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Sample records for gel microparticles doped

  1. Reducing the stiffness of concentrated whey protein isolate (WPI) gels by using WPI microparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purwanti, N.; Moerkens, A.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Concentrated protein gels were prepared using native whey protein isolate (WPI) and WPI based microparticles. WPI microparticles were produced by making gel pieces from a concentrated WPI suspension (40% w/w), which were dried and milled. The protein within the microparticles was denatured and the

  2. Microparticles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    microparticles. Methods: Ibuprofen-loaded microparticles containing PLGA were formulated using a emulsification/solvent evaporation method. Various concentrations ... The microcapsules were characterized for drug loading, particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential ... Furthermore, the pharmacological effect of this.

  3. Microparticles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    co-glycolide) (PLGA) microparticles. Methods: Ibuprofen-loaded microparticles containing PLGA were formulated using a emulsification/solvent evaporation method. Various concentrations of ibuprofen (200, 300, 400 and 0 mg) were loaded ...

  4. Formulation and characterization of poloxamer 407®: thermoreversible gel containing polymeric microparticles and hyaluronic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Garrastazu Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the composition and preparation method on the sol-gel transition temperature (Tsol-gel and rheological response of poloxamer-based formulations was determined. Manual and more complex mechanical stirring were found to provide similar results. In addition, a linear dependence of Tsol-gel on the poloxamer content was observed in the range of concentrations analyzed, and a Poloxamer 407® concentration of 18% was selected. The addition of hyaluronic acid did not lead to significant changes in the Tsol-gel values. In contrast, the addition of microparticles caused a reduction in Tsol-gel without a significant reduction in gel strength, and pseudoplastic characteristics were observed, indicating that a thermoreversible gel was obtained with a rheology suitable for application in the treatment of burn wounds.

  5. Microneedle assisted micro-particle delivery from gene guns: experiments using skin-mimicking agarose gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongwei; Das, Diganta B; Rielly, Chris D

    2014-02-01

    A set of laboratory experiments has been carried out to determine if micro-needles (MNs) can enhance penetration depths of high-speed micro-particles delivered by a type of gene gun. The micro-particles were fired into a model target material, agarose gel, which was prepared to mimic the viscoelastic properties of porcine skin. The agarose gel was chosen as a model target as it can be prepared as a homogeneous and transparent medium with controllable and reproducible properties allowing accurate determination of penetration depths. Insertions of various MNs into gels have been analysed to show that the length of the holes increases with an increase in the agarose concentration. The penetration depths of micro-particle were analysed in relation to a number of variables, namely the operating pressure, the particle size, the size of a mesh used for particle separation and the MN dimensions. The results suggest that the penetration depths increase with an increase of the mesh pore size, because of the passage of large agglomerates. As these particles seem to damage the target surface, then smaller mesh sizes are recommended; here, a mesh with a pore size of 178 μm was used for the majority of the experiments. The operating pressure provides a positive effect on the penetration depth, that is it increases as pressure is increased. Further, as expected, an application of MNs maximises the micro-particle penetration depth. The maximum penetration depth is found to increase as the lengths of the MNs increase, for example it is found to be 1272 ± 42, 1009 ± 49 and 656 ± 85 μm at 4.5 bar pressure for spherical micro-particles of 18 ± 7 μm diameter when we used MNs of 1500, 1200 and 750 μm length, respectively. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  6. An asymmetric Zn//Ag doped polyaniline microparticle suspension flow battery with high discharge capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sen; Zhao, Yongfu; Li, Degeng; Xia, Yang; Si, Shihui

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the effect of oxygen on the potential of reduced polyaniline (PANI) was investigated. In order to enhance the air oxidation of reduced PANI, several composites of PANI doped with co-catalysts were prepared, and a reasonable flow Zn//PANI suspension cell system was designed to investigate the discharge capacity of obtained PANI composite microparticle suspension cathodes. Compared with PANI doped with Cu2+, La+, Mn2+ and zinc protoporphyrin, Ag doped PANI composite at 0.90 weight percent doping of Ag gave the highest value of discharge capacity for the half-cell potential from the initial value to -0.20 V (vs. SCE). A comparison study on the electrochemical properties of both PANI and Ag doped PANI microparticle suspension was done by using cyclic voltammetry, AC Impedance. Due to partial utilization of Zn//air fuel cell, the discharge capacity for Ag doped PANI reached 470 mA h g-1 at the current density of 20 mA cm-2. At 15 mA cm-2, the discharge capacity even reached up to 1650 mA h g-1 after 220 h constant current discharge at the final discharge voltage of 0.65 V. This work demonstrates an effective and feasible approach toward obtaining high energy and power densities by a Zn//Ag-doped PANI suspension flow battery system combined with Zn//air fuel cell.

  7. Evaluation of potential of Zn-pectinate gel (ZPG microparticles containing mesalazine for colonic drug delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Kawadkar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "n  "n Background and the purpose of the study:Pectin derivatives have been utilized for colonic drug delivery (CDD. In this study the effects of different formulation variables upon the characteristics of pectinate microparticles (MPs prepared by ionotropic gelation technique for colonic delivery of mesalazine was investigated. "n "nMethods: In-vitro drug release of MPs was studied using USP XXIV dissolution apparatus type I, in different fluids e.g. simulated gastric fluid (SGF: pH 1.2, simulated intestinal fluid (SIF: pH 7.4, and simulated colonic fluid (SCF: pH 6.8 of volume 900 ml, at 100 rpm maintained at 37 ± 0.2 °C. This study was also performed in the presence of 4% w/v rat caecal content (RCC using phosphate buffer saline (pH 6.8 as SCF. Gamma scintigraphy study was performed on New Zealand rabbit animal model using 99m Tc. "nResults: The results showed that maximum entrapment of mesalazine (86.1 ± 1.7 % and strength of gel network zinc pectinate gel microparticles (ZPGD2 was achieved in cross-linking solution of pH 1.6. Batch of ZPGD2 showed least swelling ratio and drug release. In RCC medium the t50% value of CPG-MPs was 3-4 folds greater than ZPG-MPs. Scintigram showed the residence of ZPG-MPs (filled in enteric coated capsule in colon more than 9 hrs and delivery of almost all the drug loading dose in colon. "nMajor conclusion:The results of this study suggest the designed formulation of ZPG-MPs has the potential to serve as a colonic drug delivery system.

  8. Spray drying of silica microparticles for sustained release application with a new sol-gel precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bifeng; Friess, Wolfgang

    2017-10-30

    A new precursor, tetrakis(2-methoxyethyl) orthosilicate (TMEOS) was used to fabricate microparticles for sustained release application, specifically for biopharmaceuticals, by spray drying. The advantages of TMEOS over the currently applied precursors are its water solubility and hydrolysis at moderate pH without the need of organic solvents or catalyzers. Thus a detrimental effect on biomolecular drug is avoided. By generating spray-dried silica particles encapsulating the high molecular weight model compound FITC-dextran 150 via the nano spray dryer Büchi-90, we demonstrated how formulation parameters affect and enable control of drug release properties. The implemented strategies to regulate release included incorporating different quantities of dextrans with varying molecular weight as well as adjusting the pH of the precursor solution to modify the internal microstructures. The addition of dextran significantly altered the released amount, while the release became faster with increasing dextran molecular weight. A sustained release over 35days could be achieved with addition of 60 kD dextran. The rate of FITC-Dextran 150 release from the dextran 60 containing particles decreased with higher precursor solution pH. In conclusion, the new precursor TMEOS presents a promising alternative sol-gel technology based carrier material for sustained release application of high molecular weight biopharmaceutical drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Photoluminescence of Titanium-Doped Zinc Orthosilicate Phosphor Gel Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Mu-Tsun; Wu, Jun-Min; Lin, Jian-You [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Formosa University, PO Box 385 Douliu, Yunlin 640, Taiwan (China); Lu, Fu-Hsing; Wang, Yen-Kai, E-mail: mttsai@ms23.hinet.net [Department of Materials Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo Kuang Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)

    2011-10-29

    Titanium-doped zinc orthosilicate ({alpha}-Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}:Ti) phosphor thin films were deposited on silicon wafer substrates by the sol-gel process. The crystallization processes and photoluminescence properties of the films were investigated. X-ray diffraction revealed that the dried films were amorphous and converted into single-phase willemite structure following annealed at 600 deg. C and above. Upon thermal annealing at 800 deg. C - 1000 deg. C, Ti-doped willemite thin films had the average crystallite sizes of 17{approx}28 nm. The luminescence properties of phosphor films were characterized by excitation and emission spectra. Photoluminescence spectra of Ti-doped films exhibited prominent blue emission bands centered at 402 nm under an excitation wavelength of 225 nm. The emission intensity was dependent on the level of titanium doping, annealing temperature, and film thickness.

  10. Iron porphyrins doped sol-gel glasses: a chemometric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacco, Herica C.; Vidoto, Ednalva A.; Nascimento, Otaciro R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the optimized conditions for preparation of iron porphyrin-template doped silica Fe PDS-template) obtained by the sol-gel process. The following porphyrins (Fe P) were used: Fe TFPP Cl, Fe TDCSPP(Na) 4 Cl and Fe TCPP(Na) 4 Cl. Pyridine or 4-phenylimidazole was used as template. The variables that present significant influence on iron porphyrin loading on xerogel were identified and the values that maximize the iron porphyrin loading on xerogel were established . The variables (Solvent volume, fractional factorial design in two levels, 2 5-1 type, generating 16 total experiments for each Fe P studied. (author)

  11. Iron porphyrins doped sol-gel glasses: a chemometric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacco, Herica C.; Vidoto, Ednalva A.; Nascimento, Otaciro R. [Soap Paulo Univ (USP), Sao Carlos (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Biazzotto, Juliana C.; Serra, Osvaldo A.; Iamamoto, Yassuko [Sao Paulo Univ. (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras; Ciuffi, Katia J.; Mello, Cesar A.; Oliveira, Daniela C. de [Universidade de Franca , SP (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the optimized conditions for preparation of iron porphyrin-template doped silica Fe (PDS-template) obtained by the sol-gel process. The following porphyrins (Fe P) were used: Fe TFPP Cl, Fe TDCSPP(Na){sub 4}Cl and Fe TCPP(Na){sub 4} Cl. Pyridine or 4-phenylimidazole was used as template. The variables that present significant influence on iron porphyrin loading on xerogel were identified and the values that maximize the iron porphyrin loading on xerogel were established. The variables Solvent volume, fractional factorial design in two levels, 2{sup 5-1} type, generating 16 total experiments for each Fe P studied. (author)

  12. Improvement in Ocular Bioavailability and Prolonged Delivery of Tobramycin Sulfate Following Topical Ophthalmic Administration of Drug-Loaded Mucoadhesive Microparticles Incorporated in Thermosensitive In Situ Gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Shagufta; Warade, Sonali; Singhavi, Dilesh J

    2017-12-06

    Conventional topical delivery in hyperacute bacterial conjunctivitis and endophthalmitis is associated with low drug bioavailability due to rapid precorneal clearance. Hence, in the present investigation, an attempt has been made to enhance ocular bioavailability of tobramycin sulfate by formulating drug-loaded microparticles dispersed in thermosensitive in situ gel. Microparticles prepared by emulsion-ionic gelation technique were characterized for drug loading, entrapment efficiency, particle size, surface morphology, and in vitro drug release. Consequently microparticles (F2 prepared with 1.5%w/v chitosan, 0.2%w/v tripolyphosphate, and drug, 30%w/w of polymer) with high drug loading and encapsulation efficiency were dispersed in thermosensitive in situ gel containing poloxamer 407 and varying percentage of chitosan. In situ gel containing drug-loaded microparticles were evaluated for gelation temperature, rheological behavior, mucoadhesive strength, in vitro drug release, in vitro permeation, ocular irritation, and bioavailability in aqueous humor of rabbits. Formulation containing 17%w/v poloxamer 407 and 0.5%w/v chitosan (P2) gelled at 32°C ± 1.5°C gave pseudoplastic behavior. In vitro permeability of tobramycin from the formulation P2 was found 2-folds greater than eye drops. It also gave significantly higher aqueous humor concentration of tobramycin compared with eye drops with no signs of ocular irritation. Thus, the formulation possesses high potential for treating ocular infections.

  13. Characterization of Manganese-doped Willemite Green Phosphor Gel Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Mu-Tsun; Lin, Yi-Hsun; Yang, Jing-Ru, E-mail: mttsai@ms23.hinet.net [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Formosa University, PO Box 385 Douliu, Yunlin 640, Taiwan (China)

    2011-10-29

    Nanocrystalline manganese-doped zinc silicate (Zn{sub 2-x}Mn{sub x}SiO{sub 4}; x = 0-12.0 mol%) powder phosphors were prepared by the sol-gel process. Zinc chloride, tetraethylorthosilicate, and manganese chloride were employed as precursors. The influences of water concentration on the crystallization and photoluminescence of the phosphors were investigated. Single-phase wiemite ({alpha}-Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) started to crystallize after calcining at 600 deg. C for powders derived from low-water-conen so, whie {beta}-Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} became the dominated phase with residual ZnO trace for high-water-content sol derived powders as calcining at below 900 deg. C. On firing at 800 deg. C - 1200 deg. C, the resulting phosphors had the average crystallite sizes of 15{approx}38 nm. With various content of water and heating the powders at 800deg. C, the prepared phosphors exhibited yellow and green emission peaking at 556 and 524 nm, respectively. Upon heating at 1200 deg. C, powder phosphors exhibited prominent photoluminescence emission bands peaked at 522{approx}526 nm, depending on the doping content. The luminous efficiency has been investigated as a function of dopant content and heating temperature.

  14. Microstructural and photoluminescence properties of sol–gel derived Tb3+ doped ZnO nanocrystals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kabongo, GL

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Un-doped and Tb(Sup3+) doped ZnO nanocrystals with different concentrations of Tb(Sup3+) were synthesized by a sol–gel method and their photoluminescence (PL) properties were investigated. The successful incorporation of Tb(sup3+) ions...

  15. Synthesis of Er and Er : Yb doped sol–gel derived silica glass and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    indicated in TGA curve). The weight loss at elevated tempe- ratures is probably due to removal of water during con-. Figure 1. Photograph of a gel sample sintered at 900°C. Figure 2. DTA curve for 1⋅0 mol% of Er2O3 doped silica gel. Figure 3.

  16. Effective wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by adipose-derived stromal cell transplantation in plasma-gel containing fragmin/protamine microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, Yuki; Ishihara, Masayuki; Kishimoto, Satoko; Takikawa, Makoto; Hattori, Hidemi; Takikawa, Megumi; Azuma, Ryuichi; Nakamura, Shingo; Fujita, Masanori; Kiyosawa, Tomoharu

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of the application of inbred adipose-derived stromal cells (IR-ASCs) in high inbred rat plasma (IRP) (6%)-Dulbecco modified Eagle medium (DMEM) gel with fragmin/protamine microparticles (F/P MPs) (IR-ASCs + IRP-DMEM gel + F/P MPs) on wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. F/P MPs have previously been used as a cell carrier for IR-ASCs in inbred Fisher 344 rats and for preservation and controlled release of various cytokines in IRP-DMEM gel. We applied IR-ASCs + IRP-DMEM gel + F/P MPs to full-thickness skin excisions on the backs of the diabetic rats. The statistical significance of wound closure was evaluated on postwounding days 3, 7, 10, and 14, and the skin area surrounding the wound was removed for histological examination on days 7 and 14. The wound closure rate and histological examination of wounds treated with IR-ASCs + IRP-DMEM gel + F/P MPs demonstrated significantly advanced epithelialization, capillary formation, and granulation tissue formation. When DiI-labeled IR-ASCs + IRP-DMEM gel + F/P MPs were applied to full-thickness skin wounds on the backs of the diabetic rats, histological observation at 2 weeks showed appearances of both DiI-labeled granulation tissue and CD31-immunostained microvessels in the transplant areas. A portion of the transplanted IR-ASCs + IRP-DMEM gel + F/P MPs had been taken up into the granulation tissues to promote wound healing. Thus, IR-ASCs + IRP-DMEM gel + F/P MPs were effective for repairing healing-impaired wounds such as those arising in the diabetic rats.

  17. Yeast Cells-Derived Hollow Core/Shell Heteroatom-Doped Carbon Microparticles for Sustainable Electrocatalysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huang, X.; Zou, X.; Meng, Y.; Mikmeková, Eliška; Chen, H.; Voiry, D.; Goswami, A.; Chhowalla, M.; Asefa, T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2015), s. 1978-1986 ISSN 1944-8244 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : yeast * heteroatom-doped carbon * oxygen reduction * ORR * hydrazine electrooxidation Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 7.145, year: 2015

  18. Enhancement of thermal transport in Gel Polymer Electrolytes with embedded BN/Al2O3 nano- and micro-particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Vivek; Jain, Ankur

    2017-09-01

    While Gel Polymer Electrolytes (GPEs) have been widely investigated for use in next-generation Li-ion cells due to the potential for improved thermal safety, thermal transport within a GPE is still poorly understood. Among all materials in a Li-ion cell, the GPE has the lowest thermal conductivity, and hence determines the overall rate of heat flow in a Li-ion cell. This makes it critical to measure and understand thermal transport in a GPE and investigate trade-offs between thermal and ionic transport. This paper presents measurements of thermal and ionic conductivities in a PVdF-based GPE. The effect of incorporating BN/Al2O3 ceramic nano/microparticles in the GPE on thermal and ionic transport is characterized. Measurements indicate up to 2.5X improvement in thermal conductivity of activated GPE membranes, with relatively minor effect on electrochemical performance of GPE-based single-layer cells. The measured enhancement in thermal conductivity is in very good agreement with theoretical calculations based on the effective medium theory that accounts for thermal transport in a dispersed, two-phase medium such as a GPE. The fundamental insights gained in this work on thermal transport in a GPE and the role of nano/microparticle inclusions may facilitate thermal-electrochemical optimization and design of GPEs for safe, high-performance Li-ion cells.

  19. Structural and optical properties of chromium doped zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, Syed Mohd. Adnan, E-mail: adiaks2004@yahoo.co.in [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia); Irshad, Kashif, E-mail: alig.kashif@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia); Soleimani, Hassan, E-mail: hassan.soleimani@petronas.com.my, E-mail: noorhana-yahya@petronas.com.my; Yahya, Noorhana, E-mail: hassan.soleimani@petronas.com.my, E-mail: noorhana-yahya@petronas.com.my

    2014-10-24

    Nanosized Cr-doped ZnO nano particles were synthesized by facile sol-gel auto combustion method. The structural and optical properties of Cr-doped ZnO nanoparticles have been investigated by XRD and UV-Vis spectroscopy at room temperature for 0% to 8% concentration. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the Cr-doped ZnO crystallizes in a single phase polycrystalline nature with wurtzite lattice. With every % of doping, the peaks are shifting scarcely and doping of Cr is possible up to 7%. After that, the last peak vanishes, that signifies its structure is transmuted from 8% doping. The average crystallite size decreases with increase in Cr concentration (i.e. 28.9 nm for 0% to 25.8 nm for 8%). The UV-Vis spectra of the nanoparticles betoken an incrementation in the band gap energy from 3.401, 3.415, 3.431, 3.437,3.453, 3.514,3.521, 3.530 and 3.538 eV respectively, for 0,1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 % doping concentration.

  20. Green fluorescent protein-doped sol-gel silica planar waveguide to detect organophosphorus compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enami, Y.; Suye, S.

    2012-02-01

    We report novel living protein-doped planar waveguide, and real-time detection of an organophosphorus compound using a sol-gel silica planar waveguide doped with a green fluorescent protein and an organophosphorus hydrolase on a yeast-cell surface. The waveguide was pumped at 488 nm, and emitted green fluorescence at the far field. The green fluorescent light at 550 nm changed by 50% from the original power 1 min after application of the organophosphorus compound. The results enable the real-time detection of biochemical weapon and insecticide harmful for human body by using an in-line fiber sensor network.

  1. Optical properties of in situ doped and undoped titania nanocatalysts and doped titania sol-gel nanofilms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira da Silva, A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Ondina, 40 210-340 Salvador, BA (Brazil)]. E-mail: ferreira@venus.fis.ufba.br; Pepe, I. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Ondina, 40 210-340 Salvador, BA (Brazil); Gole, James L. [Schools of Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, GA 30332-0430 (United States); Tomas, S.A. [Departamento de Fisica, CINVESTAV-IPN, AP 14-740, Mexico D.F. 07300 (Mexico); Palomino, R. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, BUAP, AP 1152, Puebla (Mexico); Azevedo, W.M. de [Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Cidade Universitaria, 50670-901 Recife, PE (Brazil); Silva, E.F. da [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Cidade Universitaria, 50670-901 Recife, PE (Brazil); Ahuja, R. [Department of Physics, Uppsala University, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Persson, C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-05-30

    In this paper we present spectroscopic properties of doped and undoped titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) as nanofilms prepared by the sol-gel process with rhodamine 6G doping and studied by photoacoustic absorption, excitation and emission spectroscopy. The absorption spectra of TiO{sub 2} thin films doped with rhodamine 6G at very low concentration during their preparation show two absorption bands, one at 2.3 eV attributed to molecular dimmer formation, which is responsible for the fluorescence quenching of the sample and the other at 3.0 eV attributed to TiO{sub 2} absorption, which subsequently yields a strong emission band at 600 nm. The electronic band structure and optical properties of the rutile phase of TiO{sub 2} are calculated employing a fully relativistic, full-potential, linearized, augmented plane-wave (FPLAPW) method within the local density approximation (LDA). Comparison of this calculation with experimental data for TiO{sub 2} films prepared for undoped sol-gels and by sputtering is performed.

  2. Magnetic studies of cobalt doped barium hexaferrite nanoparticles prepared by modified sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shalini, M. Govindaraj; Sahoo, Subasa C., E-mail: subasa@cukerala.ac.in [Department of Physics, Central University of Kerala, Riverside Transit Campus, Padnekkad, Kasaragod, Kerala - 671314 (India)

    2016-05-06

    M-type barium hexaferrite (BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) and cobalt doped barium hexaferrite (BaFe{sub 11}CoO{sub 19}) nanopowders were synthesized by modified sol-gel auto-combustion technique and were annealed at 900°C in air for 4 hours. The annealed powders were studied in the present work and X-ray diffraction studies showed pure phase formation after annealing. The average grain size in the nanopowder sample was decreased after doping. Magnetization value of 60 emu/g was observed at 300 K for the barium hexaferrite and was reduced to 54 emu/g after doping. The coercivity of 5586 Oe was observed at 300 K for the undoped sample and was found to be decreased in the doped sample. As the measurement temperature was decreased from 300 K to 60 K, magnetization value was increased in both the samples compared to those at 300 K. The coercivity of the undoped sample was found to decrease whereas it was increased for the doped sample at 60 K. The observed magnetic properties may be understood on the basis of modified exchange interaction and anisotropy in the doped sample compared to that of pure barium hexaferrite.

  3. Indirect excitation of Er3+ in sol-gel hybrid films doped with an erbium complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Oun-Ho; Seo, Se-Young; Bae, Byeong-Soo; Shin, Jung H.

    2003-04-01

    Transparent sol-gel hybrid films doped with erbium tris 8-hydroxyquinoline were prepared using methyltriethoxysilane, vinyltriethoxysilane, and phenyltrimethoxysilane as precursors. We obtain a strong 1.53-μm Er3+ luminescence with a wide full width at half-maximum and no thermal quenching. Comparison of absorption of the film with the pump wavelength dependence of Er3+ luminescence intensity indicates the presence of an efficient indirect excitation path for Er3+ via organic ligands.

  4. Hydroxyapatite microparticles as feedback-active reservoirs of corrosion inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snihirova, D; Lamaka, S V; Taryba, M; Salak, A N; Kallip, S; Zheludkevich, M L; Ferreira, M G S; Montemor, M F

    2010-11-01

    This work contributes to the development of new feedback-active anticorrosion systems. Inhibitor-doped hydroxyapatite microparticles (HAP) are used as reservoirs, storing corrosion inhibitor to be released on demand. Release of the entrapped inhibitor is triggered by redox reactions associated with the corrosion process. HAP were used as reservoirs for several inhibiting species: cerium(III), lanthanum(III), salicylaldoxime, and 8-hydroxyquinoline. These species are effective corrosion inhibitors for a 2024 aluminum alloy (AA2024), used here as a model metallic substrate. Dissolution of the microparticles and release of the inhibitor are triggered by local acidification resulting from the anodic half-reaction during corrosion of AA2024. Calculated values and experimentally measured local acidification over the aluminum anode (down to pH = 3.65) are presented. The anticorrosion properties of inhibitor-doped HAP were assessed using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The microparticles impregnated with the corrosion inhibitors were introduced into a hybrid silica-zirconia sol-gel film, acting as a thin protective coating for AA2024, an alloy used for aeronautical applications. The protective properties of the sol-gel films were improved by the addition of HAP, proving their applicability as submicrometer-sized reservoirs of corrosion inhibitors for active anticorrosion coatings.

  5. Bioorganically doped sol-gel materials containing amyloglucosidase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad-Oros Beatrice

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyloglucosidase (AMG from Aspergillus niger was encapsulated in various matrices derived from tetraethoxysilane, methyltriethoxysilane, phenyltriethoxysilane and vinyltriacetoxysilane by different methods of immobilization. The immobilized enzyme was prepared by entrapment in two steps, in one-step and entrapment/deposition, respectively. The activities of the immobilized AMG were assayed and compared with that of the native enzyme. The effects of the organosilaneprecursors and their molar ratios, the immobilization method, the inorganic support (white ceramic, red ceramic, purolite, alumina, TiO2, celite, zeolite and enzyme loading upon the immobilized enzyme activity were tested. The efficiency of the sol-gel biocomposites can be improved through combination of the fundamental immobilization techniques and selection of the precursors.

  6. Antimicrobial Activity of Thin Solid Films of Silver Doped Hydroxyapatite Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iconaru, Simona Liliana; Chapon, Patrick; Le Coustumer, Philippe; Predoi, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the preparation and characterization of silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were reported and their antimicrobial activity was characterized. Silver doped hydroxyapatite (Ag:HAp) thin films coatings substrate was prepared on commercially pure Si disks by sol-gel method. The silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were characterized by various techniques such as Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy Dispersive X-ray attachment (X-EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES). These techniques have permitted the structural and chemical characterisation of the silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films. The antimicrobial effect of the Ag:HAp thin films on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was then investigated. This is the first study on the antimicrobial effect of Ag:HAp thin films obtained by sol-gel method. The results of this study have shown that the Ag:HAp thin films with x Ag = 0.5 are effective against E. coli and S. aureus after 24 h. PMID:24523630

  7. Investigation of optical properties of anthocyanin doped into sol-gel based matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Hasrina; Abdul Aziz, Nik Mohd Azmi Nik; Isnin, Aishah

    2012-06-01

    Anthocyanin dye was extracted from petal of Hibiscus rosasinensis (Bunga Raya) and doped into sol-gel based matrix to investigate an effect of pH change on its optical properties. Sol-gel matrix based on Vinyl triethoxysilene (VTES) as a precursor was prepared through Sol-gel process at pH 7. The sol was doped with 0.1% of Anthocyanin and the same amount of dye was also dissolved in ethanol as a comparative sample. Hydrochloric Acid, HCl and Tetramethylammonium Hydroxide, TMAH were used to change the pH value by adding them at various concentrations into each sample. The emission spectra and chemical structures of the samples were measured by Spectrofluorometer and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) respectively. When excited at 410 nm, two emission peaks at about 492 and 574 nm were observed for Anthocyanin in acidic environment both in ethanol and VTES sol. In base environment however, only Anthocyanin dissolved in ethanol produced emission peak with a single peak at about 539 nm. The sensitivity of Anthocyanin dye toward pH changes in VTES open a possibility to use it as sensing element in which sol-gel based matrix are known to have higher mechanical strength and thermal stability.

  8. Nanostructured sol-gel coatings doped with cerium nitrate as pre-treatments for AA2024-T3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheludkevich, M.L.; Serra, R.; Montemor, M.F.; Yasakau, K.A.; Salvado, I.M. Miranda; Ferreira, M.G.S.

    2005-01-01

    Nanostructured hybrid sol-gel coatings doped with cerium ions were investigated in the present work as pre-treatments for the AA2024-T3 alloy. The sol-gel films have been synthesized from tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) precursors. Additionally the hybrid sol was doped with zirconia nanoparticles prepared from hydrolyzed tetra-n-propoxyzirconium (TPOZ). Cerium nitrate, as corrosion inhibitor, was added into the hybrid matrix or into the oxide nanoparticles. The chemical composition and the structure of the hybrid sol-gel films were studied by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and AFM (atomic force microscopy), respectively. The evolution of the corrosion protection properties of the sol-gel films was studied by EIS (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy), which can provide quantitative information on the role of the different pre-treatments. Different equivalent circuits, for different stages of the corrosion processes, were used in order to model the coating degradation. The models were supported by SEM (scanning electron microscopy) measurements. The results show that the sol-gel films containing zirconia nanoparticles present improved barrier properties. Doping the hybrid nanostructured sol-gel coatings with cerium nitrate leads to additional improvement of the corrosion protection. The zirconia particles present in the sol-gel matrix seem to act as nanoreservoirs providing a prolonged release of cerium ions. The nanostructured sol-gel films doped with cerium nitrate can be proposed as a potential candidate for substitution of the chromate pre-treatments for AA2024-T3

  9. Mn{sup 2+} ions distribution in doped sol–gel deposited ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan, Mariana, E-mail: mstefan@infim.ro [National Institute of Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Ghica, Daniela; Nistor, Sergiu V.; Maraloiu, Adrian V. [National Institute of Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Plugaru, Rodica [National Institute for R & D in Microtechnologies (IMT), Erou Iancu Nicolae Str. 126A, 077190 Bucharest (Romania)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Several Mn{sup 2+} centers observed by EPR in sol–gel ZnO films. • Mn{sup 2+} ions localized at Zn{sup 2+} sites in ZnO grains and disordered ZnO phase. • Sixfold coordinated Mn{sup 2+} ions localized in inter-grain region. • Aggregated Mn in insular-like regions between ZnO grains in the ZnO:5%Mn film. • Aggregated Mn phase presence and distribution observed by EPR and EDX-STEM. - Abstract: The localization and distribution of the Mn{sup 2+} ions in two sol–gel deposited ZnO films doped with different manganese concentrations were investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and analytical transmission electron microscopy. In the lightly doped sample the Mn{sup 2+} ions are mainly localized substitutionally at isolated tetrahedrally coordinated Zn{sup 2+} sites in both crystalline ZnO nanograins (34%) and surrounding disordered ZnO (52%). In the highly doped ZnO film, a much smaller proportion of manganese substitutes Zn{sup 2+} in the crystalline and disordered ZnO (10%). The main amount (85%) of manganese aggregates in a secondary phase as an insular-like distribution between the ZnO nanograins. The remaining Mn{sup 2+} ions (14% and 5% at low and high doping levels, respectively) are localized at isolated, six-fold coordinated sites, very likely in the disordered intergrain region. Annealing at 600 °C induced changes in the Mn{sup 2+} ions distribution, reflecting the increase of the ZnO crystallization degree, better observed in the lightly doped sample.

  10. Optical sensing of HCl with phenol red doped sol-gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Enju; Chow, Kwok-Fan; Wang Wenqun; Wong, Crystal; Yee, Cynthia; Persad, Alvin; Mann, Jonathan; Bocarsly, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    A dye doped sol-gel for the sensing of hydrochloric acid in solution and/or gaseous phase is described. The sol-gel is obtained by acidic hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and phenyltriethoxysilane (Ph-TriEOS) in the presence of phenol red (PR) and further spin-coating onto glass slides. The sensitive response is based on an increase of the absorption band at 510 nm of phenol red entrapped in the sol-gel casting when exposed to HCl solution or gas, due to protonation of the dye. The detection limit of the sol-gel response to moisturized gaseous HCl is below 12 ppm, and its response to HCl in solution falls in the range of 0.01-6 M. The sol-gel coating has a response time of less than 40 s in steady-state, and life-time of more than a year. Weak acids such as acetic acid, benzoic acid, salicylate acid, citrate acid, and carbonic acid do not interfere the response. The responses in acid solutions are completely reversible. In the gaseous phase, response of HCl appears to be moisture sensitive

  11. Optical sensing of HCl with phenol red doped sol-gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Enju [Department of Chemistry, St. John' s University, 8000 Utopia Parkway, Jamaica, NY 11439 (United States)]. E-mail: wange@stjohns.edu; Chow, Kwok-Fan [Department of Chemistry, St. John' s University, 8000 Utopia Parkway, Jamaica, NY 11439 (United States); Wang Wenqun [Department of Chemistry, St. John' s University, 8000 Utopia Parkway, Jamaica, NY 11439 (United States); Wong, Crystal [Department of Chemistry, St. John' s University, 8000 Utopia Parkway, Jamaica, NY 11439 (United States); Yee, Cynthia [Department of Chemistry, St. John' s University, 8000 Utopia Parkway, Jamaica, NY 11439 (United States); Persad, Alvin [Department of Chemistry, St. John' s University, 8000 Utopia Parkway, Jamaica, NY 11439 (United States); Mann, Jonathan [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Bocarsly, Andrew [Department of Chemistry, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2005-04-08

    A dye doped sol-gel for the sensing of hydrochloric acid in solution and/or gaseous phase is described. The sol-gel is obtained by acidic hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and phenyltriethoxysilane (Ph-TriEOS) in the presence of phenol red (PR) and further spin-coating onto glass slides. The sensitive response is based on an increase of the absorption band at 510 nm of phenol red entrapped in the sol-gel casting when exposed to HCl solution or gas, due to protonation of the dye. The detection limit of the sol-gel response to moisturized gaseous HCl is below 12 ppm, and its response to HCl in solution falls in the range of 0.01-6 M. The sol-gel coating has a response time of less than 40 s in steady-state, and life-time of more than a year. Weak acids such as acetic acid, benzoic acid, salicylate acid, citrate acid, and carbonic acid do not interfere the response. The responses in acid solutions are completely reversible. In the gaseous phase, response of HCl appears to be moisture sensitive.

  12. Influence of doping on the properties of vanadium oxide gel films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pergament, A L; Velichko, A A; Berezina, O Ya; Kazakova, E L; Kuldin, N A; Artyukhin, D V [Physics and Technology Department, Petrozavodsk State University, Petrozavodsk 185910 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: aperg@psu.karelia.ru

    2008-10-22

    The effect of doping with H and W on the properties of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and VO{sub 2} derived from V{sub 2}O{sub 5} gel has been studied. It is shown that the treatment of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} in low-temperature RF hydrogen plasma for 1-10 min leads to either hydration of vanadium pentoxide or its reduction (depending on the treatment conditions) to lower vanadium oxides. For some samples, which are subject to plasma treatment in the discharge active zone, a non-ordinary temperature dependence of resistance, with a maximum at T{approx}100 K, is observed. For W-doped VO{sub 2} films, it is shown that substitution of V{sup 4+} with W{sup 6+} results in a decrease of the temperature of the metal-insulator transition. Also, it has been shown that the doping of initial films with {approx}3 at.% of W reduces the statistical scatter in the threshold parameters of the switching devices with S-shaped I-V characteristics on the basis of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} gel films. (fast track communication)

  13. Rare earth doped optical fiber fabrication by standard and sol-gel derived granulated oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etissa, D.; Neff, M.; Pilz, S.; Ryser, M.; Romano, V.

    2012-04-01

    We present our progress in the production of ytterbium (Yb) doped optical fibers fabricated by two variants of the granulated aluminophosphosilicate method. We show advantages and disadvantages of mixing rare earth and aluminophosphosilicate granulated oxides directly (variant 1) or by using the sol-gel method to produce doped granulate material (variant 2). For both methods we studied the effects of varying the dopant concentrations and of introducing iterative melting and milling procedures. In particular, the sol-gel based method eases the inclusion of P2O5 and thus, in combination with Al2O3, higher dopant concentration of Yb and Er are possible. Sintering the sol-gel material at high temperature eliminated bubbles in the core. We fabricated optical fibers that, piecewise, between individual strong scatterers, exhibited attenuation losses as low as 0.35dB/m. For our comparative study we determined volume percentage and distribution of chemical elements in the fabricated fiber glasses by the analytical technique of Energy-Dispersive X-ray, Electro Probe Microanalysis and the degree of crystallization by X-Ray Diffraction analysis. Furthermore we measured fluctuations of the refractive index profile and scattering losses of the fiber core.

  14. The effect of Ni and Fe doping on YBCO powder prepared by sol gel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Saeb

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available  We fabricated YBa2Cu3-xMxO7- d (M=Ni, Fe bulk samples, with stochiometric amount 0≤x≤0.045 by sol-gel method. The phase analysis and microstructure of specimens were examined by XRD and SEM. The electrical resistivity was measured using standard four probe technique for 77-300K. Investigation of XRD spectrum by MAUD shows Ni and Fe ions substitute in Cu(2 and Cu(1 site, respectively. Transition temperature decreases in 93-87K for Ni-doped samples and 93-92K for Fe-doped series. It seems that the suppression of superconductivity has no direct correlation with the magnetism of ions itself .

  15. Magnetic properties of sol-gel synthesized C-doped ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dung, Nguyen Duc, E-mail: dung.nguyenduc@hust.edu.vn [Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (AIST), Hanoi University of Science and Technology, No.1 Dai Co Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Son, Cao Thai; Loc, Pham Vu; Cuong, Nguyen Huu; Kien, Pham The; Huy, Pham Thanh [Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (AIST), Hanoi University of Science and Technology, No.1 Dai Co Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Ha, Ngo Ngoc [International Training Institute for Materials Science (ITIMS), Hanoi University of Science and Technology, No.1 Dai Co Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2016-05-25

    ZnO doping with Carbon (C-doped ZnO) materials were prepared by sol-gel technique following with a heat treatment process. Single phase of Wurtzite crystal structure of ZnO was concluded via x-ray diffraction (XRD) with a large amount of excess C tracking by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. Two types of ZnO crystals (twinning particles) with different grain sizes and shapes were identified via scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The first type has a smaller grain size of about 20 nm and hexagonal shape. And the second type has a larger grain size of about 80–120 nm and round shape. C substitutions of both Zn and O sites to form C–O and C–Zn bonds were conclusively confirmed via x-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS). Experimental evidences for the co-existence of different ferromagnetic phases in the materials are reported and discussed. Two Curie points at high temperatures (>500 °C) are presented. A metamagnetic transition was observed at magnetic field H = 19.2 kOe which was related to the co-existence of ferromagnetic phases. These involve in the formation of twinning C-doped ZnO nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Formation of sol-gel prepared single phase wurtzite ZnO nanoparticles. • Two morphological C-doped ZnO nanoparticles of different grain sizes. • The room temperature ferromagnetism. • An abnormal metamagnetic transition at magnetic field H = 19.2 kOe. • Two different Curie points (T{sub C}) at 500–600 °C.

  16. Thermal lens and all optical switching of new organometallic compound doped polyacrylamide gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badran, Hussain Ali

    In this work thermal lens spectrometry (TLS) is applied to investigate the thermo-optical properties of new organometallic compound containing azomethine group, Dichloro bis [2-(2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)-5-methylphenyl] telluride platinum(II), doped polyacrylamide gel using transistor-transistor logic (TTL) modulated cw 532 nm laser beam as an excitation beam modulated at 10 Hz frequency and probe beam wavelength 635 nm at 14 mW. The technique is applied to determine the thermal diffusivities, ds/dT and the linear thermal expansion coefficient of the sample. All-optical switching effects with low background and high stability are demonstrated.

  17. Gamma ray irradiation induced optical band gap variations in silica sol-gel doped sucrose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzouki, F.; Farah, K.; Hamzaoui, A.H; Ben Ouada, H

    2015-01-01

    The silica xerogels doped sucrose was prepared via sol-gel process and exposed at room temperature to different doses of high energy ( 60 Co) gamma irradiation. Changes in the UV-visible and FTIR spectra of pristine and irradiated xerogels with varying of gamma doses rays show variation in the gap energy. It was found that energy gap of the investigated silica xerogels decreases with increasing the gamma irradiation doses. Thereby the irradiated samples reveal behaviour changes, from an insulator (Eg ∼5,8 eV) towards a semiconductor with (Eg ∼ 3.5 eV).

  18. Magnetic Characterizations of Sol-Gel-Produced Mn-Doped ZnO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Asmatulu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles of ZnO doped with 6 at.% Mn were produced by a sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction confirms the hexagonal structure as that of the parent compound ZnO, and high-resolution electron transmission microscopy reveals a single-crystallite lattice. Magnetic measurements using a superconducting quantum interference device indicate that about one half of the Mn2+ ions follow Curie's law for paramagnetism. The remaining Mn2+ ions exhibit a weak ferromagnetic character, which might be induced through canted antiferromagnetic interactions.

  19. Properties of poly(vinyl alcohol)-borax gel doped with neodymium and praseodymium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, Mathias B.; Desa, J.A.E.; Rai, Renu; Aswal, V.K.

    2014-01-01

    Neodymium and praseodymium ions, singly and in combination, have been doped into a poly(vinyl alcohol)-borax matrix. X-ray diffraction shows structural correlations from 2 to 6 Å and 15 Å, while small angle neutron scattering indicates that the rare-earth ions do not affect the nanoscale structures of the gels. Differential scanning calorimetry shows the glass transition temperature to increase with concentration of Pr in the gel. Excitation in the ultraviolet region leads to luminescent emission in the visible region. Simultaneous absorption in the visible region then leads to luminescent emission in the near infra-red region. The spectral qualities of the emission bands can be varied by choosing appropriate relative ratios of rare-earth species. (author)

  20. Normoxic polyacrylamide gel doped with iodine: Response versus X-ray energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastaldo, Jerome [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Unite 836, Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, Equipe ' Rayonnement synchrotron et recherche medicale' , Grenoble F-38043, Cedex 9 (France); Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble F-38041, Cedex 9 (France); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)], E-mail: Gastaldo.jerome@free.fr; Boudou, Caroline [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Unite 836, Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, Equipe ' Rayonnement synchrotron et recherche medicale' , Grenoble F-38043, Cedex 9 (France); Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble F-38041, Cedex 9 (France); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)], E-mail: caroline.boudou@voila.fr; Lamalle, Laurent [IFR 1, RMN Biomedicale et neuroscience, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Grenoble - Unite IRM 3T, Grenoble F-38043, Cedex 9 (France)], E-mail: Laurent.Lamalle@ujf-grenoble.fr; Tropres, Irene [IFR 1, RMN Biomedicale et neuroscience, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Grenoble - Unite IRM 3T, Grenoble F-38043, Cedex 9 (France)], E-mail: irene.tropres@ujf-grenoble.fr; Corde, Stephanie [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Grenoble, departement de Radiotherapie Grenoble F-38043, Cedex 9 (France)], E-mail: SCordetehei@chu-grenoble.fr; Sollier, Alberic; Rucka, Guenther [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Grenoble, departement de Radiotherapie Grenoble F-38043, Cedex 9 (France); Elleaume, Helene [Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Unite 836, Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, Equipe ' Rayonnement synchrotron et recherche medicale' , Grenoble F-38043, Cedex 9 (France); Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble F-38041, Cedex 9 (France); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)], E-mail: H.Elleaume@esrf.fr

    2008-12-15

    The basis of Synchrotron Stereotactic Radio-Therapy (SSRT) is the incorporation of high atomic number atoms (iodine, for example) into the tumour mass followed by an irradiation with a monochromatic, low energy, X-ray beam from a synchrotron source. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether polymer gel dosimetry could be used to measure the enhancement of absorbed energy induced by the iodine in the media. We have used a standard nPAG formulation, loaded with NaI and the irradiations were performed either with monochromatic X-rays at the ESRF medical beamline or with a conventional 6 MV X-ray beam from a linear accelerator at the Grenoble University Hospital. We observed sensitivity increase with iodine loaded gels irradiated at low energies, in good agreement with the theoretical iodine dose-enhancement. As expected, the response of the iodine-doped polymer gel was not increased after irradiation with mega-voltage X-rays. We demonstrate in this study that polymer gel dosimeters can be used for measuring dose-enhancement due to iodine presence in SSR treatment.

  1. Silica doped with lanthanum sol-gel thin films for corrosion protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abuin, M. [Department of Materials Physics, Complutense University at Madrid, Avda. Complutense sn, 28004 Madrid (Spain); Serrano, A. [Glass and Ceramic Institute, CSIC, C. Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Llopis, J. [Department of Materials Physics, Complutense University at Madrid, Avda. Complutense sn, 28004 Madrid (Spain); Garcia, M.A. [Glass and Ceramic Institute, CSIC, C. Kelsen 5, 28049 Madrid (Spain); IMDEA Nanoscience, Fco. Tomas y Valiente 7, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Carmona, N., E-mail: n.carmona@fis.ucm.es [Department of Materials Physics, Complutense University at Madrid, Avda. Complutense sn, 28004 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-06-01

    We present here anticorrosive silica coatings doped with lanthanum ions for the protection of metallic surfaces as an alternative to chromate (VI)-based conversion coatings. The coatings were synthesized by the sol-gel method starting from silicon alkoxides and two different lanthanum precursors: La (III) acetate hydrate and La (III) isopropoxide. Artificial corrosion tests in acid and alkaline media showed their effectiveness for the corrosion protection of AA2024 aluminum alloy sheets for coating prepared with both precursors. The X-ray absorption Near Edge Structure and X-ray Absorption Fine Structure analysis of the coatings confirmed the key role of lanthanum in the structural properties of the coating determining its anticorrosive properties. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silica sol-gel films doped with lanthanum ions were synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Films from lanthanum-acetate and La-alkoxide were prepared for comparison purposes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer La-acetate is an affordable chemical reactive preferred for the industry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Films properties were explored by scanning electron microscopy and X-Ray absorption spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An alternative to anticorrosive pre-treatments for metallic surfaces is suggested.

  2. Sb doping effects and oxygen adsorption in SnO2 thin films deposited via sol-gel

    OpenAIRE

    Viviany Geraldo; Luis Vicente de Andrade Scalvi; Evandro Augusto de Morais; Celso Valentim Santilli; Sandra Helena Pulcinelli

    2003-01-01

    Transparent electrically conducting antimony-doped SnO2 thin films have been prepared by sol-gel dip-coating process from colloidal aqueous suspension. The effect of doping content on the structural, optical and electrical properties is analyzed. Results from infrared optical transmission and reflection have shown that the higher the Sb concentration the lower the transmission intensity and the higher the reflection signal. Absorption intensity increases as well. Results of X-ray reflectometr...

  3. Enhanced field-dependent conductivity of magnetorheological gels with low-doped carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Hang; Yu, Miao; Fu, Jie; Yang, Pingan; Liu, Yuxuan

    2017-10-01

    Magnetorheological gels (MRG) exhibit field-dependent conductivity and controllable mechanical properties. In order to extend their application field, filling a large number of traditional conductive materials is the most common means to enhance the poor conductivity of MRG. In this study, the conductivity of MRG is improved by low-doped carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The influence of CNTs on the magnetoresistance of MRG is discussed from two aspects—the improvement in electrical conductivity and the magnetic sensitivity of conductivity variation. The percolation threshold of CNTs in MRG should be between 1 wt% and 2 wt%. The conductivity of a 4 wt% CNT-doped sample increases more than 28 000 times compared with pure MRG. However, there is a cliff-like drop for the range and rate of conductivity variation when the doping amount of CNTs is between 3 wt% and 4 wt%. Therefore, it is concluded that the optimal mass fraction of CNTs is 3%, which can maintain a suitable variation range and a strong conductivity. Compared with pure MRG, its conductivity increases by at least two orders of magnitude. Finally, a sketch of particle motion simulation is developed to understand the improving mechanism and the effect of CNTs.

  4. 5D3→7FJ emission of Tb doped sol–gel silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed Ahmed, H.A.A.; Ntwaeaborwa, O.M.; Gusowski, M.A.; Botha, J.R.; Kroon, R.E.

    2012-01-01

    Amorphous silica samples doped with 0.1 and 1 mol% of terbium (Tb) were synthesized by the sol–gel method. In addition to the green light associated with 5 D 4 → 7 F J transitions of Tb 3+ , the sample containing 0.1 mol% also emitted blue light as a result of 5 D 3 → 7 F J transitions during photoluminescence (PL) measurements. As a result of concentration quenching this blue emission was not observed for the samples doped with the higher concentration (1 mol%). However the blue 5 D 3 → 7 F J emission was observed in the 1 mol% doped samples during cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements. Since a rough calculation indicated that the excitation rate in the CL system where the blue emission is observed may be similar to a laser PL system under conditions where the blue emission is not observed, the difference is attributed to the nature of the excitation sources. It is suggested that during the CL excitation incident electrons can reduce non-luminescent Tb 4+ ions in the silica, substituting for Si 4+ ions, to the excited (Tb 3+ )⁎ state and that these are responsible for the blue emission, which does not occur during PL excitation.

  5. High quality factor Er-doped Fabry-Perot microcavities by sol-gel processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Yigang; Fortes, Luis M; Almeida, Rui M [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais/ICEMS, Instituto Superior Tecnico/TULisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Chiappini, Andrea; Ferrari, Maurizio, E-mail: yigang.li@ist.utl.p, E-mail: rui.almeida@ist.utl.p [CNR-IFN, Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, CSMFO Lab., Via alla Cascata 56/C, Povo, 38123 Trento (Italy)

    2009-10-21

    An optimized sol-gel process was developed to fabricate 1D photonic bandgap structures. Several erbium-doped Fabry-Perot microcavities were prepared and characterized. The thickest sample contained two Bragg mirrors, each having 12 distributed Bragg reflector periods of alternating silicate glass and titania layers. The total thickness of this sample reached {approx}12 {mu}m. The Er{sup 3+} photoluminescence spectra at 1.5 {mu}m were measured for the microcavities. A quality factor of 250 and an Er{sup 3+} photoluminescence enhancement of 96 times at 1.5 {mu}m have been reached. The sol-gel processing details, the crystallization of the titania films and the refractive index of the deposited materials are discussed in detail. The simulated optical spectra of the microcavities were found to agree well with the actually measured curves. These results demonstrate that the present sol-gel processing technique is of potential interest for low cost fabrication of 1D photonic bandgap devices.

  6. Extended release microparticle-in-gel formulation of octreotide: Effect of polymer type on acylation of peptide during in vitro release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaishya, Ravi D; Mandal, Abhirup; Patel, Sulabh; Mitra, Ashim K

    2015-12-30

    Polymeric microparticles (MPs)-in-gel formulations for extended delivery of octreotide were developed. We investigated influence of polymer composition on acylation of octreotide and kinetics of release during in vitro release from biodegradable polymeric formulations. Polycaprolactone (PCL), polylactic acid (PLA), polyglycolic acid (PGA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) based triblock (TB≈PCL10k-PEG2k-PCL10k) and pentablock (PBA≈PLA3k-PCL7k-PEG2k-PCL7k-PLA3k and PBB≈PGA3k-PCL7k-PEG2k-PCL7k-PGA3k) polymers were investigated. Octreotide was encapsulated in MPs using methanol-oil/water emulsion solvent evaporation method. The particles were characterized for size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, drug loading and in vitro release. Release samples were subjected to HPLC analysis for quantitation and HPLC-MS analysis for identification of native and chemically modified octreotide adducts. Entrapment efficiency of methanol-oil/water method with TB, PBA and PBB polymers were 45%, 60%, and 82%, respectively. A significant fraction of released octreotide was acylated from lactide and glycolide based PBA (53%) and PBB (92%) polymers. Substantial amount of peptide was not released from PBB polymers after 330 days of incubation. Complete release of octreotide was achieved from TB polymer over a period of 3 months with minimal acylation of peptide (13%). PCL based polymers resulted in minimal acylation of peptide and hence may be suitable for extended peptide and protein delivery. Conversely, polymers having PLA and PGA blocks may not be appropriate for peptide delivery due to acylation and incomplete release. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Heat treatment effect on the physical properties of cobalt doped TiO{sub 2} sol–gel materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samet, L., E-mail: lolwasamet@gmail.com [Institut Préparatoires aux Etudes d' Ingénieurs d' El-Manar, Université Tunis El Manar, Campus Universitaire, 2092 El Manar (Tunisia); Laboratoire de Photovoltaique de Semi-conducteur et de Nanostructure, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l' Energie, Technopole borj cedria, Bp 95, hammamm lif 2050 (Tunisia); Ben Nasseur, J.; Chtourou, R. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique de Semi-conducteur et de Nanostructure, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l' Energie, Technopole borj cedria, Bp 95, hammamm lif 2050 (Tunisia); March, K.; Stephan, O. [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, UMR 8502 CNRS - Université Paris-Sud, Bât 510, 91405 Orsay cedex (France)

    2013-11-15

    Cobalt doped and undoped TiO{sub 2} powders have been prepared by sol–gel technique and annealed at temperatures ranging from 400 °C to 1000 °C. The effects of annealing temperature on the structural, morphological and optical properties have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, electron energy-loss spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. For all doped samples there is a general reduction of the band gap energy, in comparison with undoped samples prepared in the same conditions. More specifically, experimental results indicate that cobalt doping, occurring as Co{sup 2+} ion insertion into the TiO{sub 2} (Ti{sup 4+}) host lattice, inhibits the growth of the crystallites and delays the phase transformation from anatase to rutile. Moreover, at high temperature, a secondary phase (CoTiO{sub 3}) is found to coexist with highly crystalline rutile. These structural characteristics are discussed in relation with the observed general trends for the optical properties. - Highlights: • Cobalt doped and undoped TiO{sub 2} powders have been prepared by sol–gel route. • Doping makes the band gap narrower. • Doping delays the phase transformation from anatase to rutile. • Doping inhibits the growth of the crystallites. • At high annealing temperature a CoTiO{sub 3} phase coexists with highly crystalline rutile.

  8. Ionic Liquid-Doped Gel Polymer Electrolyte for Flexible Lithium-Ion Polymer Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruisi; Chen, Yuanfen; Montazami, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Application of gel polymer electrolytes (GPE) in lithium-ion polymer batteries can address many shortcomings associated with liquid electrolyte lithium-ion batteries. Due to their physical structure, GPEs exhibit lower ion conductivity compared to their liquid counterparts. In this work, we have investigated and report improved ion conductivity in GPEs doped with ionic liquid. Samples containing ionic liquid at a variety of volume percentages (vol %) were characterized for their electrochemical and ionic properties. It is concluded that excess ionic liquid can damage internal structure of the batteries and result in unwanted electrochemical reactions; however, samples containing 40–50 vol % ionic liquid exhibit superior ionic properties and lower internal resistance compared to those containing less or more ionic liquids.

  9. Ionic Liquid-Doped Gel Polymer Electrolyte for Flexible Lithium-Ion Polymer Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruisi Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Application of gel polymer electrolytes (GPE in lithium-ion polymer batteries can address many shortcomings associated with liquid electrolyte lithium-ion batteries. Due to their physical structure, GPEs exhibit lower ion conductivity compared to their liquid counterparts. In this work, we have investigated and report improved ion conductivity in GPEs doped with ionic liquid. Samples containing ionic liquid at a variety of volume percentages (vol % were characterized for their electrochemical and ionic properties. It is concluded that excess ionic liquid can damage internal structure of the batteries and result in unwanted electrochemical reactions; however, samples containing 40–50 vol % ionic liquid exhibit superior ionic properties and lower internal resistance compared to those containing less or more ionic liquids.

  10. Nano crystals of Ni doped Zn O semiconductor by Sol-Gel combustion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrero, A.; Sagredo, V. [Universidad de Los Andes, Departamento de Fisica, Laboratorio de Magnetismo, 5101 Merida (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Larionova, J., E-mail: aneelyc@gmail.com [Universite Montpellier II, 2 Place Eugene Bataillon, 34090 Montpellier (France)

    2016-11-01

    Nanoparticles of the system Zn{sub 0.95}O were prepared by sol-gel self - combustion method and a study of their structural, optical and magnetic properties were conducted. X-ray diffraction study shows a hexagonal wurtzite structure for the nano compound. The formation of the wurtzite structure in Ni doped Zn O was further confirmed by Fourier transform infra-red spectrometry. Transmission electron microscopy revealed an average size of 31 nm for the particles. Optical absorption spectra shows that the band energy of Zn{sub 0.95}Ni{sub 0.}9{sub 5}O powders is about 2.54 eV at room temperature. A study of the magnetic properties of the nano powders of Zn O: Ni, reveals paramagnetic behavior, with interaction ferromagnetic between particles. (Author)

  11. Synthesis of nanocrystalline LaF3 doped silica glasses by hydrofluoric acid catalyzed sol–gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagayama, Shuhei; Kajihara, Koichi; Kanamura, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Silica glasses doped by LaF 3 nanocrystals are obtained by HF-catalyzed sol–gel method. ► The processing time (∼1 week) is much shorter than that of previous studies. ► The uptake of SiF groups in the glass matrix greatly reduces the SiOH concentration. ► Effects of sintering conditions and properties of Er 3+ -doped samples are presented. - Abstract: Silica glasses doped with LaF 3 nanocrystals were prepared by HF-catalyzed sol–gel method. HF was used both as fluorine source and as catalyst of the sol–gel reaction, making it possible to shorten the processing time with reducing the concentration of SiOH groups to ∼10 18 cm −3 . The resultant glasses are transparent at visible spectral range, and the optical loss at the ultraviolet absorption edge is dominated by the Rayleigh scattering from LaF 3 crystallites. The size of LaF 3 crystallites increases with an increase in the sintering temperature and time, and is smaller than ∼40 nm in samples showing good visible transparency. Green upconversion photoluminescence is observed in an Er 3+ -doped sample under excitation at 980 nm.

  12. Structural, optical, and magnetic study of Ni-doped TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, M.; Rafiq, A.; Ikram, M.; Nafees, M.; Ali, S.

    2018-02-01

    In this research, the effects of transition metal (Ni) doping to metal-oxide nanoparticles (TiO2) were studied. Various weight ratios (5, 10, 15, and 20%) of Ni-to-TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized using the sol-gel technique. These doped nanoparticles were prepared using titanium butoxide and nickel nitrate as precursors and methanol as a solvent. The effects of Ni doping to TiO2 were examined using a variety of characterization techniques, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The XRD reveals that the Ni-doped TiO2 crystallizes in a tetragonal structure with anatase phase. The particle size and lattice strain were calculated by Williamson-Hall equation. The presence of strong chemical bonding and functional groups at the interface of TiO2 nanoparticles was confirmed by FTIR. The optical properties of undoped and doped samples were recorded by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The saturation magnetization (M s) was found higher for undoped as compared to doped samples. The surface morphology and the element structure of the Ni-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were examined by FESEM.

  13. Plasmon mediated cathodic photocurrent generation in sol-gel synthesized doped SrTiO{sub 3} nanofilms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugavaneshwar, Ramu Pasupathi, E-mail: r.p.sugavaneshwar@nims.go.jp, E-mail: NAGAO.Tadaaki@nims.go.jp; Chen, Kai; Lakshminarayana, Gandham; Ishii, Satoshi; Dao, Thang Duy; Nagao, Tadaaki, E-mail: r.p.sugavaneshwar@nims.go.jp, E-mail: NAGAO.Tadaaki@nims.go.jp [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Umezawa, Naoto [CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Catalytic Materials Group, Environmental Remediation Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2015-11-01

    Thin films of SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) and Rh-doped SrTiO{sub 3} (Rh-STO) were synthesized by sol-gel method and loaded with Ag nanoparticles. Pristine STO films exhibited anodic photocurrent while Rh-STO exhibited cathodic photocurrent. An enhancement in the overall cathodic photocurrent is observed with Ag nanoparticle loading and an additional enhancement in the visible light range is seen from the incident photon-to-current efficiency spectrum due to synergetic effect of Rh doping and Ag loading in STO.

  14. Enhancement of Cerenkov luminescence imaging by dual excitation of Er(3+,Yb(3+-doped rare-earth microparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Ma

    Full Text Available Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI has been successfully utilized in various fields of preclinical studies; however, CLI is challenging due to its weak luminescent intensity and insufficient penetration capability. Here, we report the design and synthesis of a type of rare-earth microparticles (REMPs, which can be dually excited by Cerenkov luminescence (CL resulting from the decay of radionuclides to enhance CLI in terms of intensity and penetration.Yb(3+- and Er(3+- codoped hexagonal NaYF4 hollow microtubes were synthesized via a hydrothermal route. The phase, morphology, and emission spectrum were confirmed for these REMPs by power X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and spectrophotometry, respectively. A commercial CCD camera equipped with a series of optical filters was employed to quantify the intensity and spectrum of CLI from radionuclides. The enhancement of penetration was investigated by imaging studies of nylon phantoms and nude mouse pseudotumor models.the REMPs could be dually excited by CL at the wavelengths of 520 and 980 nm, and the emission peaks overlaid at 660 nm. This strategy approximately doubled the overall detectable intensity of CLI and extended its maximum penetration in nylon phantoms from 5 to 15 mm. The penetration study in living animals yielded similar results.this study demonstrated that CL can dually excite REMPs and that the overlaid emissions in the range of 660 nm could significantly enhance the penetration and intensity of CL. The proposed enhanced CLI strategy may have promising applications in the future.

  15. Enhancement of Cerenkov luminescence imaging by dual excitation of Er(3+),Yb(3+)-doped rare-earth microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaowei; Kang, Fei; Xu, Feng; Feng, Ailing; Zhao, Ying; Lu, Tianjian; Yang, Weidong; Wang, Zhe; Lin, Min; Wang, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) has been successfully utilized in various fields of preclinical studies; however, CLI is challenging due to its weak luminescent intensity and insufficient penetration capability. Here, we report the design and synthesis of a type of rare-earth microparticles (REMPs), which can be dually excited by Cerenkov luminescence (CL) resulting from the decay of radionuclides to enhance CLI in terms of intensity and penetration. Yb(3+)- and Er(3+)- codoped hexagonal NaYF4 hollow microtubes were synthesized via a hydrothermal route. The phase, morphology, and emission spectrum were confirmed for these REMPs by power X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and spectrophotometry, respectively. A commercial CCD camera equipped with a series of optical filters was employed to quantify the intensity and spectrum of CLI from radionuclides. The enhancement of penetration was investigated by imaging studies of nylon phantoms and nude mouse pseudotumor models. the REMPs could be dually excited by CL at the wavelengths of 520 and 980 nm, and the emission peaks overlaid at 660 nm. This strategy approximately doubled the overall detectable intensity of CLI and extended its maximum penetration in nylon phantoms from 5 to 15 mm. The penetration study in living animals yielded similar results. this study demonstrated that CL can dually excite REMPs and that the overlaid emissions in the range of 660 nm could significantly enhance the penetration and intensity of CL. The proposed enhanced CLI strategy may have promising applications in the future.

  16. Effect of boron doping on optical properties of sol–gel based nanostructured zinc oxide films on glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jana, Sunirmal; Vuk, Angela Surca; Mallick, Aparajita; Orel, Boris; Biswas, Prasanta Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Room temperature fine structured UV–vis PL emissions (a) as phonon replicas in 1 at.% boron doped film originated from LO phonon evidenced from Near Grazing Incidence Angle (NGIA) IR spectral study (b). Highlights: ► Sol–gel based boron doped nanostructured ZnO thin films deposited on pure silica glass using crystalline boric acid as boron source. ► Observed first time, room temperature fine structured PL emissions in 1 at.% doped film as phonon replicas originated from LO phonon (both IR and Raman active). ► Boron doping controls the LO phonon energy in addition to visible reflection, band gap and grain size. ► The films possessed mixed crystal phases with hexagonal as major phase. -- Abstract: Boron doped zinc oxide thin films (∼80 nm) were deposited onto pure silica glass by sol–gel dip coating technique from the precursor sol/solution of 4.0 wt.% equivalent oxide content. The boron concentration was varied from 0 to 2 at.% w.r.t. Zn using crystalline boric acid. The nanostructured feature of the films was visualized by FESEM images and the largest cluster size of ZnO was found in 1 at.% boron doped film (B1ZO). The presence of mixed crystal phases with hexagonal as major phase was identified from XRD reflections of the films. Particle size, optical band gap, visible specular reflection, room temperature photoluminescence (PL) emissions (3.24–2.28 eV), infra-red (IR) and Raman active longitudinal optical (LO) phonon vibration were found to be dependent on dopant concentration. For the first time, we report the room temperature fine structured PL emissions as phonon replicas originated from the LO phonon (both IR and Raman active) in 1 at.% boron doped zinc oxide film.

  17. Ce-doped YAG phosphors prepared via sol–gel method: Effect of some modular parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukerika, A., E-mail: assia1618@gmail.com [Laser Department/Nuclear Research Centre of Algiers (CRNA), 02, Boulevard Frantz Fanon, B.P. 399, Algiers 16000 (Algeria); Laboratory of Materials Study, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Jijel University, B.P. 98, Ouled Aissa, Jijel 18000 (Algeria); Guerbous, L., E-mail: guerbous@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Materials Study, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Jijel University, B.P. 98, Ouled Aissa, Jijel 18000 (Algeria); Brihi, N. [Laboratory of Materials Study, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Jijel University, B.P. 98, Ouled Aissa, Jijel 18000 (Algeria)

    2014-11-25

    Highlights: • Ce-doped YAG phosphor powders have been prepared using sol-gel method. • The influence of complexing agent and the molar ratio on some properties have been studied. • The effect of ethylene glycol and citric acid on the structural and luminescence havebeen discussed. • The specific role of molar ratio between ethylene glycol and citric acid has been studied. • The effect of pH on the pure phase and luminescence property of YAG: Ce has been discussed. - Abstract: Cerium doped yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG:Ce{sup 3+}) nanopowders have been synthesized using sol–gel method. Different synthesized parameters such as molar ratio of citric acid and ethylene glycol to the total metallic ions, complexing molar ratio and pH of the solution have been changed and their influence on structural and luminescence properties have been investigated. Thermal gravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry (TG/DSC), X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and photoluminescence (PL) have been used to characterize the samples. Single cubic phase YAG was formed with pH ⩽ 4 and for pH ⩾ 6 additional impurities crystalline phase namely Y{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9} (YAM) and YAlO{sub 3} (YAP) have been detected. All samples exhibit intense broad green–yellow emission band in the range of 460–700 nm with a maximum intensity at around 530 nm assigned to the 5d → 4f ({sup 2}F{sub 5/2}, {sup 2}F{sub 7/2}) interconfigurationnelles transitions of Ce{sup 3+} ion in YAG nanomaterial. The origin of the highest emission intensity obtained for pH = 4, citric acid to the total metallic ions of 1:1 (CA:M{sup 3+}, of 1:1) and a molar ratio of ethylene glycol:citric acid corresponding to 2:1 (EG:CA = 2:1) parameters are discussed.

  18. Proteic sol-gel synthesis of copper doped misfit Ca-cobaltites with potential SOFC application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Chrystian G.M. [Materials Science and Engineering Postgraduate Program, UFPB, 58051-900, João Pessoa (Brazil); Silva, Rinaldo M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, UFPB, 58051-900, João Pessoa (Brazil); Aquino, Flávia de M. [Alternative and Renewable Energy Center, UFPB, 58051-900, João Pessoa (Brazil); Raveau, Bernard; Caignaert, Vincent [Laboratoire CRISMAT ENSICAEN UMR CNRS 6508, 6 Boulevard du Maréchal Juin, 14050, Caen Cedex 04 (France); Cesário, Moisés R., E-mail: moises.cesario@ensicaen.fr [Laboratoire CRISMAT ENSICAEN UMR CNRS 6508, 6 Boulevard du Maréchal Juin, 14050, Caen Cedex 04 (France); Macedo, Daniel A., E-mail: damaced@gmail.com [Materials Science and Engineering Postgraduate Program, UFPB, 58051-900, João Pessoa (Brazil)

    2017-02-01

    The present work reports the synthesis, structure and electrochemical assessment of Cu-doped calcium cobaltites as cathode materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Powders of composition Ca{sub 3−x}Cu{sub x}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9−δ} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2) were obtained by a proteic sol-gel method which uses gelatin as polymerizing agent. As-prepared materials were calcined at 900 °C for 1 h and characterized by X-ray diffraction, with Rietveld refinement of the diffraction data, and scanning electron microscopy. Screen-printed porous electrodes fired (at 950 °C for 2 h) on both faces of ceria based electrolytes were electrochemically characterized by impedance spectroscopy between 600 and 800 °C in air atmosphere. The results indicated the attainment of Ca{sub 3−x}Cu{sub x}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9−δ} solid solutions with monoclinic misfit layered structure and around 2 vol% Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} as a secondary phase. Micro-plates like powders had irregular shape and average diameter near 2 μm. The area specific resistance (ASR) is in line with literature data for cathodes of similar compositions prepared by other synthetic routes. ASR was optimized for the composition Ca{sub 2.99}Cu{sub 0.01}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9−δ}, achieving 0.84 Ω cm{sup 2} at 800 °C in air. - Highlights: • Proteic sol-gel synthesis of Ca{sub 3−x}Cu{sub x}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9−δ} (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2). • Cu{sup 2+} doping enhances electrode densification. • Area specific resistance (ASR = 0.84 Ω cm{sup 2} at 800 °C) optimized for Ca{sub 2.99}Cu{sub 0.01}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9−δ}.

  19. Synthesis, Structural and Optical Characterization of Sol-Gel-Derived Y-Doped Mesoporous CeO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ying Chieh; Li, Kun-Dar; Lu, Cheng-Hsueh; Shen, Jung-Hsiung; Teoh, Lay Gaik; Chiang, Ghi Wei

    2013-08-01

    Highly crystalline and thermally stable undoped CeO2 and Y-doped mesoporous CeO2 particles have been synthesized from cerium(III) nitrate hexahydrate [Ce(NO3)3·6H2O] by the sol-gel method. Mesoporous CeO2 doped with 2 mol.% Y2O3 and calcined at 500°C possesses specific surface area of 130.39 m2/g and retains a surface area of 91.84 m2/g at 600°C. In comparison, undoped calcined materials have smaller specific surface areas of 43.23 m2/g and 20.24 m2/g at 500°C and 600°C, respectively. Results from x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) analysis indicated that the synthesized undoped CeO2 and Y-doped mesoporous CeO2 have the fluorite structure of bulk CeO2. The crystallite size of CeO2 is also considerably reduced by doping. The optical bandgap was found to be 3.24 eV for the undoped and 3.36 eV for the doped samples with calcination at 600°C. These results suggest that there are potential applications of Y-doped mesoporous CeO2 with nanocrystals in the design of photocatalysts and optical devices.

  20. Enhanced Magnetization of Sol-Gel Synthesized Pb-Doped Strontium Hexaferrites Nanocrystallites at Low Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid M. Ramay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Pb doping on the structural and low temperature magnetic properties of SrPbxFe12-xO19 (x=0,0.1,0.2,0.3,and  0.4, synthesized by sol-gel autocombustion technique, has been investigated. The powder samples were sintered at 800°C for 2 h in order to develop the stable hexagonal phase, characteristic of the SrFe12O19 structure. The consequences of Pb substitution (at iron sites on various structural parameters like lattice constants, unit cell volume, crystallite size, and porosity have been discussed. Fourier transform infrared frequency bands were utilized to determine the formation of tetrahedral and octahedral clusters of M-type ferrites. Hexagonal texture of the grains, a characteristic of the hexagonal crystal structure of SrFe12O19, was refined by Pb substitution. The magnetic properties, determined using a vibrating sample magnetometer, revealed that saturation magnetization decreased, while coercivity was increased with the increase of Pb contents. However, the increased squareness ratio and hence the energy product motivate the utilization of these ferrite compositions where hard magnetic characteristics are required. The increased values of saturation magnetization were observed at reduced temperature of 200 K, attributable to the better spin alignments of individual magnetic moments at low temperature.

  1. Sol-gel preparation of a di-ureasil electrolyte doped with lithium perchlorate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.M.; Nunes, S.C.; Barbosa, P.C.; Evans, A.; Zea Bermudez, V. de; Smith, M.J.; Ostrovskii, D.

    2006-01-01

    Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) synthesized by the sol-gel process and designated as di-ureasils have been prepared through the incorporation of lithium perchlorate, LiClO 4 , into the d-U(2000) organic-inorganic hybrid network. Electrolytes with lithium salt compositions of n (where n indicates the number of oxyethylene units per Li + ion) between ∞ and 0.5 were characterized by conductivity measurements, cyclic voltammetry at a gold microelectrode, thermal analysis and Fourier transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopy. The conductivity results obtained suggest that this system offers a quite significant improvement over previously characterized analogues doped with lithium triflate [S.C. Nunes, V. de Zea Bermudez, D. Ostrovskii, M.M. Silva, S. Barros, M.J. Smith, R.A. Sa Ferreira, L.D. Carlos, J. Rocha, E. Morales, J. Electrochem. Soc. 152 (2) (2005), A429]. 'Free' perchlorate ions, detected in all the samples examined, are identified as the main charge carriers in the sample that yields the highest room temperature conductivity (n = 20). In the di-ureasils with n ≤ 10 ionic association is favoured and the ionic conductivity drops

  2. Microstructure and magnetism of sol–gel synthesized Co-doped PbPdO{sub 2} nanograin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, T.T.; Tang, F.L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Anhui Provincial Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials and Devices, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Su, H.L., E-mail: hailinsu@hfut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Anhui Provincial Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials and Devices, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Chuang, P.Y. [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Liu, J.; Mei, C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Anhui Provincial Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials and Devices, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Huang, S.Y. [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Lee, M.K. [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); MoST Instrument Center at NCKU, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Huang, J.C.A., E-mail: jcahuang@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center and Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Wu, Y.C., E-mail: ycwu@hfut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering and Anhui Provincial Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials and Devices, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China)

    2016-06-01

    The single-phase body-centered-orthorhombic-structured Co-doped PbPdO{sub 2} thin film was obtained using the sol–gel spin-coating method and an oxidation treatment. The film had a nanograin microstructure with an average grain size of about 56 nm and a thickness of about 150 nm. The adoption of a moderate calcination temperature of 650 °C was found to be very important for preparing the single-phase-PbPdO{sub 2}-based film with a high crystalline quality. The magnetic studies exhibited that the ferromagnetism and the paramagnetism coexist within the formed Co-doped PbPdO{sub 2} film and the ferromagnetism can be maintained above room temperature. The saturation magnetization of the ferromagnetism increasing with the temperature, as the peculiar characteristic of the spin gapless semiconductor, was found within the film. The investigation on the film's X-ray absorption near-edge structure revealed that the ferromagnetism of the Co-doped PbPdO{sub 2} is intrinsic. - Highlights: • High-quality single-phase body-centered-orthorhombic-structured Co-doped PbPdO{sub 2} nanograin film was synthesized by the sol–gel spin-coating method and an oxidation treatment. • The magnetic constitution of Co-doped PbPdO{sub 2} nanograin film was clarified. • The saturation magnetization of the ferromagnetism increasing with the temperature, as the peculiar characteristic of the spin gapless semiconductor, was found within the Co-doped PbPdO{sub 2} nanograin film. • The obtained ferromagnetism can be retained to high temperature and was demonstrated to be intrinsic.

  3. Surface modification of sol–gel synthesized TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles induced by La-doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grujić-Brojčin, M., E-mail: myramyra@ipb.ac.rs [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); Armaković, S. [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Environmental Protection, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg D. Obradovića 3, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Tomić, N. [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); Abramović, B. [Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Environmental Protection, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg D. Obradovića 3, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Golubović, A.; Stojadinović, B. [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); Kremenović, A. [Faculty of Mining and Geology, Laboratory for Crystallography, University of Belgrade, Đušina 7, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Babić, B. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences “Vinča”, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Dohčević-Mitrović, Z.; Šćepanović, M. [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2014-02-15

    The influence of La-doping in the range of 0.5–6.0 mol% on structural and morphological properties of TiO{sub 2} nanopowders synthesized by sol–gel routine has been investigated by XRPD, AFM, EDS and BET measurements, as well as Raman spectroscopy. The XRPD and Raman measurements have revealed the anatase phase as dominant in all nanopowders, with crystallite size decreasing from ∼ 15 nm in pure TiO{sub 2} to ∼ 12 nm in La-doped samples. The BET data suggest that all samples are fully mesoporous, with mean pore diameters in the range of ∼ 6–8 nm. The specific surface area and the complexity of pore structure are greater in doped samples than in pure TiO{sub 2} sample. The spectroscopic ellipsometry has apparently shown that the band gap has been gradually increased with the increase of La content. The STM and STS techniques have been used successfully to evaluate the surface morphology and electronic properties of La-doped nanopowders. All investigated properties have been related to photocatalytic activity, tested in degradation of a metoprolol tartrate salt (0.05 mM), and induced by UV-radiation. All doped samples showed increased photocatalytic activity compared to pure TiO{sub 2}, among which the 0.65 mol% La-doped sample appeared to be the most efficient. - Highlights: • Effects of La-doping on structural, morphological and electronic properties of TiO{sub 2} nanopowders. • Surface morphology and electronic properties of La-doped nanopowders evaluated by STM/STS. • Spectroscopic ellipsometry shown gradual increase of bandgap with the increase of La content. • Photocatalytic activity of samples was tested in degradation of MET under UV light.

  4. Neutron and X-ray diffraction studies on pure and magnesia-doped zirconia gels decomposed in vacuo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brett, N.H.; Gonzalez, M.; Niepce, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Pure and MgO-doped zirconia gels have been decomposed in vacuo at temperatures up to 800 0 C in a furnace attachment to the D1B neutron spectrometer at Institute Laue-Langevin (ILL). The recorded neutron line profile data were analysed to obtain a measure of the crystallite size of the product phase and the growth of the crystallites with increasing temperature; phase changes occurring during heating were also monitored. Additionally, the gel powders were decomposed in situ in a high temperature attachment to a Philips diffractometer and X-ray diffraction traces were obtained during progressive heating of the samples and after thermal cycling over a range of temperatures. The peak profiles were analysed to provide both crystallite size and strain values in the decomposed powders. The crystallite size values obtained from the two studies are compared with those obtained from a parallel small angle neutron scattering (SANS) study of the same gels after calcination. (author)

  5. Spectral features and antibacterial properties of Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alireza, Samavati; A, F. Ismail; Hadi, Nur; Z, Othaman; M, K. Mustafa

    2016-07-01

    Zn1-x Cu x O (x = 0.00, 0.01, 0.03, and 0.05) nanoparticles are synthesized via the sol-gel technique using gelatin and nitrate precursors. The impact of copper concentration on the structural, optical, and antibacterial properties of these nanoparticles is demonstrated. Powder x-ray diffraction investigations have illustrated the organized Cu doping into ZnO nanoparticles up to Cu concentration of 5% (x = 0.05). However, the peak corresponding to CuO for x = 0.01 is not distinguishable. The images of field emission scanning electron microscopy demonstrate the existence of a nearly spherical shape with a size in the range of 30-52 nm. Doping Cu creates the Cu-O-Zn on the surface and results in a decrease in the crystallite size. Photoluminescence and absorption spectra display that doping Cu causes an increment in the energy band gap. The antibacterial activities of the nanoparticles are examined against Escherichia coli (Gram negative bacteria) cultures using optical density at 600 nm and a comparison of the size of inhibition zone diameter. It is found that both pure and doped ZnO nanoparticles indicate appropriate antibacterial activity which rises with Cu doping. Project supported by the Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) (Grant No. R. J1300000.7809.4F626). Dr. Samavati is thankful to RMC for postdoctoral grants.

  6. Magnetic and optical properties of manganese doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel technique

    KAUST Repository

    Omri, Karim

    2013-08-01

    Mn doped ZnO nanoparticles with different doping concentration (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 at.%) were prepared by sol-gel method using supercritical drying conditions of ethyl alcohol. The structural, morphological, optical and magnetic properties of the as-prepared nanoparticles were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV measurements and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). The structural properties showed that the undoped and Mn doped ZnO nanoparticles exhibit hexagonal wurtzite structure. From the optical studies, the transmittance in UV region was decreased with the increase of Mn concentration. For Mn doped ZnO nanoparticles the optical band gap varies between 3.34 eV and 3.22 eV. It was found that the doping Mn 2+ ions have a significant influence on the optical properties. The magnetic characterization of the samples with 1% and 5% Mn concentrations reveal diamagnetic behavior for the first one and the presence of both paramagnetic and ferromagnetic behavior for the second. The room ferromagnetic component is due to the presence of the secondary phase ZnOMn3 which is confirmed by XRD study. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of cobalt doping and annealing on properties of titania thin films prepared by sol-gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärna, R.; Joost, U.; Nõmmiste, E.; Käämbre, T.; Kikas, A.; Kuusik, I.; Hirsimäki, M.; Kink, I.; Kisand, V.

    2011-05-01

    Undoped and cobalt doped titania (TiO 2) thin films have been prepared on Si(1 0 0) monocrystal and quartz substrate using the sol-gel deposition method and annealed in air at 450, 550, 650, 750, 850, 950 and 1050 °C. Several experimental techniques (AFM, XRD, Raman spectroscopy, XRR, EDX, XPS, XAS, UV-VIS spectroscopy) have been used to characterize these films. Further more the degree of light induced hydrophilicity was estimated by measuring the contact angle of a water droplet on the film. Increase of the annealing temperature and in smaller degree also cobalt doping predispose titania crystallite growth. The rutile phase was detected at lower temperatures in the cobalt doped films than in the undoped titania films. Cobalt in the cobalt doped TiO 2 was seen to be in Co 2+ oxidation state, mainly in CoTiO 3 phase when films were annealed at temperatures higher than 650 °C. Cobalt compounds segregated into the sub-surface region and to the surface of the titania, where they formed islands. Cobalt doping red-shifted the fundamental absorption edge further into the visible range, however it did not enhance the light induced hydrophilicity of the thin film surface as compared to the undoped titania thin films.

  8. Intra-bone marrow injection of trace elements co-doped calcium phosphate microparticles for the treatment of osteoporotic rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xianyan; Xu, Sanzhong; Chen, Xiaoyi; He, Dongshuang; Ke, Xiurong; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Guojing; Liu, An; Mou, Xiaozhou; Xia, Wei; Gou, Zhongru

    2017-05-01

    Osteoporotic femur fractures are the most common fragility fracture and account for approximately one million injuries per year. Local intervention by intra-marrow injection is potentially a good choice for preventing osteoporotic bone loss when the osteoporotic femoral fracture was treated. Previously, it was shown that trace element co-doped calcium phosphate (teCaP) implants could stimulate osteoporotic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell activity in vitro and bone regeneration in femoral bone defects in osteoporotic animal models. They hypothesized that local intra-marrow injection of teCaP particles could improve bone function because the teCaP can sustain release of biologically essential inorganic minerals and improve bone remodeling in osteoporosis. The teCaP and CaP particles were synthesized in simulated body fluid with and without adding silicon, zinc and strontium ions. Female rats (8 months) were ovariectomized (OVX) or sham-operated, and then intervened in the femoral marrow space at 12 months old. Groups include: (1) saline water; (2) CaP particles; and (3) teCaP particles. After 2-3 months of intervention, the sham groups showed higher bone mineral density (MBD) in the femur, and teCaP group increased the BMD in the OVX groups. The compressive strength of the OVX-teCaP group was significantly higher than that in the OVX-CaP group. Significant differences between OVX-teCaP and OVX-CaP groups were found for bone mineral microarchitecture, bone mineral density, and trace mineral content, but not for feces composition. These results confirm the teCaP particles could suppress osteoporotic bone loss by local intramarrow injection. Therefore, this biomaterial could be used as a next-generation combination treatment for osteoporotic trauma and osteoporosis itself. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1422-1432, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Methylene blue degradation by NaTaO3 sol-gel doped with Sm and La

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres-Martinez, Leticia M.; Cruz-Lopez, Arquimedes; Juarez-Ramirez, Isaias; Meza-de la Rosa, Ma. Elena

    2009-01-01

    In this work, NaTaO 3 compounds doped with 1 M% of La and Sm, were prepared by the sol-gel (SG) method and solid state (SS) reaction; and tested as photocatalysts on the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV light. The structural characterization by X-ray powder diffraction revealed that the crystallization of the NaTaO 3 phase prepared by the sol-gel method started at 600 deg. C, reaching maximum crystallization at 800 deg. C. It was determined that the presence of Sm and La retard the crystallization of the NaTaO 3 phase. On the other hand, the compounds synthesized in this work showed particle sizes in the nanometric scale, as it was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The specific surface area of the compounds synthesized by the sol-gel method, showed values 4 times higher than those obtained by the solid state reaction, favoring their functional and photocatalytic performance in the methylene blue degradation. In addition, the best photocatalytic performance was shown by the NaTaO 3 doped with Sm and heated at 600 deg. C, having a half-life time of 65 min.

  10. Methylene blue degradation by NaTaO{sub 3} sol-gel doped with Sm and La

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Martinez, Leticia M., E-mail: letorre@fic.uanl.mx [Departmento de Ecomateriales y Energia, Facultad de Ingenieria Civil, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Cd. Universitaria, S/N San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Cruz-Lopez, Arquimedes; Juarez-Ramirez, Isaias; Meza-de la Rosa, Ma. Elena [Departmento de Ecomateriales y Energia, Facultad de Ingenieria Civil, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Cd. Universitaria, S/N San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico)

    2009-06-15

    In this work, NaTaO{sub 3} compounds doped with 1 M% of La and Sm, were prepared by the sol-gel (SG) method and solid state (SS) reaction; and tested as photocatalysts on the degradation of methylene blue (MB) under UV light. The structural characterization by X-ray powder diffraction revealed that the crystallization of the NaTaO{sub 3} phase prepared by the sol-gel method started at 600 deg. C, reaching maximum crystallization at 800 deg. C. It was determined that the presence of Sm and La retard the crystallization of the NaTaO{sub 3} phase. On the other hand, the compounds synthesized in this work showed particle sizes in the nanometric scale, as it was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The specific surface area of the compounds synthesized by the sol-gel method, showed values 4 times higher than those obtained by the solid state reaction, favoring their functional and photocatalytic performance in the methylene blue degradation. In addition, the best photocatalytic performance was shown by the NaTaO{sub 3} doped with Sm and heated at 600 deg. C, having a half-life time of 65 min.

  11. Preliminary Studies on Solid Lipid Microparticles of Loratadine for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Particle size distribution was determined by laser diffraction (LD). Drug release from microparticles was compared to that from conventional vehicles (O/W emulsion, gel and oleageneous cream) using Franz-type diffusion cells. Results: Drug content of microparticles was > 87.96 %. FT-IR and DSC analysis indicated that the ...

  12. Sb doping effects and oxygen adsorption in SnO2 thin films deposited via sol-gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviany Geraldo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Transparent electrically conducting antimony-doped SnO2 thin films have been prepared by sol-gel dip-coating process from colloidal aqueous suspension. The effect of doping content on the structural, optical and electrical properties is analyzed. Results from infrared optical transmission and reflection have shown that the higher the Sb concentration the lower the transmission intensity and the higher the reflection signal. Absorption intensity increases as well. Results of X-ray reflectometry and electron microscopy have shown that the density of films fired at 400 °C after each dip is higher than that of multi-dipped films prepared with a single annealing. Both the electrical characteristics in the dark and the increase in conductivity as function of illumination through different filters, at 190 K, evidence that the transport properties of these films are dominated by the presence of defects, including the trapping at grain boundary due to excess of oxygen.

  13. Up-conversion emission in rare earth-doped Y2Ti2O7 sol-gel thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenouvrier, P.; Boccardi, G.; Fick, J.; Jurdyc, A.-M.; Langlet, M.

    2005-01-01

    Yttrium titanate (YTO) thin films doped with rare earth elements have been deposited using the aerosol-gel process. The up-conversion emission (UPE) of films doped with erbium and/or thulium has been studied with respect to the film crystallization degree and rare earth concentration. The effects of ytterbium codoping have been considered as well. Mechanisms that control UPE of YTO films are discussed with respect to the experimental conditions. It is shown that films, which selectively emit in the blue ( 1 G 4 → 3 H 6 transition of thulium ions), green ( 2 H 11/2 → 4 I 15/2 and 4 S 3/2 → 4 I 15/2 transitions of erbium ions), or red ( 4 F 9/2 → 4 I 15/2 transition of erbium ions), can readily be achieved

  14. Electrical, dielectric and photocatalytic properties of Fe-doped ZnO nanomaterials synthesized by sol gel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacine Cherif

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fe-doped ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by sol gel technique. Fine-scale and single phase hexagonal wurtzite structure in all samples were confirmed by SEM and XRD, respectively. The band gap energy depends on the amount of Fe and was found to be in the range of 3.11–2.53 eV. The electric and dielectric properties were investigated using complex impedance spectroscopy. AC conductivity data were correlated with the barrier hopping (CBH model to evaluate the binding energy (Wm, the minimum hopping distance (Rmin and the density of states at Fermi level, N(EF. Fe doping in ZnO also improved the photocatalytic activity. Thus, the sample Zn0.95Fe0.05O showed high degradation potential towards methylene blue (MB, i.e. it degrades 90% of BM in 90 min under UV light.

  15. The magnetic characterization of Fe doped TiO{sub 2} semiconducting oxide nanoparticles synthesized by sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeganeh, M., E-mail: mahboubeh.yeganeh@yahoo.co.uk [Department of Physics, Kosar University of Bojnord, P.O. Box 94104455 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahtahmasebi, N.; Kompany, A. [Department of Physics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimipour, M. [Department of Physics, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Razavi, F. [Department of Physics, Brock University (Canada); Nasralla, N.H.S. [Electron Microscope and Thin Film Department, Physics Division, 33 El Buhouth st., Dokki, 12622 Giza (Egypt); Šiller, L. [School of Chemical Engineering and Advanced Materials, Newcastle University, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-15

    In this work Fe doped TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized at different Fe/Ti molar ratio from 1% to 5% by sol-gel technique. The post annealing of the samples was carried out at T=400, 600, and 800 °C. HRTEM of the samples revealed that the mean size of the nanoparticles increases from about 8 nm to about 100 nm as the annealing temperature increased. SQUID magnetometry of 1% and 5% Fe doped TiO{sub 2} has shown mixed ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases within the crystal while ferromagnetic order with T{sub c} about 350 K was only observed in 5% Fe:TiO{sub 2} sample annealed at T=800 °C. The oxygen vacancy mediated ferromagnetic (FM) interaction could be responsible for the observed FM.

  16. Studies of ferroelectric and dielectric properties of pure and doped barium titanate prepared by sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisen, Supriya; Mishra, Ashutosh; Jarabana, Kanaka M. [School of Physics, Vigyan Bhawan, Devi Ahilya University, Khandwa Road Indore-452001 (India)

    2016-05-23

    In this work, Barium Titanate (BaTiO{sub 3}) powders were synthesized via Sol-Gel auto combustion method using citric acid as a chelating agent. We study the behavior of ferroelectric and dielectric properties of pure and doped BaTiO{sub 3} on different concentration. To understand the phase and structure of the powder calcined at 900°C were characterized by X-ray Diffraction shows that tetragonal phase is dominant for pure and doped BTO and data fitted by Rietveld Refinement. Electric and Dielectric properties were characterized by P-E Hysteresis and Dielectric measurement. In P-E measurement ferroelectric loop tracer applied for different voltage. The temperature dependant dielectric constant behavior was observed as a function of frequency recorded on hp-Hewlett Packard 4192A, LF impedance, 5Hz-13Hz analyzer.

  17. Lanthanum-doped mesostructured strontium titanates synthesized via sol–gel combustion route using citric acid as complexing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukpanish, Polthep [Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Center of Excellence on Petrochemical and Materials Technology (PETROMAT), Chulalongkorn University, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Lertpanyapornchai, Boontawee [Program in Petrochemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Yokoi, Toshiyuki [Division of Catalytic Chemistry, Chemical Resources Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Ngamcharussrivichai, Chawalit, E-mail: Chawalit.Ng@chula.ac.th [Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Center of Excellence on Petrochemical and Materials Technology (PETROMAT), Chulalongkorn University, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2016-09-15

    In the present work, a series of lanthanum-doped mesostructured strontium titanate (LMST) materials with different La/Sr ratios were synthesized via a sol–gel combustion method in the presence of citric acid as a complexing agent and Pluronic P123 as a templating agent. The effects of the amount of doped La and calcination temperature on the physicochemical properties of the LMSTs were examined using various techniques. Powder X-ray diffraction confirmed the substitution of La{sup 3+} into the SrTiO{sub 3} lattice, generating cubic perovskite La{sub x}Sr{sub 1−x}TiO{sub 3}, for the LMST materials calcined at 600 °C. The purity and crystallinity of the desired perovskite phase were enhanced by citric acid addition. The solubility limit of La{sup 3+} substitution at an La/Sr ratio of 0.43 was determined by structural and morphological studies. Increasing the La doping amount decreased the crystallinity and compositional homogeneity, because an La-rich amorphous phase segregated on the surface, but improved the mesoporosity. N{sub 2} physisorption measurements indicated that the LMSTs had a bimodal pore size distribution, of which the larger one was characterized by the crystallite size of mixed oxides, and the specific surface area of 24.9–37.3 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. The formation of mesopores in the LMST materials synthesized via sol–gel combustion was explained based on a combination of soft- and hard-templating chemistries. - Highlights: • La-doped mesoporous SrTiO{sub 3} (LMST) was prepared first time via sol-gel combustion. • Pluronic P123 triblock copolymer was used as a cheap templating agent. • Citric acid as a complexing agent enhanced the purity and crystallinity of SrTiO{sub 3}. • The textural properties of LMST were improved by increasing the La doping amount. • Mesopore formation was explained by a combined soft- and hard-templating route.

  18. Quantum dot based on tin/titanium mixed oxide doped with europium synthesized by protein sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paganini, Paula P.; Felinto, Maria Claudia F.C.; Brito, Hermi F.

    2011-01-01

    Special luminescence biomarkers have been developed to find more sensitive fluoroimmunoassay methods. A new generation of these biomarkers is the semiconductors nanocrystals, known as quantum dots, doped with lanthanides. The use of lanthanides ions as luminescent markers has many advantages, for example a security method, low cost, high specificity and also the luminescence can be promptly measured with high sensibility and accuracy. The protein sol-gel is a modification of conventional method, in which the coconut water replacing the alkoxides normally used. The advantage is that, the proteins present in coconut water bind chemically with metal salts forming a polymer chain. This work presents nanoparticles based on tin/titanium mixed oxide doped with 3% of europium synthesized by protein sol-gel method. The nanoparticles were burned at 300 deg C, 500 deg C, 800 deg C and 1100 deg C. The samples were analyzed and characterized by thermal analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The synthesis was effective and the nanoparticles showed nanometric size and structural differences with the annealing. To be used in the fluoroimmunoassays tests, these particles need to be functionalized before be connect with biological molecules and after this process, these nanoparticles going to be submitted at gamma radiation for sterilization. (author)

  19. Quantum dot based on tin/titanium mixed oxide doped with europium synthesized by protein sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paganini, Paula P.; Felinto, Maria Claudia F.C., E-mail: paulapaganini@usp.b, E-mail: mfelinto@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Brito, Hermi F., E-mail: hefbrito@iq.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQ/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de Elementos do Bloco f

    2011-07-01

    Special luminescence biomarkers have been developed to find more sensitive fluoroimmunoassay methods. A new generation of these biomarkers is the semiconductors nanocrystals, known as quantum dots, doped with lanthanides. The use of lanthanides ions as luminescent markers has many advantages, for example a security method, low cost, high specificity and also the luminescence can be promptly measured with high sensibility and accuracy. The protein sol-gel is a modification of conventional method, in which the coconut water replacing the alkoxides normally used. The advantage is that, the proteins present in coconut water bind chemically with metal salts forming a polymer chain. This work presents nanoparticles based on tin/titanium mixed oxide doped with 3% of europium synthesized by protein sol-gel method. The nanoparticles were burned at 300 deg C, 500 deg C, 800 deg C and 1100 deg C. The samples were analyzed and characterized by thermal analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The synthesis was effective and the nanoparticles showed nanometric size and structural differences with the annealing. To be used in the fluoroimmunoassays tests, these particles need to be functionalized before be connect with biological molecules and after this process, these nanoparticles going to be submitted at gamma radiation for sterilization. (author)

  20. Investigations on electrical conductivity and dielectric properties of Na doped ZnO synthesized from sol gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabib, Asma; Sdiri, Nasr [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, B.P. 95 Hammam-Lif, 2050 (Tunisia); Elhouichet, Habib, E-mail: habib.elhouichet@fst.rnu.tn [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, B.P. 95 Hammam-Lif, 2050 (Tunisia); Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, University Tunis El Manar, Tunis 2092 (Tunisia); Férid, Mokhtar [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, Centre National de Recherches en Sciences des Matériaux, B.P. 95 Hammam-Lif, 2050 (Tunisia)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • ZnO nanoparticles doped with Na were prepared from sol-gel method. • Electric conductivity and dielectric properties were investigated. • The ZnO conductivity is estimated to be of p-type for critical Na doping of 1.5% at. - Abstract: Na doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) were elaborated by sol gel technique. The X-ray diffraction patterns show that the peaks are indexed to the hexagonal structure without any trace of an extra phase. Electric and dielectric properties were investigated using complex impedance spectroscopy. The impedance spectra were analyzed in terms of equivalent circuits involving resistors, capacitors and constant phase elements (CPE). The contribution of grain boundary resistance to the total resistance of the system is remarkable. The AC conductivity increases with temperature following the Arrhenius law, with single apparent activation energy for conduction process. The frequency dependence of the electric conductivity follows a simple power law behavior, in according to relation σ{sub AC}(ω) = σ(0) + A ω{sup s}, where s is smaller than 1. The analysis of dc conductivity indicates that the conduction is ionic in nature. The study of its variation, at fixed temperature, with Na content shows sharp decrease which is explained by the formation of Na{sub Zn} acceptor. It was found that the dc conductivity reaches its minimum value for critical Na concentration of 1.5% at which the conductivity is estimated to be of p-type. Impedance and modulus study reveals the temperature dependent non-Debye type relaxation phenomenon. Dielectric studies revealed a promising dielectric properties (relatively high ε′ at low frequencies and low loss at high frequencies). In the low-frequency region, the values of M′ tends to zero suggesting negligible or absent electrode polarization phenomenon. The frequency dependent maxima in the imaginary modulus are found to obey to Arrhenius law.

  1. Luminescent Eu3+ doped Al6Ge2O13 crystalline compounds obtained by the sol gel process for photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Lauro J. Q.; Faria Filho, Fausto M.; Gonçalves, Rogéria R.; Ribeiro, Sidney J. L.

    2018-01-01

    We synthesized pure and Eu3+ doped Al6Ge2O13 samples by an easy and low-cost sol-gel route using the GeO2, Al(NO3)3·9H2O and Eu(NO3)3·6H2O as precursors, tetramethylammonium hydroxide and ethanol as solvents. The Al6Ge2O13 crystalline phase possesses orthorhombic structure and is a potential host for rare earth ions, especially due to high aluminum concentration. Homogeneous and transparent sols and gels were obtained. The samples containing 1 mol% of Eu3+ were heat-treated at 1000 °C to eliminate organic compounds, providing high optical quality and structural purity. All materials were characterized by thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, diffuse reflectance spectra in the ultraviolet-visible-near infrared regions and photoluminescence measurements. High purity of Eu3+ doped Al6Ge2O13 orthorhombic phase and well crystallized grain dimensions of around 100 nm was obtained with high red photoluminescence emission. The decay lifetime of 5D0 level from Eu3+ (the emission at 612 nm) was determined, being between 0.97 and 2.12 ms, and an average quantum efficiency of 54% was determined (considering the average experimental lifetime of 1.77 ms). Moreover, it was calculated and analyzed some parameters of Judd-Ofelt theory applied to Eu3+ emissions from Al6Ge2O13 host. The results show that Eu3+ doped Al6Ge2O13 crystalline compounds have large potential to be used in displays and LED devices.

  2. Deposition of tin oxide doped with fluorine produced by sol-gel method and deposited by spray-pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maia, Paulo Herbert Franca; Lima, Francisco Marcone; Sena, Aline Cosmo de; Silva, Alvaro Neuton; Almeida, Ana Fabiola Leite de; Freire, Francisco Nivaldo Aguiar, E-mail: phfmj@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: marconeufc@gmail.com, E-mail: alinedesena@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: alvaro_neutron@hotmail.com, E-mail: anfaleal@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: nivaldo@ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFCE), CE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Solar energy is one of the most important sources of renewable energy today, but its production is based on silicon cells, expensive and difficult to produce, so the research seek new materials to replace them. This work aims to deposit tin oxide doped with fluorine on the glass substrate using the sol-gel method to provide a working solution and spray pyrolysis technique to perform the deposition. F-SnO2 (FTO) were synthesized by sol-gel method, employing NH{sub 4}F and SnCl{sub 2} precursor in an ethanol solution. Before the formation of the gel phase, the entire solution was sprayed, with the aid of a pistol aerographic substrate under heated at 600 °C divided by 50 applications and cooled in the furnace. The substrates had resistances between 10 and 30 S.cm. The energy dispersive x-ray (EDS) revealed the presence of fluorine in the SnO{sub 2} network. (author)

  3. Fabrication and characterization of cerium-doped barium titanate inverse opal by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Yi; Zhu Yihua; Yang Xiaoling; Li Chunzhong; Zhou Jinghong

    2007-01-01

    Cerium-doped barium titanate inverted opal was synthesized from barium acetate contained cerous acetate and tetrabutyl titanate in the interstitial spaces of a polystyrene (PS) opal. This procedure involves infiltration of precursors into the interstices of the PS opal template followed by hydrolytic polycondensation of the precursors to amorphous barium titanate and removal of the PS opal by calcination. The morphologies of opal and inverse opal were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The pores were characterized by mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) investigation showed the doping structure of cerium, barium and titanium. And powder X-ray diffraction allows one to observe the influence of doping degree on the grain size. The lattice parameters, crystal size and lattice strain were calculated by the Rietveld refinement method. The synthesis of cerium-doped barium titanate inverted opals provides an opportunity to electrically and optically engineer the photonic band structure and the possibility of developing tunable three-dimensional photonic crystal devices. - Graphical abstract: Cerium-doped barium titanate inverted opal was synthesized from barium acetate acid contained cerous acetate and tetrabutyl titanate in the interstitial spaces of a PS opal, which involves infiltration of precursors into the interstices of the PS opal template and removal of the PS opal by calcination

  4. Microparticles in cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanWijk, Marja J.; VanBavel, E.; Sturk, A.; Nieuwland, R.

    2003-01-01

    Microparticles are membrane vesicles released from many different cell types. There are two mechanisms that can result in their formation, cell activation and apoptosis. In these two mechanisms, different pathways are involved in microparticle generation. Microparticle generation seems to be a well

  5. Variation in Structural and Optical Properties of Al Doped ZnO Nanoparticles Synthesized by Sol-gel Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanaja Aravapalli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on analyzing structural and optical properties of Al doped ZnO (AZO synthesized with two different precursors aluminum chloride and aluminum nitrate. The nanoparticles were successfully fabricated and characterized at room temperature by sol-gel process. The objective of improving properties of ZnO nanoparticles by introducing dopants was successful with formation of nanoparticles having different crystalline sizes, optical absorption and luminescence properties. The two different sources influenced properties of ZnO. The particles with less crystalline size obtained from aluminum nitrate. Change in morphology from spherical to bar like morphology proved from SEM spectra. Presence of functional groups predicted from FTIR spectra. PL spectra proved UV emission and visible emission for AZO nanoparticles synthesized using dopant sources aluminum chloride and aluminum nitrate respectively. The obtained properties prove successful utilization of AZO nanoparticles as building materials in fabrication of optoelectronic devices.

  6. Synthesis of Er and Er : Yb doped sol–gel derived silica glass and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    doped samples showed enhanced absorption due to 2F7/2 → 2F5/2 transition. The absorption and ... Er3+ emission transition occurs within this wavelength ... reagent) grade. Calculated amount of dopant salts were poured in TEOS under stirring condition at room tem- perature. The molar ratio of TEOS : H2O : HCl was.

  7. Sol-gel processed magnesium-doped silica membranes with improved H2/CO2 separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karakiliç, Pelin; Huiskes, Cindy; Luiten-Olieman, Maria W.J.; Nijmeijer, Arian; Winnubst, A.J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Magnesium-doped silica membranes were synthesized and a large increase in H2/CO2 permselectivity is achieved as compared to undoped silica membranes. Three magnesium concentrations were studied, namely 10, 15 and 20 mol%, in order to find the optimal Mg-concentration for the highest H2/CO2

  8. Gel-hydrothermal synthesis of carbon and boron co-doped TiO{sub 2} and evaluating its photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Yongmei; Xing Mingyang [Key Lab for Advanced Materials and Institute of Fine Chemicals, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhang Jinlong, E-mail: jlzhang@ecust.edu.cn [Key Lab for Advanced Materials and Institute of Fine Chemicals, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2011-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Carbon and boron co-doped TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts were prepared firstly by the gel-hydrothermal method, which presented excellent visible light photocatalytic activities, resulting from the coke carbon photosensitization and B-N synergistic effect. Display Omitted Highlights: {yields} Carbon and boron co-doped TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts with larger surface area were prepared firstly by the gel-hydrothermal method. {yields} Surface coke carbon photosensitization effect is responsible for its high photocatalytic activity in the visible light irradiation. {yields} B-C synergistic effects play the major role in its effective photo-degradation of 2,4-DCP under the visible light. - Abstract: Carbon and boron co-doped TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts were prepared firstly by the gel-hydrothermal method, that is, synthesized through sol-gel process followed by hydrothermal in the glucose solution. The prepared photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, Raman spectra, TEM, N{sub 2} physical adsorption, XPS, and UV-vis absorption spectra. It was found that the co-doped TiO{sub 2} has a larger BET surface areas and a narrower band gap than undoped TiO{sub 2}. The experimental results show that the coke carbon generated on the carbon doped TiO{sub 2} surface act as a photosensitizer and has the photosensitization effect under the visible light. Except for carbon sensitization effect, the boron and carbon co-doped TiO{sub 2} has synergistic effect which is responsible for effective photo-degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol in the visible light irradiation.

  9. Cu-Doped ZnO Thin Films Deposited by a Sol-Gel Process Using Two Copper Precursors: Gas-Sensing Performance in a Propane Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heberto Gómez-Pozos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the propane gas-sensing properties of Cu-doped ZnO thin films is presented in this work. The films were deposited on glass substrates by sol-gel and dip coating methods, using zinc acetate as a zinc precursor, copper acetate and copper chloride as precursors for doping. For higher sensitivity values, two film thickness values are controlled by the six and eight dippings, whereas for doping, three dippings were used, irrespective of the Cu precursor. The film structure was analyzed by X-ray diffractometry, and the analysis of the surface morphology and film composition was made through scanning electron microscopy (SEM and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS, respectively. The sensing properties of Cu-doped ZnO thin films were then characterized in a propane atmosphere, C3H8, at different concentration levels and different operation temperatures of 100, 200 and 300 °C. Cu-doped ZnO films doped with copper chloride presented the highest sensitivity of approximately 6 × 104, confirming a strong dependence on the dopant precursor type. The results obtained in this work show that the use of Cu as a dopant in ZnO films processed by sol-gel produces excellent catalysts for sensing C3H8 gas.

  10. Low-cost growth of magnesium doped gallium nitride thin films by sol-gel spin coating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, N. Mohd; Ng, S. S.

    2018-01-01

    Low-cost sol-gel spin coating growth of magnesium (Mg) doped gallium nitride (GaN) thin films with different concentrations of Mg was reported. The effects of the Mg concentration on the structural, surface morphology, elemental compositions, lattice vibrational, and electrical properties of the deposited films were investigated. X-ray diffraction results show that the Mg-doped samples have wurtzite structure with preferred orientation of GaN(002). The crystallite size decreases and the surface of the films with pits/pores were formed, while the crystalline quality of the films degraded as the Mg concentration increases from 2% to 6. %. All the Raman active phonon modes of the wurtzite GaN were observed while a broad peak attributed to the Mg-related lattice vibrational mode was detected at 669 cm-1. Hall effect results show that the resistivity of the thin films decreases while the hole concentration and hall mobility of thin films increases as the concentration of the Mg increases.

  11. Optical characterization of pure and Al-doped ZnO prepared by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belka, Radosław; Keczkowska, Justyna; Kasińska, Justyna

    2016-09-01

    In this paper the preparation process and optical characterization of pure and Al3+ doped zinc oxide (Al:ZnO) coatings will be presented. ZnO based materials have been studied extensively due to their potential applications in optoelectronic devices as conductive gas sensors, transparent conductive, electrodes, solar cell windows, varistors, UVfilters or photovoltaic cells. It is II-VI semiconductor with wide-band gap of 3.37 eV and large exciton binding energy of 60meV. It is possible to improve the conductivity of ZnO coating by intentionally doping ZnO with aluminium ions during preparation process. Such transparent and conducting thin films, known as AZO (Aluminium Zinc Oxide) films, are very good candidate for application as transparent conducting materials in many optoelectronic devices. The well-known sol-gel method is used for preparation of solution, coated on glass substrates by dip coating process. Prepared samples were investigated by Raman and UV-VIS spectroscopy. Transmittance as well as specular and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy methods were used for studies of optical parameters. We found that Al admixture influences on optical bandgap of ZnO.

  12. Enhanced photoelectrochemical performance of Ti-doped hematite thin films prepared by the sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Xiaojuan; Yang, Xin; Liu, Shangjun; Xu, Ying; Jiang, Chunping; Chen, Jinwei; Wang, Ruilin

    2012-01-01

    Ti-doped α-Fe2O3 thin films were successfully prepared on FTO substrates by the sol-gel route. Hematite film was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The XRD data showed α-Fe2O3 had a preferred (1 1 0) orientation which belonged to the rhombohedral system. Interestingly, the grains turned into worm-like shape after annealed at high temperature. The IPCE could reach 32.6% at 400 nm without any additional potential vs. SCE. Titanium in the lattice can affect the photo electro chemical performance positively by increasing the conductivity of the thin film. So the excited electrons and holes could live longer, rather than recombining with each other rapidly as undoped hematite. And the efficient carrier density on the Ti-doped anode surface was higher than the undoped anode, which contribute to the well PEC performance.

  13. Properties of poly(vinyl alcohol)–borax gel doped with neodymium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    alcohol)–borax matrix. X-ray diffraction shows structural correlations from 2 to 6 Е and 15 Е, while small angle neutron scattering indicates that the rare-earth ions do not affect the nanoscale structures of the gels. Differential scanning calorimetry shows the glass transition temperature to increase with concentration of Pr in ...

  14. Sol-gel synthesis of cerium doped yttrium silicates and their luminescent properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, J.; Nižňanský, D.; Nikl, Martin; Kučerková, Romana; Cannas, C.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 2 (2010), 229-234 ISSN 0884-2914 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN300100802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : YSO:Ce * YPS:Ce * sol-gel method * luminescence Ce3+ Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.395, year: 2010

  15. Thin-film silica sol-gels doped with ion responsive fluorescent lipid bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, D.Y.; Shea, L.E.; Sinclair, M.B.

    1999-01-12

    A metal ion sensitive, fluorescent lipid-b i layer material (5oA PSIDA/DSPC) was successfully immobilized in a silica matrix using a tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) sol-gel procedure. The sol-gel immobilization method was quantitative in the entrapment of seif-assembled Iipid-bilayers and yielded thin films for facile configuration to optical fiber piatforms. The silica matrix was compatible with the solvent sensitive lipid bilayers and provided physical stabilization as well as biological protection. Immobilization in the silica sol-gel produced an added benefit of improving the bilayer's metal ion sensitivity by up to two orders of magnitude. This enhanced performance was attributed to a preconcentrator effect from the anionic surface of the silica matrix. Thin gels (193 micron thickness) were coupled to a bifurcated fiber optic bundle to produce a metal ion sensor probe. Response times of 10 - 15 minutes to 0.1 M CUCIZ were realized with complete regeneration of the sensor using an ethylenediarninetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution.

  16. Preparation and Scintillating Properties of Sol-Gel Eu3+, Tb3+ Co-Doped Lu2O3 Nanopowders

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesús Morales Ramírez, Ángel; Murillo, Antonieta García; de Jesús Carrillo Romo, Felipe; Hernández, Margarita García; Palmerin, Joel Moreno; Guerrero, Rosario Ruiz

    2011-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Eu3+, Tb3+ co-doped Lu2O3 powders with a maximum size of 25.5 nm were prepared by the sol-gel process, using lutetium, europium and terbium nitrates as precursors, and ethanol as a solvent. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) were used to study the chemical changes during the xerogel annealing. After the sol evaporation at 100 °C, the formed gel was annealed from 300 to 900 °C for 30 min under a rich O2 atmosphere, and the yielded product was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to characterize the microstructural behavior and confirm the crystalline structure. The results showed that Lu2O3 nanopowders start to crystallize at 400 °C and that the crystallite size increases along with the annealing temperature. A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study of samples annealed at 700 and 900 °C was carried out in order to analyze the microstructure, as well as the size, of crystallites. Finally, in regard to scintillating properties, Eu3+ dopant (5 mol%), Tb3+ codoped Lu2O3 exhibited a typical red emission at 611 nm (D°→7F2), furthermore, the effect of Tb3+ molar content (0.01, 0.015 and 0.02% mol) on the Eu3+ radioluminiscence was analyzed and it was found that the higher emission intensity corresponds to the lower Tb3+ content. PMID:22016655

  17. Mechanical characterization of aluminum doped zinc oxide (Al:ZnO) nanorods prepared by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Huang, N.; Staedler, T.; Sun, C.; Jiang, X.

    2013-01-01

    The surface and bucking instabilities of vertical well-aligned aluminum doped ZnO nanorods on the lime-glass substrates prepared using the sol-gel method are characterized by nanoindentation tests. Comprehensive structural analysis by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy reveal that the ZnO nanorods are grown as a single crystal along the [0 0 2] direction without any dislocation. Uniaxial compression tests of individual nanorods with the Berkovich and a conical indenter and of group of nanorods with flat punch indenter have been carried out. Using the Euler buckling model, the elastic moduli of ZnO nanorods using these three different indenters are within the range of 175-256 GPa. We discuss the relative merits of these two approaches for the determination of the elastic properties of ZnO nanorods, particularly considering the difference and difficulties of each approach. The ZnO nanorods prepared by the sol-gel method are mechanically strong and may assist the development of the applications of one dimensional nanorods.

  18. Effect of Al and N Doping on Structural and Optical Properties of Sol-Gel Derived ZnO Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangbai, C.; Chongsri, K.; Pecharapa, W.; Techitdheera, W.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the preparation of ZnO, N-doped ZnO (NZO), Al-doped ZnO (AZO) and Al, N-doped ZnO (ANZO) thin films by the sol-gel spin-coating method is reported. The structural properties and surface morphologies of films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). The optical properties of the films were interpreted from their transmission spectra using UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The XRD and SEM results disclosed that the crystallization quality and grain size of as-prepared films were highly influenced by N and Al doping. UV-VIS spectrophotometer results indicated that Al and N additives could significantly enhance the optical transparency and induce the blue-shift in optical bandgap of ZnO films. (author)

  19. Characterization of selenium doped silica glasses synthesized by sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, R.A.; Toffoli, S.M., E-mail: toffoli@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais

    2012-07-01

    Selenium is a rare element in nature. It is used in the food, pharmaceutical, and glass industries. In commercial glasses, selenium is the element responsible for most of the pink or light red color, but its effect is primarily dependent on the oxidation state of the element in the glassy matrix. Besides, selenium is highly volatile, and as high as 80 wt% may be lost in the furnace during the industrial glass elaboration. The sol– gel method yields synthesized materials of high purity and homogeneity, and uses low processing temperatures. Samples of silica glass were obtained by sol-gel method, incorporating precursors of selenium, with the main objective of reducing selenium losses during its heating. The results of optical absorption, XRD and thermal analysis (TGA, DSC) of the glasses are presented and discussed. (author)

  20. Characterization of selenium doped silica glasses synthesized by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, R.A.; Toffoli, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Selenium is a rare element in nature. It is used in the food, pharmaceutical, and glass industries. In commercial glasses, selenium is the element responsible for most of the pink or light red color, but its effect is primarily dependent on the oxidation state of the element in the glassy matrix. Besides, selenium is highly volatile, and as high as 80 wt% may be lost in the furnace during the industrial glass elaboration. The sol– gel method yields synthesized materials of high purity and homogeneity, and uses low processing temperatures. Samples of silica glass were obtained by sol-gel method, incorporating precursors of selenium, with the main objective of reducing selenium losses during its heating. The results of optical absorption, XRD and thermal analysis (TGA, DSC) of the glasses are presented and discussed. (author)

  1. Chitosan-doped-hybrid/TiO2 nanocomposite based sol-gel coating for the corrosion resistance of aluminum metal in 3.5% NaCl medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J, Balaji; M G, Sethuraman

    2017-11-01

    The study outlines the role of chitosan, a biopolymer on corrosion behavior of Hy/nano-TiO 2 based sol-gel coating over aluminum metal. In this study organic-inorganic hybrid sols were synthesized through hydrolysis and condensation of 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxy silane (GPTMS), tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and titanium (IV) isopropoxide (TIP) in acidic solution. Chitosan was doped into sol-gel matrix and self-assembled over aluminum substrate. The resultant chitosan-doped-Hy/nano-TiO 2 sol-gel coating was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectra, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) analyses. The as-tailored aluminum substrate was evaluated for corrosion resistance in neutral medium. The protection ability of these coatings was evaluated by electrochemical impedance studies (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization (PP) measurements in 3.5% NaCl medium. The EIS and PP results showed that chitosan-doped- Hy/nano-TiO 2 sol-gel coating exhibited better protection from corrosion than the undoped Hy/TiO 2 nanocomposite coating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhancement of the Ultraviolet Photoresponsivity of Al-doped ZnO Thin Films Prepared by using the Sol-gel Spin-coating Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wookbin; Leem, Jae-Young

    2018-03-01

    We report the structural, morphological, optical, and ultraviolet (UV) photoresponse properties of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films prepared on silicon substrates with different Al doping concentrations by using the sol-gel spin-coating method. An analysis of the X-ray diffraction patterns of the AZO thin films revealed that the average grain size decreased and the c-axis lattice constant increased with Al content. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy images showed that with Al doping, the grain size decreased, but the film density increased with increasing Al doping concentration from 0% to 3%. These results indicate that the surface area of the film increased with increasing Al doping. The absorbance spectra revealed that the UV absorbance of the AZO thin films increased with increasing Al doping concentration and that the absorption onset shifted towards lower energies. The photoluminescence spectra revealed that with increasing Al doping, the intensity of the visible emission greatly decreased and the visible emission peak shifted forward lower energy (a red shift). The UV sensor based on the AZO thin films exhibited a higher responsivity than that based on the undoped ZnO thin film. Therefore, this study provides a facile method for improving the photoresponsivity of UV sensors.

  3. Surface characterisation and photocatalytic performance of N-doped TiO2 thin films deposited onto 200 nm pore size alumina membranes by sol–gel methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grilli, R.; Di Camillo, D.; Lozzi, L.; Horovitz, I.; Mamane, H.; Avisar, D.; Baker, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane filtration is employed for water treatment and wastewater reclamation purposes, but membranes alone are unable to remove pollutant molecules and certain pathogens. Photocatalytically active N-doped TiO 2 coatings have been deposited by sol–gel onto 200 nm pore size alumina membranes for water treatment applications using two different methods, via pipette droplets or spiral bar applicator. The uncoated and coated membranes were characterised by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). Both coatings showed the presence of N-doped anatase, with a surface coverage between 84 and 92%, and nitrogen concentration (predominantly interstitial) of 0.9 at.%. The spiral bar applicator deposited coatings exhibit a thicker mud-cracked surface layer with limited penetration of the porous membrane, whilst the pipette deposited coatings have mostly penetrated into the bulk of the membrane and a thinner layer is present at the surface. The photocatalytic activity (PCA), measured through the degradation of carbamazepine (CBZ), under irradiation of a solar simulator was 58.6% for the pipette coating and 63.3% for the spiral bar coating. These photocatalytically active N-doped sol–gel coated membranes offer strong potential in forming the fundamental basis of a sunlight based water treatment system. - Highlights: • Sol gel N-doped TiO 2 thin films were deposited on 200 nm pore size Al 2 O 3 membranes. • Two sol–gel methods have been compared – pipette drop and spiral bar deposition. • The coatings showed a similar microstructure and composition but different morphology. • The PCA (degradation of carbamazepine) was ∼60% for both sol–gel coatings. • The coated membranes are promising for use in a membrane based water treatment system

  4. Fabrication and Characterization of Fe doped SiO{sub 2} Composite Membranes by a Reverse Micelle and Sol-Gel Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Yeong; Son, Jeong Hun; Bae, Dong Sik [School of Nano and Advanced Materials Eng., Changwon National University, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Kyu Hong, E-mail: dsbae7@changwon.ac.kr [School of Nano and Advanced Material Eng., Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-29

    Fe doped SiO{sub 2} nano composites powders were synthesized by a reverse micelle and sol-gel process. The average particle size of the mixed sol was below 25 nm and well dispersed in the solution. TEM results show the microstructure of Fe doped SiO{sub 2} composite was homogeneous and Fe was below 5nm and Fe well dispersed in ceramic nano particles. Fe doped SiO{sub 2} composite membranes were fabricated by sol-gel process. It was observed that Fe doped SiO{sub 2} composite membranes showed a crack-free microstructure and narrow particle size distribution even after heat treatment up to 500 deg. C. The average particle size of the membrane was 30-40nm, and the pore size of Fe doped SiO{sub 2} nano composite membrane was below 10 nm. The particle size of Pt after heat treatment at 500 deg. C was below 8nm.

  5. Moessbauer studies of SnO2 powders doped with dilute 57Fe, prepared by a sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomur, K.; Sakuma, J.; Takeda, M.

    2006-01-01

    Diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) is prospected as new materials with both semiconductor and magnetic properties. In order to confirm these phenomena, we prepared the powders of SnO 2 doped with various amount of 57 Fe by a sol-gel method. Various compositions of Sn 1-x 57 Fe x O 2 were obtained by mixing some ratio of Fe 3+ nitrate solution and acetylacetonate Sn 4+ complex in the ethylene glycol and citric acid solution. The solutions were evaporated, ashed at around 200 grad C, and finally annealed at 500 grad C, 600 grad C, and 650 grad C, respectively. These Sn 1-x 57 Fe x O 2 (x=0.005, 0.01, 0.03 and 0.05) were measured by XRD, VSM, and Moessbauer spectrometry. The prepared powder samples were confirmed to be a rutile structure, but iron compounds were not detected by XRD. Moessbauer spectra of Sn 1-x 57 Fe x O 2 prepared at 500 grad C were shown in Fig. 1. A small amount of broad sextets were observed in MS spectra of Sn 1-x 57 Fe x O 2 in addition to paramagnetic components. The relative intensity seems to be strong with the decrease of the amount of doped Fe. Moessbauer spectrum at 10 K shows clearly the magnetic components. The magnetic sextet was observed in MS spectra of samples prepared at 650 grad C, but the magnetic behavior weakened because of antiferromagnetic α-Fe 2 O 3 , produced due to the phase separation at high temperatures. (authors)

  6. Sol gel silica doped catalysts. A structural study by means of USANS, SANS and IANS measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagliaro, M.; Celso, F.Lo.; Ciriminna, R.; Triolo, A.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. SiO 2 xerogel obtained with the sol-gel technology followed by heat treatment have interesting structural properties which make them promising matrices for catalysts. Recently, nitroxyl radicals have been entrapped in SiO 2 sol-gel matrices, and used as catalysts for selective oxidations. The immobilised nitroxyl radicals proved to be stable, leach proof and recyclable. Occasionally, the catalytic efficiency dropped upon recycling, owing to pore blockage but the activity could be restored by treatment with hot water. In order to investigate the structure of these materials, Ultra Small Angle Neutron Scattering (USANS) results have been combined with Time of flight Small Angle Neutron Scattering (TOF SANS), spanning 6 decades in momentum transfer, for samples in which the radicals were physically entrapped and samples containing radicals chemically entrapped. The structural details obtained for the different samples have been analysed and compared in an attempt to correlate the structural details with the catalytic activity. (author)

  7. Structural and photodegradation behaviors of Fe{sup 3+}-doping TiO{sub 2} thin films prepared by a sol–gel spin coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Huey-Jiuan; Yang, Tien-Syh [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National United University, 1 Lien-Da, Kung-Ching Li, Miao-Li 36003, Taiwan (China); Wang, Moo-Chin, E-mail: mcwang@kmu.edu.tw [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 80782, Taiwan (China); Hsi, Chi-Shiung, E-mail: chsi@nuu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National United University, 1 Lien-Da, Kung-Ching Li, Miao-Li 36003, Taiwan (China)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Pure and various Fe{sup 3+}-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films have been successfully fabricated. • The phase of all thin films was single phase of anatase TiO{sub 2} when calcined at 823 K. • The crystallinity of TiO{sub 2} thin films decreased as Fe{sup 3+}-doping increased. • The photodegradation of each sample increased as the irradiation time increased. • The photodegradation increased as Fe{sup 3+}-doping increased at a fixed irradiation time. - Abstract: Pure and various Fe{sup 3+}-doping TiO{sub 2} thin films have been successfully fabricated on glass substrate prepared by a sol–gel spin coating route. The structural and photodegradation behavior of these films after calcined at various temperatures for 1 h were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence (PL) spectrum and degradation of 1.0 × 10{sup −5} M methylene blue solution. When all thin films after calcined at 823 K for 1 h, the crystalline phase are comprised only contained single phase of anatase TiO{sub 2}. The crystallinity of various Fe{sup 3+}-doping TiO{sub 2} thin films decreases with Fe{sup 3+}-doping concentration increased. The PL intensity of all thin films also decreases with Fe{sup 3+}-doping concentration increased. When all various Fe{sup 3+}-doping TiO{sub 2} thin films after calcined at 823 K for 1 h, the photodegradation of each sample increases with irradiation time increased. Moreover, the photodegradation also increases with Fe{sup 3+}-doping concentration increased when fixed at constant irradiation time.

  8. Thermochromic properties of W-doped VO2 thin films deposited by aqueous sol-gel method for adaptive infrared stealth application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongqing; Cheng, Haifeng; Xing, Xin; Zhang, Chaoyang; Zheng, Wenwei

    2016-07-01

    The W doped VO2 thin films with various W contents were successfully deposited by aqueous sol-gel method followed by a post annealing process. The derived thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Besides, the resistance-temperature relationship and infrared emissivity in the waveband 7.5-14 μm were analyzed, and the effects of W doping on the thermochromic properties of VO2 thin films were studied. The results show that W atoms enter the crystal lattice of VO2 and the transition temperature decreases gradually with increasing doping amount of W. The emissivity of VO2-W-4% thin films has dropped to 0.4 when its real temperature is above 30 °C. The thermal infrared images were also examined under different temperature by thermal imager. The results indicate that the temperature under which W doped VO2 thin films begin to have lower emissivity decreases gradually with increasing doping amount of W. W doped VO2 thin films can control its infrared radiation intensity actively at a lower temperature level of 30 °C, which has great application prospects in the adaptive infrared stealth technology.

  9. Nanomaterial Host Bands Effect on the Photoluminescence Properties of Ce-Doped YAG Nanophosphor Synthesized by Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Guerbous

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerium trivalent (Ce3+ doped YAG nano-sized phosphors have been successfully synthesized by sol-gel method using different annealing temperatures. The samples have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermogravimetry (TG, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, and steady photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that the pure cubic phase YAG was formed and strongly depends on the cerium content and the annealing temperature. It was found that the grain size ranges from 30 to 58 nm depending on the calcination temperature. The YAG: Ce nanophosphors showed intense, green-yellow emission, corresponding to Ce3+ 5d1→2F5/2, 2F7/2 transitions and its photoluminescence excitation spectrum contains the two Ce3+ 4f1→5d1, 5d2 bands. The crystal filed splitting energy levels positions 5d1 and 5d2 and the emission transitions blue shift with annealing temperatures have been discussed. It was found that the Ce3+ 4f1 ground state position relative to valence band maximum of YAG host nanomaterial decreases with increasing the temperature.

  10. Low-Temperature Sol-Gel Synthesis of Nitrogen-Doped Anatase/Brookite Biphasic Nanoparticles with High Surface Area and Visible-Light Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Jiang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen doping in combination with the brookite phase or a mixture of TiO2 polymorphs nanomaterials can enhance photocatalytic activity under visible light. Generally, nitrogen-dopedanatase/brookite mixed phases TiO2 nanoparticles obtained by hydrothermal or solvothermal method need to be at high temperature and with long time heating treatment. Furthermore, the surface areas of them are low (<125 m2/g. There is hardly a report on the simple and direct preparation of N-doped anatase/brookite mixed phase TiO2 nanostructures using sol-gel method at low heating temperature. In this paper, the nitrogen-doped anatase/brookite biphasic nanoparticles with large surface area (240 m2/g were successfully prepared using sol-gel method at low temperature (165 °C, and with short heating time (4 h under autogenous pressure. The obtained sample without subsequent annealing at elevated temperatures showed enhanced photocatalytic efficiency for the degradation of methyl orange (MO with 4.2-, 9.6-, and 7.5-fold visible light activities compared to P25 and the amorphous samples heated in muffle furnace with air or in tube furnace with a flow of nitrogen at 165 °C, respectively. This result was attributed to the synergistic effects of nitrogen doping, mixed crystalline phases, and high surface area.

  11. Optical response of Ce(III and Eu(II doped hybrid materials synthesised by Sol-Gel processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordoncillo, E.

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the preparation of two hybrid organic-inorganic matrices via sol–gel, starting from alkylalkoxisilanes Si(CH3(OCH2CH33 (MTEOS–SiH(CH3(OCH2CH32 (MDES, A system, and SiH(CH3(OCH2CH32 (MDES SiH(OCH2CH33 (TREOS, B system, together with zirconium n-propoxide. Another type-A is carried out by adding acetylacetone, A-acac system. The matrices are characterised by infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-MAS, and chemical analysis. Optical characteristics of the matrices have been studied. A-acac and B matrices are doped with an Eu(III salt, and A and B matrices are doped with a Ce(IV salt. Absorption and emission studies show the presence of Eu(II and Ce(III. The transition metal alkoxide that catalysed cleavage of the Si–H bonds was used to reduce in situ at room temperature, the rare earth cations. Depending on chemical strategy, the resulting hybrid materials can be processed as transparent bulks or coatings which exhibit a good transparency in the UV–visible domain. Both the undoped and the rare earth doped matrices exhibit a strong blue emission.

    En este trabajo se aborda la preparación de dos matrices híbridas orgánico-inorgánicas por vía sol-gel, a partir de mezclas de alquilalcoxisilanos Si(CH3(OCH2CH33 (MTEOS–SiH(CH3(OCH2CH32 (MDES, sistema A, y SiH(CH3(OCH2CH32 (MDES–SiH(OCH2CH33 (TREOS, sistema B, en presencia de n-propóxido de circonio. Se efectúa una variación del sistema A por adición de acetilacetona, sistema A-acac. Las matrices se caracterizan por espectroscopia infrarroja, resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN-MAS y análisis químico. Se estudian las características ópticas de los materiales obtenidos. Las matrices A-acac y B se dopan con una sal de Eu(III y las matrices A y B con una sal de Ce(IV. Los estudios de absorción y emisión indican la presencia de Eu(II y Ce(III, es decir estos estados de oxidación se han generado in situ a temperatura ambiente en los

  12. Physics of microparticle acoustophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnkob, Rune

    2012-01-01

    of microparticle acoustophoresis and to develop methods for future advancement of its use. Throughout the work on this thesis the author and co-workers1 have studied the physics of microparticle acoustophoresis by comparing quantitative measurements to a theoretical framework consisting of existing hydrodynamic...

  13. Synthesis of palladium-doped silica nanofibers by sol-gel reaction and electrospinning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San, Thiam Hui; Daud, Wan Ramli Wan; Kadhum, Abdul Amir Hassan; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Kamarudin, Siti Kartom; Shyuan, Loh Kee; Majlan, Edy Herianto

    2012-01-01

    Nanofiber is drawing great attention nowadays with their high surface area per volume and flexibility in surface functionalities that make them favorable as a proton exchange membrane in fuel cell application. In this study, incorporation of palladium nanoparticles in silica nanofibers was prepared by combination of a tetraorthosilane (TEOS) sol-gel reaction with electrospinning process. This method can prevent the nanoparticles from aggregation by direct mixing of palladium nanoparticles in silica sol. The as-produced electrospun fibers were thermally treated to remove poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) and condensation of silanol in silica framework. PVP is chosen as fiber shaping agent because of its insulting and capping properties for various metal nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to characterize the silica fibers and Pd nanoparticles on the fibers. Spun fibers with average diameter ranged from 100nm to 400nm were obtained at optimum operating condition and distribution of Pd nanoparticles on silica fibers was investigated.

  14. Fe-Doped Sol-Gel Glasses and Glass-Ceramics for Magnetic Hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baino, Francesco; Fiume, Elisa; Miola, Marta; Leone, Federica; Onida, Barbara; Laviano, Francesco; Gerbaldo, Roberto; Verné, Enrica

    2018-01-22

    This work deals with the synthesis and characterization of novel Fe-containing sol-gel materials obtained by modifying the composition of a binary SiO₂-CaO parent glass with the addition of Fe₂O₃. The effect of different processing conditions (calcination in air vs. argon flowing) on the formation of magnetic crystalline phases was investigated. The produced materials were analyzed from thermal (hot-stage microscopy, differential thermal analysis, and differential thermal calorimetry) and microstructural (X-ray diffraction) viewpoints to assess both the behavior upon heating and the development of crystalline phases. N₂ adsorption-desorption measurements allowed determining that these materials have high surface area (40-120 m²/g) and mesoporous texture with mesopore size in the range of 18 to 30 nm. It was assessed that the magnetic properties can actually be tailored by controlling the Fe content and the environmental conditions (oxidant vs. inert atmosphere) during calcination. The glasses and glass-ceramics developed in this work show promise for applications in bone tissue healing which require the use of biocompatible magnetic implants able to elicit therapeutic actions, such as hyperthermia for bone cancer treatment.

  15. Synthesis of palladium-doped silica nanofibers by sol-gel reaction and electrospinning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San, Thiam Hui; Daud, Wan Ramli Wan; Kadhum, Abdul Amir Hassan; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Kamarudin, Siti Kartom; Shyuan, Loh Kee; Majlan, Edy Herianto [Fuel Cell Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Fuel Cell Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia and Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Fuel Cell Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2012-06-29

    Nanofiber is drawing great attention nowadays with their high surface area per volume and flexibility in surface functionalities that make them favorable as a proton exchange membrane in fuel cell application. In this study, incorporation of palladium nanoparticles in silica nanofibers was prepared by combination of a tetraorthosilane (TEOS) sol-gel reaction with electrospinning process. This method can prevent the nanoparticles from aggregation by direct mixing of palladium nanoparticles in silica sol. The as-produced electrospun fibers were thermally treated to remove poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) and condensation of silanol in silica framework. PVP is chosen as fiber shaping agent because of its insulting and capping properties for various metal nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to characterize the silica fibers and Pd nanoparticles on the fibers. Spun fibers with average diameter ranged from 100nm to 400nm were obtained at optimum operating condition and distribution of Pd nanoparticles on silica fibers was investigated.

  16. Sol–gel synthesis and luminescence of undoped and Mn-doped zinc orthosilicate phosphor nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Ghoul, J., E-mail: ghoultn@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux et des Nanomatériaux Appliquée à l’Environnement, Faculté des Sciences de Gabès, Cité Erriadh Manara Zrig, 6072 Gabès (Tunisia); El Mir, L. [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux et des Nanomatériaux Appliquée à l’Environnement, Faculté des Sciences de Gabès, Cité Erriadh Manara Zrig, 6072 Gabès (Tunisia); Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU), College of Sciences, Departement of Physics, Riyadh 11623 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-04-15

    Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} and Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}:Mn particles embedded in SiO{sub 2} host matrix prepared by sol gel method under supercritical conditions of ethyl alcohol in two steps. Were prepared by a simple solid-phase reaction under natural atmosphere at 1200 °C after the incorporation of ZnO and ZnO:Mn nanoparticles, respectively, in silica monolith. In the case of SiO{sub 2}/Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} nanocomposite, the powder with an average particle size of 80 nm shows a strong luminescence band centred at around 760 nm in the visible range. In addition, the PL spectrum for the SiO{sub 2}/Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}:Mn nanocomposite showed that a dominant peak at 525 nm appeared, which originated from the {sup 4}T{sub 1}–{sup 6}A{sub 1} transitions of Mn{sup 2+} ions. The luminescence properties of nanocomposites were characterized by emission and excitation spectra as well their dependencies of upon temperature and power excitation density. -- Highlights: • The Synthesis of Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} nanocomposites. • Structural and optical characterizations of Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} and Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}:Mn nanocomposites. • The willemite α-Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} structure was formed to the heat treatment temperature 1200 °C. • The powder exhibits a nanometric size. • Strong bands of luminescence have appeared.

  17. Growth and characterization of ceria thin films and Ce-doped γ-Al2O3 nanowires using sol-gel techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravani, S; Polychronopoulou, K; Stolojan, V; Cui, Q; Gibson, P N; Hinder, S J; Gu, Z; Doumanidis, C C; Baker, M A; Rebholz, C

    2010-11-19

    γ-Al(2)O(3) is a well known catalyst support. The addition of Ce to γ-Al(2)O(3) is known to beneficially retard the phase transformation of γ-Al(2)O(3) to α-Al(2)O(3) and stabilize the γ-pore structure. In this work, Ce-doped γ-Al(2)O(3) nanowires have been prepared by a novel method employing an anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) template in a 0.01 M cerium nitrate solution, assisted by urea hydrolysis. Calcination at 500 °C for 6 h resulted in the crystallization of the Ce-doped AlOOH gel to form Ce-doped γ-Al(2)O(3) nanowires. Ce(3+) ions within the nanowires were present at a concentration of surface, a nanocrystalline CeO(2) thin film was deposited with a cubic fluorite structure and a crystallite size of 6-7 nm. Characterization of the nanowires and thin films was performed using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. The nanowire formation mechanism and urea hydrolysis kinetics are discussed in terms of the pH evolution during the reaction. The Ce-doped γ-Al(2)O(3) nanowires are likely to find useful applications in catalysis and this novel method can be exploited further for doping alumina nanowires with other rare earth elements.

  18. Luminescence of Eu{sup 3+}/Gd{sup 3+} co-doped silicate sol–gel powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpikowska-Sroka, Barbara, E-mail: barbara.szpikowska-sroka@us.edu.pl [Institute of Chemistry, University of Silesia, Szkolna 9 Street, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Pawlik, Natalia [Institute of Chemistry, University of Silesia, Szkolna 9 Street, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Swinarew, Andrzej S. [Institute of Materials Science, University of Silesia, 75 Pułku Piechoty 1A, 41-500 Chorzów (Poland); Pisarski, Wojciech A. [Institute of Chemistry, University of Silesia, Szkolna 9 Street, 40-007 Katowice (Poland)

    2015-10-15

    Eu{sup 3+}/Gd{sup 3+} co-doped silicate sol–gel powders have been successfully obtained. The effect of high concentration of gadolinium ions on visible emission of europium ions in prepared materials has been studied under different excitation wavelengths. Spectroscopic properties of Eu{sup 3+} and Gd{sup 3+} ions in prepared powders were determined based on excitation and emission measurements as well as luminescence decay analysis. In the visible spectral range the observed emission bands correspond to transitions of trivalent Eu{sup 3+} and Gd{sup 3+} ions. The changes of excitation mechanism of optically active dopants significantly affect the increase of luminescence intensities. The luminescence lifetime for the {sup 5}D{sub 0} level of Eu{sup 3+} ions in examined samples upon excitation at λ{sub exc}=273 nm ({sup 8}S{sub 7/2}→{sup 6}I{sub J} transition of Gd{sup 3+}) is about 12 times longer in comparison to excitation at λ{sub exc}=393 nm ({sup 7}F{sub 0}→{sup 5}L{sub 6} transition of Eu{sup 3+}). The luminescence intensity coefficient R (Eu{sup 3+}) was also calculated, and it was found that ratio of the intensity of red to orange emission depends on the excitation wavelength. Based on determined spectroscopic parameters the energy transfer process from Gd{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 3+} ions was confirmed. - Highlights: • Eu{sup 3+}/Gd{sup 3+} co-doped silicate powders have been fabricated. • The emission bands in the visible range correspond to transitions of Eu{sup 3+} and Gd{sup 3+}. • The lifetime for the {sup 5}D{sub 0} state of Eu{sup 3+} upon excitation at 273 nm is strongly prolonged. • Efficient energy transfer from Gd{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 3+} ions was confirmed.

  19. Hyaluronic acid doped-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/chitosan/gelatin (PEDOT-HA/Cs/Gel) porous conductive scaffold for nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuping; Guan, Shui; Zhu, Zhibo; Li, Wenfang; Liu, Tianqing; Ma, Xuehu

    2017-02-01

    Conducting polymer, as a "smart" biomaterial, has been increasingly used to construct tissue engineered scaffold for nerve tissue regeneration. In this study, a novel porous conductive scaffold was prepared by incorporating conductive hyaluronic acid (HA) doped-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT-HA) nanoparticles into a chitosan/gelatin (Cs/Gel) matrix. The physicochemical characteristics of Cs/Gel scaffold with 0-10wt% PEDOT-HA were analyzed and the results indicated that the incorporation of PEDOT-HA into scaffold increased the electrical and mechanical properties while decreasing the porosity and water absorption. Moreover, in vitro biodegradation of scaffold displayed a declining trend with the PEDOT-HA content increased. About the biocompatibility of conductive scaffold, neuron-like rat phaeochromocytoma (PC12) cells were cultured in scaffold to evaluate cell adhesion and growth. 8% PEDOT-HA/Cs/Gel scaffold had a higher cell adhesive efficiency and cell viability than the other conductive scaffolds. Furthermore, cells in the scaffold with 8wt% PEDOT-HA expressed higher synapse growth gene of GAP43 and SYP compared with Cs/Gel control group. These results suggest that 8%PEDOT-HA/Cs/Gel scaffold is an attractive cell culture conductive substrate which could support cell adhesion, survival, proliferation, and synapse growth for the application in nerve tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Fabrication and Properties of Silica Gel/Calcium Sulfate/Strontium-doped β-tricalcium Phosphate Composite Porous Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIN Xiao-su

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The calcium sulfate/strontium-doped β-tricalcium phosphate composite spherical pellets was fabricated, using the calcium sulfate/strontium-doped β-TCP as raw material, and through the stirring spray drying method, and then composite spherical pellets were combined with silica gel, porous silica gel/calcium sulfate/strontium-doped β-tricalcium phosphate scaffold was obtained by stacking aggregation method in the mould. The XRD, SEM and FT-IR, etc are employed to examine the chemical composition, composite morphology and structure characteristics, and the degradability, porosity, mechanical properties and cytotoxicity of the scaffolds materials were studied. The results reveal that the composite porous scaffolds have irregular pore structure with pore size between 0.2-1.0mm, and they have a large number of micropores on each of the composite spherical pellets, with the aperture between 50-200μm. Moreover, the porosity of the composite scaffolds is about 62%, which can meet the requirements of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering in porosity; the cytotoxicity tests show the composite scaffolds have no cytotoxic effect and it has good degradation. Therefore, it has good application prospect in bone tissue engineering of the bone defect repair of non-bearing site.

  1. Influence of Mg content on tailoring optical bandgap of Mg-doped ZnO thin film prepared by sol-gel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N.H. Mia

    Full Text Available Tailoring optical bandgap of ZnO nanostructured thin films doped with different elements facilitates potential material for photonic applications. Different methods of fabrication process result in different optical and structural properties for the same amount of Mg content. Therefore, details investigation of structural and optical parameters, and their correlation need to be revealed to utilize the fabricated thin films. In this work, Mg-doped ZnO thin film of 200 nm thickness was fabricated by sol-gel spin coating method on a glass substrate for four different Mg content levels. Multiple layers were deposited by a spin coater to increase the film thickness. The prepared thin films were characterized by SEM, XRD, EDS, and UV–Vis spectroscopy. The spectroscopic analysis showed a uniform crystalline nanostructured surface with less structural defects, enhanced transmittance, and higher optical bandgap than that of pure ZnO nanostructured thin film. Change of Mg content from 2% to 8% facilitated tuning of bandgap in the range of 3.30–3.39 eV. Changing trend of structural and optical parameters with Mg content showed non-linear, non-monotonic relation. In-depth analysis of structural and optical properties provides crucial information to form a better view about bandgap dependency on structural parameters. Keywords: Mg-doped ZnO, MgZnO, Bandgap tuning, Sol-gel, Spin coating

  2. Effective role of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) to enhance the photocatalytic activity of F-doped TiO{sub 2} prepared by modified sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsudin, Emy Marlina [Nanotechnology and Catalysis Research Centre, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd, E-mail: sharifahbee@um.edu.my [Nanotechnology and Catalysis Research Centre, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Juan, Joon Ching; Basirun, Wan Jefrey [Nanotechnology and Catalysis Research Centre, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Kandjani, Ahmad Esmaielzadeh; Bhargava, Suresh K. [Centre of Advanced Materials and Industrial Chemistry, RMIT University, Melbourne 3001 (Australia)

    2016-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Surface-fluorinated TiO{sub 2} with superior properties. • Generation of free surface hydroxyl radicals. • Excellent photo-generated electron and holes separation. • Mixed morphologies of truncated and compressed bipyramids. • Superior photo-kinetics performance. - Abstract: Highly photoactive mesoporous F-doped TiO{sub 2} with improved physico-chemical characteristics is achieved using modified sol–gel method. The usage of trifluoroacetic as fluorine precursor significantly modifies the morphology, size, pore shape, crystal phase, crystal structure, surface chemical state and to a lesser extent, {1 0 1} and {0 0 1} facets. The accessibility of fluoride ions on Ti−O−Ti polymer chains during crystal growth during the sol–gel process remarkably influences the properties of catalyst. To the best of our knowledge, preparation of F-doped TiO{sub 2} using modified sol–gel and trifluoroacetic acid are limited, and still not enough. Thus this work provides additional insight by using an approach which is less hazardous, less costly and practical for large scale agile development in the photocatalysis industry.

  3. The Young's Modulus, Fracture Stress, and Fracture Strain of Gellan Hydrogels Filled with Whey Protein Microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Cherry Wing Yu; Ikeda, Shinya

    2017-05-01

    Texture modifying abilities of whey protein microparticles are expected to be dependent on pH during heat-induced aggregation of whey protein in the microparticulation process. Therefore, whey protein microparticles were prepared at either pH 5.5 or 6.8 and their effects on small and large deformation properties of gellan gels containing whey protein microparticles as fillers were investigated. The majority of whey protein microparticles had diameters around 2 μm. Atomic force microscopy images showed that whey protein microparticles prepared at pH 6.8 partially collapsed and flatted by air-drying, while those prepared at pH 5.5 did not. The Young's modulus of filled gels adjusted to pH 5.5 decreased by the addition of whey protein microparticles, while those of filled gels adjusted to pH 6.8 increased with increasing volume fraction of filler particles. These results suggest that filler particles were weakly bonded to gel matrices at pH 5.5 but strongly at pH 6.8. Whey protein microparticles prepared at pH 5.5 showed more enhanced increases in the Young's modulus than those prepared at pH 6.8 at volume fractions between 0.2 and 0.4, indicating that microparticles prepared at pH 5.5 were mechanically stronger. The fracture stress of filled gels showed trends somewhat similar to those of the Young's modulus, while their fracture strains decreased by the addition of whey protein microparticles in all examined conditions, indicating that the primary effect of these filler particles was to enhance the brittleness of filled gels. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  4. White phosphor using Yb3+-sensitized Er3+-and Tm3+-doped sol-gel derived lead-fluorosilicate transparent glass ceramic excited at 980 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, M. C. P.; da Costa, E. B.; Bueno, L. A.; Gouveia-Neto, A. S.

    2018-01-01

    Generation of primary colors and white light through frequency upconversion using sol-gel derived 80SiO2:20PbF2 vitroceramic phosphors doped with Er3+, Er3+/Yb3+, Tm3+/Yb3+, and Er3+/Tm3+/Yb3+ excited at 980 nm is demonstrated. For Er3+ and Er3+/Yb3+ doped samples emissions were obtained in the blue (410 nm), green (530, and 550 nm) and red (670 nm) regions, corresponding to the 2H9/2 → 4I15/2,2H11/2 → 4I15/2, 4S3/2 → 4I152 and 4F9/2 → 4I15/2 transitions of Er3+, respectively. The codoping with Yb3+ ions altered the spectral profile of most of the emissions compared to the single doped samples, resulting in changes in the emitted color, in addition to a significant increase in the emission intensity. In Tm3+/Yb3+ co-doped samples visible emissions in the blue (480 nm), and red (650 nm), corresponding to transitions 1G4 → 3H6 and 1G4 → 3F4 of Tm3+, respectively, were obtained. The emission intensity around 480 nm overcome the red emission, and luminescence showed a predominantly blue tone. White light with CIE-1931 coordinates (0.36; 0.34) was produced by homogeneously mixing up powders of heat treated at 400 °C co-doped samples 5.0Er3+/5.0Yb3+ and 0.5Tm3+/2.5Yb3+ in the mass ratio of 13%, and 87%, respectively. The measured emission spectrum for a sample resulting from the mixture showed a profile with very good agreement with the spectrum found from the superimposition of the spectra of the co-doped samples.

  5. Photocatalytic oxidation of toluene in presence of water vapor using sol-gel synthesized N-doped TiO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Sau, Nguyen; An, Ngo Thanh; Long, Nguyen Quang

    2017-09-01

    Toluene removal by photocatalytic oxidation in presence of water vapor was investigated on N-doped TiO2. The photocatalyst was prepared by a sol-gel method and characterized by various techniques. The conversion of toluene by photocatalytic oxidation in the presence of water vapor was reported at different reaction conditions, such as various reaction temperatures, various toluene/ water vapor concentrations. By using Langmuir- Hinshelwood model the activation energy (Ea) of the reaction of 1.33 kcal/mol was obtained. The heat of toluene adsorption and the heat of water vapor adsorption on the N-doped TiO2 catalyst were approximately -3.47 kcal/mol and -3.30 kcal/mol, respectively.

  6. Design, Synthesis, and Structure-Property Relationships of Er3+-Doped TiO₂ Luminescent Particles Synthesized by Sol-Gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Iscoa, Pablo; Pugliese, Diego; Boetti, Nadia G; Janner, Davide; Baldi, Giovanni; Petit, Laeticia; Milanese, Daniel

    2018-01-02

    Titania particles doped with various concentrations of Erbium were synthesized by the sol-gel method followed by different heat treatments. The shape and the grain growth of the particles were noticeably affected by the concentration of Erbium and the heat treatment conditions. An infrared emission at 1530 nm, as well as green and red up-conversion emissions at 550 and 670 nm, were observed under excitation at 976 nm from all of the synthesized particles. The emission spectra and lifetime values appeared to be strongly influenced by the presence of the different crystalline phases. This work presents important guidelines for the synthesis of functional Er 3+ -doped titania particles with controlled and tailored spectroscopic properties for photonic applications.

  7. Sol-Gel to Prepare Nitrogen Doped TiO2 Nanocrystals with Exposed {001} Facets and High Visible-Light Photocatalytic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ying Ai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of N-doped TiO2 nanocrystals with exposed {001} facets was prepared successfully by sol-gel method for the first time. The physicochemical properties of these resultant photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, TEM, XPS, and DRS, and their photocatalytic performances were evaluated by photocatalytic decoloration of methylene blue solution under visible light (λ>420 nm irradiation. The results showed that the N-doped TiO2 nanocrystals with exposed {001} facets showed higher photocatalytic activity than P25. The enhanced photocatalytic performance can be attributed to synergistic effects of several factors, such as good crystallinity, better light response characteristic, and high reactivity of {001} facets.

  8. Effect of iron doping on structural and optical properties of TiO2 thin film by sol–gel routed spin coating technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Lourduraj

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of iron (Fe-doped titanium dioxide (Fe:TiO2 were prepared by sol–gel spin coating technique and further calcined at 450∘C. The structural and optical properties of Fe-doped TiO2 thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis and atomic force microscopic (AFM techniques. The XRD results confirm the nanostructured TiO2 thin films having crystalline nature with anatase phase. The characterization results show that the calcined thin films having high crystallinity and the effect of iron substitution lead to decreased crystallinity. The SEM investigations of Fe-doped TiO2 films also gave evidence that the films were continuous spherical shaped particles with a nanometric range of grain size and film was porous in nature. AFM analysis establishes that the uniformity of the TiO2 thin film with average roughness values. The optical measurements show that the films having high transparency in the visible region and the optical band gap energy of Fe-doped TiO2 film with iron (Fe decrease with increase in iron content. These important requirements for the Fe:TiO2 films are to be used as window layers in solar cells.

  9. Structural Modification of Sol-Gel Synthesized V2O5 and TiO2 Thin Films with/without Erbium Doping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Pınar Gökdemir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative work of with/without erbium- (Er- doped vanadium pentoxide (V2O5 and titanium dioxide (TiO2 thin films were carried out via sol-gel technique by dissolving erbium (III nitrate pentahydrate (Er(NO33·5H2O in vanadium (V oxoisopropoxide (OV[OCH(CH32]3 and titanium (IV isopropoxide (Ti[OCH(CH32]4. Effect of Er doping was traced by Fourier transform IR (FTIR, thermogravimetric/differential thermal (TG/DTA, and photoluminescence measurements. UV-Vis transmission/absorption measurement indicated a blue shift upon Er doping in V2O5 film due to the softening of V=O bond while appearance of typical absorption peaks in Er-doped TiO2 film. Granule size of the films increased (reduced upon Er substitution on host material compared to undoped V2O5 and TiO2 films, respectively.

  10. Effect of Sn doping on structural, mechanical, optical and electrical properties of ZnO nanoarrays prepared by sol-gel and hydrothermal process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Manish Baboo; Sharma, Akash; Malaidurai, M.; Thangavel, R.

    2018-05-01

    Undoped and Sn doped Zinc oxide nanorods were prepared by two step process: initially growth of seed layers by sol-gel spin coating technique and then zinc oxide nanorods by hydrothermal process using the precursors zinc nitrate hexahydrate, hexamine and tin chloride. The effects on the electrical, optical, mechanical and structural properties for various Sn concentrations were studied. The crystalline phase determination from X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirms that Sn doped ZnO nanorods have hexagonal wurtzite structure. The variations of stress and strain with different doping concentration of Sn in ZnO nanorods were studied. The doping effect on electrical properties and optical bandgap is estimated by current voltage characteristics and absorbance spectra respectively. The surface morphology was studied with field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), which shows that the formation of hexagonal nanorods arrays with increasing Sn concentration. The calculated value of Young's modulus of elasticity (Y) for all the samples remains same. These results can be used in optoelectronic devices.

  11. Ferroelectric domains and phase transition of sol-gel processed epitaxial Sm-doped BiFeO3 (001 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BiFeO3, a room-temperature multiferroic material, has recently been increasingly applied as a potential lead-free piezoelectric material due to its large piezoelectricity achieved by doping. In this work, 12% Sm-doped BiFeO3 epitaxial thin films were fabricated on Nb-doped SrTiO3 (001 single crystal substrates via sol-gel method. The epitaxy was verified by reciprocal space mapping (RSM and transmission electron microscope (TEM. The TEM results indicated the coexistence of R3c and Pbam phases in the film. The domains and piezoelectric properties from room temperature to 200 °C were characterized by piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM. Domains became active from 110 °C to 170 °C, and domain configurations changed obviously. A partially fading piezoresponse indicated the emergence of antiferroelectric Pbam. The in-situ domain analysis suggested that the phase transition was accompanied by domain wall motion. Switching spectroscopy PFM (SS-PFM was further conducted to investigate the piezoresponse during the phase transition. Anomalous responses were found in both ON and OFF states at 170 °C, and the film exhibits typical antiferroelectric behavior at 200 °C, implying that the completion of phase transition and structure turned to the Pbam phase. This work revealed the origin of the high piezoresponse of Sm-doped BiFeO3 thin films at the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB.

  12. Effect of Sn-doped on microstructural and optical properties of ZnO thin films deposited by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsay, C.-Y.; Cheng, H.-C.; Tung, Y.-T.; Tuan, W.-H.; Lin, C.-K.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, transparent thin films of Sn-doped ZnO (ZnO:Sn) were deposited onto alkali-free glass substrates by a sol-gel method; the effect of Sn doping on crystallinity, microstructural and optical properties was investigated. The atomic percentages of dopant in ZnO-based sols were Sn/Zn = 0, 1, 2, 3, and 5 at.%. The as-deposited films were pre-heated at 300 deg. C for 10 min and then annealed in air at 500 deg. C for 1 h. The results show that Sn-doped ZnO thin films demonstrate obviously improved surface roughness, enhanced transmittance in the 400-600 nm wavelength range and reduced average crystallite size. Among all of the annealed ZnO-based films in this study, films doped with 2 at.% Sn concentration exhibited the best properties, namely an average transmittance of 90%, an RMS roughness value of 1.92 nm and a resistivity of 9.3 x 10 2 Ω-cm

  13. Fabrication and electrical resistivity of Mo-doped VO2 thin films coated on graphite conductive plates by a sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, W.; Jung, H.M.; Um, S. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). School of Mechanical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Vanadium oxides (VO2) can be used in optical devices, thermochromic smart windows and sensors. This paper reported on a study in which vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) powder was prepared and mixed with Molybdenum Oxides (MoO3) to form Mo-doped and -undoped VO2 thin films by a sol-gel method on graphite conductive substrates. The micro-structure and chemical compositions of the Mo-doped and -undoped VO2 thin films was investigated using X-Ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Changes in electrical resistivity were measured as a function of the stoichiometric compositions between vanadium and molybdenum. In this study. Mo-doped and -undoped VO2 thin films showed the typical metal to insulator transition (MIT), where temperature range could be adjusted by modifying the dopant atomic ratio. The through-plane substrate structure of the Mo-doped layer influences the electrical resistivity of the graphite substrate. As the amount of the molybdenum increases, the electrical resistivity of the graphite conductive substrate decreases in the lower temperature range below the freezing point of water. The experimental results showed that if carefully controlled, thermal dissipation of VO2 thin films can be used as a self-heating source to melt frozen water with the electrical current flowing through the graphite substrate. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Fabrication and characterization of novel iodine doped hollow and mesoporous hematite (Fe2O3) particles derived from sol-gel method and their photocatalytic performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Selim; Yurddaskal, Metin; Dikici, Tuncay; Sarıoğlu, Cevat

    2018-03-05

    In this work, iodine (I) doped hollow and mesoporous Fe 2 O 3 photocatalyst particles were fabricated for the first time through sol-gel method. Phase structure, surface morphology, particle size, specific surface area and optical band gap of the synthesized Fe 2 O 3 photocatalysts were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), BET surface analysis, particle size analyzer and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (UV-vis DRS), respectively. Also, electrochemical properties and photoluminescence spectra of Fe 2 O 3 particles were measured. The results illustrated that high crystalline, hollow and mesoporous Fe 2 O 3 particles were formed. The optical band gap values of the Fe 2 O 3 photocatalysts changed between 2.104 and 1.93eV. Photocatalytic efficiency of Fe 2 O 3 photocatalysts were assessed via MB solution. The photocatalytic activity results exhibited that I doping enhanced the photocatalytic efficiency. 1% mole iodine doped (I-2) Fe 2 O 3 photocatalyst had 97.723% photodegradation rate and 8.638×10 -2 min -1 kinetic constant which showed the highest photocatalytic activity within 45min. Moreover, stability and reusability experiments of Fe 2 O 3 photocatalysts were carried out. The Fe 2 O 3 photocatalysts showed outstanding stability after four sequence tests. As a result, I doped Fe 2 O 3 is a good candidate for photocatalysts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Structural, magnetic and optical properties of Ni-doped TiO2 thin films deposited on silicon(1 0 0) substrates by sol–gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Jianjun; Gao, Huiping; Deng, Hongmei; Sun, Lin; Kong, Hui; Yang, Pingxiong; Chu, Junhao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Ni doping decreases the activation energy for the anatase-to-rutile transformation. •With increasing Ni content, the reversible ferromagnetism is found. •Sharp decrease of the E OBG at low Ni content is mainly related to phase composition. -- Abstract: Ni-doped TiO 2 films were deposited on Si(1 0 0) substrates by sol–gel technique. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis suggests that the valence of Ni ion is in +2 and oxygen vacancies increase with increasing Ni content. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that Ni doping catalyzes the anatase-to-rutile transformation (ART) of TiO 2 films, which is due to the decrease of the ART activation energy. The reversible ferromagnetism of the samples with Ni fraction is found, which is due to an anatase-to-rutile junction destroying an F-center bound magnetic polaron. Optical properties of Ni-doped TiO 2 films were studied by the ellipsometric spectra. With increasing Ni content, the optical band gap of TiO 2 films is decreased from 3.56 to 3.34 eV, which may be related to phase composition and impurity band

  16. Detection of organophosphorus compound based on a sol-gel silica planar waveguide doped with a green fluorescent protein and an organophosphorus hydrolase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enami, Y.; Tsuchiya, K.; Suye, S.

    2011-06-01

    In this letter, the authors report the real-time detection of an organophosphorus compound using a sol-gel silica planar waveguide doped with a green fluorescent protein and an organophosphorus hydrolase on a yeast-cell surface display. The waveguide was pumped at 488 nm, and it emitted green fluorescence at the far field. The green fluorescent light at 550 nm changed by 50% from the original power 1 min after application of the organophosphorus compound. The results enable the real-time detection of sarin and other biochemicals by using an in-line fiber sensor network.

  17. Low Concentration Fe-Doped Alumina Catalysts Using Sol-Gel and Impregnation Methods: The Synthesis, Characterization and Catalytic Performance during the Combustion of Trichloroethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Solis Maldonado

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of iron in two modes of integration into alumina catalysts was studied at 0.39 wt% Fe and tested in trichloroethylene combustion. One modified alumina was synthesized using the sol-gel method with Fe added in situ during hydrolysis; another modification was performed using calcined alumina, prepared using the sol-gel method and impregnated with Fe. Several characterization techniques were used to study the level of Fe modification in the γ-Al2O3 phase formed and to correlate the catalytic properties during trichloroethylene (TCE combustion. The introduction of Fe in situ during the sol-gel process influenced the crystallite size, and three iron species were generated, namely, magnetite, maghemite and hematite. The impregnated Fe-alumina formed hematite and maghemite, which were highly dispersed on the γ-Al2O3 surface. The X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS, FT-IR and Mössbauer spectroscopy analyses revealed how Fe interacted with the γ-Al2O3 lattice in both catalysts. The impregnated Fe-catalyst showed the best catalytic performance compared to the catalyst that was Fe-doped in situ by the sol-gel method; both had better catalytic activity than pure alumina. This difference in activity was correlated with the accessibility of the reactants to the hematite iron species on the surface. The chlorine poisoning for all three catalysts was less than 1.8%.

  18. Low Concentration Fe-Doped Alumina Catalysts Using Sol-Gel and Impregnation Methods: The Synthesis, Characterization and Catalytic Performance during the Combustion of Trichloroethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Carolina Solis; De la Rosa, Javier Rivera; Lucio-Ortiz, Carlos J.; Hernández-Ramírez, Aracely; Castillón Barraza, Felipe F.; Valente, Jaime S.

    2014-01-01

    The role of iron in two modes of integration into alumina catalysts was studied at 0.39 wt% Fe and tested in trichloroethylene combustion. One modified alumina was synthesized using the sol-gel method with Fe added in situ during hydrolysis; another modification was performed using calcined alumina, prepared using the sol-gel method and impregnated with Fe. Several characterization techniques were used to study the level of Fe modification in the γ-Al2O3 phase formed and to correlate the catalytic properties during trichloroethylene (TCE) combustion. The introduction of Fe in situ during the sol-gel process influenced the crystallite size, and three iron species were generated, namely, magnetite, maghemite and hematite. The impregnated Fe-alumina formed hematite and maghemite, which were highly dispersed on the γ-Al2O3 surface. The X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), FT-IR and Mössbauer spectroscopy analyses revealed how Fe interacted with the γ-Al2O3 lattice in both catalysts. The impregnated Fe-catalyst showed the best catalytic performance compared to the catalyst that was Fe-doped in situ by the sol-gel method; both had better catalytic activity than pure alumina. This difference in activity was correlated with the accessibility of the reactants to the hematite iron species on the surface. The chlorine poisoning for all three catalysts was less than 1.8%. PMID:28788556

  19. Sol-gel synthesis, characterization and optical properties of mercury-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films deposited on ITO glass substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mechiakh, R., E-mail: raouf_mechiakh@yahoo.fr [Departement de Medecine, Faculte de Medecine, Universite Hadj Lakhdar, Batna (Algeria); Laboratoire de Photovoltaique de Semi-conducteurs et de Nanostructures, Centre de Recherche des Sciences et Technologies de l' Energie, BP 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Ben Sedrine, N.; Chtourou, R. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique de Semi-conducteurs et de Nanostructures, Centre de Recherche des Sciences et Technologies de l' Energie, BP 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2011-08-15

    The Hg-doped and undoped nano-crystalline TiO{sub 2} films on ITO glass substrates surface and polycrystalline powders were prepared by sol-gel dip coating technique. The crystal structure and surface morphology of TiO{sub 2} were characterized by means of X-ray diffractometer (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM), spectrophotometer, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). The results indicated that the powder of TiO{sub 2}, doped with 5% Hg in room temperature was only composed of the anatase phase whereas in the undoped powder exhibits an amorphous phase were present. After heat treatments of thin films, titanium oxide starts to crystallize at the annealing temperature 400 {sup o}C. The average crystallite size of the undoped TiO{sub 2} films was about 8.17 nm and was increased with Hg-doping in the TiO{sub 2} films. Moreover, the grains distributed more uniform and the surface roughness was greater in the Hg-doped TiO{sub 2} films than in the undoped one. Refractive index and porosity were calculated from the measured transmittance spectrum. The values of the index of refraction are in the range (1.95-2.49) and the porosity is in the range (47-2.8). The coefficient of transmission varies from 60 to 90%. SE study was used to determine the annealing temperature effect on the optical properties in the wavelength range from 0.25 to 2 {mu}m and the optical gap of the Hg-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films.

  20. Ultra-Sensitive Nano Optical Sensor Samarium-Doxycycline Doped in Sol Gel Matrix for Assessment of Glucose Oxidase Activity in Diabetics Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharwat, Marwa M; Attia, M S; Alghamdi, M S; Mahros, Amr M

    2017-09-01

    A low cost and very sensitive method for the determination of the activity of glucose oxidase enzyme in different diabetics serum samples was developed. The method based on the assessment of the H 2 O 2 concentration produced from the reaction of the glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme with glucose as substrate in the serum of diabetics patients by nano optical sensor Sm-doxycycline doped in sol gel matrix. H 2 O 2 enhances the luminescence intensity of all bands of the nano Sm-doxycycline complex [Sm-(DC) 2 ] + doped in sol-gel matrix, especially the 645 nm band at λ ex  = 400 nm and pH 7.0 in water. The influence of the different analytical parameters that affect the luminescence intensity of the nano optical sensor, e.g. pH, H 2 O 2 concentration and foreign ions concentrations were studied. The remarkable enhancement of the luminescence intensity of nano optical sensor [Sm-(DC) 2 ] + complex in water at 645 nm by the addition of various concentrations of H 2 O 2 was successfully used as an optical sensor for the assessment of the activity of the glucose oxidase enzyme in different diabetics serum samples. The calibration plot was achieved over the activity range 0.1-240 U/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.999 and a detection limit of 0.05 U/L.

  1. Electroluminescence properties of In-doped Zn2SiO4 thin films prepared by sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Hirotaka; Kan, Akinori; Ikeda, Norihiro; Fujita, Akihiro

    2012-01-01

    The effect of In doping on the electroluminescence (EL) properties of Zn 2 SiO 4 :In thin films was investigated. In-doped Zn 2 SiO 4 thin films were deposited on BaTiO 3 substrates and their EL properties were characterized in this study. X-ray powder diffraction patterns of In-doped Zn 2 SiO 4 powders revealed a single phase of Zn 2 SiO 4 for In concentrations up to approximately 1.5 mol%, whereas a secondary phase of In 2 O 3 was observed for In concentrations in the range of 2-10 mol%. The maximum luminance of thin film electroluminescent (TFEL) devices varied significantly with the amount of In doping. The highest luminance with blue emission was obtained when 2 mol% In was doped. The blue emission of In-doped Zn 2 SiO 4 thin film may be related to the In substitution for Zn. The 2 mol% In-doped Zn 2 SiO 4 thin film exhibited blue emission with CIE color coordinates of x=0.208 and y=0.086.

  2. Sol–gel synthesis of vanadium doped titania: Effect of the synthetic routes and investigation of their photocatalytic properties in the presence of natural sunlight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Godlisten N., E-mail: shaogod@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa 3-dong, Sangnok-gu, Ansan-si, Gyeonggi-do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Mkwawa College, University of Dar es Salaam, Iringa, United Republic of Tanzania (Tanzania, United Republic of); Imran, S.M.; Jeon, Sun Jeong; Kang, Shin Jae; Haider, S.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa 3-dong, Sangnok-gu, Ansan-si, Gyeonggi-do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Taik, E-mail: khtaik@yahoo.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, 1271 Sa 3-dong, Sangnok-gu, Ansan-si, Gyeonggi-do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Sol–gel routes to yield vanadium doped titania from cheap source are proposed. • Photocatalysts with different titania polymorphs are yielded through calcination. • The vanadium doped titania samples show strong absorption in the visible region. • The activities of the photocatalysts are assessed in the presence of visible light. • The calcined samples are obtained through two-step process exhibit superior activities. - Abstract: The development of visible-light effective TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts allows low cost degradation of toxic non-biodegradable organic pollutants. In the present study a series of vanadium doped titania (V-TiO{sub 2}) photocatalysts with V-to-Ti of 0.03, 0.06 and 0.1 were synthesized by either one-step or two-step modified sol–gel approaches. Titanium oxychloride solution was used as a titania source while vanadium pentaoxide was used as a vanadia source to form V-TiO{sub 2} in the absence of surfactants. One-step process was performed through the reaction of the TiO{sub 2} source with vanadium source. In two-step route the Ti(OH){sub 4} gel was preformed through gelation of the TiO{sub 2} source using ammonium solution and then peptized in the acidic vanadium solution. The physicochemical properties of the samples were examined by XRF, XRD, UV–visible DRS, SEM-EDAX, TEM, DTA-TGA, XPS and nitrogen gas physisorption studies analyses. It was observed that the morphology, crystal structure and photochemical properties of the obtained samples were largely dependent on the calcination temperature, synthetic approach and V-to-Ti ratios. Calcination of the samples yielded large ultrafine and perhaps monodispersed particles with different sizes depending on the synthetic technique. The photocatalytic performance of the samples was tested in the photodegradation of methylene blue in the presence of natural sunlight. The photocatalytic activities of the samples synthesized by two-step route were higher than that of the

  3. Structure and characterization of Sn, Al co-doped zinc oxide thin films prepared by sol–gel dip-coating process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min-I [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taiwan (China); Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS - UMR STMR 6279, Université de Technologie de Troyes (France); Huang, Mao-Chia [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taiwan (China); Legrand, David [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taiwan (China); Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS - UMR STMR 6279, Université de Technologie de Troyes (France); Lerondel, Gilles [Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Institut Charles Delaunay, CNRS - UMR STMR 6279, Université de Technologie de Troyes (France); Lin, Jing-Chie, E-mail: jclin4046@gmail.com [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Taiwan (China)

    2014-11-03

    Transparent conductive zinc oxide co-doped with tin and aluminum (TAZO) thin films were prepared via sol–gel dip-coating process. Non-toxic ethanol was used in this study instead of 2-methoxyethanol used in conventional work. Dip-coating was repeated several times to obtain relatively thick films consisting of six layers. The films were then annealed at 500 °C for 1 h in air or in vacuum and not subsequently as employed in other studies. The X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that all the samples revealed a single phase of hexagonal ZnO polycrystalline structure with a main peak of (002). The optical band gap and resistivity of the TAZO films were in the ranges of 3.28 to 3.32 eV and 0.52 to 575.25 Ω cm, respectively. The 1.0 at.% Sn, 1.0 at.% Al co-doped ZnO thin film annealed in vacuum was found to have a better photoelectrochemical performance with photocurrent density of about 0.28 mA/cm{sup 2} at a bias of 0.5 V vs. SCE under a 300 W Xe lamp illumination with the intensity of 100 mW/cm{sup 2}. Compared to the same dopant concentration but annealed in air (∼ 0.05 mA/cm{sup 2} bias 0.5 V vs. SCE), the photocurrent density of the film annealed in vacuum was 5 times higher than the film annealed in air. Through electrochemical measurements, we found that the dopant concentration of Sn plays an important role in TAZO that affected photocurrent density, stability of water splitting and anti-corrosion. - Highlights: • Al, Sn co-doped ZnO (TAZO) films was synthesized by sol–gel process. • The parameters of TAZO films were dopant concentration and annealed ambient. • The photoelectrochemical characteristics of TAZO films were investigated.

  4. Schottky emission in nanoscopically crystallized Ce-doped SnO{sub 2} thin films deposited by sol-gel-dip-coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Marco A.L.; Pineiz, Tatiane F.; Morais, Evandro A. de [Department of Physics-FC, Sao Paulo State University, UNESP, C. Postal 473, 17033-360, Bauru SP (Brazil); P. Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Tecnologia de Materiais (POSMAT), UNESP (Brazil); Scalvi, Luis V.A. [Department of Physics-FC, Sao Paulo State University, UNESP, C. Postal 473, 17033-360, Bauru SP (Brazil)], E-mail: scalvi@fc.unesp.br; Saeki, Margarida J. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry-IB, Sao Paulo State University, UNESP, C.P. 510, 18618-000, Botucatu SP (Brazil); Cavalheiro, Alberto A. [Chemistry Unity of Navirai, Mato Grosso do Sul State University, UEMS, 79950-000, Navirai MS (Brazil)

    2008-11-28

    This paper reports the electrical effects of the incorporation of Ce(III) or Ce(IV) in SnO{sub 2} thin films, prepared by the sol-gel-dip-coating technique. This doping has drastically increased the resistivity compared to undoped thin films. Nanoscopic dimension of crystallites, in the range 5-10 nm, contributes to this increase. The high number of crystallites decreases the mobility due to the increase of the density of potential barrier between grains per unit of volume. High doping leads to low conductivity when Ce(III) salt is used as precursor, which assures the acceptor-like nature of this ion in the matrix. Current as function of voltage, measured for several temperatures, leads to the predominance of Schottky conduction mechanism, even though a tunneling process seems to be a good approximation for the observed deviations at lower applied electric fields. The potential barrier for Schottky emission is in the range 0.6-0.8 eV. For Ce(IV) doping, an increase of the grain boundary depletion layer seems to be responsible for the observed high resistivity, because it leads to higher electron scattering at grain boundary. Measurements done under room atmosphere lead to a higher barrier height than measurement done under vacuum conditions, due to oxygen adsorption at particles surface. For temperatures higher than 150 deg. C , under vacuum conditions, the elimination of O{sub 2}{sup -} species becomes probable, increasing considerably the current density.

  5. Characteristics and optical properties of iron ion (Fe{sup 3+})-doped titanium oxide thin films prepared by a sol-gel spin coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M.C. [Faculty of Fragrance and Cosmetics, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shih-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Lin, H.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National United University, 1 Lein-Da, Kung-Ching Li, Miao-Li 36003, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: hjlin@nuu.edu.tw; Yang, T.S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National United University, 1 Lein-Da, Kung-Ching Li, Miao-Li 36003, Taiwan (China)

    2009-04-03

    Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) thin films doping of various iron ion (Fe{sup 3+}) concentrations have been prepared on a glass substrate by the sol-gel spin coating process. Characteristics and optical properties of TiO{sub 2} thin films doping of various Fe content were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) and spectroscopic ellipsometry. The crystalline phase of TiO{sub 2} thin films comprised only the anatase TiO{sub 2}, but the crystallinity decreased when the Fe{sup 3+} content increased from 0 to 25.0 wt%. During the Fe{sup 3+} addition to 25.0 wt%, the phase of TiO{sub 2} thin film still maintained the amorphous state. The absorption edge of TiO{sub 2} thin films shifted towards longer wavelengths (i.e. red shifted) from 355 to 415 nm when the Fe{sup 3+}-doped concentration increased from 0 to 25.0 wt%. The values of the refractive index (n), and extinction coefficient (k), decreased with an increasing Fe{sup 3+} content. Moreover, the band-gap energy of TiO{sub 2} thin films also decreased from 3.29 to 2.83 eV with an increase in the Fe{sup 3+} content from 0 to 25.0 wt%.

  6. Work function tuning and fluorescence enhancement of hydrogen annealed Ag-doped Al-rich zinc oxide nanostructures using a sol–gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Firoz; Baek, Seong-Ho [Energy Research Division, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science & Technology (DGIST), 50-1 Sang-Ri, Hyeonpung-Myeon, Dalseong-Gun, Daegu 711-873 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Young [School of Mechanical and Control Engineering, Handong Global University, 558 Handong-Ro, Heunghae-Eub, Buk-Ku, Pohang, Gyung-Buk 791-708 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Hyun, E-mail: jaehyun@dgist.ac.kr [Energy Research Division, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science & Technology (DGIST), 50-1 Sang-Ri, Hyeonpung-Myeon, Dalseong-Gun, Daegu 711-873 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-25

    Effect of incorporation of Ag on the structural, optical, electrical, and fluorescence properties of sol–gel derived Al-rich zinc oxide (ZnO:Al:Ag) nanostructured films was studied. The E{sub g} of the film slightly decreased to a minimal value with Ag doping, and was found to be about 3.65 eV for R{sub Ag/Zn} = 1% from its initial value of 3.72 eV (R{sub Ag/Zn} = 0%). The WF sudden increased to a maximal value of 5.12 eV with Ag doping (for R{sub Ag/Zn} = 1%) from its initial value of 4.73 eV for R{sub Ag/Zn} = 0% due to substitution of Ag into Zn sites until saturation was achieved (R{sub Ag/Zn} = 1%). After more Ag doping, WF started to decrease and finally, reached a value of 4.81 eV for R{sub Ag/Zn} = 3% because of the formation of an impurity-defect energy level below the intrinsic Fermi level of ZnO. With Ag-doping, the current increased up to R{sub Ag/Zn} = 1% due to the increase in carrier density. For R{sub Ag/Zn} = 3% doping, the current density started to increase due to the influence of metallic Ag. The defective peak position was blue shifted, with increased Ag-doping, from 536 nm (R{sub Ag/Zn} = 1%) to 527 nm for R{sub Ag/Zn} = 2% due to the sizes of the Ag{sup +} and Zn{sup 2+} ions. The FL defective peak intensity (I{sub D}) in the green region increased with the concentration of Ag used for doping, up to R{sub Ag/Zn} = 2%. The enhancement in the I{sub D} may be due to charge difference between the Zn{sup 2+} ions, caused by Ag{sup +} ions. - Graphical abstract: The effect of incorporation of Ag doping on the structural, optical, electrical, and fluorescence properties of sol–gel derived Al-rich zinc oxide (ZnO:Al:Ag) nanostructured films was studied. By Ag-doping, the lowest R{sub λ} is blue shifted to R{sub Ag/Zn} = 2% and finally red shifted for R{sub Ag/Zn} = 3% due to variation of optical thickness of the film. The E{sub g} of the film slightly decreased to a minimal value with Ag doping, and was found to be about 3.65 eV for R{sub Ag

  7. UV and visible activation of Cr(III)-doped TiO2catalyst prepared by a microwave-assisted sol-gel method during MCPA degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiola-Alvarez, S Y; Guzmán-Mar, J L; Turnes-Palomino, G; Maya-Alejandro, F; Hernández-Ramírez, A; Hinojosa-Reyes, L

    2017-05-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) in aqueous solution using Cr(III)-doped TiO 2 under UV and visible light was investigated. The semiconductor material was synthesized by a microwave-assisted sol-gel method with Cr(III) doping contents of 0.02, 0.04, and 0.06 wt%. The catalyst was characterized using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nitrogen physisorption, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The photocatalytic activity for the photodegradation of MCPA was followed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. The intermediates formed during degradation were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Chloride ion evolution was measured by ion chromatography. Characterization results showed that Cr(III)-doped TiO 2 materials possessed a small crystalline size, high surface area, and mesoporous structure. UV-Vis DRS showed enhanced absorption in the visible region as a function of the Cr(III) concentration. The Cr(III)-doped TiO 2 catalyst with 0.04 wt% of Cr(III) was more active than bare TiO 2 for the degradation of MCPA under both UV and visible light. The intermediates identified during MCPA degradation were 4-chloro-2-methylphenol (CMP), 2-(4-hydroxy-2-methylphenoxy) acetic acid (HMPA), and 2-hydroxybuta-1,3-diene-1,4-diyl-bis (oxy)dimethanol (HBDM); the formation of these intermediates depended on the radiation source.

  8. Laser sintering of doped strontium aluminate via modified sol-gel for use as a ceramic pigment; Sinterizacao a laser do aluminato de estroncio dopado via sol-gel modificado para aplicacao como pigmento ceramico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, F.M. dos S.; Valerio, M.E.G. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil)

    2017-01-15

    Powder of Dy{sup 3+} co-doped SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} :Eu{sup 3+} was produced via proteic sol-gel method, a modified sol-gel route which allows the formation of oxides at lower temperatures than other methods. CO{sub 2} laser sintering was used as a method for heat treatment, effective in reducing trivalent europium ions in doped samples. Thermal analysis of the precursors, performed by TG and DTA, revealed that the crystallization of SrAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} phase occurred at approximately 1060 °C. X-ray diffraction showed that the samples, before and after sintering, had monoclinic and hexagonal phases formation. DLS technique revealed the presence of nanosized and micrometric particles, and particle agglomerates, confirmed by SEM images. Micrographs of the fracture surface of a sintered pellet revealed a high degree of densification caused by heat treatment. Photoluminescence measurements showed that the samples after synthesis and before heat treatment with laser had reddish emission, composed of characteristic narrow emission lines from Eu{sup 3+} and more intense emission when the samples were excited at 265 nm. The laser treatment promoted the reduction of Eu{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 2+} and this effect was confirmed by the presence of a wide emission band in the green region of the spectrum with a maximum emission obtained after excitation at 350 nm. The luminescent decay time of the thermally treated sample was approximately 100 min. Via XRF measurements of acquired frit and DTA and TG of the frit, pigment and mixtures of both, it was noticed good compatibility in terms of thermal processes, that indicated that the pigment has a potential to be used in ceramic tiles. (author)

  9. Preparation and characterization of doped TiO{sub 2} nanofibers by coaxial electrospining combined with sol–gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Haixia, E-mail: tonghaixia@126.com; Tao, Xican; Wu, Daoxin; Zhang, Xiongfei; Li, Dan; Zhang, Ling

    2014-02-15

    Graphical abstract: The surface of the precursor of Fe/TiO{sub 2} nanofibers are smoother than that of Fe /TiO{sub 2} nanofibers. After calcined at 500 °C, the tubers on the surface of the nanofibers become more obvious, and which also provides a direct proof for the dopant of Fe element. -- Highlights: • N, Fe, and W doped TiO{sub 2} nanofibers have been fabricated by coaxial electrospining. • The dopant has obvious influences on the surface topographies and crystal structures. • Fe doping can make remarkable topography changes and easy formation of rutile TiO{sub 2}. • The maximum doping amount of W in TiO{sub 2} nanofibers is less than 10% under 500 °C. -- Abstract: N, Fe, and W doped TiO{sub 2} nanofibers were fabricated by coaxial electrospining and directly annealing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/Tetrabutyl titanate (TBT) composite nanofibers. The crystal structure, morphology, and surface composition of the doped TiO{sub 2} nanofibers were investigated by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) respectively. The results show that the dopants have different influence on the surface topographies, the crystal structures and the transformation of anatase to rutile of TiO{sub 2} nanofibers. Fe dopant promotes bigger influence on topographies, phase transformation and crystallite growth of TiO{sub 2} nanofibers than that of either N or W dopant.

  10. Nanosized blood microparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuana, Yuana

    2011-01-01

    Microparticles (MPs) have important physiological and pathological roles in blood coagulation, inflammation and tumor progression. In recent years MPs also have been recognized to participate in important biological processes, such as in signaling and in the horizontal transfer of their specific

  11. Effects of cobalt doping on structural, morphological, and optical properties of Zn2SiO4 nanophosphors prepared by sol-gel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhafizah Mohd Rasdi

    Full Text Available In this paper, undoped and cobalt (II (3, and 5 mol % doped zinc silicate nanophosphors prepared by a sol-gel method which were heated at 1000 °C were studied in detail. From the XRD result, undoped and Co2+ doped zinc silicate sample yields α- and β-Zn2SiO4. This also shows that α-Zn2SiO4 acts as the primary phase in the crystal structure of the sample. For FESEM, the grain size decreases as the dopant increases where undoped sample indicates average grain size of 181 nm while 3 and 5 mol % exhibits containing ones 136.89 nm and 176.22 nm respectively. With FTIR transmission a major peak at range of 1100 cm−1, 880, 550, and 350 assigning as Si-O-Si asymmetric stretching, SiO4 asymmetric stretching, ZnO4 symmetric stretching, and Si-O asymmetric deformation vibration were observed respectively. The absorption band of doped Zn2SiO4 exhibited a higher absorbance intensity in the UV region compared to undoped Zn2SiO4. Besides, all the samples depict that the sample was having a red shift in which the band shifted to the longer wavelength. The energy band gap value of undoped sample shows 3.07 eV and when Co2+ dopant (3 and 5 mol % was introduced, the energy band gap started to decrease (2.46 and 2.42 eV respectively. PL emission presents two peaks at blue emissions (420 and 480 nm and a green emission (525 nm. The result present that Co2+:Zn2SiO4 is potentially good to use as blue and green phosphors for luminescent optical material. Keywords: Cobalt (II doped zinc silicate, Transition metal, Sol-gel method, Nanophosphors, Photoluminescence

  12. One step aqueous solution preparation of nanosize iron-doped tin oxide from SnO{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melghit, Khaled [Chemistry Department, College of Science, P.O. Box 36, Al-Khodh 123, Sultan Qaboos University (Oman)]. E-mail: melghit@squ.edu.om; Bouziane, Khalid [Physics Department, College of Science, P.O. Box 36, Al-Khodh 123, Sultan Qaboos University (Oman)

    2006-03-15

    Nanosized iron-doped tin oxide solid solution was prepared by mixing tin oxide gel SnO{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O with a boiling solution of iron nitrate. The XRD data of the as-prepared and annealed sample at 773 K show that the patterns are indexed to the rutile phase without any trace of an extra phase. SEM and TEM results performed on different selected area of the samples reveal a homogeneous composition of 8 at.% of Fe content and a size of about 2 nm of the particles. The particles size was found to increase slightly with temperature; about 7 nm after 24 h at 773 K. Structural and magnetic results seem to indicate that Fe{sup 3+} substitute for Sn{sup 4+} on the as-prepared sample. The system presents some weak ferromagnetic character at room temperature.

  13. Optical investigation of Tb{sup 3+}-doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocrystals prepared by Pechini-type sol-gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Back, M., E-mail: m.back@hotmail.it; Massari, A.; Boffelli, M.; Gonella, F.; Riello, P.; Cristofori, D. [Universita Ca' Foscari di Venezia and INSTM, Dipartimento di Scienze Molecolari e Nanosistemi (Italy); Ricco, R.; Enrichi, F., E-mail: enrichi@civen.org [CIVEN (Coordinamento Interuniversitario Veneto per le Nanotecnologie) (Italy)

    2012-03-15

    We report an optical study of Tb{sup 3+}-doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocrystals synthesized by Pechini-type sol-gel method. The particles are investigated in terms of size and morphology by means of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analysis. It is shown how the simple Pechini method allows for the growth of monocrystalline nanoparticles with a volume-weighted average size of about 30 nm. The optical properties of Tb{sup 3+} in the host lattice are studied in terms of PL, PLE, and lifetimes. Moreover, a correlation between the type of decay curves, the emission and excitation bands' shapes, and the site location of the emitting Tb{sup 3+} in the host material Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} is proposed.

  14. Site-selective spectroscopy in Sm(3+)-doped sol-gel-derived nano-glass-ceramics containing SnO(2) quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanes, A C; Velázquez, J J; Del-Castillo, J; Méndez-Ramos, J; Rodríguez, V D

    2008-07-23

    Nano-glass-ceramics of composition 95SiO(2)-5SnO(2) doped with 0.4 Sm(3+) (mol%) were synthesized by the thermal treatment of precursor sol-gel glasses. Structural and luminescence measurements were carried out. The precipitated SnO(2) nanocrystals in the glass matrix constitute a wide bandgap quantum-dot system with size comparable to the bulk exciton Bohr radius. A site-selective excitation, by energy transfer from the semiconductor host, reveals that a fraction of the Sm(3+) ions are incorporated in the SnO(2) nanocrystals, whereas the rest remains in the silica glassy phase. An evolution in the Sm(3+) emission spectra has been observed when the SnO(2) nanocrystals are excited with different UV wavelengths, which has been ascribed to selective excitation of nanocrystal sets with predetermined size.

  15. Annealing temperature effect on the properties of mercury-doped TiO{sub 2} films prepared by sol-gel dip-coating technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mechiakh, R., E-mail: raouf_mechiakh@yahoo.fr [Departement de Medecine, Faculte de Medecine, Universite Hadj Lakhdar Batna, Batna (Algeria); Laboratoire de Photovoltaique de Semi-conducteurs et de Nanostructures, Centre de Recherche et des Technologies de l' Energie (CRTEn), BP. 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Ben Sedrine, N. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique de Semi-conducteurs et de Nanostructures, Centre de Recherche et des Technologies de l' Energie (CRTEn), BP. 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Karyaoui, M. [Departement de Medecine, Faculte de Medecine, Universite Hadj Lakhdar Batna, Batna (Algeria); Laboratoire de Photovoltaique de Semi-conducteurs et de Nanostructures, Centre de Recherche et des Technologies de l' Energie (CRTEn), BP. 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Chtourou, R. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique de Semi-conducteurs et de Nanostructures, Centre de Recherche et des Technologies de l' Energie (CRTEn), BP. 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2011-04-15

    This work presents the annealing temperature effect on the properties of mercury (Hg)-doped titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}). Thin films and polycrystalline powders have been prepared by sol-gel process. The structure, surface morphology and optical properties, as a function of the annealing temperature, have been studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman, reflectance and ellipsometric spectroscopies. In order to determine the transformation points, we have analyzed the xerogel-obtained powder by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Raman spectroscopy shows the crystalline anatase and rutile phases for the films annealed at 400 deg. C and 1000 deg. C respectively. The AFM surface morphology results indicate that the particle size increases from 14 to 57 nm by increasing the annealing temperature. The complex index and the optical band gap (E{sub g}) of the films were determined by the spectroscopic ellipsometry analysis. We have found that the optical band gap decreases by increasing the annealing temperature.

  16. Sodium and potassium doped P-type ZnO films by sol-gel spin-coating technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Benedict Wen-Cheun; Chan, Kah-Yoong

    2017-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a promising material in a variety of applications including sensors, transistors and solar cells. Many researchers studied N-type ZnO films and reported enhanced properties. On the other hand, P-type ZnO films were rarely attempted due to the self-compensation effect. Success in achieving P-type ZnO films is important as it will pave the way for more advanced complementary devices. In this work, P-type sodium and potassium doped ZnO films were fabricated on glass substrates with doping concentration between 0 and 25 at.%. The influences of doping concentration on surface morphology, structural, optical and electrical properties were investigated using atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometer, photoluminescence spectroscopy and Hall-effect electrical transport measurement system. The distinctive behavior of P-type ZnO films with different doping concentrations will be discussed.

  17. Sol-gel synthesis and characterization of pure and manganese doped TiO2 nanoparticles--a new NLO active material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, P; Viruthagiri, G; Mugundan, S; Shanmugam, N

    2014-01-01

    Pure and Manganese (4%, 8%, 12% and 16%) doped titanium di-oxide (Mn-TiO2) nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel technique. The preparation of pure and Mn doped TiO2 nanoparticles were achieved by tetra-isopropyl orthotitanate and 2-propanol as common starting materials and the products were annealed at 450°C and 750°C to get anatase and rutile phases, respectively. The prepared materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV-VIS-Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and Kurtz powder second harmonic generation (SHG) test. XRD patterns confirmed the crystalline nature and tetragonal structure of synthesized materials. The functional groups present in the samples were identified by FTIR study. The allowed direct and indirect band gap energies, as well as the crystallite sizes of obtained nanoparticles were calculated from DRS analysis. Microstructures and elemental identification were done by SEM with EDX analysis. The existence of SHG signals was observed using Nd: YAG laser with fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm. The products were found to be transparent in the entire visible region with cut-off wavelengths within the UV region confirms its suitability for device fabrications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Up-conversion emission in rare earth-doped Y{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} sol-gel thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenouvrier, P. [Institut de Microelectronique, Electromagnetisme et Photonique, UMR 5130, INPG-UJF-CNRS, ENSERG, BP 257, 38016 Grenoble (France); Laboratoire des Materiaux et du Genie Physique, UMR 5628, INPG-CNRS, ENSPG, BP 46, Domaine Universitaire, Rue de la Houille-Blanche, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres, Cedex (France); Boccardi, G. [Laboratoire des Materiaux et du Genie Physique, UMR 5628, INPG-CNRS, ENSPG, BP 46, Domaine Universitaire, Rue de la Houille-Blanche, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres, Cedex (France); Fick, J. [Laboratoire de Spectrometrie Physique, UMR 5588, Universite Joseph Fourier-CNRS, BP 87, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Jurdyc, A.-M. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux Luminescents, UMR 5620, CNRS-UCBL, 69622 Villeurbanne (France); Langlet, M. [Laboratoire des Materiaux et du Genie Physique, UMR 5628, INPG-CNRS, ENSPG, BP 46, Domaine Universitaire, Rue de la Houille-Blanche, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres, Cedex (France)]. E-mail: michel.langlet@inpg.fr

    2005-06-15

    Yttrium titanate (YTO) thin films doped with rare earth elements have been deposited using the aerosol-gel process. The up-conversion emission (UPE) of films doped with erbium and/or thulium has been studied with respect to the film crystallization degree and rare earth concentration. The effects of ytterbium codoping have been considered as well. Mechanisms that control UPE of YTO films are discussed with respect to the experimental conditions. It is shown that films, which selectively emit in the blue ({sup 1}G{sub 4}{yields}{sup 3}H{sub 6} transition of thulium ions), green ({sup 2}H{sub 11/2}{yields}{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} and {sup 4}S{sub 3/2}{yields}{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} transitions of erbium ions), or red ({sup 4}F{sub 9/2}{yields}{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} transition of erbium ions), can readily be achieved.

  19. Photoluminescence and ferroelectric properties of sol-gel-grown Eu-doped CaBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} : Nd films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Weichao; Zheng Haiwu; Liu Yuefeng; Li Zonghui; Zhang Ting; Zhang Weifeng [Key Laboratory of Photovoltaic Materials of Henan Province, Department of Physics, Institute of Physics for Microsystem, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China)], E-mail: zhenghaiwu76@yahoo.com.cn, E-mail: wfzhang@henu.edu.cn

    2009-05-21

    Eu-doped CaBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} : Nd (CBENT) ferroelectric thin films were prepared on Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates by a sol-gel method. The photoluminescence (PL) and ferroelectric properties of the films were investigated by using different annealing temperatures and concentrations of europium ions. All the CaBi{sub 3.75-x}Eu{sub x}Nd{sub 0.25}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} films have a polycrystalline bismuth-layered perovskite structure, and a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) between orthorhombic and tetragonal phases was shown to exist. The PL intensity of the CBENT films is significantly dependent on annealing temperature and Eu concentration. The remanent polarization 2Pr values of the Eu-doped CaBi{sub 4}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 15} : Nd thin films reaches a maximum value of 30.7 {mu}C cm{sup -2} when x is 0.2. The PL and ferroelectric properties suggest that CBENT films can be considered as promising multifunctional materials.

  20. Photoluminescence and ferroelectric properties of sol-gel-grown Eu-doped CaBi4Ti4O15 : Nd films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weichao; Zheng, Haiwu; Liu, Yuefeng; Li, Zonghui; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Weifeng

    2009-05-01

    Eu-doped CaBi4Ti4O15 : Nd (CBENT) ferroelectric thin films were prepared on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by a sol-gel method. The photoluminescence (PL) and ferroelectric properties of the films were investigated by using different annealing temperatures and concentrations of europium ions. All the CaBi3.75-xEuxNd0.25Ti4O15 films have a polycrystalline bismuth-layered perovskite structure, and a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) between orthorhombic and tetragonal phases was shown to exist. The PL intensity of the CBENT films is significantly dependent on annealing temperature and Eu concentration. The remanent polarization 2Pr values of the Eu-doped CaBi4Ti4O15 : Nd thin films reaches a maximum value of 30.7 µC cm-2 when x is 0.2. The PL and ferroelectric properties suggest that CBENT films can be considered as promising multifunctional materials.

  1. Influence of Cu2+ doping on the structure, dielectric and magnetic properties of NiFe2O4 prepared by the sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Guo, Jianqin; Zhang, Ru; Cao, Ensi; Zhang, Yongjia; Hao, Wentao; Ju, Lin

    2018-03-01

    CuxNi1-xFe2O4 powders were prepared by the sol-gel method and the corresponding temperature dependence of microstructure, magnetic and dielectric properties of different CuxNi1-xFe2O4 samples have been investigated. Results of XRD and SEM indicate that the Cu2+ concentration played an important role in both crystal phase and particle distribution of CuxNi1-xFe2O4. The measurement of magnetic properties shows that both Cu2+ doping and sintering temperature could change the saturation magnetization and remanent magnetization in a noticeable manner, and even the magnetic material type. The Cu0.2Ni0.8Fe2O4 sample sintered at 900 °C had the largest saturation magnetization (34.61 emu/g), remanent magnetization (17.85 emu/g) and the lowest coercivity (0.17 kOe). The dielectric measurements show strong frequency dependence for all the samples. The peak observed in frequency dependence of dielectric loss measurements shifts to higher frequency with the increasing Cu2+ concentration and sintering temperature, indicating a Debye-like dielectric relaxation. All the results indicate that the Cu2+ doping has a significant influence on NiFe2O4 ferrites.

  2. Multifunctional role of rare earth doping in optical materials: nonaqueous sol-gel synthesis of stabilized cubic HfO2 luminescent nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauria, Alessandro; Villa, Irene; Fasoli, Mauro; Niederberger, Markus; Vedda, Anna

    2013-08-27

    In this work a strategy for the control of structure and optical properties of inorganic luminescent oxide-based nanoparticles is presented. The nonaqueous sol-gel route is found to be suitable for the synthesis of hafnia nanoparticles and their doping with rare earths (RE) ions, which gives rise to their luminescence either under UV and X-ray irradiation. Moreover, we have revealed the capability of the technique to achieve the low-temperature stabilization of the cubic phase through the effective incorporation of trivalent RE ions into the crystal lattice. Particular attention has been paid to doping with europium, causing a red luminescence, and with lutetium. Structure and morphology characterization by XRD, TEM/SEM, elemental analysis, and Raman/IR vibrational spectroscopies have confirmed the occurrence of the HfO2 cubic polymorph for dopant concentrations exceeding a threshold value of nominal 5 mol %, for either Lu(3+) or Eu(3+). The optical properties of the nanopowders were investigated by room temperature radio- and photoluminescence experiments. Specific features of Eu(3+) luminescence sensitive to the local crystal field were employed for probing the lattice modifications at the atomic scale. Moreover, we detected an intrinsic blue emission, allowing for a luminescence color switch depending on excitation wavelength in the UV region. We also demonstrate the possibility of changing the emission spectrum by multiple RE doping in minor concentration, while deputing the cubic phase stabilization to a larger concentration of optically inactive Lu(3+) ions. The peculiar properties arising from the solvothermal nonaqueous synthesis here used are described through the comparison with thermally treated powders.

  3. Synthesis, structural, optical and dielectric properties of transition metal doped ZnMnO nanoparticles by sol-gel combustion technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, M. A.; Varshney, Dinesh

    2018-02-01

    Nanocrystalline samples of Zn0.94Mn0.06O and transition metal (TM) doped Zn0.94Mn0.01TM0.05O (TM = Co, Ni, and Cu) were prepared by sol-gel auto combustion method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern infers that all synthesized samples except Zn0.94Mn0.01Ni0.05O and Zn0.94Mn0.01Cu0.05O with secondary phases of NiO and CuO are in single phase with hexagonal wurtzite structure (P63mc space group). Raman spectroscopy reveals four vibrational phonon modes are centered at 331, 380, 410, and 438 cm-1, assigned as E2 (H)-E2(L), A1(TO), E1(TO), and E1(LO) modes, respectively. A Raman spectrum of Zn0.94Mn0.01TM0.05O is entirely different from undoped Zn0.94Mn0.06O sample. Also, the infrared spectrum of transition metal doped samples is completely different from undoped Zn0.94Mn0.06O. Similar spectra are observed for Zn0.94Mn0.01Co0.05O, Zn0.94Mn0.01NiO, Zn0.94Mn0.01Cu0.05O and Zn0.94Mn0.01Zn0.05O samples. It was found that the band gap of Zn0.94Mn0.06O increased from 3.19 to 3.25eV by doping 5% transition metal oxide. Improved dielectric constant and reduced dielectric loss is measured for Zn0.94Mn0.01Ni/Cu0.05O as compared to Zn0.94Mn0.06O.

  4. Sol-gel synthesis and in vitro bioactivity of copper and zinc-doped silicate bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Julian; Caviedes, Pablo; Palza, Humberto

    2015-03-11

    Metal doping of bioactive glasses based on ternary 60SiO2-36CaO-4P2O5 (58S) and quaternary 60SiO2-25CaO-11Na2O-4P2O5 (NaBG) mol% compositions synthesized using a sol-gel process was analyzed. In particular, the effect of incorporating 1, 5 and 10 mol% of CuO and ZnO (replacing equivalent quantities of CaO) on the texture, in vitro bioactivity, and cytocompatibility of these materials was evaluated. Our results showed that the addition of metal ions can modulate the textural property of the matrix and its crystal structure. Regarding the bioactivity, after soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) undoped 58S and NaBG glasses developed an apatite surface layer that was reduced in the doped glasses depending on the type of metal and its concentration with Zn displaying the largest inhibitions. Both the ion release from samples and the ion adsorption from the medium depended on the type of matrix with 58S glasses showing the highest values. Pure NaBG glass was more cytocompatible to osteoblast-like cells (SaOS-2) than pure 58S glass as tested by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The incorporation of metal ions decreased the cytocompatibility of the glasses depending on their concentration and on the glass matrix doped. Our results show that by changing the glass composition and by adding Cu or Zn, bioactive materials with different textures, bioactivity and cytocompatibility can be synthesized.

  5. Highly Conducting Nanosized Monodispersed Antimony-Doped Tin Oxide Particles Synthesized via Nonaqueous Sol−Gel Procedure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Müller, V.; Rasp, M.; Štefanić, G.; Ba, J.; Günther, S.; Rathouský, Jiří; Niederberger, M.; Fattakhova Rohlfing, D.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 21 (2009), s. 5229-5236 ISSN 0897-4756 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : nanoparticles * nonaqueous Ssl-gel procedure * oxide materials Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.368, year: 2009

  6. Proteomic Analysis of Serum Opsonins Impacting Biodistribution and Cellular Association of Porous Silicon Microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita E. Serda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mass transport of drug delivery vehicles is guided by particle properties, such as size, shape, composition, and surface chemistry, as well as biomolecules and serum proteins that adsorb to the particle surface. In an attempt to identify serum proteins influencing cellular associations and biodistribution of intravascularly injected particles, we used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify proteins eluted from the surface of cationic and anionic silicon microparticles. Cationic microparticles displayed a 25-fold greater abundance of Ig light variable chain, fibrinogen, and complement component 1 compared to their anionic counterparts. Anionic microparticles were found to accumulate in equal abundance in murine liver and spleen, whereas cationic microparticles showed preferential accumulation in the spleen. Immunohistochemistry supported macrophage uptake of both anionic and cationic microparticles in the liver, as well as evidence of association of cationic microparticles with hepatic endothelial cells. Furthermore, scanning electron micrographs supported cellular competition for cationic microparticles by endothelial cells and macrophages. Despite high macrophage content in the lungs and tumor, microparticle uptake by these cells was minimal, supporting differences in the repertoire of surface receptors expressed by tissue-specific macrophages. In summary, particle surface chemistry drives selective binding of serum components impacting cellular interactions and biodistribution.

  7. Profile analysis of microparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konarski, P.; Iwanejko, I.; Mierzejewska, A.

    2001-01-01

    Depth resolved analyses of several types of microparticles are presented. Particles for secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) depth profile analysis were collected in the working environment of glass plant, steelworks and welding station using eight-stage cascade impactor with particle size range of 0.3 μm to 15 μm. Ion beam sputtering and sample rotation technique allowed to describe morphology i.e. the elemental structure of collected sub-micrometer particles. Also model particles Iriodin 221 (Merck) were depth profiled. The core-shell structure is found for all types of investigated particles. Steelworks particles consist mainly of iron and manganese cores. At the shells of these microparticles: lead, chlorine and fluorine are found. The particles collected in the glass-works consist mainly of lead-zirconium glass cores covered by carbon and copper. Stainless-steel welding particles compose of iron, manganese and chromium cores covered by a shell rich in carbon, chlorine and fluorine. Sample rotation technique applied in SIMS appears to be an effective tool for environmental microparticle morphology studies

  8. Zr doping dependence of structural and magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite synthesized by sol-gel based Pechini method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motavallian, Pourya; Abasht, Behzad; Abdollah-Pour, Hassan

    2018-04-01

    Nanocrystalline CoZrxFe2-xO4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.3 in a step of 0.05) powders were synthesized by Pechini sol-gel method. The dry gel was grinded and calcined at 700 °C in a static air atmosphere for 1 h. Some tests such as thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) combined with differential analysis (DTA), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were carried out to investigate the thermal behaviour, structural bonds identification, crystallographic properties, morphology and magnetic properties of the obtained powders. X-ray diffraction revealed a single-phase cubic spinel structure for all samples, where the crystallite size decreases; the lattice parameter simultaneously increases with substitution of Zr. The results of FE-SEM showed that the particle size is in the 20-70 nm range. The magnetic properties such as saturation magnetization (Ms), remanent magnetization (Mr) and coercivity (Hc) were measured from the hysteresis loops. The greatest amount of saturation magnetization for CoZr0.05Fe1.95O4 sample was 67.9 emu·g-1.

  9. Photoluminescence and thermal stability of Mn2+ co-doped SrSi2O2N2:Eu2+green phosphor synthesized by sol–gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jiaqing; Wang, Xiaojun; Xuan, Tongtong; Li, Huili; Sun, Zhuo

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: (a) Photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra of Sr 0.97−x Si 2 O 2 N 2 :0.03Eu 2+ , xMn 2+ with x = 0−0.04. (b) Temperature dependence of the normalized PL intensity of Sr 0.97−x Si 2 O 2 N 2 :0.03Eu 2+ , xMn 2+ (x = 0−0.03) and commercial phosphors YAG:Ce 3+ . Display Omitted - Highlights: • Eu 2+ and Mn 2+ codoped SrSi 2 O 2 N 2 phosphors were first synthesized by sol–gel method. • The green emission of Eu 2+ was greatly enhanced by codoping Mn 2+ ions. • The reason is attributed to the coexcitation and energy transfer from Mn 2+ to Eu 2+ . • SrSi 2 O 2 N 2 : Eu 2+ , Mn 2+ also exhibits a higher quantum yield and better thermal stability. • SrSi 2 O 2 N 2 :Eu 2+ , Mn 2+ is a promising green-emitting phosphor for WLEDs. - Abstract: Eu 2+ and Mn 2+ co-doped SrSi 2 O 2 N 2 phosphors were firstly synthesized via a simple sol–gel method using low-cost SrCO 3 , Eu 2 O 3 , Mn(CH 3 COO) 2 ⋅ 4H 2 O, α-Si 3 N 4 and C 8 H 20 O 4 Si (TEOS) as the starting materials. Their luminescence properties, quantum yield, and thermal stability were investigated in comparison with the single Eu 2+ doped samples. The green emission intensity of Eu 2+ ions is greatly enhanced by introducing Mn 2+ ions into SrSi 2 O 2 N 2 :Eu 2+ due to the coexcitation and energy transfer between Mn 2+ and Eu 2+ . The energy transfer probability from Mn 2+ to Eu 2+ depends strongly on the Mn 2+ concentration, which is maximized at 2.0 mol%. Mn 2+ . Simultaneously, quantum efficiency and thermal stability in SrSi 2 O 2 N 2 :0.03Eu 2+ , 0.02Mn 2+ is dramatically improved. All these excellent optical properties indicate that SrSi 2 O 2 N 2 :Eu 2+ , Mn 2+ synthesized in the present work is a promising green-emitting phosphor for white-light emitting diodes with near-UV LED chips

  10. Investigation of structural and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline Mn-doped SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} prepared by proteic sol–gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, W.M.S., E-mail: waldsonmarceloss@yahoo.com.br [Physics Department, Federal University of Sergipe, São Cristóvão 49100-000 (Brazil); Ferreira, N.S. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Amapá, Macapá 68902-280 (Brazil); Soares, J.M.; Silva, R.B. da [Departamento de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Mossoró, RN 59610-210 (Brazil); Macêdo, M.A., E-mail: odecamm@gmail.com [Physics Department, Federal University of Sergipe, São Cristóvão 49100-000 (Brazil)

    2015-12-01

    Nanoparticles of SrFe{sub 12-x}Mn{sub x}O{sub 19} (x=0.0 and 0.10) were synthesized by a proteic sol–gel process. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TG–DTA) indicated the formation of nanocrystalline strontium ferrite phase at a calcination temperature of 1000 °C. Structural and microstructural evolutions of the samples were studied by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and the Rietveld method. XRD patterns demonstrated that all samples consisted of single-phase M-type strontium hexaferrite. The crystal lattice constant did not change significantly with manganese substitution, ranging from 0.5877(3) nm (x=0.0) to 0.5876(3) nm (x=1.0). In addition, the average crystallite size, which was determined from the Williamson–Hall formula, was about 46.4–52.6 nm. Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) showed the presence of three principal absorption bands in the frequency ranges around 435–535 cm{sup −1} and around 595 cm{sup −1}, indicating the formation of the hexaferrite. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that particles consisted of irregular platelets with sizes from 68 to 204 nm. Room-temperature Mössbauer investigations revealed that manganese ions preferentially occupied the 12k, 4f{sub 1}, 4f{sub 2}, and 2a sites. Hysteresis loops (M–H) showed that the saturation magnetization, remanence, and coercivity decreased with manganese doping. This effect is discussed in terms of the distribution of metal cations in the tetrahedral and octahedral sites. - Highlights: • Samples have hexagonal phase with space group P6{sub 3}mmc. • The present samples sintered at 1000 °C for 1 h. • The M{sub s} and the H{sub c} decreased at low doping contente Mn x=0.10. • M-type SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} have been synthesized via the proteic sol–gel process.

  11. Structural and electrical properties of Nb doped TiO{sub 2} films prepared by the sol–gel layer-by-layer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duta, M., E-mail: mduta@icf.ro [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Simeonov, S. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Chaussee, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Teodorescu, V. [National Institute of Material Physics, 105 bis Atomistilor Street, 077125 Bucharest, Magurele (Romania); Predoana, L.; Preda, S.; Nicolescu, M.; Marin, A. [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Spasov, D. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Chaussee, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Gartner, M.; Zaharescu, M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu”, Romanian Academy, 202 Splaiul Independentei, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Szekeres, A. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Chaussee, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}:Nb (1.2 at.%) multilayer films were deposited by sol–gel method on glass and Si. • 5 and 10 layers TiO{sub 2}:Nb films crystallize only in the anatase phase. • E{sub g} values are within 3.24–3.32 eV showing a decrease with increasing the layer number. • The specific resistivity, effective donor and sheet energy densities were obtained. • Nb donor compensation by acceptor levels in TiO{sub 2}:Nb film was suggested. - Abstract: Thin films of 5 and 10-layered sol–gel TiO{sub 2} were doped with 1.2 at.% Nb and their structural, optical and electrical properties were investigated. The films crystallized only in anatase phase, as evidenced by X-ray diffraction and selected area electron diffraction analyses. High resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed nanosized crystallites with amorphous boundaries. Current-voltage measurements on metal-TiO{sub 2}–Si structures showed the formation of n{sup +}–n heterojunction at the TiO{sub 2}–Si interface with a rectification ratio of 10{sup 4}. The effective donor density varies between 10{sup 16} and 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3}, depending on film thickness. The sheet energy densities under forward and reverse bias are in the order of 10{sup 12} and 10{sup 10} cm{sup −2} eV{sup −1}, respectively. These values and the high specific resistivity (10{sup 4} Ω cm) support the existence of compensating acceptor levels in these films. It was established that the conduction mechanism is based on space charge limited current via deep levels with different energy positions in the band gap.

  12. Synthesis behavior and magnetic properties of Mg-Ni co-doped Y-type hexaferrite prepared by sol-gel auto-combustion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alizad Farzin, Y., E-mail: y.alizadfarzin@ut.ac.ir [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, P.O. Box 14395-553, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirzaee, O. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghasemi, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Malek Ashtar University of Technology (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-08-01

    Nano crystalline Y-type hexaferrites with chemical composition of Sr{sub 2}Co{sub 2−x}Mg{sub x/2}Ni{sub x/2}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 22} (x of 0–0.6) were prepared by sol-gel auto-combustion technique at the temperature ranging from 900 to 1150 °C. The prepared samples were characterized by differential thermal analysis (DTA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results demonstrated that single phase co-doped Y-type hexaferrites with space group of R3/m were prepared at 1000 °C and crystallite size of the samples was calculated in the range of 45–63 nm. Also, below this temperature, some intermediate phases such as hematite, spinel ferrite, and SrO were observed. All of the synthesized hexaferrites showed homogeneous distribution and hexagonal platelet-like shapes which were suitable for microwave absorption. Hysteresis loop measurements revealed that the presence of hematite as a second phase caused a reduction in the saturation magnetization. Moreover, it was observed that, with increasing the calcination temperature to above 1000 °C, saturation magnetization demonstrated no significant changes while coercivity reduced from 950 to 250 Oe, which was due to transition from single to multi domain structures. - Highlights: • Nano crystalline Y-type hexaferrites has been synthesized via sol-gel auto combustion method. • Effect of Ni and Mg ions on synthesis behavior and magnetic properties of Co{sub 2}Y hexaferrite was investigated. • Thermal behavior of Mg ions caused reduction in synthesis temperature to 950 °C. • Average thickness of particles has been decreased by the increase of Mg and Ni ions. • The coercivity strongly decreased with increasing of calcination temperature.

  13. AFM studies and electrochemical characterization of boron-doped diamond surfaces modified with metal oxides by the Sol-Gel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suffredini Hugo B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuing previous investigations, direct surface modifications of boron-doped diamond (BDD electrodes with metal oxides (PtOx, RuO2, IrO2 and PbO2 and with some mixed composites were carried out by the Sol-Gel technique. The materials were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM to determine their surface topologies and by electrochemical techniques to establish the catalytic activity towards the oxygen evolution reaction (OER and also, for the PtOx and PtOx-RuO2 composites, the ethanol oxidation reactions in acid media. The stability of PtOx coating covered by a Nafion® film was also tested by long-term operation. The AFM results indicated sites of heterogeneous deposition and the electrochemical studies demonstrated that the active surface area changed considerably with the proposed method of modification. The IrO2/BDD electrode showed the best performance to the OER with the onset of the oxidation current at ~1.4 V, a value 200 mV lower than for the PtOx/BDD electrode. The enhanced stability of PtOx/BDD electrodes achieved by the application of a Nafion® film and already reported in acid media was further proved using the ethanol oxidation reaction. Only a small loss of activity (6% was observed after 4-hours electrolysis while one-thousand voltammetric cycles left the surface practically unchanged. In addition, preliminary studies for the same reaction on PtOx/BDD and PtOx-RuO2/BDD electrodes demonstrated the excellent activity of these mixed Sol-Gel coatings on the BDD surface and the possibility of further investigations for practical applications.

  14. Effects of X-ray irradiation on the luminescent properties of Eu-doped LiSrPO4 phosphors produced using the sol-gel method with glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Patresio A. M.; Silva, Ariosvaldo J. S.; Andrade, Adriano B.; Silva, Ronaldo S.; Rezende, Marcos V. dos S.

    2018-02-01

    Eu-doped LiSrPO4 (LSPO) phosphors were prepared using a sol-gel method, both with and without a chelating agent (glucose), and the effects of X-ray irradiation on the luminescence properties were investigated. The phase formation was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Optical properties such as photoluminescence (PL), spectroscopy excitation and emission, radioluminescence (RL) and photoluminescence emission after X-ray irradiated samples were examined. The results show that the sol-gel route without a chelating agent or the use of glucose is a reliable method for the synthesis of Eu-doped LSPO phosphors. The results also demonstrated an improvement in the luminescence for the sample produced without glucose. The PL and RL spectra showed different behavior; this behavior was connected to the X-ray absorption/reduction process of the Eu ions.

  15. FTIR and optical assessment of zinc doped calcium phospho-borosilicate sol-gel glasses/glass-ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V.; Arora, N.; Pandey, O. P.; Kaur, G.

    2015-08-01

    CaO-P2O5-ZnO-SiO2-B2O3 glasses with varying compositions of calcium oxide and phosphorous oxide are synthesized using sol-gel technique. The glasses are heat-treated for a duration of 10 h at 500°C to obtain the glass-ceramics. The glass-ceramics and glasses are characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV-Visible spectroscopy. Extinction coefficients, attenuation coefficients and dielectric constant have been obtained for all the glasses as well as glass ceramics. The results are discussed in light of non-bridging oxygens (NBO) and heat-treatment of glasses. In addition to this, the effect of calcium and phosphorous on the infra-red spectra has been analysed thoroughly.

  16. Effect of monovalent doping on the physical properties of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 compound synthesized using sol-gel technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, F.; Saadaoui, F.; Cheikhrouhou-Koubaa, W.; Koubaa, M.; Cheikhrouhou, A.; Sicard, L.; Ammar, S.

    2012-02-01

    In this work, we have studied the effect of monovalent substitution on the structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of the P-doped La0.7Sr0.2M0.1MnO3 (M = Na, K) manganites synthesized by sol-gel technique. Structural investigations using X-ray diffraction show that all the elaborated compounds crystallize in the rhomboedral structure with R-3c space group. The increase in the ionic radius induces a rotation of MnO6 octahedra leading to a change in the Mn-O-Mn angles and the Mn-O distances. Magnetizations measurements were carried out using vibrating sample magnetometer operating above room temperature with magnetic applied field up to 5 tesla. All our samples exhibit paramagnetic to ferromagnetic transition with a Curie temperature above room temperature. From magnetic measurements versus magnetic applied field at several temperatures, we have determined the magnetocaloric effect using the classical thermodynamics based on Maxwell relations.

  17. Effect of pH value on structural and photoluminescence properties of Tb3+ -doped Lu2O3 nanopowders synthesized by sol-gel route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoud, A.; Guerbous, L.; Boukerika, A.; Boudine, B.; Benrekaa, N.

    2018-01-01

    Tb3+-doped Lu2O3 nanophosphors were prepared via simple sol-gel method, at different pH value of solution (2, 5, 8 and 11), using diethanolamine (DEA) as polymerization agent. The nanopowder samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, room temperature steady and time resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. The structural analysis reveals that all samples mainely crystallized in the cubic bixbyite structure with Ia3 space group. Also, it was found that the pH value of solution strongly influences the crystallite size, the vibrational frequency modes and the surface morphology of Lu2O3:Tb3+ nanocrystals. All samples show blue-greenish emissions, corresponding to 5D4 → 7FJ (J = 3, 4, 5 and 6) intraconfigurationnelles transitions. The intense green emission peak situated at 542 nm is assigned to 5D4 → 7F5 transition. The 4f8 → 4f75d1 spin-allowed and forbidden transitions, the charge transfer band (CTB) O2- → Tb3+ and the host absorption bands were observed and their dependence on pH value is discussed.

  18. Effect of solvents on sol-gel spin-coated nanostructured Al-doped ZnO thin films: a film for key optoelectronic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K. Deva Arun; Valanarasu, S.; Kathalingam, A.; Ganesh, V.; Shkir, Mohd.; AlFaify, S.

    2017-12-01

    Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) thin films were deposited by sol-gel spin coating technique onto the glass substrates using different solvents such as 2-methoxyethanol, methanol, ethanol and isopropanol. Prepared films were characterized by XRD, Raman spectrum, SEM, UV-visible spectrophotometer, photoluminescence (PL) and electrical studies. XRD studies showed that all the prepared films are hexagonal wurtzite structure with polycrystalline nature oriented along (002) direction. SEM images showed uniform particles of size around 60 nm distributed regularly on to the entire glass substrate. EDX analysis confirmed the composition of grown AZO film consisting of Al, Zn and O elements. The prepared films showed highest optical transmittance 94% in the visible range and band gap 3.30 eV. PL spectra for all AZO films showed a strong UV emission peak at 387 nm. The AZO films prepared using isopropanol solvent showed high carrier concentration and low resistivity values as 1.72 × 1020 cm-3 and 2.90 × 10-3 Ω cm, respectively, with high figure of merit ( ϕ) value 8.42 × 10-3 (Ω/sq)-1.

  19. Effects of UV assistance on the properties of al-doped ZnO thin films deposited by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yung-Kuan; Pai, Feng-Ming; Chen, Yan-Cheng; Wu, Chao-Hsien

    2013-11-01

    We report here the preparation of aluminum doped zinc oxide transparent conductive thin films by a UV-assisted sol-gel method. It was found that UV irradiation creates ozone, which promotes the conductivity and transparency of the films. Boro-silicate glasses are used as substrates; an PGME is used as a solvent; after spin-coating, the films are dried and radiated with UV and then heated to 400°C for decarburization and 500°C for annealing under air. The surface morphologies of the prepared films are observed by FE-SEM and AFM. It was found that the films irradiated with UV-C are smoother and denser. An XRD analysis shows that the films have a typical wurtzite crystalline structure with a c-axis orientation normal to the surface. The electric resistance values measured with a four-point probe show that the films irradiated with UV have better conductivity (at approximately 3.4 × 10-3Ω-cm) than the films that did not undergo UV irradiation. An analysis by visible light spectrometry indicates that the AZO films irradiated with UV are more transparent than the films without UV-irradiation.

  20. Highly improved photo-induced bias stability of sandwiched triple layer structure in sol-gel processed fluorine-doped indium zinc oxide thin film transistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongha Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the reliability of TFT, an Al2O3 insulating layer is inserted between active fluorine doped indium zinc oxide (IZO:F thin films to form a sandwiched triple layer. All the thin films were fabricated via low-cost sol-gel process. Due to its large energy bandgap and high bonding energy with oxygen atoms, the Al2O3 layer acts as a photo-induced positive charge blocking layer that effectively blocks the migration of both holes and V o2+ toward the interface between the gate insulator and the semiconductor. The inserted Al2O3 triple layer exhibits a noticeably low turn on voltage shift of −0.7 V under NBIS as well as the good TFT performance with a mobility of 10.9 cm2/V ⋅ s. We anticipate that this approach can be used to solve the stability issues such as NBIS, which is caused by inescapable oxygen vacancies.

  1. Fabrication of the heterojunction diode from Y-doped ZnO thin films on p-Si substrates by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sanjeev K.; Singh, Satendra Pal; Kim, Deuk Young

    2018-02-01

    The heterojunction diode of yttrium-doped ZnO (YZO) thin films was fabricated on p-Si(100) substrates by sol-gel method. The post-annealing process was performed at 600 °C in vacuum for a short time (3 min) to prevent inter-diffusion of Zn, Y, and Si atoms. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of as-grown and annealed (600 °C in vacuum) films showed the preferred orientation along the c-axis (002) regardless of dopant concentrations. The uniform surface microstructure and the absence of other metal/oxide peaks in XRD pattern confirmed the excellence of films. The increasing bandgap and carrier concentration of YZO thin films were interpreted by the BM shift, that is, the Fermi level moves towards the conduction band edge. The current-voltage characteristics of the heterojunction diode, In/n-ZnO/p-Si/Al, showed a rectification behavior. The turn-on voltage and ideality factor of n-ZnO/p-Si and n-YZO/p-Si were observed to be 3.47 V, 2.61 V, and 1.97, 1.89, respectively. Y-dopant in ZnO thin films provided more donor electrons caused the shifting of Fermi-energy level towards the conduction band and strengthen the interest for heterojunction diodes.

  2. In vitro characterisation of a sol-gel derived in situ silica-coated silicate and carbonate co-doped hydroxyapatite nanopowder for bone grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Seyed Mohsen; Fathi, Mohammadhossein; Sharifnabi, Ali; Varshosaz, Jaleh

    2017-06-01

    Design and synthesis of materials with better properties and performance are essential requirements in the field of biomaterials science that would directly improve patient quality of life. For this purpose, in situ silica-coated silicate and carbonate co-doped hydroxyapatite (Sc/S.C.HA) nanopowder was synthesized via the sol-gel method. Characterisation of the prepared nanopowder was carried out by XRD, FTIR, TEM, SEM, EDX, ICP, zeta potential, acid dissolution test, and cell culture test. The substitution of the silicate and carbonate ions into hydroxyapatite structure was confirmed by FTIR analysis. XRD analysis showed that silica is an amorphous phase, which played a role in covering the surface of the S.C.HA nanoparticles as confirmed by acid dissolution test. Low thickness and low integrity of the amorphous silica surface layer facilitated ions release from S.C.HA nanoparticles into physiological saline solution. Zeta potential of the prepared nanopowder suspended in physiological saline solution was -27.3±0.2mV at pH7.4. This negatively charged surface, due to the presence of amorphous silica layer upon the S.C.HA nanoparticles, not only had an accelerating effect on in vitro biomineralization of apatite, but also had a positive effect on cell attachment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Characteristics and Laser Performance of Yb3+-Doped Silica Large Mode Area Fibers Prepared by Sol–Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikai Wang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Large-size 0.1 Yb2O3–1.0 Al2O3–98.9 SiO2 (mol% core glass was prepared by the sol–gel method. Its optical properties were evaluated. Both large mode area double cladding fiber (LMA DCF with core diameter of 48 µm and large mode area photonic crystal fiber (LMA PCF with core diameter of 90 µm were prepared from this core glass. Transmission loss at 1200 nm is 0.41 dB/m. Refractive index fluctuation is less than 2 × 10−4. Pumped by 976 nm laser diode LD pigtailed with silica fiber (NA 0.22, the slope efficiency of 54% and “light-to-light” conversion efficiency of 51% were realized in large mode area double cladding fiber, and 81 W laser power with a slope efficiency of 70.8% was achieved in the corresponding large mode area photonic crystal fiber.

  4. Structural, magnetic and electrical properties of nickel doped Mn-Zn spinel ferrite synthesized by sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalaiah, K., E-mail: kjalu4u@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530003 (India); Vijaya Babu, K. [Advanced Analytical Laboratory, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530003 (India)

    2017-02-01

    Manganese ferrites (MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) have been of great interest for their remarkable and soft-magnetic properties (low coercivity, moderate saturation magnetization) accompanied by good chemical stability and mechanical hardness. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the presence of single phase cubic spinel ferrite with space group Fm3m for all prepared samples. Structural parameters such as lattice constant, crystallite size were calculated from the studies of X-ray diffraction. The morphological analysis of all the compounds is studied using scanning electron microscope. The magnetic properties were measured using electron spin resonance (ESR) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The results obtained showed the formation of manganese ferrites with an average particle size are in good agreement with previous results and displayed good magnetic properties. The dielectric and impedance properties are studied over a frequency range 20 Hz–1 MHz at room temperature. - Highlights: • We prepared Mn{sub 0.85}Zn{sub 0.15}Ni{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x=0.03, 0.06, 0.09, 0.12 and 0.15) nano-ferrite materials by using sol-gel method. • All the compounds characterized by XRD, SEM, VSM, ESR and dielectric studies. • We get lower coercivity values. • We get good results from ESR spectra.

  5. Effects of lithium doping on microstructure, electrical properties, and chemical bonds of sol-gel derived NKN thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chun-Cheng [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Department of Mathematic and Physical Sciences, R.O.C. Air Force Academy, Kaohsiung 820, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chan-Ching; Weng, Chung-Ming [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Chu, Sheng-Yuan, E-mail: chusy@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Hong, Cheng-Shong [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung 802, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Cheng-Che [Department of Digital Game and Animation Design, Tung-Fang Design University, Kaohsiung 829, Taiwan (China)

    2015-02-28

    Highly (100/110) oriented lead-free Li{sub x}(Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}){sub 1−x}NbO{sub 3} (LNKN, x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, and 0.06) thin films are fabricated on Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates via a sol-gel processing method. The lithium (Li) dopants modify the microstructure and chemical bonds of the LNKN films, and therefore improve their electrical properties. The optimal values of the remnant polarization (P{sub r} = 14.3 μC/cm{sup 2}), piezoelectric coefficient (d{sub 33} = 48.1 pm/V), and leakage current (<10{sup −5} A/cm{sup 2}) are obtained for a lithium addition of x = 0.04 (i.e., 4 at. %). The observation results suggest that the superior electrical properties are the result of an improved crystallization, a larger grain size, and a smoother surface morphology. It is shown that the ion transport mechanism is dominated by an Ohmic behavior under low electric fields and the Poole-Frenkel emission effect under high electric fields.

  6. Microparticle and Atherothrombotic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Shosaku

    2016-01-01

    Microparticles (MPs) are small membrane vesicles that are released from many different cell types by exocytotic budding of the plasma membrane in response to cellular activation or apoptosis. MPs may be involved in both physiological processes and clinical treatments because they express phospholipids, which function as procoagulants. Elevated levels of platelet-derived MPs, endothelial cell-derived MPs, and monocyte-derived MPs are observed in almost all thrombotic diseases occurring in venous and arterial beds. Several studies have shown that the quantity, cellular origin, and composition of circulating MPs depend on the type of disease, the disease state, and medical treatment. Although MPs were initially thought to be small particles with only procoagulant activity, they are now known to have many different functions. An increasing number of studies have identified new implications of elevated MPs in clinical disorders. On the basis of evidence available till date, the present review suggests that MPs may be a useful biomarker in identifying atherothrombosis.

  7. Synthesis Mechanism of Low-Voltage Praseodymium Oxide Doped Zinc Oxide Varistor Ceramics Prepared Through Modified Citrate Gel Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Rafizah Wan Abdullah

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available High demands on low-voltage electronics have increased the need for zinc oxide (ZnO varistors with fast response, highly non-linear current-voltage characteristics and energy absorption capabilities at low breakdown voltage. However, trade-off between breakdown voltage and grain size poses a critical bottle-neck in the production of low-voltage varistors. The present study highlights the synthesis mechanism for obtaining praseodymium oxide (Pr6O11 based ZnO varistor ceramics having breakdown voltages of 2.8 to 13.3 V/mm through employment of direct modified citrate gel coating technique. Precursor powder and its ceramics were examined by means of TG/DTG, FTIR, XRD and FESEM analyses. The electrical properties as a function of Pr6O11 addition were analyzed on the basis of I-V characteristic measurement. The breakdown voltage could be adjusted from 0.01 to 0.06 V per grain boundary by controlling the amount of Pr6O11 from 0.2 to 0.8 mol%, without alteration of the grain size. The non-linearity coefficient, α, varied from 3.0 to 3.5 and the barrier height ranged from 0.56 to 0.64 eV. Breakdown voltage and α lowering with increasing Pr6O11 content were associated to reduction in the barrier height caused by variation in O vacancies at grain boundary.

  8. Aluminum-doped zinc oxide sol–gel thin films: Influence of the sol's water content on the resistivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nehmann, Julia B., E-mail: nehmann@isfh.de [Institute for Solar Energy Research Hamelin (ISFH), Am Ohrberg 1, 31860 Emmerthal (Germany); Ehrmann, Nicole; Reineke-Koch, Rolf [Institute for Solar Energy Research Hamelin (ISFH), Am Ohrberg 1, 31860 Emmerthal (Germany); Bahnemann, Detlef W. [Institute for Technical Chemistry, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz University Hannover, Callinstrasse 3A, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2014-04-01

    Thin films of indium tin oxide (ITO) have gained substantial interest due to their optical and electrical properties. Since ITO is an expensive material and indium is a rare element, considerable attempts have been made to replace it by, e.g., aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al). The production of ZnO:Al is less cost-intensive, especially if the sol–gel technique is applied, while its properties are comparable to those of ITO. In this study, we demonstrate that the electrical properties of ZnO:Al thin films can be improved considerably by the addition of small amounts of ultrapure water to the dip coating solution during the preparation. The lowest resistivity obtained with a film prepared from a sol containing 0.2 M water is 2.8·10{sup −3Ω}cm. Optical modeling thus indicates an improvement of the free carrier mobility of films prepared from sols in the presence of additional water. The films prepared have an average thickness of 340 nm and a solar transmittance above 85% after annealing in a forming gas atmosphere. Clearly, the addition of water to the sol has a positive impact on the resistivity of the final ZnO:Al thin film. We suggest the observed increase of the free carrier mobility to be due to an improved electron transfer at the grain boundaries between the spherical nanoparticles. - Highlights: • We prepared ZnO:Al thin films with additional water in the sol by dip coating. • We found a positive impact of the water in the sol on the resistivity of the film. • The free carrier concentration and mobility increased with additional 0.2 M water. • The refractive indices demonstrate a denser structure related to the water content.

  9. Sol-gel Synthesis and Upconversion Luminescent Properties of Yb3+,Er3+,Eu3+Triply-Doped in YVO4Phosphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuan; Sun, Kangning

    2018-01-01

    Yb 3+ ,Er 3+ ,Eu 3+ triply-doped in YVO 4 with varying molar ratio of Er/Eu were synthesized in a sol-gel method with a subsequent heat treatment for the first time. The optimal molar ratio of Er/Eu for the maximum energy transfer efficiency was 1/39. After molar ratio, the influences of different heat treatment temperatures were also researched and the maximal heat temperature was 1300 °C. Besides, the properties of YVO 4 :Yb 3+ ,Er 3+ ,Eu 3+ upconversion phosphors were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and photo luminescent spectra, respectively. In sum, XRD results indicate the crystal structure of as-prepared samples, which is the tetragonal phase of YVO 4 with no other diffraction peaks. SEM images show the morphology of as-prepared samples, which are granular-like nanoparticles. PL spectra demonstrate the upconversion luminescence of as-prepared samples, which emit strong green lights (at 525 nm, 550 nm) and slight red lights (at 590 nm, 615 nm, 695 nm) under the NIR irradiation at 980 nm. Two strong green emissions are attributed to the 2 H 11/2 → 4 I 15/2 and 4 S 3/2 → 4 I 15/2 transitions of Er 3+ ions. Meanwhile, three slight red emissions are attributed to the 5 D 0 → 7 F 1 , 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 and 5 D 0 → 7 F 4 transitions of Eu 3+ ions. All in all, the colorful emissions endow YVO 4 :Yb 3+ ,Er 3+ ,Eu 3+ phosphors great potential for some applications, such as display devices, bio-labeling and infrared detection.

  10. Sol-gel syntheses of pentaborate β-LaB5O9 and the photoluminescence by doping with Eu3+, Tb3+, Ce3+, Sm3+, and Dy3+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruirui; Sun, Xiaorui; Jiang, Pengfei; Gao, Wenliang; Cong, Rihong; Yang, Tao

    2018-02-01

    Rare earth (RE) borates have been extensively studied as good photoluminescent materials, however, the target hosts were limited to "RE3BO6", REBO3, and REB3O6 in the RE2O3-B2O3 phase diagram until the recent discovery of rare earth pentaborate. For the first time, the sol-gel method was employed to synthesize β-LaB5O9 doped with Eu3+, Tb3+, Ce3+, Sm3+, Dy3+. In comparison to the previous synthetic methods, the sol-gel method possesses superiorities including easily-controllable doping concentration, high yield and emission efficiency. Solid solutions of phosphors were prepared and carefully analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction. Concentration quenching or saturation was observed in Eu3+, Tb3+ and Ce3+ doped phosphors at round 10 at%. Eu3+, Tb3+, Sm3+, and Dy3+ emit red, green, orange, and close-to-white light, respectively. The absolute emission efficiency of Ce3+ is high and in the UV range, suggesting the function of being sensitizer once combined with other activators.

  11. On the photo-luminescence properties of sol–gel derived undoped and Dy{sup 3+} ion doped nanocrystalline Scheelite type AMoO{sub 4} (A = Ca, Sr and Ba)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jena, Paramananda [Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry 605014 (India); Gupta, Santosh K., E-mail: santufrnd@gmail.com [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Natarajan, V. [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Padmaraj, O. [Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry 605014 (India); Satyanarayana, N., E-mail: nallanis2011@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, Pondicherry 605014 (India); Venkateswarlu, M. [R & D Amara Raja Batteries Ltd., Karakambadi 517501, AP (India)

    2015-04-15

    Nanocrystalline Scheelite type Dy doped AMoO{sub 4} [where A = Ba, Sr and Ca] samples were prepared by acrylamide assisted sol–gel process and characterized by XRD, FT-Raman, FTIR, SEM and photoluminescence (PL). PL of undoped sample shows blue/green emission in CaMoO{sub 4} and SrMoO{sub 4} but multicolour visible emission leading to near white light in BaMoO{sub 4} nanoparticles; the origin of which is explained. It was observed that on doping 0.5 mol% of Dy{sup 3+} in molybdate samples complete energy transfer takes place in case of SrMoO{sub 4} and BaMoO{sub 4}, but host contributed substantially in Dy doped BaMoO{sub 4} sample, resulting in biexponential decay. It was also observed that symmetry around Dy{sup 3+} decreases as the size of alkaline earth ion increases. Due to combined blue, yellow and red colour emission in dysprosium doped sample; all samples showed near white light emission under UV and near UV excitation.

  12. Microparticles and infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delabranche, X; Berger, A; Boisramé-Helms, J; Meziani, F

    2012-08-01

    Membrane shedding with microvesicle (MV) release after membrane budding due to cell stimulation is a highly conserved intercellular interplay. MV can be released by micro-organisms or by host cells in the course of infectious diseases. Host MVs are divided according to cell compartment origin in microparticles (MPs) from plasma membrane and exosomes from intracellular membranes. MPs are cell fragments resulting from plasma membrane reorganization characterized by phosphatidylserine (PhtdSer) content and parental cell antigens on membrane. The role of MPs in physiology and pathophysiology is not yet well elucidated; they are a pool of bioactive molecules able to transmit a pro-inflammatory message to neighboring or target cells. The first acknowledged function of MP was the dissemination of a procoagulant potential via PhtdSer and it is now obvious than MPs bear tissue factor (TF). Such MPs have been implicated in the coagulation disorders observed during sepsis and septic shock. MPs have been implicated in the regulation of vascular tone and cardiac dysfunction in experimental sepsis. Beside a non-specific role, pathogens such as Neisseria meningitidis and Ebola Virus can specifically activate blood coagulation after TF-bearing MPs release in the bloodstream with disseminated intravascular coagulopathy and Purpura fulminans. The role of MPs in host-pathogen interactions is also fundamental in Chagas disease, where MPs could allow immune evasion by inhibiting C3 convertase. During cerebral malaria, MPs play a complex role facilitating the activation of brain endothelium that contributes to amplify vascular obstruction by parasitized erythrocytes. Phagocytosis of HIV induced MPs expressing PhtdSer by monocytes/macrophages results in cellular infection and non-inflammatory response via up-regulation of TGF-β. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Spectroscopic study of Eu{sup 3+}-doped Gd{sub 1-x}Y{sub x}Ca{sub 4}O(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} prepared by sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klos, A. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, 133 Wolczynska Street, 01919 Warszawa (Poland)], E-mail: Andrzej.Klos@itme.edu.pl; Lipinska, L. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, 133 Wolczynska Street, 01919 Warszawa (Poland); Solarz, P.; Ryba-Romanowski, W. [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Science, 2 Okolna Street, 50-950 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2008-07-14

    Eu{sup 3+}-doped Gd{sub 1-x}Y{sub x}Ca{sub 4}O(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} solid solutions in the form of nanopowders with mean particle size of about 50 nm were prepared by sol-gel method for x = 0.13, 0.44 and 0.60. X-ray examination revealed that compounds prepared by this method are single phase in contrast to compounds prepared by solid state reaction. Room temperature VUV-UV excitation spectra of the {sup 5}D{sub 0} emission and corresponding VUV-excited emission spectra of Eu{sup 3+} were recorded using synchrotron radiation. In addition the excitation spectra in the visible region and the {sup 5}D{sub 0} luminescence decay curves were measured. Spectroscopic features of nanopowders prepared by sol-gel method were compared with those evaluated for single crystal samples grown by the micro-pulling down technique from charge prepared by sol-gel method. It has been concluded that the sol-gel method facilitates the control of stoichiometry and structural stability of compounds under study.

  14. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization of palladium(II)-orthohydroxyacetophenone azine nano-optical sensor doped in sol–gel matrix and its use as probe for assessment of α-amylase activity in human saliva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed, B.A. [Chemistry department, Faculty of Science, al Azhr University, Cairo (Egypt); Abo-Aly, M.M., E-mail: aboalymoh@hotmail.com [Chemistry department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Attia, M.S.; Gamal, S. [Chemistry department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2016-01-15

    PdAPA (palladium(II)-orthohydroxyacetophenone azine) complex doped in sol–gel matrix is synthesized. It is characterized using UV-visible, infrared spectra and TEM image. A novel, simple, sensitive spectrofluorometric method was developed for measuring the activity of the α-amylase enzyme in human saliva for smokers and non-smokers with age range (17–64 years) based on the quenching of the luminescence intensity at 450 nm of the new synthesized complex characterized by various concentrations of the maltose released from the hydrolysis of starch by α-amylase enzyme and was successfully used as nano-optical sensor. The calibration plot was achieved over the concentration range 4.7×10{sup −6}–9.3×10{sup −10} mol L{sup −1} maltose with a correlation coefficient of 0.996 and a detection minimum limit value of 7.55×10{sup −10} mol L{sup −1}. The method was satisfactorily used for the assessment of the α-amylase activity in a number of human saliva samples for various smokers and non-smoker's volunteers. - Highlights: • The (palladium(II)-orthohydroxyacetophenone azine) complex doped in sol–gel was prepared. • It was used for the assessment of of α-amylase enzyme activity. • By maltose resulting from the reaction of α-amylase enzyme with starch. • A novel, simple, sensitive and precise spectrofluorometric method was developed.

  15. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization of palladium(II)-orthohydroxyacetophenone azine nano-optical sensor doped in sol–gel matrix and its use as probe for assessment of α-amylase activity in human saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, B.A.; Abo-Aly, M.M.; Attia, M.S.; Gamal, S.

    2016-01-01

    PdAPA (palladium(II)-orthohydroxyacetophenone azine) complex doped in sol–gel matrix is synthesized. It is characterized using UV-visible, infrared spectra and TEM image. A novel, simple, sensitive spectrofluorometric method was developed for measuring the activity of the α-amylase enzyme in human saliva for smokers and non-smokers with age range (17–64 years) based on the quenching of the luminescence intensity at 450 nm of the new synthesized complex characterized by various concentrations of the maltose released from the hydrolysis of starch by α-amylase enzyme and was successfully used as nano-optical sensor. The calibration plot was achieved over the concentration range 4.7×10 −6 –9.3×10 −10 mol L −1 maltose with a correlation coefficient of 0.996 and a detection minimum limit value of 7.55×10 −10 mol L −1 . The method was satisfactorily used for the assessment of the α-amylase activity in a number of human saliva samples for various smokers and non-smoker's volunteers. - Highlights: • The (palladium(II)-orthohydroxyacetophenone azine) complex doped in sol–gel was prepared. • It was used for the assessment of of α-amylase enzyme activity. • By maltose resulting from the reaction of α-amylase enzyme with starch. • A novel, simple, sensitive and precise spectrofluorometric method was developed.

  16. The content of DNA and RNA in microparticles released by Jurkat and HL-60 cells undergoing in vitro apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Charles F; Pisetsky, David S

    2009-03-10

    Microparticles are small membrane-bound vesicles that are released from apoptotic cells during blebbing. These particles contain DNA and RNA and display important functional activities, including immune system activation. Furthermore, nucleic acids inside the particle can be analyzed as biomarkers in a variety of disease states. To elucidate the nature of microparticle nucleic acids, DNA and RNA released in microparticles from the Jurkat T and HL-60 promyelocytic cell lines undergoing apoptosis in vitro were studied. Microparticles were isolated from culture media by differential centrifugation and characterized by flow cytometry and molecular approaches. In these particles, DNA showed laddering by gel electrophoresis and was present in a form that allowed direct binding by a monoclonal anti-DNA antibody, suggesting antigen accessibility even without fixation. Analysis of RNA by gel electrophoresis showed intact 18s and 28s ribosomal RNA bands, although lower molecular bands consistent with 28s ribosomal RNA degradation products were also present. Particles also contained messenger RNA as shown by RT-PCR amplification of sequences for beta-actin and GAPDH. In addition, gel electrophoresis showed the presence of low molecular weight RNA in the size range of microRNA. Together, these results indicate that microparticles from apoptotic Jurkat and HL-60 cells contain diverse nucleic acid species, indicating translocation of both nuclear and cytoplasmic DNA and RNA as particle release occurs during death.

  17. The content of DNA and RNA in microparticles released by Jurkat and HL-60 cells undergoing in vitro apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, Charles F.; Pisetsky, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Microparticles are small membrane-bound vesicles that are released from apoptotic cells during blebbing. These particles contain DNA and RNA and display important functional activities, including immune system activation. Furthermore, nucleic acids inside the particle can be analyzed as biomarkers in a variety of disease states. To elucidate the nature of microparticle nucleic acids, DNA and RNA released in microparticles from the Jurkat T and HL-60 promyelocytic cell lines undergoing apoptosis in vitro were studied. Microparticles were isolated from culture media by differential centrifugation and characterized by flow cytometry and molecular approaches. In these particles, DNA showed laddering by gel electrophoresis and was present in a form that allowed direct binding by a monoclonal anti-DNA antibody, suggesting antigen accessibility even without fixation. Analysis of RNA by gel electrophoresis showed intact 18s and 28s ribosomal RNA bands, although lower molecular bands consistent with 28s ribosomal RNA degradation products were also present. Particles also contained messenger RNA as shown by RT-PCR amplification of sequences for β-actin and GAPDH. In addition, gel electrophoresis showed the presence of low molecular weight RNA in the size range of microRNA. Together, these results indicate that microparticles from apoptotic Jurkat and HL-60 cells contain diverse nucleic acid species, indicating translocation of both nuclear and cytoplasmic DNA and RNA as particle release occurs during death

  18. Effects of phosphorus-doping on energy band-gap, structural, surface, and photocatalytic characteristics of emulsion-based sol-gel derived TiO{sub 2} nano-powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesh, Ibram, E-mail: ibramganesh@arci.res.in

    2017-08-31

    Highlights: • Reported a novel route to synthesize high specific surface area P-doped TiO{sub 2} nano-powder photocatalysts. • Established methylene blue dye-sensitization mechanism of TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst. • Established the effects of methylene blue adsorption on the surface, structural and photocatalytic activity of P-doped TiO{sub 2}. • Established true quantum efficiency determination method for TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis. - Abstract: Different amounts of phosphorus (P)-doped TiO{sub 2} (PDT) nano-powders (P = 0–10 wt.%) were synthesized by following a new emulsion-based sol-gel (EBSG) route and calcined at 400 °C–800 °C for 6 h. These calcined PDT powders were then thoroughly characterized by means of XRD, XPS, SEM, FT-IR, FT-Raman, DRS, BET surface area, zeta-potential, cyclic-voltammetry and photocatalytic evaluation using methylene blue (MB) as a model-pollutant and established the effects of phosphorous doping on structural, surface, band-gap energy, and photocatalytic characteristics of TiO{sub 2} nano-powder formed in EBSG route. The characterization results suggest that the EBSG derived TiO{sub 2} nano-powder after calcination at 400 °C for 6 h is in the form of anatase phase when it was doped with <8 wt.% P, and it is in the amorphous state when doped with >8 wt.% P. Furthermore, these EBSG derived PDT powders own high negative zeta-potentials, high specific surface areas (up to >250 m{sup 2}/g), and suitable band-gap energies (<3.34 eV). Surprisingly, these PDT powders exhibit very high MB adsorption (up to 50%) from its aqueous 0.01 mM, 0.02 mM and 0.03 mM solutions during 30 min stirring in the dark, whereas, the commercial Degussa P-25 TiO{sub 2} nano-powder shows no adsorption. Among various photocatalysts investigated in this study, the 1 wt.% P-doped TiO{sub 2} nano-powder formed in EBSG route exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity for MB degradation reaction.

  19. Preparation and studies of Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} co-doped Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} sol-gel scintillating films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Ramirez, A. de J, E-mail: amoralesra@ipn.m [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada (CICATA) Unidad Altamira Instituto Politecnico Nacional Km. 14.5 Carr. Tampico-Puerto Industrial, C.P. 89600, Altamira, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Depto. de Ingenieria Metalurgica, ESIQIE-Instituto Politecnico Nacional UPALM C.P. 07738, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Garcia Murillo, A.; Carrillo Romo, F. de J [Depto. de Ingenieria Metalurgica, ESIQIE-Instituto Politecnico Nacional UPALM C.P. 07738, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ramirez Salgado, J. [Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Lazaro Cardenas No. 152, CP 07730, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Le Luyer, C. [LPCML, CNRS-UMR 5620/Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1/69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Chadeyron, G.; Boyer, D. [Laboratoire des Materiaux Inorganiques, CNRS-UMR 6002, Universite Blaise Pascal, 24 Ave des Landais F 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Moreno Palmerin, J. [Depto. de Ingenieria Metalurgica, ESIQIE-Instituto Politecnico Nacional UPALM C.P. 07738, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-10-30

    Eu{sup 3+} (2.5 at.%) and Tb{sup 3+} (0.005-0.01 at.%) co-doped gadolinium and yttrium oxide (Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) powders and films have been prepared using the sol-gel process. High density and optical quality thin films were prepared with the dip-coating technique. Gadolinium (III) 2,4-pentadionate and yttrium (III) 2,4-pentadionate were used as precursors, and europium and terbium in their nitrate forms were used as doping agents. Chemical and structural analyses (infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy) were conducted on both sol-gel precursor powders and dip-coated films. The morphology of thin films heat-treated at 700 {sup o}C was studied by means of atomic force microscopy. It was shown that the highly dense and very smooth films had a root mean roughness (RMS) of 2 nm {+-} 0.2 (A = 0.0075 Tb{sup 3+}) and 24 nm {+-} 3.0 (B = 0.01 Tb{sup 3+}). After treatment at 700 {sup o}C, the crystallized films were in the cubic phase and presented a polycrystalline structure made up of randomly oriented crystallites with grain sizes varying from 20 to 60 nm. The X-ray induced emission spectra of Eu{sup 3+}- and Tb{sup 3+}-doped Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders showed that Tb{sup 3+} contents of 0.005, 0.0075 and 0.01 at.% affected their optical properties. Lower Tb{sup 3+} concentrations (down to 0.005 at.%) in both systems enhanced the light yield.

  20. Polypropylene-supported and nano-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene)-based gel electrolyte for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Y.H.; Zhou, L. [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Li, X.P.; Tan, C.L.; Hu, S.J.; Li, W.S. [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Key Laboratory of Electrochemical Technology on Energy Storage and Power Generation of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Engineering Research Center of Materials and Technology for Electrochemical Energy Storage (MOE), South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Fu, C.H.; Xu, R. [Amperex Technology Limited, Dongguan 523080 (China)

    2011-02-15

    A new gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) is reported in this paper. In this GPE, blending polymer of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) with poly(vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VdF-HFP)), doped with nano-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and supported by polypropylene (PP), is used as polymer matrix, namely PEO-P(VdF-HFP)-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/PP. The performances of the PEO-P(VdF-HFP)-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/PP membrane and the corresponding GPE are characterized with mechanical test, CA, EIS, TGA and charge-discharge test. It is found that the performances of the membrane and the GPE depend to a great extent on the content of doped nano-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. With doping 10 wt.% nano-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in PEO-P(VdF-HFP), the mechanical strength from 9.3 MPa to 14.3 MPa, the porosity of the membrane increases from 42% to 49%, the electrolyte uptake from 176% to 273%, the thermal decomposition temperature from 225 C to 355 C, and the ionic conductivity of corresponding GPE is improved from 2.7 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} to 3.8 x 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1}. The lithium ion battery using this GPE exhibits good rate and cycle performances. (author)

  1. Structural and mechanical properties of lanthanide doped La1/3Nb0.8Ta0.2O3 thin films prepared by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunckova, Helena; Medvecky, Lubomir; Kovalcikova, Alexandra; Fides, Martin; Mudra, Erika; Durisin, Juraj; Skvarla, Jiri; Kanuchova, Maria

    2017-04-01

    Transparent Eu and Nd doped lanthanum niobate tantalate La1/3Nb0.8Ta0.2O3 (LNT) thin films (˜150 nm) were prepared by sol-gel/spin-coating process on Pt/SiO2/Si substrates and annealing at 1100 °C. The x-ray diffraction analysis of films confirmed formation of the perovskite La1/3NbO3 and La1/3TaO3 phases with traces of pyrochlore LaNbO4. Eu and Nd doped LNT films were smoother with roughness 17.1 and 25.4 nm in comparison with LNT (43.3 nm). In all films was observed heterogeneous microstructure with the perovskite spherical and pyrochlore needle-like particles. The mechanical properties of films were characterized for the first time by conventional and continuous stiffness (CSM) nanoindentation. The Eu and Nd doped LNT film modulus (E) and hardness (H) were higher than LNT (˜99.8 and 4.4 GPa) determined by conventional nanoindentation. It was measured the significant effect of substrate on properties of Eu or Nd films (H ˜ 5.9 or 4.9 GPa and E ˜ 107.3 or 104.1 GPa) by CSM nanoindentation.

  2. Circulating Microparticles in Patients with Benign and Malignant Ovarian Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rank, A.; Liebhardt, S.; Zwirner, J.; Burges, A.; Nieuwland, R.; Toth, B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Microparticles are known to be increased in various malignancies. In this prospective study, microparticle levels were evaluated in patients with benign and malignant ovarian lesions. Patients and Methods: Microparticles from platelets/megakaryocytes, activated platelets and endothelial

  3. Synthesis and characterization of erbium-doped SiO2 nanoparticles fabricated by using reverse micelle and sol-gel processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hoyyul; Bae, Dongsik

    2012-01-01

    Erbium-doped SiO 2 nanoparticles have been synthesized using a reverse micelle technique combined with metal-alkoxide hydrolysis and condensation. The sizes and the morphologies of the erbium-doped SiO 2 nanoparticles could be changed by varying the molar ratio of water to surfactant. The sizes and the morphologies of the erbium-doped SiO 2 nanoparticles were examined by using a transmission electron microscope. The average size of synthesized erbium-doped SiO 2 nanoparticles was approximately 20 - 25 nm and that of the erbium particles was 3 - 5 nm. The effects of the synthesis parameters, such as the molar ratio of water to surfactant, are discussed.

  4. Microparticles as Potential Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    França, Carolina Nunes, E-mail: carolufscar24@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de São Paulo - UNIFESP - UNISA, SP, São Paulo (Brazil); Universidade de Santo Amaro - UNISA, SP, São Paulo (Brazil); Izar, Maria Cristina de Oliveira; Amaral, Jônatas Bussador do; Tegani, Daniela Melo; Fonseca, Francisco Antonio Helfenstein [Universidade Federal de São Paulo - UNIFESP - UNISA, SP, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-02-15

    Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease is a choice of great relevance because of its impact on health. Some biomarkers, such as microparticles derived from different cell populations, have been considered useful in the assessment of cardiovascular disease. Microparticles are released by the membrane structures of different cell types upon activation or apoptosis, and are present in the plasma of healthy individuals (in levels considered physiological) and in patients with different pathologies. Many studies have suggested an association between microparticles and different pathological conditions, mainly the relationship with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, the effects of different lipid-lowering therapies have been described in regard to measurement of microparticles. The studies are still controversial regarding the levels of microparticles that can be considered pathological. In addition, the methodologies used still vary, suggesting the need for standardization of the different protocols applied, aiming at using microparticles as biomarkers in clinical practice.

  5. Effect of doping silica gel layers with TiOTi-chains and Cu.sup.2+./sup.-ephedrine on the sensitivity of the layers to gases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějec, Vlastimil; Berková, Daniela; Chomát, Miroslav; Kuncová, Gabriela; Pospíšilová, Marie

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 19, 1/3 (2000), s. 197-200 ISSN 0928-0707. [Glass and Ceramics, Hybrids and Nanocomposites from Gels - SOL-GEL'99 /10./. Yokohama, 19.09.1999-24.09.1999] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/98/1358 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918 Keywords : chemical sensors * optical sensors * optical fibres * sol-gel processing Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.006, year: 2000

  6. Pharmaceutical microparticle engineering with electrospraying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Adam; Wan, Feng; Kristensen, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    , acetone, and an anti-solvent, methanol, for PLGA were studied in different ratios. Properties of the spraying solutions were examined and the resulting microparticles were characterized with regard to size, morphology, porosity, solid state form, surface chemistry and drug release. Particle formation...... demonstrated by the increasingly higher drug release rates. The results demonstrate the importance of solvent composition in particle preparation and indicate potential for exploiting this dependence to improve pharmaceutical particle design and performance....

  7. Preparation of PAN Spinning Solution with Fine Dispersion of Cellulose Microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jee-Woo Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study suggested the optimum conditions for the stable dispersion of cellulose microparticles in PAN spinning dope, which was prepared for spinning the fiber. Many research studies have investigated methods for preparing a variety of carbon fiber precursors in an attempt to control their characteristics according to the applications. In order to prepare PAN fiber that contains fine cellulose particles, it is important to create a uniformly dispersed spinning dope. Minimization of the cellulose particle size was subjected to heat treatment at various temperatures in order to reduce the cohesive force from the hydrogen bonds between the cellulose molecules. Carbonized cellulose microparticles were obtained for efficient dispersion using the physical method and the sedimentation method. Several instrumental analyses were conducted to study the characteristics of the particles and solutions with SEM, FT-IR, XRD, and a particle size analyzer. From the results, the dispersion of the PAN spinning dope with a chemical treatment was superior to the milling method followed by heat treatment. In this study, heat-treating cellulose microparticles at 400°C was found to be the most effective method.

  8. Effect of ion nitriding on the crystal structure of 3 mol% Y2O3-doped ZrO2 thin-films prepared by the sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, A.L.; Diaz-Parralejo, A.; Borrero-Lopez, O.; Guiberteau, F.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effect of ion nitriding on the crystal structure of 3 mol% Y 2 O 3 -doped ZrO 2 (3YSZ) thin-films prepared by the sol-gel method. For this purpose, we used X-ray diffractometry to determine the crystalline phases, the lattice parameters, the crystal sizes, and the lattice microstrains, and glow discharge-optical emission spectroscopy to obtain the depth profiles of the elemental chemical composition. We found that nitrogen atoms substitute oxygen atoms in the 3YSZ crystal, thus leading to the formation of unsaturated-substitutional solid solutions with reduced lattice parameters and Zr 0.94 Y 0.06 O 1.72 N 0.17 stoichiometric formula. We also found that ion nitriding does not affect the grain size, but does generate lattice microstrains due to the increase in point defects in the crystalline lattice

  9. Formulation of Nimesulide Floating Microparticles Using Low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nimesulide release was faster in simulated intestinal fluid (pH 6.8) than in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) and distilled water (pH 6.5). Conclusion: Coacervation non-solvent addition is a suitable technique for preparing floating microparticles of nimesulide using low-viscosity HPMC. Keywords: Floating microparticles ...

  10. Interaction Force Estimation During Manipulation of Microparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalil, I.S.M.; Metz, R.M.P.; Abelmann, Leon; Misra, Sarthak

    2012-01-01

    This work investigates the utilization of microparticles for the wireless sensing of interaction forces in magneticbased manipulation systems. The proposed force estimation approach allows for using microparticles in sensing the interaction forces at hard-to-reach regions to avoid the mechanical and

  11. Synthesis of C-Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles by Novel Sol-Gel Polycondensation of Resorcinol with Formaldehyde for Visible-Light Photocatalysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neti, R.N.; Misra, R.; Bera, P.K.; Dhodapkar, R.; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Bastl, Zdeněk

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 5 (2010), s. 328-332 ISSN 1553-3174 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502; CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : C-doping * chlorophenol * photo activity * titanium dioxide Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.504, year: 2010

  12. Preparation and characterization of TiO{sub 2} doped and MgO stabilized Na–β″-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} electrolyte via a citrate sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, Shi-Jie; Yang, Li-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Min; Wei, Xiao-Ling [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, 5 Xinmofan Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China); Yang, Hui, E-mail: yanghui@njut.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, 5 Xinmofan Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China); Shen, Xiao-Dong [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, 5 Xinmofan Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China)

    2013-06-25

    Highlights: ► TiO{sub 2} doped Na–β″-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} electrolyte is synthesized via a sol–gel method with C{sub 16}H{sub 36}O{sub 4}Ti as the precursor for TiO{sub 2}. ► The optimized sample contains 90.28% of β″ phase and presents a very high relative density (99.5%). ► The optimized sample exhibits the bending strength up to 180 MPa and an ionic conductivity up to 0.21 S cm{sup −1} (350 °C). -- Abstract: TiO{sub 2} doped and MgO stabilized Na–β″-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is synthesized via a citrate sol–gel method starting with Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, NaNO{sub 3}, Mg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and C{sub 16}H{sub 36}O{sub 4}Ti (tetrabutyl titanate, abbreviated as TBT). It is found that the TBT amount in the starting materials is the key factor to affect the properties of the final product, therefore, the samples sintered from precursors containing different amounts of TBT are systematically investigated by means of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Meanwhile, the relative density, mechanical strength and electrical properties of the prepared samples are also measured. The optimized sample contains 90.28% of β″ phase, exhibits a uniform and compact microstructure with a relative density as high as 99.5% of theoretical density (TD). In addition, this sample exhibits a bending strength up to 180 MPa and an ionic conductivity up to 0.21 S cm{sup −1} at 350 °C.

  13. Preparation and characterization of TiO2 doped and MgO stabilized Na–β″-Al2O3 electrolyte via a citrate sol–gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Shi-Jie; Yang, Li-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Min; Wei, Xiao-Ling; Yang, Hui; Shen, Xiao-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► TiO 2 doped Na–β″-Al 2 O 3 electrolyte is synthesized via a sol–gel method with C 16 H 36 O 4 Ti as the precursor for TiO 2 . ► The optimized sample contains 90.28% of β″ phase and presents a very high relative density (99.5%). ► The optimized sample exhibits the bending strength up to 180 MPa and an ionic conductivity up to 0.21 S cm −1 (350 °C). -- Abstract: TiO 2 doped and MgO stabilized Na–β″-Al 2 O 3 is synthesized via a citrate sol–gel method starting with Al(NO 3 ) 3 , NaNO 3 , Mg(NO 3 ) 2 and C 16 H 36 O 4 Ti (tetrabutyl titanate, abbreviated as TBT). It is found that the TBT amount in the starting materials is the key factor to affect the properties of the final product, therefore, the samples sintered from precursors containing different amounts of TBT are systematically investigated by means of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Meanwhile, the relative density, mechanical strength and electrical properties of the prepared samples are also measured. The optimized sample contains 90.28% of β″ phase, exhibits a uniform and compact microstructure with a relative density as high as 99.5% of theoretical density (TD). In addition, this sample exhibits a bending strength up to 180 MPa and an ionic conductivity up to 0.21 S cm −1 at 350 °C

  14. Effects of thermal treatment on the structure and luminescent properties of Eu3+ doped SiO2–PMMA hybrid nanocomposites prepared by a sol–gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus, Filipe Augusto de; Tarse Sobrinho Santos, Simei; Caiut, José Maurício Almeida; Sarmento, Victor Hugo Vitorino

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid nanocomposites are multifunctional materials and their properties are the consequence of molecular interaction between inorganic and organic phases. These materials are interesting hosts for lanthanide ions, such as Eu 3+ . The purpose of this research was to synthesize Eu 3+ doped SiO 2 –PMMA hybrid nanocomposites by a sol–gel process and to study the effects of thermal treatment on the structure and luminescent properties of the material. Structural characterization was carried out using the FTIR, TG and 29 Si NMR techniques, however, the luminescence studies were more sensitive to detect the slight structural changes resulting from the thermal treatment. The Eu 3+ ions inserted into the matrix behaved as a structural probe and make it possible to notice the symmetry change from Eu 3+ site, the decrease in the number of hydroxyl coordinated groups and the improvement in quantum efficiency as a result of the thermal treatment. In addition, the Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters were obtained and supported the interaction between the rare earth and hybrid material. The hybrid was obtained as a stable material until 200 °C and the high sensitivity of the Eu 3+ ions in the system may be used in future applications as thermal sensors, for example. - Highlights: • Eu 3+ -doped SiO 2 –PMMA hybrid nanocomposites were synthesized through a sol–gel process. • FTIR, NMR and TG techniques were used to structural characterization of the material. • Luminescence analysis showed changes in Eu 3+ coordination sphere caused by thermal treatments. • Thermal treatments increase the interaction between the lanthanide ions and the host. • There was a huge improvement in the quantum efficiency of Eu 3+ in heat treated sample.

  15. Effects of thermal treatment on the structure and luminescent properties of Eu{sup 3+} doped SiO{sub 2}–PMMA hybrid nanocomposites prepared by a sol–gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Filipe Augusto de; Tarse Sobrinho Santos, Simei [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Av. Vereador Olímpio Grande s/n, Centro, Itabaiana, SE (Brazil); Caiut, José Maurício Almeida [Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, 14040-901 Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Sarmento, Victor Hugo Vitorino, E-mail: vhsarmento@ufs.br [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Av. Vereador Olímpio Grande s/n, Centro, Itabaiana, SE (Brazil)

    2016-02-15

    Hybrid nanocomposites are multifunctional materials and their properties are the consequence of molecular interaction between inorganic and organic phases. These materials are interesting hosts for lanthanide ions, such as Eu{sup 3+}. The purpose of this research was to synthesize Eu{sup 3+} doped SiO{sub 2}–PMMA hybrid nanocomposites by a sol–gel process and to study the effects of thermal treatment on the structure and luminescent properties of the material. Structural characterization was carried out using the FTIR, TG and {sup 29}Si NMR techniques, however, the luminescence studies were more sensitive to detect the slight structural changes resulting from the thermal treatment. The Eu{sup 3+} ions inserted into the matrix behaved as a structural probe and make it possible to notice the symmetry change from Eu{sup 3+} site, the decrease in the number of hydroxyl coordinated groups and the improvement in quantum efficiency as a result of the thermal treatment. In addition, the Judd–Ofelt intensity parameters were obtained and supported the interaction between the rare earth and hybrid material. The hybrid was obtained as a stable material until 200 °C and the high sensitivity of the Eu{sup 3+} ions in the system may be used in future applications as thermal sensors, for example. - Highlights: • Eu{sup 3+}-doped SiO{sub 2}–PMMA hybrid nanocomposites were synthesized through a sol–gel process. • FTIR, NMR and TG techniques were used to structural characterization of the material. • Luminescence analysis showed changes in Eu{sup 3+} coordination sphere caused by thermal treatments. • Thermal treatments increase the interaction between the lanthanide ions and the host. • There was a huge improvement in the quantum efficiency of Eu{sup 3+} in heat treated sample.

  16. Adsorption of shape-anisotropic and porous particles at the air-water and the decane-water interface studied by the gel trapping technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharp, E.L.; Al-Shehri, H.; Horozov, T.S.; Stoyanov, S.D.; Paunov, V.N.

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the attachment and orientation of anisotropic and porous microparticles at liquid surfaces by using the gel trapping technique (GTT). This technique involves spreading of the microparticles of interest at the liquid interface, subsequent setting of the aqueous phase to a hydrogel

  17. Circulating microparticles in neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crookston, Kendall P; Sibbitt, Wilmer L; Chandler, Wayne L; Qualls, Clifford R; Roldan, Carlos A

    2013-02-01

    Phosphatidylserine-rich microparticles derived from endothelial cells, platelets and leukocytes have been implicated as surrogate markers of cellular activation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Because microparticles have also been associated with many primary neurologic diseases, this study investigated whether cellular-derived microparticles are also implicated in neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE). Plasma microparticles were measured in 51 SLE patients and 22 age- and gender-matched controls. Acute NPSLE was defined as major NPSLE (acute stroke, transient ischemic attack, psychosis, isolated seizures, major cognitive disorder, or acute confusional state) and NPSLE disease activity was measured with the neurologic components of the SLE Disease Activity Index (Neuro-SLEDAI). Neuro-SLEDAI levels varied widely in SLE patients, consistent with variable NPSLE activity. When considering all patients with SLE, there was no difference in total microparticles relative to matched controls, 2158/μL (interquartile range [IQR] 1214-3463) versus 2782/μL (IQR 1586-2990; P = 0.57) nor differences in microparticles derived from either platelets (P = 0.40), monocytes (P = 0.15) or endothelial cells (P = 0.32). However, levels of circulating monocyte-derived microparticles significantly and independently correlated with NPSLE (r = -0.28; P = 0.045), corticosteroid dosage (r = -0.38; P = 0.006) and levels of circulating C5a (r = 0.54; P microparticles. Circulating cell-derived microparticles are reduced in active NPSLE, although the relative contribution of reduced microparticle production, increased consumption or intravascular sequestration, remain uncertain. © 2013 The Authors International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Influences of the iron ion (Fe{sup 3+})-doping on structural and optical properties of nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} thin films prepared by sol-gel spin coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Naceur, J. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique de Semi-conducteurs et de Nanostructures, Centre de Recherche des Sciences et Technologies de l' Energie, BP.95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Mechiakh, R., E-mail: raouf_mechiakh@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique de Semi-conducteurs et de Nanostructures, Centre de Recherche des Sciences et Technologies de l' Energie, BP.95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Departement de Medecine, Faculte de Medecine, Universite Hadj Lakhdar, Batna (Algeria); Bousbih, F.; Chtourou, R. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique de Semi-conducteurs et de Nanostructures, Centre de Recherche des Sciences et Technologies de l' Energie, BP.95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2011-10-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) thin films doping of various iron ion (Fe{sup 3+}) concentrations were deposited on silicon (Si) (100) and quartz substrates by sol-gel Spin Coating technique followed by a thermal treatment at 600 deg. C. The structure, surface morphology and optical properties, as a function of the doping, have been studied by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Raman, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE). XRD and Raman analyzes of our thin films show that the crystalline phase of TiO{sub 2} thin films comprised only the anatase TiO{sub 2}, but the crystallinity decreased when the Fe{sup 3+} content increased from 0% to 20%. During the Fe{sup 3+} addition to 20%, the phase of TiO{sub 2} thin film still maintained the amorphous state. The grain size calculated from XRD patterns varies from 29.3 to 22.6 nm. The complex index and the optical band gap (E{sub g}) of the films were determined by the spectroscopic ellipsometry analysis. We have found that the optical band gap decreased with an increasing Fe{sup 3+} content.

  19. Crystallization properties of RE-doped (RE = Eu, Er, Tm) Zn(2)TiO(4) prepared by the sol-gel method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrázek, Jan; Spanhel, L.; Surynek, M.; Potel, M.; Matějec, Vlastimil

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 509, č. 9 (2011), 4018-4024 ISSN 0925-8388 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/10/2139 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : Zinc titanate * Rare earth element * Sol–gel processes Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.289, year: 2011

  20. Chlorobenzene, chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride adsorption on undoped and metal-doped sol-gel substrates (SiO2, Ag/SiO2, Cu/SiO2 and Fe/SiO2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, M.A.; Gonzalez, A.I.; Corona, L.; Hernandez, F.; Rojas, F.; Asomoza, M.; Solis, S.; Portillo, R.; Salgado, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Adsorption isotherms of chlorobenzene, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride vapors on undoped SiO 2 , and metal-doped Ag/SiO 2 , Cu/SiO 2 and Fe/SiO 2 substrates were measured in the temperature range of 398-593 K. These substrates were prepared from a typical sol-gel technique in the presence of metal dopants that rendered an assortment of microporous-mesoporous solids. The relevant characteristic of these materials was the different porosities and micropore to mesopore volume ratios that were displayed; this was due to the effect that the cationic metal valence exerts on the size of the sol-gel globules that compose the porous solid. The texture of these SiO 2 materials was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR, and diverse adsorption methods. The pore-size distributions of the adsorbents confirmed the existence of mesopores and supermicropores, while ultramicropores were absent. The Freundlich adsorption model approximately fitted the chlorinated compounds adsorption data on the silica substrates by reason of a heterogeneous energy distribution of adsorption sites. The intensity of the interaction between these organic vapors and the surface of the SiO 2 samples was analyzed through evaluation of the isosteric heat of adsorption and standard adsorption energy; from these last results it was evident that the presence of metal species within the silica structure greatly affected the values of both the amounts adsorbed as well as of the isosteric heats of adsorption

  1. Cavitational micro-particles: plasma formation mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bica, Ioan

    2005-01-01

    Cavitational micro-particles are a class to which the micro-spheres, the micro-tubes and the octopus-shaped micro-particles belong. The cavitational micro-particles (micro-spheres, micro-tubes and octopus-shaped micro-particles) at an environmental pressure. The micro-spheres, the micro-tubes and the ligaments of the octopus-shaped micro-particles are produced in the argon plasma and are formed of vapors with low values of the molar concentration in comparison with the molar density of the gas and vapor mixture, the first one on the unstable and the last two on the stable movement of the vapors. The ligaments of the octopus-shaped micro-particles are open at the top for well-chosen values of the sub-cooling of the vapor and gas cylinders. The nitrogen in the air favors the formation of pores in the wall of the micro-spheres. In this paper we present the cavitational micro-particles, their production in the plasma and some mechanisms for their formation in the plasma. (author)

  2. Skin penetration and photoprotection of topical formulations containing benzophenone-3 solid lipid microparticles prepared by the solvent-free spray-congealing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Rodrigo Molina; Siqueira, Silvia; Fonseca, Maria José Vieira; Freitas, Luis Alexandre Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Solid-lipid microparticles loaded with high amounts of the sunscreen UV filter benzophenone-3 were prepared by spray congealing with the objective of decreasing its skin penetration and evaluate whether the sunscreen's photoprotection were impaired by the microencapsulation process. The microparticles were produced using the natural lipids carnauba wax or bees wax and three different concentrations of benzophenone-3 (30, 50 and 70%) using spray congealing technique. The microparticles presented properties suitable for topical application, such as spherical morphology, high encapsulation efficiency (95.53-102.2%), average particle sizes between 28.5 and 60.0 µm with polydispersivities from 1.2 to 2.5. In studies of in vitro skin penetration and preliminary stability, formulations of gel cream containing carnauba wax solid lipid microparticles and 70% benzophenone-3 when compared to the formulation added of bees wax solid-lipid microparticles containing 70% benzophenone-3, was stable considering the several parameters evaluated and were able to decrease the penetration of the UV filter into pig skin. Moreover, the formulations containing solid lipid microparticles with 70% benzophenone-3 increased the photoprotective capacity of benzophenone-3 under UV irradiation. The results show that spray-congealed microparticles are interesting solid forms to decrease the penetration solar filters in the skin without compromising their photoprotection.

  3. Interfacial synthesis and widely controllable conductivity of polythiophene microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin-Gui; Li, Ji; Meng, Qing-Kai; Huang, Mei-Rong

    2009-07-23

    Fine polythiophene (PTh) microparticles were successfully synthesized by a novel interfacial polymerization at a dynamic interface between two immiscible solvents, i.e., n-hexane and acetonitrile or nitromethane containing thiophene and oxidant, respectively. The polymerization yield, size, and electrical conductivity of the microparticles are optimized by facilely regulating the medium species, oxidant species, oxidant/monomer ratio, monomer concentration, and polymerization temperature. The microparticles were thoroughly characterized by IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffractometry, laser particle-size analyzer, and simultaneous TG-DSC technique. The yield rises with increasing oxidant/monomer ratio, monomer concentration, and polymerization temperature. However, low monomer concentration, low polymerization temperature, and modest oxidant/monomer ratio are all favorable for the formation of the PTh with good, large pi-conjugation and high conductivity. With decreasing the thiophene concentration from 200 to 50 mM at a fixed FeCl3/thiophene molar ratio of 3 at 0 degrees C in hexane/nitromethane biphase system, the PTh obtained exhibits a steadily enhanced conductivity from 10(-12) to 0.01 S cm(-1) and gradually darkening color from crimson to black. Under the same conditions, the PTh obtained in hexane/acetonitrile usually possesses lower yield but higher conductivity than that in hexane/nitromethane. The conductivity will be further enhanced to 1.1 and 4.4 S cm(-1) if the PTh powders are doped in iodine vapor and simply carbonized at 25 through 999 degrees C in nitrogen, respectively. The PTh is fine particles with the number-average diameter of 2.67-3.95 microm and low size polydispersity index between 1.12 and 1.23. The black particles carbonized at 25 to 999 degrees C are much smaller than original PTh particles, with the number-average diameter of 279 nm and size polydispersity index of 1.09. This interfacial approach provides an optimal

  4. Differential mechanisms of microparticle transfer toB cells and monocytes: anti-inflammatory propertiesof microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köppler, Barbara; Cohen, Clemens; Schlöndorff, Detlef; Mack, Matthias

    2006-03-01

    Microparticles are small vesicles released from the plasma membrane of various cell types independently of apoptosis or cell death, are transferred between cells, and carry membrane proteins from one cell to another. We have studied the mechanism of uptake of microparticles by monocytes and B cells. The transfer of microparticles to B cells was almost completely dependent on complement. Incubation of microparticles with serum resulted in opsonization of microparticles with the complement cleavage product iC3b. The subsequent transfer to B cells was mediated by the complement receptor CR2. The interaction between iC3b-opsonized microparticles and B cells reduced the activation of B cells as measured by expression of MHC class II, CD86 and CD25. In contrast, transfer of microparticles to monocytes was only partially complement dependent, but involved calcium and annexin V, and was found to change the cytokine profile of monocytes towards a reduced release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines GM-CSF and TNF-alpha and an increased release of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. These data show that microparticles are taken up by B cells and monocytes by different mechanisms and modulate the activation of monocytes and B cells towards an anti-inflammatory phenotype. Microparticles might be involved in counterbalancing pro-inflammatory signals arising from tissue injury or inflammation.

  5. Influence of Ce{sup 3+} doping on molecular organization of Si-based organic/inorganic sol-gel layers for corrosion protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedel, Michele, E-mail: michele.fedel@unitn.it [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, via Sommarive 9, Povo (Italy); Callone, Emanuela [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, via Sommarive 9, Povo (Italy); “K. Müller” Magnetic Resonance Lab, University of Trento, via Sommarive 9, Povo (Italy); Fabbian, Matias; Deflorian, Flavio [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, via Sommarive 9, Povo (Italy); Dirè, Sandra [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, via Sommarive 9, Povo (Italy); “K. Müller” Magnetic Resonance Lab, University of Trento, via Sommarive 9, Povo (Italy)

    2017-08-31

    Highlights: • Ce{sup 3+} ions promote a decrease of the degree of condensation of the silsesquioxane network. • Ce{sup 3+} ions affect ladder and cages like structures formation in the silsesquioxane network. • Ce{sup 3+} ions do not significantly affect the barrier properties of the coatings. • [Ce{sup 3+}] ≈ 5·10{sup −4} M provides the sol-gel film with an effective passivating potential. - Abstract: In this work, organosilane-derived sol-gel films containing different amounts of cerium ions applied on AA 1050 were investigated. The sol-gel coatings were prepared from 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) and methyltriethoxysilane (MTES) mixtures with the addition of cerium nitrate in order to achieve different concentrations of Ce ions (from 10{sup −5} M to 10{sup −2} M). The effect of the cerium load on the structure of the cured sol-gel films was investigated by means of solid state NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy. The corrosion protection properties of the different sol-gel layers were investigated mainly by means potentiodynamic curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). FT-IR and solid state NMR suggested a significant influence of the Ce cations on the network structure: not only the degree of condensation decreases with Ce addition but also the structural modification of the silsesquioxane network is observed with preferential formation of ladder-like species for low Ce{sup 3+} content and cages predominance for Ce/Si molar ratio greater than 0.039, i.e. [Ce{sup 3+}] = 1·10{sup −4} M. Electrochemical tests revealed that the effect of Ce ions on the structure of the coatings does not lead to remarkable changes in the barrier properties. Moreover, it was found that the Ce ions seems to be present in the cured films and are able to migrate towards the metal/coating interface thus providing a stabilization of the metal interface.

  6. Toughening and healing of composites by CNTs reinforced copolymer nylon micro-particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostopoulos, V.; Kotrotsos, A.; Tsokanas, P.; Tsantzalis, S.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, nylon micro-particles, both undoped and doped with multiwall carbon nanotubes played the role of the self-healing agent into carbon fibre/epoxy composites (CFRPs). These micro-particles were blended with epoxy matrix and the resulting mixture was used for the composites fabrication. Three types of composites were manufactured; the reference CFRP and the modified CFRPs with undoped and doped nylon micro-particles. After manufacturing, these composites were tested under mode I and II fracture loading conditions and it was shown that the interlaminar fracture toughness characteristics of both nylon modified composites were significantly increased. After first fracture, healing process was activated for the tested nylon modified samples and revealed high fracture toughness characteristics recovery. Morphology examinations supported the results and elucidated the involved toughening and failure mechanisms. Finally, the in-plane mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties of all the composites were characterized for identifying possible knock-down effects due to the nylon modification of composites.

  7. Sol-Gel Derived Mg-Based Ceramic Scaffolds Doped with Zinc or Copper Ions: Preliminary Results on Their Synthesis, Characterization, and Biocompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios S. Theodorou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glass-ceramic scaffolds containing Mg have shown recently the potential to enhance the proliferation, differentiation, and biomineralization of stem cells in vitro, property that makes them promising candidates for dental tissue regeneration. An additional property of a scaffold aimed at dental tissue regeneration is to protect the regeneration process against oral bacteria penetration. In this respect, novel bioactive scaffolds containing Mg2+ and Cu2+ or Zn2+, ions known for their antimicrobial properties, were synthesized by the foam replica technique and tested regarding their bioactive response in SBF, mechanical properties, degradation, and porosity. Finally their ability to support the attachment and long-term proliferation of Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs was also evaluated. The results showed that conversely to their bioactive response in SBF solution, Zn-doped scaffolds proved to respond adequately regarding their mechanical strength and to be efficient regarding their biological response, in comparison to Cu-doped scaffolds, which makes them promising candidates for targeted dental stem cell odontogenic differentiation and calcified dental tissue engineering.

  8. Zr-doped TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized via a sol-gel route and their application in dye-sensitized solar cells for thermo-stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasche, Anastasia; Grohe, Bernd; Mittler, Silvia; Charpentier, Paul A.

    2017-06-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are regarded as one of the most promising solar cells amongst third-generation photovoltaic technologies, particularly due to their low cost, easy preparation, and minor environmental impact compared to earlier-generation devices. However, they have been challenged by thermal energy losses and low cell efficiencies. This work examined the incorporation of zirconium (Zr) into the crystal lattice of titania nanoparticles (nTiO2) for subsequent fabrication into the photo anode of the DSSCs. The results showed that Zr doping of nTiO2 inhibited the anatase-rutile phase transition. Higher calcination temperatures gave increased titania crystallinity, and stabilized the nTiO2 aggregate pore structure and specific surface area, consequently improving the DSSC device performance. A doping concentration of 5 mol % Zr into the nTiO2 demonstrated the best resistance against thermal degradation, achieving an optimized retention of specific surface area. Solar simulation confirmed the results, indicating better heat stability, although lowering the DSSC efficiencies.

  9. Microfluidic production of polymeric functional microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kunqiang

    This dissertation focuses on applying droplet-based microfluidics to fabricate new classes of polymeric microparticles with customized properties for various applications. The integration of microfluidic techniques with microparticle engineering allows for unprecedented control over particle size, shape, and functional properties. Specifically, three types of microparticles are discussed here: (1) Magnetic and fluorescent chitosan hydrogel microparticles and their in-situ assembly into higher-order microstructures; (2) Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microbeads with phosphorescent properties for oxygen sensing; (3) Macroporous microparticles as biological immunosensors. First, we describe a microfluidic approach to generate monodisperse chitosan hydrogel microparticles that can be further connected in-situ into higher-order microstructures. Microparticles of the biopolymer chitosan are created continuously by contacting an aqueous solution of chitosan at a microfluidic T-junction with a stream of hexadecane containing a nonionic detergent, followed by downstream crosslinking of the generated droplets by a ternary flow of glutaraldehyde. Functional properties of the microparticles can be easily varied by introducing payloads such as magnetic nanoparticles and/or fluorescent dyes into the chitosan solution. We then use these prepared microparticles as "building blocks" and assemble them into high ordered microstructures, i.e. microchains with controlled geometry and flexibility. Next, we describe a new approach to produce monodisperse microbeads of PDMS using microfluidics. Using a flow-focusing configuration, a PDMS precursor solution is dispersed into microdroplets within an aqueous continuous phase. These droplets are collected and thermally cured off-chip into soft, solid microbeads. In addition, our technique allows for direct integration of payloads, such as an oxygen-sensitive porphyrin dye, into the PDMS microbeads. We then show that the resulting dye

  10. Trojan Microparticles for Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry F. Vandamme

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA have regulated a wide range of products, (foods, cosmetics, drugs, devices, veterinary, and tobacco which may utilize micro and nanotechnology or contain nanomaterials. Nanotechnology allows scientists to create, explore, and manipulate materials in nano-regime. Such materials have chemical, physical, and biological properties that are quite different from their bulk counterparts. For pharmaceutical applications and in order to improve their administration (oral, pulmonary and dermal, the nanocarriers can be spread into microparticles. These supramolecular associations can also modulate the kinetic releases of drugs entrapped in the nanoparticles. Different strategies to produce these hybrid particles and to optimize the release kinetics of encapsulated drugs are discussed in this review.

  11. Silver Doped TiO2 Nanostructure Composite Photocatalyst Film Synthesized by Sol-Gel Spin and Dip Coating Technique on Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Nasr-Esfahani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available New composite films (P25SGF-MC-Ag, MPC500SGF-MC-Ag, and ANPSGF-MC-Ag have been synthesized by a modified sol-gel method using different particle sizes of TiO2 powder and silver addition. Nanostructure TiO2/Ag composite thin films were prepared by a sol-gel spin and dip coating technique. while, by introducing methyl cellulose (MC porous, TiO2/Ag films were obtained after calcining at a temperature of 500°C. The as-prepared TiO2 and TiO2/Ag films were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, and scanning electron microscopy to reveal the structural and morphological differences. In addition, the photocatalytic properties of these films were investigated by degrading methyl orange (MO under UV irradiation. After 500°C calcination, the microstructure of MC-TiO2 film without Ag addition exhibited a microstructure, while significant sintering effect was noticed with Ag additions and the films exhibited a porous microstructure. Nanostructure anatase-phase TiO2 can be observed with respect to the sharpening of XRD diffraction peaks. The photodegradation of porous TiO2 deposited with 5×10−4 mol Ag exhibited the best photocatalytic efficiency, where 69% methyl orange can be decomposed after UV exposure for 1 hour.

  12. Nitrogen-doped carbon aerogels for electrical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Patrick; Montalvo, Elizabeth; Baumann, Theodore F.; Biener, Juergen; Merrill, Matthew; Reed, Eric W.; Worsley, Marcus A.

    2017-10-03

    Disclosed here is a method for making a nitrogen-doped carbon aerogel, comprising: preparing a reaction mixture comprising formaldehyde, at least one nitrogen-containing resorcinol analog, at least one catalyst, and at least one solvent; curing the reaction mixture to produce a wet gel; drying the wet gel to produce a dry gel; and thermally annealing the dry gel to produce the nitrogen-doped carbon aerogel. Also disclosed is a nitrogen-doped carbon aerogel obtained according to the method and a supercapacitor comprising the nitrogen-doped carbon aerogel.

  13. Nanocapsule@xerogel microparticles containing sodium diclofenac: a new strategy to control the release of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca, Letícia Sias; Silveira, Rodrigo Paulo; Deboni, Alberto Marçal; Benvenutti, Edilson Valmir; Costa, Tânia M H; Guterres, Sílvia S; Pohlmann, Adriana R

    2008-06-24

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the potentiality to control the drug release of a new architecture of microparticles organized at the nanoscopic scale by assembling polymeric nanocapsules at the surface of drug-loaded xerogels. Xerogel was prepared by sol-gel method using sodium diclofenac, as hydrophilic drug model, and coated by spray-drying. After coating, the surface areas decreased from 82 to 28 m(2)/g, the encapsulation efficiency was 71% and SEM analysis showed irregular microparticles coated by the nanocapsules. Formulation showed satisfactory gastro-resistance presenting drug release lower than 3% (60 min) in acid medium. In water, the pure drug dissolved 92% after 5 min, uncoated drug-loaded xerogel released 60% and nanocapsule coated drug-loaded xerogel 36%. After 60 min, uncoated drug-loaded xerogel released 82% and nanocapsule coated drug-loaded xerogel 62%. In conclusion, the new system was able to control the release of the hydrophilic drug model.

  14. Nanopowders of YAl{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} doped by Nd, Yb and Cr obtained by sol-gel method: Synthesis, structure and luminescence properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szysiak, A., E-mail: agnieszka.szysiak@itme.edu.pl [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, 133 Wolczynska Str., 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Lipinska, L. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, 133 Wolczynska Str., 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Ryba-Romanowski, W.; Solarz, P. [Institute of Low Temp. and Struct. Research, Polish Ac. Sc., P.O. Box 1410, 50-950 Wroclaw (Poland); Diduszko, R.; Pajaczkowska, A. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, 133 Wolczynska Str., 01-919 Warsaw (Poland)

    2009-12-15

    Structure, morphology and luminescence properties of nanocrystalline samples of YAl{sub 3}(BO{sub 3}){sub 4} (YAB) undoped and doped with neodymium, ytterbium and chromium obtained by the sol-gel method are presented. The best results of synthesis are obtained for mannitol as polymerizing agent. Single phase of nanopowder is obtained for pure YAB. Dopants destroy the compound structure; two other compounds, namely Al{sub 18}B{sub 4}O{sub 33} and YBO{sub 3}, were revealed by X-ray investigation. Nanopowders show isometric and needles forms, the calculated size of crystallites is about 60 nm. Their optical properties are determined and results are compared to data obtained for single crystal counterparts. It is shown that the influence of rare earth ions incorporated into YBO{sub 3} phase on luminescent spectra and excited state relaxation dynamics of the nanopowders is negligibly small when the YBO{sub 3} content is of the order of several wt%. Residual impurity phases do not affect significantly spectroscopic properties of YAB nanopowders.

  15. Herbal carrier-based floating microparticles of diltiazem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various physicochemical properties of the floating microspheres were characterized, including drug content, particle ... develop the delivery system. Keywords: Diltiazem, Cardiac disease, Psyllium husk, Sodium alginate, Microsphere, Microparticle, ... mechanical strength of the microparticles was improved by gentle stirring ...

  16. Resistividade do filme depositado via sol-gel e estado de oxidação do dopante Ce na matriz SnO2 Resistivity of the film deposited via sol-gel and oxidation state of Ce doping in SnO2 matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. A. Scalvi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Incorporação de Ce3+ ou Ce4+ em filmes finos de SnO2 depositados via sol-gel-dip-coating aumenta drasticamente a resistividade elétrica. No primeiro caso, temos comportamento aceitador do dopante, levando a matriz à alta compensação de carga. Por outro lado, para Ce4+, verifica-se aumento na largura da região de depleção do contorno de grão, resultando em maior espalhamento de elétrons. Medidas de caracterização elétrica sob pressão ambiente levam à barreiras de potencial mais altas do que as medidas sob vácuo, devido a adsorção de oxigênio na superfície das partículas. A presença de Ce3+ aumenta a transmitância no infravermelho, o que significa menor quantidade de elétrons livres. Dados de XANES confirmam que o tratamento térmico a 550 ºC dos filmes, ainda que promova oxidação parcial para Ce4+, preserva uma quantidade significativa (em torno de 60% no estado Ce3+. Espectroscopia Raman mostra a evolução dos modos de vibração intra-grãos de SnO2 com o aumento da temperatura de tratamento térmico.Incorporation of Ce3+ or Ce4+ in sol-gel dip-coating SnO2 thin films increases drastically its electrical resistivity. In the first case, it is due the acceptor-like nature of the doping ion, leading the matrix to high charge compensation. On the other hand, for Ce+4 doped samples, it is verified a broadening of the grain boundary depletion layer. Measurements under room pressure leads to higher intergrain potential barriers when compared to measurements carried out under vacuum conditions, due to oxygen adsorption at particles surface. The presence of Ce3+ increases the infrared transmittance, which means a lower free electron concentration. XANES data confirms that the thermal annealing at 550 ºC of thin films, although promotes oxidation to Ce4+, still keeps a significantly amount (about 60% of ions in the oxidation state Ce3+. Raman spectroscopy data show the evolution of the SnO2 bulk vibration modes with

  17. Microparticles from apoptotic platelets promote resident macrophage differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Vasina, E M; Cauwenberghs, S; Feijge, M A H; Heemskerk, J W M; Weber, C; Koenen, R R

    2011-01-01

    Platelets shed microparticles not only upon activation, but also upon ageing by an apoptosis-like process (apoptosis-induced platelet microparticles, PMap). While the activation-induced microparticles have widely been studied, not much is known about the (patho)physiological consequences of PMap formation. Flow cytometry and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that PMap display activated integrins and interact to form microparticle aggregates. PMap were chemotactic for monocytic cells, ...

  18. Pickering stabilized peptide gel particles as tunable microenvironments for biocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Gary; Roy, Sangita; Abul-Haija, Yousef M; Fleming, Scott; Bai, Shuo; Ulijn, Rein V

    2013-11-19

    We demonstrate the preparation of peptide gel microparticles that are emulsified and stabilized by SiO2 nanoparticles. The gels are composed of aromatic peptide amphiphiles 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyldiphenylalanine (Fmoc-FF) coassembled with Fmoc-amino acids with different functional groups (S: serine; D: aspartic acid; K: lysine; and Y: tyrosine). The gel phase provides a highly hydrated matrix, and peptide self-assembly endows the matrix with tunable chemical environments which may be exploited to support and stabilize proteins. The use of Pickering emulsion to stabilize these gel particles is advantageous through avoidance of surfactants that may denature proteins. The performance of enzyme lipase B immobilized in pickering/gel microparticles with different chemical functionalities is investigated by studying transesterification in heptane. We show that the use of Pickering particles enhances the performance of the enzyme, which is further improved in gel-phase systems, with hydrophilic environment provided by Fmoc-FF/S giving rise to the best catalytic performance. The combination of a tunable chemical environment in gel phase and Pickering stabilization described here is expected to prove useful for areas where proteins are to be exploited in technological contexts such as biocatalysis and also in other areas where protein performance and activity are important, such as biosensors and bioinspired solar fuel devices.

  19. Cell behavior on microparticles with different surface morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Sha [Wound Healing and Cell Biology Laboratory, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, General Hospital of PLA, Beijing 100853 (China); Fu Xiaobing, E-mail: fuxiaobing@vip.sina.co [Wound Healing and Cell Biology Laboratory, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, General Hospital of PLA, Beijing 100853 (China); Burns Institute, The First Affiliated Hospital, General Hospital of PLA, Trauma Center of Postgraduate Medical College, Beijing 100037 (China)

    2010-03-18

    Microparticles can serve as substrates for cell amplification and deliver the cell aggregation to the site of the defect for tissue regeneration. To develop favorable microparticles for cell delivery application, we fabricated and evaluated three types of microparticles that differ in surface properties. The microparticles with varied surface morphology (smooth, pitted and multicavity) were created from chemically crosslinked gelatin particles that underwent various drying treatments. Three types of microparticles were characterized and assessed in terms of the cell behavior of human keratinocytes and fibroblasts seeded on them. The cells could attach, spread and proliferate on all types of microparticles but spread and populated more slowly on the microparticles with smooth surfaces than on those with pitted or multicavity surfaces. Microparticles with a multicavity surface demonstrated the highest cell attachment and growth rate. Furthermore, cells tested on microparticles with a multicavity surface exhibited better morphology and induced the earlier formation of extracellular-based cell-microparticle aggregation than those on microparticles with other surface morphology (smooth and pitted). Thus, microparticles with a multicavity surface show promise for attachment and proliferation of cells in tissue engineering.

  20. Preliminary Studies on Solid Lipid Microparticles of Loratadine for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To formulate solid lipid microparticles (SLM) of loratadine (LRT) for the treatment of allergic reactions via the nasal route. Methods: Microparticles were prepared by emulsion congealing technique. The drug content of microparticles was analysed. Drug/excipient compatibility and crystallinity characteristics of.

  1. The Influence of Chitosan Cross-linking on the Properties of Alginate Microparticles with Metformin Hydrochloride—In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Szekalska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium alginate is a polymer with unique ability to gel with different cross-linking agents in result of ionic and electrostatic interactions. Chitosan cross-linked alginate provides improvement of swelling and mucoadhesive properties and might be used to design sustained release dosage forms. Therefore, the aim of this research was to develop and evaluate possibility of preparing chitosan cross-linked alginate microparticles containing metformin hydrochloride by the spray-drying method. In addition, influence of cross-linking agent on the properties of microparticles was evaluated. Formulation of microparticles prepared by the spray drying of 2% alginate solution cross-linked by 0.1% chitosan was characterized by good mucoadhesive properties, high drug loading and prolonged metformin hydrochloride release. It was shown that designed microparticles reduced rat glucose blood level, delayed absorption of metformin hydrochloride and provided stable plasma drug concentration. Additionally, histopathological studies of pancreas, liver and kidneys indicated that all prepared microparticles improved degenerative changes in organs of diabetic rats. Moreover, no toxicity effect and no changes in rats behavior after oral administration of chitosan cross-linked alginate microparticles were noted.

  2. Effect of thickness on structural, electrical, optical and magnetic properties of Co and Al doped ZnO films deposited by sol-gel route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Mamta [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, New Delhi 110021 (India); Mehra, R.M. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Delhi South Campus, New Delhi 110021 (India)], E-mail: rammehra2003@yahoo.com

    2008-12-30

    This paper reports deposition and characterization of Zn{sub 0.94}Co{sub 0.05}Al{sub 0.01}O films of thickness ranging from 70 nm to 400 nm. These films were deposited on a glass (Corning, 7059) substrate using sol-gel route. The films have been characterized to study their structural, electrical, optical and magnetic properties. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to study the crystallinity and growth mode of the films. The films deposited up to a thickness of 200 nm showed improvement in crystallinity and preferential c-axis orientation. A transition in the growth mode from vertical (c-axis) to lateral (a and b-axis) was observed with further increase in the thickness of the film. The average transmittance of the films for thickness less than 200 nm was above 80% in the visible region which decreased at higher thickness of the film. The resistivity of the film was found to decrease with increase in thickness up to 200 nm. Ferromagnetism, at room temperature, was confirmed for 200 nm and 400 nm thick films.

  3. Effect of thickness on structural, electrical, optical and magnetic properties of Co and Al doped ZnO films deposited by sol-gel route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Mamta; Mehra, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports deposition and characterization of Zn 0.94 Co 0.05 Al 0.01 O films of thickness ranging from 70 nm to 400 nm. These films were deposited on a glass (Corning, 7059) substrate using sol-gel route. The films have been characterized to study their structural, electrical, optical and magnetic properties. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to study the crystallinity and growth mode of the films. The films deposited up to a thickness of 200 nm showed improvement in crystallinity and preferential c-axis orientation. A transition in the growth mode from vertical (c-axis) to lateral (a and b-axis) was observed with further increase in the thickness of the film. The average transmittance of the films for thickness less than 200 nm was above 80% in the visible region which decreased at higher thickness of the film. The resistivity of the film was found to decrease with increase in thickness up to 200 nm. Ferromagnetism, at room temperature, was confirmed for 200 nm and 400 nm thick films.

  4. The sol-gel prepared SiO2-CaO-P2O5 composites doped with Metronidazole for application in local delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnobaj, Katarzyna; Sawicki, Wiesław

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical properties, chemical structure and bioactivity of sol-gel processed oxide (SiO(2)-CaO-P(2)O(5)) composites used as controlled release materials for Metronidazole-drug applied in periodontal disease treatment. The obtained composite materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), the Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) technique and further monitoring in the ultraviolet and visible light regions (UV-Vis) of the in vitro release of the drug over time. Using tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) as a precursor of silica matrix and calcium nitrate tetrahydrate (Ca(NO(3))(2) 4H(2)O), triethyl phosphite (P(OC(2)H(5))(3)) as precursors of CaO and P(2)O(5) respectively, xerogels with different morphology and physical properties were obtained. The applied modifications improved also the bioactivity and changed the profile of the drug release. Based on the presented results of this study, it may be concluded that applied xerogel matrices could be promising candidates for the formulation in local delivery systems.

  5. Clinical significance of procoagulant microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Shosaku; Shimizu, Michiomi

    2015-01-01

    Microparticles (MPs) are small membrane vesicles that are released from many different cell types by exocytic budding of the plasma membrane in response to cellular activation or apoptosis. MPs may also be involved in clinical diseases because they express phospholipids, which function as procoagulants. Although flow cytometry is the most widely used method for studying MPs, some novel assays, such as tissue factor-dependent procoagulant assay or the ELISA method, have been reported. However, the use of quantification of MP as a clinical tool is still controversial. Elevated platelet-derived MP, endothelial cell-derived MP, and monocyte-derived MP concentrations are documented in almost all thrombotic diseases occurring in venous and arterial beds. However, the significance of MPs in various clinical conditions remains controversial. An example of this controversy is that it is unknown if MPs found in peripheral blood vessels cause thrombosis or whether they are the result of thrombosis. Numerous studies have shown that not only the quantity, but also the cellular origin and composition of circulating MPs, are dependent on the type of disease, the disease state, and medical treatment. Additionally, many different functions have been attributed to MPs. Therefore, the number and type of clinical disorders associated with elevated MPs are currently increasing. However, MPs were initially thought to be small particles with procoagulant activity. Taken together, our review suggests that MPs may be a useful biomarker to identify thrombosis.

  6. Microparticles in hemostasis and thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, A Phillip; Mackman, Nigel

    2011-05-13

    Blood contains microparticles (MPs) derived from a variety of cell types, including platelets, monocytes, and endothelial cells. In addition, tumors release MPs into the circulation. MPs are formed from membrane blebs that are released from the cell surface by proteolytic cleavage of the cytoskeleton. All MPs are procoagulant because they provide a membrane surface for the assembly of components of the coagulation protease cascade. Importantly, procoagulant activity is increased by the presence of anionic phospholipids, particularly phosphatidylserine (PS), and the procoagulant protein tissue factor (TF), which is the major cellular activator of the clotting cascade. High levels of platelet-derived PS(+) MPs are present in healthy individuals, whereas the number of TF(+), PS(+) MPs is undetectable or very low. However, levels of PS(+), TF(+) MPs are readily detected in a variety of diseases, and monocytes appear to be the primary cellular source. In cancer, PS(+), TF(+) MPs are derived from tumors and may serve as a useful biomarker to identify patients at risk for venous thrombosis. This review will summarize our current knowledge of the role of procoagulant MPs in hemostasis and thrombosis.

  7. Microparticles, vascular function, and atherothrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautou, Pierre-Emmanuel; Vion, Anne-Clémence; Amabile, Nicolas; Chironi, Gilles; Simon, Alain; Tedgui, Alain; Boulanger, Chantal M

    2011-08-19

    Membrane-shed submicron microparticles (MPs) are released after cell activation or apoptosis. High levels of MPs circulate in the blood of patients with atherothrombotic diseases, where they could serve as a useful biomarker of vascular injury and a potential predictor of cardiovascular mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events. Atherosclerotic lesions also accumulate large numbers of MPs of leukocyte, smooth muscle cell, endothelial, and erythrocyte origin. A large body of evidence supports the role of MPs at different steps of atherosclerosis development, progression, and complications. Circulating MPs impair the atheroprotective function of the vascular endothelium, at least partly, by decreased nitric oxide synthesis. Plaque MPs favor local inflammation by augmenting the expression of adhesion molecule, such as intercellular adhesion molecule -1 at the surface of endothelial cell, and monocyte recruitment within the lesion. In addition, plaque MPs stimulate angiogenesis, a key event in the transition from stable to unstable lesions. MPs also may promote local cell apoptosis, leading to the release and accumulation of new MPs, and thus creating a vicious circle. Furthermore, highly thrombogenic plaque MPs could increase thrombus formation at the time of rupture, together with circulating MPs released in this context by activated platelets and leukocytes. Finally, MPs also could participate in repairing the consequences of arterial occlusion and tissue ischemia by promoting postischemic neovascularization.

  8. Agglomeration of microparticles in complex plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Cheng-Ran; Thomas, Hubertus M.; Ivlev, Alexei V.; Konopka, Uwe; Morfill, Gregor E.

    2010-01-01

    Agglomeration of highly charged microparticles was observed and studied in complex plasma experiments carried out in a capacitively coupled rf discharge. The agglomeration was caused by strong waves triggered in a particle cloud by decreasing neutral gas pressure. Using a high-speed camera during this unstable regime, it was possible to resolve the motion of individual microparticles and to show that the relative velocities of some particles were sufficiently high to overcome the mutual Coulomb repulsion and hence to result in agglomeration. After stabilizing the cloud again through the increase of the pressure, we were able to observe the aggregates directly with a long-distance microscope. We show that the agglomeration rate deduced from our experiments is in good agreement with theoretical estimates. In addition, we briefly discuss the mechanisms that can provide binding of highly charged microparticles in a plasma.

  9. Field Effect Microparticle Generation for Cell Microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Brend Ray-Sea; Fu, Shin-Huei

    2017-01-01

    The diameter and sphericity of alginate-poly-L-lysine-alginate microcapsules, determined by the size and the shape of calcium alginate microspheres, affect their in vivo durability and biocompatibility and the results of transplantation. The commonly used air-jet spray method generates microspheres with a wider variation in diameter, larger sphere morphology, and evenly distributed encapsulated cells. In order to overcome these drawbacks, we designed a field effect microparticle generator to create a stable electric field to prepare microparticles with a smaller diameter and more uniform morphology. Using this electric field microparticle generator the encapsulated cells will be located at the periphery of the microspheres, and thus the supply of oxygen and nutrients for the encapsulated cells will be improved compared with the centrally located encapsulated cells in the air-jet spray method.

  10. Microparticles and acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVey, Mark; Tabuchi, Arata; Kuebler, Wolfgang M

    2012-09-01

    The pathophysiology of acute lung injury (ALI) and its most severe form, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), is characterized by increased vascular and epithelial permeability, hypercoagulation and hypofibrinolysis, inflammation, and immune modulation. These detrimental changes are orchestrated by cross talk between a complex network of cells, mediators, and signaling pathways. A rapidly growing number of studies have reported the appearance of distinct populations of microparticles (MPs) in both the vascular and alveolar compartments in animal models of ALI/ARDS or respective patient populations, where they may serve as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. MPs are small cytosolic vesicles with an intact lipid bilayer that can be released by a variety of vascular, parenchymal, or blood cells and that contain membrane and cytosolic proteins, organelles, lipids, and RNA supplied from and characteristic for their respective parental cells. Owing to this endowment, MPs can effectively interact with other cell types via fusion, receptor-mediated interaction, uptake, or mediator release, thereby acting as intrinsic stimulators, modulators, or even attenuators in a variety of disease processes. This review summarizes current knowledge on the formation and potential functional role of different MPs in inflammatory diseases with a specific focus on ALI/ARDS. ALI has been associated with the formation of MPs from such diverse cellular origins as platelets, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, red blood cells, and endothelial and epithelial cells. Because of their considerable heterogeneity in terms of origin and functional properties, MPs may contribute via both harmful and beneficial effects to the characteristic pathological features of ALI/ARDS. A better understanding of the formation, function, and relevance of MPs may give rise to new promising therapeutic strategies to modulate coagulation, inflammation, endothelial function, and permeability either through

  11. In vitro characterization of polyorthoester microparticles containing bupivacaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jone-Shin; Li, Luk; Tian, Youqin; Ginsburg, Eric; Widman, Matthew; Myers, Alecia

    2003-01-01

    Laboratory-scale spray-congealing equipment was utilized to fabricate injectable microparticles consisting of polyorthoester and bupivacaine. Operating conditions for the spray-congealing process were optimized to produce microparticles with the desired shape and particle size to yield acceptable syringeability and injectability. Characterizations were performed to determine the chemico-physical properties of polyorthoester before and after microparticle fabrication. Microparticles with different drug loadings and comparable particle sizes were produced, and their in vitro drug-release profiles were determined. The in vitro drug release of microparticles with a high drug loading was markedly faster than those with a low drug loading. This is partially attributed to a more significant initial burst-drug release of the microparticles with a high drug loading. The microparticles have demonstrated the potential to be used for long-acting postsurgery pain management by local injection.

  12. Marathon running increases circulating endothelial- and thrombocyte-derived microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Viktoria; Düsing, Philip; Liman, Thomas; Werner, Christian; Herm, Juliane; Bachelier, Katrin; Krüll, Matthias; Brechtel, Lars; Jungehulsing, Gerhard J; Haverkamp, Wilhelm; Böhm, Michael; Endres, Matthias; Haeusler, Karl Georg; Laufs, Ulrich

    2018-02-01

    Background Acute vascular effects of high intensity physical activity are incompletely characterized. Circulating microparticles are cellular markers for vascular activation and damage. Methods Microparticles were analysed in 99 marathon runners (49 ± 6 years, 22% female) of the prospective Berlin Beat of Running study. Blood samples were taken within three days before, immediately after and within two days after the marathon run. Endothelial-derived microparticles were labelled with CD144, CD31 and CD62E, platelet-derived microparticles with CD62P and CD42b, leukocyte-derived microparticles with CD45 and monocyte-derived microparticles with CD14. Results Marathon running induced leukocytosis (5.9 ± 0.1 to 14.8 ± 0.3 10 9 /l, p derived microparticles were acutely increased ( p = 0.008) due to a 23% increase of apoptotic endothelial-derived microparticles ( p = 0.007) and returned to baseline within two days after the marathon. Thrombocyte-derived microparticles acutely increased by 38% accompanied by an increase in activated and apoptotic thrombocyte-derived microparticles ( p ≤ 0.0001) each. Both monocyte- and leukocyte-derived microparticles were decreased immediately after marathon run ( p derived microparticles increased after marathon running consistent with an acute pro-thrombotic and pro-inflammatory state. Exercise-induced vascular damage reflected by microparticles could indicate potential mechanisms of post-exertional cardiovascular complications. Further studies are warranted to investigate microparticles as markers to identify individuals prone to such complications.

  13. Microassembly using a Cluster of Paramagnetic Microparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalil, I.S.M.; Brink, F.V; Sardan Sukas, Ö.; Misra, Sarthak

    2013-01-01

    We use a cluster of paramagnetic microparticles to carry out a wireless two-dimensional microassembly operation. A magnetic-based manipulation system is used to control the motion of the cluster under the influence of the applied magnetic fields. Wireless motion control of the cluster is implemented

  14. Diving with microparticles in acoustic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Sound can move particles. A good example of this phenomenon is the Chladni plate, in which an acoustic wave is induced in a metallic plate and particles migrate to the nodes of the acoustic wave. For several years, acoustophoresis has been used to manipulate microparticles in microscopic scales...

  15. Surfactant free metal chalcogenides microparticles consisting of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SANYASINAIDU GOTTAPU

    2017-11-11

    Nov 11, 2017 ... Abstract. A versatile methodology for the production of organic surfactant-free metal chalcogenide microparticles consisting of nano crystallites at room temperature in a short time is described. The reaction of various metal sources with LiBH4 in the presence of either S or Se yielded their corresponding ...

  16. Harvesting microalgae with microwave synthesized magnetic microparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházková, G.; Šafařík, Ivo; Brányik, T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 130, FEB (2013), s. 472-477 ISSN 0960-8524 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12190 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : harvesting microalgae * iron oxide magnetic microparticles * non-covalent interactions * microwave treatment * cell demagnetization Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 5.039, year: 2013

  17. Microparticles and Exosomes in Gynecologic Neoplasias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwland, Rienk; van der Post, Joris A. M.; Lok Gemma, Christianne A. R.; Kenter, G.; Sturk, Augueste

    2010-01-01

    This review presents an overview of the functions of microparticles and exosomes in gynecologic neoplasias. Growing evidence suggests that vesicles released from cancer cells in gynecologic malignancies contribute to the hypercoagulable state of these patients and contribute to tumor progression by

  18. Innovation in detection of microparticles and exosomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pol, E.; Coumans, F.; Varga, Z.; Krumrey, M.; Nieuwland, R.

    2013-01-01

    Cell-derived or extracellular vesicles, including microparticles and exosomes, are abundantly present in body fluids such as blood. Although such vesicles have gained strong clinical and scientific interest, their detection is difficult because many vesicles are extremely small with a diameter of

  19. Synthesis and characterization of erbium-doped SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} thin films prepared by sol-gel and dip-coating techniques onto commercial glass substrates as a route for obtaining active GRadient-INdex materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez-Varela, Ana I. [Microoptics and GRIN Optics Group, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Optics and Optometry and Faculty of Physics, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Vida s/n, Santiago de Compostela E-15782 (Spain); Castro, Yolanda, E-mail: castro@icv.csic.es [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio (CSIC), Kelsen 5, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Durán, Alicia [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio (CSIC), Kelsen 5, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); De Beule, Pieter A.A. [Applied Nano-Optics Laboratory, International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Braga 4715-330 (Portugal); Flores-Arias, María T. [Microoptics and GRIN Optics Group, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Optics and Optometry and Faculty of Physics, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Vida s/n, Santiago de Compostela E-15782 (Spain); Bao-Varela, Carmen, E-mail: carmen.bao@usc.es [Microoptics and GRIN Optics Group, Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Optics and Optometry and Faculty of Physics, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Campus Vida s/n, Santiago de Compostela E-15782 (Spain)

    2015-05-29

    In this work, SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} films doped with erbium were prepared by dip-coating sol-gel process onto commercial glass substrates. The surface morphology of the films was characterized using atomic force microscopy, while thickness, refractive index, extinction coefficient and porosity of the films were determined by ellipsometric measurements in a wavelength region of 400-1000 nm. Optical constants and porosity were found to vary with erbium concentration. The proof of principle presented in this paper is applicable to systems of different nature by tailoring the sol-gel precursors in such a way that active GRadient-INdex media described by a complex, parabolic-like refractive index distribution for beam shaping purposes is obtained. - Highlights: • Sol-gel route for preparation of active GRadient-INdex materials is proposed. • SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} films doped with erbium were prepared by dipping onto commercial glasses. • Morphological and optical characterization of the samples was performed. • Optical constants and porosity were found to vary with erbium concentration. • Refractive index diminishes with dopant content; the contrary occurs for porosity.

  20. New denture adhesive containing miconazole nitrate polymeric microparticles: Antifungal, adhesive force and toxicity properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartagena, Andrés Felipe; Esmerino, Luís Antonio; Polak-Junior, Rogerio; Olivieri Parreiras, Sibelli; Domingos Michél, Milton; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Campanha, Nara Hellen

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new oral drug delivery system by incorporating polymeric miconazole nitrate (MN) microparticles on an experimental antifungal denture adhesive (DA). Spray drying Eudragit L-100 (E) and Gantrez MS-955 (G) MN-microparticles were incorporated in DA. DAE1, DAG1, DAEG1, DAE2, DAG2, DAEG2 groups were obtained from the combination of polymers used in MN-microparticles (E, G and EG) and concentration of MN into DA (1, for 1% and 2, for 2%). DA with 2% pure MN (DAM) and DA without microparticles or drug (DACT) were both control groups. All groups were evaluated to determine microbiological assay, adhesive force and toxicity. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Candida albicans was performed by broth micro-dilution and agar dilution methods in extract of DAs and conventional gel form (Daktarin ® ). Adhesive load testing was made between acrylic resin samples on a universal testing machine after immersion in water. The toxicity of several dilutions of DAs was performed with Artemia salina bioassay after 24 and 48h. Data of adhesive force were evaluated with two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni tests (α=0.05). The concentration required to kill 50% (LC50) was determined using the Provit analysis. DA with polymeric microparticles and pure drug presented MIC between 1.25-5μg/mL similar to MIC values of DAM. DAEG2, DAEG1, DAG20 showed the most actives against C. albicans. The best adhesive properties were exhibited by DAEG2, consisting of high initial adhesive force which was maintained for up to 6h. The extracts of all DA presented low or not toxicity at 24 and 48h. DA containing 2% of MN loaded in microparticles made by Gantrez MS-955 alone or combined with Eudragit L-100 produce effective antifungal activity, good adhesive force, and no toxicity effect being a promising therapeutics for removable denture wearers affected by denture stomatitis. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  1. Visible emission from Er-doped SnO2 thin films deposited by sol-gel Emissão no visível de filmes finos, depositados via sol-gel, de SnO2 dopados com Er

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Ravaro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Emission from Er-doped SnO2 thin film deposited via sol-gel by the dip coating technique is obtained in the range 500-700 nm with peak at 530 nm (green. Electron-hole generation in the tin dioxide matrix is used to promote the rare-earth ion excitation. Evaluation of crystallite dimensions through X-ray diffraction results leads to nanoscopic size, what could play a relevant role in the emission spectra. The electron-hole mechanism is also responsible for the excitation of the transition in the 1540 nm range in powders obtained from the same precursor solution of films. The thin film matrix presents a very useful shape for technological application, since it allows integration in optical devices and the application of electric fields to operate electroluminescent devices.Foi obtida emissão de filmes finos de SnO2 dopados com Er no intervalo 500-700 nm, com pico em 530 nm (verde. Esses filmes foram depositados pela técnica de molhamento via sol-gel. A geração de pares elétron-buraco na matriz de SnO2 é usada para promover a excitação do íon terra-rara. A avaliação do tamanho dos cristalitos por meio de resultados de difração de raios X indica dimensões nanoscópicas, o que pode ser relevante para a interpretação do espectro de emissão. O mecanismo de excitação elétron-buraco é também responsável pela excitação da transição no intervalo que inclui 1540 nm em pós obtidos da mesma solução precursora dos filmes. Filmes finos constituem um formato muito útil para aplicações tecnológicas, desde que permite integração em dispositivos ópticos e a aplicação de campos elétricos para operar dispositivos eletroluminescentes.

  2. Encapsulation of sorbitan ester-based organogels in alginate microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagiri, Sai S; Pal, Kunal; Basak, Piyali; Rana, Usman Ali; Shakir, Imran; Anis, Arfat

    2014-10-01

    Leaching of the internal apolar phase from the biopolymeric microparticles during storage is a great concern as it undoes the beneficial effects of encapsulation. In this paper, a novel formulation was prepared by encapsulating the sunflower oil-based organogels in alginate microparticles. Salicylic acid and metronidazole were used as the model drugs. The microparticles were prepared by double emulsion methodology. Physico-chemical characterization of the microparticles was done by microscopy, FTIR, XRD, and DSC studies. Oil leaching studies, biocompatibility, mucoadhesivity, in vitro drug release, and the antimicrobial efficiency of the microparticles were also performed. The microparticles were found to be spherical in shape. Gelation of the sunflower oil prevented leaching of the internal phase from the microparticles. Release of drugs from the microparticles followed Fickian kinetics and non-Fickian kinetics in gastric and intestinal environments, respectively. Microparticles showed good antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. The results suggested that the developed formulations hold promise to carry oils without leakage of the internal phase. Encapsulation of organogels within the microparticles has improved the drug entrapment efficiency and improved characteristics for controlled delivery applications.

  3. Electrochemical characterization of praseodymia doped zircon. Catalytic effect on the electrochemical reduction of molecular oxygen in polar organic solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domenech, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.domenech@uv.es [Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Valencia, Dr. Moliner, 50, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Montoya, Noemi; Alarcon, Javier [Departament de Quimica Inorganica, Universitat de Valencia, Dr. Moliner, 50, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2011-08-01

    Highlights: > Electrochemical characterization of Pr centers in praseodymia-doped zircon. > Study of the catalytic effect on the reduction of peroxide radical anion in nonaqueous solvents. > Assessment of non-uniform distribution of Pr centers in the zircon grains. - Abstract: The voltammetry of microparticles and scanning electrochemical microscopy methodologies are applied to characterize praseodymium centers in praseodymia-doped zircon (Pr{sub x}Zr{sub (1-y)}Si{sub (1-z)}O{sub 4}; y + z = x; 0.02 < x < 0.10) specimens prepared via sol-gel synthetic routes. In contact with aqueous electrolytes, two overlapping Pr-centered cathodic processes, attributable to the Pr (IV) to Pr (III) reduction of Pr centers in different sites are obtained. In water-containing, air-saturated acetone and DMSO solutions as solvent, Pr{sub x}Zr{sub (1-y)}Si{sub (1-z)}O{sub 4} materials produce a significant catalytic effect on the electrochemical reduction of peroxide radical anion electrochemically generated. These electrochemical features denote that most of the Pr centers are originally in its 4+ oxidation state in the parent Pr{sub x}Zr{sub (1-y)}Si{sub (1-z)}O{sub 4} specimens. The variation of the catalytic performance of such specimens with potential scan rate, water concentration and Pr loading suggests that Pr is not uniformly distributed within the zircon grains, being concentrated in the outer region of such grains.

  4. Effect of the levitating microparticle cloud on radiofrequency argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitic, S.; Pustylnik, M. Y.; Klumov, B. A.; Morfill, G. E.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of a levitating cloud of microparticles on the parameters of a radiofrequency (RF) plasma has been studied by means of two experimental techniques. Axial distributions of 1s excited states of argon were measured by a self-absorption method. A correction of a standard self-absorption method for the extinction of the light by the levitating microparticles is proposed. In addition the electron temperature was estimated using the optical emission spectroscopy. Measurements at the same discharge conditions in a microparticle-free discharge and discharge, containing a cloud of levitating microparticles, revealed the non-local influence of the microparticle cloud on the discharge plasma. The most probable cause of this influence is the disturbance of the ionization balance by the levitating microparticles.

  5. Thermoresponsive Gels

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, M. Joan; Tomlins, P.; Sahota, T. S.

    2016-01-01

    An invited review and relates to the responsive gel used in the "artificial pancreas" work og INsmart, DMU. This article is an Open Access journal. Thermoresponsive gelling materials constructed from natural and synthetic polymers can be used to provide triggered action and therefore customised products such as drug delivery and regenerative medicine types as well as for other industries. Some materials give Arrhenius-type viscosity changes based on coil to globule transitions. Others ...

  6. Portal Vein Embolization before Right Hepatectomy: Improved Results Using n-Butyl-Cyanoacrylate Compared to Microparticles Plus Coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiu, Boris, E-mail: boris.guiu@chu-dijon.fr; Bize, Pierre; Gunthern, Daniel [Centre Hospitalo-Univeristaire Vaudois, Digestive and Oncologic Imaging and Interventional Radiology Unit, Department of Radiology and Interventional Radiology (Switzerland); Demartines, Nicolas; Halkic, Nermin [Centre Hospitalo-Univeristaire Vaudois, Department of Visceral Surgery (Switzerland); Denys, Alban [Centre Hospitalo-Univeristaire Vaudois, Digestive and Oncologic Imaging and Interventional Radiology Unit, Department of Radiology and Interventional Radiology (Switzerland)

    2013-10-15

    Background: There is currently no consensus in the literature on which embolic agent induces the greatest degree of liver hypertrophy after portal vein embolization (PVE). Only experimental results in a pig model have demonstrated an advantage of n-butyl-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) over 3 other embolic materials (hydrophilic gel, small and large polyvinyl alcohol particles) for PVE. Therefore, the aim of this human study was to retrospectively compare the results of PVE using NBCA with those using spherical microparticles plus coils. Methods: A total of 34 patients underwent PVE using either NBCA (n = 20), or spherical microparticles plus coils (n = 14). PVE was decided according to preoperative volumetry on the basis of contrast-enhanced CT. Groups were compared for age, sex, volume of the left lobe before PVE and future remnant liver ratio (FRL) (volume of the left lobe/total liver volume - tumor volume). The primary end point was the increase in left lobe volume 1 month after PVE. Secondary end points were procedure complications and biological tolerance. Results: Both groups were similar in terms of age, sex ratio, left lobe volume, and FRL before PVE. NBCA induced a greater increase in volume after PVE than did microparticles plus coils (respectively, +74 {+-} 69 % and +23 {+-} 14 %, p < 0.05). The amount of contrast medium used for the procedure was significantly larger when microparticles and coils rather than NBCA were used (respectively, 264 {+-} 43 ml and 162 {+-} 34 ml, p < 0.01). The rate of PVE complications as well as the biological tolerance was similar in both groups. Conclusion: NBCA seems more effective than spherical microparticles plus coils to induce left-lobe hypertrophy.

  7. Detection of microparticles in dynamic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten, K A; Pruuel, E R; Kashkarov, A O; Rubtsov, I A; Shechtman, L I; Zhulanov, V V; Tolochko, B P; Rykovanov, G N; Muzyrya, A K; Smirnov, E B; Stolbikov, M Yu; Prosvirnin, K M

    2016-01-01

    When a metal plate is subjected to a strong shock impact, its free surface emits a flow of particles of different sizes (shock-wave “dusting”). Traditionally, the process of dusting is investigated by the methods of pulsed x-ray or piezoelectric sensor or via an optical technique. The particle size ranges from a few microns to hundreds of microns. The flow is assumed to include also finer particles, which cannot be detected with the existing methods yet. On the accelerator complex VEPP-3-VEPP-4 at the BINP there are two experiment stations for research on fast processes, including explosion ones. The stations enable measurement of both passed radiation (absorption) and small-angle x-ray scattering on synchrotron radiation (SR). Radiation is detected with a precision high-speed detector DIMEX. The detector has an internal memory of 32 frames, which enables recording of the dynamics of the process (shooting of movies) with intervals of 250 ns to 2 μ s. Flows of nano- and microparticles from free surfaces of various materials (copper and tin) have been examined. Microparticle flows were emitted from grooves of 50-200 μ s in size and joints (gaps) between metal parts. With the soft x-ray spectrum of SR one can explore the dynamics of a single microjet of micron size. The dynamics of density distribution along micro jets were determined. Under a shock wave (∼ 60 GPa) acting on tin disks, flows of microparticles from a smooth surface were recorded. (paper)

  8. Growth and study of some gel grown group II single crystals of iodate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The effect of doping was studied using IR spectroscopy and thermal analysis. Keywords. Silica gel; barium iodate; calcium iodate; XRD; FT-IR; TGA/DTA. 1. .... Table 2. Effect of concentration of reactants on habit quality and size of BaIO3 crystals. Conc. of reactant in gel. Conc. of reactant above gel. Habit. Quality. Size. (mm).

  9. Manipulation of microparticles and red blood cells using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-13

    Feb 13, 2014 ... Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 82; Issue 2. Manipulation of microparticles and red blood cells using optoelectronic tweezers ... We report the development of an optoelectronic tweezers set-up which works by lightinduced dielectrophoresis mechanism to manipulate microparticles.

  10. Wireless magnetic-based control of paramagnetic microparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuning, J.D.; Abelmann, Leon; Misra, Sarthak; Khalil, I.S.M.

    2012-01-01

    This work investigates modeling and control of microparticles that could be guided inside the human body using external magnetic fields. Proposed areas of applications for these microparticles include but not limited to minimally invasive surgeries, diagnosis and sensing. The problem is formulated

  11. Development of Alginate/Chitosan Microparticles for Dust Mite Allerge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The highest allergen content (0.30 ± 0.07 mg/g) was obtained with 2.5 % initial allergen loading in chitosan- triphosphate (CS-TPP) microparticles. Sustained allergen release (approx. 50 % over 24 h) was observed from alginate-coated chitosan microparticles. Allergen incorporation method and initial drug-loading could ...

  12. Development of Alginate/Chitosan Microparticles for Dust Mite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The cytotoxicity of various microparticle formulations did not differ significantly (p > 0.05 ), as cell viability values were close to 100 %. Conclusion: This study ..... Int J Pharm 2007; 344: 53-61. 12. Bazzo GC, Lemos-Senna E, Pires ATN. Poly(3- hydroxybutyrate)/chitosan/ ketoprofen or piroxicam composite microparticles:.

  13. Fabrication of chitosan microparticles loaded in chitosan and poly ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In recent decades, the use of microparticle-mediated drug delivery is widely applied in the field of biomedicalapplication. Here, we report the new dressing material with ciprofloxacin-loaded chitosan microparticle (CMP) impregnatedin chitosan (CH) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) scaffold for effective delivery of drug in a ...

  14. Fabrication of chitosan microparticles loaded in chitosan and poly ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-07-27

    Jul 27, 2017 ... Abstract. In recent decades, the use of microparticle-mediated drug delivery is widely applied in the field of biomedical application. Here, we report the new dressing material with ciprofloxacin-loaded chitosan microparticle (CMP) impregnated in chitosan (CH) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) scaffold for ...

  15. Dynamic release and clearance of circulating microparticles during cardiac stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Daniel; Ayers, Lisa V; Lima, Eduardo; Newton, Laura; Lewandowski, Adam J; Davis, Esther F; Ferry, Berne; Leeson, Paul

    2014-01-03

    Microparticles are cell-derived membrane vesicles, relevant to a range of biological responses and known to be elevated in cardiovascular disease. To investigate microparticle release during cardiac stress and how this response differs in those with vascular disease. We measured a comprehensive panel of circulating cell-derived microparticles by a standardized flow cytometric protocol in 119 patients referred for stress echocardiography. Procoagulant, platelet, erythrocyte, and endothelial but not leukocyte, granulocyte, or monocyte-derived microparticles were elevated immediately after a standardized dobutamine stress echocardiogram and decreased after 1 hour. Twenty-five patients developed stress-induced wall motion abnormalities suggestive of myocardial ischemia. They had similar baseline microparticle levels to those who did not develop ischemia, but, interestingly, their microparticle levels did not change during stress. Furthermore, no stress-induced increase was observed in those without inducible ischemia but with a history of vascular disease. Fourteen patients subsequently underwent coronary angiography. A microparticle rise during stress echocardiography had occurred only in those with normal coronary arteries. Procoagulant, platelet, erythrocyte, and endothelial microparticles are released during cardiac stress and then clear from the circulation during the next hour. This stress-induced rise seems to be a normal physiological response that is diminished in those with vascular disease.

  16. Increased circulating leukocyte-derived microparticles in ischemic cerebrovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhangping; Tang, Yanyan; Qin, Chao

    2017-06-01

    Circulating leukocyte-derived microparticles act as proinflammatory mediators that reflect vascular inflammation. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that the quantity of leukocyte-derived microparticles is increased in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular diseases, and investigated utility of various phenotypes of leukocyte-derived microparticles as specific biomarkers of vascular inflammation injury. Additionally we focused on identifying leukocyte-derived microparticles that may be correlated with stroke severity in acute ischemic stroke patients. The plasma concentration of leukocyte-derived microparticles obtained by a series of centrifugations of 76 consecutive patients with ischemic cerebrovascular diseases and 70 age-, sex-, and race-matched healthy controls were determined by flow cytometry. Significantly elevated numbers of leukocyte (CD45+), monocyte (CD14+), lymphocyte (CD4+), granulocyte (CD15+) derived microparticles were found in the plasma samples of patients ischemic cerebrovascular diseases, compared to healthy controls (pcerebrovascular diseases, compared with healthy controls. As proinflammatory mediators, leukocyte-derived microparticles may contribute to vascular inflammatory and the inflammatory process in acute ischemic stroke. Levels of CD14+ microparticles may be a promising biomarker of ischemic severity and outcome of stroke in the clinic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fabrication of chitosan microparticles loaded in chitosan and poly

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In recent decades, the use of microparticle-mediated drug delivery is widely applied in the field of biomedicalapplication. Here, we report the new dressing material with ciprofloxacin-loaded chitosan microparticle (CMP) impregnatedin chitosan (CH) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) scaffold for effective delivery of drug in a ...

  18. Thermoresponsive Gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Joan Taylor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermoresponsive gelling materials constructed from natural and synthetic polymers can be used to provide triggered action and therefore customised products such as drug delivery and regenerative medicine types as well as for other industries. Some materials give Arrhenius-type viscosity changes based on coil to globule transitions. Others produce more counterintuitive responses to temperature change because of agglomeration induced by enthalpic or entropic drivers. Extensive covalent crosslinking superimposes complexity of response and the upper and lower critical solution temperatures can translate to critical volume temperatures for these swellable but insoluble gels. Their structure and volume response confer advantages for actuation though they lack robustness. Dynamic covalent bonding has created an intermediate category where shape moulding and self-healing variants are useful for several platforms. Developing synthesis methodology—for example, Reversible Addition Fragmentation chain Transfer (RAFT and Atomic Transfer Radical Polymerisation (ATRP—provides an almost infinite range of materials that can be used for many of these gelling systems. For those that self-assemble into micelle systems that can gel, the upper and lower critical solution temperatures (UCST and LCST are analogous to those for simpler dispersible polymers. However, the tuned hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance plus the introduction of additional pH-sensitivity and, for instance, thermochromic response, open the potential for coupled mechanisms to create complex drug targeting effects at the cellular level.

  19. Evaluating conditions for the formation of chitosan/gelatin microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia C. Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan/gelatin microparticles were prepared by complex coacervation. Three chitosan (CH samples, with different acetylation degrees and intrinsic viscosities, were used together with commercial gelatin (G samples. Microparticles formation was investigated at various CH/G ratios, within the pH range of 3.5 to 6.0. Reactions were carried out at 40 and 60 ºC, for 2, 4, and 6 hours. Turbidity measurements performed at 633 nm were used to monitor the process. The resulting curves revealed maximum values, which were correlated to the glucosamine content of CH samples. After isolation, yields were determined, and the microparticles were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and thermogravimetry (TGA. Both techniques evidenced the formation of coacervate microparticles. The highest yields in microparticles were determined for the system comprising the CH sample with the lowest degree of acetylation and intrinsic viscosity, and the gelatin sample with the lowest bloom strength.

  20. Sol–gel one-pot synthesis in soft conditions of mesoporous silica materials ready for drug delivery system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tourne-Peteilh, C.; Begu, S.; Lerner, D.A.; Galarneau, A.; Lafont, U.; Devoiselle, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The present work reveals a new and simple strategy, a one-step sol–gel procedure, to encapsulate a low water-soluble drug in silica mesostructured microparticles and to improve its release in physiological media. The synthesis of these new materials is based on the efficient solubilisation of a

  1. Circulating microparticles in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies: characterization and associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Shruti; Cockrell, Erin; Espinola, Ricardo; Hsi, Linda; Fulton, Stacey; Khan, Mohammad; Li, Liang; Fonseca, Fabio; Kundu, Suman; McCrae, Keith R

    2015-01-01

    The antiphospholipid syndrome is characterized by venous or arterial thrombosis and/or recurrent fetal loss in the presence of circulating antiphospholipid antibodies. These antibodies cause activation of endothelial and other cell types leading to the release of microparticles with procoagulant and pro-inflammatory properties. The aims of this study were to characterize the levels of endothelial cell, monocyte or platelet derived, and tissue factor-bearing microparticles in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies, to determine the association of circulating microparticles with anticardiolipin and anti-β2-glycoprotein antibodies, and to define the cellular origin of microparticles that express tissue factor. Microparticle content within citrated blood from 47 patients with antiphospholipid antibodies and 144 healthy controls was analyzed within 2hours of venipuncture. Levels of Annexin-V, CD105 and CD144 (endothelial derived), CD41 (platelet derived) and tissue factor positive microparticles were significantly higher in patients than controls. Though levels of CD14 (monocyte-derived) microparticles in patient plasma were not significantly increased, increased levels of CD14 and tissue factor positive microparticles were observed in patients. Levels of microparticles that stained for CD105 and CD144 showed a positive correlation with IgG (R=0.60, p=0.006) and IgM anti-beta2-glycoprotein I antibodies (R=0.58, p=0.006). The elevation of endothelial and platelet derived microparticles in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies and their correlation with anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies suggests a chronic state of vascular cell activation in these individuals and an important role for β2-glycoprotein I in development of the pro-thrombotic state associated with antiphospholipid antibodies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. CIRCULATING MICROPARTICLES IN PATIENTS WITH ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES: CHARACTERIZATION AND ASSOCIATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Shruti; Cockrell, Erin; Espinola, Ricardo; Hsi, Linda; Fulton, Stacey; Khan, Mohammad; Li, Liang; Fonseca, Fabio; Kundu, Suman; McCrae, Keith R.

    2014-01-01

    The antiphospholipid syndrome is characterized by venous or arterial thrombosis and/or recurrent fetal loss in the presence of circulating antiphospholipid antibodies. These antibodies cause activation of endothelial and other cell types leading to the release of microparticles with procoagulant and pro-inflammatory properties. The aims of this study were to characterize the levels of endothelial cell, monocyte, platelet derived, and tissue factor-bearing microparticles in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies, to determine the association of circulating microparticles with anticardiolipin and anti-β2-glycoprotein antibodies, and to define the cellular origin of microparticles that express tissue factor. Microparticle content within citrated blood from 47 patients with antiphospholipid antibodies and 144 healthy controls was analyzed within 2 hours of venipuncture. Levels of Annexin-V, CD105 and CD144 (endothelial derived), CD41 (platelet derived) and tissue factor positive microparticles were significantly higher in patients than controls. Though levels of CD14 (monocyte-derived) microparticles in patient plasma were not significantly increased, increased levels of CD14 and tissue factor positive microparticles were observed in patients. Levels of microparticles that stained for CD105 and CD144 showed a positive correlation with IgG (R = 0.60, p=0.006) and IgM anti-beta2-glycoprotein I antibodies (R=0.58, p=0.006). The elevation of endothelial and platelet derived microparticles in patients with APS and their correlation with anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies suggests a chronic state of vascular cell activation in these individuals and an important role for β2-glycoprotein I in development of the pro-thrombotic state associated with antiphospholipid antibodies. PMID:25467081

  3. Acoustic radiation- and streaming-induced microparticle velocities determined by microparticle image velocimetry in an ultrasound symmetry plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnkob, Rune; Augustsson, Per; Laurell, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We present microparticle image velocimetry measurements of suspended microparticles of diameters from 0.6 to 10μm undergoing acoustophoresis in an ultrasound symmetry plane in a microchannel. The motion of the smallest particles is dominated by the Stokes drag from the induced acoustic streaming ...

  4. Leukocyte-derived microparticles in vascular homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelillo-Scherrer, Anne

    2012-01-20

    Leukocyte-derived microparticles (LMPs) may originate from neutrophils, monocytes/macrophages, and lymphocytes. They express markers from their parental cells and harbor membrane and cytoplasmic proteins as well as bioactive lipids implicated in a variety of mechanisms, maintaining or disrupting vascular homeostasis. When they carry tissue factor or coagulation inhibitors, they participate in hemostasis and pathological thrombosis. Both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory processes can be affected by LMPs, thus ensuring an appropriate inflammatory response. LMPs also play a dual role in the endothelium by either improving the endothelial function or inducing an endothelial dysfunction. LMPs are implicated in all stages of atherosclerosis. They circulate at a high level in the bloodstream of patients with high atherothrombotic risk, such as smokers, diabetics, and subjects with obstructive sleep apnea, where their prolonged contact with the vessel wall may contribute to its overall deterioration. Numbering microparticles, including LMPs, might be useful in predicting cardiovascular events. LMPs modify the endothelial function and promote the recruitment of inflammatory cells in the vascular wall, necessary processes for the progression of the atherosclerotic lesion. In addition, LMPs favor the neovascularization within the vulnerable plaque and, in the ruptured plaque, they take part in coagulation and platelet activation. Finally, LMPs participate in angiogenesis. They might represent a novel therapeutic tool to reset the angiogenic switch in pathologies with altered angiogenesis. Additional studies are needed to further investigate the role of LMPs in cardiovascular diseases. However, large-scale studies are currently difficult to set up because microparticle measurement still requires elaborate techniques which lack standardization.

  5. [Endothelial microparticles (EMP) in physiology and pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierko, Ewa; Sokół, Monika; Wojtukiewicz, Marek Z

    2015-08-18

    Endothelial microparticles (EMP) are released from endothelial cells (ECs) in the process of activation and/or apoptosis. They harbor adhesive molecules, enzymes, receptors and cytoplasmic structures and express a wide range of various constitutive antigens, typical for ECs, at their surface. Under physiological conditions the concentration of EMP in the blood is clinically insignificant. However, it was reported that under pathological conditions EMP concentration in the blood might slightly increase and contribute to blood coagulation, angiogenesis and inflammation. It has been shown that EMP directly and indirectly contribute to the activation of blood coagulation. Endothelial microparticles directly participate in blood coagulation through their surface tissue factor (TF) - a major initiator of blood coagulation. Furthermore, EMP exhibit procoagulant potential via expression of negatively charged phospholipids at their surface, which may promote assembly of coagulation enzymes (TF/VII, tenases and prothrombinase complexes), leading to thrombus formation. In addition, they provide a binding surface for coagulation factors: IXa, VIII, Va and IIa. Moreover, it is possible that EMP transfer TF from TF-bearing EMP to activated platelets and monocytes by binding them through adhesion molecules. Also, EMP express von Willebrand factor, which may facilitate platelet aggregation. Apart from their procoagulant properties, it was demonstrated that EMP may express adhesive molecules and metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-9) at their surface and release growth factors, which may contribute to angiogenesis. Additionally, surface presence of C3 and C4 - components of the classical pathway - suggests pro-inflammatory properties of these structures. This article contains a summary of available data on the biology and pathophysiology of endothelial microparticles and their potential role in blood coagulation, angiogenesis and inflammation.

  6. Microparticles: key protagonists in cardiovascular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabile, Nicolas; Rautou, Pierre-Emmanuel; Tedgui, Alain; Boulanger, Chantal M

    2010-11-01

    Microparticles (MP) are shed membrane vesicles released by various cell types following apoptosis or activation. MP circulate in human plasma and also accumulate in atherosclerotic lesions. A growing body of evidence has highlighted their involvement in inflammation, angiogenesis, coagulation, and the regulation of vascular tone. MP may therefore contribute to the initiation and development of atherosclerosis and its complications. Plasma MP originate from platelets, leukocytes, erythrocytes, and endothelial cells, and their levels increase in patients with cardiovascular diseases; specific cardiovascular medications also affect plasma MP levels. Most recent data suggest a potential prognostic role of circulating MP for identification of subjects prone to develop cardiovascular complications. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  7. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies stimulate release of neutrophil microparticles.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hong, Ying

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms by which anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) may contribute to the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated vasculitis are not well understood. In this study, both polyclonal ANCAs isolated from patients and chimeric proteinase 3-ANCA induced the release of neutrophil microparticles from primed neutrophils. These microparticles expressed a variety of markers, including the ANCA autoantigens proteinase 3 and myeloperoxidase. They bound endothelial cells via a CD18-mediated mechanism and induced an increase in endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression, production of endothelial reactive oxygen species, and release of endothelial IL-6 and IL-8. Removal of the neutrophil microparticles by filtration or inhibition of reactive oxygen species production with antioxidants abolished microparticle-mediated endothelial activation. In addition, these microparticles promoted the generation of thrombin. In vivo, we detected more neutrophil microparticles in the plasma of children with ANCA-associated vasculitis compared with that in healthy controls or those with inactive vasculitis. Taken together, these results support a role for neutrophil microparticles in the pathogenesis of ANCA-associated vasculitis, potentially providing a target for future therapeutics.

  8. Chitosan microparticles for sustaining the topical delivery of minoxidil sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfuso, Guilherme Martins; Gratieri, Taís; Simão, Patrícia Sper; de Freitas, Luís Alexandre Pedro; Lopez, Renata Fonseca Vianna

    2011-01-01

    Given the hypothesis that microparticles can penetrate the skin barrier along the transfollicular route, this work aimed to obtain and characterise chitosan microparticles loaded with minoxidil sulphate (MXS) and to study their ability to sustain the release of the drug, attempting a further application utilising them in a targeted delivery system for the topical treatment of alopecia. Chitosan microparticles, containing different proportions of MXS/polymer, were prepared by spray drying and were characterised by yield, encapsulation efficiency, size and morphology. Microparticles selected for further studies showed high encapsulation efficiency (∼82%), a mean diameter of 3.0 µm and a spherical morphology without porosities. When suspended in an ethanol/water solution, chitosan microparticles underwent instantaneous swelling, increasing their mean diameter by 90%. Release studies revealed that the chitosan microparticles were able to sustain about three times the release rate of MXS. This feature, combined with suitable size, confers to these microparticles the potential to target and improve topical therapy of alopecia with minoxidil.

  9. Review: the Multiple Roles of Monocytic Microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Ahmad Tarmizi Abdul; Ariffin, Nur Azrah Fazera Mohd; Azlan, Maryam

    2016-08-01

    Monocytic microparticles (mMP) are microparticles derived from human monocytes either under in vivo or in vitro conditions. The size of mMP is between 0.1 and 1.0 μm. Apart from the size range, mMPs are also identified based on phosphatidylserine and CD14 expression on their surface, though this is not always the case. Monocytic MP are critical players in inflammation, endothelial cell function, and blood coagulation. They exhibit dual function by either helping the progression of such conditions or limiting it, depending on certain factors. Furthermore, the numbers of mMP are elevated in some autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases, and metabolic disorders. However, it is unknown whether mMP play an active role in these diseases or are simply biomarkers. The mechanism of mMP modulation is yet to be identified. In this review, we highlight the mechanism of mMP formation and the roles that they play in inflammation, blood coagulation, and different disease settings.

  10. Synthesis of Flexible Aerogel Composites Reinforced with Electrospun Nanofibers and Microparticles for Thermal Insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijun Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible silica aerogel composites in intact monolith of 12 cm were successfully fabricated by reinforcing SiO2 aerogel with electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF webs via electrospinning and sol-gel processing. Three electrospun PVDF webs with different microstructures (e.g., nanofibers, microparticles, and combined nanofibers and microparticles were fabricated by regulating electrospinning parameters. The as-electrospun PVDF webs with various microstructures were impregnated into the silica sol to synthesize the PVDF/SiO2 composites followed by solvent exchange, surface modification, and drying at ambient atmosphere. The morphologies of the PVDF/SiO2 aerogel composites were characterized and the thermal and mechanical properties were measured. The effects of electrospun PVDF on the thermal and mechanical properties of the aerogel composites were evaluated. The aerogel composites reinforced with electrospun PVDF nanofibers showed intact monolith, improved strength, and perfect flexibility and hydrophobicity. Moreover, the aerogel composites reinforced with the electrospun PVDF nanofibers had the lowest thermal conductivity (0.028 W·m−1·K−1. It indicates that the electrospun PVDF nanofibers could greatly improve the mechanical strength and flexibility of the SiO2 aerogels while maintaining a lower thermal conductivity, which provides increasing potential for thermal insulation applications.

  11. Biofouling control using microparticles carrying a biocide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, C; Rosmaninho, R; Simoes, M; Pereira, M C; Bastos, M M S M; Nunes, O C; Coelho, M; Melo, L F

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a new technological approach to minimize the use of antimicrobial (AMB) agents and their deleterious effects, based on the principle of drug-delivery systems whereby the AMB chemicals are transported on microparticles. The efficacy of microparticles carrying the quaternary ammonium compound (QAC), benzyldimethyldodecyl ammonium chloride (BDMDAC), was assessed against Pseudomonas fluorescens in both the planktonic and the biofilm state. The microparticles were prepared using a layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly technique. Oppositely charged molecules of polyethyleneimine (PEI), sodium polystyrene sulfonate (PSS), and BDMDAC were assembled on polystyrene (PS) cores. BDMDAC-coated particles were observed by CryoSEM and their composition analyzed by X-ray microanalysis. Zeta potential measurements indicated that changes in surface charge were compatible with a BDMDAC/particle interaction. This biocidal carrier structure had significant stability, verified by the release of only 15% of the BDMDAC when immersed in water for 18 months. Biocidal carrier activity was evaluated by determining the survival ratio of P. fluorescens planktonic and biofilm cells after different exposure periods to BDMDAC-coated particles. Tests with biofilm cells were also performed with the free QAC. An efficient AMB effect (minimum bactericidal concentration) against suspended cells was found for a concentration of 9.2 mg l(-1) of BDMDAC on coated particles after incubation for 30 min and 6.5 mg l(-1) of BDMDAC on coated particles after 60 min. Exposure of biofilms to PS-PEI/PSS/BDMDAC (0.87 mg l(-1)) resulted in a decrease in viability of 60.5% and 66.5% of the total biofilm population for 30 and 60 min exposure times, respectively. Exposure for 60 min to 6.33 mg l(-1) and 11.75 mg l(-1) of BDMDAC in PS-PEI/PSS/BDMDAC particles promoted inactivation of 80.6% and 87.2% of the total population, respectively. The AMB effects obtained with the application of free BDMDAC were

  12. Obtain and characterization of chitosan / propranolol microparticles by spray drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Ednaldo G. do; Silva Junior, Arnobio A. da; Santos, Katia S.C.R. dos

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the application of chitosan microparticles as carriers into hard gelatin capsule containing propranolol, evaluating the variability of the molecular weight and the chitosan particles by spray drying. The formulations were characterized by average weight, dosing unit dose uniformity and dissolution profile according to the pharmacopoeia. While the microparticles were characterized by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that chitosan microparticles obtained without the drug and then physically mixed with propranolol promoted a modified release 85% of the drug after 5 hours. While, chitosan microparticles sprayed with propranolol released only 55% at 5 hours is presented both as a modified release system. Samples of dried chitosan showed up amorphous and homogeneous and spherical morphology. (author)

  13. Cellular microparticles in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabile, Nicolas; Guignabert, Christophe; Montani, David; Yeghiazarians, Yerem; Boulanger, Chantal M; Humbert, Marc

    2013-07-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a fatal disease with no treatment options, characterised by elevated pulmonary vascular resistanzce and secondary right ventricular failure. The aetiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension is multiple and its pathogenesis is complex. Although the exact role of cellular microparticles remains partially understood, there is increasing evidence to suggest an active role for microparticles in PH pathophysiology. Patients with PH exhibited higher circulating levels of microparticles compared to control subjects and in vitro or in vivo generated microparticles can induce endothelial dysfunction, interfere with coagulation pathways or modulate inflammatory phenomenon. Whether or not these new conveyors of biological information contribute to the acquisition and/or maintenance of the altered endothelial phenotype is unexplored in PH and requires further study.

  14. Distinct proteome pathology of circulating microparticles in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Ole; Nielsen, Christoffer Tandrup; Tanassi, Julia Tanas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is poorly understood but has been linked to defective clearance of subcellular particulate material from the circulation. This study investigates the origin, formation, and specificity of circulating microparticles (MPs) in patients...

  15. CIRCULATING MICROPARTICLES IN PATIENTS WITH ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES: CHARACTERIZATION AND ASSOCIATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Chaturvedi, Shruti; Cockrell, Erin; Espinola, Ricardo; Hsi, Linda; Fulton, Stacey; Khan, Mohammad; Li, Liang; Fonseca, Fabio; Kundu, Suman; McCrae, Keith R.

    2014-01-01

    The antiphospholipid syndrome is characterized by venous or arterial thrombosis and/or recurrent fetal loss in the presence of circulating antiphospholipid antibodies. These antibodies cause activation of endothelial and other cell types leading to the release of microparticles with procoagulant and pro-inflammatory properties. The aims of this study were to characterize the levels of endothelial cell, monocyte, platelet derived, and tissue factor-bearing microparticles in patients with antip...

  16. Droplet-based microfluidic method for synthesis of microparticles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mbanjwa, MB

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available biological applications such as drug delivery, cell encapsulation and tissue engineering[1]. GENERATION AND CONTROL OF MICRODROPLETS Water-in-oil (w/o) and oil-in-water (o/w) microdroplets and emulsions can be generated using microfluidic channels...: Generation and control of w/o droplets in flow focusing microfluidic channel MICROFLUIDIC-ASSISTED MICROPARTICLE SYNTHESIS Microparticles, such as biologically-important hydrogel micro- spheres, can be fabricated from various polymers...

  17. From Single Microparticles to Microfluidic Emulsification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinoshita, K.; Ortiz, Elisa Parra; Hussein, Abdirazak

    2016-01-01

    time of pure Ibp microspheres in the buffer or in detergent micelle solutions, as a function of the microsphere size and compare that to calculated dissolution times using the Epstein-Plesset (EP) model. Single, pure Ibp microparticles precipitated as liquid phase microdroplets that then gradually...... dissolved into the surrounding PBS medium. Analyzing the dissolution profiles of Ibp over time, a diffusion coefficient of 5.5 +/- 0.2 x 10(6) cm(2)/s was obtained by using the EP model, which was in excellent agreement with the literature. Finally, solubilization of Ibp into sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS......) micelles was directly visualized microscopically for the first time by the micropipette technique, showing that such micellization could increase the solubility of Ibp from 4 to 80 mM at 100 mM SDS. We also introduce a particular microfluidic device that has recently been used to make PLGA microspheres...

  18. Method for producing nano-embedded microparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    (EN)The present invention relates to a rapid, high-throughput and continuous method for producing nano-embedded microparticles in powder form, thereby providing a cost- effective process which can be performed aseptically. The invention further relates to an apparatus for performing the method...... of the invention. (FR)La présente invention concerne un procédé rapide, à haut rendement et continu de production de nano-microparticules intégrées sous forme de poudre, ce qui permet d'obtenir un procédé économique qui peut être mis en oeuvre de manière aseptique. L'invention concerne, en outre, un appareil pour...

  19. Polymer gel dosimetry system for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maryanski, M.J.; Schulz, R.J.; Gignac, C.; Eastman, P.; Gore, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Recently developed treatment modalities such as stereotactic and conformal radiation therapy produce complex dose distributions which are difficult or impractical to measure with conventional dosimetry instrumentation. Three-dimensional treatment planning systems which purport to calculate these complex dose distributions should be compared to experimental results before being routinely applied to clinical problems. There is a need for a new class of tissue-equivalent dosimeters capable of providing accurate, high resolution, time-integrated and three dimensional dose distributions. The recently developed BANG polymer gel dosimetry system (MGS Research, Inc., Guilford, CT) is ideally suited for the task described above. Physico-chemical principles of the polymer gel dosimetry are presented, together with examples of its application to radiation therapy. Data analysis and display program, written for Macintosh computer, is demonstrated. Materials and Methods: Radiation-induced polymerization of acrylic monomers, which are dispersed in tissue-equivalent gelatin, has been shown to be dependent on the dose, but independent of the dose rate or photon energy. Therefore, the spatial distribution of polymer in the gel is precisely representative of the dose distribution. As the polymeric microparticles reduce the water proton NMR relaxation times in the gel, the dose distribution can be measured with high resolution and accuracy using magnetic resonance imaging. Also, as these microparticles cannot diffuse through the gelatin matrix, their distribution is permanent. An improved formulation of the BANG dosimeter consists of 3% w/v acrylic acid, 3% N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide, 1% sodium hydroxide, 5% gelatin, and 88% water. MR images are transferred via a local network to a Macintosh computer, and R2 maps constructed on the basis of multiple TE images, using a non-linear least squares fit based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. A dose-to-R2

  20. Sol-Gel Production; Proceedings of the First International Conference on Application and Commercialization of Sol-Gel Processing Held in Saarbruecken, Germany on 24-25 May 1993

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schmidt, Helmut

    1998-01-01

    ...; Sol-Gel Coatings on Large Glass Substrates for Multilayer Interference Systems; A SiO2-ZrO2 Gel Film doped with Organic Pigments Made by the Sol-Gel Method for Contrast Enhancement of Color Picture Tubes...

  1. Airplane dopes and doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W H

    1919-01-01

    Cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate are the important constituents of airplane dopes in use at the present time, but planes were treated with other materials in the experimental stages of flying. The above compounds belong to the class of colloids and are of value because they produce a shrinking action on the fabric when drying out of solution, rendering it drum tight. Other colloids possessing the same property have been proposed and tried. In the first stages of the development of dope, however, shrinkage was not considered. The fabric was treated merely to render it waterproof. The first airplanes constructed were covered with cotton fabric stretched as tightly as possible over the winds, fuselage, etc., and flying was possible only in fine weather. The necessity of an airplane which would fly under all weather conditions at once became apparent. Then followed experiments with rubberized fabrics, fabrics treated with glue rendered insoluble by formaldehyde or bichromate, fabrics treated with drying and nondrying oils, shellac, casein, etc. It was found that fabrics treated as above lost their tension in damp weather, and the oil from the motor penetrated the proofing material and weakened the fabric. For the most part the film of material lacked durability. Cellulose nitrate lacquers, however were found to be more satisfactory under varying weather conditions, added less weight to the planes, and were easily applied. On the other hand, they were highly inflammable, and oil from the motor penetrated the film of cellulose nitrate, causing the tension of the fabric to be relaxed.

  2. Uniform Microparticles with Controllable Highly Interconnected Hierarchical Porous Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mao-Jie; Wang, Wei; Yang, Xiu-Lan; Ma, Bing; Liu, Ying-Mei; Xie, Rui; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Liu, Zhuang; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2015-07-01

    A simple and versatile strategy is developed for one-step fabrication of uniform polymeric microparticles with controllable highly interconnected hierarchical porous structures. Monodisperse water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsions, with methyl methacrylate, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, and glycidyl methacrylate as the monomer-containing oil phase, are generated from microfluidics and used for constructing the microparticles. Due to the partially miscible property of oil/aqueous phases, the monodisperse W/O/W emulsions can deform into desired shapes depending on the packing structure of inner aqueous microdrops, and form aqueous nanodrops in the oil phase. The deformed W/O/W emulsions allow template syntheses of highly interconnected hierarchical porous microparticles with precisely and individually controlled pore size, porosity, functionality, and particle shape. The microparticles elaborately combine the advantages of enhanced mass transfer, large functional surface area, and flexibly tunable functionalities, providing an efficient strategy to physically and chemically achieve enhanced synergetic performances for extensive applications. This is demonstrated by using the microparticles for oil removal for water purification and protein adsorption for bioseparation. The method proposed in this study provides full versatility for fabrication of functional polymeric microparticles with controllable hierarchical porous structures for enhancing and even broadening their applications.

  3. Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of palladium-doped ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this work, we reported synthesis of palladium (Pd)-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) (Pd-TiO2) nanopar- ticles by the sol–gel-assisted method. The synthesized Pd-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray diffraction, transmission electronic microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, Fourier ...

  4. Optical characterization of CdSe/Dy3+-doped silica matrices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    their unique physical and chemical properties, which are different from those of either the bulk materials or single ... rare-earth ions along with semiconductor nanoparticle-doped glasses. But, sol–gel processing ... The sol–gel method can provide suitable host material via the transition states of viscous gels produced by ...

  5. Antifungal Effect of a Dental Tissue Conditioner Containing Nystatin-Loaded Alginate Microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Son, Jun Sik; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2018-02-01

    In this in vitro study, nystatin-alginate microparticles were successfully fabricated to control the release of nystatin from a commercial dental tissue conditioner. These nystatin-alginate microparticles were spherical and had a slightly rough surface. The microparticles incorporated into the tissue conditioner were distributed homogeneously throughout the tissue conditioner matrix. The incorporation of the microparticles did not deteriorate the mechanical properties of the original material. The agar diffusion test results showed that the tissue conditioner containing the microparticles had a good antifungal effect against Candida albicans. The nystatin-alginate microparticles efficiently controlled the release of nystatin from the tissue conditioner matrix over the experimental period of 14 days. Moreover, the nystatin-alginate microparticles incorporated in the tissue conditioner showed effective antifungal function even at lower concentrations of nystatin. The current study suggests that the tissue conditioner containing the nystatin-alginate microparticle carrier system has potential as an effective antifungal material.

  6. Optical manipulation of microparticles and biological structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahagan, Kevin Thomas

    1998-06-01

    We report experimental and theoretical investigations of the trapping of microparticles and biological objects using radiation pressure. Part I of this thesis presents a technique for trapping both low and high index microparticles using a single, stationary focused laser beam containing an optical vortex. Advantages of this vortex trap include the ease of implementation, a lower exposure level for high-index particles compared to a standard Gaussian beam trap, and the ability to isolate individual low-index particles in concentrated dispersions. The vortex trap is modeled using ray-tracing methods and a more precise electromagnetic model, which is accurate for particles less than 10 μm in diameter. We have measured the stable equilibrium position for two low-index particle systems (e.g., hollow glass spheres (HGS) in water, and water droplets in acetophenone (W/A)). The strength of the trap was measured for the HGS system along the longitudinal and transverse directions. We also demonstrate simultaneous trapping of a low and high index particle with a vortex beam. The stability of this dual-particle trap is found to depend on the relative particle size, the divergence angle of the beam, and the depth of the particles within the trapping chamber. Part II presents results from an interdisciplinary and collaborative investigation of an all-optical genetic engineering technique whereby Agrobacterium rhizogenes were inserted through a laser-ablated hole in the cell wall of the plant, Gingko biloba. We describe a protocol which includes the control of osmotic conditions, culturing procedures, viability assays and laser microsurgery. We succeeded in placing up to twelve viable bacteria into a single plant cell using this technique. The bacteria are believed to be slightly heated by the Gaussian beam trap. A numerical model is presented predicting a temperature rise of just a few degrees. Whereas G. biloba and A. rhitogenes were chosen for this study because of Ginkgo

  7. Comparative behavior of sol gel derived 45S5 and copper doped CaO-P2O5-SiO2 system for the growth of hydroxyl apatite layer from XRD and Raman studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Pardeep; Singh, K. J.

    2015-08-01

    Bioactive samples of 45S5 and copper doped CaO-P2O5- SiO2 compositions have been prepared in the laboratory. XRD and Raman techniques have been employed to infer the structural information of the samples before and after in vitro test. In vitro tests have been undertaken by soaking the samples in simulated body fluid. Formation of hydroxyl apatite layer on the surface of samples indicates that all the prepared samples are bioactive in nature. Reported investigations are important to improve the antibacterial properties of the future bioactive implant materials.

  8. Effects of Inhalable Microparticles of Seonpyejeongcheon-Tang in an Asthma Mouse Model - Effects of Microparticles of SJT -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Kyung Yang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Allergic asthma generally presents with symptoms of wheezing, coughing, breathlessness, and airway inflammation. Seonpyejeongcheon-tang (SJT consists of 12 herbs. It originated from Jeongcheon-tang (JT, also known as Ding-chuan-tang, composed of 7 herbs, in She-sheng-zhong-miao-fang. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of local delivery of SJT via inhalable microparticles in an asthma mouse model. Methods: Microparticles containing SJT were produced by spray-drying with leucine as an excipient. SJT microparticles were evaluated with respect to their aerodynamic properties, in vitro cytotoxicity, in vivo toxicity, and therapeutic effects on ovalbumin (OVA-induced asthma in comparison with orally-administered SJT. Results: SJT microparticles provided desirable aerodynamic properties (fine particle fraction of 48.9% ± 6.4% and mass median aerodynamic diameter of 3.7 ± 0.3 μm. SJT microparticles did not show any cytotoxicity against RAW 264.7 macrophages at concentrations of 0.01 - 3 mg/mL. Inhaled SJT microparticles decreased the levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-17A, eotaxin and OVA-IgE in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF in mice with OVA-induced asthma. These effects were verified by histological evaluation of the levels of infiltration of inflammatory cells and collagen, destructions of alveoli and bronchioles, and hyperplasia of goblet cells in lung tissues. The effects of SJT microparticles in the asthma model were equivalent to those of orally-administered SJT extract. Conclusion: This study suggests that SJT is a promising agent for inhalation therapy for patients with asthma.

  9. Endothelial cell-derived microparticles induce plasmacytoid dendritic cell maturation: potential implications in inflammatory diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Angelot, Fanny; Seillès, Estelle; Biichlé, Sabeha; Berda, Yael; Gaugler, Béatrice; Plumas, Joel; Chaperot, Laurence; Dignat-George, Françoise; Tiberghien, Pierre; Saas, Philippe; Garnache-Ottou, Francine

    2009-01-01

    International audience; BACKGROUND: Increased circulating endothelial microparticles, resulting from vascular endothelium dysfunction, and plasmacytoid dendritic cell activation are both encountered in common inflammatory disorders. The aim of our study was to determine whether interactions between endothelial microparticles and plasmacytoid dendritic cells could contribute to such pathologies. DESIGN AND METHODS: Microparticles generated from endothelial cell lines, platelets or activated T ...

  10. Microparticles as biomarkers of osteonecrosis of the hip in sickle cell disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsh, Anne; Schiffelers, Raymond; Kuypers, Frans; Larkin, Sandra; Gildengorin, Ginny; van Solinge, Wouter; Hoppe, Carolyn

    Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is a common complication of sickle cell disease (SCD). To examine the association between microparticles and ONFH in SCD, we compared plasma microparticle levels in 20 patients with and without ONFH. Microparticles were quantified using nanoparticle tracking

  11. Aqueous Two Phase System Assisted Self-Assembled PLGA Microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeredla, Nitish; Kojima, Taisuke; Yang, Yi; Takayama, Shuichi; Kanapathipillai, Mathumai

    2016-06-01

    Here, we produce poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) based microparticles with varying morphologies, and temperature responsive properties utilizing a Pluronic F127/dextran aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) assisted self-assembly. The PLGA polymer, when emulsified in Pluronic F127/dextran ATPS, forms unique microparticle structures due to ATPS guided-self assembly. Depending on the PLGA concentration, the particles either formed a core-shell or a composite microparticle structure. The microparticles facilitate the simultaneous incorporation of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic molecules, due to their amphiphilic macromolecule composition. Further, due to the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) properties of Pluronic F127, the particles exhibit temperature responsiveness. The ATPS based microparticle formation demonstrated in this study, serves as a novel platform for PLGA/polymer based tunable micro/nano particle and polymersome development. The unique properties may be useful in applications such as theranostics, synthesis of complex structure particles, bioreaction/mineralization at the two-phase interface, and bioseparations.

  12. Microparticles as immune regulators in infectious disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Lung Ling

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite their clear relationship to immunology, few existing studies have examined potential role of microparticles (MP in infectious disease. Infection with pathogens usually leads to the expression of a range of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as significant stress in both infected and uninfected cells. It is thus reasonable to infer from studies to date that infection-associated inflammation also leads to MP production. MP are produced by most of the major cell types in the immune system, and appear to be involved at both the innate and adaptive levels, potentially serving different functions at each level. Thus, MP do not appear to have a universal function; instead their functions are source- or stimulus-dependent, although likely to be primarily either pro- or anti-inflammatory. Importantly, in infectious diseases MP may have the ability to deliver antigen to APC via the biological cargo acquired from their cells of origin. Another potential benefit of MP would be to transfer and/or disseminate phenotype and function to target cells. However, MP may also potentially be manipulated, particularly by intracellular pathogens for survival advantage.

  13. Microparticles and cancer thrombosis in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mege, Diane; Mezouar, Soraya; Dignat-George, Françoise; Panicot-Dubois, Laurence; Dubois, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Cancer-associated venous thromboembolism (VTE) constitutes the second cause of death after cancer. Many risk factors for cancer-associated VTE have been identified, among them soluble tissue factor and microparticles (MPs). Few data are available about the implication of MPs in cancer associated-VTE through animal model of cancer. The objective of the present review was to report the state of the current literature about MPs and cancer-associated VTE in animal model of cancer. Fourteen series have reported the role of MPs in cancer-associated VTE, through three main mouse models: ectopic or orthotopic tumor induction, experimental metastasis by intravenous injection of tumor cells into the lateral tail vein of the mouse. Pancreatic cancer is the most used animal model, due to its high rate of cancer-associated VTE. All the series reported that tumor cell-derived MPs can promote thrombus formation in TF-dependent manner. Some authors reported also the implication of phosphatidylserine and PSGL1 in the generation of thrombin. Moreover, MPs seem to be implicated in cancer progression through a coagulation-dependent mechanism secondary to thrombocytosis, or a mechanism implicating the regulation of the immune response. For these reasons, few authors have reported that antiplatelet and anticoagulant treatments may prevent tumor progression and the formation of metastases in addition of coagulopathy. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Continuous sorting of microparticles using dielectrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D F; Li, W H; Du, H; Li, M

    2012-04-01

    Sorting of particles such as cells is a critical process for many biomedical applications, and it is challenging to integrate it into an analytical microdevice. We report an effective and flexible dielectrophoresis (DEP)-based microfluidic device for continuous sorting of multiple particles in a microchannel. The particle sorter is composed of two components-a DEP focusing unit and a Movable DEP Trap (MDT). The trap is formed by an array of microelectrodes at the bottom of the channel and a transparent electrode plate placed at the top. The location of the trap is dependent on the configuration of voltages on the array and therefore is addressable. Flowing particles are first directed and focused into a single particle stream by the focusing unit. The streamed particles are then sorted into different fractions using the movable trap by rapidly switching the applied voltage. The performance of the sorter is demonstrated by successfully sorting microparticles in a continuous flow. The proposed DEP-based microfluidic sorter can be implemented in applications such as sample preparation and cell sorting for subsequent analytical processing, where sorting of particles is needed.

  15. Removing water from gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, E.S.; Winter, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Water is removed from a gel material by contacting the gel material with an organic liquid and contacting the organic liquid with a gas such that water is taken up by the gas. The invention, in one embodiment, may be used to dry gel materials whilst maintaining an open porous network therein. In one example, the invention is applied to gel precipitated spheres containing uranium and plutonium. (author)

  16. Polymer gels and networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Osada, Yoshihito; Khokhlov, A. R

    2002-01-01

    ... or magnetic field, etc.). It was realized that not only can polymer gels absorb and hold a considerable volume of liquids, but they can also be forced to expel the absorbed liquid in a controlled manner. Of particular interest are hydrogels, i.e., polymer gels, which swell extensively in water. The most common hydrogels are polyelectrolyte gels: ...

  17. Spectroscopic studies of Cu 2 ions in sol–gel derived silica matrix

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Cu2+ ion doped silica gel matrices in monolithic shape were prepared by hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). The absorption, transmittance and fluorescence spectra of the gel matrices heat treated at different temperatures were monitored. The loss of water and hydroxyl group from silica ...

  18. Sol-Gel/Hydrothermal Synthesis of Mixed Metal Oxide

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mixed metal oxides of titanium and zinc nanocomposites were prepared through sol-gel method under hydrothermal condition ... Keywords: Nanocomposites, Titanium dioxide, Zinc oxide, Particle sizes, Optical property, X-Ray Diffraction. ABSTRACT. 321 ... doping with other semiconductors like zinc oxide, aluminium oxide ...

  19. Characterization of spray dried bioadhesive metformin microparticles for oromucosal administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Camilla; Madsen, Katrine Dragsbæk; Hyrup, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    delivery systems are considered a promising approach as they facilitate a close contact between the drug and the oral mucosa. In this study, bioadhesive chitosan-based microparticles of metformin hydrochloride were prepared by spray drying aqueous dispersions with different chitosan:metformin ratios...... be prepared and analyzed using the ex vivo retention model. We observed an increase in metformin retention on porcine mucosa with increasing chitosan:metformin ratios, while no effect of increasing the chitosan molecular weight was found. Rheological characterization of feeds for spray drying was performed...... and chitosan grades with increasing molecular weights. A recently developed ex vivo flow retention model with porcine buccal mucosa was used to evaluate the bioadhesive properties of spray dried microparticles. An important outcome of this study was that microparticles with the desired metformin content could...

  20. Electrosprayed inulin microparticles for microbiota triggered targeting of colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Arvind K; Sood, Vishesh; Bora, Meghali; Vasita, Rajesh; Katti, Dhirendra S

    2014-11-04

    Inulin, a naturally occurring polysaccharide, was acetylated to make it processable by electrospraying, a facile and single step method for microparticle fabrication. Electrospraying process parameters were optimized for fabrication of spherical and monodisperse indomethacin (IDM) loaded inulin acetate (INA) microparticles. The apparent entrapment efficiency of IDM was determined to be 100%, whereas working encapsulation efficiency was estimated to be 35.39 ± 1.63%. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed molecular dispersion of IDM in an amorphous state within the INA matrix. Finally, the results from in vitro release study performed in simulated gastro-intestinal fluids demonstrated that IDM was released only in simulated colonic fluid that contained inulinase. Therefore, this study demonstrates that acetylation of inulin does not alter its susceptibility to inulinase and that microparticles fabricated from INA can be developed as a colon targeting drug delivery system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. RDX-based nanocomposite microparticles for significantly reduced shock sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu Hongwei, E-mail: hqiu@stevens.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States); Stepanov, Victor; Di Stasio, Anthony R. [U.S. Army - Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center, Picatinny, NJ 07806 (United States); Chou, Tsengming; Lee, Woo Y. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX)-based nanocomposite microparticles were produced by a simple, yet novel spray drying method. The microparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), which shows that they consist of small RDX crystals ({approx}0.1-1 {mu}m) uniformly and discretely dispersed in a binder. The microparticles were subsequently pressed to produce dense energetic materials which exhibited a markedly lower shock sensitivity. The low sensitivity was attributed to small crystal size as well as small void size ({approx}250 nm). The method developed in this work may be suitable for the preparation of a wide range of insensitive explosive compositions.

  2. RDX-based nanocomposite microparticles for significantly reduced shock sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Hongwei; Stepanov, Victor; Di Stasio, Anthony R.; Chou, Tsengming; Lee, Woo Y.

    2011-01-01

    Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX)-based nanocomposite microparticles were produced by a simple, yet novel spray drying method. The microparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), which shows that they consist of small RDX crystals (∼0.1-1 μm) uniformly and discretely dispersed in a binder. The microparticles were subsequently pressed to produce dense energetic materials which exhibited a markedly lower shock sensitivity. The low sensitivity was attributed to small crystal size as well as small void size (∼250 nm). The method developed in this work may be suitable for the preparation of a wide range of insensitive explosive compositions.

  3. RDX-based nanocomposite microparticles for significantly reduced shock sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hongwei; Stepanov, Victor; Di Stasio, Anthony R; Chou, Tsengming; Lee, Woo Y

    2011-01-15

    Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX)-based nanocomposite microparticles were produced by a simple, yet novel spray drying method. The microparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), which shows that they consist of small RDX crystals (∼0.1-1 μm) uniformly and discretely dispersed in a binder. The microparticles were subsequently pressed to produce dense energetic materials which exhibited a markedly lower shock sensitivity. The low sensitivity was attributed to small crystal size as well as small void size (∼250 nm). The method developed in this work may be suitable for the preparation of a wide range of insensitive explosive compositions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Surface Properties of Metal Hydroxide Microparticles in the Ambient Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharenko Valery

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption and photoadsorption properties of Mg(OH2 and Ca(OH2 microparticles in the ambient air were investigated. The compositional analysis of an adsorption layer of microparticles was carried out. The kinetics of photodesorption of molecules from microcrystal surfaces and the interaction of HCFC-22 (CHF2Cl in the dark and under light were studied. Quantum yields and their spectral dependencies were determined for CO2 photodesorption, O2 and CO photoadsorption. The effect of weakly bound CO displacement from the surface of microparticles was revealed during dark adsorption of HCFC-22. It is supposed that adsorbed CO is formed as a result of atmospheric CO2 reduction after the break of Mg—OH bonds. In case of calcium hydroxide, CO is generated during the interaction of calcium hydroxide with carbon dioxide in the presence of water.

  5. Thermodynamic prediction of active ingredient loading in polymeric microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, G; Blankschtein, D; Shefer, A; Shefer, S

    1999-06-28

    The growing use of microparticles as a controlled-delivery system for pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical active ingredients (AIs) has prompted a costly trial-and-error development of new and effective microparticle systems. In order to facilitate a more rational design and optimization of AI loadings in microparticles, we have developed a molecular-thermodynamic theory to predict the loading of liquid AIs in polymeric microparticles that are manufactured by a solvent evaporation process. This process involves the emulsification of a liquid polymer solution (consisting of polymer and AI dissolved in a volatile solvent) in an aqueous surfactant solution. The theory describes the equilibrium distribution of the AI between the aqueous phase and the dispersed polymeric droplets. The universal functional activity coefficient (UNIFAC) and UNIFAC-Free Volume (FV) group-contribution methods are utilized to model the nonidealities in the water and polymeric droplet phases, respectively. The inputs to the theory are: (i) the chemical structures, densities and total masses of the manufacturing ingredients, (ii) the manufacturing temperature and (iii) the glass transition temperature of the polymer. Since surfactant concentrations exceeding the critical micellar concentration (CMC) are often required in order to stabilize the dispersed polymeric droplets during the emulsion manufacturing process, the theory also accounts for AI solubilization in surfactant micelles present in the manufacturing solution. To test the AI loading predictions, we compare theoretical predictions of AI loadings in poly(lactic acid), poly(methyl methacrylate) and polystyrene microparticles to experimentally measured ones for five model AIs with varying degrees of hydrophobicity (benzyl alcohol, n-octanol, geraniol, farnesol and galaxolide). We also demonstrate how the developed theory can be utilized to screen polymers with respect to their abilities to load a given AI, as well as to provide

  6. Chitosan microparticles for the controlled delivery of fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Gemma M; Smart, John D; Ingram, Matthew J; Barnes, Lara-Marie; Burnett, Gary R; Rees, Gareth D

    2012-03-01

    To manufacture and characterise chitosan/fluoride microparticles prepared by spray drying and assess their utility as controlled release vehicles for fluoride. Microparticles were manufactured from dispersions containing 1.0% and 2.0% (w/v) chitosan and 0.20% or 0.40% (w/v) NaF in the absence/presence of glutaraldehyde. Particle size distributions were determined using laser diffraction; fluoride loading and release were determined by ion-selective electrode. Release profiles were studied in isotonic media (pH 5.5) over 360 min; microparticles exhibiting greatest cumulative fluoride release were further evaluated at pH 4.0 and 7.0. Particle morphology was investigated using environmental scanning electron microscopy. Bioadhesion parameters were determined with a texture-probe analyser. Microparticles exhibited low polydispersity and volume mean diameters (VMDs) <6 μm. VMDs increased on doubling the chitosan/fluoride concentrations but were largely independent of glutaraldehyde concentration. Recovered yields were inversely proportional to dispersion viscosity due to compromised fluid atomisation; adding NaF reduced viscosity and improved yields. Best-case entrapment efficiency and NaF loading were 84.1% and 14%, respectively. Release profiles were biphasic, releasing 40-60% of the total fluoride during the first 600 s, followed by a prolonged release phase extending out to 6h. Incorporation of 0.40% NaF to the 2.0% chitosan dispersion yielded microparticles with reduced bioadhesive parameters (F(max) and WOA) versus the chitosan-only control whilst retaining significant bioadhesive potential. Bioadhesive chitosan/fluoride microparticles manufactured using a spray-drying protocol have been extensively characterised and further opportunity for optimisation identified. These microparticles may provide a means of increasing fluoride uptake from oral care products to provide increased protection against caries, however further work is required to demonstrate this

  7. Transport Phenomena in Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Tokita

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gel becomes an important class of soft materials since it can be seen in a wide variety of the chemical and the biological systems. The unique properties of gel arise from the structure, namely, the three-dimensional polymer network that is swollen by a huge amount of solvent. Despite the small volume fraction of the polymer network, which is usually only a few percent or less, gel shows the typical properties that belong to solids such as the elasticity. Gel is, therefore, regarded as a dilute solid because its elasticity is much smaller than that of typical solids. Because of the diluted structure, small molecules can pass along the open space of the polymer network. In addition to the viscous resistance of gel fluid, however, the substance experiences resistance due to the polymer network of gel during the transport process. It is, therefore, of importance to study the diffusion of the small molecules in gel as well as the flow of gel fluid itself through the polymer network of gel. It may be natural to assume that the effects of the resistance due to the polymer network of gel depends strongly on the network structure. Therefore, detailed study on the transport processes in and through gel may open a new insight into the relationship between the structure and the transport properties of gel. The two typical transport processes in and through gel, that is, the diffusion of small molecules due to the thermal fluctuations and the flow of gel fluid that is caused by the mechanical pressure gradient will be reviewed.

  8. Multitarget sensing of glucose and cholesterol based on Janus hydrogel microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Ting; Zhang, Ying; Zheng, Dong-Hua; Yue, Shuai; Yang, Chun-Guang; Xu, Zhang-Run

    2017-06-15

    A visualized sensing method for glucose and cholesterol was developed based on the hemispheres of the same Janus hydrogel microparticles. Single-phase and Janus hydrogel microparticles were both generated using a centrifugal microfluidic chip. For glucose sensing, concanavalin A and fluorescein labeled dextran used for competitive binding assay were encapsulated in alginate microparticles, and the fluorescence of the microparticles was positively correlated with glucose concentration. For cholesterol sensing, the microparticles embedded with γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles were used as catalyst for the oxidation of 3,3',5,5'-Tetramethylbenzidine by H 2 O 2 , an enzymatic hydrolysis product of cholesterol. And the color transition was more sensitive in the microparticles than in solutions, indicating the microparticles are more applicable for visualized determination. Furthermore, Janus microparticles were employed for multitarget sensing in the two hemespheres, and glucose and cholesterol were detected within the same microparticles without obvious interference. Besides, the particles could be manipulated by an external magnetic field. The glucose and cholesterol levels were measured in human serum utilizing the microparticles, which confirmed the potential application of the microparticles in real sample detection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Facile fabrication of siloxane @ poly (methylacrylic acid) core-shell microparticles with different functional groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zheng-Bai; Tai, Li; Zhang, Da-Ming; Jiang, Yong, E-mail: yj@seu.edu.cn [Southeast University, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2017-02-15

    Siloxane @ poly (methylacrylic acid) core-shell microparticles with functional groups were prepared by a facile hydrolysis-condensation method in this work. Three different silane coupling agents 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS), 3-triethoxysilylpropylamine (APTES), and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) were added along with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) into the polymethylacrylic acid (PMAA) microparticle ethanol dispersion to form the Si@PMAA core-shell microparticles with different functional groups. The core-shell structure and the surface special functional groups of the resulting microparticles were measured by transmission electron microscopy and FTIR. The sizes of these core-shell microparticles were about 350–400 nm. The corresponding preparation conditions and mechanism were discussed in detail. This hydrolysis-condensation method also could be used to functionalize other microparticles which contain active groups on the surface. Meanwhile, the Si@PMAA core-shell microparticles with carbon-carbon double bonds and amino groups have further been applied to prepare hydrophobic coatings.

  10. Spectral characterization and excited-state interactions between rare earth ions doped in borosilicate and sol-gel glasses. Energy transfer up-conversion in the Pr-Sm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assefa, Z.; Haire, R.G.; Stump, N.A.

    1996-01-01

    Spectroscopic properties of selected 4f-elements in a sol-gel and two high temperature silicate based glasses are reported. In particular, the spectral properties of the Eu[sup 3+] ion have been used to probe the local coordination environment of the f-elements in these glass matrices. Luminescence studies of the high temperature glasses indicated that the electric dipole allowed f-f transitions dominate the spectra which suggests that the local symmetry around the 4f-ions is low. Temperature-dependent spectroscopic studies of the sol-gel glasses indicated that the f-elements retain a 'solution-like' environment prior to thermal processing. After heat treatment, an increase in the emission intensities of the electric-dipole transitions is accompanied by a concomitant decrease in the magnetic- dipole allowed transitions. Moreover, excited state interactions has also been observed in the high temperature glasses that contain certain multiple f-elements. In Pr-Sm systems, exclusive excitation of the Sm[sup 3+] ion with a 514 nm argon ion laser line provides a higher- energy emission band ( ca. 490 mn ) from the PR[sup 3+] ion ([sup 3]P[sub 0] -> '[sup 3]H[sub 4]) transition. This energy up- conversion is attributed to energy transfer from the [sup 6]H[sub 13/2] level of the Se[sup 3+] ion to the [sup 3]H[sub 6] state of the PR[sup 3+] ion. Following a second photon absorption, the PR[sup 3+] ion is excited to the emitting [sup 3]P[sub O] level

  11. Sol-Gel Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, S. P.

    1985-01-01

    Multicomponent homogeneous, ultrapure noncrystalline gels/gel derived glasses are promising batch materials for the containerless glass melting experiments in microgravity. Hence, ultrapure, homogeneous gel precursors could be used to: (1) investigate the effect of the container induced nucleation on the glass forming ability of marginally glass forming compositions; and (2) investigate the influence of gravity on the phase separation and coarsening behavior of gel derived glasses in the liquid-liquid immiscibility zone of the nonsilicate systems having a high density phase. The structure and crystallization behavior of gels in the SiO2-GeO2 as a function of gel chemistry and thermal treatment were investigated. As are the chemical principles involved in the distribution of a second network former in silica gel matrix being investigated. The procedures for synthesizing noncrystalline gels/gel-monoliths in the SiO2-GeO2, GeO2-PbO systems were developed. Preliminary investigations on the levitation and thermal treatment of germania silicate gel-monoliths in the Pressure Facility Acoustic Levitator were done.

  12. Nicotine–magnesium aluminum silicate microparticle surface modified with chitosan for mucosal delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanjanakawinkul, Watchara [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Rades, Thomas [School of Pharmacy, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054 (New Zealand); Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit [Department of Manufacturing Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Pongjanyakul, Thaned, E-mail: thaned@kku.ac.th [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)

    2013-04-01

    Magnesium aluminum silicate (MAS), a negatively charged clay, and nicotine (NCT), a basic drug, can interact electrostatically to form microparticles. Chitosan (CS) was used for the surface modification of the microparticles, and a lyophilization method was used to preserve the original particle morphology. The microparticles were characterized in terms of their physicochemical properties, NCT content, mucoadhesive properties, and release and permeation across porcine esophageal mucosa. The results showed that the microparticles formed via electrostatic interaction between MAS and protonated NCT had an irregular shape and that their NCT content increased with increasing NCT ratios in the microparticle preparation solution. High molecular weight CS (800 kDa) adsorbed to the microparticle surface and induced a positive surface charge. CS molecules intercalated into the MAS silicate layers and decreased the crystallinity of the microparticles, leading to an increase in the release rate and diffusion coefficient of NCT from the microparticles. Moreover, the microparticle surface modified with CS was found to have higher NCT permeation fluxes and mucoadhesive properties, which indicated the significant role of CS for NCT mucosal delivery. However, the enhancement of NCT permeation and of mucoadhesive properties depended on the molecular weight and concentration of CS. These findings suggest that NCT-MAS microparticle surface modified with CS represents a promising mucosal delivery system for NCT. Highlights: ► Nicotine–magnesium aluminum silicate microparticles were prepared using electrostatic interaction. ► Lyophilization was used for drying and maintaining an original morphology of the microparticles. ► Chitosan (CS) was used for surface modification of the microparticles at acidic pH. ► Surface modification using CS caused an increase in release and permeation of nicotine. ► Microparticle surface-modified with CS presented better mucoadhesive properties.

  13. Allergen-loaded strontium-doped hydroxyapatite spheres improve allergen-specific immunotherapy in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Garbani, M; Xia, W; Rhyner, C; Prati, M; Scheynius, A; Malissen, B; Engqvist, H; Maurer, M; Crameri, R; Terhorst, D

    2017-01-01

    Background Immunomodulatory interventions play a key role in the treatment of infections and cancer as well as allergic diseases. Adjuvants such as micro- and nanoparticles are often added to immunomodulatory therapies to enhance the triggered immune response. Here, we report the immunological assessment of novel and economically manufactured microparticle adjuvants, namely strontium-doped hydroxyapatite porous spheres (SHAS), which we suggest for the use as adjuvant and carrier in allergen-s...

  14. Galvanic microparticles increase migration of human dermal fibroblasts in a wound-healing model via reactive oxygen species pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Nina; Cimetta, Elisa; Villasante, Aranzazu; Kupferstein, Nicolette; Southall, Michael D; Fassih, Ali; Xie, Junxia; Sun, Ying; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Electrical signals have been implied in many biological mechanisms, including wound healing, which has been associated with transient electrical currents not present in intact skin. One method to generate electrical signals similar to those naturally occurring in wounds is by supplementation of galvanic particles dispersed in a cream or gel. We constructed a three-layered model of skin consisting of human dermal fibroblasts in hydrogel (mimic of dermis), a hydrogel barrier layer (mimic of epidermis) and galvanic microparticles in hydrogel (mimic of a cream containing galvanic particles applied to skin). Using this model, we investigated the effects of the properties and amounts of Cu/Zn galvanic particles on adult human dermal fibroblasts in terms of the speed of wound closing and gene expression. The collected data suggest that the effects on wound closing are due to the ROS-mediated enhancement of fibroblast migration, which is in turn mediated by the BMP/SMAD signaling pathway. These results imply that topical low-grade electric currents via microparticles could enhance wound healing. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Injectable In Situ Forming Microparticles: A Novel Drug Delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmaceutical formulation research has recently been focusing on delivery systems which provide long therapeutic effects and reduced side effects, and involving simplified production stages and facilitated application process. In situ forming microparticle (ISM) systems, one of the latest approach in this field, offer a new ...

  16. Controlled electrosprayed formation of non-spherical microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyhani, Morteza; Mak, Sze Yi; Sammut, Stephen; Shum, Ho Cheung; Hwang, Dae Kun; Tsai, Scott S. H.

    2017-11-01

    Fabrication of biocompatible microparticles, such as alginate particles, with the possibility of controlling the particles' morphology in a high-throughput manner, is essential for pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Even though the shape of alginate particles has been shown to be an important parameter in controlling drug delivery, there are very limited manufacturing methods to produce non-spherical alginate microparticles in a high-throughput fashion. Here, we present a system that generates non-spherical biocompatible alginate microparticles with a tunable size and shape, and at high-throughput, using an electrospray technique. Alginate solution, which is a highly biocompatible material, is flown through a needle using a constant flow rate syringe pump. The alginate phase is connected to a high-voltage power supply to charge it positively. There is a metallic ring underneath the needle that is charged negatively. The applied voltage creates an electric field that forces the dispensing droplets to pass through the metallic ring toward the collection bath. During this migration, droplets break up to smaller droplets to dissipate their energy. When the droplets reach the calcium chloride bath, polymerization happens and solidifies the droplets. We study the effects of changing the distance from the needle to the bath, and the concentration of calcium chloride in the bath, to control the size and the shape of the resulting microparticles.

  17. Ultrasound-induced acoustophoretic motion of microparticles in three dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Peter Barkholt; Rossi, M.; Marín, Á. G.

    2013-01-01

    We derive analytical expressions for the three-dimensional (3D) acoustophoretic motion of spherical microparticles in rectangular microchannels. The motion is generated by the acoustic radiation force and the acoustic streaming-induced drag force. In contrast to the classical theory of Rayleigh s...

  18. Evaluation of Gentamicin-Entrapped Solid Lipid Microparticles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Solid lipid microparticles, Gentamicin, Capra hircus, Phospholipon® 90 G, Solidified reverse micellar solution. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical .... while batches D1–D3 are unloaded (zero- drug) SLMs; P90G = Phospholipon® 90G, GF = goat fat; each formulation was made up to 100 %w/w with distilled water ...

  19. Spray-dried nanofibrillar cellulose microparticles for sustained drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolakovic, Ruzica; Laaksonen, Timo; Peltonen, Leena; Laukkanen, Antti; Hirvonen, Jouni

    2012-07-01

    Nanofibrillar cellulose (also referred to as cellulose nanofibers, nanocellulose, microfibrillated or nanofibrillated cellulose) has gained a lot of attention in recent years in different research areas including biomedical applications. In this study we have evaluated the applicability of nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC) as a material for the formation of matrix systems for sustained drug delivery. For that purpose, drug loaded NFC microparticles were produced by a spray drying method. The microparticles were characterized in terms of size and morphology, total drug loading, and physical state of the encapsulated drug. Drug release from the microparticles was assessed by dissolution tests, and suitable mathematical models were used to explain the drug releasing kinetics. The particles had spherical shapes with diameters of around 5 μm; the encapsulated drug was mainly in amorphous form. The controlled drug release was achieved. The drug releasing curves were fitted to a mathematical model describing the drug releasing kinetics from a spherical matrix. Different drugs had different release kinetics, which was a consequence of several factors, including different solubilities of the drugs in the chosen medium and different affinities of the drugs to the NFC. It can be concluded that NFC microparticles can sustain drug release by forming a tight fiber network and thus limit drug diffusion from the system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Image-based magnetic control of paramagnetic microparticles in water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuning, Jasper D.; de Vries, Jeroen; Abelmann, Leon; Misra, Sarthak

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a system for controlling the position of spherical paramagnetic microparticles that have an average diameter of 100 µm. The focus of this study lies in designing and implementing a system that uses microscopic images and electromagnets. Preliminary experiments have

  1. Manipulation of microparticles and red blood cells using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-13

    Feb 13, 2014 ... Abstract. We report the development of an optoelectronic tweezers set-up which works by light- induced dielectrophoresis mechanism to manipulate microparticles. We used thermal evaporation technique for coating the organic polymer, titanium oxide phthalocyanine (TiOPc), as a photo- conductive layer ...

  2. Distinct proteome pathology of circulating microparticles in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Ole; Nielsen, Christoffer Tandrup; Tanassi, Julia T

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is poorly understood but has been linked to defective clearance of subcellular particulate material from the circulation. This study investigates the origin, formation, and specificity of circulating microparticles (MPs) in patien...... generation of MPs may partake in the pathology of SLE and that new diagnostic, monitoring, and treatment strategies targeting these processes may be advantageous....

  3. Manipulation of microparticles and red blood cells using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-13

    Feb 13, 2014 ... We report the development of an optoelectronic tweezers set-up which works by lightinduced dielectrophoresis mechanism to manipulate microparticles. We used thermal evaporation technique for coating the organic polymer, titanium oxide phthalocyanine (TiOPc), as a photoconductive layer on ...

  4. Herbal carrier-based floating microparticles of diltiazem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate and characterize a gastroretentive floating drug delivery system for diltiazem hydrochloride using psyllium husk and sodium alginate as natural herbal carriers to improve the therapeutic effect of the drug in cardiac patients. Methods: Floating microparticles containing diltiazem hydrochloride were ...

  5. GelTouch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miruchna, Viktor; Walter, Robert; Lindlbauer, David

    2015-01-01

    We present GelTouch, a gel-based layer that can selectively transition between soft and stiff to provide tactile multi-touch feedback. It is flexible, transparent when not activated, and contains no mechanical, electromagnetic, or hydraulic components, resulting in a compact form factor (a 2mm thin...... touchscreen layer for our prototype). The activated areas can be morphed freely and continuously, without being limited to fixed, predefined shapes. GelTouch consists of a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) gel layer which alters its viscoelasticity when activated by applying heat (>32 C). We present three different...

  6. Transport Phenomena in Gel

    OpenAIRE

    Masayuki Tokita

    2016-01-01

    Gel becomes an important class of soft materials since it can be seen in a wide variety of the chemical and the biological systems. The unique properties of gel arise from the structure, namely, the three-dimensional polymer network that is swollen by a huge amount of solvent. Despite the small volume fraction of the polymer network, which is usually only a few percent or less, gel shows the typical properties that belong to solids such as the elasticity. Gel is, therefore, regarded as a dilu...

  7. Microparticles from apoptotic platelets promote resident macrophage differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasina, E M; Cauwenberghs, S; Feijge, M A H; Heemskerk, J W M; Weber, C; Koenen, R R

    2011-09-29

    Platelets shed microparticles not only upon activation, but also upon ageing by an apoptosis-like process (apoptosis-induced platelet microparticles, PM(ap)). While the activation-induced microparticles have widely been studied, not much is known about the (patho)physiological consequences of PM(ap) formation. Flow cytometry and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that PM(ap) display activated integrins and interact to form microparticle aggregates. PM(ap) were chemotactic for monocytic cells, bound to these cells, an furthermore stimulated cell adhesion and spreading on a fibronectin surface. After prolonged incubation, PM(ap) promoted cell differentiation, but inhibited proliferation. Monocyte membrane receptor analysis revealed increased expression levels of CD11b (integrin α(M)β(2)), CD14 and CD31 (platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1), and the chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4, but not of CCR2. This indicated that PM(ap) polarized the cells into resident M2 monocytes. Cells treated with PM(ap) actively consumed oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), and released matrix metalloproteinases and hydrogen peroxide. Further confirmation for the differentiation towards resident professional phagocytes came from the finding that PM(ap) stimulated the expression of the (ox)LDL receptors, CD36 and CD68, and the production of proinflammatory and immunomodulating cytokines by monocytes. In conclusion, interaction of PM(ap) with monocytic cells has an immunomodulating potential. The apoptotic microparticles polarize the cells into a resident M2 subset, and induce differentiation to resident professional phagocytes.

  8. Engineering polymer blend microparticles: an investigation into the influence of polymer blend distribution and interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhnan, Mohamed A; Basit, Abdul W

    2011-01-18

    The aim of this work was to understand the influence of polymer interaction and distribution on drug release from microparticles fabricated from blends of polymers. Blends of pH dependent polymer (Eudragit S, soluble above pH 7) and pH independent polymer (Eudragit RL, Eudragit RS or ethylcellulose) were incorporated into prednisolone loaded microparticles using a novel emulsion solvent evaporation method. Microparticles fabricated from blends of Eudragit S and Eudragit RL or RS did not modify drug release compared to microparticles fabricated from Eudragit S alone. This can be attributed to the high degree of miscibility of Eudragit S with Eudragit RS or Eudragit RL within the microparticles as confirmed by glass transition temperature measurements and confocal laser scanning microscopy. In contrast, microparticles prepared from blends of Eudragit S (75%) and ethylcellulose (25%) extended the release of prednisolone at pH 7.4 (compared to Eudragit S microparticles). This change in release profile was related to the immiscibility of Eudragit S and ethylcellulose as assessed by thermal analysis, and confirmed by microscopy which showed pores within the microparticle structures following dissolution of the Eudragit S domains. The ability of water insoluble polymers to extend drug release from enteric polymer microparticles is dependent on the miscibility and interaction of the polymers. This knowledge is important in the design of pH responsive microparticles capable of extending drug release in the gastrointestinal tract. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Flow cytometric analysis of microparticle phenotype and their role in thrombin generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macey, M G; Enniks, N; Bevan, S

    2011-01-01

    Microparticles may be generated from a number of cell types and are known to play a role in haemostasis by a variety of mechanisms. We investigated the role of platelet, red cell, and leucocyte-derived microparticles in the measurement of thrombin generation. Four parameters of thrombin generation (the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP), lag time, time to peak, peak height) and microparticle content was determined in 35 plasma samples from normal individuals pre and post filtration to remove microparticles. Immunofluorescent flow cytometry was used to identify and enumerate platelet, leucocyte, monocyte and red cell derived microparticles in plasma samples based on the expression of CD42b, CD45, CD15, and Glycophorin A respectively. Expression of phosphatidylserine and tissue factor by microparticles was determined by Annexin V and anti CD142 binding. The pre and post filtration results were compared. There was a significant decrease in ETP and Peak Height, and an increase in the time to peak post filtration (P microparticles was also observed. The change in CD42b+ microparticles correlated highly with the change in Annexin V+ microparticles (r = 0.68). Whilst the change in ETP correlated best with the change in CD15+ microparticles (r = 0.45) and the change in time to peak correlated with the change in Annexin V binding (r = 0.52) (P < 0.01). The presence of micropartcles in plasma significantly affects thrombin generation. Copyright © 2010 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  10. Morphology and thermal stability of silk fibroin/starch blended microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study biodegradable microparticles of silk fibroin (SF/starch blends were prepared by a simple water-in-oil emulsion solvent diffusion technique. SF/starch blended solution and ethyl acetate were used as water and oil phases, respectively. The influence of SF/starch ratios on characteristics of the blended microparticles was investigated. The SF conformation of microparticle matrices from FTIR analysis was changed from random coil to β-sheet form by blending with starch. The blended microparticles had lower dissolution in water than those of SF and starch microparticles. The 1/3 (w/w SF/starch blended microparticles exhibited the lowest dissolution. The SF and starch microparticles showed irregular and deflated shapes, respectively. The blended microparticles were nearly spherical in shapes and smaller sizes. Thermal stability of the blended microparticles slightly increased with the starch blended ratio. The results suggested that SF conformational transition, thermal stability, morphology and dissolution of the blended microparticles can be adjusted by varying the blended ratio.

  11. Circulating endothelial microparticles are associated with vascular dysfunction in patients with end-stage renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabile, Nicolas; Guérin, Alain P; Leroyer, Aurélie; Mallat, Ziad; Nguyen, Clément; Boddaert, Jacques; London, Gérard M; Tedgui, Alain; Boulanger, Chantal M

    2005-11-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness are major determinants of cardiovascular risk in patients with end-stage renal failure (ESRF). Microparticles are membrane fragments shed from damaged or activated cells. Because microparticles can affect endothelial cells, this study investigated the relationship between circulating microparticles and arterial dysfunction in patients with ESRF and identified the cellular origin of microparticles associated with these alterations. Flow cytometry analysis of platelet-free plasma from 44 patients with ESRF indicated that circulating levels of Annexin V+ microparticles were increased compared with 32 healthy subjects, as were levels of microparticles derived from endothelial cells (three-fold), platelets (16.5-fold), and erythrocytes (1.6-fold). However, when arterial function was evaluated noninvasively in patients with ESRF, only endothelial microparticle levels correlated highly with loss of flow-mediated dilation (r = -0.543; P = 0.004), increased aortic pulse wave velocity (r = 0.642, P < 0.0001), and increased common carotid artery augmentation index (r = 0.463, P = 0.0017), whereas platelet-derived, erythrocyte-derived, and Annexin V+ microparticle levels did not. In vitro, microparticles from patients with ESRF impaired endothelium-dependent relaxations and cyclic guanosine monophosphate generation, whereas microparticles from healthy subjects did not. Moreover, in vitro endothelial dysfunction correlated with endothelial-derived (r = 0.891; P = 0.003) but not platelet-derived microparticle concentrations. In fact, endothelial microparticles alone decreased endothelial nitric oxide release by 59 +/- 7% (P = 0.025). This study suggests that circulating microparticles of endothelial origin are tightly associated with endothelial dysfunction and arterial dysfunction in ESRF.

  12. Cyanocobalamin Nasal Gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to supply extra vitamin B12 to people who need unusually large amounts of this vitamin because they are pregnant or have certain diseases. ... Cyanocobalamin nasal gel will supply you with enough vitamin B12 only as ... it regularly. You may need to use cyanocobalamin nasal gel every week for ...

  13. Modeling chemoresponsive polymer gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuksenok, Olga; Deb, Debabrata; Dayal, Pratyush; Balazs, Anna C

    2014-01-01

    Stimuli-responsive gels are vital components in the next generation of smart devices, which can sense and dynamically respond to changes in the local environment and thereby exhibit more autonomous functionality. We describe recently developed computational methods for simulating the properties of such stimuli-responsive gels in the presence of optical, chemical, and thermal gradients. Using these models, we determine how to harness light to drive shape changes and directed motion in spirobenzopyran-containing gels. Focusing on oscillating gels undergoing the Belousov-Zhabotinksy reaction, we demonstrate that these materials can spontaneously form self-rotating assemblies, or pinwheels. Finally, we model temperature-sensitive gels that encompass chemically reactive filaments to optimize the performance of this system as a homeostatic device for regulating temperature. These studies could facilitate the development of soft robots that autonomously interconvert chemical and mechanical energy and thus perform vital functions without the continuous need of external power sources.

  14. Magnetic Vinylphenyl Boronic Acid Microparticles for Surface Catalytic Performance in Esterification of Propionic Acid with Methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic vinylphenyl boronic acid microparticles, poly(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate-vinylphenyl boronic acid [m-poly(EGDMA-VPBA], produced by suspension polymerization, was found to be efficient solid acid catalyst for the esterification of methanol and propionic acid. Characterization techniques such as FT-IR, Elemental analyses, ICP-AES, ESR, SEM and N2 sorption showed that both of Fe3O4 and H2SO4 are bonded to the polymer successfully. Esterification was studied for different molar percentages of H2SO4 at temperature range of 50-70 oC. The apparent activation energy was found to be 27.7 kj.mol-1 for 10% H2SO4 doped m-poly(EGDMA-VPBA. Combining of strong acid H2SO4 with m-poly(EGDMA-VPBA, leads to materials with different functional properties. In addition, H2SO4 species could be introduced into the structure as acid centers, therefore this micro-dimensional catalyst has potential candidate for applications in the catalytic esterifications such as propionic acid with methanol.

  15. Diagnostics of the influence of levitating microparticles on the radiofrequency argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustylnik, Mikhail Y.; Mitic, Slobodan; Klumov, Boris A.; Morfill, Gregor E.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of a levitating cloud of microparticles on the parameters of a radiofrequency (RF) plasma has been studied by means of two experimental techniques. Axial distributions of 1 s excited states of argon were measured by a self-absorption method. A correction of a standard self-absorption method for the extinction of the light by the levitating microparticles is proposed. In addition the electron temperature was estimated using the optical emission spectroscopy. Measurements at the same discharge conditions in a microparticle-free discharge and discharge, containing a cloud of levitating microparticles, revealed the non-local influence of the microparticle cloud on the discharge plasma. The most probable cause of this influence is the disturbance of the ionization balance by the levitating microparticles.

  16. Endothelial cell-derived microparticles induce plasmacytoid dendritic cell maturation: potential implications in inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelot, Fanny; Seillès, Estelle; Biichlé, Sabeha; Berda, Yael; Gaugler, Béatrice; Plumas, Joel; Chaperot, Laurence; Dignat-George, Françoise; Tiberghien, Pierre; Saas, Philippe; Garnache-Ottou, Francine

    2009-11-01

    Increased circulating endothelial microparticles, resulting from vascular endothelium dysfunction, and plasmacytoid dendritic cell activation are both encountered in common inflammatory disorders. The aim of our study was to determine whether interactions between endothelial microparticles and plasmacytoid dendritic cells could contribute to such pathologies. Microparticles generated from endothelial cell lines, platelets or activated T cells were incubated with human plasmacytoid dendritic cells sorted from healthy donor blood or with monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Dendritic cell maturation was evaluated by flow cytometry, cytokine secretion as well as naive T-cell activation and polarization. Labeled microparticles were also used to study cellular interactions. Endothelial microparticles induced plasmacytoid dendritic cell maturation. In contrast, conventional dendritic cells were resistant to endothelial microparticle-induced maturation. In addition to upregulation of co-stimulatory molecules, endothelial microparticle-matured plasmacytoid dendritic cells secreted inflammatory cytokines (interleukins 6 and 8, but no interferon-alpha) and also induced allogeneic naive CD4(+) T cells to proliferate and to produce type 1 cytokines such as interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Endothelial microparticle endocytosis by plasmacytoid dendritic cells appeared to be required for plasmacytoid dendritic cell maturation. Importantly, the ability of endothelial microparticles to induce plasmacytoid dendritic cells to mature was specific as microparticles derived from activated T cells or platelets (the major source of circulating microparticules in healthy subjects) did not induce such plasmacytoid dendritic cell maturation. Our data show that endothelial microparticles specifically induce plasmacytoid dendritic cell maturation and production of inflammatory cytokines. This novel activation pathway may be implicated in various inflammatory disorders and

  17. Microparticles from apoptotic monocytes enhance nitrosative stress in human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastronardi, Maria Letizia; Mostefai, Hadj Ahmed; Soleti, Raffaella; Agouni, Abdelali; Martínez, Maria Carmen; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson

    2011-12-01

    Microparticles are membrane vesicles with procoagulant and proinflammatory properties released during cell activation or apoptosis. Microparticles from monocytes have been implicated in atherosclerosis and vascular inflammation, but their direct effects on endothelial cells are not completely elucidated. The present study was designed to dissect the signaling pathways of monocytic microparticles in endothelial cells with respect to both NO pathway and reactive oxygen species. Microparticles were produced by treatment of human monocytic cell line THP-1 with the apoptotic agent VP-16. Human endothelial cells were treated with monocytic microparticles and then, we studied their effects on nitrosative and oxidative stresses. Incubation of human endothelial cells with microparticles enhanced the production of NO without affecting superoxide anions generation. Microparticles did not affect endothelial NO synthase expression and its phosphorylation. Interestingly, microparticles decreased caveolin-1 expression and increased its phosphorylation. Inhibition of PI-3-kinase or MEK1/2 reversed the effects of microparticles on caveolin-1 expression but not its phosphorylation. Moreover, microparticles increased nitration of several proteins, reflecting peroxynitrite production, which was prevented by blockade of PI-3-kinase pathway. In summary, monocyte microparticles active multiple pathways related to nitrosative stress in endothelial cells including both PI-3-kinase and ERK1/2 in the regulation of caveolin-1 expression. These data underscore the pleiotropic effect of microparticles on endothelial cells and suggest that they probably play a critical role on vascular function. 2010 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology. 2010 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  18. Microfluidic production of perfluorocarbon-alginate core-shell microparticles for ultrasound therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Ana Rita C; Ünal, Barış; Mano, João F; Reis, Rui L; Jensen, Klavs F

    2014-10-21

    The fabrication of micrometer-sized core-shell particles for ultrasound-triggered delivery offers a variety of applications in medical research. In this work, we report the design and development of a glass capillary microfluidic system containing three concentric glass capillary tubes for the development of core-shell particles. The setup enables the preparation of perfluorocarbon-alginate core-shell microspheres in a single process, avoiding the requirement for further extensive purification steps. Core-shell microspheres in the range of 110-130 μm are prepared and are demonstrated to be stable up to 21 days upon immersion in calcium chloride solution or water. The mechanical stability of the particles is tested by injecting them through a 23 gauge needle into a polyacrylamide gel to mimic the tissue matrix. The integrity of the particles is maintained after the injection process and is disrupted after ultrasound exposure for 15 min. The results suggest that the perfluorcarbon-alginate microparticles could be a promising system for the delivery of compounds, such as proteins, peptides, and small-molecule drugs in ultrasound-based therapies.

  19. pH-Sensitive Microparticles with Matrix-Dispersed Active Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyan (Inventor); Buhrow, Jerry W. (Inventor); Jolley, Scott T. (Inventor); Calle, Luz M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Methods to produce pH-sensitive microparticles that have an active agent dispersed in a polymer matrix have certain advantages over microcapsules with an active agent encapsulated in an interior compartment/core inside of a polymer wall. The current invention relates to pH-sensitive microparticles that have a corrosion-detecting or corrosion-inhibiting active agent or active agents dispersed within a polymer matrix of the microparticles. The pH-sensitive microparticles can be used in various coating compositions on metal objects for corrosion detecting and/or inhibiting.

  20. Improved circulating microparticle analysis in acid-citrate dextrose (ACD) anticoagulant tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    György, Bence; Pálóczi, Krisztina; Kovács, Alexandra; Barabás, Eszter; Bekő, Gabriella; Várnai, Katalin; Pállinger, Éva; Szabó-Taylor, Katalin; Szabó, Tamás G; Kiss, Attila A; Falus, András; Buzás, Edit I

    2014-02-01

    Recently extracellular vesicles (exosomes, microparticles also referred to as microvesicles and apoptotic bodies) have attracted substantial interest as potential biomarkers and therapeutic vehicles. However, analysis of microparticles in biological fluids is confounded by many factors such as the activation of cells in the blood collection tube that leads to in vitro vesiculation. In this study we aimed at identifying an anticoagulant that prevents in vitro vesiculation in blood plasma samples. We compared the levels of platelet microparticles and non-platelet-derived microparticles in platelet-free plasma samples of healthy donors. Platelet-free plasma samples were isolated using different anticoagulant tubes, and were analyzed by flow cytometry and Zymuphen assay. The extent of in vitro vesiculation was compared in citrate and acid-citrate-dextrose (ACD) tubes. Agitation and storage of blood samples at 37 °C for 1 hour induced a strong release of both platelet microparticles and non-platelet-derived microparticles. Strikingly, in vitro vesiculation related to blood sample handling and storage was prevented in samples in ACD tubes. Importantly, microparticle levels elevated in vivo remained detectable in ACD tubes. We propose the general use of the ACD tube instead of other conventional anticoagulant tubes for the assessment of plasma microparticles since it gives a more realistic picture of the in vivo levels of circulating microparticles and does not interfere with downstream protein or RNA analyses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Counter-Propagating Optical Trapping System for Size and Refractive Index Measurement of Microparticles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flynn, Richard A; Shao, Bing; Chachisvilis, Mirianas; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Esener, Sadik C

    2005-01-01

    .... Different from the current best technique for microparticles refractive index measurement, refractometry, a bulk technique requiring changing the fluid composition of the sample, our optical trap...

  2. Synovial microparticles from arthritic patients modulate chemokine and cytokine release by synoviocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berckmans, René J; Nieuwland, Rienk; Kraan, Maarten C; Schaap, Marianne C L; Pots, Desirée; Smeets, Tom J M; Sturk, Augueste; Tak, Paul P

    2005-01-01

    Synovial fluid from patients with various arthritides contains procoagulant, cell-derived microparticles. Here we studied whether synovial microparticles modulate the release of chemokines and cytokines by fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). Microparticles, isolated from the synovial fluid of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and arthritis control (AC) patients (n = 8 and n = 3, respectively), were identified and quantified by flow cytometry. Simultaneously, arthroscopically guided synovial biopsies were taken from the same knee joint as the synovial fluid. FLS were isolated, cultured, and incubated for 24 hours in the absence or presence of autologous microparticles. Subsequently, cell-free culture supernatants were collected and concentrations of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), IL-6, IL-8, granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were determined. Results were consistent with previous observations: synovial fluid from all RA as well as AC patients contained microparticles of monocytic and granulocytic origin. Incubation with autologous microparticles increased the levels of MCP-1, IL-8 and RANTES in 6 of 11 cultures of FLS, and IL-6, ICAM-1 and VEGF in 10 cultures. Total numbers of microparticles were correlated with the IL-8 (r = 0.91, P derived microparticles (r = 0.89, P microparticles might modulate the release of chemokines and cytokines by FLS and might therefore have a function in synovial inflammation and angiogenesis.

  3. Synovial microparticles from arthritic patients modulate chemokine and cytokine release by synoviocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berckmans, René J; Nieuwland, Rienk; Kraan, Maarten C; Schaap, Marianne CL; Pots, Desirée; Smeets, Tom JM; Sturk, Augueste; Tak, Paul P

    2005-01-01

    Synovial fluid from patients with various arthritides contains procoagulant, cell-derived microparticles. Here we studied whether synovial microparticles modulate the release of chemokines and cytokines by fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). Microparticles, isolated from the synovial fluid of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and arthritis control (AC) patients (n = 8 and n = 3, respectively), were identified and quantified by flow cytometry. Simultaneously, arthroscopically guided synovial biopsies were taken from the same knee joint as the synovial fluid. FLS were isolated, cultured, and incubated for 24 hours in the absence or presence of autologous microparticles. Subsequently, cell-free culture supernatants were collected and concentrations of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), IL-6, IL-8, granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were determined. Results were consistent with previous observations: synovial fluid from all RA as well as AC patients contained microparticles of monocytic and granulocytic origin. Incubation with autologous microparticles increased the levels of MCP-1, IL-8 and RANTES in 6 of 11 cultures of FLS, and IL-6, ICAM-1 and VEGF in 10 cultures. Total numbers of microparticles were correlated with the IL-8 (r = 0.91, P derived microparticles (r = 0.89, P microparticles might modulate the release of chemokines and cytokines by FLS and might therefore have a function in synovial inflammation and angiogenesis. PMID:15899040

  4. Microparticle, Conductivity, and Density Measurements from the WAIS Divide Deep Ice Core, Antarctica, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes microparticle concentration, electrical conductivity, and density measurements from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide deep ice core,...

  5. Milled non-mulberry silk fibroin microparticles as biomaterial for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Nandana; Rajkhowa, Rangam; Wang, Xungai; Devi, Dipali

    2015-11-01

    Silk fibroin has been widely employed in various forms as biomaterials for biomedical applications due to its superb biocompatibility and tunable degradation and mechanical properties. Herein, silk fibroin microparticles of non-mulberry silkworm species (Antheraea assamensis, Antheraea mylitta and Philosamia ricini) were fabricated via a top-down approach using a combination of wet-milling and spray drying techniques. Microparticles of mulberry silkworm (Bombyx mori) were also utilized for comparative studies. The fabricated microparticles were physico-chemically characterized for size, stability, morphology, chemical composition and thermal properties. The silk fibroin microparticles of all species were porous (∼5μm in size) and showed nearly spherical morphology with rough surface as revealed from dynamic light scattering and microscopic studies. Non-mulberry silk microparticles maintained the typical silk-II structure with β-sheet secondary conformation with higher thermal stability. Additionally, non-mulberry silk fibroin microparticles supported enhanced cell adhesion, spreading and viability of mouse fibroblasts than mulberry silk fibroin microparticles (pcytotoxicity studies. Furthermore, in vitro drug release from the microparticles showed a significantly sustained release over 3 weeks. Taken together, this study demonstrates promising attributes of non-mulberry silk fibroin microparticles as a potential drug delivery vehicle/micro carrier for diverse biomedical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Encapsulation of antigen-loaded silica nanoparticles into microparticles for intradermal powder injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yibin; Mathaes, Roman; Winter, Gerhard; Engert, Julia

    2014-10-15

    Epidermal powder immunisation (EPI) is being investigated as a promising needle-free delivery methods for vaccination. The objective of this work was to prepare a nanoparticles-in-microparticles (nano-in-micro) system, integrating the advantages of nanoparticles and microparticles into one vaccine delivery system for epidermal powder immunisation. Cationic mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNP-NH2) were prepared and loaded with ovalbumin as a model antigen. Loading was driven by electrostatic interactions. Ovalbumin-loaded silica nanoparticles were subsequently formulated into sugar-based microparticles by spray-freeze-drying. The obtained microparticles meet the size requirement for EPI. Confocal microscopy was used to demonstrate that the nanoparticles are homogeneously distributed in the microparticles. Furthermore, the silica nanoparticles in the dry microparticles can be re-dispersed in aqueous solution showing no aggregation. The recovered ovalbumin shows integrity compared to native ovalbumin. The present nano-in-micro system allows (1) nanoparticles to be immobilized and finely distributed in microparticles, (2) microparticle formation and (3) re-dispersion of nanoparticles without subsequent aggregation. The nanoparticles inside microparticles can (1) adsorb proteins to cationic shell/surface voids in spray-dried products without detriment to ovalbumin stability, (2) deliver antigens in nano-sized modes to allow recognition by the immune system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Fatty acids profile of chia oil-loaded lipid microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Encapsulation of poly-unsaturated fatty acid (PUFAis an alternative to increase its stability during processing and storage. Chia (Salvia hispanica L. oil is a reliable source of both omega-3 and omega-6 and its encapsulation must be better evaluated as an effort to increase the number of foodstuffs containing PUFAs to consumers. In this work chia oil was extracted and encapsulated in stearic acid microparticles by the hot homogenization technique. UV-Vis spectroscopy coupled with Multivariate Curve Resolution with Alternating Least-Squares methodology demonstrated that no oil degradation or tocopherol loss occurred during heating. After lyophilization, the fatty acids profile of the oil-loaded microparticles was determined by gas chromatography and compared to in natura oil. Both omega-3 and omega-6 were effectively encapsulated, keeping the same omega-3:omega-6 ratio presented in the in natura oil. Calorimetric analysis confirmed that encapsulation improved the thermal stability of the chia oil.

  8. Microparticles based on natural and synthetic polymers for ophthalmic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tataru, G; Popa, M; Costin, D; Desbrieres, J

    2012-05-01

    Sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose/poly(vinyl alcohol) particles suitable for application in ocular drug administration were prepared by crosslinking with epichlorohydrin in an alkaline medium, in reverse emulsion. The influence of parameters related with the particles elaboration process (ratio between polymer mixture and crosslinking agent, concentration of polymer solution, duration of crosslinking reaction, stirring intensity, etc.) based on their composition, size, and swelling ability was studied. Obtained microparticles fulfill the requirements for biomaterials-they are formed from biocompatible polymers; the acute toxicity value (LD(50)) is high enough to consider these materials as weakly toxic (hence able to introduce within the organism); they are able to include and release drugs in a controlled way. The in vivo adrenalin ocular delivery from the microparticles was tested on voluntary human patient. The particles showed good adhesion properties without irritation to the patient and proved the capability to treat the ocular congestion. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Foam injection molding of elastomers with iron microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Valentina; D'Auria, Marco; Sorrentino, Luigi; Davino, Daniele; Pantani, Roberto

    2015-12-01

    In this work, a preliminary study of foam injection molding of a thermoplastic elastomer, Engage 8445, and its microcomposite loaded with iron particles was carried out, in order to evaluate the effect of the iron microparticles on the foaming process. In particular, reinforced samples have been prepared by using nanoparticles at 2% by volume. Nitrogen has been used as physical blowing agent. Foamed specimens consisting of neat and filled elastomer were characterized by density measurements and morphological analysis. While neat Engage has shown a well developed cellular morphology far from the injection point, the addition of iron microparticles considerably increased the homogeneity of the cellular morphology. Engage/iron foamed samples exhibited a reduction in density greater than 32%, with a good and homogeneous cellular morphology, both in the transition and in the core zones, starting from small distances from the injection point.

  10. Evaluation of polar lipid-hydrophilic polymer microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, Marja; Herder, Jenny; Khoo, Cynthia; Lövqvist, Karin; Dahlqvist, Carina; Glad, Håkan; Juppo, Anne Mari

    2003-08-27

    The aim of the present study was to prepare controlled-release tablets of poorly-soluble drug, felodipine. Spray chilling was used to formulate the drug, the polar lipids and the hydrophilic polymers into solid dispersion microparticles, which were then compressed. The microparticles were characterised by Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopies, X-ray powder diffraction, hot-stage microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and image analysis. The crystallinity of felodipine had decreased in all the samples, and the amount of crystalline felodipine varied depending on the composition of the solid dispersion. The particles were spherical with the median particle diameter ranging from 20 to 35 microm. The addition of hydrophilic polymer into the matrix widened the particle size distribution and increased the amount of agglomerates. Most promising dissolution patterns were obtained from tablets containing glycerides; e.g. from Precirol ATO 5/Pluronic F127 tablets the release was of zero order.

  11. Incorporation of iodine in polymeric microparticles and emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolontaeva, Olga A.; Khokhlova, Anastasia R.; Markina, Natalia E.; Markin, Alexey V.; Burmistrova, Natalia A.

    2016-04-01

    Application of different methods for formation of microcontainers containing iodine is proposed in this paper. Two types of microcontainers: microemulsions and microparticles have been investigated, conditions and methods for obtaining microcontainers were optimized. Microparticles were formed by layer-by-layer method with cores of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as templates. Incorporation of complexes of iodine with polymers (chitosan, starch, polyvinyl alcohol) into core, shell and hollow capsules was investigated and loadings of microparticles with iodine were estimated. It was found that the complex of iodine with chitosan adsorbed at CaCO3 core is the most stable under physiological conditions and its value of loading can be 450 μg of I2 per 1 g of CaCO3. Moreover, chitosan was chosen as a ligand because of its biocompatibility and biodegradability as well as very low toxicity while its complex with iodine is very stable. A small amount of microparticles containing a iodine-chitosan complex can be used for prolonged release of iodine in the human body since iodine daily intake for adults is around 100 μg. "Oil-in-water" emulsions were prepared by ultrasonication of iodinated oils (sunflower and linseed) with sodium laurilsulfate (SLS) as surfactant solution. At optimal conditions, the homogenous emulsions remained stable for weeks, with total content of iodine in such emulsion being up to 1% (w/w). The oil:SLS ratio was equal to 1:10 (w/w), optimal duration and power of ultrasound exposure were 1.5 min and 7 W, correspondingly. Favorable application of iodized linseed oil for emulsion preparation with suitable oil microdroplets size was proved.

  12. Moldless PEGDA-Based Optoelectrofluidic Platform for Microparticle Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Mo Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an optoelectrofluidic platform which consists of the organic photoconductive material, titanium oxide phthalocyanine (TiOPc, and the photocrosslinkable polymer, poly (ethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA. TiOPc simplifies the fabrication process of the optoelectronic chip due to requiring only a single spin-coating step. PEGDA is applied to embed the moldless PEGDA-based microchannel between the top ITO glass and the bottom TiOPc substrate. A real-time control interface via a touch panel screen is utilized to select the target 15 μm polystyrene particles. When the microparticles flow to an illuminating light bar, which is oblique to the microfluidic flow path, the lateral driving force diverts the microparticles. Two light patterns, the switching oblique light bar and the optoelectronic ladder phenomenon, are designed to demonstrate the features. This work integrating the new material design, TiOPc and PEGDA, and the ability of mobile microparticle manipulation demonstrates the potential of optoelectronic approach.

  13. Study of Formulation Variables Influencing Polymeric Microparticles by Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra B. Naik

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to prepare diclofenac sodium loaded microparticles by single emulsion [oil-in-water (o/w] solvent evaporation method. The 22 experimental design methodology was used to evaluate the effect of two formulation variables on microspheres properties using the Design-Expert® software and evaluated for their particle size, morphology, and encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release. The graphical and mathematical analysis of the design showed that the independent variables were a significant effect on the encapsulation efficiency and drug release of microparticles. The low magnitudes of error and significant values of R2 prove the high prognostic ability of the design. The microspheres showed high encapsulation efficiency with an increase in the amount of polymer and decrease in the amount of PVA in the formulation. The particles were found to be spherical with smooth surface. Prolonged drug release and enhancement of encapsulation efficiency of polymeric microparticles can be successfully obtained with an application of experimental design technique.

  14. Periodic mesoporous silica gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.T.; Martin, J.E.; Odinek, J.G. [and others

    1996-06-01

    We have synthesized monolithic particulate gels of periodic mesoporous silica by adding tetramethoxysilane to a homogeneous alkaline micellar precursor solution. The gels exhibit 5 characteristic length scales over 4 orders of magnitude: fractal domains larger than the particle size (>500 nm), particles that are {approximately}150 to 500 nm in diameter, interparticle pores that are on the order of the particle size, a feature in the gas adsorption measurements that indicates pores {approximately}10-50 nm, and periodic hexagonal arrays of {approximately}3 nm channels within each particle. The wet gel monoliths exhibit calculated densities as low as {approximately}0.02 g/cc; the dried and calcined gels have bulk densities that range from {approximately}0.3-0.5 g/cc. The materials possess large interparticle ({approximately}1.0-2.3 cc/g) and intraparticle ({approximately}0.6 cc/g) porosities.

  15. Gel purification of RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Timothy W

    2013-02-01

    For many applications, including size selection of RNAs and purification of in vitro transcription products, it is necessary to purify RNAs on a denaturing gel. This procedure describes how to purify transcripts that have been synthesized in vitro. It is useful for labeled or unlabeled RNAs when sufficient mass is present. It can also be used to isolate small RNAs. In general, RNA purification by denaturing gel electrophoresis is practical only when the size of the desired RNA is 600 nucleotides or less.

  16. Conformance Improvement Using Gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seright, Randall S.; Schrader, Richard; II Hagstrom, John; Wang, Ying; Al-Dahfeeri, Abdullah; Gary, Raven; Marin; Amaury; Lindquist, Brent

    2002-09-26

    This research project had two objectives. The first objective was to identify gel compositions and conditions that substantially reduce flow through fractures that allow direct channeling between wells, while leaving secondary fractures open so that high fluid injection and production rates can be maintained. The second objective was to optimize treatments in fractured production wells, where the gel must reduce permeability to water much more than that to oil.

  17. Carbon nanofiber vs. carbon microparticles as modifiers of glassy carbon and gold electrodes applied in electrochemical sensing of NADH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Briza; Del Valle, Manel; Alegret, Salvador; Merkoçi, Arben

    2007-12-15

    Carbon materials (CMs), such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and carbon microparticles (CMPs) are used as doping materials for electrochemical sensors. The efficiency of these materials (either before or after acidic treatments) while being used as electrocatalysts in electrochemical sensors is discussed for beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) detection using cyclic voltammetry (CV). The sensitivity of the electrodes (glassy carbon (GC) and gold (Au)) modified with both treated and untreated materials have been deeply studied. The response efficiencies of the GC and Au electrodes modified with CNF and CMP, using dimethylformamide (DMF) as dispersing agent are significantly different due to the peculiar physical and chemical characteristics of each doping material. Several differences between the electrocatalytic activities of CMs modified electrodes upon NADH oxidation have been observed. The CNF film promotes better the electron transfer of NADH minimizing the oxidation potential at +0.352 V. Moreover higher currents for the NADH oxidation peak have been observed for these electrodes. The shown differences in the electrochemical reactivities of CNF and CMP modified electrodes should be with interest for future applications in biosensors.

  18. Synthesis of Doped and non-Doped Nano MgO Ceramic Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiraz Labib

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Doped and non-doped MgO coated thin films on alumina substrates were prepared using a chelating sol-gel method under controlled conditions to prepare nanomaterials with unprecedented properties. The effect of doping of ZnO on thermal, surface and structural properties was investigated using DTA-TG, BET and XRD respectively. Also microstructural studies and coating thickness measurements of MgO thin film were conducted using SEM. An increase in the thermal stability of MgO with increasing ZnO doping percent was observed. The increase of ZnO doping percent showed a marked decrease in the average particle size of MgO powder as a result of the replacement of some Mg2+ by Zn2+ which has similar ionic radius as Mg2+. This decrease in particle size of MgO was also related to the decrease of the degree of MgO crystalinity. The increase of ZnO doping also showed a marked decrease in coating thickness values of the prepared membranes. This decrease was related to the  mechanism of ZnO doping into a MgO crystal lattice.

  19. Luminescence and laser performances of coumarin dyes doped in ORMOSILs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yu; Qian Guodong; Su Deliang; Wang Zhiyu; Wang Minquan

    2005-01-01

    Laser dyes such as coumarin 440 (C440) and coumarin 500 (C500) were doped into vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES)-derived organically modified silicates (ORMOSILs) by sol-gel process. The fluorescence properties of these two dyes doped in VTES-derived ORMOSILs with various initial dye concentrations were studied. A longitudinal pumped solid-state dye laser was established with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser source. The laser performances of C440 and C500 dyes doped in VTES-derived ORMOSILs were also measured

  20. Microparticle counts in platelet-rich and platelet-free plasma, effect of centrifugation and sample-processing protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Wayne L

    2013-03-01

    This study provides the first estimates of microparticle numbers in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) from normal individuals, closer to in-vivo levels, using higher-resolution flow cytometry. We measured platelet (CD41+) and annexin V+ microparticles in fresh and frozen aliquots of PRP, platelet-poor plasma, platelet-free plasma (PFP), and microparticles isolated by high-speed centrifugation. PRP from healthy individuals contained 730,000/μl total microparticles based on light-scattering measurements. A median of 27,000/μl microparticles in PRP were of platelet origin and 120,000/μl annexin V+, and of these, 24,000/μl were dual-positive procoagulant platelet microparticles. Double centrifugation of PRP removed 99% of platelets, but also 80% of annexin V+ CD41+, 93% of annexin V+ CD41-, and 58% of annexin V- CD41+ microparticles. Loss of microparticles with centrifugation varied from individual to individual. Microparticle counts after isolation by centrifugation and double washing were not significantly different than counts in the original PFP sample, but lower than in PRP. Freeze-thawing of PFP had no effect on platelet microparticle counts, but slightly increased annexin V+, CD41- counts. Freeze-thawing of isolated washed microparticles resulted in a 30-50% increase in annexin V+ microparticles. PRP contains large numbers of cellular microparticles, including platelet and annexin V+ microparticles, which are lost to varying degrees when PRP is double centrifuged to remove platelets. Microparticles remaining in PFP can be recovered by high-speed centrifugation without loss compared to the original PFP sample. Freeze-thawing has variable effects on microparticle counts depending on the sample preparation used.

  1. Evaluating tamsulosin hydrochloride-released microparticles prepared using single-step matrix coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Atsushi; Shinoda, Tatsuki; Ito, Naoki; Baba, Keizo; Oku, Naoto; Mizumoto, Takao

    2011-04-15

    The objective of the present study was to determine the optimum composition for sustained-release of tamsulosin hydrochloride from microparticles intended for orally disintegrating tablets. Microparticles were prepared from an aqueous ethylcellulose dispersion (Aquacoa®), and an aqueous copolymer based on ethyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate dispersion (Eudragit®) NE30D), with microcrystalline cellulose as core particles with a fluidized bed coating process. Prepared microparticles were about 200 μm diameter and spherical. The microparticles were evaluated for in vitro drug release and in vivo absorption to assess bioequivalence in a commercial product, Harnal® pellets. The optimum ratio of Aquacoat® and Eudragit® NE30D in the matrix was 9:1. We observed similar drug release profiles in microparticles and Harnal® pellets. Higuchi model analysis of the in vitro drug release from microparticles was linear up to 80% release, typical of Fickian diffusion sustained-release profile. The in vivo absorption properties from microparticles were comparable to Harnal® pellets, and there was a linear relationship between in vitro drug release and in vivo drug release. In conclusion, this development produces microparticles in single-step coating, that provided a sustained-release of tamsulosin hydrochloride comparable to Harnal® pellets. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection of circulating microparticles by flow cytometry: influence of centrifugation, filtration of buffer, and freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey-Hazra, Emily; Hertel, Barbara; Kirsch, Torsten; Woywodt, Alexander; Lovric, Svjetlana; Haller, Hermann; Haubitz, Marion; Erdbruegger, Uta

    2010-12-06

    The clinical importance of microparticles resulting from vesiculation of platelets and other blood cells is increasingly recognized, although no standardized method exists for their measurement. Only a few studies have examined the analytical and preanalytical steps and variables affecting microparticle detection. We focused our analysis on microparticle detection by flow cytometry. The goal of our study was to analyze the effects of different centrifugation protocols looking at different durations of high and low centrifugation speeds. We also analyzed the effect of filtration of buffer and long-term freezing on microparticle quantification, as well as the role of Annexin V in the detection of microparticles. Absolute and platelet-derived microparticles were 10- to 15-fold higher using initial lower centrifugation speeds at 1500 × g compared with protocols using centrifugation speeds at 5000 × g (P centrifugation speeds. Filtration of buffer with a 0.2 μm filter reduced a significant amount of background noise. Storing samples for microparticle detection at -80°C decreased microparticle levels at days 28, 42, and 56 (P centrifugation speeds should be used to minimize contamination by smaller size platelets.

  3. Analysis of Cell-Derived Microparticles with Highly Precise Nanotechnological Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherré, Solène; Østergaard, Ole; Heegaard, Niels H.H.

    2014-01-01

    . However, new analysis methods are required to correctly and reliably investigate these small biological particles (between 50 and 1000 nm). In this work, we aimed at developing an in vitro population of cell-derived microparticles from endothelial cells. The size of the microparticles was analysed...

  4. Effect of Formulation and Process Parameters on Chitosan Microparticles Prepared by an Emulsion Crosslinking Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Lidia B; Avalos, Abraham; Chiaia, Nicholas; Nadarajah, Arunan

    2017-05-01

    There are many studies about the synthesis of chitosan microparticles; however, most of them have very low production rate, have wide size distribution, are difficult to reproduce, and use harsh crosslinking agents. Uniform microparticles are necessary to obtain repeatable drug release behavior. The main focus of this investigation was to study the effect of the process and formulation parameters during the preparation of chitosan microparticles in order to produce particles with narrow size distribution. The technique evaluated during this study was emulsion crosslinking technique. Chitosan is a biocompatible and biodegradable material but lacks good mechanical properties; for that reason, chitosan was ionically crosslinked with sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) at three different ratios (32, 64, and 100%). The model drug used was acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). During the preparation of the microparticles, chitosan was first mixed with ASA and then dispersed in oil containing an emulsifier. The evaporation of the solvents hardened the hydrophilic droplets forming microparticles with spherical shape. The process and formulation parameters were varied, and the microparticles were characterized by their morphology, particle size, drug loading efficiency, and drug release behavior. The higher drug loading efficiency was achieved by using 32% mass ratio of TPP to chitosan. The average microparticle size was 18.7 μm. The optimum formulation conditions to prepare uniform spherical microparticles were determined and represented by a region in a triangular phase diagram. The drug release analyses were evaluated in phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.4 and were mainly completed at 24 h.

  5. Nicotine-magnesium aluminum silicate microparticle surface modified with chitosan for mucosal delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanjanakawinkul, Watchara; Rades, Thomas; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium aluminum silicate (MAS), a negatively charged clay, and nicotine (NCT), a basic drug, can interact electrostatically to form microparticles. Chitosan (CS) was used for the surface modification of the microparticles, and a lyophilization method was used to preserve the original particle...

  6. Detection of circulating microparticles by flow cytometry: influence of centrifugation, filtration of buffer, and freezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey-Hazra, Emily; Hertel, Barbara; Kirsch, Torsten; Woywodt, Alexander; Lovric, Svjetlana; Haller, Hermann; Haubitz, Marion; Erdbruegger, Uta

    2010-01-01

    The clinical importance of microparticles resulting from vesiculation of platelets and other blood cells is increasingly recognized, although no standardized method exists for their measurement. Only a few studies have examined the analytical and preanalytical steps and variables affecting microparticle detection. We focused our analysis on microparticle detection by flow cytometry. The goal of our study was to analyze the effects of different centrifugation protocols looking at different durations of high and low centrifugation speeds. We also analyzed the effect of filtration of buffer and long-term freezing on microparticle quantification, as well as the role of Annexin V in the detection of microparticles. Absolute and platelet-derived microparticles were 10- to 15-fold higher using initial lower centrifugation speeds at 1500 × g compared with protocols using centrifugation speeds at 5000 × g (P centrifugation speeds. Filtration of buffer with a 0.2 μm filter reduced a significant amount of background noise. Storing samples for microparticle detection at −80°C decreased microparticle levels at days 28, 42, and 56 (P centrifugation speeds should be used to minimize contamination by smaller size platelets. PMID:21191433

  7. Micro-particle filter made in SU-8 for biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noeth, Nadine-Nicole; Keller, Stephan Urs; Fetz, Stefanie

    2009-01-01

    We have integrated a micro-particle filter in a polymer cantilever to filter micro-particles from a fluid while simultaneously measuring the amount of filtered particles. In a 3,8 mum thick SU-8 cantilever a filter was integrated with pore sizes between 3 and 30 mum. The chip was inserted in a mi...

  8. The role of microparticles in inflammation and transfusion: A concise review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cognasse, Fabrice; Hamzeh-Cognasse, Hind; Laradi, Sandrine; Chou, Ming-Li; Seghatchian, Jerard; Burnouf, Thierry; Boulanger, Chantal; Garraud, Olivier; Amabile, Nicolas

    2015-10-01

    Microparticles are small membrane-bound vesicles found in body fluids including peripheral blood. Microparticles are an intrinsic part of blood labile products delivered to transfused patients and have active roles in inflammation. They are delimited by a lipid bilayer composed mainly of phospholipids, cholesterol, membrane-associated proteins, intracellular components such as metabolic enzymes, proteins-involved in adhesion and fusion, cytoskeletal-associated proteins, surface glycoproteins and/or chemokines. Microparticles can trigger a pro-inflammatory message to neighbouring or target cells. Microparticles originating from platelets, leukocytes, erythrocytes, and endothelial cells are associated with a variety of pathophysiological conditions. This review summarises the role of Microparticles in modulating inflammation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Enhancing the Microparticle Deposition Stability and Homogeneity on Planer for Synthesis of Self-Assembly Monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, An-Ci; Han, Chi-Jui; Kuo, Tsung-Cheng; Cheng, Yun-Chien

    2018-03-14

    The deposition stability and homogeneity of microparticles improved with mask, lengthened nozzle and flow rate adjustment. The microparticles can be used to encapsulate monomers, before the monomers in the microparticles can be deposited onto a substrate for nanoscale self-assembly. For the uniformity of the synthesized nanofilm, the homogeneity of the deposited microparticles becomes an important issue. Based on the ANSYS simulation results, the effects of secondary flow were minimized with a lengthened nozzle. The ANSYS simulation was also used to investigate the ring-vortex generation and why the ring vortex can be eliminated by adding a mask with an aperture between the nozzle and deposition substrate. The experimental results also showed that particle deposition with a lengthened nozzle was more stable, while adding the mask stabilized deposition and diminished the ring-vortex contamination. The effects of flow rate and pressure were also investigated. Hence, the deposition stability and homogeneity of microparticles was improved.

  10. Galectin-3 binding protein links circulating microparticles with electron dense glomerular deposits in lupus nephritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C T; Østergaard, O; Rekvig, O P

    2015-01-01

    , explore putative clinical correlates, and examine if G3BP is present in immune complex deposits in kidney biopsies from patients with lupus nephritis. METHODS: Numbers of annexin V-binding and G3BP-exposing plasma microparticles from 56 SLE patients and 36 healthy controls were determined by flow...... in kidney biopsies from one non-SLE control and from patients with class IV (n = 2) and class V (n = 1) lupus nephritis using co-localization immune electron microscopy. RESULTS: Microparticle-G3BP, microparticle-C1q and microparticle-immunoglobulins were significantly (P ... activity were found. Immune electron microscopy showed co-localization of G3BP with in vivo-bound IgG in glomerular electron dense immune complex deposits in all lupus nephritis biopsies. CONCLUSIONS: Both circulating microparticle-G3BP numbers as well as G3BP expression are increased in SLE patients...

  11. Microparticles Engineered to Highly Express Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ Decreased Inflammatory Mediator Production and Increased Adhesion of Recipient Monocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Sahler, Julie; Woeller, Collynn F.; Phipps, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    Circulating blood microparticles are submicron vesicles released primarily by megakaryocytes and platelets that act as transcellular communicators. Inflammatory conditions exhibit elevated blood microparticle numbers compared to healthy conditions. Direct functional consequences of microparticle composition, especially internal composition, on recipient cells are poorly understood. Our objective was to evaluate if microparticle composition could impact the function of recipient cells, particu...

  12. Active Polymer Gel Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Hashimoto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many kinds of stimuli-responsive polymer and gels have been developed and applied to biomimetic actuators or artificial muscles. Electroactive polymers that change shape when stimulated electrically seem to be particularly promising. In all cases, however, the mechanical motion is driven by external stimuli, for example, reversing the direction of electric field. On the other hand, many living organisms can generate an autonomous motion without external driving stimuli like self-beating of heart muscles. Here we show a novel biomimetic gel actuator that can walk spontaneously with a wormlike motion without switching of external stimuli. The self-oscillating motion is produced by dissipating chemical energy of oscillating reaction. Although the gel is completely composed of synthetic polymer, it shows autonomous motion as if it were alive.

  13. Influence of peripheral blood microparticles of pregnant women with preeclampsia on the phenotype of monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Dmitriy I; Ovchinnikova, Olga M; Korenkov, Daniil A; Viknyanschuk, Alice N; Benken, Konstantin A; Onokhin, Kirril V; Selkov, Sergey A

    2016-04-01

    Platelet- and endothelial-derived microparticles influence the phenotype of peripheral blood leukocytes and induce production of proinflammatory cytokines. The influence of blood plasma microparticles of pregnant women on the surface receptor expression on intact or activated monocytes is still unexplored. This study was carried out to test the hypothesis that peripheral blood microparticles of women with normal pregnancy and women with preeclampsia have different influence on the expression of surface molecules on monocytes. The objective of the study was to evaluate the influence of blood plasma microparticles of pregnant women on the phenotypic properties of intact and activated THP-1 monocytes. Microparticles were isolated from peripheral blood samples of nonpregnant women, healthy pregnant women, and women with preeclampsia. THP-1 cell line was used as a model of monocytes. Microparticles of nonpregnant women decreased CD18, CD49d, and CD54 expressions and increased CD11c, CD31, CD47, and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 expressions. Microparticles of healthy pregnant women increased CD18, CD54, and integrin β7 expressions and decreased CD11a and CD29 expressions. Microparticles of women with preeclampsia decreased CD18 expression on tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)-activated ТНР-1 cells. Microparticles of nonpregnant women, women with normal pregnancy, and pregnant women with preeclampsia decreased CD181 expression on intact and TNF-α-activated THP-1 cells. Therefore, blood plasma microparticles of women with normal pregnancy and women with preeclampsia have different influences on the expression of surface molecules on THP-1 monocytes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Increased serum concentration of immune cell derived microparticles in polymyositis/dermatomyositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baka, Zsuzsanna; Senolt, Ladislav; Vencovsky, Jiri; Mann, Herman; Simon, Piroska Sebestyén; Kittel, Agnes; Buzás, Edit; Nagy, György

    2010-02-16

    Microparticles are recently recognized players of intercellular communication. They are involved in signal transduction, cell activation and apoptosis. Their importance is also suggested in autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic sclerosis. We investigated the role of microparticles in polymyositis/dermatomyositis, a group of rare autoimmune diseases, characterized by specific skin lesions and muscle weakness. The plasma concentration of monocyte and lymphocyte derived microparticles of 20 patients with polymyositis/dermatomyositis and 20 healthy controls were determined by flow cytometry. The structure of microparticles was visualized by electron microscopy. Significantly elevated numbers of monocyte (CD14 positive), T-lymphocyte (CD3 positive) and B-lymphocyte (CD19 positive) derived microparticles were found in the plasma samples of polymyositis/dermatomyositis patients, compared to healthy controls (p=0.001, 0.01 and 0.006, respectively). Furthermore, the plasma levels of monocyte and B-lymphocyte derived microparticles correlated with the manual muscle strength test (r=0.497, p=0.027; r=0.508, p=0.023; respectively). Patients with anti-Jo-1 antibody and lung involvement had significantly higher numbers of T- and B-lymphocyte and monocyte derived MPs (p=0.006, 0.012 and 0.007, respectively, for anti-Jo-1; p=0.013, 0.016 and 0.025, respectively, for lung involvement). After ultracentrifugation, CK activity could be detected only in traces in the resuspended pellet containing microparticles of healthy and diseased individuals. The electron microscopy revealed slightly different microparticles in the samples of patients with polymyositis/dermatomyositis. These results suggest that immune cell derived microparticles may contribute to the inflammatory process in polymyositis/dermatomyositis, however, CK-positive, possibly muscle derived microparticles do not seem to be present in the blood of patients with polymyositis

  15. Clinical significance of circulating blood and endothelial cell microparticles in sickle-cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasar, Mutlu; Boğa, Can; Yeral, Mahmut; Asma, Suheyl; Kozanoglu, Ilknur; Ozdogu, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    Increased thrombocyte activation leads to a higher likelihood of coagulation in sickle-cell disease. On the other hand, chronic inflammation and endothelial cell activation promote vaso-occlusion. The effect of circulating microparticles derived from erythrocytes, monocytes, thrombocytes, and endothelial cells on the vaso-occlusive process is unclear. This study aims to analyze the relationship between sickle-cell disease and miscellaneous organ complications by defining the circulating microparticles during the steady-state and painful crisis periods in 45 patients with sickle-cell disease. Microparticle analysis was conducted using an eight-parameter flow cytometric method, using CD61 PERCP, CD142PE, CD106 FITC, CD14 APC-H7, CD235a FITC, and Annexin-V APC monoclonal antibodies. Microparticle levels of sickle-cell patients were found to be significantly higher during both painful crisis and steady-state situations compared with the control group (for all, p microparticles, levels of erythrocyte microparticles (eMPs) were significantly higher during crisis than in the steady-state period (eMP steady state vs. painful crisis: 7.59 ± 12.24 vs. 7.59 ± 12.24, respectively; p Microparticles, including eMPs, were not affected by hydroxyurea treatment. Their level did not reflect the high frequency of crisis (>3 times/year). Thrombocyte microparticle levels were found to be higher in patients with nephropathia than in those without (48.05 ± 40.23 vs. 7.67 ± 6.75, respectively; p microparticles seem to be involved in the pathogenesis of sickle-cell disease. eMPs may help with the management of crisis. Thrombocyte microparticles might predict renal damage induced by vaso-occlusion.

  16. Use of immuno-magnetic beads for direct capture of nanosized microparticles from plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuana, Yuana; Osanto, Susanne; Bertina, Rogier M

    2012-04-01

    Increased microparticle tissue factor (TF) activity is not only found in cancer patients, but also in patients with cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. Methods such as flow cytometry and impedance-based flow cytometry allow the analysis of microparticle subsets but provide no insight on which microparticles carry active TF. Conversely, the microparticle-TF activity itself does not reveal the cellular origin of the microparticles carrying the active TF.For this reason, we developed an immuno-magnetic bead method to capture subsets of microparticles directly from plasma. The method was optimized for capture of platelet-derived microparticles (PMPs) from plasma. Only 100 μl platelet-poor plasma (PPP) was needed in combination with 135 μl (27 μg) of biotinylated antihuman CD41 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) and 200 μl of streptavidin beads to achieve complete separation of PMPs from plasma. As a control, biotinylated mouse IgG1 isotype control MoAb was used instead of the anti-CD41 MoAb. Using biotinylated anti-CD14 MoAb, CD14-positive microparticles were captured from normal plasma spiked with microparticles isolated from the supernatant of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated monocytes (MoMPs). TF activity was found both in the positive (selected) and negative (depleted) fractions indicating that both CD14-positive and negative MoMPs carry active TF. We propose that this method can be used in the future to investigate the source of microparticles carrying active TF in plasma of patients with cancer and other diseases.

  17. Fabrication and Antibacterial Performance of Nano-silver-Doped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Fabrication and Antibacterial Performance of. Nano-silver-Doped Monoliths by the Sol-Gel Method. Taymaz Tabaria,*, Davood Beiknejadb, Haman Tavakkolic, Mohammad Habibi Jouibaria,. Ramin Zafar Mehrabiana and Mohammad Javad Chaichib. aDepartment of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Gorgan Branch, Islamic ...

  18. 3D MR gel dosimetry with lung equivalent gel; 3D MR-Gel-Dosimetrie mit lungenaequivalentem Gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, J.; Solleder, M.; Schiessl, I.; Bogner, L.; Herbst, M. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Regensburg Univ. (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The MR gel dosimetry is used to verify complex 3D treatment plans. Till now this method served only for dose evaluation in homogeneous phantoms. On the way to build a heterogeneous anthropomorphic gel phantom, a lung equivalent gel with the density 0.4 g/cm{sup 3} was developed. First experiments show a 1.55 times higher dose reponse in the low density gel (LD gel). The comparison of a dose distribution in a gel/LD gel/gel slab phantom with Monte Carlo calculations shows good agreement within 5%. More over the accuray of the measuring device magnetic resonance imager was studied in respect to the now exclusive digital image processing with the software MRD (MR dosimetry). Because of the dimensions of the Fricke gel phantom an artefact correction, based on the data from the unirradiated phantom proved to be essential. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die MR-Gel-Dosimetrie zur Verifikation komplexer 3D-Bestrahlungsplaene wurde bislang ausschliesslich in homogenen Phantomen durchgefuehrt. Auf dem Wege zum Bau eines inhomogenen Humanoid-Gel-Phantoms wurde ein lungenaequivalentes Gel mit der Dichte 0,4 g/cm{sup 3} entwickelt. Erste Messungen zeigen ein um den Faktor 1,55 hoeheres Ansprechvermoegen in dem low-density-Gel (LD-Gel). Der Vergleich einer gemessen Dosisverteilung in einem Gel/LD-Gel/Gel Schichtphantom als einfaches Thoraxmodell mit Monte-Carlo-Rechnungen zeigt eine gute Uebereinstimmung innerhalb 5%. Ausserdem wurden Untersuchungen zur Messgenauigkeit des Kernspintomographen im Rahmen der nun ausschliesslich digitalen Auswertung mit Hilfe des Programms MRD (MR-Dosimetrie) durchgefuehrt. Es zeigt sich, dass eine Artefaktkorrektur auf der Basis einer Messung des unbestrahlten Phantoms bei grossen Fricke-Gel-Phantomen notwendig ist. (orig.)

  19. Photoelectric method for determination of the relative radii of microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapitsky, D. S.

    2018-01-01

    Experimental results of relative radii of microparticles determination by the analysis of scattered on particles radiation are presented. Due to the monotonous dependence of the indicatrix of particle scattered radiation on particle radius at a specific angle, it becomes possible to determine the relative radii of particles in cloud of particles by one camera picture. Radii of three types of monodisperse powders of melamine formaldehyde particles with known sizes were analyzed by means of Mie theory. The results showed the possibility to determine relative radii of particles to each other in suspended clouds of particles.

  20. Live cell refractometry based on non-SPR microparticle sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Chen, David D Y; Yu, Lirong; Luo, Yong

    2013-06-01

    Unlike the nanoparticles with surface plasmon resonance, the optical response of polystyrene microparticles (PSMPs) is insensitive to the chemical components of the surrounding medium under the wavelength-dependent differential interference contrast microscopy. This fact is exploited for the measurement of the refractive index of cytoplasm in this study. PSMPs of 400 nm in diameter were loaded into the cell to contact cytoplasm seamlessly, and the refractive index information of cytoplasm could be extracted by differential interference contrast microscopy operated at 420 nm illumination wavelength through the contrast analysis of PSMPs images. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Studies of microparticles in patients with the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikerfors, A; Mobarrez, F; Bremme, K; Holmström, M; Ågren, A; Eelde, A; Bruzelius, M; Antovic, A; Wallén, H; Svenungsson, E

    2012-06-01

    To study circulating platelet, monocyte and endothelial microparticles (PMPs, MMPs and EMPs) in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in comparison with healthy controls. Fifty-two patients with APS and 52 healthy controls were investigated. MPs were measured on a flow cytometer (Beckman Gallios) and defined as particles sized APS patients versus controls (p APS patients. We observed a high number of EMPs expressing TF in APS patients. The numbers of MMPs and total EMPs were also higher as compared with healthy controls but in contrast to previous reports, the number of PMPs did not differ between groups.

  2. based gel polymer electrolytes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bull. Mater. Sci., Vol. 29, No. 7, December 2006, pp. 673–678. © Indian Academy of Sciences. 673. Investigation on poly (vinylidene fluoride) based gel polymer electrolytes ... (Alamgir and Abraham 1993; Sukeshini et al 1996; Ra- jendran and Uma ... Yang et al 1996; Ramesh and Arof 2001) and such elec- trolytes exhibit ...

  3. gel template method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TiO2 nanotubes have been synthesized by sol–gel template method using alumina membrane. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, UV absorption spectrum and X-ray diffraction techniques have been used to investigate the structure, morphology and optical ...

  4. Percentage of different aluminum doping influence the morphological and optical properties of ZnO nanostructured growth for sensor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, R., E-mail: ruziana12@gmail.com [NANO-ElecTronic Centre, Faculty of Electrical engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); NANO-SciTech Centre, Institue of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA Pahang, 26400 Bandar Tun Razak Jengka, Pahang (Malaysia); Ismail, A. S., E-mail: kyrin-samaxi@yahoo.com [NANO-ElecTronic Centre, Faculty of Electrical engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Khusaimi, Z., E-mail: Zurai142@salam.uitm.edu.my [NANO-SciTech Centre, Institue of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Mamat, M. H., E-mail: hafiz-030@yahoo.com [NANO-ElecTronic Centre, Faculty of Electrical engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); NANO-SciTech Centre, Institue of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Alrokayan, Salman A. H., E-mail: dr.salman@alrokayan.com; Khan, Haseeb A., E-mail: khan-haseeb@yahoo.com [Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Rusop, M., E-mail: nanouitm@gmail.com [NANO-SciTech Centre, Institue of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA Pahang, 26400 Bandar Tun Razak Jengka, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    In this work, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) with different aluminum (Al) doping percentage was synthesis by sol gel immersion method. Al doped ZnO at various doping percentage from 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. It was found that with different Al percentage influence the morphological and optical properties of ZnO growth. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) image showed the use of different Al doping causes the difference in geometry and size of ZnO nanorods growth. Based on UV-Vis spectroscopy, the transmittance at 1% Al doping has the highest spectrum.

  5. Percentage of different aluminum doping influence the morphological and optical properties of ZnO nanostructured growth for sensor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, R.; Ismail, A. S.; Khusaimi, Z.; Mamat, M. H.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Rusop, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) with different aluminum (Al) doping percentage was synthesis by sol gel immersion method. Al doped ZnO at various doping percentage from 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. It was found that with different Al percentage influence the morphological and optical properties of ZnO growth. Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) image showed the use of different Al doping causes the difference in geometry and size of ZnO nanorods growth. Based on UV-Vis spectroscopy, the transmittance at 1% Al doping has the highest spectrum.

  6. A drug release system induced by near infrared laser using alginate microparticles containing melanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Ah; Yoon, Soon Do; Lee, Chang-Moon

    2017-10-01

    The photothermal effect is used in a new drug release system to control drug delivery in a specific region. Melanin absorbs near-infrared (NIR) light with a high photothermal conversion efficiency, and as a result, an NIR laser can be used to induced drug release from alginate microparticles containing melanin (ALG-Mel microparticles). The temperature of the ALG-Mel microparticle solution at a concentration of 5mg/mL increased to 38.1°C from 26.0°C after irradiation with 808nm NIR at 1.5W/cm 2 for 5min, and this increase in temperature was found to be independent of the ALG-Mel microparticle concentration. After the NIR laser irradiation, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was released from the ALG-Mel microparticles to 87.4±0.5% of the total loaded drug for 24h. Without NIR laser irradiation, 5-FU was released from the ALG-Mel microparticles to 60.8±1.5% of the total loaded drug for 24h. These results indicate that NIR laser irradiation can be used with ALG-Mel microparticles as a drug delivery system for release within a target region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. New alginic acid–atenolol microparticles for inhalatory drug targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceschan, Nazareth Eliana; Bucalá, Verónica [Planta Piloto de Ingeniería Química (PLAPIQUI), CONICET, Universidad Nacional del Sur (UNS), Camino La Carrindanga Km 7, 8000 Bahía Blanca (Argentina); Departamento de Ingeniería Química, UNS, Avenida Alem 1253, 8000 Bahía Blanca (Argentina); Ramírez-Rigo, María Verónica, E-mail: vrrigo@plapiqui.edu.ar [Planta Piloto de Ingeniería Química (PLAPIQUI), CONICET, Universidad Nacional del Sur (UNS), Camino La Carrindanga Km 7, 8000 Bahía Blanca (Argentina); Departamento de Biología, Bioquímica y Farmacia, UNS, San Juan 670, 8000 Bahía Blanca (Argentina)

    2014-08-01

    The inhalatory route allows drug delivery for local or systemic treatments in a noninvasively way. The current tendency of inhalable systems is oriented to dry powder inhalers due to their advantages in terms of stability and efficiency. In this work, microparticles of atenolol (AT, basic antihypertensive drug) and alginic acid (AA, acid biocompatible polyelectrolyte) were obtained by spray drying. Several formulations, varying the relative composition AT/AA and the total solid content of the atomized dispersions, were tested. The powders were characterized by: Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Powder X-ray Diffraction, while also the following properties were measured: drug load efficiency, flow properties, particles size and density, moisture content, hygroscopicity and morphology. The ionic interaction between AA and AT was demonstrated, then the new chemical entity could improve the drug targeting to the respiratory membrane and increase its time residence due to the mucoadhesive properties of the AA polymeric chains. Powders exhibited high load efficiencies, low moisture contents, adequate mean aerodynamic diameters and high cumulative fraction of respirable particles (lower than 10 μm). - Highlights: • Novel particulate material to target atenolol to the respiratory membrane was developed. • Crumbled microparticles were obtained by spray drying of alginic–atenolol dispersions. • Ionic interaction between alginic acid and atenolol was demonstrated in the product. • Amorphous solids with low moisture content and high load efficiency were produced. • Relationships between the feed formulation and the product characteristics were found.

  8. Assembly of 1D Granular Structures from Sulfonated Polystyrene Microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Mikkelsen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Being able to systematically modify the electric properties of nano- and microparticles opens up new possibilities for the bottom-up fabrication of advanced materials such as the fabrication of one-dimensional (1D colloidal and granular materials. Fabricating 1D structures from individual particles offers plenty of applications ranging from electronic sensors and photovoltaics to artificial flagella for hydrodynamic propulsion. In this work, we demonstrate the assembly of 1D structures composed of individual microparticles with modified electric properties, pulled out of a liquid environment into air. Polystyrene particles were modified by sulfonation for different reaction times and characterized by dielectric spectroscopy and dipolar force measurements. We found that by increasing the sulfonation time, the values of both electrical conductivity and dielectric constant of the particles increase, and that the relaxation frequency of particle electric polarization changes, causing the measured dielectric loss of the particles to shift towards higher frequencies. We attributed these results to water adsorbed at the surface of the particles. With sulfonated polystyrene particles exhibiting a range of electric properties, we showed how the electric properties of individual particles influence the formation of 1D structures. By tuning applied voltage and frequency, we were able to control the formation and dynamics of 1D structures, including chain bending and oscillation.

  9. Capture of microparticles by bolus flow in capillaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeishi, Naoki; Imai, Yohsuke; BFSL Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    Previous studies have concluded that microparticles (MPs) can more effectively approach the microvessel wall than nanoparticles because of margination. In this study, however, we show that MPs are not marginated in capillaries where the vessel diameter is comparable to that of red blood cells (RBCs). We numerically investigated the behavior of MPs with a diameter of 1 µm in various microvessel sizes, including capillaries. In capillaries, the flow mode of RBCs shifted from multi-file flow to bolus flow, and MPs were captured by the bolus flow of the RBCs instead of being marginated. Once MPs were captured, they rarely escaped from the vortex-like flow structures between RBCs. These capture events were enhanced when the hematocrit was decreased, and reduced when the shear rate was increased. Our results suggest that microparticles may be rather inefficient drug carriers when targeting capillaries because of capture events, but nanoparticles, which are more randomly distributed in capillaries, may be more effective carriers. This research was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers 25000008 and 16J11479.

  10. Microparticle Shedding from Neural Progenitor Cells and Vascular Compartment Cells Is Increased in Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Suades, Rosa; Crespo, Javier; Peña, Esther; Padró, Teresa; Jiménez-Xarrié, Elena; Martí-Fàbregas, Joan; Badimon, Lina

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic stroke has shown to induce platelet and endothelial microparticle shedding, but whether stroke induces microparticle shedding from additional blood and vascular compartment cells is unclear. Neural precursor cells have been shown to replace dying neurons at sites of brain injury; however, if neural precursor cell activation is associated to microparticle shedding, and whether this activation is maintained at long term and associates to stroke type and severity remains unknown. We analyzed neural precursor cells and blood and vascular compartment cells microparticle shedding after an acute ischemic stroke. Forty-four patients were included in the study within the first 48h after the onset of stroke. The cerebral lesion size was evaluated at 3-7 days of the stroke. Circulating microparticles from neural precursor cells and blood and vascular compartment cells (platelets, endothelial cells, erythrocytes, leukocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes and smooth muscle cells) were analyzed by flow cytometry at the onset of stroke and at 7 and 90 days. Forty-four age-matched high cardiovascular risk subjects without documented vascular disease were used as controls. Compared to high cardiovascular risk controls, patients showed higher number of neural precursor cell- and all blood and vascular compartment cell-derived microparticles at the onset of stroke, and after 7 and 90 days. At 90 days, neural precursor cell-derived microparticles decreased and smooth muscle cell-derived microparticles increased compared to levels at the onset of stroke, but only in those patients with the highest stroke-induced cerebral lesions. Stroke increases blood and vascular compartment cell and neural precursor cell microparticle shedding, an effect that is chronically maintained up to 90 days after the ischemic event. These results show that stroke induces a generalized blood and vascular cell activation and the initiation of neuronal cell repair process after stroke. Larger cerebral lesions

  11. Review Article: Fabricated Microparticles: An Innovative Method to Minimize the Side Effects of NSAIDs in Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Shaivad Shabee Hulhasan; Moin, Afrasim; Veerabhadrappa, Gangadharappa Hosahalli

    2016-01-01

    Microparticles are polymeric bodies ranging 1-1000 µm that constitute a variety of forms such as microcapsules, microspheres, microcages, microshells, microrods, biosensors microparticles, radiolabeled microparticles, and so forth. This review focuses on general microparticles, mainly microcapsules and microspheres. Nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are one of the mostcommonly prescribed medications in the world. Most of the NSAIDs available have severe side effects. With increased awareness of NSAID-induced gastrointestinal (GI) side effects, safety has become a priority in treatment of arthritis and other inflammatory diseases with NSAIDs. A trend in NSAID development has been to improve therapeutic efficacy while reducing the severity of GI side effects by altering dosage through modified release to optimize drug delivery. One such approach is the use of fabricated microparticles such as microcapsules and microspheres as carriers of drugs. Microparticles provide delivery of macromolecules and micromolecules via different routes and effectively control the release profile of such drugs. Microcapsules and microspheres are compatible with most natural and synthetic polymers and can be used for several routes of administration, including parenteral, oral, nasal, intra-ocular, topical, and the like. Because of greater stability and multiple manufacturing techniques, microspheres and microcapsules are preferred as drug carriers over other colloidal drug delivery systems. Microparticles provide effective protection of the encapsulated agent against degradation by enzymatic activities, controlled and confined delivery of drugs from a few hours to months, and ingenious administration compared to alternative forms of controlled-release parenteral dosages, such as macro-sized implants. This comprehensive overview of fabricated microparticles describes microencapsulation technologies to produce microparticles for targeted therapy of arthritis and other

  12. Salbutamol sulphate-ethylcellulose microparticles: formulation and in-vitro evaluation with emphasis on mathematical approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Murtaza

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackground and the purpose of the study: This study reports the laboratory optimization for the preparation of salbutamol sulphate-ethylcellulose microparticles by a non-solvent addition coacervation technique through adjustment of the ratio of salbutamol sulphate to ethylcellulose. The variation of drug release between the microparticles and tabletted microparticles was also investigated. "nMethods: In vitro release profiles of developed microparticles and tabletted microparticles were studied using USP XXIV dissolution apparatus I and II, respectively, in 450 ml double distilled water at 50 rpm maintained at 37°C. "nResults: White microparticles with no definite shape having good entrapment efficiency (96.68 to 97.83% and production yield (97.48 ± 1.21 to 98.35 ± 1.08% were obtained. In this investigation, initial burst effect was observed in the drug release behavior. The rate of drug release from microparticles decreased as the concentration of polyisobutylene was increased from 6% to 12% during microencapsulation. The release pattern of tabletted microparticles was affected significantly (p < 0.05 by the addition of hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC as excepient and insignificantly (p > 0.05 by the type of dissolution media and stirring speed. Tabletted microparticles showed good stability and reproducibility. Ethylcellulose was found to be compatible with salbutamol sulphate. The drug release from all formulations was best fit to Higuchi's equation and the mechanism of drug release was anomalous diffusion from all formulations. "nConclusion: The results of this study suggest that by using ethylcellulose it is possible to design a single-unit, sustained-release oral dosage form of salbutamol sulphate for indication of twice a day.

  13. Radiation dose distributions in three dimensions from tomographic optical density scanning of polymer gels: II. Optical properties of the BANG polymer gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryañski, M J; Zastavker, Y Z; Gore, J C

    1996-12-01

    A newly developed method of radiation dosimetry makes use of the optical properties of polymer gels. The dose-response mechanism relies on the production of light-scattering polymer micro-particles in the gel at each site of radiation absorption. The scattering produces an attenuation of transmitted light intensity that is directly related to the dose and independent of dose rate. For the BANG polymer gel (bis, acrylamide, nitrogen, and gelatin) the shape of the dose-response curve depends on the fraction of the cross-linking monomer in the initial mixture and on the wavelength of light. At 500 nm the attenuation coefficient (mu) increases by approximately 0.7 mm-1 when the dose increases from 0 to 5 Gy. The refractive index of an irradiated gel shows no significant dispersion in the visible region and depends only slightly on the dose. Turbidity difference spectra are compared with theoretical spectra of efficiency factors for total scattering, derived using Mie-Debye theory, and the average sizes of the cross-linked particles produced by radiation, as a function of dose, are established. The particle sizes increase with dose and reach approximately the wavelength of red light. The dependence of the particle sizes on cross-linker fraction parallels a similar dependence of the water proton NMR transverse relaxation rate dose response.

  14. Early results of microwave transmission experiments through an overly dense rectangular plasma sheet with microparticle injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Eric D.; Amatucci, W. E.

    2014-06-01

    These experiments utilize a linear hollow cathode to create a dense, rectangular plasma sheet to simulate the plasma layer surrounding vehicles traveling at hypersonic velocities within the Earth's atmosphere. Injection of fine dielectric microparticles significantly reduces the electron density and therefore lowers the electron plasma frequency by binding a significant portion of the bulk free electrons to the relatively massive microparticles. Measurements show that microwave transmission through this previously overly dense, impenetrable plasma layer increases with the injection of alumina microparticles approximately 60 μm in diameter. This method of electron depletion is a potential means of mitigating the radio communications blackout experienced by hypersonic vehicles.

  15. Microparticles engineered to highly express peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ decreased inflammatory mediator production and increased adhesion of recipient monocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Sahler

    Full Text Available Circulating blood microparticles are submicron vesicles released primarily by megakaryocytes and platelets that act as transcellular communicators. Inflammatory conditions exhibit elevated blood microparticle numbers compared to healthy conditions. Direct functional consequences of microparticle composition, especially internal composition, on recipient cells are poorly understood. Our objective was to evaluate if microparticle composition could impact the function of recipient cells, particularly during inflammatory provocation. We therefore engineered the composition of megakaryocyte culture-derived microparticles to generate distinct microparticle populations that were given to human monocytes to assay for influences recipient cell function. Herein, we tested the responses of monocytes exposed to either control microparticles or microparticles that contain the anti-inflammatory transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ. In order to normalize relative microparticle abundance from two microparticle populations, we implemented a novel approach that utilizes a Nanodrop Spectrophotometer to assay for microparticle density rather than concentration. We found that when given to peripheral blood mononuclear cells, microparticles were preferentially internalized by CD11b+ cells, and furthermore, microparticle composition had a profound functional impact on recipient monocytes. Specifically, microparticles containing PPARγ reduced activated monocyte production of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 compared to activated monocytes exposed to control microparticles. Additionally, treatment with PPARγ microparticles greatly increased monocyte cell adherence. This change in morphology occurred simultaneously with increased production of the key extracellular matrix protein, fibronectin and increased expression of the fibronectin-binding integrin, ITGA5. PPARγ microparticles

  16. Microparticles Engineered to Highly Express Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ Decreased Inflammatory Mediator Production and Increased Adhesion of Recipient Monocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahler, Julie; Woeller, Collynn F.; Phipps, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    Circulating blood microparticles are submicron vesicles released primarily by megakaryocytes and platelets that act as transcellular communicators. Inflammatory conditions exhibit elevated blood microparticle numbers compared to healthy conditions. Direct functional consequences of microparticle composition, especially internal composition, on recipient cells are poorly understood. Our objective was to evaluate if microparticle composition could impact the function of recipient cells, particularly during inflammatory provocation. We therefore engineered the composition of megakaryocyte culture-derived microparticles to generate distinct microparticle populations that were given to human monocytes to assay for influences recipient cell function. Herein, we tested the responses of monocytes exposed to either control microparticles or microparticles that contain the anti-inflammatory transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). In order to normalize relative microparticle abundance from two microparticle populations, we implemented a novel approach that utilizes a Nanodrop Spectrophotometer to assay for microparticle density rather than concentration. We found that when given to peripheral blood mononuclear cells, microparticles were preferentially internalized by CD11b+ cells, and furthermore, microparticle composition had a profound functional impact on recipient monocytes. Specifically, microparticles containing PPARγ reduced activated monocyte production of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 compared to activated monocytes exposed to control microparticles. Additionally, treatment with PPARγ microparticles greatly increased monocyte cell adherence. This change in morphology occurred simultaneously with increased production of the key extracellular matrix protein, fibronectin and increased expression of the fibronectin-binding integrin, ITGA5. PPARγ microparticles also changed monocyte

  17. Microparticles engineered to highly express peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ decreased inflammatory mediator production and increased adhesion of recipient monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahler, Julie; Woeller, Collynn F; Phipps, Richard P

    2014-01-01

    Circulating blood microparticles are submicron vesicles released primarily by megakaryocytes and platelets that act as transcellular communicators. Inflammatory conditions exhibit elevated blood microparticle numbers compared to healthy conditions. Direct functional consequences of microparticle composition, especially internal composition, on recipient cells are poorly understood. Our objective was to evaluate if microparticle composition could impact the function of recipient cells, particularly during inflammatory provocation. We therefore engineered the composition of megakaryocyte culture-derived microparticles to generate distinct microparticle populations that were given to human monocytes to assay for influences recipient cell function. Herein, we tested the responses of monocytes exposed to either control microparticles or microparticles that contain the anti-inflammatory transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). In order to normalize relative microparticle abundance from two microparticle populations, we implemented a novel approach that utilizes a Nanodrop Spectrophotometer to assay for microparticle density rather than concentration. We found that when given to peripheral blood mononuclear cells, microparticles were preferentially internalized by CD11b+ cells, and furthermore, microparticle composition had a profound functional impact on recipient monocytes. Specifically, microparticles containing PPARγ reduced activated monocyte production of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 compared to activated monocytes exposed to control microparticles. Additionally, treatment with PPARγ microparticles greatly increased monocyte cell adherence. This change in morphology occurred simultaneously with increased production of the key extracellular matrix protein, fibronectin and increased expression of the fibronectin-binding integrin, ITGA5. PPARγ microparticles also changed monocyte

  18. Tin dioxide sol-gel derived thin films deposited on porous silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobianu, C.; Savaniu, Cristian; Buiu, Octavian; Zaharescu, Maria; Parlog, Constanta; van den Berg, Albert; Pecz, Bela; Dascula, Dan

    1996-01-01

    Undoped and Sb-doped SnO2 sol–gel derived thin films have been prepared for the first time from tin (IV) ethoxide precursor and SbCl3 in order to be utilised for gas sensing applications where porous silicon is used as a substrate. Transparent, crack-free and adherent layers were obtained on

  19. Tin dioxide sol-gel derived thin films deposited on porous silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobianu, C.; Savaniu, Cristian; Buiu, Octavian; Dascalu, Dan; Zaharescu, Maria; Parlog, Constanta; van den Berg, Albert; Pecz, Bela

    1997-01-01

    Undoped and Sb-doped SnO2 sol¿gel derived thin films have been prepared for the first time from tin (IV) ethoxide precursor and SbCl3 in order to be utilised for gas sensing applications where porous silicon is used as a substrate. Transparent, crack-free and adherent layers were obtained on

  20. Synthesis and characterization of sol–gel derived ZnS: Mn 2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synthesis and characterization of undoped and Mn2+ doped ZnS nanocrystallites (radius 2–3 nm) embedded in a partially densified silica gel matrix are presented. Optical transmittance, photoluminescence (PL), ellipsometric and electron spin resonance measurements revealed manifestation of quantum size effect.

  1. Optical fiber sensor having a sol-gel fiber core and a method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shiquan; Jindal, Rajeev; Winstead, Christopher; Singh, Jagdish P.

    2006-06-06

    A simple, economic wet chemical procedure is described for making sol-gel fibers. The sol-gel fibers made from this process are transparent to ultraviolet, visible and near infrared light. Light can be guided in these fibers by using an organic polymer as a fiber cladding. Alternatively, air can be used as a low refractive index medium. The sol-gel fibers have a micro pore structure which allows molecules to diffuse into the fiber core from the surrounding environment. Chemical and biochemical reagents can be doped into the fiber core. The sol-gel fiber can be used as a transducer for constructing an optical fiber sensor. The optical fiber sensor having an active sol-gel fiber core is more sensitive than conventional evanescent wave absorption based optical fiber sensors.

  2. Biopolymer gels containing fructooligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Karen Cristina Guedes; Sato, Ana Carla Kawazoe

    2017-11-01

    The influence of the addition of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) in an external gelated alginate/gelatin biopolymer matrix, was evaluated in order to produce biopolymeric structures with functional effects. Solutions were characterized regarding their rheological properties, macrogels regarding their microstructure and mechanical properties and microgels were characterized in relation to their particle size distribution and morphology. Close relationship was found between the microstructure, rheological and mechanical properties of the biopolymeric systems. An increased viscosity and accentuated elastic and pseudoplastic behavior were associated to denser microstructures. The FOS addition caused changes in the evaluated properties, resulting in more cohesive structures, with smaller pores and higher viscosity, compared to alginate-gelatin gels. The addition of 3% FOS to biopolymeric system provided an optimal condition, allowing the formation of stronger gels, with smaller pores and beads with smaller sizes, indicating the potential use of these functional systems as texture modifiers or encapsulation systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Chiromagnetic nanoparticles and gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Jihyeon; Santos, Uallisson S.; Chekini, Mahshid; Cha, Minjeong; de Moura, André F.; Kotov, Nicholas A.

    2018-01-01

    Chiral inorganic nanostructures have high circular dichroism, but real-time control of their optical activity has so far been achieved only by irreversible chemical changes. Field modulation is a far more desirable path to chiroptical devices. We hypothesized that magnetic field modulation can be attained for chiral nanostructures with large contributions of the magnetic transition dipole moments to polarization rotation. We found that dispersions and gels of paramagnetic Co3O4 nanoparticles with chiral distortions of the crystal lattices exhibited chiroptical activity in the visible range that was 10 times as strong as that of nonparamagnetic nanoparticles of comparable size. Transparency of the nanoparticle gels to circularly polarized light beams in the ultraviolet range was reversibly modulated by magnetic fields. These phenomena were also observed for other nanoscale metal oxides with lattice distortions from imprinted amino acids and other chiral ligands. The large family of chiral ceramic nanostructures and gels can be pivotal for new technologies and knowledge at the nexus of chirality and magnetism.

  4. Screening for antibodies against Treponema pallidum with chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay: analysis of discordant serology results and clinical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiyan; Feng, Zhenru; Liu, Ping; Yan, Cunling

    2016-09-01

    Traditionally, testing for syphilis has consisted of initial screening with a non-treponemal test, then retesting reactive specimens with a treponemal test. Recent availability of a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay for detecting antibodies against Treponema pallidum has led several laboratories in China to adopt chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay for screening of syphilis, with subsequent testing of reactive serum samples with non-treponemal tests. We evaluated the utility of chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay for routine screening of syphilis. Antibodies against Treponema pallidum were screened in 20,550 serum samples using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay-positive samples were reflexively tested with rapid plasma reagin tests and Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assays. Dot-immunoblot assays were used to confirm results of chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay-positive and Treponema pallidum particle agglutination-negative serum samples. Overall, 267 samples (1.3%) were chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay-positive, and 185 (69.3%) of those chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay-positive serum samples were also Treponema pallidum particle agglutination-positive. Samples' signal to cut-off ratio for chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay correlated with diagnostic reliability, as greater samples' signal to cut-off ratio corresponded with greater concordance between chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay and Treponema pallidum particle agglutination results. Dot-immunoblot testing of 82 chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay-positive and Treponema pallidum particle agglutination-negative serum samples showed that 16 samples (19.5%) were Dot-immunoblot-positive, 28 (34.2%) were indeterminate and 38 (46.3%) were negative. Because there is a certain percentage of false-positive results using chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay for routine

  5. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, Donald C; Ares, Manuel; Hannon, Gregory J; Nilsen, Timothy W

    2010-06-01

    Perhaps the most important and certainly the most often used technique in RNA analysis is gel electrophoresis. This technique is generally applicable for RNA detection, quantification, purification by size, and quality assessment. Because RNAs are negatively charged, they migrate toward the anode in the presence of electric current. The gel acts as a sieve to selectively impede the migration of the RNA in proportion to its mass, given that its mass is generally proportional to its charge. Because mass is approximately related to chain length, the length of an RNA is more generally determined by its migration. In addition, topology (i.e., circularity) can affect migration, making RNAs appear longer on the gel than they actually are. Gels are used in a wide variety of techniques, including Northern blotting, primer extension, footprinting, and analyzing processing reactions. They are invaluable as preparative and fractionating tools. There are two common types of gel: polyacrylamide and agarose. For most applications, denaturing acrylamide gels are most appropriate. These gels are extremely versatile and can resolve RNAs from ~600 to RNA-protein complexes, native gels are appropriate. The only disadvantage to acrylamide gels is that they are not suitable for analyzing large RNAs (> or =600 nt); for such applications, agarose gels are preferred. This protocol describes how to prepare, load, and run polyacrylamide gels for RNA analysis.

  6. Bioactive Molecules Release and Cellular Responses of Alginate-Tricalcium Phosphate Particles Hybrid Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Das

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a hybrid gel has been developed using sodium alginate (Alg and α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP particles through ionic crosslinking process for the application in bone tissue engineering. The effects of pH and composition of the gel on osteoblast cells (MC3T3 response and bioactive molecules release have been evaluated. At first, a slurry of Alg and α-TCP has been prepared using an ultrasonicator for the homogeneous distribution of α-TCP particles in the Alg network and to achieve adequate interfacial interaction between them. After that, CaCl2 solution has been added to the slurry so that ionic crosslinked gel (Alg-α-TCP is formed. The developed hybrid gel has been physico-chemically characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and a swelling study. The SEM analysis depicted the presence of α-TCP micro-particles on the surface of the hybrid gel, while cross-section images signified that the α-TCP particles are fully embedded in the porous gel network. Different % swelling ratio at pH 4, 7 and 7.4 confirmed the pH responsiveness of the Alg-α-TCP gel. The hybrid gel having lower % α-TCP particles showed higher % swelling at pH 7.4. The hybrid gel demonstrated a faster release rate of bovine serum albumin (BSA, tetracycline (TCN and dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG at pH 7.4 and for the grade having lower % α-TCP particles. The MC3T3 cells are viable inside the hybrid gel, while the rate of cell proliferation is higher at pH 7.4 compared to pH 7. The in vitro cytotoxicity analysis using thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU and neutral red assays ascertained that the hybrid gel is non-toxic for MC3T3 cells. The experimental results implied that the non-toxic and biocompatible Alg-α-TCP hybrid gel could be used as scaffold in bone tissue engineering.

  7. Chitosan/TPP microparticles obtained by microemulsion method applied in controlled release of heparin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Alessandro F; de Oliveira, Daiane M; Pereira, Antonio G B; Rubira, Adley F; Muniz, Edvani C

    2012-12-01

    This work deals with the preparation of chitosan/tripolyphosphate microparticles (CHT/TPP) using microemulsion system based on water/benzyl alcohol. The morphology of the microparticles was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The microparticles were also characterized through infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). The morphology and crystallinity of microparticles depended mainly on CHT/TPP ratio. Studies of controlled release of HP were evaluated in distilled water and in simulated gastric fluid. Besides, the profile of HP releasing could be tailored by tuning the CHT/TPP molar ratio. Finally, these prospective results allow the particles to be employed as site-specific HP controlled release system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Preparation of Antheraea pernyi Silk Fibroin Microparticles through a Facile Electrospinning Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiufang Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to fabricate Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin (ASF microparticles using electrospinning under mild processing conditions. To improve processability of the ASF solution, poly(ethylene oxide (PEO was used to regulate viscosity of ASF solution for electrospinning. It was found that the blend of ASF with PEO could form a bead-on-string structure with well spherical particles. Furthermore, aqueous ethanol and ultrasonic treatments could disrupt the nanofibrillar string structure between particles and ultimately produced water-insoluble ASF particles with submicron scale. Cell viability studies indicated that the ASF microparticles were nontoxic to EA926 cells. Moreover, fluorescent images based on FITC labeling showed that the ASF microparticles were easily uptaken by the cells. Aqueous-based electrospinning provides a potentially useful option for the fabrication of ASF microparticles based on this unique fibrous protein.

  9. Biodegradable Microparticles for Simultaneous Detection of Counterfeit and Deteriorated Edible Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rehor, Ivan; van Vreeswijk, Sophie; Vermonden, Tina; Hennink, Wim E.; Kegel, Willem K.; Eral, Huseyin Burak

    2017-01-01

    In an era of globalized trade relations where food and pharmaceutical products cross borders effortlessly, consumers face counterfeit and deteriorated products at elevated rates. This paper presents multifunctional, biodegradable hydrogel microparticles that can provide information on the

  10. Changes in microparticle numbers and cellular origin during pregnancy and preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lok, Christine A. R.; van der Post, Joris A. M.; Sargent, Ian L.; Hau, Chi M.; Sturk, Augueste; Boer, Kees; Nieuwland, Rienk

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microparticles (MP) are pro-coagulant vesicles derived from various cells. Evidence is accumulating that MP are of pathophysiological relevance in autoimmune, cardiovascular, and thromboembolic diseases and inflammatory disorders. Therefore, their role in the development of preeclampsia

  11. WAIS Divide Microparticle Concentration and Size Distribution, 0-2400 ka, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes raw dust microparticle data for the WAIS Divide deep core, WDC06A, from the surface to 577 m. Data were collected in 2010 using a Klotz Abakus...

  12. Measurement of circulating cell-derived microparticles by flow cytometry: Sources of variability within the assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayers, Lisa; Kohler, Malcolm; Harrison, Paul; Sargent, Ian; Dragovic, Rebecca; Schaap, Marianne; Nieuwland, Rienk; Brooks, Susan A.; Ferry, Berne

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Circulating cell-derived microparticles (MPs) have been implicated in several disease processes and elevated levels are found in many pathological conditions. The detection and accurate measurement of MPs, although attracting widespread interest, is hampered by a lack of

  13. Distinct features of circulating microparticles and their relationship to clinical manifestations in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer T; Østergaard, Ole; Johnsen, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Characterization of the abundance, origin, and annexin V (AnxV)-binding capabilities of circulating microparticles (MPs) in SLE patients and healthy controls and to determine any associations with clinical parameters....

  14. Functionalised alginate flow seeding microparticles for use in Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Sylvana; Balagué, Isaac; Sancho, Irene; Ertürk, Nihal; Ferrando, Montserrat; Vernet, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Alginate microparticles as flow seeding fulfil all the requirements that are recommended for the velocity measurements in Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). These spherical microparticles offer the advantage of being environmentally friendly, having excellent seeding properties and they can be produced via a very simple process. In the present study, the performances of alginate microparticles functionalised with a fluorescent dye, Rhodamine B (RhB), for PIV have been studied. The efficacy of fluorescence is appreciated in a number of PIV applications since it can boost the signal-to-noise ratio. Alginate microparticles functionalised with RhB have high emission efficiency, desirable match with fluid density and controlled size. The study of the particles behaviour in strong acid and basic solutions and ammonia is also included. This type of particles can be used for measurements with PIV and Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) simultaneously, including acid-base reactions.

  15. Radiotherapy gel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldock, C.

    2002-01-01

    shapes and sizes while sparing normal tissue. The situation is further complicated if the normal tissues are critical organs or are particularly sensitive to radiation. Radiotherapy techniques employed to obtain a closer conformation of the dose distribution to the tumour volume are referred to as conformal radiotherapy techniques. The clinical implementation of conformal therapy has been delayed by limitations in the verification of conformal dose distributions calculated by treatment planning systems prior to the irradiation of the patient and the verification of complex treatments during its delivery to the patient. There are several aspects of conformal therapy that complicate dose verification. To achieve the dose distributions conforming to complex 3D volumes, high dose gradients arise in the treatment volume. Further, overdose or underdose regions can exist when separate radiation fields are used to deliver additional radiation. These aspects require that practical dose measurement (dosimetry) techniques be able to integrate dose over time and easily measure dose distributions in 3D with high spatial resolution. Traditional dosimeters, such as ion chambers, thermoluminescent dosimeters and radiographic film do not fulfil these requirements. Novel gel dosimetry techniques are being developed in which dose distributions can potentially be determined in vitro in 3D using anthropomorphic phantoms to simulate a clinically irradiated situation. As long ago as the 1950's, radiation-induced colour change in dyes was used to investigate radiation doses in gels. It was subsequently shown that radiation induced changes in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation properties of gels infused with conventional Fricke dosimetry solutions could be measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In Fricke gels, Fe 2+ ions in ferrous sulphate solutions are usually dispersed throughout a gelatin, agarose or PVA matrix. Radiation-induced changes in the dosimeters are considered to

  16. Placental Microparticles and MicroRNAs in Pregnant Women with Plasmodium falciparum or HIV Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Moro

    Full Text Available During pregnancy, syncytiotrophoblast vesicles contribute to maternal tolerance towards the fetus, but also to pathologies such as pre-eclampsia. The aim of the study was to address whether Plasmodium falciparum and HIV infections in pregnancy affect the secretion, microRNA content and function of trophoblast microparticles.Microparticles were isolated and characterized from 122 peripheral plasmas of Mozambican pregnant women, malaria- and/or HIV-infected and non-infected. Expression of placenta-related microRNAs in microparticles was analysed by qPCR and the effect of circulating microparticles on dendritic cells assessed by phenotype analysis and cytokine/chemokine measurement.Concentrations of total and trophoblast microparticles detected by flow cytometry were higher in HIV-positive (P = 0.005 and P = 0.030, respectively compared to non-infected mothers, as well as in women delivering low birthweight newborns (P = 0.032 and P = 0.021, respectively. miR-517c was overexpressed in mothers with placental malaria (P = 0.034, compared to non-infected. Microparticles from HIV-positive induced a higher expression of MHCII (P = 0.021 and lower production of MCP1 (P = 0.008 than microparticles from non-infected women.In summary, alterations in total and trophoblast microparticles associated with malaria and HIV in pregnant women may have an immunopathogenic role. The potential for placental-derived vesicles and microRNAs as biomarkers of adverse outcomes during pregnancy and malaria infection should be confirmed in future studies.

  17. The role of endothelial microparticles in autoimmune disease patients with Raynaud's phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Yeong-Jian Jan Wu; Chung-Ching Hua; Ji-Yih Chen; Yao-Wen Chang; Jo-Chi Tseng

    2017-01-01

    Background and aim: Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is a microvascular disorder characterized by episodic peripheral vasospasm and ischemia and is commonly found in patients with autoimmune diseases (AID). The vasomotor homoeostasis and endothelial cells damage are involved in RP. Endothelial microparticles (EMPs) may act as a biomarker for endothelial damage. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between the levels of microparticles (MPs) and microvasculopathy in AID with RP. Met...

  18. Capreomycin oleate microparticles for intramuscular administration: Preparation, in vitro release and preliminary in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambronero-Rojas, Adrián; Torres-Vergara, Pablo; Godoy, Ricardo; von Plessing, Carlos; Sepúlveda, Jacqueline; Gómez-Gaete, Carolina

    2015-07-10

    Capreomycin sulfate (CS) is a second-line drug used for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The adverse effects profile and uncomfortable administration scheme of CS has led to the development of formulations based on liposomes and polymeric microparticles. However, as CS is a water-soluble peptide that does not encapsulate properly into hydrophobic particulate matrices, it was necessary to reduce its aqueous solubility by forming the pharmacologically active capreomycin oleate (CO) ion pair. The aim of this research was to develop a new formulation of CO for intramuscular injection, based on biodegradable microparticles that encapsulate CO in order to provide a controlled release of the drug with reduced local and systemic adverse effects. The CO-loaded microparticles prepared by spray drying or solvent emulsion-evaporation were characterized in their morphology, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro/in vivo kinetics and tissue tolerance. Through scanning electron microscopy it was confirmed that the microparticles were monodisperse and spherical, with an optimal size for intramuscular administration. The interaction between CO and the components of the microparticle matrix was confirmed on both formulations by X-ray powder diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry analyses. The encapsulation efficiencies for the spray-dried and emulsion-evaporation microparticles were 92% and 56%, respectively. The in vitro kinetics performed on both formulations demonstrated a controlled and continuous release of CO from the microparticles, which was successfully reproduced on an in vivo rodent model. The results of the histological analysis demonstrated that none of the formulations produced significant tissue damage on the site of injection. Therefore, the results suggest that injectable CO microparticles obtained by spray drying and solvent emulsion-evaporation could represent an interesting therapeutic alternative for the treatment of MDR

  19. A review of studies of the proteomes of circulating microparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Tandrup; Østergaard, Ole; Rasmussen, Niclas S

    2017-01-01

    ) typically termed microparticles (MPs). The numbers and particularly the composition of MPs appear to reflect the state of their parental cells and MPs may therefore carry great potential as clinical biomarkers which can be elucidated and developed by proteomics in particular. Determination of the identity...... in cell-cell adhesion, clearance, and intercellular signaling. MPs overexpressing G3BP may thus be involved in thrombosis and hemostasis, vascular inflammation, and autoimmunity, further favoring G3BP as a marker of "pathogenic" MPs. MPs expressing G3BP may also hold a potential as biomarkers in other...... conditions such as cancer and chronic viral infections. This review highlights the methodology and results of the proteome studies behind these discoveries and places them in a pathophysiological and biomarker perspective....

  20. Quantitative proteome profiling of normal human circulating microparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Ole; Nielsen, Christoffer T; Iversen, Line V

    2012-01-01

    Circulating microparticles (MPs) are produced as part of normal physiology. Their numbers, origin, and composition change in pathology. Despite this, the normal MP proteome has not yet been characterized with standardized high-resolution methods. We here quantitatively profile the normal MP...... proteome using nano-LC-MS/MS on an LTQ-Orbitrap with optimized sample collection, preparation, and analysis of 12 different normal samples. Analytical and procedural variation were estimated in triply processed samples analyzed in triplicate from two different donors. Label-free quantitation was validated...... by the correlation of cytoskeletal protein intensities with MP numbers obtained by flow cytometry. Finally, the validity of using pooled samples was evaluated using overlap protein identification numbers and multivariate data analysis. Using conservative parameters, 536 different unique proteins were quantitated...

  1. Raman Spectroscopy of Optically Trapped Single Biological Micro-Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Redding

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The combination of optical trapping with Raman spectroscopy provides a powerful method for the study, characterization, and identification of biological micro-particles. In essence, optical trapping helps to overcome the limitation imposed by the relative inefficiency of the Raman scattering process. This allows Raman spectroscopy to be applied to individual biological particles in air and in liquid, providing the potential for particle identification with high specificity, longitudinal studies of changes in particle composition, and characterization of the heterogeneity of individual particles in a population. In this review, we introduce the techniques used to integrate Raman spectroscopy with optical trapping in order to study individual biological particles in liquid and air. We then provide an overview of some of the most promising applications of this technique, highlighting the unique types of measurements enabled by the combination of Raman spectroscopy with optical trapping. Finally, we present a brief discussion of future research directions in the field.

  2. Fabrication of fillable microparticles and other complex 3D microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Kevin J.; Nguyen, Thanh D.; Linehan, Allison R.; Yang, David; Behrens, Adam M.; Rose, Sviatlana; Tochka, Zachary L.; Tzeng, Stephany Y.; Norman, James J.; Anselmo, Aaron C.; Xu, Xian; Tomasic, Stephanie; Taylor, Matthew A.; Lu, Jennifer; Guarecuco, Rohiverth; Langer, Robert; Jaklenec, Ana

    2017-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) microstructures created by microfabrication and additive manufacturing have demonstrated value across a number of fields, ranging from biomedicine to microelectronics. However, the techniques used to create these devices each have their own characteristic set of advantages and limitations with regards to resolution, material compatibility, and geometrical constraints that determine the types of microstructures that can be formed. We describe a microfabrication method, termed StampEd Assembly of polymer Layers (SEAL), and create injectable pulsatile drug-delivery microparticles, pH sensors, and 3D microfluidic devices that we could not produce using traditional 3D printing. SEAL allows us to generate microstructures with complex geometry at high resolution, produce fully enclosed internal cavities containing a solid or liquid, and use potentially any thermoplastic material without processing additives.

  3. Carbon monoxide inhalation increases microparticles causing vascular and CNS dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jiajun; Yang, Ming; Kosterin, Paul; Salzberg, Brian M.; Milovanova, Tatyana N.; Bhopale, Veena M.; Thom, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesized that circulating microparticles (MPs) play a role in pro-inflammatory effects associated with carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation. Mice exposed for 1 h to 100 ppm CO or more exhibit increases in circulating MPs derived from a variety of vascular cells as well as neutrophil activation. Tissue injury was quantified as 2000 kDa dextran leakage from vessels and as neutrophil sequestration in the brain and skeletal muscle; and central nervous system nerve dysfunction was documented as broadening of the neurohypophysial action potential (AP). Indices of injury occurred following exposures to 1000 ppm for 1 h or to 1000 ppm for 40 min followed by 3000 ppm for 20 min. MPs were implicated in causing injuries because infusing the surfactant MP lytic agent, polyethylene glycol telomere B (PEGtB) abrogated elevations in MPs, vascular leak, neutrophil sequestration and AP prolongation. These manifestations of tissue injury also did not occur in mice lacking myeloperoxidase. Vascular leakage and AP prolongation were produced in naïve mice infused with MPs that had been obtained from CO poisoned mice, but this did not occur with MPs obtained from control mice. We conclude that CO poisoning triggers elevations of MPs that activate neutrophils which subsequently cause tissue injuries. - Highlights: • Circulating microparticles (MPs) increase in mice exposed to 100 ppm CO or more. • MPs are lysed by infusing the surfactant polyethylene glycol telomere B. • CO-induced MPs cause neutrophil activation, vascular leak and CNS dysfunction. • Similar tissue injuries do not arise with MPs obtained from air-exposed, control mice

  4. Circulating endothelial microparticles in female migraineurs with aura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liman, Thomas G; Bachelier-Walenta, Katrin; Neeb, Lars; Rosinski, Jana; Reuter, Uwe; Böhm, Michael; Endres, Matthias

    2015-02-01

    Endothelial microparticles (EMPs) are vesicles that are released from activated endothelial cells and serve as a surrogate for endothelial dysfunction (ED). ED may be involved in migraine pathophysiology and contribute to the increased risk of ischemic stroke, particularly in female migraineurs with aura (MA). We sought to determine whether EMPs are elevated in women with MA. In this case-control study, EMPs were detected by analysing surface markers using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Surface markers were measured covering the main cell lines relevant in cardiovascular disease like endothelial cells, platelets, monocytes and leucocytes. Microparticles (MPs) were identified in correlation to calibration by 1 -µm calibrator beads (Beckman Coulter). Arterial stiffness was assessed using fingertip tonometry and the heart rate-adjusted augmentation index (AI). We included 29 patients with MA and 29 matched controls. MA patients had significantly higher EMPs (CD62E(+)AnnexinV(+): 5142/µl vs 1535/µl; p monocytic (CD14(+)AnnexinV(+) 6378 vs 3161; p < 0.001), and platelet MPs (CD62P(+)CD42b(+)AnnexinV(+) 5450 vs 3204; p < 0.001). Activated EMPs (CD62E(+)AnnexinV(+)) correlated with heart-rate adjusted AI (r = 0.46; p < 001). EMP levels are significantly elevated in women with MA and correlated with increased AI. Our findings suggest that endothelial activation is present in women with MA. This might contribute to higher stroke risk in MA. © International Headache Society 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. Carbon monoxide inhalation increases microparticles causing vascular and CNS dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jiajun; Yang, Ming [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Kosterin, Paul [Department of Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Salzberg, Brian M. [Department of Physiology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Milovanova, Tatyana N.; Bhopale, Veena M. [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Thom, Stephen R., E-mail: sthom@smail.umaryland.edu [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    We hypothesized that circulating microparticles (MPs) play a role in pro-inflammatory effects associated with carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation. Mice exposed for 1 h to 100 ppm CO or more exhibit increases in circulating MPs derived from a variety of vascular cells as well as neutrophil activation. Tissue injury was quantified as 2000 kDa dextran leakage from vessels and as neutrophil sequestration in the brain and skeletal muscle; and central nervous system nerve dysfunction was documented as broadening of the neurohypophysial action potential (AP). Indices of injury occurred following exposures to 1000 ppm for 1 h or to 1000 ppm for 40 min followed by 3000 ppm for 20 min. MPs were implicated in causing injuries because infusing the surfactant MP lytic agent, polyethylene glycol telomere B (PEGtB) abrogated elevations in MPs, vascular leak, neutrophil sequestration and AP prolongation. These manifestations of tissue injury also did not occur in mice lacking myeloperoxidase. Vascular leakage and AP prolongation were produced in naïve mice infused with MPs that had been obtained from CO poisoned mice, but this did not occur with MPs obtained from control mice. We conclude that CO poisoning triggers elevations of MPs that activate neutrophils which subsequently cause tissue injuries. - Highlights: • Circulating microparticles (MPs) increase in mice exposed to 100 ppm CO or more. • MPs are lysed by infusing the surfactant polyethylene glycol telomere B. • CO-induced MPs cause neutrophil activation, vascular leak and CNS dysfunction. • Similar tissue injuries do not arise with MPs obtained from air-exposed, control mice.

  6. Investigation of Water Absorption and Diffusion in Microparticles Containing Xylitol to Provide a Cooling Effect by Thermal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaün, F.; Bedek, G.; Devaux, E.; Dupont, D.; Deranton, D.

    2009-08-01

    Polyurethane microparticles containing xylitol as a sweat sensor system were prepared by interfacial polymerization. The structural and thermal properties of the resultant microparticles were studied. The surface morphology and chemical structure of microparticles were investigated using an optical microscope (OM) and a Fourier-transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR), respectively. The thermal properties of samples were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Thus, two types of microparticles were synthesized by varying the percentage of monomers introduced. The obtained morphology is directly related to the synthesis conditions. DSC analysis indicated that the mass content of crystalline xylitol was up to 63.8 %, which resulted in a high enthalpy of dilution of 127.7 J · g-1. Furthermore, the water release rate monitored by TGA analysis was found to be faster from the microparticles than from raw xylitol. Thus, the microparticles could be applied for thermal energy storage and moisture sensor enhancement.

  7. Preparation and characterization of novel PBAE/PLGA polymer blend microparticles for DNA vaccine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashanmugam, Meenashi Vanathi; Nagarethinam, Sivagurunathan; Jagani, Hitesh; Josyula, Venkata Rao; Alrohaimi, Abdulmohsen; Udupa, Nayanabhirama

    2014-01-01

    Poly(beta-amino ester) (PBAE) with its pH sensitiveness and Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) with huge DNA cargo capacity in combination prove to be highly efficient as DNA delivery system. To study the effectiveness of novel synthesized PBAE polymer with PLGA blend at different ratios in DNA vaccine delivery. In the present study, multifunctional polymer blend microparticles using a combination of PLGA and novel PBAE polymers A1 (bis(3-(propionyloxy)propyl)3,3'-(propane-1,3-diyl-bis(methylazanediyl))dipropanoate) and A2 (bis(4-(propionyloxy)butyl)3,3'-(ethane-1,2-diyl-bis(isopropylazanediyl))dipropanoate) at different ratios (85:15, 75:25, and 50:50) were prepared by double emulsion solvent removal method. The microparticles were characterized for cytotoxicity, transfection efficiency, and DNA encapsulation efficiency. It was evident from results that among the microparticles prepared with PLGA/PBAE blend the PLGA:PBAE at 85:15 ratio was found to be more effective combination than the microparticles prepared with PLGA alone in terms of transfection efficiency and better DNA integrity. Microparticles made of PLGA and PBAE A1 at 85:15 ratio, respectively, were found to be less toxic when compared with microparticles prepared with A2 polymer. The results encourage the use of the synthesized PBAE polymer in combination with PLGA as an effective gene delivery system.

  8. Implementation of mixture design for formulation of albumin containing enteric-coated spray-dried microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri, Prathap Nagaraja; Ubale, Ruhi V; D'Souza, Martin J

    2013-02-01

    Oral delivery of proteins has been a challenging as well as rapidly developing field. To implement mixture design of experiment to develop enteric-coated microparticles containing bovine serum albumin. Microparticles were prepared using Buchi Spray Dryer 191. Simplex lattice mixture design computed using JMP software was implemented to compare the gastric protection rendered by Eudragit FS30D, Eudragit L100-55, and Eudragit S100 in microparticulate form. Further, an extreme vertices mixture design was used to incorporate hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) Chitosan in the formulation to delay the release. Microparticle recovery yield and protein content in microparticles were evaluated. The design was statistically significant with Eudragit S100 resulting in protein release of optimal formulation had 70% of Eudragit S, 25% HPMC, and 5% Chitosan. The release profiles of protein from Eudragit S alone and along with HPMC were compared. About 25% decrease in the amount of protein release was observed 6 h post exposure of microparticle to buffer of pH 6.8. The microparticle recovery yield reduced from 77.99% to 71.56% which is due to addition of HPMC into the formulation matrix. Although all three Eudragit polymers can be used for enteric coating, in the microparticulate form Eudragit S resulted in higher gastric protection. Also use of HPMC along with Eudragit S resulted in further sustained release.

  9. Sponge like microparticles for drug delivery and cosmeto-textile use: Formulation and human skin penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Nadiah; Robin, Sophie; Viennet, Céline; Humbert, Philippe; Valour, Jean Pierre; Agusti, Geraldine; Fessi, Hatem; Elaissari, Abdelhamid

    2017-10-30

    This unique work is targeted to achieve three main goals: i) to enhance the aqueous solubility of three specifically selected hydrophobic active agents, ii) to prepare such polymeric biodegradable microparticles which can encapsulate actives-cyclodextrin complexes and iii) to functionalize a polyamide base textile with active loaded microparticles and active-cyclodextrin loaded microparticles. To achieve this objective, biodegradable cationic microparticles were prepared via double emulsion solvent evaporation process and were loaded with hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin based complexes of Indomethacin, α-tocopheroland Lauryl Isoquinolinium Bromide during the formulation process. Inclusion complex based particles were evaluated for their morphology, size distribution, zeta potential, skin penetration aptitude and adsorption onto a selected textile. It was observed that active-cyclodextrin complex encapsulation do not affect the morphology, size and zeta potential of the microparticles as well as adsorption of the microparticles onto textile remains unaltered. However such active-cyclodextrin complex encapsulated particles provided the enhancement in the aqueous solubility of hydrophobic agents and also provided prolonged release formulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Activated protein C induces the release of microparticle-associated endothelial protein C receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Casal, Margarita; Downey, Colin; Fukudome, Kenji; Marx, Gernot; Toh, Cheng Hock

    2005-02-15

    Activated protein C (APC) treatment is now used for patients with severe sepsis. We investigated its effect in vitro on primary, physiologically relevant cells and demonstrate a novel mechanism of endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) release that is not inhibited by metalloproteinase inhibitors. Exposure of human umbilical vein endothelial cells or monocytes to APC (6.25-100 nM) results in the release of EPCR-containing microparticles, as demonstrated by confocal microscopy and characterized through flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay quantitation of isolated microparticles, and Western blotting. The phenomenon is time- and concentration-dependent and requires the APC active site, EPCR, and protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1) on endothelial cells. Neither protein C nor boiled or D-Phe-Pro-Arg-chloromethylketone-blocked APC can induce microparticle formation and antibody blockade of EPCR or PAR1 cleavage and activation abrogates this APC action. Coincubation with hirudin does not alter the APC effect. The released microparticle bound is full-length EPCR (49 kDa) and APC retains factor V-inactivating activity. Although tumor necrosis factor-alpha (10 ng/mL) can also induce microparticle-associated EPCR release to a similar extent as APC (100 nM), it is only APC-induced microparticles that contain bound APC. This novel observation could provide new insights into the consequences of APC therapy in the septic patient.

  11. Cefazolin-loaded mesoporous silicon microparticles show sustained bactericidal effect against Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman K Yazdi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cefazolin is an antibiotic frequently used in preoperative prophylaxis of orthopedic surgery and to fight secondary infections post-operatively. Although its systemic delivery in a bulk or bolus dose is usually effective, the local and controlled release can increase its effectiveness by lowering dosages, minimizing total drug exposure, abating the development of antibiotic resistance and avoiding the cytotoxic effect. A delivery system based on mesoporous silicon microparticles was developed that is capable of efficiently loading and continuously releasing cefazolin over several days. The in vitro release kinetics from mesoporous silicon microparticles with three different nanopore sizes was evaluated, and minimal inhibitory concentration of cefazolin necessary to eliminate a culture of Staphylococcus aureus was identified to be 250 µg/mL. A milder toxicity toward mesenchymal stem cells was observed from mesoporous silicon microparticles over a 7-day period. Medium pore size-loaded mesoporous silicon microparticles exhibited long-lasting bactericidal properties in a zone inhibition assay while they were able to kill all the bacteria growing in suspension cultures within 24 h. This study demonstrates that the sustained release of cefazolin from mesoporous silicon microparticles provides immediate and long-term control over bacterial growth both in suspension and adhesion while causing minimal toxicity to a population of mesenchymal stem cell. Mesoporous silicon microparticles offer significant advantageous properties for drug delivery applications in tissue engineering as it favorably extends drug bioavailability and stability, while reducing concomitant cytotoxicity to the surrounding tissues.

  12. Preparation, Characterization and Properties of Alginate/Poly(γ-glutamic acid) Composite Microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zongrui; Chen, Yu; Liu, Yang; Tong, Li; Chu, Jiamian; Xiao, Kecen; Zhou, Zhiyu; Dong, Wenbo; Chu, Xingwu

    2017-04-11

    Alginate (Alg) is a renewable polymer with excellent hemostatic properties and biocapability and is widely used for hemostatic wound dressing. However, the swelling properties of alginate-based wound dressings need to be promoted to meet the requirements of wider application. Poly( γ -glutamic acid) (PGA) is a natural polymer with high hydrophility. In the current study, novel Alg/PGA composite microparticles with double network structure were prepared by the emulsification/internal gelation method. It was found from the structure characterization that a double network structure was formed in the composite microparticles due to the ion chelation interaction between Ca 2+ and the carboxylate groups of Alg and PGA and the electrostatic interaction between the secondary amine group of PGA and the carboxylate groups of Alg and PGA. The swelling behavior of the composite microparticles was significantly improved due to the high hydrophility of PGA. Influences of the preparing conditions on the swelling behavior of the composites were investigated. The porous microparticles could be formed while compositing of PGA. Thermal stability was studied by thermogravimetric analysis method. Moreover, in vitro cytocompatibility test of microparticles exhibited good biocompatibility with L929 cells. All results indicated that such Alg/PGA composite microparticles are a promising candidate in the field of wound dressing for hemostasis or rapid removal of exudates.

  13. Properties of gelatin-based films incorporated with chitosan-coated microparticles charged with rutin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammak, Ilyes; Bittante, Ana Mônica Quinta Barbosa; Lourenço, Rodrigo Vinicius; do Amaral Sobral, Paulo José

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was development an active film based on gelatin incorporated with antioxidant, rutin carried into microparticles. The complexation between oppositely charged lecithin and chitosan was applied to prepare the chitosan-coated microparticles. The generated microparticles had an average size of 520±4nm and a span of 0.3 were formulated by a rotor-stator homogenize at the homogenization speed 10,000rpm. Composite films were prepared by incorporating chitosan-coated microparticles, at various concentrations (0.05, 0.1, 0.5, or 1% (based on the weight of the gelatin powder)) in the gelatin-based films. For the prepared films, the results showed that obtained physicochemical, water vapor barrier, and mechanical were compared with native gelatin film with a slight decrease for chitosan concentration higher than 0.5%. The microstructure studies done by scanning electron microscopes, revealed different micropores embedded with oil resulting from the incorporation of the microparticles into the gelatin matrix. Moreover, the calorimetric results were comparable to those of gelatin control film with T g value 45°C and increased crystallinity percentage with increasing incorporation of microparticles. This original concept of composite biodegradable films may thus be a good alternative to incorporate liposoluble active compounds to design an active packaging with good properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Freeze dried chitosan/ poly-(glutamic acid) microparticles for intestinal delivery of lansoprazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mangla Nand; Yadav, Hemant K S; Ram, Munshi; Shivakumar, H G

    2012-01-01

    Lansoprazole sodium is a proton pump inhibitor used in treating gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). It is highly acid-labile and presents many formulation challenges. Therefore, this drug needs to be protected from the harsh environment in the stomach. In order to achieve this, a pH-sensitive microparticle system composed of chitosan and γ- poly-(glutamic acid) was prepared and loaded with Lansoprazole. The prepared microparticles were not stable in gastric pH. To overcome this problem microparticles were freez-dried and filled in an enteric-coated capsule. Upon oral administration, the enteric-coated capsule remained intact in the acidic environment of the stomach, but dissolved rapidly in the distal segment of the GIT. Consequently, all the microparticles loaded in the capsule were brought into the intestine, thus enhancing the intestinal absorption of drug. Drug encapsulation efficiency of formulation F3 was found to be 82.82 % and in vitro release of prepared formulation F3 was found to be 94% after 8 h of dissolution in 7.4 pH phosphate buffer. FTIR and DSC studies showed no interaction between the drug and polymer. The formulation showed good swelling property. SEM photographs showed that microparticles are spherical and lies in size range of 300-400 μm. From the above, it can be concluded that the prepared chitosan/ γ-poly-(glutamic acid) microparticles can be used as carriers for the intestinal delivery of acid liable drugs such as lansoprazole.

  15. Circulating endothelial cells and procoagulant microparticles in patients with glioblastoma: prognostic value.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspar Reynés

    Full Text Available AIM: Circulating endothelial cells and microparticles are prognostic factors in cancer. However, their prognostic and predictive value in patients with glioblastoma is unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential prognostic value of circulating endothelial cells and microparticles in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma treated with standard radiotherapy and concomitant temozolomide. In addition, we have analyzed the methylation status of the MGMT promoter. METHODS: Peripheral blood samples were obtained before and at the end of the concomitant treatment. Blood samples from healthy volunteers were also obtained as controls. Endothelial cells were measured by an immunomagnetic technique and immunofluorescence microscopy. Microparticles were quantified by flow cytometry. Microparticle-mediated procoagulant activity was measured by endogen thrombin generation and by phospholipid-dependent clotting time. Methylation status of MGMT promoter was determined by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. RESULTS: Pretreatment levels of circulating endothelial cells and microparticles were higher in patients than in controls (p<0.001. After treatment, levels of microparticles and thrombin generation decreased, and phospholipid-dependent clotting time increased significantly. A high pretreatment endothelial cell count, corresponding to the 99(th percentile in controls, was associated with poor overall survival. MGMT promoter methylation was present in 27% of tumor samples and was associated to a higher overall survival (66 weeks vs 30 weeks, p<0.004. CONCLUSION: Levels of circulating endothelial cells may have prognostic value in patients with glioblastoma.

  16. Bioresponsive Materials for Drug Delivery Based on Carboxymethyl Chitosan/Poly(γ-Glutamic Acid) Composite Microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoting; Tong, Zongrui; Chen, Yu; Mo, Yanghe; Feng, Huaiyu; Li, Peng; Qu, Xiaosai; Jin, Shaohua

    2017-04-28

    Carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) microparticles are a potential candidate for hemostatic wound dressing. However, its low swelling property limits its hemostatic performance. Poly(γ-glutamic acid) (PGA) is a natural polymer with excellent hydrophilicity. In the current study, a novel CMCS/PGA composite microparticles with a dual-network structure was prepared by the emulsification/internal gelation method. The structure and thermal stability of the composite were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The effects of preparation conditions on the swelling behavior of the composite were investigated. The results indicate that the swelling property of CMCS/PGA composite microparticles is pH sensitive. Levofloxacin (LFX) was immobilized in the composite microparticles as a model drug to evaluate the drug delivery performance of the composite. The release kinetics of LFX from the composite microparticles with different structures was determined. The results suggest that the CMCS/PGA composite microparticles are an excellent candidate carrier for drug delivery.

  17. Physical Characterization of Mouse Deep Vein Thrombosis Derived Microparticles by Differential Filtration with Nanopore Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Peramo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of making advancements in the area of pro-thrombotic microparticle characterization in cardiovascular biology, we present a novel method to separate blood circulating microparticles using a membrane-based, nanopore filtration system. In this qualitative study, electron microscopy observations of these pro-thrombotic mouse microparticles, as well as mouse platelets and leukocytes obtained using a mouse inferior vena cava ligation model of deep-vein thrombosis are presented. In particular, we present mouse microparticle morphology and microstructure using SEM and TEM indicating that they appear to be mostly spherical with diameters in the 100 to 350 nm range. The nanopore filtration technique presented is focused on the development of novel methodologies to isolate and characterize blood circulating microparticles that can be used in conjunction with other methodologies. We believe that determination of microparticle size and structure is a critical step for the development of reliable assays with clinical or research application in thrombosis and it will contribute to the field of nanomedicine in thrombosis.

  18. Functionalized Raspberry-Like Microparticles obtained by Assembly of Nanoparticles during Electrospraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Eun Chul; Jeong, Unyong; Hwang, Yoon Kyun

    2014-01-01

    The present study suggests a novel method to produce raspberry-like microparticles containing diverse functional materials inside. The raspberry-like microparticles were produced from a random assembly of uniformly-sized poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanoparticles via electrospraying. The solution containing the PMMA nanoparticles were supplied through the inner nozzle and compressed air was emitted through the outer nozzle. The air supply helped fast evaporation of acetone, so it enabled copious amount of microparticles as dry powder. The microparticles were highly porous both on the surface and interiors, hence various materials with a function of UV-blocking (TiO 2 nanoparticles and methoxyphenyl triazine) or anti-aging (ethyl(4-(2,3-dihydro-1H-indene-5-carboxyamido) benzoate)) were loaded in large amount (17 wt % versus PMMA). The surface and interior structures of the microparticles were dependent on the characteristics of functional materials. The results clearly suggest that the process to prepare the raspberry-like microparticles can be an excellent approach to generate functional microstructures

  19. Circulating levels of cell-derived microparticles are reduced by mild hypobaric hypoxia: data from a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Lisa; Stoewhas, Anne-Christin; Ferry, Berne; Latshang, Tsogyal D; Lo Cascio, Christian M; Sadler, Ross; Stadelmann, Katrin; Tesler, Noemi; Huber, Reto; Achermann, Peter; Bloch, Konrad E; Kohler, Malcolm

    2014-05-01

    Hypoxia is known to induce the release of microparticles in vitro. However, few publications have addressed the role of hypoxia in vivo on circulating levels of microparticles. This randomised, controlled, crossover trial aimed to determine the effect of mild hypoxia on in vivo levels of circulating microparticles in healthy individuals. Blood was obtained from 51 healthy male volunteers (mean age of 26.9 years) at baseline altitude (490 m) and after 24 and 48 h at moderate altitude (2,590 m). The order of altitude exposure was randomised. Flow cytometry was used to assess platelet-poor plasma for levels of circulating microparticles derived from platelets, endothelial cells, leucocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, red blood cells and procoagulant microparticles. Mean (standard deviation) oxygen saturation was significantly lower on the first and second day after arrival at 2,590 m, 91.0 (2.0) and 92.0 (2.0) %, respectively, compared to 490 m, 96 (1.0) %, p microparticles (annexin V+ -221/μl 95 % CI -370.8/-119.0, lactadherin+ -202/μl 95 % CI -372.2/-93.1), platelet-derived microparticles (-114/μl 95 % CI -189.9/-51.0) and red blood cell-derived microparticles (-81.4 μl 95 % CI -109.9/-57.7) after 48 h at moderate altitude was found. Microparticles derived from endothelial cells, granulocytes, monocytes and leucocytes were not significantly altered by exposure to moderate altitude. In healthy male individuals, mild hypobaric hypoxia, induced by a short-term stay at moderate altitude, is associated with lower levels of procoagulant microparticles, platelet-derived microparticles and red blood cell-derived microparticles, suggesting a reduction in thrombotic potential.

  20. Fetal hemoglobin and hydroxycarbamide moduate both plasma concentration and cellular origin of circulating microparticles in sickle cell anemia children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nébor, Danitza; Romana, Marc; Santiago, Raoul; Vachiery, Nathalie; Picot, Julien; Broquere, Cédric; Chaar, Vicky; Doumdo, Lydia; Odièvre, Marie-Hélène; Benkerrou, Malika; Elion, Jacques

    2013-06-01

    Microparticles are cell membrane-derived microvesicles released during cell apoptosis and activation processes. They have been described as bio-markers in various vascular diseases, including sickle cell anemia, and associated with an increased risk of thrombosis. We investigated the effects of fetal hemoglobin level, a factor known to modulate the clinical expression of sickle cell anemia, and that of hydroxycarbamide treatment which reduces the frequency of vasoocclusive crises, the canonical clinical manifestation of the disease, on both the plasma concentration and the cellular origin of circulating microparticles. Flow cytometry was used to characterize microparticles in 62 sickle cell anemia children at steady state aged 2 months-16 years; 13 of them were treated with hydroxycarbamide. In untreated children, we observed negative correlations between fetal hemoglobin levels and the absolute plasma concentration of microparticles as well as that of microparticles specifically derived from platelets, erythrocytes, and monocytes. Compared to untreated children, those treated with hydroxyurea showed lower concentrations of total microparticles as a consequence of decreased microparticles shed by platelets and erythrocytes. In conclusion, in our sickle cell patients, neonatal decline of fetal hemoglobin coincided with an increase in circulating microparticles derived from erythrocytes, platelets, and monocytes. Hydroxyurea treatment was associated with a decrease in microparticles derived from erythrocytes and platelets.

  1. Polyelectrolyte microparticles for enhancing anode performance in an air–cathode μ-Liter microbial fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yan-Yu; Wang, Hsiang-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Microparticles with high consistency and surface area per volume are fabricated. • P(DADMAC) microparticles facilitate microorganism accumulation and charge transfer. • Microbes in microparticles are capable of proliferation and electricity generation. • Microparticles increase limiting current/power output to more than 200% of biofilm. • Microparticles decrease the anode charge-transfer resistance to 44% of biofilm. - Abstract: Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is considered an environmentally friendly energy source because it generates electrical power by digesting organic substrates in the wastewater. However, it is still challenging for MFC to become an economically affordable and highly efficient energy source due to its relatively low power output and coulombic efficiency. The aim of this study is to increase the performance of anode by using polyelectrolyte microparticles to facilitate the accumulation of microorganisms and the collection of electrons. The polyelectrolyte microparticle is subjected to microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and continuous electricity generation in an air–cathode μ-Liter MFC (μMFC) to validate its biocompatibility, ability in retaining redox species, reduced electron transfer resistance, and sustained energy generation. During the 168-hour operation, microorganisms proliferate inside the microparticle and generate around 250% power output and 200% limiting current of those from microorganism biofilm. The polyelectrolyte microparticle also decreased charge-transfer resistance of anode electrode in air–cathode μMFC by 56% compared with biofilm.

  2. Aerosol-Assisted Fast Formulating Uniform Pharmaceutical Polymer Microparticles with Variable Properties toward pH-Sensitive Controlled Drug Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Lei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Microencapsulation is highly attractive for oral drug delivery. Microparticles are a common form of drug carrier for this purpose. There is still a high demand on efficient methods to fabricate microparticles with uniform sizes and well-controlled particle properties. In this paper, uniform hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HPMCP-based pharmaceutical microparticles loaded with either hydrophobic or hydrophilic model drugs have been directly formulated by using a unique aerosol technique, i.e., the microfluidic spray drying technology. A series of microparticles of controllable particle sizes, shapes, and structures are fabricated by tuning the solvent composition and drying temperature. It is found that a more volatile solvent and a higher drying temperature can result in fast evaporation rates to form microparticles of larger lateral size, more irregular shape, and denser matrix. The nature of the model drugs also plays an important role in determining particle properties. The drug release behaviors of the pharmaceutical microparticles are dependent on their structural properties and the nature of a specific drug, as well as sensitive to the pH value of the release medium. Most importantly, drugs in the microparticles obtained by using a more volatile solvent or a higher drying temperature can be well protected from degradation in harsh simulated gastric fluids due to the dense structures of the microparticles, while they can be fast-released in simulated intestinal fluids through particle dissolution. These pharmaceutical microparticles are potentially useful for site-specific (enteric delivery of orally-administered drugs.

  3. Comparison of optical properties of Eu3+ ions in the silica gel glasses obtained by different preparation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legendziewicz, J.; Sokolnicki, J.; Keller, B.; Borzechowska, M.; Strek, W.

    1996-01-01

    Silica-gel glasses doped with Eu 3+ ions were obtained by different preparation techniques. The absorption, emission and excitation spectra of the obtained glasses were measured in the range of 77-300 K. The energy levels diagrams of Eu 3+ ions were derived. An intensity analysis of f-f transitions was performed. In particular, polymeric structure behaviour of europium compounds entrapped in silica gel glasses was temperature controlled during the preparation of glasses. Their optical properties were investigated. (author)

  4. Inverted opal luminescent Ce-doped silica glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Scotti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Inverted opal Ce-doped silica glasses (Ce : Si molar ratio 1 ⋅ 10−3 were prepared by a sol-gel method using opals of latex microspheres as templates. The rare earth is homogeneously dispersed in silica host matrix, as evidenced by the absence of segregated CeO2, instead present in monolithic Ce-doped SG with the same cerium content. This suggests that the nanometric dimensions of bridges and junctions of the host matrix in the inverted opal structures favor the RE distribution avoiding the possible segregation of CeO2.

  5. Microparticles containing guaraná extract obtained by spray-drying technique: development and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traudi Klein

    Full Text Available AbstractGuaraná (Paullinia cupana Kunth, Sapindaceae is well known for its dietary and pharmaceutical potential, and the semipurified extract of guaraná shows antidepressant and panicolytic effects. However, the low solubility, bioavailability and stability of the semipurified extract limit its use as a component of pharmaceutical agents. Delivery of the semipurified extract in a microparticle form could help to optimize its stability. In this study, microparticles containing semipurified extract of guaraná were obtained by the spray-drying technique, using a combination of maltodextrin and gum arabic. The raw materials and microparticles produced were characterized by particle size analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The drug content and antioxidant capacity were also evaluated. In vitrodissolution tests using flow cell dissolution apparatus, were carried out to investigate the influence of formulation parameters on the release of semipurified extract of guaraná from the microparticles. The spray-drying technique and the processing conditions selected gave satisfactory encapsulation efficiency (80–110% and product yield (55–60%. The mean diameter of microparticles was around 4.5 µm. The DPPH radical scavenging capacity demonstrated that microparticles can protect the semipurified extract of guaraná from the effect of high temperatures during the process maintained the antioxidant capacity. Differential scanning calorimetry results indicated an interaction between semipurified extract of guaraná and gum arabic: maltodextrin in the microparticles, and thermogravimetric analysis indicate that the profile curves of the microparticles are similar to the adjuvants used in drying, probably due to the higher proportion of adjuvants compared to semipurified extract of guaraná. In vitro dissolution tests demonstrate that all formulations complete dissolution within 60 min

  6. Gel polymer electrolytes for batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gur, Ilan; Singh, Mohit; Hudson, William

    2014-11-18

    Nanostructured gel polymer electrolytes that have both high ionic conductivity and high mechanical strength are disclosed. The electrolytes have at least two domains--one domain contains an ionically-conductive gel polymer and the other domain contains a rigid polymer that provides structure for the electrolyte. The domains are formed by block copolymers. The first block provides a polymer matrix that may or may not be conductive on by itself, but that can soak up a liquid electrolyte, thereby making a gel. An exemplary nanostructured gel polymer electrolyte has an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 at 25.degree. C.

  7. Thoria sol-gel processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, R.B.

    1978-10-01

    Alternate fuel fabrication techniques are being developed at WNRE as part of the thorium fuel cycle program. The sol-gel techniques are attractive and this report assembles and summarizes information relating to thoria sol-gel fuels. Some background information on the behaviour and advantages of sol-gel fuel forms is presented, followed by a review of relevant colloid chemistry and an explanation of the fundamental steps of sol-gel processes. Finally, several variants to the basic process are reviewed and evaluated. (author)

  8. Radiotherapy gel dosimetry: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldock, C.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation therapy or radiotherapy is a common form of cancer treatment. Recent advances in radiotherapy such as intensity modulated radiation therapy indicate that treatment outcomes may be improved. The principle limitation of these more advanced techniques of radiation therapy is the ability to quantify the absorbed radiation dose to the tumour which is related to the 3- dimensional geometry of the tumour. The main advances in 3-dimensional radiation dosimetry are the development of radiation sensitive polymer gel dosimeters. The use of radiation sensitive gels for radiation dosimetry in cancer therapy was first suggested in the 1950s. It was subsequently shown in 1984 that radiation induced changes in nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation properties of gels infused with conventional Fricke dosimetry solutions could be measured. Due to diffusion-related limitations in the use of Fricke gels, alternative polymer gel dosimeters were subsequently suggested in 1992. Since then, both magnetic resonance and optical imaging techniques have been used to evaluate polymer gel dosimeters to produce three-dimensional radiation dose distributions. More recently the uses of x-ray computer tomography and vibrational spectroscopy have also been demonstrated as valuable techniques in the evaluation of these dosimetry gels. Although not yet used routinely clinically, applications of these radiologically soft-tissue equivalent gel dosimeters have been shown to have great potential in the evaluation of complex radiation dose distributions. A review of 3-dimensional radiotherapy gel dosimetry is presented

  9. Co-doped mesoporous titania photocatalysts prepared from a peroxo-titanium complex solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Saliby, Ibrahim [Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Technology Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Erdei, Laszlo [Faculty of Engineering and Surveying, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, QLD 4350 (Australia); McDonagh, Andrew [Faculty of Science, University of Technology Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Kim, Jong-Beom; Kim, Jong-Ho [The Research Institute for Catalysis, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Photo and Environmental Technology Co. Ltd., Gwangju 500-460 (Korea, Republic of); Shon, Ho Kyong, E-mail: hokyong.shon-1@uts.edu.au [Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Technology Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Peroxotitanium complex for the synthesis of doped photocatalysts. • Fabrication of N doped and N/Ag co-doped photocatalysts. • Characterization of photocatalysts by SEM, XRD, BET, DRS and XPS. • Bench scale photocatalysis under simulated solar light using crystal violet pollutant. - Abstract: In this study, nitrogen doped and nitrogen/silver co-doped TiO{sub 2} photocatalsysts were fabricated using a sol–gel method at room temperature. The obtained gels were neutralized, washed with pure water, and calcined at 400 °C for 4 h. The photocatalysts were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and BET specific surface area. The results showed that spherical particles with anatase structure were produced after annealing at 400 °C. N 1s (400 eV) and Ag 3d (367.3 eV) states indicated that nitrogen doping and silver co-doping were in the form of NO bonds and AgO, respectively. The photocatalytic activity of photocatalysts was investigated using a batch reactor system exposed to artificial solar irradiation. Both nitrogen and silver/nitrogen co-doped materials were effective in the photocatalytic degradation of hexamethyl pararosaniline chloride.

  10. Qualitative and Semiquantitative Analysis of Doping Products Seized at the Swiss Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Christina; Krug, Oliver; Kamber, Matthias; Thevis, Mario

    2017-05-12

    Substances developed for therapeutic use are also known to be misused by athletes as doping agents and, outside of regulated sport, for image-enhancement. This has generated a market for counterfeit doping substances. Counterfeit doping agents may be of poor pharmaceutical quality and therefore constitute health risks to consumers. This study aims to investigate the pharmaceutical quality of 1,190 doping products seized at the Swiss border. Swiss customs authorities seize incoming shipments potentially containing doping agents. Qualitative and semiquantitative analyses were performed in order to test for prohibited doping substances. The main analytical methods utilized for characterizing confiscated compounds were liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with subsequent in-gel tryptic digestion and identification of peptidic compounds using nanoliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and electrochemiluminescence immuno assay. For 889 (75%) of the analyzed products, the label suggested the content of anabolic agents, for 146 samples (12%) peptide hormones or growth factors, and for 113 items (9%) antiestrogens, aromatase inhibitors or other metabolic modulators. For the majority of the investigated products, the pharmaceutical quality was an unsatisfactory standard: nonapproved substances were detected and less than 20% of the products contained the claimed substance in the respective amount. A comprehensive sample of confiscated doping products was analyzed, allowing for monitoring of developments regarding the use of doping substances in Switzerland and for anticipating future trends and challenges in sports drug testing. An alarming number of tested products was of substandard pharmaceutical quality.

  11. Development of Smart Optical Gels with Highly Magnetically Responsive Bicelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabettini, Stéphane; Stucki, Sandro; Massabni, Sarah; Baumgartner, Mirjam E; Reckey, Pernille Q; Kohlbrecher, Joachim; Ishikawa, Takashi; Windhab, Erich J; Fischer, Peter; Kuster, Simon

    2018-03-14

    Hydrogels delivering on-demand tailorable optical properties are formidable smart materials with promising perspectives in numerous fields, including the development of modern sensors and switches, the essential quality criterion being a defined and readily measured response to environmental changes. Lanthanide ion (Ln 3+ )-chelating bicelles are interesting building blocks for such materials because of their magnetic responsive nature. Imbedding these phospholipid-based nanodiscs in a magnetically aligned state in gelatin permits an orientation-dependent retardation of polarized light. The resulting tailorable anisotropy gives the gel a well-defined optical signature observed as a birefringence signal. These phenomena were only reported for a single bicelle-gelatin pair and required high magnetic field strengths of 8 T. Herein, we demonstrate the versatility and enhance the viability of this technology with a new generation of aminocholesterol (Chol-NH 2 )-doped bicelles imbedded in two different types of gelatin. The highly magnetically responsive nature of the bicelles allowed to gel the anisotropy at commercially viable magnetic field strengths between 1 and 3 T. Thermoreversible gels with a unique optical signature were generated by exposing the system to various temperature conditions and external magnetic field strengths. The resulting optical properties were a signature of the gel's environmental history, effectively acting as a sensor. Solutions containing the bicelles simultaneously aligning parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field directions were obtained by mixing samples chelating Tm 3+ and Dy 3+ . These systems were successfully gelled, providing a material with two distinct temperature-dependent optical characteristics. The high degree of tunability in the magnetic response of the bicelles enables encryption of the gel's optical properties. The proposed gels are viable candidates for temperature tracking of sensitive goods and provide

  12. Neutron detector based on lithiated sol-gel glass

    CERN Document Server

    Wallace, S; Miller, L F; Dai, S

    2002-01-01

    A neutron detector technology is demonstrated based on sup 6 Li/ sup 1 sup 0 B doped sol-gel glass. The detector is a sol-gel glass film coated silicon surface barrier detector (SBD). The ionized charged particles from (n, alpha) reactions in the sol-gel film enter the SBD and are counted. Data showing that gamma-ray pulse amplitudes interfere with identifying charged particles that exit the film layer with energies below the gamma-ray energy is presented. Experiments were performed showing the effect of sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs and sup 6 sup 0 Co gamma rays on the SBD detector. The reaction product energies of the triton and alpha particles from sup 6 Li are significantly greater than the energies of the Compton electrons from high-energy gamma rays, allowing the measurement of neutrons in a high gamma background. The sol-gel radiation detection technology may be applicable to the characterization of transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel and to the monitoring of stored plutonium.

  13. Rheology and structure of milk protein gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van T.; Lakemond, C.M.M.; Visschers, R.W.

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies on gel formation and rheology of milk gels are reviewed. A distinction is made between gels formed by aggregated casein, gels of `pure` whey proteins and gels in which both casein and whey proteins contribute to their properties. For casein' whey protein mixtures, it has been shown

  14. Roughness-controlled self-assembly of mannitol/LB agar microparticles by polymorphic transformation for pulmonary drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengying; Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Quynh; Tay, Bao Hui; Mendyk, Aleksander; Shao, Yu-Hsuan; Lau, Raymond

    2015-01-05

    Novel roughness-controlled mannitol/LB Agar microparticles were synthesized by polymorphic transformation and self-assembly method using hexane as the polymorphic transformation reagent and spray-dried mannitol/LB Agar microparticles as the starting material. As-prepared microparticles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), X-ray diffraction spectra (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and Andersen Cascade Impactor (ACI). The XRD and DSC results indicate that after immersing spray-dried mannitol/LB Agar microparticles in hexane, β-mannitol was completely transformed to α-mannitol in 1 h, and all the δ-mannitol was transformed to α form after 14 days. SEM shows that during the transformation the nanobelts on the spray-dried mannitol/LB Agar microparticles become more dispersed and the contour of the individual nanobelts becomes more noticeable. Afterward, the nanobelts self-assemble to nanorods and result in rod-covered mannitol/LB Agar microparticles. FTIR indicates new hydrogen bonds were formed among mannitol, LB Agar, and hexane. SEM images coupled with image analysis software reveal that different surface morphology of the microparticles have different drug adhesion mechanisms. Comparison of ACI results and image analysis of SEM images shows that an increase in the particle surface roughness can increase the fine particle fractions (FPFs) using the rod-covered mannitol microparticles as drug carriers. Transformed microparticles show higher FPFs than commercially available lactose carriers. An FPF of 28.6 ± 2.4% was achieved by microparticles transformed from spray-dried microparticles using 2% mannitol(w/v)/LB Agar as feed solution. It is comparable to the highest FPF reported in the literature using lactose and spray-dried mannitol as carriers.

  15. Doping control in sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overbye, Marie Birch

    2016-01-01

    Doping testing is a key component enforced by anti-doping authorities to detect and deter doping in sport. Policy is developed to protect athletes' right to participate in doping-free sport; and testing is a key tool to secure this right. Accordingly, athletes' responses to anti-doping efforts.......e., the efforts of stakeholders involved in testing) in their own sport both nationally and worldwide. Moreover, it seeks to identify whether specific factors such as previous experience of testing and perceived proximity of doping have an impact on athletes' perceptions of the testing system. The study comprises...... a web-based questionnaire (N = 645; response rate 43%) and uses qualitative findings to elaborate on and explain quantitative results. Results showed that two-thirds of the athletes reported the national testing programme in their sport to be appropriate. A majority of the athletes who had an opinion...

  16. Gel placement in porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J. Vermolen; J. Bruining; C.J. van Duijn (Hans)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we analyse advective transport of polymers, crosslinkers and gel, taking into account non-equilibrium gelation, gel adsorption and crosslinker precipitation. In absence of diffusion/dispersion the resulting model consists of hyperbolic transport-reaction equations. These

  17. Electro-spun PEDOT-PSS nano-ribbon transistor using ion-gel gate dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Deliris N.; Pinto, Nicholas J.

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrenesulfonic acid)-PEDOT:PSS is a p-doped conducting polymer. Using the electrospinning technique, we have fabricated nano-ribbons of this polymer and deposited them on pre-patterned doped Si/SiO2 wafers. Using the doped Si substrate as the back gate electrode and the SiO2 as the dielectric insulator, the ribbon was characterized in a 3-terminal transistor configuration. No change in the channel current was observed for back gate bias under these conditions. We also used an ion-gel gate dielectric by placing a drop of the ion-gel over the ribbon and inserting a Au wire into the drop. By applying a bias to this contact (top gate), we were able to modulate the current through the ribbon at low voltages. The device operated like a field effect/electrochemical transistor, characteristic of a p-doped semiconductor with an on/off ratio of 350, threshold voltage of 0.7V, mobility of 5 cm2/V-s, and a zero gate bias conductivity of 15 S/cm. The large specific capacitance of the ion-gel (as compared to SiO2) and the formation of an electric double layer at the semiconductor/ion-gel interface was responsible for its operation below 2V. The device was also successfully tested at 100Hz making it useful in low frequency applications. NSF-DMR: RUI 1360772; PREM-1523463.

  18. Polarization induced doped transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Huili; Jena, Debdeep; Nomoto, Kazuki; Song, Bo; Zhu, Mingda; Hu, Zongyang

    2016-06-07

    A nitride-based field effect transistor (FET) comprises a compositionally graded and polarization induced doped p-layer underlying at least one gate contact and a compositionally graded and doped n-channel underlying a source contact. The n-channel is converted from the p-layer to the n-channel by ion implantation, a buffer underlies the doped p-layer and the n-channel, and a drain underlies the buffer.

  19. Neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation in the conductive PEDOT-HA/Cs/Gel scaffold for neural tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuping; Guan, Shui; Xu, Jianqiang; Li, Wenfang; Ge, Dan; Sun, Changkai; Liu, Tianqing; Ma, Xuehu

    2017-09-26

    Engineering scaffolds with excellent electro-activity is increasingly important in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Herein, conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with hyaluronic acid (PEDOT-HA) nanoparticles were firstly synthesized via chemical oxidant polymerization. A three-dimensional (3D) PEDOT-HA/Cs/Gel scaffold was then developed by introducing PEDOT-HA nanoparticles into a chitosan/gelatin (Cs/Gel) matrix. HA, as a bridge, not only was used as a dopant, but also combined PEDOT into the Cs/Gel via chemical crosslinking. The PEDOT-HA/Cs/Gel scaffold was used as a conductive substrate for neural stem cell (NSC) culture in vitro. The results demonstrated that the PEDOT-HA/Cs/Gel scaffold had excellent biocompatibility for NSC proliferation and differentiation. 3D confocal fluorescence images showed cells attached on the channel surface of Cs/Gel and PEDOT-HA/Cs/Gel scaffolds with a normal neuronal morphology. Compared to the Cs/Gel scaffold, the PEDOT-HA/Cs/Gel scaffold not only promoted NSC proliferation with up-regulated expression of Ki67, but also enhanced NSC differentiation into neurons and astrocytes with up-regulated expression of β tubulin-III and GFAP, respectively. It is expected that this electro-active and bio-active PEDOT-HA/Cs/Gel scaffold will be used as a conductive platform to regulate NSC behavior for neural tissue engineering.

  20. Nitrogen-doped graphene-wrapped iron nanofragments for high-performance oxygen reduction electrocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jang Yeol [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Photo-Electronic Hybrid Research Center (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Na Young [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Fuel Cell Research Center (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dong Yun [Chungbuk National University, Department of Environmental Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hee-Young [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Fuel Cell Research Center (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Soo [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Photo-Electronic Hybrid Research Center (Korea, Republic of); Joon Kwon, S. [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Nanophotonics Research Center (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Dong-Hee [Chungbuk National University, Department of Environmental Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Bong, Ki Wan [Korea University, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Son, Jeong Gon, E-mail: jgson@kist.re.kr [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Photo-Electronic Hybrid Research Center (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Young, E-mail: jinykim@kist.re.kr [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Fuel Cell Research Center (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Transition metals, such as iron (Fe)- or cobalt (Co)-based nanomaterials, are promising electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions (ORR) in fuel cells due to their high theoretical activity and low cost. However, a major challenge to using these metals in place of precious metal catalysts for ORR is their low efficiency and poor stability, thus new concepts and strategies should be needed to address this issue. Here, we report a hybrid aciniform nanostructures of Fe nanofragments embedded in thin nitrogen (N)-doped graphene (Fe@N-G) layers via a heat treatment of graphene oxide-wrapped iron oxide (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) microparticles with melamine. The heat treatment leads to transformation of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} microparticles to nanosized zero-valent Fe fragments and formation of core-shell structures of Fe nanofragments and N-doped graphene layers. Thin N-doped graphene layers massively promote electron transfer from the encapsulated metals to the graphene surface, which efficiently optimizes the electronic structure of the graphene surface and thereby triggers ORR activity at the graphene surface. With the synergistic effect arising from the N-doped graphene and Fe nanoparticles with porous aciniform nanostructures, the Fe@N-G hybrid catalyst exhibits high catalytic activity, which was evidenced by high E{sub 1/2} of 0.82 V, onset potential of 0.93 V, and limiting current density of 4.8 mA cm{sup −2} indicating 4-electron ORR, and even exceeds the catalytic stability of the commercial Pt catalyst.

  1. Nitrogen-doped graphene-wrapped iron nanofragments for high-performance oxygen reduction electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jang Yeol; Kim, Na Young; Shin, Dong Yun; Park, Hee-Young; Lee, Sang-Soo; Joon Kwon, S.; Lim, Dong-Hee; Bong, Ki Wan; Son, Jeong Gon; Kim, Jin Young

    2017-03-01

    Transition metals, such as iron (Fe)- or cobalt (Co)-based nanomaterials, are promising electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions (ORR) in fuel cells due to their high theoretical activity and low cost. However, a major challenge to using these metals in place of precious metal catalysts for ORR is their low efficiency and poor stability, thus new concepts and strategies should be needed to address this issue. Here, we report a hybrid aciniform nanostructures of Fe nanofragments embedded in thin nitrogen (N)-doped graphene (Fe@N-G) layers via a heat treatment of graphene oxide-wrapped iron oxide (Fe2O3) microparticles with melamine. The heat treatment leads to transformation of Fe2O3 microparticles to nanosized zero-valent Fe fragments and formation of core-shell structures of Fe nanofragments and N-doped graphene layers. Thin N-doped graphene layers massively promote electron transfer from the encapsulated metals to the graphene surface, which efficiently optimizes the electronic structure of the graphene surface and thereby triggers ORR activity at the graphene surface. With the synergistic effect arising from the N-doped graphene and Fe nanoparticles with porous aciniform nanostructures, the Fe@N-G hybrid catalyst exhibits high catalytic activity, which was evidenced by high E1/2 of 0.82 V, onset potential of 0.93 V, and limiting current density of 4.8 mA cm-2 indicating 4-electron ORR, and even exceeds the catalytic stability of the commercial Pt catalyst.

  2. Use of the spray chilling method to deliver hydrophobic components: physical characterization of microparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Dutra Alvim

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Food industry has been developing products to meet the demands of increasing number of consumers who are concerned with their health and who seek food products that satisfy their needs. Therefore, the development of processed foods that contain functional components has become important for this industry. Microencapsulation can be used to reduce the effects of processing on functional components and preserve their bioactivity. The present study investigated the production of lipid microparticles containing phytosterols by spray chilling. The matrices comprised mixtures of stearic acid and hydrogenated vegetable fat, and the ratio of the matrix components to phytosterols was defined by an experimental design using the mean diameters of the microparticles as the response variable. The melting point of the matrices ranged from 44.5 and 53.4 ºC. The process yield was melting point dependent; the particles that exhibited lower melting point had greater losses than those with higher melting point. The microparticles' mean diameters ranged from 13.8 and 32.2 µm and were influenced by the amount of phytosterols and stearic acid. The microparticles exhibited spherical shape and typical polydispersity of atomized products. From a technological and practical (handling, yield, and agglomeration points of view, lipid microparticles with higher melting point proved promising as phytosterol carriers.

  3. Aceclofenac-loaded chitosan-tamarind seed polysaccharide interpenetrating polymeric network microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Sougata; Saha, Abhimunya; Nayak, Amit Kumar; Sen, Kalyan Kumar; Basu, Sanat Kumar

    2013-05-01

    The present work deals with the preparation, characterization and evaluation of glutaraldehyde cross-linked chitosan-tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP) interpenetrating polymeric network (IPN) microparticles for prolonged aceclofenac release. The drug entrapment efficiency of these microparticles was found 85.84±1.75 to 91.97±1.30% and their average particle sizes were ranged from 490.55±23.24 to 621.60±53.57 μm. These chitosan-TSP IPN microparticles were characterized by FTIR, DSC, and SEM analyses. The in vitro drug release from these aceclofenac-loaded chitosan-TSP IPN microparticles showed sustained release of aceclofenac over 8h and followed the Korsmeyer-Peppas model (R(2)=0.9809-0.9828) with anomalous (non-Fickian) diffusion drug release mechanism. The in vivo studies exhibited sustained anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced rats over prolonged period after oral administration of these newly developed aceclofenac-loaded IPN microparticles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Selective microrobot control using a thermally responsive microclamper for microparticle manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Gwangjun; Choi, Hyunchul; Jeong, Semi; Ko, Seong Young; Park, Jong-Oh; Park, Sukho

    2016-03-01

    Microparticle manipulation using a microrobot in an enclosed environment, such as a lab-on-a-chip, has been actively studied because an electromagnetic actuated microrobot can have accurate motility and wireless controllability. In most studies on electromagnetic actuated microrobots, only a single microrobot has been used to manipulate cells or microparticles. However, the use of a single microrobot can pose several limitations when performing multiple roles in microparticle manipulation. To overcome the limitations associated with using a single microrobot, we propose a new method for the control of multiple microrobots. Multiple microrobots can be controlled independently by an electromagnetic actuation system and multiple microclampers combined with microheaters. To select a specific microrobot among multiple microrobots, we propose a microclamper composed of a clamper structure using thermally responsive hydrogel and a microheater for controlling the microclamper. A fundamental test of the proposed microparticle manipulation system is performed by selecting a specific microrobot among multiple microrobots. Through the independent locomotion of multiple microrobots with U- and V-shaped tips, heterogeneous microparticle manipulation is demonstrated in the creation of a two-dimensional structure. In the future, our proposed multiple-microrobot system can be applied to tasks that are difficult to perform using a single microrobot, such as cell manipulation, cargo delivery, tissue assembly, and cloning.

  5. Effect of strenuous physical exercise on circulating cell-derived microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaar, Vicky; Romana, Marc; Tripette, Julien; Broquere, Cédric; Huisse, Marie-Geneviève; Hue, Olivier; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Connes, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Strenuous exercise is associated with an inflammatory response involving the activation of several types of blood cells. In order to document the specific activation of these cell types, we studied the effect of three maximal exercise tests conducted to exhaustion on the quantitative and qualitative pattern of circulating cell-derived microparticles and inflammatory molecules in healthy subjects. This study mainly indicated that the plasma concentration of microparticles from platelets and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) was increased immediately after the strenuous exercise. In addition, the increase in plasma concentration of microparticles from PMN and platelets was still observed after 2 hours of recovery. A similar pattern was observed for the IL-6 plasma level. In contrast, no change was observed for either soluble selectins or plasma concentration of microparticles from red blood cells, monocytes and endothelial cells. In agreement, sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 levels were not changed by the exercise. We conclude that a strenuous exercise is accompanied by platelet- and PMN-derived microparticle production that probably reflects the activation of these two cell types.

  6. Biosensing utilizing the motion of magnetic microparticles in a microfluidic system

    KAUST Repository

    Giouroudi, Ioanna

    2010-10-23

    The study for the design of a compact and inexpensive biosensing device, which can be operated either by primary care personnel or by patients as opposed to skilled operators, is presented. The main parts of the proposed device are a microfluidic channel, permanent magnets and functionalized magnetic microparticles. The innovative aspect of the proposed biosensing method is that it utilizes the volumetric increase of magnetic microparticles when analyte binds to their surface. Their velocity decreases drastically when they are accelerated by an externally applied magnetic force within a microfluidic channel. This effect is utilized to detect the presence of analyte e.g. microbes. Analytical calculations showed that a decrease in velocity of approximately 23% can be achieved due to the volumetric change of a magnetic microparticle of View the MathML source1μm diameter when HIV virions of approximately View the MathML source0,135μm are bound to its surface and by keeping its magnetic properties the same. Preliminary experiments were carried out utilizing superparamagnetic microparticles coated with streptavidin and polystyrene microparticles coated with biotin.

  7. Selective microrobot control using a thermally responsive microclamper for microparticle manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Go, Gwangjun; Choi, Hyunchul; Ko, Seong Young; Park, Jong-Oh; Park, Sukho; Jeong, Semi

    2016-01-01

    Microparticle manipulation using a microrobot in an enclosed environment, such as a lab-on-a-chip, has been actively studied because an electromagnetic actuated microrobot can have accurate motility and wireless controllability. In most studies on electromagnetic actuated microrobots, only a single microrobot has been used to manipulate cells or microparticles. However, the use of a single microrobot can pose several limitations when performing multiple roles in microparticle manipulation. To overcome the limitations associated with using a single microrobot, we propose a new method for the control of multiple microrobots. Multiple microrobots can be controlled independently by an electromagnetic actuation system and multiple microclampers combined with microheaters. To select a specific microrobot among multiple microrobots, we propose a microclamper composed of a clamper structure using thermally responsive hydrogel and a microheater for controlling the microclamper. A fundamental test of the proposed microparticle manipulation system is performed by selecting a specific microrobot among multiple microrobots. Through the independent locomotion of multiple microrobots with U- and V-shaped tips, heterogeneous microparticle manipulation is demonstrated in the creation of a two-dimensional structure. In the future, our proposed multiple-microrobot system can be applied to tasks that are difficult to perform using a single microrobot, such as cell manipulation, cargo delivery, tissue assembly, and cloning. (paper)

  8. Polyamide Microparticles Containing Vitamin C by Interfacial Polymerization: An Approach by Design of Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Ripoll

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C is widely use in cosmetics and pharmaceutics products for its active properties. However ascorbic acid shows unfavourable chemical instability such as oxidation leading to formulation problems. Therefore, carriers, such as micro- and nanoparticles, have been widely investigated as delivery systems for vitamin C to improve its beneficial effects in skin treatment. However, none of the previous studies have been able to produce microparticles with a high encapsulation entrapment of vitamin C. The aim of the present study is to use an experimental design to optimize the synthesis of polyamide microparticles for the delivery of ascorbic acid. The effect of four formulation parameters on microparticles properties (size and morphology, encapsulation efficiency and yield, release kinetics were investigated using a surface response design. Finally, we were able to obtain stable microparticles containing more than 65% of vitamin C. This result confirms the effectiveness of using design of experiments for the optimisation of microparticle formulation and supports the proposal of using them as candidate for the delivery of vitamin C in skin treatment.

  9. Functional hydrophobin-coating of thermally hydrocarbonized porous silicon microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimbo, Luis M; Mäkilä, Ermei; Raula, Janne; Laaksonen, Timo; Laaksonen, Päivi; Strommer, Katharina; Kauppinen, Esko I; Salonen, Jarno; Linder, Markus B; Hirvonen, Jouni; Santos, Hélder A

    2011-12-01

    Porous silicon (PSi) particles have been widely used in modulating the dissolution rate of various types of drugs loaded within its mesopores. This material can be surface treated in order to vary its hydrophobicity and several other properties, such as drug loading degree and release rate. Hydrophobins are a family of self-assembling proteins of fungal origin which have the ability to form layers on hydrophobic materials. This type of protein layer can modify the characteristics and control the binding properties of the surface on which it assembles. In this study, we have developed a procedure to coat thermally hydrocarbonized-PSi microparticles with hydrophobin II (HFBII) in order to modify the particles' hydrophobicity and to improve their biocompatibility, while maintaining intact the advantageous drug releasing properties of the PSi. The HFBII content adsorbed onto the particles was successfully quantified by a protein assay. Drug dissolution and permeation across Caco-2 cell monolayers were also conducted, together with viability studies in AGS, Caco-2 and HT-29 cells. The characterization and coating stability assessment showed that the HFBII-coating desorbs partially from the particles' surface as the pH increases. The HFBII coating also improved the biocompatibility of the particles without compromising the enhanced drug permeation or release. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Microparticle Analysis in Disorders of Hemostasis and Thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooberry, Micah J.; Key, Nigel S.

    2015-01-01

    Microparticles (MPs) are submicron vesicles released from the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells in response to activation or apoptosis. MPs are known to be involved in numerous biologic processes, including inflammation, the immune response, cancer metastasis, and angiogenesis. Their earliest recognized and most widely accepted role, however, is the ability to promote and support the process of blood coagulation. Consequently, there is ongoing interest in studying MPs in disorders of hemostasis and thrombosis. Both phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure and the presence of tissue factor (TF) in the MP membrane may account for their procoagulant properties, and elevated numbers of MPs in plasma have been reported in numerous prothrombotic conditions. To date, however, there are few data on true causality linking MPs to the genesis of thrombosis. A variety of methodologies have been employed to characterize and quantify MPs, although detection is challenging due to their submicron size. Flow cytometry (FCM) remains the most frequently utilized strategy for MP detection; however, it is associated with significant technological limitations. Additionally, pre-analytical and analytical variables can influence the detection of MPs by FCM, rendering data interpretation difficult. Lack of methodologic standardization in MP analysis by FCM confounds the issue further, although efforts are currently underway to address this limitation. Moving forward, it will be important to address these technical challenges as a scientific community if we are to better understand the role that MPs play in disorders of hemostasis and thrombosis. PMID:25704723

  11. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy nanostructural study of shed microparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liron Issman

    Full Text Available Microparticles (MPs are sub-micron membrane vesicles (100-1000 nm shed from normal and pathologic cells due to stimulation or apoptosis. MPs can be found in the peripheral blood circulation of healthy individuals, whereas elevated concentrations are found in pregnancy and in a variety of diseases. Also, MPs participate in physiological processes, e.g., coagulation, inflammation, and angiogenesis. Since their clinical properties are important, we have developed a new methodology based on nano-imaging that provides significant new data on MPs nanostructure, their composition and function. We are among the first to characterize by direct-imaging cryogenic transmitting electron microscopy (cryo-TEM the near-to-native nanostructure of MP systems isolated from different cell types and stimulation procedures. We found that there are no major differences between the MP systems we have studied, as most particles were spherical, with diameters from 200 to 400 nm. However, each MP population is very heterogeneous, showing diverse morphologies. We investigated by cryo-TEM the effects of standard techniques used to isolate and store MPs, and found that either high-g centrifugation of MPs for isolation purposes, or slow freezing to -80 °C for storage introduce morphological artifacts, which can influence MP nanostructure, and thus affect the efficiency of these particles as future diagnostic tools.

  12. Microparticle tracking velocimetry as a tool for microfluidic flow measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salipante, Paul; Hudson, Steven D.; Schmidt, James W.; Wright, John D.

    2017-07-01

    The accurate measurement of flows in microfluidic channels is important for commercial and research applications. We compare the accuracy of flow measurement techniques over a wide range flows. Flow measurements made using holographic microparticle tracking velocimetry (µPTV) and a gravimetric flow standard over the range of 0.5-100 nL/s agree within 0.25%, well within the uncertainty of the two flow systems. Two commercial thermal flow sensors were used as the intermediaries (transfer standards) between the two flow measurement systems. The gravimetric flow standard was used to calibrate the thermal flow sensors by measuring the rate of change of the mass of liquid in a beaker on a micro-balance as it fills. The holographic µPTV flow measurements were made in a rectangular channel and the flow was seeded with 1 µm diameter polystyrene spheres. The volumetric flow was calculated using the Hagen-Pouiseille solution for a rectangular channel. The uncertainty of both flow measurement systems is given. For the gravimetric standard, relative uncertainty increased for decreasing flows due to surface tension forces between the pipette carrying the flow and the free surface of the liquid in the beaker. The uncertainty of the holographic µPTV measurements did not vary significantly over the measured flow range, and thus comparatively are especially useful at low flow velocities.

  13. Microparticles as players in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandru, N.; Georgescu, A.

    2015-07-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the largest cause of morbidity and mortality in the world and include all diseases and conditions of the heart and blood vessels. The main cause of most CVD is atherosclerosis, which is an abnormal build-up of fat and other substances which form plaque inside the arteries. Atherosclerosis is most serious when it leads to reduced or blocked blood supply to the heart (causing angina or heart attack) or to the brain (causing a stroke). The majority of CVD is caused by risk factors that can be controlled, treated or modified. Microparticles (MPs) are now recognized as potential biomarkers and key elements in the development of CVD. Although MP generation is a physiological phenomenon, their shedding from a variety of cell types into body fluid is intensified in response to cellular activation, high shear stress, as well as cellular apoptosis. In this review we outline distinct aspect of MP generation and their side as players n the CVD development.

  14. Vitreous Microparticle Shedding in Retinal Detachment: A Prospective Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumahai, Perle; Saas, Philippe; Ricouard, Fanny; Biichlé, Sabéha; Puyraveau, Marc; Laheurte, Caroline; Delbosc, Bernard; Saleh, Maher

    2016-01-01

    Microparticles (MPs) are membrane-derived vesicles measuring less than 1 μm in diameter. They are shed from nearly every activated or preapoptotic cell and may exhibit biologic activities in inflammation or apoptosis settings. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether MP shedding was higher in the vitreous of patients with retinal detachment (RD). This was a prospective, comparative study. Levels of vitreous MPs (including phosphatidylserine [PS]-expressing MPs, photoreceptor cell-derived MPs, and photoreceptor cell-derived MPs expressing PS) and soluble proinflammatory factors (i.e., monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and IL-6) were analyzed by flow cytometry. Samples were obtained from 49 eyes undergoing RD surgery and 41 control eyes. Vitreous levels of all the MPs studied were significantly increased in the RD group. Vitreous MP levels were correlated with levels of at least one proinflammatory factor depending on MP subsets. Concerning clinical parameters, vitreous PS-expressing MP and PS-expressing photoreceptor cell-derived MP levels were higher depending on the duration of RD at surgery, the detached retina surface, and the macula status and were found more sensitive than proinflammatory factors only for the duration of RD at surgery. Vitreous concentrations of MPs (mainly derived from photoreceptor cells) are higher after rhegmatogenous RD and found to be correlated with soluble proinflammatory factors.

  15. Dynamic role of microparticles in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Shosaku

    2009-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus increases the risk of cerebro/cardiovascular events, since this disease leads to the development of premature atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis associated with diabetes accelerates diabetic macroangiopathy. Microparticles (MPs) released from cells (MPs) may play a role in the normal hemostatic response to vascular injury and a role in clinical diseases because they express phospholipids, which function as procoagulants. MPs were first observed as released vesicles from platelets following adhesion to vessel walls. Currently, the number of clinical disorders associated with elevated MPs is increasing. A few studies on the potential role of platelet-derived MPs in diabetic complications can been reported. MPs are elevated in diabetic patients however studies have found differences in the MP profile in relation to disease type and the presence or absence of MPs. Levels of platelet-derived MPs and monocyte-derived MPs have been shown to correlate with diabetic complications or the extent of diabetic retinopathy, which is associated with microvascular damage. Elevated endothelial cell-derived MP levels are predictive for the presence of coronary artery lesions, and it is a more significant independent risk factor than length of diabetic disease, lipid levels or presence of hypertension. Interestingly, elevated endothelial cell-derived MP levels are predictive in identifying a subpopulation of diabetic patients without typical anginal symptoms who have angiographic evidence of coronary artery disease. We will present evidence for a dynamic role of MPs in type 2 diabetes.

  16. Function and role of microparticles in various clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Shosaku; Ozaki, Yukio; Ikeda, Yasuo

    2008-01-01

    Microparticles released from cells (MPs) may play a role in the normal hemostatic response to vascular injury and a role in clinical diseases because they express phospholipids, which function as procoagulants. Although flow cytometry is the most widely used method for studying MPs, some novel assays such as tissue factor-dependent procoagulant assay or the ELISA method have been reported. However, the use of MP quantification as a clinical tool is still a matter of debate. Elevated platelet-derived MP, endothelial cell-derived MP, and monocyte-derived MP concentrations are documented in almost all thrombotic diseases occurring in both venous and arterial beds. However, the clear significance of MPs in various clinical conditions remains controversial. For example, it is not known if MPs found in