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Sample records for gel melting point

  1. Fabrication and Optimization of a PAGATA Gel Dosimeter: Increasing the Melting Point of the PAGAT Gel Dosimeter with Agarose Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhtiar Azadbakht

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The PAGAT polymer gel dosimeter melts at 30 ˚C and even at room temperature during the summer, so it needs to be kept in a cool place such as a refrigerator. To increase the stability of the PAGAT gel, different amounts of agarose were added to the PAGAT gel composition and the PAGATA gel was manufactured. Material and Methods: The PAGATA gel vials were irradiated using a Co-60 machine. Then, the samples were evaluated using a 1.5 T Siemens MRI scanner. The ingredients of the PAGATA normoxic gel dosimeter were 4.5% N-N' methylen-bis-acrylamide, 4.5% acrylamide, 4.5% gelatine, 5 mM tetrakis (THPC, 0.01 mM hydroquinone (HQ, 0.5% agarose and 86% de-ionized water (HPLC. Results: Melting point and sensitivity of the PAGAT gel dosimeter with addition of 0.0, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% of agarose were measured, in which the melting points were increased to 30, 82, 86, 88, 89 and 90°C and their sensitivities found to be 0.113, 0.1059, 0.125, 0.122, 0.115 and 0.2  respectively. Discussion and Conclusions: Adding agarose increased the sensitivity and background R2 of the evaluated samples. The optimum amount of agarose was found to be 0.5% regarding these parameters and also the melting point of the gel dosimeter. A value of 0.5% agarose was found to be an optimum value considering the increase of sensitivity to 0.125 and melting point to 86°C but at the expense of increasing the background R2 to 4.530.

  2. Ag-nanoparticle fractionation by low melting point agarose gel electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guarrotxena, Nekane, E-mail: nekane@ictp.csic.es [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros (ICTP) (Spain); Braun, Gary [University of California, Santa Barbara, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States)

    2012-10-15

    The separation of surface-enhanced raman scattering (SERS)-active Ag-multi-nanoparticle (NP) assemblies by low melting point agarose gel electrophoresis was accomplished here by controlling surface charge using NP capping agents, and the pore size of agarose gel matrix. Detailed transmission electron microscopy analysis of excised gel fractions showed dimers and small clusters to have the greatest SERS activity and a mobility in between the monomers and large aggregates. This strategy enables one to: (1) stabilize small multispherical Ag clusters against further aggregation during purification; (2) fractionate and recover spherical assemblies by nuclearity; and (3) analyze SERS-enhancements for each fraction to optimize purification conditions.

  3. Enzyme modification of starch with amylomaltase results in increasing gel melting point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Riis; Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Pedersen, Sven

    2009-01-01

    to 70 °C. Only for the combined AM and branching enzyme (BE) modified pea starches decreased Tp (from 79 to 61 °C) was obtained. This effect was followed by a decreased gel formation and hence a fully gelatin comparable gel was not obtained. A two-component principal component analysis (PCA) model......Melting properties of gelatin-based gels are fundamental for their functionality. With the aim at generating gelatin-like starch-based systems, thermodynamic properties of 20% (w/w) gels of 51 amylomaltase-(AM) (4-a-glucanotransferase; E.C. 2.4.1.25) modified starches, 7 non......-enzyme-modified starches and 2 gelatins were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). AM modification generally increased gel peak temperature (Tp) and enthalpy of transition (¿H). The increase in Tp for the potato starches was from 65 to 74 °C, whereas for the maize starches it was elevated from 57...

  4. Nanotexturing of surfaces to reduce melting point.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Ernest J.; Zubia, David (University of Texas at El Paso El Paso, TX); Mireles, Jose (Universidad Aut%C3%94onoma de Ciudad Ju%C3%94arez Ciudad Ju%C3%94arez, Mexico); Marquez, Noel (University of Texas at El Paso El Paso, TX); Quinones, Stella (University of Texas at El Paso El Paso, TX)

    2011-11-01

    This investigation examined the use of nano-patterned structures on Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) material to reduce the bulk material melting point (1414 C). It has been found that sharp-tipped and other similar structures have a propensity to move to the lower energy states of spherical structures and as a result exhibit lower melting points than the bulk material. Such a reduction of the melting point would offer a number of interesting opportunities for bonding in microsystems packaging applications. Nano patterning process capabilities were developed to create the required structures for the investigation. One of the technical challenges of the project was understanding and creating the specialized conditions required to observe the melting and reshaping phenomena. Through systematic experimentation and review of the literature these conditions were determined and used to conduct phase change experiments. Melting temperatures as low as 1030 C were observed.

  5. Melting Point Of Metals In Relation Io Electron Charge Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boczkal G.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of spatial criterion of the electron charge concentration is applied to determine the metal melting point. Based on the model proposed for bcc metals, a model for hcp metals and general form for others has been developed. To calculate the melting point, only structural data and atomic number are required. The obtained results show good consistency with the experimental data for metals with atomic number Z < 70.

  6. Liposome fluidization and melting point depression by pressurized CO2 determined by fluorescence anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothun, Geoffrey D; Knutson, Barbara L; Strobel, Herbert J; Nokes, Sue E

    2005-01-18

    The influence of CO2 on the bilayer fluidity of liposomes, which are representative of model cellular membranes, was examined for the first time at the elevated pressures (up to 13.9 MPa) associated with CO2-based processing of liposomes and microbial sterilization. Fluidization and melting point depression of aqueous dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes by pressurized CO2 (present as an excess phase) were studied by steady-state fluorescence anisotropy using the membrane probe 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH). Isothermal experiments revealed reversible, pressure-dependent fluidization of DPPC bilayers at temperatures corresponding to near-gel (295 K) and fluid (333 K) phases at atmospheric pressure, where the gel-to-fluid phase transition (Tm) occurs at approximately 315 K. Isobaric measurements (PCO2 =1.8, 7.0, and 13.9 MPa) of DPH anisotropy demonstrate substantial melting point depression (DeltaTm = -4.8 to -18.5 K) and a large broadening of the gel-fluid phase transition region, which were interpreted using conventional theories of melting point depression. Liposome fluidity is influenced by CO2 accumulation in the hydrocarbon core and polar headgroup region, as well as the formation of carbonic acid and/or the presence of buffering species under elevated CO2 pressure.

  7. Estimating the melting point, entropy of fusion, and enthalpy of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The entropies of fusion, enthalies of fusion, and melting points of organic compounds can be estimated through three models developed using the SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) platform. The entropy of fusion is modeled through a combination of interaction terms and physical descriptors. The enthalpy of fusion is modeled as a function of the entropy of fusion, boiling point, and fexibility of the molecule. The melting point model is the enthlapy of fusion divided by the entropy of fusion. These models were developed in part to improve SPARC's vapor pressure and solubility models. These models have been tested on 904 unique compounds. The entropy model has a RMS of 12.5 J mol-1K-1. The enthalpy model has a RMS of 4.87 kJ mol-1. The melting point model has a RMS of 54.4°C. Published in the journal, SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research

  8. Using Gel Electrophoresis To Illustrate Protein Diversity and Isoelectric Point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Mark; Vanable, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    Demonstrates the differences in protein structures by focusing on isoelectric point with an experiment that is observable under certain pH levels in gel electrophoresis. Explains the electrophoresis procedure and reports results of the experiments. (YDS)

  9. Statistical distribution of thermal vacancies close to the melting point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    José Pozo, María, E-mail: mariaj.pozom@gmail.com [Grupo de Nanomateriales, Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Davis, Sergio, E-mail: sdavis@gnm.cl [Grupo de Nanomateriales, Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Peralta, Joaquín, E-mail: joaquin.peralta@unab.cl [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andrés Bello, Santiago (Chile)

    2015-01-15

    A detailed description of the statistical distribution of thermal vacancies in an homogeneous crystal near its melting point is presented, using the embedded atom model for copper as an example. As the temperature increase, the average number of thermal vacancies generated by atoms migrating to neighboring sites increases according to Arrhenius’ law. We present for the first time a model for the statistical distribution of thermal vacancies, which according to our atomistic computer simulations follow a Gamma distribution. All the simulations are carried out by classical molecular dynamics and the recognition of vacancies is achieved via a recently developed algorithm. Our results could be useful in the further development of a theory explaining the mechanism of homogeneous melting, which seems to be mediated by the accumulation of thermal vacancies near the melting point.

  10. Gravitational collapse of colloidal gels: Origins of the tipping point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Roseanna; Padmanabhan, Poornima

    2016-11-01

    Reversible colloidal gels are soft viscoelastic solids in which durable but reversible bonds permit on-demand transition from solidlike to liquidlike behavior; these O(kT) bonds also lead to ongoing coarsening and age stiffening, making their rheology inherently time dependent. To wit, such gels may remain stable for an extended time, but then suddenly collapse, sedimenting to the bottom of the container (or creaming to the top) and eliminating any intended functionality of the material. Although this phenomenon has been studied extensively in the experimental literature, the microscopic mechanism underlying the collapse is not well understood. Effects of gel age, interparticle attraction strength, and wall effects all have been shown to affect collapse behavior, but the microstructural transformations underlying the 'tipping point' remain murky. To study this behavior, we conduct large-scale dynamic simulation to model the structural and rheological evolution of colloidal gels subjected to various gravitational stresses, examining the detailed micromechanics in three temporal regimes: slow sedimentation prior to collapse; the tipping point leading to the onset of rapid collapse; and the subsequent compaction of the material as it approaches its final bed height. Acknowledgment for funding and support from the Office of Naval Research; the National Science Foundation; and NSF XSEDE.

  11. Origin of Invariant Gel Melting Temperatures in the c-T Phase Diagram of an Organogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Elliot; Blanc, Christophe; Al Ouahabi, Abdelaziz; Maurin, David; Le Parc, Rozenn; Bantignies, Jean-Louis; Guenet, Jean-Michel; Collin, Dominique; Mésini, Philippe J

    2016-05-17

    Binary c-T phase diagrams of organogelators in solvent are frequently simplified to two domains, gel and sol, even when the melting temperatures display two distinct regimes, an increase with T and a plateau. Herein, the c-T phase diagram of an organogelator in solvent is elucidated by rheology, DSC, optical microscopy, and transmitted light intensity measurements. We evidence a miscibility gap between the organogelator and the solvent above a threshold concentration, cL. In this domain the melting or the formation of the gel becomes a monotectic transformation, which explains why the corresponding temperatures are nonvariant above cL. As shown by further studies by variable temperature FTIR and NMR, different types of H-bonds drive both the liquid-liquid phase separation and the gelation.

  12. Effect of enzymatic interesterification on melting point of palm olein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Atif A A; Mohamed, Ibrahim O; Ibrahim, Mohd N; Yusoff, Mohd S A

    2003-07-01

    Immobilized PS-C 'Amano' II lipase was used to catalyze the interesterification of palm olein (POo) with 30, 50, and 70% stearic acid in n-hexane at 60 degrees C. The catalytic performance of the immobilized lipase was evaluated by determining the composition change of fatty acyl groups and triacylglycerol (TAG) by gas liquid chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, respectively. The interesterification process resulted in the formation of new TAGs, mainly tripalmitin and dipalmitostearin, both of which were absent in the original oil. These changes in TAG composition resulted in an increase in slip melting point, from the original 25.5 degrees C to 36.3, 37.0, and 40.0 degrees C in the modified POo with 30, 50, and 70% stearic acid, respectively. All the reactions attained steady state in about 6 h. This type of work will find great applications in food industries, such as confectionery.

  13. The Melting Point of Palladium Using Miniature Fixed Points of Different Ceramic Materials: Part II—Analysis of Melting Curves and Long-Term Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edler, F.; Huang, K.

    2016-12-01

    Fifteen miniature fixed-point cells made of three different ceramic crucible materials (Al2O3, ZrO2, and Al2O3(86 %)+ZrO2(14 %)) were filled with pure palladium and used to calibrate type B thermocouples (Pt30 %Rh/Pt6 %Rh). A critical point by using miniature fixed points with small amounts of fixed-point material is the analysis of the melting curves, which are characterized by significant slopes during the melting process compared to flat melting plateaus obtainable using conventional fixed-point cells. The method of the extrapolated starting point temperature using straight line approximation of the melting plateau was applied to analyze the melting curves. This method allowed an unambiguous determination of an electromotive force (emf) assignable as melting temperature. The strict consideration of two constraints resulted in a unique, repeatable and objective method to determine the emf at the melting temperature within an uncertainty of about 0.1 μ V. The lifetime and long-term stability of the miniature fixed points was investigated by performing more than 100 melt/freeze cycles for each crucible of the different ceramic materials. No failure of the crucibles occurred indicating an excellent mechanical stability of the investigated miniature cells. The consequent limitation of heating rates to values below {± }3.5 K min^{-1} above 1100° C and the carefully and completely filled crucibles (the liquid palladium occupies the whole volume of the crucible) are the reasons for successfully preventing the crucibles from breaking. The thermal stability of the melting temperature of palladium was excellent when using the crucibles made of Al2O3(86 %)+ZrO2(14 %) and ZrO2. Emf drifts over the total duration of the long-term investigation were below a temperature equivalent of about 0.1 K-0.2 K.

  14. On the correlation between hydrogen bonding and melting points in the inositols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sándor L. Bekö

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inositol, 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexahydroxycyclohexane, exists in nine stereoisomers with different crystal structures and melting points. In a previous paper on the relationship between the melting points of the inositols and the hydrogen-bonding patterns in their crystal structures [Simperler et al. (2006. CrystEngComm 8, 589], it was noted that although all inositol crystal structures known at that time contained 12 hydrogen bonds per molecule, their melting points span a large range of about 170 °C. Our preliminary investigations suggested that the highest melting point must be corrected for the effect of molecular symmetry, and that the three lowest melting points may need to be revised. This prompted a full investigation, with additional experiments on six of the nine inositols. Thirteen new phases were discovered; for all of these their crystal structures were examined. The crystal structures of eight ordered phases could be determined, of which seven were obtained from laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data. Five additional phases turned out to be rotator phases and only their unit cells could be determined. Two previously unknown melting points were measured, as well as most enthalpies of melting. Several previously reported melting points were shown to be solid-to-solid phase transitions or decomposition points. Our experiments have revealed a complex picture of phases, rotator phases and phase transitions, in which a simple correlation between melting points and hydrogen-bonding patterns is not feasible.

  15. 46 CFR 153.908 - Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring..., LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Operations Documents and Cargo Information § 153.908 Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge:...

  16. Determination of the gel point of a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin and characterization of its curing rheokinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez, Juan Carlos; Madsen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    The determination of the gel point of a resin is a key in order to design and optimize the manufacturing process of composite materials. In this work, the gel point of a biobased polyfurfuryl alcohol (FA) resin has been determined by rheological isothermal tests at different curing temperatures. The obtained gel times using three different amounts of catalyst (2, 4 and 6 % wt.) were correlated to temperature by the Macosko model; to predict the gel time at any temperature within the studied r...

  17. On the correlation between hydrogen bonding and melting points in the inositols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Sándor L; Alig, Edith; Schmidt, Martin U;

    2014-01-01

    Inositol, 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexahydroxycyclohexane, exists in nine stereoisomers with different crystal structures and melting points. In a previous paper on the relationship between the melting points of the inositols and the hydrogen-bonding patterns in their crystal structures [Simperler et al. (2006...... ▶). CrystEngComm 8, 589], it was noted that although all inositol crystal structures known at that time contained 12 hydrogen bonds per molecule, their melting points span a large range of about 170 °C. Our preliminary investigations suggested that the highest melting point must be corrected for the effect...... of molecular symmetry, and that the three lowest melting points may need to be revised. This prompted a full investigation, with additional experiments on six of the nine inositols. Thirteen new phases were discovered; for all of these their crystal structures were examined. The crystal structures of eight...

  18. Applicability of low-melting-point microcrystalline wax to develop temperature-sensitive formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kohei; Kimura, Shin-Ichiro; Iwao, Yasunori; Itai, Shigeru

    2017-10-30

    Low-melting-point substances are widely used to develop temperature-sensitive formulations. In this study, we focused on microcrystalline wax (MCW) as a low-melting-point substance. We evaluated the drug release behavior of wax matrix (WM) particles using various MCW under various temperature conditions. WM particles containing acetaminophen were prepared using a spray congealing technique. In the dissolution test at 37°C, WM particles containing low-melting-point MCWs whose melting was starting at approx. 40°C (Hi-Mic-1045 or 1070) released the drug initially followed by the release of only a small amount. On the other hand, in the dissolution test at 20 and 25°C for WM particles containing Hi-Mic-1045 and at 20, 25, and 30°C for that containing Hi-Mic-1070, both WM particles showed faster drug release than at 37°C. The characteristic drug release suppression of WM particles containing low-melting-point MCWs at 37°C was thought attributable to MCW melting, as evidenced by differential scanning calorimetry analysis and powder X-ray diffraction analysis. Taken together, low-melting-point MCWs may be applicable to develop implantable temperature-sensitive formulations that drug release is accelerated by cooling at administered site. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Additives on Melting Point of LATS Refining Ladle Slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong-ming; LI Gui-rong; DING Zhen-tao; DAI Qi-xun; LI Bo

    2007-01-01

    To avoid slag sticking on the ladle immersion cover during the LATS refining and alloying process, the effect of Al2O3 on the melting point of the ladle slag was studied and the additives including CaF2, B2O3, Li2O, and CaO were used to decrease the melting point of the ladle slag. The melting point was measured using the hemisphere method. The results show that the addition of Al2O3 to the ladle slag increases the melting point. The fluxing action is not remarkable if only CaF2 or CaO is used as the additive. The fluxing action of the composite additive obtained by the mixing of CaO and CaF2 in the mass proportion of wCaO∶wCaF2=2∶1 is preferred. The fluxing action of B2O3 is also notable. When the B2O3 content in mass percent is in the range from 2% to 10%, the corresponding melting point is 1 380 ℃ to 1 290 ℃. The fluxing action of Li2O is the most remarkable. When the Li2O content is up to 5%, the melting point of the slag is lower than 1 300 ℃.

  20. A molecular dynamics study on melting point and specific heat of Ni3Al alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Using the Embedding Atom Method(EAM)for highly undercooled Ni3Al alloy,the melting point and the specific heat were studied by a molecular dynamics simula-tion.The simulation of melting point was carried out by means of the sandwich method and the NVE ensemble method,and the results show a good agreement,whereas are larger than the experimental value of 1663 K.This difference is attrib-uted to the influence of surface melting on experimental results,which causes the smaller measurements compared with the thermodynamic melting point.The simulated specific heat of Ni3Al alloy weakly and linearly increases with the in-crease of undercooling in the temperature range from 800 K to 2000 K.

  1. A molecular dynamics study on melting point and specific heat of Ni3Al alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hong; L(U) YongJun; CHEN Min; GUO ZengYuan

    2007-01-01

    Using the Embedding Atom Method (EAM) for highly undercooled Ni3Al alloy, the melting point and the specific heat were studied by a molecular dynamics simulation. The simulation of melting point was carried out by means of the sandwich method and the NVE ensemble method, and the results show a good agreement, whereas are larger than the experimental value of 1663 K. This difference is attributed to the influence of surface melting on experimental results, which causes the smaller measurements compared with the thermodynamic melting point. The simulated specific heat of Ni3Al alloy weakly and linearly increases with the increase of undercooling in the temperature range from 800 K to 2000 K.

  2. Anomalous discontinuity at the percolation critical point of active gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinman, M; Sharma, A; Alvarado, J; Koenderink, G H; MacKintosh, F C

    2015-03-06

    We develop a percolation model motivated by recent experimental studies of gels with active network remodeling by molecular motors. This remodeling was found to lead to a critical state reminiscent of random percolation (RP), but with a cluster distribution inconsistent with RP. Our model not only can account for these experiments, but also exhibits an unusual type of mixed phase transition: We find that the transition is characterized by signatures of criticality, but with a discontinuity in the order parameter.

  3. Determination of the gel point of a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin and characterization of its curing rheokinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominguez, Juan Carlos; Madsen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    The determination of the gel point of a resin is a key in order to design and optimize the manufacturing process of composite materials. In this work, the gel point of a biobased polyfurfuryl alcohol (FA) resin has been determined by rheological isothermal tests at different curing temperatures....... The obtained gel times using three different amounts of catalyst (2, 4 and 6 % wt.) were correlated to temperature by the Macosko model; to predict the gel time at any temperature within the studied range. Furthermore, the evolution of the complex viscosity of the FA resin after its gel point has been studied...... of the resin system. The evolution of the viscosity has been modeled using widely used rheokinetic models. Finally, since rheological properties such as viscosity and complex modulus (G*) are highly sensitive to the molecular weight of a polymeric system, and they can be used as indicators of the degree...

  4. Neural Network Based on Quantum Chemistry for Predicting Melting Point of Organic Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan A. Lazzús

    2009-01-01

    The melting points of organic compounds were estimated using a combined method that includes a backpropagation neural network and quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) parameters in quantum chemistry. Eleven descriptors that reflect the intermolec-ular forces and molecular symmetry were used as input variables. QSPR parameters were calculated using molecular modeling and PM3 semi-empirical molecular orbital theories. A total of 260 compounds were used to train the network, which was developed using MatLab. Then, the melting points of 73 other compounds were predicted and results were compared to experimental data from the literature. The study shows that the chosen artificial neural network and the quantitative structure property relationships method present an excellent alternative for the estimation of the melting point of an organic compound, with average absolute deviation of 5%.

  5. Estimation of melting points of large set of persistent organic pollutants utilizing QSPR approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Marquita; Sizochenko, Natalia; Rasulev, Bakhtiyor; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2016-03-01

    The presence of polyhalogenated persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as Cl/Br-substituted benzenes, biphenyls, diphenyl ethers, and naphthalenes has been identified in all environmental compartments. The exposure to these compounds can pose potential risk not only for ecological systems, but also for human health. Therefore, efficient tools for comprehensive environmental risk assessment for POPs are required. Among the factors vital for environmental transport and fate processes is melting point of a compound. In this study, we estimated the melting points of a large group (1419 compounds) of chloro- and bromo- derivatives of dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls, naphthalenes, diphenylethers, and benzenes by utilizing quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) techniques. The compounds were classified by applying structure-based clustering methods followed by GA-PLS modeling. In addition, random forest method has been applied to develop more general models. Factors responsible for melting point behavior and predictive ability of each method were discussed.

  6. Estimating the physicochemical properties of polyhalogenated aromatic and aliphatic compounds using UPPER: part 1. Boiling point and melting point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admire, Brittany; Lian, Bo; Yalkowsky, Samuel H

    2015-01-01

    The UPPER (Unified Physicochemical Property Estimation Relationships) model uses enthalpic and entropic parameters to estimate 20 biologically relevant properties of organic compounds. The model has been validated by Lian and Yalkowsky on a data set of 700 hydrocarbons. The aim of this work is to expand the UPPER model to estimate the boiling and melting points of polyhalogenated compounds. In this work, 19 new group descriptors are defined and used to predict the transition temperatures of an additional 1288 compounds. The boiling points of 808 and the melting points of 742 polyhalogenated compounds are predicted with average absolute errors of 13.56 K and 25.85 K, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A density functional theory based approach for predicting melting points of ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lihua; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S

    2017-02-01

    Accurate prediction of melting points of ILs is important both from the fundamental point of view and from the practical perspective for screening ILs with low melting points and broadening their utilization in a wider temperature range. In this work, we present an ab initio approach to calculate melting points of ILs with known crystal structures and illustrate its application for a series of 11 ILs containing imidazolium/pyrrolidinium cations and halide/polyatomic fluoro-containing anions. The melting point is determined as a temperature at which the Gibbs free energy of fusion is zero. The Gibbs free energy of fusion can be expressed through the use of the Born-Fajans-Haber cycle via the lattice free energy of forming a solid IL from gaseous phase ions and the sum of the solvation free energies of ions comprising IL. Dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT) involving (semi)local (PBE-D3) and hybrid exchange-correlation (HSE06-D3) functionals is applied to estimate the lattice enthalpy, entropy, and free energy. The ions solvation free energies are calculated with the SMD-generic-IL solvation model at the M06-2X/6-31+G(d) level of theory under standard conditions. The melting points of ILs computed with the HSE06-D3 functional are in good agreement with the experimental data, with a mean absolute error of 30.5 K and a mean relative error of 8.5%. The model is capable of accurately reproducing the trends in melting points upon variation of alkyl substituents in organic cations and replacement one anion by another. The results verify that the lattice energies of ILs containing polyatomic fluoro-containing anions can be approximated reasonably well using the volume-based thermodynamic approach. However, there is no correlation of the computed lattice energies with molecular volume for ILs containing halide anions. Moreover, entropies of solid ILs follow two different linear relationships with molecular volume for halides and polyatomic fluoro

  8. The Relationship between Lattice Enthalpy and Melting Point in Magnesium and Aluminium Oxides. Science Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Christopher; Yap, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    This "Science Note" presents a study by Christopher Talbot and Lydia Yap, who teach IB Chemistry at Anglo-Chinese School (Independent), Republic of Singapore, to pre-university students. Pre-university students may postulate the correlation between the magnitude of the lattice enthalpy compound and its melting point, since both…

  9. The Relationship between Lattice Enthalpy and Melting Point in Magnesium and Aluminium Oxides. Science Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Christopher; Yap, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    This "Science Note" presents a study by Christopher Talbot and Lydia Yap, who teach IB Chemistry at Anglo-Chinese School (Independent), Republic of Singapore, to pre-university students. Pre-university students may postulate the correlation between the magnitude of the lattice enthalpy compound and its melting point, since both…

  10. Estimating the melting point, entropy of fusion, and enthalpy of fusion of organic compounds via SPARC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The entropies of fusion, enthalies of fusion, and melting points of organic compounds can be estimated through three models developed using the SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) platform. The entropy of fusion is modeled through a combination of interaction ...

  11. Explaining Melting and Evaporation below Boiling Point. Can Software Help with Particle Ideas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, George; Johnson, Philip; Fotiades, Fotis

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study exploring the use of a software package to help pupils understand particulate explanations for melting and evaporation below boiling point. Two matched classes in a primary school in Greece (ages 11-12, n = 16 and 19) were involved in a short intervention of six one hour lessons. Covering the same…

  12. Palm-based standard reference materials for iodine value and slip melting point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarmizi, Azmil Haizam Ahmad; Lin, Siew Wai; Kuntom, Ainie

    2008-09-22

    This work described study protocols on the production of Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials for iodine value and slip melting point. Thirty-three laboratories collaborated in the inter-laboratory proficiency tests for characterization of iodine value, while thirty-two laboratories for characterization of slip melting point. The iodine value and slip melting point of palm oil, palm olein and palm stearin were determined in accordance to MPOB Test Methods p3.2:2004 and p4.2:2004, respectively. The consensus values and their uncertainties were based on the acceptability of statistical agreement of results obtained from collaborating laboratories. The consensus values and uncertainties for iodine values were 52.63 +/- 0.14 Wijs in palm oil, 56.77 +/- 0.12 Wijs in palm olein and 33.76 +/- 0.18 Wijs in palm stearin. For the slip melting points, the consensus values and uncertainties were 35.6 +/- 0.3 degrees C in palm oil, 22.7 +/- 0.4 degrees C in palm olein and 53.4 +/- 0.2 degrees C in palm stearin. Repeatability and reproducibility relative standard deviations were found to be good and acceptable, with values much lower than that of 10%. Stability of Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials remained stable at temperatures of -20 degrees C, 0 degrees C, 6 degrees C and 24 degrees C upon storage for one year.

  13. A comparison of methods for melting point calculation using molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y; Maginn, EJ

    2012-04-14

    Accurate and efficient prediction of melting points for complex molecules is still a challenging task for molecular simulation, although many methods have been developed. Four melting point computational methods, including one free energy-based method (the pseudo-supercritical path (PSCP) method) and three direct methods (two interface-based methods and the voids method) were applied to argon and a widely studied ionic liquid 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM][Cl]). The performance of each method was compared systematically. All the methods under study reproduce the argon experimental melting point with reasonable accuracy. For [BMIM][Cl], the melting point was computed to be 320 K using a revised PSCP procedure, which agrees with the experimental value 337-339 K very well. However, large errors were observed in the computed results using the direct methods, suggesting that these methods are inappropriate for large molecules with sluggish dynamics. The strengths and weaknesses of each method are discussed. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3702587

  14. Explaining Melting and Evaporation below Boiling Point. Can Software Help with Particle Ideas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, George; Johnson, Philip; Fotiades, Fotis

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study exploring the use of a software package to help pupils understand particulate explanations for melting and evaporation below boiling point. Two matched classes in a primary school in Greece (ages 11-12, n = 16 and 19) were involved in a short intervention of six one hour lessons. Covering the same…

  15. Free energy based melting point prediction by NVT simulation with solid-liquid two-phase configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Taichi; Ishida, Toyokazu

    2016-10-01

    We propose a method for computing a melting point on the basis of the Gibbs free energy difference between the solid and liquid phases. The free energy difference is calculated from the average pressure obtained by performing a standard NVT simulation with a solid-liquid two-phase configuration. The method is validated by the melting point calculations of argon and benzene systems. In addition, the method is applied to a mannitol system, and the more reliable melting point than the previous estimate is successfully predicted. These results demonstrate that this method is very simple and useful to calculate melting points.

  16. Models for mean bonding length, melting point and lattice thermal expansion of nanoparticle materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omar, M.S., E-mail: dr_m_s_omar@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Salahaddin-Erbil, Arbil, Kurdistan (Iraq)

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Three models are derived to explain the nanoparticles size dependence of mean bonding length, melting temperature and lattice thermal expansion applied on Sn, Si and Au. The following figures are shown as an example for Sn nanoparticles indicates hilly applicable models for nanoparticles radius larger than 3 nm. Highlights: ► A model for a size dependent mean bonding length is derived. ► The size dependent melting point of nanoparticles is modified. ► The bulk model for lattice thermal expansion is successfully used on nanoparticles. -- Abstract: A model, based on the ratio number of surface atoms to that of its internal, is derived to calculate the size dependence of lattice volume of nanoscaled materials. The model is applied to Si, Sn and Au nanoparticles. For Si, that the lattice volume is increases from 20 Å{sup 3} for bulk to 57 Å{sup 3} for a 2 nm size nanocrystals. A model, for calculating melting point of nanoscaled materials, is modified by considering the effect of lattice volume. A good approach of calculating size-dependent melting point begins from the bulk state down to about 2 nm diameter nanoparticle. Both values of lattice volume and melting point obtained for nanosized materials are used to calculate lattice thermal expansion by using a formula applicable for tetrahedral semiconductors. Results for Si, change from 3.7 × 10{sup −6} K{sup −1} for a bulk crystal down to a minimum value of 0.1 × 10{sup −6} K{sup −1} for a 6 nm diameter nanoparticle.

  17. Development of quantitative structure property relationships for predicting the melting point of energetic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Jason A; Byrd, Edward F C

    2015-11-01

    The accurate prediction of the melting temperature of organic compounds is a significant problem that has eluded researchers for many years. The most common approach used to develop predictive models entails the derivation of quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPRs), which are multivariate linear relationships between calculated quantities that are descriptors of molecular or electronic features and a property of interest. In this report the derivation of QSPRs to predict melting temperatures of energetic materials based on descriptors calculated using the AM1 semiempirical quantum mechanical method are described. In total, the melting points and experimental crystal structures of 148 energetic materials were analyzed. Principal components analysis was performed in order to assess the relative importance and roles of the descriptors in our QSPR models. Also described are the results of k means cluster analysis, performed in order to identify natural groupings within our study set of structures. The QSPR models resulting from these analyses gave training set R(2) values of 0.6085 (RMSE = ± 15.7 °C) and 0.7468 (RMSE = ± 13.2 °C). The test sets for these clusters had R(2) values of 0.9428 (RMSE = ± 7.0 °C) and 0.8974 (RMSE = ± 8.8 °C), respectively. These models are among the best melting point QSPRs yet published for energetic materials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Comprehensive Evaluation of the Melting Points of Fatty Acids and Esters Determined by Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The melting point is one of the most important physical properties of a chemical compound and plays a significant role in determining possible applications. For fatty acid esters the melting point is essential for a variety of food and non-food applications, the latter including biodiesel and its c...

  19. The Melting Point of Palladium Using Miniature Fixed Points of Different Ceramic Materials: Part I—Principles and Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edler, F.; Huang, K.

    2016-12-01

    Fifteen miniature fixed-point cells made of three different ceramic crucible materials (Al2O3, ZrO2, and Al2O3 (86 %)+ZrO2 (14 %)) were filled with pure palladium and used for the calibration of type B thermocouples (Pt30%Rh/Pt6%Rh). The melting behavior of the palladium was investigated by using different high-temperature furnaces usable in horizontal and vertical positions. It was found that the electromotive forces measured at the melting temperature of palladium are consistent with a temperature equivalent of ±0.25 K when using a furnace with an adequate temperature homogeneity (±1 K over a length of 12 cm), independent of the ceramic crucible materials. The emfs measured in the one-zone furnaces with larger temperature gradients along the crucibles are sensitive related to the position of the crucibles in the temperature gradient of these furnaces. This is caused by higher parasitic heat flux effects which can cause measurement errors up to about {-}(1 {-}2) K, depending on the thermal conductivity of the ceramic material. It was found that the emfs measured by using crucibles with lower thermal conductivity (ZrO2) were less dependent on parasitic heat flux effects than crucibles made of material of higher thermal conductivity (Al2O3). The investigated miniature fixed points are suitable for the repeatable realization of the melting point of palladium to calibrate noble metal thermocouples without the disadvantages of the wire-bridge method or the wire-coil method.

  20. Determination of melting point of vegetable oils and fats by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassu, Renata Tieko

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Melting point of fats is used to characterize oils and fats and is related to their physical properties, such as hardness and thermal behaviour. The present work shows the utilization of DSC technique on the determination of melting point of fats. In a comparison with softening point (AOCS method Cc 3-25, DSC values were higher than those obtained by AOCS method. It has occurred due to the fact that values obtained by DSC technique were taken when the fat had melted completely. DSC was also useful for determining melting point of liquid oils, such as soybean and cottonseed ones.

    El punto de fusión de grasas es usado para caracterizar aceites y grasas, y está relacionado con sus propiedades físicas, tales como dureza y comportamiento térmico. El presente trabajo muestra la utilización de la técnica de Calorimetría Diferencial de Barrido (DSC en la determinación del punto de fusión de grasas. En comparación con el punto de ablandamiento (AOCS método Cc 3-25, los valores de DSC fueron más altos que los obtenidos por los métodos de AOCS. Esto ha ocurrido debido al hecho que los valores obtenidos por la técnica de DSC fueron tomados cuando la grasa había fundido completamente. DSC fue también útil para determinar puntos de fusión de aceites líquidos, tales como los de soya y algodón.

  1. Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials for Iodine Value and Slip Melting Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmil Haizam Ahmad Tarmizi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work described study protocols on the production of Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials for iodine value and slip melting point. Thirty-three laboratories collaborated in the inter-laboratory proficiency tests for characterization of iodine value, while thirty-two laboratories for characterization of slip melting point. The iodine value and slip melting point of palm oil, palm olein and palm stearin were determined in accordance to MPOB Test Methods p3.2:2004 and p4.2:2004, respectively. The consensus values and their uncertainties were based on the acceptability of statistical agreement of results obtained from collaborating laboratories. The consensus values and uncertainties for iodine values were 52.63 ± 0.14 Wijs in palm oil, 56.77 ± 0.12 Wijs in palm olein and 33.76 ± 0.18 Wijs in palm stearin. For the slip melting points, the consensus values and uncertainties were 35.6 ± 0.3 °C in palm oil, 22.7 ± 0.4 °C in palm olein and 53.4 ± 0.2 °C in palm stearin. Repeatability and reproducibility relative standard deviations were found to be good and acceptable, with values much lower than that of 10%. Stability of Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials remained stable at temperatures of –20 °C, 0 °C, 6 °C and 24 °C upon storage for one year.

  2. Novel method of polymer/low-melting-point metal alloy/light metal fiber composite fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Park

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel method of polymer/low-melting-point metal alloy (LMA/light metal fiber composite fabrication is proposed to solve problems of polymer/metal composites. The first step is mixing light metal particles with LMA at a temperature above the melting point of the LMA. The second step is cold extrusion of the LMA/light metal particles to fabricate LMA/light metal fibers. Thus, the LMA/light metal fibers with a density of ~4.5 g/cm3 were obtained. The last step is compounding a polymer with the LMA/light metal fibers at the processing temperature of the polymer above the melting points of the LMA. The effects of the length and the cross-sectional shape of light metal fiber on the morphology of the LMA/light metal fibers in the polymer matrix were studied, as were electrical conductivities and mechanical properties of the composites. As the length and/or the cross-sectional aspect ratio of the fibers was increased, the domains of LMA/light metal fibers formed more networks so that the electrical conductivity increased, and specific surface area of the domains increased so that notched Izod impact strength was improved. Thus, the polymer/LMA/light metal fiber composites were fabricated without degrading processability even at 60 vol% loading and the electrical conductivities over 103 S/cm were achieved.

  3. Evaluation of sustained release suppositories prepared with fatty base including solid fats with high melting points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatori, Toshihito; Shimono, Norihito; Higaki, Kazutaka; Kimura, Toshikiro

    2004-07-08

    To prepare the sustained release suppositories, solid fats such as polyglycerol ester of fatty acids (PGEFs) or beeswax were utilized with a fatty suppository base, Witepsol H15. PGEFs such as decaglycerol heptabehenate (HB750) and hexaglycerol pentastearate (PS500), and beeswax have relatively high melting points. The addition of PGEFs or beeswax to Witepsol H15 increased the apparent viscosity of suppository bases at 37 degrees C without any large change in the melting point of Witepsol H15. Moreover, the apparent viscosity of a mixed base with HB750, PS500 or beeswax at 37 degrees C was significantly correlated with the amount of each solid fat in a mixed base. The release of acetaminophen (AAP), a model drug, from suppositories was delayed by HB750, PS500 or beeswax, and an excellent correlation was observed between the apparent viscosity of these mixed bases and Higuchi's rate constants in each mixed base suppository, suggesting that these solid fats could regulate the drug release from the mixed base suppositories by changing their viscosity. In the in vivo absorption study in rats, several suppositories made from Witepsol H15-HB750 or Witepsol H15-beeswax mixed bases prolonged the rectal absorption of AAP without reducing AUC. In conclusion, by using solid fats such as HB750 and beeswax with relatively high melting points, it is possible to control the rate of drug release from fatty base suppositories for maintaining the plasma concentration of drugs for longer time periods.

  4. Review and the state of the art: Sol-gel and melt quenched bioactive glasses for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurbinder; Pickrell, Gary; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Kumar, Vishal; Homa, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Biomaterial development is currently the most active research area in the field of biomedical engineering. The bioglasses possess immense potential for being the ideal biomaterials due to their high adaptiveness to the biological environment as well as tunable properties. Bioglasses like 45S5 has shown great clinical success over the past 10 years. The bioglasses like 45S5 were prepared using melt-quenching techniques but recently porous bioactive glasses have been derived through sol-gel process. The synthesis route exhibits marked effect on the specific surface area, as well as degradability of the material. This article is an attempt to provide state of the art of the sol-gel and melt quenched bioactive bioglasses for tissue regeneration. Fabrication routes for bioglasses suitable for bone tissue engineering are highlighted and the effect of these fabrication techniques on the porosity, pore-volume, mechanical properties, cytocompatibilty and especially apatite layer formation on the surface of bioglasses is analyzed in detail. Drug delivery capability of bioglasses is addressed shortly along with the bioactivity of mesoporous glasses. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1248-1275, 2016.

  5. Melting Point Depression and Fast Diffusion in Nanostructured Brazing Fillers Confined Between Barrier Nanolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptay, G.; Janczak-Rusch, J.; Jeurgens, L. P. H.

    2016-08-01

    Successful brazing using Cu-based nanostructured brazing fillers at temperatures much below the bulk melting temperature of Cu was recently demonstrated (Lehmert et al. in, Mater Trans 56:1015-1018, 2015). The Cu-based nano-fillers are composed of alternating nanolayers of Cu and a permeable, non-wetted AlN barrier. In this study, a thermodynamic model is derived to estimate the melting point depression (MPD) in such Cu/AlN nano-multilayers (NMLs) as function of the Cu nanolayer thickness. Depending on the melting route, the model predicts a MPD range of 238-609 K for Cu10nm/AlN10nm NMLs, which suggests a heterogeneous pre-melting temperature range of 750-1147 K (476-874 °C), which is consistent with experimental observations. As suggested by basic kinetic considerations, the observed Cu outflow to the NML surface at the temperatures of 723-1023 K (450-750 °C) can also be partially rationalized by fast solid-state diffusion of Cu along internal interfaces, especially for the higher temperatures.

  6. Melting heat transfer in boundary layer stagnation-point flow towards a stretching/shrinking sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachok, Norfifah [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Ishak, Anuar [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Pop, Ioan, E-mail: popm.ioan@yahoo.co.u [Faculty of Mathematics, University of Cluj, CP 253 (Romania)

    2010-09-06

    An analysis is carried out to study the steady two-dimensional stagnation-point flow and heat transfer from a warm, laminar liquid flow to a melting stretching/shrinking sheet. The governing partial differential equations are converted into ordinary differential equations by similarity transformation, before being solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method. Results for the skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt number, velocity profiles as well as temperature profiles are presented for different values of the governing parameters. Effects of the melting parameter, stretching/shrinking parameter and Prandtl number on the flow and heat transfer characteristics are thoroughly examined. Different from a stretching sheet, it is found that the solutions for a shrinking sheet are non-unique.

  7. Pressure Dependence of Molar Volume near the Melting Point in Benzene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The pressure dependence of the molar volume was at constant temperatures close to the melting point in benzene. The molar volume of benzene was calculated using experimental data for the thermal expansivity for constant temperatures of 25℃, 28.5℃, 40℃, and 51℃ at various pressures for both the solid and liquid phases. The predictions are in good agreement with the observed volumes in both the solid and liquid phases of benzene. The predicted values of the molar volume for a constant temperature of 28.5℃ in the liquid phase of benzene agree well with experimental data in the literature.

  8. Physics of solid and liquid alkali halide surfaces near the melting point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zykova-Timan, T.; Ceresoli, D.; Tartaglino, U.; Tosatti, E.

    2005-10-01

    This paper presents a broad theoretical and simulation study of the high-temperature behavior of crystalline alkali halide surfaces typified by NaCl(100), of the liquid NaCl surface near freezing, and of the very unusual partial wetting of the solid surface by the melt. Simulations are conducted using two-body rigid-ion Born-Mayer-Huggins-Fumi-Tosi (BMHFT) potentials, with full treatment of long-range Coulomb forces. After a preliminary check of the description of bulk NaCl provided by these potentials, which seems generally good even at the melting point, we carry out a new investigation of solid and liquid surfaces. Solid NaCl(100) is found in this model to be very anharmonic and yet exceptionally stable when hot. It is predicted by a thermodynamic integration calculation of the surface free energy that NaCl(100) should be a well-ordered, nonmelting surface, metastable even well above the melting point. By contrast, the simulated liquid NaCl surface is found to exhibit large thermal fluctuations and no layering order. In spite of that, it is shown to possess a relatively large surface free energy. The latter is traced to a surface entropy deficit, reflecting some kind of surface short-range order. We show that the surface short-range order is most likely caused by the continuous transition of the bulk ionic melt into the vapor, made of NaCl molecules and dimers rather than of single ions. Finally, the solid-liquid interface free energy is derived through Young's equation from direct simulation of partial wetting of NaCl(100) by a liquid droplet. The resulting interface free energy is large, in line with the conspicuous solid-liquid 27% density difference. A partial wetting angle near 50° close to the experimental value of 48° is obtained in the process. It is concluded that three elements, namely, the exceptional anharmonic stability of the solid (100) surface, the molecular short-range order at the liquid surface, and the costly solid-liquid interface, all

  9. Melting point prediction employing k-nearest neighbor algorithms and genetic parameter optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigsch, Florian; Bender, Andreas; van Buuren, Bernd; Tissen, Jos; Nigsch, Eduard; Mitchell, John B O

    2006-01-01

    We have applied the k-nearest neighbor (kNN) modeling technique to the prediction of melting points. A data set of 4119 diverse organic molecules (data set 1) and an additional set of 277 drugs (data set 2) were used to compare performance in different regions of chemical space, and we investigated the influence of the number of nearest neighbors using different types of molecular descriptors. To compute the prediction on the basis of the melting temperatures of the nearest neighbors, we used four different methods (arithmetic and geometric average, inverse distance weighting, and exponential weighting), of which the exponential weighting scheme yielded the best results. We assessed our model via a 25-fold Monte Carlo cross-validation (with approximately 30% of the total data as a test set) and optimized it using a genetic algorithm. Predictions for drugs based on drugs (separate training and test sets each taken from data set 2) were found to be considerably better [root-mean-squared error (RMSE)=46.3 degrees C, r2=0.30] than those based on nondrugs (prediction of data set 2 based on the training set from data set 1, RMSE=50.3 degrees C, r2=0.20). The optimized model yields an average RMSE as low as 46.2 degrees C (r2=0.49) for data set 1, and an average RMSE of 42.2 degrees C (r2=0.42) for data set 2. It is shown that the kNN method inherently introduces a systematic error in melting point prediction. Much of the remaining error can be attributed to the lack of information about interactions in the liquid state, which are not well-captured by molecular descriptors.

  10. Degradation mechanism and thermal stability of urea nitrate below the melting point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desilets, Sylvain, E-mail: sylvain.desilets@drdc-rddc.gc.ca [Defence R and D Canada, Valcartier, 2459 Pie-XI Blvd North, Val-Belair, Quebec, Canada G3J 1X5 (Canada); Brousseau, Patrick; Chamberland, Daniel [Defence R and D Canada, Valcartier, 2459 Pie-XI Blvd North, Val-Belair, Quebec, Canada G3J 1X5 (Canada); Singh, Shanti; Feng, Hongtu; Turcotte, Richard [Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory, 1 Haanel Dr. Ottawa, Quebec, Canada K1A 1M1 (Canada); Anderson, John [Defence R and D Canada, Suffield, Box 4000, stn Main, Medicine Hat, Alberta, Canada T1A 8K6 (Canada)

    2011-07-10

    Highlights: {yields} Decomposition mechanism of urea nitrate. {yields} Spectral characterization of the decomposition mechanism. {yields} Thermal stability of urea nitrate at 50, 70 and 100 {sup o}C. {yields} Chemical balance of decomposed products released. - Abstract: Aging and degradation of urea nitrate below the melting point, at 100 {sup o}C, was studied by using thermal analysis and spectroscopic methods including IR, Raman, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR techniques. It was found that urea nitrate was completely degraded after 72 h at 100 {sup o}C into a mixture of solids (69%) and released gaseous species (31%). The degradation mechanism below the melting point was clearly identified. The remaining solid mixture was composed of ammonium nitrate, urea and biuret while unreacted residual nitric and isocyanic acids as well as traces of ammonia were released as gaseous species at 100 {sup o}C. The thermal stability of urea nitrate, under extreme storage conditions (50 {sup o}C), was also examined by isothermal nano-calorimetry.

  11. First-Principle Calculations of Hardness and Melting Point of Mo2C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.R.Wang; M.F.Yan; H.T.Chen

    2009-01-01

    This paper has constructed two kinds of atomic and electronic models for hexagonal β-Mo2C and orthorhombic α-Mo2C.The optimized lattice parameters, elastic constant matrixes and overlap population for Mo2C crystal cells have been obtained to realize the characterization of the hardness and melting point of the two structures by the first-principles plane wave pseudo potential method based on the density functional theory. The results reveal that the calculated lattice parameters of the Mo2C crystal cells agree with the experimental and other calculated data.The calculated melting point/hardness are 2715 K/11.38 GPa for β-Mo2C and 2699 K/10.57~12.67 GPa for α-Mo2C, respectively.The calculated results from the density of states (DOS)demonstrate that the hybridization effect between Mo-3d and C-2p states in α-Mo2C crystal cell is much stronger than that in β-Mo2C one.

  12. Enantiomeric 3-chloromandelic acid system: binary melting point phase diagram, ternary solubility phase diagrams and polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Minh, Tam; von Langermann, Jan; Lorenz, Heike; Seidel-Morgenstern, Andreas

    2010-09-01

    A systematic study of binary melting point and ternary solubility phase diagrams of the enantiomeric 3-chloromandelic acid (3-ClMA) system was performed under consideration of polymorphism. The melting point phase diagram was measured by means of thermal analysis, that is, using heat-flux differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results reveal that 3-ClMA belongs to the racemic compound-forming systems. Polymorphism was found for both the enantiomer and the racemate as confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction analysis. The ternary solubility phase diagram of 3-ClMA in water was determined between 5 and 50 degrees C by the classical isothermal technique. The solubilities of the pure enantiomers are extremely temperature-dependent. The solid-liquid equilibria of racemic 3-ClMA are not trivial due to the existence of polymorphism. The eutectic composition in the chiral system changes as a function of temperature. Further, solubility data in the alternative solvent toluene are also presented.

  13. Infrared radiative properties of alumina up to the melting point: A first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J. Y.; Xu, M.; Liu, L. H.

    2016-11-01

    The high thermal emission of alumina dominates the radiative heat transfer of rocket exhaust plume. Yet numerous experimental measurements on radiative properties of alumina at high temperatures vary considerably from each other and cannot provide physical insight into the underlying mechanism. In this work, the ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) method and ab initio parameterized Drude model are combined to predict the radiative properties of alumina for temperatures up to 2327 K (the melting point) in the spectral range 1-12 μm. Contributed by different microscopic processes, the optical absorption of alumina in the spectral range 1-4 and 4-12 μm is described by two distinct methods. In the spectral range 4-12 μm, the multi-phonon process mainly contributes to optical absorption and can be simulated by the AIMD method based on the linear response theory. While in the spectral range 1-4 μm, the optical absorption is mainly caused by intrinsic carriers and can be effectively described by the ab initio parameterized Drude model. The first-principles calculations can successfully predict the infrared radiative properties of alumina at high temperatures and well reproduce the literature experiments. Moreover, the theoretical simulations verify that alumina can retain its semiconducting character even in the liquid phase and there emerges sharp increase in the near-infrared optical absorption of alumina upon melting.

  14. Mixing and electronic entropy contributions to thermal energy storage in low melting point alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamberger, Patrick J.; Mizuno, Yasushi; Talapatra, Anjana A.

    2017-07-01

    Melting of crystalline solids is associated with an increase in entropy due to an increase in configurational, rotational, and other degrees of freedom of a system. However, the magnitude of chemical mixing and electronic degrees of freedom, two significant contributions to the entropy of fusion, remain poorly constrained, even in simple 2 and 3 component systems. Here, we present experimentally measured entropies of fusion in the Sn-Pb-Bi and In-Sn-Bi ternary systems, and decouple mixing and electronic contributions. We demonstrate that electronic effects remain the dominant contribution to the entropy of fusion in multi-component post-transition metal and metalloid systems, and that excess entropy of mixing terms can be equal in magnitude to ideal mixing terms, causing regular solution approximations to be inadequate in the general case. Finally, we explore binary eutectic systems using mature thermodynamic databases, identifying eutectics containing at least one semiconducting intermetallic phase as promising candidates to exceed the entropy of fusion of monatomic endmembers, while simultaneously maintaining low melting points. These results have significant implications for engineering high-thermal conductivity metallic phase change materials to store thermal energy.

  15. Melting heat transfer in stagnation point flow of carbon nanotubes towards variable thickness surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hayat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work concentrates on the mathematical modeling for stagnation point flow of nanofluids over an impermeable stretching sheet with variable thickness. Carbon nanotubes [single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs] as the nanoparticles are utilized. Water and kerosene oil are taken as the base fluids. Heat transfer through melting effect is discussed. Transformation procedure is adapted to obtain the non-linear ordinary differential equations from the fundamental laws of mass, linear momentum and energy. The optimal values of convergence control parameters and corresponding individual and total residual errors for SWCNTs and MWCNTs are computed by means of homotopy analysis method (HAM based BVPh 2.0. Characteristics of different involved parameters on the velocity, temperature, skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are discussed. Higher velocity profile is observed for wall thickness parameter in case of water carbon nanotubes when compared with the kerosene oil carbon nanotubes.

  16. Joining of Different Melting-Point Materials by Charging with Electromagnetic Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneji, Tatsushi; Sueyoshi, Toshiyasu; Makabe, Chobin; Miyagi, Kiyohiro

    An electrical resistance welding method was applied under atmospheric conditions by using a metal powder medium or media mixture which was sandwiched in the space between two metal bars which were compressed longitudinally, and simultaneously, current was conducted to generate Joule thermal heat. In the joining, aluminum was used as a base material and was joined to another aluminum, or one of four other metal bars with different melting points, by using resistance-welding apparatus. In the experiments, the specimens used as metal bars were aluminum, stainless steel, carbon steel, titanium and copper; and the powder media were aluminum, nickel and silicon. The reliability of the joined specimens was confirmed by their mechanical properties. In the present study, qualitative results are shown, but the best joining conditions are unknown, yet. However, it is concluded that the present method is useful for the joining of different metals, and it is of value to continue the investigation of joining by generated Joule thermal heat.

  17. Analysis of EET on Ca increasing the melting point of Mg17Al12 phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The present investigation showed that the additions of Ca to the alloy AZ91 were mainly dissolved into the Mg17Al12 phase and increased its melting point and thermal stability, which would have great effects on the high- temperature properties of AZ91 alloy. The empirical electron theory (EET) of solid and molecules was used to calculate the valence electron structures (VES) of Mg17Al12 intermetallic compound with and without Ca addition. The results showed that Ca dissolving in Mg17Al12 phase increased the strength of bonds that control the thermal stability of Mg17Al12 phase. Additions of Ca also made the distribution of the valence electrons on the dominant bond network more uniform in the whole unit cell of Mg17Al12. The theoretical conclusions well account for the experimental results.

  18. Low Melting Point and High Stability Polyoxomolybdate-based Ionic Liquids as Photocatalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Tao; CHEN Fa-wang; CAO Min-hua; HU Chang-wen

    2011-01-01

    The polyoxometalate-imidazole ionic liquids(POM-ILs) with low melting points at 94.5 and 95.5 ℃,[Cnmim]4[Mo8O26](Cnmim=l-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium, n=12,14), have been successfully synthesized and characterized by DSC, single-crystal X-ray diffraction and TGA, etc. The two POM-ILs have relatively high stability with decomposing temperature up to about 347 and 344 ℃, respectively. Further photocatalytic performance was measured via the degradation of rhodamine B(RB) in aqueous solution. The experiments show that the conversion reached to 90% after 90 min under UV-light and the degradation efficiency depended on pH value, different dosages and so on. In addition, the catalysts can be recycled for several times without significant loss of activity.

  19. Molecular dynamics of liquid alkaline-earth metals near the melting point

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J K Baria; A R Jani

    2010-10-01

    Results of the studies of the properties like binding energy, the pair distribution function (), the structure factor (), specific heat at constant volume, velocity autocorrelation function (VACF), radial distribution function, self-diffusion coefficient and coordination number of alkaline-earth metals (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) near melting point using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation technique using a pseudopotential proposed by us are presented in this article. Good agreement with the experiment is achieved for the binding energy, pair distribution function and structure factor, and these results compare favourably with the results obtained by other such calculations, showing the transferability of the pseudopotential used from solid to liquid environment in the case of alkaline-earth metals.

  20. Liquid Phase 3D Printing for Quickly Manufacturing Metal Objects with Low Melting Point Alloy Ink

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Conventional 3D printings are generally time-consuming and printable metal inks are rather limited. From an alternative way, we proposed a liquid phase 3D printing for quickly making metal objects. Through introducing metal alloys whose melting point is slightly above room temperature as printing inks, several representative structures spanning from one, two and three dimension to more complex patterns were demonstrated to be quickly fabricated. Compared with the air cooling in a conventional 3D printing, the liquid-phase-manufacturing offers a much higher cooling rate and thus significantly improves the speed in fabricating metal objects. This unique strategy also efficiently prevents the liquid metal inks from air oxidation which is hard to avoid otherwise in an ordinary 3D printing. Several key physical factors (like properties of the cooling fluid, injection speed and needle diameter, types and properties of the printing ink, etc.) were disclosed which would evidently affect the printing quality. In addit...

  1. Determination of work functions near melting points of refractory metals by using a direct-current arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, W. A.; Chapman, G. B., II

    1972-01-01

    Effective work functions of refractory metals at temperatures near their melting points were determined by using a direct-current arc. A metal wire connected as the cathode was melted by striking an arc discharge in an argon atmosphere. A melted sphere was formed with a definite emitting area which was calculated from the sphere diameter measured after terminating the arc. Effective work functions were calculated from the Richardson-Dushman equation by using this emission area. The procedure is experimentally advantageous because surface cleanliness of the specimen is not critical, high vacuum is not required, and the anode-cathode spacing is not critical.

  2. The effect of sire breed on the melting point and fatty acid composition of subcutaneous fat in steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, D; Nicholls, P J; Thompson, J M

    1998-01-01

    Fatty acid composition and the melting point of subcutaneous fat was determined in 18 Hereford, 25 Brahman x Hereford, 22 Simmental x Hereford, and 15 Friesian x Hereford steers that were grown out on pasture at two sites and slaughtered when the mean weight of the Herefords at each site was ca. 450 kg. Multivariate and univariate analyses tested the relations of fatty acid composition, degree of saturation, and melting point with sire breed, environment, age, and carcass characteristics. Hereford and Brahman steers were fatter than the Simmental and Friesian steers. Fat from Brahman-sired steers had a melting point 2.5 degrees C lower than fat from the Bos taurus-sired steers at the same age and had a higher proportion of unsaturated fatty acids, independent of variation in carcass weight and fatness. Melting point and degree of saturation decreased as age increased. Step-down discriminant analyses identified a set of three acids (14:0, 16:0, and 17:1) that differed among sire breeds, independent of differences in melting point: the acids 14:0 and 16:0 discriminated between Brahman and Bos taurus steers and 17:1 between Hereford and Simmental and Friesian steers. Increase in fatness was associated with an increase in 17:1, but, at the same fatness, no acids discriminated among the Bos taurus-sired steers. The use of Bos indicus cattle or their crossbreeds in situations in which hard-setting fat is likely may mitigate the problem.

  3. [Rapid quantification of total nitrogen and end-point determination of hide melting in manufacturing of donkey-hide gelatin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hai-Fan; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Yan; Li, Wen-Long; Qu, Hai-Bin

    2014-03-01

    Hide melting presents itself as one of the most critical processes in the production of donkey-hide gelatin. Here a NIR-based method was established for the rapid analysis of in-process hide melting solutions as well as for end-point determination of this process. Near infrared (NIR) spectra of hide melting solutions were collected in transflective mode. With the contents of total nitrogen determined by the Kjeldahl method as reference values, partial least squares regression (PLSR) was employed to build calibration models between NIR spectra and total nitrogen. Model parameters including wavelength range and PLS factors were optimized to achieve best model performance. Based on the contents of total nitrogen predicted by calibration model, end point of hide melting was determined. The constructed PLS model gave a high correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.991 3 and a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.807 g x L(-1). With the predicted total nitrogen and predefined limit, decisions concerning the proper times of melting were made. This research demonstrated that NIR transflectance spectroscopy could be used to expeditiously determine the contents of total nitrogen which was subsequently chosen as the indictor for determining the end-point of hide melting. The proposed procedure may help avoid unnecessary raw material or energy consumption.

  4. Capturing the crystal: prediction of enthalpy of sublimation, crystal lattice energy, and melting points of organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salahinejad, Maryam; Le, Tu C; Winkler, David A

    2013-01-28

    Accurate computational prediction of melting points and aqueous solubilities of organic compounds would be very useful but is notoriously difficult. Predicting the lattice energies of compounds is key to understanding and predicting their melting behavior and ultimately their solubility behavior. We report robust, predictive, quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models for enthalpies of sublimation, crystal lattice energies, and melting points for a very large and structurally diverse set of small organic compounds. Sparse Bayesian feature selection and machine learning methods were employed to select the most relevant molecular descriptors for the model and to generate parsimonious quantitative models. The final enthalpy of sublimation model is a four-parameter multilinear equation that has an r(2) value of 0.96 and an average absolute error of 7.9 ± 0.3 kJ.mol(-1). The melting point model can predict this property with a standard error of 45° ± 1 K and r(2) value of 0.79. Given the size and diversity of the training data, these conceptually transparent and accurate models can be used to predict sublimation enthalpy, lattice energy, and melting points of organic compounds in general.

  5. CADASTER QSPR Models for Predictions of Melting and Boiling Points of Perfluorinated Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhhatarai, Barun; Teetz, Wolfram; Liu, Tao; Öberg, Tomas; Jeliazkova, Nina; Kochev, Nikolay; Pukalov, Ognyan; Tetko, Igor V; Kovarich, Simona; Papa, Ester; Gramatica, Paola

    2011-03-14

    Quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) studies on per- and polyfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) on melting point (MP) and boiling point (BP) are presented. The training and prediction chemicals used for developing and validating the models were selected from Syracuse PhysProp database and literatures. The available experimental data sets were split in two different ways: a) random selection on response value, and b) structural similarity verified by self-organizing-map (SOM), in order to propose reliable predictive models, developed only on the training sets and externally verified on the prediction sets. Individual linear and non-linear approaches based models developed by different CADASTER partners on 0D-2D Dragon descriptors, E-state descriptors and fragment based descriptors as well as consensus model and their predictions are presented. In addition, the predictive performance of the developed models was verified on a blind external validation set (EV-set) prepared using PERFORCE database on 15 MP and 25 BP data respectively. This database contains only long chain perfluoro-alkylated chemicals, particularly monitored by regulatory agencies like US-EPA and EU-REACH. QSPR models with internal and external validation on two different external prediction/validation sets and study of applicability-domain highlighting the robustness and high accuracy of the models are discussed. Finally, MPs for additional 303 PFCs and BPs for 271 PFCs were predicted for which experimental measurements are unknown. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Screening of high melting point phase change materials (PCM) in solar thermal concentrating technology based on CLFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshi, Akira [Ichinoseki National College of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Mills, D.R.; Bittar, A. [University of Sydney (Australia). School of Physics; Saitoh, T.S. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Graduate School of Environmental Studies

    2005-09-01

    We have investigated the suitability of high melting point phase change materials for use in new, large scale solar thermal electricity plants. Candidate materials for latent heat thermal energy storage are identified and their operating parameters modeled and analysed. The mathematical characteristics of charging and discharging these storage materials are discussed. Several high melting point, high conductivity materials are shown to be suitable and advantageous for use with solar thermal electricity plants, such as Sydney University's novel, low cost CLFR and MTSA collector systems, as well as existing parabolic trough and tower technologies. (author)

  7. Design and Evaluation of Topical Diclofenac Sodium Gel Using Hot Melt Extrusion Technology as a Continuous Manufacturing Process with Kolliphor® P407.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Jaywant; Narkhede, Rajkiran; Amin, Purnima; Tawde, Vaishali

    2017-01-20

    The aim of the present context was to develop and evaluate a Kolliphor® P407-based transdermal gel formulation of diclofenac sodium by hot melt extrusion (HME) technology; central composite design was used to optimize the formulation process. In this study, we have explored first time ever HME as an industrially feasible and continuous manufacturing technology for the manufacturing of gel formulation using Kolliphor® P407 and Kollisolv® PEG400 as a gel base. Diclofenac sodium was used as a model drug. The HME parameters such as feeding rate, screw speed, and barrel temperature were crucial for the semisolid product development, and were optimized after preliminary trials. For the processing of the gel formulation by HME, a modified screw design was used to obtain a uniform product. The obtained product was evaluated for physicochemical characterization such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), pH measurement, rheology, surface tension, and texture profile analysis. Moreover, it was analyzed for general appearance, spreadibility, surface morphology, and drug content. The optimized gel formulation showed homogeneity and transparent film when applied on a glass slide under microscope, pH was 7.02 and uniform drug content of 100.04 ± 2.74 (SD = 3). The DSC and XRD analysis of the HME gel formulation showed complete melting of crystalline API into an amorphous form. The Kolliphor® P407 and Kollisolv® PEG400 formed excellent gel formulation using HME with consistent viscoelastic properties of the product. An improved drug release was found for the HME gel, which showed a 100% drug release than that of a marketed product which showed only 88% of drug release at the end of 12 h. The Flux value of the HME gel was 106 than that of a marketed formulation, which showed only about 60 value, inferring a significant difference (P < 0.05) at the end of 1 h. This study demonstrates a novel application of the hot melt extrusion

  8. Properties of new low melting point quaternary ammonium salts with bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide anion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärnä, Minna; Lahtinen, Manu; Kujala, Anna; Hakkarainen, Pirkko-Leena; Valkonen, Jussi

    2010-11-01

    Eight new monocationic quaternary ammonium (QA) salts with the bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (TFSI) anion were prepared by metathesis using our previously reported QA halides as precursors. New salts were characterized both in liquid and solid state using 1H and 13C NMR techniques, mass spectroscopy and elemental analysis together with X-ray diffraction and thermoanalytical methods. In addition, residual water content, viscosity and conductivity measurements were made for three of the room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). The crystal structures of three compounds were determined by X-ray single crystal diffraction. Powder diffraction was used to study the crystallinity of the solid salts and to compare structural similarities between the single crystals and the microcrystalline bulk powders. Three of the salts are liquid below room temperature, having broad liquid ranges (˜300 °C), and in total five out of eight salts melt below 100 °C. Moreover, powder diffraction data of the two RTILs were able to be measured at sub-ambient temperatures using in situ low-temperature powder X-ray diffraction revealing high crystallinity on both RTILs below their freezing point. The RTILs presented relatively high conductivities (˜0.1-0.2 S m -1) and moderate to relatively low viscosities. The determined physicochemical properties of the reported ILs suggest their applicability on various applications such as heat transfer fluids, high temperature synthesis and lubricants.

  9. Investigation of the Melting Point Depression of 12-Hydroxystearic Acid Organogels Using the Flory Diluent Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavicchi, Kevin; Lipowski, Brian

    2013-03-01

    This talk will focus on the gelation behavior of 12-hydroxystearic acid (12-HSA) in organic solvents. Thermo-reversible gelation occurs by crystallization of 12-HSA in organic solvent to form 3-D fibrillar networks. The melting point vs. composition for 12-HSA in a range of solvents has been measured. The liquidus lines could be fit with the Flory-diluent model that takes into account the non-ideal free energy of mixing and the disparity in the size of the solvent and 12-HSA molecules. The fits indicated that the effective molar volume of 12-HSA increased as the hydrogen bonding Hansen solubility parameter δh of the solvent decreased. This is attributed to the hydrogen-bonding driven aggregation of the 12-HSA in the liquid state based on previous observations that 12-HSA forms aggregated structures in non-polar solvents (e.g. dimers and tetrameters). These results indicate that the stabilization of the solid phase in 12-HSA solutions has contributions from both variations in the entropy of mixing as well the enthalpy of mixing. The importance of both these factors for designing small molecule gelators will be discussed.

  10. Evaporation and thermal degradation of tetrabromobisphenol A above the melting point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsanich, Katia; Zanelli, Severino; Barontini, Federica; Cozzani, Valerio

    2004-11-01

    The volatility and the thermal degradation process of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBA) were investigated. The quantitative assessment of the thermal degradation process and of the evaporation rate of TBBA required the use of an integrated approach, based on different calorimetric and analytical techniques. TBBA decomposition was carried out at temperatures between 180 and 270 deg. C, using thermogravimetric (TG) devices and a laboratory-scale batch reactor. The identification and quantification of decomposition products was based on GC and GC/MS techniques. The apparent kinetic parameters for TBBA decomposition were obtained, and a simplified method was used for a rough estimate of the vapor pressure from TG data. Thermal degradation of TBBA, although present even at temperatures as low as 185 deg. C, becomes relevant only above 230 deg. C. A preliminary evaluation of the Antoine correlation parameters for TBBA showed that the vapor pressure of this compound is comprised between 0.1 and 5 Pa at temperatures between 180 and 270 deg. C. The results obtained confirmed that TBBA processing at temperatures above the melting point (180 deg. C) may cause the release of TBBA in the environment due to evaporation phenomena.

  11. Sol-gel replicated optics made from single point diamond turned masters exhibit fractal surface roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernacki, B.E.; Miller, A.C. Jr.; Evans, B.M. III [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Moreshead, W.V.; Nogues, J.L.R. [GELTECH, Inc., Alachua, FL (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Deterministic optics manufacturing, notably single point diamond turning (SPDT) has matured such that the current generation of machines is capable of producing refractive and reflective optics for the visible wavelength region that are quite acceptable for many applications. However, spiral tool marks are still produced that result in unwanted diffractive scattering from grating-like features having a spatial frequency determined by the machine feed, tool radius, and other influences such as vibration and material removal effects. Such regular artifacts are the characteristic of deterministic manufacturing methods such as SPDT. The authors present some initial findings suggesting that fractal, or non-deterministic surfaces can be produced by SPDT through sol-gel replication. The key is the large isotropic shrinkage that occurs through monolithic sol-gel replication (a factor of 2.5) that results in all features, including tooling marks, being reduced by that amount. The large shrinkage itself would be a laudable-enough feature of the replication process. However, by an as-yet-not understood manner, the replication process itself seems to alter the roughness character of the replicated surface such that it appears to be fractal when analyzed using contact profilometry and the power spectrum approach.

  12. Shear modulus of shock-compressed LY12 aluminium up to melting point

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Yu-Ying; Tan Hua; Hu Jian-Bo; Dai Cheng-Da

    2008-01-01

    Asymmetric plate impact experiments are conducted on LY12 aluminium alloy in a pressure range of 85-131 GPa.The longitudinal sound speeds are obtained from the time-resolved particle speed profiles of the specimen measured with Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) technique,and they are shown to be good agreement with our previously reported data of this alloy in a pressure range of 20-70 CPa,and also with those of 2024 aluminium reported by McQueen.Using all of the longitudinal speeds and the corresponding bulk speeds calculated from the Gruneisen equation of state (EOS),shear moduli of LY12 aluminium alloy are obtained.A comparison of the shear moduli in the solid phase region with those estimated from the Steinberg model demonstrate that the latter are systematically lower than the measurements.By re-analysing the pressure effect on the shear modulus,a modified equation is proposed,in which the pressure term of P/η1/3 in the Steinberg model is replaced by a linear term.Good agreement between experiments and the modified equation is obtained,which implies that the shear modulus of LY12 aluminium varies linearly both with pressure and with temperature throughout the whole solid phase region.On the other hand,shear modulus of aluminium in a solid-liquid mixed phrase region decreases gradually and smoothly,a feature that is very different from the drastic dropping at the melting point under static conditions.

  13. Steady distribution structure of point defects near crystal-melt interface under pulling stop of CZ Si crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, T.; Takahashi, T.; Shirai, K.

    2017-02-01

    In order to reveal a steady distribution structure of point defects of no growing Si on the solid-liquid interface, the crystals were grown at a high pulling rate, which Vs becomes predominant, and the pulling was suddenly stopped. After restoring the variations of the crystal by the pulling-stop, the crystals were then left in prolonged contact with the melt. Finally, the crystals were detached and rapidly cooled to freeze point defects and then a distribution of the point defects of the as-grown crystals was observed. As a result, a dislocation loop (DL) region, which is formed by the aggregation of interstitials (Is), was formed over the solid-liquid interface and was surrounded with a Vs-and-Is-free recombination region (Rc-region), although the entire crystals had been Vs rich in the beginning. It was also revealed that the crystal on the solid-liquid interface after the prolonged contact with the melt can partially have a Rc-region to be directly in contact with the melt, unlike a defect distribution of a solid-liquid interface that has been growing. This experimental result contradicts a hypothesis of Voronkov's diffusion model, which always assumes the equilibrium concentrations of Vs and Is as the boundary condition for distribution of point defects on the growth interface. The results were disscussed from a qualitative point of view of temperature distribution and thermal stress by the pulling-stop.

  14. Measuring normal spectral emissivities of niobium by a pulse-heating technique: 1000 K to the melting point

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingwei Wang; Peng Xiao; Jintao Yu; Jingmin Dai

    2006-01-01

    The normal spectral emissivity of niobium strip specimen is measured using a new pulse-heating reflectometric technique. The hemispherical spectral reflectivity of the surface of a strip tangent to an integrating sphere is determined by a high-speed lock-in technique. At the same time, the radiance temperature of the strip is measured by the multi-wavelength high-speed pyrometer from approximately 1000K to the melting point. Details of the measurement method and of the related calibration techniques are reported. Results of the normal spectral emissivity of niobium at 633, 753, 827, and 905 nm from room temperature to its melting point are presented. The accuracy of spectral emissivities is estimated better than 5%.

  15. Dosimetric superiority of low melting-point lead in the radiotherapy of Graves’ ophthalmopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-dong ZHAO

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To compare the dosimetric difference between the two beams formed by low melting-point lead (LML and multileaf collimator (MLC in orbit radiotherapy, so as to select the one with a lower lens dose for treatment of Graves' ophthalmopathy. Methods  Patients with unilateral and bilateral Graves' ophthalmopathy (10 cases each suitable for radiotherapy were selected for dosimetric comparison. The identical sketching principle of target volume was employed, and the prescribed dose of planning target volume (PTV was 2000 cGy/10 times. The distribution of radiation field in unilateral group was 3 fields (2 X-ray fields + 1 electron field, and in bilateral group was 4 fields (2 X-ray fields + 2 electron fields, and LML and MLC were employed to form the radiation field. The conformity index (CI and dose volume histogram (DVH were compared between the two formation methods of radiation field; the effective penumbra area of the half radiation field formed by the two methods and its influence on the lens dose were analyzed with flushing-free film and dose analysis software. Results  The average dose of the affected side lens in MLC unilateral group was 582±34cGy, and of the lens of uninjured side was 160±22cGy, the CI of target volume was 0.69; the average dose of the left and right lens in MLC bilateral group was 591±47cGy and 585±52cGy, respectively, and the CI was 0.67. The average dose of the affected side lens in LML unilateral group was 252±45cGy, and that of the uninjured side lens was 148±19cGy, and the CI was 0.71; the average dose of the left and right lens in LML bilateral group was 247±44cGy and 256±42cGy, respectively, and the CI was 0.68. When the X-ray energy was setup at 4MV and 8MV, the half radiation field was 5cm×5cm with a depth of 4cm, and the effective penumbra area of LML was 3mm smaller than that of MLC. Conclusion  A small radiation area formed by LML may be more appropriate, and it may not only diminish

  16. A preliminary view on adsorption of organics on ice at temperatures close to melting point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangrui; Waldner, Astrid; Orlando, Fabrizio; Artiglia, Luca; Ammann, Markus; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    -level spectroscopies to reveal the behaviour of adsorption and dissociation on ice. Additionally, pure ice and amine doped ice will be compared for their surface structure change at different temperatures, which will indicate the differences of surface disordering caused by different factors. For instance, we will have a chance to know better if impurities will cause local disordering, i.e. forming hydration shell, which challenges the traditional picture of a homogenous disordered doped ice surface. The findings of this study could not only improve our understanding of how acidic organics adsorb to ice, and of their chemical properties on ice, but also have potentials to know better the behaviour of pure ice at temperatures approaching to the melting point.

  17. Peridotite-melt interaction: A key point for the destruction of cratonic lithospheric mantle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG HongFu

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of recent studies dealing with different ages of mantle peridotitic xenoliths and xenocrysts from the North China Craton, with aim to provide new ideas for further study on the destruction of the North China Craton. Re-Os isotopic studies suggest that the lithospheric mantle of the North China Craton is of Archean age prior to its thinning. The key reason why such a low density and highly refractory Archean lithospheric mantle would be thinned is changes in composition, thermal regime, and physical properties of the lithospheric mantle due to interaction of peridotites with melts of different origins. Inward subducUon of circum craton plates and collision with the North China Craton provided not only the driving force for the destruction of the craton, but also continuous melts derived from partial melting of subducted continental or oceanic crustal materials that resulted in the compositional change of the lithospheric mantle. Regional thermal anomaly at ca. 120 Ma led to the melting of highly modified iithospheric mantle. At the same time or subsequently lithospheric extension and asthenospheric upwelling further reinforced the melting and thinning of the lithospheric mantle. Therefore, the destruction and thinning of the North China Craton is a combined result of peridotite-melt interaction (addition of volatile), enhanced regional thermal anomaly (temperature increase) and lithospheric extension (decompression). Such a complex geological process finally produced a "mixed" lithospheric mantle of highly chemical heterogeneity during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. It also resulted in significant difference in the composition of mantle peridotitic xenoliths between different regions and times.

  18. Nano-pulverization of poorly water soluble compounds with low melting points by a rotation/revolution pulverizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuminoki, K; Takeda, M; Kitamura, K; Numata, S; Kimura, K; Takatsuka, T; Hashimoto, N

    2012-08-01

    We report a method for pulverizing poorly water soluble compounds with low melting points to nanoparticles without producing an amorphous phase using a rotation/revolution pulverizer. Fenofibrate, flurbiprofen, and probucol were used as crystalline model compounds. They were suspended in a methylcellulose aqueous solution and pulverized with zirconia balls by the rotation/revolution pulverizer. Beeswax, an amorphous compound, was also examined to investigate whether nano-pulverization of a compound with a low melting point was possible. Beeswax was suspended in ethyl alcohol cooled with liquid nitrogen and pulverized with zirconia balls by the rotation/revolution pulverizer. By optimizing the pulverization parameters, nanoparticles (D50 revolution speed of 1000 rpm and a rotation/revolution ratio of 1.0 when the vessel was 0 degrees C. Amorphous fenofibrate and flurbiprofen were not detected by differential scanning calorimetry or powder X-ray diffraction, whereas small amounts of amorphous probucol were detected. Beeswax was pulverized to nanoparticles (D50 = 0.14 microm) with ethyl alcohol cooled with liquid nitrogen. Fine nanoparticles of these poorly water soluble compounds with low melting points were obtained by controlling the rotation/revolution speed and reducing the vessel temperature.

  19. Development and Characterization of 316 L Stainless Steel Coated by Melt-derived and Sol-gel derived 45S5 Bioglass for orthopedic applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Morteza Naghib

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The 316L austenitic stainless steel (SS was coated by 45S5 bioactive glass produced by melting and sol-gel techniques to increase the bioactivity and to provide a high mechanical strength for orthopedic and dental applications. The morphologies of coated specimens were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Then, the coated specimens were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF at 37°C for 14 days, and their microstructures after withdrawal were also investigated by SEM. All the specimens were analyzed by FTIR and XRD in order to survey the formation of hydroxyapatite layer.

  20. Triton X-114 cloud point extraction to subfractionate blood plasma proteins for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Flemming; Wulff, Tune

    2015-01-01

    A simple and reproducible procedure for enrichment of a plasma protein subfraction suitable for two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2DE) was developed, using a Triton X-114-based cloud point extraction (CPE). Appropriate conditions for such a CPE procedure were found by SDS...

  1. Characterization of Low-Melting-Point Sn-Bi-In Lead-Free Solders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Ma, Ninshu; Lei, YongPing; Lin, Jian; Fu, HanGuang; Gu, Jian

    2016-11-01

    Development of lead-free solders with low melting temperature is important for substitution of Pb-based solders to reduce direct risks to human health and the environment. In the present work, Sn-Bi-In solders were studied for different ratios of Bi and Sn to obtain solders with low melting temperature. The microstructure, thermal properties, wettability, mechanical properties, and reliability of joints with Cu have been investigated. The results show that the microstructures of the Sn-Bi-In solders were composed of β-Sn, Bi, and InBi phases. The intermetallic compound (IMC) layer was mainly composed of Cu6Sn5, and its thickness increased slightly as the Bi content was increased. The melting temperature of the solders was around 100°C to 104°C. However, when the Sn content exceeded 50 wt.%, the melting range became larger and the wettability became worse. The tensile strength of the solder alloys and solder joints declined with increasing Bi content. Two fracture modes (IMC layer fracture and solder/IMC mixed fracture) were found in solder joints. The fracture mechanism of solder joints was brittle fracture. In addition, cleavage steps on the fracture surface and coarse grains in the fracture structure were comparatively apparent for higher Bi content, resulting in decreased elongation for both solder alloys and solder joints.

  2. Surface Observation and Pore Size Analyses of Polypropylene/Low-Melting Point Polyester Filter Materials: Influences of Heat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jia-Horng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes making filter materials with polypropylene (PP and low-melting point (LPET fibers. The influences of temperatures and times of heat treatment on the morphology of thermal bonding points and average pore size of the PP/LPET filter materials. The test results indicate that the morphology of thermal bonding points is highly correlated with the average pore size. When the temperature of heat treatment is increased, the fibers are joined first with the thermal bonding points, and then with the large thermal bonding areas, thereby decreasing the average pore size of the PP/LPET filter materials. A heat treatment of 110 °C for 60 seconds can decrease the pore size from 39.6 μm to 12.0 μm.

  3. Dynamic yield and tensile strength of aluminum single crystals at temperatures up to the melting point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanel, G. I.; Razorenov, S. V.; Baumung, K.; Singer, J.

    2001-07-01

    This article presents experimental results of the dynamic yield strength and dynamic tensile strength ({open_quotes}spall strength{close_quotes}) of aluminum single crystals at shock-wave loading as a function of temperature. The load duration was {similar_to}40 and {similar_to}200 ns. The temperature varied from 20 to 650{degree}C which is only by 10{degree}C below the melting temperature. A linear growth of the dynamic yield strength by more than a factor of 4 was observed within this temperature range. This is attributed to the phonon drag effect on the dislocation motion. High dynamic tensile strength was maintained over the whole temperature range, including the conditions at which melting should start in a material under tension. This could be an indication of the existence of superheated states in solid crystals. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  4. 29 Si NMR and SAXS investigation of the hybrid organic–inorganic glasses obtained by consolidation of the melting gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jitianu, Andrei; Cadars, Sylvian; Zhang, Fan; Rodriguez, Gabriela; Picard, Quentin; Aparicio, Mario; Mosa, Jadra; Klein, Lisa C.

    2017-01-01

    This study is focused on structural characterization of hybrid glasses obtained by consolidation of melting gels. The melting gels were prepared in molar ratios of methyltriethoxysilane (MTES) and dimethyldiethoxysilane (DMDES) of 75%MTES-25%DMDES and 65%MTES-35%DMDES. Following consolidation, the hybrid glasses were characterized using Raman, 29Si and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, synchrotron Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Raman spectroscopy revealed the presence of Si–C bonds in the hybrid glasses and 8-membered ring structures in the Si–O–Si network. Qualitative NMR spectroscopy identified the main molecular species, while quantitative NMR data showed that the ratio of trimers (T) to dimers (D) varied between 4.6 and 3.8. Two-dimensional 29Si NMR data were used to identify two distinct types of T3 environments. SAXS data showed that the glasses are homogeneous across the nm to micrometer length scales. The scattering cross section was one thousand times lower than what is expected when phase separation occurs. The SEM images show a uniform surface without defects, in agreement with the SAXS results, which further supports that the hybrid glasses are nonporous.

  5. Microstructural Evolution of the Interface Between Pure Titanium and Low Melting Point Zr-Ti-Ni(Cu) Filler Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongmyoung; Sun, Juhyun; Kang, Donghan; Shin, Seungyoung; Hong, Juhwa

    2014-12-01

    Low melting point Zr-based filler metals with melting point depressants (MPDs) such as Cu and Ni elements are used for titanium brazing. However, the phase transition of the filler metals in the titanium joint needs to be explained, since the main element of Zr in the filler metals differs from that of the parent titanium alloys. In addition, since the MPDs easily form brittle intermetallics, that deteriorate joint properties, the phase evolution they cause needs to be studied. Zr-based filler metals having Cu content from 0 to 12 at. pct and Ni content from 12 to 24 at. pct with a melting temperature range of 1062 K to 1082 K (789 °C to 809 °C) were wetting-tested on a titanium plate to investigate the phase transformation and evolution at the interface between the titanium plate and the filler metals. In the interface, the alloys system with Zr, Zr2Ni, and (Ti,Zr)2Ni phases was easily changed to a Ti-based alloy system with Ti, Ti2Ni, and (Ti,Zr)2Ni phases, by the local melting of parent titanium. The dissolution depths of the parent metal were increased with increasing Ni content in the filler metals because Ni has a faster diffusion rate than Cu. Instead, slow diffusion of Cu into titanium substrate leads to the accumulation of Cu at the molten zone of the interface, which could form undesirable Ti x Cu y intermetallics. This study confirmed that Zr-based filler metals are compatible with the parent titanium metal with the minimum content of MPDs.

  6. Organic Crystal Engineering of Thermosetting Cyanate Ester Monomers: Influence of Structure on Melting Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-27

    heating baseline does show a modest non - linearity due to its nearness to the onset of the wide melting peak. Because we elected not to use heating...Guenthner, Sean M. Ramirez , Michael D. Ford, Denisse Soto, Jerry A. Boatz, Kamran B. Ghiassi and Joseph M. Mabry 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...longer Si-C bonds for C-C bonds in the monomer chemical structure results in the “unlocking” of new degrees of freedom in non -interlocking molecules

  7. Building optimal regression tree by ant colony system-genetic algorithm: Application to modeling of melting points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmateenejad, Bahram, E-mail: hemmatb@sums.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Medicinal and Natural Products Chemistry Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shamsipur, Mojtaba [Department of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zare-Shahabadi, Vali [Young Researchers Club, Mahshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mahshahr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Akhond, Morteza [Department of Chemistry, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-17

    Highlights: {yields} Ant colony systems help to build optimum classification and regression trees. {yields} Using of genetic algorithm operators in ant colony systems resulted in more appropriate models. {yields} Variable selection in each terminal node of the tree gives promising results. {yields} CART-ACS-GA could model the melting point of organic materials with prediction errors lower than previous models. - Abstract: The classification and regression trees (CART) possess the advantage of being able to handle large data sets and yield readily interpretable models. A conventional method of building a regression tree is recursive partitioning, which results in a good but not optimal tree. Ant colony system (ACS), which is a meta-heuristic algorithm and derived from the observation of real ants, can be used to overcome this problem. The purpose of this study was to explore the use of CART and its combination with ACS for modeling of melting points of a large variety of chemical compounds. Genetic algorithm (GA) operators (e.g., cross averring and mutation operators) were combined with ACS algorithm to select the best solution model. In addition, at each terminal node of the resulted tree, variable selection was done by ACS-GA algorithm to build an appropriate partial least squares (PLS) model. To test the ability of the resulted tree, a set of approximately 4173 structures and their melting points were used (3000 compounds as training set and 1173 as validation set). Further, an external test set containing of 277 drugs was used to validate the prediction ability of the tree. Comparison of the results obtained from both trees showed that the tree constructed by ACS-GA algorithm performs better than that produced by recursive partitioning procedure.

  8. Melting heat transfer effects on stagnation point flow of micropolar fluid saturated in porous medium with internal heat generation (absorption)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.A.A.MAHMOUD; S.E.WAHEED

    2014-01-01

    The effect of melting heat transfer on the two dimensional boundary layer flow of a micropolar fluid near a stagnation point embedded in a porous medium in the presence of internal heat generation/absorption is investigated. The governing non-linear partial differential equations describing the problem are reduced to a system of non-linear ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations solved numerically using the Chebyshev spectral method. Numerical results for velocity, angular velocity and temperature profiles are shown graphically and discussed for different values of the inverse Darcy number, the heat generation/absorption parameter, and the melting parameter. The effects of the pertinent parameters on the local skin-friction coefficient, the wall couple stress, and the local Nusselt number are tabulated and discussed. The results show that the inverse Darcy number has the effect of enhancing both velocity and temperature and suppressing angular velocity. It is also found that the local skin-friction coefficient decreases, while the local Nusselt number increases as the melting parameter increases.

  9. Induction heating pure vapor source of high temperature melting point materials on electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsumi, Osamu; Kato, Yushi; Matsui, Yuuki; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Uchida, Takashi; Yoshida, Yoshikazu; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2010-02-01

    Multicharged ions that are needed are produced from solid pure material with high melting point in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source. We develop an evaporator by using induction heating (IH) with multilayer induction coil, which is made from bare molybdenum or tungsten wire without water cooling and surrounding the pure vaporized material. We optimize the shapes of induction coil and vaporized materials and operation of rf power supply. We conduct experiment to investigate the reproducibility and stability in the operation and heating efficiency. IH evaporator produces pure material vapor because materials directly heated by eddy currents have no contact with insulated materials, which are usually impurity gas sources. The power and the frequency of the induction currents range from 100 to 900 W and from 48 to 23 kHz, respectively. The working pressure is about 10(-4)-10(-3) Pa. We measure the temperature of the vaporized materials with different shapes, and compare them with the result of modeling. We estimate the efficiency of the IH vapor source. We are aiming at the evaporator's higher melting point material than that of iron.

  10. Solid Lipid Nanoparticle Formulations of Docetaxel Prepared with High Melting Point Triglycerides: In Vitro and in Vivo Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Docetaxel (DCX) is a second generation taxane. It is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of various types of cancer, including breast, non-small cell lung, and head and neck cancers. However, side effects, including those related to Tween 80, an excipient in current DCX formulations, can be severe. In the present study, we developed a novel solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) composition of DCX. Trimyristin was selected from a list of high melting point triglycerides as the core lipid component of the SLNs, based on the rate at which the DCX was released from the SLNs and the stability of the SLNs. The trimyristin-based, PEGylated DCX-incorporated SLNs (DCX-SLNs) showed significantly higher cytotoxicity against various human and murine cancer cells in culture, as compared to DCX solubilized in a Tween 80/ethanol solution. Moreover, in a mouse model with pre-established tumors, the new DCX-SLNs were significantly more effective than DCX solubilized in a Tween 80/ethanol solution in inhibiting tumor growth without toxicity, likely because the DCX-SLNs increased the concentration of DCX in tumor tissues, but decreased the levels of DCX in major organs such as liver, spleen, heart, lung, and kidney. DCX-incorporated SLNs prepared with one or more high-melting point triglycerides may represent an improved DCX formulation. PMID:24621456

  11. Rheology and gel point of the enzymatic hydrolysis of urea in the presence of urease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrato-Millán, R.; Medina-Torres, L.; Calderas, F.; España-Sánchez, B. L.; Estevez, M.; Hernandez-Martínez, A. R.; Cruz-Soto, M.; Sánchez, I. C.; Gómez-García, R.; Sánchez-Betancourt, I.; Velasquillo-Martínez, M. C.; Luna-Bárcenas, G.

    2017-02-01

    This study reports on the rheology of the gelation kinetics of raw chitosan (CTS) solutions (2% w/v) produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of urea at different urea concentrations (40, 50, 60, 80, and 100 mM) in the presence of urease at 1 U/mL. Viscoelastic parameters and pH values were evaluated during gelation process and the rheological properties of CTS hydrogels produced were monitored after 24 h at 37°C to simulate human body temperatures. pH measurements suggest that above some critical urea concentration (50 mM) the time required ( t gel ) to reach the critical pH gelation shows no dependence on urea concentration ( t gel was ca. 70 minutes). Above 50 mM of urea concentration, CTS hydrogels exhibit an elastic modulus G' higher than the viscous modulus G″ with no frequency dependence characteristic of a gel behavior. Gelation kinetics analyzed by rheology suggest that the G' ( i.e., structure) development depends on urea concentration during solution neutralization.

  12. High resolution melting analysis is a more sensitive and effective alternative to gel-based platforms in analysis of SSR--an example in citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distefano, Gaetano; Caruso, Marco; La Malfa, Stefano; Gentile, Alessandra; Wu, Shu-Biao

    2012-01-01

    High resolution melting curve analysis (HRM) has been used as an efficient, accurate and cost-effective tool to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or insertions or deletions (INDELs). However, its efficiency, accuracy and applicability to discriminate microsatellite polymorphism have not been extensively assessed. The traditional protocols used for SSR genotyping include PCR amplification of the DNA fragment and the separation of the fragments on electrophoresis-based platform. However, post-PCR handling processes are laborious and costly. Furthermore, SNPs present in the sequences flanking repeat motif cannot be detected by polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoresis based methods. In the present study, we compared the discriminating power of HRM with the traditional electrophoresis-based methods and provided a panel of primers for HRM genotyping in Citrus. The results showed that sixteen SSR markers produced distinct polymorphic melting curves among the Citrus spp investigated through HRM analysis. Among those, 10 showed more genotypes by HRM analysis than capillary electrophoresis owing to the presence of SNPs in the amplicons. For the SSR markers without SNPs present in the flanking region, HRM also gave distinct melting curves which detected same genotypes as were shown in capillary electrophoresis (CE) analysis. Moreover, HRM analysis allowed the discrimination of most of the 15 citrus genotypes and the resulting genetic distance analysis clustered them into three main branches. In conclusion, it has been approved that HRM is not only an efficient and cost-effective alternative of electrophoresis-based method for SSR markers, but also a method to uncover more polymorphisms contributed by SNPs present in SSRs. It was therefore suggested that the panel of SSR markers could be used in a variety of applications in the citrus biodiversity and breeding programs using HRM analysis. Furthermore, we speculate that the HRM analysis can be employed to analyse SSR

  13. High resolution melting analysis is a more sensitive and effective alternative to gel-based platforms in analysis of SSR--an example in citrus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Distefano

    Full Text Available High resolution melting curve analysis (HRM has been used as an efficient, accurate and cost-effective tool to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs or insertions or deletions (INDELs. However, its efficiency, accuracy and applicability to discriminate microsatellite polymorphism have not been extensively assessed. The traditional protocols used for SSR genotyping include PCR amplification of the DNA fragment and the separation of the fragments on electrophoresis-based platform. However, post-PCR handling processes are laborious and costly. Furthermore, SNPs present in the sequences flanking repeat motif cannot be detected by polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoresis based methods. In the present study, we compared the discriminating power of HRM with the traditional electrophoresis-based methods and provided a panel of primers for HRM genotyping in Citrus. The results showed that sixteen SSR markers produced distinct polymorphic melting curves among the Citrus spp investigated through HRM analysis. Among those, 10 showed more genotypes by HRM analysis than capillary electrophoresis owing to the presence of SNPs in the amplicons. For the SSR markers without SNPs present in the flanking region, HRM also gave distinct melting curves which detected same genotypes as were shown in capillary electrophoresis (CE analysis. Moreover, HRM analysis allowed the discrimination of most of the 15 citrus genotypes and the resulting genetic distance analysis clustered them into three main branches. In conclusion, it has been approved that HRM is not only an efficient and cost-effective alternative of electrophoresis-based method for SSR markers, but also a method to uncover more polymorphisms contributed by SNPs present in SSRs. It was therefore suggested that the panel of SSR markers could be used in a variety of applications in the citrus biodiversity and breeding programs using HRM analysis. Furthermore, we speculate that the HRM analysis can be employed to

  14. High Resolution Melting Analysis Is a More Sensitive and Effective Alternative to Gel-Based Platforms in Analysis of SSR – An Example in Citrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distefano, Gaetano; Caruso, Marco; La Malfa, Stefano; Gentile, Alessandra; Wu, Shu-Biao

    2012-01-01

    High resolution melting curve analysis (HRM) has been used as an efficient, accurate and cost-effective tool to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or insertions or deletions (INDELs). However, its efficiency, accuracy and applicability to discriminate microsatellite polymorphism have not been extensively assessed. The traditional protocols used for SSR genotyping include PCR amplification of the DNA fragment and the separation of the fragments on electrophoresis-based platform. However, post-PCR handling processes are laborious and costly. Furthermore, SNPs present in the sequences flanking repeat motif cannot be detected by polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoresis based methods. In the present study, we compared the discriminating power of HRM with the traditional electrophoresis-based methods and provided a panel of primers for HRM genotyping in Citrus. The results showed that sixteen SSR markers produced distinct polymorphic melting curves among the Citrus spp investigated through HRM analysis. Among those, 10 showed more genotypes by HRM analysis than capillary electrophoresis owing to the presence of SNPs in the amplicons. For the SSR markers without SNPs present in the flanking region, HRM also gave distinct melting curves which detected same genotypes as were shown in capillary electrophoresis (CE) analysis. Moreover, HRM analysis allowed the discrimination of most of the 15 citrus genotypes and the resulting genetic distance analysis clustered them into three main branches. In conclusion, it has been approved that HRM is not only an efficient and cost-effective alternative of electrophoresis-based method for SSR markers, but also a method to uncover more polymorphisms contributed by SNPs present in SSRs. It was therefore suggested that the panel of SSR markers could be used in a variety of applications in the citrus biodiversity and breeding programs using HRM analysis. Furthermore, we speculate that the HRM analysis can be employed to analyse SSR

  15. 1-Methyl-3-octylimidazolium Polyoxomolybdate Ionic Liquid with Low Melting Point and High Stability:Preparation and Photocatalytic Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Tao; XU Yan-qing; CHEN Fa-wang; CHI Ying-nan; HU Chang-wen

    2011-01-01

    The polyoxometalate(POM)-imidazole ionic liquid(IL) [C8mim]2[Mo6O19](C8mim=l-methyl-3-octylimidazolium) with a low melting point of 82.6 ℃ was successfully prepared and characterized by FTIR, XPS, NMR, TG and so on. The polyoxomolybdate-based IL has high stability, and its decomposing temperature reaches 321 ℃,which is higher than that of l-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium halides IL. Further photocatalytic performances of the IL were measured via degrading dye rhodamine B(RB) in aqueous solution under the UV light irradiation. The experi ments show that the conversion of RB reaches 80.5% after 90 min under UV-light and the degradation efficiency de pends on the pH value of the solution, irradiation time and the dosage of the IL and so on.

  16. Investigation of microgravity effect on solidification of medium-low-melting-point alloy by drop tube experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The solidification microstructure of Al-Ni, Al-Cu, Ag-Cu, Al-Pb and Cu-Co alloys quenched in silicone oil before and after free fall in evacuated 50 m drop tube were investigated contrastively. The effect of microgravity on the solidification process of medium-low-melting-point eutectic, monotectic and peritectic alloys were ana-lyzed and discussed. The results indicated that the effects of microgravity on the eutectic cell shape, the pattern in eutectic cell and the inter-eutectic spacing were different for different types of eutectic systems; the size distribution of Pb particles in Al-5wt% Pb monotectic alloy was significantly changed by microgravity; and the shape of retained primary α-Co phase in Cu-10wt%Co peritectic alloy was also changed by microgravity. These results are beneficial for people to further identify and analyze the solidification behavior of multiphase alloys under microgravity.

  17. Characteristics of Homogeneous-Heterogeneous Reactions and Melting Heat Transfer in the Stagnation Point flow of Jeffrey Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hayat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on melting heat transfer in the stagnation point flow of Jeffrey fluid past an impermeable stretching cylinder with homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions. Characteristics of magnetohydrodynamic flow are explored in presence of heat generation/absorption. Diffusion coefficients of species A and B are taken of the same size. Heat released during chemical reaction is negligible. A system of ordinary differential equations is obtained by using suitable transformations. Convergent series solutions are derived. Impacts of various pertinent parameters on the velocity, temperature and concentration distributions are discussed. Numerical values of skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are computed and analyzed. Present results are compared with the previous published data.

  18. Assessment of styling performance in hair gels and hair sprays by means of a new two-point stiffness test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoessel, Peter; Riemann, Solveig; Knebl, Robert; Schroeder, Jens; Schuh, Gerd; Castillo, Catalina

    2010-01-01

    A new two-point bending stiffness method on flat hair strands was developed and validated after application of hair styling gels and hair styling sprays. A special mold was used to align single hair fibers after applying the formulations to the hair. The styling gels used contain different commercially available thickeners and styling polymers, e.g., carbomer, acrylates/beheneth-25 methacrylate copolymer, Polyquaternium-86, PVP, VP/VA copolymers, and VP/methacrylamide/vinylimidazole copolymer. Evaluation of hair sprays was performed after spray application on flat hair strands. Commercially available hair styling resins were used, e.g. acrylates/t-butylacrylamide copolymer, octylacrylamide/acrylates/butylaminoethyl methacrylate copolymer, and VP/VA copolymer (30:70). The new stiffness test method provided the best correlation with practically relevant sensory assessments on hair strands and a panel test in which styling gels were evaluated. However, we did not observe a correlation between the new stiffness method on flat hair strands and practical assessments in hair spray application. We postulate that different polymer/hair composites are responsible for these discrepancies. Hairs on model heads for half-side testing are spot-welded after spray application, while hairs are seam-welded in the stiffness test after alignment of single hair fibers. This alignment is necessary to achieve reproducible results.

  19. Solidification point measurements of high melting ceramics by digital pyrometry with solar furnace; Taiyoroyo tanshoku hosha ondokei ni yoru koyuten ceramics no gyokoten sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, T. [National Industrial Research Inst. of Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Yoshimura, M. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan)

    1998-09-20

    In order to measure a solidification point or melting point, it is necessary to the heating methods to be sufficient to melt the subject to be measured. In particular, as for the method to melt ceramics having high melting point (>200K), radiation heating, plasma heating, electron beam heating, resistance heating, induction heating and so forth are cited. This time, a solar furnace utilizing natural energy is used as a heating method. Authors carried out the remesurement of the solidification point of high melting ceramics using apparatus equipped a digital pyrometry with solar furnace system. Samples and in the experiment are MgO(3063-3124K), CaO(2873-3223K) and HfO2, comparative less evaporation at high temperature, especially having a large scattering value on literatures. Based on the measurements of effective emissivity and luminance temperature, the solidification points were determined to be 314K{+-}13K for MgO, 3174K{+-}7K for CaO and 3076K{+-}3K for HfO2, respectively. 21 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Influence of low-density polyethylene on the thermal characteristics and crystallinity of high melting point macro- and micro-crystalline waxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaky, Magdy T., E-mail: magdytadrous@hotmail.com [Petroleum Refining Division, Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute (EPRI), 1-Ahmed El-Zomor Street, Hai Al-Zehour, Nasr City, P.O. Box 11727, Cairo (Egypt); Mohamed, Nermen H. [Petroleum Refining Division, Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute (EPRI), 1-Ahmed El-Zomor Street, Hai Al-Zehour, Nasr City, P.O. Box 11727, Cairo (Egypt)

    2010-02-20

    The influence of low-density polyethylene on the thermal characteristics and the crystallinity of high melting point macro- and micro-crystalline waxes were investigated. The samples were prepared through melt blending using mechanical stirrer. The thermal characteristics of the blended samples were determined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The crystallinity of the samples was obtained using X-ray diffraction analyzer (XRD). The observations are discussed in terms of possible changes when the polymer is mixed with two types of waxes. The wax-polymer miscibility differed with the type of the wax and the amount of polymer mixed into the wax. Also, the crystallinity and congealing point of the waxes differed with the amount of polymer mixed into the wax. Moreover, the resulting data indicate that, blending of polymer with high melting point micro-crystalline wax elevates its melting point to reach the limits of high melting point ceresin waxes which can be used in different industrial applications.

  1. Wall Sticking of High Water-Cut, Highly Viscous and High Gel-Point Crude Oil Transported at Low Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Haimin; Huang Qiyu; Wang Changhui; Wang Xi

    2015-01-01

    Some crude oils with high water cut have the capability to lfow below the oil gel point, while the oil particles ad-here to the pipe wall in the form of paste, also called “wall sticking”. Wall sticking is a serious problem during the pipeline transportation, leading to partial or total blockage of the pipeline and energy wastage. In this paper, a series of laboratory lfow loop experiments were conducted to observe the wall sticking characteristics of crude oil with high water cut, high viscosity and high gel point at low transportation temperatures. The effects of shear stress and water cut on the wall sticking rate and occurrence temperature were investigated. Experimental results indicated that the wall sticking rate and occurrence temperature were lower under stronger shear stress and higher water cut conditions. A criterion of wall sticking occurrence temperature (WSOT) and a regression model of wall sticking rate were then established. Finally, the software was developed to calculate the pressure drop along the pipelines of crude oils with high water-cut. It was able to predict the wall sticking thickness of gelled oil and then calculate the pressure drop along the pipelines. A typical case study indicated that the predic-tion results obtained from the software were in agreement with actual measured values.

  2. Efficient determination of crystallisation and melting points at low cooling and heating rates with novel computer controlled equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachter, Philipp [Institut fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie der Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Schweiger, Hans-Georg [Institut fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie der Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Continental Automotive Systems Division, Sickingenstrasse 29-38, D-10553 Berlin (Germany); Wudy, Franz [Institut fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie der Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Gores, Heiner J. [Institut fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie der Universitaet Regensburg, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany)], E-mail: Heiner.Gores@Chemie.Uni-Regensburg.de

    2008-10-15

    We studied melting and solidification points of 14 pure solvents and two ionic liquids with a recently constructed automatic computer-controlled equipment, which is able to record simultaneously temperature-time functions of up to 30 samples at very low heating and cooling rates down to 1.5 K . h{sup -1}. The effects of viscosity of the studied samples and of carbon fibres as an added crystallisation aid were also investigated. Equilibrium temperatures for the solid-liquid phase transition are in accordance with literature for materials that were often checked, such as acetonitrile, showing the quality of our new equipment, whereas the value of the transition temperature of some other materials differed from published results. It is shown that both the viscosity of the material and carbon fibres as crystallisation aids have an effect on supercooling. The value given for the equilibrium point of the ionic liquid trioctylmethylammonium trifluorocetate T{sub tr} = (285.62 {+-} 0.1) K is new.

  3. Simultaneous feature selection and parameter optimisation using an artificial ant colony: case study of melting point prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigsch Florian

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present a novel feature selection algorithm, Winnowing Artificial Ant Colony (WAAC, that performs simultaneous feature selection and model parameter optimisation for the development of predictive quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR models. The WAAC algorithm is an extension of the modified ant colony algorithm of Shen et al. (J Chem Inf Model 2005, 45: 1024–1029. We test the ability of the algorithm to develop a predictive partial least squares model for the Karthikeyan dataset (J Chem Inf Model 2005, 45: 581–590 of melting point values. We also test its ability to perform feature selection on a support vector machine model for the same dataset. Results Starting from an initial set of 203 descriptors, the WAAC algorithm selected a PLS model with 68 descriptors which has an RMSE on an external test set of 46.6°C and R2 of 0.51. The number of components chosen for the model was 49, which was close to optimal for this feature selection. The selected SVM model has 28 descriptors (cost of 5, ε of 0.21 and an RMSE of 45.1°C and R2 of 0.54. This model outperforms a kNN model (RMSE of 48.3°C, R2 of 0.47 for the same data and has similar performance to a Random Forest model (RMSE of 44.5°C, R2 of 0.55. However it is much less prone to bias at the extremes of the range of melting points as shown by the slope of the line through the residuals: -0.43 for WAAC/SVM, -0.53 for Random Forest. Conclusion With a careful choice of objective function, the WAAC algorithm can be used to optimise machine learning and regression models that suffer from overfitting. Where model parameters also need to be tuned, as is the case with support vector machine and partial least squares models, it can optimise these simultaneously. The moving probabilities used by the algorithm are easily interpreted in terms of the best and current models of the ants, and the winnowing procedure promotes the removal of irrelevant descriptors.

  4. Study on the Melting Point Determination of Glyceryl Monostearate%单硬脂酸甘油酯熔点分析方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨燕; 欧阳晓岳; 叶南飚

    2012-01-01

    通过不同的熔点测试方法:两端开口毛细管法和数字熔点仪测定了单硬脂酸甘油酯(单甘酯)的熔点。结果表明,两端开口毛细管法测得的数据精密度较高,而且此法操作方便、重复性强、结果准确、经济。同时还总结了两端开口毛细管法测定熔点的影响因素及注意事项。%The mehing point of glyceryl monostearate (monoglyeeride) can indirectly reflect its purity, In order to accurately measure the melting point, this article through different testing methods, capillary method and digital melting point tester, measured the melting point of monoglycerides . The results show that the date gained by the latter are precise and exact.And this method is convenient, repeatability, and economy. This pa- per also analysis the factors which effect on determination of melting point of monoglycerides.

  5. Crack repair welding by CMT brazing using low melting point filler wire for long-term used steam turbine cases of Cr-Mo-V cast steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadoi, Kota, E-mail: kadoi@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Murakami, Aoi; Shinozaki, Kenji; Yamamoto, Motomichi [Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Matsumura, Hideo [Chugoku Electric Power Co., 3-9-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan)

    2016-06-01

    Surface melting by gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding and overlaying by cold metal transfer (CMT) brazing using low melting point filler wire were investigated to develop a repair process for cracks in worn cast steel of steam turbine cases. Cr-Mo-V cast steel, operated for 188,500 h at 566 °C, was used as the base material. Silver and gold brazing filler wires were used as overlaying materials to decrease the heat input into the base metal and the peak temperature during the welding thermal cycle. Microstructural analysis revealed that the worn cast steel test samples contained ferrite phases with intragranular precipitates of Cr{sub 7}C{sub 3}, Mo{sub 2}C, and CrSi{sub 2} and grain boundary precipitates of Cr{sub 23}C{sub 6} and Mo{sub 2}C. CMT brazing using low melting point filler wire was found to decrease the heat input and peak temperature during the thermal cycle of the process compared with those during GTA surface melting. Thus, the process helped to inhibit the formation of hardened phases such as intermetallics and martensite in the heat affected zone (HAZ). Additionally, in the case of CMT brazing using BAg-8, the change in the hardness of the HAZ was negligible even though other processes such as GTA surface melting cause significant changes. The creep-fatigue properties of weldments produced by CMT brazing with BAg-8 were the highest, and nearly the same as those of the base metal owing to the prevention of hardened phase formation. The number of fracture cycles using GTA surface melting and CMT brazing with BAu-4 was also quite small. Therefore, CMT brazing using low melting point filler wire such as BAg-8 is a promising candidate method for repairing steam turbine cases. However, it is necessary to take alloy segregation during turbine operation into account to design a suitable filler wire for practical use.

  6. Evaluation of 5-fluorouracil applicability by multi-point collagen gel droplet embedded drug sensitivity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Takumi; Nishimura, Kazuhiko; Noguchi, Hajime; Kitajima, Masayuki; Tsuruoka, Yuko; Takahashi, Yuka

    2005-07-01

    The drug sensitivity of tumor cells is one of key issues to explore individualized therapy for cancer patients. One of such methods is in vitro anticancer drug sensitivity test which is generally based on one drug concentration and contact time. In this study, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) sensitivity of cancer cells from colorectal cancer patients was evaluated by collagen gel droplet embedded drug sensitivity test (CD-DST) under multiple drug concentrations and contact durations. Cancer cells from 19 patients were measured for 9 drug concentration/contact time conditions (cohort 1) and from 34 patients were measured for 2 drug concentration/contact time conditions (cohort 2) using CD-DST. There was not significant difference in growth inhibition rate for 1.0 microg/ml for 24 h and 0.2 microg/ml for 120 h, which gives the same area under the curve (AUC) (p=0.832) in all 53 patients (cohort 1 and 2). In cohort 1, 9 conditions were successfully measured in 18 of 19 cohort 1 patients (94.7%). The drug concentrations and growth inhibition rate approximated to logarithmic curve for all 3 contact times and 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values at 3 contact times could be calculated in these 18 patients. Growth inhibition rate and AUC also approximated to logarithmic curve. These values varied several orders of magnitude among patients. In vitro antitumor effect of 5-FU depended on AUC in colorectal tumor and it might support the use of continuous infusion or oral therapy which generates significant AUC with manageable toxicity. Some patients demonstrating low 5-FU sensitivity could not be indicated for 5-FU based therapy, and non-5-FU therapy should be explored for them.

  7. Free-energy calculations using classical molecular simulation: application to the determination of the melting point and chemical potential of a flexible RDX model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Michael S; Lísal, Martin; Brennan, John K

    2016-03-21

    We present an extension of various free-energy methodologies to determine the chemical potential of the solid and liquid phases of a fully-flexible molecule using classical simulation. The methods are applied to the Smith-Bharadwaj atomistic potential representation of cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX), a well-studied energetic material, to accurately determine the solid and liquid phase Gibbs free energies, and the melting point (Tm). We outline an efficient technique to find the absolute chemical potential and melting point of a fully-flexible molecule using one set of simulations to compute the solid absolute chemical potential and one set of simulations to compute the solid-liquid free energy difference. With this combination, only a handful of simulations are needed, whereby the absolute quantities of the chemical potentials are obtained, for use in other property calculations, such as the characterization of crystal polymorphs or the determination of the entropy. Using the LAMMPS molecular simulator, the Frenkel and Ladd and pseudo-supercritical path techniques are adapted to generate 3rd order fits of the solid and liquid chemical potentials. Results yield the thermodynamic melting point Tm = 488.75 K at 1.0 atm. We also validate these calculations and compare this melting point to one obtained from a typical superheated simulation technique.

  8. Predicting critical temperatures of ionic and non-ionic fluids from thermophysical data obtained near the melting point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Volker C

    2015-10-14

    In the correlation and prediction of thermophysical data of fluids based on a corresponding-states approach, the critical temperature Tc plays a central role. For some fluids, in particular ionic ones, however, the critical region is difficult or even impossible to access experimentally. For molten salts, Tc is on the order of 3000 K, which makes accurate measurements a challenging task. Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) decompose thermally between 400 K and 600 K due to their organic constituents; this range of temperatures is hundreds of degrees below recent estimates of their Tc. In both cases, reliable methods to deduce Tc based on extrapolations of experimental data recorded at much lower temperatures near the triple or melting points are needed and useful because the critical point influences the fluid's behavior in the entire liquid region. Here, we propose to employ the scaling approach leading to universal fluid behavior [Román et al., J. Chem. Phys. 123, 124512 (2005)] to derive a very simple expression that allows one to estimate Tc from the density of the liquid, the surface tension, or the enthalpy of vaporization measured in a very narrow range of low temperatures. We demonstrate the validity of the approach for simple and polar neutral fluids, for which Tc is known, and then use the methodology to obtain estimates of Tc for ionic fluids. When comparing these estimates to those reported in the literature, good agreement is found for RTILs, whereas the ones for the molten salts NaCl and KCl are lower than previous estimates by 10%. The coexistence curve for ionic fluids is found to be more adequately described by an effective exponent of βeff = 0.5 than by βeff = 0.33.

  9. Triton X-114 cloud point extraction to subfractionate blood plasma proteins for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Flemming; Wulff, Tune

    2015-09-15

    A simple and reproducible procedure for enrichment of a plasma protein subfraction suitable for two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2DE) was developed, using a Triton X-114-based cloud point extraction (CPE). Appropriate conditions for such a CPE procedure were found by SDS-PAGE to be a plasma protein concentration of about 10mg/ml in 3% (w/v) Triton X-114. 2DE of proteins obtained by CPE of 400 μl of human plasma revealed about 200 spots constituting a spot pattern very different from the pattern of total plasma. The CPE procedure only had a limited contribution to the technical variation. Identification of about 60 spots, representing only 22 proteins, revealed that several proteins in the obtained subfraction were present in more isoforms or modifications. Among these were apolipoproteins (A-1, D, E, L1, and M), haptoglobin-related protein, phosphatidylcholine-sterol acyltransferase, serum amyloid A, and serum paraoxonase/arylesterase 1, which are proteins of a hydrophobic nature, as in plasma they relate to lipoprotein particles. Thus, Triton X-114-based CPE is a simple plasma prefractionation tool, attractive for detailed 2DE studies of hydrophobic plasma proteins and their isoforms or modifications.

  10. The effect of coconut oil and palm oil as substituted oils to cocoa butter on chocolate bar texture and melting point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbardo, Rebecca Putri; Santoso, Herry; Witono, Judy Retti

    2017-05-01

    Cocoa butter has responsibility for dispersion medium to create a stable chocolate bar. Due to the economic reason, cocoa butter is partially or wholly substituted by edible oils e.g palm oil and coconut oil. The objective of the research was to observe the effect of oil substitution in the chocolate bar towards its melting point and texture. The research were divided in three steps which were preliminary research started with fat content analysis in cocoa powder, melting point analysis of substituted oils anc cocoa butter, and iodine number analysis in vegetable fats (cocoa butter, coconut oil, and palm oil), chocolate bar production with substitution 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%wt of cocoa butter with each of substituted oils, and analysis process to determine the chocolate bar melting point with DSC and chocolate bar hardness with texture analyser. The increasement of substituted oils during substitution in chocolate bar would reduce the melting point of chocolate bar from 33.5°C to 31.6°C in palm oil substitution with cocoa butter and 33.5°C to 30.75°C in coconut oil substitution. The hardness of chocolate with palm oil were around 88.5 to 139 g on the 1st cycle and 22.75 to 132 g on the 2nd cycle. The hardness of chocolate with coconut oil were around 74.75 to 152.5 g on the 1st cycle and 53.25 to 132 g on the 2nd cycle. Maximum amount of fats substitution to produce a stable texture chocolate bar is 60% wt.

  11. Magnetic Biocomposites for Remote Melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mengbo; Liebert, Tim; Müller, Robert; Dellith, Andrea; Gräfe, Christine; Clement, Joachim H; Heinze, Thomas

    2015-08-10

    A new approach toward the fabrication of biocompatible composites suitable for remote melting is presented. It is shown that magnetite nanoparticles (MNP) can be embedded into a matrix of biocompatible thermoplastic dextran esters. For that purpose, fatty acid esters of dextran with adjustable melting points in the range of 30-140 °C were synthesized. Esterification of the polysaccharide by activation of the acid as iminium chlorides guaranteed mild reaction conditions leading to high quality products as confirmed by FTIR- and NMR spectroscopy as well as by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). A method for the preparation of magnetically responsive bionanocomposites was developed consisting of combined dissolution/suspension of the dextran ester and hydrophobized MNPs in an organic solvent followed by homogenization with ultrasonication, casting of the solution, drying and melting of the composite for a defined shaping. This process leads to a uniform distribution of MNPs in nanocomposite as revealed by scanning electron microscope. Samples of different geometries were exposed to high frequency alternating magnetic field. It could be shown that defined remote melting of such biocompatible nanocomposites is possible for the first time. This may lead to a new class of magnetic remote control systems, which are suitable for controlled release applications or self-healing materials.

  12. Ab initio analysis of a vacancy and a self-interstitial near single crystal silicon surfaces: Implications for intrinsic point defect incorporation during crystal growth from a melt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiyama, Eiji; Sueoka, Koji [Department of Communication Engineering, Okayama Prefectural University, 111 Kuboki, Soja, Okayama 719-1197 (Japan); Vanhellemont, Jan [Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S1, Gent 9000 (Belgium)

    2012-10-15

    The microscopic model of the Si (001) crystal surface was investigated by first principles calculations to clarify the behavior of intrinsic point defects near crystal surfaces. A c(4 x 2) structure model was used to describe the crystal surface in contact with vacuum. The calculations show lower formation energy near the surface and the existence of formation energy differences between the surface and the bulk for both types of intrinsic point defects. The tetrahedral (T)-site and the dumbbell (DB)-site, in which a Si atom is captured from the surface and forms a self-interstitial, are found as stable sites near the third atomic layer. The T-site has a barrier of 0.48 eV, whereas the DB-site has no barrier for the interstitial to penetrate into the crystal from the vacuum. Si atoms in a melt can migrate and reach at the third layer during crystal growth when bulk diffusion coefficient is used. Therefore, the melt/solid interface is always a source of intrinsic point defects. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Modified Pippard relationship describing the Raman frequency shifts of the rotatory lattice mode of ammonia solid II in the vicinity of its melting point

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H Karacali; H Yurtseven

    2005-11-01

    We relate in this study the thermal expansivity, , to the Raman frequency shift (1/)( /) for the rotatory lattice (librational) mode in ammonia solid II near its melting point. We have used our calculated Raman frequencies of this mode for pressures of 3.65, 5.02 and 6.57 kbars for this crystalline system. The values of the slope, d/d, which we deduced from our spectroscopic relation, are compared with those obtained experimentally. In particular, our computed slope value for the pressure of 5.02 kbar is in very good agreement with the empirical result.

  14. Using Paraffin with -10 deg C to 10 deg C Melting Point for Payload Thermal Energy Storage in SpaceX Dragon Trunk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    A concept of using paraffin wax phase change material (PCM) with a melting point between -10 deg C and 10 deg C for payload thermal energy storage in a Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) Dragon trunk is presented. It overcomes the problem of limited heater power available to a payload with significant radiators when the Dragon is berthed to the International Space Station (ISS). It stores adequate thermal energy to keep a payload warm without power for 6 hours during the transfer from the Dragon to an ExPRESS logistics carrier (ELC) on the ISS.

  15. Impacts of thermal stress and doping on intrinsic point defect properties and clustering during single crystal silicon and germanium growth from a melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhellemont, Jan; Kamiyama, Eiji; Nakamura, Kozo; Śpiewak, Piotr; Sueoka, Koji

    2017-09-01

    This paper reviews recent considerable progress made in the last few years in understanding the behavior and properties of intrinsic point defects close to moving melt/solid Si interfaces during single crystal Si growth from a melt. The so called Voronkov criterion allows to determine whether the grown Si crystal is interstitial I- or vacancy V-rich. This criterion is written as the ratio Γ of the pulling rate v over the thermal gradient G at the interface. Crystals pulled with Γ above a critical value Γcrit are vacancy-rich while below Γcrit, they are interstitial-rich. Various expressions based on the intrinsic point defect thermal equilibrium concentration and diffusivity have been proposed to calculate Γcrit and are briefly discussed in this paper. Recently it was shown that the thermal stress at the interface and heavy doping with neutral and/or electrically active impurities, have a considerable impact on the intrinsic point defect balance and thus also on Γcrit. Furthermore, high energy barriers of formation energies of I and V around three or four atom layers from (001) free surface support a model in which the boundary conditions of the point defect concentrations at the surface in simulations can be set at fixed values. The situation is quite different for Ge single crystal pulling where the vacancy is always the dominant intrinsic point defect so that the Voronkov criterion cannot be applied. Prediction of vacancy cluster concentration/size distributions as a function of the pulling conditions is however still possible. The possibility of reaching Voronkov criterion conditions for Ge by doping with specific impurities is also discussed. Finally, impacts of stress and doping on self-diffusion in Si and Ge are evaluated with comparing the previous experimental results.

  16. Morphology of Near- and Semispherical Melted Chips after the Grinding Processes Using Sol-Gel Abrasives Based on SEM-Imaging and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Kapłonek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Selected issues related to SEM-imaging and image analysis of spherical melted chips formed during the grinding process are presented and discussed. The general characteristics of this specific group of machining products are given. Chip formation phenomena, as well as their overall morphology, are presented using selected examples of near- and semispherical melted chips occurring singly or concentrated in clusters on the grinding wheel surface after the machining process. Observation of the spherical melted chips and acquisition of their images were carried out for grinding wheel active surfaces with microcrystalline sintered corundum abrasive grains SG™ after the internal cylindrical grinding process of a 100Cr6 steel and Titanium Grade 2® alloy by use of a scanning electron microscope, JEOL JSM-5500LV. Analysis of the obtained SEM micrographs was carried out by Image-Pro® Plus 5.0 software to determine the selected geometrical parameters describing the morphological features of the assessed chips.

  17. Investigation of a 2D two-point maximum entropy regularization method for signal-to-noise ratio enhancement: application to CT polymer gel dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirasek, A [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Matthews, Q [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Hilts, M [Medical Physics, BC Cancer Agency-Vancouver Island Centre, Victoria BC V8R 6V5 (Canada); Schulze, G [Michael Smith Laboratories, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Blades, M W [Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Turner, R F B [Michael Smith Laboratories, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada)

    2006-05-21

    This study presents a new method of image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) enhancement by utilizing a newly developed 2D two-point maximum entropy regularization method (TPMEM). When utilized as an image filter, it is shown that 2D TPMEM offers unsurpassed flexibility in its ability to balance the complementary requirements of image smoothness and fidelity. The technique is evaluated for use in the enhancement of x-ray computed tomography (CT) images of irradiated polymer gels used in radiation dosimetry. We utilize a range of statistical parameters (e.g. root-mean square error, correlation coefficient, error histograms, Fourier data) to characterize the performance of TPMEM applied to a series of synthetic images of varying initial SNR. These images are designed to mimic a range of dose intensity patterns that would occur in x-ray CT polymer gel radiation dosimetry. Analysis is extended to a CT image of a polymer gel dosimeter irradiated with a stereotactic radiation therapy dose distribution. Results indicate that TPMEM performs strikingly well on radiation dosimetry data, significantly enhancing the SNR of noise-corrupted images (SNR enhancement factors >15 are possible) while minimally distorting the original image detail (as shown by the error histograms and Fourier data). It is also noted that application of this new TPMEM filter is not restricted exclusively to x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry image data but can in future be extended to a wide range of radiation dosimetry data.

  18. Investigation of a 2D two-point maximum entropy regularization method for signal-to-noise ratio enhancement: application to CT polymer gel dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirasek, A; Matthews, Q; Hilts, M; Schulze, G; Blades, M W; Turner, R F B

    2006-05-21

    This study presents a new method of image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) enhancement by utilizing a newly developed 2D two-point maximum entropy regularization method (TPMEM). When utilized as an image filter, it is shown that 2D TPMEM offers unsurpassed flexibility in its ability to balance the complementary requirements of image smoothness and fidelity. The technique is evaluated for use in the enhancement of x-ray computed tomography (CT) images of irradiated polymer gels used in radiation dosimetry. We utilize a range of statistical parameters (e.g. root-mean square error, correlation coefficient, error histograms, Fourier data) to characterize the performance of TPMEM applied to a series of synthetic images of varying initial SNR. These images are designed to mimic a range of dose intensity patterns that would occur in x-ray CT polymer gel radiation dosimetry. Analysis is extended to a CT image of a polymer gel dosimeter irradiated with a stereotactic radiation therapy dose distribution. Results indicate that TPMEM performs strikingly well on radiation dosimetry data, significantly enhancing the SNR of noise-corrupted images (SNR enhancement factors >15 are possible) while minimally distorting the original image detail (as shown by the error histograms and Fourier data). It is also noted that application of this new TPMEM filter is not restricted exclusively to x-ray CT polymer gel dosimetry image data but can in future be extended to a wide range of radiation dosimetry data.

  19. Microstructures and properties of low-melting-point Al-Cu-Si filler metals prepared by different technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zehua; Feng Hua; Jiang Shaoqun; Zhou Zehua

    2010-01-01

    The Al25Cu6. 5Si0. 09RE (RE = La and Ce) and Al25Cu10.5Si2Ni filler metals were prepared by common metal mold casting, copper plate chilling and rapid solidification, respectively. The microstructures and properties of these filler metals were studied. The results show that the as-casting and the corresponding rapid solidification filler metals have the same phases but their microstructures are different. The microstructure of rapid solidification filler metals consults of an a-Al solid solution, the 6 (Al2Cu) intermetallic compound and an Al-Cu-Si eutectk phase. Compared with the as-casting filler metal, the melting temperature ranges (△T) of the corresponding copper plate chilling and rapid solidification filler metals decrease and their wettabilities are improved because of the grain refinement and the improvement of composition uniformity. The wetting area of Al25Cu6.5Si0.09RE rapid solidification filler metal doubles that of the corresponding as-casting filler metal. It is hopeful that the properties of Al-Cu-Si filler metals will be improved by changing preparation technology.

  20. Development of complex hydride-based all-solid-state lithium ion battery applying low melting point electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shohei; Kawaji, Jun; Yoshida, Koji; Unemoto, Atsushi; Orimo, Shin-ichi

    2017-08-01

    A thermally durable all-solid-state lithium ion battery composed of a complex hydride, oxide electrolytes, and LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 active material is developed. This battery exhibits a discharge capacity of 56 mAh g-1, and the tenth capacity retention ratio is 29% at 150 °C owing to the large contact resistance between the electrolyte layer and the composite positive electrode layer. This large contact resistance is reduced by introducing an adhesive layer comprised of a mixture of LiBH4 and LiNH2 that is easily melted by thermal treatment and fills the voids and pores at the interface between the two layers. As a result, repeated charge-discharge cycles are successfully demonstrated at 150 °C with a high discharge capacity and discharge capacity retention ratio. The first discharge capacity is enhanced to 114 mAh g-1 and the capacity retention ratio at the tenth cycle is improved to 71%. These results demonstrate that using an adhesive layer is an effective measure to reduce the contact resistance and thereby enhance the performance of the battery.

  1. Correlation between the band gap, elastic modulus, Raman shift and melting point of CdS, ZnS, and CdSe semiconductors and their size dependency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C.; Zhou, Z. F.; Li, J. W.; Yang, X. X.; Qin, W.; Jiang, R.; Guo, N. G.; Wang, Y.; Sun, C. Q.

    2012-02-01

    With structural miniaturization down to the nanoscale, the detectable quantities of solid materials no longer remain constant but become tunable. For the II-VI semiconductors example, the band gap expands, the elastic modulus increases, the melting point drops, and the Raman optical phonons experience red shift associated with creation of low frequency Raman acoustic modes that undergo blue shift with decreasing the dimensional scale. In order to understand the common origin of the size dependency of these seemingly irrelevant properties, we formulated these quantities for CdS, ZnS, and CdSe semiconductors from the perspectives of bond order-length-strength correlation and the local bond averaging approach. Consistency between the theory predictions and the measured size dependence of these quantities clarified that the undercoordination-induced local strain and quantum entrapment and the varied fraction of undercoordinated atoms of the entire solid correlate these quantities and dominate their size effect.

  2. Influence of Immersion Conditions on The Tensile Strength of Recycled Kevlar®/Polyester/Low-Melting-Point Polyester Nonwoven Geotextiles through Applying Statistical Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Chzi Hsieh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The recycled Kevlar®/polyester/low-melting-point polyester (recycled Kevlar®/PET/LPET nonwoven geotextiles are immersed in neutral, strong acid, and strong alkali solutions, respectively, at different temperatures for four months. Their tensile strength is then tested according to various immersion periods at various temperatures, in order to determine their durability to chemicals. For the purpose of analyzing the possible factors that influence mechanical properties of geotextiles under diverse environmental conditions, the experimental results and statistical analyses are incorporated in this study. Therefore, influences of the content of recycled Kevlar® fibers, implementation of thermal treatment, and immersion periods on the tensile strength of recycled Kevlar®/PET/LPET nonwoven geotextiles are examined, after which their influential levels are statistically determined by performing multiple regression analyses. According to the results, the tensile strength of nonwoven geotextiles can be enhanced by adding recycled Kevlar® fibers and thermal treatment.

  3. KAJIAN PENURUNAN TITIK LELEH LILIN LEBAH (Apis cerana DALAM PEMBUATAN MARGARIN OLES RENDAH KALORI 1 [Study on Decreasing the Melting Point of Beeswax (Apis cerana in the Production of Low -Calorie Margarine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zita L. Sarungallo 1

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Beeswax has been used to replace fat in order to produce low calorie margarine; however, the quality of the product was still low. To produce a good quality of beeswax-containing margarine, the melting point of beeswax must be lowered close to human body temperature. The o objectives of the research were : (1 to study the effect of addition of palm olein oil, fat solvent, emulsifier and stabilizer on the decrease of the melting point of beeswax, (2 to study the effect of enzymatic transesterification process, and (3 to produce margarine with low melting point and organoleptically acceptable. The results of the study revealed that addition of margarine ingredient lowered the melting point and solid fat content of the mixture, eventhough the melting point only reduced by 10°C, i.e. 64°C to 54°C. The process of transesterification was carried out on beeswax and palm olein with ratio of 50:50 and 40:60 using lipozyme IM 20 transesterification from Mucor miehei as a catalyst at 78,5°C for 24 hours with agitation at 200 rpm. Using this transesterification condition, the ratio of beeswax and palm oil of 50,50 produced fat with iodine value of 36,3 acid value of 18,5, free fatty acid of 8.45%, and melting point of 53°C, while ratio of 40: 60 produced fat with iodine value of 42,5, acid value of 15.44, free fatty acid of 7.24% and the melting point of 52°C produce fat with iodine value of 36,31 and 42,51, acid value of 18,5 and 15,44, free fatty acid of 8,45% and 7,24% at the melting point of 53°C and 52°C. It also produced solid fat content (40oC of 26,06% and 18,13%, with the consistency of 9,75 mm sec/gr and 13,96 mm sec/gr, respectively. The transesterification and non-transesterification beeswax with palm olein oil also can produce a low calorie margarine with the value of 12,3% - 50,5% lower than the comercial margarine, with the same physical and sensory characteristics

  4. Sol-Gel Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, S. P.

    1985-01-01

    Multicomponent homogeneous, ultrapure noncrystalline gels/gel derived glasses are promising batch materials for the containerless glass melting experiments in microgravity. Hence, ultrapure, homogeneous gel precursors could be used to: (1) investigate the effect of the container induced nucleation on the glass forming ability of marginally glass forming compositions; and (2) investigate the influence of gravity on the phase separation and coarsening behavior of gel derived glasses in the liquid-liquid immiscibility zone of the nonsilicate systems having a high density phase. The structure and crystallization behavior of gels in the SiO2-GeO2 as a function of gel chemistry and thermal treatment were investigated. As are the chemical principles involved in the distribution of a second network former in silica gel matrix being investigated. The procedures for synthesizing noncrystalline gels/gel-monoliths in the SiO2-GeO2, GeO2-PbO systems were developed. Preliminary investigations on the levitation and thermal treatment of germania silicate gel-monoliths in the Pressure Facility Acoustic Levitator were done.

  5. 提高结晶山梨醇熔点的工艺探讨%Technology for improving the melting point of crystal sorbitol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺均林; 王建平; 李宁; 何丽萍; 韦炳前; 韦春艳

    2012-01-01

    The sorbitol is widely used in chemical, foodstuff, medicine field. The crystal sorbitol is more widely used. But, the crystallization technological conditions must be well controlled for higher melting point of crystal sorbitol. The single factor experiment about the crystallization temperature, crystallization time, seed dosage and the seed size were studied. The orthogonal tests were carried out according to L, ( 34 ) and the crystallization technological conditions were optimized. The significant factor was determined and the analyzed. The significant factor was the crystallization temperature. The crystallization temperature in the old equipment was changed and the operating staffs was trained. The melting point of crystal sorbitol reached stably over 101 ℃ under the optimized conditions. The optimized conditions were; crystallization temperature: 701 , crystallization time; 40min, crystallization seed dosage; 10%.%山梨醇是一种用途广泛的化工、食品、医药原料,结晶山梨醇应用更广,但必须掌握好其结晶的条件才能制备出熔点高的结晶山梨醇.本文对山梨醇结晶的工艺条件进行了深入研究,通过对结晶温度、结晶时间、晶种用量及晶种粒度进行了单因素对比试验,并用三因素三水平正交试验表安排了正交试验,优化结晶工艺条件.根据正交试验结果的极差分析及方差分析,对三因素的显著性作出了判断,确定了影响结晶山梨醇熔点的显著因素为结晶温度,也找出了原来产品熔点低的主要原因,对原装置上的结晶温度控制系统进行了改造,并对操作人员进行了培训,按优化的条件生产后,结晶山梨醇的熔点稳定达到101℃以上,达到进口样品的水平,其优化的条件为:结晶温度:70℃,结晶时间:40min,晶种用量:10%.

  6. Water- and Boron-Rich Melt Inclusions in Quartz from the Malkhan Pegmatite, Transbaikalia, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Badanina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we show that the pegmatite-forming processes responsible for the formation of the Malkhan pegmatites started at magmatic temperatures around 720 °C. The primary melts or supercritical fluids were very water- and boron-rich (maximum values of about 10% (g/g B2O3 and over the temperature interval from 720 to 600 °C formed a pseudobinary solvus, indicated by the coexistence of two types of primary melt inclusions (type-A and type-B representing a pair of conjugate melts. Due to the high water and boron concentration the pegmatite-forming melts are metastable and can be characterized either as genuine melts or silicate-rich fluids. This statement is underscored by Raman spectroscopic studies. This study suggested that the gel state proposed by some authors cannot represent the main stage of the pegmatite-forming processes in the Malkhan pegmatites, and probably in all others. However there are points in the evolution of the pegmatites where the gel- or gel-like state has left traces in form of real gel inclusions in some mineral in the Malkhan pegmatite, however only in a late, fluid dominated stage.

  7. On the rational formulation of alternative fuels: melting point and net heat of combustion predictions for fuel compounds using machine learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldana, D A; Starck, L; Mougin, P; Rousseau, B; Creton, B

    2013-01-01

    We report the development of predictive models for two fuel specifications: melting points (T(m)) and net heat of combustion (Δ(c)H). Compounds inside the scope of these models are those likely to be found in alternative fuels, i.e. hydrocarbons, alcohols and esters. Experimental T(m) and Δ(c)H values for these types of molecules have been gathered to generate a unique database. Various quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) approaches have been used to build models, ranging from methods leading to multi-linear models such as genetic function approximation (GFA), or partial least squares (PLS) to those leading to non-linear models such as feed-forward artificial neural networks (FFANN), general regression neural networks (GRNN), support vector machines (SVM), or graph machines. Except for the case of the graph machines method for which the only inputs are SMILES formulae, previously listed approaches working on molecular descriptors and functional group count descriptors were used to develop specific models for T(m) and Δ(c)H. For each property, the predictive models return slightly different responses for each molecular structure. Therefore, models labelled as 'consensus models' were built by averaging values computed with selected individual models. Predicted results were then compared with experimental data and with predictions of models in the literature.

  8. Thermal Properties of Low Melting Point Microencapsulated Paraffin Insulation Mortar%低熔点石蜡微胶囊保温砂浆的热性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晏华; 张剑; 陈淑莲; 王雪梅

    2012-01-01

    以低熔点石蜡微胶囊为相变材料,制备石蜡微胶囊保温砂浆.测试了保温砂浆的热焓、相变温度、导热系数和相变蓄热性能.结果表明:石蜡微胶囊保温砂浆具有良好的蓄热、调温功能和较长的热循环寿命,砂浆体系的相变温度为33℃,相变潜热13.42 J/g;随着偶联剂和粘结剂掺量的增加,保温砂浆的导热系数呈下降趋势;随着石蜡微胶囊掺量增加,保温砂浆的导热系数先减后增;与空白试件相比较,相变蓄热砂浆的升降温速率明显要滞后,呈现出较好的蓄热、调温性能.%Microencapsulated paraffin insulation mortar (MPIM) was prepared by using low melting point microencapsulated paraffin (MCP) as phase change material. The phase change temperature, enthalpy, thermal conductivity coefficient and phase change thermal storage properties were tested. The result shows phase change temperature and enthalpy of the.MPIM are 33 ℃ and 13. 42 J/g, respectively. The thermal conductivity coefficient decreases with the increase in the dosage of silane coupling and binder. The thermal conductivity coefficient decreases with the increase in the dosage of the MCP, and then increases. Compared with blank specimens, the heating rate and cooling rate of the MPIM is definitely lagged, and it has good thermal storage properties.

  9. Alteration of Kupffer cell function and morphology by low melt point paraffin wax in female Fischer-344 but not Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoglen, N C; Regan, S P; Hensel, J L; Younis, H S; Sauer, J M; Steup, D R; Miller, M J; Waterman, S J; Twerdok, L E; Sipes, I G

    1998-11-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of 60-day dietary exposure (2%) to low melt point paraffin wax (LMPW) on both general liver morphology and Kupffer cell (KC) function and morphology in female F-344 and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Livers from only F-344 rats fed LMPW had granuloma formation/lymphoid cell aggregates with small areas of necrosis. Significant increases in serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferase as well as gamma-glutamyltransferase activities were detected only in treated F-344 rats. Additionally, detectable amounts of LMPW were present only in livers of treated F-344 rats. Because KC can be involved in granuloma formation, their morphology and function were examined. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of large, irregularly shaped, membrane-associated vacuoles in cells isolated from F-344 rats exposed to LMPW. These vacuoles were not seen in KC from control rats and rarely detected in KC isolated from LMPW-exposed SD rats. Moreover, indices of KC function including phagocytic activity and nitric oxide and superoxide anion production were significantly increased by KC isolated from F-344 rats exposed to LMPW (1.6-, 36-, and 2.2-fold increases, respectively) over untreated controls. In contrast, LPS-stimulated production of TNF and LTB4 was significantly decreased only in KC of LMPW-fed F-344 rats. No significant changes in these functions were observed in KC isolated from SD rats exposed to LMPW or from KC isolated from control F-344 or SD rats. These data provide evidence that dietary LMPW alters the morphology and functional capacity of KC of F-344 but not SD rats and these changes may ultimately lead to granuloma formation.

  10. Melting of sodium clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Reyes-Nava, J A; Beltran, M R; Michaelian, K

    2002-01-01

    Thermal stability properties and the melting-like transition of Na_n, n=13-147, clusters are studied through microcanonical molecular dynamics simulations. The metallic bonding in the sodium clusters is mimicked by a many-body Gupta potential based on the second moment approximation of a tight-binding Hamiltonian. The characteristics of the solid-to-liquid transition in the sodium clusters are analyzed by calculating physical quantities like caloric curves, heat capacities, and root-mean-square bond length fluctuations using simulation times of several nanoseconds. Distinct melting mechanisms are obtained for the sodium clusters in the size range investigated. The calculated melting temperatures show an irregular variation with the cluster size, in qualitative agreement with recent experimental results. However, the calculated melting point for the Na_55 cluster is about 40 % lower than the experimental value.

  11. Effects of Nucleators on the Crystalinity and Melt Point of PEW%成核剂对聚乙烯蜡结晶形态及熔点的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴振豪; 张龙

    2011-01-01

    Several different types of nucleators such as calcium stearate, zinc stearate, stearic acid were and 1, 3∶ 2, 4 - dibenzylidene sorbitol applied to the recrystallization of polyethylene wax (PEW) by-product using the method of melt crystallization. The influence of the species of nucleator, nucleator content, and the temperature of recrystallization on the crystalline morphology and the melting point of the PEW was investigated by POM and micro melting point apparatus. It was found that in the presence of nucleator, the melting point of PEW increased dramatically, as it increased the density of crystal grain, decreased the size of crystal ball, and the effect became most pronounced when the nucleator was 1, 3: 2, 4-dibenzylidene sorbitol. It was further found that, crystal temperature at 80 ℃ and the content of 1, 3: 2, 4-dibenzylidene sorbitol was 0. 2%, the initial melting point of PEW was the highest at 110. 6 ℃, about 27. 7% higher than that of the raw material.%分别以硬脂酸钙、硬脂酸锌、硬脂酸和1,3:2,4-二苄叉山梨醇(ID)为成核剂,采用熔融法对聚乙烯蜡(PEW)进行了重结晶实验,并通过偏光显微镜和显微熔点测定仪研究了成核剂的种类、用量、结晶温度对PEW的结晶形态和熔点的影响.结果表明,成核剂增大了PEW的成核密度,降低了球晶尺寸,提高了熔点;成核剂1,3:2,4-二苄叉山梨醇的效果最好,所形成的晶粒最小,晶片最厚,当其添加量为0.2%,结晶温度为80℃时,PEW的球晶尺寸最小,PEW的初熔点达到了110.6℃,比原料提高了27.7℃.

  12. Effect of Indium Content on the Melting Point, Dross, and Oxidation Characteristics of Sn-2Ag-3Bi-xIn Solders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ae-Jeong; Kim, Seong-Jun; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Kang, Chung-Yun

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the effect of indium (In) content on the melting temperature, wettabililty, dross formation, and oxidation characteristics of the Sn-2Ag-3Bi-xIn alloy. The melting temperature of the Sn-2Ag-3Bi-xIn alloy (2 ≤ x ≤ 6) was lower than 473 K. The melting range between the solidus and liquidus temperatures was approximately 20 K, irrespective of the indium content. As the indium content increased, the wetting time increased slightly and the maximum wetting force remained to be mostly constant. The dross formation decreased to approximately 50% when adding 1In to Sn-2Ag-3Bi, and no dross formation was observed in the case of Sn-2Ag-3Bi-xIn alloy (x ≥ 1.5) at 523 K for 180 min. Upon approaching the inside of the oxidized solder of the Sn-2Ag-3Bi-1.5In alloy from the surface, the O and In contents decreased and the Sn content increased based on depth profiling analysis using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The mechanism for restraining dross (Sn oxidation) of Sn-2Ag-3Bi alloy with addition of indium may be due to surface segregation of indium. This is due to the lower formation energy of indium oxide than those of Sn oxidation.

  13. MULTIPLE MELTING IN NYLON 1010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Shuren; CHEN Taoyung

    1983-01-01

    Multiple melting behavior of nylon 1010 has been investigated by using DSC instrument. Effects of partial scanning, partial scanning and annealing, heating rate, cooling rate and stepwise annealing on the melting curve were studied. Experimental results indicate that the sample undergoes a process of continuous melting and recrystallization during DSC scanning. Nylon 1010 contains a distribution of crystallites of different degrees of perfection which is strongly dependent on its previous thermal history. From the structural reorganization point of view, the origin of double and multiple peaks of the melting curve is explained.

  14. Synthesis and Proof of Diethylaluminum Azide being Lower Melting Point Crystal%低熔点晶体叠氮二乙基铝的合成和证明

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小航; 高占先

    2001-01-01

    Diethylaluminum azide (DEAA) is an important compound in organoaluminum azides. But the synthesis and property of DEAA were reported a little. The DEAA is a liquid compound in literature that was synthesed by the reaction of diethyl aluminum chloride (DEAC) and sodium azide. The solid product as a colorless crystal was first obtained by the reaction of DEAC and sodium azide in our work. The solid product was characterized as DEAA by IR spectrum and 1H NMR spectrum. The yield of crystal DEAA was increased as NaN3/DEAC (mol/mol) increased. When NaN3/DEAC=1.3 the yield of DEAA is increased from 74% in literature to 83%. The melting point of DEAA is 28~29℃ that was determined with two methods in the work. The DEAA containing trace DEAC (about 0. 2% of DEAC) is liquid which has been full proved by varied tests in this paper. The melting point of DEAA is-130℃ in literature because the DEAA is not pure that may contain DEAC. The-130℃ may be eutectic point of eutectic mixture forming of DEAA and DEAC. 27Al NMR of DEAA is determined. At 8=6.4 there is a peak that W1/2 of the peak is 834Hz.The structure of crystal DEAA is inferred from 27Al NMR.

  15. Charge performance of packed bed thermal storage unit with phase change material having different melting points%多熔点相变材料堆积蓄热床蓄热性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨磊; 张小松

    2012-01-01

    A numerical study on a packed bed thermal storage unit with phase change material (PCM) having different melting points is presented. Paraffin is used as PCM and injected into polycarbonate spheres as phase change capsules. Hot water is used as heat transfer fluid ( HTF) flowing from the top down to melt PCM and store latent heat. The capsules are placed in series in the tank based on melting points. PCM having higher melting temperature is placed closer with hot water inlet. One-dimensional Schumann's model with steady-state flow field assumption is adopted to calculate HTF temperature, while the phase change of PCM is simulated using apparent heat capacity method. The energy and exergy performance in charging process of two arrangement modes containing two, three and four kinds different PCMs are investigated and compared with those of packed bed using only one kind of PCM. The energy comparison results indicate that the thermal storage unit with multiple PCMs has much higher charge rate and higher thermal efficiency than single PCM storage bed. In the exergy comparison, the storage bed with higher average melting point can store more exergy than that has lower average melting point. The utilization of multiple PCMs can dramatically reduce charge time, improving the storage performance.%对采用多种不同熔点相变材料(PCM)构成的堆积蓄热床进行了数值分析.热水作为换热流体(HTF)自上而下流经蓄热床,熔化相变材料、蓄积相变潜热.石蜡作为相变材料被注射入聚碳酸酯球壳内形成相变胶囊,根据熔点高低依次排放在蓄热床的不同位置,熔点越高距离热水进口越近.假定流场稳定,采用一维Schumann模型计算HTF温度,相变模拟采用显热容法.分别对两种排列方式下采用2种、3种以及4种相变材料的蓄热床的蓄热过程进行了基于热力学第一及第二定律的性能分析,并将结果与单相变材料蓄热床进行比较.基于热力学第一定律

  16. Filament stretching rheometry of polymer melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole; Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    2005-01-01

    The Filament Stretching Rheometry (FSR) method developed by Sridhar, McKinley and coworkers for polymer solutions has been extended to be used also for polymer melts. The design of a melt-FSR will be described and differences to conventional melt elongational rheometers will be pointed out. Results...

  17. Filament stretching rheometry of polymer melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole; Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    2005-01-01

    The Filament Stretching Rheometry (FSR) method developed by Sridhar, McKinley and coworkers for polymer solutions has been extended to be used also for polymer melts. The design of a melt-FSR will be described and differences to conventional melt elongational rheometers will be pointed out. Results...

  18. Cold Storage Stability of Blend Oil from Soybean Oil and Palm Oil with Different Melting Points%大豆油调和不同熔点棕榈液油的冷藏试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴苏喜; 刘立萍; 李慧; Ooi Cheng KEAT

    2012-01-01

    In order to provide references for preparing blend oil from soybean oil and palm oil with different melting points, the effects of different types and amounts of anti-crystallization agent and soybean oil-to-palm oil ratio on the cold storage stability of blend oil were studied. The best anti-crystallization agent was hydroxyl stearin at a dose of 0.025%. The blend oil A composed of 70% soybean oil, 30% palm olein with melting point of 10 ℃ and 0.025% hydroxy stearin could be kept transparent for more than 16 hours at 0 ℃ and more than 72 h at 5℃. The blend oil B composed of 70% soybean oil, 30% palm olein with melting point of 18 ℃ and 0.025% hydroxy stearin could be kept transparent for more than 30 h at 10℃. The blend oil C composed of 60% soybean oil, 40% palm olein with melting point of 18 ℃ and 0.025% hydroxy stearin could be kept transparent for more than 20 h at 15℃. The blend oil D composed of 60% soybean oil, 40% μm olein with melting point of 24℃ and 0.025% hydroxy stearin could be kept transparent for more than 10 h.%为了制备适应不同储存温度的豆油.棕榈液油调和油,以大豆油与不同熔点棕榈液油为原料,采用冷藏试验方法优化抑晶剂种类、用量和调和油配方。结果表明,羟基硬脂精是效果最佳的抑晶剂,其最佳添加量为0.025%;调和油1(豆油70%+10℃棕榈油30%+羟基硬脂精0.025%)在0℃环境下储存可保持16h以上澄清透亮,在5℃条件可保持72h以上澄清透亮;调和油2(豆油70%+18℃棕榈油30%+羟基硬脂精0.025%)在10℃环境下可保持30h以上澄清透亮;调和油3(豆油60%+18℃棕榈油40%+羟基硬脂精0.025%)在15℃环境下可保持20h以上澄清透亮;调和油4(豆油60%+24℃棕榈油40%+羟基硬脂精0.025%)在20℃环境下可保持10h以上澄清透亮。

  19. MOLECULAR WEIGHT DEPENDENCE OF THE MELTING BEHAVIOR OF OLY(ε-CAPROLACTONE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-ping Huang; Xiang Xu; Xiao-lie Luo; De-zhu Ma

    2002-01-01

    Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) with different molecular weights was synthesized and characterized by a gel permeation chromatograph equipped with multiple detector. The melting behavior of PCL was also studied. It was found that the equilibrium melting points (Tm0) of PCL samples depend on their molecular weights. Wide angle X-ray diffraction measurements (WAXD) and DSC measurements showed that the crystals of the high molecular weight PCLs were more perfect than those of the low molecular weight ones. These results demonstrate that the concentration of the end groups of PCL chains is the main factor that influences the melting behavior. The fusion enthalpy per repeating unit (△Hu) was determined to be 11.3 kJ/mol for PCL.

  20. Preparation of low-melting point copolyester bonding fiber from post-consumer polyester fabric by glycolysis%废旧涤纶织物醇解再生制备低熔点粘合纤维

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱军; 王少博; 邢喜全; 王朝生; 王方河; 王赛博; 林世东

    2016-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate ( PET) was recycled from post-consumer PET fabric by ethylene glycol glycolysis and was copolymerized with isophthalic acid and 1,4-butanediol as modified monomers during the chemical recycling process to produce a low-melting point copolyester ( LPET) .And a recycled low-melting point PET bonding fiber was prepared by using the recycled PET as the core and the recycled LPET as the sheath at a certain proportion via sheath -core composite spinning process prior to tensile post-processing .The results showed that the recycled PET had the similar thermal stability and the recycled LPET had the lower thermal stability than normal bright PET , giving no impact on the processing and application; the recycled LPET had the softening point of 76℃and the melting point of 125℃;the recycled low-melting point PET bonding fiber could be prepared with the linear density of 4.6 dtex, breaking strength 3.22 cN/dtex, elongation at break 48.2%, dry-hot shrinkage 5.6%, moisture regain 0.41%, perfectly satisfying the requirements of FZ/T 52010-2014 Recycled Polyester Staple Fiber , under the conditions as followed:sheath-core mass ratio 4:6, spinning temperature 280 ℃, quenching temperature 22 ℃, quenching speed 1.2 m/s,spinning speed 1 100 m/min, drawing bath temperature 60-65 ℃, draw ratio 2.9.%以废旧涤纶织物为原料,采用乙二醇醇解法对废旧涤纶织物进行化学再生,制得再生聚对苯二甲酸乙二醇酯(PET);在化学再生过程中以间苯二甲酸,1,4-丁二醇为改性单体进行共聚,制得再生低熔点共聚酯( LPET);采用皮芯复合纺丝工艺将再生LPET(皮)与再生PET(芯)按一定复合比例进行纺丝并进行拉伸后处理,制得再生低熔点PET粘合纤维。结果表明:与常规大有光PET比较,再生PET的热稳定性与之相近,再生LPET的热稳定性稍差,但不影响其加工应用;再生LPET的软化温度为76℃,熔融温度为125

  1. Effect of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor gel on melting crust in deep partial thickness scalding rats%GM-CSF 凝胶对 SD 大鼠深 II度烧伤创面溶痂的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜娟; 刘继松; 章祥洲; 赵经伟; 方勇; 姚敏; 俞为荣

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察重组人粒细胞巨噬细胞集落刺激因子( rhGM-CSF)对深II度烧伤创面坏死组织溶痂和促进创面愈合的作用效果。方法 SD大鼠70只用热液烧伤的方法(75℃、8 s)制成背部深II度烧伤创面,烧伤大鼠随机分为实验组和对照组(每组35只)。对照组( C组):创面局部外用不含rhGM-CSF的凝胶基质,实验组( E组):创面局部外用rhGM-CSF凝胶(100μg/10 g)。分别于制创后1、3、5、7、10、14和21 d观察2组动物创面情况并摄像,记录创面溶痂时间;用图像分析软件计算不同时相点的溶痂率;并于不同的时相点取创面组织, HE染色观察创面组织形态及修复情况。结果从烧伤后第5天起各时相点,实验组大鼠创面溶痂率与对照组表现出差异;实验组创面溶痂时间为(10.73±2.47)d较对照组(14.26±2.65)d显著缩短(P<0.01);实验组和对照组创面愈合时间分别为(16.21±1.27)d和(18.05±1.36)d,差异有非常显著性(P<0.01)。结论外源性rhGM-CSF的应用可促进深II度烧伤创面溶痂,从而促进深II度烧伤创面愈合。%Objective To explore the effect of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor ( rh-GM-CSF) gel on crust melting and wound healing of deep partial thickness scalding SD rats .Methods A total of 70 SD rats were scalded on the back using the method of thermal-water burns at 75℃for 8s.A deep partial-thickness burn was created in all the rats.The scalded rats were randomly divided into two groups (35 for each group).The control group(C) was treated with gel matrix while the experiment group ( E) was treated with rhGM-CSF gel .The wounds treatment of the two groups lasted 21 days.Observations of the wounds were made by photograph at various time-points.In addition, the removal time of wound eschar in all the rats was recorded .The percentages of removal area in the

  2. 纳米SiO2在低熔点熔盐中的分散对其比热容的影响%Effect of Nanoparticles Dispersion on Enhancing the Specific Heat of the Low Melting Point Salt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴玉庭; 张璐迪; 马重芳; 李英

    2016-01-01

    为提高低熔点熔盐Ca(NO3)2-KNO3-NaNO3-LiNO3的比热容,采用超声振荡法将低熔点熔盐与30 nm的SiO2纳米粒子复合制备出低熔点熔盐纳米流体,研究了纳米粒子对低熔点盐比热容的影响及制备过程中影响纳米粒子分散的关键因素:超声振荡时间和超声振荡频率.采用同步热分析仪( DSC)测量熔盐比热容;采用扫描电镜表征低熔点熔盐纳米流体的微观表面结构,观察纳米粒子分布情况.研究结果表明:分散均匀的SiO2纳米粒子可以提高低熔点盐纳米流体的比热容,纳米熔盐比热容平均值达到1.86 J/( g·K)左右,在200~350益温度范围内,比热容提高率为14%~22%,并通过实验验证了超声波分散法是制备熔盐纳米流体的一种稳定可靠的方法.%In order to enhance specific heat capacity of the low melting point salt ( Ca ( NO3 ) 2-KNO3-NaNO3-LiNO3 ) , low melting point salt( LMPS) nanofluid was prepared by adding SiO2 nanoparticles with size of 20 nm into the low melting point salt with using ultra-sonication. The influence of nanoparticles dispersion on enhancing specific heat of the low melting point salt was investigated by experiments. Two factors of ultra-sonication ( time for sonication and frequency ) were researched. The specific heat capacity was measured by using a differential scanning Calorimetry ( DSC ) , and the microstructures following solidification was observed by using a scanning electron microscope ( SEM) . Results show that the specific heat of the LMPS nanofluid is significantly improved, when nanoparticles disperse evenly in the LMPS nanofluid. The average specific heat of the LMPS nanofluid is 1. 868 J/( g·K ) and the enhancement of the specific heat is 14% ~22% in 200~350℃. Moreover, it is verified the fact that the ultra-sonication is a stable method of preparing LMPS nanofluid.

  3. ESCIMO.spread – a spreadsheet-based point snow surface energy balance model to calculate hourly snow water equivalent and melt rates for historical and changing climate conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Marke

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the spreadsheet-based point energy balance model ESCIMO.spread which simulates the energy and mass balance as well as melt rates of a snow surface. The model makes use of hourly recordings of temperature, precipitation, wind speed, relative humidity, global and longwave radiation. The effect of potential climate change on the seasonal evolution of the snow cover can be estimated by modifying the time series of observed temperature and precipitation by means of adjustable parameters. Model output is graphically visualized in hourly and daily diagrams. The results compare well with weekly measured snow water equivalent (SWE. The model is easily portable and adjustable, and runs particularly fast: hourly calculation of a one winter season is instantaneous on a standard computer. ESICMO.spread can be obtained from the authors on request (contact: ulrich.strasser@uni-graz.at.

  4. Some Thoughts on The Definition of a Gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishinari, Katsuyoshi

    To avoid the confusion of the concept of a gel frequently encountered in daily markets of food, cosmetics, and other industrial products, the definition of a gel is revisited. Recent proposals of the definition of a gel are overviewed, and classifications of various gels from different points of view are described. Discussion is mainly focused on the gel-sol transition and the difference between the structured liquid and the gel, and the classification of gels by temperature dependence of elastic modulus. Finally, the definition of a gel is proposed as a working hypothesis from rheological and structural view points.

  5. 钢中高熔点钙铝酸盐类夹杂物聚集行为%Aggregation of inclusions for calcium aluminate with high-melting point

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    初仁生

    2015-01-01

    The size,area,composition,type and distribution of non-metallic inclusions with high-melting point (CA2 and CA6,which C:CaO,A:Al2O3) in inspection substandard samples were analyzed by aspex explorer automated scan-ning electron microscope. To analyze the reason that why the center is the concentrated area of the large-size inclusions, three aspects for the causes of calcium aluminate with high-melting point causing the aggregation behavior for flaw sub-standard is focused on:features of non-metallic inclusions,the characteristics of continuous casting machine and the be-havior of nonmetallic inclusions during the process of solidification. The results show that calcium aluminate with high-melting point gathered together,and is easy to aggregate. The casting speed is slow for the curved continuous casting ma-chine compared with the average arc caster. The thickness of slab is thin and the molten steel solidifies rapidly,which makes the solidification end generate early,and form an easy gathering area near the center during the steel solidification. The inclusions are pushed and engulfed in the shell and will aggregate. While the space and time of floatation is reduced, combined with the effect of promoting the capture,the center forms a concentrated area of the large-size inclusions.%利用Aspex Explorer自动扫描电镜对探伤不合格试样中非金属夹杂物CA2和CA6(C为CaO,A为Al2O3)的尺寸、面积、成分、类型及分布等进行全面分析。从非金属夹杂物本身性质、连铸机本身特性和凝固过程非金属夹杂物行为3个方面集中探讨了高熔点钙铝酸盐类非金属夹杂物聚集行为。结果表明:高熔点钙铝酸盐类非金属夹杂物本身聚集能力很强,极易聚集;弧形连铸机拉速慢,铸坯厚度较一般的中厚板薄,凝固较快,使得凝固终点提前,造成在凝固过程中夹杂物在靠近中心处形成容易聚集区,同时上浮的空间和时间减少,加上推

  6. α-Gel formation by amino acid-based gemini surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kenichi; Ohno, Kiyomi; Nomura, Kazuyuki; Endo, Takeshi; Sakamoto, Kazutami; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko

    2014-07-08

    Ternary mixtures being composed of surfactant, long-chain alcohol, and water sometimes form a highly viscous lamellar gel with a hexagonal packing arrangement of their crystalline hydrocarbon chains. This molecular assembly is called "α-crystalline phase" or "α-gel". In this study, we have characterized α-gels formed by the ternary mixtures of amino acid-based gemini surfactants, 1-hexadecanol (C16OH), and water. The surfactants used in this study were synthesized by reacting dodecanoylglutamic acid anhydride with alkyl diamines and abbreviated as 12-GsG-12 (s: the spacer chain length of 2, 5, and 8 methylene units). An amino acid-based monomeric surfactant, dodecanoylglutamic acid (12-Glu), was also used for comparison. At a fixed water concentration the melting point of the α-gel increased with increasing C16OH concentration, and then attained a saturation level at the critical mole ratio of 12-GsG-12/C16OH = 1/2 under the normalization by the number of hydrocarbon chains of the surfactants. This indicates that, to obtain the saturated α-gel, a lesser amount of C16OH is required for the gemini surfactants than for the monomeric one (the critical mole ratio of 12-Glu/C16OH = 1/3). Small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering measurements demonstrated an increase in the long-range d-spacing of the saturated α-gels in the order 12-Glu gels at a given water concentration. This is caused by the decreased amount of excess water being present outside the α-gel structure (or the increased amount of water incorporated between the surfactant-alcohol bilayers). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report focusing on the formation of α-gel in gemini surfactant systems.

  7. Methods for Melting Temperature Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Qi-Jun

    Melting temperature calculation has important applications in the theoretical study of phase diagrams and computational materials screenings. In this thesis, we present two new methods, i.e., the improved Widom's particle insertion method and the small-cell coexistence method, which we developed in order to capture melting temperatures both accurately and quickly. We propose a scheme that drastically improves the efficiency of Widom's particle insertion method by efficiently sampling cavities while calculating the integrals providing the chemical potentials of a physical system. This idea enables us to calculate chemical potentials of liquids directly from first-principles without the help of any reference system, which is necessary in the commonly used thermodynamic integration method. As an example, we apply our scheme, combined with the density functional formalism, to the calculation of the chemical potential of liquid copper. The calculated chemical potential is further used to locate the melting temperature. The calculated results closely agree with experiments. We propose the small-cell coexistence method based on the statistical analysis of small-size coexistence MD simulations. It eliminates the risk of a metastable superheated solid in the fast-heating method, while also significantly reducing the computer cost relative to the traditional large-scale coexistence method. Using empirical potentials, we validate the method and systematically study the finite-size effect on the calculated melting points. The method converges to the exact result in the limit of a large system size. An accuracy within 100 K in melting temperature is usually achieved when the simulation contains more than 100 atoms. DFT examples of Tantalum, high-pressure Sodium, and ionic material NaCl are shown to demonstrate the accuracy and flexibility of the method in its practical applications. The method serves as a promising approach for large-scale automated material screening in which

  8. Laser melting of uranium carbides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utton, C. A.; De Bruycker, F.; Boboridis, K.; Jardin, R.; Noel, H.; Guéneau, C.; Manara, D.

    2009-03-01

    In the context of the material research aimed at supporting the development of nuclear plants of the fourth Generation, renewed interest has recently arisen in carbide fuels. A profound understanding of the behaviour of nuclear materials in extreme conditions is of prime importance for the analysis of the operation limits of nuclear fuels, and prediction of possible nuclear reactor accidents. In this context, the main goal of the present paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of laser induced melting experiments on stoichiometric uranium carbides; UC, UC1.5 and UC2. Measurements were performed, at temperatures around 3000 K, under a few bars of inert gas in order to minimise vaporisation and oxidation effects, which may occur at these temperatures. Moreover, a recently developed investigation method has been employed, based on in situ analysis of the sample surface reflectivity evolution during melting. Current results, 2781 K for the melting point of UC, 2665 K for the solidus and 2681 K for the liquidus of U2C3, 2754 K for the solidus and 2770 K for the liquidus of UC2, are in fair agreement with early publications where the melting behaviour of uranium carbides was investigated by traditional furnace melting methods. Further information has been obtained in the current research about the non-congruent (solidus-liquidus) melting of certain carbides, which suggest that a solidus-liquidus scheme is followed by higher ratio carbides, possibly even for UC2.

  9. Discriminative detection of low-abundance point mutations using a PCR/ligase detection reaction/capillary gel electrophoresis method and fluorescence dual-channel monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Mariko; Shimase, Koji; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhiko; Hashimoto, Masahiko

    2014-04-01

    We applied a facile LIF dual-channel monitoring system recently developed and reported by our group to the polymerase chain reaction/ligase detection reaction/CGE method for detecting low-abundance point mutations present in a wild-type sequence-dominated population. Mutation discrimination limits and signaling fidelity of the analytical system were evaluated using three mutant variations in codon 12 of the K-ras oncogene that have high diagnostic value for colorectal cancer. We demonstrated the high sensitivity of the present method by detecting rare mutations present among an excess of wild-type alleles (one mutation among ~100 normal sequences). This method also simultaneously interrogated the allelic compositions of the test samples with high specificity through spectral discrimination of the dye-tagged ligase detection reaction products using the dual-channel monitoring system. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Technology Study on Producing High Melting Point Microcrystalline Wax From Shenbei/Daqing Vacuum Residue Oil%沈北/大庆减压渣油生产高熔点微晶蜡工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金秀英; 陈白莉; 杜晓敏; 王玉玲; 范燕

    2013-01-01

      沈北/大庆减压渣油中含有丰富的微晶蜡。将渣油亚临界丙烷脱沥青得到轻脱油,再经酮苯脱油-白土精制生产高熔点微晶蜡。说明大庆、沈北混合原油减压渣油经脱沥青等系列工艺处理生产光亮油和微晶蜡的技术可行性,提出了大庆、沈北混合原油减压渣油综合利用的途径。%There is abundant microcrystalline wax in Shenbei/Taqing vacuum residue oil. Light deasphalting oil is often obtained from vacuum residue oil by subcritical propane deasphalting process, then microcrystalline wax with high melting point can be produced by butanone-toluene solvent deoiling and clay-treated refining. In this paper,the technical and economic feasibility of producing bright stock and microcrystalline wax from the vacuum residue of Daqing and Shenbei mixed crude by deasphalting etc.processes was discussed according to the pilot plant test results .Utilization ways of vacuum residue of Daqing and Shenbei mixed crude were put forward.

  11. Using Low Melting Point Oil-bearing Wax to Produce Quality Paraffin with an Appropriate Process%利用低熔点含油蜡选择适当生产工艺生产优质石蜡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯韬

    2012-01-01

    文章介绍了利用酮苯脱蜡装置的富裕低熔点蜡为主要原料,结合利用减四线含油蜡,采用发汗窄馏分切割脱油工艺与溶剂脱油工艺对原料进行预处理,联合白土精制工艺生产优质半精炼蜡。叙述了原料的来源、实验室产品试制和装置生产全过程。%The paper described utilizing excess low melting point wax of the Butanone-Toluene de-waxing device as main raw material,selecting the oil-bearing wax paste of VGO No.4 as another component,adopting sweating process and solvent de-oiling process to deal with the materials,combining clay refining process to manufacture quality Semi-refined paraffin wax.The paper described the source of raw materials,trial manufacturing of laboratory products and devices of the whole production process also.

  12. Thermodynamics of freezing and melting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ulf Rørbæk; Costigliola, Lorenzo; Bailey, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    phases at a single thermodynamic state point provide the basis for calculating the pressure, density and entropy of fusion as functions of temperature along the melting line, as well as the variation along this line of the reduced crystalline vibrational mean-square displacement (the Lindemann ratio...

  13. 低熔点SnBi合金对导电银胶性能的影响%Effect of low melting point eutectic SnBi alloy on properties of Ag-based conductive adhesive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万超; 王宏芹; 王玲; 杜彬; 王鹏程; 符永高

    2011-01-01

    以银粉为主要导电填料,选定环氧树脂体系,添加不同量低熔点共晶SnBi合金制得导电胶,利用四点探针法和万能材料试验机考察了SnBi合金添加量对导电胶导电性能和力学性能的影响.发现当SnBi合金添加量占填料质量分数的15%时,导电胶的体积电阻率可以达到3.4×10Ω·cm,剪切强度为12.56 MPa.SnBi合金的加入不但能够改善导电胶的导电性能,而且还可以提高连接力学性能.%The conductive adhesives composed by selecting epoxy resin system, Ag powder as main conductive filler with addition different masses of low melting point eutectic SnBi alloy were fabricated and its conductive and mechanical properties were investigated by the four point probe method and the universal material testing machine. It is found that when w(SnBi) keeps at 15%, the bulk resistivity and the shear strength of the adhesive reach 3.4× 1 0-4 Ω ·cm and 12.56 MPa, respectively. The addition of SnBi alloy not only improves the conductivity, but also increases the mechanical property of the connection.

  14. ['No naturally shaped human foot would end in wedged-in, pointed toes" (Knud Ahlborn)--Wandervögel, youth movement and movement for rational footwear].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Nike Ulrike

    2011-01-01

    The nineteenth century "movement for rational clothing" not only aimed at reforming women's clothes (leaving behind corset-fashion), it set out to improve women's rights in general. Few people know that footwear also was modernized in the second half of the nineteenth century. After shoes had been made for 350 years on the basis of a symmetry pattern, without or with almost invisible distinction between left and right feet, scientists around the Frankfurt born professor of anatomy Georg Hermann von Meyer (1815-1892) demanded with him radical reform of footwear--for both sexes--using new lasts that were modelled on the natural shape of feet. Around the turn of the century, after physicians, shoemakers and hygienists had spent decades debating new ideas, members of the Wandervogel movement adopted the issue for their own purposes and chose anatomic over fashionable yet unhealthy fits which tended to be pointed, slim and--above all--symmetrical. Once the Wandervogel movement had split into several smaller groupings in 1904 and become part of the Jugendbewegung (youth movement), some of its members wanted clothing to also carry symbolic meaning. Naturally-shaped hygienic boots should no longer just allow for walking without damage to the feet: they should become the embodiment of a new spirit and, beyond that, of a reformed society. A new "lay practice" and "do-it-yourself"-shoemaking replaced former academic programs for new natural footwear. Interestingly enough, alongside those quite radical concepts, a kind of "footwear reform light" established itself in the market: on the surface only slightly different from the old-fashioned, symmetrical shoes, these "modern" pairs, which consisted of a right and left shoe, remained successful even after the world wars and became the new standard in the twentieth century, because the shoes made according to this pattern lasted longer, fitted better and were more comfortable.

  15. Lipídios estruturados obtidos a partir da mistura de gordura de frango, sua estearina e triacilgliceróis de cadeia média: II- pontos de amolecimento e fusão Structured lipids from chicken fat, its stearin, and medium chain triacyglycerol blends: II- softening and melting points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Chih Chiu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to investigate the effects of blending and chemical interesterification reactions on the softening and melting behavior of chicken fat, its stearin and medium chain triacylglycerols, and blends thereof in various ratios. Chemical interesterification is a promising alternative to the current processes of modifying the physical properties of fats. In the experimental design 7 samples corresponding to 7 different blend proportions were used. The results were represented in triangular diagrams. The addition of stearin influenced the softening and melting points. The mixture response surface methodology proved to be an extremely useful tool for the optimization of the fat mixtures.

  16. [Magistral prepared lidocaine-gel for topical aplication on skin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklenár, Zbynĕk; Horácková, Katerína; Bakhouche, Hana; Slanar, Ondrej

    2012-08-01

    Due to a limited availability of industrially manufactured products containing local anesthetics for skin application and an increased demand for lidocaine-containing gel applicable prior to a product containing capsaicin for neuropathic pain treatment, it is necessary to prepare a topical semi-solid preparation containing the local anesthetic in pharmacies. Our aim was to create a mixed system of a hydrophilic gel with the emulsified drug, using excipients to decrease the lidocaine melting point, thereby creating a eutectic mixture with a high concentration of lidocaine in the oil phase. Based on bibliographic data, thymol creating a binary eutectic system containing lidocaine has been chosen. After addition of other excipients, an emulsion system was prepared and the drug was stabilized in the oil phase by a mixed nonionic emulsifier and carbomera. For the optimal anesthetic effects, the pH value should be adjusted; trometamol has been chosen as a suitable basic reacting excipient. Based on the addition of different amounts of trometamol, pH values of individual emulgels have been measured and the final composition of lidocaine emulgel has been created. A recipe for a 5 % lidocaine emulgel with the pH value of 9.1 has been created, based on the gel-forming substance carbomera with an emulsion of the oil phase containing a eutectic mixture of lidocaine and thymol, with an addition of ethanol and propylenglycol, stabilized by a mixed nonionic emulsifier. The advantage is the absence of other local anesthetics.

  17. Thermoresponsive Gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Joan Taylor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermoresponsive gelling materials constructed from natural and synthetic polymers can be used to provide triggered action and therefore customised products such as drug delivery and regenerative medicine types as well as for other industries. Some materials give Arrhenius-type viscosity changes based on coil to globule transitions. Others produce more counterintuitive responses to temperature change because of agglomeration induced by enthalpic or entropic drivers. Extensive covalent crosslinking superimposes complexity of response and the upper and lower critical solution temperatures can translate to critical volume temperatures for these swellable but insoluble gels. Their structure and volume response confer advantages for actuation though they lack robustness. Dynamic covalent bonding has created an intermediate category where shape moulding and self-healing variants are useful for several platforms. Developing synthesis methodology—for example, Reversible Addition Fragmentation chain Transfer (RAFT and Atomic Transfer Radical Polymerisation (ATRP—provides an almost infinite range of materials that can be used for many of these gelling systems. For those that self-assemble into micelle systems that can gel, the upper and lower critical solution temperatures (UCST and LCST are analogous to those for simpler dispersible polymers. However, the tuned hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance plus the introduction of additional pH-sensitivity and, for instance, thermochromic response, open the potential for coupled mechanisms to create complex drug targeting effects at the cellular level.

  18. 果蝇优化SVM模型对有机化合物熔点的预测%The Prediction of Organic Compound Melting Point by SVM Model Optimized by Drosophila Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张维涛

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve the support vector machine ( SVM) model of blindness problem in parameter selection and further improve the model’s learning performance and generalization ability, the drosophila optimization algorithm ( FOA) was introduced into the field. A SVM method based on optimization of drosophila melanogaster was presented. The method used drosophila optimization algorithm to select the SVM penalty factor and kernel function parameter global optimization, so as to establish the SVM classification model, and based on this, the model was applied to practical problems. The model was applied to the melting point of organic compounds in prediction problems. The experimental results showed that efficiency was high based on the SVM model of drosophila optimization, the practical application effect was good.%为了有效解决支持向量机( SVM)模型在参数选择上的盲目性问题,进而提高该模型的学习性能和泛化能力,将果蝇优化算法( FOA)引入该领域,提出了一种基于果蝇优化的SVM方法。该方法首先运用果蝇优化优化算法选择全局最优的SVM惩罚因子和核函数参数,从而建立SVM分类模型,进而基于该模型对实际问题进行应用。将该模型应用于对有机化合物的熔点预测问题中,实验结果表明,基于果蝇优化的SVM模型效率高,实际应用效果好。

  19. Physics of the Lindemann melting rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, Andrew C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the thermodynamics of melting for 74 distinct chemical elements including several actinides and rare earths. We find that the observed melting points are consistent with a linear relationship between the correlation entropy of the liquid and the Grueneisen constant of the solid, and that the Lindemann rule is well obeyed for the elements with simple structures and less well obeyed for the less symmetric more open structures. No special assumptions are required to explain the melting points of the rare earths or light actinides.

  20. Melting of Transition Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, M; Japel, S; Boehler, R

    2005-04-11

    We review the transition melting studies carried out at Mainz, and describe a recently developed model used to explain that the relatively low melting slopes are due to the partially filled d-bands, and the persistence of the pressure induced s-d transition. The basic tenets of the model have now been reconfirmed by new measurements for Cu and Ni. The measurements show that Cu which has a filled 3d-band, has a melt slope that is about 2.5 greater than its neighbor Ni. In the case of Mo, the apparent discrepancy of DAC melting measurements with shock melting can be explained by accounting for the change in melt slope due to the bcc-cp transition observed in the shock studies. The Fe melt curve is revisited. The possible relevance of the Jahn-Teller effect and recently observed transition metal melts with Icosahedral Short-Range Order (ISRO) is discussed.

  1. Rheology of Melt-bearing Crustal Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, C. L.; Medvedev, S.; Handy, M. R.

    2006-12-01

    A review and reinterpretation of previous experimental data on the deformation of melt-bearing crustal rocks (Rosenberg and Handy, 2005) revealed that the relationship of aggregate strength to melt fraction is non-linear, even if plotted on a linear ordinate and abscissa. At melt fractions, Φ 0.07, the dependence of aggregate strength on Φ is significantly greater than at Φ > 0.07. This melt fraction (Φ= 0.07) marks the transition from a significant increase in the proportion of melt-bearing grain boundaries up to this point to a minor increase thereafter. Therefore, we suggest that the increase of melt-interconnectivity causes the dramatic strength drop between the solidus and a melt fraction of 0.07. A second strength drop occurs at higher melt fractions and corresponds to the breakdown of the solid (crystal) framework, corresponding to the well-known "rheologically critical melt percentage" (RCMP; Arzi, 1978). Although the strength drop at the RCMP is about 4 orders of magnitude, the absolute value of this drop is small compared to the absolute strength of the unmelted aggregate, rendering the RCMP invisible in a linear aggregate strength vs. melt fraction diagram. Predicting the rheological properties and thresholds of melt-bearing crust on the basis of the results and interpretations above is very difficult, because the rheological data base was obtained from experiments performed at undrained conditions in the brittle field. These conditions are unlikely to represent the flow of partially melted crust. The measured strength of most of the experimentally deformed, partially-melted samples corresponds to their maximum differential stress, before the onset of brittle failure, not to their viscous strength during "ductile" (viscous) flow. To overcome these problems, we extrapolated a theoretically-derived flow law for partially melted granite deforming by diffusion-accommodated grain-boundary sliding (Paterson, 2001) and an experimentally-derived flow law for

  2. Predicting melting point of imidazolium-based ionic liquids using modified group-contribution by mass connectivity index%质量连接性指数改进的基团贡献法预测咪唑类离子液体的熔点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊焰; 丁靖; 虞大红; 彭昌军; 刘洪来

    2011-01-01

    Researches on ionic liquids (Ils) are attractive due to Ils' unique characteristics, while an important drawback in the application of Ils is the scarcity of their thermodynamic data. The number of potential Ils is so enormous, some say as many as 1012 to 1018, that it is impossible to determine all these data by experimental methods. Many attempts, including group-contribution and connectivity index have had some success to develop methods to estimate the physical properties of unknown Ils in order to facilitate the design of new modifications and reduce the need for experimental work. A new concept named mass connectivity index to encode bond contributions and to allow quantifying the extent of branching in a molecule, especially in Ils, was proposed in 2010. The preliminary study showed that there was a close but complicated relationship between mass connectivity index and the melting point of Ils, implying that it was hard to predict the melting point only by mass connectivity index without the available information supplied by the other models. In this paper, a new group-contribution model combined with mass connectivity index was proposed for the prediction of the melting point of imidazolium-based ionic liquids, which adopted successful group-contribution parameters and distinguished structure characteristics of Ils by mass connectivity index considering the influence of structure on melting points. It was the first attempt to introduce the concept of mass connectivity index to group-contribution method to estimate melting point. In the model, 23 basic group contribution parameters of Ils and 3 structure characteristic factors were defined except for mass connectivity index and all the constants needed were determined by regression analysis of 62 typical data points obtained from available experimental data in the literatures. The melting points of other 59 Ils not used for determining the parameters of the equation were predicted by the new method and all

  3. Investigation of Melting Dynamics of Hafnium Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wei Chun; Lim, Thong Leng; Yoon, Tiem Leong

    2017-03-27

    Melting dynamics of hafnium clusters are investigated using a novel approach based on the idea of the chemical similarity index. Ground state configurations of small hafnium clusters are first derived using Basin-Hopping and Genetic Algorithm in the parallel tempering mode, employing the COMB potential in the energy calculator. These assumed ground state structures are verified by using the Low Lying Structures (LLS) method. The melting process is carried out either by using the direct heating method or prolonged simulated annealing. The melting point is identified by a caloric curve. However, it is found that the global similarity index is much more superior in locating premelting and total melting points of hafnium clusters.

  4. Making MgO/SiO2 Glasses By The Sol-Gel Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    1989-01-01

    Silicon dioxide glasses containing 15 mole percent magnesium oxide prepared by sol-gel process. Not made by conventional melting because ingredients immiscible liquids. Synthesis of MgO/SiO2 glass starts with mixing of magnesium nitrate hexahydrate with silicon tetraethoxide, both in alcohol. Water added, and transparent gel forms. Subsequent processing converts gel into glass. Besides producing glasses of new composition at lower processing temperatures, sol-gel method leads to improved homogeneity and higher purity.

  5. Melting Behaviour of Ferronickel Slags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagadin, Christoph; Luidold, Stefan; Wagner, Christoph; Wenzl, Christine

    2016-12-01

    The industrial manufacturing of ferronickel in electric furnaces produces large amounts of slag with strong acidic character and high melting points, which seriously stresses the furnace refractory lining. In this study, the melting behavior of synthetically produced ferronickel slags on magnesia as refractory material was determined by means of a hot stage microscope. Therefore, slags comprising the main oxides SiO2 (35-70 wt.%), MgO (15-45 wt.%) and Fe2O3 (5-35 wt.%) were melted in a graphite crucible and afterwards analyzed by a hot stage microscope. The design of experiments, which was created by the statistic software MODDE®, included 20 experiments with varying slag compositions as well as atmospheres. The evaluation of the test results occurred at three different characteristic states of the samples like the softening point according to DIN 51730 and the temperatures at which the area of residual cross-section of the samples amounted to 30% and 40%, respectively, of the original value depending of their SiO2/MgO ratio and iron oxide content. Additionally, the thickness of the zone influenced by the slag was measured and evaluated.

  6. Saturated Monoglyceride Polymorphism and Gel Formation of Biodiesel Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chupka, Gina; Fouts, Lisa; McCormick, Robert

    2015-11-13

    Crystallization or gel formation of normal paraffins in diesel fuel under cold weather conditions leading to fuel filter clogging is a common problem. Cold weather operability of biodiesel (B100) and blends with diesel fuel presents additional complexity because of the presence of saturated monoglycerides (SMGs) and other relatively polar species. Currently, the cloud point measurement (a measure of when the first component crystallizes out of solution) is used to define the lowest temperature at which the fuel can be used without causing cold weather issues. While filter plugging issues have declined, there still remain intermittent unexpected problems above the cloud point for biodiesel blends. Development of a fundamental understanding of how minor components in biodiesel crystallize, gel, and transform is needed in order to prevent these unexpected issues. We have found that SMGs, a low level impurity present in B100 from the production process, can crystallize out of solution and undergo a solvent-mediated polymorphic phase transformation to a more stable, less soluble form. This causes them to persist at temperatures above the cloud point once they have some out of solution. Additionally, we have found that SMGs can cause other more soluble, lower melting point minor components in the B100 to co-crystallize and come out of solution. Monoolein, another minor component from the production process is an unsaturated monoglyceride with a much lower melting point and higher solubility than SMGs. It is able to form a co-crystal with the SMGs and is found together with the SMGs on plugged filters we have analyzed in our laboratory. An observation of isolated crystals in the lab led us to believe that the SMGs may also be forming a gel-like network with components of the B100 and diesel fuel. During filtration experiments, we have noted that in some cases a solid layer of crystals forms and blocks the filter completely, while in other cases this does not occur

  7. Studies of thermal dissolution of RDX in TNT melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvorova, N. A.; Hamilton, V. T.; Oschwald, D. M.; Balakirev, F. F.; Smilowitz, L. B.; Henson, B. F.

    2017-01-01

    The thermal response of energetic materials is studied due to its importance in issues of material safety and surety. Secondary high explosives which melt before they thermally decompose present challenging systems to model due to the addition of material flow. Composition B is a particularly challenging system due to its multiphase nature with a low melt component (TNT) and a high melt component (RDX). The dissolution of RDX crystals in molten TNT at the temperature below RDX melting point has been investigated using hot stage microscopy. In this paper, we present data on the dissolution rate of RDX crystals in molten TNT as a function of temperature above the TNT melt.

  8. Internal calibration of gel dosimeters: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trapp, J V; Kairn, T; Crowe, S; Fielding, A [School of Physical and Chemical Sciences Queensland University of Technology GPO Box 2434, Brisbane 4001 (Australia)], E-mail: j.trapp@qut.edu.au

    2009-05-01

    In this work we test the feasibility of a new calibration method for gel dosimetry. We examine, through Monte Carlo modelling, whether the inclusion of an organic plastic scintillator system at key points within the gel phantom would perturb the dose map. Such a system would remove the requirement for a separate calibration gel, removing many sources of uncertainty.

  9. Arctic melt ponds and bifurcations in the climate system

    CERN Document Server

    Sudakov, Ivan; Golden, Kenneth M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how sea ice melts is critical to climate projections. In the Arctic, melt ponds that develop on the surface of sea ice floes during the late spring and summer largely determine their albedo $-$ a key parameter in climate modeling. Here we explore the possibility of a simple sea ice climate model passing through a bifurcation point $-$ an irreversible critical threshold as the system warms, by incorporating geometric information about melt pond evolution. This study is based on a nonlinear phase transition model for melt ponds, and bifurcation analysis of a simple climate model with ice - albedo feedback as the key mechanism driving the system to a potential bifurcation point.

  10. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis on frozen tumour tissue sections.

    OpenAIRE

    Boultwood, J; Kaklamanis, L.; Gatter, K C; Wainscoat, J S

    1992-01-01

    The application of pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to the molecular genetic analysis of solid tumours has been restricted by the requirement for whole single cells as a DNA source. A simple technique which allows for the direct analysis of histologically characterised solid tumour material by pulsed field gel electrophoresis was developed. Single frozen tissue sections obtained from colonic carcinoma specimens were embedded without further manipulation in molten, low melting temperatu...

  11. Testosterone Nasal Gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testosterone nasal gel is used to treat symptoms of low testosterone in men who have hypogonadism (a condition in which the ... does not produce enough natural testosterone). Testosterone nasal gel is used only for men with low testosterone ...

  12. Effect of simulated milk fat with different melting points on the physiochemical properties of concentrated milk protein by spray drying%不同熔点乳脂模拟物对浓缩乳蛋白喷雾干燥粉理化性质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪超; 胡锦华; 郭宏慧; 周鹏

    2015-01-01

    The effect of milk fat with different melting points on milk powders' physicochemical properties was investigated.The milk fat and fatty acid components in commercial concentrated milk protein were analyzed to select the best simulations and using spray dry to obtained the milk powder.The surface fat concentration,microstructure and protein dissolution behavior of the powders were measured.Compared with new spray-dried MPC,milk powders containing esters had a rough surface with fat layer and had a porous wall.The surface fat contents varied with esters' melting point,the higher melting point,the higher content.Protein dissolution behavior different with each other and the dissolution rate were slower than that of spray dried MPC.%文中探讨了不同熔点乳脂组成对浓缩乳蛋白干粉理化性质的影响.首先利用气相色谱技术分析商业浓缩乳蛋白(milk protein concentrate,MPC)的脂肪酸组成,并结合乳脂肪的熔点(melting point,MP)特征选取不同熔点的脂肪酸甲酯模拟乳脂肪,其次采用喷雾干燥技术制备含不同乳脂模拟物的加脂乳粉,并对其表面含脂量、微观结构和蛋白质溶解行为进行分析.研究发现:与商业MPC重新喷雾干燥后表面光滑和内壁致密的结构相比,加脂的乳粉则表面粗糙、多孔且内壁疏松,表面还可观察到脂肪层;加脂乳粉的表面含脂量随着所加甲酯熔点的升高逐渐增加;不同甲酯的添加使得加脂乳粉的蛋白质溶解行为存在差异,而且与MPC相比,不同加脂乳粉中蛋白质溶出速率均变得缓慢.

  13. Signatures of nonthermal melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Zier

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Intense ultrashort laser pulses can melt crystals in less than a picosecond but, in spite of over thirty years of active research, for many materials it is not known to what extent thermal and nonthermal microscopic processes cause this ultrafast phenomenon. Here, we perform ab-initio molecular-dynamics simulations of silicon on a laser-excited potential-energy surface, exclusively revealing nonthermal signatures of laser-induced melting. From our simulated atomic trajectories, we compute the decay of five structure factors and the time-dependent structure function. We demonstrate how these quantities provide criteria to distinguish predominantly nonthermal from thermal melting.

  14. Theoretical study of a melting curve for tin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Feng; Cai Ling-Cang

    2009-01-01

    The melting curve of Sn has been calculated using the dislocation-mediated melting model with the 'zone-linking method'. The results are in good agreement with the experimental data. According to our calculation, the melting temperature of γ-Sn at zero pressure is about 436 K obtained by the extrapolation of the method from the triple point of Sn. The results show that this calculation method is better than other theoretical methods for predicting the meltingcurve of polymorphic material Sn.

  15. Physical properties of polymeric gels; Kobunshi gel no kiso denki tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajitsu, Y. [Yamagata University, Yamagata (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Chiba, A. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering

    1998-03-31

    This paper explains the following matters on properties of polymeric gels: the percolation theory on sol-gel transfer (incorporating fractal geometry) has become endorsed experimentally; in addition, the large relaxation phenomenon seen in dielectric spectra of carrageenan gel at temperatures lower than the gelation point suggests that a domain of very long needle shape has grown; analysis of dielectric relaxation spectra of sodium acrylate gel (a kind of polymeric electrolyte gel) reveals a result which suggests that its dielectric relaxation mechanism is the same as that of a polymeric electrolyte interlocking system; a polymeric gel membrane (which retains aqueous electrolyte solution) made by dissolving LiBF4 into a mixed solution of propylene carbonate and dimethoxyethane is known to show ion electric conductivity value close to that of aqueous electrolyte solution (in the order of 10 {sup -3} S/cm). 27 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Melt Cast High Explosives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Cudziło

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [b]Abstract[/b]. This paper reviews the current state and future developments of melt-cast high explosives. First the compositions, properties and methods of preparation of trinitrotoluene based (TNT conventional mixtures with aluminum, hexogen (RDX or octogen (HMX are described. In the newer, less sensitive explosive formulations, TNT is replaced with dinitroanisole (DNANDNANDNAN and nitrotriazolone (NTONTONTO, nitroguanidine (NG or ammonium perchlorate (AP are the replacement for RDRDX and HMX. Plasticized wax or polymer-based binder systems for melt castable explosives are also included. Hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HPTB is the binder of choice, but polyethylene glycol, and polycaprolactone with energetic plasticizers are also used. The most advanced melt-cast explosives are compositions containing energetic thermoplastic elastomers and novel highly energetic compounds (including nitrogen rich molecules in whose particles are nanosized and practically defect-less.[b]Keywords[/b]: melt-cast explosives, detonation parameters

  17. Force induced DNA melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santosh, Mogurampelly; Maiti, Prabal K [Center for Condensed Matter Theory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-12 (India)], E-mail: santosh@physics.iisc.ernet.in, E-mail: maiti@physics.iisc.ernet.in

    2009-01-21

    When pulled along the axis, double-strand DNA undergoes a large conformational change and elongates by roughly twice its initial contour length at a pulling force of about 70 pN. The transition to this highly overstretched form of DNA is very cooperative. Applying a force perpendicular to the DNA axis (unzipping), double-strand DNA can also be separated into two single-stranded DNA, this being a fundamental process in DNA replication. We study the DNA overstretching and unzipping transition using fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and argue that the conformational changes of double-strand DNA associated with either of the above mentioned processes can be viewed as force induced DNA melting. As the force at one end of the DNA is increased the DNA starts melting abruptly/smoothly above a critical force depending on the pulling direction. The critical force f{sub m}, at which DNA melts completely decreases as the temperature of the system is increased. The melting force in the case of unzipping is smaller compared to the melting force when the DNA is pulled along the helical axis. In the case of melting through unzipping, the double-strand separation has jumps which correspond to the different energy minima arising due to sequence of different base pairs. The fraction of Watson-Crick base pair hydrogen bond breaking as a function of force does not show smooth and continuous behavior and consists of plateaus followed by sharp jumps.

  18. Glass forming ability of calcium aluminosilicate melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard, Mette; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2011-01-01

    The glass forming ability (GFA) of two series of calcium aluminosilicate melts is studied by measuring their viscous behavior and crystallization tendency. The first series consists of five compositions on the joining line between the eutectic point of anorthite-wollastonite-tridymite and that of...

  19. Halogen-bonding-triggered supramolecular gel formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meazza, Lorenzo; Foster, Jonathan A; Fucke, Katharina; Metrangolo, Pierangelo; Resnati, Giuseppe; Steed, Jonathan W

    2013-01-01

    Supramolecular gels are topical soft materials involving the reversible formation of fibrous aggregates using non-covalent interactions. There is significant interest in controlling the properties of such materials by the formation of multicomponent systems, which exhibit non-additive properties emerging from interaction of the components. The use of hydrogen bonding to assemble supramolecular gels in organic solvents is well established. In contrast, the use of halogen bonding to trigger supramolecular gel formation in a two-component gel ('co-gel') is essentially unexplored, and forms the basis for this study. Here, we show that halogen bonding between a pyridyl substituent in a bis(pyridyl urea) and 1,4-diiodotetrafluorobenzene brings about gelation, even in polar media such as aqueous methanol and aqueous dimethylsulfoxide. This demonstrates that halogen bonding is sufficiently strong to interfere with competing gel-inhibitory interactions and create a 'tipping point' in gel assembly. Using this concept, we have prepared a halogen bond donor bis(urea) gelator that forms co-gels with halogen bond acceptors.

  20. Transport Phenomena in Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Tokita

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gel becomes an important class of soft materials since it can be seen in a wide variety of the chemical and the biological systems. The unique properties of gel arise from the structure, namely, the three-dimensional polymer network that is swollen by a huge amount of solvent. Despite the small volume fraction of the polymer network, which is usually only a few percent or less, gel shows the typical properties that belong to solids such as the elasticity. Gel is, therefore, regarded as a dilute solid because its elasticity is much smaller than that of typical solids. Because of the diluted structure, small molecules can pass along the open space of the polymer network. In addition to the viscous resistance of gel fluid, however, the substance experiences resistance due to the polymer network of gel during the transport process. It is, therefore, of importance to study the diffusion of the small molecules in gel as well as the flow of gel fluid itself through the polymer network of gel. It may be natural to assume that the effects of the resistance due to the polymer network of gel depends strongly on the network structure. Therefore, detailed study on the transport processes in and through gel may open a new insight into the relationship between the structure and the transport properties of gel. The two typical transport processes in and through gel, that is, the diffusion of small molecules due to the thermal fluctuations and the flow of gel fluid that is caused by the mechanical pressure gradient will be reviewed.

  1. MELTED BUTTER TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Golubeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Melted butter is made from dairy butter by rendering the fat phase. It has specific taste and aroma, high-calorie content and good assimilability. Defects of butter which appeared during the storage causes by the development of microbiological processes or by the chemical oxidation. On the development of these processes influence quality and composition of fresh butter, its physical structure, content of the increased amount of gas phase and content of heavy metals, storage conditions. Microbiological spoilage of butter occurs generally due to damage of plasma which is good environment for the development of microorganisms. Defects of microbiological origin include: unclean, sour, moldy, yeasty, cheesy, bitter taste. Defects of test and smell chemical origin are formed due to hydrolytic digestion of lipids. It's prevailed at long storage of butter in the conditions of freezing temperatures. It's picked out the following main processes of spoiling: souring, acidifying and sallowness. Often these processes take place simultaneously.It has been investigated melted butter with lactated additive. The latter improves the microbiological and toxicological safety, prolongs the storage condition of the products. Technological efficiency of the additives is achieved by a multilayer products formation from the inactive bound water, preventing microorganisms growth and by the barrier layer with lactate inhibiting hydrolytic reactions. Oil samples were obtained with the batch-type butter maker application, then they were melted and after that lactated additive were supplemented. It has been studied organoleptic and physico-chemical indices of the melted butter samples. The fatty-acid composition of melted butter were studied. Comparative analysis of fatty-acid composition of cow's milk fat and produced melted butter has shown their similarity. Also in the last sample there is increased weight fraction of linoleic and linolenic acids. The obtained

  2. Effect of POE-g-MAH on Structure and Properties of Low Melting Point PA6%POE-g-MAH对低熔点PA6结构与性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘典新; 何敏; 甘华华; 张敏; 鲁圣军

    2013-01-01

    采用一步熔融挤出工艺制备了尼龙(PA)6/CaCl2/马来酸酐接枝聚烯烃弹性体(POE-g-MAH)复合材料,研究了不同POE-g-MAH含量对PA6/CaCl2/POE-g-MAH复合材料的结晶熔融行为及力学性能的影响。结果表明,随着POE-g-MAH含量的增加,PA6/CaCl2/POE-g-MAH复合材料的冲击强度显著提高,拉伸强度下降,当POE-g-MAH的质量分数为25%时,PA6/CaCl2/POE-g-MAH复合材料的冲击强度达到75.2 kJ/m2,比PA6/CaCl2(7.4 kJ/m2)提高了10.2倍,且随POE-g-MAH含量的增加,复合材料的熔融温度先升高后降低。POE-g-MAH的加入降低了复合材料的结晶完善程度。%The effects of the POE-g-MAH contents on the crystallization behavior and the mechanical properties of PA6/CaCl2/POE-g-MAH composites which were prepared through a step melting extrusion process were researched. The results show that as the POE-g-MAH content increasing,the impact strength of PA6/CaCl2/POE-g-MAH composites increases signiifcantly, but tensile strength decreases. When the mass fraction of POE-g-MAH reaches 25%,the impact strength of the composite reaches 75.2 kJ/m2,which increases 10.2 times than that of PA6/CaCl2 (7.4 kJ/m2). With the increase of the POE-g-MAH content, the melting temperature of PA6/CaCl2/POE-g-MAH composites increase ifrstly and decreases lastly. Besides,the crystallization complete degree decreased by POE-g-MAH .

  3. Retrogradation of Waxy Rice Starch Gel in the Vicinity of the Glass Transition Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The retrogradation rate of waxy rice starch gel was investigated during storage at temperatures in the vicinity of the glass transition temperature of a maximally concentrated system (T g ′), as it was hypothesized that such temperatures might cause different effects on retrogradation. The T g ′ value of fully gelatinized waxy rice starch gel with 50% water content and the enthalpy of melting retrograded amylopectin in the gels were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. Starch...

  4. Combined rheological and ultrasonic study of alginate and pectin gels near the sol-gel transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audebrand, Michel; Kolb, Max; Axelos, Monique A V

    2006-10-01

    The sol-gel transition of biopolymer mixtures has been investigated by rheological and ultrasonic measurements. A scaling analysis of the data was performed for both types of measurements. A gel time was determined from rheology for the pure pectin samples, and the data could be fitted to a universal scaling form near the transition point. Its critical exponents are in good agreement with the predictions of scalar percolation theory. In addition, the ultrasonic signal of the pectin samples close to the transition was analyzed in terms of a high-frequency scaling approach for the attenuation and the velocity. For the alginate samples and the mixtures, for which the gel point cannot be determined reliably from rheology, the ultrasonic measurements were analyzed using the same scaling form as for the pectin sample, thus providing a method for estimating the gel point, even in the absence of rheological data.

  5. Influence of Grain Boundary on Melting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王暾; 周富信; 刘曰武

    2001-01-01

    The temperature behaviour of an Al bicrystal with surfaces consisting of (110) and (111) crystals is simulated using molecular dynamics. The result shows that the (110) crystal losses its crystalline order at 820K, whereas the disorder does not propagate through the (111) crystal at this temperature. Instead, some disordered atoms are recrystallized into the (111) crystal and the initial grain boundary changes into a stable order-disorder interface. Thus, it was discovered that at a temperature near its melting point, the (111) crystal grew and obstructed the propagation of disorder. Such an obstruction is helpfulfor understanding melting.

  6. 3He melting pressure temperature scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halperin, W.P.; Archie, C.N.; Richardson, R.C.;

    1976-01-01

    The latent heat for solidification of **3He has been measured along the **3He melting curve between 23 and 1 mK. A temperature scale is established which depends only on measurements of heat, pressure and volume, and on the condition that the entropy of solid **3He approaches R ln 2 at high...... temperatures. The A feature of the melting curve which suggests itself as a thermometric fixed point is found to be T//A equals 2. 75 plus or minus 0. 11 mK. The agreement between this value and independent measurements of T//A, based on nuclear or electronic paramagnetism, Johnson noise thermometry...

  7. Temperature dependence of densities of Sb and Bi melts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG HaoRan; SUN ChunJing; WANG Rui; QI XiaoGang; ZHANG Ning

    2007-01-01

    The densities of Sb and Bi melts were investigated by an improved Archimedean method. The results show that the density of the Sb melt decreases linearly with increasing temperature, but the density of the Bi melt firstly increases and then decreases as the temperature increases. There is a maximum density value of 10.002 g/cm3 at 310℃, about 39℃ above the melting point. The temperature dependence of the Sb melt is well fitted with the expression ρ= 6.8590-5.8105×10-4T, and that of the Bi melt is fitted with ρ=10.3312-1.18×10-3T. The results were discussed from a microstructure viewpoint.

  8. Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma-Kuinkel, Batu K; Rude, Thomas H; Fowler, Vance G

    2016-01-01

    Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) is a powerful genotyping technique used for the separation of large DNA molecules (entire genomic DNA) after digesting it with unique restriction enzymes and applying to a gel matrix under the electric field that periodically changes direction. PFGE is a variation of agarose gel electrophoresis that permits analysis of bacterial DNA fragments over an order of magnitude larger than that with conventional restriction enzyme analysis. It provides a good representation of the entire bacterial chromosome in a single gel with a highly reproducible restriction profile, providing clearly distinct and well-resolved DNA fragments.

  9. CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING GELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall S. Seright

    2003-09-01

    This report describes work performed during the second year of the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using Gels.'' The project has two objectives. The first objective is to identify gel compositions and conditions that substantially reduce flow through fractures that allow direct channeling between wells, while leaving secondary fractures open so that high fluid injection and production rates can be maintained. The second objective is to optimize treatments in fractured production wells, where the gel must reduce permeability to water much more than that to oil. Pore-level images from X-ray computed microtomography were re-examined for Berea sandstone and porous polyethylene. This analysis suggests that oil penetration through gel-filled pores occurs by a gel-dehydration mechanism, rather than a gel-ripping mechanism. This finding helps to explain why aqueous gels can reduce permeability to water more than to oil. We analyzed a Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM gel treatment in a production well in the Arbuckle formation. The availability of accurate pressure data before, during, and after the treatment was critical for the analysis. After the gel treatment, water productivity was fairly constant at about 20% of the pre-treatment value. However, oil productivity was stimulated by a factor of 18 immediately after the treatment. During the six months after the treatment, oil productivity gradually decreased to approach the pre-treatment value. To explain this behavior, we proposed that the fracture area open to oil flow was increased substantially by the gel treatment, followed by a gradual closing of the fractures during subsequent production. For a conventional Cr(III)-acetate-HPAM gel, the delay between gelant preparation and injection into a fracture impacts the placement, leakoff, and permeability reduction behavior. Formulations placed as partially formed gels showed relatively low pressure gradients during placement, and yet substantially reduced the

  10. GLASS MELTING PHENOMENA, THEIR ORDERING AND MELTING SPACE UTILISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Němec L.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Four aspects of effective glass melting have been defined – namely the fast kinetics of partial melting phenomena, a consideration of the melting phenomena ordering, high utilisation of the melting space, and effective utilisation of the supplied energy. The relations were defined for the specific melting performance and specific energy consumption of the glass melting process which involve the four mentioned aspects of the process and indicate the potentials of effective melting. The quantity “space utilisation” has been treated in more detail as an aspect not considered in practice till this time. The space utilisation was quantitatively defined and its values have been determined for the industrial melting facility by mathematical modelling. The definitions of the specific melting performance and specific energy consumption have been used for assessment of the potential impact of a controlled melt flow and high space utilisation on the melting process efficiency on the industrial scale. The results have shown that even the partial control of the melt flow, leading to the partial increase of the space utilisation, may considerably increase the melting performance, whereas a decrease of the specific energy consumption was determined to be between 10 - 15 %.

  11. Ultrapure glass optical waveguide development in microgravity by the sol-gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Containerless melting of glasses in space for the preparation of ultrapure homogeneous glass for optical waveguides is discussed. The homogenization of the glass using conventional raw materials is normally achieved on Earth either by the gravity induced convection currents or by the mechanical stirring of the melt. Because of the absence of gravity induced convection currents, the homogenization of glass using convectional raw materials is difficult in the space environment. Multicomponent, homogeneous, noncrystalline oxide gels can be prepared by the sol-gel process and these gels are promising starting materials for melting glasses in the space environment. The sol-gel process is based on the polymerization reaction of alkoxysilane with other metal alkoxy compounds or suitable metal salts. Many of the alkoxysilanes or other metal alkoxides are liquids and thus can be purified by distillation.

  12. Thermodynamic analysis of sol-gel transition of gelatin in terms of water activity in various solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Osato; Omote, Chiaki; Matsuhira, Keiko

    2015-12-01

    Sol-gel transition of gelatin was analyzed as a multisite stoichiometric reaction of a gelatin molecule with water and solute molecules. The equilibrium sol-gel transition temperature, Tt , was estimated from the average of gelation and melting temperature measured by differential scanning calorimetry. From Tt and the melting enthalpy, ΔHsol , the equilibrium sol-to-gel ratio was estimated by the van't Hoff equation. The reciprocal form of the Wyman-Tanford equation, which describes the sol-to-gel ratio as a function of water activity, was successfully applied to obtain a good linear relationship. From this analysis, the role of water activity on the sol-gel transition of gelatin was clearly explained and the contributions of hydration and solute binding to gelatin molecules were separately discussed in sol-gel transition. The general solution for the free energy for gel-stabilization in various solutions was obtained as a simple function of solute concentration.

  13. Melt electrospinning of biodegradable polyurethane scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karchin, Ari; Simonovsky, Felix I.; Ratner, Buddy D.; Sanders, Joan E.

    2014-01-01

    Electrospinning from the melt, in contrast to from solution, is an attractive tissue engineering scaffold manufacturing process as it allows for the formation of small diameter fibers while eliminating potentially cytotoxic solvents. Despite this, there is a dearth of literature on scaffold formation via melt electrospinning. This is likely due to the technical challenges related to the need for a well-controlled high temperature setup and the difficulty in developing an appropriate polymer. In this paper, a biodegradable and thermally stable polyurethane (PU) is described specifically for use in melt electrospinning. Polymer formulations of aliphatic PUs based on (CH2)4-content diisocyanates, polycaprolactone (PCL), 1,4-butanediamine and 1,4-butanediol (BD) were evaluated for utility in the melt electrospinning process. The final polymer formulation, a catalyst-purified PU based on 1,4-butane diisocyanate, PCL and BD in a 4/1/3 molar ratio with a weight-average molecular weight of about 40 kDa, yielded a nontoxic polymer that could be readily electrospun from the melt. Scaffolds electrospun from this polymer contained point bonds between fibers and mechanical properties analogous to many in vivo soft tissues. PMID:21640853

  14. `Technology for Advanced Treatment of High Melting Point Metal-Based Material,` local research and development of important technology for fiscal 1997. Development of materials creation technology for high efficiency power generator components; 1997 nendo juyo chiiki gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu. `Koyuten kinzokukei buzai no kodo kako gijutsu` (kokoritsu hatsuden`yo buzai sosei gijutsu kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Efforts are made for the creation of high melting point metal-base materials to replace the currently-used Ni-base superalloys for the turbine to withstand higher operating temperatures. The main efforts made in fiscal 1997 are outlined. As in fiscal 1996, Nb-base solution alloys, in which solution reinforcement elements such as Mo and W are alloyed, are manufactured by button arc melting and tested for mechanical properties and texture/characteristics. In the designing and evaluation for a strongest Nb-base composite material, Nb-base composite materials are manufactured by use of particle dispersion-strengthening attained by addition of intermetallic compounds or elements to contribute to the formation of oxides, carbides, or nitrides. Nb-base composite materials may also be manufactured by use of eutectic-strengthening attained by utilizing crystallization in the process of coagulation. The resultant Nb-base composite materials are evaluated for their dynamic characteristics at high temperatures. In the development and evaluation of technologies for creating Nb-base materials for high-temperature components, larger specimens as heavy as several kg are tested in line with small specimens for basic studies, and the results are utilized for alloy designing for high-temperature materials. 50 refs., 97 figs., 15 tabs.

  15. Viscosity Measurement for Tellurium Melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bochuan; Li, Chao; Ban, Heng; Scripa, Rosalia N.; Su, Ching-Hua; Lehoczky, Sandor L.

    2006-01-01

    The viscosity of high temperature Te melt was measured using a new technique in which a rotating magnetic field was applied to the melt sealed in a suspended ampoule, and the torque exerted by rotating melt flow on the ampoule wall was measured. Governing equations for the coupled melt flow and ampoule torsional oscillation were solved, and the viscosity was extracted from the experimental data by numerical fitting. The computational result showed good agreement with experimental data. The melt velocity transient initiated by the rotating magnetic field reached a stable condition quickly, allowing the viscosity and electrical conductivity of the melt to be determined in a short period.

  16. A Comparative Account of the Kinetics of Light-Induced E-Z Isomerization of an Anthracene-Based Organogelator in Sol, Gel, Xerogel, and Powder States: Fiber to Crystal Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Sanjoy; Chakraborty, Priyadarshi; Das, Sujoy; Bairi, Partha; Nandi, Arun K

    2016-05-31

    The organogel of (E)-N'-(anthracene-10-ylmethylene)-3,4,5-tris(dodecyloxy)benzohydrazide (I) in methyl cyclohexane having a fibrillar network structure exhibits excellent fluorescence, which decreases sharply with time upon photoirradiation at λ = 365 nm. It has been attributed to the transformation of the E isomer of I to the Z isomer, and the kinetics of E-Z isomerization are compared for the sol, gel, xerogel, and powder states. The rate constants at different temperatures are measured from Avrami plots and its increase with an increase in temperature, indicating temperature acts as a promoter for photoirradiated E-Z isomeization along the imine (C═N) bond. In the powder form, the rate constant values are the lowest compared to those of other states for all temperatures and the xerogels exhibit the highest rate of E-Z isomerization. The rate constants of sol and gel states mostly lie between the two. The wide-angle X-ray scattering pattern changes after ultraviolet (UV) irradiation with the generation of new sharp peaks whose intensities increase with an increase in irradiation time. A polarized optical microscopic study indicates formation of small crystalline dots on the fibers in the gels, dendritic morphology on the xerogel fibers, and large needlelike morphology at the surface boundary of the solid. The dried I gel exhibits a melting peak at 96.7 °C, but upon irradiation, two peaks are observed at 98.5 and 152.7 °C; the latter has been attributed to the melting of crystals of Z isomers. Similar higher melting peaks are observed both for the xerogel and for powders after UV irradiation; the powders exhibit the highest meting peak at 159.4 °C. Possible reasons for the variation of rate constant values in the four different states and the difference in morphology and melting points of crystals of Z isomers of I are discussed.

  17. Thermoacoustic Streaming and Ultrasonic Processing of Low Melting Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, E. H.

    1997-01-01

    Ultrasonic levitation allows the processing of low melting materials both in 1 G as well as in microgravity. The free suspension of the melts also facilitates undercooling, permitting the measurements of the physical properties of the metastable liquids.

  18. GelTouch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miruchna, Viktor; Walter, Robert; Lindlbauer, David

    2015-01-01

    We present GelTouch, a gel-based layer that can selectively transition between soft and stiff to provide tactile multi-touch feedback. It is flexible, transparent when not activated, and contains no mechanical, electromagnetic, or hydraulic components, resulting in a compact form factor (a 2mm thin...... touchscreen layer for our prototype). The activated areas can be morphed freely and continuously, without being limited to fixed, predefined shapes. GelTouch consists of a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) gel layer which alters its viscoelasticity when activated by applying heat (>32 C). We present three different...... a tablet with 6x4 tactile areas, enabling a tactile numpad, slider, and thumbstick. We show that the gel is up to 25 times stiffer when activated and that users detect tactile features reliably (94.8%)....

  19. Surface-Induced Melting of Metal Nanoclusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Quan-Wen; ZHU Ru-Zeng; WEI Jiu-An; WEN Yu-Hua

    2004-01-01

    @@ We investigate the size effect on melting of metal nanoclusters by molecular dynamics simulation and thermodynamic theory based on Kofman's melt model. By the minimization of the free energy of metal nanoclusters with respect to the thickness of the surface liquid layer, it has been found that the nanoclusters of the same metal have the same premelting temperature Tpre = T0 - T0(γsv -γlv -γst)/(ρLξ) (T0 is the melting point of bulk metal, γsv the solid-vapour interfacial free energy, γlv the liquid-vapour interfacial free energy, γsl the solid-liquid interfacial free energy, ρ the density of metal, L the latent heat of bulk metal, and ξ the characteristic length of surface-interface interaction) to be independent of the size of nanoclusters, so that the characteristic length ξ ofa metal can be obtained easily by Tpre, which can be obtained by experiments or molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The premelting temperature Tpre of Cu is obtained by MD simulations, then ξ is obtained.The melting point Tcm is further predicted by free energy analysis and is in good agreement with the result of our MD simulations. We also predict the maximum premelting-liquid width of Cu nanoclusters with various sizes and the critical size, below which there is no premelting.

  20. Experimental Studies on Partial Melting of Massive Samples of Granite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林强; 吴福元

    1994-01-01

    As a basis of modern petrology,the equilibrium relations describing the melting of granite were established mainly on melting experiments of Powder samples.Such experiments,however,have serious limitations in providing information about the variations in compositional and fabric features of the minerals and in the composition and distribution of the melt.Our experiments using massive samples indicate that melt occure mainly at the quartz-plagioclase and quartz-potash feldspar boundaries and the composition of the melt is dependent on local characteristics in the melting system,showing no correlation with the bulk composition of the rock samples.At lower temperatures(740-760℃,0.2GPa),the melt plots at or near the eutectic point in Q-Ab-Or-An-H2O diagram,indicating equilibrium melting.At higher temperatures(790-800℃,0.2GPa)the melt becomes lower in SiO2 and higher in Na2O,deviating makedly from the eutectic line but without disappearance of any mineral phase,suggesting a non-equilibrium process.It is obvious that the phase-equilibrium relations in natural massive granites may be greatly different from those deduced from powder experiments.

  1. Effect of peritectics on thermodynamic properties of homogeneous binary metallic melts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鉴

    2001-01-01

    After formulation of the calculating models of mass action concentrations for metallic melts Cu-Al, Ni-Al and Cu-Sn, it is found that in spite of their lower stability than that of compounds with congruent melting point, peritectics are popular structural units in metallic melts, neglecting their presence will make it impossible to study the thermodynamic properties of metallic melts with results which both obey the law of mass action and agree well with practice.

  2. The effect of milkfat melting properties on chemical and physical properties of 20% reformulated cream

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Lisa Lenore

    1999-01-01

    The Effect of Milkfat Melting Properties on Chemical and Physical Properties of 20% Reformulated Cream Lisa L. Scott (ABSTRACT) Skim, sweet buttermilk, and butter derived aqueous phase components were used to re-emulsify low-melt and medium-melt fraction butteroils to yield 20% milkfat creams. The implications of separation temperature in obtaining components, melting point characteristics, and formulation on the chemical and physical properties of reformulated and natural crea...

  3. Tidal Heating and Melt Segregation and Migration within Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendar, A.; Paty, C. S.; Dufek, J.; Roberts, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Io's volcanic activity is driven by the dissipation of energy in its interior due to tidal forces exerted by Jupiter, maintained by its orbital resonances with Europa and Ganymede. The 2011 discovery of a global partial melt layer beneath Io's surface has raised further questions about the structure of the Galilean moon and the processes that shape it. In this study we use two coupled simulations, the MFIX multiphase dynamics and the TiRADE tidal heating models, to investigate the location and extent, thermal state, melt fraction, stability, and migration of melt Io's viscous asthenosphere. We explore the feedback between melt migration and production, taking into account the rate of tidal heating and melt migration through the magma ocean layer. We begin with an assumed 1D layered internal structure based on previous investigations. This structure is input into TiRADE, which solves the equations of motion for forced oscillations in a layered spherical body using the propagator matrix method to obtain the displacements and strains due to tidal forcing. From this, we obtain the radial distribution of tidal heat generation within Io. This heating profile is then used as input for the MFIX multiphase fluid model in order to obtain the vertical flow of partially molten material, as well as the radial temperature distribution and thus the material properties and melt fractions. In the multiphase model, individual phases (melt and solid residue) separately conserve mass, momentum and enthalpy allowing us to explore melt segregation phenomena. Enthalpy closure is provided by the MELTS thermodynamics algorithm, which is called at each point in space, accounting for the partitioning between latent and sensible heat, and updating the physical properties of the melt and solid phases. This approach allows us to explore the sensitivity of melt generation to internal structure, as well as the time scales that govern melt production and eruption (i.e.: the residence and migration

  4. Morphology of Low Density Foams from Crystalline Gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaucage, G.; Schaefer, D. W.; Lagasse, R. R.; Aubert, J. A.; Ehrlich, P.; Stein, R. S.; Whaley, P.; Kulkarni, S.

    1996-03-01

    Low-density polymer foams are often derived via supercritical extraction of crystalline gels. The nano-structural basis of these foams and gels, in a wide variety of systems, is distorted lamellae. We present an uncorrelated lamellar model which describes the small-angle scattering over 5 orders of size in these systems. Our approach is based on the unified approach to small-angle scattering and scattering data from 4 instruments. This approach is equally applicable to olefin foams from gelation in supercritical propane (Whaley, Kulkarni, Stein, Ehrlich), polyacrylonitrile foams and gels from DMF/ethylene glycol followed by supercritical extraction in CO2 (Lagasse) and isotactic PS foams and gels from decalin and extracted in supercritical CO2 (Aubert). Distortion of conventional crystalline morphologies can be rationalized in terms of the extent of entanglement of the polymer chains during crystallization and the deformability of lamellar platelets during supercritical drying. Correlations between melt and dilute solution morphologies are given.

  5. Production of continuous mullite fiber via sol-gel processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Sparks, J. Scott; Esker, David C.

    1990-01-01

    The development of a continuous ceramic fiber which could be used in rocket engine and rocket boosters applications was investigated at the Marshall Space Flight Center. Methods of ceramic fiber production such as melt spinning, chemical vapor deposition, and precursor polymeric fiber decomposition are discussed and compared with sol-gel processing. The production of ceramics via the sol-gel method consists of two steps, hydrolysis and polycondensation, to form the preceramic, followed by consolidation into the glass or ceramic structure. The advantages of the sol-gel method include better homogeneity and purity, lower preparation temperature, and the ability to form unique compositions. The disadvantages are the high cost of raw materials, large shrinkage during drying and firing which can lead to cracks, and long processing times. Preparation procedures for aluminosilicate sol-gel and for continuous mullite fibers are described.

  6. Thermodynamics of Oligonucleotide Duplex Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber-Gosche, Sherrie; Edwards, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Melting temperatures of oligonucleotides are useful for a number of molecular biology applications, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Although melting temperatures are often calculated with simplistic empirical equations, application of thermodynamics provides more accurate melting temperatures and an opportunity for students to apply…

  7. Melting of polydisperse hard disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, S.; Frenkel, D.

    2004-01-01

    The melting of a polydisperse hard-disk system is investigated by Monte Carlo simulations in the semigrand canonical ensemble. This is done in the context of possible continuous melting by a dislocation-unbinding mechanism, as an extension of the two-dimensional hard-disk melting problem. We find

  8. Melting of polydisperse hard disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, S.; Frenkel, D.

    2004-01-01

    The melting of a polydisperse hard-disk system is investigated by Monte Carlo simulations in the semigrand canonical ensemble. This is done in the context of possible continuous melting by a dislocation-unbinding mechanism, as an extension of the two-dimensional hard-disk melting problem. We find th

  9. PCR amplfication on a microarray of gel-immobilized oligonucleotides : detection of bacterial toxin- and drug-resistent genes and their mutations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strizhkov, B. N.; Drobyshev, A. L.; Mikhailovich, V. M.; Mirzabekov, A. D.; Biochip Technology Center; Engelhardt Inst. of Molecular Biology

    2000-10-01

    PCR amplification on a microarray of gel-immobilized primers (microchip) has been developed. One of a pair of PCR primers was immobilized inside a separate microchip polyacrylamide porous gel pad of 0.1 x 0.1 x 0.02 (or 0.04) micron in size and 0.2 (or 0.4) nL in volume. The amplification was carried out simultaneously both in solution covering the microchip array and inside gel pads. Each gel pad contained the immobilized forward primers, while the fluorescently labeled reverse primers, as well as all components of the amplification reaction, diffused into the gel pads from the solution. To increase the amplification efficiency, the forward primers were also added into the solution. The kinetics of amplification was measured in real time in parallel for all gel pads with a fluorescent microscope equipped with a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The accuracy of the amplification was assessed by using the melting curves obtained for the duplexes formed by the labeled amplification product and the gel-immobilized primers during the amplification process; alternatively, the duplexes were produced by hybridization of the extended immobilized primers with labeled oligonucleotide probes. The on-chip amplification was applied to detect the anthrax toxin genes and the plasmid-borne beta-lactamase gene responsible for bacterial ampicillin resistance. The allele-specific type of PCR amplification was used to identify the Shiga toxin gene and discriminate it from the Shiga-like one. The genomic mutations responsible for rifampicin resistance of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains were detected by the same type of PCR amplification of the rpoB gene fragment isolated from sputum of tuberculosis patients. The on-chip PCR amplification has been shown to be a rapid, inexpensive and powerful tool to test genes responsible for bacterial toxin production and drug resistance, as well as to reveal point nucleotide mutations.

  10. Pavement Snow Melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.

    2005-01-01

    The design of pavement snow melting systems is presented based on criteria established by ASHRAE. The heating requirements depends on rate of snow fall, air temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity. Piping materials are either metal or plastic, however, due to corrosion problems, cross-linked polyethylene pipe is now generally used instead of iron. Geothermal energy is supplied to systems through the use of heat pipes, directly from circulating pipes, through a heat exchanger or by allowing water to flow directly over the pavement, by using solar thermal storage. Examples of systems in New Jersey, Wyoming, Virginia, Japan, Argentina, Switzerland and Oregon are presented. Key words: pavement snow melting, geothermal heating, heat pipes, solar storage, Wyoming, Virginia, Japan, Argentina, Klamath Falls.

  11. Hexagonal phase based gel-emulsion (O/H1 gel-emulsion): formation and rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mohammad Mydul; Aramaki, Kenji

    2008-11-04

    The formation, stability, and rheological behavior of a hexagonal phase based gel-emulsion (O/H1 gel-emulsion) have been studied in water/C12EO8/hydrocarbon oil systems. A partial phase behavior study indicates that the oil nature has no effect on the phase sequences in the ternary phase diagram of water/C12EO8/oil systems but the domain size of the phases or the oil solubilization capacity considerably changes with oil nature. Excess oil is in equilibrium with the hexagonal phase (H1) in the ternary phase diagram in the H1+O region. The O/H1 gel-emulsion was prepared (formation) and kept at 25 degrees C to check stability. It has been found that the formation and stability of the O/H1 gel-emulsion depends on the oil nature. After 2 min observation (formation), the results show that short chain linear hydrocarbon oils (heptane, octane) are more apt to form a O/H1 gel-emulsion compared to long chain linear hydrocarbon oils (tetradecane, hexadecane), though the stability is not good enough in either system, that is, oil separates within 24 h. Nevertheless, the formation and stability of the O/H1 gel-emulsion is appreciably increased in squalane and liquid paraffin. It is surmised that the high transition temperature of the H1+O phase and the presence of a bicontinuous cubic phase (V1) might hamper the formation of a gel-emulsion. It has been pointed out that the solubilization of oil in the H1 phase could be related to emulsion stability. On the other hand, the oil nature has little or no effect on the formation and stability of a cubic phase based gel-emulsion (O/I1 gel-emulsion). From rheological measurements, it has found that the rheogram of the O/H1 gel-emulsion indicates gel-type structure and shows shear thinning behavior similar to the case of the O/I1 gel-emulsion. Rheological data infer that the O/I1 gel-emulsion is more viscous than the O/H1 gel-emulsion at room temperature but the O/H1 gel-emulsion shows consistency at elevated temperature.

  12. Melt Adsorption as a Manufacturing Method for Fine Particles of Wax Matrices without Any Agglomerates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiino, Kai; Fujinami, Yukari; Kimura, Shin-Ichiro; Iwao, Yasunori; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    We have focused on melt adsorption as manufacture method of wax matrices to control particles size of granules more easily than melt granulation. The purpose of present study was to investigate the possibility of identifying a hydrophobic material with a low melting point, currently used as a meltable binder of melt granulation, to apply as a novel carrier in melt adsorption. Glyceryl monostearate (GM) and stearic acid (SA) were selected as candidate hydrophobic materials with low melting points. Neusilin US2 (US2), with a particle diameter of around 100 µm was selected as a surface adsorbent, while dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), was used as a non-adsorbent control to prepare melting granules as a standard for comparison. We prepared granules containing ibuprofen (IBU) by melt adsorption or melt granulation and evaluated the particle size, physical properties and crystallinity of granules. Compared with melt granulation using DCPD, melt adsorption can be performed over a wide range of 14 to 70% for the ratio of molten components. Moreover, the particle size; d50 of obtained granules was 100-200 µm, and these physical properties showed good flowability and roundness. The process of melt adsorption did not affect the crystalline form of IBU. Therefore, the present study has demonstrated for the first time that melt adsorption using a hydrophobic material, GM or SA, has the potential capability to control the particle size of granules and offers the possibility of application as a novel controlled release technique.

  13. Melting of Boltzmann particles in different 2D trapping potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Dyuti; Filinov, Alexei; Ghosal, Amit; Bonitz, Michael

    2015-03-01

    We analyze the quantum melting of two dimensional Wigner solid in several confined geometries and compare them with corresponding thermal melting in a purely classical system. Our results show that the geometry play little role in deciding the crossover quantum parameter nX, as the effects from boundary is well screened by the quantum zero point motion. The unique phase diagram in the plane of thermal and quantum fluctuations determined from independent melting criteria separates out the Wigner molecule ``phase'' from the classical and quantum ``liquids''. An intriguing signature of weakening liquidity with increasing temperature T have been found in the extreme quantum regime (n). This crossover is associated with production of defects, just like in case of thermal melting, though the role of them in determining the mechanism of the crossover appears different. Our study will help comprehending melting in a variety of experimental realization of confined system - from quantum dots to complex plasma.

  14. Crystallisation and Melting Behavior of Methyl Esters of Palm Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng S. Foon

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The methyl esters of palm oil, which consists of saturated and unsaturated esters (0.6 to 95.9% unsaturation of the C12 to C18 fatty acids, solidify at the two temperature ranges, -52 to -45°C and -24 to 21°C, when the esters are cooled. When the esters are heated, they melt at two distinct temperatures, -25 and -33°C and a broad peak at -9 to 28°C. The heating thermograms also showed an exothermic crystallisation peak in between two endothermic melting peaks, indicating the occurrence of re-crystallisation of low melting methyl esters into higher melting point crystal and then melt again at higher temperature.

  15. Controlled Growth of Rubrene Nanowires by Eutectic Melt Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jeyon; Hyon, Jinho; Park, Kyung-Sun; Cho, Boram; Baek, Jangmi; Kim, Jueun; Lee, Sang Uck; Sung, Myung Mo; Kang, Youngjong

    2016-03-01

    Organic semiconductors including rubrene, Alq3, copper phthalocyanine and pentacene are crystallized by the eutectic melt crystallization. Those organic semiconductors form good eutectic systems with the various volatile crystallizable additives such as benzoic acid, salicylic acid, naphthalene and 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene. Due to the formation of the eutectic system, organic semiconductors having originally high melting point (Tm > 300 °C) are melted and crystallized at low temperature (Te = 40.8–133 °C). The volatile crystallizable additives are easily removed by sublimation. For a model system using rubrene, single crystalline rubrene nanowires are prepared by the eutectic melt crystallization and the eutectic-melt-assisted nanoimpinting (EMAN) technique. It is demonstrated that crystal structure and the growth direction of rubrene can be controlled by using different volatile crystallizable additives. The field effect mobility of rubrene nanowires prepared using several different crystallizable additives are measured and compared.

  16. Treatment of osteochondral injuries with platelet gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Danieli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Treatments for injured articular cartilage have not advanced to the point that efficient regeneration is possible. However, there has been an increase in the use of platelet-rich plasma for the treatment of several orthopedic disorders, including chondral injuries. Our hypothesis is that the treatment of chondral injuries with platelet gel results in higher-quality repair tissue after 180 days compared with chondral injuries not treated with gel. METHODS: A controlled experimental laboratory study was performed on 30 male rabbits to evaluate osteochondral injury repair after treatment with or without platelet gel. Osteochondral injuries were surgically induced in both knees of each rabbit at the medial femoral condyle. The left knee injury was filled with the platelet gel, and the right knee was not treated. Microscopic analysis of both knee samples was performed after 180 days using a histological grading scale. RESULTS: The only histological evaluation criterion that was not significantly different between treatments was metachromasia. The group that was treated with platelet gel exhibited superior results in all other criteria (cell morphology, surface regularity, chondral thickness and repair tissue integration and in the total score. CONCLUSION: The repair tissue was histologically superior after 180 days in the study group treated with platelet gel compared with the group of untreated injuries.

  17. Voronoi Structural Evolution of Bulk Silicon upon Melting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shi-Liang; ZHANG Xin-Yu; WANG Lin-Min; QI Li; ZHANG Su-Hong; ZHU Yan; LIU Ri-Ping

    2011-01-01

    @@ The Voronoi structural evolution of silicon upon melting is investigated using a molecular dynamics simulation.At temperatures below the melting point, the solid state system is identified to have a four-fold coordination structure .As the temperature increases, the five-fold coordination and six-fold coordination structures and are observed.This is explained in terms of increasing atomic displacement due to thermal motion and the trapping of the moving atoms by others.At temperatures above the melting point, nearly ali of the four-fold coordination structures grows into multiple-fold coordination ones.%The Voronoi structural evolution of silicon upon melting is investigated using a molecular dynamics simulation. At temperatures below the melting point, the solid state system is identified to have a four-told coordination structure (4,0,0,0). As the temperature increases, the five-fold coordination (2,3,0,0) and six-fold coordination structures (2,2,2,0) and (0,6,0,0) are observed. This is explained in terms of increasing atomic displacement due to thermal motion and the trapping of the moving atoms by others. At temperatures above the melting point, nearly all of the four-fold coordination structures grows into multiple-fold coordination ones.

  18. Mechanically induced gel formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herpt, Jochem T.; Stuart, Marc C. A.; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical triggering of gelation of an organic solution by a carbazole-based bisurea organogelator is described. Both the duration of the mechanical stimulation and the gelator concentration control the gelation process and the characteristics of the gel obtained.

  19. Thermal relaxation and mechanical relaxation of rice gel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁玉琴; 赵思明; 熊善柏

    2008-01-01

    Rice gel was prepared by simulating the production processes of Chinese local rice noodles,and the properties of thermal relaxation and mechanical relaxation during gelatinization were studied by differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) measurement and dynamic rheometer.The results show that during gelatinization,the molecular chains of rice starch undergo the thermal relaxation and mechanical relaxation.During the first heating and high temperature holding processes,the starch crystallites in the rice slurry melt,and the polymer chains stretch and interact,then viscoelastic gel forms.The cooling and low temperatures holding processes result in reinforced networks and decrease the viscoelasticity of the gel.During the second heating,the remaining starch crystallites further melt,the network is reinforced,and the viscoelasticity increases.The viscoelasticity,the molecular conformation and texture of the gel are adjusted by changing the temperature,and finally construct the gel with the textural characteristics of Chinese local rice noodle.

  20. Absorbability of bulk sol-gel bioactive glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamadouche, M.; Meunier, A.; Blanchat, C.; Sedel, L. [Paris-7 Univ. (France). Lab. de Recherches Orthopediques; Greenspan, D.C.; Zhong, J.P.; Torre, G.P. la [US Biomaterials Corp., Alachua, FL (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Melt-derived bioactive glasses have been used with success in various clinical applications for over 10 years. Recently, particles of sol-gel derived bioactive glasses with an initial high specific area have exhibited high osteoconductive properties, but also a significant degradability. In this work, we explored the in-vivo bioactivity and degradability of bulk sol-gel derived glasses. Two sol-gel compositions (58S and 77S Bioglass) were used. Bulk 45S5 were used as a control. Both sol-gel derived demonstrated similar osteoconductive properties to 45S% Bioglass. In addition, absorbability was observed for sol-gel derived glasses after 12 weeks of implantation. Total absorption reached 40% after 52 weeks. No degradation could be measured in the case of 45S5 melt derived Bioglass. The degradation process was highly time dependent as demonstrated by regression analysis. New bone formation was found to fill in areas that had been resorbed similar to bone remodeling. New bone was found to fill in areas that had been absorbed, similar to natural bone remodeling. This absorbability can be assumed to be at least partially related to an osteoclastic resorption, as viable osteoclasts-like cells were found directly in contact with the glass surfaces. (orig.)

  1. Conformance Improvement Using Gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seright, Randall S.; Schrader, Richard; II Hagstrom, John; Wang, Ying; Al-Dahfeeri, Abdullah; Gary, Raven; Marin; Amaury; Lindquist, Brent

    2002-09-26

    This research project had two objectives. The first objective was to identify gel compositions and conditions that substantially reduce flow through fractures that allow direct channeling between wells, while leaving secondary fractures open so that high fluid injection and production rates can be maintained. The second objective was to optimize treatments in fractured production wells, where the gel must reduce permeability to water much more than that to oil.

  2. Crystallization from Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana Kalkura, S.; Natarajan, Subramanian

    Among the various crystallization techniques, crystallization in gels has found wide applications in the fields of biomineralization and macromolecular crystallization in addition to crystallizing materials having nonlinear optical, ferroelectric, ferromagnetic, and other properties. Furthermore, by using this method it is possible to grow single crystals with very high perfection that are difficult to grow by other techniques. The gel method of crystallization provides an ideal technique to study crystal deposition diseases, which could lead to better understanding of their etiology. This chapter focuses on crystallization in gels of compounds that are responsible for crystal deposition diseases. The introduction is followed by a description of the various gels used, the mechanism of gelling, and the fascinating phenomenon of Liesegang ring formation, along with various gel growth techniques. The importance and scope of study on crystal deposition diseases and the need for crystal growth experiments using gel media are stressed. The various crystal deposition diseases, viz. (1) urolithiasis, (2) gout or arthritis, (3) cholelithiasis and atherosclerosis, and (4) pancreatitis and details regarding the constituents of the crystal deposits responsible for the pathological mineralization are discussed. Brief accounts of the theories of the formation of urinary stones and gallstones and the role of trace elements in urinary stone formation are also given. The crystallization in gels of (1) the urinary stone constituents, viz. calcium oxalate, calcium phosphates, uric acid, cystine, etc., (2) the constituents of the gallstones, viz. cholesterol, calcium carbonate, etc., (3) the major constituent of the pancreatic calculi, viz., calcium carbonate, and (4) cholic acid, a steroidal hormone are presented. The effect of various organic and inorganic ions, trace elements, and extracts from cereals, herbs, and fruits on the crystallization of major urinary stone and gallstone

  3. Preparation of chitosan gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagerge S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerogel conditioning of the chitosan makes it possible to prepare porous solids of significant specific surface. The increase in the chitosan concentration or the degree of acetylation decreases the specific surface of the synthesized chitosan gel. Whereas drying with supercritical CO2 more effectively makes it possible to preserve the volume of the spheres of gel and to have a more significant specific surface in comparison with evaporative drying.

  4. CONFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT USING GELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall S. Seright

    2004-09-30

    This report describes work performed during the third and final year of the project, ''Conformance Improvement Using Gels.'' Corefloods revealed throughput dependencies of permeability reduction by polymers and gels that were much more prolonged during oil flow than water flow. This behavior was explained using simple mobility ratio arguments. A model was developed that quantitatively fits the results and predicts ''clean up'' times for oil productivity when production wells are returned to service after application of a polymer or gel treatment. X-ray computed microtomography studies of gels in strongly water-wet Berea sandstone and strongly oil-wet porous polyethylene suggested that oil penetration through gel-filled pores occurs by a gel-dehydration mechanism, rather than gel-ripping or gel-displacement mechanisms. In contrast, analysis of data from the University of Kansas suggests that the gel-ripping or displacement mechanisms are more important in more permeable, strongly water-wet sandpacks. These findings help to explain why aqueous gels can reduce permeability to water more than to oil under different conditions. Since cement is the most commonly used material for water shutoff, we considered when gels are preferred over cements. Our analysis and experimental results indicated that cement cannot be expected to completely fill (top to bottom) a vertical fracture of any width, except near the wellbore. For vertical fractures with apertures less than 4 mm, the cement slurry will simply not penetrate very far into the fracture. For vertical fractures with apertures greater than 4 mm, the slurry may penetrate a substantial distance into the bottom part of the fracture. However, except near the wellbore, the upper part of the fracture will remain open due to gravity segregation. We compared various approaches to plugging fractures using gels, including (1) varying polymer content, (2) varying placement (extrusion) rate

  5. Reciprocity between Hepatitis B Virus Quasispecies to Clinical Tolerance of Lamivudine Adopting Melting Point Curve%采用熔点曲线法研究乙肝病毒准种与拉米夫定临床耐药相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温志立; 王艳华; 张华; 张海明; 谭德明; 李庆安; 吴平; 邓乐

    2012-01-01

    Reciprocity between hepatitis B virus quasispecies and lamivudine tolerance was studied in order to guide clinical medication, 30 cases of the chronic hepatitis B ( CHB) patients who were treated with lamivudine and had YMDD variation were selected randomly, 30 cases of CHB patients who had vims rebounding after stopping therapy with lamivudine, and 30 cases of CHB patients who had never have lamvudine therapy as control, were randomly selected. The HBV polymerase genes of these patients were amplified by PCR, then adopted melting point curve to ana-lyze the quasispecies condition of HBV in three groups of patients. Moreover, the H8V C/S gene was analyzed by the same means for comparison with P gene. The results showed the quasispecies number of HBV P gene in virus variation group was 2.50 ±0. 86, that in virus rebounding group was 5. 30 ±0. 95, and that in without treatment group was 8. 37 ± 0.93. There were clear difference among three groups ( P 0. 05 ). The quasispecies number of HBV S gene in virus variation group was 5.23 ± 1. 85 , rebounding group 6. 17 ± 1. 93, and non - treatment group 5.77 ± 2. 11 with no significant difference among three groups ( P > 0. 05 ) . Melting point curve of HBV P gene revealed that as compared the melting point of dominant group of virus variation group with virus rebound group and non - treatment group had happened apparent driftage. While on the melting point curve of HBV C and S gene, the number of wave crests of the three groups and the melting point of dominant virus group had no apparent change. Therefore, it was believed that under the effect of lamivudine the number of quasispecies of HBV P gene decreased and the feature of quasispecies had changed as well. After the variation, the inferior tolerant virus strain had changed into dominant virus strain and easily detectable. Lamivudine had no significant effect on HBV C and S genes.%为了研究乙型肝炎病毒(HBV)准种与拉米夫定耐药的关系以指导

  6. Molecular dynamics simulation of Ni3Al melting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rongshan Wang; Huaiyu Hou; Xiaodong Ni; Guoliang Chen

    2008-01-01

    With the Voter-Chert version of embedded-atom model (EAM) potential and molecular dynamics, the melting of Ni3A1 alloy was simulated by one-phase (conventional) and two-phase approaches. It is shown that the simulated melting point is dependent on the potential and the simulation method. The structures of the melts obtained by different simulation methods were analyzed by the pair correlation function, the coordination number, and the distribution of atom pair type (indexed by the Honeycutt-Andersen pair analysis technique). The results show that the structures are very similar.

  7. Hysteresis in the melting kinetics of Bi nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haro-Poniatowski, E.; Serna, R.; Afonso, C.N.; Jouanne, M.; Morhange, J.F.; Bosch, P.; Lara, V.H

    2004-04-01

    Structural properties as a function of temperature of bismuth nanocrystals embedded in amorphous germanium thin films, synthesised by laser ablation are investigated by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. In addition to temperature anharmonic effects, Raman spectroscopy results reveal a melting solidification hysteresis, which takes place below the melting point of bulk bismuth. Furthermore, preliminary X-ray diffraction results suggest that the nanocrystals change in structure upon heating until melting occurs. However, the nanocrystals recover their original structure once the sample is cooled at room temperature.

  8. Superheating and melting behaviors of Ag clusters with Ni coating studied by molecular dynamics and experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Using molecular dynamics with embedded-atom-type interatomicpotentials, we simulated the melting behavior of a spherical Ag3055 cluster coated with Ni. The semi-coherent Ag/Ni interface formed at low temperatures acts as an effective barrier against the surface melting and leads to a substantial superheating of the Ag cluster. The melting point was found to be about 100 K above the equilibrium melting point of the bulk Ag crystal (1230 K±15 K) and about 290 K above that (1040 K) of the free Ag3055 cluster. A superheating of 70 K was observed in the high-temperature differential scanning calorimetry measurement for Ag particles with a mean size of 30 nm embedded in Ni matrix prepared by means of melt-spinning. Melting is initiated locally at the defective interfacial area and then propagates inwards, suggesting a heterogeneously nucleated melting event at the Ag/Ni interface.

  9. Arctic tipping points

    OpenAIRE

    Smolkova, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    The Arctic is warming much faster than the entire planet, and this causes severe melting of sea ice. However, the climate of different regions of the Earth is interconnected, and changes in the amount of ice in the Arctic can dramatically affect the climate across the whole planet. Some scientists claim that a possible tipping point is the event of the ice-free Arctic Ocean in summer. Certain predictions point towards ice-free Arctic summers around the year 2050, whereas others pre- dict this...

  10. [Development of technology, of rheological and biopharmaceutical properties of new gel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekhralieva, S Dzh

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this research is the development of technology for preparation of hydrogel Glysotrical and study its rheological and biopharmaceutical characteristics. Based on gel-forming chitosan, PEG-400, glycerol and Tween-80 a new composition of hydrogel - Glysotrical was developed. Rheological properties of Glysotrical, as well as biopharmaceutical properties of artificial (cellophane) and natural membrane (chicken and pork skin) were investigated by dialysis. Rheological properties of different concentrations of chitosan solution and gel Glysotrical prepared on their basis were studied. It was determined that gel derived from the 5% solution of chitosan meets the technological requirements (pH-5,5-6,0, melting point-75,0±1,07°C, dynamic viscosity - 890,6 ± 3,57 cps). Rheological properties of the hydrogel Glysotrical, prepared on the basis of a multi-component composition in different temperatures (20, 40, 60°C) were identified. It was found that shear of helium drug (458 H/m2, 355 H/m2) at 20° and 40°C is lower, and the value of dynamic viscosity (912spz, 602spz) higher than that of chitosan gel; the hydrogel is stable at 20° and 40°C. High kinetic activity of hydrogel with Tween-80 is observed. During 5 hours membrane maximum quantity of routine diffusion from helium mass into dialysate in cellophane is 57,54 ±0,51%; in normal skin chicken - 20,04±0,55%; in the skin of chicken treated with 2% citric acid - 23,14±0,45%; normal pig skin - 12,64±0,09%; in the skin of pigs, treated with acid - 15,08± 0,11%. The study showed that the gel Glysotrical at 10-22°C is maintained for 2 years. Physico-chemical, rheological, technological and biopharmaceutical research showed that 4% gel Glysotrical was good in treatment of dermatological diseases.

  11. Design of Autonomous Gel Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Hashimoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce autonomous gel actuators driven by chemical energy. The polymer gels prepared here have cyclic chemical reaction networks. With a cyclic reaction, the polymer gels generate periodical motion. The periodic motion of the gel is produced by the chemical energy of the oscillatory Belouzov-Zhabotinsky (BZ reaction. We have succeeded in making synthetic polymer gel move autonomously like a living organism. This experimental fact represents the great possibility of the chemical robot.

  12. Comparative fluorescence two-dimensional gel electrophoresis using a gel strip sandwich assembly for the simultaneous on-gel generation of a reference protein spot grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Doreen; Wang, Weiqun; Streipert, Benjamin; Geib, Birgit; Grün, Lothar; König, Simone

    2012-05-01

    The comparison of proteins separated on 2DE is difficult due to gel-to-gel variability. Here, a method named comparative fluorescence gel electrophoresis (CoFGE) is presented, which allows the generation of an artificial protein grid in parallel to the separation of an analytical sample on the same gel. Different fluorescent stains are used to distinguish sample and marker on the gel. The technology combines elements of 1DE and 2DE. Special gel combs with V-shaped wells are placed in a stacking gel above the pI strip. Proteins separated on the pI strip are electrophoresed at the same time as marker proteins (commercially available purified protein of different molecular weight) placed in V-wells. In that way, grids providing approximately 100 nodes as landmarks for the determination of protein spot coordinates are generated. Data analysis is possible with commercial 2DE software capable of warping. The method improves comparability of 2DE protein gels, because they are generated in combination with regular in-gel anchor points formed by protein standards. This was shown here for two comparative experiments with three gels each using Escherichia coli lysate. For a set of 47 well-defined samples spots, the deviation of the coordinates was improved from 7% to less than 1% applying warping using the marker grid. Conclusively, as long as the same protein markers, the same size of pI-strips and the same technology are used, gel matching is reproducibly possible. This is an important advancement for projects involving comparison of 2DE-gels produced over several years and in different laboratories. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Melting of Ice under Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwegler, E; Sharma, M; Gygi, F; Galli, G

    2008-07-31

    The melting of ice under pressure is investigated with a series of first principles molecular dynamics simulations. In particular, a two-phase approach is used to determine the melting temperature of the ice-VII phase in the range of 10 to 50 GPa. Our computed melting temperatures are consistent with existing diamond anvil cell experiments. We find that for pressures between 10 to 40 GPa, ice melts as a molecular solid. For pressures above {approx}45 GPa there is a sharp increase in the slope of the melting curve due to the presence of molecular dissociation and proton diffusion in the solid, prior to melting. The onset of significant proton diffusion in ice-VII as a function of increasing temperature is found to be gradual and bears many similarities to that of a type-II superionic solid.

  14. A thermo dynamical model for the shape and size effect on melting of boron carbide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniammal, Paneerselvam; Arivuoli, Dakshanamoorthy

    2012-02-01

    The size and shape dependence of the melting temperature of Boron Carbide (B4C) nanoparticles has been investigated with a numerical thermo dynamical approach. The problem considered in this paper is the inward melting of nanoparticles with spherical and cylindrical geometry. The cylindrical Boron Carbide (B4C) nanoparticles, whose melting point has been reported to decrease with decreasing particle radius, become larger than spherical shaped nanoparticle. Comparative investigation of the size dependence of the melting temperature with respect to the two shapes is also been done. The melting temperature obtained in the present study is approximately a dealing function of radius, in a good agreement with prediction of thermo dynamical model.

  15. Gel electrolytes and electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischmann, Sven; Bunte, Christine; Mikhaylik, Yuriy V.; Viner, Veronika G.

    2017-09-05

    Gel electrolytes, especially gel electrolytes for electrochemical cells, are generally described. In some embodiments, the gel electrolyte layers comprise components a) to c). Component a) may be at least one layer of at least one polymer comprising polymerized units of: a1) at least one monomer containing an ethylenically unsaturated unit and an amido group and a2) at least one crosslinker. Component b) may be at least one conducting salt and component c) may be at least one solvent. Electrodes may comprise the components a), d) and e), wherein component a) may be at least one layer of at least one polymer as described herein. Component d) may be at least one electroactive layer and component e) may be at least one ceramic layer. Furthermore, electrochemical cells comprising component a) which may be at least one layer of at least one polymer as described herein, are also provided.

  16. Active Polymer Gel Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Hashimoto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many kinds of stimuli-responsive polymer and gels have been developed and applied to biomimetic actuators or artificial muscles. Electroactive polymers that change shape when stimulated electrically seem to be particularly promising. In all cases, however, the mechanical motion is driven by external stimuli, for example, reversing the direction of electric field. On the other hand, many living organisms can generate an autonomous motion without external driving stimuli like self-beating of heart muscles. Here we show a novel biomimetic gel actuator that can walk spontaneously with a wormlike motion without switching of external stimuli. The self-oscillating motion is produced by dissipating chemical energy of oscillating reaction. Although the gel is completely composed of synthetic polymer, it shows autonomous motion as if it were alive.

  17. [FeFe]-hydrogenase gene quantification and melting curve analysis from hydrogen-fermenting bioreactor samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolvanen, Katariina E.S.; Santala, Ville P.; Karp, Matti T. [Department of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2010-04-15

    In this study, quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to quantify [FeFe]-hydrogenases and subsequently melting curves were analyzed from hydrogen-fermenting, mixed-culture bioreactor samples. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis was also performed to the reactor samples revealing a clostridial dominance in the reactor. Primers targeting [FeFe]-hydrogenases were designed based on known clostridial [FeFe]-hydrogenase gene sequences and tested with several clostridial strains. The results show that amplification efficiencies of four different clostridia are highly similar and melting curves of the clostridial strains were within 1 C of each other. We compared the melting curves to the hydrogen percentage and observed a correlation between the results. The closer the melting curves were to those of clostridia, the better the hydrogen production. Based on these results, the primers and melting curve analysis of [FeFe]-hydrogenase amplicons can be used for analysing hydrogenase genes from bioreactor samples. (author)

  18. Calcium Impact on Milk Gels Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutina, Glykeria

    to be formed. In addition the low amount of micellar calcium caused a more compact gel structure with many protein aggregates. The results of this study highlighted the importance of calcium for the formation of acid, calcium and rennet gels. The content and the interactions of calcium with proteins during...... salts. The perturbation of calcium equilibria by these factors will affect the final properties of acid, calcium and rennet milk gels. By decreasing the pH from 6.0 to 5.2 (acid gels), the calcium equilibrium was significantly affected by temperature (4, 20, 30, 40 oC), and different combinations...... of temperature and pH may result in different final structure properties in dairy products such as cheese. A significant amount of calcium remained in the micelles between pH 4.8 and 4.6, this can contribute to the final strength of acid milk gels, such as in yogurt or in cream cheeses. After the gelation point...

  19. Melt pool dynamics during selective electron beam melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharowsky, T.; Osmanlic, F.; Singer, R. F.; Körner, C.

    2014-03-01

    Electron beam melting is a promising additive manufacturing technique for metal parts. Nevertheless, the process is still poorly understood making further investigations indispensable to allow a prediction of the part's quality. To improve the understanding of the process especially the beam powder interaction, process observation at the relevant time scale is necessary. Due to the difficult accessibility of the building area, the high temperatures, radiation and the very high scanning speeds during the melting process the observation requires an augmented effort in the observation equipment. A high speed camera in combination with an illumination laser, band pass filter and mirror system is suitable for the observation of the electron beam melting process. The equipment allows to observe the melting process with a high spatial and temporal resolution. In this paper the adjustment of the equipment and results of the lifetime and the oscillation frequencies of the melt pool for a simple geometry are presented.

  20. Agarose gel shift assay reveals that calreticulin favors substrates with a quaternary structure in solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Sanne Grundvad; Houen, Gunnar; Højrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Here we present an agarose gel shift assay that, in contrast to other electrophoresis approaches, is loaded in the center of the gel. This allows proteins to migrate in either direction according to their isoelectric points. Therefore, the presented assay enables a direct visualization, separation...... structure. It is also demonstrated that the agarose gel shift assay is useful in the study of other protein interactions and can be used as an alternative method to native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis....

  1. Beyond the Melting Pot Reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Elijah

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the 1963 book, "Beyond the Melting Pot," which suggested that eventually the problem of different ethnicities in the U.S. would be resolved and society would become one melting pot. Examines how changes in immigration and economic structures have affected the issue, noting the devastating effect of the dominant culture's…

  2. The Melting Curve and Premelting of MgO

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, R E

    1996-01-01

    The melting curve for MgO was obtained using molecular dynamics and a non-empirical, many-body potential. We also studied premelting effects by computing the dynamical structure factor in the crystal on approach to melting. The melting curve simulations were performed with periodic boundary conditions with cells up to 512 atoms using the ab-initio Variational Induced Breathing (VIB) model. The melting curve was obtained by computing $% \\Delta H_m$ and agreement with previous estimates and we obtain a reasonable $\\Delta V_m$, but our melting slope dT/dP (114 K/GPa) is three times greater than that of Zerr and Boehler [1994] (35 K/GPa), suggesting a problem with the experimental melting curve, or an indication of exotic, non-ionic behavior of MgO liquid. We computed $S(q,\\omega )$ from simulations of 1000 atom clusters using the Potential Induced Breathing (PIB) model. A low frequency peak in the dynamical structure factor $% S(q,\\omega )$ arises below the melting point which appears to be related to the onset ...

  3. Experiments on melt droplets falling into a water pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okkonen, T.; Sehgal, B.R. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Power Safety

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents experimental data and analysis related to melt droplets falling into a water pool. A binary CaO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} melt mixture is used to study the influence of melt superheat and water subcooling on droplet deformation and fragmentation. For the conditions studied (We {<=} 1000), the surface tension of the melt droplet and the film boiling stability greatly affect the fragmentation behaviour. If the melt temperature is between the liquidus and solidus point (mushy zone) or if the film boiling is stable due to a relatively low subcooling, the droplet deformation and fragmentation are mitigated. This behaviour can be related to the effective Weber number (We) of the melt droplet upon entry into the water pool. Similar phenomena can be expected also for interactions of corium (UO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}) and water, which are characterized by a potentially fast transformation of melt into the mushy zone and by particularly stable film boiling. (author)

  4. gonarthrosis; therapy; Karmolis gel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Zavodovsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficacy, tolerance, and safety of Carmolis topical gel in patients with gonarthrosis. Subjects and methods. The investigation enrolled 60 patients with knee osteoarthrosis (OA who were divided into two groups: 1 40 patients received Carmolis topical gel in addition to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs; 2 20 patients took NSAIDS only (a control group. The treatment duration was 2 weeks. In both groups, therapeutic effectiveness was evaluated from changes in the WOMAC index, pain intensity at rest and during movement by the visual analog scale (VAS. The disease activity was also assessed by a physician and a patient (a Likert scale, local swelling and hyperthermia of the affected joint, the efficiency of treatment, and daily needs for NSAIDs were deter- mined. Results. The performed treatment in both patent groups showed positive clinical changes. Combination therapy involving Carmolis gel displayed greater reductions in WOMAC pain and resting and movement pain than in the con- trol group (as assessed by VAS. On completion of the investigation, considerable improvement was, in the physicians' opinion, noted in 38 (95% patients using Carmolis, which coincided with self-evaluations of the patients. During Carmolis application, the starting dose of NSAIDs could be reduced in 18 (45% patients. Adverse reactions occurred infrequently and required no therapy discontinuation. Conclusion. Carmolis topical gel is effective in relieving clinical symptoms in patients with gonarthrosis, well tolerated, and safe, which can recommend its use in the combination treatment of knee OA.

  5. A metastable liquid melted from a crystalline solid under decompression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chuanlong; Smith, Jesse S.; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V.; Kono, Yoshio; Park, Changyong; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Shen, Guoyin

    2017-01-01

    A metastable liquid may exist under supercooling, sustaining the liquid below the melting point such as supercooled water and silicon. It may also exist as a transient state in solid–solid transitions, as demonstrated in recent studies of colloidal particles and glass-forming metallic systems. One important question is whether a crystalline solid may directly melt into a sustainable metastable liquid. By thermal heating, a crystalline solid will always melt into a liquid above the melting point. Here we report that a high-pressure crystalline phase of bismuth can melt into a metastable liquid below the melting line through a decompression process. The decompression-induced metastable liquid can be maintained for hours in static conditions, and transform to crystalline phases when external perturbations, such as heating and cooling, are applied. It occurs in the pressure–temperature region similar to where the supercooled liquid Bi is observed. Akin to supercooled liquid, the pressure-induced metastable liquid may be more ubiquitous than we thought. PMID:28112152

  6. ELM induced tungsten melting and its impact on tokamak operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenen, J. W.; Arnoux, G.; Bazylev, B.; Matthews, G. F.; Jachmich, S.; Balboa, I.; Clever, M.; Dejarnac, R.; Coffey, I.; Corre, Y.; Devaux, S.; Frassinetti, L.; Gauthier, E.; Horacek, J.; Knaup, M.; Komm, M.; Krieger, K.; Marsen, S.; Meigs, A.; Mertens, Ph.; Pitts, R. A.; Puetterich, T.; Rack, M.; Stamp, M.; Sergienko, G.; Tamain, P.; Thompson, V.

    2015-08-01

    In JET-ILW dedicated melt exposures were performed using a sequence of 3MA/2.9T H-Mode JET pulses with an input power of PIN = 23 MW, a stored energy of ∼6 MJ and regular type I ELMs at ΔWELM = 0.3 MJ and fELM ∼ 30 Hz. In order to assess the risk of starting ITER operations with a full W divertor, one of the task was to measure the consequences of W transients melting due to ELMs. JET is the only tokamak able to produce transients/ ELMs large enough (>300 kJ per ELM) to facilitate melting of tungsten. Such ELMs are comparable to mitigated ELMs expected in ITER. By moving the outer strike point (OSP) onto a dedicated leading edge the base temperature was raised within ∼1 s to allow transient ELM-driven melting during the subsequent 0.5 s. Almost 1 mm (∼6 mm3) of W was moved by ∼ 150 ELMs within 5 subsequent discharges. Significant material losses in terms of ejections into the plasma were not observed. There is indirect evidence that some small droplets (∼ 80 μm) were ejected. The impact on the main plasma parameters is minor and no disruptions occurred. The W-melt gradually moved along the lamella edge towards the high field side, driven by j × B forces. The evaporation rate determined is 100 times less than expected from steady state melting and thus only consistent with transient melting during individual ELMs. IR data, spectroscopy, as well as melt modeling point to transient melting. Although the type of damage studied in these JET experiments is unlikely to be experienced in ITER, the results do strongly support the design strategy to avoid exposed edges in the ITER divertor. The JET experiments required a surface at normal incidence and considerable pre-heating to produce tungsten melting. They provide unique experimental evidence for the absence of significant melt splashing at events resembling mitigated ELMs on ITER and establish a unique experimental benchmark for the simulations being used to study transient shallow melting on ITER W

  7. Fault rheology beyond frictional melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallée, Yan; Hirose, Takehiro; Kendrick, Jackie E; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald B

    2015-07-28

    During earthquakes, comminution and frictional heating both contribute to the dissipation of stored energy. With sufficient dissipative heating, melting processes can ensue, yielding the production of frictional melts or "pseudotachylytes." It is commonly assumed that the Newtonian viscosities of such melts control subsequent fault slip resistance. Rock melts, however, are viscoelastic bodies, and, at high strain rates, they exhibit evidence of a glass transition. Here, we present the results of high-velocity friction experiments on a well-characterized melt that demonstrate how slip in melt-bearing faults can be governed by brittle fragmentation phenomena encountered at the glass transition. Slip analysis using models that incorporate viscoelastic responses indicates that even in the presence of melt, slip persists in the solid state until sufficient heat is generated to reduce the viscosity and allow remobilization in the liquid state. Where a rock is present next to the melt, we note that wear of the crystalline wall rock by liquid fragmentation and agglutination also contributes to the brittle component of these experimentally generated pseudotachylytes. We conclude that in the case of pseudotachylyte generation during an earthquake, slip even beyond the onset of frictional melting is not controlled merely by viscosity but rather by an interplay of viscoelastic forces around the glass transition, which involves a response in the brittle/solid regime of these rock melts. We warn of the inadequacy of simple Newtonian viscous analyses and call for the application of more realistic rheological interpretation of pseudotachylyte-bearing fault systems in the evaluation and prediction of their slip dynamics.

  8. Purification effects of glass flux on A356 melt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪红军; 孙宝德; 蒋海燕; 陈晨; 丁文江

    2002-01-01

    In order to remove hydrogen and inclusions from A356 alloy melt,a low melting-point glass flux,JDN-Ⅱ,was developed.The results indicated that JDN-Ⅱ flux has distinct effect of purification and protection on A356 alloy melt.When the dosage of the flux was 3%,the content of hydrogen in A356 melt was only 2.6 mL/kg at 857 ℃ and 0.7 mL/kg even at 750 ℃.In the meantime,the mechanical properties of the alloy increase greatly with the covering of 3% JDN-Ⅱ flux.Compared with no flux,the tensile strength of A356 alloy increases by 9.42% and the elongation increases by 22%.The purification mechanism of JDN-Ⅱ glass flux was discussed too.

  9. Electrical conductivity and viscosity of borosilicate glasses and melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrt, Doris; Keding, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    , 0 to 62·5 mol% B2O3, and 25 to 85 mol% SiO2. The glass samples were characterised by different methods. Refractive indices, density and thermal expansion were measured. Phase separation effects were investigated by electron microscopy. The electrical conductivity of glasses and melts were determined...... by impedance measurements in a wide temperature range (250 to 1450°C). The activation energies were calculated by Arrhenius plots in various temperature regions: below the glass transition temperature, Tg, above the melting point, Tl, and between Tg and Tl. Viscosity measurements were carried out...... with different methods from Tg to the melt. The measured data were fitted and the activation energies calculated. Simple exponential behaviour was found only in very narrow temperature ranges. The effect of B2O3 in sodium borosilicate glasses and melts is discussed in comparison with sodium silicate glasses...

  10. Sex determination in beef by melting curve analysis of PCR amplicons from the amelogenin locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballin, Nicolai Z; Madsen, Knud G

    2007-11-01

    Sex determination of beef is important to meet the rules of the Commission Regulation (EC) 765/2002 that qualify for export refunds. A SYBR Green sex identification assay based on melting curve analysis of PCR amplicons from the amelogenin locus (AMELX and AMELY) was developed. The PCR amplicons of 130/130 and 130/67 base pairs produced from female and male beef, respectively, are easily distinguished by both melting curve analysis and gel electrophoresis. Results from the melting curve analysis of amplicons are ready in less than three minutes, and requires no additional work in addition to the PCR setup. Applicability of the sex determination assay was studied by analysis of 12 unknown beef samples and the results were compared to an accredited method based on gel electrophoresis. In addition, six different cattle breeds were examined. All test results were correct in respect to sex.

  11. Nucleation and undercooling of metal melt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The effects of thermodynamic and dynamic factors on nucleation process have been integrated in a theoretical formula representing the dependence of undercooling on parameters concerned. Moreover, a method to determine the kind and amount of the most effective catalyst in an undercooled melt has been acquired. The results show that the undercooling increases with the decreasing surface area of the most effective catalyst and the increasing cooling rate as the kind of the most effective catalyst is constant. It increases to a maximum value when the ratio of the surface area of catalyst (SvV) to the cooling rate of melt (Rc) decreases to a critical value. The maximum undecooling not only depends on the ratio of non-dimensional factor of activation energy for an atom to diffuse (φ) to non-dimensional factor of driving force for nucleus to form (ψ), but also depends on the contact angle of the most effective catalyst; the smaller the ratio of φ to ψ, the higher the maximum undercooling, but it does not exceed the value of 2/3 melting point; the smaller the contact angle of the most effective catalyst, the lower the maximum undercooling, and the smaller the requisite value of SvV/Rc for the maximum undercooling also.

  12. Rheology of κ/ι-hybrid carrageenan from Mastocarpus stellatus: Critical parameters for the gel formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M D; Chenlo, F; Moreira, R

    2016-05-01

    The sol-gel diagrams of kappa/iota-hybrid carrageenan (KI) extracted from Mastocarpus stellatus powders with two different average particle sizes of the seaweed powders (117.0 μm and 77.5 μm) prior to the biopolymer extraction, are reported for the first time, together with rheological properties of obtained KI gels. Extraction yields for KI isolated from algae and average molecular weight of KI, determined by gel permeation chromatography, decreased with increasing the particle size of the powder. Rheological results indicated that tested samples exhibited stable and weak gel properties, except those prepared at 1.5% KI in 1.0 mol/L NaCl where stronger gels were found. Aqueous KI extracts with larger molecular weight led to stronger gels and also formed gels at lower biopolymer concentration in NaCl above 0.15 mol/L. All gels reached stability after 20 min of maturation. The data sets showed a strong temperature dependency. Gel setting temperatures significantly depended on the KI and NaCl content, whereas gel melting temperatures (68.0 ± 0.7 °C) were independent of both salt concentrations.

  13. Active nematic gels as active relaxing solids

    OpenAIRE

    Turzi, Stefano S

    2017-01-01

    I put forward a continuum theory for active nematic gels, defined as fluids or suspensions of orientable rodlike objects endowed with active dynamics, that is based on symmetry arguments and compatibility with thermodynamics. The starting point is our recent theory that models (passive) nematic liquid crystals as relaxing nematic elastomers. The interplay between viscoelastic response and active dynamics of the microscopic constituents is naturally taken into account. By contrast with standar...

  14. Electrical Conductivity of Cryolite Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellner, P.; Grjotheim, K.; Kvande, H.

    1985-11-01

    This paper proposes an equation for the electrical conductivity of multicomponent cryolite-based mixtures. The equation is based on a physical model which assumes that the conductivity is proportional to the number density of the effective electric charges in the melt. The various authors in the available literature show a great discrepancy in conductivity data of cryolite-based melts. The equation based on the physical model enables determination of which set of data is preferable. Special consideration in this respect is given to the influence of magnesium flouride and lithium flouride additions to the melt.

  15. A Lennard-Jones embedded-atom potential and its application to the study of melting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王暾; 周富信; 刘曰武

    2002-01-01

    The nearest-neighbour Lennard-Jones potential from the embedded-atom method is extended to a form thatincludes more than nearest neighbours. The model has been applied to study melting with molecular dynamics. Thecalculated melting point, fractional volume change on melting, heat of fusion and linear coefficients of thermal expansionare in good agreement with experimental data. We have found that the second and third neighbours influence the meltingpoint distinctly.

  16. Active Polymer Gel Actuators

    OpenAIRE

    Shuji Hashimoto; Ryo Yoshida; Yusuke Hara; Shingo Maeda

    2010-01-01

    Many kinds of stimuli-responsive polymer and gels have been developed and applied to biomimetic actuators or artificial muscles. Electroactive polymers that change shape when stimulated electrically seem to be particularly promising. In all cases, however, the mechanical motion is driven by external stimuli, for example, reversing the direction of electric field. On the other hand, many living organisms can generate an autonomous motion without external driving stimuli like self-beating of he...

  17. Production of high melt strength polypropylene by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugão, A. B.; Artel, B. W. H.; Yoshiga, A.; Lima, L. F. C. P.; Parra, D. F.; Bueno, J. R.; Liberman, S.; Farrah, M.; Terçariol, W. R.; Otaguro, H.

    2007-11-01

    High melt strength polypropylene (HMS-PP) has been recently developed and introduced in the market by the major international producers of polypropylene. Therefore, BRASKEM, the leading Brazilian PP producer, together with EMBRARAD, the leading Brazilian gamma irradiator, and the IPEN (Institute of Nuclear Energy and Research) worked to develop a national technology for the production of HMS-PP. One of the effective approaches to improve melt strength and extensibility is to add chain branches onto polypropylene backbone using gamma radiation. Branching and grafting result from the radical combinations during irradiation process. Crosslinking and main chain scission in the polymer structure are also obtained during this process. In this work, gamma irradiation technique was used to induce chemical changes in commercial polypropylene with two different monomers, Tri-allyl-isocyanurate (TAIC) and Tri-methylolpropane-trimethacrylate (TMPTMA), with concentration ranging from 1.5 to 5.0 mmol/100 g of polypropylene. These samples were irradiated with a 60Co source at dose of 20 kGy. It used two different methods of HMS-PP processing. The crosslinking of modified polymers was studied by measuring gel content melt flow rate and rheological properties like melt strength and drawability. It was observed that the reaction method and the monomer type have influenced the properties. However, the concentration variation of monomer has no effect.

  18. Construction of Gallium Point at NMIJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiatmo, J. V.; Saito, I.; Yamazawa, K.

    2017-03-01

    Two open-type gallium point cells were fabricated using ingots whose nominal purities are 7N. Measurement systems for the realization of the melting point of gallium using these cells were built. The melting point of gallium is repeatedly realized by means of the measurement systems for evaluating the repeatability. Measurements for evaluating the effect of hydrostatic pressure coming from the molten gallium existing during the melting process and the effect of gas pressure that fills the cell were also performed. Direct cell comparisons between those cells were conducted. This comparison was aimed to evaluate the consistency of each cell, especially related to the nominal purity. Direct cell comparison between the open-type and the sealed-type gallium point cell was also conducted. Chemical analysis was conducted using samples extracted from ingots used in both the newly built open-type gallium point cells, from which the effect of impurities in the ingot was evaluated.

  19. Kinetics of swelling of polyelectrolyte gels: Fixed degree of ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Swati; Kundagrami, Arindam

    2015-12-01

    The swelling kinetics of uncharged and charged polymer (polyelectrolyte) gels in salt-free conditions is studied in one dimension by solving the constitutive equation of motion (Newton's law for the elementary gel volume) of the displacement variable by two theoretical methods: one in which the classical definition of stress is used with the bulk modulus taken as a parameter, and the other in which a phenomenological expression of the osmotic stress as a function of polymer density and degree of ionization is taken as an input to the dynamics. The time-evolution profiles for spatially varying polymer density and stress, along with the location of the gel-solvent interface, are obtained from the two methods. We show that both the polymer density (volume fraction) and stress inside the gel follow expected behaviours of being maximum for the uniformly shrunken gel, and relaxing slowly to the lowest values as the gel approaches equilibrium. We further show that, by comparing the temporal profiles of the gel-solvent interface and other variables between the two methods, one may attempt to assign an effective bulk modulus to the polyelectrolyte gel as a function of the degree of ionization and other parameters of the gel such as hydrophobicity, cross-link density, and the temperature. The major result we get is that the effective bulk modulus of a polyelectrolyte gel increases monotonically with its degree of ionization. In the process of identifying the parameters for a monotonic swelling, we calculated using a well-known expression of the free energy the equilibrium results of two-phase co-existence and the critical point of a polyelectrolyte gel with a fixed degree of ionization.

  20. Kinetics of swelling of polyelectrolyte gels: Fixed degree of ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Swati; Kundagrami, Arindam, E-mail: arindam@iiserkol.ac.in [Department of Physical Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata, Mohanpur 741246, West Bengal (India)

    2015-12-14

    The swelling kinetics of uncharged and charged polymer (polyelectrolyte) gels in salt-free conditions is studied in one dimension by solving the constitutive equation of motion (Newton’s law for the elementary gel volume) of the displacement variable by two theoretical methods: one in which the classical definition of stress is used with the bulk modulus taken as a parameter, and the other in which a phenomenological expression of the osmotic stress as a function of polymer density and degree of ionization is taken as an input to the dynamics. The time-evolution profiles for spatially varying polymer density and stress, along with the location of the gel-solvent interface, are obtained from the two methods. We show that both the polymer density (volume fraction) and stress inside the gel follow expected behaviours of being maximum for the uniformly shrunken gel, and relaxing slowly to the lowest values as the gel approaches equilibrium. We further show that, by comparing the temporal profiles of the gel-solvent interface and other variables between the two methods, one may attempt to assign an effective bulk modulus to the polyelectrolyte gel as a function of the degree of ionization and other parameters of the gel such as hydrophobicity, cross-link density, and the temperature. The major result we get is that the effective bulk modulus of a polyelectrolyte gel increases monotonically with its degree of ionization. In the process of identifying the parameters for a monotonic swelling, we calculated using a well-known expression of the free energy the equilibrium results of two-phase co-existence and the critical point of a polyelectrolyte gel with a fixed degree of ionization.

  1. Retrogradation of Waxy Rice Starch Gel in the Vicinity of the Glass Transition Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenrein, Sanguansri; Udomrati, Sunsanee

    2013-01-01

    The retrogradation rate of waxy rice starch gel was investigated during storage at temperatures in the vicinity of the glass transition temperature of a maximally concentrated system (Tg′), as it was hypothesized that such temperatures might cause different effects on retrogradation. The Tg′ value of fully gelatinized waxy rice starch gel with 50% water content and the enthalpy of melting retrograded amylopectin in the gels were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. Starch gels were frozen to −30°C and stored at 4, 0, −3, −5, and −8°C for 5 days. The results indicated that the Tg′ value of gelatinized starch gel annealed at −7°C for 15 min was −3.5°C. Waxy rice starch gels retrograded significantly when stored at 4°C with a decrease in the enthalpy of melting retrograded starch in samples stored for 5 days at −3, −5, and −8°C, respectively, perhaps due to the more rigid glass matrix and less molecular mobility facilitating starch chain recrystallization at temperatures below Tg′. This suggests that retardation of retrogradation of waxy rice starch gel can be achieved at temperature below Tg′. PMID:26904602

  2. Retrogradation of Waxy Rice Starch Gel in the Vicinity of the Glass Transition Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanguansri Charoenrein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The retrogradation rate of waxy rice starch gel was investigated during storage at temperatures in the vicinity of the glass transition temperature of a maximally concentrated system (, as it was hypothesized that such temperatures might cause different effects on retrogradation. The value of fully gelatinized waxy rice starch gel with 50% water content and the enthalpy of melting retrograded amylopectin in the gels were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. Starch gels were frozen to −30°C and stored at 4, 0, −3, −5, and −8°C for 5 days. The results indicated that the value of gelatinized starch gel annealed at −7°C for 15 min was −3.5°C. Waxy rice starch gels retrograded significantly when stored at 4°C with a decrease in the enthalpy of melting retrograded starch in samples stored for 5 days at −3, −5, and −8°C, respectively, perhaps due to the more rigid glass matrix and less molecular mobility facilitating starch chain recrystallization at temperatures below . This suggests that retardation of retrogradation of waxy rice starch gel can be achieved at temperature below .

  3. Retrogradation of Waxy Rice Starch Gel in the Vicinity of the Glass Transition Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenrein, Sanguansri; Udomrati, Sunsanee

    2013-01-01

    The retrogradation rate of waxy rice starch gel was investigated during storage at temperatures in the vicinity of the glass transition temperature of a maximally concentrated system (T g '), as it was hypothesized that such temperatures might cause different effects on retrogradation. The T g ' value of fully gelatinized waxy rice starch gel with 50% water content and the enthalpy of melting retrograded amylopectin in the gels were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. Starch gels were frozen to -30°C and stored at 4, 0, -3, -5, and -8°C for 5 days. The results indicated that the T g ' value of gelatinized starch gel annealed at -7°C for 15 min was -3.5°C. Waxy rice starch gels retrograded significantly when stored at 4°C with a decrease in the enthalpy of melting retrograded starch in samples stored for 5 days at -3, -5, and -8°C, respectively, perhaps due to the more rigid glass matrix and less molecular mobility facilitating starch chain recrystallization at temperatures below T g '. This suggests that retardation of retrogradation of waxy rice starch gel can be achieved at temperature below T g '.

  4. Nitrogen Control in VIM Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, P. D.; Hawk, J. A.

    NETL has developed a design and control philosophy for the addition of nitrogen to austenitic and ferritic steels. The design approach uses CALPHAD as the centerpiece to predict the level to which nitrogen is soluble in both the melt and the solid. Applications of this technique have revealed regions of "exclusion" in which the alloy, while within specification limits of prescribed, cannot be made by conventional melt processing. Furthermore, other investigations have found that substantial retrograde solubility of nitrogen exists, which can become problematic during subsequent melt processing and/or other finishing operations such as welding. Additionally, the CALPHAD method has been used to adjust primary melt conditions. To that end, nitrogen additions have been made using chrome nitride, silicon nitride, high-nitrogen ferrochrome as well as nitrogen gas. The advantages and disadvantages of each approach will be discussed and NETL experience in this area will be summarized with respect to steel structure.

  5. Effect of the dosage of low melting point microencapsulated paraffin on the properties of the phase change thermal insulation mortar%低熔点石蜡微胶囊掺量对相变蓄热砂浆性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张剑; 晏华; 陈淑莲; 王雪梅

    2012-01-01

    以低熔点石蜡微胶囊为相变储能材料,配以水泥、砂和外加剂制成低熔点石蜡微胶囊相变蓄热砂浆.研究了低熔点石蜡微胶囊掺量对相变蓄热砂浆施工性能、力学性能以及热工性能的影响,并进行了模拟上墙试验.结果表明,石蜡微胶囊掺量对相变蓄热砂浆的性能有着重要的影响,当其掺量在6.5%~10%时,其施工性能、力学性能和热工性能达到最佳;掺量为8%时,相变蓄热砂浆上墙无开裂,适宜于工程应用.%Phase-change thermal storage insulation mortar was prepared by using low melting point paraffin as phase change material) added with appropriate cement, sand and additive. The effect of different dosage of microencapsulated paraffin on construction performance, mechanical and thermal properties of the insulation mortar were tested, and simulation experiment with insulation mortar on the wall was analyzed in this paper. The result shows: the dosage of the microencapsulated paraffin has an important impact on the properties of the insulation mortar. When the dosage of the microencapsulated paraffin is in 6.5%~10%,the insulation mortar has the best construction performance,mechanical and thermal properties. When the dosage of the microencapsulated paraffin is 8%,the simulation wall with the insulation mortar has no crack,which is suitable for engineering application.

  6. Cation Tuning toward the Inference of the Gelation Behavior of Supramolecular Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Peng; Wu, Huiqiong; Wang, Xiaojuan; He, Ting; Shen, Rujuan; Yue, Fan; Wang, Jide; Zhang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    We serendipitously discovered that the tripeptide Asp–Phe–Phe trifluoroacetic acid salt (hereafter abbreviated as β-AspFF) formed a reversible thermotropic gel in chloroform solution (at temperatures higher than the boiling point of chloroform), and a stable gel in toluene solution (at equal to or lower than the room temperature). Experimental results indicate that doping metal ions into β-AspFF toluene gels can trigger morphological variations in the gel skeleton, thereby increasing gel volume and inducing the collapse of organogels. Investigation on the cation-tuned gelation behavior of β-AspFF can be used to elucidate heating-induced gel collapse (of normal gel) or reverse thermotropic gelation as well as select carbamide and acetamide as activators of β-AspFF gels in chloroform solution at room temperature. PMID:27138527

  7. Cation Tuning toward the Inference of the Gelation Behavior of Supramolecular Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Peng; Wu, Huiqiong; Wang, Xiaojuan; He, Ting; Shen, Rujuan; Yue, Fan; Wang, Jide; Zhang, Yi

    2016-05-01

    We serendipitously discovered that the tripeptide Asp–Phe–Phe trifluoroacetic acid salt (hereafter abbreviated as β-AspFF) formed a reversible thermotropic gel in chloroform solution (at temperatures higher than the boiling point of chloroform), and a stable gel in toluene solution (at equal to or lower than the room temperature). Experimental results indicate that doping metal ions into β-AspFF toluene gels can trigger morphological variations in the gel skeleton, thereby increasing gel volume and inducing the collapse of organogels. Investigation on the cation-tuned gelation behavior of β-AspFF can be used to elucidate heating-induced gel collapse (of normal gel) or reverse thermotropic gelation as well as select carbamide and acetamide as activators of β-AspFF gels in chloroform solution at room temperature.

  8. Screening of mucoadhesive vaginal gel formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ochoa Andrade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rational design of vaginal drug delivery formulations requires special attention to vehicle properties that optimize vaginal coating and retention. The aim of the present work was to perform a screening of mucoadhesive vaginal gels formulated with carbomer or carrageenan in binary combination with a second polymer (carbomer, guar or xanthan gum. The gels were characterised using in vitroadhesion, spreadability and leakage potential studies, as well as rheological measurements (stress and frequency sweep tests and the effect of dilution with simulated vaginal fluid (SVF on spreadability. Results were analysed using analysis of variance and multiple factor analysis. The combination of polymers enhanced adhesion of both primary gelling agents, carbomer and carrageenan. From the rheological point of view all formulations presented a similar behaviour, prevalently elastic and characterised by loss tangent values well below 1. No correlation between rheological and adhesion behaviour was found. Carbomer and carrageenan gels containing the highest percentage of xanthan gum displayed good in vitro mucoadhesion and spreadability, minimal leakage potential and high resistance to dilution. The positive results obtained with carrageenan-xanthan gum-based gels can encourage the use of natural biocompatible adjuvants in the composition of vaginal products, a formulation field that is currently under the synthetic domain.

  9. On the scattering properties of polyelectrolyte gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrat, Jean-Louis; Joanny, Jean-François; Pincus, Phil

    1992-08-01

    We present a simple model for scattering properties of polyelectrolyte gels at swelling equilibrium. In the weak screening limit where the Debye-Hückel screening length is larger than the mesh size of the gel, the direct electrostatic interactions are negligible and the swelling is driven by the osmotic pressure of the counterions. The tension created by this pressure is transmitted through the crosslinks to the elastic chains which behave as isolated chains with an applied force at their end points. The structure factor of the gel can be split into a frozen component due to the average concentration heterogeneities and a thermodynamic component due to concentration fluctuations. The frozen component has a peak at a wavevector of the order of the mesh size of the gel, the thermodynamic component has a peak at a higher wavevector of the order of the inverse transverse radius of the chains. At infinite times the dynamic structure factor relaxes towards the frozen component of the static structure factor. In the limit of small wavevectors the relaxation is diffusive with a diffusion constant equal to the Stokes diffusion constant of the Pincus blobs of the stretched chains. The diffusion constant shows a minimum at a wavevector of the order of the inverse transverse radius of the chains. Nous présentons un modèle simple pour étudier la diffusion de rayonnement par des gels polylectrolytes à l'équilibre de gonflement. Dans la limite d'écrantage faible où la longueur d'écran de Debye-Hückel est plus grande que la maille du gel, les interactions électrostatiques directes sont négligeables et le gonflement est dû à la pression osmotique des contreions. La tension créée par cette pression est transmise par les noeuds du gel aux chaines élastiques qui se comportent comme des chaines isolées avec une force extérieure appliquée aux extrémités. Le facteur de structure du gel est la somme d'une composante gelée due aux hétérogénéités de concentration

  10. Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Q.; Das, S.K. (Secat, Inc.)

    2008-02-15

    The project entitled 'Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems' was a Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Secat Inc. The three-year project was initially funded for the first year and was then canceled due to funding cuts at the DOE headquarters. The limited funds allowed the research team to visit industrial sites and investigate the status of using immersion heaters for aluminum melting applications. Primary concepts were proposed on the design of furnaces using immersion heaters for melting. The proposed project can continue if the funding agency resumes the funds to this research. The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate integrated, retrofitable technologies for clean melting systems for aluminum in both the Metal Casting and integrated aluminum processing industries. The scope focused on immersion heating coupled with metal circulation systems that provide significant opportunity for energy savings as well as reduction of melt loss in the form of dross. The project aimed at the development and integration of technologies that would enable significant reduction in the energy consumption and environmental impacts of melting aluminum through substitution of immersion heating for the conventional radiant burner methods used in reverberatory furnaces. Specifically, the program would couple heater improvements with furnace modeling that would enable cost-effective retrofits to a range of existing furnace sizes, reducing the economic barrier to application.

  11. Modified enthalpy method for the simulation of melting and solidification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Niranjan N Gudibande; Kannan N Iyer

    2013-12-01

    Enthalpy method is commonly used in the simulation of melting and solidification owing to its ease of implementation. It however has a few shortcomings. When it is used to simulate melting/solidification on a coarse grid, the temperature time history of a point close to the interface shows waviness. While simulatingmelting with natural convection, in order to impose no-slip and impermeability boundary conditions, momentum sink terms are used with some arbitrary constants called mushy zone constants. The values of these are very large and have no physical basis. Further, the chosen values affect the predictions and hence have to be tuned for satisfactory comparison with experimental data. To overcome these deficiencies, a new cell splitting method under the framework of the enthalpy method has been proposed. This method does not produce waviness nor requires mushy zone constants for simulating melting with natural convection. The method is then demonstrated for a simple onedimensional melting problem and the results are compared with analytical solutions. The method is then demonstrated to work in two-dimensions and comparisons are shown with analytical solutions for problems with planar and curvilinear interfaces. To further benchmark the present method, simulations are performed for melting in a rectangular cavity with natural convection in the liquid melt. The solid–liquid interface obtained is compared satisfactorily with the experimental results available in literature.

  12. Synthesis of Refractory Materials by Skull Melting Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiko, Vyacheslav V.; Borik, Mikhail A.; Lomonova, Elena E.

    This chapter discusses methods of growing refractory oxide single crystals and synthesis of refractory glasses by skull melting technique in a cold crucible. It shows the advantages of radiofrequency (RF) heating of dielectric materials in a cold crucible and points out some specific problems regarding the process of growing crystals by directional crystallization from the melt and by pulling on a seed from the melt. The distinctive features of the method of directional crystallization from the melt are discussed in detail on the example of technology of materials based on zirconia, i.e., cubic single crystals and partly stabilized single crystals. It is shown that the size and quality of crystals are functions of the process conditions, such as thermal conditions under crystallization, growth rate, and chemical composition. We provide an overview of research on the structure, phase composition, and physicochemical properties of crystals based on zirconia. The optical, mechanical, and electric properties of these crystals make them suitable for a number of technical and industrial applications in optics, electronics, materials processing, and medicine. In this chapter, we also consider some problems regarding the synthesis of refractory glasses by skull melting technique. The physicochemical and optical properties of glasses are given and their practical applications in technology are discussed. We note that one of the better developed and most promising applications of skull melting technique is the immobilization of liquid and solid waste (also radioactive waste) into solid-state materials by vitrification.

  13. Using a Spreadsheet To Explore Melting, Dissolving and Phase Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Compares phase diagrams relating to the solubilities and melting points of various substances in textbooks with those generated by a spreadsheet using data from the literature. Argues that differences between the diagrams give rise to new chemical insights. (Author/MM)

  14. Gel Point Determination of Biopolymer Based Semi-IPN Hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Soumitra; Bhatia, Surita R.

    2008-07-01

    Water-based semi-IPNs (Interpenetrating Polymer Networks) were prepared by mixing two biopolymers, alginate and hydrophobically modified ethylhydroxy ethyl cellulose (HMEHEC), followed by crosslinking the alginate by in-situ release of calcium ions. By altering two different parameters, molecular weight of HMEHEC and calcium crosslinker concentration, we were able to fine tune the rheological properties of the semi-IPNs. Rheological studies in the linear viscoelastic region indicate storage moduli comparable to soft tissue for hydrogels having 90 wt% water. The system is found to be stable over a prolonged period of time, i.e. no phase separation is observed. Uniformity of the structure is confirmed by monotonic behavior of the intensity-q slope in SAXS and SANS over the entire length scale.

  15. Solvent-induced lysozyme gels: rheology, fractal analysis, and sol-gel kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marcelo A; Arêas, Elizabeth P G

    2005-09-15

    In this work, the gelation kinetics and fractal character of lysozyme gel matrices developed in tetramethylurea (TMU)-water media were investigated. Gelation times were determined from the temporal crossover point between the storage, G', and loss, G'', moduli, as a function of the binary solvent composition and of protein concentration. The inverse dependence of the upper limit of the linear viscoelastic region (gamma0) on protein concentration indicate that the lysozyme gels belong to the "strong link" kind, a gel category where interparticle links are stronger than intraparticle ones. Lysozyme gel fractal dimensions (Df) were determined from the analysis of rheological data according to a scaling theory by Shih et al. [Phys. Rev. A 42 (1990) 4772-4779] and were found to be compatible with a diffusion-limited cluster-aggregation kinetics (DLCA) for lysozyme gels formed at the TMU mass fraction in the binary organic-aqueous solvent, wTMU=0.9, and with a reaction-limited cluster aggregation kinetics (RLCA) for wTMU in the 0.6< or =wTMU< or =0.8 range.

  16. The influence of guaifenesin and ketoprofen on the properties of hot-melt extruded polyethylene oxide films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Michael M; Fredersdorf, Anke; Schroeder, Britta; Kucera, Shawn; Prodduturi, Suneela; Repka, Michael A; McGinity, James W

    2004-08-01

    Films containing polyethylene oxide (PEO) and a model drug, either guaifenesin (GFN) or ketoprofen (KTP), were prepared by hot-melt extrusion. The thermal properties of the hot-melt extruded films were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the surface morphology of the films, and wide angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to investigate the crystalline properties of the polymer, drugs and physical mixtures as well as the solid state structure of the films. The stability of the polymer was studied using gel permeation chromatography. The mechanical properties, including percent elongation and tensile strength of the films, were determined on an Instron according to American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) procedures. The Hansen solubility parameter was calculated using the Hoftyzer or van Krevelen method to estimate the likelihood of drug--polymer miscibility. Both GFN and KTP were stable during the extrusion process. Melting points corresponding to the crystalline drugs were not observed in the films. Crystallization of GFN on the surface of the film was observed at all concentrations studied, however KTP crystallization did not occur until reaching the 15% level. Guaifenesin and ketoprofen were found to decrease drive load, increase PEO stability and plasticize the polymer during extrusion. The Hansen solubility parameters predicted miscibility between PEO and KTP and poor miscibility between PEO and GFN. The predictions of the solubility parameters were in agreement with the XRD and SEM results. The percent elongation decreased with increasing GFN concentrations and significantly increased with increasing levels of KTP. Both GFN and KTP decreased the tensile strength of the extruded film.

  17. Factors influencing alginate gel biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Susan K; Dusseault, Julie; Bilodeau, Stéphanie; Langlois, Geneviève; Hallé, Jean-Pierre; Yahia, L'Hocine

    2011-07-01

    Alginate remains the most popular polymer used for cell encapsulation, yet its biocompatibility is inconsistent. Two commercially available alginates were compared, one with 71% guluronate (HiG), and the other with 44% (IntG). Both alginates were purified, and their purities were verified. After 2 days in the peritoneal cavity of C57BL/6J mice, barium (Ba)-gel and calcium (Ca)-gel beads of IntG alginate were clean, while host cells were adhered to beads of HiG alginate. IntG gel beads, however, showed fragmentation in vivo while HiG gel beads stayed firm. The physicochemical properties of the sodium alginates and their gels were thoroughly characterized. The intrinsic viscosity of IntG alginate was 2.5-fold higher than that of HiG alginate, suggesting a greater molecular mass. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that both alginates were similar in elemental composition, including low levels of counterions in all gels. The wettabilities of the alginates and gels were also identical, as measured by contact angles of water on dry films. Ba-gel beads of HiG alginate resisted swelling and degradation when immersed in water, much more than the other gel beads. These results suggest that the main factors contributing to the biocompatibility of gels of purified alginate are the mannuronate/guluronate content and/or intrinsic viscosity.

  18. Quantifying melting and mobilistaion of interstitial melts in crystal mushes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veksler, Ilya; Dobson, Katherine; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Ertel-Ingrisch, Werner; Humphreys, Madeleine

    2015-04-01

    The deformation of crystals mushes and separation of melts and crystals in is critical to understanding the development of physical and chemical heterogeneity in magma chambers and has been invoked as an eruption trigger mechanism. Here we investigate the behaviour of the melt in the well characterised, classic crystal mush system of the Skaergaard intrusion by combining experimental petrology and the non-destructive 3D imaging methods. Starting materials for partial melting experiments were four samples from the upper Middle Zone of the Layered Series. Cylinders, 15 mm in diameter and 20 mm in length, were drilled out of the rock samples, placed in alumina crucibles and held for 5 days in electric furnaces at atmospheric pressure and 1050-1100 °C. Redox conditions set by the CO-CO2 gas mixture were kept close to those of the FMQ buffer. We then use spatially registered 3D x-ray computed tomography images, collected before and after the experiment, to determine the volume and distribution of the crystal framework and interstitial phases, and the volume, distribution and connectivity the interstitial phases that undergo melting and extraction while at elevated temperature. Image analysis has allowed us to quantify these physical changes with high spatial resolution. Our work is a first step towards quantitative understanding of the melt mobilisation and migration processes operating in notionally locked crystal rich magmatic systems.

  19. Sol-gel synthesis of magnesium oxide-silicon dioxide glass compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    1988-01-01

    MgO-SiO2 glasses containing up to 15 mol pct MgO, which could not have been prepared by the conventional glass melting method due to the presence of stable liquid-liquid immiscibility, were synthesized by the sol-gel technique. Clear and transparent gels were obtained from the hydrolysis and polycondensation of silicon tetraethoxide (TEOS) and magnesium nitrate hexahydrate when the water/TEOS mole ratio was four or more. The gelling time decreased with increase in magnesium content, water/TEOS ratio, and reaction temperature. Magnesium nitrate hexahydrate crystallized out of the gels containing 15 and 20 mol pct MgO on slow drying. This problem was partially alleviated by drying the gels quickly at higher temperatures. Monolithic gel samples were prepared using glycerol as the drying control additive. The gels were subjected to various thermal treatments and characterized by several methods. No organic groups could be detected in the glasses after heat treatments to approx. 800 C, but trace amounts of hydroxyl groups were still present. No crystalline phase was found from X-ray diffraction in the gel samples to approx. 890 C. At higher temperatures, alpha quartz precipitated out as the crystalline phase in gels containing up to 10 mol pct MgO. The overall activation energy for gel formation in 10MgO-90SiO2 (mol pct) system for water/TEOS mole ratio of 7.5 was calculated to be 58.7 kJ/mol.

  20. Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis Image Analysis via Dedicated Software Packages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Martin H

    2016-01-01

    Analyzing two-dimensional gel electrophoretic images is supported by a number of freely and commercially available software. Although the respective program is highly specific, all the programs follow certain standardized algorithms. General steps are: (1) detecting and separating individual spots, (2) subtracting background, (3) creating a reference gel and (4) matching the spots to the reference gel, (5) modifying the reference gel, (6) normalizing the gel measurements for comparison, (7) calibrating for isoelectric point and molecular weight markers, and moreover, (8) constructing a database containing the measurement results and (9) comparing data by statistical and bioinformatic methods.

  1. Structural transition and melting of onion-ring Pd Pt bimetallic clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Daojian; Cao, Dapeng

    2008-08-01

    We use canonical Monte Carlo simulations to study the melting of icosahedral and decahedral onion-ring Pd-Pt bimetallic clusters consisting of 147 atoms. Structural transition from decahedron to icosahedron-like is found for the decahedral onion-ring 147-atom Pd-Pt cluster before melting. Also, the melting point of the decahedral onion-ring 147-atom Pd-Pt cluster is lower than the corresponding icosahedral cluster. In addition, at the higher temperatures after melting, the four-shell onion-ring structure becomes unstable, and can be transformed into the three-shell onion-like structure.

  2. Insignificant influence of the matrix on the melting of incoherently embedded tin and zinc nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, L. M.; Hou, H. F.; Yao, C. Y.; Wang, L. W.

    2017-01-01

    For studying the melting point depression of metals, isolated metallic nanoparticles embedded in a matrix are usually prepared by mechanical milling. Al is the main available matrix material. In this work, to explore possible alternative matrices for further investigation of melting, mechanically milled metal-nonmetal systems are developed, namely Sn-LiF, Zn-LiF and Zn-Al2O3. The outcome indicates that different matrices do not have a significantly different influence on the melting of Sn and Zn. Theoretical analyses of both the thermodynamics and kinetics of surface-induced melting may support this experimental finding.

  3. A mechanism that produces dichotomy in melt pond coverage in sea ice floes

    OpenAIRE

    Popović, Predrag; Abbot, Dorian S.

    2016-01-01

    Late in the melt season, sea ice floes in the Arctic have been observed to exhibit a large range in melt pond coverage, from heavily ponded to almost pond free. Some of these observations are consistent with a bimodal distribution in pond coverage with few intermediately ponded ice floes. We present a model for the evolution of melt ponds on sea ice floes in which conservation of hydrostatic balance in response to melt creates an unstable fixed point in pond coverage: if the initial pond cove...

  4. Vortex melting and the liquid state in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x}.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crabtree, G. W.

    1998-11-18

    The experimental vortex phase diagram of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} is reviewed, with emphasis on first order vortex melting, the upper and lower critical points on the melting line, and the effect of disorder arising from twin boundary and point defect pinning.

  5. The melting curve of Ni to 1 Mbar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Oliver T.; Wood, Ian G.; Dobson, David P.; Vočadlo, Lidunka; Wang, Weiwei; Thomson, Andrew R.; Wann, Elizabeth T. H.; Morard, Guillaume; Mezouar, Mohamed; Walter, Michael J.

    2014-12-01

    The melting curve of Ni has been determined to 125 GPa using laser-heated diamond anvil cell (LH-DAC) experiments in which two melting criteria were used: firstly, the appearance of liquid diffuse scattering (LDS) during in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and secondly, plateaux in temperature vs. laser power functions in both in situ and off-line experiments. Our new melting curve, defined by a Simon-Glatzel fit to the data where TM (K) = [ (PM/18.78 ± 10.20 + 1) ]1/2.42 ± 0.66 × 1726, is in good agreement with the majority of the theoretical studies on Ni melting and matches closely the available shock wave melting data. It is however dramatically steeper than the previous off-line LH-DAC studies in which determination of melting was based on the visual observation of motion aided by the laser speckle method. We estimate the melting point (TM) of Ni at the inner-core boundary (ICB) pressure of 330 GPa to be TM = 5800 ± 700 K (2 σ), within error of the value for Fe of TM = 6230 ± 500 K determined in a recent in situ LH-DAC study by similar methods to those employed here. This similarity suggests that the alloying of 5-10 wt.% Ni with the Fe-rich core alloy is unlikely to have any significant effect on the temperature of the ICB, though this is dependent on the details of the topology of the Fe-Ni binary phase diagram at core pressures. Our melting temperature for Ni at 330 GPa is ∼2500 K higher than that found in previous experimental studies employing the laser speckle method. We find that those earlier melting curves coincide with the onset of rapid sub-solidus recrystallization, suggesting that visual observations of motion may have misinterpreted dynamic recrystallization as convective motion of a melt. This finding has significant implications for our understanding of the high-pressure melting behaviour of a number of other transition metals.

  6. 稀土-低熔点合金复合变质处理对超高碳钢微观组织及力学性能的影响%Influence of Multiple Modifier Containing Rare Earths and Low Melting-Point Alloy on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ultrahigh Carbon Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘坤鹏; 姜荣票; 敦小龙; 徐建秋; 王伟; 刘华山

    2011-01-01

    Ultrahigh carbon steel containing 1.9% C was modified with multiple modifier containing rare earths and low melting alloy. Microstructure and mechanical properties of ultrahigh carbon steel were studied with OM, SEM, EDS and DSC. The results showed that the continuous eutectic carbide network structure of the ultrahigh carbon steel was broken up, and the austenite grains became much finer after modification. Because Ce2O2S had much negative Gibbs energy, Ce was easy to react with 0 and S to form Ce2O2S in the steel. The austenitizing temperature was raised by addition of RE and low melting-point alloy which were the elements of strongly promoting and stabilizing the pearlite. After quenched and tempered, the isolated carbides were dispersed homogeneously in the martensite matrix. By multiple modification, the impact toughness of the steel ingot was greatly increased from 5. 8 J*cm"2 to 12.5 J'cm"2 with hardness kept about HRC = 65, indicating well comprehensive mechanical properties.%采用自制的稀土-低熔点合金对一种含碳量为1.9%的超高碳钢进行了变质处理,通过OM,SEM,EDS,DSC研究了变质处理和热处理工艺对超高碳钢的微观组织和力学性能的影响.结果表明:超高碳钢经变质处理后,共晶碳化物断网,获得了不连续的块状碳化物,初生奥氏体晶粒明显细化;由于Ce2O2S的吉布斯自由能负值较大,其稳定性较高,因此,稀土元素与O,S在钢中最易形成的稀土氧硫化合物为Ce2O2S;同时稀土与低熔点合金元素的加入,是强烈促进珠光体的元素,具有稳定珠光体的作用,提高了奥氏体化温度;经淬火与低温回火后,获得了马氏体基体上分布着弥散均匀、细小的不连续断网碳化物,冲击韧性得到了明显提高,其ak值由5.8 J·cm-2增加到12.5 J·cm-2,且硬度值基本保持HRC=65,获得了良好的综合力学性能.

  7. Melting of superheated molecular crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubeta, Ulyana; Bhattacharya, Deepanjan; Sadtchenko, Vlad

    2017-07-01

    Melting dynamics of micrometer scale, polycrystalline samples of isobutane, dimethyl ether, methyl benzene, and 2-propanol were investigated by fast scanning calorimetry. When films are superheated with rates in excess of 105 K s-1, the melting process follows zero-order, Arrhenius-like kinetics until approximately half of the sample has transformed. Such kinetics strongly imply that melting progresses into the bulk via a rapidly moving solid-liquid interface that is likely to originate at the sample's surface. Remarkably, the apparent activation energies for the phase transformation are large; all exceed the enthalpy of vaporization of each compound and some exceed it by an order of magnitude. In fact, we find that the crystalline melting kinetics are comparable to the kinetics of dielectric α-relaxation in deeply supercooled liquids. Based on these observations, we conclude that the rate of non-isothermal melting for superheated, low-molecular-weight crystals is limited by constituent diffusion into an abnormally dense, glass-like, non-crystalline phase.

  8. The role of the amorphous phase in melting of linear UHMW-PE; implications for chain dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, Sanjay [Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry/Dutch Polymer Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Lippits, Dirk R [Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry/Dutch Polymer Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Hoehne, Guenther W H [Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry/Dutch Polymer Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Mezari, Brahim [Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry/Dutch Polymer Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Magusin, Pieter C M M [Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry/Dutch Polymer Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2007-05-23

    In ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE), it is possible to obtain single chain forming single crystals, where chains are adjacently re-entrant. Depending on the heating rate, it is feasible to melt these crystals either by simple consecutive detachment of chain stems from the crystalline substrate or by cluster melting, where several chain stems are involved. The consecutive detachment of chain stems occurs at the melting point predicted from the Gibbs-Thomson equation, whereas the cluster melting at much higher temperatures. Melting by the consecutive detachment of chain stems from the crystal substrate and their diffusion in the melt ultimately result in a new melt state having a heterogeneous distribution of physical entanglements, which invokes differences in local mobility. With combined DSC, rheology and solid-state NMR studies, it is concluded that the disentangled domains present within the entangled matrix possess higher local mobility than the entangled domains, ultimately causing lower elastic modulus. The fraction of the entangled and disentangled domains is maintained at higher temperatures, leading to a thermodynamically non-equilibrium melt state. In contrast, in cluster melting, where several chain stems (initially disentangled) can simultaneously adopt the random coil state, entanglements that are formed are homogeneously distributed in the melt. The paper invokes the influence of the topological differences present in the amorphous phase of the semi-crystalline polymer on the melting kinetics of crystals. The reported findings have implications for the melting behaviour and the resulting melt state of polymers in general.

  9. THE PROPERTIES OF CARRAGEENAN GELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubnik I.M., Gladukh Ye.V., Chernyaev S.V.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies on the functional properties of carrageenan, depending on the concentration of sodium chloride and xanthan in gels. It is established that the main factors in the syneresis of carrageenan gels are its concentration, the presence of ions and gums in solution. If using sodium chloride there is a change in the structure of mesh of the resulting gel, which leads to an increase in syneresis.

  10. Dense Pure Tungsten Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianzheng Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing using tungsten, a brittle material, is difficult because of its high melting point, thermal conductivity, and oxidation tendency. In this study, pure tungsten parts with densities of up to 18.53 g/cm3 (i.e., 96.0% of the theoretical density were fabricated by selective laser melting. In order to minimize balling effects, the raw polyhedral tungsten powders underwent a spheroidization process before laser consolidation. Compared with polyhedral powders, the spherical powders showed increased laser absorptivity and packing density, which helped in the formation of a continuous molten track and promoted densification.

  11. Molecular dynamical simulations of melting behaviors of metal clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilyar Hamid

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The melting behaviors of metal clusters are studied in a wide range by molecular dynamics simulations. The calculated results show that there are fluctuations in the heat capacity curves of some metal clusters due to the strong structural competition; For the 13-, 55- and 147-atom clusters, variations of the melting points with atomic number are almost the same; It is found that for different metal clusters the dynamical stabilities of the octahedral structures can be inferred in general by a criterion proposed earlier by F. Baletto et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 116 3856 (2002] for the statically stable structures.

  12. Additive manufacturing of polymer melts for implantable medical devices and scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Almoatazbellah; Hollister, Scott J; Dalton, Paul D

    2017-02-28

    Melt processing is routinely used to fabricate medical polymeric devices/implants for clinical reconstruction and can be incorporated into quality systems procedures for medical device manufacture. As additive manufacturing (AM) becomes increasingly used for biomaterials and biofabrication, the translation of new, customizable, medical devices to the clinic becomes paramount. Melt processing is therefore a distinguishable group within AM that provides an avenue to manufacture scaffolds/implants with a clinical end-point. Three key melt processing AM technologies are highlighted in this review: melt micro-extrusion, selective laser sintering and melt electrospinning writing. The in vivo (including clinical) outcomes of medical devices and scaffolds made with these processes are reviewed. Together, they encompass the melt AM of scaffold architectures with feature sizes and resolutions ranging from 800 nm up to 700 μm.

  13. Lattice stability and high pressure melting mechanism of dense hydrogen up to 1.5 TPa

    CERN Document Server

    Geng, Hua Y; Wu, Q

    2016-01-01

    Lattice stability and metastability, as well as melting, are important features of the physics and chemistry of dense hydrogen. Using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD), the classical superheating limit and melting line of metallic hydrogen are investigated up to 1.5 TPa. The computations show that the classical superheating degree is about 100 K, and the classical melting curve becomes flat at a level of 350 K when beyond 500 GPa. This information allows us to estimate the well depth and the potential barriers that must be overcome when the crystal melts. Inclusion of nuclear quantum effects (NQE) using path integral molecular dynamics (PIMD) predicts that both superheating limit and melting temperature are lowered to below room temperature, but the latter never reach absolute zero. Detailed analysis indicates that the melting is thermally activated, rather than driven by pure zero-point motion (ZPM). This argument was further supported by extensive PIMD simulations, demonstrating the stability of Fddd stru...

  14. Lattice Boltzmann Method Simulation of 3-D Melting Using Double MRT Model with Interfacial Tracking Method

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zheng; Zhang, Yuwen

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional melting problems are investigated numerically with Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Regarding algorithm's accuracy and stability, Multiple-Relaxation-Time (MRT) models are employed to simplify the collision term in LBM. Temperature and velocity fields are solved with double distribution functions, respectively. 3-D melting problems are solved with double MRT models for the first time in this article. The key point for the numerical simulation of a melting problem is the methods to obtain the location of the melting front and this article uses interfacial tracking method. The interfacial tracking method combines advantages of both deforming and fixed grid approaches. The location of the melting front was obtained by calculating the energy balance at the solid-liquid interface. Various 3-D conduction controlled melting problems are solved firstly to verify the numerical method. Liquid fraction tendency and temperature distribution obtained from numerical methods agree with the analytical result...

  15. Gel polymer electrolytes for batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gur, Ilan; Singh, Mohit; Hudson, William

    2014-11-18

    Nanostructured gel polymer electrolytes that have both high ionic conductivity and high mechanical strength are disclosed. The electrolytes have at least two domains--one domain contains an ionically-conductive gel polymer and the other domain contains a rigid polymer that provides structure for the electrolyte. The domains are formed by block copolymers. The first block provides a polymer matrix that may or may not be conductive on by itself, but that can soak up a liquid electrolyte, thereby making a gel. An exemplary nanostructured gel polymer electrolyte has an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-4 S cm.sup.-1 at 25.degree. C.

  16. Preparation and Characterization of Polyurethanes with Cross-Linked Siloxane in the Side Chain by Sol-Gel Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Hao, Tong-Hui; Hu, Guo-Hua; Shi, Dean; Huang, Da; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Qun-Chao

    2017-01-01

    A series of novel polyurethanes containing cross-linked siloxane in the side chain (SPU) were successfully synthesized through a sol-gel process. The SPU was composed of 0%–20% N-(n-butyl)-3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (HDI-T) modified hexamethylene diisocynate homopolymer. The effects of HDI-T content on both the structure and properties of SPU were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), mechanical properties tests, gel content test, water contact angle measurement and water absorption test. FT-IR, XPS and XRD results confirmed the successful incorporation of HDI-T onto polyurethanes and the formation of Si–O–Si. The surface roughness and the Si content of SPU enhanced with the increase of HDI-T content. Both crystallization and melting temperature shifted to a lower point after the incorporation of HDI-T. The hydrophobicity, tensile strength, Young’s modulus and pencil hardness overall increased with the increasing of HDI-T content, whereas the thermal stability and the elongation at break of SPU slightly decreased. PMID:28772607

  17. Determination of the Mutagenicity Potential of Supermint Herbal Medicine by Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis in Rat Hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zivar Amanpour

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The increasing use of herbal drugs and their easy availability have necessitated the use of mutagenicity test to analyze their toxicity and safety. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of Supermint herbal medicine in DNA breakage of rat hepatocytes in comparison with sodium dichromate by single cell gel electrophoresis technique or comet assay. Methods: Hepatocytes were prepared from male wistar rats and were counted and kept in a bioreactor for 30 minutes. Then cells were exposed to the Supermint herbal medicine at doses of 125, 250 and 500 μl/ml. Buffer 4 (incubation buffer and sodium dichromate were used as negative and positive control for one hour respectively. Then cell suspension with low melting point agarose were put on precoated slides and covered with agarose gel. Then lysing, electrophoresis, neutralization and staining were carried out. Finally the slides were analyzed with fluorescence microscope. The parameter under this analysis was the type of migration which was determined according to Kobayashi pattern. Results: With increased dose of Supermint herbal medicine the DNA damage was slightly increased (P<0001. Conlusion: In overall compared to the positive control significant differences is observed which convinced that the crude extract of Supermint in vitro did not have mutagenic effect.

  18. Calcium Binding Restores Gel Formation of Succinylated Gelatin and Reduces Brittleness with Preservation of the Elastically Stored Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baigts Allende, Diana; de Jongh, Harmen H J

    2015-08-12

    To better tailor gelatins for textural characteristics in (food) gels, their interactions are destabilized by introduction of electrostatic repulsions and creation of affinity sites for calcium to "lock" intermolecular interactions. For that purpose gelatins with various degrees of succinylation are obtained. Extensive succinylation hampers helix formation and gel strength is slightly reduced. At high degrees of succinylation the helix propensity, gelling/melting temperatures, concomitant transition enthalpy, and gel strength become calcium-sensitive, and relatively low calcium concentrations largely restore these properties. Although succinylation has a major impact on the brittleness of the gels formed and the addition of calcium makes the material less brittle compared to nonmodified gelatin, the modification has no impact on the energy balance in the gel, where all energy applied is elastically stored in the material. This is explained by the unaffected stress relaxation by the network and high water-holding capacity related to the small mesh sizes in the gels.

  19. Manufacturing of individual biodegradable bone substitute implants using selective laser melting technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Markus; Hoeges, Simon; Meiners, Wilhelm; Wissenbach, Konrad; Smeets, Ralf; Telle, Rainer; Poprawe, Reinhart; Fischer, Horst

    2011-06-15

    The additive manufacturing technique selective laser melting (SLM) has been successfully proved to be suitable for applications in implant manufacturing. SLM is well known for metal parts and offers direct manufacturing of three-dimensional (3D) parts with high bulk density on the base of individual 3D data, including computer tomography models of anatomical structures. Furthermore, an interconnecting porous structure with defined and reproducible pore size can be integrated during the design of the 3D virtual model of the implant. The objective of this study was to develop the SLM processes for a biodegradable composite material made of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and poly(D, L)-lactide (PDLLA). The development of a powder composite material (β-TCP/PDLLA) suitable for the SLM process was successfully performed. The microstructure of the manufactured samples exhibit a homogeneous arrangement of ceramic and polymer. The four-point bending strength was up to 23 MPa. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the samples confirmed β-TCP as the only present crystalline phase and the gel permeations chromatography (GPC) analysis documented a degradation of the polymer caused by the laser process less than conventional manufacturing processes. We conclude that SLM presents a new possibility to manufacture individual biodegradable implants made of β-TCP/PDLLA.

  20. Rubber-like poly(vinyl alcohol) gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nambu, Masao (Nippon Oil Co. Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Central Technical Research Lab.)

    1990-09-01

    Anomalous poly (vinyl alcohol) gel has been found in our laboratory since 1980. The gel is prepared by repeated freezing (or freeze-dehydration) of aqueous poly (vinyl alcohol). Experiments establish the fact that anomalous gel is never produced in the course of freezing, but during sustained thawing the gelation does occur. Moreover, it was found that the softening point of the gel increases at 37degC. It is assumed that crystal nuclei are generated on freezing, then on thawing, some of them grow to very fine crystals which act as polymer network-knots (cross-linking). Additional freezing provide other seeds, which grow similarly, and these are accumulated until rubber-like gel is produced. The gel was always water-resistant at 37degC, and the potassium permanganate consumption of the extracted water layer remained far below the official restricted value for medical materials. The gel can be sterilized with gamma-rays or chlorhexidine. Moreover, it satisfies the official standards of acute toxicity, pyrogen, intracutaneous reaction, hemolyzation, and intracorporeal implantation, respectively. Applications to adhesion-preventing membrane (for joint or pericardium), tamponade (for jaw defects), electrode (for electroretinogram or artificial inner ear), artificial denture base and phantoms for magnetic resonance imaging were examined. (author) 54 refs.

  1. Time and frequency dependent rheology of reactive silica gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miao; Winter, H Henning; Auernhammer, Günter K

    2014-01-01

    In a mixture of sodium silicate and low concentrated sulfuric acid, nano-sized silica particles grow and may aggregate to a system spanning gel network. We studied the influence of the finite solubility of silica at high pH on the mechanical properties of the gel with classical and piezo-rheometers. Direct preparation of the gel sample in the rheometer cell avoided any pre-shear of the gel structure during the filling of the rheometer. The storage modulus of the gel grew logarithmically with time with two distinct growth laws. The system passes the gel point very quickly but still shows relaxation at low frequency, typically below 6 rad/s. We attribute this as a sign of structural rearrangements due to the finite solubility of silica at high pH. The reaction equilibrium between bond formation and dissolution maintains a relatively large bond dissolution rate, which leads to a finite life time of the bonds and behavior similar to physical gels. This interpretation is also compatible with the logarithmic time dependence of the storage modulus. The frequency dependence was more pronounced for lower water concentrations, higher temperatures and shorter reaction times. With two relaxation models (the modified Cole-Cole model and the empirical Baumgaertel-Schausberger-Winter model) we deduced characteristic times from the experimental data. Both models approximately described the data and resulted in similar relaxation times.

  2. Multivariate data analysis for finding the relevant fatty acids contributing to the melting fractions of cream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buldo, Patrizia; Larsen, Mette Krogh; Wiking, Lars

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The melting behaviour and fatty acid composition of cream from a total of 33 cows from four farms were analysed. Multivariate data analysis was used to identify the fatty acids that contributed most to the melting points and to differentiate between creams from different practical......:0 and palmitoleic acid (C16:1) in milk fat, whereas it decreased the amount of stearic acid (C18:0) and C18:1 trans fatty acid. Average data on the melting behaviour of cream separated the farms into two groups where the main differences in feeding were the amounts of maize silage and rapeseed cake used. CONCLUSION......: Multivariate analysis of data from individual cows identified the most relevant fatty acids contributing to the melting point of the medium melting fraction of cream. The fatty acid composition of milk fat could differentiate cream from different feeding strategies; however, owing to individual cow variation...

  3. Ice cream structural elements that affect melting rate and hardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muse, M R; Hartel, R W

    2004-01-01

    Statistical models were developed to reveal which structural elements of ice cream affect melting rate and hardness. Ice creams were frozen in a batch freezer with three types of sweetener, three levels of the emulsifier polysorbate 80, and two different draw temperatures to produce ice creams with a range of microstructures. Ice cream mixes were analyzed for viscosity, and finished ice creams were analyzed for air cell and ice crystal size, overrun, and fat destabilization. The ice phase volume of each ice cream were calculated based on the freezing point of the mix. Melting rate and hardness of each hardened ice cream was measured and correlated with the structural attributes by using analysis of variance and multiple linear regression. Fat destabilization, ice crystal size, and the consistency coefficient of the mix were found to affect the melting rate of ice cream, whereas hardness was influenced by ice phase volume, ice crystal size, overrun, fat destabilization, and the rheological properties of the mix.

  4. Characteristics on Bi-Pb Based Alloys Quenched from Melt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rizk Mostafa Shalaby

    2009-01-01

    Three different bismuth-lead systems namely, Wood's alloy (Bi50Pb25Sn12.5Cd12.5), Newton's alloy (Bi50Pb31.2Sn18.8) and Rose's alloy (Bi50Pb28Sn22), with one used as fusible alloys were quenched from melt by melt spinning technique. Thermal analysis, structure and mechanical properties of all alloys have been studied and analyzed. From X-ray diffraction analysis, an intermetallic compound phase, designated Pb7Bi3 is detected. The formation of an intermetallic compound phase causes a pronounced increase in the electrical resistivity. The Wood's alloy containing-cadmium exhibits mechanical properties superior to both the Newton's and Rose's alloys. The presence of cadmium in Wood's alloy decreases its melting point. Wood's alloy has better properties, which make it useful in various applications such as in protection shields for radiotherapy, locking of mechanical devices and welding at low temperature.

  5. Analysis of Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis Gel Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes and proposes solutions to some of the currently most important problems in pattern recognition and image analysis of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE) images. 2DGE is the leading technique to separate individual proteins in biological samples with many biological...... the methods developed in the literature specifically for matching protein spot patterns, the focus is on a method based on neighbourhood relations. These methods are applied to a range of 2DGE protein spot data in a comparative study. The point pattern matching requires segmentation of the gel images...... and since the correct image segmentation can be difficult, a new alternative approach, exploiting prior knowledge from a reference gel about the protein locations to segment an incoming gel image, is proposed....

  6. Rheology and structure of milk protein gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van T.; Lakemond, C.M.M.; Visschers, R.W.

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies on gel formation and rheology of milk gels are reviewed. A distinction is made between gels formed by aggregated casein, gels of `pure` whey proteins and gels in which both casein and whey proteins contribute to their properties. For casein' whey protein mixtures, it has been shown th

  7. Rheology and structure of milk protein gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van T.; Lakemond, C.M.M.; Visschers, R.W.

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies on gel formation and rheology of milk gels are reviewed. A distinction is made between gels formed by aggregated casein, gels of `pure` whey proteins and gels in which both casein and whey proteins contribute to their properties. For casein' whey protein mixtures, it has been shown

  8. Nanocrystal/sol-gel nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruska, Melissa A.; Klimov, Victor L.

    2007-06-05

    The present invention is directed to solid composites including colloidal nanocrystals within a sol-gel host or matrix and to processes of forming such solid composites. The present invention is further directed to alcohol soluble colloidal nanocrystals useful in formation of sol-gel based solid composites.

  9. Rheological Properties of Konjac Glucomannan/SiO_2 /Organic-Borate Gels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Lili; ZHANG Chaocan; GUO Jinming; GAO Shanjun

    2009-01-01

    A series of thermoreversible konjac glucomannan gels crosslinked by organic bo-rate were prepared.Required amount of hydrophilic SiO_2 was added into the konjac glucomannan solutions before the crosslinking reaction.The gel network was formed through the crosslinking reac-tion between borate ions dissociated from organic borate and the cis-diol hydroxyl groups on the mannose units of polysaccharide chains.The rheological properties of the complex gels were studied by dynamic viscoelastic measurement.The gelation kinetics of the complex gels was studied and the critical gelation points of the gels were exactly determined by the Winter-Chambon criterion.The ef-fects of temperature and composite ratio on the shear storage modulus(G'),the loss modulus(G") and the sol-gel transition points were investigated.

  10. Mango butter emulsion gels as cocoa butter equivalents: physical, thermal, and mechanical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagiri, Sai S; Sharma, Vijeta; Basak, Piyali; Pal, Kunal

    2014-11-26

    The search for cocoa butter equivalents in food and pharmaceutical industries has been gaining importance. In the present study, mango butter was explored as cocoa butter equivalent. Aqueous gelatin solution (20% w/w) containing cocoa butter and mango butter water-in-oil (fat) type emulsion gels were prepared by hot emulsification method. XRD and DSC melting profiles suggested the presence of unstable polymorphic forms (α and β') of fats in the emulsion gels. The crystal size and solid fat content analyses suggested that the presence of aqueous phase might have hindered the transformation of unstable polymorphic forms to stable polymorphic form (β) in the emulsion gels. Fat crystals in the emulsion gels were formed by instantaneous nucleation via either uni- or bidimensional growth (Avrami analysis). The viscoelastic nature of the emulsion gels was evaluated by modified Peleg's analysis (stress relaxation study). Results inferred that the physical, thermal, and mechanical properties of mango butter emulsion gels are comparable to those of cocoa butter emulsion gels. On the basis of preliminary studies, it was suggested that the mango butter emulsion gels may have potential to be used as cocoa butter equivalents.

  11. Protein interactions with nanoporous sol-gel derived bioactive glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sen; Van den Bergh, Wouter; Baker, Simon; Jones, Julian R

    2011-10-01

    Sol-gel derived bioactive glasses are excellent candidates for bone regenerative implant materials as they bond with bone, stimulate bone growth and degrade in the body. Their interactions with proteins are critical to understanding their performance after implantation. This study focuses on the interactions between fibrinogen and sol-gel glass particles of the 70S30C (70 mol.% SiO(2), 30 mol.% CaO composition). Sol-gel silica and melt-derived Bioglass® were also used for comparison. Fibrinogen penetration into the nanoporous glasses was observed by live tracking the fluorescent-labelled fibrinogen with confocal microscopy. The effect of pore size on protein penetration was investigated. Nanoporous networks with modal pore diameters larger than 6 nm were accessible to fibrinogen. When the modal nanopore diameter was decreased to 2 nm or less, the penetration of fibrinogen was inhibited. The surface properties of the glasses, which can be modulated by media pH, glass composition and final stabilisation temperature in the sol-gel process, have effects on fibrinogen adsorption via long-range Coulombic forces before the adsorption and via short-range interactions such as hydrogen bonding after the adsorption.

  12. Studies on supramolecular gel formation using DOSY NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonappa; Šaman, David; Kolehmainen, Erkki

    2015-04-01

    Herein, we present the results obtained from our studies on supramolecular self-assembly and molecular mobility of low-molecular-weight gelators (LMWGs) in organic solvents using pulsed field gradient (PFG) diffusion ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) NMR. A series of concentration-dependent DOSY NMR experiments were performed on selected LMWGs to determine the critical gelation concentration (CGC) as well as to understand the behaviour of the gelator molecules in the gel state. In addition, variable-temperature DOSY NMR experiments were performed to determine the gel-to-sol transition. The PFG NMR experiments performed as a function of gradient strength were further analyzed using monoexponential DOSY processing, and the results were compared with the automated Bayesian DOSY transformation to obtain 2D plots. Our results provide useful information on the stepwise self-assembly of small molecules leading to gelation. We believe that the results obtained from these experiments are applicable in determining the CGC and gel melting temperatures of supramolecular gels.

  13. Continuous manufacturing of solid lipid nanoparticles by hot melt extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Hemlata; Kulkarni, Vijay; Majumdar, Soumyajit; Repka, Michael A

    2014-08-25

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) can either be produced by hot homogenization of melted lipids at higher temperatures or by a cold homogenization process. This paper proposes and demonstrates the formulation of SLN for pharmaceutical applications by combining two processes: hot melt extrusion (HME) technology for melt-emulsification and high-pressure homogenization (HPH) for size reduction. This work aimed at developing continuous and scalable processes for SLN by mixing a lipid and aqueous phase containing an emulsifier in the extruder barrel at temperatures above the melting point of the lipid and further reducing the particle size of emulsion by HPH linked to HME in a sequence. The developed novel platform demonstrated better process control and size reduction compared to the conventional process of hot homogenization (batch process). Varying the process parameters enabled the production of SLN below 200 nm (for 60 mg/ml lipid solution at a flow rate of 100ml/min). Among the several process parameters investigated, the lipid concentration, residence time and screw design played major roles in influencing the size of the SLN. This new process demonstrates the potential use of hot melt extrusion technology for continuous and large-scale production of SLN.

  14. Sucrose release from polysaccharide gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Fang, Yapeng

    2016-05-18

    Sucrose release from polysaccharide gels has been studied extensively because it is expected to be useful in understanding flavour release from solid foods and to find a new processing method which produces more palatable and healthier foods. We provide an overview of the release of sucrose and other sugars from gels of agar and related polysaccharides. The addition of sucrose to agar solutions leads to the increase in transparency of the resulting gels and the decrease in syneresis, which is attributed to the decrease in mesh size in gels. The syneresis occurring in the quiescent condition and fluid release induced by compression is discussed. The relationship between the sugar release and the structural, rheological and thermal properties of gels is also discussed. Finally, the future research direction is proposed.

  15. Electrochemical Light-Emitting Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Itoh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Light-emitting gel, a gel state electroluminescence material, is reported. It is composed of a ruthenium complex as the emitter, an ionic liquid as the electrolyte, and oxide nanoparticles as the gelation filler. Emitted light was produced via electrogenerated chemiluminescence. The light-emitting gel operated at low voltage when an alternating current was passed through it, regardless of its structure, which is quite thick. The luminescence property of the gel is strongly affected by nanoparticle materials. TiO2 nanoparticles were a better gelation filler than silica or ZnO was, with respect to luminescence stability, thus indicating a catalytic effect. It is demonstrated that the light-emitting gel device, with quite a simple fabrication process, flashes with the application of voltage.

  16. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point ... 24 hours a day. For young children whose home is a playground, it’s the best way to ...

  17. UNCONSTRAINED MELTING AND SOLIDIFICATION INSIDE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-01

    Sep 1, 2015 ... Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sari Branch, Islamic Azad University, ... at initial time of melting process where the layer of liquid PCM near hot ... They carried out the simulation at different Rayleigh numbers ranging from 10 .... An enthalpy-porosity technique [28] is used in FLUENT for modeling the.

  18. Fundamentals of Melt infiltration for the Preparation of Supported Metal Catalysts.The Case of Co/SiO2 Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggenhuisen, T.M.; den Breejen, J.P.; Verdoes, D.; de Jongh, P.E.; de Jong, K.P.

    2013-01-01

    We explored melt infiltration of mesoporous silica supports to prepare supported metal catalysts with high loadings and controllable particle sizes. Melting of Co(NO3)2 ·6H2O in the presence of silica supports was studied in situ with differential scanning calorimetry. The melting point depression o

  19. Epoxy Sol-Gel Hybrid Thermosets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angels Serra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sol-gel methodologies are advantageous in the preparation of hybrid materials in front of the conventional addition of nanoparticles, because of the fine dispersion of the inorganic phase that can be reached in epoxy matrices. In addition, the use of organoalkoxysilanes as coupling agents allows covalent linkage between organic and inorganic phases, which is the key point in the improvement of mechanical properties. The sol-gel process involves hydrolysis and condensation reactions under mild conditions, starting from hydrolysable metal alkoxides, generally alkoxy silanes. Using the sol-gel procedure, the viscosity of the formulation is maintained, which is an important issue in coating applications, whereas the transparency of the polymer matrix is also maintained. However, only the proper combination of the chemistries and functionalities of both organic and inorganic structures leads to thermosets with the desired characteristics. The adequate preparation of hybrid epoxy thermosets enables their improvement in characteristics such as mechanical properties (modulus, hardness, scratch resistance, thermal and flame resistance, corrosion and antimicrobial protection, and even optical performance among others.

  20. Sol-gel processing of ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Helmut K.

    1991-01-01

    The sol-gel process can be considered as an interesting method for the synthesis of tailor-made ceramic raw materials. Two points of view are of special interest: powder synthesis and the processing of ultrafine raw materials. In the case of powder synthesis, high quality and multicomponent powders can be synthesized by control of surface chemistry and agglomerate-free subµm powder can be obtained. The preparation of tailor-made sols offers the possibility of powder-free processing of coating...

  1. Structural Formation Studies of UV-Catalyzed Gels and Aerogels byLight Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, Arlon J.; Ayers, Michael R.

    1998-04-01

    The skeletal structure of aerogel is determined before, during, and after the gel is formed. Supercritical drying of aerogel largely preserves the pore structure that is determined near the time of gelation. To better understand these gel formation mechanisms we carried out measurements of the time evolution of light scattering in a series of gels prepared without conventional acid or base catalysis. Instead, ultraviolet light was used to catalyze the formation of silica gels made from the hydrolysis of tetraethylorthosilicate and partly prehydrolyzed tetraethylorthosilicate in ethanol. Time evolution of light scattering provides information regarding the rate and geometrical nature of the assembly of the primary silica particles formed in the sol. UV-catalyzed gels show volumetric growth typical of acid-catalyzed gels, except when UV exposure is discontinued at the gel point, where gels then show linear chain formation typical of base-catalyzed gels. Long term UV exposure leads to coarsening of the pore network, a decrease in the clarity of the aerogel, and an increase in the surface area of the aerogel. Additionally, UV exposure up to the gel point leads to increased crystallinity in the final aerogel.

  2. Mechanical properties of designed multicompartment gels formed by ABC graft copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Wang, Liquan; Lin, Jiaping

    2013-10-01

    In the present work, we designed a multicompartment gel by taking advantage of the ABC graft copolymer with a solvophilic A backbone and solvophobic B and C grafts. The mechanical properties of such designed gels were investigated by a combination of dissipative particle dynamics simulation and a nonequilibrium deformation technique. The extensional moduli of multicompartment gels were found to be dependent on polymer concentration and architectural parameters of the graft copolymers (the sequence of graft arms and the position of the graft points). The graft copolymer solutions undergo a sol-gel transition as the polymer concentration increases. This leads to an abrupt increase in the extensional modulus. The studies also revealed that the multicompartment gels of graft copolymers exhibit higher extensional moduli than those of nonmulticompartment gels of graft copolymers and triblock copolymer gels. The position of graft points plays another important role in determining the extensional moduli of the multicompartment gels. The effects of graft positions on the gel modulus were found to be associated with the bridging fraction of graft copolymer chains. The results gained through the present work may provide useful guidance for designing high-performance gels.

  3. [The applicability of sucrose laurate in hot-melt technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Péter; Szuts, Angéla; Ambrus, Rita; Szabóné, Révész Piroska

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, one of the most important task of the pharmaceutical technology is to optimize the dissolution of active ingredients, because most of the drug candidates have a poorly water solubility and hence a slow absorption. According to the latest examinations, the bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs can be increased significantly by using surfactants or the mixture of surfactants and polymers. Nowadays, surfactants (like polysorbates) are generally used in the production of solid dispersions, so the use of surface-active sucrose esters can be resulted an innovative solution in the pharmaceutical technology. The aim of our investigation was to examine the applicability of sucrose laurate in hot-melt technology in order to influence the crystalline structure and dissolution rate of a poorly water soluble drug (gemfibrosil) having low-melting point. The results of the X-ray powder diffractometry have showed that the sucrose laurate had no significant effect on the crystallization degree of the drug which is important in case of the stability. On the bases of the results of in-vitro dissolution studies, it can be concluded that the sucrose laurate (using minimum 5%) can be well applied in hot-melt technology with carriers having characteristic melting point (e.g. Macrogol) to increase the dissolution rate of poorly soluble drugs.

  4. A molecular dynamics study of melting and dissociation of tungsten nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Wang, Jun; Fu, Baoqin; Hou, Qing

    2015-12-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to study the melting and dissociation of free tungsten nanoparticles. For the various interatomic potentials applied, the melting points of the tungsten nanoparticles increased with increasing nanoparticle diameter. Combining these results with the melting point of bulk tungsten in the experiment, the melting point of nanoparticles with diameters ranging from 4 to 12 nm could be determined. As the temperature increases, free nanoparticles are subject to dissociation phenomena. The dissociation rate was observed to follow Arrhenius behavior, and the Meyer-Neldel rule was obeyed. These results are useful in understanding the behavior of tungsten dust generated in nuclear fusion devices as well as for the preparation, formation, and application of tungsten powders.

  5. A molecular dynamics study of melting and dissociation of tungsten nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to study the melting and dissociation of free tungsten nanoparticles. For the various interatomic potentials applied, the melting points of the tungsten nanoparticles increased with increasing nanoparticle diameter. Combining these results with the melting point of bulk tungsten in the experiment, the melting point of nanoparticles with diameters ranging from 4 to 12 nm could be determined. As the temperature increases, free nanoparticles are subject to dissociation phenomena. The dissociation rate was observed to follow Arrhenius behavior, and the Meyer–Neldel rule was obeyed. These results are useful in understanding the behavior of tungsten dust generated in nuclear fusion devices as well as for the preparation, formation, and application of tungsten powders.

  6. Effects of extraction conditions on the sensory and instrumental characteristics of fish gelatin gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boran, G; Lawless, H T; Regenstein, J M

    2010-01-01

    Fish skin gelatin has recently been of interest as a product that eliminates religious concerns (Jewish and Muslim) and could be an alternative value-added product from fish waste. Recent research has shown that extraction conditions affect gelatin quality. In this study, gelatin from Asian silver carp skin and extracted under different conditions have been studied sensory properties using descriptive analysis and time intensity testing to determine how extraction conditions affect gelatin sensory properties. Three pairs of gelatin samples were selected based on their gel strength, viscosity, and melting temperature. The impacts of different extraction conditions on instrumental methods were examined. Some functionality measurements were also done to determine how sensory measurements correlate with instrumental measurements. The gel strength varied between 60 ± 10 g and 590 ± 30 g while the viscosity varied between 1.9 ± 0.0 cP and 7.4 ± 0.2 cP. The hardness, melting and gelling temperature of the samples were well correlated with the gel strength (r > 0.90). The results indicated that the strongest correlation among all the sensory attributes was between firmness and melting temperature, which was a negative correlation (-0.75) suggesting that the firmer the gel samples the slower they melt. The viscosity was found to be very discriminative between samples in terms of sensory properties. The functional measurements were found to be strongly correlated within themselves while the sensory measurements were less so, which might be due to the greater variability when using sensory panelists or sensory parameters simply might not be related. The firmness, melting rate, and aftertaste were those sensory attributes most successfully discriminated by the panelists.

  7. Basal terraces on melting ice shelves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dutrieux, Pierre; Stewart, Craig; Jenkins, Adrian; Nicholls, Keith W; Corr, Hugh F. J; Rignot, Eric; Steffen, Konrad

    2014-01-01

    Ocean waters melt the margins of Antarctic and Greenland glaciers, and individual glaciers' responses and the integrity of their ice shelves are expected to depend on the spatial distribution of melt...

  8. sol-gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto A. Monreal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo sintetizamos nanocilindros de dióxido de titanio de 30 a 400 nm por medio de ADN del plásmido pBR322 de 4,362 pares de bases y el uso de isopropóxido de titanio como precursor por medio del proceso sol-gel. Los geles resultantes fueron calcinados y los polvos caracterizados por medio de Microscopio Electrónico de Barrido (MEB, Espectroscopía de Energía Dispersiva, Microscopio Electrónico de Transmisión (MET y Difracción de Rayos X. Los resultados muestran que la síntesis in vitro de nanorods en presencia de ADN, puede ser activada. Muchas otras moléculas sintéticas pueden producirse por medio del uso de sistemas orgánicos, es así como reportamos la síntesis de híbridos hechos de ácidos nucleicos en materiales inorgánicos que pueden tener diversas aplicaciones en sistemas catalíticos, biomateriales y materiales nanoestructurados.

  9. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... see news reports about horrible accidents involving young children and furniture, appliance and tv tip-overs. The ...

  10. Clotrimazole nanoparticle gel for mucosal administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, Elisabetta, E-mail: ese@unife.it [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); Ravani, Laura [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); Contado, Catia [Department of Chemistry, University of Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Costenaro, Andrea [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); Drechsler, Markus [Macromolecular Chemistry II, University of Bayreuth (Germany); Rossi, Damiano [Department of Biology and Evolution, LT Terra and Acqua Tech UR7, University of Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Menegatti, Enea [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); Grandini, Alessandro [Department of Biology and Evolution, LT Terra and Acqua Tech UR7, University of Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Cortesi, Rita [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Ferrara, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy)

    2013-01-01

    In this study a formulation suitable to be applied on oral and/or vaginal mucosa has been developed for the treatment of fungal infections. The aim of the research is a comparison between clotrimazole (CLO) containing semisolid formulations based on monoolein aqueous dispersion (MAD) or nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC). MAD and NLC have been characterized in terms of morphology and dimensional distribution by cryogenic Transmission Electron Microscopy (cryo-TEM) and Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS). CLO was encapsulated with high entrapment efficiency both in MAD and in NLC, according to Sedimentation Field Flow Fractionation (SdFFF) combined with HPLC. CLO recovery in MAD and NLC has been investigated by time. In order to obtain formulations with suitable viscosity for mucosal application, MAD was diluted with a carbomer gel, while NLC was directly viscosized by the addition of poloxamer 407 in the dispersion. The rheological properties of MAD and NLC after viscosizing have been investigated. Franz cell has been employed to study CLO diffusion from the different vehicles, evidencing diffusion rates from MAD and NLC superimposable to that obtained using Canesten{sup Registered-Sign }. An anticandidal activity study demonstrated that both CLO-MAD and CLO-NLC were more active against Candida albicans with respect to the pure drug. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison between monoolein aqueous dispersion (MAD) and nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Clotrimazole (CLO) encapsulated with high entrapment efficiency both in MAD and in NLC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The solid matrix of NLC controls CLO degradation better than MAD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CLO containing MAD and NLC exhibits a higher anticandidal activity than the free drug. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple production of CLO-NLC based poloxamer gel, suitable for industry scaling up.

  11. Mechanical Failure in Colloidal Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodger, Thomas Edward

    When colloidal particles in a dispersion are made attractive, they aggregate into fractal clusters which grow to form a space-spanning network, or gel, even at low volume fractions. These gels are crucial to the rheological behavior of many personal care, food products and dispersion-based paints. The mechanical stability of these products relies on the stability of the colloidal gel network which acts as a scaffold to provide these products with desired mechanical properties and to prevent gravitational sedimentation of the dispersed components. Understanding the mechanical stability of such colloidal gels is thus of crucial importance to predict and control the properties of many soft solids. Once a colloidal gel forms, the heterogeneous structure bonded through weak physical interactions, is immediately subject to body forces, such as gravity, surface forces, such as adhesion to a container walls and shear forces; the interplay of these forces acting on the gel determines its stability. Even in the absence of external stresses, colloidal gels undergo internal rearrangements within the network that may cause the network structure to evolve gradually, in processes known as aging or coarsening or fail catastrophically, in a mechanical instability known as syneresis. Studying gel stability in the laboratory requires model colloidal system which may be tuned to eliminate these body or endogenous forces systematically. Using existing chemistry, I developed several systems to study delayed yielding by eliminating gravitational stresses through density matching and cyclic heating to induce attraction; and to study syneresis by eliminating adhesion to the container walls, altering the contact forces between colloids, and again, inducing gelation through heating. These results elucidate the varied yet concomitant mechanisms by which colloidal gels may locally or globally yield, but then reform due to the nature of the physical, or non-covalent, interactions which form

  12. Surface grafted chitosan gels. Part II. Gel formation and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chao; Thormann, Esben; Claesson, Per M.

    2014-01-01

    Responsive biomaterial hydrogels attract significant attention due to their biocompatibility and degradability. In order to make chitosan based gels, we first graft one layer of chitosan to silica, and then build a chitosan/poly(acrylic acid) multilayer using the layer-by-layer approach. After...... cross-linking the chitosan present in the polyelectrolyte multilayer, poly(acrylic acid) is partly removed by exposing the multilayer structure to a concentrated carbonate buffer solution at a high pH, leaving a surface-grafted cross-linked gel. Chemical cross-linking enhances the gel stability against......-linking density. The amount of poly(acrylic acid) trapped inside the surface grafted films was found to decrease with decreasing cross-linking density, as confirmed in situ using TIRR, and ex situ by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements on dried films. The responsiveness of the chitosan-based gels...

  13. Gel characteristics and microstructure of fish myofibrillar protein/cassava starch composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Mingcong; Hu, Ting; Zhao, Siming; Xiong, Shanbai; Xie, Jing; Huang, Qilin

    2017-03-01

    The changes in fish myofibrillar protein/cassava starch composites in the starch fraction range from 0 to 1, with their total content maintained at 60mg/mL, were investigated in terms of textural properties, rheological behaviours, morphology, spatial distribution and protein molecular structure. The results revealed that the starch fraction of 0.5 was a critical point for the conversion of the protein matrix to starch matrix and conversion of the gel from elastic to weak. Moreover, the protein-starch synergistic effect on the storage modulus was strongest at fractions of 0.5 and 0.6, due to the formation of a semi-interpenetrating network, with more amylose from the melted starch granules interpenetrated with the protein molecules, and the absorption of water by the starch granules to concentrate the protein matrix. Additionally, no covalent interaction between the protein and starch occurred with increasing starch fraction, thus having no significant influence on the protein secondary structure.

  14. Anisotropic Frequency Response of Critical Density Fluctuations of NIPA Gel under Oscillation Shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiyama, M.; Vigild, Martin Etchells; Fukunaga, Toshiharu

    2006-01-01

    A relation between rheology and structure of high density NIPA gel around criticai point on volume phase transition was studied by a simultaneous rheology and smail-angle neutron scattering measuÆmeiit Just below the critical temperature, the NIPA gel showed softening: G’ and G” get doser (G’> G...

  15. Sol-gel-based biosensing applied to medicinal science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Felismina T C; Moreira-Tavares, Ana P; Sales, M Goreti F

    2015-01-01

    Biosensors have opened new horizons in biomedical analysis, by ensuring increased assay speed and flexibility, and allowing point-of-care applications, multi-target analyses, automation and reduced costs of testing. This has been a result of many studies merging nanotechnology with biochemistry over the years, thereby enabling the creation of more suitable environments to biological receptors and their substitution by synthetic analogue materials. Sol-gel chemistry, among other materials, is deeply involved in this process. Sol-gel processing allows the immobilization of organic molecules, biomacromolecules and cells maintaining their properties and activities, permitting their integration into different transduction devices, of electrochemical or optical nature, for single or multiple analyses. Sol-gel also allows to the production of synthetic materials mimicking the activity of natural receptors, while bringing advantages, mostly in terms of cost and stability. Moreover, the biocompatibility of sol-gel materials structures of biological nature allowed the use of these materials in emerging in vivo applications. In this chapter, biosensors for biomedical applications based on sol-gel derived composites are presented, compared and described, along with current emerging applications in vivo, concerning drug delivery or biomaterials. Sol-gel materials are shown as a promising tool for current, emerging and future medical applications.

  16. SURFACE MELTING OF ALUMINIUM ALLOYS

    OpenAIRE

    Veit, S.; Albert, D; Mergen, R.

    1987-01-01

    The wear properties of aluminium base alloys are relatively poor. Laser surface melting and alloying has proved successful in many alloy systems as a means of significantly improving the surface properties. The present work describes experiments designed to establish the scope of laser treatment of aluminium alloys. Aluminium does not absorb CO2 laser light as well as other metals which necessitated first a general study of absorption caotings. Aluminium alloys offer fewer opportunities than ...

  17. The surface quasiliquid melt acceleration and the role of thermodynamic phase in the thermal decomposition of crystalline organic explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henson, Bryan F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    We show that melt acceleration in the thermal decomposition of crystalline organic solids is a manifestation of the surface quasiliquid phase. We derive a single universal rate law for melt acceleration that is a simple function of the metastable liquid activity below the melting point, and has a zero order term proportional to the quasiliquid thickness. We argue that the underlying mechanisms of this model will provide a molecular definition for the stability of the class of secondary explosives.

  18. Purification and separation of durene by static melt crystallization☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Cong; Ying Liu; Hong Li; Xingang Li; Lvhong Zhang; Lei Wang

    2015-01-01

    The purification and separation of durene from the mixture containing durene isomers were studied. Since the boiling points of tetramethyl benzene isomers are very close but their melting points are of great differences, stat-ic melt crystallization was applied to separate and purify durene from its isomers. Crystallization experiments were carried out under various operating conditions. The effects of cooling rate, crystallization temperature, sweating temperature and sweating time on the yield and purity of crystal were investigated. Orthogonal exper-imental design method was adopted to analyze the factors that may affect the yield of durene. Under the optimal crystal ization conditions, the purity of durene could reach as high as 99.06%with the yield of 75.3%through one crystal ization process. By fitting purification data based on sweating time in isothermal operations, the purifica-tion rate coefficient was obtained.

  19. Optimization of the Brass Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biernat S.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the optimization of the melting brass. Brasses, as one of the most popular alloys of copper, deserve special attention in the context of the processes of melting, which in turn would provide not only products of better quality, but also reduce the cost of their production or refining. For this purpose, several studies carried out deriatographic (DTA and thermogravimetric (TG using derivatograph. The results were confronted with the program SLAG - PROP used to evaluate the physicochemical properties of the coatings extraction. Based on the survey and analysis of the program can identify the most favorable physico - chemical properties, which should be carried out treatments. This allows for slag mixtures referred configurations oxide matrix containing specific stimulators of the reaction. Conducted empirical studies indicate a convergence of the areas proposed by the application. It should also be noted that the program also indicates additional areas in which to carry out these processes would get even better, to optimize the melting process, the results.

  20. Fluoride Rinses, Gels and Foams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Keller, Mette K

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this conference paper was to systematically review the quality of evidence and summarize the findings of clinical trials published after 2002 using fluoride mouth rinses, fluoride gels or foams for the prevention of dental caries. METHODS: Relevant papers were selected after...... (6 on fluoride mouth rinse, 10 on fluoride gel and 3 on fluoride foam); 6 had a low risk of bias while 2 had a moderate risk. All fluoride measures appeared to be beneficial in preventing crown caries and reversing root caries, but the quality of evidence was graded as low for fluoride mouth rinse......, moderate for fluoride gel and very low for acidulated fluoride foam. No conclusions could be drawn on the cost-effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: This review, covering the recent decade, has further substantiated the evidence for a caries-preventive effect of fluoride mouth rinse, fluoride gel and foam...

  1. Colloidal gels: Clay goes patchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, Willem K.; Lekkerkerker, Henk N. W.

    2011-01-01

    Empty liquids and equilibrium gels have so far been only theoretical possibilities, predicted for colloids with patchy interactions. But evidence of both has now been found in Laponite, a widely studied clay.

  2. Modeling of formation of intraplate partial melting zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perepechko, Y. V.; Sorokin, K. E.

    2010-12-01

    This study suggests the mathematical model of dynamics of partial melting in lithosphere causing formation of magmatic systems. The intraplate magmatic systems can be formed at achievement of required thermodynamic conditions, which can be developed due to the following mechanisms: contact heating; decompression melting at mantle matter penetration into lithosphere; and heating by filtering mantle melts and fluids in the weakened lithosphere zones above the asthenospheric structure related to a hotspot. The most efficient mechanism from the point of time and heating degree is the latter one. It is heating of lithosphere matter by mantle melts and fluids, which is especially important for development of melting sites in these systems. At formation of intraplate magmatic systems the fluid is filtered in a porous medium, porous matrix melts partially, and finally a granulated medium is formed there. To decrease the processes of heat and mass transfer in this system, the equations of dynamics of multiphase multivelocity media are derived in this study. In contrast to the Darcy-type models used in previous studies, the suggested two-velocity hydrodynamics theory describing fluid motions in a porous medium with complex reology is the thermodynamically consistent one and allows the description of nonstationary nonlinear processes. The governing equations of the model describe both the process of filtration through the deformed porous matrix and hydrodynamics of heterophase granulated medium without pressure equilibrium in phases. The work was supported by the grants 08-05-00467, 09-05-00602, 09-05-01084 from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research.

  3. Structural evolution and stability of sol-gel biocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, L.E. [School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052 (Australia)]. E-mail: ler@ansto.gov.au; Knott, R.B. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Holden, P.J. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Pike, K.J. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Hanna, J.V. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Foster, L.J.R. [School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052 (Australia); Bartlett, J.R. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2006-11-15

    Immobilisation strategies for catalytic enzymes are important as they allow recovery and reuse of the biocatalysts. In this work, sol-gel matrices have been used to immobilise Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB), a commonly used industrial enzyme. The sol-gel bioencapsulate is produced through fluoride-catalysed hydrolysis of mixtures of tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS) and methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMS) in the presence of CALB, yielding materials with controlled pore sizes and surface chemistries. Sol-gel matrices prolong the catalytic life and enhance the activity of CALB, although the molecular basis for this effect has yet to be elucidated due to the limitations of analytical techniques applied to date. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) allows such multi-component systems to be characterised through contrast matching. In the sol-gel bioencapsulate system at the contrast match point for silica, residual scattering intensity is due to the CALB and density fluctuations in the matrix. A SANS contrast variation series found the match point for the silica matrix, both with and without enzyme present, to be around 35%. The model presented here proposes a mechanism for the interaction between CALB and the surrounding sol-gel matrix, and the observed improvement in enzyme activity and matrix strength. Essentially, the inclusion of CALB modulates silicate speciation during evolution of the inorganic network, leading to associated variations in SANS contrast. The SANS protocol developed here may be applied more generally to other encapsulated enzyme sys0010te.

  4. Silica reinforced triblock copolymer gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theunissen, E.; Overbergh, N.; Reynaers, H.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of silica and polymer coated silica particles as reinforcing agents on the structural and mechanical properties of polystyrene-poly(ethylene/butylene)-polystyrene (PS-PEB-PS) triblock gel has been investigated. Different types of chemically modified silica have been compared in order...... a viscoclastic rubber to a plastic fluid and from a plastic fluid to a viscoelastic liquid are shifted to more elevated temperatures when silica is added to the triblock copolymer gel. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  5. Gelatinization and freeze-concentration effects on recrystallization in corn and potato starch gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronda, Felicidad; Roos, Yrjö H

    2008-04-07

    Freeze-concentration of starch gels was controlled by temperature and gelatinization with glucose and lactose. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of freezing temperature and gel composition on starch recrystallization behaviour of corn and potato starch gels (water content 70%, w/w) in water or glucose or lactose (10%, w/w) solutions. Starch gels were obtained by heating in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Samples of starch gels were frozen at -10 degrees C, -20 degrees C and -30 degrees C for 24h and, after thawing, stored at +2 degrees C for 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 days. The extent of starch recrystallization was taken from the enthalpy of melting of the recrystallized starch by DSC. Freezing temperatures, glucose, lactose and the origin of the starch affected the recrystallization behaviour greatly. The recrystallization of amorphous starch during storage was enhanced by freeze-concentration of gels at temperatures above T'(m). Molecular mobility was enhanced by unfrozen water and consequently molecular rearrangements for nucleation could take place. Further storage at a higher temperature enhanced the growth and the maturation of crystals. In particular, glucose decreased the T'(m) of the gels and consequently lower freezing temperatures were needed to reduce enhanced recrystallization during storage. Freeze-concentration temperatures also showed a significant effect on the size and the perfection of crystals formed in starch recrystallization.

  6. Convective melting in a magma chamber: theory and numerical experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simakin, A.

    2012-04-01

    We present results of the numerical modeling of convective melting in a magma chamber in 2D. Model was pointed on the silicic system approximated with Qz-Fsp binary undersaturated with water. Viscosity was calculated as a function of the melt composition, temperature and crystal content and comprises for the pure melt 104.5-105.5 Pas. Lower boundary was taken thermally insulated in majority of the runs. Size of FEM (bilinear elements) grid for velocity is 25x25 cm and for the integration of the density term 8x8 cm. Melting of the chamber roof proceeds with the heat supply due to the chaotic thermo-compositional convection and conductive heat loose into melted substrate. We compare our numerical data with existing semi-analytical models. Theoretical studies of the assimilation rates in the magma chambers usually use theoretical semi-analytical model by Huppert and Sparks (1988) (e.g., Snyder, 2000). We find that this model has strong points: 1) Independence of the melting rate on the sill thickness (Ra>>Rac) 2) Independence of the convective heat transfer on the roof temperature 3) Determination of the exponential thermal boundary layer ahead of the melting front and weak points: 1) Ignoring the possibility of the crystallization without melting regime for narrow sills and dykes. 2)Neglecting of two-phase character of convection. 3)Ignoring of the strong viscosity variation near the melting front. Independence of convective flux from the sill size (at Ra>>Rac) allows reducing of computational domain to the geologically small size (10-15 m). Concept of exponential thermal boundary layer is also rather important. Length scale (L0) of this layer is related to the melting rate and thermal diffusivity coefficient kT as L0=kT/um and at the melting rate 10 m/yr becomes about 2 m. Such small scale implies that convective melting is very effective (small conductive heat loss) and part of the numerical domain filled with roof rocks can be taken small. In the H&S model

  7. Surface grafted chitosan gels. Part II. Gel formation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Thormann, Esben; Claesson, Per M; Tyrode, Eric

    2014-07-29

    Responsive biomaterial hydrogels attract significant attention due to their biocompatibility and degradability. In order to make chitosan based gels, we first graft one layer of chitosan to silica, and then build a chitosan/poly(acrylic acid) multilayer using the layer-by-layer approach. After cross-linking the chitosan present in the polyelectrolyte multilayer, poly(acrylic acid) is partly removed by exposing the multilayer structure to a concentrated carbonate buffer solution at a high pH, leaving a surface-grafted cross-linked gel. Chemical cross-linking enhances the gel stability against detachment and decomposition. The chemical reaction between gluteraldehyde, the cross-linking agent, and chitosan was followed in situ using total internal reflection Raman (TIRR) spectroscopy, which provided a molecular insight into the complex reaction mechanism, as well as the means to quantify the cross-linking density. The amount of poly(acrylic acid) trapped inside the surface grafted films was found to decrease with decreasing cross-linking density, as confirmed in situ using TIRR, and ex situ by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements on dried films. The responsiveness of the chitosan-based gels with respect to pH changes was probed by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and TIRR. Highly cross-linked gels show a small and fully reversible behavior when the solution pH is switched between pH 2.7 and 5.7. In contrast, low cross-linked gels are more responsive to pH changes, but the response is fully reversible only after the first exposure to the acidic solution, once an internal restructuring of the gel has taken place. Two distinct pKa's for both chitosan and poly(acrylic acid), were determined for the cross-linked structure using TIRR. They are associated with populations of chargeable groups displaying either a bulk like dissociation behavior or forming ionic complexes inside the hydrogel film.

  8. Quantifying platelet gel coagulation using Sonoclot and Thrombelastograph hemostasis analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Lynsay K; Finney, Angela S; Ellis, William Cory; Spiwak, Allison J; Riley, Jeffrey B

    2005-03-01

    Little in vitro research exists discussing platelet gel composition and the resulting strength and degradation characteristics using point-of-care technologies. There must be a quantifiable way of determining the structural integrity of the resulting formed platelet gel thrombus. The Thrombelastograph Hemostasis Analyzer (TEG) and Sonoclot measure the elasticity of a clot as it forms and subsequently degrades naturally. The objective of this study was to determine the application of TEG and Sonoclot technologies as point-of-care devices for technicians using platelet gel therapy. The collected bovine blood was anticoagulated with CPD and processed using a previously published plasma sequestration protocol, using normal saline as a wash solution. The resulting platelet-rich plasma was stored in a sequestration bag in a water bath to maintain the blood temperature at 37 degrees C. Sequestered bovine platelet-rich plasma was made into platelet gel using three different thrombin concentrations. A total of 30 experiments were performed on the platelet gel product using both the TEG and the Sonoclot. We discovered that 6 of the Sonoclot tests and 15 of the TEG tests were valid. None of the TEG clot signatures and nine of the Sonoclot signatures were discovered to be invalid. A chi2 test was performed on the resultant data. The value of the chi2 test was calculated to be 12.86, which translated into a p value of less than 0.001. Despite the vast use and growing popularity of platelet gels, a method in which to quantify platelet gels has yet to be reported. There remains a possibility that gels formed with different concentrations of components may prove useful in different areas of surgery or their uses may expand to a broader spectrum of medicine. However, technology to quantify platelet gels must first be standardized. On the basis of the data collected in this study, it was determined that the TEG and the Sonoclot are not equally capable of analyzing platelet gel clots

  9. Melt analysis of mismatch amplification mutation assays (Melt-MAMA: a functional study of a cost-effective SNP genotyping assay in bacterial models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn N Birdsell

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are abundant in genomes of all species and biologically informative markers extensively used across broad scientific disciplines. Newly identified SNP markers are publicly available at an ever-increasing rate due to advancements in sequencing technologies. Efficient, cost-effective SNP genotyping methods to screen sample populations are in great demand in well-equipped laboratories, but also in developing world situations. Dual Probe TaqMan assays are robust but can be cost-prohibitive and require specialized equipment. The Mismatch Amplification Mutation Assay, coupled with melt analysis (Melt-MAMA, is flexible, efficient and cost-effective. However, Melt-MAMA traditionally suffers from high rates of assay design failures and knowledge gaps on assay robustness and sensitivity. In this study, we identified strategies that improved the success of Melt-MAMA. We examined the performance of 185 Melt-MAMAs across eight different pathogens using various optimization parameters. We evaluated the effects of genome size and %GC content on assay development. When used collectively, specific strategies markedly improved the rate of successful assays at the first design attempt from ~50% to ~80%. We observed that Melt-MAMA accurately genotypes across a broad DNA range (~100 ng to ~0.1 pg. Genomic size and %GC content influence the rate of successful assay design in an independent manner. Finally, we demonstrated the versatility of these assays by the creation of a duplex Melt-MAMA real-time PCR (two SNPs and conversion to a size-based genotyping system, which uses agarose gel electrophoresis. Melt-MAMA is comparable to Dual Probe TaqMan assays in terms of design success rate and accuracy. Although sensitivity is less robust than Dual Probe TaqMan assays, Melt-MAMA is superior in terms of cost-effectiveness, speed of development and versatility. We detail the parameters most important for the successful application of

  10. Sol-Gel synthesis of MgO-SiO2 glass compositions having stable liquid-liquid immiscibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    1987-01-01

    MgO-SiO2 glasses containing up to 15 mol % MgO, which could not have been prepared by the conventional glass melting method due to the presence of stable liquid-liquid immiscibility, were synthesized by the sol-gel technique. Clear and transparent gels were obtained from the hydrolysis and polycondensation of silicon tetraethoxide (TEOS) and magnesium nitrate hexahydrate when the water/TEOS mole ratio was four or more. The gelling time decreased with increase in magnesium content, water/TEOS ratio, and reaction temperature. Magnesium nitrate hexahydrate crystallized out of the gels containing 15 and 20 mol % MgO on slow drying. This problem was partially alleviated by drying the gels quickly at higher temperatures. Monolithic gel samples were prepared using glycerol as the drying control additive. The gels were subjected to various thermal treatments and characterized by several methods. No organic groups could be detected in the glasses after heat treatments to approx. 800 C, but trace amounts of hydroxyl groups were still present. No crystalline phase was found from X-ray diffraction in the gel samples to approx. 890 C. At higher temperatures, alpha quartz precipitated out as the crystalline phase in gels containing up to 10 mol % MgO. The overall activation energy for gel formation in 10MgO-90SiO2 (mol %) system for water/TEOS mole ratio of 7.5 was calculated to be 58.7 kJ/mol.

  11. Radiation hardening in sol-gel derived Er{sup 3+}-doped silica glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hari Babu, B., E-mail: hariphy2012@gmail.com, E-mail: matthieu.lancry@u-psud.fr; León Pichel, Mónica [Laboratoire des Solides Irradiés, UMR CEA-CNRS 7642, Ecole Polytechnique, Université Paris Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Institut de Chimie Moléculaire et des Matériaux d' Orsay, UMR CNRS-UPSud 8182, Université Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Ollier, Nadège [Laboratoire des Solides Irradiés, UMR CEA-CNRS 7642, Ecole Polytechnique, Université Paris Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); El Hamzaoui, Hicham; Bigot, Laurent; Savelii, Inna; Bouazaoui, Mohamed [Laboratoire PhLAM (UMR CNRS 8523), IRCICA (USR CNRS 3380), CERLA - FR CNRS 2416, Université Lille 1, Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex F-59655 (France); Poumellec, Bertrand; Lancry, Matthieu, E-mail: hariphy2012@gmail.com, E-mail: matthieu.lancry@u-psud.fr [Institut de Chimie Moléculaire et des Matériaux d' Orsay, UMR CNRS-UPSud 8182, Université Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Ibarra, Angel [National Fusion Laboratory, CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-09-28

    The aim of the present paper is to report the effect of radiation on the Er{sup 3+}-doped sol-gel silica glasses. A possible application of these sol-gel glasses could be their use in harsh radiation environments. The sol-gel glasses are fabricated by densification of erbium salt-soaked nanoporous silica xerogels through polymeric sol-gel technique. The radiation-induced attenuation of Er{sup 3+}-doped sol-gel silica is found to increase with erbium content. Electron paramagnetic resonance studies reveal the presence of E′{sub δ} point defects. This happens in the sol-gel aluminum-silica glass after an exposure to γ-rays (kGy) and in sol-gel silica glass after an exposure to electrons (MGy). The concentration levels of these point defects are much lower in γ-ray irradiated sol-gel silica glasses. When the samples are co-doped with Al, the exposure to γ-ray radiation causes a possible reduction of the erbium valence from Er{sup 3+} to Er{sup 2+} ions. This process occurs in association with the formation of aluminum oxygen hole centers and different intrinsic point defects.

  12. Purification of 2,6-Diisopropylnaphthalene by Static Melt Crystallization from a Mixture Containing Diisopropylnaphthalene Isomers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN,Zheng-Hua; JIA,Hong-Min; ZHAO,Gui-Li; HU,Wei-Qi

    2007-01-01

    2,6-Diisopropylnaphthalene (2,6-DIPN), as the precursor of important monomer 2,6-naphthalene dicarboxylic acid, could be produced by the shape-selective isopropylation of naphthalene with propene resulting in an isomeric mixture having different alkylation levels. Since the boiling points of DIPNs were very close and the differences of melting points in-between isomers were quite distinctive, the static melt crystallization was applied to separate and purify 2,6-DIPN from its isomers. 2,6-DIPN with purity ≥99% was produced through a process of three stages:crystallization→sweating→melting. The phase diagram of 2,6-DIPN-2,7-DIPN binary system was plotted to optimize the temperature control of crystallization. By repeated crystallization of melts with different concentration levels, the yield of pure 2,6-DIPN could be enhanced to 87%. No solvent was necessary.

  13. Thermal contraction phenomenon of cluster structure of indium melt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程素娟; 秦绪波; 边秀房; 孙民华; 王忠华

    2002-01-01

    The structure of liquid indium was studied at 280, 390, 550, 650, 750℃, respectively, by using an elevated temperature X-ray diffractometer. The diffraction intensity, structure factor, pair distribution function, radial distribution function, nearest interatomic distance and coordination number were obtained. The results show that the structure of In melt can be approximately described by the random closed packed hard-sphere model with hard-sphere diameter d=2.86, packing density η=0.45. The cluster structure of In melt transforms from quasi-face-centered-cubic lattice into random closed packed structure above melting point. It has been found that the nearest interatomic distance r1 and coordination number Ns decrease with increasing temperature from 280℃ to 750℃, r1 decreases from 3.25 to 3.18 and Ns decreases from 12.771 to 6.648, and thermal contraction phenomenon of atom cluster occurs. Thermal contraction of In melt cluster is not homogeneous in whole measured temperature range. The sudden transformation and the biggest contraction have been found in the range of 390~550℃.

  14. Rotation of melting ice disks due to melt fluid flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorbolo, S; Adami, N; Dubois, C; Caps, H; Vandewalle, N; Darbois-Texier, B

    2016-03-01

    We report experiments concerning the melting of ice disks (85 mm in diameter and 14 mm in height) at the surface of a thermalized water bath. During the melting, the ice disks undergo translational and rotational motions. In particular, the disks rotate. The rotation speed has been found to increase with the bath temperature. We investigated the flow under the bottom face of the ice disks by a particle image velocimetry technique. We find that the flow goes downwards and also rotates horizontally, so that a vertical vortex is generated under the ice disk. The proposed mechanism is the following. In the vicinity of the bottom face of the disk, the water eventually reaches the temperature of 4 °C for which the water density is maximum. The 4 °C water sinks and generates a downwards plume. The observed vertical vorticity results from the flow in the plume. Finally, by viscous entrainment, the horizontal rotation of the flow induces the solid rotation of the ice block. This mechanism seems generic: any vertical flow that generates a vortex will induce the rotation of a floating object.

  15. Eruption style at Kīlauea Volcano in Hawai‘i linked to primary melt composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sides. I.R.,; Edmonds, M.; Maclennan, J.; Swanson, Don; Houghton, B.F.

    2014-01-01

    Explosive eruptions at basaltic volcanoes have been linked to gas segregation from magmas at shallow depths in the crust. The composition of primary melts formed at greater depths was thought to have little influence on eruptive style. Ocean island basaltic volcanoes are the product of melting of a geochemically heterogeneous mantle plume and are expected to give rise to heterogeneous primary melts. This range in primary melt composition, particularly with respect to the volatile components, will profoundly influence magma buoyancy, storage and eruption style. Here we analyse the geochemistry of a suite of melt inclusions from 25 historical eruptions at the ocean island volcano of Kīlauea, Hawai‘i, over the past 600 years. We find that more explosive styles of eruption at Kīlauea Volcano are associated statistically with more geochemically enriched primary melts that have higher volatile concentrations. These enriched melts ascend faster and retain their primary nature, undergoing little interaction with the magma reservoir at the volcano’s summit. We conclude that the eruption style and magma-supply rate at Kīlauea are fundamentally linked to the geochemistry of the primary melts formed deep below the volcano. Magmas might therefore be predisposed towards explosivity right at the point of formation in their mantle source region.

  16. Effect of melting conditions on striae in iron-bearing silicate melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2012-01-01

    Chemical striae are present in a broad range of glass products, but due to their negative impact on e.g., the optical and mechanical properties, elimination of striae from melts is a key issue in glass technology. By varying melting temperatures, retentions times and redox conditions of an iron......-bearing calciumaluminosilicate melt, we quantify the effect of each of the three melting parameters on the stria content in the melt. The quantification of the stria content in the melt is conducted by means of image analysis on casted melt samples. We find that in comparison to an extension of retention time an increase...... factors such as compositional fluctuation of melts and bubbling due to iron reduction on the stria content. During the melting process, striae with a chemical gradient in a more mobile species equilibrate faster than striae caused by a chemical gradient in a less mobile species. The temperature and time...

  17. Thixotropic gel for vadose zone remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riha, Brian D.

    2012-07-03

    A thixotropic gel suitable for use in subsurface bioremediation is provided along with a process of using the gel. The thixotropic gel provides a non-migrating injectable substrate that can provide below ground barrier properties. In addition, the gel components provide for a favorable environment in which certain contaminants are preferentially sequestered in the gel and subsequently remediated by either indigenous or introduced microorganisms.

  18. Thixotropic gel for vadose zone remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhia, Brian D.

    2011-03-01

    A thixotropic gel suitable for use in subsurface bioremediation is provided along with a process of using the gel. The thixotropic gel provides a non-migrating injectable substrate that can provide below ground barrier properties. In addition, the gel components provide for a favorable environment in which certain contaminants are preferentially sequestered in the gel and subsequently remediated by either indigenous or introduced microorganisms.

  19. Thixotropic gel for vadose zone remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riha, Brian D.; Looney, Brian B.

    2015-10-27

    A thixotropic gel suitable for use in subsurface bioremediation is provided along with a process of using the gel. The thixotropic gel provides a non-migrating injectable substrate that can provide below ground barrier properties. In addition, the gel components provide for a favorable environment in which certain contaminants are preferentially sequestered in the gel and subsequently remediated by either indigenous or introduced microorganisms.

  20. Size and Shape Dependence on Melting Temperature of Gallium Nitride Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paneerselvam Antoniammal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of variation of the size and shape effect on the melting property of gallium nitride nanoparticles with their spherical and cylindrical geometrical feature is theoretically explored. A numerical thermodynamical model has been devoted for the study. A comparative investigation is made between the two shapes, at the range of ~3 nm dia. The cylindrical GaN nanoparticles, whose melting point has been reported to decrease with decreasing particle radius, become larger than spherical-shaped nanoparticles. The melting temperature obtained in the present study is in line with the function of radius of curvature.

  1. Preparation and bioactivity of sol-gel macroporous bioactive glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhihua Zhou; Jianming Ruan; Jianpeng Zou; Zhongcheng Zhou

    2008-01-01

    Bioactive glass is well known for its ability of bone regeneration, and sol-gel bioactive glass has many advantages com-pared with melt-derived bioactive glass. 3-D scaffold prepared by the sol-gel method is a promising substrate material for bone tissue engineering and large-scale bone repair. Porous sol-gel glass in the CaO-SiO2-P2O5 system with macropores larger than 100 μm was prepared by the addition of stearic acid as a pore former. The diameter of the pore created by the pore former varied from 100 to 300μm. The formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the glass was analyzed by studying the surface of the porous glass by scanning elec-tron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectra after they had been immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for some time, and the porous glass shows good bioactivity.

  2. Liquid-Liquid Structure Transition in Metallic Melts: Experimental Evidence by Viscosity Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-Qing; WU Yu-Qin; BIAN Xiu-Fang

    2007-01-01

    Temperature dependence of viscosity for more than ten kinds of metallic melts is analysed based on viscosity measurements. An obvious turning point is observed on the Arrhenius curves. Since viscosity is one of the physical properties sensitive to structure, its discontinuous change with temperature reveals the possible liquidliquid structure transition in the metallic melts. Furthermore, an integrated liquid structure transition diagram of the Sn-Bi system is presented. The universality of liquid-liquid structure transition is also discussed simply.

  3. Experimental evidence for flux-lattice melting. [in high-Tc superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, D. E.; Rice, J. P.; Ginsberg, D. M.

    1991-01-01

    A low-frequency torsional oscillator has been used to search for flux-lattice melting in an untwinned single crystal of YBa2Cu3O(7-delta). The damping of the oscillator was measured as a function of temperature, for applied magnetic fields in the range H = 0.1-2.3 T. A remarkably sharp damping peak has been located. It is suggested that the temperature of the peak corresponds to the melting point of the Abrikosov flux lattice.

  4. The triple point of sulfur hexafluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rourke, P. M. C.

    2016-04-01

    A cryogenic fixed point cell has been filled with high purity (99.999%) sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and measured in an adiabatic closed-cycle cryostat system. Temperature measurements of the SF6 melting curve were performed using a capsule-type standard platinum resistance thermometer (CSPRT) calibrated over the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) subrange from the triple point of equilibrium hydrogen to the triple point of water. The measured temperatures were corrected by 0.37 mK for the effects of thermometer self-heating, and the liquidus-point temperature estimated by extrapolation to melted fraction F  =  1 of a simple linear regression versus melted fraction F in the range F  =  0.53 to 0.84. Based on this measurement, the temperature of the triple point of sulfur hexafluoride is shown to be 223.555 23(49) K (k  =  1) on the ITS-90. This value is in excellent agreement with the best prior measurements reported in the literature, but with considerably smaller uncertainty. An analysis of the detailed uncertainty budget of this measurement suggests that if the triple point of sulfur hexafluoride were to be included as a defining fixed point of the next revision of the International Temperature Scale, it could do so with a total realization uncertainty of approximately 0.43 mK, slightly larger than the realization uncertainties of the defining fixed points of the ITS-90. Since the combined standard uncertainty of this SF6 triple point temperature determination is dominated by chemical impurity effects, further research exploring gas purification techniques and the influence of specific impurity species on the SF6 triple point temperature may bring the realization uncertainty of SF6 as a fixed point material into the range of the defining fixed points of the ITS-90.

  5. Dynamic viscoelastic properties of collagen gels in the presence and absence of collagen fibrils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Hideki; Shimizu, Kousuke; Hara, Masayuki, E-mail: hara@b.s.osakafu-u.ac.jp

    2012-10-01

    We measured the dynamic viscoelasticities of collagen gels prepared and modified by four different methods: i) collagen gels cross-linked by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC) after their preparation, ii) collagen gels cross-linked simultaneously with their preparation, iii) collagen gels irradiated with gamma rays after their preparation, and iv) collagen gels directly formed from an acidic collagen solution by gamma-cross-linking. Dynamic viscoelasticities of all samples were measured using a rheometer before and after heating for 30 min at 80 Degree-Sign C. The collagen gels sequentially cross-linked by 125 mM EDC after preparation and then heated exhibited mechanically strong properties (storage modulus G Prime , 7010 Pa; loss modulus G Double-Prime , 288 Pa; Young's modulus E, 0.012 in the rapidly-increasing phase and 0.095 in the moderately-increasing phase; tensile strain, 5.29; tensile stress {sigma}, 0.053). We generally conclude that the G Prime value decreases when gels without fibrils are heated. On the other hand, well cross-linked collagen gels with thick fibrils, such as gels sequentially cross-linked with 125 mM EDC after preparation or gamma-cross-linked conventional gels irradiated at 40 kGy, exhibit a distinct increase in G Prime value after heating. Those gels also have thick, twisted, or fused fibrils of collagen. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dynamic viscoelasticities of collagen gels prepared and modified by various methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical cross-linking with EDC and gamma-cross-linking were used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dynamic viscoelasticities of those samples were measured before and after the heating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The gels sequentially cross-linked with 125 mM EDC exhibit a distinct increase in G' value after heating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Those gels also have thick, twisted, or fused fibrils of collagen.

  6. Investigating the highest melting temperature materials: A laser melting study of the TaC-HfC system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedillos-Barraza, Omar; Manara, Dario; Boboridis, K.; Watkins, Tyson; Grasso, Salvatore; Jayaseelan, Daniel D.; Konings, Rudy J. M.; Reece, Michael J.; Lee, William E.

    2016-12-01

    TaC, HfC and their solid solutions are promising candidate materials for thermal protection structures in hypersonic vehicles because of their very high melting temperatures (>4000 K) among other properties. The melting temperatures of slightly hypostoichiometric TaC, HfC and three solid solution compositions (Ta1‑xHfxC, with x = 0.8, 0.5 and 0.2) have long been identified as the highest known. In the current research, they were reassessed, for the first time in the last fifty years, using a laser heating technique. They were found to melt in the range of 4041–4232 K, with HfC having the highest and TaC the lowest. Spectral radiance of the hot samples was measured in situ, showing that the optical emissivity of these compounds plays a fundamental role in their heat balance. Independently, the results show that the melting point for HfC0.98, (4232 ± 84) K, is the highest recorded for any compound studied until now.

  7. Viscosity model for aluminosilicate melt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang G.H.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The structurally based viscosity model proposed in our previous study is extended to include more components, e.g. SiO2, Al2O3, FeO, MnO, MgO, CaO, Na2O and K2O. A simple method is proposed to calculate the numbers of different types of oxygen ions classified by the different cations they bonded with, which is used to characterize the influence of composition on viscosity. When dealing with the aluminosilicate melts containing several basic oxides, the priority order is established for different cations for charge compensating Al3+ ions, according to the coulombic force between cation and oxygen anion. It is indicated that basic oxides have two paradox influences on viscosity: basic oxide with a higher basicity decreases viscosity more greatly by forming weaker non-bridging oxygen bond; while it increases viscosity more greatly by forming stronger bridging oxygen bond in tetrahedron after charge compensating Al3+ ion. The present model can extrapolate its application range to the system without SiO2. Furthermore, it could also give a satisfy interpretation to the abnormal phenomenon that viscosity increases when adding K2O to CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 melt within a certain composition range.

  8. Sol-gel derived sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, Michael E.; Dindal, Amy B.

    2003-11-11

    Described is a method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles for the production of copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent material. The method for producing copolymerized sol-gel derived sorbent particles comprises adding a basic solution to an aqueous metal alkoxide mixture for a pH.ltoreq.8 to hydrolyze the metal alkoxides. Then, allowing the mixture to react at room temperature for a precalculated period of time for the mixture to undergo an increased in viscosity to obtain a desired pore size and surface area. The copolymerized mixture is then added to an immiscible, nonpolar solvent that has been heated to a sufficient temperature wherein the copolymerized mixture forms a solid upon the addition. The solid is recovered from the mixture, and is ready for use in an active sampling trap or activated for use in a passive sampling trap.

  9. Copolymers For Capillary Gel Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changsheng; Li, Qingbo

    2005-08-09

    This invention relates to an electrophoresis separation medium having a gel matrix of at least one random, linear copolymer comprising a primary comonomer and at least one secondary comonomer, wherein the comonomers are randomly distributed along the copolymer chain. The primary comonomer is an acrylamide or an acrylamide derivative that provides the primary physical, chemical, and sieving properties of the gel matrix. The at least one secondary comonomer imparts an inherent physical, chemical, or sieving property to the copolymer chain. The primary and secondary comonomers are present in a ratio sufficient to induce desired properties that optimize electrophoresis performance. The invention also relates to a method of separating a mixture of biological molecules using this gel matrix, a method of preparing the novel electrophoresis separation medium, and a capillary tube filled with the electrophoresis separation medium.

  10. Snow Melting and Freezing on Older Townhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anker; Claesson, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The snowy winter of 2009/2010 in Scandinavia prompted many newspaper articles on icicles falling from buildings and the risk this presented for people walking below. The problem starts with snow melting on the roof due to heat loss from the building. Melt water runs down the roof and some...... of it will freeze on the overhang. The rest of the water will either run off or freeze in gutters and downpipes or turn into icicles. This paper describes use of a model for the melting and freezing of snow on roofs. Important parameters are roof length, overhang length, heat resistance of roof and overhang......, outdoor and indoor temperature, snow thickness and thermal conductivity. If the snow thickness is above a specific limit value – the snow melting limit- some of the snow will melt. Another interesting limit value is the dripping limit. All the melt water will freeze on the overhang, if the snow thickness...

  11. RHEOLOGY FEATURE OF SIMPLE METAL MELT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.J. Sun; H.R. Geng; Y.S. Shen; X.Y. Teng; Z.X. Yang

    2007-01-01

    The rheology feature of Sb, Bi melt and alloys was studied using coaxial cylinder high-temperature viscometer. The results showed that the curve of torsion-rotational speed for Sb melt presents a linear relation in all measured temperature ranges, whereas for the Bi melt, the curve presents obvious non-Newtonian feature within the low temperature range and at relative high shear stress. The rheology feature of Sb80Bi20 and Sb20Bi80, alloy melts was well correlated with that of Sb and Bi, respectively. It is considered that the rheology behavior of Sb melt plays a crucial role in Sb80Bi20, alloy and that of Bi melt plays a crucial role in Sb20Bi80 alloy.

  12. Multiscale Models of Melting Arctic Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    1 Multiscale Models of Melting Arctic Sea Ice Kenneth M. Golden University of Utah, Department of Mathematics phone: (801) 581-6851...feedback has played a major role in the recent declines of the summer Arctic sea ice pack. However, understanding the evolution of melt ponds and sea...Models of Melting Arctic Sea Ice 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER

  13. Effect of controlled release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 from collagen gel on neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fei; Wu, Yunfeng; Wang, Hao; Chang, Jun; Ma, Guangwen; Yin, Zongsheng

    2016-01-20

    This study aimed to examine the effect of controlled release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) from collagen gel on rat neural stem cells (NSCs). With three groups of collagen gel, BDNF/collagen gel, and NT-3/collagen gel as controls, BDNF and NT-3 were tested in the BDNF-NT-3/collagen gel group at different time points. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results showed that BDNF and NT-3 were steadily released from collagen gels for 10 days. The cell viability test and the bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assay showed that BDNF-NT-3/collagen gel supported the survival and proliferation of NSCs. The results also showed that the length of processes was markedly longer and differentiation percentage from NSCs into neurons was much higher in the BDNF-NT-3/collagen gel group than those in the collagen gel, BDNF/collagen gel, and NT-3/collagen gel groups. These findings suggest that BDNF-NT-3/collagen gel could significantly improve the ability of NSCs proliferation and differentiation.

  14. [A study of phonon vibration like modes for aggregation structure in silicate melts by high temperature Raman spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pei-Cang; Li, Ru-Bi; Shang, Tong-Ming; Zhou, Jian; Sun, Jian-Hua; You, Jing-Lin

    2010-05-01

    Silicate melts are special fractal dimension system that is metastable state of near-way order and far-way disorder. In this paper, the size of nanometer aggregation structure and the frequences of phonon vibration like mode in the low dimension silicate series (CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 and Na2-Al2O3-SiO2 series) synthesized via high temperature melting and sol gel methods were measured by means of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), low wavenumber Raman spectrum (LWRS) and high temperature Raman spectrum (HTRS in situ measuring). The nanometer self-similarity aggregation structure(it's size is about a few nm to a few tens nm) and phonic phonon vibration like modes of low temperature silicate gel, high temperature silicate melts and it's quenching glasses phases were obtained. So a quantitative method by HTRS for measuring the aggregation size in the high temperature melts was established. The results showed that the aggregation size of the silicate melts is smaller at high temperature than at room temperature and the number of bridge oxygen in one Si-O tetrahedron in network structure units is decreasing at high temperature. This study work provides important theory and information for deliberating geochemistry characteristic, crystallization & evolution of natural magma and enhancing performance of low dimension silicate matelials.

  15. Impact Melt in Small Lunar Highlands Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plescia, J. B.; Cintala, M. J.; Robinson, M. S.; Barnouin, O.; Hawke, B. R.

    2011-01-01

    Impact-melt deposits are a typical characteristic of complex impact craters, occurring as thick pools on the crater floor, ponds on wall terraces, veneers on the walls, and flows outside and inside the rim. Studies of the distribution of impact melt suggested that such deposits are rare to absent in and around small (km to sub-km), simple impact craters. noted that the smallest lunar crater observed with impact melt was approximately 750 m in diameter. Similarly, theoretical models suggest that the amount of melt formed is a tiny fraction (crater volume and thus significant deposits would not be expected for small lunar craters. LRO LROC images show that impact-melt deposits can be recognized associated with many simple craters to diameters down to approximately 200 m. The melt forms pools on the crater floor, veneer on the crater walls or ejecta outside the crater. Such melt deposits are relatively rare, and can be recognized only in some fresh craters. These observations indicate that identifiable quantities of impact melt can be produced in small impacts and the presence of such deposits shows that the material can be aggregated into recognizable deposits. Further, the present of such melt indicates that small craters could be reliably radiometrically dated helping to constrain the recent impact flux.

  16. Low Melt Height Solidification of Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montakhab, Mehdi; Bacak, Mert; Balikci, Ercan

    2016-06-01

    Effect of a reduced melt height in the directional solidification of a superalloy has been investigated by two methods: vertical Bridgman (VB) and vertical Bridgman with a submerged baffle (VBSB). The latter is a relatively new technique and provides a reduced melt height ahead of the solidifying interface. A low melt height leads to a larger primary dendrite arm spacing but a lower mushy length, melt-back transition length, and porosity. The VBSB technique yields up to 38 pct reduction in the porosity. This may improve a component's mechanical strength especially in a creep-fatigue type dynamic loading.

  17. Solute Redistribution in Directional Melting Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@The solute redistribution in directional melting process is theoretically studied. Based on quantitative evaluations, uniform solute distribution in liquid and a quasi-steady solute distribution in solid are supposed. The discussion on the solute balance comes to a simple model for the solute redistribution in directional melting process. As an example, the variation of liquid composition during melting process of carbon steel is quantitatively evaluated using the model. Results show that the melting of an alloy starts at solidus temperature, but approaches the liquidus temperature after a very short transient process.

  18. Characterization of hot-melt extruded drug delivery systems for onychomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mididoddi, Praveen K; Repka, Michael A

    2007-04-01

    The objectives of this investigation were to study the physico-chemical properties of hot-melt extruded (HME) films for onychomycosis and to determine the stability of the model antifungal drug incorporated within these films. The influence of etching and instrument variables on the bioadhesion of these drug delivery systems for the human nail was also studied. Six 250 g batches (F1-F6) of hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) and/or poly(ethylene oxide) films containing ketoconazole (20%) were extruded using a Killion extruder (Model KLB-100). The thermal properties of HME films were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the surface morphology of the films and X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to investigate the crystalline properties of the drugs, physical mixtures as well as the HME films. Stability studies were performed on the films stored at 25 degrees C/60%RH. The bioadhesive properties of these films were investigated on the human nail (ex vivo) using a Texture Analyzer. The nail samples tested were either non-treated (control) or treated with an etching gel. The parameters measured were peak adhesion force (PAF) and area under the curve (AUC). The Hansen solubility parameter was calculated using a combination of Hoy and Hoftyzer/Van Krevelen methods to estimate the likelihood of drug-polymer miscibility. SEM provided direct physical evidence of the physical state of the drug within the films. The theoretical post-extrusion content of ketoconazole remaining in the six film batches ranged from 90.3% (+/-2.2) to 102.4% (+/-9.0) for up to 6 months and from 83.9% (+/-3.6) to 91.6% (+/-3.0) for up to 12 months. Bioadhesion studies of HPC film tested on 'etched' nails recorded significantly higher PAF and AUC than that of the non-treated 'control' nails. Ketoconazole was found to be relatively stable during the extrusion process. Melting points corresponding to the crystalline drugs were not

  19. Crystal Melting and Toric Calabi-Yau Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Ooguri, Hirosi

    2008-01-01

    We construct a statistical model of crystal melting to count BPS bound states of D0 and D2 branes on a single D6 brane wrapping an arbitrary toric Calabi-Yau threefold. The three-dimensional crystalline structure is determined by the quiver diagram and the brane tiling which characterize the low energy effective theory of D branes. The crystal is composed of atoms of different colors, each of which corresponds to a node of the quiver diagram, and the chemical bond is dictated by the arrows of the quiver diagram. BPS states are constructed by removing atoms from the crystal. This generalizes the earlier results on the BPS state counting to an arbitrary non-compact toric Calabi-Yau manifold. We point out that a proper understanding of the relation between the topological string theory and the crystal melting involves the wall crossing in the Donaldson-Thomas theory.

  20. Melting of Pre-Reduced Chromite Pellet Bearing Carbon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG You-ping; XUE Zheng-liang; LI Zheng-bang; ZHANG Jia-wen; YANG Hai-sen; ZHOU Yu-sheng

    2005-01-01

    As the raw material for hot metal containing chromium from 20% to 40%, carbon-beared chromite pellets made from three kinds of typical chromite were reduced at 1 300 ℃ for 30 min and then kept at 1 550-1 600℃ for 10 min. The effect of Cr2 O3/FeO mass ratio in pellets on chromium content in hot metal and the yield of chromium were investigated. The results indicated that the highest chromium content is in hot metal produced from South African UG2 ore, but slag volume produced with Indian chromite is the smallest. The yield of chromium is only 60% to 75%, due to short melting time, high melting point and large surface tension of the slag with high Al2 O3 and MgO content, which influences the separation between metal and slag.

  1. Dynamical Scaling and Phase Coexistence in Topologically Constrained DNA Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosado, Y. A. G.; Michieletto, D.; Marenduzzo, D.

    2017-09-01

    There is a long-standing experimental observation that the melting of topologically constrained DNA, such as circular closed plasmids, is less abrupt than that of linear molecules. This finding points to an important role of topology in the physics of DNA denaturation, which is, however, poorly understood. Here, we shed light on this issue by combining large-scale Brownian dynamics simulations with an analytically solvable phenomenological Landau mean field theory. We find that the competition between melting and supercoiling leads to phase coexistence of denatured and intact phases at the single-molecule level. This coexistence occurs in a wide temperature range, thereby accounting for the broadening of the transition. Finally, our simulations show an intriguing topology-dependent scaling law governing the growth of denaturation bubbles in supercoiled plasmids, which can be understood within the proposed mean field theory.

  2. The viscosity of planetary tholeiitic melts: A configurational entropy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehlke, Alexander; Whittington, Alan G.

    2016-10-01

    The viscosity (η) of silicate melts is a fundamental physical property controlling mass transfer in magmatic systems. Viscosity can span many orders of magnitude, strongly depending on temperature and composition. Several models are available that describe this dependency for terrestrial melts quite well. Planetary basaltic lavas however are distinctly different in composition, being dominantly alkali-poor, iron-rich and/or highly magnesian. We measured the viscosity of 20 anhydrous tholeiitic melts, of which 15 represent known or estimated surface compositions of Mars, Mercury, the Moon, Io and Vesta, by concentric cylinder and parallel plate viscometry. The planetary basalts span a viscosity range of 2 orders of magnitude at liquidus temperatures and 4 orders of magnitude near the glass transition, and can be more or less viscous than terrestrial lavas. We find that current models under- and overestimate superliquidus viscosities by up to 2 orders of magnitude for these compositions, and deviate even more strongly from measured viscosities toward the glass transition. We used the Adam-Gibbs theory (A-G) to relate viscosity (η) to absolute temperature (T) and the configurational entropy of the system at that temperature (Sconf), which is in the form of log η =Ae +Be /TSconf . Heat capacities (CP) for glasses and liquids of our investigated compositions were calculated via available literature models. We show that the A-G theory is applicable to model the viscosity of individual complex tholeiitic melts containing 10 or more major oxides as well or better than the commonly used empirical equations. We successfully modeled the global viscosity data set using a constant Ae of -3.34 ± 0.22 log units and 12 adjustable sub-parameters, which capture the compositional and temperature dependence on melt viscosity. Seven sub-parameters account for the compositional dependence of Be and 5 for Sconf. Our model reproduces the 496 measured viscosity data points with a 1

  3. Structure and Properties of Polysaccharide Based BioPolymer Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'Homme, Robert K.

    2000-03-01

    Nature uses the pyranose ring as the basic building unit for a wideclass of biopolymers. Because of their biological origin these biopolymers naturally find application as food additives, rheology modifiers. These polymers range from being rigid skeletal material, such as cellulose that resist dissolution in water, to water soluble polymers, such as guar or carrageenan. The flexibility of the basic pyranose ring structure to provide materials with such a wide range of properties comes from the specific interactions that can be engineered by nature into the structure. We will present several examples of specific interactions for these systems: hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interactions, and specific ion interactions. The relationship between molecular interations and rheology will be emphasized. Hydrogen bonding mediated by steric interference is used to control of solubility of starch and the rheology of guar gels. A more interesting example is the hydrogen bonding induced by chemical modification in konjac glucomannan that results in a gel that melts upon cooling. Hydrogen bonding interactions in xanthan lead to gel formation at very low polymer concentrations which is a result of the fine tuning of the polymer persistence length and total contour length. Given the function of xanthan in nature its molecular architecture has been optimized. Hydrophobic interactions in methylcellulose show a reverse temperature dependence arising from solution entropy. Carrageenan gelation upon the addition of specific cations will be addressed to show the interplay of polymer secondary structure on chemical reactivity. And finally the cis-hydroxyls on galactomannans permit crosslinking by a variety of metal ions some of which lead to "living gels" and some of which lead to permanently crosslinked networks.

  4. Screening effect on nanostructure of charged gel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiyama, M; Annaka, M; Hino, M

    2004-01-01

    Charge screening effects on nanostructures of N-isopropylacrylamide-sodium acrylate (NIPA-SA) and -acrylic acid (NIPA-AAc) gels are investigated with small-angle neutron scattering. The NIPA-SA and NIPA-AAc gels with low water content exhibit microphase separations with different dimensions....... The dehydrated NIPA-SA gel also makes the microphase separation but the dehydrated NIPA-AAc gel does not. These results indicate that ionic circumstance around charged bases strongly affects the nanostructures both of the dehydrated gel and the gel with low water content. (C) 2004 Elsevier B. V. All rights...

  5. IR and Raman spectroscopic studies of sol–gel derived alkaline-earth silicate glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Angelos G Kalampounias

    2011-04-01

    IR and Raman spectroscopies have been utilized to study the structure and vibrational modes of sol–gel-derived binary silicate glasses. The present study is motivated by the immense geological significance and focuses on the MO–SiO2 (M = Ca, Mg) binary systems in an effort to unveil the role of the CaO and MgO modifiers when incorporated to the 3D silica structure. Glasses in the composition range = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 prepared by the sol–gel method were compared with the corresponding glasses formed by appropriate mixing of SiO2 and MO powders through melting and fast cooling. The vibrational spectra of the sol–gel-derived glasses have revealed considerable changes in relative intensities as a function of the MO mole fraction. These changes signify structural modifications on the silica network. The population of the 3 species was found to increase for both modified silicate systems. The rate of increase is more pronounced in the CaO–SiO2 glasses. The extent of network depolymerization in the porous glass is higher at the same content of alkaline earth oxide compared to the bulk glass. The results are indicative of a more `defective’ nature of the sol–gel glasses compared to the corresponding melt-quenched ones.

  6. Highly refractory peridotites in Songshugou, Qinling orogen: Insights into partial melting and melt/fluid-rock reactions in forearc mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi; Song, Shuguang; Su, Li; Jung, Haemyeong; Niu, Yaoling

    2016-05-01

    The Songshugou ultramafic massif is located in the eastern segment of the Qinling orogenic belt, central China. It is a large spinel peridotite body dominated by coarse-grained, porphyroclastic, and fine-grained dunite with minor harzburgite, olivine clinopyroxenite, and banded/podiform chromitite. The compositions of the bulk-rock dunite and harzburgite, and the constituent olivine and spinel, together with the textures and chemical characteristics of multiphase mineral inclusions, point to the highly refractory nature of these rocks with complex histories of high-temperature boninite melt generation and boninitic melt-rock reaction, probably in a young, warm, and volatile-rich forearc lithospheric mantle setting. Additionally, a subsequent low-temperature fluid-rock reaction is also recorded by TiO2-rich spinel with Ti solubility/mobility enhanced by chloride- or fluoride-rich subduction-zone fluids as advocated by Rapp et al. (2010). The olivine clinopyroxenite, on the other hand, was likely crystallized from a residual boninitic melt that had reacted with harzburgitic residues. The ubiquitous occurrences of hydrous minerals, such as anthophyllite, tremolite, Cr-chlorite, and serpentine (stable at lower P-T crustal conditions) in the matrix, suggest that further low-temperature fluid-rock reaction (or retrograde metamorphism) has affected the original volatile-poor peridotites either in a mature and cool subduction zone, or in a continental crust during their exhumation into the Qinling collisional orogeny at early Paleozoic era, or both. The prolonged and intense ductile/brittle deformation can decrease the mineral grain size through dynamic recrystallization and fracturing, and thus aid the fluid-rock reaction or retrograde metamorphism and mineral chemical re-equilibration processes. Therefore, the Songshugou peridotites present a good example for understanding the petrogenesis and evolution of the mantle wedge, with the emphasis on the complex partial

  7. Feasibility of radiochromic gels for 3D dosimetry of brachytherapy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šolc, Jaroslav; Sochor, Vladimír

    2012-10-01

    Two radiochromic gel dosimeters, Fricke-xylenol orange (FXO) gel and Turnbull Blue (TB) gel, were studied in the scope of the iMERA+ project ‘Increasing cancer treatment efficacy using 3D brachytherapy’ for their feasibility for the determination of relative 3D dose distribution of brachytherapy (BT) sources. Initially, the dose, dose rate and energy dependence of the gels were investigated. Subsequently, the gels were irradiated by a point low-dose-rate source IsoSeed I25.S16 (125I) and a high-dose-rate source GammaMed+ (192Ir) and scanned using optical computed tomography. Optical transmission images of irradiated gels were processed to obtain detailed 3D optical density maps inside the gels with voxel dimensions of 0.25 × 0.25 × 0.25 mm3. The radial dose function between 1.5 mm and 35 mm from the source and the anisotropy function at 10 mm radius were determined and compared with Monte Carlo calculations and TG-43 data, showing agreement mostly within the measurement uncertainty. Results revealed that the TB gel is feasible for measurements of the relative 3D dose distributions very close to the point BT source because it conserves sharp dose gradients as this gel does not suffer diffusion of dye created upon irradiation. On the other hand, FXO gel underestimates doses closer than 5 mm from the source due to diffusion effects, but it has a significantly higher sensitivity which enables convenient measurement of relative doses up to 35 mm from the source. Further development, especially on gel composition and corrections to optical CT images, is desirable.

  8. Melting and Sintering of Ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Aslaug

    1997-01-01

    The thesis contains an experimental study of the fusion and sintering of ashes collected during straw and coal/straw co-firing.A laboratory technique for quantitative determination of ash fusion has been developed based on Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA). By means of this method the fraction...... of melt in the investigated ashes has been determined as a function of temperature. Ash fusion results have been correlated to the chemical and mineralogical composition of the ashes, to results from a standard ash fusion test and to results from sintering experiments. Furthermore, the ash fusion results......-firing, the model only had a qualitative agreement with the measured ash deposit formation rates.Sintering measurements were carried out by means of compression strength testing of ash pellets. This method showed to not be applicable for the salt rich fly ash derived from straw combustion. For the fly ashes...

  9. Novel macroporous amphoteric gels: Preparation and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kudaibergenov

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Macroporous amphoteric gels based on allylamine, methacrylic acid and acrylamide crosslinked by N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide were synthesized by radical copolymerization of monomers in cryoconditions. The composition of cryogels was determined by combination of potentiometric and conductimetric titrations. The morphology of cryogels was evaluated by scanning electron microscope (SEM. Cryogels exhibited sponge-like porous structure with pore size ranging from 50 to 200 μm. The values of the isoelectric points (IEPs determined from the swelling experiments arranged between 3.5 and 4.3. The high adsorption-desorption capacity of amphoteric cryogels with respect to mM and trace concentrations of copper, nickel, and cobalt ions was demonstrated. It was shown that the macroporous amphoteric cryogels are able to adsorb up to 99.9% of copper, nickel, and cobalt ions from 10–3 mol•L–1 aqueous solution.

  10. Physicochemical behaviour of chitin gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachoud, L; Zydowicz, N; Domard, A

    2000-06-30

    Syneresis of chitin gels formed in the course of N-acetylation of chitosan in hydroalcoholic media has been studied. A critical cross-linking density related to a critical acetylation degree for which the gel undergoes weak syneresis and swells in water was shown (degree of acetylation (DA) 88%). Above this value, the weight loss during syneresis increases with DA. Conversely, syneresis decreases on increasing the polymer concentration, but disappears at a macroscopic level for a polymer concentration close to the critical concentration of entanglement in the initial solution. An increase in temperature favours the formation of hydrophobic interactions and new inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bondings. Due to the weak polyelectrolyte character of chitin, the weight of the gel depends on the pH and ionic strength of the media. Swelling-deswelling experiments show that the swelling of the gel is not fully reversible in relation with the formation of new cross-links during the depletion of the network. Our results reveals that the balance between segment-segment and segment-solvent interactions as well as the molecular mobility play the major role.

  11. Fluoride Rinses, Gels and Foams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Keller, Mette K

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this conference paper was to systematically review the quality of evidence and summarize the findings of clinical trials published after 2002 using fluoride mouth rinses, fluoride gels or foams for the prevention of dental caries. METHODS: Relevant papers were selected after an el...... brushing with fluoride toothpaste....

  12. Nonlinear elasticity of alginate gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemnejad, Seyed Meysam; Kundu, Santanu

    Alginate is a naturally occurring anionic polysaccharide extracted from brown algae. Because of biocompatibility, low toxicity, and simple gelation process, alginate gels are used in biomedical and food applications. Here, we report the rheological behavior of ionically crosslinked alginate gels, which are obtained by in situ gelation of alginates with calcium salts, in between two parallel plates of a rheometer. Strain stiffening behavior was captured using large amplitude oscillatory shear (LAOS) experiments. In addition, negative normal stress was observed for these gels, which has not been reported earlier for any polysaccharide networks. The magnitude of negative normal stress increases with applied strain and can exceed that of the shear stress at large strain. Rheological results fitted with a constitutive model that considers both stretching and bending of chains indicate that nonlinearity is likely related to the stretching of the chains between the crosslink junctions. The results provide an improved understanding of the deformation mechanism of ionically crosslinked alginate gel and the results will be important in developing synthetic extracellular matrix (ECM) from these materials.

  13. Do Melt Inclusions Answer Big Questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, A. W.; Sobolev, A. V.

    2009-12-01

    In a pioneering paper, Sobolev and Shimizu (1993) demonstrated the existence of ultra-depleted melt inclusions in olivine phenocrysts in MORB. They interpreted these as evidence for the preservation of parental melts formed by progressive near-fractional melting. Subsequently many cases have been described where melt inclusions from single basalt samples display enormous chemical and isotopic heterogeneity. The interpretation of these observations hinges critically on whether such melt inclusions can faithfully preserve primary or parental melt composition. If they do, melt inclusion data can truly answer big questions from small-scale observations. If they do not, they answer rather small questions. Favoring the second possibility, Danyushevsky et al. (2004) have suggested that much of the observed variability of highly incompatible trace elements in melt inclusions “may not represent geologically significant melts, but instead reflect localized, grain-scale reaction processes within the magmatic plumbing system.” We disagree and show that this mechanism cannot, for example, explain isotopic heterogeneity measured in several suites of melt inclusions, nor does it not account for the presence of ultra-depleted melts and "ghost" plagioclase signatures in other inclusions. More recently, Spandler et al. (2007) have suggested on the basis of experimental evidence that diffusion rates for REE in olivine are so rapid that parental melt compositions in melt inclusions are rapidly falsified by diffusional exchange with (evolved) host lava. We show that the very fact that extreme chemical and isotopic heterogeneities are routinely preserved in melt inclusions demonstrates that this conclusion is unwarranted, either because residence times of the olivine phenocrysts are much shorter than assumed by Spandler et al. or because the high experimental diffusion rates are caused by an unknown experimental artifact. Although there is no obvious flaw in design and execution of

  14. Viscosity model for fully liquid silicate melt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Guo-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A model for estimating the viscosity of silicate melt as derived in our previous paper is extended to the system containing MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO, Li2O, Na2O, K2O, which can express the nonlinear variation of activation energy of viscosity with the composition. It is found that the optimized parameters of model which characterize the deforming ability of bonds around non-bridging oxygen decrease with increasing the bond strength of M-O bond expressed by I=2Q/RMz+ + rO2-2 (where Q is the valence of cation M; r is the radius. It is pointed out that viscosity is not only determined by the bond strength, but also by the radius of cation which is defined as the size effect. The radius of cation plays paradox roles in the two factors: smaller radius leads to a stronger bond, thus a higher viscosity; while cations with smaller radius are easier to diffuse when neglecting the interaction force, thus a lower viscosity will be.

  15. Agarose gel purification of PCR products for denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis results in GC-clamp deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guowei; Xiao, Jinzhou; Lu, Man; Wang, Hongming; Chen, Xiaobing; Yu, Yongxin; Pan, Yingjie; Wang, Yongjie

    2015-01-01

    The 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of marine archaeal samples was amplified using a nested PCR approach, and the V3 region of 16S rRNA gene of crab gut microbiota (CGM) was amplified using the V3 universal primer pair with a guanine and cytosine (GC)-clamp. Unpurified PCR products (UPPs), products purified from reaction solution (PPFSs), and products purified from gel (PPFGs) of above two DNA samples were used for denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, respectively. In contrast to almost identical band patterns shared by both the UPP and PPFS, the PPFGs were barely observed on the DGGE gel for both the marine archaea and CGM samples. Both PPFS and PPFG of CGM V3 regions were subjected to cloning. A small amount of positive clones was obtained for PPFS, but no positive clones were observed for PPFG. The melt curve and direct sequencing analysis of PPFS and PPFG of E. coli V3 region indicated that the Tm value of PPFG (82.35 ± 0.19 °C) was less than that of PPFS (83.81 ± 0.11 °C), and the number of shorter GC-clamps was significant higher in PPFG than in PPFS. The ultraviolet exposure experiment indicated that the ultraviolet was not responsible for the deletion of the GC-clamps. We conclude that the gel purification method is not suitable for DGGE PCR products or even other GC-rich DNA samples.

  16. A benchmark initiative on mantle convection with melting and melt segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeling, Harro; Dannberg, Juliane; Dohmen, Janik; Kalousova, Klara; Maurice, Maxim; Noack, Lena; Plesa, Ana; Soucek, Ondrej; Spiegelman, Marc; Thieulot, Cedric; Tosi, Nicola; Wallner, Herbert

    2016-04-01

    In recent years a number of mantle convection models have been developed which include partial melting within the asthenosphere, estimation of melt volumes, as well as melt extraction with and without redistribution at the surface or within the lithosphere. All these approaches use various simplifying modelling assumptions whose effects on the dynamics of convection including the feedback on melting have not been explored in sufficient detail. To better assess the significance of such assumptions and to provide test cases for the modelling community we carry out a benchmark comparison. The reference model is taken from the mantle convection benchmark, cases 1a to 1c (Blankenbach et al., 1989), assuming a square box with free slip boundary conditions, the Boussinesq approximation, constant viscosity and Rayleigh numbers of 104 to 10^6. Melting is modelled using a simplified binary solid solution with linearly depth dependent solidus and liquidus temperatures, as well as a solidus temperature depending linearly on depletion. Starting from a plume free initial temperature condition (to avoid melting at the onset time) five cases are investigated: Case 1 includes melting, but without thermal or dynamic feedback on the convection flow. This case provides a total melt generation rate (qm) in a steady state. Case 2 is identical to case 1 except that latent heat is switched on. Case 3 includes batch melting, melt buoyancy (melt Rayleigh number Rm) and depletion buoyancy, but no melt percolation. Output quantities are the Nusselt number (Nu), root mean square velocity (vrms), the maximum and the total melt volume and qm approaching a statistical steady state. Case 4 includes two-phase flow, i.e. melt percolation, assuming a constant shear and bulk viscosity of the matrix and various melt retention numbers (Rt). These cases are carried out using the Compaction Boussinseq Approximation (Schmeling, 2000) or the full compaction formulation. For cases 1 - 3 very good agreement

  17. Combining Modis and Quikscat Data to Delineate Surface and Near-Surface Melt on the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Nghiem, Son V.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo E.; Neumann, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Over the last two decades, increasing melt has been measured on the Greenland Ice Sheet, along with mass loss as determined from satellite data, Monitoring the state of the Greenland Ice Sheet becomes critical especially because it is actively losing mass, and the ice sheet has a sea-level rise potential of 7 in. However measurement of the extent of surface melt varies depending on the sensor used, whether it is passive or active microwave or visible or thermal infrared. We have used remote-sensing data products to study surface and near-surface melt characteristics of the Greenland Ice Sheet. We present a blended MODIS-QS melt daily product for 2007 [1]. The products, including Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily land-surface temperature (LST) and a special daily melt product derived from the QuikSCAT (QS) scatterometer [2,3] show consistency in delineating the melt boundaries on a daily basis in the 2007 melt season [I], though some differences are identified. An assessment of maximum melt area for the 2007 melt shows that the QSCAT product detects a greater amount of melt (862,769 square kilometers) than is detected by the MODIS LST product (766,184 square kilometers). The discrepancy is largely because the QS product can detect both surface and near-surface melt and the QS product captures melt if it occurred anytime during the day while the MODIS product is obtained from a point in time on a given day. However on a daily bases, other factors influence the measurement of melt extent. In this work we employ the digital-elevation model of Bamber et al. [4] along with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) data to study some areas and time periods in detail during the 2007 melt season. We focus on times in which the QS and MODIS LST products do not agree exactly. We use NCEP and elevation data to analyze the atmospheric factors forcing the melt process, to gain an improved understanding of the conditions that lead to melt

  18. Bubble Formation in Basalt-like Melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Keding, Ralf; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the melting temperature on bubble size and bubble formation in an iron bearing calcium aluminosilicate melt is studied by means of in-depth images acquired by optical microscopy. The bubble size distribution and the total bubble volume are determined by counting the number of bubble...

  19. Bubble Formation in Basalt-like Melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Keding, Ralf; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the melting temperature on bubble size and bubble formation in an iron bearing calcium aluminosilicate melt is studied by means of in-depth images acquired by optical microscopy. The bubble size distribution and the total bubble volume are determined by counting the number of bubbles...

  20. Disordering and Melting of Aluminum Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoltze, Per; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet; Landman, U.

    1988-01-01

    We report on a molecular-dynamics simulation of an Al(110) surface using the effective-medium theory to describe the interatomic interactions. The surface region is found to start melting ≅200 K below the bulk melting temperature with a gradual increase in the thickness of the disordered layer as...

  1. Uniaxial Elongational viscosity of bidisperse polystyrene melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    2006-01-01

    The startup and steady uniaxial elongational viscosity have been measured for three bidisperse polystyrene (PS) melts, consisting of blends of monodisperse PS with molecular weights of 52 kg/mole or 103 kg/mole and 390 kg/mole. The bidisperse melts have a maximum in the steady elongational...

  2. Uniaxial Elongational viscosity of bidisperse polystyrene melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    2006-01-01

    The startup and steady uniaxial elongational viscosity have been measured for three bidisperse polystyrene (PS) melts, consisting of blends of monodisperse PS with molecular weights of 52 kg/mole or 103 kg/mole and 390 kg/mole. The bidisperse melts have a maximum in the steady elongational viscos...

  3. Stability of foams in silicate melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proussevitch, Alexander A.; Sahagian, Dork L.; Kutolin, Vladislav A.

    1993-12-01

    Bubble coalescence and the spontaneous disruption of high-porosity foams in silicate melts are the result of physical expulsion of interpore melt (syneresis) leading to bubble coalescence, and diffusive gas exchange between bubbles. Melt expulsion can be achieved either along films between pairs of bubbles, or along Plateau borders which represent the contacts between 3 or more bubbles. Theoretical evaluation of these mechanisms is confirmed by experimental results, enabling us to quantify the relevant parameters and determine stable bubble size and critical film thickness in a foam as a function of melt viscosity, surface tension, and time. Foam stability is controlled primarily by melt viscosity and time. Melt transport leading to coalescence of bubbles proceeds along inter-bubble films for smaller bubbles, and along Plateau borders for larger bubbles. Thus the average bubble size accelerates with time. In silicate melts, the diffusive gas expulsion out of a region of foam is effective only for water (and even then, only at small length scales), as the diffusion of CO 2 is negligible. The results of our analyses are applicable to studies of vesicularity of lavas, melt degassing, and eruption mechanisms.

  4. Purification of Niobium by Electron Beam Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, M.; Mirji, K. V.; Prasad, V. V. Satya; Baligidad, R. G.; Gokhale, A. A.

    2016-06-01

    Pure niobium metal, produced by alumino-thermic reduction of niobium oxide, contains various impurities which need to be reduced to acceptable levels to obtain aerospace grade purity. In the present work, an attempt has been made to refine niobium metals by electron beam drip melting technique to achieve purity confirming to the ASTM standard. Input power to the electron gun and melt rate were varied to observe their combined effect on extend of refining and loss of niobium. Electron beam (EB) melting is shown to reduce alkali metals, trace elements and interstitial impurities well below the specified limits. The reduction in the impurities during EB melting is attributed to evaporation and degassing due to the combined effect of high vacuum and high melt surface temperature. The % removal of interstitial impurities is essentially a function of melt rate and input power. As the melt rate decreases or input power increases, the impurity levels in the solidified niobium ingot decrease. The EB refining process is also accompanied by considerable amount of niobium loss, which is attributed to evaporation of pure niobium and niobium sub-oxide. Like other impurities, Nb loss increases with decreasing melt rate or increase in input power.

  5. Shock-induced melting and rapid solidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nellis, W.J.; Gourdin, W.H.; Maple, M.B.

    1987-08-01

    Model calculations are presented to estimate that approx.50 GPa is required to completely shock melt metal powders with quenching at rates up to 10/sup 8/ K/s. Experiments are discussed for powders of a Cu-Zr alloy compacted in the usual way at 16 GPa and melted by shocking to 60 GPa. 12 refs.

  6. Molecular Dynamics Study of Cubic Boron Nitride Nanoparticles: Decomposition with Phase Segregation during Melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsiao-Fang; Esfarjani, Keivan; Dong, Zhizhong; Xiong, Gang; Pelegri, Assimina A; Tse, Stephen D

    2016-11-22

    The relative stability and melting of cubic boron nitride (c-BN) nanoparticles of varying shapes and sizes are studied using classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Focusing on the melting of octahedral c-BN nanoparticles, which consist solely of the most stable {111} facets, decomposition is observed to occur during melting, along with the formation of phase segregated boron clusters inside the c-BN nanoparticles, concurrent with vaporization of surface nitrogen atoms. To assess this MD prediction, a laser-heating experiment of c-BN powders is conducted, manifesting boron clusters for the post-treated powders. A general analysis of the geometrical and surface dependence of the nanoparticle ground-state energy using a Stillinger-Weber potential determines the relative stability of cube-shaped, octahedral, cuboctahedral, and truncated-octahedral c-BN nanoparticles. This stability is further examined using transient MD simulations of the melting behavior of the differently shaped nanoparticles, providing insights and revealing the key roles played by corner and edge initiated disorder as well as surface reconstruction from {100} to the more stable {111} facets in the melting process. Finally, the size dependence of the melting point of octahedral c-BN nanoparticles is investigated, showing the well-known qualitative trend of depression of melting temperature with decreasing size, albeit with different quantitative behavior from that predicted by existing analytical models.

  7. Molecular dynamics simulation for surface melting and self-preservation effect of methane hydrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The surface melting process of structure sI methane hydrate is simulated at T = 240, 260, 280, and 300 K using NVT molecular dynamics method. The simulation results show that a quasi-liquid layer will be formed during the melting process. The density distribution, translation, orientation, and dynamic properties of water molecules in the quasi-liquid layer are calculated as a function of the distance normal to the interface, which indicates the performance of quasi-liquid layer exhibits a continuous change from crystal-like to liquid-like. The quasi-liquid layer plays as a resistance of mass transfer restraining the diffusion of water and methane molecules during the melting process. The resistance of quasi-liquid layer will restrain methane molecules diffuse from hydrate phase to gas phase and slow the melting process, which can be considered as a possible mechanism of self-preservation effect. The performance of quasi-liquid layer is more crystal-like when the temperature is lower than the melt- ing-point of water, which will exhibit an obvious self-preservation. The self-preservation will weaken while the temperature is higher than the melting-point of water because of the liquid-like performance of the quasi-liquid layer.

  8. Melting of iron nanoparticles embedded in silica prepared by mechanical milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Peng; Ma, Ji [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Cao, Hui, E-mail: caoh@lzu.edu.cn [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu, Yi [Department of Biology Science, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203 (China); Wang, Lianwen, E-mail: lwwang@lzu.edu.cn [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Jiangong [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2013-08-20

    Highlights: • Melting of metallic nanoparticles was studied for some eight elements. • This slim range of materials is successfully expanded to iron. • A mechanical-milled iron–silica composite is employed. • For iron particles of 15 nm in diameter, the melting point depression is 30 K. • The measured data is in agreement with our theoretical calculations. -- Abstract: For decades, experimental studies on the size-dependent melting of metals are regretfully limited to some eight archetypal examples. In this work, to expand this slim range of materials, the melting behavior of Fe nanoparticles embedded in SiO{sub 2} prepared by using mechanical milling are investigated. Effects of factors in sample preparation on the size, isolation and thermal stability of Fe nanoparticles are systematically studied. On this basis, the size-dependent melting of Fe is successfully traced: for Fe nanoparticles with a diameter of about 15 nm, the melting point depression is 30 °C in comparison with bulk Fe, in accordance with our recent theoretical prediction.

  9. Size-dependent melting of Bi nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, E. A.; Efremov, M. Yu.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Z.; Allen, L. H.

    2005-02-01

    Nanocalorimetry was used to investigate the melting of Bi nanoparticles. The particles were formed by evaporating Bi onto a silicon nitride substrate, which was then heated. The particles self-assemble into truncated spherical particles. Below 5-nm average film thickness, mean particle sizes increased linearly with deposition thickness but increased rapidly for 10-nm-thick films. As expected, small particles were found to exhibit size-dependent melting temperatures less than the bulk melting temperature (e.g., ΔT =67K for a 3-nm radius particle). The measured melting temperatures for particles below ˜7nm in radius, however, were ˜50K above the value predicted by the homogeneous melting model. We discuss this discrepancy in terms of a possible size-dependent crystal structure change and the superheating of the solid phase.

  10. Vesicles and vesicle gels - structure and dynamics of formation

    CERN Document Server

    Gradzielski, M

    2003-01-01

    Vesicles constitute an interesting morphology formed by self-aggregating amphiphilic molecules. They exhibit a rich structural variety and are of interest both from a fundamental point of view (for studying closed bilayer systems) and from a practical point of view (whenever one is interested in the encapsulation of active molecules). In many circumstances vesicular structures have to be formed by external forces, but of great interest are amphiphilic systems, where they form spontaneously. Here the question arises of whether this means that they are also thermodynamically stable structures, which at least in some systems appears to be the case. If such vesicles are well defined in size, it is possible to pack them densely and thereby form vesicle gels that possess highly elastic properties even for relatively low volume fractions of amphiphile. Conditions for the formation and the microstructure of such vesicle gels have been studied in some detail for the case of unilamellar vesicles. Another important and ...

  11. Volatile diffusion in silicate melts and its effects on melt inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Scarlato

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A compendium of diffusion measurements and their Arrhenius equations for water, carbon dioxide, sulfur, fluorine, and chlorine in silicate melts similar in composition to natural igneous rocks is presented. Water diffusion in silicic melts is well studied and understood, however little data exists for melts of intermediate to basic compositions. The data demonstrate that both the water concentration and the anhydrous melt composition affect the diffusion coefficient of water. Carbon dioxide diffusion appears only weakly dependent, at most, on the volatilefree melt composition and no effect of carbon dioxide concentration has been observed, although few experiments have been performed. Based upon one study, the addition of water to rhyolitic melts increases carbon dioxide diffusion by orders of magnitude to values similar to that of 6 wt% water. Sulfur diffusion in intermediate to silicic melts depends upon the anhydrous melt composition and the water concentration. In water-bearing silicic melts sulfur diffuses 2 to 3 orders of magnitude slower than water. Chlorine diffusion is affected by both water concentration and anhydrous melt composition; its values are typically between those of water and sulfur. Information on fluorine diffusion is rare, but the volatile-free melt composition exerts a strong control on its diffusion. At the present time the diffusion of water, carbon dioxide, sulfur and chlorine can be estimated in silicic melts at magmatic temperatures. The diffusion of water and carbon dioxide in basic to intermediate melts is only known at a limited set of temperatures and compositions. The diffusion data for rhyolitic melts at 800°C together with a standard model for the enrichment of incompatible elements in front of growing crystals demonstrate that rapid crystal growth, greater than 10-10 ms-1, can significantly increase the volatile concentrations at the crystal-melt interface and that any of that melt trapped

  12. Melt Rate Improvement for DWPF MB3: Melt Rate Furnace Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M.E.

    2001-07-24

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) would like to increase its canister production rate. The goal of this study is to improve the melt rate in DWPF specifically for Macrobatch 3. However, the knowledge gained may result in improved melting efficiencies translating to future DWPF macrobatches and in higher throughput for other Department of Energy's (DOE) melters. Increased melting efficiencies decrease overall operational costs by reducing the immobilization campaign time for a particular waste stream. For melt rate limited systems, a small increase in melting efficiency translates into significant hard dollar savings by reducing life cycle operational costs.

  13. Yield stress determination of a physical gel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Pluronic F127 solutions form gels in water with high elastic moduli. Pluronic gels can, however, only withstand small deformations and stresses. Different steady shear and oscillatory methods traditionally used to determine yield stress values are compared. The results show that the yield stresses...... values of these gels depend on test type and measurement time, and no absolute yield stress value can be determined for these physical gels....

  14. Hybrid Materials of Polymer Gels with Surfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Yan; Kaoru Tsujii

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Polymer gels have been extensively studied[1~17] since the discovery of volume phase-transition of a gel by Tanaka[1~5]. As a unique soft material, gels attract much attention and are tried to be applied for drug-delivery systgems[6], actuators or chemo-mechanical devices[7~9] and so on. In particular, controlled-release of small molecules from a gel is now a subject of special interest[10].

  15. Study of Fricke gel dosimeter response for different gel quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavinato, C. C.; Campos, L. L.

    2010-11-01

    The Fricke xylenol gel (FXG) dosimeter has been studied for application in radiotherapy because it is capable of to measure the spatial distribution of radiation doses. The dosimetry is based on the oxidation of ferrous (Fe2+) to ferric (Fe3+) ions radiation induced, related to the radiation dose. The gel material usually employed is the 300 Bloom gelatin, which is imported and very expensive in Brazil. Aiming to analyze the viability of to use a locally produced and low cost gel material, in this work the spectrophotometric responses of FXG solutions prepared using 270 Bloom gelatin commercially available and 300 Bloom gelatin imported were compared. The absorption spectra of solutions prepared with 5% by weight 270 and 300 Bloom gelatins non-irradiated and irradiated with 60Co gamma radiation in the dose range between 0.5 and 100 Gy were analysed, the dose-response curves were evaluated and the useful dose range was established. The obtained results indicate that the FXG solution prepared with 270 Bloom gelatin presents good performance, similar to that presented by the FXG solution prepared with 300 Bloom gelatin and its use can be recommended owing to the low cost and the availability in local market.

  16. Partitioning coefficients between olivine and silicate melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédard, J. H.

    2005-08-01

    Variation of Nernst partition coefficients ( D) between olivine and silicate melts cannot be neglected when modeling partial melting and fractional crystallization. Published natural and experimental olivine/liquidD data were examined for covariation with pressure, temperature, olivine forsterite content, and melt SiO 2, H 2O, MgO and MgO/MgO + FeO total. Values of olivine/liquidD generally increase with decreasing temperature and melt MgO content, and with increasing melt SiO 2 content, but generally show poor correlations with other variables. Multi-element olivine/liquidD profiles calculated from regressions of D REE-Sc-Y vs. melt MgO content are compared to results of the Lattice Strain Model to link melt MgO and: D0 (the strain compensated partition coefficient), EM3+ (Young's Modulus), and r0 (the size of the M site). Ln D0 varies linearly with Ln MgO in the melt; EM3+ varies linearly with melt MgO, with a dog-leg at ca. 1.5% MgO; and r0 remains constant at 0.807 Å. These equations are then used to calculate olivine/liquidD for these elements using the Lattice Strain Model. These empirical parameterizations of olivine/liquidD variations yield results comparable to experimental or natural partitioning data, and can easily be integrated into existing trace element modeling algorithms. The olivine/liquidD data suggest that basaltic melts in equilibrium with pure olivine may acquire small negative Ta-Hf-Zr-Ti anomalies, but that negative Nb anomalies are unlikely to develop. Misfits between results of the Lattice Strain Model and most light rare earth and large ion lithophile partitioning data suggest that kinetic effects may limit the lower value of D for extremely incompatible elements in natural situations characterized by high cooling/crystallization rates.

  17. Equivalent conductivity and its activation energy of NaF-AlF3 melts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xian-wei; WANG Zhao-wen; GAO Bing-liang; SHI Zhong-ning; KAN Hong-min; LUO Xu-dong; TAO Wen-ju

    2009-01-01

    Electrical conductivity of NaF-AlF3 melts was measured by continuously varying cell constant(CVCC) technique. Relationships between equivalent conductivity at 990-1 030 ℃ and temperature and composition, and relationship between equivalent conductivity activation energy and composition of the melts were then studied on the basis of two-step decomposition mechanism of AlF63-. According to the changes of molar fractions of different anions in NaF-AlF3 melts, courses of dependence of equivalent conductivity and its activation energy on composition were analyzed. The results show that the influence of temperature on equivalent conductivity of the melts is small in the researched temperature range, and equivalent conductivity increases with increasing the molar fraction of AlF3; there is a minimum point in the activation energy-composition curve when molar fraction of AlF3 is 0.29.

  18. Melting of iron at the Earth's core conditions by molecular dynamics simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. N. Wu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available By large scale molecular dynamics simulations of solid-liquid coexistence, we have investigated the melting of iron under pressures from 0 to 364 GPa. The temperatures of liquid and solid regions, and the pressure of the system are calculated to estimate the melting point of iron. We obtain the melting temperature of iron is about 6700±200K under the inner-outer core boundary, which is in good agreement with the result of Alfè et al. By the pair analysis technique, the microstructure of liquid iron under higher pressures is obviously different from that of lower pressures and ambient condition, indicating that the pressure-induced liquid-liquid phase transition may take place in iron melts.

  19. Electrical resistivity and structural heredity of hypereutectic Al-Si alloy melt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李培杰; 熊玉华; 张燕飞; 曾大本

    2003-01-01

    The variation rule of the sensitive physical properties of Al-16%Si alloy melt was studied. The results show that within a certain temperature range, the electrical resistivity of Al-16%Si alloy melt changes abruptly in the forms of inflection points or platforms, which is ascribed to the changes in the internal microstructure of the melt. Based on this rule, the variation characteristics of microstructure can be revealed. When remelting and overheating Al-16%Si alloy to 1050℃, the hereditary effects of different original structure on solidification structure after remelting can be eliminated, which can provide scientific foundation for properly controlling the hereditary factors transmitting the structural information of melt.

  20. Thermophysical properties of liquid Ni around the melting temperature from molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozas, R. E.; Demiraǧ, A. D.; Toledo, P. G.; Horbach, J.

    2016-08-01

    Thermophysical properties of liquid nickel (Ni) around the melting temperature are investigated by means of classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, using three different embedded atom method potentials to model the interactions between the Ni atoms. Melting temperature, enthalpy, static structure factor, self-diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, and thermal diffusivity are compared to recent experimental results. Using ab initio MD simulation, we also determine the static structure factor and the mean-squared displacement at the experimental melting point. For most of the properties, excellent agreement is found between experiment and simulation, provided the comparison relative to the corresponding melting temperature. We discuss the validity of the Hansen-Verlet criterion for the static structure factor as well as the Stokes-Einstein relation between self-diffusion coefficient and shear viscosity. The thermal diffusivity is extracted from the autocorrelation function of a wavenumber-dependent temperature fluctuation variable.

  1. A Novel Inorganic Low Melting Electrolyte for Secondary-Aluminum-Nickel Sulfide Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjuler, H.A.; Winbrush, S. von; Berg, Rolf W.;

    1989-01-01

    A new, inorganic low melting electrolyte with the composition LiAlCl4-NaAlCl4-NaAlBr4-KAlCl4 (3:2:3:2) [or equivalentlyLiAlBr4-NaAlCl4-KAlCl4 (3:5:2)] has been developed. The melting point for this neutral melt is 86°C; the decompositionpotential is approximately 2.0V; the ionic conductivity...... ±10% from their combination expectations. The low melting electrolyte is employed in the rechargeable batterysystem Al/electrolyte/Ni3S2 at 100°C. The open-circuit voltage of this system is from 0.82 to 1.0V. Dendrite-free aluminumdeposits are obtained. The cycling behavior of the battery system...

  2. Coupled phase field, heat conduction, and elastodynamic simulations of kinetic superheating and nanoscale melting of aluminum nanolayer irradiated by picosecond laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yong Seok; Levitas, Valery I

    2015-12-21

    An advanced continuum model for nanoscale melting and kinetic superheating of an aluminum nanolayer irradiated by a picosecond laser is formulated. Barrierless nucleation of surface premelting and melting occurs, followed by a propagation of two solid-melt interfaces toward each other and their collision. For a slow heating rate of Q = 0.015 K ps(-1) melting occurs at the equilibrium melting temperature under uniaxial strain conditions T = 898.1 K (i.e., below equilibrium melting temperature Teq = 933.67 K) and corresponding biaxial stresses, which relax during melting. For a high heating rate of Q = 0.99-84 K ps(-1), melting occurs significantly above Teq. Surprisingly, an increase in heating rate leads to temperature reduction at the 3 nm wide moving interfaces due to fast absorption of the heat of fusion. A significant, rapid temperature drop (100-500 K, even below melting temperature) at the very end of melting is revealed, which is caused by the collision of two finite-width interfaces and accelerated melting in about the 5 nm zone. For Q = 25-84 K ps(-1), standing elastic stress waves are observed in a solid with nodal points at the moving solid-melt interfaces, which, however, do not have a profound effect on melting time or temperatures. When surface melting is suppressed, barrierless bulk melting occurs in the entire sample, and elastodynamic effects are more important. Good correspondence with published, experimentally-determined melting time is found for a broad range of heating rates. Similar approaches can be applied to study various phase transformations in different materials and nanostructures under high heating rates.

  3. 21 CFR 520.1452 - Moxidectin gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Moxidectin gel. 520.1452 Section 520.1452 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1452 Moxidectin gel. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of gel contains 20 milligrams (2 percent) moxidectin. (b) Sponsor. See No....

  4. 21 CFR 866.4900 - Support gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Support gel. 866.4900 Section 866.4900 Food and... IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunology Laboratory Equipment and Reagents § 866.4900 Support gel. (a) Identification. A support gel for clinical use is a device that consists of an agar or agarose preparation...

  5. [Mechanical characteristics of synthetic polyelectrolyte gel as a physical model of the cytoskeleton].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkliar, T F; Toropova, O A; Safronov, A P; Pollack, G H; Bliakhman, F A

    2011-01-01

    A physical model of the cytoskeleton based on synthetic polyelectrolyte hydrogel of polymethacrylic acid has been proposed. From the physicochemical point of view, the structures of polyelectrolyte gel and the cytoskeleton show a high degree of similarity. It was shown that polyelectrolyte gel can shorten and produce mechanical stress in response to changes in the composition of the surrounding solution. The mechanical properties of the model gel were evaluated: Young modulus (2-6 kPa), stress relaxation time (0.1-1 s), and apparent viscosity (0.3-3 kPa x s). The viscoelastic properties of the gel depend on the degree of its swelling. It has been demonstrated that the mechanical properties of gels of polymethacrylic acid are close to those of biological objects.

  6. Permeability of gels is set by the impulse applied on the gel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbonaite, V.; Jongh, de H.H.J.; Linden, van der E.; Pouvreau, L.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    To better understand sensory perception of foods, water exudation studies on protein-based gels are of a high importance. It was aimed to study the interplay of gel coarseness and gel stiffness on water holding (WH) and water flow kinetics from the gel once force is applied onto the material. Ovalbu

  7. Melt and Chemical Transport in the Mantle: Insights from Deglaciation-Induced Melting Perturbations in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, D. E.; Ito, G.; Sinton, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    Eruptive products represent a time-averaged view of the melting region and melt migration processes, making numerous fundamental parameters of the melt system difficult to constrain. Temporal and spatial variations in melting provide potential windows into this obscure region of the Earth by preferentially sampling melts from different regions of the mantle or mixing melts over different length-scales. We present a newly extended geochemical time series from the Western Volcanic Zone (WVZ) of Iceland, which experienced a short-lived melting perturbation due to glacial unloading during the last major deglaciation (~15-10 ka). Glacial unloading during this period led to increased degrees of melting particularly in the shallow mantle, which is manifest as an observed increase in volcanic production up to 30 times the steady-state value, decreased levels of highly to moderately incompatible element ratios (e.g., a 35-50% decrease in Nb/Y, with the greatest change occurring in the northernmost WVZ), and elevated SiO2 and CaO concentrations (~0.8 wt. % and ~1.9 wt. % increase in average oxide concentrations respectively) during and immediately following deglaciation. Although eruptive productivity returns to steady-state values within ~3000 yr following deglaciation, the incompatible element concentrations in erupted lavas gradually increase throughout the post-glacial period. We exploit this short-lived melting perturbation to examine and constrain knowledge of fundamental characteristics of melt generation and transport, including mantle permeability, melt ascent rates, depth-dependent melting functions (dF/dP), and the nature of chemical transport and melt mixing in the system. Using conservation equations describing the generation and porous flow of melt in a viscous matrix, we model melt migration in the mantle during and after ice sheet removal, as well as trace element transport for both equilibrium and disequilibrium transport end members. The predicted

  8. Evaluation of Melt Behavior with initial Melt Velocity under SFR Severe Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Hyo; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Jerng, Dong Wook [Chung-Ang Univ, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In the current Korean sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) program, early dispersion of the molten metallic fuel within a subchannel is suggested as one of the inherent safety strategies for the initiating phase of hypothetical core disruptive accident (HCDA). The safety strategy provides negative reactivity driven by the melt dispersal, so it could reduce the possibility of the recriticality event under a severe triple or more fault scenario for SFR. Since the behavior of the melt dispersion is unpredictable, it depends on the accident condition, particularly core region. While the voided coolant channel region is usually developed in the inner core, the unvoided coolant channel region is formed in the outer core. It is important to confirm the fuel dispersion with the core region, but there are not sufficient existing studies for them. From the existing studies, the coolant vapor pressure is considered as one of driving force to move the melt towards outside of the core. There is a complexity of the phenomena during intermixing of the melt with the coolant after the horizontal melt injections. It is too difficult to understand the several combined mechanisms related to the melt dispersion and the fragmentation. Thus, it could be worthwhile to study the horizontal melt injections at lower temperature as a preliminary study in order to identify the melt dispersion phenomena. For this reason, it is required to clarify whether the coolant vapor pressure is the driving force of the melt dispersion with the core region. The specific conditions to be well dispersed for the molten metallic fuel were discussed in the experiments with the simulant materials. The each melt behavior was compared to evaluate the melt dispersion under the coolant void condition and the boiling condition. As the results, the following results are remarked: 1. The upward melt dispersion did not occur for a given melt and coolant temperature in the nonboiling range. Over current range of conditions

  9. Fluoride Rinses, Gels and Foams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Twetman, Svante; Keller, Mette K

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this conference paper was to systematically review the quality of evidence and summarize the findings of clinical trials published after 2002 using fluoride mouth rinses, fluoride gels or foams for the prevention of dental caries. METHODS: Relevant papers were selected after...... an electronic search for literature published in English between 2003 and 2014. The included papers were assessed for their risk of bias and the results were narratively synthesized due to study heterogeneity. The quality of evidence was expressed according to GRADE. RESULTS: A total of 19 papers were included...... (6 on fluoride mouth rinse, 10 on fluoride gel and 3 on fluoride foam); 6 had a low risk of bias while 2 had a moderate risk. All fluoride measures appeared to be beneficial in preventing crown caries and reversing root caries, but the quality of evidence was graded as low for fluoride mouth rinse...

  10. Gel dosimetry for conformal radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambarini, G. [Department of Physics of the University and INFN, Milan (Italy)]. e-mail: grazia.gambarini@mi.infn.it

    2005-07-01

    With the continuum development of conformal radio therapies, aimed at delivering high dose to tumor tissue and low dose to the healthy tissue around, the necessities has appeared of suitable improvement of dosimetry techniques giving the possibility of obtaining dose images to be compared with diagnostic images. Also if wide software has been developed for calculating dose distributions in the fields of various radiotherapy units, experimental verifications are necessary, in particular in the case of complex geometries in conformal radiotherapy. Gel dosimetry is a promising method for imaging the absorbed dose in tissue-equivalent phantoms, with the possibility of 3D reconstruction of the spatial dose distribution, with milli metric resolution. Optical imaging of gel dosimeters, based on visible light absorbance analysis, has shown to be a reliable technique for achieving dose distributions. (Author)

  11. High-pressure melting behavior of tin up to 105 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, R.; Daisenberger, D.; Lord, O. T.; Salamat, A.; Bailey, E.; Walter, M. J.; McMillan, P. F.

    2017-02-01

    The melting curve of Sn initially rises steeply as a function of pressure but exhibits a decrease in slope (d Tm/d P ) above 40 GPa to become nearly flat above 50 GPa. Previous studies have argued that a body-centered tetragonal (bct) to cubic (bcc) phase transition occurs in this range at room temperature. However, our investigations have shown that the phase behavior is more complex in this region with orthorhombic (bco) splitting of reflections occurring in the x-ray diffraction pattern above 32 GPa and coexisting diffraction signatures of bco and bcc structures are observed between 40 and 70 GPa. Here we have documented the simultaneous presence of bco and bcc reflections up to the melting point, negating the possibility that their coexistence might indicate a kinetically hindered first-order phase transformation. In this paper we have extended the observation of Sn melting relations into the megabar (P >100 GPa) range using the appearance of liquid diffuse scattering in x-ray diffraction patterns and discontinuities during thermal signal processing to diagnose the occurrence of melting. Both techniques yield consistent results that indicate the melting line maintains the same low slope up to the highest pressure examined and does not flatten. The results below approximately 40 GPa agree well with the melting relations produced recently using a multiphase equation of state fitted to available or assumed data. Above this pressure the experimental melting points lie increasingly below the predicted crystal-liquid phase boundary, but above the flat melting from past studies, indicating that the thermodynamic properties of the body-centered "γ "-Sn structure remain to be clarified.

  12. Sol-gel derived ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    The synthesis of ceramic raw materials has become an important factor in ceramic technologies. The increasing demands to the performance of ceramic compounds has caused increased activities for the preparation of tailor-made raw materials. Amongst a variety of new syntheses like flame pyrolysis, reactive spray drying, plasma or laser assisted techniques, the sol-gel process plays an important and increasing role. The process describes the building up of an inorganic (in general an oxide) netw...

  13. The Sol-Gel Process

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid Suliman Aboodh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An increasingly important application of liquid jets is the disintegration of the jet to form droplets of liquid containing nuclear fuel. These droplets are then dried and sintered to form ceramic micro spheres for use in fuel elements in nuclear reactors. The total operations required to form the droplets convert them to solids and fire them to ceramic bodies comprise what are known as Sol-Gel processes Reference 13.

  14. Molecular dynamics simulation study of the melting of Pd-Pt nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K. R. S.; Bhethanabotla, Venkat R.; Joseph, Babu

    2005-05-01

    Bimetallic nanoclusters are of interest because of their utility in catalysis and sensors. The thermal characteristics of bimetallic Pt-Pd nanoclusters of different sizes and compositions were investigated through molecular dynamics simulations using quantum Sutton-Chen (QSC) many-body potentials. Monte Carlo simulations employing the bond order simulation model were used to generate minimum energy configurations, which were utilized as the starting point for molecular dynamics simulations. The calculated initial configurations of the Pt-Pd system consisted of surface segregated Pd atoms and a Pt-rich core. Melting characteristics were studied by following the changes in potential energy and heat capacity as functions of temperature. Structural changes accompanying the thermal evolution were studied by the bond order parameter method. The Pt-Pd clusters exhibited a two-stage melting: surface melting of the external Pd atoms followed by homogeneous melting of the Pt core. These transitions were found to depend on the composition and size of the nanocluster. Melting temperatures of the nanoclusters were found to be much lower than those of bulk Pt and Pd. Bulk melting temperatures of Pd and Pt simulated using periodic boundary conditions compare well with experimental values, thus providing justification for the use of QSC potentials in these simulations. Deformation parameters were calculated to characterize the structural evolution resulting from diffusion of Pd and Pt atoms. The results indicate that in Pd-Pt clusters, Pd atoms prefer to remain at the surface even after melting. In addition, Pt also tends to diffuse to the surface after melting due to reduction of its surface energy with temperature. This mixing pattern is different from those reported in some of the earlier studies on melting of bimetallics.

  15. Viscosity of ring polymer melts

    KAUST Repository

    Pasquino, Rossana

    2013-10-15

    We have measured the linear rheology of critically purified ring polyisoprenes, polystyrenes, and polyethyleneoxides of different molar masses. The ratio of the zero-shear viscosities of linear polymer melts η0,linear to their ring counterparts η0,ring at isofrictional conditions is discussed as a function of the number of entanglements Z. In the unentangled regime η0,linear/η 0,ring is virtually constant, consistent with the earlier data, atomistic simulations, and the theoretical expectation η0,linear/ η0,ring = 2. In the entanglement regime, the Z-dependence of ring viscosity is much weaker than that of linear polymers, in qualitative agreement with predictions from scaling theory and simulations. The power-law extracted from the available experimental data in the rather limited range 1 < Z < 20, η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.2±0.3, is weaker than the scaling prediction (η0,linear/η0,ring ∼ Z 1.6±0.3) and the simulations (η0,linear/ η0,ring ∼ Z2.0±0.3). Nevertheless, the present collection of state-of-the-art experimental data unambiguously demonstrates that rings exhibit a universal trend clearly departing from that of their linear counterparts, and hence it represents a major step toward resolving a 30-year-old problem. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  16. The gel electrophoresis markup language (GelML) from the Proteomics Standards Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Frank; Hoogland, Christine; Martinez-Bartolomé, Salvador; Medina-Aunon, J Alberto; Albar, Juan Pablo; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Wipat, Anil; Hermjakob, Henning; Almeida, Jonas S; Stanislaus, Romesh; Paton, Norman W; Jones, Andrew R

    2010-09-01

    The Human Proteome Organisation's Proteomics Standards Initiative has developed the GelML (gel electrophoresis markup language) data exchange format for representing gel electrophoresis experiments performed in proteomics investigations. The format closely follows the reporting guidelines for gel electrophoresis, which are part of the Minimum Information About a Proteomics Experiment (MIAPE) set of modules. GelML supports the capture of metadata (such as experimental protocols) and data (such as gel images) resulting from gel electrophoresis so that laboratories can be compliant with the MIAPE Gel Electrophoresis guidelines, while allowing such data sets to be exchanged or downloaded from public repositories. The format is sufficiently flexible to capture data from a broad range of experimental processes, and complements other PSI formats for MS data and the results of protein and peptide identifications to capture entire gel-based proteome workflows. GelML has resulted from the open standardisation process of PSI consisting of both public consultation and anonymous review of the specifications.

  17. Selective laser melting of copper using ultrashort laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaden, Lisa; Matthäus, Gabor; Ullsperger, Tobias; Engelhardt, Hannes; Rettenmayr, Markus; Tünnermann, Andreas; Nolte, Stefan

    2017-09-01

    Within the field of laser-assisted additive manufacturing, the application of ultrashort pulse lasers for selective laser melting came into focus recently. In contrast to conventional lasers, these systems provide extremely high peak power at ultrashort interaction times and offer the potential to control the thermal impact at the vicinity of the processed region by tailoring the pulse repetition rate. Consequently, materials with extremely high melting points such as tungsten or special composites such as AlSi40 can be processed. In this paper, we present the selective laser melting of copper using 500 fs laser pulses at MHz repetition rates emitted at a center wavelength of about 1030 nm. To identify an appropriate processing window, a detailed parameter study was performed. We demonstrate the fabrication of bulk copper parts as well as the realization of thin-wall structures featuring thicknesses below 100 {μ }m. With respect to the extraordinary high thermal conductivity of copper which in general prevents the additive manufacturing of elements with micrometer resolution, this work demonstrates the potential for sophisticated copper products that can be applied in a wide field of applications extending from microelectronics functionality to complex cooling structures.

  18. Fundamental Aspects of Selective Melting Additive Manufacturing Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Swol, Frank B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, James E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Certain details of the additive manufacturing process known as selective laser melting (SLM) affect the performance of the final metal part. To unleash the full potential of SLM it is crucial that the process engineer in the field receives guidance about how to select values for a multitude of process variables employed in the building process. These include, for example, the type of powder (e.g., size distribution, shape, type of alloy), orientation of the build axis, the beam scan rate, the beam power density, the scan pattern and scan rate. The science-based selection of these settings con- stitutes an intrinsically challenging multi-physics problem involving heating and melting a metal alloy, reactive, dynamic wetting followed by re-solidification. In addition, inherent to the process is its considerable variability that stems from the powder packing. Each time a limited number of powder particles are placed, the stacking is intrinsically different from the previous, possessing a different geometry, and having a different set of contact areas with the surrounding particles. As a result, even if all other process parameters (scan rate, etc) are exactly the same, the shape and contact geometry and area of the final melt pool will be unique to that particular configuration. This report identifies the most important issues facing SLM, discusses the fundamental physics associated with it and points out how modeling can support the additive manufacturing efforts.

  19. Shear Melting and High Temperature Embrittlement: Theory and Application to Machining Titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Con; Koch, Sascha; Siemers, Carsten; Mukherji, Debashis; Ackland, Graeme J.

    2015-04-01

    We describe a dynamical phase transition occurring within a shear band at high temperature and under extremely high shear rates. With increasing temperature, dislocation deformation and grain boundary sliding are supplanted by amorphization in a highly localized nanoscale band, which allows for massive strain and fracture. The mechanism is similar to shear melting and leads to liquid metal embrittlement at high temperature. From simulation, we find that the necessary conditions are lack of dislocation slip systems, low thermal conduction, and temperature near the melting point. The first two are exhibited by bcc titanium alloys, and we show that the final one can be achieved experimentally by adding low-melting-point elements: specifically, we use insoluble rare earth metals (REMs). Under high shear, the REM becomes mixed with the titanium, lowering the melting point within the shear band and triggering the shear-melting transition. This in turn generates heat which remains localized in the shear band due to poor heat conduction. The material fractures along the shear band. We show how to utilize this transition in the creation of new titanium-based alloys with improved machinability.

  20. Shear melting and high temperature embrittlement: theory and application to machining titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Con; Koch, Sascha; Siemers, Carsten; Mukherji, Debashis; Ackland, Graeme J

    2015-04-24

    We describe a dynamical phase transition occurring within a shear band at high temperature and under extremely high shear rates. With increasing temperature, dislocation deformation and grain boundary sliding are supplanted by amorphization in a highly localized nanoscale band, which allows for massive strain and fracture. The mechanism is similar to shear melting and leads to liquid metal embrittlement at high temperature. From simulation, we find that the necessary conditions are lack of dislocation slip systems, low thermal conduction, and temperature near the melting point. The first two are exhibited by bcc titanium alloys, and we show that the final one can be achieved experimentally by adding low-melting-point elements: specifically, we use insoluble rare earth metals (REMs). Under high shear, the REM becomes mixed with the titanium, lowering the melting point within the shear band and triggering the shear-melting transition. This in turn generates heat which remains localized in the shear band due to poor heat conduction. The material fractures along the shear band. We show how to utilize this transition in the creation of new titanium-based alloys with improved machinability.

  1. Rapidly solidified titanium alloys by melt overflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Thomas A.; Bruce, Thomas J., Jr.; Hackman, Lloyd E.; Brasmer, Susan E.; Dantzig, Jonathan A.; Baeslack, William A., III

    1989-01-01

    A pilot plant scale furnace was designed and constructed for casting titanium alloy strips. The furnace combines plasma arc skull melting techniques with melt overflow rapid solidification technology. A mathematical model of the melting and casting process was developed. The furnace cast strip of a suitable length and width for use with honeycomb structures. Titanium alloys Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-14Al-21 Nb were successfully cast into strips. The strips were evaluated by optical metallography, microhardness measurements, chemical analysis, and cold rolling.

  2. Melt processed high-temperature superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    The achievement of large critical currents is critical to the applications of high-temperature superconductors. Recent developments have shown that melt processing is suitable for producing high J c oxide superconductors. Using magnetic forces between such high J c oxide superconductors and magnets, a person could be levitated.This book has grown largely out of research works on melt processing of high-temperature superconductors conducted at ISTEC Superconductivity Research Laboratory. The chapters build on melt processing, microstructural characterization, fundamentals of flux pinning, criti

  3. Invariant electrical resistivity of Co along the melting boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenwa, Innocent C.; Secco, Richard A.

    2017-09-01

    The Earth's core is comprised mainly of Fe and Ni with some light alloying element(s) and the electrical resistivity behavior of these elements is an important property for characterizing geodynamo action, determining energy sources, and for understanding core thermal evolution. Knowledge of the electrical resistivity of solid and liquid transition metals with electronic structures similar to Fe reinforces our understanding of core properties. The electrical resistivity of high purity Co has been measured at pressures up to 5 GPa in a large volume press and at temperatures up to 100 K above the melting temperature. The results demonstrate that resistivity of Co is invariant along the melting boundary. This is interpreted in terms of the antagonistic effects of P-induced reduction in the amplitude of lattice vibrations tending to decrease resistivity, and the P-induced shift of the Fermi level closer to the d-resonance which tends to increase resistivity. We calculated the electronic thermal conductivity of Co using the Wiedemann-Franz law and show that it increases with pressure both in the solid and liquid states and decreases with temperature in the solid and increases in the liquid state. The pressure dependences of electrical resistivity and electronic thermal conductivity calculated from equations involving bulk modulus and the Gruneisen parameter are in reasonable agreement with values measured in this study. The constant resistivity of Co along its melting boundary found in our study portends similar behavior for its electronic structural analog, Fe. This prediction suggests that the electronic thermal conductivity of Fe at Earth's inner core boundary could be similar to its 1 atm value at the melting point. Using this value of thermal conductivity for the inner core boundary would admit thermal convection as an energy source for the geodynamo prior to the birth of the inner core.

  4. Gel fire suppressants for controlling underground heating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Sheng-gen; XUE Sheng

    2011-01-01

    One of the major safety issues in coal mining is heatings and the resultant spontaneous combustion in underground coal mines.CSIRO researchers have developed a number of polymer gels suitable for controlling heatings in coal mines.These gels were developed to meet strict selection criteria including easy preparation,no or low toxicity,controllable gelation time,adaptable to mine water chemistry,adjustable viscosity,relatively long gel life,thermally and chemically stable and low cost.The HPAM-Aluminum Citrate gel system was identified to be the most favourable gel system for fire suppression in underground coal mines.These gels can be applied to the areas undergoing coal heating or gas leakage at a controllable gelation time and impermeable gel barriers can be formed in the areas to block ingress of air.

  5. Consolidation of Inorganic Precipitated Silica Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Kind

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal gels are possible intermediates in the generation of highly porous particle systems. In the production process the gels are fragmented after their formation. These gel fragments compact to particles whose application-technological properties are determined by their size and porosity. In the case of precipitated silica gels, this consolidation process depends on temperature and pH, among other parameters. It is shown that these dependencies can be characterized by oedometer measurements. Originally, the oedometer test (one-dimensional compression test stemmed from soil mechanics. It has proven to be an interesting novel examination method for gels. Quantitative data of the time-dependent shrinkage of gel samples can be obtained. The consolidation of the gels shows a characteristic dependence on the above parameters.

  6. High-Resolution Melt Analysis for Rapid Comparison of Bacterial Community Compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmsø, Mathis Hjort; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Bælum, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    and fertilization treatments. The HRM analysis identified a shift in the bacterial community composition in two of the treatments, both including the soil fumigant Basamid GR. These results were confirmed with both denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis and 454-based 16S rRNA gene amplicon......In the study of bacterial community composition, 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing is today among the preferred methods of analysis. The cost of nucleotide sequence analysis, including requisite computational and bioinformatic steps, however, takes up a large part of many research budgets. High......-resolution melt (HRM) analysis is the study of the melt behavior of specific PCR products. Here we describe a novel high-throughput approach in which we used HRM analysis targeting the 16S rRNA gene to rapidly screen multiple complex samples for differences in bacterial community composition. We hypothesized...

  7. Diffusive loss of argon in response to melt vein formation in polygenetic impact melt breccias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Cameron M.; Hodges, Kip V.

    2017-08-01

    Many planetary surfaces in the solar system have experienced prolonged bombardment. With each impact, new rocks can be assembled that incorporate freshly generated impact melts with fragments of older rocks. Some breccias can become polygenetic, containing multiple generations of impact melt products, and can potentially provide important insights into the extensive bombardment history of a region. However, the amount of chronological information that can be extracted from such samples depends on how well the mineral isotopic systems of geochronometers can preserve the ages of individual melt generations without being disturbed by younger events. We model the thermal evolution of impact melt veins and the resulting loss of Ar from K-bearing phases common in impact melt breccias to assess the potential for preserving the 40Ar/39Ar ages of individual melt generations. Our model results demonstrate that millimeter-scale, clast-free melt veins cause significant heating of adjacent host rock minerals and can cause detectable Ar loss in contact zones that are generally thinner than, and at most about the same thickness as, the vein width. The incorporation of cold clasts in melt veins reduces the magnitudes of heating and Ar loss in the host rocks, and Ar loss can be virtually undetectable for sufficiently clast-rich veins. Quantitative evidence of the timing of impacts, as measured with the 40Ar/39Ar method, can be preserved in polygenetic impact melt breccias, particularly for those containing millimeter-scale bodies of clast-bearing melt products.

  8. Method for separating constituents from solution employing a recyclable Lewis acid metal-hydroxy gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, D.H.

    1995-12-31

    This invention permits radionuclides, heavy metals, and organics to be extracted from solution by scavenging them with an amorphous gel. In the preferred embodiment, a contaminated solution (e.g. from soil washing, decontamination, or groundwater pumping) is transferred to a reaction vessel. The contaminated solution is contacted by the sequestering reagent which might contain for example, aluminate and EDTA anions in a 2.5 M NaOH solution. The pH of the reagent bearing solution is lowered on contact with the contaminated solution, or for example by bubbling carbon dioxide through it, causing an aluminum hydroxide gel to precipitate as the solution drops below the range of 1.8 to 2.5 molar NaOH (less than pH 14). This precipitating gel scavenges waste contaminants as it settles through solution leaving a clean supernatant which is then separated from the gel residue by physical means such as centrifugation, or simple settling. The gel residue containing concentrated contaminants is then redissolved releasing contaminants for separations and processing. This is a critical point: the stabilized gel used in this invention is readily re-dissolved by merely increasing the pH above the gels phase transition to aqueous anions. Thus, concentrated contaminants trapped in the gel can be released for convenient separation from the sequestering reagent, and said reagent can then be recycled.

  9. Sampling tritiated water vapor from the atmosphere by an active system using silica gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Alegria, N., E-mail: natalia.alegria@ehu.es [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Idoeta, R.; Legarda, F. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    Among the different methods used to collect the tritiated water vapor (HTO) contained in the atmosphere, one of the most worldwide used is its collection using an air pump, which forces the air to pass through a dry silica gel trap. The silica gel is then distilled to remove the water collected, which is measured in a liquid scintillation counting system. In this paper, an analysis of the water collection efficiency of the silica gel has been done as a function of the temperatures involved, the dimensions of the pipe driving the air into the silica gel traps, the air volume passing through the trap and the flow rates used. Among the obtained conclusions, it can be pointed out that placing the traps inside a cooled container, the amount of silica gel needed to collect all the water contained in the air passing through these traps can be estimated using a weather forecast and a psychometric chart. To do this, and as thermal equilibrium between incoming and open air should be established, a suitable design of the sampling system is proposed. - Highlights: > To recollect the atmosphere air tritiated water vapor, an active system was used. > The system is an air pump and three traps with silica gel connected by a rubber pipe. > The silica gel retention depends on the meteorological conditions and the flow rate. > The amount of water collected and the mass of silica gel need were calculated, F.

  10. The Reaction of Carbonates in Contact with Superheated Silicate Melts: New Insights from MEMIN Laser Melting Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, C.; Hecht, L.; Schäffer, S.; Deutsch, A.; Lexow, B.

    2016-08-01

    The reaction of carbonates in contact with silicate impact melts is discussed quite controversially in the impact community. Here, we discuss four MEMIN laser melting experiments involving carbonates in contact with superheated silicate melts.

  11. Sol-Gel Synthesis of Phosphate-Based Glasses for Hydrophilic Enamel Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae-Sung; Ryu, Bong-ki [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    In this study, quaternary phosphate-based sol-gel derived glasses were synthesized from a P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-CaO-Na{sub 2}O-TiO{sub 2} system with a high TiO{sub 2} content of up to 50 mol%. The sol-gel method was chosen because incorporating a high percentage of titanium into a phosphate network via traditional melt-quench methods is non-trivial. The structure and thermal properties of the obtained stabilized sol-gel glasses were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The XRD results confirmed the amorphous nature of all of the stabilized sol–gel derived glasses. The FTIR results revealed that added TiO{sub 2} enters the network as (TiO{sub 6}), which likely acts as a modifier oxide. Consequently, the number of terminal oxygen atoms increases, leading to an increase in the number of P-OH bonds. In addition, DSC results confirmed a decrease in glass transition and crystallization temperatures with increasing TiO{sub 2} content. This is the first report of a sol-gel synthesis strategy combined with enameling to prepare glass at low processing temperatures and the first use of such a system for both hydrophilic and chemical resistance purposes.

  12. Highly compliant shape memory polymer gels for tunable damping and reversible adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrozek, Randy A.; Berg, Michael C.; Gold, Christopher S.; Leighliter, Brad; Morton, Jeffrey T.; Lenhart, Joseph L.

    2016-02-01

    Materials that can dynamically change their properties to better adapt to the local environment have potential utility in robotics, aerospace, and coatings. For some of these applications, most notably robotics, it is advantageous for these responsive materials to be highly compliant in an effort to provide dynamic changes in adhesion and mechanical damping within a broad temperature operational environment. In this report, non-aqueous, highly compliant shape-memory polymer gels are developed by incorporating a low density of chemical cross-links into a physically cross-linked thermoplastic elastomer gel. Chemical cross-linkers were evaluated by varying there size and degree of functionality to determine the impact on the mechanical and adhesive properties. As a result of the chemical cross-linking, the gels exhibit modulus plateaus around room temperature and at elevated temperatures above 100 °C, where the thermoplastic elastomer gel typically melts. The materials were designed so that moduli in the plateaued regions were above and below the Dahlquist criteria of 4 × 104 Pa, respectively, where materials with a modulus below this value typically exhibit an increase in adhesion. The shape memory polymer gels were also integrated into fiber-reinforced composites to determine the temperature-dependent changes in mechanical damping. It is anticipated that this work will provide insight into materials design to provide dynamic changes in adhesion and damping to improve robotic appendage manipulation and platform mobility.

  13. PHProteomicDB: A Module for Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis Database Creation on Personal Web Sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pascal Pernet; Arnaud Bruneel; Bruno Baudin; Michel Vaubourdolle

    2006-01-01

    PHProteomicDB is a PHP-written module to help researchers in proteomics to share two-dimensional gel electrophoresis data using personal web sites. No technical or PHP knowledge is necessary except a few basics about web site management. PHProteomicDB has a user-friendly administration interface to enter and update data. It creates web pages on the fly displaying gel characteristics,gel pictures, and numbered gel spots with their related identifications pointing to their reference pages in protein databanks. The module is freely available at http://www.huvec.com/index.php3?rub=Download.

  14. Ar-40-Ar-39 Age of an Impact-Melt Lithology in Lunar Meteorite Dhofar 961

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara; Frasl, Barbara; Jolliff, Brad; Korotev, Randy; Zeigler, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    The Dhofar 961 lunar meteorite was found in 2003 in Oman. It is texturally paired with Dhofar 925 and Dhofar 960 (though Dhofar 961 is more mafic and richer in incompatible elements). Several lines of reasoning point to the South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA) basin as a plausible source (Figure 2): Mafic character of the melt-breccia lithic clasts consistent the interior of SPA, rules out feldspathic highlands. Compositional differences from Apollo impact-melt groups point to a provenance that is separated and perhaps far distant from the Procellarum KREEP Terrane SPA "hot spots" where Th concentrations reach 5 ppm and it has a broad "background" of about 2 ppm, similar to lithic clasts in Dhofar 961 subsamples If true, impact-melt lithologies in this meteorite may be unaffected by the Imbrium-forming event that is pervasively found in our Apollo sample collection, and instead record the early impact history of the Moon.

  15. Rheology in Processing of in Situ Composites of Polypropylene and Low Melting Poing Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The low melting point metallic tin powder or alloy of tin and lead was blended with polypropylene. A kind of in situ composite has been prepared.The variations of torque were studied when the composites were mixed in Haake torque rheogeniometer. By way of capillary extrusion, effects upon rheology of the in situ composites of the low melting point metals (LMPM) and coupling agent for their different variety and content,were investigated. From flow curves, the results indicate that in situ composites mixed with the LMPM are a kind of pseudoplastic fluid. If the LMPM were melted,the higher the content of the LMPM, the lower apparent viscosity of composites.Meanwhile,when the coupling agent is added into composites,the viscosity of composite will go up first and drop then. This shows that the LMPM have a promoter flow action on the polypropylene.

  16. Cloud screening and melt water detection over melting sea ice using AATSR/SLSTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istomina, Larysa; Heygster, Georg

    2014-05-01

    With the onset of melt in the Arctic Ocean, the fraction of melt water on sea ice, the melt pond fraction, increases. The consequences are: the reduced albedo of sea ice, increased transmittance of sea ice and affected heat balance of the system with more heat passing through the ice into the ocean, which facilitates further melting. The onset of melt, duration of melt season and melt pond fraction are good indicators of the climate state of the Arctic and its change. In the absence of reliable sea ice thickness retrievals in summer, melt pond fraction retrieval from satellite is in demand as input for GCM as an indicator of melt state of the sea ice. The retrieval of melt pond fraction with a moderate resolution radiometer as AATSR is, however, a non-trivial task due to a variety of subpixel surface types with very different optical properties, which give non-unique combinations if mixed. In this work this has been solved by employing additional information on the surface and air temperature of the pixel. In the current work, a concept of melt pond detection on sea ice is presented. The basis of the retrieval is the sensitivity of AATSR reflectance channels 550nm and 860nm to the amount of melt water on sea ice. The retrieval features extensive usage of a database of in situ surface albedo spectra. A tree of decisions is employed to select the feasible family of in situ spectra for the retrieval, depending on the melt stage of the surface. Reanalysis air temperature at the surface and brightness temperature measured by the satellite sensor are analyzed in order to evaluate the melting status of the surface. Case studies for FYI and MYI show plausible retrieved melt pond fractions, characteristic for both of the ice types. The developed retrieval can be used to process the historical AATSR (2002-2012) dataset, as well as for the SLSTR sensor onboard the future Sentinel-3 mission (scheduled for launch in 2015), to keep the continuity and obtain longer time sequence

  17. A benchmark initiative on mantle convection with melting and melt segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeling, Harro; Dohmen, Janik; Wallner, Herbert; Noack, Lena; Tosi, Nicola; Plesa, Ana-Catalina; Maurice, Maxime

    2015-04-01

    In recent years a number of mantle convection models have been developed which include partial melting within the asthenosphere, estimation of melt volumes, as well as melt extraction with and without redistribution at the surface or within the lithosphere. All these approaches use various simplifying modelling assumptions whose effects on the dynamics of convection including the feedback on melting have not been explored in sufficient detail. To better assess the significance of such assumptions and to provide test cases for the modelling community we initiate a benchmark comparison. In the initial phase of this endeavor we focus on the usefulness of the definitions of the test cases keeping the physics as sound as possible. The reference model is taken from the mantle convection benchmark, case 1b (Blanckenbach et al., 1989), assuming a square box with free slip boundary conditions, the Boussinesq approximation, constant viscosity and a Rayleigh number of 1e5. Melting is modelled assuming a simplified binary solid solution with linearly depth dependent solidus and liquidus temperatures, as well as a solidus temperature depending linearly on depletion. Starting from a plume free initial temperature condition (to avoid melting at the onset time) three cases are investigated: Case 1 includes melting, but without thermal or dynamic feedback on the convection flow. This case provides a total melt generation rate (qm) in a steady state. Case 2 includes batch melting, melt buoyancy (melt Rayleigh number Rm), depletion buoyancy and latent heat, but no melt percolation. Output quantities are the Nusselt number (Nu), root mean square velocity (vrms) and qm approaching a statistical steady state. Case 3 includes two-phase flow, i.e. melt percolation, assuming a constant shear and bulk viscosity of the matrix and various melt retention numbers (Rt). These cases should be carried out using the Compaction Boussinseq Approximation (Schmeling, 2000) or the full compaction

  18. Observation of interactions between hydrophilic ionic liquid and water on wet agar gels by FE-SEM and its mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Chisato; Shirai, Takashi [Ceramics Research Laboratory, Nagoya Institute of Technology, 3-101-1, Honmachi, Tajimi, Gifu 507-0033 (Japan); Fuji, Masayoshi, E-mail: fuji@nitech.ac.jp [Ceramics Research Laboratory, Nagoya Institute of Technology, 3-101-1, Honmachi, Tajimi, Gifu 507-0033 (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mechanism of SEM observation of agar gel using ionic liquid was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Weak hydrogen bond between ionic liquid and water exist even under vacuum condition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ionic liquid binding ability with water is useful for observing wet material using FE-SEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We could optimize the water concentrations of sample of IL and wet material mixtures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEM observation of fine morphology of agar gel in optimum water content. - Abstract: In the present study, an attempt is made to understand the mechanism of field emission electron microscopy (FE-SEM) observation of wet agar gel using a typical hydrophilic ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate; [BMIM][BF{sub 4}]. The IL interaction with water molecules within agar gel during sample preparation condition for FE-SEM observation was investigated using Raman spectroscopy. Results showed that water molecules within agar gel form weak hydrogen bond such as BF{sub 4}{sup -} Midline-Horizontal-Ellipsis HOH Midline-Horizontal-Ellipsis BF{sub 4}{sup -} by interaction with BF{sub 4}{sup -} of IL, and, it remained stable even under vacuum condition at 60 Degree-Sign C, 24 h. This interaction was found to be helpful for IL displacement of the water molecules within agar gel. From this study, it was found that the exact morphology of gel materials in FE-SEM condition can be observed by optimization of water concentrations of IL and gel mixtures. Thus, using IL, agar gel or any other material under wet condition can be observed without drying in FE-SEM chamber, and, present result gives an insight to the mechanism of FE-SEM observation of agar gel using IL without any conducting coating.

  19. Ice-shelf melting around Antarctica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rignot, E; Jacobs, S; Mouginot, J; Scheuchl, B

    2013-01-01

    We compare the volume flux divergence of Antarctic ice shelves in 2007 and 2008 with 1979 to 2010 surface accumulation and 2003 to 2008 thinning to determine their rates of melting and mass balance...

  20. Energy-Efficient Glass Melting: Submerged Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-01-01

    Oxy-gas-fired submerged combustion melter offers simpler, improved performance. For the last 100 years, the domestic glass industry has used the same basic equipment for melting glass on an industrial scale.

  1. Principle of Melt-glue Cloth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈人豪; 曹建达; 李济群; 张利梅; 何洋

    2003-01-01

    This paper advances a new concept of textile-meltglue cloth, and introduces the readers to the basic principle of melt-glue cloth. On the basis of melt spinning, the spinneret can be replaced by a spinning device that consists of an outer spinneret (a loop)and an inner spinneret ( a round plate), and between them there is an interval circle on which the centers of the holes are evenly distributed. When the machine is running, the outer spinneret (or the inner one) is fixed, the inner spinneret (or the outer one)is spinning, and a columnar net will be obtained.Then it will be excided with the help of a cutter in transporting it. Finally the once-forming melt-glue cloth will be produced. Compared with the traditional woven fabric, melt-glue cloth has a lot of special features and a bright future of application.

  2. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Melting Efficiency Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Principal Investigator Kent Peaslee; Co-PI’s: Von Richards, Jeffrey Smith

    2012-07-31

    Steel foundries melt recycled scrap in electric furnaces and typically consume 35-100% excess energy from the theoretical energy requirement required to pour metal castings. This excess melting energy is multiplied by yield losses during casting and finishing operations resulting in the embodied energy in a cast product typically being three to six times the theoretical energy requirement. The purpose of this research project was to study steel foundry melting operations to understand energy use and requirements for casting operations, define variations in energy consumption, determine technologies and practices that are successful in reducing melting energy and develop new melting techniques and tools to improve the energy efficiency of melting in steel foundry operations.

  3. Point defects in hard-sphere crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Pronk, S.; Frenkel, D.

    2001-01-01

    We report numerical calculations of the concentration of interstitials in hard-sphere crystals. We find that, in a three-dimensional fcc hard-sphere crystal at the melting point, the concentration of interstitials is 2 * 10^-8. This is some three orders of magnitude lower than the concentration of vacancies. A simple, analytical estimate yields a value that is in fair agreement with the numerical results.

  4. Melt spreading code assessment, modifications, and application to the EPR core catcher design.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, M. T .; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-03-30

    validation consisted of: (1) comparison to an analytical solution for the dam break problem, (2) water spreading tests in a 1/10 linear scale model of the Mark I containment by Theofanous et al., and (3) steel spreading tests by Suzuki et al. that were also conducted in a geometry similar to the Mark I. The objective of this work was to utilize the MELTSPREAD code to check the assumption of uniform melt spreading in the EPR core catcher design. As a starting point for the project, the code was validated against the worldwide melt spreading database that emerged after the code was originally written in the very early 1990's. As part of this exercise, the code was extensively modified and upgraded to incorporate findings from these various analytical and experiment programs. In terms of expanding the ability of the code to analyze various melt simulant experiments, the options to input user-specified melt and/or substrate material properties was added. The ability to perform invisicid and/or adiabatic spreading analysis was also added so that comparisons with analytical solutions and isothermal spreading tests could be carried out. In terms of refining the capability to carry out reactor material melt spreading analyses, the code was upgraded with a new melt viscosity model; the capability was added to treat situations in which solid fraction buildup between the liquidus-solidus is non-linear; and finally, the ability to treat an interfacial heat transfer resistance between the melt and substrate was incorporated. This last set of changes substantially improved the predictive capability of the code in terms of addressing reactor material melt spreading tests. Aside from improvements and upgrades, a method was developed to fit the model to the various melt spreading tests in a manner that allowed uncertainties in the model predictions to be statistically characterized. With these results, a sensitivity study was performed to investigate the assumption of uniform spreading

  5. Electrochemical Studies in Aluminum Chloride Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-07-31

    Molten Salt Systems", Symposium on Molten Salts, Symposium Volume, The Electrochemical Society , in press (1976). Manuscripts in Preparation--Related to...Fused Salt Technology, Electrochemical Society Meeting, Chicaao, May 8-13, 1973. R. A. Osteryoung, R. H. Abel, L. G. Boxall and B. H. Vassos, "An...aluminate Melts", Electrochemical Society , San Francisco, CA, May, 1974. R. A. Osteryoung, "Chemistry in Aluminum Chloride Melts", Fifth International

  6. Terrestrial analogues for lunar impact melt flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neish, C. D.; Hamilton, C. W.; Hughes, S. S.; Nawotniak, S. Kobs; Garry, W. B.; Skok, J. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Schaefer, E.; Carter, L. M.; Bandfield, J. L.; Osinski, G. R.; Lim, D.; Heldmann, J. L.

    2017-01-01

    Lunar impact melt deposits have unique physical properties. They have among the highest observed radar returns at S-Band (12.6 cm wavelength), implying that they are rough at the decimeter scale. However, they are also observed in high-resolution optical imagery to be quite smooth at the meter scale. These characteristics distinguish them from well-studied terrestrial analogues, such as Hawaiian pāhoehoe and ´a´ā lava flows. The morphology of impact melt deposits can be related to their emplacement conditions, so understanding the origin of these unique surface properties will help to inform us as to the circumstances under which they were formed. In this work, we seek to find a terrestrial analogue for well-preserved lunar impact melt flows by examining fresh lava flows on Earth. We compare the radar return and high-resolution topographic variations of impact melt flows to terrestrial lava flows with a range of surface textures. The lava flows examined in this work range from smooth Hawaiian pāhoehoe to transitional basaltic flows at Craters of the Moon (COTM) National Monument and Preserve in Idaho to rubbly and spiny pāhoehoe-like flows at the recent eruption at Holuhraun in Iceland. The physical properties of lunar impact melt flows appear to differ from those of all the terrestrial lava flows studied in this work. This may be due to (a) differences in post-emplacement modification processes or (b) fundamental differences in the surface texture of the melt flows due to the melts' unique emplacement and/or cooling environment. Information about the surface properties of lunar impact melt deposits will be critical for future landed missions that wish to sample these materials.

  7. PEMANFAATAN LIMBAH SEKAM PADI MENJADI SILIKA GEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prima Astuti Handayani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sekam padi merupakan salah satu sumber penghasil silika terbesar, berpotensi sebagai bahan pembuatan silika gel. Abu sekam padi mengandung silika sebanyak 87%-97% berat kering. Sintesis silika gel dari abu sekam padi dilakukan dengan mereaksikan abu sekam padi menggunakan larutan NaOH 1N pada suhu 800C selama 1 jam dan dilanjutkan dengan penambahan larutan asam hingga pH=7. Gel yang dihasilkan selanjutnya didiamkan selama 18 jam kemudian dikeringkan pada suhu dikeringkan menggunakan oven pada suhu 800C hingga beratnya konstan. Hasil percobaan diperoleh bahwa silika gel dengan penambahan CH3COOH menghasilkan yield yang lebih besar dibandingkan penambahan HCl. Berdasarkan analisis FT-IR silika gel yang diperoleh memiliki gugus Si-O-Si dan gugus Si-OH. Silika gel dengan penambahan HCl memiliki surface area sebesar 65,558 m2/g, total pore volume 0,1935 cc/g, dan average pore size sebesar 59,0196 Å. Sedangkan silika gel dengan penambahan CH3COOH memiliki surface area sebesar 9,685 m2/g, total pore volume 0,02118 cc/g, dan average pore size sebesar 43,7357Å. Silika gel dengan penambahanCH3COOH memiliki kemampuan menyerap kelembaban udara yang lebih baik dibanding silika gel dengan penambahan HCl. Rice hull ash (RHA is one of the biggest source of silica, potential for sintesis silica gel. RHA contains silica as many as 87 % -97 %. Synthesis of silica gel from rice hull ash was done by reaction using NaOH solution at temperature 800C for 1 hour and followed by the addition of an acid solution until pH=7. The gel were rested with time aging 18 hour, and then dried using oven at temperature 800C until constant weigh. The results obtained that the silica gel with the addition of CH3COOH produce higher yields than the addition of HCl. Based on FT-IR analysis, silica gel has a group of silanol (Si-`OH and siloxan (Si-O-Si group. Silica gel with the addition of HCl has a surface area 65,558 m2/g, a total pore volume 0,1935 cc/g, and average pore size 59

  8. Metal-silica sol-gel materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiegman, Albert E. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to a single phase metal-silica sol-gel glass formed by the co-condensation of a transition metal with silicon atoms where the metal atoms are uniformly distributed within the sol-gel glass as individual metal centers. Any transition metal may be used in the sol-gel glasses. The present invention also relates to sensor materials where the sensor material is formed using the single phase metal-silica sol-gel glasses. The sensor materials may be in the form of a thin film or may be attached to an optical fiber. The present invention also relates to a method of sensing chemicals using the chemical sensors by monitoring the chromatic change of the metal-silica sol-gel glass when the chemical binds to the sensor. The present invention also relates to oxidation catalysts where a metal-silica sol-gel glass catalyzes the reaction. The present invention also relates to a method of performing oxidation reactions using the metal-silica sol-gel glasses. The present invention also relates to organopolymer metal-silica sol-gel composites where the pores of the metal-silica sol-gel glasses are filled with an organic polymer polymerized by the sol-gel glass.

  9. The melting and solidification of nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, B. J.; Myers, T. G.

    2016-06-01

    A mathematical model is developed to describe the melting of nanowires. The first section of the paper deals with a standard theoretical situation, where the wire melts due to a fixed boundary temperature. This analysis allows us to compare with existing results for the phase change of nanospheres. The equivalent solidification problem is also examined. This shows that solidification is a faster process than melting; this is because the energy transfer occurs primarily through the solid rather than the liquid which is a poorer conductor of heat. This effect competes with the energy required to create new solid surface which acts to slow down the process, but overall conduction dominates. In the second section, we consider a more physically realistic boundary condition, where the phase change occurs due to a heat flux from surrounding material. This removes the singularity in initial melt velocity predicted in previous models of nanoparticle melting. It is shown that even with the highest possible flux the melting time is significantly slower than with a fixed boundary temperature condition.

  10. Melting behavior of large disordered sodium clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Aguado, A

    2000-01-01

    The melting-like transition in disordered sodium clusters Na_N, with N=92 and 142 is studied by using a first-principles constant-energy molecular dynamics simulation method. Na_142, whose atoms are distributed in two (surface and inner) main shells with different radial distances to the center of mass of the cluster, melts in two steps: the first one, at approx. 130 K, is characterized by a high intrashell mobility of the atoms, and the second, homogeneous melting, at approx. 270 K, involves diffusive motion of all the atoms across the whole cluster volume (both intrashell and intershell displacements are allowed). On the contrary, the melting of Na_92 proceeds gradually over a very wide temperature interval, without any abrupt step visible in the thermal or structural melting indicators. The occurrence of well defined steps in the melting transition is then shown to be related to the existence of a distribution of the atoms in shells. Thereby we propose a necessary condition for a cluster to be considered r...

  11. Manufacturing laser glass by continuous melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J H; Suratwala, T; krenitsky, S; Takeuchi, K

    2000-07-01

    A novel, continuous melting process is being used to manufacture meter-sized plates of laser glass at a rate 20-times faster, 5-times cheaper, and with 2-3 times better optical quality than with previous one-at-a-time, ''discontinuous'' technology processes. This new technology for manufacturing laser glass, which is arguably the most difficult continuously-melted optical material ever produced, comes as a result of a $60 million, six-year joint R&D program between government and industry. The glasses manufactured by the new continuous melting process are Nd-doped phosphate-based glasses and are marketed under the product names LG-770 (Schott Glass Technologies) and LHG-8 (Hoya Corporation USA). With this advance in glass manufacturing technology, it is now possible to construct high-energy, high-peak-power lasers for use in fusion energy development, national defense, and basic physics research that would have been impractical to build using the old melting technology. The development of continuously melted laser glass required technological advances that have lead to improvements in the manufacture of other optical glass products as well. For example, advances in forming, annealing, and conditioning steps of the laser glass continuous melting process are now being used in manufacture of other large-size optical glasses.

  12. Low temperature synthesis of CaO-SiO2 glasses having stable liquid-liquid immiscibility by the sol-gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, N. P.

    1992-01-01

    Calcium silicate glass compositions lying within the liquid-liquid immiscibility dome of the phase diagram, which could not have been prepared by the conventional melting method, were synthesized by the sol-gel process. Hydrolysis and polycondensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) solutions containing up to 20 mol percent calcium nitrate resulted in the formation of clear and transparent gels. The gel formation time decreased with increase in water: TEOS mole ratio, calcium content, and the reaction temperature. Smaller values of gel times in the presence of calcium nitrate are probably caused by lowering of the ionic charge on the sol particles by the salt present. The gelation activation energy, E(sub gel), was evaluated from temperature dependence of the gel time. Presence of Ca(2+) ions or the water:TEOS mole ratio did not have an appreciable effect on the value of E(sub gel). Presence of glycerol in the solution helped in the formation of crack-free monolithic gel specimens. Chemical and structural changes occurring in the gels, as a function of the heat treatments, have been monitored using DTA, TGA, IR-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, surface area and pore size distribution measurements.

  13. Low temperature synthesis of CaO-SiO2 glasses having stable liquid-liquid immiscibility by sol-gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    1990-01-01

    Calcium silicate glass compositions lying within the liquid-liquid immiscibility dome of the phase diagram, which could not have been prepared by the conventional melting method, were synthesized by the sol-gel process. Hydrolysis and polycondensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) solutions containing up to 20 mol percent calcium nitrate resulted in the formation of clear and transparent gels. The gel formation time decreased with increase in water:TEOS mole ratio, calcium content, and the reaction temperature. Smaller values of gel times in the presence of calcium nitrate are probably caused by lowering of the ionic charge on the sol particles by the salt present. The gelation activation energy, E(sub gel), was evaluated from temperature dependence of the gel time. Presence of Ca(2+) ions or the water:TEOS mole ratio did not have an appreciable effect on the value of E(sub gel). Presence of glycerol in the solution helped in the formation of crack-free monolithic gel specimens. Chemical and structural changes occurring in the gels, as a function of the heat treatments, have been monitored using DTA, TGA, IR-spectroscopy, x ray diffraction, surface area and pore size distribution measurements.

  14. Fatigue behavior of porous biomaterials manufactured using selective laser melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavari, S Amin; Wauthle, R; van der Stok, J; Riemslag, A C; Janssen, M; Mulier, M; Kruth, J P; Schrooten, J; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2013-12-01

    Porous titanium alloys are considered promising bone-mimicking biomaterials. Additive manufacturing techniques such as selective laser melting allow for manufacturing of porous titanium structures with a precise design of micro-architecture. The mechanical properties of selective laser melted porous titanium alloys with different designs of micro-architecture have been already studied and are shown to be in the range of mechanical properties of bone. However, the fatigue behavior of this biomaterial is not yet well understood. We studied the fatigue behavior of porous structures made of Ti6Al4V ELI powder using selective laser melting. Four different porous structures were manufactured with porosities between 68 and 84% and the fatigue S-N curves of these four porous structures were determined. The three-stage mechanism of fatigue failure of these porous structures is described and studied in detail. It was found that the absolute S-N curves of these four porous structures are very different. In general, given the same absolute stress level, the fatigue life is much shorter for more porous structures. However, the normalized fatigue S-N curves of these four structures were found to be very similar. A power law was fitted to all data points of the normalized S-N curves. It is shown that the measured data points conform to the fitted power law very well, R(2)=0.94. This power law may therefore help in estimating the fatigue life of porous structures for which no fatigue test data is available. It is also observed that the normalized endurance limit of all tested porous structures (<0.2) is lower than that of corresponding solid material (c.a. 0.4).

  15. Primary crustal melt compositions: Insights into the controls, mechanisms and timing of generation from kinetics experiments and melt inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Vigil, Antonio; London, David; Morgan, George B.; Cesare, Bernardo; Buick, Ian; Hermann, Jörg; Bartoli, Omar

    2017-08-01

    We explore the controls, mechanisms and timing of generation of primary melts and their compositions, and show that the novel studies of melt inclusions in migmatites can provide important insights into the processes of crustal anatexis of a particular rock. Partial melting in the source region of granites is dependent on five main processes: (i) supply of heat; (ii) mineral-melt interface reactions associated with the detachment and supply of mineral components to the melt, (iii) diffusion in the melt, (iv) diffusion in minerals, and (v) recrystallization of minerals. As the kinetics of these several processes vary over several orders of magnitude, it is essential to evaluate in Nature which of these processes control the rate of melting, the composition of melts, and the extent to which residue-melt chemical equilibrium is attained under different circumstances. To shed light on these issues, we combine data from experimental and melt inclusion studies. First, data from an extensive experimental program on the kinetics of melting of crustal protoliths and diffusion in granite melt are used to set up the necessary framework that describes how primary melt compositions are established during crustal anatexis. Then, we use this reference frame and compare compositional trends from experiments with the composition of melt inclusions analyzed in particular migmatites. We show that, for the case of El Hoyazo anatectic enclaves in lavas, the composition of glassy melt inclusions provides important information on the nature and mechanisms of anatexis during the prograde suprasolidus history of these rocks, including melting temperatures and reactions, and extent of melt interconnection, melt homogenization and melt-residue equilibrium. Compositional trends in several of the rehomogenized melt inclusions in garnet from migmatites/granulites in anatectic terranes are consistent with diffusion in melt-controlled melting, though trace element compositions of melt inclusions

  16. Sol-gel electrochromic device

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    All solid state electrochromic devices have potential applications in architectural and automotive fields to regulate the transmission and reflection of radiant energy. We present the optical and electrochemical characteristics of two solid state windows having the configuration glass/ITO/TiO2-CeO2/TiO2/TiO2-CeO2/ITO/glass and glass/ITO/WOa/TiO2/TiO2-CeO2/ITO/glass where the three internal layers have been prepared by sol gel methods. The preparation of the individual sols and some physical p...

  17. Motility initiation in active gels

    CERN Document Server

    Recho, Pierre; Truskinovsky, Lev

    2015-01-01

    Motility initiation in crawling cells requires a symmetry breaking mechanism which transforms a symmetric state into a polarized state. Experiments on keratocytes suggest that polarization is triggered by increased contractility of motor proteins. In this paper we argue that contraction can be responsible not only for the symmetry breaking transition but also for the incipient translocation of the segment of an active gel mimicking the crawling cell. Our model suggests that when the contractility increases sufficiently far beyond the motility initiation threshold, the cell can stop and re-symmetrizes. The proposed theory reproduces the motility initiation pattern in fish keratocytes and the behavior of keratocytes prior to cell division.

  18. The effect of salt on the melting of ice: A molecular dynamics simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun Soo; Yethiraj, Arun

    2008-09-01

    The effect of added salt (NaCl) on the melting of ice is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. The equilibrium freezing point depression observed in the simulations is in good agreement with experimental data. The kinetic aspects of melting are investigated in terms of the exchange of water molecules between ice and the liquid phase. The ice/liquid equilibrium is a highly dynamic process with frequent exchange of water molecules between ice and the liquid phase. The balance is disturbed when ice melts and the melting proceeds in two stages; the inhibition of the association of water molecules to the ice surface at short times, followed by the increased dissociation of water molecules from the ice surface at longer times. We also find that Cl- ions penetrate more deeply into the interfacial region than Na+ ions during melting. This study provides an understanding of the kinetic aspects of melting that could be useful in other processes such as the inhibition of ice growth by antifreeze proteins.

  19. Nucleation of melting and solidification in confined high aspect ratio thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastandrea, J. P.; Ager, J. W.; Chrzan, D. C.

    2017-09-01

    Classical nucleation theory is used to consider the solidification of a melt confined between two planar surfaces. The critical nucleus shapes and the associated nucleation energy barriers are computed as a function of the thickness of the film and the film's relevant bulk and interface energies. The analysis is then repeated for the melting transition, and expressions for the depression and elevation of the melting temperature, relative to the thermodynamic bulk melting temperature of the film material, are found. A nucleus morphology diagram is constructed. This diagram presents the lowest energy morphology of the nuclei, as well as melting points, as a function of the system parameters. Using the nucleus morphology diagram, experimental and system parameters that allow for the desired nucleation behavior can be identified. Furthermore, the nucleus morphology diagram illustrates a region of parameter space where the film is predicted to solidify above its thermodynamic bulk melting temperature, a behavior termed presolidification. The theory is used to predict the temperature at which the nucleation of the solid phase and liquid phase is expected for Ge between two glass substrates. Furthermore, a possible route for controlling the orientation of the film is identified. By controlling the growth temperature, certain orientations may not be able to nucleate, thereby reducing the possible number of orientations within a film.

  20. Congruent melting of gallium nitride at 6 GPa and its application to single-crystal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsumi, Wataru; Saitoh, Hiroyuki; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Watanuki, Tetsu; Aoki, Katsutoshi; Shimomura, Osamu

    2003-11-01

    The synthesis of large single crystals of GaN (gallium nitride) is a matter of great importance in optoelectronic devices for blue-light-emitting diodes and lasers. Although high-quality bulk single crystals of GaN suitable for substrates are desired, the standard method of cooling its stoichiometric melt has been unsuccessful for GaN because it decomposes into Ga and N(2) at high temperatures before its melting point. Here we report that applying high pressure completely prevents the decomposition and allows the stoichiometric melting of GaN. At pressures above 6.0 GPa, congruent melting of GaN occurred at about 2,220 degrees C, and decreasing the temperature allowed the GaN melt to crystallize to the original structure, which was confirmed by in situ X-ray diffraction. Single crystals of GaN were formed by cooling the melt slowly under high pressures and were recovered at ambient conditions.

  1. Examination of nanosecond laser melting thresholds in refractory metals by shear wave acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullaev, A.; Muminov, B.; Rakhymzhanov, A.; Mynbayev, N.; Utegulov, Z. N.

    2017-07-01

    Nanosecond laser pulse-induced melting thresholds in refractory (Nb, Mo, Ta and W) metals are measured using detected laser-generated acoustic shear waves. Obtained melting threshold values were found to be scaled with corresponding melting point temperatures of investigated materials displaying dissimilar shearing behavior. The experiments were conducted with motorized control of the incident laser pulse energies with small and uniform energy increments to reach high measurement accuracy and real-time monitoring of the epicentral acoustic waveforms from the opposite side of irradiated sample plates. Measured results were found to be in good agreement with numerical finite element model solving coupled elastodynamic and thermal conduction governing equations on structured quadrilateral mesh. Solid-melt phase transition was handled by means of apparent heat capacity method. The onset of melting was attributed to vanished shear modulus and rapid radial molten pool propagation within laser-heated metal leading to preferential generation of transverse acoustic waves from sources surrounding the molten mass resulting in the delay of shear wave transit times. Developed laser-based technique aims for applications involving remote examination of rapid melting processes of materials present in harsh environment (e.g. spent nuclear fuels) with high spatio-temporal resolution.

  2. Recent changes in Arctic sea ice melt onset, freezeup, and melt season length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Thorsten; Stroeve, Julienne C.; Miller, Jeffrey

    2009-12-01

    In order to explore changes and trends in the timing of Arctic sea ice melt onset and freezeup, and therefore melt season length, we developed a method that obtains this information directly from satellite passive microwave data, creating a consistent data set from 1979 through present. We furthermore distinguish between early melt (the first day of the year when melt is detected) and the first day of continuous melt. A similar distinction is made for the freezeup. Using this method we analyze trends in melt onset and freezeup for 10 different Arctic regions. In all regions except for the Sea of Okhotsk, which shows a very slight and statistically insignificant positive trend (0.4 d decade-1), trends in melt onset are negative, i.e., toward earlier melt. The trends range from -1.0 d decade-1 for the Bering Sea to -7.3 d decade-1 for the East Greenland Sea. Except for the Sea of Okhotsk all areas also show a trend toward later autumn freeze onset. The Chukchi/Beaufort seas and Laptev/East Siberian seas observe the strongest trends with 7 d decade-1. For the entire Arctic, the melt season length has increased by about 20 days over the last 30 years. Largest trends of over 10 d decade-1 are seen for Hudson Bay, the East Greenland Sea, the Laptev/East Siberian seas, and the Chukchi/Beaufort seas. Those trends are statistically significant at the 99% level.

  3. Freezing and melting equations for the n-6 Lennard-Jones systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Khrapak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We generalize previous approach of Khrapak and Morfill [J. Chem. Phys. 134, 094108 (2011] to construct simple and sufficiently accurate freezing and melting equations for the conventional Lennard-Jones (LJ system to n-6 LJ systems, using the accurate results for the triple points of these systems published by Sousa et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 136, 174502 (2012].

  4. Biocompatibility of glass-crystalline materials obtained by the sol-gel method: effect on macrophage function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turyna, B; Milc, J; Laczka, A; Cholewa, K; Laczka, M

    1996-07-01

    The aim of this work was to confirm in vitro biocompatibility of a new gel-derived glass-crystalline material containing hydroxyapatite and wollastonite phases. For the purpose of comparison, studies were also carried out for a material of the same chemical composition obtained by the traditional melting method. We examined the behaviour and response of cells cultured in the presence of the studied materials. The level of activation of macrophages in culture was determined using three different methods: measurement of respiratory burst by chemiluminescence, nitrite assay and by bioassay of secreted cytokines after immunoelectrophoresis of acute phase proteins from hepatoma cells. All our results show a relatively low, close to control level, activation of macrophages exposed to the studied materials. This indicates a good biocompatibility of both the gel-derived material and the material obtained by the traditional melting method.

  5. Influence of New Sol-gel Refractory Coating on the Casting Properties of Cold Box and Furan Cores for Grey Cast iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nwaogu, Ugochukwu Chibuzoh; Poulsen, T.; Bischoff, C

    2010-01-01

    New Sol-Gel coated sand cores made from coldbox and furan binder systems were investigated. The idea of the coating was to improve the surface quality of castings. Grey iron was cast on the cores in a sand casting process. The effect of the high temperature of the melt on the cores was assessed...... transport zone (VTZ) when in contact with the melt is larger than it is in a coldbox which means the furan cores have higher moisture content. The new sol-gel coating has the potential for improving the surface quality of castings without negative effects on the graphite distribution. The surface...... of castings made using the new sol-gel coated furan cores show better surface quality than those made using the coldbox....

  6. Properties of lipophilic matrix tablets containing phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride prepared by hot-melt extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Zhang, F; McGinity, J W

    2001-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of formulation factors on the physical properties of hot-melt extruded granules and compressed tablets containing wax as a thermal binder/retarding agent, and to compare the properties of granules and tablets with those prepared by a high-shear melt granulation (MG) method. Powder blends containing phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride, Precirol and various excipients were extruded in a single-screw extruder at open-end discharge conditions. The extrudates were then passed through a 14-mesh screen to form granules. The extrusion conditions and the optimum amount of wax to function as the thermal binder were dependent on the properties of the filler excipients. At the same wax level, drug release from tablets decreased in the order of using microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), lactose and Emcompress as the filler excipient. The observed differences in the dissolution properties of the tablets were due to the differences in the solubility, swellability and density of the filler excipients. Replacing Precirol with Sterotex K, a higher melting point wax, resulted in slightly increased dissolution rates, when the extrusion was performed at the same temperature conditions. Hot-melt extruded granules were observed to be less spherical than high-shear melt granules and showed lower values of bulk/tap densities. However, tablets containing MCC or lactose granules prepared by hot-melt extrusion (HME) exhibited higher hardness values. Slower drug release rates were found for tablets containing MCC by HME compared with MG. Analysis of the hot-melt extruded granules showed better drug content uniformity among granules of different size ranges compared with high-shear melt granules, resulting in a more reproducible drug release from the corresponding tablets.

  7. Melting of size-selected gallium clusters with 60-183 atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyfer, Katheryne L; Kafader, Jared O; Yalamanchali, Anirudh; Jarrold, Martin F

    2014-07-10

    Heat capacities have been measured as a function of temperature for size-selected gallium cluster cations with between 60 and 183 atoms. Almost all clusters studied show a single peak in the heat capacity that is attributed to a melting transition. The peaks can be fit by a two-state model incorporating only fully solid-like and fully liquid-like species, and hence no partially melted intermediates. The exceptions are Ga90(+), which does not show a peak, and Ga80(+) and Ga81(+), which show two peaks. For the clusters with two peaks, the lower temperature peak is attributed to a structural transition. The melting temperatures for clusters with less than 50 atoms have previously been shown to be hundreds of degrees above the bulk melting point. For clusters with more than 60 atoms the melting temperatures decrease, approaching the bulk value (303 K) at around 95 atoms, and then show several small upward excursions with increasing cluster size. A plot of the latent heat against the entropy change for melting reveals two groups of clusters: the latent heats and entropy changes for clusters with less than 94 atoms are distinct from those for clusters with more than 93 atoms. This observation suggests that a significant change in the nature of the bonding or the structure of the clusters occurs at 93-94 atoms. Even though the melting temperatures are close to the bulk value for the larger clusters studied here, the latent heats and entropies of melting are still far from the bulk values.

  8. Edge-melting: nanoscale key-mechanism to explain nanoparticle formation from heated TEM grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesaria, Maura, E-mail: maura.cesaria@le.infn.it [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Taurino, Antonietta; Catalano, Massimo [Institute for Microelectronics and Microsystems, IMM-CNR, Via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Caricato, Anna Paola; Martino, Maurizio [Department of Mathematics and Physics “E. De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2016-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nanoparticle formation from metal grids explained by edge melting as key mechanism. • The inconsistency of bulk phenomenology invoking the vapor pressure is discussed. • Surface-melting and size-dependent evaporation are questioned as unsatisfactory. • Edge-melting: edges, corners, facets invoked as highly thermally unstable surfaces. • The polycrystalline nature of the really occurring metal grids is accounted for. - Abstract: In this study, we examine at both experimental and fundamental levels, the experimental evidence of nanoparticle formation in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) metal grids annealed at temperatures lower than the melting point of the corresponding metal bulk material. Our experimental investigation considers the most thermally unstable TEM grids (i.e. Cu-grids) and inspects the possible sources and mechanisms of contamination of thin films, conventionally deposited on carbon-coated Cu-grids. The investigations are supported by morphological–compositional analyses performed in different regions of the TEM sample. Then, a general model is formulated and discussed in order to explain the grid thermal instability, based on the critical role of edge-melting (i.e. melting initiated at edges and corners of the grid bars), the enhanced rate of evaporation from a liquid surface and the polycristallinity of the grid bars. Hence, we totally disregard conventional arguments such as bulk evaporation and metal vapor pressure and, in order to emphasize and clarify the alternative point of view of our model, we also overview the nano-scale melting phenomenology relevant to our discussion and survey the discrepancies reported in the literature.

  9. Active Gel Model of Amoeboid Cell Motility

    CERN Document Server

    Callan-Jones, A C

    2013-01-01

    We develop a model of amoeboid cell motility based on active gel theory. Modeling the motile apparatus of a eukaryotic cell as a confined layer of finite length of poroelastic active gel permeated by a solvent, we first show that, due to active stress and gel turnover, an initially static and homogeneous layer can undergo a contractile-type instability to a polarized moving state in which the rear is enriched in gel polymer. This agrees qualitatively with motile cells containing an actomyosin-rich uropod at their rear. We find that the gel layer settles into a steadily moving, inhomogeneous state at long times, sustained by a balance between contractility and filament turnover. In addition, our model predicts an optimal value of the gel-susbstrate adhesion leading to maximum layer speed, in agreement with cell motility assays. The model may be relevant to motility of cells translocating in complex, confining environments that can be mimicked experimentally by cell migration through microchannels.

  10. Self-Pumping Active Gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kun-Ta; Hishamunda, Jean Bernard; Fraden, Seth; Dogic, Zvonimir

    Isotropic active gels are the network which is consist of cross-linked building blocks and the structure of which changes randomly and isotropically with time. Dogic et. al. show that pairs of anti-parallel microtubules form extensile bundles, which merge, extend, and buckle. In an unconfined system, the dynamics of these bundles causes spontaneous turbulent-like flow driven by motion of microscopic molecular motors. We found that confining these active gels in a millimeter sized toroids causes a transition into a new dynamical state characterized by circulation currents persisting for hours until ATP is depleted. We show how toroid dimensions impact the properties of self-organized circular currents, how directions of circulation can be designed by engineering ratchet-shaped boundaries, and how circulations of connected toroids can be either synchronized or antisynchronized. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the flow rate in the circulation is independent of curvature and length of flow path. The flow rate persists for centimeters without decay, disregarding conventional pipe flow resistance. Such findings pave the path to self-pumping pipe transport and performing physical work with biological system.

  11. Gel trapping of dense colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxton, Peter B; Berg, John C

    2005-05-01

    Phase density differences in sols, foams, or emulsions often lead to sedimentation or creaming, causing problems for materials where spatial uniformity over extended periods of time is essential. The problem may be addressed through the use of rheology modifiers in the continuous phase. Weak polymer gels have found use for this purpose in the food industry where they appear to be capable of trapping dispersoid particles in a three-dimensional matrix while displaying water-like viscosities at low shear. Attempts to predict sedimentation stability in terms of particle properties (size, shape, density difference) and gel yield stress have led to qualitative success for suspensions of large particles. The effect of particle size, however, in particular the case in which colloidal dimensions are approached, has not been investigated. The present work seeks to determine useful stability criteria for colloidal dispersions in terms of readily accessible viscoelastic descriptors. Results are reported for systems consisting of 12 microm poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) spheres dispersed in aqueous gellan gum. Monovalent salt concentration is varied to control rheological properties, and sedimentation/centrifugation experiments are performed to determine dispersion stability. Necessary conditions for stability consist of a minimum yield stress together with a value of tan delta less than unity.

  12. Characteristics of polyacrylamide gel with THPC and Turnbull Blue gel dosimeters evaluated using optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilařová (Vávrů), Kateřina; Kozubíková, Petra; Šolc, Jaroslav; Spěváček, Václav

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare characteristics of radiochromic gel - Turnbull Blue gel (TB gel) with polymer gel - polyacrylamide gel and tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium chloride (PAGAT) using optical tomography. Both types of gels were examined in terms of dose sensitivity, dose response linearity and background value of spectrophotometric absorbance. The calibration curve was obtained for 60Co irradiation performed on Gammacell 220 at predefined gamma dose levels between 0 and 140 Gy for TBG and 0-15 Gy for PAGAT. To measure relative dose distributions from stereotactic irradiation, dosimeters were irradiated on Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion. The cylindrical glass housings filled with gel were attached to the stereotactic frame. They were exposed with single shot and 16 mm collimator by 65 Gy to a 50% prescription isodose for TB gel and 4 Gy to a 50% prescription isodose for PAGAT. Evaluations of dosimeters were performed on an UV-vis Spectrophotometer Helios β and an optical cone beam homemade tomography scanner with a 16-bit astronomy CCD camera with a set of color filters. The advantages and potential disadvantages for both types of gel dosimeters were summarized. Dose distribution in central slice and measured profiles of 16 mm shot shows excellent correspondence with treatment planning system Leksell GammaPlan® for both PAGAT and Turnbull Blue gels. Gel dosimeters are suitable for steep dose gradient verification. An optical tomography evaluation method is successful. Dose response characteristics of TB gel and PAGAT gel are presented.

  13. Moment scaling at the sol-gel transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botet, R. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique des Solides; Ploszajczak, M. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds, 14 - Caen (France)

    1998-05-06

    Two standard models of sol-gel transition are revisited here from the point of view of their fluctuations in various moments of both the mass-distribution and the gel-mass. Bond-percolation model is an at-equilibrium system and undergoes a static second-order phase transition, while Monte-Carlo Smoluchowski model is an off-equilibrium one and shows a dynamical critical phenomenon. It is shown that the macroscopic quantities can be splitted into the three classes with different scaling properties of their fluctuations, depending on whether they correspond to: (i) non-critical quantities, (ii) critical quantities or to (iii) an order parameter. (author) 15 refs.

  14. Gel time of calcium acrylate grouting material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩同春

    2004-01-01

    Calcium acrylate is a polymerized grout, and can polymerize in an aqueous solution. The polymerizationreaction utilizes ammonium persulfate as a catalyst and sodium thiosulfate as the activator. Based on the theory of reactionkinetics, this study on the relation between gel time and concentration of activator and catalyst showed that gel time ofcalcium acrylate is inversely proportional to activator and catalyst concentration. A formula of gel time is proposed, and anexample is provided to verify the proposed formula.

  15. Gel time of calcium acrylate grouting material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩同春

    2004-01-01

    Calcium acrylate is a polymerized grout, and can polymerize in an aqueous solution. The polymerization reaction utilizes ammonium persulfate as a catalyst and sodium thiosulfate as the activator. Based on the theory of reaction kinetics, this study on the relation between gel time and concentration of activator and catalyst showed that gel time of calcium acrylate is inversely proportional to activator and catalyst concentration. A formula of gel time is proposed, and an example is provided to verify the proposed formula.

  16. Stabilized aqueous gels and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, B.L.

    1978-08-29

    New improved aqueous gels, and methods of using same in contacting subterranean formations, are provided. The gels are prepared by gelling an aqueous brine having incorporated therein a water-soluble cellulose ether such as a carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), and are rendered more stable to decomposition by incorporating a sulfoalkylated tannin stabilizing agent, such as a sulfomethylated quebracho (SMQ), in the gel during the preparation thereof.

  17. Integral coolant channels supply made by melt-out method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, W. J. D.

    1964-01-01

    Melt-out method of constructing strong, pressure-tight fluid coolant channels for chambers is accomplished by cementing pins to the surface and by depositing a melt-out material on the surface followed by two layers of epoxy-resin impregnated glass fibers. The structure is heated to melt out the low-melting alloy.

  18. Buckling Instability in Liquid Crystalline Physical Gels

    OpenAIRE

    Verduzco, Rafael; Meng, Guangnan; Kornfield, Julia A; Meyer, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    In a nematic gel we observe a low-energy buckling deformation arising from soft and semisoft elastic modes. We prepare the self-assembled gel by dissolving a coil–side-group liquid-crystalline polymer–coil copolymer in a nematic liquid crystal. The gel has long network strands and a precisely tailored structure, making it ideal for studying nematic rubber elasticity. Under polarized optical microscopy we observe a striped texture that forms when gels uniformly aligned at 35 °C are cooled to r...

  19. Conducting polymer electrodes for gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Katarina; Nilsson, Sara; Robinson, Nathaniel D

    2014-01-01

    In nearly all cases, electrophoresis in gels is driven via the electrolysis of water at the electrodes, where the process consumes water and produces electrochemical by-products. We have previously demonstrated that π-conjugated polymers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) can be placed between traditional metal electrodes and an electrolyte to mitigate electrolysis in liquid (capillary electroosmosis/electrophoresis) systems. In this report, we extend our previous result to gel electrophoresis, and show that electrodes containing PEDOT can be used with a commercial polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system with minimal impact to the resulting gel image or the ionic transport measured during a separation.

  20. Food gels: gelling process and new applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Soumya; Bhattacharya, Suvendu

    2012-01-01

    Food gels are viscoelastic substances and several gelled products are manufactured throughout the world. The gelling agents in foods are usually polysaccharides and proteins. In food gels, the polymer molecules are not cross-linked by covalent bonds with the exception of disulphide bonds in some protein gels. Instead, the molecules are held together by a combination of weak inter-molecular forces like hydrogen bonds, electrostatic forces, Van der Waals forces, and hydrophobic interactions. Polysaccharides including hydrocolloids are strongly hydrated in aqueous medium but they tend to have less ordered structures. The mechanism of gelation depends on the nature of the gelling agent(s) and on the conditions of gel formation like the temperature, the presence of ions, the pH, and the concentration of gelling agents, etc. Characterization of gels can be performed in several ways of which rheological measurements are frequently practiced. Multi-component or mixed gel system is an important area of interest in which two or more gelling components are simultaneously used to achieve certain specific structural and functional characteristics. We here discuss about the different gels and gelling agents, the characterization of gels, and the mechanism of gelation with an emphasis on mixed or multi-component gels that would have significant commercial applications.