervation, emulsion/solvent evaporation, reverse phase preparation, inverse miniemulsion and two step desolvation. Both methods are based on different mechanisms of nanoparticle formation. The main goal of this study was to systematically compare the performance of nanoprecipitation and the most widely utilized two step desolvation methods with respect to effect of gelatin concentration on nanoparticle size and polydispersity index. Particles size was determined by dynamic light scattering, and the morphology by atomic force microscopy. It was observed that gelatin concentration 20 mg/ml yielded nanoparticles of around 60 nm size by two step desolvation, on the other hand nanoprecipitation produced 210 nm particles with the same gelatin concentration.

  13. Influence of gelatin on corrosion behavior of copper in acid media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Dragiša A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of gelatin and benzotriazole (BTA inhibitory action on copper in the acid medium by the method of weight loss. The investigation was carried out in the citric acid solution (1, 5 and 20% at the temperature of 293 K. Under such conditions, the gelatin showed higher efficiency of corrosion protection in comparison to BTA. The results, obtained through the Gibbs and Langmuir adsorption isotherm, show that gelatin adsorption on copper surface obey the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model, as well as that the adsorption is a spontaneous process. The polarization measurements show the potential of full passivation shift towards more negative values, and the increase of corrosion current in both cases but being more pronounced with the BTA. The results obtained in this paper indicate that the inhibition gelatin can be used as the BTA substitute for the copper corrosion protection.

  14. Effects of charge-carrying amino acids on the gelatinization and retrogradation properties of potato starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenting; Zhou, Hongxian; Yang, Hong; Cui, Min

    2015-01-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of charge-carrying amino acids (lysine (Lys), arginine (Arg), aspartic acid (Asp) and glutamic acid (Glu)) on the gelatinization and retrogradation properties of potato starch. Acidic amino acids (Asp and Glu) showed a decreasing trend in swelling power and granule size of potato starch, but increased amylose leaching and gelatinization temperature. Alkaline amino acid (Arg) showed an increasing trend in swelling power and granule size of potato starch, but decreasing amylose leaching and gelatinization temperature. Lys had no effect on the swelling power of potato starch, except at a high content (0.2 mol/kg). Like other two acidic amino acids, Lys also increased gelatinization temperature. Moreover, the addition of alkaline amino acids (Arg) decreased syneresis value of potato starch but acidic amino acids (Asp and Glu) increased it. Compared to Arg, the syneresis of potato starch with Lys was similar to that of its native starch.

  15. A Novel Pilot- Scale Production of Gelatin Was Discovered and Established

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭必先; 陈丽娟; 王颖; 史京京; 郭玉龙; 郑彤

    2002-01-01

    @@ The traditional method of gelatin manufacture has been existing for more than 130 years. Through the continuous and sustainable improvement of the technological procedures the traditional method is famous for its great ability to render the degreased bone chips into the photographic, pharmaceutical and edible gelatins with high quality, making great contribution to the development of civilization of mankind. However it is not perfect. It is generally accepted that the traditional method of gelatin production is featured by the following weak points:first longer cycle period of operation, usually 60 -100 days, depending on the types and the weather etc, greater quantity of water consumption, normally 1500 - 2000 ton water per ton gelatin and environmentally polluted hazards as a result of effluent discharge of wasted acid and limes.

  16. Determination of the gelatinization temperature of starch presented in maize flours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coral, D F; Pineda-Gomez, P; Rosales-Rivera, A [Laboratorio de Magnetismo y Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Manizales, Caldas (Colombia); Rodriguez-Garcia, M E, E-mail: dfcoralc@unal.edu.c [Departamento de Nanotecnologia, Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, UNAM, Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    A study of the influence of the moisture and the grain size on the gelatinization temperature (Tp1) of starch from four industrial maize flours as well as an unprocessed maize sample is presented. The gelatinization is a phase transition that can be observed using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), and it is manifest as an endothermic peak in the DSC thermogram. Results show that for 60, 65, 70 and 75% of moisture, the endothermic peak temperature increases from 70 to 75 deg. C when the moisture increases, and decrease when the grain size increases from 250 to 420mum. A study of the gelatinization enthalpy (DELTAHp) is also presented, this is related with the gelatinized starch present in the sample. The enthalpy decrease when the moisture increases and it decrease when grain size is increased.

  17. Effect of cellulose nanocrystals and gelatin in corn starch plasticized films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, J S; dos Reis, K C; Menezes, E G T; Pereira, F V; Pereira, J

    2015-01-22

    Cellulose at the nanoparticle scale has been studied as a reinforcement for biodegradable matrices to improve film properties. The goal has been to investigate the properties of starch/gelatin/cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) films. Eleven treatments were considered using RCCD (rotatable central composite design), in addition to four control treatments. For each assay, the following dependent variables were measured: water vapor permeability (WVP), thickness, opacity and mechanical properties. The microstructure and thermal properties of the films were also assessed. Increases in gelatin and CNC concentrations lead to increases in film thickness, strength and elongation at break. The films containing only gelatin in their matrix displayed better results than the starch films, and the addition of CNC had a positive effect on the assessed response variables. The films exhibited homogeneous and cohesive structures, indicating strong interactions between the filler and matrix. Films with low levels of gelatin and CNC presented the maximum degradation temperature.

  18. Solution-processed Al-chelated gelatin for highly transparent non-volatile memory applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yu-Chi; Wang, Yeong-Her, E-mail: yhw@ee.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Microelectronics and Department of Electrical Engineering, Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan 701 Taiwan (China)

    2015-03-23

    Using the biomaterial of Al-chelated gelatin (ACG) prepared by sol-gel method in the ITO/ACG/ITO structure, a highly transparent resistive random access memory (RRAM) was obtained. The transmittance of the fabricated device is approximately 83% at 550 nm while that of Al/gelatin/ITO is opaque. As to the ITO/gelatin/ITO RRAM, no resistive switching behavior can be seen. The ITO/ACG/ITO RRAM shows high ON/OFF current ratio (>10{sup 5}), low operation voltage, good uniformity, and retention characteristics at room temperature and 85 °C. The mechanism of the ACG-based memory devices is presented. The enhancement of these electrical properties can be attributed to the chelate effect of Al ions with gelatin. Results show that transparent ACG-based memory devices possess the potential for next-generation resistive memories and bio-electronic applications.

  19. Application of Gelatin-Coated Magnetic Particles for Isolation of Genomic DNA from Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanpetch, Pongsak; Intorasoot, Sorasak; Prasitwattanseree, Sukon; Mekjaidee, Karnda; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk

    2015-07-01

    To develop a method for human genomic DNA extraction from bone using gelatin-coated magnetic particles. Thirty human metacarpal with the bone age ranging from 36 to 93 years were included in the present study. Genomic DNA was extracted from bones using gelatin-coated magnetic particles. The concentration and purity of DNA were analyzed in comparison with a reference method. In addition, the quality of extracted DNA was examined for sex determination by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The average DNA concentration using gelatin coated magnetic particles exhibited approximately 15 times higher than a reference method with an insignificantly difference of the DNA purity in both methods. Twelve (40%) and fifteen (50%) samples out of thirty DNA isolated using established and reference method, respectively, could be amplified and sex correctly determined by PCR. Gelatin coated magnetic particle is rapid, simple, and well-suited for isolation of DNA from bones.

  20. Differences between graphene and graphene oxide in gelatin based systems for transient biodegradable energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, G.; Sorrentino, A.; Iannace, S.; Neitzert, H. C.

    2017-02-01

    A comparison between graphene flakes and graphene oxide as filler in gelatin based systems for low-cost transient biodegradable energy storage applications has been carried out. The two bio-composites have been prepared and characterized by rheological measurements, cyclic voltammetry measurements, chronopotentiometry measurements and impedance spectroscopy. Differences in dielectric and mechanical properties have been correlated to the different structural organizations determinate by the hydrophobic/hydrophilic character of the used filler. In particular, the addition of the graphene oxide to the gelatin causes an increase in the elastic modulus with a parallel increase in the mechanical stability with time as compared to the composites obtained by adding graphene. Conversely, the surface capacitance is slightly increased by the graphene oxide addition compared to the pure gelatin sample. On the other hand, the introduction of the graphene flakes into the gelatin leads to a marked increase of the dielectric properties of the resulting bio-composite.

  1. Determination of the gelatinization temperature of starch presented in maize flours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coral, D. F.; Pineda-Gómez, P.; Rosales-Rivera, A.; Rodriguez-Garcia, M. E.

    2009-05-01

    A study of the influence of the moisture and the grain size on the gelatinization temperature (Tp1) of starch from four industrial maize flours as well as an unprocessed maize sample is presented. The gelatinization is a phase transition that can be observed using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), and it is manifest as an endothermic peak in the DSC thermogram. Results show that for 60, 65, 70 and 75% of moisture, the endothermic peak temperature increases from 70 to 75°C when the moisture increases, and decrease when the grain size increases from 250 to 420μm. A study of the gelatinization enthalpy (ΔHp) is also presented, this is related with the gelatinized starch present in the sample. The enthalpy decrease when the moisture increases and it decrease when grain size is increased.

  2. Algorithms Development in Detection of the Gelatinization Process during Enzymatic ‘Dodol’ Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman Hamzah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Computer vision systems have found wide application in foods processing industry to perform quality evaluation. The systems enable to replace human inspectors for the evaluation of a variety of quality attributes. This paper describes the implementation of the Fast Fourier Transform and Kalman filtering algorithms to detect the glutinous rice flour slurry (GRFS gelatinization in an enzymatic „dodol. processing. The onset of the GRFS gelatinization is critical in determining the quality of an enzymatic „dodol.. Combinations of these two algorithms were able to detect the gelatinization of the GRFS. The result shows that the gelatinization of the GRFS was at the time range of 11.75 minutes to 14.75 minutes for 24 batches of processing. This paper will highlight the capability of computer vision using our proposed algorithms in monitoring and controlling of an enzymatic „dodol. processing via image processing technology.

  3. Algorithms Development in Detection of the Gelatinization Process during Enzymatic ‘Dodol’ Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman Hamzah

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Computer vision systems have found wide application in foods processing industry to perform the quality evaluation. The systems enable to replace human inspectors for the evaluation of a variety of quality attributes. This paper describes the implementation of the Fast Fourier Transform and Kalman filtering algorithms to detect the glutinous rice flour slurry (GRFS gelatinization in an enzymatic ‘dodol’ processing. The onset of the GRFS gelatinization is critical in determining the quality of an enzymatic ‘dodol’. Combinations of these two algorithms were able to detect the gelatinization of the GRFS. The result shows that the gelatinization of the GRFS was at the time range of 11.75 minutes to 15.33 minutes for 20 batches of processing. This paper will highlight the capability of computer vision using our proposed algorithms in monitoring and controlling of an enzymatic ‘dodol’ processing via image processing technology.

  4. Lysine reactivity and starch gelatinization in extruded and pelleted canine diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Q.D.; Lin, van C.G.J.M.; Hendriks, W.H.; Poel, van der A.F.B.

    2007-01-01

    Fifteen dry adult canine diets (i.e., dinners, extrudates, pellets) were collected from retailers in Wageningen, The Netherlands, and chemically and physically characterized. Quality measurements were lysine O-methylisourea (OMIU) reactivity and starch gelatinization degree (SGD). In general,

  5. Preservation and transportation of bacteria by a simple gelatin disk method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Y; Yamai, S; Nikkawa, T; Shimoda, Y; Miyamoto, Y

    1981-07-01

    A wide range of bacterial species, e.g., Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria, Streptococcus, Branhamella, Haemophilus, Gemella, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, and Bacteroides species, were successfully preserved for 1 to 5 years by our gelatin disk drying method. The beta-lactamase activity of penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae was retained for more than 3 years with this method. Good results were also obtained upon airmailing many strains of N. gonorrhoeae embedded in gelatin disks from Japan to the United States. Neisseria, Branhamella, Gemella, and Haemophilus organisms suspended in the reagent used in the preparation of the gelatin disks could be preserved for 6 to 12 months after freezing the cell suspensions at -20 degrees C. Furthermore, modification of our gelatin disk preservation method made possible the safe long- and short-distance transportation of clinical isolates. Our methods can be used by any small laboratory, since they require only conventional instruments and reagents.

  6. Amino acid and proximate composition of fish bone gelatin from different warm-water species: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atma, Y.

    2017-03-01

    Research on fish bone gelatin has been increased in the last decade. The quality of gelatin depends on its physicochemical properties. Fish bone gelatin from warm-water fishes has a superior amino acid composition than cold-water fishes. The composition of amino acid can determine the strength and stability of gelatin. Thus, it is important to analyze the composition of amino acid as well as proximate composition for potential gelatin material. The warm water fish species used in this study were Grass carp, Pangasius catfish, Catfish, Lizard fish, Tiger-toothed croaker, Pink perch, Red snapper, Brown spotted grouper, and King weakfish. There werre five dominant amino acid in fish bone gelatin including glycine (21.2-36.7%), proline (8.7-11.7%), hydroxyproline (5.3-9.6%), alanine (8.48-12.9%), and glutamic acid (7.23-10.15%). Different warm-water species has some differences in amino acid composition. The proximate composition showed that fishbone gelatin from Pangasius catfish has the highest protein content. The water composition of all fishbone gelatin was well suited to the standard. Meanwhile, based on ash content, only gelatin from gelatin Pangasius catfish met the standard for food industries.

  7. STUDY ON HYDROLYSIS OF MACROMOLECULAR GELATIN WITH ENZYMES IN COMBINATION MODE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-qin Huang; Rui Guan; Ming-zhi Huang

    2004-01-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of macromolecular gelatin with AS1.398 neutral protease, bromelain and their combinations was studied by estimating the molecular weights of their hydrolytic products. It was discovered that the products hydrolyzed by using combination enzymes had lower molecular weight than those obtained by using single ones,and the kind of enzymes, their combination mode and addition sequence are effective ways to control the molecular weights of gelatin hydrolyzates.

  8. Influence of palm oil and glycerol on properties of fish skin gelatin-based films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsuwan, Krisana; Benjakul, Soottawat; Prodpran, Thummanoon

    2016-06-01

    Properties of fish skin gelatin film incorporated with palm oil at 50 and 75 % (w/w) as affected by glycerol at 0-30 % (w/w) were investigated. Increases in water vapour permeability and elongation at break along with decrease in tensile strength were noticed when levels of glycerol were increased (p glycerol levels were increased (p glycerol improved water vapour barrier property of fish skin gelatin films without drastic alteration of mechanical properties.

  9. Two- and multi-step annealing of cereal starches in relation to gelatinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yong-Cheng

    2008-02-13

    Two- and multi-step annealing experiments were designed to determine how much gelatinization temperature of waxy rice, waxy barley, and wheat starches could be increased without causing a decrease in gelatinization enthalpy or a decline in X-ray crystallinity. A mixture of starch and excess water was heated in a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) pan to a specific temperature and maintained there for 0.5-48 h. The experimental approach was first to anneal a starch at a low temperature so that the gelatinization temperature of the starch was increased without causing a decrease in gelatinization enthalpy. The annealing temperature was then raised, but still was kept below the onset gelatinization temperature of the previously annealed starch. When a second- or third-step annealing temperature was high enough, it caused a decrease in crystallinity, even though the holding temperature remained below the onset gelatinization temperature of the previously annealed starch. These results support that gelatinization is a nonequilibrium process and that dissociation of double helices is driven by the swelling of amorphous regions. Small-scale starch slurry annealing was also performed and confirmed the annealing results conducted in DSC pans. A three-phase model of a starch granule, a mobile amorphous phase, a rigid amorphous phase, and a crystalline phase, was used to interpret the annealing results. Annealing seems to be an interplay between a more efficient packing of crystallites in starch granules and swelling of plasticized amorphous regions. There is always a temperature ceiling that can be used to anneal a starch without causing a decrease in crystallinity. That temperature ceiling is starch-specific, dependent on the structure of a starch, and is lower than the original onset gelatinization of a starch.

  10. Low density, microcellular, dopable, agar/gelatin foams for pulsed power experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNamara, W.F. [Orion International Technologies, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aubert, J.H. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Low-density, microcellular foams prepared from the natural polymers agar and gelatin have been developed for pulsed-power physics experiments. Numerous experiments were supported with foams having densities at or below 10 mg/cm{sup 3}. For some of the experiments, the agar/gelatin foam was uniformly doped with metallic elements using soluble salts. Depending on the method of preparation, cell sizes were typically below 10 microns and for one process were below 1.0 micron.

  11. EVALUASI KARAKTERISTIK FISIK EDIBLE FILM DARI GELATIN KULIT KAMBING BLIGON YANG MENGGUNAKAN GLISEROL SEBAGAI PLASTICIZER

    OpenAIRE

    Said, Muhammad Irfan; Triatmojo, Suharjono; Erwanto, Yuny; Fudholi, Achmad

    2013-01-01

    Bahan baku dalam pembuatan edible film dari golongan pati telah banyak digunakan, sedangkan golongan protein yang berasal dari ternak masih jarang digunakan. Gelatin merupakan salah satu jenis bahan yang digunakan dalam pembuatan edible film dari golongan protein asal ternak. Bahan ini diketahui memiliki sifat-sifat yang baik dan berpotensi untuk digunakan sebagai bahan baku dalam pembuatan edible film (Klahorst, 1999). Gelatin pada dasarnya adalah sebuah produk hidrokoloid yang merupa...

  12. Photonic band gap effect and structural color from silver nanoparticle gelatin emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Mang Hin; Ma, Rui; Lee, Jeffrey Chi Wai; Tam, Wing Yim; Chan, C T; Sheng, Ping; Cheah, Kok Wai

    2005-10-01

    We have fabricated planar structures of silver nanoparticles in monochromatic gelatin emulsion with a continuous spacing ranging from 0.15-0.40 micron using a two-beam interference of a single laser source. Our planar holograms display a colorful "rainbow" pattern and photonic bandgaps covering the visible and IR ranges. We model the planar silver nanoparticle-gelatin composite system using an effective medium approach and good agreement is obtained between theory and experiment.

  13. Laser Fabrication of 3D Gelatin Scaffolds for the Generation of Bioartificial Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Wilhelmi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the two-photon polymerization (2PP technique was applied to develop precisely defined biodegradable 3D tissue engineering scaffolds. The scaffolds were fabricated via photopolymerization of gelatin modified with methacrylamide moieties. The results indicate that the gelatin derivative (GelMod preserves its enzymatic degradation capability after photopolymerization. In addition, the developed scaffolds using 2PP support primary adipose-derived stem cell (ASC adhesion, proliferation and differentiation into the anticipated lineage.

  14. Effect of glycerol monostearate on the gelatinization behavior of maize starches with different amylose contents

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The effect of different concentrations (1, 2, and 3%w/w) of glycerol monostearate (GMS) on gelatinization behavior of normal maize starch (NMS), waxy maize starch (WMS), and high amylose maize starch (HAMS) was evaluated. Leaching of amylose and solubility decreased in all starches with added GMS. Gelatinization temperatures increased in NMS but there was no change in WMS. During first heating in DSC, only NMS with added GMS displayed the dissociation peak of amylose-lipid complex. In cooling...

  15. Seasonal changes in the gelatinous zooplankton community and hydromedusa abundances in Korsfjord and Fanafjord, western Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Hosia, Aino; Båmstedt, Ulf

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative seasonal studies on gelatinous zooplankton in Norwegian fjords are scarce. We recorded the quantitative composition of the gelatinous zooplankton community in Korsfjord and Fanafjord during 1 yr. Thirty-six species or genera of hydromedusae, 7 species of siphonophores, 4 species of ctenophores and 2 species of scyphomedusae were recorded. Aglantha digitale was numerically dominant in both fjords. A separate video-profiling study on the vertical distribution of fully grown specime...

  16. Preservation and transportation of bacteria by a simple gelatin disk method.

    OpenAIRE

    Obara, Y; Yamai, S; Nikkawa, T; Shimoda, Y.; Miyamoto, Y

    1981-01-01

    A wide range of bacterial species, e.g., Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria, Streptococcus, Branhamella, Haemophilus, Gemella, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, and Bacteroides species, were successfully preserved for 1 to 5 years by our gelatin disk drying method. The beta-lactamase activity of penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae was retained for more than 3 years with this method. Good results were also obtained upon airmailing many strains of N. gonorrhoeae embedded in gelatin disks fro...

  17. Evaluation of Arterial Impairment after Experimental Gelatin Sponge Embolization in a Rabbit Renal Model

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Jung Suk; Lee, Hae Giu; Chun, Ho Jong; Choi, Byung Gil; Choi, Yeong Jin

    2015-01-01

    Objective Arterial stenosis is a major obstacle for subsequent interventional procedures. We hypothesized that the stenosis is caused by gelatin sponge embolization and performed an experimental study in a rabbit renal model. Materials and Methods A total of 24 rabbits were embolized with porcine gelatin sponge particles injected into the renal arteries. Four rabbits were sacrificed on 1 day, 4 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, and 4 weeks after embolization. Microscopic evaluations were perfor...

  18. Use and application of gelatin as potential biodegradable packaging materials for food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Hanani, Z A; Roos, Y H; Kerry, J P

    2014-11-01

    The manufacture and potential application of biodegradable films for food application has gained increased interest as alternatives to conventional food packaging polymers due to the sustainable nature associated with their availability, broad and abundant source range, compostability, environmentally-friendly image, compatibility with foodstuffs and food application, etc. Gelatin is one such material and is a unique and popularly used hydrocolloid by the food industry today due to its inherent characteristics, thereby potentially offering a wide range of further and unique industrial applications. Gelatin from different sources have different physical and chemical properties as they contain different amino acid contents which are responsible for the varying characteristics observed upon utilization in food systems and when being utilized more specifically, in the manufacture of films. Packaging films can be successfully produced from all gelatin sources and the behaviour and characteristics of gelatin-based films can be altered through the incorporation of other food ingredients to produce composite films possessing enhanced physical and mechanical properties. This review will present the current situation with respect to gelatin usage as a packaging source material and the challenges that remain in order to move the manufacture of gelatin-based films nearer to commercial reality.

  19. Use of gelatin-thrombin matrix haemostatic sealant in neurosurgery: Anaesthetic implications and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Khanna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The topical haemostatic agents have been developed to be used as adjunctive measures to promote haemostasis. These include bone wax, absorbable gel sponges, microfibrillar collagen, oxidised regenerated cellulose, gelatin sponges with thrombin, gelatin-thrombin matrix sealant or fibrin sealants. Gelatin-thrombin matrix sealant is a mixture of a bovine-derived gelatin matrix and human-derived thrombin component that are mixed together at the time of use. This agent has been found to be more effective haemostat than thrombin-soaked gelatine sponges. The possible adverse effects of this can be transmission of diseases from human or bovine sources, allergic reactions, thromboembolism, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC, perilesional oedema, and compression of neural tissue. Although it is used routinely in the operating room, there is little literature available on the perioperative implications with use of intraoperative gelatin-thrombin matrix sealant. Here, we present clinical report of 20 neurosurgical patients where the sealant was used and literature in view of current evidence has been reviewed.

  20. Extraction and Properties of Gelatin from Spotted Oceanic Triggerfish (Canthidermis maculata Skin and Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normalina Arpi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of pretreatments with different alkali and acid concentrations, and extraction temperatures on fish gelatin extraction and properties was studied. The resultant fish gelatins were evaluated in terms of extraction yield, viscosity, gel strength, and pH. The combination of higher acid pretreatment concentrations and extraction temperatures removed the noncollagenous protein and provided proper pH extraction condition which resulted higher gelatin extraction yield. However, the gel strength decreased with the increase of acid concentration. The gel strength and pH of gelatin increase proportionally to the increase in alkali concentration and extraction temperature. No significant effects of the three treatments on the gelatin viscocity. The recommended gelatin extraction process conditions was using alkali concentration (NaOH of 0.55 N, acid (HCl of  0.95 N, and a temperature of 60 °C. The optimal solution formula had optimization targets of 79.5% and was predicted to produce a gel with 11.21% yield and pH 3.4

  1. Electrospinning of gelatin for tissue engineering--molecular conformation as one of the overlooked problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajkiewicz, P; Kołbuk, D

    2014-01-01

    Gelatin is one of the most promising materials in tissue engineering as a scaffold component. This biopolymer indicates biocompatibility and bioactivity caused by the existence of specific amino acid sequences, being preferred sites for interactions with cells, with high similarity to natural extracellular matrix. The present paper does not aspire to be a full review of electrospinning of gelatin and gelatin containing nanofibers as scaffolds in tissue engineering. It is focused on the still open question of the role of the higher order structures of gelatin in scaffold's bioactivity/functionality. Gelatin molecules can adopt various conformations depending on temperature, solvent, pH, etc. Our review indicates the potential ways for formation of α-helix conformation during electrospinning and the methods of further structure stabilization. It is intuitively expected that the native α-helix conformation appearing as a result of partial renaturation of gelatin can be beneficial from the viewpoint of bioactivity of scaffolds, providing thus a much cheaper alternative approach as opposed to expensive electrospinning of native collagen.

  2. Evaluation of proanthocyanidin-crosslinked electrospun gelatin nanofibers for drug delivering system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chiung-Hua [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung 40601, Taiwan (China); Chi, Chin-Ying [Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Materials Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung 40601, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yueh-Sheng [School of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Chen, Kuo-Yu [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Yunlin 64002, Taiwan (China); Chen, Pei-Lain [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung 40601, Taiwan (China); Yao, Chun-Hsu, E-mail: chyao@mail.cmu.edu.tw [School of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China)

    2012-12-01

    Electrospun nanofibers are excellent candidates for various biomedical applications. We successfully fabricated proanthocyanidin-crosslinked gelatin electrospun nanofibers. Proanthocyanidin, a low cytotoxic collagen crosslinking reagent, increased the gelatin crosslinking percentage in the nanofibers from 53% to 64%. The addition of proanthocyanidin kept the nanofibers from swelling, and, thus, made the fibers more stable in the aqueous state. The compatibility and the release behavior of the drug in the nanofibers were examined using magnesium ascorbyl phosphate as the model drug. Proanthocyanidin also promoted drug loading and kept the drug release rate constant. These properties make the proanthocyanidin-crosslinked gelatin nanofibers an excellent material for drug delivery. In the cell culture study, L929 fibroblast cells had a significantly higher proliferation rate when cultured with the gelatin/proanthocyanidin blended nanofibers. This characteristic showed that proanthocyanidin-crosslinked gelatin electrospun nanofibers could potentially be employed as a wound healing material by increasing cell spreading and proliferation. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proanthocyanidin-crosslinked gelatin nanofibers (GEL/PA) is synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proanthocyanidin promoted drug loading and kept the drug release rate constant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The GEL/PA nanofibers accelerate fibroblast cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The GEL/PA nanofibers increase the drug loading efficiency.

  3. Enhanced electromechanical performance of bio-based gelatin/glycerin dielectric elastomer by cellulose nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Nanying; Wang, Zhifei; Yao, Yang; Zhang, Liqun; Tian, Ming

    2015-10-05

    To meet the growing demand of environmental protection and resource saving, it is imperative to explore bio-based elastomers as next-generation dielectric elastomers (DEs). In this study, we used a bio-based gelatin/glycerin (GG) elastomer as the DE matrix because GG exhibits high dielectric constant (ɛr). Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), extracted from natural cellulose fibers, were used to improve the mechanical strength of GG elastomer. The results showed that CNCs with a large number of hydroxyl groups disrupted the hydrogen bonds between gelatin molecules and formed new stronger hydrogen bonds with gelatin molecules. A good interfacial adhesion between CNCs and GG was formed, and thus a good dispersion of CNCs in GG matrix was obtained, leading to the improved mechanical strength of GG. More interestingly, the ɛr of GG elastomer was obviously increased by adding 5 wt% of CNCs, ascribed to the increase in the polarizability of gelatin chains caused by the disruption of hydrogen bonds of gelatin. As a result, a 230% increase in the actuated strain at low electric field of GG was obtained by adding 5 wt% of CNCs. Since CNCs, gelatin and glycerol are all bio-based, this study offers a new method to prepare high performance DE for its application in biological and medical fields.

  4. Potential use of curcumin loaded carboxymethylated guar gum grafted gelatin film for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Piyali Jana; Mitra, Tapas; Pramanik, Nilkamal; Kavitha, V; Gnanamani, A; Kundu, P P

    2015-04-01

    Present study describes the synthesis of carboxylmethyl guar gum (CMGG) from the native guar gum (GG). Further, the prepared CMGG is grafted with gelatin to form CMGG-g-gelatin and then mixed with curcumin to prepare a biomaterial. The resultant biomaterial is subjected to the analysis of (1)H NMR, ATR-FTIR, TGA, SEM and XRD ensure the carboxymethylation and grafting. The results reveal that 45% of the amine groups of gelatin have been reacted with the--COOH group of CMGG and 90-95% of curcumin is released from CMGG-g-gelatin after 96h of incubation in the phosphate buffer at physiological pH. In vitro cell line studies reveal the biocompatibility of the biomaterial and the antimicrobial studies display the growth inhibition against gram +ve and gram -ve organisms at a considerable level. Overall, the study indicates that the incorporation of curcumin into CMGG-g-gelatin can improve the functional property of guar gum as well as gelatin.

  5. Valorization of By-Products from Commercial Fish Species: Extraction and Chemical Properties of Skin Gelatins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Sérgio C; Vázquez, José A; Pérez-Martín, Ricardo I; Carvalho, Ana P; Gomes, Ana M

    2017-09-14

    Fish skins constitute an important fraction of the enormous amount of wastes produced by the fish processing industry, part of which may be valorized through the extraction of gelatins. This research exploited the extraction and characterization of gelatins from the skin of three seawater fish species, namely yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), blue shark (Prionace glauca), and greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides). Characterization included chemical composition, rheology, structure, texture, and molecular weight, whereas extraction studies intended to reduce costly steps during extraction process (reagents concentration, water consumption, and time of processing), while maintaining extraction efficiency. Chemical and physical characterization of the obtained gelatins revealed that the species from which the gelatin was extracted, as well as the heat treatment used, were key parameters in order to obtain a final product with specific properties. Therefore, the extraction conditions selected during gelatin production will drive its utilization into markets with well-defined specifications, where the necessity of unique products is being claimed. Such achievements are of utmost importance to the food industry, by paving the way to the introduction in the market of gelatins with distinct rheological and textural properties, which enables them to enlarge their range of applications.

  6. Effect of aminated gelatin on the nasal absorption of insulin in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Toshinobu; Kanbayashi, Hiroshi; Nagao, Tomonobu; Chono, Sumio; Tomita, Mikio; Hayashi, Masahiro; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Morimoto, Kazuhiro

    2005-03-01

    Absorption enhancers, which increase the permeability of drugs through epithelial membranes without damaging them, are especially useful for intranasal administration of peptide drugs. In this study, aminated gelatins, candidate enhancers, having different numbers of amino groups were prepared from gelatin (H-gelatin, isoelectric point = 9.0, MW 100 kDa) and a partial gelatin hydrolysate (L-gelatin, isoelectric point = 8.0, MW 5 kDa), and the enhancing effects on the nasal absorption of insulin, used as a model peptide drug, and 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (CF), a paracellular marker, were examined in rats. The enhancing effect on insulin and CF depends on the MW and number of amino groups. A high correlation between the enhancing effects on insulin and CF was observed and this suggests that an increase in the paracellular permeability is the mechanism governing the nasal absorption-enhancement of aminated gelatins, at least as far as insulin and CF are concerned. The enhancing mechanism might be shared with other cationic polymers having absorption-enhancing effects.

  7. Effect of cationized gelatins on the paracellular transport of drugs through caco-2 cell monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Toshinobu; Kanbayashi, Hiroshi; Nagao, Tomonobu; Chono, Sumio; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Morimoto, Kazuhiro

    2006-06-01

    Cationized gelatins, candidate absorption enhancers, were prepared by addition of ethylenediamine or spermine to gelatin and the effects of the resulting ethylenediaminated gelatin (EG) and sperminated gelatin (SG) on the paracellular transport of 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (CF), FITC-dextran-4 (FD4), and insulin through caco-2 cell monolayers were examined. The Renkin function was used for characterization of the paracellular pathway and changes in the pore radius (R) and pore occupancy/length ratio (epsilon/L) calculated from the apparent permeability coefficients (P(app)) of CF and FD4 are discussed. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) increased the R of the caco-2 cell monolayer and the P(app) of all compounds examined was markedly increased by the addition of EDTA. On the other hand, EG and SG did not increase R and their enhancing effects were not as strong as those of EDTA. The increase in epsilon/L could be the enhancing mechanism for the cationized gelatins. The number of pathways for water-soluble drugs, such as CF and FD4, in the caco-2 monolayers could be increased by the addition of the cationized gelatins. The ratios of the permeability coefficients of insulin (observed/calculated based on the Renkin function) suggest that insulin undergoes enzymatic degradation during transport which is not inhibited by enhancers.

  8. Influence of the Molecular Weight and Charge of Antibiotics on Their Release Kinetics From Gelatin Nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiankang; Odekerken, Jim C E; Löwik, Dennis W P M; López-Pérez, Paula M; Welting, Tim J M; Yang, Fang; Jansen, John A; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C G

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the fundamental relationship between the physicochemical characteristics of antibiotics and the kinetics of their release from gelatin nanospheres. We observed that antibiotics of high molecular weight (colistin and vancomycin) were released in a sustained manner from oppositely charged gelatin carriers for more than 14 d, as opposed to antibiotics of low molecular weight (gentamicin and moxifloxacin) which were released in a burst-like manner. The release kinetics of positively charged colistin strongly correlated with the rate of the enzymatic degradation of gelatin. To elucidate the differences among release kinetics of antibiotics, we explored the mechanism of interactions between antibiotics and gelatin nanospheres by monitoring the kinetics of release of antibiotics as a function of pH, ionic strength, and detergent concentrations. These studies revealed that the interactions between antibiotics and gelatin nanospheres were mainly dominated by (i) strong electrostatic forces for colistin; (ii) strong hydrophobic and electrostatic forces for vancomycin; (iii) weak electrostatic and hydrophobic forces for gentamicin; and (iv) weak hydrophobic forces for moxifloxacin. These results confirm that release of antibiotics from gelatin nanospheres strongly depends on the physicochemical characteristics of the antibiotics. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Extraction of high value added gelatin biopolymer from black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) head bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockalingam, K.; Abdullah, H. Z.

    2015-07-01

    Black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) fish head bones were evaluated for its possibilities in extracting gelatin. Head bones were subjected to pre-treatment with 3% of hydrochloric acid (HCl) for demineralization before undergoes thermal extraction process. The raw head bones were characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in order to investigate the external and internal surface morphology. SEM images also reveal the presence of collagen fiber with 1 µm diameter in the head bone. The black tilapia fish head bones yields 5.75 % of gelatin in wet weight basis, indicating the possibility of this fish species as sources of gelatin. Further characterizations were done on both raw head bones and extracted gelatin through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and proximate analysis. The head bones gelatin shows high protein (10.55%) and ash (3.11 %) content with low moisture. This further proves the effectiveness of demineralization and extraction method used. The black tilapia fish head bones are found to be a prospective source of gelatin with good chemical and functional properties.

  10. KEKUATAN GEL GELATIN TIPE B DALAM FORMULASI GRANUL TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN MUKOADHESIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astri Fajriani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Type B Gelatin Gel Strength in Granule Formulation and its Mucoadhesive Characteristics. Mucoadhesive test of polymer excipient is important for development of oral sustained release dosage form in mucoadhesive system to increase bioavailability of a drug. The study focused on mucoadhesive strength of gelatinus granules in stomach and intestine of rat using bioadhesive and wash off tests. Gelatin is a substance obtained from partially hydrolyzed collagen of skin, white cattle bones and animal bones. Gelatin derived from acid process is called type A gelatin and those from alkali process is called type B gelatin. This research studied the influence of various gel strength of type B gelatins, particularly their mucoadhesive characteristics. Mucoadhesive tests were performed at the concentration of 7.14%, 3.66%, and 2.45% and with gel strength of 328 g Bloom, 230 g Bloom and 119 g Bloom respectively. The results showed that granules formula with 230 g Bloom gel strength showed the best mucoadhesive strength, with adhesion percentage of 100%.

  11. In vitro growth of bioactive nanostructured apatites via agar-gelatin hybrid hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yi; Zhao, Xianghui; Zhou, Yongsheng; Zhu, Peizhi; Zhang, Li; Wei, Shicheng

    2013-12-01

    Biomimetic synthesis of bone-like carbonated apatite with good biocompatibility is a promising strategy for the development of novel biomaterials for bone engineering applications. Most research efforts have been focused on only protein-based or only polysaccharide-based template for synthesis of apatite minerals. To understand the cooperative roles of gelatin and polysaccharide playing in the biomineralization, agar hydrogel, gelatin and agar-gelatin hybrid hydrogel were respectively introduced as mineralization matrix for the in vitro growth of apatite in the study. It was shown that bundle-like carbonated apatite was successfully prepared in agar-gelatin hybrid hydrogel for the first time, through the interaction between apatite and matrix macromolecule under physiological temperature. Moreover, the in vitro biocompatibility of the prepared nanostructured apatite crystals was investigated using CCK-8 assay and alkaline phosphatase activity of osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1. Compared with HA synthesized by traditional method, the obtained apatite in agar-gelatin hybrid hydrogel could provide significantly higher cell viability and alkaline phosphatase activity. Through the study, we could better understand the role of gelatin and polysaccharide in bone formation process, and the product is a promising candidate to be used in bone tissue engineering.

  12. Gelatin-based laser direct-write technique for the precise spatial patterning of cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiele, Nathan R; Chrisey, Douglas B; Corr, David T

    2011-03-01

    Laser direct-writing provides a method to pattern living cells in vitro, to study various cell-cell interactions, and to build cellular constructs. However, the materials typically used may limit its long-term application. By utilizing gelatin coatings on the print ribbon and growth surface, we developed a new approach for laser cell printing that overcomes the limitations of Matrigel™. Gelatin is free of growth factors and extraneous matrix components that may interfere with cellular processes under investigation. Gelatin-based laser direct-write was able to successfully pattern human dermal fibroblasts with high post-transfer viability (91% ± 3%) and no observed double-strand DNA damage. As seen with atomic force microscopy, gelatin offers a unique benefit in that it is present temporarily to allow cell transfer, but melts and is removed with incubation to reveal the desired application-specific growth surface. This provides unobstructed cellular growth after printing. Monitoring cell location after transfer, we show that melting and removal of gelatin does not affect cellular placement; cells maintained registry within 5.6 ± 2.5 μm to the initial pattern. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of gelatin in laser direct-writing to create spatially precise cell patterns with the potential for applications in tissue engineering, stem cell, and cancer research.

  13. Karakteristik Emulsi Beberapa Fraksi Gelatin dari Kulit Ikan Nila (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryanti Suryanti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fraksinasi ekstrak gelatin dari kulit ikan nila (Oreochromis niloticus dengan menggunakan kantong dialisis MWCO 100 kD telah dilakukan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakteristik emulsi dari fraksi gelatin yang diperoleh melalui proses asam asetat 0,10 M (GAs dan asam sitrat 0,05 M (GSi. Fraksi gelatin GAs yang diperoleh memiliki distribusi berat molekul  13,6-218,87 kD dan 15,27-61,1 kD sedangkan fraksi gelatin GSi sebesar 107,5-142,23 kD dan 12,5-82,9 kD. Gugus fungsional molekul dari keempat fraksi gelatin tersebut terdiri dari amida I (1648 cm-1, amida II (1452 cm-1 dan amida III (1089 cm-1. Karakteristik emulsi yang meliputi sifat emulsi (aktivitas dan stabilitas emulsi serta ukuran partikel emulsi semakin meningkat dengan semakin meningkatnya berat molekul. Zeta potensial droplet emulsi gelatin dari proses asam sitrat 0,05 M (GSi lebih banyak bermuatan ion positif daripada proses asam asetat 0,10 M(GAs. Emulsi yang terbentuk dari fraksi GAs dan GSi pada konsentrasi 0,1% termasuk dalam makroemulsi dengan ukuran droplet >100 nm dan stabilitas mencapai 22,62 menit yang dapat diaplikasikan pada produk pangan seperti whipping cream, salad dressing dan mayonnaise.

  14. Synthesis of biocompatible hydrophobic silica-gelatin nano-hybrid by sol-gel process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitha, S; Shajesh, P; Mukundan, P; Nair, T D R; Warrier, K G K

    2007-03-15

    Silica-biopolymer hybrid has been synthesised using colloidal silica as the precursor for silica and gelatin as the biopolymer counterpart. The surface modification of the hybrid material has been done with methyltrimethoxysilane leading to the formation of biocompatible hydrophobic silica-gelatin hybrid. Here we are reporting hydrophobic silica-gelatin hybrid and coating precursor for the first time. The hybrid gel has been evaluated for chemical modification, thermal degradation, hydrophobicity, particle size, transparency under the UV-visible region and morphology. FTIR spectroscopy has been used to verify the presence of CH(3) groups which introduce hydrophobicity to the SiO2-MTMS-gelatin hybrids. The hydrophobic property has also been tailored by varying the concentration of methyltrimethoxysilane. Contact angle by Wilhelmy plate method of transparent hydrophobic silica-gelatin coatings has been found to be as high as approximately 95 degrees . Oxidation of the organic group which induces the hydrophobic character occurs at 530 degrees C which indicates that the surface hydrophobicity is retained up to that temperature. Optical transmittance of SiO2-MTMS-gelatin hybrid coatings on glass substrates has been found to be close to 100% which will enable the hybrid for possible optical applications and also for preparation of transparent biocompatible hydrophobic coatings on biological substrates such as leather.

  15. Extraction of high value added gelatin biopolymer from black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) head bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sockalingam, K., E-mail: gd130106@siswa.uthm.edu.my; Abdullah, H. Z., E-mail: hasan@uthm.edu.my [Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    Black tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) fish head bones were evaluated for its possibilities in extracting gelatin. Head bones were subjected to pre-treatment with 3% of hydrochloric acid (HCl) for demineralization before undergoes thermal extraction process. The raw head bones were characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in order to investigate the external and internal surface morphology. SEM images also reveal the presence of collagen fiber with 1 µm diameter in the head bone. The black tilapia fish head bones yields 5.75 % of gelatin in wet weight basis, indicating the possibility of this fish species as sources of gelatin. Further characterizations were done on both raw head bones and extracted gelatin through Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and proximate analysis. The head bones gelatin shows high protein (10.55%) and ash (3.11 %) content with low moisture. This further proves the effectiveness of demineralization and extraction method used. The black tilapia fish head bones are found to be a prospective source of gelatin with good chemical and functional properties.

  16. Implantable biodegradable sponges: effect of interpolymer complex formation of chitosan with gelatin on the release behavior of tramadol hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Nagwa H; El-laithy, Hanan M; Tadros, Mina I

    2007-01-01

    The effect of interpolymer complex formation between positively charged chitosan and negatively charged gelatin (Type B) on the release behavior of tramadol hydrochloride from biodegradable chitosan-gelatin sponges was studied. Mixed sponges were prepared by freeze-drying the cross-linked homogenous stable foams produced from chitosan and gelatin solutions where gelatin acts as a foam builder. Generation of stable foams was optimized where concentration, pH of gelatin solution, temperature, speed and duration of whipping process, and, chitosan-gelatin ratio drastically affect the properties and the stability of the produced foams. The prepared sponges were evaluated for their morphology, drug content, and microstructure using scanning electron microscopy, mechanical properties, uptake capacity, drug release profile, and their pharmacodynamic activity in terms of the analgesic effect after implantation in Wistar rats. It was revealed that whipping 7% (w/w) gelatin solution, of pH 5.5, for 15 min at 25 degrees C with a stirring speed of 1000 rpm was the optimum conditions for stable gelatin foam generation. Moreover, homogenous, uniform chitosan-gelatin foam with small air bubbles were produced by mixing 2.5% w/w chitosan solution with 7% w/w gelatin solution in 1:5 ratio. Indeed, polyionic complexation between chitosan and gelatin overcame the drawbacks of chitosan sponge mechanical properties where, pliable, soft, and compressible sponge with high fluid uptake capacity was produced at 25 degrees C and 65% relative humidity without any added plasticizer. Drug release studies showed a successful retardation of the incorporated drug where the t50% values of the dissolution profiles were 0.55, 3.03, and 4.73 hr for cross-linked gelatin, un-cross-linked chitosan-gelatin, and cross-linked chitosan-gelatin sponges, respectively. All the release experiments followed Higuchi's diffusion mechanism over 12 hr. The achieved drug prolongation was a result of a combined effect

  17. Surface modification of nanofibrous polycaprolactone/gelatin composite scaffold by collagen type I grafting for skin tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, Sneh [Department of Polymer and Process Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee (India); Chou, Chia-Fu [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Dinda, Amit K. [Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Science, New Delhi (India); Potdar, Pravin D. [Department of Molecular Medicine and Biology, Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Mishra, Narayan C., E-mail: mishrawise@gmail.com [Department of Polymer and Process Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee (India)

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a tri-polymer polycaprolactone (PCL)/gelatin/collagen type I composite nanofibrous scaffold has been fabricated by electrospinning for skin tissue engineering and wound healing applications. Firstly, PCL/gelatin nanofibrous scaffold was fabricated by electrospinning using a low cost solvent mixture [chloroform/methanol for PCL and acetic acid (80% v/v) for gelatin], and then the nanofibrous PCL/gelatin scaffold was modified by collagen type I (0.2–1.5 wt.%) grafting. Morphology of the collagen type I-modified PCL/gelatin composite scaffold that was analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), showed that the fiber diameter was increased and pore size was decreased by increasing the concentration of collagen type I. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis indicated the surface modification of PCL/gelatin scaffold by collagen type I immobilization on the surface of the scaffold. MTT assay demonstrated the viability and high proliferation rate of L929 mouse fibroblast cells on the collagen type I-modified composite scaffold. FE-SEM analysis of cell-scaffold construct illustrated the cell adhesion of L929 mouse fibroblasts on the surface of scaffold. Characteristic cell morphology of L929 was also observed on the nanofiber mesh of the collagen type I-modified scaffold. Above results suggest that the collagen type I-modified PCL/gelatin scaffold was successful in maintaining characteristic shape of fibroblasts, besides good cell proliferation. Therefore, the fibroblast seeded PCL/gelatin/collagen type I composite nanofibrous scaffold might be a potential candidate for wound healing and skin tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • PCL/gelatin/collagen type I scaffold was fabricated for skin tissue engineering. • PCL/gelatin/collagen type I scaffold showed higher fibroblast growth than PCL/gelatin one. • PCL/gelatin/collagen type I might be one of the ideal scaffold for

  18. Aplikasi Metode SDS-PAGE (Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Poly Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis untuk Mengidentifikasi Sumber Asal Gelatin pada Kapsul Keras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Hermanto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Gelatin as the main ingredient of capsules is still a problem for a moslem. Most of gelatin production remains largely derived from non-halal materials. One of gelatin source is came from collagen of the skin and bones of bovine or pork. The main of study is determine the source of gelatin used in hard capsules by using SDS-PAGE (Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Gel electrophoresis Poly Acrylamide method. In the early stages, optimization of standards bovine and pork gelatin were hydrolyzed by pepsin at pH 4.5 and 60°C for 1 hour, 2 hours, and 3 hours. Gelatin hydrolyzateswere analyzed by SDS-PAGE to determine the optimal hydrolysis time. Identification of gelatin hydrolyzate fragments were carried by molecular weight. Hydrolysis time optimization throught applied to identify the source of hard gelatin capsules in the samples obtained from market and compared with the simulation of hard gelatin capsules. The results showed there were of specific bands of bovine gelatin with a molecular weight of 11,4 kDa; 34 kDa; 47kDa and specific bands of pork gelatin with a molecular weight of 24.7 kDa; 28 kDa; and 60 kDa. Similar results were obtained on a sample of hard capsules with bands of protein fragments that were identical to bovine gelatinstandard. Based on the results,each of the samples were tested contain of bovine gelatin respectively. DOI :http://dx.doi.org/10.15408/jkv.v0i0.3150

  19. Relationship between gelatin concentrations in silk fibroin-based composite scaffolds and adhesion and proliferation of mouse embryo fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, A A; Kotlyarova, M S; Lavrenov, V S; Volkova, S V; Arkhipova, A Yu

    2014-11-01

    Porous scaffolds of silk fibroin and composite porous scaffolds with 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% gelatin were made by the freezing-thawing method. The relationship between adhesion and proliferation rate mouse embryo fibroblast and the scaffold composition was studied by laser confocal scanning microscopy. Addition of gelatin to the scaffold structure stimulated adhesion and proliferation of mouse embryo fibroblasts; the optimal content of gelatin was 30%.

  20. Toxicology Analysis of Tissue-Mimicking Phantom Made From Gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolbashid, A. S.; Hamzah, N.; Zaman, W. S. W. K.; Mokhtar, M. S.

    2017-06-01

    Skin phantom mimics the biological skin tissues as it have the ability to respond to changes in its environment. The development of tissue-mimicking phantom could contributes towards the reduce usage of animal in cosmetics and pharmacokinetics. In this study, the skin phantoms made from gelatin were tested with four different commonly available cosmetic products to determine the toxicity of each substance. The four substances used were; mercury-based whitening face cream, carcinogenic liquid make-up foundation, paraben-based acne cleanser, and organic lip balm. Toxicity test were performed on all of the phantoms. For toxicity testing, topographical and electrophysiological changes of the phantoms were evaluated. The ability of each respective phantom to react with mild toxic substances and its electrical resistance were analysed in to determine the toxicity of all the phantom models. Four-electrode method along with custom made electrical impedance analyser was used to differentiate electrical resistance between intoxicated phantom and non-intoxicated phantom in this study. Electrical resistance values obtained from the phantom models were significantly higher than the control group. The result obtained suggests the phantom as a promising candidate to be used as alternative for toxicology testing in the future.

  1. Pharmacokinetics of Harmine Gelatin Microspheres after Embolization in Hepatic Artery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan; SUN Dianjia; BI Dianzhou; WEN Hao

    2002-01-01

    The preparation and properties of Harmine - gelatin microspheres ( HM - GMS) were reported. The characteristics of pharmacokinetics and embolization effects of HM - GMS in vivo were studied in dogs. The average diameter of the microspheres was 63. 0μm and the content was 6.09% of HM. In in vitro experiment, the release rate of drug demonstrated that the microspheres had sustained - release properties. The HM - GMS and HM solution were infused into the hepatic artery of dogs through a catheter for embolization, respectively. The plasma concentration of HM was determined by HPLC. The peak concentration of HM solution was 2.9 times as much as HM - GMS in circulating blood, while that of solution was 0.42 times as much as HM - GMS in hepatic vein. Angiograms revealed that the peripheral blood vessels decreased obviously in liver. Results showed that the HM - GMS probably can become a promising embolic agent for treatment of hepatic cancer. It could aid in the use of intensive chemotherapy with minimum systemic side effect.

  2. Biodegradable and edible gelatine actuators for use as artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, L. D.; Winfield, J.; Ieropoulos, I.; Rossiter, J.

    2014-03-01

    The expense and use of non-recyclable materials often requires the retrieval and recovery of exploratory robots. Therefore, conventional materials such as plastics and metals in robotics can be limiting. For applications such as environmental monitoring, a fully biodegradable or edible robot may provide the optimum solution. Materials that provide power and actuation as well as biodegradability provide a compelling dimension to future robotic systems. To highlight the potential of novel biodegradable and edible materials as artificial muscles, the actuation of a biodegradable hydrogel was investigated. The fabricated gelatine based polymer gel was inexpensive, easy to handle, biodegradable and edible. The electro-mechanical performance was assessed using two contactless, parallel stainless steel electrodes immersed in 0.1M NaOH solution and fixed 40 mm apart with the strip actuator pinned directly between the electrodes. The actuation displacement in response to a bias voltage was measured over hydration/de-hydration cycles. Long term (11 days) and short term (1 hour) investigations demonstrated the bending behaviour of the swollen material in response to an electric field. Actuation voltage was low (biodegradable and edible artificial muscles could help to drive the development of environmentally friendly robotics.

  3. Effect of lime concentration on gelatinized maize starch dispersions properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato-Calleros, C; Hernandez-Jaimes, C; Chavez-Esquivel, G; Meraz, M; Sosa, E; Lara, V H; Alvarez-Ramirez, J; Vernon-Carter, E J

    2015-04-01

    Maize starch was lime-cooked at 92 °C with 0.0-0.40% w/w Ca(OH)2. Optical micrographs showed that lime disrupted the integrity of insoluble remnants (ghosts) and increased the degree of syneresis of the gelatinized starch dispersions (GSD). The particle size distribution was monomodal, shifting to smaller sizes and narrower distributions with increasing lime concentration. X-ray patterns and FTIR spectra showed that crystallinity decreased to a minimum at lime concentration of 0.20% w/w. Lime-treated GSD exhibited thixotropic and viscoelastic behaviour. In the linear viscoelastic region the storage modulus was higher than the loss modulus, but a crossover between these moduli occurred in the non-linear viscoelastic region. The viscoelastic properties decreased with increased lime concentration. The electrochemical properties suggested that the amylopectin-rich remnants and the released amylose contained in the continuous matrix was firstly attacked by calcium ions at low lime levels (<0.20% w/w), disrupting the starch gel microstructure.

  4. Gelatin modified lipid nanoparticles for anti- viral drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K S, Joshy; S, Snigdha; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar; Pothen, Laly A; Thomas, Sabu

    2017-10-01

    The major challenges to clinical application of zidovudine are its moderate aqueous solubility and relative short half-life and serious side effects due to frequent administrations. We investigated the preparation of zidovudine-loaded nanoparticles based on lipids which were further modified with the polymer gelatin. Formulation and stability of the modified nanoparticles were analysed from the physico-chemical characterizations. The interactions of nanoparticles with blood components were tested by haemolysis and aggregation studies. The drug content and entrapment efficiencies were assessed by UV analysis. The effect of nanoparticles on protein adsorption was assessed by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). In vitro release studies showed a sustained release profile of zidovudine. In vitro cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of the zidovudine-loaded nanoparticles were performed in MCF-7 and neuro 2a brain cells. The enhanced cellular internalization of drug loaded modified nanoparticles in both the cell lines were revealed by fluorescence microscopy. Hence the present study focuses on the feasibility of zidovudine-loaded polymer modified lipid nanoparticles as carriers for safe and efficient HIV/AIDS therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of an alginate-gelatine crosslinked hydrogel for bioplotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, Tobias; Sarker, Bapi; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Detsch, Rainer

    2015-04-08

    Using additive manufacturing to create hydrogel scaffolds which incorporate homogeneously distributed, immobilized cells in the context of biofabrication approaches represents an emerging and expanding field in tissue engineering. Applying hydrogels for additive manufacturing must consider the material processing properties as well as their influence on the immobilized cells. In this work alginate-dialdehyde (ADA), a partially oxidized alginate, was used as a basic material to improve the physico-chemical properties of the hydrogel for cell immobilization. At first, the processing ability of the gel using a bioplotter and the compatibility of the process with MG-63 osteoblast like cells were investigated. The metabolic and mitochondrial activities increased at the beginning of the incubation period and they balanced at a relatively high level after 14-28 days of incubation. During this incubation period the release of vascular endothelial growth factor-A also increased. After 28 days of incubation the cell morphology showed a spreading morphology and cells were seen to move out of the scaffold struts covering the whole scaffold structure. The reproducible processing capability of alginate-gelatine (ADA-GEL) and the compatibility with MG-63 cells were proven, thus the ADA-GEL material is highlighted as a promising matrix for applications in biofabrication.

  6. Chitosan-gelatin sheets as scaffolds for muscle tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiabbas, Maryam; Mashayekhan, Shohreh; Nazaripouya, Amir; Naji, Mohammad; Hunkeler, David; Rajabi Zeleti, Sareh; Sharifiaghdas, Farzaneh

    2015-04-01

    Hydrogels made of natural polymers [chitosan (CS) and gelatin (G)] have been prepared having mechanical properties similar to those of muscle tissues. In this study, the effect of polymer concentration and scaffold stiffness on the behavior of seeded muscle-derived cells (MDCs) on the CS-G hydrogel sheets has been evaluated. Both variables were found to be important in cell viability. Viability was assessed by observation of the cell morphology after 1 day as well as a 14-day MTT assay. The CS-G hydrogels were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, which revealed evidences of strong intermolecular interactions between CS and G. Hydrogel samples with intermediate concentration of CS had suitable handling characteristics for surgical purposes as well as similar elasticity to muscle tissues. The sample with intermediate stiffness (22 ± 1kPa) exhibited the greatest attachment, expansion, and proliferation rate. Such CS-G hydrogels with intermediate stiffness may be considered as new candidates for muscle tissue engineering in the reconstructive field of urology.

  7. Gelatinization temperature of rice explained by polymorphisms in starch synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Daniel L E; Henry, Robert J; Reinke, Russell F; Fitzgerald, Melissa A

    2006-01-01

    The cooking quality of rice is associated with the starch gelatinization temperature (GT). Rice genotypes with low GT have probably been selected for their cooking quality by humans during domestication. We now report polymorphisms in starch synthase IIa (SSIIa) that explain the variation in rice starch GT. Sequence analysis of the eight exons of SSIIa identified significant polymorphism in only exon 8. These single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were determined in 70 diverse genotypes of rice. Two SNPs could classify all 70 genotypes into either high GT or low GT types which differed in GT by 8 degrees C. 'A' rather than 'G' at base 2412 determined whether a methionine or valine was present at the corresponding amino acid residue in SSIIa, whilst two adjacent SNPs at bases 2543 and 2544 coded for either leucine (GC) or phenylalanine (TT). Rice varieties with high GT starch had a combination of valine and leucine at these residues. In contrast, rice varieties with low GT starch had a combination of either methionine and leucine or valine and phenylalanine at these same residues. At least two distinct polymorphisms have apparently been selected for their desirable cooking qualities in the domestication of rice.

  8. A novel porous gelatin composite containing naringin for bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuo-Yu; Lin, Kuen-Cherng; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Yao, Chun-Hsu

    2013-01-01

    As Gu-Sui-Bu (GSB) is a commonly used Chinese medical herb for therapeutic treatment of bone-related diseases, naringin is its main active component. This study elucidates how various concentrations of naringin solution affect the activities of bone cells, based on colorimetric, alkaline phosphatase activity, nodule formation, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity assays to determine the optimal concentration of naringin. GGT composite was obtained by combining genipin cross-linked gelatin and β-tricalcium phosphate. GGTN composite was prepared by mixing GGT composite with the predetermined concentration of naringin. Porous GGT and GGTN composites were then made using a salt-leaching procedure. The potential of the composites in repairing bone defects was evaluated and compared in vivo by using the biological response of rabbit calvarial bone to these composites. Consequently, the most effective concentration of naringin was 10 mg/mL, which significantly enhanced the proliferation of osteoblasts, osteoclast activity, and nodule formation without affecting the alkaline phosphatase activity of osteoblasts and mitochondrial activity of mixed-bone cells. Radiographic analysis revealed greater new bone ingrowth in the GGTN composite than in the GGT composite at the same implantation time. Therefore, the GGTN composite is highly promising for use as a bone graft material.

  9. Simulating shock-bubble interactions at water-gelatin interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Stefan; Kaiser, Jakob; Bermejo-Moreno, Ivan; Adams, Nikolaus

    2016-11-01

    Biomedical problems are often driven by fluid dynamics, as in vivo organisms are usually composed of or filled with fluids that (strongly) affected their physics. Additionally, fluid dynamical effects can be used to enhance certain phenomena or destroy organisms. As examples, we highlight the benign potential of shockwave-driven kidney-stone lithotripsy or sonoporation (acoustic cavitation of microbubbles) to improve drug delivery into cells. During the CTR SummerProgram 2016 we have performed axisymmetric three-phase simulations of a shock hitting a gas bubble in water near a gelatin interface mimicking the fundamental process during sonoporation. We used our multi-resolution finite volume method with sharp interface representation (level-set), WENO-5 shock capturing and interface scale-separation and compared the results with a diffuse-interface method. Qualitatively our simulation results agree well with the reference. Due to the interface treatment the pressure profiles are sharper in our simulations and bubble collapse dynamics are predicted at shorter time-scales. Validation with free-field collapse (Rayleigh collapse) shows very good agreement. The project leading to this application has received funding from the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (Grant agreement No 667483).

  10. Complexation behavior of gelatin with amphiphilic drug imipramine hydrochloride as studied by conductimetry, surface tensiometry and circular dichroism studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohd Sajid; Anjum, Kahkashan; Khan, Javed M; Khan, Rizwan H; Kabir-ud-Din

    2011-01-01

    Herein we report our studies carried out on the interaction between IMP and gelatin in aqueous medium at 25°C using conductimetry, surface tensiometry and circular dichroism (CD) techniques. Both surface tensiometry and conductimetry results indicate that the drug interacts with the gelatin in a surfactant-like manner, i.e., both critical aggregation (cac) and polymer saturation points (psp) were observed. The interaction starts with the formation of a highly surface-active complex as revealed by the lowering of surface tension on the addition of drug to the macromolecule. The decrease in cac on increasing gelatin concentration is an indication of the strong interaction between gelatin and IMP. However, at low concentration of gelatin the interaction was not much strong as exposed by surface tension study, i.e., the cac was not very clear (as with higher gelatin concentrations). As usual, the psp increased on increasing the gelatin concentration and was always higher than the critical micelle concentration of the drug in pure aqueous medium. Using CD measurements the influence of IMP on the secondary structure of gelatin in aqueous solutions was also investigated. CD studies (performed at very low drug concentrations) illustrated that the random coil content of gelatin increases with increasing drug concentration. Free energies of aggregation (ΔG(agg)) and micellization (ΔG(mic)) were computed with the help of degrees of micelle ionization obtained from the specific conductivity - [IMP] plots.

  11. Effects of Long-term exposure of Gelatinated and Non-gelatinated Cadmium Telluride Quantum Dots on Differentiated PC12 cells

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Prasad, Babu R

    2012-01-20

    Abstract Background The inherent toxicity of unmodified Quantum Dots (QDs) is a major hindrance to their use in biological applications. To make them more potent as neuroprosthetic and neurotherapeutic agents, thioglycolic acid (TGA) capped CdTe QDs, were coated with a gelatine layer and investigated in this study with differentiated pheochromocytoma 12 (PC12) cells. The QD - cell interactions were investigated after incubation periods of up to 17 days by MTT and APOTOX-Glo Triplex assays along with using confocal microscopy. Results Long term exposure (up to 17 days) to gelatinated TGA-capped CdTe QDs of PC12 cells in the course of differentiation and after neurites were grown resulted in dramatically reduced cytotoxicity compared to non-gelatinated TGA-capped CdTe QDs. Conclusion The toxicity mechanism of QDs was identified as caspase-mediated apoptosis as a result of cadmium leaking from the core of QDs. It was therefore concluded that the gelatine capping on the surface of QDs acts as a barrier towards the leaking of toxic ions from the core QDs in the long term (up to 17 days).

  12. Effects of long-term exposure of gelatinated and non-gelatinated cadmium telluride quantum dots on differentiated PC12 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Babu R

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inherent toxicity of unmodified Quantum Dots (QDs is a major hindrance to their use in biological applications. To make them more potent as neuroprosthetic and neurotherapeutic agents, thioglycolic acid (TGA capped CdTe QDs, were coated with a gelatine layer and investigated in this study with differentiated pheochromocytoma 12 (PC12 cells. The QD - cell interactions were investigated after incubation periods of up to 17 days by MTT and APOTOX-Glo Triplex assays along with using confocal microscopy. Results Long term exposure (up to 17 days to gelatinated TGA-capped CdTe QDs of PC12 cells in the course of differentiation and after neurites were grown resulted in dramatically reduced cytotoxicity compared to non-gelatinated TGA-capped CdTe QDs. Conclusion The toxicity mechanism of QDs was identified as caspase-mediated apoptosis as a result of cadmium leaking from the core of QDs. It was therefore concluded that the gelatine capping on the surface of QDs acts as a barrier towards the leaking of toxic ions from the core QDs in the long term (up to 17 days.

  13. Control of guided hard-tissue regeneration using phosphorylated gelatin and OCT imaging of calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Katsunori; Ma, Zhenhe; Ninomiya, Yoshihisa; Takegoshi, Minori; Kushibiki, Toshihiro; Yamamoto, Masaya; Hinds, Monica; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Wang, Ruikang K.; Awazu, Kunio

    2007-02-01

    Tendon and ligament are the transition tissues from a hard tissue to a soft tissue. The regenerative medicine of tendons needs reasonable biomaterials to regenerate precisely from the view point of composition and adhesion properties. In regenerative medicine of hard tissues, it has been reported that calcifications are influenced by phosphorylated proteins (phosphate groups) and the biomaterial possessing phosphate groups promote or inhibit the formation of HAP. We have studied to develop and evaluate the phosphorylated soft biomaterials, which is possible to control a calcification by the introduction ratio of phosphate groups, as biomaterials for tendon regeneration. In addition, we have studied measurement technologies. In the present study, we studied a FT-IR analysis of gelatins with different introduction ratio of phosphate groups, an evaluation of calcifications by the difference of introduction ratio of phosphate groups, and a fundamental survey on OCT imaging for calcifications of a gelatin and a phosphorylated gelatin. We use phosphorylated gelatins with different introduction ratios of phosphate group linked by ester bonds. The introduction ratios are measured by the FT-IR calibrated by a molybdenum blue method. Phosphorylated gelatin sheets were calcified using 1.5SBF soaking process and alternative soaking process. These gelatin sheets with different calcification conditions were measured using SD-OCT systems with 843nm centered wavelength SLD. As a result, we demonstrated that it was possible to measure the calcification on/in the gelatin sheets and sponges and phosphorylated using OCT. The main mechanism is the strong back scattering and the high scattering of deposited calcium particles.

  14. Surface modification of polyethylene terephthalate with albumin and gelatin for improvement of anticoagulation and endothelialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren Jingrun [Key Lab. of Advanced Technology for Materials of Education Ministry, Lab. of Surface Engineering of Artificial Organ of Sichuan, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Wang Jin [Key Lab. of Advanced Technology for Materials of Education Ministry, Lab. of Surface Engineering of Artificial Organ of Sichuan, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)], E-mail: jinxxwang@263.net; Sun Hong; Huang Nan [Key Lab. of Advanced Technology for Materials of Education Ministry, Lab. of Surface Engineering of Artificial Organ of Sichuan, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)

    2008-11-15

    The surfaces of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) were modified by oxygen plasma-induced and ultraviolet (UV)-assisted acrylic acid (AAc) grafting polymerization, and the carboxyl (-COOH) groups on the PET surface was 5.29 x 10{sup -9}mol/cm{sup 2}. Then using the -COOH as reacting sites, the molecules of gelatin and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were further co-immobilized on the PET surface. The modified PET surfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and surface chemical quantitative analysis. The results showed that the molecules of gelatin and albumin were immobilized on the PET surface. The concentration of gelatin on the gelatin-immobilized PET surface was 2.02 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}. For the gelatin-immobilized PET surface, the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) culture attachment and proliferation ratios were improved, but the anticoagulation became worse proved by platelet adhesion test in vitro and the lactate dehydrogense (LDH) test. After further co-immobilization of albumin with gelatin biomolecules on the PET surface (PET-Gel-BSA), the percent of platelet adhesion in vitro decreased 28% than that on the gelatin-immobilized PET surface, and the cell density on the PET-Gel-BSA film (1.08 x 10{sup 5} cells/cm{sup 2}) was significantly higher than that on the control PET surface. This investigation tries to find a method which can construct the anticoagulant surface before the endothelium formation and also accelerate the endothelialization of polymer surface.

  15. Gelatin tannate reduces the proinflammatory effects of lipopolysaccharide in human intestinal epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frasca G

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppina Frasca1, Venera Cardile1, Carmelo Puglia2, Claudia Bonina2, Francesco Bonina21Department of Biomedical Sciences, (Physiology, 2Department of Drug Sciences, University of Catania, Catania, ItalyBackground: Gelatin tannate is a mixture of tannic acid and gelatin. Tannic acid has astringent properties, due to its capacity to form protein–macromolecular complexes, as well as antibacterial and antioxidant properties. However, little is known about its anti-inflammatory properties. Purpose: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of gelatin tannate by quantifying the suppression of key molecules produced during inflammatory events in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated human intestinal cells. Methods: Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 expression was determined by Western blot analysis; interleukin-8 (IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in Caco-2 cells 24 hours after treatment with LPS (1 μg/mL in presence of different concentrations of gelatin tannate. Results: ICAM-1 is induced on a wide variety of cells by inflammatory stimuli such as LPS. Our results have shown gelatin tannate as a potent inhibitor of ICAM-1 expression in LPS-stimulated Caco-2 cells. IL-8 and TNF-α are important inflammatory mediators, recruiting neutrophils and T-lymphocytes. Together with LPS, adding gelatin tannate at different concentrations induced a dose-dependent inhibition of IL-8 and TNF-α released by Caco-2 cells. Conclusion: These results suggest that gelatin tannate exerts anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the specific cytokines and adhesion molecules involved in several inflammatory disorders.Keywords: Caco-2, ICAM-1, IL-8, TNF-α

  16. Protective effect of gelatin and gelatin hydrolysate from salmon skin on UV irradiation-induced photoaging of mice skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tiejun; Hou, Hu; Lu, Jiaohan; Zhang, Kai; Li, Bafang

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of gelatin (SG) isolated from salmon skin and its hydrolysate (SGH) on photoaging skin, and the mechanism responsible for anti-photoaging. The average molecular weights of SG and SGH were 65 kDa and 873 Da, respectively. The amino acid compositions of SG and SGH were similar. Both of them were abundant in hydrophobic amino acids. Twenty-five peptides were identified from SGH. SG and SGH could improve UV irradiation-induced pathological changes of macroscopical tissue texture and skin morphology. Hydroxyproline content is an indicator of matrix collagen content, SG and SGH could inhibit the decrease of hydroxyproline content in photoaging skin in a dose dependent manner. In addition, SG and SGH could alleviate UV irradiation-induced oxidative damages to skin by increasing the activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT), increasing the content of glutathione (GSH) and decreasing the content of malonaldehyde (MDA). Moreover, SG and SGH could enhance immune regulation system by increasing the thymus index. Thus, the anti-photoaging mechanisms of SG and SGH were by inhibiting the depletion of antioxidant defense components, involving in the synthesis of collagen and enhancing the function of immune system. Besides, SGH showed a better result in protecting skin from photoaging than SG.

  17. Applications of Circular Dichroism for Structural Analysis of Gelatin and Antimicrobial Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonkyung Park

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Circular dichroism (CD is a useful technique for monitoring changes in the conformation of antimicrobial peptides or gelatin. In this study, interactions between cationic peptides and gelatin were observed without affecting the triple helical content of the gelatin, which was more strongly affected by anionic surfactant. The peptides did not adopt a secondary structure in the presence of aqueous solution or Tween 80, but a peptide secondary structure formed upon the addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS. The peptides bound to the phosphate group of lipopolysaccharide (LPS and displayed an alpha-helical conformation while (KW4 adopted a folded conformation. Further, the peptides did not specifically interact with the fungal cell wall components of mannan or laminarin. Tryptophan blue shift assay indicated that these peptides interacted with SDS, LPS, and gelatin but not with Tween 80, mannan, or laminarin. The peptides also displayed antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa without cytotoxicity against HaCaT cells at MIC, except for HPA3NT3-analog peptide. In this study, we used a CD spectroscopic method to demonstrate the feasibility of peptide characterization in numerous environments. The CD method can thus be used as a screening method of gelatin-peptide interactions for use in wound healing applications.

  18. Isoniazid loaded gelatin-cellulose whiskers nanoparticles for controlled drug delivery applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MANDIP SARMAH; ANOWAR HUSSAIN; ANAND RAMTEKE; TARUN K MAJI

    2016-08-01

    Natural polymers like gelatin have been used as a potential drug carrier for controlled delivery applications due to their various advantages over synthetic polymers. Cellulose Whiskers (CWs) have the capacity to form strong hydrogen bonds which help in controlling the release of drug and also provide goodstrength to the drug carrier. In this report, CWs were prepared from filter paper cellulose by acid hydrolysis. Also, attempt was made to prepare gelatin-CWs nanoparticles by desolvation method using an anti-tuberculosis drug, isoniazid and a crosslinker glutaraldehyde (GA). The CWs and gelatin-CWs nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The effect of CWs on gelatin nanoparticlesover 8-hour period was measured in swelling studies. Efficiency of drug loading and subsequent release of isoniazid in buffer solutions at pH 1.2 (0.1N HCl) and pH 7.4 (phosphate buffer) were studied. Cytotoxicity study showed less toxicity for gelatin-CWs nanoparticles.

  19. Non-Linear Behaviour Of Gelatin Networks Reveals A Hierarchical Structure

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhi

    2015-12-14

    We investigate the strain hardening behaviour of various gelatin networks - namely physically-crosslinked gelatin gel, chemically-crosslinked gelatin gels, and a hybrid gels made of a combination of the former two - under large shear deformations using the pre-stress, strain ramp, and large amplitude oscillation shear protocols. Further, the internal structures of physically-crosslinked gelatin gel and chemically-crosslinked gelatin gels were characterized by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) to enable their internal structures to be correlated with their nonlinear rheology. The Kratky plots of SANS data demonstrate the presence of small cross-linked aggregates within the chemically-crosslinked network, whereas in the physically-crosslinked gels a relatively homogeneous structure is observed. Through model fitting to the scattering data, we were able to obtain structural parameters, such as correlation length (ξ), cross-sectional polymer chain radius (Rc), and the fractal dimension (df) of the gel networks. The fractal dimension df obtained from the SANS data of the physically-crosslinked and chemically crosslinked gels is 1.31 and 1.53, respectively. These values are in excellent agreement with the ones obtained from a generalized non-linear elastic theory we used to fit our stress-strain curves. The chemical crosslinking that generates coils and aggregates hinders the free stretching of the triple helices bundles in the physically-crosslinked gels.

  20. Preparation and characterization of alginate and gelatin microcapsules containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSIANY LOPES

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper describes the preparation and characterization of alginate beads coated with gelatin and containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Capsules were obtained by extrusion method using CaCl2 as cross linker. An experimental design was performed using alginate and gelatin concentrations as the variables investigated, while the response variable was the concentration of viable cells. Beads were characterized in terms of size, morphology, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, moisture content, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR, thermal behavior and cell viability during storage. The results showed that the highest concentration of viable cells (4.2 x 109 CFU/g was obtained for 1 % w/v of alginate and 0.1 % w/v of gelatin. Capsules were predominantly spherical with a rough surface, a narrow size distribution ranging from 1.53 to 1.90 mm and a moisture content of 97.70 ± 0.03 %. Furthermore, FTIR and thermogravimetric analysis indicated an interaction between alginate-gelatin. Cell concentration of alginate/gelatin microcapsules was 105 CFU/g after 4 months of storage at 8 oC.

  1. Improved Biodegradable Radiation Cured Polymeric Film Prepared from Chitosan-Gelatin Blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinia Nasreen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical, thermal, swelling, and release properties of chitosan-gelatin (CG films have been investigated in order to verify the influence of UV and gamma radiation on the stability of the films. Thin films of chitosan and gelatin (1 : 3, w/w that were radiated with 100 krad of gamma dose showed the best performance and the TS values reached 25, 45, and 49 MPa, respectively, for chitosan, gelatin, and blend. The corresponding highest TS values were 23, 42, and 45 MPa, respectively, for 10 passes of UV radiation. The effect of radiation over gelatin, chitosan, and CG blend caused modification in the arrangement of molecules in the crystal lattice that is significant by XRD analysis. Surfaces of the films were also investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR studies further revealed structural changes of the films. These changes were attributed to understanding the behavior of the irradiated chitosan, gelatin, and CG blend on application of thermal energy using DSC and TGA studies, water uptake of the films in aqueous medium, and soil degradation properties to observe the best possibility for its application.

  2. Modified gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarika, P.R. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 547 (India); Cinthya, Kuriakose [Tissue Culture Laboratory, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 012 (India); Jayakrishnan, A. [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Anilkumar, P.R., E-mail: anilkumarpr@sctimst.ac.in [Tissue Culture Laboratory, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Poojappura, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 012 (India); James, Nirmala Rachel, E-mail: nirmala@iist.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 547 (India)

    2014-10-01

    The present work deals with development of modified gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold for cell culture. A new biocompatible scaffold was developed by cross-linking gelatin (Gel) with gum arabic, a polysaccharide. Gum arabic was subjected to periodate oxidation to obtain gum arabic aldehyde (GAA). GAA was reacted with gelatin under appropriate pH to prepare the cross-linked hydrogel. Cross-linking occurred due to Schiff's base reaction between aldehyde groups of oxidized gum arabic and amino groups of gelatin. The scaffold prepared from the hydrogel was characterized by swelling properties, degree of cross-linking, in vitro degradation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cytocompatibility evaluation using L-929 and HepG2 cells confirmed non-cytotoxic and non-adherent nature of the scaffold. These properties are essential for generating multicellular spheroids and hence the scaffold is proposed to be a suitable candidate for spheroid cell culture. - Highlights: • Gum arabic cross-linked gelatin scaffold was developed for tissue engineering. • Cross-linking was achieved by Schiff's base reaction. • The scaffold is non-cytotoxic and non adherent to fibroblast and hepatocytes. • The scaffolds are potential candidates for spheroid cell culture.

  3. Gelatinization and retrogradation phenomena in starch/montmorillonite nanocomposites plasticized with different glycerol/water ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Sandra Camila; Salcedo, Felipe

    2016-10-20

    This study aims to gain insights into the intermolecular interactions present in thermoplastic starch (TPS)/montmorillonite (MMT) nanocomposites prepared using water and/or glycerol as plasticizers. Specifically, the impact of using different glycerol/water proportions on the nature of gelatinization and retrogradation processes is studied. Nanocomposites were characterized by rheometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-rays diffraction (XRD). It is shown that clay tactoids preferentially interact with glycerol molecules rather than starch macromolecules. Consequently, the effects of MMT incorporation strongly depend on the glycerol/water ratio; when a ratio of 0.5 is used minor variations were observed on the starch gelatinization process-although stronger clays-starch interactions were evident-whereas at higher ratios the addition of clays significantly increased the gelatinization temperature, up to values over 100°C. In the gelatinization process of starch in TPS samples having only glycerol as a plasticizer, the leaching of amylose and the melting of amylopectin crystalline domains seem to occur simultaneously. This different gelatinization mechanism produces a TPS having a substantially different morphology, which exhibited reduced retrogradation characteristics.

  4. Molecular disassembly of starch granules during gelatinization and its effect on starch digestibility: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujun; Copeland, Les

    2013-11-01

    Starch is the most important glycemic carbohydrate in foods. The relationship between the rate and extent of starch digestion to produce glucose for absorption into the bloodstream and risk factors for diet-related diseases is of considerable nutritional interest. Native starch is attacked slowly by enzymes, but after hydrothermal processing its susceptibility to enzymatic breakdown is greatly increased. Most starch consumed by humans has undergone some form of processing or cooking, which causes native starch granules to gelatinize, followed by retrogradation on cooling. The extent of gelatinization and retrogradation are major determinants of the susceptibility of starch to enzymatic digestion and its functional properties for food processing. The type and extent of changes that occur in starch as a result of gelatinization, pasting and retrogradation are determined by the type of the starch, processing and storage conditions. A mechanistic understanding of the molecular disassembly of starch granules during gelatinization is critical to explaining the effects of processing or cooking on starch digestibility. This review focuses on the molecular disassembly of starch granules during starch gelatinization over a wide range of water levels, and its consequential effect on in vitro starch digestibility and in vivo glycemic index.

  5. Physical, Physicochemical, Mechanical, and Structural Characterization of Films Based on Gelatin/Glycerol and Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Sifuentes-Nieves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method to prepare glycerol/gelatin based films, by doping the film with carbon nanotubes (CNTs and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, was proposed. SDS was used to disperse CNTs in gelatin/glycerol films as follows: gelatin/glycerol (GG incubated with equal concentrations of CNT and SDS; GG with 0.001% w/w CNT/SDS; GG with 0.002% CNT/SDS and GG with 0.004% CNT/SDS. Diffractograms of CNT/SDS /glycerol films showed an amorphous structure, being consistent with thermograms involving temperature and fusion enthalpy. Mechanical tests showed 30% increase in elongation at break of GG with 0.004% CNT/SDS, with respect to gelatin/glycerol/SDS control. Samples with CNT had increased water vapor permeability (WVP. The film fractal dimension indicated that, with the addition of the highest concentration of CNT, films with a homogeneous surface were obtained, with probable nanotube inclusion in the protein matrix. According to the results, the easy method used to prepare gelatin composite materials gave place to films with better physical, mechanical, and thermal properties.

  6. Interaction of gelatin with polyenes modulates antifungal activity and biocompatibility of electrospun fiber mats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani; Sridhar, Radhakrishnan; Loh, Xian Jun; Nandhakumar, Muruganantham; Barathi, Veluchamy Amutha; Kalaipriya, Madhaiyan; Kwan, Jia Lin; Liu, Shou Ping; Beuerman, Roger Wilmer; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2014-01-01

    Topical application of antifungals does not have predictable or well-controlled release characteristics and requires reapplication to achieve therapeutic local concentration in a reasonable time period. In this article, the efficacy of five different US Food and Drug Administration-approved antifungal-loaded (amphotericin B, natamycin, terbinafine, fluconazole, and itraconazole) electrospun gelatin fiber mats were compared. Morphological studies show that incorporation of polyenes resulted in a two-fold increase in fiber diameter and the mats inhibit the growth of yeasts and filamentous fungal pathogens. Terbinafine-loaded mats were effective against three filamentous fungal species. Among the two azole antifungals compared, the itraconazole-loaded mat was potent against Aspergillus strains. However, activity loss was observed for fluconazole-loaded mats against all of the test organisms. The polyene-loaded mats displayed rapid candidacidal activities as well. Biophysical and rheological measurements indicate strong interactions between polyene antifungals and gelatin matrix. As a result, the polyenes stabilized the triple helical conformation of gelatin and the presence of gelatin decreased the hemolytic activity of polyenes. The polyene-loaded fiber mats were noncytotoxic to primary human corneal and sclera fibroblasts. The reduction of toxicity with complete retention of activity of the polyene antifungal-loaded gelatin fiber mats can provide new opportunities in the management of superficial skin infections.

  7. Properties of biopolymers produced by transglutaminase treatment of whey protein isolate and gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernàndez-Balada, Eduard; Taylor, Maryann M; Phillips, John G; Marmer, William N; Brown, Eleanor M

    2009-07-01

    Byproduct utilization is an important consideration in the development of sustainable processes. Whey protein isolate (WPI), a byproduct of the cheese industry, and gelatin, a byproduct of the leather industry, were reacted individually and in blends with microbial transglutaminase (mTGase) at pH 7.5 and 45 degrees C. When a WPI (10% w/w) solution was treated with mTGase (10 U/g) under reducing conditions, the viscosity increased four-fold and the storage modulus (G') from 0 to 300 Pa over 20 h. Similar treatment of dilute gelatin solutions (0.5-3%) had little effect. Addition of gelatin to 10% WPI caused a synergistic increase in both viscosity and G', with the formation of gels at concentrations greater than 1.5% added gelatin. These results suggest that new biopolymers, with improved functionality, could be developed by mTGase treatment of protein blends containing small amounts of gelatin with the less expensive whey protein.

  8. Effect on hemostasis of an absorbable hemostatic gelatin sponge after transrectal prostate needle biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Kobatake

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To examine the usefulness of an absorbable hemostatic gelatin sponge for hemostasis after transrectal prostate needle biopsy. Subjects and Methods The subjects comprised 278 participants who underwent transrectal prostate needle biopsy. They were randomly allocated to the gelatin sponge insertion group (group A: 148 participants and to the non-insertion group (group B: 130 participants. In group A, the gelatin sponge was inserted into the rectum immediately after biopsy. A biopsy-induced hemorrhage was defined as a case in which a subject complained of bleeding from the rectum, and excretion of blood clots was confirmed. A blood test was performed before and after biopsy, and a questionnaire survey was given after the biopsy. Results Significantly fewer participants in group A required hemostasis after biopsy compared to group B (3 (2.0% vs. 11 (8.5%, P=0.029. The results of the blood tests and the responses from the questionnaire did not differ significantly between the two groups. In multivariate analysis, only “insertion of a gelatin sponge into the rectum” emerged as a significant predictor of hemostasis. Conclusion Insertion of a gelatin sponge into the rectum after transrectal prostate needle biopsy significantly increases hemostasis without increasing patient symptoms, such as pain and a sense of discomfort.

  9. Allomorph distribution and granule structure of lotus rhizome C-type starch during gelatinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Canhui; Cai, Jinwen; Man, Jianmin; Yang, Yang; Wang, Zhifeng; Wei, Cunxu

    2014-01-01

    The allomorph distribution and granule structure of C-type starch from lotus rhizomes were investigated using a combination of techniques during gelatinization. The disruption of crystallinity during gelatinization began from the end distant from the eccentric hilum and then propagated into the center of granule. The periphery of hilum end was finally gelatinized, accompanied by high swelling. The crystallinity changed from C-type to A-type via CA-type during gelatinization, and finally became amorphous structure. The amylose content, crystal degree, helix content, ratio of 1045/1022cm(-1), and peak intensity of crystalline lamellae of gelatinizing starch significantly decreased after 70°C. The amorphous content and ratio of 1022/995cm(-1) increased after 70°C. This study elucidated that B-type allomorph was mainly arranged in the distal region of eccentric hilum, A-type allomorph was mainly located in the periphery of hilum end, and the center of granule was a mixed distribution of A- and B-type allomorphs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Milling of rice grains: effects of starch/flour structures on gelatinization and pasting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasjim, Jovin; Li, Enpeng; Dhital, Sushil

    2013-01-30

    Starch gelatinization and flour pasting properties were determined and correlated with four different levels of starch structures in rice flour, i.e. flour particle size, degree of damaged starch granules, whole molecular size, and molecular branching structure. Onset starch-gelatinization temperatures were not significantly different among all flour samples, but peak and conclusion starch-gelatinization temperatures were significantly different and were strongly correlated with the flour particle size, indicating that rice flour with larger particle size has a greater barrier for heat transfer. There were slight differences in the enthalpy of starch gelatinization, which are likely associated with the disruption of crystalline structure in starch granules by the milling processes. Flours with volume-median diameter ≥56 μm did not show a defined peak viscosity in the RVA viscogram, possibly due to the presence of native protein and/or cell-wall structure stabilizing the swollen starch granules against the rupture caused by shear during heating. Furthermore, RVA final viscosity of flour was strongly correlated with the degree of damage to starch granules, suggesting the contribution of granular structure, possibly in swollen form. The results from this study allow the improvement in the manufacture and the selection criteria of rice flour with desirable gelatinization and pasting properties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Biogas from mesophilic digestion of cow dung using charcoal and gelatin as additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Rashedul; Salam, Bodius; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Mamun, Abdullah Al

    2017-06-01

    Biogas, a source of renewable energy is produced from bacteria in the process of biodegradation of organic matter under anaerobic conditions. A research work was performed to find out the production of biogas from cow dung using charcoal and gelatin as additives. Five laboatory scale experimental set-up were constructed using 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8% gelatin with cow dung as additive to perform the research work. For all the set-up 0.5% charcoal was also added. All the set-ups were made from 1-liter capacity conical flask. The amount of water and cow dung was used respectively 382 gm. and 318 gm. in every set-up. Total solid content was maintained 8% throughout all set-ups. The digesters were operated at ambient temperature of 26°-32°C. The total gas yield without using gelatin additive was found to be 12 L/kg cow dung. The maximum gas yield was found from 0.2% gelatin additive and 23% more as compared to without gelatin gas production. The retention time varied from 28 to 79 days for the experiments.

  12. Effect of gelatin gelation kinetics on probe diffusion determined by FRAP and rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, Joel; Lorén, Niklas; Hermansson, Anne-Marie

    2010-12-13

    The time-dependent diffusion and mechanical properties of gelatin in solution, in the gel state, and during the sol/gel transition were determined using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and rheology. The parameters in the experimental design were 2% w/w and 5% w/w gelatin concentration; 15, 20, and 25 °C end quench temperatures; and Na(2)-fluorescein, 10 kDa FITC-dextran, and 500 kDa FITC-dextran as diffusion probes. The samples were monitored in solution at 60 °C, during quenching, for 75 min at end quench temperatures and after 1, 7, and 14 days of storage at the end quench temperature. The effect of temperature on the probe diffusion was normalized by determining the free diffusion of the probes in pure water for the different temperatures. The results gained by comparing FRAP and rheology showed that FRAP is able to capture structural changes in the gelatin before gelation occurs, which was interpreted as a formation of transient networks. This was clearly seen for 2% w/w gelatin and 20 and 25 °C end quench temperatures. The structural changes during sol/gel transition are detected only by the larger probes, giving information about the typical length scales in the gelatin structure. The normalized diffusion rate increased after 7 and 14 days of storage. This increase was most pronounced for fluorescein but was also seen for the larger probes.

  13. Thermal degradation of gelatin as applied to processing of gel mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, W C

    1978-02-01

    The rheological parameters of rigidity and viscosity were studied for gelatin, both as a 6% solution and a 38% gel mass containing glycerin, sorbitol, and water. A compressive test for rigidity and a rotational shear method for viscosity were used to characterize the thermal degradation of several lots of alkali-processed calf-skin gelatin. The objective of this study was to use kinetic data for process predictions in the manufacturing of the gel mass for soft gelatin capsules. Empirical equations relating degradation to time, temperature and pH were derived for dilute gelatin solutions. Through parallel studies with a concentrated gel mass, other empirical equations were developed to predict degradation of the gel mass based on dilute solution data and processing conditions. Analysis of the kinetic data and empirical equations have generally confirmed earlier observations on degradation, except on quantitative aspects. While these equations are adequate for the intended use in process predictions, the study revealed substantial variability both within and among lots of commercial gelatin. These variabilities of uncertain causes contributed to inexact characterization of degradation, as demonstrated by the generally approximate results of process predictions.

  14. Compatibility of Chitosan-Gelatin Films with Adipose Tissue Derived Stromal Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ling; GAO Yuan; KONG Lijun; GONG Yandao; ZHAO Nanming; ZHANG Xiufang

    2006-01-01

    Chitosan has been shown to be a promising material for various applications in tissue engineering. Recently, adipose tissue derived stromal cells (ADSCs) have been investigated as an alternative source of seed cells for tissue engineering. The compatibility of chitosan and chitosan-gelatin complexes with ADSCs is not known. In the present study, ADSCs were isolated and characterized by phenotype using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). The morphology, viability, and the ability of the ADSCs to differentiate on chitosan and chitosan-gelatin composite films with 60 wt.% gelatin were evaluated. Results show that the ADSCs are positive for CD29, CD44, and CD105, but negative for CD31, CD34, and CD45. ADSCs adhere and grow better on the composite films than on the chitosan films. The ability of ADSCs to differentiate into osteogenic and adipogenic lineage cells is not affected by their being cultured on chitosan-gelatin composite films. Therefore, chitosan-gelatin composite films are compatible with ADSCs and do not impair the ability of ADSCs to differentiate into osteogenic and adipogenic lineage cells.

  15. Low-cost fabrication of poly(methyl methacrylate) microchips using disposable gelatin gel templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi; Yu, Zhengyin; Chen, Gang

    2010-06-15

    A simple method based on disposable gelatin gel templates has been developed for the low-cost fabrication of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microfluidic chips. Gelatin was dissolved in glycerol aqueous solution under heat to prepare a thermally reversible impression material. The molten gel was then sandwiched between a glass plate and a SU-8 template bearing negative relief of microstructure. After cooling, the negative SU-8 template could be easily separated from the solidified gelatin gel and a layer of gelatin template bearing positive relief of the microstructure was left on the glass plate. Subsequently, prepolymerized methyl methacrylate molding solution containing a UV-initiator was sandwiched between the gel template and a PMMA plate and was allowed to polymerize under UV light to fabricate PMMA channel plate at room temperature. Complete microchips could be obtained by bonding the channel plates with covers using plasticizer-assisted thermal bonding at 90 degrees C. Gelatin gel template can be mass-produced and will find application in the mass production of PMMA microchips at low cost. The prepared microfluidic microchips have been successfully employed in the capillary electrophoresis analysis of several ions in connection with contactless conductivity detection.

  16. Evaluation of arterial impairment after experimental gelatin sponge embolization in a rabbit renal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jung Suk; Lee, Hae Gi; Chun, Ho Jong; Choi, Byung Gil; Choi, Yeong Jin [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Arterial stenosis is a major obstacle for subsequent interventional procedures. We hypothesized that the stenosis is caused by gelatin sponge embolization and performed an experimental study in a rabbit renal model. A total of 24 rabbits were embolized with porcine gelatin sponge particles injected into the renal arteries. Four rabbits were sacrificed on 1 day, 4 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, and 4 weeks after embolization. Microscopic evaluations were performed on hematoxylin-eosin and smooth muscle actin immunohistochemical stained sections. Gelatin sponge particles were mainly observed in the segmental and interlobar arteries. Transmural inflammation of the embolized arterial wall and mild thickening of the media were observed 1 week after embolization. Resorption of the gelatin sponge and organization of thrombus accompanied by foreign body reactions, were observed from 2 to 4 weeks after embolization. Microscopic images of the 3 weeks group showed vessel lumens filled mostly with organized thrombi, resulting in severe stenosis. Additionally, vessels showed a thickened intima that contained migrating smooth muscle cells and accompanying interruption of the internal elastic lamina. The migrating smooth muscle cells were distributed around the recanalized arterial lumen. Gelatin sponge embolization may induce arterial stenosis by causing organized thrombus and intimal hyperplasia, which consists of migrating smooth muscle cells and intimal collagen deposits.

  17. Effect of mechanical and electrical behavior of gelatin hydrogels on drug release and cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Dibyajyoti; Anupriya, B; Uvanesh, K; Anis, Arfat; Banerjee, Indranil; Pal, Kunal

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to explore the effect of the mechanical and the electrical properties of the gelatin hydrogels on the mammalian cell proliferation and drug release properties. FTIR analysis of the hydrogels suggested that gelatin retained its secondary protein structure. A decrease in the diffusion constant of the water molecules was observed with the increase in the gelatin concentration in the hydrogels. The mechanical and the electrical stabilities of the hydrogels were enhanced with the increase in the gelatin content. Stress relaxation and creep studies were modeled using Weichert and Burger׳s models, respectively. The relaxation time (stress relaxation study) did not follow a concentration-dependent relationship and was found to affect the MG-63 cell (human osteoblast) proliferation. The impedance profile of the hydrogels was modeled using a (RQ)Q model. Release of ciprofloxacin from the hydrogels was inversely dependent on the rate of swelling. The release of the drug was not only dependent on the Fickian diffusion but also on the relaxation process of the gelatin chains. The inhomogeneous constant of the constant phase element representing the hydrogel-electrode interface indicated improved cell proliferation rate with a decrease in the inhomogeneous constant. In gist, the rate of cell proliferation could be related to the relaxation time (stress relaxation) and the inhomogeneous constant of the sample-electrode constant phase element (electrical study) properties, whereas, the drug release properties can be related to the bulk resistance of the formulations.

  18. 稻米淀粉糊化进程研究%A Study on the Gelatinization Properties of Rice Starch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊善柏; 赵思明; 姚霓; 黄红霞

    2001-01-01

    对不同初始粒径的稻米淀粉的糊化进程进行了研究。结果表明,淀粉的糊化具有上升、平缓和回落三个阶段。在糊化温度以下(60 ℃),淀粉颗粒仅存在吸水膨胀,糊化度曲线平坦。糊化温度以上,随加热温度的升高,淀粉的糊化速度和糊化程度迅速增高,明显形成糊化过程的三阶段。较小的初始粒径会加快糊化进程,增大回落程度,但对糊化程度影响不大。加热温度对糊化特性的影响较淀粉的初始粒径大。%The gelatinization properties and gelatinization process of native rice starch under excessive water were studied. The results indicated that three stages of rice starch gelatinating could be observed. The first stage was the melt of amylopectin crystal,the absorption of water and the swelling of rice starch,the gelatinization curve showed a sharp increasing. The second stage indicated the melt of amylose crystal and,which lead to a slow increasing of the gelatin curve. The third stage indicated the recrystal of the gelatinized amylose and the forming of amylose coil. During the gelatinating process, the heating temperature influenced the gelatinization properties and gelatinization process greatly,the initial size influenced recycltian and the gelatinization speed,however,the initial size had a little effect on the degree of gelatinization.

  19. Fabrication and characterization of PCL/gelatin composite nanofibrous scaffold for tissue engineering applications by electrospinning method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, Sneh [Department of Polymer and Process Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667 (India); Dinda, Amit Kumar [Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Science, New Delhi, 110029 (India); Mishra, Narayan Chandra, E-mail: mishrawise@googlemail.com [Department of Polymer and Process Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, 247667 (India)

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, composite nanofibrous tissue engineering-scaffold consisting of polycaprolactone and gelatin, was fabricated by electrospinning method, using a new cost-effective solvent mixture: chloroform/methanol for polycaprolactone (PCL) and acetic acid for gelatin. The morphology of the nanofibrous scaffold was investigated by using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) which clearly indicates that the morphology of nanofibers was influenced by the weight ratio of PCL to gelatin in the solution. Uniform fibers were produced only when the weight ratio of PCL/gelatin is sufficiently high (10:1). The scaffold was further characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). FT-IR and TG analysis indicated some interactions between PCL and gelatin molecules within the scaffold, while XRD results demonstrated crystalline nature of PCL/gelatin composite scaffold. Cytotoxicity effect of scaffold on L929 mouse fibroblast cells was evaluated by MTT assay and cell proliferation on the scaffold was confirmed by DNA quantification. Positive results of MTT assay and DNA quantification L929 mouse fibroblast cells indicated that the scaffold made from the combination of natural polymer (gelatin) and synthetic polymer (PCL) may serve as a good candidate for tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: ► PCL/Gelatin scaffold was successfully fabricated by electrospinning method. ► PCL in CHCl{sub 3}/CH{sub 3}OH and gelatin in acetic acid: a novel polymer-solvent system. ► The morphology of nanofibers was influenced by the weight ratio of PCL/gelatin. ► Chemical interactions between PCL and gelatin molecules enhanced cell growth. ► Cell culture studies indicate the suitability of scaffold for tissue regeneration.

  20. Preparation,Characterization,and in vitro Release of Biodegradable Erythromycin-gelatin Microspheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fei; LIU Pai; JIANG Dan; LIU Cheng-bai; ZHANG Feng-chun; CHEN Xia

    2008-01-01

    Blank and erythromycin-loaded gelatin microspheres were successfully fabricated via emulsion chemical crosslinking technique.The surface morphology of the microspheres was characterized by scanning electron microscope(SEM)and optical microscope.The results show that the microspheres wcre spherical and smooth.The particle average size of erythromycin-loaded microspheres Was found to be 20.6 μm,with a high purity of more than 90%and with a good dispersibility.The microspheres could be obtained in a high yield.Erythromycin released from the microspheres Was monitored in buffer and artificial body fluid at 37℃.Average drug content was 27.2%, and erythromycin-loaded gelatin microspheres showed good release profiles with a nearly constant release during 4-8h in artificial body fluid in vitro degradation studies.These gelatin mierospheres are useful for studying and developing various drug-delivery systems.

  1. Microencapsulation of Ginger Volatile Oil Based on Gelatin/Sodium Alginate Polyelectrolyte Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lixia; Yang, Shiwei; Cao, Jinli; Zhao, Shaohua; Wang, Wuwei

    2016-01-01

    The coacervation between gelatin and sodium alginate for ginger volatile oil (GVO) microencapsulation as functions of mass ratio, pH and concentration of wall material and core material load was evaluated. The microencapsulation was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). SEM and FT-IR studies indicated the formation of polyelectrolyte complexation between gelatin and sodium alginate and successful encapsulation of GVO into the microcapsules. Thermal property study showed that the crosslinked microparticles exhibited higher thermal stability than the neat GVO, gelatin, and sodium alginate. The stability of microencapsulation of GVO in a simulated gastric and an intestinal situation in vitro was also studied. The stability results indicated that the release of GVO from microcapsules was much higher in simulated intestinal fluid, compared with that in simulated-gastric fluid.

  2. Crosslinked gelatin nanofibres: Preparation, characterisation and in vitro studies using glial-like cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonda-Turo, C. [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Torino (Italy); Cipriani, E. [Nanostructured Interfaces and Surfaces (NIS) Centre of Excellence, Department of Chemistry IFM, Università di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, Torino (Italy); Gnavi, S. [Department Of Human and Animal Biology, Università di Torino, Via Accademia Albertina, 23, Torino (Italy); Chiono, V.; Mattu, C.; Gentile, P. [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Torino (Italy); Perroteau, I. [Department Of Human and Animal Biology, Università di Torino, Via Accademia Albertina, 23, Torino (Italy); Zanetti, M. [Nanostructured Interfaces and Surfaces (NIS) Centre of Excellence, Department of Chemistry IFM, Università di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, Torino (Italy); Ciardelli, G., E-mail: gianluca.ciardelli@polito.it [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Torino (Italy); CNR-IPCF UOS Pisa Via Moruzzi, 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    Gelatin (GL) nanofibrous matrices mimicking the complex biological structure of the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) were prepared from aqueous solutions by electrospinning technique. GL nanofibres with a diameter size of around 300 nm were obtained optimising the process and solution parameters. To increase the GL stability in aqueous environment γ-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) was used as GL crosslinker. GPTMS crosslinking did not modify the nanofibrous matrix morphology: fibre diameter and membrane pores size were 327 ± 45 nm and 1.64 ± 0.37 μm, respectively. The produced GPTMS crosslinked GL nanofibres (GL/GPTMS{sub N}F) were found to support the in vitro adhesion, proliferation and survival of neonatal olfactory bulb ensheating cells (NOBECs). - Highlights: • Gelatin nanofibres were prepared from aqueous solution. • A silane-coupling agent was used as gelatin crosslinker. • Glial-like cells adhered and proliferated on the developed nanofibres. • Elongated morphology of glial-like cells was observed.

  3. Photoactivated chlorophyllin-based gelatin films and coatings to prevent microbial contamination of food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Carballo, G; Hernández-Muñoz, P; Gavara, R; Ocio, M J

    2008-08-15

    The aim of this work was to develop antimicrobial photosensitizer-containing edible films and coatings based on gelatin as the polymer matrix, incorporating sodium magnesium chlorophyllin (E-140) and sodium copper chlorophyllin (E-141). Chlorophyllins were incorporated into the gelatin film-forming solution and the inhibiting effect of the cast films was tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. The results demonstrated that water soluble sodium magnesium chlorophyllin and water soluble sodium copper chlorophyllin reduced the growth of S. aureus and L. monocytogenes by 5 log and 4 log respectively. Subsequently, the activity of self-standing films and coatings containing E-140 was assessed on cooked frankfurters inoculated with S. aureus and L. monocytogenes. These tests showed that it was possible to reduce microorganism growth in cooked frankfurters inoculated with S. aureus and L. monocytogenes by covering them with sodium magnesium chlorophyllin-gelatin films and coatings.

  4. Architectural and mechanical cues direct mesenchymal stem cell interactions with crosslinked gelatin scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrews, Kathleen M; Kim, Min Jeong; Lam, Tuyet Y; McGrail, Daniel J; Dawson, Michelle R

    2014-12-01

    Naturally derived biomaterials have emerged as modulators of cell function and tissue substitutes. Here, we developed crosslinked glutaraldehyde (GTA) scaffolds for the expansion and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The mechanical and architectural properties of the scaffolds were altered by varying the concentration of gelatin and GTA. Higher GTA concentrations were associated with an increase in more confined pores and osteogenic differentiation. In addition, myogenic potential varied with crosslinking degree, although bulk mechanical properties were unaltered. Correlation analysis revealed that ALP activity of differentiated MSCs on higher gelatin concentration scaffolds was dependent on traditional effectors, including environment elasticity and spread area. In contrast, the differentiation capacity of cells cultured on lower gelatin concentration scaffolds did not correlate with these factors, instead it was dependent on the hydrated pore structure. These results suggest that scaffold composition can determine what factors direct differentiation and may have critical implications for biomaterial design.

  5. Gelatin-loaded p(HEMA-GMA) cryogel for high-capacity immobilization of horseradish peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomro, Rabel; Perçin, Işık; Memon, Najma; Iqbal Bhanger, Muhammad; Denizli, Adil

    2016-11-01

    Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-glycidyl methacrylate) [p(HEMA-GMA)] cryogel discs were prepared under sub-zero temperatures. Gelatin was attached covalently on the p(HEMA-GMA) cryogel discs and reversible immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was performed. The p(HEMA-GMA) cryogel discs were characterized by swelling tests, scanning electron microscopy, and surface area measurements. HRP immobilization capacity of p(HEMA-GMA)/gelatin cryogel discs was 24.8 mg/g. Removal of phenol from aqueous solutions was performed using HRP immobilized p(HEMA-GMA)/gelatin cryogel. It was observed that within 2 h of contact time, the percentage of phenol removal reaches up to 91% in the presence of H2O2.

  6. Influence of gamma radiation on potato starch gelatinization studied by differential scanning calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, Krystyna; Eliasson, Ann-Charlotte

    2002-05-01

    The paper presents a study of the influence of the conditions applied during differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements (concentration and heating rate) on the possible detection of the differences between gelatinization occurring in both non-irradiated and irradiated potato starch with a dose of 20 kGy. Differences in gelatinization of irradiated and non-irradiated potato starch during DSC analysis was attributed to the radiation induced destruction of crystalline ordering. This was confirmed by studies of the samples irradiated to very high doses (446 and 600 kGy), and by comparing with the effect of grinding. Changes of starch properties caused by radiodepolymerization—contrary to those caused by grinding—influences gelatinization behaviour much more than the WAXS crystallinity in solid state.

  7. Nanohydroxyapatite-chitosan-gelatin polyelectrolyte complex with enhanced mechanical and bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, M; Kavitha, K; Prabhu, M; Meenakshisundaram, N; Rajendran, V

    2013-08-01

    A wet chemical approach was used to synthesis HAp-chitosan-gelatin nanocomposites at different wt.% of chitosan-gelatin (CG) ratios such as CG-00, CG-40, CG-31, CG-22, CG-13 and CG-04. XRD analysis confirms the formation of HAp on nanocomposite matrix and the decreased crystallite size was found with the decrease in chitosan and increase in gelatin compositions. FTIR study reveals that the presence of characteristic bands of HAp and CG. The decrease in chitosan in CG leads to band shift of organic phase towards a higher wave number side due to the intimate bonding with an inorganic phase. FE-SEM images show that the particles had a short nanorod-like morphology. The bioresorbability and microhardness test indicate that the composites have better resorbability and hardness than pure HAp. It was inferred that particle size, morphology, resorbability and hardness of the composite can be altered by tuning the composition.

  8. Gelatin microparticles containing propolis obtained by spray-drying technique: preparation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, M L; Cardoso, M L C; Lucchesi, M B; Gremião, M P D

    2003-10-02

    Gelatin microparticles containing propolis extractive solution (PES) were prepared by spray-drying technique. The optimization of the spray-drying operating conditions and the proportions of gelatin and mannitol were investigated. Regular particle morphology was obtained when mannitol was used, whereas mannitol absence produced a substantial number of coalesced and agglomerated microparticles. Microparticles had a mean diameter of 2.70 microm without mannitol and 2.50 microm with mannitol. The entrapment efficiency for propolis of the microparticles was upto 41% without mannitol and 39% with mannitol. The microencapsulation by spray-drying technique maintained the activity of propolis against Staphylococcus aureus. These gelatin microparticles containing propolis would be useful for developing intermediary or eventual propolis dosage form without the PES' strong and unpleasant taste, aromatic odour, and presence of ethanol.

  9. A novel bio-inorganic bone implant containing deglued bone, chitosan and gelatin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Saraswathy; S Pal; C Rose; T P Sastry

    2001-08-01

    With the aim of developing an ideal bone graft, a new bone grafting material was developed using deglued bone, chitosan and gelatin. Deglued bone (DGB) which is a by-product of bone glue industries and has the close crystallographic similarities of hydroxyapatite was used as main component in the preparation of bone implant. Chitosan was prepared from the exoskeleton of prawn (Pinaeus indicus, family Crustaceae) which is a by-product of seafood industries. Chitosan gives toughness to the product and do not allow the DGB particles to wither away when the implant is placed in the defect. Gelatin was used as binder for the preparation of DGB–chitosan composite. The DGB, chitosan and DGB–chitosan–gelatin composite, which were prepared in the laboratory, were analysed for their physicochemical properties by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy studies.

  10. Phase Transition of Waxy and Normal Wheat Starch Granules during Gelatinization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The phase transition of waxy and normal wheat starches was systematically studied by light microscopy (LM with a hot-stage, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. While being heated in water, waxy wheat starch showed a higher gelatinization enthalpy than that for the normal starch, which was also verified by the changes in birefringence. As confirmed by LM and CLSM, starch granules displayed an increased swelling degree with temperature increasing, and the gelatinization initially occurred at the hilum (botanical center of the granules and then spread rapidly to the periphery. While the temperature range of birefringence was narrower than that of granule size change, the crystalline structure was melted at lower temperatures than those for the molecular orders. These results indicate that starch gelatinization was a complex process rather than a simple order-to-disorder granule transition.

  11. Effects of salts on the gelatinization and retrogradation properties of maize starch and waxy maize starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhou, Hongxian; Yang, Hong; Zhao, Siming; Liu, Youming; Liu, Ru

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of salts on the gelatinization and retrogradation of maize and waxy maize starch. Experimental results showed that the salting-out or structure-making ions, such as F(-) and SO4(2-), decreased the swelling power, solubility and transparency of both starches, but increased the gelatinization temperature, enthalpy, and syneresis, due to the tendency of these ions to protect the hydrogen bond links among starch molecules. On the other hand, the salting-in or structure-breaking ions, such as I(-) and SCN(-), exhibited the opposite effects. Microscopic observations confirmed such effects of salts on both starches. Furthermore, the effects of salts were more significant on waxy maize and on normal maize starch. Generally, salts could significantly influence on the gelatinization and retrogradation of maize and waxy maize starch, following the order of the Hofmeister series.

  12. Influence of gamma radiation on potato starch gelatinization studied by differential scanning calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciesla, Krystyna E-mail: kciesla@orange.ichtj.waw.pl; Eliasson, A.-C

    2002-05-01

    The paper presents a study of the influence of the conditions applied during differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements (concentration and heating rate) on the possible detection of the differences between gelatinization occurring in both non-irradiated and irradiated potato starch with a dose of 20 kGy. Differences in gelatinization of irradiated and non-irradiated potato starch during DSC analysis was attributed to the radiation induced destruction of crystalline ordering. This was confirmed by studies of the samples irradiated to very high doses (446 and 600 kGy), and by comparing with the effect of grinding. Changes of starch properties caused by radiodepolymerization--contrary to those caused by grinding--influences gelatinization behaviour much more than the WAXS crystallinity in solid state.

  13. The effect of branched limit dextrin on corn and waxy corn gelatinization and retrogradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Xu, Jin; Fan, Xuerong; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Ping; Yuan, Jiugang; Yu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Ying; Cui, Li

    2017-08-02

    The effect of branched limit dextrins (BLDs) on the gelatinization and retrogradation properties of corn and waxy corn starch was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide X-ray diffraction (WXRD). The DSC data showed that the presence of BLDs increased the gelatinization and decreased the gelatinization enthalpy (ΔHgel). The retrogradation of corn and waxy corn starch were retarded by BLDs. The BLD with the lowest molecular weight had the best influence on corn and waxy corn starch retrogradation. The result of WXRD confirmed it. Avrami equation was used to analyze the enthalpies of retrograded corn and waxy corn starch. Starch recrystallization rate (k) reduced with the addition of BLDs, indicating that BLDs reduced the kinetics of starch retrogradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of pressure and temperature on the gelatinization of starch at various starch concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baks, Tim; Bruins, Marieke E; Janssen, Anja E M; Boom, Remko M

    2008-01-01

    The effects of pressure, temperature, and treatment time on the degree of gelatinization were determined with differential scanning calorimetry measurements for wheat starch-water mixtures with starch concentrations varying between 5 and 80 w/w %. Although simple models could be used to describe the degree of starch gelatinization as a function of pressure or temperature, a more complex model based on the Gibbs energy difference had to be used to describe the degree of gelatinization as a function of both pressure and temperature. The experimental and model data were used to construct a phase diagram for 5, 30, and 60 w/w % wheat starch-water mixtures. Data obtained from literature were in accordance with our phase diagrams. These phase diagrams can be used to estimate the degree of gelatinisation after applying a certain pressure and temperature on a starch-water mixture with starch concentrations in the range of 5 and 60 w/w %.

  15. Alginate/polyoxyethylene and alginate/gelatin hydrogels: preparation, characterization, and application in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroguz, Ayse Z; Baysal, Kemal; Adiguzel, Zelal; Baysal, Bahattin M

    2014-05-01

    Hydrogels are attractive biomaterials for three-dimensional cell culture and tissue engineering applications. The preparation of hydrogels using alginate and gelatin provides cross-linked hydrophilic polymers that can swell but do not dissolve in water. In this work, we first reinforced pure alginate by using polyoxyethylene as a supporting material. In an alginate/PEO sample that contains 20 % polyoxyethylene, we obtained a stable hydrogel for cell culture experiments. We also prepared a stable alginate/gelatin hydrogel by cross-linking a periodate-oxidized alginate with another functional component such as gelatin. The hydrogels were found to have a high fluid uptake. In this work, preparation, characterization, swelling, and surface properties of these scaffold materials were described. Lyophilized scaffolds obtained from hydrogels were used for cell viability experiments, and the results were presented in detail.

  16. Polyvinyl alcohol and gelatin sponge particle embolization of splenic artery pseudoaneurysm complicating chronic alcoholic pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Song Guan; Long Sun; Xiang-Ping Zhou; Xiao Li; Ze-Jun Fei; Xiao-Hua Zheng; Qing He

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effectiveness of and complications associated with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and gelatin sponge particles embolization of splenic artery pseudoaneurysm complicating chronic alcoholic pancreatitis.METHODS: A 42-year-old man with splenic artery pseudoaneurysm formation secondary to chronic alcoholic pancreatitis was admitted. We used PVA and gelatin sponge partides embo lization of splenic artery pseudoaneurysm by superselective embolization techniques.RESULTS: The splenic artery pseudoaneurysm was successfully controlled with splenic embolization. The patient was discharged in 9 d with complete recovery. CONCLUSION: This case confirms that superselective transcatheter embolization by PVA and gelatin sponge particles may represent an effective treatment for pseudoaneurysm caused by chronic alcoholic pancreatitis in the absence of other therapeutic alternatives.

  17. Fabrication of micro-alginate gel tubes utilizing micro-gelatin fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Katsuhisa; Arai, Takafumi; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Umezu, Shinjiro

    2017-05-01

    Tissues engineered utilizing biofabrication techniques have recently been the focus of much attention, because these bioengineered tissues have great potential to improve the quality of life of patients with various hard-to-treat diseases. Most tissues contain micro-tubular structures including blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and bile canaliculus. Therefore, we bioengineered a micro diameter tube using alginate gel to coat the core gelatin gel. Micro-gelatin fibers were fabricated by the coacervation method and then coated with a very thin alginate gel layer by dipping. A micro diameter alginate tube was produced by dissolving the core gelatin gel. Consequently, these procedures led to the formation of micro-alginate gel tubes of various shapes and sizes. This biofabrication technique should contribute to tissue engineering research fields.

  18. Injectable Hydrogel Composite Based Gelatin-PEG and Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles for Bone Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Thuy Duong; Tran, Ngoc Quyen; Nguyen, Dai Hai; Nguyen, Cuu Khoa; Tran, Dai Lam; Nguyen, Phuong Thi

    2016-05-01

    Gelatin hydrogels have recently attracted much attention for tissue regeneration because of their biocompatibility. In this study, we introduce poly-ethylene glycol (PEG)—grafted gelatin containing tyramine moieties which have been utilized for in situ enzyme-mediated hydrogel preparation. The hydrogel can be used to load nanoparticles of biphasic calcium phosphate, a mixture of hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate, and forming injectable bio-composites. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectra indicated that tyramine-functionalized polyethylene glycol-nitrophenyl carbonate ester was conjugated to the gelatin. The hydrogel composite was rapidly formed in situ (within a few seconds) in the presence of horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide. In vitro experiments with bio-mineralization on the hydrogel composite surfaces was well-observed after 2 weeks soaking in simulated body fluid solution. The obtained results indicated that the hydrogel composite could be a potential injectable material for bone regeneration.

  19. Evaluation of fibroblasts adhesion and proliferation on alginate-gelatin crosslinked hydrogel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bapi Sarker

    Full Text Available Due to the relatively poor cell-material interaction of alginate hydrogel, alginate-gelatin crosslinked (ADA-GEL hydrogel was synthesized through covalent crosslinking of alginate di-aldehyde (ADA with gelatin that supported cell attachment, spreading and proliferation. This study highlights the evaluation of the physico-chemical properties of synthesized ADA-GEL hydrogels of different compositions compared to alginate in the form of films. Moreover, in vitro cell-material interaction on ADA-GEL hydrogels of different compositions compared to alginate was investigated by using normal human dermal fibroblasts. Viability, attachment, spreading and proliferation of fibroblasts were significantly increased on ADA-GEL hydrogels compared to alginate. Moreover, in vitro cytocompatibility of ADA-GEL hydrogels was found to be increased with increasing gelatin content. These findings indicate that ADA-GEL hydrogel is a promising material for the biomedical applications in tissue-engineering and regeneration.

  20. Calcium binding restores gel formation of succinylated gelatin and reduces brittleness with preservation of the elastically stored energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baigts Allende, Diana; Jongh, de H.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    To better tailor gelatins for textural characteristics in (food) gels, their interactions are destabilized by introduction of electrostatic repulsions and creation of affinity sites for calcium to “lock” intermolecular interactions. For that purpose gelatins with various degrees of succinylation are

  1. Surface active properties of gelatin and their effect on the electropolishing and corrosion behavior of steel in orthophosphoric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma M. Abouzeid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Electropolishing behavior of steel was studied in orthophosphoric acid in the presence of gelatin for improving the finish obtained. This was inspected by surface tension measurement and potentiodynamic polarization by measuring the limiting current in solutions containing different concentrations of gelatin. Gelatin addition to electropolishing solution results in a lower limiting current. The gelatin surface parameters were calculated from its surface tension. The parameters considered include critical micelle concentration (CMC, maximum surface excess (Гmax, minimum surface area (Amin and effectiveness (πCMC. Thermodynamic parameters of micellization (ΔGmic, ΔSmic for gelatin were also calculated. Gelatin records greatest reduction of surface tension (effectiveness, πcmc and higher minimum area (Amin. This behavior agrees with the highest inhibition efficiency results obtained from a potentiodynamic method. Scanning electron microscope (SEM was used to investigate steel surface after electropolishing in the absence and presence of gelatin. The addition of a higher concentration of gelatin was successful to enhance steel surface quality.

  2. Enhanced Critical Size Defect Repair in Rabbit Mandible by Electrospun Gelatin/β-TCP Composite Nanofibrous Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The design and fabrication of biodegradable barrier membranes with satisfactory structure and composition remain a considerable challenge for periodontal tissue regeneration. We have developed a biomimetic nanofibrous membrane made from a composite of gelatin and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP. We previously confirmed the in vitro biological performance of the membrane material, but the efficacy of the membranes in promoting bone repair in situ has not yet been examined. Gelatin/β-TCP composite nanofibers were fabricated by incorporation of 20 wt.% β-TCP nanoparticles into electrospun gelatin nanofibers. Electron microscopy showed that the composite membranes presented a nonwoven structure with an interconnected porous network and had a rough surface due to the β-TCP nanoparticles, which were distributed widely and uniformly throughout the gelatin-fiber matrix. The repair efficacy of rabbit mandible defects implanted with bone substitute (Bio-Oss and covered with the gelatin/β-TCP composite nanofibrous membrane was evaluated in comparison with pure gelatin nanofibrous membrane. Gross observation, histological examination, and immunohistochemical analysis showed that new bone formation and defect closure were significantly enhanced by the composite membranes compared to the pure gelatin ones. From these results, we conclude that nanofibrous gelatin/β-TCP composite membranes could serve as effective barrier membranes for guided tissue regeneration.

  3. Determination of the shear modulus of gelatine hydrogels by magnetization measurements using dispersed nickel nanorods as mechanical probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, P., E-mail: nano@p-bender.de; Tschöpe, A., E-mail: antsch@mx.uni-saarland.de; Birringer, R., E-mail: r.birringer@nano.uni-saarland.de

    2013-11-15

    Ni nanorods are dispersed into gelatine gels and used as nanoprobes to estimate the shear modulus of the surrounding gel matrix by magnetization measurements. The nanorods are synthesized via pulsed electrodeposition of Ni into porous alumina, released from the templates by dissolution of the oxide layer and after several processing steps dispersed into gelatine gels with an isotropic orientation-distribution. Magnetization measurements of the resulting gels show a significant influence of the gelatine concentration on their magnetic behavior. In particular, with decreasing gelatine concentration the measured coercivity is reduced indicating a mechanical rotation of the nanorods in the field direction. A theoretical model which relates the measured coercivity to the shear modulus of the surrounding gel matrix is introduced and applied to investigate the ageing process of gelatine gels with different gelatine concentrations at room temperature. - Highlights: • AAO-template synthesis of uniaxial ferromagnetic single domain Ni nanorods. • Embedding nanorods as magnetic probes in soft elastic gelatine hydrogels. • Coercivity of isotropic samples increases with gelation time and gelatine concentration. • Quantitative relationship between coercivity and matrix shear modulus is obtained from an extended Stoner–Wohlfarth-model. • Semi-quantitative method for magnetic rheometry of soft elastic materials.

  4. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Calcium Phosphate Cement/Gelatine Composite Scaffold with Oriented Pore Structure for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Xiaopeng; HE Fupo; YE Jiandong

    2012-01-01

    The macroporous calcium phosphate(CPC) cement with oriented pore structure was prepared by freeze casting.SEM observation showed that the macropores in the porous calcium phosphate cement were interconnected aligned along the ice growth direction.The porosity of the as-prepared porous CPC was measured to be 87.6% by Archimede's principle.XRD patterns of specimens showed that poorly crystallized hydroxyapatite was the main phase present in the hydrated porous calcium phosphate cement.To improve the mechanical properties of the CPC scaffold,the 15% gelatine solution was infiltrated into the pores under vacuum and then the samples were freeze dried to form the CPC/gelatine composite scaffolds.After reinforced with gelatine,the compressive strength of CPC/gelatine composite increased to 5.12 MPa,around fifty times greater than that of the unreinforced macroporous CPC scaffold,which was only 0.1 MPa.And the toughness of the scaffold has been greatly improved via the gelatine reinforcement with a much greater fracture strain.SEM examination of the specimens indicated good bonding between the cement and gelatine.Participating the external load by the deformable gelatine,patching the defects of the CPC pores wall,and crack deflection were supposed to be the reinforcement mechanisms.In conclusion,the calcium phosphate cement/gelatine composite with oriented pore structure prepared in this work might be a potential scaffold for bone tissue engineering.

  5. Rapid detection of gelatin in dental materials using attenuated total reflection fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfanita, N.; Jaswir, I.; Mirghani, M. E. S.; Sukmasari, S.; Ardini, Y. D.; Lestari, W.

    2017-08-01

    The presence of gelatin is not limited to food products but has also been found in pharmaceuticals. Most dental materials available in Malaysia are imported from other countries and might contain gelatin which is a protein derived either from porcine, bovine or other animal sources. Authentication of gelatin is crucial due to religious and health concerns. Therefore, this study aimed to detect gelatin in dental materials using ATR-FTIR. Forty two samples of dental material were purchased from dental suppliers and detection was done using ATR-FTIR. The spectrum from each sample was compared against standard bovine and porcine gelatin. Experimental dental paste containing bovine and porcine gelatin at concentrations of 5, 10, 15 and 20% were also prepared for quantification analysis. The results showed that gelatin was present in nine out of forty two samples of dental materials but the species of origin was not confirmed. Meanwhile, in the experimental bovine and porcine dental paste, it was seen that as the concentration increased, the intensity of the absorption of Amide group also increased. Thus, ATR-FTIR can be utilized as a reliable tool to detect gelatin in dental materials and other pharmaceuticals.

  6. [Natural biopolymers as excipients in medicinal product dosage form. Part I. Soft gelatin capsules as a modern and elegant pharmaceutical dosage form].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrzyński, Łukasz Jerzy; Zgoda, Marian Mikołaj

    2010-01-01

    Soft gelatin capsules (Softgels) are modern and effective pharmaceutical dosage form for the administration of many medicinal products and food supplements formulations. In this short article major advantages and disadvantages of soft gelatin capsules are reviewed. Each step of manufacturing focused on fundamental techniques and requirements for developing and manufacturing technology for soft gelatin capsules is provided. Main role, characteristics, raw material, manufacturing techniques and applications in dosage form of gelatin is discussed. The review of recent advances in softgels are also included.

  7. Non-toxic agarose/gelatin-based microencapsulation system containing gallic acid for antifungal application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, P-L; Gambari, R; Kok, S H-L; Lam, K-H; Tang, J C-O; Bian, Z-X; Lee, K K-H; Chui, C-H

    2015-02-01

    Aspergillus niger (A. niger) is a common species of Aspergillus molds. Cutaneous aspergillosis usually occurs in skin sites near intravenous injection and approximately 6% of cutaneous aspergillosis cases which do not involve burn or HIV-infected patients are caused by A. niger. Biomaterials and biopharmaceuticals produced from microparticle-based drug delivery systems have received much attention as microencapsulated drugs offer an improvement in therapeutic efficacy due to better human absorption. The frequently used crosslinker, glutaraldehyde, in gelatin-based microencapsulation systems is considered harmful to human beings. In order to tackle the potential risks, agarose has become an alternative polymer to be used with gelatin as wall matrix materials of microcapsules. In the present study, we report the eco-friendly use of an agarose/gelatin-based microencapsulation system to enhance the antifungal activity of gallic acid and reduce its potential cytotoxic effects towards human skin keratinocytes. We used optimal parameter combinations, such as an agarose/gelatin ratio of 1:1, a polymer/oil ratio of 1:60, a surfactant volume of 1% w/w and a stirring speed of 900 rpm. The minimum inhibitory concentration of microencapsulated gallic acid (62.5 µg/ml) was significantly improved when compared with that of the original drug (>750 µg/ml). The anti-A. niger activity of gallic acid -containing microcapsules was much stronger than that of the original drug. Following 48 h of treatment, skin cell survival was approximately 90% with agarose/gelatin microcapsules containing gallic acid, whereas cell viability was only 25-35% with free gallic acid. Our results demonstrate that agarose/gelatin-based microcapsules containing gallic acid may prove to be helpful in the treatment of A. niger-induced skin infections near intravenous injection sites.

  8. Gelatin-based nanoparticles as DNA delivery systems: Synthesis, physicochemical and biocompatible characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán, M C; Rosell, N; Ruano, G; Busquets, M A; Vinardell, M P

    2015-10-01

    The rapidly rising demand for therapeutic grade DNA molecules requires associated improvements in encapsulation and delivery technologies. One of the challenges for the efficient intracellular delivery of therapeutic biomolecules after their cell internalization by endocytosis is to manipulate the non-productive trafficking from endosomes to lysosomes, where degradation may occur. The combination of the endosomal acidity with the endosomolytic capability of the nanocarrier can increase the intracellular delivery of many drugs, genes and proteins, which, therefore, might enhance their therapeutic efficacy. Among the suitable compounds, the gelification properties of gelatin as well as the strong dependence of gelatin ionization with pH makes this compound an interesting candidate to be used to the effective intracellular delivery of active biomacromolecules. In the present work, gelatin (either high or low gel strength) and protamine sulfate has been selected to form particles by interaction of oppositely charged compounds. Particles in the absence of DNA (binary system) and in the presence of DNA (ternary system) have been prepared. The physicochemical characterization (particle size, polydispersity index and degree of DNA entrapment) have been evaluated. Cytotoxicity experiments have shown that the isolated systems and the resulting gelatin-based nanoparticles are essentially non-toxic. The pH-dependent hemolysis assay and the response of the nanoparticles co-incubated in buffers at defined pHs that mimic extracellular, early endosomal and late endo-lysosomal environments demonstrated that the nanoparticles tend to destabilize and DNA can be successfully released. It was found that, in addition to the imposed compositions, the gel strength of gelatin is a controlling parameter of the final properties of these nanoparticles. The results indicate that these gelatin-based nanoparticles have excellent properties as highly potent and non-toxic intracellular delivery

  9. Effect of protein thermo aggregation on the binding of BSA to gelatin type A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonov, Y A; Zhuravleva, I L

    2013-02-01

    We study the effect of limited heat-induced aggregation of BSA on structure development in the water-gelatin-thermally aggregated BSA (BSA(TA)) system. The pH is set at 5.4 and the temperature is higher than the conformation transition temperature of gelatin, but lower than the denaturation temperature of BSA. Dynamic light scattering, circular dichroism, and fluorescence measurements are used to monitor structure changes. Interaction of gelatin with BSA(TA) leads to formation of large complex particles with an average radius ∼1500 nm. BSA-gelatin complex formation accompanies partial destabilization of the secondary and tertiary structures of BSA and an additional exposure of hydrophobic tryptophan residues on the surface of the globule. It is shown that electrostatic interaction of the oppositely charged groups of BSA(TA) and gelatin is responsible for formation of such complex particles, whereas the secondary forces (hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonds) play an important role in stabilization of the complex particles. The zeta potentials of the native and the thermally aggregated BSA samples were determined, and the solvent quality has been quantified by determining the activity of the protein samples in their saturated solutions. It was shown that steric reasons (large size of the thermally aggregated BSA(TA) particles), and uncomplete charge compensation of the positively charged gelatin molecules by the negatively charged BSA(TA) particles are the main factors in determining structure formation, while the levels of the activity of the native BSA and BSA(TA) have a smaller effect on the structure of complex.

  10. Enhanced Immunomodulatory Activity of Gelatin-Encapsulated Rubus coreanus Miquel Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yong Chang; Choi, Woon Yong; Lee, Choon Geun; Cha, Seon Woo; Kim, Young Ock; Kim, Jin-Chul; Drummen, Gregor P. C.; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the immunomodulatory activities of Rubus coreanus Miquel extract-loaded gelatin nanoparticles. The mean size of the produced nanoparticles was 143 ± 18 nm with a bandwidth of 76 nm in the size distribution and a maximum size of ~200 nm, which allows effective nanoparticle uptake by cells. Confocal imaging confirmed this, since the nanoparticles were internalized within 30 min and heterogeneously distributed throughout the cell. Zeta-potential measurements showed that from pH = 5 onwards, the nanoparticles were highly negatively charged, which prevents agglomeration to clusters by electrostatic repulsion. This was confirmed by TEM imaging, which showed a well dispersed colloidal solution. The encapsulation efficiency was nearly 60%, which is higher than for other components encapsulated in gelatin nanoparticles. Measurements of immune modulation in immune cells showed a significant effect by the crude extract, which was only topped by the nanoparticles containing the extract. Proliferation of B-, T- and NK cells was notably enhanced by Rubus coreanus-gelatin nanoparticles and in general ~2–3 times higher than control and on average ~2 times higher than ferulic acid. R. coreanus-gelatin nanoparticles induced cytokine secretion (IL-6 and TNF-α) from B- and T-cells on average at a ~2–3 times higher rate compared with the extract and ferulic acid. In vivo immunomodulatory activity in mice fed with R. coreanus-gelatin nanoparticles at 1 mL/g body weight showed a ~5 times higher antibody production compared to control, a ~1.3 times higher production compared to the extract only, and a ~1.6 times higher production compared to ferulic acid. Overall, our results suggest that gelatin nanoparticles represent an excellent transport vehicle for Rubus coreanus extract and extracts from other plants generally used in traditional Asian medicine. Such nanoparticles ensure a high local concentration that results in enhancement of immune

  11. Stress Transfer Quantification in Gelatin-Matrix Natural Composites with Tunable Optical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quero, Franck; Coveney, Abigail; Lewandowska, Anna E; Richardson, Robert M; Díaz-Calderón, Paulo; Lee, Koon-Yang; Eichhorn, Stephen J; Alam, M Ashraf; Enrione, Javier

    2015-06-01

    This work reports on the preparation and characterization of natural composite materials prepared from bacterial cellulose (BC) incorporated into a gelatin matrix. Composite morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy and 2D Raman imaging revealing an inhomogeneous dispersion of BC within the gelatin matrix. The composite materials showed controllable degrees of transparency to visible light and opacity to UV light depending on BC weight fraction. By adding a 10 wt % fraction of BC in gelatin, visible (λ = 550 nm) and UV (λ = 350 nm) transmittances were found to decrease by ∼35 and 40%, respectively. Additionally, stress transfer occurring between the gelatin and BC fibrils was quantified using Raman spectroscopy. This is the first report for a gelatin-matrix composite containing cellulose. As a function of strain, two distinct domains, both showing linear relationships, were observed for which an average initial shift rate with respect to strain of -0.63 ± 0.2 cm(-1)%(-1) was observed, followed by an average shift rate of -0.25 ± 0.03 cm(-1)%(-1). The average initial Raman band shift rate value corresponds to an average effective Young's modulus of 39 ± 13 GPa and 73 ± 25 GPa, respectively, for either a 2D and 3D network of BC fibrils embedded in the gelatin matrix. As a function of stress, a linear relationship was observed with a Raman band shift rate of -27 ± 3 cm(-1)GPa(-1). The potential use of these composite materials as a UV blocking food coating is discussed.

  12. Photoluminescence and structural properties of CdSe quantum dot–gelatin composite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borkovska, L., E-mail: bork@isp.kiev.ua [V. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics of NAS of Ukraine, Pr. Nauky 41, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Korsunska, N.; Stara, T.; Gudymenko, O.; Kladko, V. [V. Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics of NAS of Ukraine, Pr. Nauky 41, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Stroyuk, O.; Raevskaya, A. [L. Pysarzhevsky Institute of Physical Chemistry of NAS of Ukraine, Pr. Nauky 31, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Kryshtab, T. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional – ESFM, Av. IPN, Ed.9 U.P.A.L.M., 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-11-15

    Optical and structural properties of composite films of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) embedded in gelatin matrix have been investigated by photoluminescence (PL), optical absorption and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. The optical absorption of the composite in the visible spectral range is found to be determined mainly by light absorption in the QDs. The decrease of the film transparency and the shift of the absorption edge to lower energies observed upon thermal annealing of the films at 140–160 °C are ascribed to the formation of chromophore groups in gelatin matrix. XRD patterns of the composite revealed helix to coil transition in gelatin matrix under thermal annealing of the composite at 100–160 °C. It is found that PL spectra of the composite are dominated by exciton and defect-related emission of the QDs and also contain weak emission of gelatin matrix. It is found that thermal annealing of the composite at 100–160 °C changes PL intensity and produces the shift of the PL bands to lower energies. As the annealed composite was kept in air for several months, the shift of exciton-related PL band position restored partially and the PL intensity increased. It is proposed that the increase of the PL intensity upon the thermal annealing of composite at 140 °C can be used for enhancement of the QD-related PL. Changes that occurred in the PL spectra of composite are ascribed to structural and chemical transformations in gelatin matrix and at the QD/gelatin interface.

  13. Formulation parameters affecting the performance of coated gelatin capsules with pulsatile release profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussemer, T; Bodmeier, R

    2003-11-28

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a rupturable pulsatile drug delivery system based on soft gelatin capsules with or without a swelling layer and an external water-insoluble but -permeable polymer coating, which released the drug after a lag time (rupturing of the external polymer coating). The swelling of the gelatin capsule itself was insufficient to rupture the external polymer coating, an additional swelling layer was applied between the capsule and the polymer coating. Croscarmellose sodium (Ac-Di-Sol) was more effective as a swelling agent than low and high molecular weight hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC; E5 or K100M). Brittle polymers, such as ethyl cellulose (EC) and cellulose acetate propionate (CAPr), led to a better rupturing and therefore more complete drug release than the flexible polymer coating, Eudragit RS. The lag time of the release system increased with higher polymer coating levels and decreased with the addition of a hydrophilic pore-former, HPMC E5 and also with an increasing amount of the intermediate swelling layer. The water uptake of the capsules was linear until rupture and was higher with CAPr than with EC. Soft gelatin capsule-based systems showed shorter lag times compared to hard gelatin capsules because of the higher hardness/filling state of the soft gelatin capsules. The swelling pressure was therefore more directed to the external polymer coating with the soft gelatin capsules. Typical pulsatile drug release profiles were obtained at lower polymer coating levels, while the release was slower and incomplete at the higher coating levels. CAPr-coated capsules resulted in a more complete release than EC-coated capsules.

  14. ANALISIS KEKUATAN GEL (GEL STRENGTH PRODUK PERMEN JELLY DARI GELATIN KULIT IKAN CUCUT DENGAN PENAMBAHAN KARAGINAN DAN RUMPUT LAUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    pipih - suptijah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPermen jelly merupakan permen bertekstur kenyal dengan penambahan komponen hidrokoloid,misalnya agar, gum, pektin, pati, karaginan, gelatin, dan lain-lain yang digunakan untuk modifi kasitekstur sehingga menghasilkan produk yang kenyal. Penelitian ini bertujuan menentukan kekuatan gel (gelstrength dan formulasi terbaik dari permen jelly yang berasal dari gelatin kulit ikan cucut dan karaginan.Metode analisis yang digunakan, meliputi analisis proksimat, pH, rendemen, viskositas, analisis sensori,dan kekuatan gel. Konsentrasi asam asetat terbaik dalam pembuatan gelatin adalah 0,1 N dan formulasipermen jelly terbaik terdapat pada permen jelly yang dibuat dari gelatin 1,75% dan karaginan 3,50% denganmenghasilkan kekuatan gel 169,35 N/cm2.Kata kunci: gelatin, ikan cucut, kekuatan gel (gel strength, permen jelly

  15. Development and Characterization of Biodegradable Composite Films Based on Gelatin Derived from Beef, Pork and Fish Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal A. Nur Hanani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to develop composite films using various gelatin sources with corn oil (CO incorporation (55.18% and to investigate the mechanical and physical properties of these films as potential packaging films. There were increases (p < 0.05 in the tensile strength (TS and puncture strength (PS of films when the concentration of gelatin increased. The mechanical properties of these films were also improved when compared with films produced without CO. Conversely, the water barrier properties of composite films decreased (p < 0.05 when the concentration of gelatin in composite films increased. Comparing with pure gelatin films, water and oxygen barrier properties of gelatin films decreased when manufactured with the inclusion of CO.

  16. Preparation and Characterization of Composite Drug Membranes of Gelatin/Chitosan to Ocular

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Composite drug membranes of gelatin/chitosan for therapy of glaucoma by trabeculectomy were prepared through solvent volatilization, using triamcinolone acetonide as a model drug. The membranes were characterized by FT- IR, X-RD and SEM. Their degradability and swelling ability and biocompatibility were studied. The results showed that biocompatibility , flexibility, swelling ability and degradability of the composite films were better than pure film of chitosan . The composite membrane containing 25% (w/w) of gelatin was best. The drug was loaded in film in crystallite. The rabbit eyes experiment after 8 weeks showed that the form of follicle was all right, and ophthalmototus maintain in the perfect level.

  17. Modulated differential photoacoustic cell to study the gelatinization in a starch-water suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Villada

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the design and implementation of a novel Differential Photoacoustic Cell (DPC system is presented. The system was used to study the thermo optic transition in water-starch suspension called gelatinization. The melting temperature of Gallium was used to calibrate the temperature of the system. Both temperature values for starch gelatinization and gallium melting were agreed with those obtained using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The results show that this system is suitable to study other thermal processes in food or any thermal transition at low temperature.

  18. Gelatin coated hybrid lipid nanoparticles for oral delivery of amphotericin B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Sanyog; Valvi, Pankaj U; Swarnakar, Nitin K

    2012-01-01

    Amphotericin B (AmB) loaded polymer lipid hybrid nanoparticles (AmB-PLNs) comprised of lecithin (anionic lipid) and gelatin (Type A, cationic below its isoelectric point 7.0-9.0) were prepared by a two-step desolvation method to improve the oral bioavailability of AmB. The optimized AmB-PLNs were......) and fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis confirmed the orientation of the lecithin (located in the core) and gelatin (exterior coat) within the system. The developed formulation exhibited a sustained drug release profile with a release pattern best fitted to Higuchi kinetics. Experiments on Caco...

  19. Chronic post-traumatic high-flow priapism treated with temporary gelatin sponge embolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Km Teichgräber

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 26-year-old man who presented with a non-painful priapism with a history of 3 months permanent erection after suffering a perineal trauma. An arteriocorporal fistula with a turbulent flow between the right cavernosal artery and the corpus cavernosum, conclusive for a high-flow priapism was initially detected by colour Doppler ultrasound. A superselective embolization with Gelatin sponge was safe and effective to treat the high-flow priapism. The use of gelatin sponge resulted in a temporary embolization with long-term effect of penile detumescence and preservation of erectile function.

  20. Chronic post-traumatic high-flow priapism treated with temporary gelatin sponge embolization

    OpenAIRE

    Ulf Km Teichgräber; Maximilian de Bucourt

    2012-01-01

    We report the case of a 26-year-old man who presented with a non-painful priapism with a history of 3 months permanent erection after suffering a perineal trauma. An arteriocorporal fistula with a turbulent flow between the right cavernosal artery and the corpus cavernosum, conclusive for a high-flow priapism was initially detected by colour Doppler ultrasound. A superselective embolization with Gelatin sponge was safe and effective to treat the high-flow priapism. The use of gelatin sponge r...

  1. Effect of Added Brine on the Physico Chemical Studies of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate and Aqueous Gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jinu; Sreejith, Lisa

    2011-10-01

    Effect of added brine on the structural transitions of SDS, in different compositions of gelatin has been investigated by viscosity, circular dichroism, TGA and DSC. The slow and steady growth of the normal spherical micelles to the higher order aggregates were predicted by viscosity and conductivity measurements. The large negative value for ellipticity observed from CD measurements indicated absence of any conformational change for gelatin. Other measurements were used to study the molecular packing in the micellar aggregates. The complex formed exhibits fantastic properties to be explored in the field of smart gels.

  2. Increasing Thermal Stability of Gelatin by UV-Induced Cross-Linking with Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan M. Masutani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of ultraviolet (254 nm radiation on a hydrated gelatin-glucose matrix were investigated for the development of a physiologically thermostable substrate for potential use in cell scaffold production. Experiments conducted with a differential scanning calorimeter indicate that ultraviolet irradiation of gelatin-glucose hydrogels dramatically increases thermal stability such that no melting is observed at temperatures of at least 90°C. The addition of glucose significantly increases the yield of cross-linked product, suggesting that glucose has a role in cross-link formation. Comparisons of lyophilized samples using scanning electron microscopy show that irradiated materials have visibly different densities.

  3. Modulated differential photoacoustic cell to study the gelatinization in a starch-water suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villada, J. A.; Herrera, W.; Espinosa-Arbeláez, D. G.; Mosquera, J. C.; Rodríguez-García, M. E.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper the design and implementation of a novel Differential Photoacoustic Cell (DPC) system is presented. The system was used to study the thermo optic transition in water-starch suspension called gelatinization. The melting temperature of Gallium was used to calibrate the temperature of the system. Both temperature values for starch gelatinization and gallium melting were agreed with those obtained using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results show that this system is suitable to study other thermal processes in food or any thermal transition at low temperature.

  4. Water Vapor Sensors Based on the Swelling of Relief Gelatin Gratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Calixto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on a novel device to measure relative humidity. The sensor is based on surface diffraction gratings made of gelatin. This material swells and shrinks according to the content of water vapor in air. By sending a light beam to the grating, diffracted orders appear. Due to the gelatin swelling or shrinking, first order intensity changes according to the relative humidity. Calibration curves relating intensity versus relative humidity have been found. The fabrication process of diffraction gratings and the testing of the prototype sensing devices are described.

  5. Effect of EDTA, HCl, and citric acid on Ca salt removal from Asian (silver) carp scales prior to gelatin extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Regenstein, Joe M

    2009-08-01

    Pretreatments with different chemicals at different concentrations to remove Ca compounds were studied to determine their effects on gelatin extraction from silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) scales. During Ca removal with HCl, citric acid, and EDTA, all 3 chemicals were able to decalcify (>90%) scales; however, protein losses with EDTA were lower than with HCl and citric acid (P < 0.05), and protein losses with citric acid were lower than with HCl (P < 0.05). Ca removal with HCl yielded a solution where 4% to 5% of the protein was Hyp, with estimated gelatin losses from 0.9% to 2.5%. After 0.20 mol/L HCl was used for Ca removal, the extracted gelatin solution was 15.4% of the initial scales weight and gave a gel strength of 128 g. After using 1.2 g/L citric acid for Ca removal, the extracted gelatin solution was only 9% of the scales and the gel strength was 97 g. Using 0.20 mol/L EDTA for Ca removal gave a yield of 22% and a gel strength of 152 g. These data suggest that EDTA at 0.20 mol/L provides the best Ca removal with minimal collagen/gelatin removal (estimated gelatin loss was less than 0.013%) during the Ca removal step, and subsequently gave a high gelatin yield and gel strength. Fish gelatin has generally been extracted from fish skins and occasionally fish bones. This article focuses on removing the Ca compounds in fish scales and then producing fish gelatin with a good gel strength and yield. With further studies, this study may help the fish industry to have a new source of fish gelatin for food and pharmaceutical applications.

  6. Detection of Gelatin Adulteration in Traditional Chinese Medicine: Analysis of Deer-Horn Glue by Rapid-Resolution Liquid Chromatography-Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous identification of donkey-hide gelatin and bovine-hide gelatin in deer-horn glue was established by rapid-resolution liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Water containing 1% NH4HCO3 was used for sample dissolution and trypsin was used for hydrolysis of the gelatins. After separation by a SB-C18 reversed-phase analytical column, collagen marker peptides were detected by mass spectrometry in positive electrospray ionization mode with multiple reaction monitoring. The method was specific, precise and reliable, and suitable for detection of adulterants derived from donkey-hide gelatin and bovine-hide gelatin in deer-horn glue.

  7. Preparation and characterization of in-situ crosslinked pectin-gelatin hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Bhuvanesh; Tummalapalli, Mythili; Deopura, B L; Alam, M S

    2014-06-15

    Crosslinked hydrogels were developed by in-situ reaction of periodate oxidized pectin (OP) and gelatin. The reaction takes place through the formation of Schiff bases between aldehyde groups of OP and amino groups of gelatin. The effect of various process parameters such as reaction time, reaction temperature, pH of the reaction and composition on the efficacy of the crosslinking was investigated. Field emission scanning electron micrsocopy (FESEM) revealed that homogenous, single phase systems are obtained after the crosslinking of OP and gelatin. The swelling characteristics of the hydrogels were monitored. The equilibrium swelling varies in the range of 195-324% with a variation in the gelatin content (10-40%). Glycerol, when used as a plasticizer, improved the flexibility and the handling characteristics of the crosslinked hydrogels. Plasticized films retained good tensile strengths in the range of 19-48 MPa. By proper selection of the reaction conditions, the efficiency of crosslinking can be controlled to obtain the optimum results.

  8. The performance of dental pulp stem cells on nanofibrous PCL/gelatin/nHA scaffolds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Yang, F.; Walboomers, X.F.; Bian, Z.; Fan, M.; Jansen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of current study is to investigate the in vitro and in vivo behavior of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) seeded on electrospun poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL)/gelatin scaffolds with or without the addition of nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA). For the in vitro evaluation, DNA content, alkaline phosph

  9. Performance of lactating dairy cows fed whole cottonseed coated with gelatinized cornstarch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, J K

    1999-06-01

    The handling characteristics of whole cottonseed are improved by coating with gelatinized cornstarch, but limited information is available on the effects of feeding the coated cottonseed to lactating dairy cows. Thirty-six lactating Jersey cows were used in a crossover design trial with 4-wk experimental periods to evaluate the influence of coating whole cottonseed with 2.5% gelatinized cornstarch on dry matter intake, milk yield, and composition. Cows were fed diets containing 10.2% alfalfa-orchardgrass hay, 45.2% corn silage, 15.0% coated or uncoated whole cottonseed, and 29.6% concentrate for ad libitum consumption. Coating whole cottonseed with gelatinized cornstarch tended to reduce dry matter intake, which averaged 16.2 and 15.9 kg/d for uncoated and coated cottonseed, respectively. Milk yield and composition were similar for uncoated and coated cottonseed. The yield of energy-corrected milk per unit of dry matter consumed was greater with coated cottonseed. Cows fed coated cottonseed gained body weight, but cows fed uncoated cottonseed lost weight. Concentrations of plasma urea were similar among treatments; however, NEFA concentrations were lower for cows fed coated whole cottonseed. Results of this trial indicate that coating whole cottonseed with 2.5% gelatinized cornstarch does not alter its feeding value for lactating dairy cows.

  10. Microstructure and rheology of globular protein gels in the presence of gelatin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ersch, C.; Meinders, M.B.J.; Bouwman, W.G.; Nieuwland, M.; Linden, van der E.; Venema, P.; Martin, A.H.

    2016-01-01

    The microstructure and rheological response of globular protein gels (whey protein isolate (WPI) and soy protein isolate (SPI)) in the presence of gelatin (type A, type B and hydrolyzed type A) was investigated. Microstructural information was obtained using a combination of confocal laser scanning

  11. Controlled Antibiotic Delivery by Gelatin Nanospheres: Optimization, Characterization and Antibacterial Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Fathollahipour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work focuses on preparation and characterization of erythromycin loaded gelatin nanoparticles through nanoprecipitation method. The procedure consists of the addition of the aqueous gelatin solution to the non-solvent phase containing Lutherol F127. Three different measures of cross-linker and polymer concentration were also examined, and the optimum concentration was found. The morphology of gelatin nanoparticles was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope. It was shown that the optimal morphology can be achieved at the concentration of 1.25 wt % of gelatin in aqueous phase by addition of 20 mL of glutaraldehyde 5%, as the crosslinking agent. Nanoparticle wet size determination was carried out using a dynamic light scattering system and found to be approximately 100 nm. Furthermore, Erythromycin release studies proved the suitability of these particles as a drug delivery system, at least in the studied 72 hours interval. As suggested by related measurements, these nanoparticles are good candidates for antibacterial agent release in any possible related application.

  12. Swelling Studies of Chitosan-Gelatin Films Cross-Linked by Sulfate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Ling; Yu Zu-yu; Yang Chao; Zhu Hua-yue; Du Yu-min

    2004-01-01

    Swelling properties of chitosan-gelatin films cross-linked by sulfate were investigated. Sulfate cross-linked chitosan-gelatin films (SCG) were prepared simply by dipping chitosan-gelatin films into sodium sulfate solution. The swelling behavior of SCG was investigated as a function of pH and ionic strength. Under acidic conditions pH less than 4, SCG swelled less than 120%, while under the conditions pH larger than 7.4, SCG swelled very significantly, the swelling ratio was over 350%. Sodium chloride weakened the electrostatic interaction between sulfate and amine ions of chitosan and gelatin, therefore facilitated the film swelling. The swelling ratio increased with increasing sodium chloride concentration, the SCG dissociated in the sodium chloride concentration of 0.20 mol·L-1. The parameters of film preparation such as sulfate concentration, dipping time, sulfate solution pH, influenced the film swelling behavior. The lower concentration and the higher pH of sulfate solution resulted in a larger swelling ratio.

  13. Gibberellin mediates the development of gelatinous fibres in the tension wood of inclined Acacia mangium seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Widyanto Dwi; Nakaba, Satoshi; Yamagishi, Yusuke; Begum, Shahanara; Marsoem, Sri Nugroho; Ko, Jae-Heung; Jin, Hyun-O; Funada, Ryo

    2013-11-01

    Gibberellin stimulates negative gravitropism and the formation of tension wood in tilted Acacia mangium seedlings, while inhibitors of gibberellin synthesis strongly inhibit the return to vertical growth and suppress the formation of tension wood. To characterize the role of gibberellin in tension wood formation and gravitropism, this study investigated the role of gibberellin in the development of gelatinous fibres and in the changes in anatomical characteristics of woody elements in Acacia mangium seedlings exposed to a gravitational stimulus. Gibberellin, paclobutrazol and uniconazole-P were applied to the soil in which seedlings were growing, using distilled water as the control. Three days after the start of treatment, seedlings were inclined at 45 ° to the vertical and samples were harvested 2 months later. The effects of the treatments on wood fibres, vessel elements and ray parenchyma cells were analysed in tension wood in the upper part of inclined stems and in the opposite wood on the lower side of inclined stems. Application of paclobutrazol or uniconazole-P inhibited the increase in the thickness of gelatinous layers and prevented the elongation of gelatinous fibres in the tension wood of inclined stems. By contrast, gibberellin stimulated the elongation of these fibres. Application of gibberellin and inhibitors of gibberellin biosynthesis had only minor effects on the anatomical characteristics of vessel and ray parenchyma cells. The results suggest that gibberellin is important for the development of gelatinous fibres in the tension wood of A. mangium seedlings and therefore in gravitropism.

  14. Production of electrospun gelatin nanofibers: an optimization study by using Taguchi’s methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    İnanç Horuz, Tuğba; Bülent Belibağlı, K.

    2017-01-01

    Electrospinning of gelatin from its solution with a non-toxic solvent is not easy. It certainly requires understanding the effects of critical parameters during electrospinning. In this paper, the first aim was to understand how the morphology and diameter of fibers produced from a solution of gelatin in acetic acid (HAc) were affected by solvent concentration and process parameters (flow-rate, applied voltage, distance between the needle-tip and collector) by using Taguchi’s orthogonal design. For this purpose, the optimum levels of factors were determined as follows: voltage 18 kV, flow rate 15 µl min‑1, distance 12.5 cm, and HAc concentration 20% in order to obtain the thinnest nanofiber. Secondly, this combination was further validated by conducting a confirmatory experiment using five different gelatin concentrations to observe the effect of concentration. The average diameters of fibers with 24 and 28% gelatin concentrations were found as similar to the optimum conditions estimated, proving the applicability of Taguchi’s method for electrospinning optimization.

  15. Development of keratin–chitosan–gelatin composite scaffold for soft tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakkar, Prachi [Central Leather Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Adyar, Chennai 600020 (India); Verma, Sudhanshu; Manjubala, I. [Biomedical Engineering Division, School of Bio Sciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore 632014 (India); Madhan, B., E-mail: bmadhan76@yahoo.co.in [Central Leather Research Institute (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Adyar, Chennai 600020 (India)

    2014-12-01

    Keratin has gained much attention in the recent past as a biomaterial for wound healing owing to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, intrinsic biological activity and presence of cellular binding motifs. In this paper, a novel biomimetic scaffold containing keratin, chitosan and gelatin was prepared by freeze drying method. The prepared keratin composite scaffold had good structural integrity. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed the retention of the native structure of individual biopolymers (keratin, chitosan, and gelatin) used in the scaffold. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) results revealed a high thermal denaturation temperature of the scaffold (200–250 °C). The keratin composite scaffold exhibited tensile strength (96 kPa), compression strength (8.5 kPa) and water uptake capacity (> 1700%) comparable to that of a collagen scaffold, which was used as control. The morphology of the keratin composite scaffold observed using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) exhibited good porosity and interconnectivity of pores. MTT assay using NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells demonstrated that the cell viability of the keratin composite scaffold was good. These observations suggest that the keratin–chitosan–gelatin composite scaffold is a promising alternative biomaterial for tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Fabrication of novel Keratin-Chitosan-Gelatin composite scaffold • Keratin composite scaffold shows excellent water uptake capacity and porosity • Keratin composite scaffold shows good thermal and physical stability • Biocompatibility of the developed scaffold is comparable to collagen scaffolds • Developed scaffold is a promising material for soft tissue engineering applications.

  16. A highly versatile adaptor protein for the tethering of growth factors to gelatin-based biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addi, Cyril; Murschel, Frédéric; Liberelle, Benoît; Riahi, Nesrine; De Crescenzo, Gregory

    2017-03-01

    In the field of tissue engineering, the tethering of growth factors to tissue scaffolds in an oriented manner can enhance their activity and increase their half-life. We chose to investigate the capture of the basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) and the Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) on a gelatin layer, as a model for the functionalization of collagen-based biomaterials. Our strategy relies on the use of two high affinity interactions, that is, the one between two distinct coil peptides as well as the one occurring between a collagen-binding domain (CBD) and gelatin. We expressed a chimeric protein to be used as an adaptor that comprises one of the coil peptides and a CBD derived from the human fibronectin. We proved that it has the ability to bind simultaneously to a gelatin substrate and to form a heterodimeric coiled-coil domain with recombinant growth factors being tagged with the complementary coil peptide. The tethering of the growth factors was characterized by ELISA and surface plasmon resonance-based biosensing. The bioactivity of the immobilized bFGF and EGF was evaluated by a human umbilical vein endothelial cell proliferation assay and a vascular smooth muscle cell survival assay. We found that the tethering of EGF preserved its mitogenic and anti-apoptotic activity. In the case of bFGF, when captured via our adaptor protein, changes in its natural mode of interaction with gelatin were observed.

  17. Gelatin Microspheres as Vehicle for Cardiac Progenitor Cells Delivery to the Myocardium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feyen, Dries A M; Gaetani, Roberto; Deddens, Janine; van Keulen, Daniëlle; van Opbergen, Chantal; Poldervaart, Michelle; Alblas, Jacqueline; Chamuleau, Steven; van Laake, Linda W.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Sluijter, Joost P.G.

    2016-01-01

    Inadequate cell retention and survival in cardiac stem cell therapy seems to be reducing the therapeutic effect of the injected stem cells. In order to ameliorate their regenerative effects, various biomaterials are being investigated for their potential supportive properties. Here, gelatin microsph

  18. Application of gelatin as a binder for the sulfur cathode in lithium-sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Jing [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, 15 BeiSanhuan East Road, Beijing 100029 (China); Huang Yaqin [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, 15 BeiSanhuan East Road, Beijing 100029 (China)], E-mail: huangyaqin9@sina.com; Wang Weikun; Yu Zhongbao; Wang Anbang; Yuan Keguo [Military Power Sources Research and Development Center, Chemical Defense Institute, 35 Huayuan North Road, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2008-10-15

    Gelatin, a natural biological macromolecule, was successfully used as a new binder in place of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) in the fabrication of the sulfur cathode in lithium-sulfur batteries. The structure and electrochemical performance of the two types of sulfur cathodes, with gelatin and PEO as binders, respectively, were compared in 1 M LiClO{sub 4} DME/DOL (V/V = 1/1) electrolyte. The results showed that the gelatin binder had multifunctional effects on the sulfur cathode: it not only functioned as a highly adhesive agent and an effective dispersion agent for the cathode materials, but also an electrochemically stable binder. The gelatin binder-sulfur cathode achieved a high initial capacity of 1132 mAh g{sup -1}, and remained at a reversible capacity of 408 mAh g{sup -1} after 50 cycles, all of which were better than with the PEO binder-sulfur cathode under the same conditions.

  19. Application of gelatin as a binder for the sulfur cathode in lithium-sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jing; Huang, Yaqin [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, 15 BeiSanhuan East Road, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang, Weikun; Yu, Zhongbao; Wang, Anbang; Yuan, Keguo [Military Power Sources Research and Development Center, Chemical Defense Institute, 35 Huayuan North Road, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2008-10-15

    Gelatin, a natural biological macromolecule, was successfully used as a new binder in place of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) in the fabrication of the sulfur cathode in lithium-sulfur batteries. The structure and electrochemical performance of the two types of sulfur cathodes, with gelatin and PEO as binders, respectively, were compared in 1 M LiClO{sub 4} DME/DOL (V/V = 1/1) electrolyte. The results showed that the gelatin binder had multifunctional effects on the sulfur cathode: it not only functioned as a highly adhesive agent and an effective dispersion agent for the cathode materials, but also an electrochemically stable binder. The gelatin binder-sulfur cathode achieved a high initial capacity of 1132 mAh g{sup -1}, and remained at a reversible capacity of 408 mAh g{sup -1} after 50 cycles, all of which were better than with the PEO binder-sulfur cathode under the same conditions. (author)

  20. Novel electrospun gelatin/oxycellulose nanofibers as a suitable platform for lung disease modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Švachová, Veronika, E-mail: xcsvachova@fch.vutbr.cz [Institute of Materials Chemistry, Brno University of Technology (Czech Republic); Vojtová, Lucy [CEITEC – Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology (Czech Republic); SCITEG, a.s., Brno (Czech Republic); Pavliňák, David [Department of Physical Electronics, Masaryk University (Czech Republic); Vojtek, Libor [Institute of Experimental Biology, Masaryk University (Czech Republic); Sedláková, Veronika [Department of Histology and Embryology, Masaryk University (Czech Republic); International Clinical Research, St. Anne' s University Hospital, Brno (Czech Republic); Hyršl, Pavel [Institute of Experimental Biology, Masaryk University (Czech Republic); Alberti, Milan [Department of Physical Electronics, Masaryk University (Czech Republic); Jaroš, Josef; Hampl, Aleš [Department of Histology and Embryology, Masaryk University (Czech Republic); International Clinical Research, St. Anne' s University Hospital, Brno (Czech Republic); Jančář, Josef [Institute of Materials Chemistry, Brno University of Technology (Czech Republic); CEITEC – Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology (Czech Republic); SCITEG, a.s., Brno (Czech Republic)

    2016-10-01

    Novel hydrolytically stable gelatin nanofibers modified with sodium or calcium salt of oxycellulose were prepared by electrospinning method. The unique inhibitory effect of these nanofibers against Escherichia coli bacteria was examined by luminometric method. Biocompatibility of these gelatin/oxycellulose nanofibers with eukaryotic cells was tested using human lung adenocarcinoma cell line NCI-H441. Cells firmly adhered to nanofiber surface, as determined by scanning electron microscopy, and no signs of cell dying were detected by fluorescent live/dead assay. We propose that the newly developed gelatin/oxycellulose nanofibers could be used as promising scaffold for lung disease modeling and anti-cancer drug testing. - Highlights: • Novel hydrolytically stable gelatin nanofibers modified with oxycellulose were prepared by electrospinning. • ATR–FTIR spectroscopy and EDX confirmed the presence of oxycellulose in the nanofibers. • Nanofibers modified with calcium salt of oxycellulose exhibited significant antibacterial properties. • Nanofibers modified with sodium salt of oxycellulose revealed excellent biocompatibility with cell line NCI-H441.

  1. Effect of salts on the gelatinization and rheological properties of sago starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, F B; Williams, P A

    1999-08-01

    The effects of various salts on the gelatinization and rheological properties of sago starch have been studied using differential scanning calorimetry, small deformation oscillation, and large deformation techniques. The presence of salts affected the gelatinization peak temperature, T(p), gelatinization enthalpy, DeltaH, swelling properties, storage modulus, G', gel strength, GS, and gelation rate constants, k, depending on the type of salt and the concentration. Their influence followed the Hofmeister series, and the effect of anions was more pronounced than that of cations. Sulfate ions increased T(p), G', GS, and k and reduced the swelling properties, whereas iodide and thiocyanate ions reduced T(p), G', GS, and k but increased the swelling properties. For all of the salts studied except for Na(2)SO(4), T(p) increased to a maximum and then decreased again at higher salt concentrations while DeltaH reduced with concentration. In the presence of MgCl(2), CaCl(2), and LiCl complex behavior was observed such that at approximately 3.5 M MgCl(2) and CaCl(2) and 8 M LiCl the starch samples were gelatinized at room temperature, whereas at much higher concentration T(p) increased again and the transition became exothermic.

  2. In vivo hemostatic efficacy of polyurethane foam compared to collagen and gelatin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekema, Ferdinand I.; van Oeveren, Wim; Selten, Maaike H. A.; Meijer, Rolf J. H.; de Wolf, Joost T. M.; Bos, Rudolf R. M.

    2013-01-01

    Topical hemostatic agents are used in all surgical disciplines. Most of these hemostats are based on animal-derived products like collagen and gelatin. They carry the potential risk of pathogen transmission. A newly developed biodegradable, fully synthetic hemostatic agent based on polyurethane foam

  3. Hemostatic action of polyurethane foam with 55% polyethylene glycol compared to collagen and gelatin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekema, Ferdinand I; van Oeveren, Wim; Boerendonk, Andrea; Sharma, Prashant K; Bos, Rudolf R M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For most topical hemostatic agents the mechanism of hemostatic action is not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: This work aimed to investigate the hemostatic mechanism of action and viscoelastic properties of polyurethane foam (PU) in comparison to the widely used collagen and gelatin. METHODS

  4. The Effects of Ribose on Mechanical and Physicochemical Properties of Cold Water Fish Gelatin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Javadian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Native fish gelatin has some disadvantages such as high hydrophilic, and solubility in cold water. Mixing with other biopolymers and crosslinking by sugars may improve functional properties of fish gelatin. So in this research, the effects of ribose were investigated on moisture sorption isotherm, solubility in water, and mechanical properties of cold water fish gelatin (CWFG films. Ribose sugar was incorporated into CWFG solutions at different concentrations (e.g. 0, 2, 4, and 6% w/w dried gelatin. Physicochemical properties such as water solubility, moisture sorption isotherm and mechanical properties of the films were measured according to ASTM standards. Results showed that incorporation of ribose sugar significantly improved functional properties of CWFG films. Solubility, moisture content and monolayer water content of the matrixes were decreased by increasing the ribose contents. Mechanical properties of biocomposites were improved more than 20% and moisture sorption isotherm curve significantly shifted to lower moisture contents. The results of this study could be explored for commercial use, depending on industrial needs for either production of edible films or for packaging purposes.

  5. Inactivation of the BSE agent by the heat and pressure process for manufacturing gelatine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grobben, A.H.; Steele, P.J.; Somerville, R.A.; Taylor, D.; Schreuder, B.E.C.

    2005-01-01

    Dietary exposure to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent is the probable cause of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in people. The industrial manufacturing process for the production of gelatine and colloidal protein by the heat and pressure process was downscaled accurately and its capa

  6. Design of cationic microspheres based on aminated gelatin for controlled release of peptide and protein drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Kazuhiro; Chono, Sumio; Kosai, Tadashi; Seki, Toshinobu; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2008-02-01

    Two different types of cationized microspheres based on a native cationic gelatin (NGMS) and aminated gelatin with ethylendiamine (CGMS) were investigated for the controlled release of three model acidic peptide/protein drugs with different molecular weights (MWs) and isoelectric points (IEPs). Recombinant human (rh)-insulin (MW: 5.8 kDa, IEP: 5.3), bovine milk lactoalbumin, BMLA (MW: 14 kDa, IEP: 4.3), and bovine serum albumin (BSA MW: 67 kDa, IEP: 4.9) were used as model acidic peptide/protein drugs. The in vitro release profiles of these acidic peptide/protein drugs from NGMS and CGMS were compared and different periods of cross-linking were obtained. The slower release of these acidic peptide/protein drugs from CGMS compared with those from NGMS with cross-linking for 48 hr. was caused by the suppression of burst release during the initial phase. The degree of suppression of burst release of the three peptide/protein drugs during the initial phase by CGMS was in the following order: (rh)-insulin > BMLA > BSA. The release of insulin with a lower molecular weight from CGMS was particularly suppressed compared with the other two drugs with higher molecular weights in the initial phase. The control of the release rate of acidic peptide/protein drugs from gelatin microsphere can be achieved by amination of gelatin. Therefore, CGMS is useful for the controlled release of acidic peptide/ protein drugs.

  7. In vitro evaluation of tissue adhesives composed of hydrophobically modified gelatins and disuccinimidyl tartrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyuki Matsuda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the hydrophobic group content in gelatin on the bonding strength of novel tissue–penetrating tissue adhesives was evaluated. The hydrophobic groups introduced into gelatin were the saturated hexanoyl, palmitoyl, and stearoyl groups, and the unsaturated oleoyl group. A collagen casing was employed as an adherend to model soft tissue for the in vitro determination of bonding strength of tissue adhesives composed of various hydrophobically modified gelatins and disuccinimidyl tartrate. The adhesive composed of stearoyl-modified gelatin (7.4% stearoyl; 10Ste and disuccinimidyl tartrate showed the highest bonding strength. The bonding strength of the adhesives decreased as the degree of substitution of the hydrophobic groups increased. Cell culture experiments demonstrated that fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled 10Ste was integrated onto the surface of smooth muscle cells and showed no cytotoxicity. These results suggest that 10Ste interacted with the hydrophobic domains of collagen casings, such as hydrophobic amino acid residues and cell membranes. Therefore, 10Ste–disuccinimidyl tartrate is a promising adhesive for use in aortic dissection.

  8. Single-mode biological distributed feedback lasers based on vitamin B2 doped gelatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannahme, Christoph; Maier-Flaig, F.; Lemmer, U.

    Biological second-order distributed feedback (DFB) lasers are presented. Riboflavin (vitamin B2) doped gelatin as active material is spin-coated onto nanoimprinted polymer with low refractive index. DFB grating periods of 368 nm and 384 nm yield laser emission at 543 nm and 562 nm, respectively....

  9. A novel platform for the production of nonhydroxylated gelatins based on the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, Torsten H.; de Boer, Arjo L.; Lunenborg, Marcel G. J.; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J.

    2007-01-01

    The use of yeast as a host for heterologous expression of proteins that are normally derived from animal tissue is a promising way to ensure defined products that are devoid of potential harmful animal side products. Here we report on the production and secretion of a custom-designed gelatin, Hu3-Hi

  10. Gelatin/Carboxymethyl chitosan based scaffolds for dermal tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Tarun; Narayan, Rajan; Maji, Somnath; Behera, Shubhanath; Kulanthaivel, Senthilguru; Maiti, Tapas Kumar; Banerjee, Indranil; Pal, Kunal; Giri, Supratim

    2016-12-01

    The present study delineates the preparation, characterization and application of gelatin-carboxymethyl chitosan scaffolds for dermal tissue engineering. The effect of carboxymethyl chitosan and gelatin ratio was evaluated for variations in their physico-chemical-biological characteristics and drug release kinetics. The scaffolds were prepared by freeze drying method and characterized by SEM and FTIR. The study revealed that the scaffolds were highly porous with pore size ranging between 90 and 170μm, had high water uptake (400-1100%) and water retention capacity (>300%). The collagenase mediated degradation of the scaffolds was dependent on the amount of gelatin present in the formulation. A slight yet significant variation in their biological characteristics was also observed. All the formulations supported adhesion, spreading, growth and proliferation of 3T3 mouse fibroblasts. The cells seeded on the scaffolds also demonstrated expression of collagen type I, HIF1α and VEGF, providing a clue regarding their growth and proliferation along with potential to support angiogenesis during wound healing. In addition, the scaffolds showed sustained ampicillin and bovine serum albumin release, confirming their suitability as a therapeutic delivery vehicle during wound healing. All together, the results suggest that gelatin-carboxymethyl chitosan based scaffolds could be a suitable matrix for dermal tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Gelatin-based biomaterial engineering with anhydride-containing oligomeric cross-linkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Tina; Hötzel, Rudi; Kascholke, Christian; Anderegg, Ulf; Schulz-Siegmund, Michaela; Hacker, Michael C

    2014-06-01

    Chemically cross-linked gelatin hydrogels are versatile cell-adhesive hydrogel materials that have been established for a variety of biomedical applications. The most prominent cross-linker is glutaraldehyde, which, however, has been described to cause compatibility problems and loss of microscopic but relevant structural features. A recently developed oligomeric cross-linker that contains anhydride functionalities was evaluated as cross-linker for the fabrication of gelatin-based hydrogels and microparticles. In a fast curing reaction, hydrogels composed of gelatin and oligomeric cross-linker were fabricated with good conversion over a wide concentration range of constituents and with cross-linkers of different anhydride contents. Hydrogel properties, such as dry weight and mechanics, could be controlled by hydrogel composition and rheological properties correlated to elastic moduli from 1 to 10 kPa. The gels were shown to be cytocompatible and promoted cell adhesion. In soft formulations, cells migrated into the hydrogel bulk. Gelatin microparticles prepared by a standard water-in-oil emulsion technique were also treated with the novel oligomers, and cross-linking degrees matching those obtained with glutaraldehyde were obtained. At the same time, fewer interparticular cross-links were observed. Fluorescein-derivatized cross-linkers yielded labeled microparticles in a concentration-dependent manner. The oligomeric cross-linkers are presented as an efficient and possibly more functional and compatible alternative to glutaraldehyde. The engineered hydrogel materials hold potential for various biomedical applications.

  12. Enhanced Vascularization in Hybrid PCL/Gelatin Fibrous Scaffolds with Sustained Release of VEGF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Creating a long-lasting and functional vasculature represents one of the most fundamental challenges in tissue engineering. VEGF has been widely accepted as a potent angiogenic factor involved in the early stages of blood vessel formation. In this study, fibrous scaffolds that consist of PCL and gelatin fibers were fabricated. The gelatin fibers were further functionalized by heparin immobilization, which provides binding sites for VEGF and thus enables the sustained release of VEGF. In vitro release test confirms the sustained releasing profile of VEGF, and stable release was observed over a time period of 25 days. In vitro cell assay indicates that VEGF release significantly promoted the proliferation of endothelial cells. More importantly, in vivo subcutaneous implantation reflects that vascularization has been effectively enhanced in the PCL/gelatin scaffolds compared with the PCL counterpart due to the sustained release of VEGF. Therefore, the heparinized PCL/gelatin scaffolds developed in this study may be a promising candidate for regeneration of complex tissues with sufficient vascularization.

  13. Evaluation of the potential anti-adhesion effect of the PVA/Gelatin membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sang-Ho; Son, So-Ra; Kumar Sakar, Swapan; Nguyen, Thi-Hiep; Kim, Shin-Woo; Min, Young-Ki; Lee, Byong-Taek

    2014-05-01

    A common and prevailing complication for patients with abdominal surgery is the peritoneal adhesion that follows during the post-operative recovery period. Biodegradable polymers have been suggested as a barrier to prevent the peritoneal adhesion. In this work, as a preventive method, PVA/Gelatin hydrogel-based membrane was investigated with various combinations of PVA and gelatin (50/50, 30/70/, and 10/90). Membranes were made by casting method using hot PVA-gelatin solution and the gelatin was cross-linked by exposing UV irradiation for 5 days to render stability of the produced sheathed form in the physiological environment. Physical crosslinking was chosen to avoid the problems of potential cytotoxic effect of chemical crosslinking. Their materials characterization and mechanical properties were evaluated by SEM surface characterization, hydrophilicity, biodegradation rate, and so forth. Cytocompatibility was observed by in vitro experiments with cell proliferation using confocal laser scanning microscopy and the MTT assay by L-929 mouse fibroblast cells. The fabricated PVA/Gel membranes were implanted between artificially defected cecum and peritoneal wall in rats and were sacrificed after 1 and 2 weeks post-operative to compare their tissue adhesion extents with that of control group where the defected surface was not separated by PVA/Gel membrane. The PVA/Gel membrane (10/90) significantly reduced the adhesion extent and showed to be a potential candidate for the anti-adhesion application.

  14. Looking inside the Ocean: Toward an Autonomous Imaging System for Monitoring Gelatinous Zooplankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Corgnati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine plankton abundance and dynamics in the open and interior ocean is still an unknown field. The knowledge of gelatinous zooplankton distribution is especially challenging, because this type of plankton has a very fragile structure and cannot be directly sampled using traditional net based techniques. To overcome this shortcoming, Computer Vision techniques can be successfully used for the automatic monitoring of this group.This paper presents the GUARD1 imaging system, a low-cost stand-alone instrument for underwater image acquisition and recognition of gelatinous zooplankton, and discusses the performance of three different methodologies, Tikhonov Regularization, Support Vector Machines and Genetic Programming, that have been compared in order to select the one to be run onboard the system for the automatic recognition of gelatinous zooplankton. The performance comparison results highlight the high accuracy of the three methods in gelatinous zooplankton identification, showing their good capability in robustly selecting relevant features. In particular, Genetic Programming technique achieves the same performances of the other two methods by using a smaller set of features, thus being the most efficient in avoiding computationally consuming preprocessing stages, that is a crucial requirement for running on an autonomous imaging system designed for long lasting deployments, like the GUARD1. The Genetic Programming algorithm has been installed onboard the system, that has been operationally tested in a two-months survey in the Ligurian Sea, providing satisfactory results in terms of monitoring and recognition performances.

  15. Looking inside the Ocean: Toward an Autonomous Imaging System for Monitoring Gelatinous Zooplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corgnati, Lorenzo; Marini, Simone; Mazzei, Luca; Ottaviani, Ennio; Aliani, Stefano; Conversi, Alessandra; Griffa, Annalisa

    2016-12-14

    Marine plankton abundance and dynamics in the open and interior ocean is still an unknown field. The knowledge of gelatinous zooplankton distribution is especially challenging, because this type of plankton has a very fragile structure and cannot be directly sampled using traditional net based techniques. To overcome this shortcoming, Computer Vision techniques can be successfully used for the automatic monitoring of this group.This paper presents the GUARD1 imaging system, a low-cost stand-alone instrument for underwater image acquisition and recognition of gelatinous zooplankton, and discusses the performance of three different methodologies, Tikhonov Regularization, Support Vector Machines and Genetic Programming, that have been compared in order to select the one to be run onboard the system for the automatic recognition of gelatinous zooplankton. The performance comparison results highlight the high accuracy of the three methods in gelatinous zooplankton identification, showing their good capability in robustly selecting relevant features. In particular, Genetic Programming technique achieves the same performances of the other two methods by using a smaller set of features, thus being the most efficient in avoiding computationally consuming preprocessing stages, that is a crucial requirement for running on an autonomous imaging system designed for long lasting deployments, like the GUARD1. The Genetic Programming algorithm has been installed onboard the system, that has been operationally tested in a two-months survey in the Ligurian Sea, providing satisfactory results in terms of monitoring and recognition performances.

  16. Physico-mechanical and structural properties of eggshell membrane gelatin- chitosan blend edible films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadi, Reza; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Rouhi, Milad

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the physico-mechanical and structural properties of composite edible films based on eggshell membrane gelatin (G) and chitosan (Ch) (75G:25Ch, 50G:50Ch, 25G:75Ch). The results demonstrated that the addition of Ch increased elongation at break significantly (p< 0.05), but r......This study investigated the physico-mechanical and structural properties of composite edible films based on eggshell membrane gelatin (G) and chitosan (Ch) (75G:25Ch, 50G:50Ch, 25G:75Ch). The results demonstrated that the addition of Ch increased elongation at break significantly (p....05), but resulted in no significant change in tensile strength (TS) using 75G:25Ch, 50G:50Ch mixtures in comparison with gelatin-based film. The water solubility and water vapor permeability of the 50G:50Ch film decreased significantly compared to plain films (100G:0Ch and 0G:100Ch) and other composite films (p... interactions introduced by the addition of chitosan to eggshell membrane gelatin as new resources could improve the films’ functional properties....

  17. Single-mode biological distributed feedback lasers based on vitamin B2 doped gelatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannahme, Christoph; Maier-Flaig, F.; Lemmer, U.

    Biological second-order distributed feedback (DFB) lasers are presented. Riboflavin (vitamin B2) doped gelatin as active material is spin-coated onto nanoimprinted polymer with low refractive index. DFB grating periods of 368 nm and 384 nm yield laser emission at 543 nm and 562 nm, respectively....

  18. Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO(2)) induced gelatinization of potato starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muljana, Henky; Picchioni, Francesco; Heeres, Hero J.; Janssen, Leon P. B. M.

    2009-01-01

    The degree of gelatinization (DG) of potato starch after treatment with scCO(2) Was investigated. A broad range of experimental conditions were applied, including variations in temperature (50-90 degrees C), pressure (0.1-25 MPa), and the starch water content (16.2-40% wt/wt). Changes in the DG were

  19. Properties of starch subjected to partial gelatinization and beta-amylolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, B Elliot; Janaswamy, Srinivas; Yao, Yuan

    2009-01-28

    The overall objective of this research is to understand the impact of partial gelatinization and beta-amylase hydrolysis (beta-amylolysis) on the physicochemical properties of starch. Three starches (normal corn, waxy corn, and wheat) were chosen as test examples and thermally treated at 40% moisture content to up to 95 degrees C and then subjected to beta-amylolysis. The enzyme treatment resulted in over 10% maltose yield. Subsequent debranching analysis showed the production of chain stubs as short as having the degree of polymerization of 2 and 3, suggesting a thorough beta-amylolysis at certain branch locations. For starch samples subjected to partial gelatinization, polarized light microscopy shows reduced intensity of birefringence and differential scanning calorimetry shows reduced enthalpy change associated with gelatinization. Both indicate the reduced chain organization due to the treatment. Further, a substantial transformation of initial A-type crystalline structure to B- and V-types upon treatments is noticed from X-ray powder diffraction measurements. In addition, the rapid viscosity analysis (RVA) indicated a drastic viscosity reduction, increased peak temperature, and improved stability of pasting behavior due to hydrothermal treatments and beta-amylolysis. Overall, our results point out the possibility of obtaining modified starches having desirable stable pasting behavior by using a combined partial gelatinization and beta-amylolysis approach.

  20. Enzymatic method for measuring starch gelatinization in dry products in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, KeShun; Han, Jianchun

    2012-05-02

    An enzymatic method based on hydrolysis of starch by amyloglucosidase and measurement of d-glucose released by glucose oxidase-peroxidase was developed to measure both gelatinized starch and hydrolyzable starch in situ of dried starchy products. Efforts focused on the development of sample handling steps (particle size reduction of dry samples followed by a unique mechanical resolubilization step) prior to the enzymatic hydrolysis using native and fully gelatinized flours of corn and rice. The new steps, when optimized, were able to maximize resolubilization of gelatinized/retrograded starch while minimizing solubilization of native starch in dried samples, thus effectively addressing issues of insusceptibility of retrograded starch and susceptibility of native starch to enzymatic attacks and eliminating the need to isolate starch from dry samples before using an enzymatic method. Various factors affecting these and other steps were also investigated, with the objectives to simplify the procedures and reduce errors. Results are expressed as the percentage of the total starch content. The proposed method, verified by measuring mixed samples of native and fully gelatinized flours of five grain species (corn, rice, barley, oat, and wheat) at different ratios, is simple, accurate, and reliable, with a relative standard deviation of less than 5%.

  1. Influence of drying temperature, water content, and heating rate on gelatinization of corn starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Filiz; Gunasekaran, Sundaram

    2006-06-14

    The gelatinization properties of starch extracted from corn and waxy corn dried at different temperatures were determined at various water contents and heating rates by differential scanning calorimetry. All gelatinization transition temperatures increased with drying temperature and heating rate. Onset and peak temperatures remained relatively constant, whereas end temperature decreased in the presence of excess water. The gelatinization enthalpy (deltaH(g)) of corn starch decreased with drying temperature at 50% water; however, it remained constant for waxy corn starch. The effects of water content and heating rate on deltaH(g) were dependent on each other. The minimum water levels required for gelatinization of starch extracted from corn dried at 20 and 100 degrees C are 21 and 29%, respectively. The activation energy (E(a)) was calculated using an Arrhenius-type equation and two first-order models; the degree of conversion (alpha) was predicted using a newly proposed model that produced good results for both E(a) and alpha.

  2. The effect of polysaccharides on the gelatinization properties of cornstarch dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konjac glucomannan (neutral), CMC (negatively charged) and chitosan (positively charged) were added to cornstarch dis- persions, in order to study the effect of polysaccharide-starch interactions on the starch gelatinization properties. Pasting and retrogradation properties were measured with the rh...

  3. Effect of sodium chloride on the gelatinization of starch: a multimeasurement study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiotelli, Eleni; Pilosio, Giorgio; Le Meste, Martine

    2002-01-01

    The effect of sodium chloride on the gelatinization and rheological properties of wheat and potato starches has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, and electron spin resonance techniques. All samples contained 60% water (w/w wet starch basis) and the salt content ranged from 0 to 16% (g/100 g starch-water). The presence of salt affected the onset (T(o)), peak (T(p)), and end (T(e)) temperatures of gelatinization, gelatinization enthalpy (DeltaH), storage modulus (G'), and rotational mobility coefficient (D(rot)), and the effect differed by salt concentration. 1H-NMR was used in parallel in order to elucidate how salts affect the properties of water in starch suspensions and in aqueous salt solutions according to their position on the Hofmeister series classification. The obtained results suggest that the mechanism of starch gelatinization in salt solutions can be attributed to the effect of solute on water properties and direct polymer-solute interactions. These two effects conflict with one another and result in complex effect patterns depending on the concentration of the salts. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. Fabrication of gelatin nanofibrous scaffolds using ethanol/phosphate buffer saline as a benign solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Zhengbao; Teng, Weibing; Markle, Valerie; Dai, Zhifei; Wu, Xiaoyi

    2012-12-01

    Electrospinning of natural polymer nanofibers useful for biomedical applications often requires the use of cytotoxic organic solvents. In this study, gelatin nanofibers are electrospun from phosphate buffer saline/ethanol binary mixtures as a benign solvent at ambient temperature. The influences of ionic strength, ethanol concentration, and gelatin concentration on the electrospinnability of gelatin solutions and the fiber microarchitectures are analyzed. The electrospun scaffolds retain their morphologies during vapor-phase crosslinking with glutaraldehyde in ethanol and the subsequent removal of salts contained in the nanofibers via water rinsing. When fully hydrated, the mechanically preconditioned scaffolds display a Young's modulus of 25.5 ± 5.3 kPa, tensile strength of 55.5 ± 13.9 kPa, deformability of 160 ± 15%, and resilience of 89.9 ± 1.8%. When cultured on the gelatin scaffolds, 3T3 fibroblasts displayed spindle-like morphology, similar to the cell's normal morphology in a 3D extracellular matrix.

  5. Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum immobilization in alginate coated with chitosan and gelatin on antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Imen; Ayadi, Dorra; Bejar, Wacim; Bejar, Samir; Chouayekh, Hichem; Ben Salah, Riadh

    2014-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate and evaluate the efficiency of immobilizing the Lactobacillus plantarum TN9 strain in alginate using chitosan and gelatin as coating materials, in terms of viability and antibacterial activity. The results indicate that maximum concentrations of L. plantarum TN9 strain were produced with 2% sodium alginate, 10(8)UFC/ml, and 1M calcium chloride. The viability and antibacterial activity of the L. plantarum TN9 cultures before and after immobilization in alginate, chitosan-coated alginate, and gelatin-coated alginate, were studied. The findings revealed that the viability of encapsulated L. plantarum could be preserved more than 5.8 log CFU/ml after 35 day of incubation at 4 °C, and no effects were observed when gelatin was used. The antibacterial activity of encapsulated L. plantarum TN9 against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria was enhanced in the presence of chitosan coating materials, and no activity was observed in the presence of gelatin. The effects of catalase and proteolytic enzymes on the culture supernatant of L. plantarum TN9 were also investigated, and the results suggested that the antibacterial activity observed was due to the production of organic acids. Taken together, the findings indicated that immobilization in chitosan enhanced the antibacterial activity of L. plantarum TN9 against several pathogenic bacteria. This encapsulated strain could be considered as a potential strong candidate for future application as an additive in the food and animal feed industries.

  6. Electrospinning of PVA/chitosan nanocomposite nanofibers containing gelatin nanoparticles as a dual drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathollahipour, Shahrzad; Abouei Mehrizi, Ali; Ghaee, Azadeh; Koosha, Mojtaba

    2015-12-01

    Nanofibrous core-sheath nanocomposite dual drug delivery system based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/chitosan/lidocaine hydrochloride loaded with gelatin nanoparticles were successfully prepared by the electrospinning method. Gelatin nanoparticles were prepared by nanoprecipitation and were then loaded with erythromycin antibiotic agent with the average particle size of ∼175 nm. The morphology of gelatin nanoparticles observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) was shown to be optimal at the concentration of 1.25 wt % of gelatin in aqueous phase by addition of 20 µL of glutaraldehyde 5% as the crosslinking agent. The nanoparticles were also characterized by dynamic light scattering, zeta potential measurement, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The best bead free morphology for the PVA/chitosan nanofibrous mats were obtained at the solution weight ratio of 96/4. The nanofibrous mats were analyzed by swelling studies, FTIR and antibacterial tests. In vitro dual release profile of the core-sheath nanofibers was also studied within 72 h and showed the release efficiency equal to 84.69 and 75.13% for lidocaine hydrochloride and erythromycin, respectively. According to release exponent n, the release of lidocaine hydrochloride from the sheath part of the matrix is quasi-Fickian diffusion mechanism, while the release of erythromycin is based on anomalous or non-Fickian mechanisms.

  7. Transcriptome Analysis of Gelatin Seed Treatment as a Biostimulant of Cucumber Plant Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. T. Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of gelatin capsule seed treatment on enhanced plant growth and tolerance to abiotic stress have been reported in a number of crops, but the molecular mechanisms underlying such effects are poorly understood. Using mRNA sequencing based approach, transcriptomes of one- and two-week-old cucumber plants from gelatin capsule treated and nontreated seeds were characterized. The gelatin treated plants had greater total leaf area, fresh weight, frozen weight, and nitrogen content. Pairwise comparisons of the RNA-seq data identified 620 differentially expressed genes between treated and control two-week-old plants, consistent with the timing when the growth related measurements also showed the largest differences. Using weighted gene coexpression network analysis, significant coexpression gene network module of 208 of the 620 differentially expressed genes was identified, which included 16 hub genes in the blue module, a NAC transcription factor, a MYB transcription factor, an amino acid transporter, an ammonium transporter, a xenobiotic detoxifier-glutathione S-transferase, and others. Based on the putative functions of these genes, the identification of the significant WGCNA module and the hub genes provided important insights into the molecular mechanisms of gelatin seed treatment as a biostimulant to enhance plant growth.

  8. Gelatin dalam Elektrolit Gel terhadap Ketebalan dan Kekuatan Lekat Lapisan Krom pada Baja dengan Metode Elektroplating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikin Hermanto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Elektroplating pada dunia industri banyak dimanfaatkan untuk melakukan pelapisan terhadap benda kerja dengan cara pencelupan benda kerja dalam larutan elektrolit. Cara ini dirasa kurang efektif bila digunakan pada benda kerja yang telah terpasang pada rangkaian kerjanya, sehingga penelitian tentang elektrolit gel ini dilakukan. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode alternatif elektroplating, yaitu elektrolit gel. Elektrolit gel merupakan metode elektroplating tanpa perlu melakukan pencelupan, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh konsentrasi H2CrO4 (250 g/l; 300 g/l; 350 g/l dan gelatin sebagai gelling agent (40,5 g/l; 81 g/l; 121,5 g/l dalam elektrolit gel H2CrO4 terhadap ketebalan dan kualitas lapisan krom hasil elektroplating pada baja. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa semakin besar konsentrasi asam kromat dalam elektrolit gel akan meningkatkan ketebalan deposit krom sedangkan penambahan konsentrasi gelatin akan menurunkan ketebalan deposit krom. Penambahan konsentrasi asam kromat akan menurunkan nilai kelekatan deposit krom pada spesimen, sedangkan penambahan konsentrasi gelatin akan mencapai nilai kelekatan maksimalnya pada konsentrasi 81 g/l dan penambahan konsentrasi gelatin melebihi konsentrasi tersebut akan menyebabkan penurunan nilai kelekatan.

  9. Gelatin-Methacrylamide Hydrogels as Potential Biomaterials for Fabrication of Tissue-Engineered Cartilage Constructs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, Wouter; Levett, Peter A.; Pot, Michiel W.; van Weeren, Paul Rene; Dhert, Wouter J. A.; Hutmacher, Dietmar W.; Melchels, Ferry P. W.; Klein, Travis J.; Malda, Jos

    2013-01-01

    Gelatin-methacrylamide (gelMA) hydrogels are shown to support chondrocyte viability and differentiation and give wide ranging mechanical properties depending on several cross-linking parameters. Polymer concentration, UV exposure time, and thermal gelation prior to UV exposure allow for control over

  10. Influence of gelatinization on the extraction of phenolic acids from wheat fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of gelatinization on the analysis of phenolic acids from wheat bran, whole-wheat, and refined flour samples was investigated using two extraction procedures, namely, ultrasonic (UAE) and microwave (MAE). The total phenolic acid (TPA) concentration quantity in wheat bran (2711-2913 µg/g) w...

  11. Origin Determination and Differentiation of Gelatin Species of Bovine, Porcine, and Piscine through Analytical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Saadiye Eryılmaz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Gelatin origin determination has been a crucial issue with respect to religion and health concerns. It is necessary to analyze the origin of gelatin with reliable methods to ensure not only consumer choices but also safety and legal requirements such as labeling. There are many analytical methods developed for detection and/or quantification of gelatin from different sources including bovine, porcine and piscine. These analytical methods can be divided into physicochemical, chromatographic, immunochemical, spectroscopic and molecular methods. Moreover, computational methods have been used in some cases consecutively to ensure sensitivity of the analytical methods. Every method has different advantages and limitations due to their own principles, applied food matrix and process conditions of material. The present review intends to give insight into novel analytical methods and perspectives that have been developed to differentiate porcine, bovine and piscine gelatins and to establish their authenticity. Almost every method can be succeeded in origin determination; however, it is a matter of sensitivity in that some researches fail to ensure sufficient differentiation.

  12. Comparison of starch and gelatin hydrogels for non-toxic supercapacitor electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Railanmaa, Anna; Lehtimäki, Suvi; Lupo, Donald

    2017-06-01

    Starch and gelatin are two of the most abundantly available natural polymers. Their non-toxicity, low cost, and compatibility with aqueous solvents make them ideal for use in ubiquitous, environmentally friendly electronics systems. This work presents the results of conductivity measurements through impedance spectroscopy for gelatin- and starch-based aqueous gel electrolytes. The NaCl-based gels were physically cross-linked. The conductivity values were 84.6 mS/cm at 1.5 mol L-1 and 71.5 mS/cm at 2 mol L-1 for gelatin and starch, respectively. The mechanical properties of gelatin were found preferable to those of starch, although they deteriorated significantly when the salt concentration exceeded 2 mol L-1. The ability of the gels to successfully act as a supercapacitor electrolyte was demonstrated with printed electrodes on plastic substrate. The devices were characterized through cyclic voltammetry measurements. The results imply that these polymer gel electrolytes are very promising for replacing the traditional aqueous liquid electrolytes in supercapacitors in applications where, for example, user and environmental safety is essential.

  13. Effect of gelatin on the water dispersion and centrifugal purification of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanium Maria, Kazi; Mieno, Tetsu

    2016-01-01

    We report a convenient and effective procedure for the water dispersion and purification of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The purification procedure involves a combination of dispersion and centrifugation, in which gelatin; an environmentally friendly material is used as a dispersing agent. It has been found that an aqueous solution of gelatin effectively disperses SWNTs for more than a month. Another advantage of using gelatin as a dispersing agent is that it can be easily removed by washing with water and filtration. The centrifugation procedure employs a centrifugal force of about 2500 times the gravitational force to separate the particles. Although carbonaceous and metallic impurities usually have higher density than SWNTs in arc-produced carbon soot, the centrifugation can easily remove impurities leaving undamaged SWNTs in solution when appropriate centrifugal force and a centrifugation time are used. Centrifugation is carried out for three times to sufficiently remove impurities. Finally, the SWNTs are separated from the gelatin by heating in water and filtering.

  14. Controlling thermo-reversibility of gelatin gels through a peroxidase-catalyzed reaction under mild conditions for mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Shinji; Moriyama, Kousuke; Kawakami, Koei

    2011-01-01

    A variety of cross-linking methods is used for obtaining gelatin gels having a tolerance to thermo-reversible gel-sol transition at physiological temperature. In this paper, we investigated the applicability of horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed cross-linking of tyrosine residues originally contained in native gelatin molecules for preparing such gelatin gels. The gelatin gels obtained through exposure to the enzymatic reaction showed a higher resistance to thermo-reversibility at 37°C than gels obtained through a thermally-induced gelation alone. In addition, the resistance property to thermo-reversible gel-sol transition was tunable by controlling enzymatic reaction conditions: higher peroxidase concentration and thermally-induced pre-gelation accomplished by cooling the gelatin solution prior to the enzymatic reaction produced gels with higher resistance to thermo-reversibility. Fibroblast cells enclosed in the gelatin gels obtained through the enzymatic reaction with thermally-induced pre-gelation showed 93% viability. These results demonstrate the feasibility of peroxidase-catalyzed reaction for obtaining gelatin gels having a tolerance to thermo-reversible gel-to-sol transition at physiological temperature toward applications in biomedical and biopharmaceutical fields.

  15. Highly efficient removal of lead and cadmium during wastewater irrigation using a polyethylenimine-grafted gelatin sponge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingbing; Zhou, Feng; Huang, Kai; Wang, Yipei; Mei, Surong; Zhou, Yikai; Jing, Tao

    2016-09-01

    Wastewater irrigation is a very important resource for heavy metal pollution in soil and then accumulation in vegetable crops. In this study, a polyethylenimine (PEI)-grafted gelatin sponge was prepared to effectively adsorb heavy metals during wastewater irrigation. Based on the strong water adsorption ability, wastewater remained in the PEI-grafted gelatin sponge for a sufficient time for the heavy metals to interact with the sorbents. The binding capacities of Pb(II) ions and Cd(II) ions on the PEI-grafted gelatin sponge were 66 mg g‑1 and 65 mg g‑1, which were much more than those on the gelatin sponge (9.75 mg g‑1 and 9.35 mg g‑1). Subsequently, the PEI-grafted gelatin sponge was spread on the surface of soil planted with garlic and then sprayed with synthetic wastewater. The concentrations of cadmium and lead in the garlic leaves were 1.59 mg kg‑1 and 5.69 mg kg‑1, respectively, which were much lower than those (15.78 mg kg‑1 and 27.98 mg kg‑1) without the gelatin sponge, and the removal efficiencies were 89.9% and 79.7%. The PEI-grafting gelatin sponge could effectively remove heavy metals during wastewater irrigation, which improved the soil environment and reduced human exposure to heavy metals.

  16. THE EFFECT OF PLASTICIZER CONTENT AND DISACCHARIDE TYPE ON THE MECHANICAL, BARRIER AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BOVINE GELATIN-BASED FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEDRO GUERRERO1

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gelatins are regarded as alternative raw materials to prepare films for food packaging. However, the improvement of their mechanical and water barrier properties is necessary in order to obtain useful materials in service conditions. To improve these functional properties, two strategies have been carried out in this work. First, glycerol was added as plasticizer to increase the flexibility of the films. Second, lactose or sucrose was added to react with gelatin and increase water resistance of gelatin-based films. Commercial gelatin, glycerol and lactose or sucrose were employed in this work and processing of the films was carried out by solution casting. All gelatin films obtained were transparent and flexible. Moreover, the hydrophobic character of the films was increased and the film solubility was decreased by the addition of glycerol and disaccharides. As was observed via FTIR, the changes were due to the interactions between gelatin and glycerol and Maillard reaction between gelatin and disaccharides.

  17. Effects of extraction conditions on the sensory and instrumental characteristics of fish gelatin gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boran, G; Lawless, H T; Regenstein, J M

    2010-01-01

    Fish skin gelatin has recently been of interest as a product that eliminates religious concerns (Jewish and Muslim) and could be an alternative value-added product from fish waste. Recent research has shown that extraction conditions affect gelatin quality. In this study, gelatin from Asian silver carp skin and extracted under different conditions have been studied sensory properties using descriptive analysis and time intensity testing to determine how extraction conditions affect gelatin sensory properties. Three pairs of gelatin samples were selected based on their gel strength, viscosity, and melting temperature. The impacts of different extraction conditions on instrumental methods were examined. Some functionality measurements were also done to determine how sensory measurements correlate with instrumental measurements. The gel strength varied between 60 ± 10 g and 590 ± 30 g while the viscosity varied between 1.9 ± 0.0 cP and 7.4 ± 0.2 cP. The hardness, melting and gelling temperature of the samples were well correlated with the gel strength (r > 0.90). The results indicated that the strongest correlation among all the sensory attributes was between firmness and melting temperature, which was a negative correlation (-0.75) suggesting that the firmer the gel samples the slower they melt. The viscosity was found to be very discriminative between samples in terms of sensory properties. The functional measurements were found to be strongly correlated within themselves while the sensory measurements were less so, which might be due to the greater variability when using sensory panelists or sensory parameters simply might not be related. The firmness, melting rate, and aftertaste were those sensory attributes most successfully discriminated by the panelists.

  18. Covalent incorporation of non-chemically modified gelatin into degradable PVA-tyramine hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Khoon S; Alves, Marie H; Poole-Warren, Laura A; Martens, Penny J

    2013-09-01

    Development of tissue engineering solutions for biomedical applications has driven the need for integration of biological signals into synthetic materials. Approaches to achieve this typically require chemical modification of the biological molecules. Examples include chemical grafting of synthetic polymers onto protein backbones and covalent modification of proteins using crosslinkable functional groups. However, such chemical modification processes can cause protein degradation, denaturation or loss of biological activity due to side chain disruption. This study exploited the observation that native tyrosine rich proteins could be crosslinked via radical initiated bi-phenol bond formation without any chemical modification of the protein. A new, tyramine functionalised poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) polymer was synthesised and characterised. The tyramine modified PVA (PVA-Tyr) was fabricated into hydrogels using a visible light initiated crosslinking system. Mass loss studies showed that PVA-Tyr hydrogels were completely degraded within 19 days most likely via degradation of ester linkages in the network. Protein incorporation to form a biosynthetic hydrogel was achieved using unmodified gelatin, a protein derived from collagen and results showed that 75% of gelatin was retained in the gel post-polymerisation. Incorporation of gelatin did not alter the sol fraction, swelling ratio and degradation profile of the hydrogels, but did significantly improve the cellular interactions. Moreover, incorporation of as little as 0.01 wt% gelatin was sufficient to facilitate fibroblast adhesion onto PVA-Tyr/gelatin hydrogels. Overall, this study details the synthesis of a new functionalised PVA macromer and demonstrates that tyrosine containing proteins can be covalently incorporated into synthetic hydrogels using this innovative PVA-Tyr system. The resultant degradable biosynthetic hydrogels hold great promise as matrices for tissue engineering applications.

  19. Mussel-inspired human gelatin nanocoating for creating biologically adhesive surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang X

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Xi Yang,1,2 Liping Zhu,1 Seiichi Tada,1 Di Zhou,3 Takashi Kitajima,1 Takashi Isoshima,1 Yasuhiro Yoshida,1,4 Mariko Nakamura,1,5 Weiqun Yan,2 Yoshihiro Ito1,3 1Nano Medical Engineering Laboratory, RIKEN, Saitama, Japan; 2School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jilin University, Jilin, People’s Republic of China; 3Emergent Bioengineering Materials Research Team, RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science, Saitama, 4Department of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Hokkaido, 5Dental Hygiene Program, Kibi International College, Okayama, Japan Abstract: Recombinant human gelatin was conjugated with dopamine using carbodiimide as a surface modifier. This dopamine-coupled human gelatin (D-rhG was characterized by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectroscopy, and circular dichroism. D-rhG-coated surface properties were analyzed by physicochemical methods. Additionally, cell attachment and growth on the modified surfaces was assessed using human umbilical endothelial cells. Binding of gelatin onto titanium was significantly enhanced by dopamine conjugation. The thickness of the D-rhG coating depended on the treatment pH; thicker layers were formed at higher pH values, with a maximum thickness of 30 nm. D-rhG enhanced the binding of collagen-binding vascular endothelial growth factor and cell adhesion as compared with gelatin alone, even at the same surface concentration. The D-rhG surface modifier enhanced substrate binding by creating an adhesive nanointerface that increased specific protein binding and cell attachment. Keywords: recombinant human gelatin, dopamine, natural catechols, cell adhesion, cell culture, titanium

  20. Differential physical, rheological, and biological properties of rapid in situ gelable hydrogels composed of oxidized alginate and gelatin derived from marine or porcine sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Huijuan; Zhang, Hanwei; Chen, Weiliam

    2009-06-01

    Marine derived gelatin is not known to associate with any communicable diseases to mammals and could be a reasonable substitute for gelatin derived from either bovine or porcine sources. The low melting point of marine gelatin (8 degrees C) also offers greater formulation flexibility than mammalian derived gelatins. However, the sub-optimal physical properties of marine gelatin generally limit the interest to further develop it for biomedical applications. This study aimed at investigating the feasibility of using oxidized alginate (Oalg) as a high activity macromolecular crosslinker of marine gelatin to formulate in situ gelable hydrogels with the goal of enhancing the latter's physical properties. The performance of Oalg/marine gelatin hydrogel was compared to Oalg/porcine gelatin hydrogel; in general, the physicomechanical properties of both hydrogels were comparable, with the hydrogels containing porcine gelatin exhibiting moderately higher mechanical strengths with shorter gelation times, smaller size pores, and higher swelling ratios. On the contrary, the biological performances of the two hydrogels were significantly difference. Cells cultured in the marine gelatin derived hydrogel grew significantly faster, with greater than 60% more cells by 7 days and they exhibited more spread-out conformations as compared those cultured in the porcine derived hydrogel. Production of ECM by cells cultured in the Oalg/marine gelatin hydrogel was up to 2.4 times greater than that of in the Oalg/porcine gelatin hydrogel. The biodegradation rate of the hydrogel formulated from marine gelatin was greater than its counterpart prepared from porcine gelatin. These differences have important implications in the biomedical applications of the two hydrogels.

  1. Hydration properties and phosphorous speciation in native, gelatinized and enzymatically modified potato starch analyzed by solid-state MAS NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Flemming H.; Kasprzak, Miroslaw Marek; Lærke, Helle Nygaard

    2013-01-01

    Hydration of granular, gelatinized and molecularly modified states of potato starch in terms of molecular mobility were analyzed by 13C and 31P solid-state MAS NMR. Gelatinization (GEL) tremendously reduced the immobile fraction compared to native (NA) starch granules. This effect was enhanced....... Comparative analysis of wheat and waxy maize starches demonstrated that starches were similar upon gelatinization independent of botanical origin and that the torsion angles of the glycosidic linkages were averages of the crystalline A and B type structures. In starch suspension phosphorous in immobile...

  2. The fabrication of nanocomposites via calcium phosphate formation on gelatin-chitosan network and the gelatin influence on the properties of biphasic composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babaei, Zahra [Nanotechnology Research Institute, School of Chemical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jahanshahi, Mohsen, E-mail: mjahan@nit.ac.ir [Nanotechnology Research Institute, School of Chemical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rabiee, Sayed Mahmood [Nanotechnology Research Institute, School of Chemical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Mechanical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-01-01

    A novel biodegradable polymer-ceramic nanocomposite which consisted of gelatin (Gel), chitosan (CS), and calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles was prepared based on in situ preparation method. The fabricated biocomposites were characterized by FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as well as scanning electron microscope with X-ray elemental analysis (SEM-EDX). The characterization results confirmed that the crystalline calcium phosphate nanoparticles were mineralized in polymeric matrix and the interaction between Ca2+ in calcium phosphate and functional groups in polymers molecular chains was formed. XRD result showed that in addition to hydroxyapatite (HA), Brushite (BR) and tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP) particles also were formed due to lack of complete penetration of the basic solution into the polymeric matrix. However, SEM image indicated that the polymeric matrix has the controlling role in the particle size of calcium phosphate. The size of particles in three component composites was about 100 nm while in two component composites proved to be more in {mu}m size. TEM observation supported SEM results and showed that the three component composites have calcium phosphate nanoparticles. The elastic modulus and compressive strength of the composites were also improved by the employment of gelatin and chitosan together, which can make them more beneficial for surgical applications. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new type of calcium phosphate nanocomposites consisted chitosan and gelatin as polymeric matrix was obtained via in situ precipitation method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The formed particles into the polymeric matrix are hydroxyapatite, Brushite and {beta}-tricalcium phosphate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The polymer concentration is a predominant factor for inhibiting nucleation and growth of calcium phosphate particles as the particles size was also decreased by increasing the amount of polymeric

  3. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of chitosan–gelatin scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whu, Shu Wen [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Keelung, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Hung, Kun-Che; Hsieh, Kuo-Huang [Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chih-Hwa [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Keelung, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Ching-Lin, E-mail: tsaicl@ntuh.gov.tw [Department of Orthopaedics, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Shan-hui, E-mail: shhsu@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-07-01

    Chitosan–gelatin polyelectrolyte complexes were fabricated and evaluated as tissue engineering scaffolds for cartilage regeneration in vitro and in vivo. The crosslinker for the gelatin component was selected among glutaraldehyde, bisepoxy, and a water-soluble carbodiimide (WSC) based upon the proliferation of chondrocytes on the crosslinked gelatin. WSC was found to be the most suitable crosslinker. Complex scaffolds made from chitosan and gelatin with a component ratio equal to one possessed the proper degradation rate and mechanical stability in vitro. Chondrocytes were able to proliferate well and secrete abundant extracellular matrix in the chitosan–gelatin (1:1) complex scaffolds crosslinked by WSC (C1G1{sub WSC}) compared to the non-crosslinked scaffolds. Implantation of chondrocytes-seeded scaffolds in the defects of rabbit articular cartilage confirmed that C1G1{sub WSC} promoted the cartilage regeneration. The neotissue formed the histological feature of tide line and lacunae in 6.5 months. The amount of glycosaminoglycans in C1G1{sub WSC} constructs (0.187 ± 0.095 μg/mg tissue) harvested from the animals after 6.5 months was 14 wt.% of that in normal cartilage (1.329 ± 0.660 μg/mg tissue). The average compressive modulus of regenerated tissue at 6.5 months was about 0.539 MPa, which approached to that of normal cartilage (0.735 MPa), while that in the blank control (3.881 MPa) was much higher and typical for fibrous tissue. Type II collagen expression in C1G1{sub WSC} constructs was similarly intense as that in the normal hyaline cartilage. According to the above results, the use of C1G1{sub WSC} scaffolds may enhance the cartilage regeneration in vitro and in vivo. - Highlights: • We developed a chitosan–gelatin scaffold crosslinked with carbodiimide. • Neocartilage formation was more evident in crosslinked vs. non-crosslinked scaffolds. • Histological features of tide line and lacunae were observed in vivo at 6.5 months. • Compressive

  4. Nanoscale modification of porous gelatin scaffolds with chondroitin sulfate for corneal stromal tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai JY

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Jui-Yang Lai*, Ya-Ting Li*, Ching-Hsien Cho, Ting-Chun Yu Institute of Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan, Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Recent studies reflect the importance of using naturally occurring biopolymers as three-dimensional corneal keratocyte scaffolds and suggest that the porous structure of gelatin materials may play an important role in controlling nutrient uptake. In the current study, the authors further consider the application of carbodiimide cross-linked porous gelatin as an alternative to collagen for corneal stromal tissue engineering. The authors developed corneal keratocyte scaffolds by nanoscale modification of porous gelatin materials with chondroitin sulfate (CS using carbodiimide chemistry. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the amount of covalently incorporated polysaccharide was significantly increased when the CS concentration was increased from 0% to 1.25% (w/v. In addition, as demonstrated by dimethylmethylene blue assays, the CS content in these samples was in the range of 0.078–0.149 nmol per 10 mg scaffold. When compared with their counterparts without CS treatment, various CS-modified porous gelatin membranes exhibited higher levels of water content, light transmittance, and amount of permeated nutrients but possessed lower Young’s modulus and resistance against protease digestion. The hydrophilic and mechanical properties of scaffolds modified with 0.25% CS were comparable with those of native corneas. The samples from this group were biocompatible with the rabbit corneal keratocytes and showed enhanced proliferative and biosynthetic capacity of cultured cells. In summary, the authors found that the nanoscale-level modification has influence on the characteristics and cell-material interactions of CS-containing gelatin hydrogels

  5. Synergistic Effect of Gelatin and Antimony on the Deposition Behavior and Texture of Zinc from Electrowinning Solution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hiromitsu YAMASHITA; Satoshi OUE; Hiroaki NAKANO; Nobuyoshi SOGABE

    2014-01-01

      Partial polarization curves for Zn deposition, the crystal texture and orientation of deposited Zn were investigated to elucidate the synergistic effect of gelatin and antimony on the deposition...

  6. Assessment of the ribose-induced Maillard reaction as a means of gelatine powder identification and quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Thuan-Chew; AlKarkhi, Abbas F M; Easa, Azhar Mat

    2012-10-15

    The addition of ribose to bovine or porcine gelatine solutions followed by heating at 95 °C yielded brown solutions with different pH, colour (CIE L(*) and b(*)) and absorbance (A(420*) values. These differences were used for gelatine powder identification, differentiation and quality control. Differentiation analysis of the Maillard reaction parameters was conducted using cluster analysis (CA) and confidence intervals (CI). The potential use of the method as a quality control procedure was evaluated by using statistical process control (SPC). CA revealed that the two types of gelatine could be classified into two different groups. CI (95% confidence) revealed that the absorbance and colour values could be used as indicators for differentiation between the two types of gelatine because the intervals between the Maillard reaction parameters of the samples were far apart. The methodology demonstrated good reproducibility because it behaved predictably based on the X¯-S charts generated from the SPC charts.

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of sol-gel transition of gelatin in terms of water activity in various solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Osato; Omote, Chiaki; Matsuhira, Keiko

    2015-12-01

    Sol-gel transition of gelatin was analyzed as a multisite stoichiometric reaction of a gelatin molecule with water and solute molecules. The equilibrium sol-gel transition temperature, Tt , was estimated from the average of gelation and melting temperature measured by differential scanning calorimetry. From Tt and the melting enthalpy, ΔHsol , the equilibrium sol-to-gel ratio was estimated by the van't Hoff equation. The reciprocal form of the Wyman-Tanford equation, which describes the sol-to-gel ratio as a function of water activity, was successfully applied to obtain a good linear relationship. From this analysis, the role of water activity on the sol-gel transition of gelatin was clearly explained and the contributions of hydration and solute binding to gelatin molecules were separately discussed in sol-gel transition. The general solution for the free energy for gel-stabilization in various solutions was obtained as a simple function of solute concentration.

  8. Ecophysiology of gelatinous Nostoc colonies: unprecedented slow growth and survival in resource-poor and harsh environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2014-01-01

    The cyanobacterial genus Nostoc includes several species forming centimetre-large gelatinous colonies in nutrient-poor freshwaters and harsh semi-terrestrial environments with extended drought or freezing...

  9. Gelatinized and nongelatinized corn starch/ poly(epsilon-caprolactone blends: characterization by rheological, mechanical and morphological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derval S. Rosa

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Poly(epsilon-caprolactone/corn starch blends containing 25, 50 and 75 wt.% starch were prepared by mechanical processing and characterized by the melt flow index (MFI, tensile test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. For comparison, starch was used in gelatinized and nongelatinized forms and was also characterized by viscography. The addition of starch to poly(epsilon-caprolactone reduced the MFI values, the tensile strength and the elongation at break, whereas the modulus increased. The reductions in the MFI and tensile properties were most evident when gelatinized starch was used. Viscography and SEM showed that starch was well gelatinized by the gelatinization process. Blends containing nongelatinized starch showed a good dispersion of starch but poor interfacial interactions.

  10. Effects of hydrostatic pressure/heat combinations on water uptake and gelatinization characteristics of japonica rice grains: a kinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shih-Li; Jao, Chia-Ling; Hsu, Kuo-Chiang

    2009-10-01

    The combination effects of pressure (200 to 500 MPa) and temperature (20, 40, and 50 degrees C) on the water uptake and gelatinization characteristics of japonica rice (Tainung 71) grains were investigated. Pressure greater than 200 MPa at all temperatures increased the moisture content and volume of rice grains; meanwhile, the increase content of rice grain volume showed a high correlation with that of moisture content (r(2)= 0.96). The highest degree of gelatinization of 73% was observed at 500 MPa and 50 degrees C for 120 min, while gelatinization did not occur at pressures below 300 MPa and temperatures of 20 and 40 degrees C. The rate of gelatinization followed the 1st-order kinetics at each temperature and pressure. The higher pressures and temperatures would result in higher values of rate constant k which could be correlated with both pressure and temperature by combining Arrhenius and Eyring models.

  11. Estimation of the gelatinization temperature of noodles from water sorption curves under temperature-programmed heating conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Ayako; Ogawa, Takenobu; Adachi, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    A novel method in which the water sorption curve is observed under linearly temperature-raising conditions was proposed to estimate the gelatinization temperature of starch-containing foods, it was applied in an estimation of the gelatinization temperatures of dried noodles. The gelatinization temperatures of two kinds of spaghetti, dried at high and low temperature, were 52.3 and 53.1 °C, and those of udon, kishimen, juwari-soba, hachiwari-soba, so-called common soba, Malony(®), and kuzukiri were 57.0, 57.8, 61.1, 59.6, 57.4, 48.4, and 49.1 °C. The gelatinization temperatures estimated by the method were between the onset and peak temperatures obtained by differential scanning calorimetric measurement.

  12. Effect of gelatinization and hydrolysis conditions on the selectivity of starch hydrolysis with alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baks, Tim; Bruins, Marieke E; Matser, Ariette M; Janssen, Anja E M; Boom, Remko M

    2008-01-23

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of starch can be used to obtain various valuable hydrolyzates with different compositions. The effects of starch pretreatment, enzyme addition point, and hydrolysis conditions on the hydrolyzate composition and reaction rate during wheat starch hydrolysis with alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis were compared. Suspensions of native starch or starch gelatinized at different conditions either with or without enzyme were hydrolyzed. During hydrolysis, the oligosaccharide concentration, the dextrose equivalent, and the enzyme activity were determined. We found that the hydrolyzate composition was affected by the type of starch pretreatment and the enzyme addition point but that it was just minimally affected by the pressure applied during hydrolysis, as long as gelatinization was complete. The differences between hydrolysis of thermally gelatinized, high-pressure gelatinized, and native starch were explained by considering the granule structure and the specific surface area of the granules. These results show that the hydrolyzate composition can be influenced by choosing different process sequences and conditions.

  13. Formulation and characterization of tramadol-loaded IPN microgels of alginate and gelatin: Optimization using response surface methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, Inderbir

    2010-01-01

    Tramadol-loaded interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) alginate-gelatin (AG) microgels (MG) were prepared by the chemical cross-linking technique with glutaraldehyde as cross-linking agent and were optimized using response surfaces...

  14. Uncooked rice of relatively low gelatinization degree resulted in lower metabolic glucose and insulin responses compared with cooked rice in female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Eun Young; Suh, Hyung Joo; Hong, Wan Soo; Kim, Dong Geon; Hong, Yang Hee; Hong, In Sun; Chang, Un Jae

    2009-07-01

    Cooking processes that gelatinize granules or disrupt structure might increase the glucose and insulin responses because a disruption of the structure of starch by gelatinization increases its availability for digestion and absorption in the small intestine. We hypothesized that the uncooked form of rice, which has a relatively low degree of gelatinization even though in powder form, would result in lower metabolic glucose and insulin responses compared with cooked rice (CR). To assess the effects of the gelatinization of rice on metabolic response of glucose and insulin, we investigated the glucose and insulin responses to 3 rice meals of different gelatinization degree in female college students (n = 12): CR (76.9% gelatinized), uncooked rice powder (UP; 3.5% gelatinized), and uncooked freeze-dried rice powder (UFP; 5.4% gelatinized). Uncooked rice powders (UP and UFP) induced lower glucose and insulin responses compared with CR. The relatively low gelatinization degree of UPs resulted in low metabolic responses in terms of the glycemic index (CR: 72.4% vs UP: 49.7%, UFP: 59.8%) and insulin index (CR: 94.8% vs UP: 74.4%, UFP: 68.0%). In summary, UPs that were less gelatinized than CR induced low postprandial glucose and insulin responses.

  15. Simultaneous detection of bovine and porcine DNA in pharmaceutical gelatin capsules by duplex PCR assay for Halal authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikzad, Jafar; Shahhosseini, Soraya; Tabarzad, Maryam; Nafissi-Varcheh, Nastaran; Torshabi, Maryam

    2017-02-14

    In the pharmaceutical industry, hard- and soft-shelled capsules are typically made from gelatin, commonly derived from bovine and porcine sources. To ensure that pharmaceutical products comply with halal regulations in Muslim countries (no porcine products allowed), development of a valid, reliable, quick, and most importantly, cost-effective tests are of utmost importance. We developed a species-specific duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting 149 bp porcine and 271 bp bovine mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to simultaneously detect both porcine and bovine DNA (in one reaction at the same time) in gelatin. Some additional simplex PCR tests (targeting 126 bp bovine and 212 bp porcine mtDNA) and real-time PCR using a commercially available kit (for identification of porcine DNA) were used to verify the selectivity and sensitivity of our duplex PCR. After optimization of DNA extraction and PCR methods, hard/soft pharmaceutical gelatin capsules (containing drug) were tested for the presence of porcine and/or bovine DNA. Duplex PCR detected the presence of as little as 0.1% porcine DNA, which was more accurate than the commercially available kit. Of all gelatin capsules tested (n = 24), 50% contained porcine DNA (pure porcine gelatin alone or in combination with bovine gelatin). Duplex PCR presents an easy-to-follow, quick, low-cost and reliable method to simultaneously detect porcine and bovine DNAs (>100 bp) in minute amounts in highly processed gelatin-containing pharmaceutical products (with a 0.1% sensitivity for porcine DNA) which may be used for halal authentication. Simultaneous detection of porcine and bovine DNA in gelatin capsules by duplex PCR.

  16. Electrospun gelatin fiber mats containing a herbal—Centella asiatica—extract and release characteristic of asiaticoside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikareepaisan, Panprung; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Supaphol, Pitt

    2008-01-01

    Ultra-fine gelatin (type A, porcine skin, ~180 Bloom) fiber mats containing a methanolic crude extract of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, a medicinal plant widely known for its traditional medical applications including its wound healing ability, were fabricated, for the first time, from the neat gelatin solution (22% w/v in 70 vol% acetic acid) containing the crude extract (mCA) in various amounts (i.e. 5-30 wt% based on the weight of gelatin powder) by electrospinning. Incorporation of mCA in the neat gelatin solution did not affect both the morphology and the size of the mCA-loaded gelatin fibers, as both of the neat and the mCA-loaded gelatin fibers were smooth and the average diameters of these fibers ranged between 226 and 232 nm. The cross-linked mCA-loaded e-spun gelatin fiber mat from the neat gelatin solution containing 30 wt% of mCA was further investigated for the release characteristic of asiaticoside, identified as the most active compound associated with the healing of wounds, in two different types of releasing medium, i.e. acetate buffer and the buffer containing 10 vol% of methanol, based on the thin-layer chromatography (TLC)-densitometry technique. Based on the unit weight of the actual amount of asiaticoside present in the specimens, the total amount of asiaticoside released from the fiber mat specimens was lower than that from the film counterparts while, based on the unit weight of the specimens, an opposite trend was observed.

  17. Electrospun gelatin fiber mats containing a herbal-Centella asiatica-extract and release characteristic of asiaticoside

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikareepaisan, Panprung [Technological Center for Electrospun Fibers and Petroleum and Petrochemical College, Chulalongkorn University, Phyathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Suksamrarn, Apichart [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ramkhamhaeng University, Ramkhamhaeng Road, Bangkapi, Bangkok 10240 (Thailand); Supaphol, Pitt [Technological Center for Electrospun Fibers and Petroleum and Petrochemical College, Chulalongkorn University, Phyathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2008-01-09

    Ultra-fine gelatin (type A, porcine skin, {approx}180 Bloom) fiber mats containing a methanolic crude extract of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, a medicinal plant widely known for its traditional medical applications including its wound healing ability, were fabricated, for the first time, from the neat gelatin solution (22% w/v in 70 vol% acetic acid) containing the crude extract (mCA) in various amounts (i.e. 5-30 wt% based on the weight of gelatin powder) by electrospinning. Incorporation of mCA in the neat gelatin solution did not affect both the morphology and the size of the mCA-loaded gelatin fibers, as both of the neat and the mCA-loaded gelatin fibers were smooth and the average diameters of these fibers ranged between 226 and 232 nm. The cross-linked mCA-loaded e-spun gelatin fiber mat from the neat gelatin solution containing 30 wt% of mCA was further investigated for the release characteristic of asiaticoside, identified as the most active compound associated with the healing of wounds, in two different types of releasing medium, i.e. acetate buffer and the buffer containing 10 vol% of methanol, based on the thin-layer chromatography (TLC)-densitometry technique. Based on the unit weight of the actual amount of asiaticoside present in the specimens, the total amount of asiaticoside released from the fiber mat specimens was lower than that from the film counterparts while, based on the unit weight of the specimens, an opposite trend was observed.

  18. Impact of particle size, thermal processing, fat inclusion, and moisture addition on starch gelatinization of broiler feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Muramatsu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the effect of feed particle size, thermal processing different levels of fat inclusion and of moisture addition on the amount of gelatinized starch in a corn-soybean broiler diet. The different processing factors were combined in a 2 x 4 x 4 x 2 factorial arrangement in a three randomized block design consisting of three production series: two particle sizes (coarse: 1041 microns and medium: 743 microns, four fat inclusion levels at the mixer (15, 25, 35, and 45 g/kg of feed, four moisture addition levels in the conditioner (0, 7, 14, and 21g/kg of feed, and two thermal processing treatments (conditioning-pelleting or conditioning-expanding-pelleting which resulted in 64 different processed feeds. For the determination of the amount of gelatinized starch one feed sample was collected per treatment in each of three production series, totaling three replicates/treatment. Data were transformed using a variation of Box-Cox transformation in order to fit normal distribution (p>0.05. Adding moisture up to 21g/kg of feed in the conditioner linearly increased the amount of gelatinized starch (p<0.05. The conditioner-expander-pelleting treatment of the diets (at 110°C increased (p<0.05 the degree of starch gelatinization from 32.0 to 35.3 % compared with the conditioner-pelleting treatment (at 80-82°C. The gelatinized starch content increased from 30.2 to 37.2% in the feed (p<0.05 as the particle size increased from medium to coarse. Fat inclusion had a quadratic effect (p<0.05 on starch gelatinization. The degree of starch gelatinization was significantly reduced with fat inclusion levels higher than 35 g/kg of diet. The factors evaluated in this study resulted in interactions and significant effects on degree of starch gelatinization.

  19. Effect of Pre-gelatinized Wheat Starch on Physical and Rheological Properties of Shortened Cake Batter and Cake Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ebrahimi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study was the effect of 1.5%, 3% and 4.5% pre-gelatinized wheat starch (based on the total weight of cake batter on improving the qualitative properties of shortened cake batter. Specific volume and viscosity of the shortened cake batter were measured for controls, 1.5%, 3% and 4.5% gelatinized starch; some important properties such as texture and sensory evaluation were examined. By increasing pre-gelatinized wheat starch used in the batter, a significant difference was observed in the rheological properties of the batter. Cake batter properties were found improved compared to the control samples. The sample with 3% pre-gelatinized starch had a lower viscosity than other treatments. The treatment with 4.5% pre-gelatinized starch had the lowest specific volume compared to other treatments. The overall results showed that the shortened cake with 3% pre-gelatinized starch was the best treatment in terms of texture and sensory evaluation factors.

  20. Improved cellular infiltration into nanofibrous electrospun cross-linked gelatin scaffolds templated with micrometer-sized polyethylene glycol fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skotak, Maciej [Biomechanics, Biomaterials and Biomedicine Instrumentation Facility, College of Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, NE 68588-0642 (United States); Ragusa, Jorge; Gonzalez, Daniela; Subramanian, Anuradha, E-mail: asubramanian2@unl.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, NE 68588-0643 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Gelatin-based nanofibrous scaffolds with a mean fiber diameter of 300 nm were prepared with and without micrometer-sized polyethylene glycol (PEG) fibers that served as sacrificial templates. Upon fabrication of the scaffolds via electrospinning, the gelatin fibers were crosslinked with glutaraldehyde, and the PEG templates were removed using tert-butanol to yield nanofibrous scaffolds with pore diameters ranging from 10 to 100 {mu}m, as estimated with mercury intrusion porosimetry. Non-templated gelatin-based nanofibrous matrices had an average pore size of 1 {mu}m. Fibroblasts were seeded onto both types of the gelatin-based nanofibrous surfaces and cultured for 14 days. For comparative purposes, chitosan-based and polyurethane-based macroporous scaffolds with pore sizes of 100 and 170 {mu}m, respectively, were also included. The number of cells as a function of the depth into the scaffold was judged and quantitatively assessed using nuclei staining. Cell penetration up to a depth of 250 and 90 {mu}m was noted in gelatin scaffolds prepared with sacrificial templates and gelatin-only nanofibrous scaffolds. Noticeably, scaffold preparation protocol presented here allowed the structural integrity to be maintained even with high template content (95%) and can easily be extended toward other classes of electrospun polymer matrices for tissue engineering.

  1. Structural transformations during gelatinization of starches in limited water: combined wide- and small-angle X-ray scattering study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeylen, Rudi; Derycke, Veerle; Delcour, Jan A; Goderis, Bart; Reynaers, Harry; Koch, Michel H J

    2006-04-01

    Rice flour (18-25% moisture) and potato starch (20% moisture) were heated with continuous recording of the X-ray scattering during gelatinization. Rice flours displayed A-type crystallinity, which gradually decreased during gelatinization. The development of the characteristic 9 nm small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) peak during heating at sub-gelatinization temperatures indicated the gradual evolution into a stacked lamellar system. At higher temperatures, the crystalline and lamellar order was progressively lost. For potato starch (B-type crystallinity), no 9 nm SAXS peak was observed at ambient temperatures. Following the development of lamellar structures at sub-gelatinization temperatures, B-type crystallinity and lamellar order was lost during gelatinization. On cooling of partially gelatinized potato starch, A-type crystallinity steadily increased, but no formation of stacked lamellar structures was observed. Results were interpreted in terms of a high-temperature B- to A-type recrystallization, in which the lateral movement of double helices was accompanied by a shift along their helical axis. The latter is responsible for the inherent frustration of the lamellar stacks.

  2. Gelatin-encapsulated iron oxide nanoparticles for platinum (IV) prodrug delivery, enzyme-stimulated release and MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ziyong; Dai, Yunlu; Kang, Xiaojiao; Li, Chunxia; Huang, Shanshan; Lian, Hongzhou; Hou, Zhiyao; Ma, Pingan; Lin, Jun

    2014-08-01

    A facile method for transferring hydrophobic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) from chloroform to aqueous solution via encapsulation of FITC-modified gelatin based on the hydrophobic-hydrophobic interaction is described in this report. Due to the existence of large amount of active groups such as amine groups in gelatin, the fluorescent labeling molecules of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and platinum (IV) prodrug functionalized with carboxylic groups can be conveniently conjugated on the IONPs. The nanoparticles carrying Pt(IV) prodrug exhibit good anticancer activities when the Pt(IV) complexes are reduced to Pt(II) in the intracellular environment, while the pure Pt(IV) prodrug only presents lower cytotoxicity on cancer cells. Meanwhile, fluorescence of FITC on the surface of nanoparticles was completely quenched due to the possible Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) mechanism and showed a fluorescence recovery after gelatin release and detachment from IONPs. Therefore FITC as a fluorescence probe can be used for identification, tracking and monitoring the drug release. In addition, adding pancreatic enzyme can effectively promote the gelatin release from IONPs owing to the degradation of gelatin. Noticeable darkening in magnetic resonance image (MRI) was observed at the tumor site after in situ injection of nanoparticles, indicating the IONPs-enhanced T2-weighted imaging. Our results suggest that the gelatin encapsulated Fe3O4 nanoparticles have potential applications in multi-functional drug delivery system for disease therapy, MR imaging and fluorescence sensor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characteristics of Bone Gelatin Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Processed by Using Hydrolysis With Phosphoric Acid and Papain Enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gugun Hidayat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Phosphoric acid and papain enzyme able to hydrolyzing collagen from Tilapia into gelatin . Thepurpose of this research was to determine the best concentration of phosphoric acid and papain enzymeand to determine the physicochemical characteristic gelatin to from Tilapia fish bone which processedwith phosphoric acid and papain enzyme. The first research phase was making bone gelatin tilapia usingphosphoric acid at concentration of 4%, 5% and 6%, and the papain enzyme 0.5%, 1% and 1.5%. Thesecond phase was characterize the physicochemical gelatin from the best concentration of phosphoric acidconcentration (6% and papain enzyme (1.5%, all treatment done with three repetitions. Analysis of thedata using ANOVA with completely randomized (CRD design If there was difference between treatmentthen continued with Honestly Significant Difference Test (HSDT. The results of the first research phasefound the best concentration were 6% of phosphoric acid and 1.5% papain enzyme, its shows by the valuegel strength 325,95 and 373,32 g.bloom. The second research phase shows that the the best results obtainedin this study was gelatin from 1.5% papain enzyme as hydrolysis agent, the physicochemical characteristicwere: 376.21 g.bloom gel strength; viscosity of 7.57 cP; yield 6.30%; protein content of 86.46%; water contentof 7.12%; and the pH value of 5.11.Keywords : gelatin, hydrolysis, papain enzyme, phosphoric acid, tilapia bones

  4. From gelatinous to muscle food chain: rock cod Patagonotothen ramsayi recycles coelenterate and tunicate resources on the Patagonian Shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipkin, A; Laptikhovsky, V

    2013-11-01

    Stomach contents of 4808 fishes of 20 species caught in the eastern part of the Patagonian Shelf between 1999 and 2012 were analysed to assess dietary contributions of gelatinous plankton resources. Gelatinous plankton occurred in diets of seven species with two species, Patagonotothen ramsayi and Squalus acanthias, having >10% ctenophores in their diet. Consumption of gelatinous plankton was important in P. ramsayi and was strikingly seasonal, with maximum occurrence (up to 46% of non-empty stomachs) in late summer to autumn. Ctenophores were most abundant in P. ramsayi of 25-34 cm total length, L(T) whereas salps were more frequent in larger >35 cm L(T) individuals. In winter to spring, occurrence of gelatinous plankton in diets was minimal, reflecting their overall seasonal abundance in the ocean. The recent increase in abundance of P. ramsayi has enabled the species to recycle a significant proportion of the ecosystem production from gelatinous dead end to the main muscular food chain via seasonal reliance on ctenophores, jellyfish and tunicates. This additional influx of production that has been diverted from the gelatinous food chain favours the increase in abundance of several piscivorous top predators and affects the trophic web structure of the Patagonian Shelf ecosystem.

  5. Controlled peeling of the surfaces of starch granules by gelatinization in aqueous dimethyl sulfoxide at selected temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukerjea, Romila; Mukerjea, Rupendra; Robyt, John F

    2006-05-01

    Microscopic examination of starch granules in 90:10 (v/v) Me(2)SO-H(2)O indicated that the granules were slowly being gelatinized from their surfaces. The rate of gelatinization was dependent on two variables: (1) the amount of water in Me(2)SO and (2) the temperature. An increase of water in Me(2)SO and/or an increase in temperature increased the rate of gelatinization and vice versa. Specific ratios of Me(2)SO and H(2)O (85:15-95:5) and temperatures (0-15 degrees C) were found to give controlled sequential peeling/gelatinization of eight kinds of starch granules in 1-12h, with amounts of 10-25% gelatinization per hour. It was observed that the percent of starch granule remaining versus time gave curves that were linear and others that had linear parts separated by one or more abrupt changes. No two starches had a similar gelatinization curve for the same two conditions of the amount of water and the temperature. It is hypothesized that these curves reflect different structural characteristics for the individual kinds of starch granules.

  6. Rheology of pig skin gelatine: Defining the elastic domain and its thermal and mechanical properties for geological analogue experiment applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Otterloo, Jozua; Cruden, Alexander R.

    2016-06-01

    Gelatine is a viscoelastic polymer that has been employed widely in geological analogue experiments to study processes related to the elastic behaviour of rocks such as tensile fracturing, seismicity and magma intrusion. However, the elastic domain of this material has not yet been clearly defined by rheological tests. Here we describe the rheology and define the elastic domain of 250 bloom/20 mesh pigskin gelatine at concentrations ≤ 10 wt.% and temperatures of 5-25 °C; however, these results are strongly comparable with gelatine of 245-260 bloom. New equations are given for the shear and elastic moduli in relationship to temperature and gelatine concentration. It is found that at concentrations ≤ 3 wt.% the tested gelatine is best described by a rheological model composed of a combination of Kelvin-Voight and Maxwell elements and, therefore, is not suitable to model elastic behaviour in geological analogue experiments. At higher concentrations it is best described by a simpler viscoelastic model comprising a single Maxwell element. In order to ensure that geological analogue experiments remain within the elastic domain where the elastic component is far greater than the viscous component, strain rates should range between 0.1 and 10 s- 1 and temperature values should be 3 wt.% analogue experiments using gelatine approximate the elastic behaviour of natural rocks more closely than previously assumed.

  7. New approach to study starch gelatinization applying a combination of hot-stage light microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Xie, Qin; Yu, Shujuan; Gao, Qunyu

    2013-02-13

    To overcome the difficulty of the original polarizing microscope-based method in monitoring the gelatinization of starch, a new method for dynamically monitoring the gelatinization process, integral optical density (IOD), which was based on the digital image analysis technique, was proposed. Hot-stage light microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were coupled to study the dynamic changes of three types of starches: type A (corn starch), type B (potato starch), and type C (pea starch), during the gelatinization process in an excess water system. A model of response difference change of crystallite could represent the responding intensity of crystallization changes in the process of starch gelatinization. Results demonstrated that three crystalline types of starch underwent a process of swelling, accompanied with gradual disappearing of the crystallite. This difference was mainly associated with the diversity and composition of the starch structure. The IOD method was of advantage compared to the previous traditional methods that are based on a polarization microscope, such as counting the particle number and calculating polarization area methods, because it was the product of two parameters: optical density and area, which would be a response of both light intensity and area of birefringence light. The single peak in DSC corresponded to the combination of crystalline helix-helix dissociation and the reduction of the molecule helix-coil transition, while the gelatinization degree measured by the IOD method mainly corresponded to the helix-helix dissociation. The gelatinization mechanism could be revealed clearer in this study.

  8. Mechanism of drug release from silica-gelatin aerogel-Relationship between matrix structure and release kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Péter; Kéri, Mónika; Bányai, István; Lázár, István; Fábián, István; Domingo, Concepción; Kalmár, József

    2017-01-17

    Specific features of a silica-gelatin aerogel (3 wt.% gelatin content) in relation to drug delivery has been studied. It was confirmed that the release of both ibuprofen (IBU) and ketoprofen (KET) is about tenfold faster from loaded silica-gelatin aerogel than from pure silica aerogel, although the two matrices are structurally very similar. The main goal of the study was to understand the mechanistic background of the striking difference between the delivery properties of these closely related porous materials. Hydrated and dispersed silica-gelatin aerogel has been characterized by NMR cryoporometry, diffusiometry and relaxometry. The pore structure of the silica aerogel remains intact when it disintegrates in water. In contrast, dispersed silica-gelatin aerogel develops a strong hydration sphere, which reshapes the pore walls and deforms the pore structure. The drug release kinetics was studied on a few minutes time scale with 1s time resolution. Simultaneous evaluation of all relevant kinetic and structural information confirmed that strong hydration of the silica-gelatin skeleton facilitates the rapid desorption and dissolution of the drugs from the loaded aerogel. Such a driving force is not operative in pure silica aerogels.

  9. Immobilization of Bacillus acidocaldarius whole-cell rhodanese in polysaccharide and insolubilized gelatin gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Riso, L.; Alteriis, E. de; Parascandola, P. [Universita `Federico II` Napoli (Italy)]|[Istituto de Biochimica delle Proteine ed Enzimologia, Napoli (Italy); La Cara, F.; Sada, A. [Istituto di Biochimica delle Proteine ed Enzimologia, Napoli (Italy)

    1996-04-01

    The presence of rhodanese activity has been investigated in two strains of thermophilic eubacteria and two strains of extremophiles. Bacillus acidocaldarius, a thermoacidophilic eubacterium, showed the highest levels of enzyme activity. Whole cells, previously subjected to one cycle of freeze-thawing, were immobilized by entrapment in the polysaccharide matrices Ca-alginate, {kappa}-carrageenan and chitosan, and in an insolubilized gelatin gel. The results obtained with the different immobilizates in terms of activity yield, possibility of regeneration and operative stability were evaluated with the aim of setting up a continuous system. This was achieved with a system consisting of B. acidocaldarius cells entrapped in an insolubilized gelatin matrix. The latter, in the form of a thin membrane, was employed in a custom-conceived reactor operating as a plug flow reactor. 21 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Boron nitride nanotubes included thermally cross-linked gelatin-glucose scaffolds show improved properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şen, Özlem; Culha, Mustafa

    2016-02-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) are increasingly investigated for their medical and biomedical applications due to their unique properties such as resistance to oxidation, thermal and electrical insulation, and biocompatibility. BNNTs can be used to enhance mechanical strength of biomedical structures such as scaffolds in tissue engineering applications. In this study, we report the use of BNNTs and hydroxylated BNNTs (BNNT-OH) to improve the properties of gelatin-glucose scaffolds prepared with electrospinning technique. Human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells are used for the toxicity assessment and cell seeding studies. It is found that the addition of BNNTs into the scaffold does not influence cell viability, decreases the scaffold degradation rate, and improves cell attachment and proliferation compared to only-gelatin scaffold.

  11. Understanding the molecular basis for differential binding of integrins to collagen and gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Muhammad H

    2007-01-15

    Integrin-mediated cell adhesion plays a central role in cell migration and signaling. Overexpression of integrins is also associated with cancer invasion and metastasis. Although a number of problems in integrin-matrix interactions have been studied in detail, the molecular specificity, which increases integrin adhesion to native collagen but results in poor integrin-gelatin interaction, is not understood. In this report, we study the role of individual amino acids in integrin-collagen and integrin-gelatin interactions using long-term (>100 ns) molecular simulations. The results, which are force-field independent, show that denatured collagen induces helical conformations in integrin amino acids and significantly reduces the poly-proline II content, which stabilizes the integrin-collagen interactions. Our simulations provide a possible explanation of the molecular specificity in integrin binding and suggest new targets for regulating integrin-mediated invasion and metastasis.

  12. Highly efficient volume hologram multiplexing in thick dye-doped jelly-like gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katarkevich, Vasili M; Rubinov, Anatoli N; Efendiev, Terlan Sh

    2014-08-01

    Dye-doped jelly-like gelatin is a thick-layer self-developing photosensitive medium that allows single and multiplexed volume phase holograms to be successfully recorded using pulsed laser radiation. In this Letter, we present a method for multiplexed recording of volume holograms in a dye-doped jelly-like gelatin, which provides significant increase in their diffraction efficiency. The method is based on the recovery of the photobleached dye molecule concentration in the hologram recording zone of gel, thanks to molecule diffusion from other unexposed gel areas. As an example, an optical recording of a multiplexed hologram consisting of three superimposed Bragg gratings with mean values of the diffraction efficiency and angular selectivity of ∼75% and ∼21', respectively, is demonstrated by using the proposed method.

  13. Holographic recording characteristics and applications of single-layer panchromatic dichromated gelatin material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianhua; Xu, Min; Chen, Ligong; Guo, Yongkang; Guo, Lurong

    2005-09-01

    A high-quality single-layer panchromatic dichromated gelatin material is achieved successfully by employing new types of multi-color photosensitizers and photochemical promoters to conventional photo-crosslinking gelatin system. Its holographic recording characteristics such as spectral response, the photosensitivity of three primary colors, spectral selectivity of volume reflection hologram, angular and wavelength selectivity of volume transmission hologram, are studied in detail. Using red, green and blue lasers, namely three primary colors, the bright volume transmission and reflection holograms can be recorded on the panchromatic material at the exposure level of 30 mJ/cm2. Some preliminary results of space, angle and wavelength multiplexing holographic storage for storing multiple binary and grey-tone optical images, are also reported in this paper.

  14. Gelatin-Chitosan composite capped gold nanoparticles: a matrix for the growth of hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobhana, S. S. Liji; Sundaraseelan, J.; Sekar, S.; Sastry, T. P., E-mail: sastrytp@hotmail.com; Mandal, A. B., E-mail: clrim@vsnl.co [Central Leather Research Institute, Bio-products Lab (India)

    2009-02-15

    Growth of hydroxyapatite (HA) on gelatin-chitosan composite capped gold nanoparticles is presented for the first time by employing wet precipitation methods and we obtained good yields of HA. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectrum has shown the characteristic bands of phosphate groups in the HA. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) pictures have shown spherical nanoparticles with the size in the range of 70-250 nm, whereas {>=}2-50 nm sized particles were visualized in high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum has shown Bragg reflections which are comparable with the HA. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) studies have confirmed calcium/phosphate stoichiometric ratio of HA. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) has shown about 74% of inorganic crystals in the nanocomposite formed. These results have revealed that gelatin-chitosan capped gold nanoparticles, acted as a matrix for the growth of HA.

  15. Gelatin porous scaffolds fabricated using a modified gas foaming technique: characterisation and cytotoxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poursamar, S Ali; Hatami, Javad; Lehner, Alexander N; da Silva, Cláudia L; Ferreira, Frederico Castelo; Antunes, A P M

    2015-03-01

    The current study presents an effective and simple strategy to obtain stable porous scaffolds from gelatin via a gas foaming method. The technique exploits the intrinsic foaming ability of gelatin in the presence of CO2 to obtain a porous structure stabilised with glutaraldehyde. The produced scaffolds were characterised using physical and mechanical characterisation methods. The results showed that gas foaming may allow the tailoring of the 3-dimensional structure of the scaffolds with an interconnected porous structure. To assess the effectiveness of the preparation method in mitigating the potential cytotoxicity risk of using glutaraldehyde as a crosslinker, direct and in-direct cytotoxicity assays were performed at different concentrations of glutaraldehyde. The results indicate the potential of the gas foaming method, in the preparation of viable tissue engineering scaffolds.

  16. Electrochemical characterization of gelatinized starch dispersions: voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy on platinum surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Jaimes, C; Lobato-Calleros, C; Sosa, E; Bello-Pérez, L A; Vernon-Carter, E J; Alvarez-Ramirez, J

    2015-06-25

    The electrochemical properties of gelatinized starch dispersions (GSD; 5% w/w) from different botanical sources were studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests over a platinum surface. The phenomenological modelling of EIS data using equivalent circuits indicated that after gelatinization the electrical resistance was determined mainly by the resistance of insoluble material (i.e., ghosts). Sonication of the GSD disrupted the ghost microstructure, and produced an increase in electrical conductivity by reducing the resistance of the insoluble material. The CV data showed three oxidation peaks at potentials where glucose solutions displayed oxidation waves. It is postulated that hydrolysis at the bulk and electrocatalyzed oxidation on the Pt-surface are reactions involved in the starch transformation. Starches peak intensity increased with the amylose content, suggesting that the amylose-rich matrix played an important role in the charge transfer in the electrolytic system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Study of the effects of heat-treatment of hydroxyapatite synthesized in gelatin matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaits, A. V.; Golovanova, O. A.; Kuimova, M. V.

    2017-01-01

    In the study, the isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of hydroxyapatite synthesized in gelatin matrix (HAG) has been performed. 3 wt.% HAG samples were synthesized from the solution simulating the human extracellular fluid (SBF). X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy were used to determine the composition. During the experiment, increase in the calcination temperature up to 200°C–800°C was found to cause weight loss. The study of phase composition revealed that heat treatment does not affect the phase composition of the solid phase, which is composed of hydroxylapatite (HA). The prepared HAG (3 wt.% gelatin) samples are shown to have low thermal stability; the degradation of the samples occurs at 400°C.

  18. Microencapsulation of a probiotic bacteria with alginate-gelatin and its properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao Yan; Chen, Xi Guang; Cha, Dong Su; Park, Hyun Jin; Liu, Cheng Sheng

    2009-06-01

    Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393-loaded microcapsules based on alginate and gelatin had been prepared by extrusion method and the product could increase the cell numbers of L. casei ATCC 393 to be 10(7) CFU g(-1) in the dry state of microcapsules. The microparticles homogeneously distributed with size of 1.1 ± 0.2 mm. Four kinds of microcapsules (S(1), S(2), S(3) and S(4)) exhibited swelling in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) while the beads eroded and disintegrated rapidly in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). Cells of L. casei ATCC 393 could be continuously released from the microcapsules during simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and the release amounts and speeds in SIF were much higher and faster than that in SGF. Encapsulation in alginate-gelatin microcapsules successfully improved the survival of L. casei ATCC 393 and this approach might be useful in delivery of probiotic cultures as a functional food.

  19. Retrogradation of heat-gelatinized rice grain in sealed packaging: investigation of moisture relocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-jin JUNG

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aggregation of water molecules inside heat-gelatinized rice grain due to retrogradation of the grain was investigated by textural change and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis of cooked grains after storage at 11 °C in a sealed package. Relaxation tests using a disc-type tip showed an increase in hardness (strength of the cooked grain as the degree of retrogradation increased with increasing storage time, measured by the α-amylase–iodine method. SEM analysis of the vacuum-dried cooked rice grain showed a gradual increase in crevices, which further developed into holes at the center of the granule with increasing storage time. The results suggest that the disruption of hydrogen bonds between water and starch molecules is the first step for the retrogradation of gelatinized rice grain stored in a hermetic environment to avoid drying, resulting in its increased hardness, followed by the aggregation of starch molecules with subsequent water extrusion.

  20. Sustained delivery of biomolecules from gelatin carriers for applications in bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiankang; Leeuwenburgh, Sander Cg

    2014-08-01

    Local delivery of therapeutic biomolecules to stimulate bone regeneration has matured considerably during the past decades, but control over the release of these biomolecules still remains a major challenge. To this end, suitable carriers that allow for tunable spatial and temporal delivery of biomolecules need to be developed. Gelatin is one of the most widely used natural polymers for the controlled and sustained delivery of biomolecules because of its biodegradability, biocompatibility, biosafety and cost-effectiveness. The current study reviews the applications of gelatin as carriers in form of bulk hydrogels, microspheres, nanospheres, colloidal gels and composites for the programmed delivery of commonly used biomolecules for applications in bone regeneration with a specific focus on the relationship between carrier properties and delivery characteristics.

  1. Holographic optical elements recorded in silver halide sensitized gelatin emulsions. Part I. Transmission holographic optical elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J M; Choi, B S; Kim, S I; Kim, J M; Bjelkhagen, H I; Phillips, N J

    2001-02-10

    Silver halide sensitized gelatin (SHSG) holograms are similar to holograms recorded in dichromated gelatin (DCG), the main recording material for holographic optical elements (HOE's). The drawback of DCG is its low sensitivity and limited spectral response. Silver halide materials can be processed in such a way that the final hologram will have properties like a DCG hologram. Recently this technique has become more interesting since the introduction of new ultra-high-resolution silver halide emulsions. An optimized processing technique for transmission HOE's recorded in these materials is introduced. Diffraction efficiencies over 90% can be obtained for transmissive diffraction gratings. Understanding the importance of the selective hardening process has made it possible to obtain results similar to conventional DCG processing. The main advantage of the SHSG process is that high-sensitivity recording can be performed with laser wavelengths anywhere within the visible spectrum. This simplifies the manufacturing of high-quality, large-format HOE's.

  2. Gelatin/potato starch edible biocomposite films: Correlation between morphology and physical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podshivalov, Aleksandr; Zakharova, Mariia; Glazacheva, Ekaterina; Uspenskaya, Mayya

    2017-02-10

    The paper presents the results of studies of the microstructure morphology and the operational properties of the gelatin/potato starch/glycerol edible biocomposite films varying in the starch content from 0 to 50wt% prepared by casting film-forming solution and dying at 36°C for 15h. The biocomposite films were shown phase separated heterogeneous morphology with the gelatin matrix as a continuous phase and microgranules of starch as a minor phase. It is found that when the starch content ≤ 30wt% the phase separation mechanism is nucleation and grow, whereas the starch content > 30wt% then the spinodal decomposition is the dominant mechanism. The work focuses on findings the influence of the phase separation mechanisms on the size of starch granules during the drying process, as well as the impact of these mechanisms on optical, frictional, mechanical, thermal and water-barrier properties.

  3. Structure stabilization in starch-quinoa bran doughs: The role of water availability and gelatinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föste, Maike; Jekle, Mario; Becker, Thomas

    2017-10-15

    Bran is a promising ingredient for nutritional fortification in starch-based dough systems. However its incorporation is a technological challenge favoring a shift in dough functionality. The objective of this study was to elucidate the impact of bran on baking performance independent of dough firmness and start of gelatinization. Therefore, corn starch was replaced by quinoa bran (10% to 50%) and water addition (80-110g/100g flour) was standardized on a fixed complex shear modulus (G*) and start of gelatinization (TOnset) based on a corn starch reference dough. A destabilizing effect by bran particles was counteracted in corn starch dough by adjusting the water content up to 110 g/100g flour. Moreover, a negative correlation between TOnset and loaf volume was determined (r=- 0.9042), thus an early TOnset should be aspired in order to prevent gas release and to stabilize corn starch- quinoa bran dough. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of inulin with different degree of polymerization on gelatinization and retrogradation of wheat starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Denglin; Li, Yun; Xu, Baocheng; Ren, Guangyue; Li, Peiyan; Li, Xuan; Han, Sihai; Liu, Jianxue

    2017-08-15

    The effects of three types of inulin, including FS (DP≤10), FI (DP of 2-60) and FXL (DP≥23), on the gelatinization and retrogradation characteristics of wheat starch were investigated. As the concentration of inulin added into starch increased, the gelatinization temperature increased whereas the breakdown value decreased, and the value of setback first decreased and then increased slightly. The three types of inulin with lower concentrations (<15%) all showed obvious suppression effects on the short-term retrogradation of wheat starch. After 7days of storage, the three types of inulin showed a significant suppression of starch retrogradation in the addition range of 5-7.5%. They can all inhibit amylose retrogradation, but accelerate amylopectin retrogradation. Inulin with lower DP has stronger effects on the starch retrogradation. Generally, the three types of inulin can all retard the retrogradation performance of wheat starch to some extent in the long-term storage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of starch-gelatin complex microspheres as sustained release delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B N Vedha Hari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The starch was isolated from jackfruit seeds and evaluated for its preformulation properties, like tapped density, bulk density, and particle size. The fourier transform infrared (FTIR analysis was done and compared with that of the commercially available starch which confirmed the properties. Using the various concentrations of jackfruit seed starch, the microspheres were prepared, combining with gelatin by ionotropic gelation technique. The developed microspheres were subjected to analysis of particle size, drug content, entrapment efficiency, and percentage yield. The spectral analysis confirmed the presence of drug and absence of interactions. Scanning electron microscope image showed that the particles were in spherical shape with a rough surface. The in vitro drug release in water for 12 hours proved to be in the range of 89 to 100%. The various kinetic models were applied using release data to confirm the mechanism of drug. It was concluded that the jackfruit starch-gelatin microspheres gave satisfactory results and met pharmacopieal limits.

  6. Study on the Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Sea Cucumber (Paracaudina chinens var.) Gelatin Hydrolysate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Gelatin from the sea cucumber (Paracaudina chinens var.) was hydrolyzed by bromelain and the hydrolysate was found to have a high free radical scavenging activity. The hydrolysate was fractionated through an ultrafiltration membrane with 5 kDa molecular weight cutoff (MWCO). The portion (less than 5 kDa) was further separated by Sephadex G-25. The active peak was collected and assayed for free radical scavenging activity. The scavenging rates for superoxide anion radicals (O2·-) and hydroxyl radicals (·OH) of the fraction with the highest activity were 29.02% and 75.41%, respectively. A rabbit liver mitochondrial free radical damage model was adopted to study the free radical scavenging activity of the fraction. The results showed that the sea cucumber gelatin hydrolysate can prevent the damage of rabbit liver and mitochondria.

  7. Effect of peppermint and citronella essential oils on properties of fish skin gelatin edible films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanwong, S.; Threepopnatkul, P.

    2015-07-01

    Fish skin gelatin films incorporated with peppermint and citronella essential oils at difference concentrations (10, 20 and 30% w/w) were prepared by solution casting. Addition of peppermint oil contributed to a significant decrease of tensile strength and Young's modulus, while the percent elongation at break showed an obvious increase except at 30% w/w. On the other hand, addition of citronella oils promoted a great increase of tensile strength and young's modulus, but an intense decrease of the percent elongation at break. At the predetermined content, the film incorporated with citronella oils outperformed the one with peppermint oils in term of water vapor transmission and solubility in water. Thermal properties of gelatin films with citronella oils exhibited an enhancement in heat stability, while the one with peppermint oils showed slight decrease in heat stability. The additions with both of essential oils exhibited excellent antibacterial properties against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

  8. Development of microbial resistant thermosensitive Ag nanocomposite (gelatin) hydrogels via green process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjula, Bandla; Varaprasad, Kokkarachedu; Sadiku, Rotimi; Ramam, Koduri; Reddy, G Venkata Subba; Raju, Konduru Mohana

    2014-04-01

    In this investigation, an ecofriendly method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using biodegradable gelatin as a stabilizing agent is reported. Here, we prepared thermosensitive silver nanocomposite hydrogels composed of gelatin and N-isopropylacrylamide. In this green process AgNPs were formed from Ag(+) ions and reduced with leaf [Azadirachta indica (neem leaf)] extracts, resulting in a hydrogel network. The Ag(0) nanoparticles affect the hydrogel strength and improved the biological activity (inactivation effect of bacteria) of the biodegradable hydrogels. The resulted hydrogel structure, morphology, thermal, swelling behavior, degradation, and antibacterial properties were systematically investigated. The biodegradable thermosensitive silver nanocomposite hydrogels developed were tested for antibacterial activities. The results indicate that these biodegradable silver nanocomposite hydrogels are suitable potential candidates for antibacterial applications.

  9. Rheological properties of magnetorheological fluid prepared by gelatin-carbonyl iron composite particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Hua-jin; HUANG Hong-jun; ZHANG Ling-zhen; QI Jian-ying; CAO Shao-kun

    2005-01-01

    Gelatin-carbonyl iron composite particle was prepared by micro emulsion method. The analysis of scanning electron microscope(SEM) shows that the ultrafine particles are spheroids coated by gelatin, and the average sizes of particles are 3-10 μm. The specific saturation magnetization σs is 130.9 A·m2/kg, coercivity Hc is 0.823 A/m, and residual magnetism r is 4.98 Am2/kg for the composite particles. It is shown that the particles possess properties of soft magnetic. The yield stress of magnetorheological fluid(MRF) with composite particle reaches 70 kPa at 0.5 T magnetic induction. Magnetorheological effects are superior in lower magnetic field intensity and the subsidence stability of the MRF is excellent compared with pure carbonyl iron powder.

  10. PHASE DIAGRAM OF GELATINE-POLYURONATE COLLOIDS: ITS APPLICATION FOR MICROENCAPSULATION AND NOT ONLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Baerle

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phase state and the charge of colloidal particles in the gelatine-polyuronate system were studied. A method for comparative evaluation of molecular weight of colloids by means of viscosimetric measurements and electrophoresis was developed. It is shown that the Diagram {Phase state = f (composition, pH} contains six well-defined regions. The diagram explains and predicts the behaviour of protein-polysaccharide colloids, which are included in beverages or forms the shells of oil-containing microcapsules.

  11. Structural change of the porous sulfur cathode using gelatin as a binder during discharge and charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang You [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, 15 BeiSanhuan East Road, Beijing 100029 (China); Huang Yaqin [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, 15 BeiSanhuan East Road, Beijing 100029 (China)], E-mail: huangyaqin9@sina.com; Wang Weikun [Military Power Sources Research and Development Center, Chemical Defense Institute, 35 Huayuan North Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Huang Chongjun [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, 15 BeiSanhuan East Road, Beijing 100029 (China); Yu Zhongbao; Zhang, Hao [Military Power Sources Research and Development Center, Chemical Defense Institute, 35 Huayuan North Road, Beijing 100083 (China); Sun Jing [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, 15 BeiSanhuan East Road, Beijing 100029 (China); Wang Anbang; Yuan Keguo [Military Power Sources Research and Development Center, Chemical Defense Institute, 35 Huayuan North Road, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2009-06-30

    The structural change of the porous sulfur cathode using gelatin as a binder was studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The original sulfur cathode exhibited a homogenous distribution of sulfur, carbon and pores. During the discharge process, the pores and elemental sulfur disappeared gradually. However, those changes were reversed and elemental sulfur was reformed after the charge process, which improved the electrochemical performance of lithium-sulfur batteries.

  12. Fabrication of circular microfluidic network in enzymatically-crosslinked gelatin hydrogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jiankang, E-mail: jiankanghe@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Chen, Ruomeng; Lu, Yongjie; Zhan, Li; Liu, Yaxiong; Li, Dichen; Jin, Zhongmin

    2016-02-01

    It is a huge challenge to engineer vascular networks in vital organ tissue engineering. Although the incorporation of artificial microfluidic network into thick tissue-engineered constructs has shown great promise, most of the existing microfluidic strategies are limited to generate rectangle cross-sectional channels rather than circular vessels in soft hydrogels. Here we present a facile approach to fabricate branched microfluidic network with circular cross-sections in gelatin hydrogels by combining micromolding and enzymatically-crosslinking mechanism. Partially crosslinked hydrogel slides with predefined semi-circular channels were molded, assembled and in situ fully crosslinked to form a seamless and circular microfluidic network. The bonding strength of the resultant gelatin hydrogels was investigated. The morphology and the dimension of the resultant circular channels were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and micro-computerized tomography (μCT). Computational fluid dynamic simulation shows that the fabrication error had little effect on the distribution of flow field but affected the maximum velocity in comparison with designed models. The microfluidic gelatin hydrogel facilitates the attachment and spreading of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs) to form a uniform endothelialized layer around the circular channel surface, which successfully exhibited barrier functions. The presented method might provide a simple way to fabricate circular microfluidic networks in biologically-relevant hydrogels to advance various applications of in vitro tissue models, organ-on-a-chip systems and tissue engineering. - Highlights: • A facile method was proposed to build a circular fluidic network in gelatin hydrogel. • The fluidic network is mechanically robust and supports physiological flow. • HUVECs formed endothelialized layer around the channel to express barrier function.

  13. Retrogradation enthalpy does not always reflect the retrogradation behavior of gelatinized starch

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Starch retrogradation is a term used to define the process in which gelatinized starch undergoes a disorder-to-order transition. A thorough understanding of starch retrogradation behavior plays an important role in maintaining the quality of starchy foods during storage. By means of DSC, we have demonstrated for the first time that at low water contents, the enthalpy change of retrograded starch is higher than that of native starch. In terms of FTIR and Raman spectroscopic results, we showed ...

  14. Shifts between gelatinous and crustacean plankton in a coastal upwelling region

    OpenAIRE

    Bode, A.; Álvarez-Ossorio-Costa, M.T. (María Teresa); Miranda, A; Ruiz-villarreal, M

    2013-01-01

    proyectos RADIALES (IEO) y EURO-BASIN (Ref. 264933, 7FP) Variability in the dominance of copepods vs. gelatinous plankton was analysed using monthly time-series covering the last 55 years and related to changes in climatic, oceanographic, and fishery conditions in the upwelling region of Galicia (NW Spain). Seasonality was generally the main component of variability in all groups, both along the coast and in the nearby ocean, but no common long-term trend was found. Coastal copepo...

  15. Gelatinous zooplankton biomass in the global oceans: geographic variation and environmental drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, Cathy H; Jones, Daniel O. B.; Hollyhead, Catherine J.; Condon, Robert H.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Graham, William M.; Robinson, Kelly L.; Pitt, Kylie A.; Schildhauer, Mark; Regetz, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Aim:\\ud Scientific debate regarding the future trends, and subsequent ecological, biogeochemical and societal impacts, of gelatinous zooplankton (GZ) in a changing ocean is hampered by lack of a global baseline and an understanding of the causes of biogeographic patterns. We address this by using a new global database of GZ records to test hypotheses relating to environmental drivers of biogeographic variation in the multidecadal baseline of epipelagic GZ biomass in the world's oceans.\\ud \\ud...

  16. Looking inside the Ocean: Toward an Autonomous Imaging System for Monitoring Gelatinous Zooplankton

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Corgnati; Simone Marini; Luca Mazzei; Ennio Ottaviani; Stefano Aliani; Alessandra Conversi; Annalisa Griffa

    2016-01-01

    Marine plankton abundance and dynamics in the open and interior ocean is still an unknown field. The knowledge of gelatinous zooplankton distribution is especially challenging, because this type of plankton has a very fragile structure and cannot be directly sampled using traditional net based techniques. To overcome this shortcoming, Computer Vision techniques can be successfully used for the automatic monitoring of this group.This paper presents the GUARD1 imaging system, a low-cost stand-a...

  17. Optimization strategies on the structural modeling of gelatin/chitosan scaffolds to mimic human meniscus tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarem, Melika [Sports Engineering Group, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering (Center of Excellence), Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Freiburg, Hermann Staudinger Haus, Freiburg D-79104 (Germany); Helmholtz Virtual Institute: Multifunctional Biomaterials for Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Moztarzadeh, Fathollah [Sports Engineering Group, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering (Center of Excellence), Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Biomaterials Group, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering (Center of Excellence), Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mozafari, Masoud, E-mail: mozafari.masoud@gmail.com [Sports Engineering Group, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering (Center of Excellence), Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Biomaterials Group, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering (Center of Excellence), Amirkabir University of Technology, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, School of Material Science and Engineering, Oklahoma State University, OK 74106 (United States); Shastri, V. Prasad [Institute for Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Freiburg, Hermann Staudinger Haus, Freiburg D-79104 (Germany); Helmholtz Virtual Institute: Multifunctional Biomaterials for Medicine, Freiburg (Germany)

    2013-12-01

    Meniscus lesions are frequently occurring injuries with poor ability to heal. Typical treatment procedure includes removal of damaged regions, which can lead to sub-optimal knee biomechanics and early onset of osteoarthritis. Some of the drawbacks of current treatment approach present an opportunity for a tissue engineering solution. In this study, gelatin (G)/chitosan (Cs) scaffolds were synthesized via gel casting method and cross-linked with naturally derived cross-linker, genipin, through scaffold cross-linking method. Based on the characteristics of native meniscus tissue microstructure and function, three different layers were chosen to design the macroporous multilayered scaffolds. The multi-layered scaffolds were investigated for their ability to support human-derived meniscus cells by evaluating their morphology and proliferation using MTT assay at various time points. Based on structural, mechanical and cell compatibility considerations, laminated scaffolds composed of G60/Cs40, G80/Cs20 and G40/Cs60 samples, for the first, second and third layers, respectively, could be an appropriate combination for meniscus tissue engineering applications. - Graphical abstract: The wedge shaped multilayer/multiporous G/Cs meniscus scaffolds were mimicked by MR images of anatomical knee meniscus. The layers were chosen as G60/Cs40, G80/Cs20 and G40/Cs60, according to their characteristics similar to meniscus natural tissue, as the first, second and third layers, respectively. - Highlights: • Different gelatin/chitosan systems were chosen to engineer a multilayered scaffold. • The compressive modulus increased gradually by increasing the gelatin concentration. • Further addition of gelatin showed a meaningful decrease in the water uptake degree. • The layers supported cell growth and mimicked the meniscus fibrocartilage structure.

  18. Water content influence on thermal and volumetric properties of wheat starch gelatinization under 10 MPa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlowska, Marta; Randzio, Stanislaw L

    2010-02-01

    A transitiometric in situ analysis of wheat starch aqueous suspensions heated over a temperature range from 285 K to 415 K under isobaric conditions of 10 MPa is presented. Measurements were performed at four selected water concentrations: 56.0%, 64.7%, 73.5%, and 82.4% weight/water. Thermal and volumetric properties and their water content dependencies have been determined for three successive starch phase transformations occurred during wheat starch gelatinization.

  19. PHASE DIAGRAM OF GELATINE-POLYURONATE COLLOIDS: ITS APPLICATION FOR MICROENCAPSULATION AND NOT ONLY

    OpenAIRE

    Alexei Baerle; Olga Dimova; Irina Urumoglova; Pavel Tatarov; Larisa Zadorojnai

    2016-01-01

    Phase state and the charge of colloidal particles in the gelatine-polyuronate system were studied. A method for comparative evaluation of molecular weight of colloids by means of viscosimetric measurements and electrophoresis was developed. It is shown that the Diagram {Phase state = f (composition, pH)} contains six well-defined regions. The diagram explains and predicts the behaviour of protein-polysaccharide colloids, which are included in beverages or forms the shells of oil-containing mi...

  20. 3D Culture of Chondrocytes in Gelatin Hydrogels with Different Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomeng Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gelatin hydrogels can mimic the microenvironments of natural tissues and encapsulate cells homogeneously, which makes them attractive for cartilage tissue engineering. Both the mechanical and biochemical properties of hydrogels can affect the phenotype of chondrocytes. However, the influence of each property on chondrocyte phenotype is unclear due to the difficulty in separating the roles of these properties. In this study, we aimed to study the influence of hydrogel stiffness on chondrocyte phenotype while excluding the role of biochemical factors, such as adhesion site density in the hydrogels. By altering the degree of methacryloyl functionalization, gelatin hydrogels with different stiffnesses of 3.8, 17.1, and 29.9 kPa Young’s modulus were prepared from the same concentration of gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA macromers. Bovine articular chondrocytes were encapsulated in the hydrogels and cultured for 14 days. The influence of hydrogel stiffness on the cell behaviors including cell viability, cell morphology, and maintenance of chondrogenic phenotype was evaluated. GelMA hydrogels with high stiffness (29.9 kPa showed the best results on maintaining chondrogenic phenotype. These results will be useful for the design and preparation of scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering.

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Types A and B Gelatin Methacryloyl for Bioink Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bae Hoon Lee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA has been increasingly considered as an important bioink material due to its tailorable mechanical properties, good biocompatibility, and ability to be photopolymerized in situ as well as printability. GelMA can be classified into two types: type A GelMA (a product from acid treatment and type B GelMA (a product from alkali treatment. In current literature, there is little research on the comparison of type A GelMA and type B GelMA in terms of synthesis, rheological properties, and printability for bioink applications. Here, we report the synthesis, rheological properties, and printability of types A and B GelMA. Types A and B GelMA samples with different degrees of substitution (DS were prepared in a controllable manner by a time-lapse loading method of methacrylic anhydride (MAA and different feed ratios of MAA to gelatin. Type B GelMA tended to have a slightly higher DS compared to type A GelMA, especially in a lower feed ratio of MAA to gelatin. All the type A and type B GelMA solutions with different DS exhibited shear thinning behaviours at 37 °C. However, only GelMA with a high DS had an easy-to-extrude feature at room temperature. The cell-laden printed constructs of types A and B GelMA at 20% w/v showed around 75% cell viability.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and optical properties of gelatin doped with silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, K H; Abbo, M

    2013-12-01

    In this study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical reduction of silver salt (AgNO3) solution. Formation of nanoparticles was confirmed by UV-visible spectrometry. The surface plasmon resonance peak is located at 430 nm. Doping of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) with gelatin biopolymer was studied. The silver content in the polymer matrix was in the range of 0.4-1 wt%. The formation of nanoparticles disappeared for silver content higher than 1 wt%. The morphology and interaction of gelatin doped with Ag NPs was examined by transmission electron microscopy and FTIR spectroscopy. The content of Ag NPs has a pronounced effect on optical and structural properties of gelatin. Optical parameters such as refractive index, complex dielectric constant were calculated. The dispersion of the refractive index was discussed in terms of the single--oscillator Wemple-DiDomenico model. Color properties of the prepared samples were discussed in the framework of CIE L(*)u(*)v(*) color space. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Urease-gelatin interdigitated microelectrodes for the conductometric determination of protease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Rodica E; Fillit, Chrystelle; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole; Cosnier, Serge

    2008-11-15

    Conductometric microbiosensors for the determination of trypsin were elaborated via the modification of microfabricated interdigitated gold electrodes by a cross-linked urease/BSA coating covered by a gelatin film. The resulting microelectrodes were exposed to different trypsin concentrations ranging from 100 pg/mL to 1mg/mL (1 mU/mL to 10,000 U/mL) for selective proteolytic degradation of the gelatin film. Then, the conductometric response of the microbiosensors to urea (33 microM) was recorded as a function of the trypsin concentration, the gelatin amount (8-80 ng) and the incubation time (40s, 100 min). The optimum incubation time for each trypsin concentration was determined leading to a detection limit of 100 pg/mL (1 mU/mL). In these optimized conditions, the proof of concept of this sensitive, disposable, low-cost and label-free trypsin biosensors based on a conductometric transducer was demonstrated for the first time.

  4. Glassy carbon electrodes modified with gelatin functionalized reduced graphene oxide nanosheet for determination of gallic acid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fereshteh Chekin; Samira Bagheri; Sharifah Bee Abd Hamid

    2015-12-01

    A simple approach for the preparation of gelatin functionalized reduced graphene oxide nanosheet (Gel-RGONS) by chemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO) using gelatin as both reducing agent and stabilizing agent in an aqueous solution was developed. The morphology and structure of the Gel-RGONS were examined by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Gelatin acted as a functionalizing reagent to guarantee good dispersibility and stability of the r in distilled water. Moreover, a new electrochemical sensor was developed based on Gel-RGONS modified glassy carbon electrode (Gel-RGONS/GCE). Gel-r exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity to gallic acid (GA) oxidation. The experimental conditions such as pH, adsorption time and scan rate were optimized for the determination of GA. Under optimum conditions, the sensor responded linearly to GA in the concentration of 1.0 × 10−6 to 1.1 × 10−4 M with detection limit of 4.7 × 10−7 M at 3 using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). The method has been successfully applied to the determination of GA in sample of black tea.

  5. Retardation of lipid oxidation using gelatin film incorporated with longan seed extract compared with BHT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai-Ut, Samart; Benjakul, Soottawat; Rawdkuen, Saroat

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present work was to apply the gelatin films with different levels of longan seed extract (LS) or butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on retardation of lipid oxidation in soybean oil. The films incorporated with various concentrations of aqueous LS (0, 50, 100, 300, and 500 ppm) or BHT (50, and 100 ppm) were developed. The films had transmittance percentages of 60-80 % at 570 nm and showed good light barrier properties when the concentration of LS or BHT increased. About 97 % protein solubility and 41 to 54 % water solubility were obtained for the developed films. Antioxidative activity of gelatin films incorporated with LS increased markedly with increasing storage time as indicated by the increase in DPPH radical scavenging activity (41-50 %) (P BHT showed the preventive effect on lipid oxidation of soybean oil during 30 days of storage. At the level of 500 ppm, LS provided the highest efficacy for lipid oxidation retardation as evidenced by lower conjugated diene (CD) values (P > 0.05). According to these findings, gelatin film incorporated with longan seed extract or BHT could be used as a tool to prolong the shelf-life of oily foods.

  6. Decolorization of reactive dyes by laccase immobilized in alginate/gelatin blent with PEG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ping; FAN Xuerong; CUI Li; WANG Qiang; ZHOU Aihui

    2008-01-01

    To achieve effective decolorization of reactive dyes, laccase immobilization was investigated. Laccase 0.2% (m/V) (Denilite ⅡS) was trapped in beads of alginate/gelatin blent with polyethylene glycol (PEG), and then the supporters were activated by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. The results of repeated batch decolorization showed that gelatin and appropriate concentration of glutaraldehyde accelerated the decolorization of Reactive Red B-3BF (RRB); PEG had a positive effect on enzyme stability and led to an increase of color removal. While the beads contained 0.2%, 2.0%, 2.0%, and 0.5% (m/V) of laccase, alginate, gelatin, and PEG, respectively. The dye of 50 mg/L initial concentration of RRB was decolorized down to 50% during the tenth repeated batch. As far as the decolorization mechanism was concerned, the thermal and pH stabilities of the immobilized laccase were also investigated and were both appreciably improved. The study indicates that the immobilized laccase can be potential candidate for utilization in biodecolorization processes.

  7. Porous hydroxyapatite/gelatine scaffolds with ice-designed channel-like porosity for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Elena; Valentini, Federica; Tampieri, Anna

    2008-11-01

    A cryogenic process, including freeze-casting and drying has been performed to obtain hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds (approx. diameter 10 mm, height 20 mm) with completely lamellar morphology due to preferentially aligned channel-like pores. Changing the process parameters that influence the cold transmission efficiency from the bottom to the top of the poured HA slurry, lamellar ice crystals with different thickness grew throughout the samples. After sintering, scaffolds with porosity features nearly resembling the ice ones were obtained. The interconnection of pores and the ability of the scaffolds to be rapidly penetrated by synthetic body fluid has been proven. Biohybrid HA/gel composites were prepared, infiltrating HA lamellar scaffolds (45-55 vol.% of porosity) with a 10wt.% solution of gelatine. Colouring genipine was used to cross-link gelatine and clearly show the distribution of the protein in the composite. The compressive mechanical properties of lamellar scaffolds improved with the addition of gelatine: the strength increased up to 5-6 times, while the elastic modulus and strain approximately doubled. The effectiveness of the cross-linkage has been preliminarily verified following scaffold degradation in synthetic body fluid.

  8. Fish gelatin/Laponite biohybrid elastic coacervates: a complexation kinetics-structure relationship study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Fatemeh; Taheri Qazvini, Nader; Namivandi-Zangeneh, Rashin

    2013-10-01

    Complex coacervation in exfoliated Laponite nanoplatelets and fish gelatin mixtures was studied as a function of four key parameters: pH, ionic strength, gelatin/Laponite weight ratio, and total weight. The aim was to understand how these parameters influence phase separation kinetics, composition, internal structure, and viscoelastic properties of coacervates. By careful experimental design and turbidity measurements, the optimum conditions for coacervation were obtained. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed an outstanding heat-resistance for gelatin/nanoclay coacervates. Finally, structure of the coacervate phase was characterized by oscillatory shear experiments. The storage modulus data was observed to follow a power-law behavior and it was confirmed that under the optimum conditions, the coacervate phase was dense and structured with a characteristic length scale (ξrheol) of ~8.25 nm. Regardless of the physicochemical condition at which complexation occurred, it was shown that the equilibrium structure of the coacervates is related to the kinetics of intermediate and late stages of phase separation; as the new defined kinetics parameter K was observed to be inversely proportional to ξrheol that quantifies the compactness of the coacervate networks.

  9. Electron beam irradiation and addition of poly(vinyl alcohol) affect gelatin based-films properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamura, Patricia Y.; Mastro, Nelida L. del, E-mail: pinamura@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Gelatin is a mixture of high molecular weight polypeptides, product of denaturation, and partial structural degradation of collagen, and one of the first materials employed as biomaterials. Aqueous solutions of gelatin (10%), glycerin as plasticizer and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) up to 10% were prepared in a water bath at 70 deg C under constant stirring. Films were irradiated with 10 and 20 kGy using an electron beam accelerator, dose rate of 22.4 kGy s{sup -1}, energy 1.407 MeV, at room temperature, in the presence of air. After irradiation, mechanical properties, color measurements, water absorption, moisture and film solubility were analyzed. The films showed an improvement in maximum force to rupture the film with increase of the irradiation dose. The higher the puncture force to rupture the lower the elongation at break. Colorimetric tests showed significant differences between samples, and also differences depending of the applied radiation dose, and analyzed color parameter. In water absorption tests a decrease of absorption percentage was found with the increase of the dose for PVA free and 5% PVA samples. The addition of PVA increased the water absorption for all applied doses. The modifications in gelatin colloids can be appointed to radiation-induced crosslinking. Also, the PVA concentration in the samples influenced the resultant material properties. (author)

  10. Influence of radiation crosslinked carboxymethyl-chitosan/gelatin hydrogel on cutaneous wound healing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xin [Beijing Key Laboratory for Solid Waste Utilization and Management, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Burns, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing 100035 (China); Zhang, Yaqing; Zhang, Xiangmei [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xu, Ling, E-mail: lingxu@pku.edu.cn [Beijing Key Laboratory for Solid Waste Utilization and Management, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Shenzhen Key Laboratory for Polymer Science, Peking University Shenzhen Institute, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Chen, Xin, E-mail: xchin@vip.sina.com [Department of Burns, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing 100035 (China); Wei, Shicheng [Center for Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2013-12-01

    A series of carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) and gelatin hydrogels were prepared by radiation crosslinking. A pre-clinical study was performed by implantation model and full-thickness cutaneous wound model in Sprague–Dawley rats to preliminarily evaluate the biocompatibility, biodegradability and effects on healing. In the implantation test, as a component of the hydrogels, CM-chitosan showed a positive effect on promoting cell proliferation and neovascularization, while gelatin was efficient to stabilize the structure and prolong the degradation time. To evaluate the function on wound healing, the hydrogels were applied to the relatively large full-thickness cutaneous wounds (Φ3.0 cm). Compared with the control groups, the hydrogel group showed significantly higher percentage of wound closure on days 9, 12 and 15 postoperatively, which was consistent with the significantly thicker granulation tissue on days 3 and 6. All results apparently revealed that the radiation crosslinked CM-chitosan/Gelatin hydrogels could induce granulation tissue formation and accelerate the wound healing. - Highlights: • The hydrogels were prepared by a facile and green method, radiation crosslinking. • The biodegradability and mechanical strength can be regulated by composition. • The hydrogels promote fibroblasts proliferation and neovascularization. • The hydrogels lead to earlier tissue granulation and re-epithelialization. • The hydrogels are ideal wound healing materials with excellent biocompatibility.

  11. Influence of radiation crosslinked carboxymethyl-chitosan/gelatin hydrogel on cutaneous wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Zhang, Yaqing; Zhang, Xiangmei; Xu, Ling; Chen, Xin; Wei, Shicheng

    2013-12-01

    A series of carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) and gelatin hydrogels were prepared by radiation crosslinking. A pre-clinical study was performed by implantation model and full-thickness cutaneous wound model in Sprague-Dawley rats to preliminarily evaluate the biocompatibility, biodegradability and effects on healing. In the implantation test, as a component of the hydrogels, CM-chitosan showed a positive effect on promoting cell proliferation and neovascularization, while gelatin was efficient to stabilize the structure and prolong the degradation time. To evaluate the function on wound healing, the hydrogels were applied to the relatively large full-thickness cutaneous wounds (Φ3.0 cm). Compared with the control groups, the hydrogel group showed significantly higher percentage of wound closure on days 9, 12 and 15 postoperatively, which was consistent with the significantly thicker granulation tissue on days 3 and 6. All results apparently revealed that the radiation crosslinked CM-chitosan/Gelatin hydrogels could induce granulation tissue formation and accelerate the wound healing.

  12. Physicochemical and Antibacterial Properties of Carrageenan and Gelatine Hydrosols and Hydrogels Incorporated with Acidic Electrolyzed Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Brychcy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on investigation of the effects of usage of acidic electrolyzed water (AEW with different sodium chloride concentration (0.001%, 0.01%, and 0.1% for the preparation of carrageenan and gelatine hydrosols and hydrogels. To determine physiochemical properties of hydrosols, the pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP, available chloride concentration (ACC and rheological parameters such us gelation and flow temperatures were measured. The samples were also characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT IR and texture profile analysis (TPA. Additionally, the article contains an analysis of antibacterial activity of carrageenan and gelatine hydrosols incorporated with acidic electrolyzed water, against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The FT IR spectra demonstrated that the structure of gelatine and carrageenan are not significantly affected by electrolyzed NaCl solution components. Furthermore, TPA analysis showed that the use of AEW did not cause undesirable changes in hydrogels layer. The microbiological analysis confirmed inhibition of bacterial growth by hydrosols to about 2.10 log reduction. The results showed that the range of reduction of microorganisms depends on the type AEW used. This might be explained by the fact that the lowest pH and the highest ACC values of hydrosols were obtained for samples with the longest period of exposure to electrolysis (10 min and the highest amount of NaCl (0.1% w/v. These results suggest that hydrogels and hydrosols incorporated with AEW may be used for food preservation.

  13. Fabrication of Gelatin-Based Electrospun Composite Fibers for Anti-Bacterial Properties and Protein Adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ya; Wang, Yingbo; Wang, Yimin; Cui, Wenguo

    2016-10-21

    A major goal of biomimetics is the development of chemical compositions and structures that simulate the extracellular matrix. In this study, gelatin-based electrospun composite fibrous membranes were prepared by electrospinning to generate bone scaffold materials. The gelatin-based multicomponent composite fibers were fabricated using co-electrospinning, and the composite fibers of chitosan (CS), gelatin (Gel), hydroxyapatite (HA), and graphene oxide (GO) were successfully fabricated for multi-function characteristics of biomimetic scaffolds. The effect of component concentration on composite fiber morphology, antibacterial properties, and protein adsorption were investigated. Composite fibers exhibited effective antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The study observed that the composite fibers have higher adsorption capacities of bovine serum albumin (BSA) at pH 5.32-6.00 than at pH 3.90-4.50 or 7.35. The protein adsorption on the surface of the composite fiber increased as the initial BSA concentration increased. The surface of the composite reached adsorption equilibrium at 20 min. These results have specific applications for the development of bone scaffold materials, and broad implications in the field of tissue engineering.

  14. Changes of multi-scale structure during mimicked DSC heating reveal the nature of starch gelatinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujun; Zhang, Xiu; Wang, Shuo; Copeland, Les

    2016-06-20

    A thorough understanding of starch gelatinization is extremely important for precise control of starch functional properties for food processing and human nutrition. Here we reveal the molecular mechanism of starch gelatinization by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in conjunction with a protocol using the rapid viscosity analyzer (RVA) to generate material for analysis under conditions that simulated the DSC heating profiles. The results from DSC, FTIR, Raman, X-ray diffraction and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analyses all showed that residual structural order remained in starch that was heated to the DSC endotherm end temperature in starch:water mixtures of 0.5 to 4:1 (v/w). We conclude from this study that the DSC endotherm of starch at a water:starch ratio of 2 to 4 (v/w) does not represent complete starch gelatinization. The DSC endotherm of starch involves not only the water uptake and swelling of amorphous regions, but also the melting of starch crystallites.

  15. In situ study starch gelatinization under ultra-high hydrostatic pressure using synchrotron SAXS

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Zhi

    2015-12-13

    The gelatinization of waxy (very low amylose) corn and potato starches by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) (up to ∼1 GPa) was investigated in situ using synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) on samples held in a diamond anvil cell (DAC). The starch pastes, made by mixing starch and water in a 1:1 ratio (by weight), were pressurized and measured at room temperature. During HHP, both SAXS peak areas (corresponding to the lamellar phase) of waxy corn and potato starches decreased suggesting the starch gelatinization increases with increasing pressure. As pressure increased, lamellar peak broadened and the power law exponent increased in low q region. 1D linear correlation function was further employed to analyse SAXS data. For both waxy potato and waxy corn starches, the long period length and the average thickness of amorphous layers decreased when the pressure increased. While for both of waxy starches, the thickness of the crystalline layer first increased, then decreased when the pressure increased. The former is probably due to the out-phasing of starch molecules, and the latter is due to the water penetrating into the crystalline region during gelatinization and to pressure induced compression.

  16. Enhanced redifferentiation of chondrocytes on microperiodic silk/gelatin scaffolds: toward tailor-made tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sanskrita; Pati, Falguni; Chameettachal, Shibu; Pahwa, Shikha; Ray, Alok R; Dhara, Santanu; Ghosh, Sourabh

    2013-02-11

    Direct-write assembly allows rapid fabrication of complex three-dimensional (3D) architectures, such as scaffolds simulating anatomical shapes, avoiding the need for expensive lithographic masks. However, proper selection of polymeric ink composition and tailor-made viscoelastic properties are critically important for smooth deposition of ink and shape retention. Deposition of only silk solution leads to frequent clogging due to shear-induced β-sheet crystallization, whereas optimized viscoelastic property of silk-gelatin blends facilitate the flow of these blends through microcapillary nozzles of varying diameter. This study demonstrates that induction of controlled changes in scaffold surface chemistry, by optimizing silk-gelatin ratio, can govern cell proliferation and maintenance of chondrocyte morphology. Microperiodic silk-gelatin scaffolds can influence postexpansion redifferentiation of goat chondrocytes by enhancing Sox-9 gene expression, aggregation, and driving cartilage matrix production, as evidenced by upregulation of collagen type II and aggrecan expression. The strategy for optimizing redifferentiation of chondrocytes can offer valuable consideration in scaffold-based cartilage repair strategies.

  17. Development of keratin-chitosan-gelatin composite scaffold for soft tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkar, Prachi; Verma, Sudhanshu; Manjubala, I; Madhan, B

    2014-12-01

    Keratin has gained much attention in the recent past as a biomaterial for wound healing owing to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, intrinsic biological activity and presence of cellular binding motifs. In this paper, a novel biomimetic scaffold containing keratin, chitosan and gelatin was prepared by freeze drying method. The prepared keratin composite scaffold had good structural integrity. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed the retention of the native structure of individual biopolymers (keratin, chitosan, and gelatin) used in the scaffold. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) results revealed a high thermal denaturation temperature of the scaffold (200-250°C). The keratin composite scaffold exhibited tensile strength (96 kPa), compression strength (8.5 kPa) and water uptake capacity (>1700%) comparable to that of a collagen scaffold, which was used as control. The morphology of the keratin composite scaffold observed using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) exhibited good porosity and interconnectivity of pores. MTT assay using NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells demonstrated that the cell viability of the keratin composite scaffold was good. These observations suggest that the keratin-chitosan-gelatin composite scaffold is a promising alternative biomaterial for tissue engineering applications.

  18. Effect of different pretreatments on functional properties of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) skin gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, S F; Ghassem, M; Mamot, S; Babji, A S

    2015-02-01

    Pretreatments with different types of alkali and acid were compared to determine their effects on gelatin extraction from African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) skin. The study was divided into three parts. In the first part, the skins were only treated with alkaline (Ca(OH)2 or NaOH) solution or pretreated with acetic acid solution. For second part, combination of alkali and acid pretreatment was carried out. For the third part, the skins were first treated with NaOH solution, followed by the treatment with acetic acid, citric acid or sulfuric acid solution. Functional properties including the yield of protein recovery, gel strength, viscosity, pH and viscoelastic properties were determined on gelatins obtained with different pretreatment conditions. Pretreatment with alkali removed noncollagenous proteins effectively, whilst acid pretreatment induced some loss of collagenous proteins. Combination of alkali and acid pretreatment not only removed the noncollagenous proteins and caused a significant amount of swelling, but also provided the proper pH condition for extraction, during which some cross-linkages could be further destroyed but with less breakage of intramolecular peptide chains. Pretreatment of catfish skins with 0.2 N NaOH followed by 0.05 M acetic acid improved yield of protein recovery, gel strength, viscosity, melting temperature and gelling temperature of gelatin extract.

  19. Fabrication and Characterization of Electrospun Polycaprolactone Blended with Chitosan-Gelatin Complex Nanofibrous Mats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfang Qian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Design and fabrication of nanofibrous scaffolds should mimic the native extracellular matrix. This study is aimed at investigating electrospinning of polycaprolactone (PCL blended with chitosan-gelatin complex. The morphologies were observed from scanning electron microscope. As-spun blended mats had thinner fibers than pure PCL. X-ray diffraction was used to analyze the degree of crystallinity. The intensity at two peaks at 2θ of 21° and 23.5° gradually decreased with the percentage of chitosan-gelatin complex increasing. Moreover, incorporation of the complex could obviously improve the hydrophilicity of as-spun blended mats. Mechanical properties of as-spun nanofibrous mats were also tested. The elongation at break of fibrous mats increased with the PCL content increasing and the ultimate tensile strength varied with different weight ratios. The as-spun mats had higher tensile strength when the weight ratio of PCL to CS-Gel was 75/25 compared to pure PCL. Both as-spun PCL scaffolds and PCL/CS-Gel scaffolds supported the proliferation of porcine iliac endothelial cells, and PCL/CS-Gel had better cell viability than pure PCL. Therefore, electrospun PCL/Chitosan-gelatin nanofibrous mats with weight ratio of 75/25 have better hydrophilicity mechanical properties, and cell proliferation and thus would be a promising candidate for tissue engineering scaffolds.

  20. Laser fabrication of three-dimensional CAD scaffolds from photosensitive gelatin for applications in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsianikov, Aleksandr; Deiwick, Andrea; Van Vlierberghe, Sandra; Dubruel, Peter; Möller, Lena; Dräger, Gerald; Chichkov, Boris

    2011-04-11

    In the present work, 3D CAD scaffolds for tissue engineering applications were developed starting from methacrylamide-modified gelatin (GelMOD) using two-photon polymerization (2PP). The scaffolds were cross-linked employing the biocompatible photoinitiator Irgacure 2959. Because gelatin is derived from collagen (i.e., the main constituent of the ECM), the developed materials mimic the cellular microenvironment from a chemical point of view. In addition, by applying the 2PP technique, structural properties of the cellular microenvironment can also be mimicked. Furthermore, in vitro degradation assays indicated that the enzymatic degradation capability of gelatin is preserved for the methacrylamide-modified derivative. An in depth morphological analysis of the 2PP-fabricated scaffolds demonstrated that the parameters of the CAD model are reproduced with great precision, including the ridge-like surface topography on the order of 1.5 μm. The developed scaffolds showed an excellent stability in culture medium. In a final part of the present work, the suitability of the developed scaffolds for tissue engineering applications was verified. The results indicated that the applied materials are suitable to support porcine mesenchymal stem cell adhesion and subsequent proliferation. Upon applying osteogenic stimulation, the seeded cells differentiated into the anticipated lineage. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis showed the induced calcification of the scaffolds. The results clearly indicate that 2PP is capable of manufacturing precisely constructed 3D tissue engineering scaffolds using photosensitive polymers as starting material.